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UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 
LIBRARY 



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LIBRARY 



THE 



AMERICAN 



BEE JOURNAL. 



ESTABLISHED BY SAMUEL WAGNEE. 



EDITED BY 

■v;r. IF". cnL..A.:EtK:E 

AND 



THOMAS G. NEWMAN, Manager. 



VOLUME X.-.1874. 



CHICAGO, ILL., AND CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA : 

THE AMERICAN PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

1874. 



e 






INDEX TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



Adair, D. L.— 9, 83, 133. Argus— 29, 99, 
109, 183. Alford, L. F.— 32, 238. Ashcomb, 
Wm.— 25. Alley, H.— 126. Avis— 147. Ab- 
be, E. P.— 148. Argo, R. M.— 177. Arter, 
Joshua— 193. Atkinson, John— 196. Ander- 
son, J.— 233. Allen, N. F.—2M. A., E.— 2.50. 
Arnold, A. H.— 250. 

Bornemann, W.— 3. Brown, J. P. H. — 4. 
Burbank.D.— 42. Balch, A. C— 24. Buch- 
ananan, John, A.— 25. Barfoot, John, — 47, 
168. Boyd, W. S.— 70, 270. Brooks, J. M.— 
71. Bolin, J.— 76, 118. Badgerow, A.— 118. 
Burnt, Child— 118. B.. W. A.— 142. Ben- 
ton, F.— 159, 172, 243. Ballard, O. L.— 168. 
Burdick, L.— 168. Baynard, J. W.— 171. 
Bird, W. W.— 180. Burch, H. A.— 205, 2.53. 
Baker, Dr.— 217. Badders, 0.-219. Bur- 
gess, G. T.— 228. Bledsoe, J. R.— 228. Bene- 
dict, A.— 231. Bechly, F.— 2.32. Bourgeois, 
Dr.— 2.34. Bidwell, H. E.—M3. Bosshard, 
H.— 245. Brokaw, D.— 245. Black, S. H.— 
S45. Buchanan, R. D.— 2.52. Butler, J.— 270. 

Cook, Prof. A. J.— .33, 92. 116, 137, 139, 162. 
Campbell, Mr.— 24. Condit, Mrs. V. C— 25. 
Carpenter, N. M.— 46. Coble, Eli— 47. Cor- 
nelius, T. J.— 70. Curry, H. E.— 70, 118. 
Corbin, G. E.— 71. Cameron, N.— 80. C, 
N. M.— 132. Claussen, H.— 142. Cristie, J. 
H.— 168. Cramer, J. W.— 207. Colborn, P. 
J.— 228. Carson, L.— 231. Curry, R.L.— 251. 

Doolittle, G. M.— 14, 126, 1.58. Dadant, C. 
P.— 15. Dzierzon,— 23. Davis, W. J.— 25, 
32. Decker, Dr. E. G.— 24. Davis, J. L.— 
46. Dadant, Ch.— <i3, 8.5, 93, 94, 108, 115, 125, 
1.58, 160, 2.58, 260. Dodds, T. J.— 70. D., M. 
D.— 119. Dawsoii, John— 142. Dorr. J. M. 
—148. Duffeler, Jos.— 163. Davis, J.— 184. 
Difany, E.— 193. Dipman, J. F.— 217. Di- 
vickey, John— 2:38. Dart, R.— ^7. 

English, C. H.— 168. E., M. A.— 18.5. Em- 
bry, M. T.— 193. Edgefield,— 202, 260. El- 
liot, S. S.— 20.5. 

Freeborn, S. J.— 2.5. Foulston, J. A.— 25. 
Fowler. E. S.— 70, 95. Faulkner, Wm.— 70. 
Forbush, B. G.— 71, 238. Fiunell,— 129. 

Gallup, E.— 27, 65, 70, 100, 133, 164, 168, 178, 
200. Grey, A.— 24. G., E. K.— 159. Grimm, 
C— 193, 308. Grunther, J. H.— 30(j. Grabbe, 
F.— 317. Goodlander, H.— 346, 271. Grimm, 
A.-273. 

Hester, M. C— 38, 181, 227. Harper, J.— 
a4. Hunter, Thos. H.— 25. Hoaglaud, Seth 
~A7. Heddon, Jas.— 80, 179. Hussey, John 
—89. Hart, J. A.— 94. Hart, A. F.— 94. 
Hutchins, Thos.— 9.5. Hazen, Jasper— 106, 
110, 134, 163, 2.54. Hall, D. M.— 118. Houtz, 
Wm. — 119. Harrison, Mrs. L.— 148, 165. 
Hart, A. H.— 1.56. Hibbard, C. D.— 197. 



Hausbaugh, D.— 200. H., O.— 223. Harri- 
son, R. W.— 271. 
Isham, C R— 79, 130 Irish, W .S— 118 
Jones, P D— 91 James, L— 137 Jones, Joseph 
—217 Joslin, Dr CM-233 Johnson, M— 2^ 

' Kruschke, J D— 39. 6.3, 77, TO, 110, 183, 198. Kel- 
logg, W M— 24, S9, 169, 182, 217, 229 Kretchmer, 
E— 66 Kruschke, H O— 94, 138 Kirtland, 
Jared, 94 Keller, D H— 94 Kitchen, A E— 269 

Lou— 28 Listen, E— 24, 180 Love. J F— 24 
Lay, John M— 25 Linsvvik, Cyula — 53, 82 Lun- 
derer, B— 103 Luethi, S— 168 

Marvin, J M— 15. 193 Moore, J E— 19 Mc- 
Kee, W J— 24 Middleworth, John— 25 Mont- 
gomery, J F— 46, 80. 203 McNitt, E— 71. 205 
Miller, C C— 78 McCallum, D 8-94 Murphy, 
R R-91 Maxfleld, J A— 94 McFatridge, P W 
—112 Muth, C F— 118, 136 Moore, J P— 119, 202, 
257 Mitchell, J B— 128 Morris Wm-142 
Muir, Wm— 157 M, Mrs W— 173 Murray, A J 
-184, 252 Miller, R— 193 Millett, C C— 208, 223 
Mangold, E— 233 M, M-238 Miller, I S— 272 

Novice, 40, 100, 127, 154, 177, 217 Noble, H M- 
47 Nesbit, H— 70 Nevins, M— M9, 169, 196, 206 
Newcomb, S J— 204 Newton, "Walter— 21T N, 
M— 281 

O'Neil, M A— 32, 111, 221, 287 Otes, E— 245 

Porter, J W— 26 Palmer, D D— 30, 71, 142, 291, 
208,227 Price, R B -47 Porter, Dr D R— 94 
Porter, S— 118, 195, 255 Pope, A J— 119 Perry, 
Wm— 168 Peden, N K— 193 Pike, D A— 2ll 
Pierce, T— 245 Peiham, W C-253, 266 

Quinby, M— 101, 106, 168 

Root, A 1—5, 70 Reed, Mrs H V— 21 Kapp, J 
B— 24 Rasmussen, W^m Muth— 25, 104 Root, 
H— 25 Ricli A R— 95 Ruggles, Sevmour— 95, 
288 Riley, CV-128 R, B— 182 Ramsev, J B— 
205 Reynolds, Wm— l45 Rush, Dr W B— 260 
Riggs, W H-286 Roop, H M— 289 

Scott, Jas— 25 Saunders. Anna — 2.5, 67 Scott, 
S— 16 Standefer, W F— 47, 70 SchoU, J— 71 
Stokes, C W— 106 Smith, Thaddeus— 107 

Steeley, AV M-118 S, H W— 118 Scientific— 
129, 201 Sanford, E D, 131 Sheldon, E A— 133^ 
142 Smith, A— 142 Simmons, J M— 143 Sear- 
les, F— 148, 168 Some, C— 196 Sorrick, M— 217 
Solisburg, A— 230 Stevens, S W— 238 Sar- 
gent, C A— 248 Spaids, Mrs S E— 250 Sher- 
man, DA— 259 

Talbot, P J— 21 Tenant, WH— 47 Tomp- 
kins, Geo 0—47 Trullinger, A A— 4^7 Town- 
ley, J H-lOo Tupper, MrsES-118 Teter, J 
G-217 Truman, PC-229 Terry, M— 288 

Wright. A T-7, 66 Wilson, M- 20 Watkin-s 
J T-25 Wells. D 1-70 Wahl, J-H Wood- 
land, F-119 W-129 Wilson, WiU-l3l Wix- 
om, H W--142 Wells, J R-175, 225 Wilcox, J 
R-202 W, OT-238 W^ilson, J B-238 Wil- 
son, A-244, 247 West, M D-245 Wing.oa th.e 
"248 

Young, C L-47 

Zimmerman, G W—21T 



INDEX TO VOLUME 



X. 



c 



^u 



A Visit to a Bee-Hive, 18fi. 

A Proposition, 208. 2o0, 200. 

A Hint, 2^ 

A Visit to T. G. IVrcGaw, 229 

A Disapoointed Bee-Keeper, 239 

A Visit aPSweet Home, 248 

A New Idea Hive, 251 

A Request, 2«)0 

Answer to Mr. Bird, 250 

Artificial Swarming etc., 86 

Apiary for Mav, 103 

Apiculture in ICansas, 111 

Adair talks about Novice, 123. 

Ants and Cocl<roaches, 177. 

Artificial Queens, 180. 

Aiiificial Pasturage, 2;S1 

Artificial Swarming, 148. 

Artificial Swarms, 182. 

Auxiliary Societies, 291 

Bee-Keeping in Weser Valley, 3 

Bee Anomalies, 4 

Bee Feeder and Smoker, 8 

Bee Notes from Darwin, 30 

Bee Keeping for Farmers, 31 

Bee-Keepers' Meetings, 44 

Bee Disease, 75 

Bee Disease in Western N. Y., 79 

Bee Stings, 90 

Bee Notes and Queries. 126. 

Bee-Keeping in the South, 128, 224. 

Bee-ology in Kentucky, 129. 

Bee Malady, 149. 

Bee-Keeping, 185. 

Bee Notes 2(t2. 

Bee Notes'from Putnam Co., 111., 223 

Bee or Wasp Stings, 233 

Bee Report, 244 

Bee-Keeping in General, 252 

Bee Prospects, 2.55 

Bee-Farming in Broome Co., N. Y., 257 

Bee Parasite, 259 

Bees and their Winter Habits, 33 

Bees Eating Grapes, 108, 148, 166, 207 

Bees vs. Fruit, 109 

Bees' Breathing, 129. 

Bees as Architects, 156. 

Bees, Birds and Grapes, 171. 

Bees and Wasps, 190. 

Bees and the Centennial, 192. 

Bees in New Zealand, 228 

Bees Swarming, 247 

Bees and Orchard Houses, 253 

Berlepsch on Culture of Rape, 79 

Business Notice, 16 

Central Iowa Association, 21 

Central Iowa Association, 52 

Care of Honey Bees in Winter, 66 

Cheap and Good Feeder, 78 

California for Bees, 80 

Clipping Queen's Wings, 83 

Criticism Examined, 101 

California as a Bee Location, 104 

Clipping Queen's Wings, 113 

Cause of Bee Swarming, &c., 174. 

Caution, 183. 

Consolidation, 191. 

Chips, 197. 

Chips from Sweet Home, 29, 201, 208, 226. 



A 



Sir .,-. 

Changing the Pasttwe of Beesi 2.50 

Cost of Fencing in the United States; '251 

Close of the Volume, 292 

Doolittle's Article. 14, 12(5, 158. 

Do Bees make Honey ? 15 

Dzierzon, 38 

Do Bees Iniure Fruit ? 63, 128, 157, 1.58. 

Do Bees Destroy Fruit ? 76 

Double-Storv Hives, 181, 

Does Bee Culture Pay ? ia5. 

Death of Dr. L. J. Dallas, 287 

Early and Full-develoi)ed Queens, 23 

Extractor vs Honey Boxes, 130. 

Enterprising Settler in Neb., i:38. 

Extraordinary March Swarming, 137- 

Entrance Hole to Hives, 189. 

Feeding Bees, etc., 32 

Feeding Bees_, 80 

Flax Cultivation in Nebraska, 237.' 

Foreign Department, 260 

Feeding Bees, 163. 

Fruit and Forest Culture, 176. 

Gallup on Artificial Queens, 164. 

Gallup's Corn as a Honey-plant, 27" 

Good Bee location— Rape Seed, 29. 

Gallup's New Idea Hive, 133. 

Gallup Again, 178. 

Gallup and Queen Rearing, 179, 

Granulated Honey, 260 

Honey Extractor, 5 

How to Feed and Winter Bees, 7 

Hints to Ladies, 20 

Hints to Correspondents, 18 

How to extract lloney, 109 

How to make Artificial Swarms, 148. 

How to introduce Queens, 159. 

Handling a Delicate Subject, 172. 

How to introduce Virgin Queens, «&c., 184. 

Honey Dew, 189. 

Honey Dealers, 192. 

How to get rid of Drones, 200, 

Hints from Bee-Keepers, 202. 

Honey resources of the Prairie, 216. 

Hopes, Disappointments and Realizations. 

of Bee-Keepers, 221 
How I Introduce a new Queen, 231 
How a Swarm hangs to tlie Branch, 234 
Honey Men of Oneida, 111., 247 
Handliiig and Quieting Bees, 2.d2 
Honey Crops of San Diego, 266 
Italian Bees, their Worthlessness, 1ft 
Is Black Comb Useful ? 39 
Italian Bees, 68 
Index to back Volumes, 78. 
Items from Argus, 99 
Italian Queen raising, 126.. 
Is Success Attainable, 204. 
Italians vs. Black Bees, 227 
.Jetterson County Meeting, 207. 
Kansas Association. 219 
Kansas Pacific Railway, 238 
Kentucky Apiary, 256 
Letter from Kansas, 28, 81 
Letter from Miss Anna Saunders, 67 
Lady's Experience, 173. 
Length of Flight of Bees, 289 
Michigan Convention, 26 
Mississippi Association, 32 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Murdering Bees, 43, 85 

Machine Extracted Honey, 135. 

Michigan Association, 151. 

My Mary Ann, 165. 

My Management of Bees, 182. 

Moving Bees in Winter, 205. 

My Italian Bee Experience, 248 

Michigan Bee-Keepers' Association, 253 

My Experience, 112, 163, 201, 272 

Movable Homes, 189. 

My Report, 199. 

N. A. Bee-Keepers' Association, 12, 273 

New Repository for Bees, 20 

Novice on Wintering etc., 40 

Notes on Wintering, 64 

North Eastern Association, 55 

Novice, 100, 127, 154 

New Smolier, 106 

New Subject, 110 

Natural and Artificial rood,';i33. 

Novice's Answer, 177. 

Notes and Queries, 193, 209, 235, 261. 

Notice to Subscribers, 195. 

New Method of Wintering, 196. 

Outlook tor Bee-Keeping, 16 

Our Afflictions, 53 

Our Queenless Colony, 82 

Our Contributors, 107 

Our Honey Markets, ISO. 

Observations on Wintering, 229 

Over-Stocking, 254 

Old Harry's Report, 271 

Out-door Wintering, 100 

Pruning Broods, 30 

Plants and Trees, 42 

Plants for Bee Forage, 89 

Prolific Mother, 110 

Pleasant Remarks, 129. 

Please Report, 217. 

Philosophy and Practice in Wintering, 230 

Premiums at Couutv Fairs, 241 

Pink-Blossnnicd Milk Weed, 247 

Profitable Business for Women, 265 

Packing Bees for Winter, 270 

Pure Queens working in Boxes, 271 

Premium for Rearing Queens, 291 

Pollen, 28 

Queen Breeding, etc., 31 

Questions and Answers, 93, 115 

Queen Clipping, 131. 

Review of January Number, 66 

Report from my Apiary, 131, 196. 

Rape and what to do with it, 138. 

Report from Bruce, Canada, 232 

Rapidity of Bees' Flight, 234 

Remedy for Bee Stings, 2:57 

Reports from Northern Kentucky, 253 

Shaking Bees, 15 

Sundry Items, 19 

Simple Bee Feeder, 94 

Shall we clip Queen's Wings ? 137. 



Successful Winterihg, 141. 

Sundry Notes, 14S. 

Seasonable Hints, 191, 216, 265, 290. 

Spring Dwindling, 194. 

Some New Thing. 195. 

Sale of Honey, liD6, 225. 

Scraps, 198. 

Successful Bee-Keeping, 203, 

Southern Bee Notes, 205. 

Sundry Questions and Answers, 125. 160 

Size of Entrance Holes to Hives, 251 

Superiority of the Italian Bee, 259 

To Bee-Keepers, 26 

That Patent Bee Feeder, 89 

The A B C of Bee-Keeping, 92 

To Beginners in Apiculture, 116, 139, 162 

Top and Side Surplus Boxes, 134. ^ 

The Bee Disease. 156. • 

The late Dr. T. B. Hamlin, 159. 

Theories and their Advocacy, 166. 

Things Seen and Unseen, 183. 

Transferring Bees, 184. 

The Tulip Tree, 223 

Test of Italian Purity, 225 

Timely Suggestions, 241 

The Folk-Lore of Bees, 240 

The Bee in Southern California, 250 

Test of Italian Purity, 258 

This year's Ilonev Season, 270 

Toads and Bees, 2S8 

Use of the Extractor, 65 

Utah B. K. Meeting, 244 

Varieties of the Bee, 234 

Voice from Ontario, 228 

Voice from the South, 228 

Voice from Pennsylvania, 175. 

Ventilation, 67 

Visit to Adam Grimm, 103 

Voices from Among the Hives, 24, 46, 70, 94, 

118, 142, 168, 193, 217, 238, 245 
Wings of the Bee, 9 
What Killed the Bees, 37 
Wintering Bees, 63 
What Galhip has Seen, 64 
Wintering Bees, 106, 199 
Which is Best ? 106 
Why don't Farmers keep Bees ? 114 
What is Honey, 140. 
Wintering, etc., 147. 
Wintering Observations, 200. 
When Bee-Keeping don't pay, 203. 
Where Linden Grows, ;i04. 
Wintering and Springing, 206. 
Work for the [Month, 215. 
Wintering iJces in Ohio, 231 
What Killed tlie Bees, 233 
Winter Bee Keejiing, ;^3 
Western Bee Plants, 369 
What I have Done, 272 
What killed Replogle's Bees, 286 
What Shall we Report, 389 



American Bee Journal 

DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO BEE CULTURE. 



Vol. X. 



CHICAGO, JANUARY, 1874. 



No. 1. 




Correspondents should write only on one side of the 
\«Ii^fi^u Their best thoughts and practical ideas are always 
JMFelcome ,• no matter how rough, we will cheerfully " fix 

H|, Translated for the American Bee Journal. 

Bee-Keeping in the Valley of the Weser. 

Iti'^ vuUey of the Weser, in the neigh- 
borhood of Eintehi, is admitted b}^ every 
sti'anger to l6e one of the most beautiful 
and favored spots in Germany, and yet 
bee culture, especially rational bee culture, 
is so much neglected, that an improvement 
is greatly to be desired. 

In Einteln, a town of over 5000 inhabit- 
ants, there are not, leaving out my apiary, 
fifteen swarms ! That more bees are not 
kept here is to be wondered at, as nearly 
every house has a large garden attached, 
and most of the owners ot houses are also 
farmers to a greater or less extent. And 
the open country could hardly be better 
adapted to bee culture. The largest api- 
aries are found five or six leagues from 
here, in the neighborhood of Stadhagen 
and Eodenberg. The bee-keepers of tliat 
locality wander about with the bees in 
I the Heath. The Weser Valley here, how- 
I ever, having an early yield of honey which 
is unsurpassed, has for j^ears been visited 
• ijvciy Spring by bee-keepers with from 200 
_ to 300 stocks in straw baskets. The api- 
arian remains here until the blossoming of 
the flowers in the Heath. The Spring- 
honey harvest here is wonderful. Then 
comes the blossoming of the fruit trees, 
of which there are a great al)undance in 
the gardens, and along the roadway, giv- 
ing an abundance of hone}^ and pollen ; 
then follows the harvest from the seed 
fields, Avhieh is usually very abundant. 
Nowhere are there greater quantities of 



rape raised than here. Along the Weser 
are found many meadows, rich in soil and 
producing much honey. Boundless fields 
are covered with the most beautiful flow- 
ers. On the heavy grounds beans are 
cultivated ; and along the roadways, etc., 
millet grows and blossoms until late in Ftill. 

I can this year report the honey jidd 
to have been very good, because in the 
Summer fruit fields there was a great quan- 
tity of wild heather, so that they appeared 
as yellow as if covered with rape blossoms. 
Thus, it is no wonder the bees had no 
more room in which to store their honey.* 
I observed that the queen stopped laying 
for upwards of three weeks since, just as 
soon as the cells were built, and filled with 
honey. In such years those stocks are of 
the greatest advantage, which are the 
most populous. It is true we receive some- 
what later pasturage from the forests, yet 
our main dependence is upon the previous- 
ly mentioned plants. This year I learned 
the difference between the German and 
Italian bees. The latter are much eai'lier 
with their brood, and are, therefore, best 
suited for localities like this. For many 
years I have observed that the German 
bees only become strong and populous 
when the honey harvest is on the decline, 
while the reverse is the case with the 
Italians. 

I have the pleasure of being the first 
person in this neighborhood to adopt the 
movable comb system, and also to intro- 
duce Italian bees. 

I secured the Italian race without much 
trouble. I engaged a queen in the Au- 
tumn of 1871, from Herr Henrme of Nier- 
burg, and received a beautiful siDecimen 
with a few worker bees. These I intro- 
duced in the usual wa^' into a stock of 
German bees, which I had eight days pre- 
viously unqueened. Before inti-oducing 

*Here was a chance to use the honey emptying machiue. 



4 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



the qiieeu I carefully examined the hive, 
and destroyed the queen-cells that had 
been begun. The queen was warmly re- 
ceived, and in a tew days the bees released 
her of their own accord. The stock win- 
tered well, and was one of the best of my 
stocks. Towards Spring I found many 
young Italians. That Summer I made 
from it five new swarms. My greatest care 
was, to have these beautiful colored queens 
purely mated. I separated them half a 
league from the common bees, and attained 
m}" object. I could last Summer have 
raised a large number of queens, but I 
wished first to test the virtues of the race. 
I wintered six Italian stocks. As these 
made their appearance this Spring to my 
full satisfaction, towards June I made ten 
artificial swarms, some having most beau- 
tiful queens. 

The mother swarm I divided three times, 
and yet it swarmed four times. Through 
these after swarms I received a number of 
queens which I substituted for common 
ones. I do not desire to remove all the 
common queens, yet it would be possible 
for me this Summer to have Italianized 
all ni}'" stocks. 

It is with great sadness that I see L 
culture so much neglected in this favora 
ble locality. 

WiLHELM JBORNEMANN. 

Rinteln, July 10, 1873. 



For The American Bee Jourual. 



Bee Anomalies. 



One pleasant afternoon last August, as 
I was standing near one of my nucleus 
bives, I observed a commotion at the en- 
trance, and soon saw that the naughty 
little fellows had it in their heads to leave 
their home. I let them have their own 
way, contenting myself w^ith observing 
their actions. They soon settled on a bush 
near by. After requesting my assistant 
to hive them in a small box, I went to the 
deserted hive and opened it, and found 
plenty of brood and honey, satisfying my- 
self that they did not leave for the want 
of these. As the hive was well shaded, 
they did not desert because it was too hot. 

1 put them immediately back into the 
hive from which they came ; but I had no 
sooner done this, than another nucleus 
quit its hive and settled on the same spot 



that the first one did. This I aiNO put back. 

Having some curiosity as to how the 
"pesky chaps" in the first hive were be- 
having themselves, I opened it and found 
them engaged in killing their queen. A& 
this queen had mis-mated Avith a black 
drone, I let them alone, and in an hour's 
time they had her carried out '• a corpse." 

From hive No. 1, I went to hive No. 2, 
and found them treating their queen ^^ ' 
similar manner. As the progeny of 
queen was pure, I caged her, and kept 
confined until their fiery ardor cc 
down. She was then kindly received 

I can only account for the strai --e 
duct of these bees, by sujjpos'" 
the honey harvest at the tir 
they became discouraged 
to leave ; and as I pu^ 
their will, they be 
queen, and det' : . 
raise another- 

Have o*' 
lar cas' 

r :- .a ., 

i- :";ae I;;'i' ^ . 

:> ,..■- ,.. .one, I fc- 

,!^iit colored') II v/On on the : 
.vt me, in " \ >'. act of laying. As 
^s my eye ca'i*<,'nt sight of her, I con- 
' .ded at once that she was a usurper, and 
had dis])laceil my old. familiar queen (six- 
teen months old, with one wing clipped ). 
But on looking on the other side of the 
card of comb. I found my old queen, occu- 
pied with her usual pastime of laying, and 
looking as though she was per: 
home. I caged the would-be usur 
gave her to a colony from which ] 
ken a queen. My queen with the i . 
wing seems to be as prolific as eve 
far as I can see, shows no signs o 
ished vigor. This case, while it e 
es no rule, ])roves that it is pos 
two laying queens to be in one hi^ 
same time peaceably perform ii 
functions,.- \ 

V '>. J.P. H. I 

Augusta, CvA,. 



Prof. Gerstocker, of, Berlin, Prm 

"The Egyptian bee is nearly a thir ' 

than the common bee. The abd' 

sembles that of the Italian Init the 

is yellow, the downy hairs of the thorax art 

whitish." 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



The Honey Extractor. 

AN ADDRKSS BY A. I. ROOT, OV MKUINA. OHIO. 

HEFORE TilK MICHIGAN BEE-KEKP- 

EUS" A.^SOCFATION. 



Jfi: President, Ladies and CTentlemen — 
\Vc have been requested to address you 
on the ••Honey Extractor, its use and 
bcnotits," but i)efore so doing would re- 
nuirk. that should Ave here repeat much 
tiial has been gone over betbre, we hope 
to be excused on tlie ground that much 
repetition seem» to be necessary to induce 
bee-ke(*per« to give the credit that is due 
to thislimplement of the apiarj'. 

Aboijt the year 1856, we, as- an experi- 
ment, moved a small colony from its stand 
in the month of June, and placed in its 
stead a 'hive containing only empty combs 
with a caged fertile queen. On releasing 
the qiieen. fbrty-eight hours afterward, we 
wei-e so astonished at the appearance of 
things that we weighed the hive, bees and 
all, and to and that it had gained in the in- 
terval, thi 'ty pounds. 

The question at once arose whether they 
would not go on increasing at the rate of 
fifteen pounds per 'lay, for some days to 
come, were the}^ furnished with facilities 
in the shape of empty combs as fast as 
they Avere filled, for none of our other col- 
onies, though equalh^ strong, had made 
any such increase in the same time. 

Shortly afterward, E. Van Slyke, in the 
Bee-keepers' Gazette, solved the problem for 
us by his notice of the German Centi'ifugal 
^lachiue, and soon we had hastily extem- 
porized a rude tin can with revolving- 
frame inside, made of iron wire and hair- 
cloth. A brief trial of this rude machine, 
in a half finished state. epiiAinced us that 
combs cojajd be made emjjty in a twink- 
ling anrf without injury, and befojre the 
season closed we had half a ton of nice 
honey [lat, up in quart ghiss jars, neatly 
labelled, aad these sold rapidly for a time 
at one loILar each. w 

.\tter cold weather came on, the honey 
of coarse, candied, and our beautiful honey 
that had been so much admired for its 
"transpareiKy^ and purit}', presented more 
the api^earance of Jars of lard than any- 
thing else, and in spite of the fair reputa- 
tion that we had always borne, there be- 
gan to be considerable -'talk" that we 
had manufactured tlie honev. and our bees 



didn't gather so much, for it was •• actually 
turning back to sugar." However, the 
honey all went somewhei-e before another 
season, and we ii\dulged through the Win- 
ter in "bright visions," and before •'fruit 
blossoms " we had purchased one pound 
jai's to hold a ton, and labels in two colors 
for all sources we could think of li-om 
which our bees might gather honej', so as 
to be all ready tor the coming harvest. 
By the way, we have just l)een hxjking 
over our unused labels and find thost- jn-int- 
ed for Fruit blossoms. Locust blossoms. 
Alsike Clover, (we had all of an eightli of 
an acre,) Buckwheat, and Autumn wild- 
flowers nearly all remain on hand. White 
clover and basswood being the principal 
well defined sources. 

Well our jars to hold a ton were soon 
filled, and we need not tell here how we 
borrowed all the wash boilers in the neigh- 
borhood, and washing day did come, and 
onr bottles didn't come ; but it was all 
made " lovety " and we sold nearly three 
tons of honey in the one and two pound 
bottles. But cold weather came again, 
and again it looked like lard and wouldn't 
sell, and, "more too," in the candying 
process it pushed the corks out of the bot- 
tles, and some of the boxes had been left 
"wi-ong side up," and the labels were 
spoiled on those that weren't wrong side 
up, and as a last resort we ])oured or tried 
to pour the honey out those little bottles 
into barrels, and they had to be warmed, 
and if we hurried them to get through the 
" muss " they broke, and now we don't put 
our honey into glass jars until they are 
ordered in that "shape. We use nothing 
STnaller than quart fruit jars, and never try 
to hold honey with corks, but use those 
jars that have secure fastenings equal to 
all emergencies; those with glass covers 
and a metal clamp, called the Haines Fruit 
Jar, we like best. 

Again, during a very rapid 3'ield of hon- 
ey, combs are sometimes filled betbre the 
honey has had time to ripen, and some 
that we bottled in that state came so near 
fermenting that it gave extracted honey 
rather a bad reputation, and justly so, for 
we were astonished at the contents of 
some of our own when picked out at ran- 
dom and brought to the table. At first 
the idea was quite romantic of bottling 
the " nectai* " fresh from the floAvers the 
same daA- it Avas crathered. Imt even our 



6 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



favorite White Clover under such circum- 
stances had a decidedly green taste, and, 
unless evaporated by setting the jars in 
an oven until the honey attained the de- 
sired consistency, would most assuredly 
encourage a preference for old-fashioned 
comb honey. 

Honey when extracted from sealed 
combs, or at a time when the bees jnst be- 
gin to seal it, we think, however, is in no 
respect different from, or inferior to comb 
honey, and we think most people will, af- 
ter a time decide that wax is not particu- 
larl}^ desirable as an article of food. 

Instructions for the use of the extractor 
we think are hardly needed now, for 
"Young America " very soon finds a way 
to get out the honey after he once gets an 
idea of the modus operandi. 

Uncapping the combs, it is true, once 
seemed a formidable task, but just hand 
your honey knife (it must be very thin, 
very sharp, and of the finest steel), to 
some one of our liright, keen, go-ahead 
feminine friends, tell hei* what is to be 
done and after a little practice her knife 
will glide under the caps and roll them off 
in a sheet (no hot water is needed) at a 
rate that will convince any " lord of crea- 
tion " that at least n part of bee culture is 
women's work. 

Also in using the extractor, many have 
l>een led to think the operation a laborious 
task because their machines were heavy 
and cumbrous, with gearing like a fanning 
mill, and even yet we'find it hard work to 
convince many that it is a great waste of 
strength and time to whirl a can, honey 
and all, at the speed necessary for the hon- 
ey to fly out, when only the comb itself 
needs whirling. 

It is for this reason that we so strongly 
urge that every apiarist should have but 
one sized frames in his apiary, and have 
his extractor made to fit them and 7io oth- 
ers ; for to make a frame of wire cloth 
with the necessary supports and braces 
largei- than the comb we use, to bo con- 
stantly brought up to the proper speed 
and quickly sto])ped, simply because the 
manufacturer Avas obliged to make his 
rnacliines large that they might fit all 
frames, it seems to us, is very poor econ- 
omy. 

"^riie smallest frame generally in use is 
the (Jallup frame, eleven and one-fourth 
inches square, and the largest is the (^uin- 



by, twelve by eighteen and one-half inches. 
Now to revolve the jionderous frame ne- 
cessary to receive the latter in extracting 
combs of the former size would be a con- 
stant waste of strength ; yet there is no 
objection to using the large frame and 
large extractor, for with all large frames 
work is pushed more rapidly to compen- 
sate for an increase of power being de- 
manded. Also with the small extractor 
the small frames could be handled and 
extracted with much greater rapidity. 

An extractor made expressly for the 
Langstroth frames may be matle veiy 
light and work very easy, for if placed 
longest way \\]> and down, the wire cloth 
may come within five inches of the shaft, 
and its length may just as well be two 
inches less than the length of the frame, 
for the attachment of the comb to the 
wood is ample support. 

Now as the Langstroth frame is but ten 
and one-eighth inches broad, we cannot 
afford to make the extractor frame more 
than ten inches, and nine and one-half 
inches would be better economy for a very 
light I'unning extractor ; but this could 
not be used for the Gallup frame, unless 
increased to eleven and one-half inches or 
more. Then comes the American frame, 
twelve by twelve inches, or old style, 
twelve b}' sixteen inches, and perhaps we 
might as well use a Quinby extractor for 
all of the American frames, even at the 
exjiense of whirling some superfluous met^ 
als below the comb. 

Strips of folded tin seem to combine 
more of the qualities of strength and light- 
ness than any other material we know of 
for making the inside framework to an 
extractor, and a tin tube makes all the 
shaft that can be needed. We would al- 
ways have both top and bottom bearings 
of tempered steel, and, to conclude, we 
know of no better winter amusement for 
the bee-keeper than to see how nice an ex- 
tractor (i. e., light, strong, and easy run- 
ning) he can make, or at least can make 
with the assistance of his tinner, and we 
would advise ever}' bee keeper to get on 
friendly terms with his neighboring tin- 
smith by all means, for they are destined, 
it seems to us, to be our greatest allies. 

As to the '"use and benefits" of the ex- 
ti-actor, really it seems to us that our 
friends need no remarks on this head. We 1 
have learned to build up colonies, rear I 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



queens, increase the number of ouv stocks 
artificially, and we feel like addinir, how 
to winter successfully, and with certainty 
also, but wc should feel lost to attempt any 
of these without the extractor, most esi)e- 
ciall}' the latter. Before the advent of 
the extractor, even with movable con\bs, 
the progress in the interior of the hive was 
mostly g-uesswork, and only viewed at 
rare i'ntei'vals and with the feeling that it 
Avas an intrusion. 

Now we watch the progress of honey 
storing and comb building, even to seeing 
every comb that is built and whether it 
be worker comb, strait, etc. ; our queens ■ 
are seen, their fertility noted, progress of 
i)rood rearing, amount of pollen on hand, 
what becomes of it, etc. Swarming is 
ki'pt under almost entirely by its use, and 
the disorderly work that follows almost 
always where natural swarming is allowed, 
is avoided. 

Last and not least, without the use of 
the extractor we should be almost power- 
less to avert the consequences of Bee Mal- 
ady in wintering. By removing natural 
.■stores entirely, and suppljang them with 
food of knoivn and invariable quality, we 
are no farther depending on the chance 
that may perhaps have provided whole- 
some food for Winter. 



For The American Bee Journal. 

How to Feed and Winter Bees. 



Messrs. Editors : In response to many 
inquiries in regard to keeping and winter- 
ing bees, please give the following an in- 
sertion in the American Bee Journal if 
found worthy. 

To each quart of sugar add one pint of 
hut water, heat to the boiling point and 
skim ; or to every three pounds of sugar 
add two pounds of hot water, stir, heat, 
and skim as before directed. As soon as 
cool enough it is readj" for the bees. 

For feeding in the Spring, Summer or 
early in the Fall, a common grade of good 
sugar does very well ; but for late Fall or 
Winter feeding, use, the most refined 
grades. Feeding for Winter should be 
done during warm weather, soon after the 
tirst killing frosts and as fast as the bees 
can store away the syi-up, and until the 
brood combs have been well filled. Mo- 
lasses, sorghum, or the poorest grade of 



sugar should never be used. Good sugar 
is the cheapest, and is also health}' for the 
hees. Honey from other hives often proves 
fatal to them while confined to their hives. 
When bees are fed late in the Fall, or dur- 
ing continued cold weather, place their 
hive at an o])en window in a room kept 
constantly warm, Avhere the bees can 
crawl back into the hive after flying. 
Kci^p the room warm until they have 
stored, evaporated^ and sealed over enough 
syrup to last them until Spring. With 
the Universal Hive, as patented Aug. 26, 
1873, I accomplish the same thing with- 
out letting the bees out, by placing a 
screen in front of the hive, securing a 
space for the bees to fly in. A frame of 
empty comb filled with syrup, poured in- 
to the cells from a suitable hight, may al- 
so be placed between the screen and the 
end of the hive, which, being exposed to 
the light and the open air, will cause the 
bees to remove the syrup to the interior. 
By this means the bees may be kept in a 
parlour, or an}' other suitable, warm room 
while being fed, and at any season of the 
year. When feeding bees in the Spring, 
or any other time, care should be taken 
not to give them much more syrup than 
they will consume in preparing food for 
the young. 

In judicious feeding lies one of the great 
secrets of success. Plenty of flour also 
should be given to the bees as early and 
late in the Spring as they will use it. It 
may be protected from robber bees by 
means of the screen arranged as already 
pointed out. In the sunshine is the most 
favorable place for the flour, which may 
also be made of different kinds of grain. 

A cool, still, dry, and perfectly dark place, 
with thorough ventilation to the hive, is the 
most favorable place and condition in which 
to winter bees. They should be kept as 
quiet and free from disturbance as possi- 
ble. To prevent the accumulation and 
retention of dampness or water, the hive 
must be well ventilated, and should also be 
so arranged and protected that the bees 
can economize their animal heat to the 
best advantage. Proper conditions will 
ever secure success in wintering bees. The 
required conditions may be enumerated as 
follows : 1st. A productive queen, with 
bees enough to rear brood. 2d. Suitable 
combs stored with wholesome food. 3d. 
A pure atmosphere of a suitable tempera- 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



turo, about 40° or 50° above zero «jeing 
the best. 4th. No disturbances of any 
kind, with a proper exclusion of Ught — ■ 
total darkness and stillness being the best 
for keeping the bees quietly confined to 
their hives. A good method of out-door 
wintering is to set up and tie a shock of 
corn stalks around the hive, enough to 
break the winds and keep the hive dry, 
at the same time packing plenty of hay 
or straw around and over the frames, after 
properly ventilating and protecting the 
bees from the mice, and also securing the 
bees a small and suitable passage to and 
from the external atmosphere. The straw 
and fodder will absorb the moisture col- 
lecting around the bees, conveying it to 
the external atmosphere and also more 
fully protect them by confining their ani- 
mal heat. 

I hope the foregoing may enable some 
of my fellow bee-keepers to be more suc- 
cessful in feeding and wintering their bees 
tlian heretofore. A. T. Wright. 

Chicago, III, Dec. 1, 1873. 



For The American Bee Jourual. 



Adam Grrimm's Bee-feeder and Smoker. 



In the December Journal, Mrs. Lucinda 
W. Harrison wants to know Avhy I did not 
describe Mr. Grrimm's bee-feeder and smok- 
er. I thought I would leave that for Mr. 
Ct. to do, but as he has not done so, I will 
do it now. Ladies are said to have a live- 
ly imagination, so. Mrs. H., please try and 
imagine this description. 

Bee-feeder, — a tin can tour and one 
fourth inches in diameter, and four inches 
high; a hole in the center of the end, one 
and one half inches in diameter, covered 
with perforated tin, soldered on ; a small 
hole near the edge of the same end, on 
which is soldered a screw cap, the same 
as on kerosene cans, with the rim of the 
cap cut down so as not to project over 
five eights of an inch from the can. A 
rim is soldered on to the end of the can, 
tln-ce fourths of an inch wide, so tbat 
wlioi the can is turned wiih the hole 
doAvnwards, there will be room for the 
bees to come u]) under it, and eat honey, 
syruj), or water through tlu' perforated 
tin. Fill the can with a tunnel thi-ough 
the screw cap, turn the cap on tight, and 
with a quick motion tuni tlie can bottom 



up over the bees, when the atmospheric 
pressure will keep the liquid from running 
out, except at first, when a teaspoon-full 
or so will drop, which the bees will take 
care of The hive should be as near level 
as possible. Sometimes when the bees do 
not care for the food, or the weather is too 
cool, drojjs of moisture will gather on the 
can, and form a draft for the syrup, which 
will act the same as a half dozen bees, and 
the feeder will leak a little. The can 
must be perfectly air-tight. I give mine 
a couple of coats of paint, outside, which 
keeps them from rusting. 

Smoker, — a tin tube, one and one-fourth 
by six inches, ends covered with perfora- 
ted tin, pressed inwards ; two mouth pie- 
ces fitting over the ends of the tube, re- 
movable, and tapering to a point, with a 
knob on each to hold between the teeth 
like the stem of a pipe. To use it, fill one 
of the mouth pieces with tobacco (I sup- 
pose fine rotten wood would do), light it. 
and crowd it on to the table, then blow 
through the other mouth-piece, and there 
is your smoke. For those who nse the 
weed, it is very handy, for it can be held 
between the teeth, through a hole in the 
vail, and the smoke directed to different 
places, while both hands are at liberty to 
handle frames, etc. But for those" who 
do not use tobacco, and certainly ladies, 
I think a piece of rotten wood is fiar 
preferable. A little cup with handle and 
perforated tin bottom, is a nice thing to lay 
the wood in. when the smoke can be 
blown down through it, and Jio danger 
from fire when it is set down. If Mrs. H. 
does not understand the description of the 
feeder, I will send her a sample by express 
for twenty-five cents, and her tinman can 
make them from it. ^Y. M. Kellogg. 

Oneida, III, Dec. 10, 1873. 

Honey may be kept in perfect purity 
for years by boiling the strained or ex- 
tracted article, then skim it carefully, and 
seal it up air tight, as fruit is canned, then 
kcc]-) it in a cool, dark place. 



As a su])ply for the Winter, a strong- 
stock should, on the first of November, 
contain at least one pound of honey for 
every thousand bees ; and a weak stock 
should then have a pound and a half for 
evorv thousand bees. — Hoffman. 



THE AMERICA^^ BEE JOURNAL. 



THE WINGS OP THE BEE. 



Physiologically Considered as Organs of 
" Flight and of Special Sensation. 

The foUowiui;- paper avjis vctul before the 
Bee-keeper.s' Convention, by Gen. Adair : 

To the novice the wings of a bee appear 
as a dry membrane or tissue of skin,stretch- 
ed over a frame-work of as equally dry and 
lifeless ribs of hard, elastic, horny matter. 
He does not suspect that they have other 
than to enable the bees to fly, or that their 
loss or destruction does other injur}" than 
to disable them from flight. It is a com- 
mon practice even among well informed 
apiarians to cut oft" the wings ol' the queen 
to prevent her going oft' with a swarm. 
A better acquaintance with the structure 
and uses of the wings would show that any 
such mutilation must be injurious. 

Bees do not breathe through the mouth, 
neither do they have lungs, like the high- 
er animals. Respiration is ' carried on 
throup-h an intricate ramification of minute 
tubes called trachea, having their outlets 
or mouths as pores (called spiracles or 
stigmata) in the sidesof their bodies, under 
and behind their wings. Through these 
breathing pores the air is led by those 
delicate tubes to every part of the body, 
even to the tips of their wings. 

Bees have no heart as higher animals 
have. A tube, or as it is called, a " dorsal 
vessel," lying just beneath the middle line 
of the back, and extending from the head 
to the tip of the abdomen, performs that 
ofiice. The blood is received into this tiibe, 
and, as bees have no veins proper, it es- 
capes from all jDarts of the tube and tra- 
verses the bod}' in currents, bathing all the 
organs, even to the extremities of the 
wings. 

The nervous system of bees consists of 
a cord, or rather a double cord, commenc- 
ing in a knot in the head, which is their 
so-called brain ; from thence it extends 
throughout the whole length of the body 
under all the internal organs, resting on 
the "floor" of the body-walls. On' this 
cord, at intervals, there ai'e swellings 
(ganglia) from which fine filaments are 
sent out, which are special nerves for the 
various organs to which they lead ; one 
branch passing to the wings is distributed 
through all parts of them. 



The horny frame upon which the fine 
meml)raue of the wings is stretched, is all 
of it coniposed of hollow tubes of a hard 
substance called chitine (the same sub- 
stance that constitutes the hard ])art of 
the organs and the crust of all insects). 
Those tubes are double, being one tube 
inside ol another. The inner ones are 
extensions of the trachea through which 
the air circulates in breathing ; between 
which and the other is a space through 
which the blood circulates, and is brought 
in contact with the air through the thin 
walls of the air tubes, just as the air and 
blood are brought together in the human 
lungs, and M^ith the same eftect. 

Thus we see that the wings, besides be- 
ing organs of flight, are in reality lungs. 
The blood in the wings, however, is not 
confined to those tubes, but circulates like 
the sap in the leaves of plants to all parts 
of them, and, it is likely, is thus also 
aerated. 

The nervous filaments we have also seen 
pass to the wings. They follow these 
tubes, and all the fine venations, and ter- 
minate in every part of the wings in what 
are called nerve filaments (papilla?), which 
in all animals are, vehicles through which 
all sensations are perceived ; so that we 
may infer that the wings of bees, besides 
giving the power of flying and acting as 
lungs, are also organs of sensation of some 
kind. All parts of the human body have 
these nerve filaments on the surface, 
through which the sense of touch is exer- 
cised. The eye has them so modified that 
they give us sight. On the tongue they 
give us taste ; in the nose, smell, and in the 
ear, hearing — in each case modified to give 
dift'erent perceptions. For what purpose 
the wings of bees are so supplied has not 
been determined. We would of course 
conclude that the wina;s were not oro-ans 
of sight or taste. 

In all the investigations of naturalists 
none of them have been able to locate the 
organ of smell, although the belief is that 
it is the most poAverful of all their senses 
and the most necessary to them in search- 
ing for hone}'. By means of it, it is sup- 
posed that they recognize each other and 
distinguish between their tellows and 
strangers to the colony. Some have sug- 
gested the antennae as the organs of smell, 
but as they appear to be poorly adapted 
to perform such an oflSco, it is just about 



10 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



as likely that they smell with them as that 
they see with them, which some have sup- 
posed thej' did. Invisible and subtle parti- 
cles emanating from odoi'ous bodies (often 
so fine that they elude all attempts to de- 
tect them by any other means), coming- 
in contact with the olfactory nerve -fibers, 
produce the sense of smell. These atoms 
are mixed with and float in the air, and 
in order to collect them a considerable 
volume of air must be made to pass over 
the surface — a thing which the wings cer- 
tainly accomplish in an eminent degree. 
It is highly probable that the sense of 
smell is lodged in the wings. 

The sense of hearing in bees has never 
been located by naturalists, although that 
office has by some been attributed to the 
antennae also. Is it not more probable 
that the wings exercise it ? The impress- 
ion of sound is produced on the organs of 
hearing in all animals by vibrations of 
elastic bodies (commonly the air). A deli- 
cate, thin membrane stretched across what 
is called the drum of the ear, receives the 
impression, and communicates it by means 
of an intricate arrangement of parts to 
the auditory nerve-fibers, ov papilla;. What 
appendage of the bee would be more suit- 
ed to receive such impressions than the 
thin, stiff membranes composing the 
wings ? 

But it is not intended in this article to 
discuss these questions. I only throw 
them out as suggestions. Whether the 
wings are the organs of smell or hearing, 
or not, does not materially affect the jioint 
I wished to make, /. c, that the clipping 
of a queen's wings is an injury to her. We 
have seen that they perform the office of 
lungs, and that a queen with clipped 
wings is in the same condition that a man 
would be with part of his lungs gone. 
Those who have seen human beings in 
that condition need not be told how use- 
less they are for the active duties of life. 
An insect like the bee, with a differently 
distributed vitality, may not be injured to 
the same extent, but that it is injurious no 
one certainly can doubt; and if by the 
mutilarioii, the sense of smell is destroyed, 
and the queen rendered deaf, her useiul- 
ness would certainly be imjiaired. 

In the act of fl3ing the bee makes an- 
other use of the trachea}. At the moment 
of elevating its wings it may be seen to 
increase in size suddenly, which is the ef- 



fect of drawing in through the spiracles a 
quantit}^ of air, which is distributed over 
the whole bod}', thus rendering it of less 
specific gravity ; the air being further ex- 
panded by the warmth of the body acts 
like the heated air of a balloon, and en- 
ables the insect to rise easily and sustain a 
long flight, even when loaded with honey 
and pollen. In the act of alighting it ex- 
pels the air with which it has been inflated, 
and falls suddenly to the alighting' board 
of the hive. If the landing place is nar- 
row and elevated, and it misses reaching 
it, the bee will be sure to fall helplessly to 
the ground, and can only rise again bj^ 
inflating its body. Bees with larger bod- 
ies than our honey-bee, the large bumble- 
bees have at the base of the abdomen, in 
addition to the ordinary air-vessels, two 
large sacs, called a«r vesicles, which are 
supposed to be used alone for inflation in 
fljnng, and some other insects have in the 
heavier parts of their bodies similar sacs. 



For the American Bee Journal. 



Italian Bees.— Their Worthlessness. 



We give below, an extract from the dis- 
cussion that took place at the meeting of 
the Bee-keejiers' Association, of OberHess, 
in July last, by which it will be seen that 
there are some in Grermany as well as this 
country, who have no faith in the Italian 
race of Bees. 

The question before the Association for 
discussion was : What practical results 
have thus far been obtained by the intro- 
duction of the Heath bee as compared 
with that of the other imported races — 
Carnolian and Italian ? 

Herr Don-, of Mettenheim, said: Gents, 
Since 1857 I have interested myself in im- 
ported races of bees, especially the Italian. 
I was their warm defender, and protected 
and guarded them as pet children, and 
thus became possessed of fine, pure colo- 
nies, and also some crosses in the first and 
second' degree. But when I seek to find 
out what has been the practical result 
from 1857 to the present, what return I 
have had for my trouble, outlay of money, 
etc., in the introduction of different races 
of bees, I am forced to acknowledge that 
all the foreign races combined are not 
worth an iota. I will not include the list 
by foul-brood which was introduced int(.> 
my apiary through' these importations. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



11 



J, Ibr luy ]»art lost 500 g-uilders through 
the foul brood introduced by the Italiims, 
and on these grounds I wurn all my Asso- 
ciation friends. I must hence decidedly 
oppose any further importations. 

Inestiniable damage has been done to 
our neighborhood by the introduction of 
the Italian race. I could mention whole 
apiaries, containing upwards of forty 
stocks of movable comb hives, that were 
Italianized and have gone to total ruin. 
In 1868 I owned 100 movable comb hives ; 
three fourths of which had pure Italian 
queens, and the other fourth were half- 
breeds. From that time on I began to 
Germanize m}' stocks, and from 100 have 
come down to 40 Italian stocks; and so 
perhaps it may be with other members of 
the Association. I could show you with 
statistics how great the loss has been to 
our Association alone. • You would be 
amazed, and from this basis advise against 
every introduction of foreign races. 

The Heath bee does not suit us, because 
it swarms too much, when it should be 
gathering honey. I have in my imme- 
diate neighborhood, a beginner, a man of 
good judgment, who, persuaded b}^ the 
praises of Graven horst, procured 22 stocks 
of heather-bees. These cost, when they 
reached Alsbiem, somewhat over 500 guil- 
ders. He built a house. To-day they 
are standing there Avithout a half ounce of 
hone}' ; they swarmed, however, in abund- 
ance. Thus are failures produced, and 
upon these grounds I hold it to be my 
duty to so work, that our Associations 
will take this matter decisively in hand. 

Since 1868 I would not endure any Ital- 
ian blood in my apiary. I have half-breeds 
who do very well. Last year I allowed 
myself to be again jiersuaded and engaged 
4 ver}' choice queens, and this spring three 
of them were proved to have foul brood. 
The entire stands were destroyed. This 
again cost me a fine sum of money. It 
would be far otherwise, if we would more 
closely watch our native bees, and from 
year to year note what stock distinguishes 
itself beyond the others, and make these 
the standards from which to rear our 
queens,and I believe we would improve our 
race of bees without costing us so much 
monc}'. 

President. It might, perhaps, be inter- 
esting should Mr. Dorr explain how the 
foul brood irot into his hives, Avhether it 



was imported with the Italian bees, or 
whether from a peculiar character of the 
Italian bee, which Avould in our climate 
produce foul brood. 

Ilerr Dorr. From 1857 to 1863, as Sec- 
retary of this Association, I received from 
Dzierzon Italian Queens. The Associa- 
tion of the Palaterate received from me 
Queens. Yet not in one instance did foal 
brood appear. In 1863 after the meeting 
at Hanover occurred the discussion as to 
the difference between the queens raised 
by Dzierzon, and those imj^orted. 

In the spring of 1863 I received my tirst 
queens from Mora, and the following Fall 
foul brood made its appearance. At the 
time I ascribed the appearance of foul 
brood to a peculiar circumstance. A friend 
of mine had some Italian queens in a triple 
hive. He desired me to put it in order. 
I agreed to do it, and had the hives 
brought to my apiar3^ I then purchased 
some honey from the honey dealers, for 
feeding, and I believed that the foul brood 
was caused by this honey. But it so hap- 
pened that others, who in 1863 and 1864 
received queens were as unfortunate as 
myselfl Last year I tried some from Uhle, 
but with the same result — foul brood. 

Prof. Baest. At what time did foul 
brood appear most abundant ? 

Mr. Dorr. I have not yet concluded. 
From the hundred, yes, hundreds of queens, 
I have certain information of, I am con- 
vinced that the queens reared in May, 
June, and July are not foul-broody ; while 
on the other hand, those raised in the Au- 
tumn months, and those raised in Canton 
Tessin and sent out by the farmers, are 
nine-tenths of them foul-broody. Of the 
former, hardly one fourth show themselves 
foul-broody. Hence let the importing of 
strange races of bees alone. If we had 
spent for the aid of natural bee-keeping 
in the Grand Dutchy of Hesse, the amount 
of money expended for importing foreign 
bees, bee-keeping here would be in a very 
different stage. 

President. Judging from the remarks 
of Mr. Dorr, it appears that foul brood is 
imported with the Italians, and not a pe- 
culiarity of that race. 

Mr. Dorr. I have one more remark to 
make. I have, for example, often in Fall, 
in order to quickly accomplish my work, 
smoked the bees with a puff-ball, and in 
the evening I opened the hive and placed 



12 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



all the combs over the stultified beefe. This 
Fall I watched the operation carefully. 
Every swarm so treated became foul- 
broody. I do not know of a single excep- 
tion, which I could say did not become 
foul-brood3^ 

Did I cage the queen, foul brood did 
not make its appearance so readil}-. On 
a former occasion in order to introduce 
foreign queens, I stupified them with the 
smoke of a puff-ball, the most of them be- 
came foul brood}^. To another I gave a 
queen, and it also became fbul-brood3^ I 
yesterday destroyed it, bees and hive. I 
can knowingly tell you of two incidents, 
where a queen was taken from a hive in- 
fected with foul-brood and put in a queen- 
cage, so that not a particle of foul-brood 
was present, and yet after a time it made 
its appearance. Dzierzon himself is unable 
to explain this. 

Mr. Secretary Gros von Arnsburg. It 
appears to me that Mr. Dorr admits that 
lialian queens reared in the months of 
May, June, and July are free from foul 
brood, while those reared in September 
produce foul brood. Why not rear our 
queens in those months? 

President. That is a very natural in- 
ference, but we must remember that queens 
reared in the Fall months are much cheap- 
er, so that the largest number are sold at 
that period, while those sold in Spring- 
cost double, yes, three times as much. 

Mr. Gross. But sooner than obtain foul 
brood, I would willingly pay a larger sum 
of money. 

President. What 3'ou say is very ra- 
tional, but one comes in conflict with his 
purse. I think this question has been suf- 
ficiently discussed. Should I in a few 
words give you my practical experience, 
it would be, that crosses obtained by the 
union of a pure Italian queen with a com- 
mon drone, or a queen of the Heath bees 
impregnated I)}" an Italian drone, are the 
best bees I have in m}^ apiar}", and I in- 
vite all Avho wish to be convinced of this 

to visit ra}^ apiary We have been 

too long breeding in and in, and this 
phlegmatic German blood needs quicken- 
ing. This is just what is done in improv- 
ing our breeds of cattle, and why should 
we not adopt the same measures with our 
bees? I cannot entii-ely agree with Mr. 
J)orr. 

Pastor Weber. Mr. Dorr told us that 



he began Italianizing in 1857. He has 
been breeding queens, then, for 10 years, 
and only lately has he become satisfied 
with his bees — and now they are all cross- 
es. If one procures queens in 100 or 1000 
different ways, there will be no more of 
tbe pure German race. In Rheinish Hesse 
this freshening of the blood has been car- 
ried on to a great extent. There is, there, 
no pure race, but everywhere are traces of 
foreia'n blood. 



For the American Bee Joiirmil. 



The North American Bee Keepers' 
Association. 



The Third Annual Session of this As- 
sociation was held in the city of Louisville 
during the first week in December. 

In the absence of the President, Vice 
President Hamlin, of Tennessee, took the 
chair and called the meeting to order, 
Gen. Adair acting as Secretary. 

Owing to the inclement weather, and 
the sickness of some of the members, the 
attendance was not so large as could be 
wished, but the sessions were full of inter- 
est. The first morning was devoted to an 
informal meeting, and tbe afternoon to a 
free social conference. Letters were read 
from absent n\embers. Several practical 
questions were discussed : viz.. The size of 
brood laid b}^ a prolific qileen ; The cause 
of foul brood ; Why queens sometimes de- 
sert the hive, etc. 

The propriety of clipping the wings of 
queens was talked over at length, disclos- 
ing quite a difference of opinion on this 
subject. The proper kind of food for bees 
was also discussed, after which the meet- 
ing adjourned until 7 p. m. 

In the evening the respective value of 
the various honey plants was considered, 
and the Alsike clover was highly recom- 
mended. 

The subject of introducing queens Avas 
also discussed, and the j^ropriety of ex- 
tracting honey freel}' commented upon. 
The members were largely in favor of ex- 
tracted honey, as it leaves the comb intact, 
and ready to be refilled at once with hon- 
ey, there bj" saving to the bees more than 
half their labor. It is also claimed that it 
is better for the table, having been pre- 
pared for assimilation by the stock. It is 
assertetl tliat the only thing which renders 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



13 



honey injurious to invalids, is the indiges- 
tible comb that is taken with it. 

MORNING SESSION. 

The Convention met at half-past 9 
o'clock this morning Mr. Plamlin in the 
chair. 

General Adair stated that it was pro- 
]>osed to hold a Centennial Exjiosition in 
Philadelphia, and moved that a committee 
of three be appointed to correspond with 
the managers, and see what arrangements 
could be made for having the bee interests 
represented. The resolution was adopted, 
and subsequent!}' the chair appointed a 
committee, and authorized them to appoint 
sub-committees in such states as they 
should deem proper. 

The Society then proceeded to the 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

Seth Hoagland, of Pennsylvania, and 
Dr. F. B. Hamlin, of Tennessee, were placed 
in nomination for President, and a ballot 
was taken, resulting in the election of Mr. 
Hoagland by one ma-jority. 

For Recording Secretary, Abner Pope, 
and for Corresponding Secretary, General 
Adair, were elected without opposition, as 
was also J. S. Hill, of Mt. Healthy, O., as 
Treasurer. 

The following Vice-Presidents were 
then elected : 

New York — J. E. Hetherington, Cherry 
Valley. 

Pennsylvania — A. J. Hooker. 

Kansas — L. J. Dallas. Baldwin Cit}*. 

Michigan — A. J. Cook, Lansing. 

Minnesota — J. W. Hosmer, Janesville. 

Utah— W. D. Roberts, Provo City. 

New Jersey— E. J. Peck, Linded. 

Wisconsin — A. H. Hart, Appleton. 

District of Columbia — Hugh Cameron, 
Washington. 

Ontario — J. C. Thorn, Garafraxa. 

Georgia — R. Peters, Atlanta. 

Texas — J. W. Dunn, Corpus Christi, 

Arkansas — G. B. Peters, Council Bend. 

Maine— Mrs. A. C. Hatch, Houston. 

Connecticut— W. H. Kirk, West Che- 
shire. 

Louisiana — T. J. Bert, Mansfield. 

Alabama — Miss Fanny L. Morris, Shel- 
by Springs. 

Massac^husetts — E. N. Dyer, Amherst. 

West Virginia — A. Chapman, New Cum- 
berland. 

Nebraska — W. Young, Plattsmouth. 



Tennessee— T. B. Hamlin, Edgefield 
Junction. 

Florida — Mrs. C. Atkinson, Lcesburg. 

Ohio — Aaron Benedict, Bennington. 

Kentucky—Major T. J. .Key, Anchorage. 

Indiana — A. T. Wright, Kokoma. 

Illinois — J. L. Lucas, Peoria. 

Iowa — Mrs. E. S. Tup])er, J)es Moines. 

Colorado — T. J. Dorr, Colorado -Hprings. 

The subject of wintering bees was then 
discussed ; The moth and its troubles were 
also talked over, but it was claimed that 
with good hives and Italian bees, there 
was no danger to be apprehended from 
this quarter. Adjourned until 2 p. u. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

An interesting letter was read from the 
former Secretary, Mr. King, after which 
remedies for stings were considered. Colp 
water and wet cloths changed as often as 
necessary, or the compound tincture of 
Lobelia, were pronounced very effectual 
remedies. Mr Winder, however recom- 
mended sulphate of zinc dissolved in water, 
and Mr. Murray, supercarbonate of soda, 
used in the same wa}' as an outward ap- 
plication . 

The Corres})onding Secretary then read 
a letter from Dr. Phillips, which was placed 
on file. On a motion the Doctor was elect- 
ed as an honorary member of the Societ3\ 

The full ) wing resolutions were adopted : 

Resolyed, That the thanks of this society be teuclered. 
the city of Louisville for kindness and hospitality shown 
to the Association at this time. 

Resolved, That the Treasurer pay to D. L. Adair, Cor- 
responding Secretary, $6, amount expended by him for 
envelopes and postage in distributing the proceedings of 
last year's transactions, out of the first funds in the treas- 
ury not otherwise appropriated. 

Resolved. That the thanks of this society be tendered 
to the Louisville Courieh-Joubnal, Commehcial, and 
Ledoer. for their correct report of our proceedings. 

Resolved, That the thanks of this society be tendered 
to the trustees of the Public Library Hall, for their fine 
hall and their kind attention to us, and the Treasurer pay 
to the same. -t^W for the two days' use of their hall, if the 
Treasurf r cannot get it for reduced rates. 

Whereas, We have not funds in Treasury to meet cur- 
rent expenses : 

Resolved, That each member present pay one dollar 
additional, which shall be credited to them as oue year's 
payment in advance as members of this society. 

Resolved. That our Corresponding Secretary be allow- 
ed SIO for making out the transactions of this meeting, 
outOf any fund not appropriated otherwise ; $5,00 also ap- 
propriated for Dr. Hamlin, money spent for postage, &c,. 
in arranging for this meeting, 

ResolVed. Tliat as Mrs. E. S. Tupper is the only pub- 
lisher who is here, the society request her to prepare a 
synopsis of the reports of this meeting and i)ublish them 
in the December number of the National Bee JorR.VAL, 
and send a copy to each member who has paid the annual 
fee. and also toOther Bee publications and agricultural 
journals, and that the Secretary make an otticial report in 
pamphlet form as soon as he has funds to do it and that 
the Secretary be paid a reasonable sum for performing 
the above services. 

The question was asked, "Is artificial 
swarmino- as o;ood or better than natural 



14 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Bwarming?" Adair moved that the Soci- 
ety answer the question in the affirmative, 
and o-ave substantial reasons therefor. 

An able paper was then read on the 
wings of the bee, which will be found en- 
tire in the present number of the Journal. 

The meeting then adjourned to meet at 
Pittsburg, Pa., the second Wednesday in 
November, 1874. 



For the American Bee Journal 



Doolittie's Article. 



Dear Journal: In the July number, 
page 7, we gave yon under the above 
heading our experience with bees up to 
April 28th. We propose now to let the 
readers of the Journal know what we 
have done since; and by the way, Mr. 
Editor, if more of your contributors 
would give their practical experience 
with bees instead of disputing so much 
with each other, and about hives, we 
think it would be of more benefit to be- 
ginrers as well as more edifying to expe- 
rienced bee-keepers. The cold Aveatner 
which began April 17th, continued until 
May 1st, and upon examining we found 
that our bees had decreased one-half in 
number to each hive. We united the 
weakest swarms so that we had but 
twenty-nine to begin the season with, one 
of which lost its queen shortly after. On 
May Ist, we did not have a hive that con- 
tained a quart of bees, and not a hive 
that had ten square inches of brood. The 
majority of them occupied from two to 
four ranges of comb and had no brood at 
all. The first pollen gathered was on 
April 30th, which was very small pillets 
indeed, and that from skunk's cabbage. 
Bees began to rear brood again May 2nd, 
and raised sparingly until May 14th, when 
it became cold again and remained so un- 
til the ?Oth, at which time the larvae was 
all destroj'ed again. May 21st, the hard 
maple threw oiit its thousands of blos- 
soms and the bees, what w(U"e left of them, 
began in earnest to prepare for the sum- 
mer; before that time we had spread the 
brood twice a week by putting empty 
frames or frames of honey in the center, 
and on the 30th, we never had so much 
bi-ood according to the number of bees 
in our hives, five hundred bees covering 
five thousand of brood easily, and from 



the 12th to the 18th of June we had mul- 
tiplied their number by ten and were 
once more in a ver}" prosperous condition. 
June 15, white and red clover began to 
bloom, and that Avith locust blossoms fur- 
nished our bees with an abundant supply 
of honey. June, 19. our first swarm came, 
Basswood commenced blossoming July 16 
and lasted until August 2nd, which was 
the end of the honey season with us. We 
have at the present time fifty-four colonies 
in good condition for wintering, and four 
nuclei, so it will be seen that we have 
doubled our number counting the nuclei. 
We have sold surplus honey to the amount 
of 2350 pounds, 635 pounds of which was 
extracted and which we sold for fourteen 
cents per pound, the remainder was in two 
pound boxes which brought us twenty- 
seven cents per pound. On the whole we 
are satisfied with our season's work. We 
])ropose wintering the same as last year 
with the exception that we shall leave the 
straw out of our safes until spring for the 
reason that our bees were kept too Avarm 
during the Avinter. Keep hi\^es banked 
Avith snoAv out of sight, and ha\'e all 
lower A^entilation nearly or entirely closed 
with one of Novice's quilts o\'er the 
frames, Avell tucked doAvn at the sides, and 
we will bid adieu to cellar wintering, as we 
believe bees can be Avintered in no better 
Avay. No lugging or lifting nor any mix- 
ing in the spring, but just a little pleasant 
exercise of sweeping the snow as it falls 
around the hives, and if it should come 
warm enough for them to fly, shoA^el it 
away in front and Avhat a nice fly they 
Avill haA'e. If it does not come quite Avarm 
enough they Avili keep quiet, as the snow 
keeps them at an e\^en temperature, so 
there is no loss of bees from getting chilled 
in the snoAv cA^ery time the mercur}' rises 
to forty in the shade. 

G. M. DOOLITTLB. 

Boradino, N. T., Dec. 6. 1873. 



Italian bees are said to guard their hives 
against the moth-miller much better than 
the common black bees, and for this reason 
their combs are seldom injured by the moth. 



The Alsike clover is equal if not superior 
to buckwheat as a honey plant, Avhile the 
honey produced from it is fully equal to 
that made from white clover. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



15 



Do Bees Make Honey? 

Do the bees simply <;-ather the juice or 
secretion of the flowers and deposit it in 
the hive unchanged, does it undergo a 
change in their stomach, or is honey a 
secretion of the bees resembling that of 
milk in mammals? 

This (pK'stion was asked me lately by- 
a reader of the Dollar Monthly. With 
your permission I will describe my views 
on this question, subject to the criticism 
of older heads. 

When the bee visits the flowers it sucks 
the nectar with its jn'oboscis and swallows 
it. Thf^ honey passes into what entomol- 
ogists call the proventriculas, or first 
stomach, commonh' called "honey sac." 
If a part of this hone}" is needed for the 
nourishment of the insect, it passes into 
the ventriculus, or true stomach, in which 
it is digested. When the honey-sac is full 
the bee returns to the hive, unloads him- 
self by throwing the honej^ into the cells 
and again starts for the field. It is, therefore, 
cpiite plain that honey is not a secretion. 
Now, is honey changed in any way by 
passing in and out of the honey-sac of the 
bee? That is the question. 

It has been found by chemical analysis 
that the nectar of the flowers is cane sugar 
and that the honey harvested b}" the bees 
from those flowers is grape sugar. This 
discovery would be suflicient to prove that 
the honey gathered by the bees under- 
goes a certain change in the honey-sac. 
On the othor hand, W. W. Stoddard said, 
in a back number of U. B. J., that the 
hone}' when in the honey-sac conies in 
contact with an acid, that proved to be 
identical with formic acid. He says: 
'• This it is which doubtless causes the pe- 
culiar tingling sensation at the back of the 
throat when much honey has been swal- 
lowed." 

Later we find in the Apicultore of Milan 
a definite account of the existence of se- 
creting glands communicating with honey 
sac, and containing a saliva of a strong, 
peculiar odor that passes b}^ means of con- 
traction into the honey-sac. 

These three glands were discovered by 
Prof. Von Siebold, the well known Ger- 
man entomologist. He claims the honor of 
having described them the first, as they 
had always been thought by others to be 
respiratory organs. 



If the above discoveries arc real and 
well understood, we shall have to conclude 
that honey does undergo a certain change 
in the stomach of the bee, and, therefore, 
cannot be made artificially. It dees not 
exist in a natural state outside of the 
hive. 

The change efi'ected in the nectar of 
flowers by the stomach of the bee is not 
very great, however. The bee gives it a 
peculiar taste, but it cannot add anything 
to its quality or diminish it in any way. 

Before I close, permit me to thaidc Mr. 
M. Quinby for his article on wintering, in 
the December number. I also wish to 
tell friend Kretchner that we agree per- 
fectly together. Bees will not work as 
well in side boxes as in top boxes, although 
they ivill work in side boxes if they have 
no top boxes. But give them their choice 
and see what they Avill do. 

D. P. Dadant. 

Hamilton, 111, Bee. 15, 1873. 



Shaking Bees. 

James Heddon at the Michigan Bee 
Keepers' Meeting, said, " I find that shak- 
ing deep combs to get off the bees, irritates 
them. Is there a remedy?" 

There are several, a couple of which I 
will give. First, Use more care in subdu- 
ing bees in long, deep, or large hives. It 
is generally best to manage hives of bees, 
extracting honey, making swarms, &c. 
during a yield of honey, and before it is 
sealed with wax, that all the bees may fill 
their sacs with honey ; which thc}^ will do, 
if there is enough uncapped, and they are 
disturbed properly. If the honey is not 
in a condition, or of suflficient quantity, 
food may be given, to subdue the most 
vicious stock. The best brush is one or 
more grape or plantain leaves rolled loose- 
ly, sometimes the end trimmed. Weeds, 
grass, broom, feathers, or brushes may be 
used ; and if the articles are scarce, or on- 
ly one at hand, dip occasionalh' in water 
to wash off the odor which enrages badly 
managed bees. 

Second, Use the old fashioned, native, or 
black bees with your deep frames, that 
drop off the comb like shot off a shingle, 
at the least handling. The stock is get- 
ting scarce. It can probably be obtained 
of our former President, as they are his pets. 

St. Charles, 111. J. M. Marvin. 



16 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



^mi|wan |)q JflUinal 



CHICAGO, ILL., JANUARY, 1874. 



Business Notice. 



The public are hereby informed that the 
proprietorship and management of the 
American Bee Journal have been trans- 
ferred to the American PubHshing Com- 
pany, of Chicago, the undersigned retaining 
henceforward only an editorial connection 
therewith. By this arrangement additional 
security is given for the permanence, effec- 
tive conduct and progressive improvement 
of this journal, inasmuch as the company 
into whose hands it has passed possess un- 
usual facilities for carrying it on. They are 
already publishing The Illustrated Journal, 
with which has recently been incorporated 
The Chicago Graphic and Illustrated Amer- 
ican, the announcement of which will be 
found in the advertising department of this 
number. They are also issuing other works of 
art. Having a corps of engravers connected 
with their establishment, they will be able 
from time to time to illustrate the pages of 
the Journal, a desideratum long felt by its 
proprietors and friends. The new publish- 
ers are determined to spare neither cost nor 
pains in making this periodical worthy of 
the patronage of the bee-keepers of North 
America. The experience of a year in the 
business and editorial conduct of the Amer- 
ican Bee Journal has convinced the under- 
signed that the apiculturists of this country 
need and are prepared to sustain a well-man- 
aged organ and exponent of their important 
industry. It has also convinced him that in 
order to the complete success of the Jour- 
nal, it is absolutely necessary that more 
capital, business ability and energy should 
be connected with it. These are now se- 
cured, and the new arrangement is announced 
in the fullest confidence that the results will 
be most satisfactory to all concerned. 

W. F. Clarke. 



The Outlook for Bee-keeping. 



Bee-keeping has come to take a high rank 
among the productive industries of the 
world. For want of statistics, which have 
never yet been faithfully collected, and 
which it is very difficult to get with any ac- 
curacy, only general terms can be em- 
ployed in speaking of its condition and 
progress. A national census throws but lit- 
tle light on this subject, for census commis- 
sioners do not usually enquire about live- 
stock so insignificant as bees, and what 
information they get is drawn out of the 
people by questions. They have a printed 
catechism, which does not embrace the in- 
quiries, "Any hives of bees?" "How ma- 
ny ?' ' and hence the most profitable kind of 
live-stock in proportion to cost and value, 
finds no place in the record. Very much 
the same is true of the honey product of this 
and other countries. It is very imperfectly 
represented by figures, and is only found in 
commercial reports that are devoted to 
market prices. We are consequently quite 
in the dark as to the important items of 
consumption and demand. 

But amid all this vagueness of knowledge 
about apiculture and honey, there are some 
things that stand out distinctly enough. One 
is the universality and abundance of honey. 
Everywhere in innermost hearts of myriad 
flowers, the Creator has garnered up stores 
of liquid sweet, which wait for collection 
and appropriation. Another thing we are 
perfectly sure of, viz., that this teeming and 
superabundant sweetness can only be made 
available through the good offices of the bee. 

Whether the floral sweet is reall}' honey 
as it lies treasured in the flower, or whether 
it undergoes a chemical change in the body 
of the bee, whereby common saccharine 
matter is transformed into honey, we need 
not now stop to enquire ; but it is absolutely 
certain that if man is to have honey, the bee 
must collect and store it for liim. F^very 
schoolboy knows how to get at the drop of 
sweetness that lies hid in a head of red 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



17 



clover, but there is no way of doing it on a 
large scale except by bringing the "little 
busy bee" into our service. We know, 
moreover, that the proportion of honey 
actually gathered and made available for 
human use, is very small compared with 
what might be got, if there were gatherers 
enough to do it. Further, it is quite cer- 
tain, that there is no danger of the market 
being glutted with honey. It has never 
been abundant enough to cause a decline 
in the price, except as there has been doubt 
as to genuineness of quality. The best box 
honey never goes begging for purchasers, 
and the same would be true of extracted 
honey, but for a prejudice growing out of 
doubt as to its purity. Finally, we know 
that bee-keeping, though subject to fluctua- 
tion is no more so than most other sublunary 
things. Even the wheat crop sometimes 
fails, or when it does not fail, the demand 
slackens, and the price is low. In every 
line of business there is more or less of un- 
certainty, risk, and liability to sustain loss. 
This is no more true of bee-keeping than of 
other pursuits, and, therefore, it may fairly 
take rank among the safe and regular occu- 
pations of mankind. 

So much being settled in regard to the 
present condition of bee-keeping, let us 
glance at its future. It is now reduced to a 
science, which, though in its infancy, has 
its main principles ascertained and fixed. 
It is also an art, whose essential manipula- 
tions have been reduced to a system. Only 
those will succeed in it who master the 
principles of the science, and learn the viod- 
tis operandi of the art. It is passing out of 
the hands of unscientific and unskilled peo- 
ple, who are convinced that it is an unprofit- 
able business, and better hands are taking 
hold of it. Our best bee-keepers make api- 
culture pay, and some of them are quickly 
amassing snug little fortunes out of the in- 
dustry of the bee. As a higher class of bee- 
keepers get possession of the field, and apicul- 
ture ac([uires its true status among the indus- 



tries of the world, many will be attracted to the 
pursuit, who, instead of rushing into it with ig- 
norance and ardor as their only qualifications 
will first lay the foundation of success by 
thoroughly learning their business. We 
look for the springing up of a new genera- 
tion of advanced bee-keepers — bee-keepers 
who will be free from prejudice against book- 
learning about rural matters, and who will 
believe in movable-comb hives, Italian bees, 
and honey extractors. The disasters of the 
last two years, which have fallen most hea- 
vily upon the ignorant class of bee-keepers, 
have had the effect of discouraging these, 
and leaving only those in the field of api- 
culture, who have science enough to account 
for failure, and faith enough to try again, 
and keep trying until they achieve success. 

We believe, too, that the age of empiri- 
cism in bee-keeping is passing away. Im- 
postures feed and live on ignorance. Worth- 
less patents and clap-trap appendages, are 
thrown away so soon as the noviciate of 
bee-keeping is passed. What apiarian of 
any experience has not plenty of old lum- 
ber in the shape of abandoned hives and 
rejected "fixings?" We know now that 
with the movable frame, air-space, and the 
requisite room, bees will store honey in any 
sort of receptacle, and that the bee-keeper 
may suit his own taste and convenience in 
the matter of hives. Moth-traps, non- 
swarmers, and the endless little variations 
about frames and hives which have been 
made excuses for getting patents, are fast 
coming to be estimated at their real worth- 
lessness. 

An eager demand for trustworthy inform- 
ation and teaching on this subject, will 
manifest itself on every hand, and we shall 
soon have a race of studious, pains-taking, 
successful bee-keepers, whose influence will 
allure multitudes to this fascinating pursuit, 
and these in their turn will draw others into 
the apicultural ranks. 

So important and growing an interest 
niust ha\'e due representation in the press, 



18 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



and will find it in such apiarian periodicals 
as make it their aim to advance apiculture, 
irrespective of all merely selfish interests. 
At the head of all these stands the American 
Bee Journal, and therefore all the auguries 
of success for intelligent bee-keeping are 
omens of prosperity for it. In this confi- 
dence it was removed to this city a year ago, 
and during a season of depression among 
bee-keepers, pushed with all the energy cir- 
cumstances admitted. In this confidence, 
it is now laid hold of by the American Pub- 
lishing Co., under whose auspices it enters 
on the year 1874 with every prospect of a 
growing circulation, and widening useful- 
ness. 

Knowing, as we do so well, the firm faith 
our most intelligent bee-keepers have in 
their business, and the high esteem in which 
they hold the American Bee Journal as 
the best exponent and organ of their special 
interests, we count most confidently on 
their continued co-operation. Their success 
is ours, and our success is theirs. In this 
community of interests and fellowship of 
labour for the general good, they have our 
best wishes, and we are certain that we have 
theirs. As we work on dilligently and 
hopefully, do we not hear merry voices ring- 
ing out the cheering refrain : 

"There's a good time coining, boys. 
Wait a little longer." 



Hints to Correspondents. 

Perhaps there is no way in which the sci- 
ence of bee-keeping can be better advanced 
than by comparing the experience of prac- 
tical men. One fact is worth a dozen theo- 
ries. Therefore we are grateful to our friends 
for giving their thoughts and the result of 
their efforts to the Journal. But it must 
be borne in mind that our space is not equal 
to our good wishes in this matter, therefore 
it will be necessary for our friends to condense 
their thoughts as much as possible. Try and 
give us the " concentrated extract " of your 
experience in Bee Culture. We will publish 



nearly all if possible, but if we have to cut 
and prune sometimes a little closely, please 
bear in mind that our space can only be 
filled, therefore we are sometimes obliged to 
publish only extracts, instead of whole let- 
ters. Another thing we would suggest is, 
that our correspondents avoid as far as pos- 
sible, all personalities. These are hardly 
calculated to produce harmonious feelings 
in our families, and certainly not essential 
to the science of Apiculture. 



Annual Meeting of the North American 
Bee-Keepers' Society. 

Elsewhere in this number will be found a 
report of the above meeting, held at Louis- 
ville, Ky. The editor of this journal fully 
intended to have been present, alike in the 
interest of the Journal and in the discharge 
of his duty as President of the Society. His 
intention was frustrated by the death of his 
father-in-law. The sad event took place 
too near the time of the meeting to arrange 
for the attendance of any other representa- 
tive of the Journal. It is hoped, however, 
that the report of the proceedings will be 
found accurate and satisfactory, and that 
this explanation of his non-attendance will 
be accepted by all concerned. 



I 



To Those Interested in Bee Culture. 



At the sixth annual convention of the Michigan 
Bee-Keepers' Association, it was decided to hold a 
special meeting at Kalamazoo, to commence Wednes- 
day, May 6ih, 1874. It is especially desired that all 
members be present, and, in behalf of the Association, 
we urge every bee-keeper in Michigan to attend. A 
cordial invitation is also extended to all persons inter- 
ested in the science of bee-culture, whether residing 
in this or other States. Surely much good may be 
derived from a comparison of experiences next Spring, 
and from the able papers that will then be presented. 
Timely notice will be given of all further arrange- 
ments. Address communications or inquiries con- 
cerning the subject to Frank Benton, 

Sec'y Mich. Bee -Keepers' Association. 
Shelby, Oceana Co., Mich. 



" Instead of complaining that the rose has 
thorns, I congratulate myself that the thorn 
is surmounted by roses." 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



19 



Sundry Items. 

Introducing Queens. — Having more ex- 
perience in introducing queens as recom- 
mended by me in October Journal, I would 
advise not to release hxtc in the season, 
especially in cool weather. 

Packing Hives for Winter. — I have 
packed some hives to winter on summer 
stands, as follows : Of stuff inch wide by 
quarter inch thick, I cut off lengths so as to 
make frame, four pieces for a frame, the 
outside dimensions of which are same as the 
side walls and top of brood chamber. These 
skeletons were covered with coffee sacking, 
and when ready to pack, I removed the 
wooden sidewalls and top of brood chamber 
altogether, replacing with those just de- 
scribed, and then filled in all around and on 
top with straw. I am confident this will 
avoid all moisture, and be much warmer — 
the two most essential points to be gained, 
for successful out door wintering. 

Now if any who chance to read these 
lines, have bees in single walls to winter on 
summer stands, having done nothing hy way 
of protection, I would say, Try a few hives 
as follows : Make a frame and cover it with 
sacking as above described, that will fit 
snugly inside of cap, fill cap with straw and 
press the frame down upon it, having put 
the side to which the sacking is fastened to 
frame next to the straw. Remove the honey- 
board, and replace the cap on hive. Now 
set the hive one side, and place on the stand 
a dry goods box, several inches larger all 
round than the hive, with the open side 
facing the same way as the front of the hive. 
Fill in the back side of the box with straw, 
and set the hive in the box, and fill in both 
sides with straw. If your bees dont come 
out in Spring in better condition, on less 
honey eo?isiinied, tell us all about it in the 
Journal. 

This brings us to consider Novice's allu- 
sion to us in November Journal, on " Out- 
door wintering," in regard to which he has 
heretofore expressed himself, as follows : 
"We should give them no protection whatev- 
er, unless it be from the wind ; but should 
endeavour to have them receive all the sun 
possible." One of Novice's correspondents 
writes, "that in this climate, out door, with- 
out protection is very unsafe," to which 
Novice adds, " We have been obliged to 
come to the same conclusion in regard to 
out-door wintering." What conclusion, 



Novice ? Why, that out-door wintering, 
without protection, is very unsafe. That is 
plain enough without "pursuing our read- 
ing any farther," as we do not think the 
statement about the sunshine alters the 
meaning of the above at all. 

In giving our views we have always con- 
fined ourself to the subject in hand, viz., 
"Wintering on Summer Stand," and not as 
Novice generally does, shift it to "Winter- 
ing in Special Depositories." 

In the report of the Kansas State Bee- 
keepers' Association, we find the following 
assertions by Mr. Meador : In speaking of 
the queen he says, "After impregnation all 
the eggs produce females, and that the male 
bees were generally produced by eggs from 
the worker bee, fed for the purpose." 

That we have fertile "workers," I sup- 
pose every queen breeder has found out to 
his detriment ; but the above assertions in 
regard to the same are at variance with all 
our reading or experience. I for one, and 
methinks a whole brigade of Journal read- 
ers join in, would like his "proofs for the 
faith that is in him." 

I removed a queen from a hive in May, 
from which drones were flying, and as I 
wanted drones froin the queen that succeed- 
ed the one removed, I placed drone comb 
in the middle of the hive, which was filled 
with eggs, and cells sealed long before any 
worker progeny of the new queen hatched. 
So if that drone comb was filled with eggs 
by a fertile Avorker, it must have been one 
bred from the old queen, consequently there 
could be no variation in drones hatching 
from that brood, and those in the hive when 
the old queen was removed. There was, 
however 2. great difference in the markings, 
showing a different strain altogether. 

J. E. Moore. 

Rochester, Pa., Nov. 28, 1873. 



" Moon's Bee World," is the name of a 
new periodical published at Rome, Ga. — 
We wish the new magazine all success and 
may the South soon become ' ' a land flowing 
with milk and honey." 



Fruit may be preserved with honey by 
putting the fruit first in the can, then pour- 
ing honey over it, and seal air tight; when 
the honey is poured from the fruit it will 
have the flavor and appearance of jelly, 
making a delicious dessert. 



20 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Foi' the American Bee Journal. 

A New Repository for Bees. 

Mr. Editor: Of the great number who 
suffered from the loss of bees last Winter I 
am one. I lost all I had, forty-two stocks, 
leaving a large amount of honey. And now 
after sifting the matter down to a fine thing, 
I have concluded the cause was in a measure 
carelessness, in not protecting the bees and 
giving them sufficient ventilation. The 
Winter set in about Nov. 12th, 1872, and 
continued until about the last of March, 
1873, ^00 cold all that time for bees to be 
out, except one or two days in February, 
then but few made their appearance. The 
consequence was that the frost accumulated 
in the hive, and then a moderate day would 
come to melt the frost and make it run down 
over the combs and thin the honey, which 
caused dysentery. Nearly all in this section 
lost all the bees they had; the disease paid 
no respect to the pattern of hive but entered 
all alike. 

Last Spring I procured two very weak 
stocks of black bees from a neighbor, the 
best that I could do here. I also procured 
a medium stock (five frames) of Italians 
from W. J. Davis, of Youngsville, Pa; this 
stock contained a beautiful queen, and as 
prolific a queen as I ever saw. In order to 
make a cross I procured a very beautiful queen 
from Mr. D. A. Pike, of Smithsburg, Md., 
and introduced her into one of the black 
stocks, then after a sufficient length of time 
formed nucleus, raised queens, which mated 
with Mr. Davis' stock of drones. No drone 
brood was allowed to hatch in the black 
stocks for six weeks after the Italian queens 
were introduced. I have increased to eleven 
good stocks with abundant stores for a long 
Winter, and the nicest, most robust and the 
best workers that I ever saw. The loss of 
last Winter is a dear lesson to most bee- 
keepers — it has proved so to me at least. 

I have built a repository, which I think 
is complete, as follows: I selected a dry 
spot which slopes a little to the north, then 
graded it to the south twelve feet, and ten 
feet the other way; then set two posts at north 
end, wide enough apart for a door, then 
four feet south two other posts, same distance 
apart, and eight feet farther south two posts, 
same distance, then pinned perlines on to]) 
of the i)osts, same as a barn, put stays across 
the top to keep the posts from leaning in to- 
ward each other, posts four feet high from 



the floor; then set up two-inch plank of 
sufficient length to meet at the top, same as 
rafters, with one end on the ground, thus 
making a roof eight feet wide; then plank- 
ing up the ends, all but the door four feet 
high and thirty inches wide, then planked 
up the remaining four feet perpendicular 
and out to the first two posts, then horizon- 
tal over the top, and then covered the 
whole over with dirt from twelve to fifteen 
inches deep, leaving another door at the 
north end, forming a hall, can open the 
first door, pass in and shut it, and open the 
next, this lets no light in nor sudden 
change of air. Have ventilated at the bot- 
tom with two inch pipe and at the top with 
six inch stove-pipe; put a roof of boards 
above the dirt, and kept a stove and fire in 
it about four weeks before putting in the 
bees. Have only the out-side door shut, it 
is warm enough up to this date. The bees 
are perfectly quiet with all the holes open in 
the honey-board. They were put in on the 
13th of November. The weather has not 
been warm enough to fly since had they 
been out. M. Wilson. 

Meredith, Pa., Nov. 28, 1873. 



Hints to Ladies. 



Much has been said and done in relation 
to "Woman's Rights," but amid all the 
speeches, conventions and resolutions of 
the last few years, the most siiccessful 
women have been those who have quietly 
gone to work, winning their own wa}' to 
prosperity. 

All the conventions this side of the gar- 
den of Eden will not help woman into a 
position of comparative independence un- 
less she tries to help herself Rosa Bon- 
heur did not ask Congress to make her an 
artist — nature gave her the ability and 
she wrought out her own problems with 
patience and earnestness. 

Harriet Ilosmer sought no aid from 
conventions and by-laws when she began 
her life work, and Florence Nightingale did 
not care to vote before she went into the 
Crimea. But all women are not artists or 
sculptors. Their gifts vary as much as 
those of the other sex, and indeed like 
many of them, some of us seem to have 
received none at all, that is no bright par- 
tieuhir talent, which, if cultivated, will 
l)ring wealth and fame. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



21 



To Imiulreds tuul thousands of brave 
hearted women the serious question comes 
home "What can we do for a livino-." 
The endless round of domestic hil)or 
brings little or no reward, while the ranks 
of teachers and seamstresses are filled to 
overflowing-. There are clerkships to be 
sure, anil many of them are ably filled by 
lailies ; but side by side with them, are 
stalwart men who ireary themselves with 
handling ribbons and laces, Avhile the soil 
waits for tilling and the harvest fov rea- 
pers. In many de]>artments of life man 
gets sadly '-out of his sphere" by intrud- 
ing upon women's legitimate domain. But 
we cannot straighten the world's machin- 
ery, though it sometimes gets badly out 
of gear, neither can we force the drones 
into their proper places. It therefore be- 
hooves us to find fields of labor where there 
is room enough and to spare, and perhaps 
the most tempting of these is the science 
ot Apicuhiturt'. 

Woman is particularly fitted for the 
handling of bees. Her perceptions are 
cptick. her touch is delicate and her in- 
stincts are seldom at fault. Many of us 
can find time amid domestic cares to culti- 
vate a few flowers and we do not feel that 
the time thus spent is wasted, even though 
it brings no financial reward. But the 
care of a few colonies of bees would re- 
quire no more time than the same number 
of flower beds and the pursuit is even 
more fascinating ; there is more pleasure 
in seeing the little workers build without 
a compass their geometrical cells than in 
watching the uufoldings of bud and blos- 
som. The work is lighter and cleaner 
than Horticulture, besides jnelding sub- 
stantial returns. And however happil}^ a 
woman may be situated in life there is a 
pleasure and independence derived from 
the iise of money which she has earned 
that can be found in no other way. Then 
if she wishes to make her husband a holi- 
day present, she can do so without feeling 
that it came from his own pocket. Many 
a worn out teacher and tired house-wife 
may find among their bees rest, health and 
a new interest in life. To women in feeljle 
health bee-keeping ofters man}' advan- 
tages. Let them be hers and let her take 
care of them, and she will feel an interest 
in the little creatures that can be awak- 
ened in no other way. Every pleasant 
day will find her more than once beside 



the hivos, and llii' fresh air and glad sun- 
shine with the aid of light em])loyment 
will give her a strong hold u[)on life. It 
opens a new world in natural history 
which proves to be one of absorbing intei-- 
est. It has been demonstrated that some 
of the most successful Apiarians in the 
country are ladies. 

Says Mrs. E. S. Tapper: "In the sum- 
mer of 1863 I had but two pure Italian 
stocks to commence with. One of these 
stored one htoidred and ten pounds of honey 
besides giving three swarms. The other 
gave two swarms and stored ninety-six 
])ounds of honey. All of the 3'oung sAvarms 
filled their hives and some of them stored 
honey in boxes. In the summer of 1864 
I averaged from nine Italian colonies one 
Imndrertand eigliteen pounds each." 

A gentleman writes from Odell, III., that 
" Wife has managed the bees at home this 
summer. She had twelve swarms to 
start with, some of them very weak. Sold 
one hundred and thirty dollars worth of 
surplus bees and two hundred and fifty 
pounds of honey, which was doing pretty 
well, considering the poor season and the 
first attem]>t." Yet we will venture the 
assertion that this lady did not neglect her 
other duties or enjoy life anj- the less on 
account of the time spent in caring for 
her bees. 

Ladies here is health, happiness and 
financial success for you-. Do not say that 
you do not understand the business, that 
you cannot learn, that you are afraid of 
failures, &e. One year's subscription to 
the American Bee Journal will give you 
a whole volume of advice from the best 
practical Apiarians in the country. It 
requires but little capital to begin with, 
hence the risk is very small and success 
is almost certain. Try the experiment 
next summer, and let us hear of your suc- 
cess in the fall through the columns of the 
Journal. ' Mrs. H. V. Keed. 



Central Iowa Bee-Keepers' Association. 

The next annual meeting of the Central Iowa Bee- 
Keepers' Association will be held at Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa, Jan. 21, 1874, and hold two or three days. It 
is expected that the usual reductions will be made in 
railroad and hotel fare. A. B. Mason, Sec'y, 

Waterloo, Iowa. 



A large natural swarm of bees carries with it four or 
five pounds of honey when leaving. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Translated for the American Bee Journal. 

Early and Full-developed Queens. 

Whoever has, even superficially, exam- 
ined the internal arrangements of the 
hive, can see readily how differently the 
■development of the stock takes place un- 
der varying circumstances. You may have 
.seen a swarm fill in three days an ordinary 
.sized hive, while it would take, with other 
.swarms, three years to accomplish the 
same. 

Hanneman tells us that in Brazil young- 
swarms after one month send out new 
.swarms, while under other circumstances 
such a young swarm would not think of 
swarming under a year. As with the 
development of the whole hive, so it is 
in resemblance, if not in proportion, with 
the develoj)ment of each individual under 
various circumstances and at different pe- 
riods of the year. How marked the dif- 
ference, we may see in the varying lengths 
of the life of the worker bee at different 
periods of the year. Of those bred in April 
•or May, not one will be living six weeks 
afterward ; or at least very few ; while 
those born shortl}^ before lived to hoary 
old age. Those hatched in August or 
September, appear six months afterwards, 
in Spring, as young and active as though 
just one day old. Such is the effect ot the 
constant and incessant labor during the 
,Summer,and the protracted rest in Winter. 

Should we observe the queen, the most 
perfectly developed of all the bees, upon 
whom depends the development, populous- 
ness and profitableness of the hive, we 
would see that her activity differs great- 
13^ at different portions of the year. Nor- 
mall}' her activitj' with us ceases entirely 
during the last three months of the year. 
Only in swarms which breed a queen late 
in the season, or which are for a long 
time queenless do we find any brood in the 
fall and winter months, Avhich is owing to 
the fact that the bees have a desire for it, 
•owing to their long queenlessuess ; having 
on hand in their cells a store of brood-food. 

This untimely ])reeding, especiall}^ if it 
extends into the Winter, works to their 
injury, and is as undesirable as the, in oth- 
er hives, too early and extensive breeding 
in Spring for fear of the cold. Also to- 
wards the close of the honey harvest, an 
earlier shrinking of the quantities of brood 
would bo advantaireous. 



On Ihe other hand, in the early months 
immediately preceding the honey harvest, 
in April, May, and June, the bee keeper 
desires to stimulate breeding to the ut- 
most, and prevent any possible interrup- 
tion. The more brood the hive now pos- 
sesses, the more workers it will have to 
gather the harvest. At the first start 
young swarms are very industrious, but 
this gradual^ diminishes, owing to inevit- 
able loss of workers, without any supply 
being furnished until three weeks later 
when the young brood begins to hatch 
out, and renew the life of the swarm. 
From a strong colony we can gradually 
remove great masses of bees, without any 
injury- to its strength, either as regards its 
flight or building capacity ; but should the 
queen dej)art, either by natural or artifi- 
cial swarming, or by any other means, all 
building will at once cease, and how sadly 
the swarm falls gradually behind hand in 
its working capacities, all bee keepers well 
know. 

The brood supply will disapjsear in a 
few weeks, in which time several strong 
swarms might have been reared, and per- 
haps at the height of the honey harvest, 
the hive will be almost empty of bees and 
will have no surplus for its winter support, 
if it even lives that long. Here becomes 
apparent the advantages of the movable 
comb hives and a rational system of bee- 
keeping. Here these dangers of queen- 
lessuess are so diminished as to be ren- 
dered almost harmless. The swarm can be 
readily su])plied with brood from time to 
time, and more readily supjjlied with qneen. 
While in other hives, eleven to thirteen 
days will elapse before a young queen 
will be hatched out, I can now remove a 
laying que.en, and usually in two days after 
have a young queen hatched, which in 
eight daj'S Avill begin to lay. From April, 
as soon as drone-brood is to be seen, I seek 
constantly to have a supply of queen-cells 
on hand. 

I utilize the queen as soon as hatched ; 
generally, howevei', use the queen-cells 
just before the queens hatch. ITo remove 
a fertile queen, and introduce a young one, 
or insert a queen-cell, will often miscarry. 
One must adopt many maneuvers to reach 
his object. To an unqueened stock, in the 
meantime, I give a comb of brood from 
another stock or nucleus, upon which are 
found (|ueen-cells some days old, and give 



THE AMERICAN HEK .TOUENAL. 



23 



to these latter an already hatched queen, 
or a queen-cell. It is not to be feared 
that these latter will destroy the cells, es- 
pecially if they are young and were given 
to the hive with the bees on them. 

The swarm will at once protect the cells 
and commence to complete them, and will 
thereby be favorably inclined on the follow- 
ing day to accept an older queen-cell or 
perhaps a recently hatched queen, and the 
comb containing the cells may be given to 
another recently unqueened swarm. 

By mixing the bees of two swarms, ei- 
ther by interchanging combs, or by shak- 
ing the bees from them, a swarm may be 
prepared for accepting a young queen. Al- 
so a stupefying of the bees, with the smoke 
of a puff-ball, perfumery, etc., serves well. 

When one has not a surplus of young 
queens, it is well to confine them in a cage 
until the bees become acquainted with her. 

This introduction, however, is only com- 
plete when the young queen becomes fertile, 
which is sometimes very slow. The impreg- 
nating of young queens depends much on 
the weather, since it requires bright, pleas- 
ant weather with a temperature of upwards 
77° F. in the shade. Here the bee-keeper 
can aid somewhat, that the young queen 
may become earlier capable of being im- 
pregnated, earlier capable of making her 
wedding flight, and, consequently, earlier 
capable of laying. That young queens will 
make their wedding flight at a certain specific 
time, as Herr Collen claims to have discov- 
ered, is opposed by theory and practice. 
Fourteen days in March will not advance a 
queen as far as seven days in May. 

The queen of an after swarm will b'e lay- 
ing before the queen of another stock, of 
like age, will hardly be thinking of making 
her wedding trip, perhaps not yet ruler of 
the hive. There is very good ground for 
this. To attain the capability of being im- 
pregnated the internal organs must be more 
developed, which require the building up of 
the muscles and nitrogenous nourishment. 
Such food the bees alone prepare when in 
full, active life, when building and brooding 
is going on. It is true that in after swarms 
there is no breeding going on, but there is 
great activity in building, and for this pur- 
pose a higher temperature is maintained; 
this stimulates in the young queen an earlier 
development, earlier flight and earlier lay- 
ing. In the mother stock, however, there is 
neither breeding nor building going on, no 



full active life rules the hive, hence the 
young (jueen remaining behind, in general, 
developes herself much more slowly. Many 
keepers of movable comb hives, or basket 
hives, cut away some portion of the comb 
near the entrance, in order by the filling 
of the vacancy, to test whether the hive 
was queenless or not. And by so doing 
they obtain, without thinking of it, an ear- 
lier impregnation of their queen, the- in- 
creased activity in building bringing this 
about. In movable comb hives the activity 
of the bees is aroused and the development 
of the queen is hastened by placing in the 
hive a comb of young unsealed brood, or, 
if he does not wish to destroy fine empty 
combs, let him separate the combs and in- 
sert between them, near the fly hole, empty 
frames with simply foundations. Again, by 
feeding in the evening, and from time to 
time sprinkling with thinned honey, will the 
early and full development of the queen be 
not a little hastened. Yesterday, August 8, 
a hot, oppressive day, I entered my Apiary 
about three P. M. Hardly any bees were 
flying, since this one week of oppressive 
heat had parched all vegetation. Only the 
drones, where any were yet present, were 
hotly pursued. Their number becoming 
daily less, I sprinkled all my nuclei, con- 
taining young queens, with diluted honey. 
It was hardly a minute before I saw a young 
queen with her cluster of bees leave the 
hive; on opening the hive a quarter of an 
hour later, I found the plain signs of her 
copulation. Without the aid given by this 
sprinkling of thinned honey the queen would 
not have come out; and had the weather 
changed, days, yes weeks, might have 
elapsed before another favorable opportunity 
would have presented itself. 

Moreover, the periods at which the im- 
pregnated queens begin to lay differ widely. 
Often in two days after copulation she has 
full laying powers, but with as thin a body 
as an unimpregnated queen. And then noth- 
ing is so stimulating as comb of young 
brood. The bees having then to prepare 
food for the brood, the queen will also be 
abundantly furnished with it, and thus be- 
gins to lay so much earlier. In this is also 
the advantage that in looking for the queen 
you will find her on the brood comb, and 
then one can readily see whether she is 
wanting in any particular. 

DZIERZON. 

Carlsiiiark, Aug. g, iSyj. 



24 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Voices from Among the Hives. 

A. C. Balch, Kalamazoo, Mich., writes: — I have 
put all my bees into the cellar for the winter, and 
have no fears of losing them, as I have no faith in 
dysentery or bad honey. I believe with Cromwell — 
' Put your faith in Providence and keep your powder 
dry.' — Have good hives, the tighter the belter, and 
give very little ventilation. Put them in a good, 
warm, dark and dry cellar, with enough to eat, and 
they will come out all right; at least mine always 
have. I never give any top ventilation, andibut small 
bottom, and thus have no circulation of air through 
the hive. 

Joseph B. Rapp, Owensville, O., writes: — Some 
of us beginners would like to have communications 
from A. Grimm, M. Quinby, Capt. Hetherington and 
other Apiarians, describing in detail their methods of 
managing apiaries. From what little knowedge I have 
been able to pick up about bees, I think that Mr. 
Faulkners, of Vevay, Ind., has the best way of man- 
aging bees for profit. Colonies in this country are 
almost all weak in numbers, and will necessarily have 
to be protected to winter surely. 

W. J. McKee, Cedar Falls, Iowa, writes:^! 
consider the Journal indispensable to every bee- 
keeper. 

A. Grey, Reiley, Ohio, writes: — What few bees 
were alive last Spring have done fine this season, both 
in honey and in mcrease of stock. I do not fear the 
dysentery this Winter, as the honey is of the best 
([uality and the stocks are in good condition for Win- 
ter. Success to the Journal and all of its readers. 

W. M. Kellogg, Oneida, Ills., writes of Bee- 
stings and "Novice," as follows: — "Friend Argus 
thinks the lips the worst place on which to have a 
loving bee salute a person. Just let him get a good 
deep one on the inside of the nostril, as I have had 
twice, and he will own up that he had rather try the 
kiss on the lips, or take one on the tip end of the 
nose ker slap, with the bee coming like a ball from a 
rifle. As for me, I had rather be excused from any of 
them. Friend Chapman, I agree with you in regard 
to the abuse heaped upon "Novice," and I too enter my 
protest against having any such articles appear in the 
Journal. And as to his opposition to patent hives, I 
think if a little more of it were done, bee-keepers in 
general would be the gainers. I bought the Right ? of 
an Eastern hive, and it would have been a hundred dol- 
lars in my pocket had I never seen said hive; and now 
we all have the right to make as many of them as we 
(doiiH) want. 

E. LiSTON, Virgil City, Missouri, reports as follows: 
My bees are all in good order for wintering, and are 
on their summer stands. Winter is open and the bees 



fly every few days. In this section of the country bees 
made us no surplus the past season on account of dry 
weather, and I fear many black bees in old box hives 
will starve to death before bloom comes next ^-um- 
mer. Successful Apiarians in this section are very 
scarce,^ because they have not the energy, industry 
and care that the calling requires. 

J. F. Love, Cornersville, Tenn., writes: — Our bees 
are in the very best condition possible for wintering, 
and this has been a good season for honey in this part 
of the State. I do not expect to lose a single 
stock; our bees can fly every ten or fifteen days 
through the Winter- generally; we keep them on the 
summer stand. I saved every full stock and all 
nuclei last Winter on the summer stands and with no 
sign of disease of any kind.^ 

Dr. E. G. Decker, Fort Fairfield, JNIaine, says: — 
Being an Apiarian, I do not know how to get along 
without the Journal. Bees did well here the past 
season; my thirty hives paid me ten dollars apiece, 
besides increasing to seventy-five full stocks. My 
surplus was all boxes, price here, twenty cents, gross 
weight. I take no particular pains with them as I 
have a large country practice to attend to. Winter 
in the cellar, keep them in from November 25 th to 
April loth or 20th. I hope to see the Journal semi- 
monthly before long. 

J. Harper, Mason, Mich., writes that bees have 
done v.'ell in his locality for the last three seasons and 
that the last year has been the best of all. He also 
mentions a fatal disease which has attacked his bees. 
Having found a goodly number dead, he inquired into 
the cause and found a maggot or crab, about the size 
of a horse-fly maggot, only they are wider between 
the eyes and very black. He states that he has put 
some of these in glass vials, and thinks they will 
hatch in the Spring; they are now in cocoon state. 
Some explanation is asked for from any one who lias 
had^any practical experience in that direction. 

P. J. Talbot, Viola, Iowa, says : — I deprecate all 
complicated hives, not because they are patented, but 
because they are very injurious to lieginners — experi- 
enced apiarians will not use them. . . . The frames 
should be high enough from the bottom of the hive to 
allow it to be easily cleaned out witli a small scraper 
and slip board at the laottom and rear of the hive. 
That should be attended to often if the weather will 
permit. 

Mr. Campiskll ol Tennessee, writes : — Three 
years ago I began with two stocks in box hives, one 
of which I transferred to the Langstroth hive, and the 
other to the Buckeye. Those in the Langstroth liive 
did well and increased rapidly, but the moths took 
charge of the other, and the bees refused to stay in it. 
I put them in three times, and the last time they 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



25 



came out they took to the woods with a "whiz." I 
had no surpUis honey this season. It has been a very 
poor vear for honey in this locality. 

S. ). Freeborn, Ithaca, Wis., says : There is very 
lillle done in this section in scientific liee-keeping, Init 
thanks to the JOURNAL, we hS\iG to do a little in that 
line another Summer. What few bees there were left 
did very well in gathering honey last Summer. It 
was mostly collected from Ijuckwheat, and was thick- 
er than usual. 

Wm. Muth Rasmussen, of El Monte, Los .\ngelos 
Co., Cal., writes : Last August a small number of 
bee-keepers of this county formed the Bee-keepers' 
Association of Los Angelos County. We do not yet 
count many members, but hope before long to have 
most of the bee-keepers of the county join us, and 
new members are coming in at each meeting. A 
committee appointed for the purpose, reported at the 
last meeting 31 17 hives of bees in the comity, 
and probably more which they had not been able to 
find. The yield of honey from these hives for the 
last season was estimated at 160,000 pounds. 

Thos. H. Hunter, Zanesville, Ohio, says : — This 
has been a poor season for gathering honey in this lo- 
cality. From seven colonies I had only about a hun- 
dred pounds of box honey. 

John Middleworth, Byron, Mich., writes : — The 
last two Wintei's will long be remembered by the bee- 
ksepers in this vicinity. I lost in 1871, forty-three 
stocks out of forty -six, and in 1872, lost thirty-three 
out of thirty-six. There was only one stock besides 
mine wintered, making only four in the township. I 
now have nine colonies, and hope for better success. 

Wxi. ASHCOME, Ligonier, Pa., writes : — Bees have 
done better here the last season, than they have for 
the past twenty years. I never had them in a better 
condition than now. I keep them on their summer 
stands, using the one story Langstroth hive. In the 
Fall I pack between the outside and the glass \\ith 
dry leaves, and since doing this have had no moldy 
comb. 

J. A. Foulston, of Farley, Iowa, says : — I had 
ten swarms last Spring in very poor condition. I Ital- 
ianized all but two, and increased them to fifteen 
colonies, and took three hundred pounds of honey with 
the extractor. 

James Scott, Epworth, Iowa, reportsas follows :— 
I went into winter quarters in 1872 with thirty-six 
stands : lost one in the cellar by starvation with plen- 
ty of honey in the hive. It was a two story hive, and 
I had neglected to remove the upper story. I lost 
seven in all, in the Spring sold two, leaving twenty- 
six, most of them in poor condition ; but I obtained 
1900 pounds of extracted honey and increased my 
-stock to thirty-six. 



Mrs; V. C. Condit, of Howard Springs, Tenn. 
states : — Bees did poorly here until llie ist. of July, on 
account of wet weatlier. After tliat they did very 
well ; but we liad no increase. 

W. J. Davis, Voungsville, Pa., says : — I prize the 
American Bee Journal very highly, and consider it 
worth more than all the other Bee magazines combined. 

J.'VMES M. I,AY, of Madison, Wis., writes : — In re- 
lation to thC' bee plant, Mona7-do Punctata, I think it 
grows best when sown in the Fall or in the Spring 
before the snow goes off. I sowed some last May 
that did not come up, but expect so see it next Spring. 
Lost all our bees last Winter : bought one swarm last 
Spring, and it increased to fourteen, besides giving 
190 pounds of honey. 

John A. Buchanan, of Wintersville, Ohio, writes 
as follows : — Our experience in this locality is, that 
our gains are doubled by the use of the Extractor and 
more than doubled by reading and practicing upon 
the many valuable suggestions found in the columns 
of The American Bee Journal. 

H. Root, Otisco Valley, N. Y., states :— Out oi 
ninety-nine swarms last year, only thirty-three sur- 
vived, and most of them in a very weak condition. I 
increased them to only forty-one, my object being 
honey, and they gave me 1800 pounds of nice honey, 
which I sold. in New York for thirty -six cents a pound. 
This was done by the black bee in the Langstrotli 
hive. If any have done better,, let us hear from 
them through the Journal. You may consider me a 
subscriber for life. 

J. T. Watkins, of Sparta, Ind., asks several que>- 
tions, which he will find fully answered in this numlier 
and the next. 

Anna Saunders, ofWoodville, Miss., writes that 
there are very few bees in that locality, but that 
the few are prosperous, there being no bee disease in 
that vicinity. She says farther : — I enclose you a few 
.seeds of the Sage tree, which is as large as the medi- 
um sized Larch, and when in bloom is alive with bees. 
Will take pleasure in sending the seed to any one. 
In reply to her questions about the sale of queens, 
apiarian supplies, etc., we would refer her to our ad- 
vertising columns. We shall lake pleasure in testing 
the seeds sent. 

A. B. Mason, of Waterloo, Iowa, called on us a few 
days ago. Mr. M. reports that Italian bees did not 
do well in his section of Iowa, on account of the severe 
drought in the early part of the season. 

Mr. Lee, of Pecatonica, 111., brought to our market 
1400 pounds of comb honey in December. It was 
very choice indeed. We did not learn to whom it was 
sold. His bees were very successful during last sea- 
son. He commenced the season with forty colonies, 
and now has over one hundred, and has sold over 
3000 pounds, coml) and extracted. 



26 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Mr. James J. H. Gbbgobt of Marblehead, Mass., aims 
to supply one great want, which many a good farmer, 
when too late. has felt to his keen sorrow: Garden seeds 
that know how to come up, and when the crop is gathered 
prove to be just the kind the label said they were. Mr. 
Gregory is one of the few seedsmeu in the United States 
who grows a large portion of the seed he sells, and begets 
out a live Catalogue, as would be expected of the original 
introducer of th"e Hubbard Squash. His advertisement 
will be found in this number. His Illustrated Catalogue 
will be sent free to applicants. 



Micliigan Bee-Keepers' Convention. 

The following report of the proceedings of that body 
is just received from the Secretary. He makes an 
apology for the delay upon the ground that he has 
been ^getting married, and, therefore, had no time to 
attend to matters of minor importance. We accept 
his excuse as being perfectly valid: 

Grand Rapids, Mich., Sep. 17, 1873. 

7:30 P.M. — The sixth annual convention of the 
Michigan Bee -Keepers Association met, pursuant to 
notice, in the Court-House, at Grand Rapids, Vice- 
President A. C. Balch, of Kalamazoo, in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and 
approved. 

A number of those announced for papers not being 
present, the Secretary proposed that extemporaneous 
remaks upon some subject of present interest to bee- 
keepers be made. 

The subject of Hives was decided upon. The point 
contended was for the most part the relative merits of 
(jne and two story hives. 

Mr. H. A. Burch, of South Haven, claimed that in 
his experience the hive with a single story had proved 
the most successful. 

Mr. James Heddon, of Dowagiac, defended hives 
of two or more stories. He piled his hives one upon 
another to the hight of two or three stories, and said 
by changing the frames from one part to another part 
of the sections, he had induced the queen to go into 
all parts of the hive and deposite her eggs, thus filling 
every part with brood. 

Mr. Tomlinson, of Allegan, used a hive of one 
story, and very shallow frames, only six inches in 
width. He had, during the Summer just passed, in- 
creased his swarms from five to twenty in number, 
and had taken four hundred pounds of box -honey. 

The meeting was rather informal, and considerable 
digression from the main subject \\'as indulged m. 

Adjourned until to-morrow 9 A. M. 

THURSDAY MORNING SESSION. 

The President still being absent, the chair was 
fdled by Vice-President Balch. The order of business 
was announced to be the consideration of Artificial 
Swarming and the Honey Extractor. 

The subject of artificial swarming was discussed 
and the various methods stated by Messrs. A. C. Balch, 
C. I. Balch, Heddon, Everard and Porter. 

The Secretary then read an interesting paper by 
A. I. Root, of Medina, Ohio, upon "The Honey Ex- 
tractor, its Uses and Benefits." 

After the experience of some of the members pres- 
ent with the Honey Extractor was given, the meeting 
adjourned till evening. 

THURSDAY EVENING SESSION. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, 
T. E. Bingham, of Allegan, who had arrived during 
the day. 



To the great satisfaction of all present. Prof. A. J. 
Cook, of Lansing, formerly Secretary of the Associa- 
tion, put in an appearance at the opening of the 
meeting. 

The topic for the evening, as announced at the pre- 
vious meeting, was the all important subject of Win- 
tering Bees. ^ 

Upon this subject Prof. Cook had prepared a some- 
what lengthy, able and scientific paper, which he 
read to the convention. The paper drew out a most 
hearty vote of thanks to Prof. Cook. Some remarks 
were made, and the experience of members stated on 
the subject under consideration. 

Mr. A. C. Balch stated that according to his experi- 
ence very little ventilation was needed in Winter, and 
gave his jreason for such a position. He stated that with 
much ventilation there was a constant escape of heat, 
and that the temperature inside the hive would he 
more variable. 

After a very interesting evening, the meeting ad- 
journed until to-morrow morning at eight o'clock. 

FRIDAY MORNING SESSION. 

Meeting called to order by President Bingham. 
Minutes of last meeting read and approved. The 
convention then proceeded to transact miscellaneous 
business. 

Motion made and carried that the Society hold a 
special meeting at Kalamazoo, the first Wednesday in 
May of 1S74. 

Motion made and carried to empower the special 
meeting at Kalamazoo to appoint the time and place 
of holding the next annual meeting. 

The election of officers was then proceeded with, 
the following being the result: President, A. C. Balch, 
Kalamazoo; Vice-President, H. A. Burch, South Ha- 
ven; Secretary, Frank Benton, Shelby, Oceana Co; 
Treasurer, T. F. Bingham, Allegan. 

Motion made and carried that the retiring President 
and Secretary receive a vote of thanks from the So- 
ciety for the faithful manner in which they have per- 
formed their respective duties. 

A resolution was then introduced relative to amend- 
ing the constitution so that instead of the former num- 
ber of oft~icers, there should be in addition a Vice- 
President for each of the several counties of the State, 
so far as represented in the Association. Adopted. 

The convention proceeded to appoint Vice-Presidents 
for all the counties represented in the Society. 

The meeting then adjourned until the first Wednes- 
day in May, 1874. J. W. PoRTER, 

Sec'y Mich. Bee-Keepers' Association. 

T. F. Bingham, President. 



To Bee-Keepers. 

The North Eastern Bee-Keepers' Association wil 1 
hold its fourth annual meeting at the Butterfield 
House, Utica, N. Y., on the 4th. and 5th. of February, 
1874. 

Questions of importance will be discussed. Bee- 
keepers are most urgently recjuesled to attend and 
take part in the proceedings. In union there is strength. 
Please respond. ' J. H. Nellis, Stvy. 

M. QuiNBY, Pres. 



The National Bee yoiirnal, Mrs. E. S. Tupper, 
Publisher, has recently been improved in its appear- 
ance by the addition of a neat cover. The Journal 
is well executed, and promises to be a success in the 
hands of the present Publisher. 



American Bee Journal 

DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO BEE CULTURE. 



Vol. X. 



CHICAGO, FEBRUARY, 1874. 



No. 2. 



C<tm^pn4ttwf 



Correspondents should write only on one side of 
the sheet. Their best thoughts and practical ideas are 
always welcome ; no matter how rough, we will cheer- 
fully "fix them up." 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Gallup's Corn as a Honey-plant. 

In I'opl}^ to persons who have made 
iipplication for corn, we will say that it 
is climatic or atmospheric influence that 
•causes a plant to produce Bee-forage in 
■one locality, and not in another. For 
example, Mr. Adair and others say that 
buckwheat never produces anything in 
the shape of Bee-forage in their climate, 
while in my climate, both here and in 
■Canada, it never fails to produce an 
abundance in ordinary seasons. The 
partridge pea is highly esteemed around 
Washington, while here Bees did not 
visit it at all. Timothy or herds' grass 
produces large quantities of pollen 
while in bloom here and elsewhere. We 
have seen fields of it literally covered 
with Bees while in bloom, yet we have 
never seen it mentioned as a Bee-plant. 
In 1870-71 our fields or patches of pop 
corn, smelt corn, or flint corn, were 
alive with the hum of the " little busy 
Bee," while it was in bloom. They 
seemed to gather pollen from the blos- 
soms and honey from the silk at the 
same time. Then the corn silk glistened 
with sweet, yet in 1872 not a single Bee 
did I see visit it ; and in fact white 
clover produced nothing in my vicinity 
in 1872. 

Our old stand-by, the basswood, only 
produced forage for eight days in 1872, 
while in 1870, it lasted twenty days; 
and in 1871, it lasted in all, nearly thir- 
ty days; all owing to climatic and at- 



mospheric influences. If the atmosphere 
is moist and warm, and well charged 
with electricit}", then is the time our 
flowers produce the most forage. On 
the contrary, the atmosphere may be 
dry and warm, or hot, and flowers pro- 
duce nothing. But bj' heavily manur- 
ing a i^iece of land for white clover or 
buckwheat, we can cause it to produce 
honey in a dry or cool season. Manure 
warms up the land, and it also causes a 
.vapor or moisture to arise from the soil, 
which does not arise from an impover- 
ished soil. We have noticed this re- 
peatedly. We have seen a row of cur- 
rent bushes alive with Bees, that had 
been heavily manured the season pre- 
vious, while a row that Avas not manured 
was not visited by the Bees. We have 
seen a four-acre patch of white clover 
that had been heavily manured the 
season previous, covered with Bees, 
while the clover field by the side of it 
was not visited by a single Bee. We 
have had some buckwheat on poor land, 
and on rich land at the same time. — 
That on the poor land was not visited, 
while that on the rich land was alive 
with Bees, and fairly scented the at- 
mosphere with sweet around it. White 
clover on warm sandy land, produced 
abundance of forage the past season, 
while on clay soil it produced nothing. 

Now, Brother Bee-Keepers, you can 
easily see from the above why you do 
not want m}' kind of corn, or my kind 
of hay, &c., for Bees. E. Gallup. 

Orchard, Iowa. 



DziERZON watched a queen Bee when 
laying, and noticed that she laid eigh- 
teen worker eggs in three minutes. 
She appeared to dispatch business still 
more expeditiously when laying drone 
eggs. 



28 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOUHJSAL. 



For the American Bee Journal. 



A Letter from Kansas. 



Editor Journal : The past season 
has been to the Apiarist the poorest for 
years in this section of the State. The 
causes to which the general faihire is 
attributed, are man}^ ; among the most 
prominent that might be mentioned 
were the cold Winter and backward 
Spring we passed through, which had 
the tendency to reduce the colonies to 
a few handfuls of bees (as a general 
thing), and the negligence on the part 
of many to stimulate and build them 
up early in the season. Consequently, 
when the early blossoms came there 
were no Bees to gather the honey. 
Most of the stocks, however, were pret- 
ty strong by the 20th of June, and in 
fair condition for the basswood harvest ; 
but unfortunately the blossoms failed to 
secrete any of the sweet fluid. From 
the Ist of July to the 2-4th of Septem- 
ber, we were subjected to drought, with 
ver}^ warm, sultry weather, causing a 
complete failure in the Fall flowers. It 
is very easy to perceive that we are 
not placed in an enviable position so far 
as the profits of apiculture are concerned. 
I was informed last week by a gen- 
tleman who has been in the business 
fifteen years, that out of sixty colonies 
with which he started last Spring, he 
has made no increase in his number 
during the season, and, unfortunately, 
has not obtained one pound of surplus 
honey. He farther states that two- 
thirds of his stocks do not weigh as 
much now as they did last March. You 
can di'aw your own .conclusions. I have 
mine, which are, that in the Spring of 
seventy-four there will either be quite 
a demand for Bees, or there will be a 
large number of disgusted Apiarians. 

As for myself, I do not profess to be 
anything but a beginner at the business ; 
and I do not keep them for the profit, 
but for the pleasure derived from ob- 
taining knowledge under difficultii's. T 
started with one colony last year, I 
increased that one to five, and obtained 
about thirty pounds of sur])lus honey; 
lost one during the Winter. From four, 
have increased during the past season 
to eight; but have obtained no surplus 
honey. This is not a bad beginning. 



considering the disadvantage of residing 
in the heart of a city of twenty-seven- 
thousand inhabitants. 

I have all my colonies in good condi- 
tion, by feeding sugar syrup in Novem- 
ber — six in the cellar, and two in an 
experimental hive outside. If thi& 
should prove a success, I will, in the 
Spring, furnish your readers with a full 
description of the method, and give 
them the benefit of it. Lou. 

Leavenworth, Kan. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Pollen. 



In Vol. 9, page 28, I made the asser- 
tion that brood could not be raised with- 
out pollen. On page 27 J. Butler ex- 
perimented in this direction, and de- 
clares that his Bees did raise brood 
without pollen. 

Now, I must confess this somewhat 
astonished me, for it was contrary tO' 
all our knowledge and practice. I how- 
ever believed Mr. Butler in his public- 
statement, but still I thought thei-e 
must be a great mistake somewhere. It 
however stimulated to further investi- 
gation, and I have come to the conclu- 
sion that be was right in his observation, 
but wrong in his conclusion, and in or- 
der to establish this I Avill quote high 
authority, but before doing so permit 
me to remark that it is admitted by all 
distinguished apiarians, both in Europe 
and America, that brood has been raised 
(to a limited extent, however,) without 
pollen being visible, as in Mr. Butler's 
case. 

In Vol. 1, page 253, of the American: 
Bee Journal, Dr. Donhoff, in analyzing 
the excreta of Bees, says : "What was 
left aftei- again filtering could, from its 
insolubility, be only the I'emains of pol- 
len. Itap])eared i;nder the microscope 
like an indistinctl}' granular mass." 
When I first saw the above, I at once 
came to the conclusion that pollen was 
retained in the bodies of the Bees for 
sometime, and the following further 
coiivinced me, as well as solved the 
mysteiy. 

Baron Herlepscli, on page 230, Vol. 1, 
says : "It lias been demonstrated that 
common workers are produced in col- 
onies wliieb liave not a particle of pollen 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



29 



hi tlK'ii" hives, ami at a lime when the 
Bees could not gather any. * * * 
But it is by no means easy to determine 
%vhen there is an entire absence of pol- 
len, or its essential equivalent in the 
hive." 

There may not be a particle of it dis- 
coverable in the cells, and yet a store 
of it amply sufficient for the needs of 
the larvio may be deposited in the 
stomachs of the workers, or their gen- 
eral organism. I hope, from the above, 
Mr. Butler will see that his Bees had 
some pollen. Argus. 



For the American Bee Journal, 

Good Bee Location— Rape Seed. 

Mr. Editor : — It is Avith a great deal 
•of hesitation and a troubling of con- 
science, that I again ask for a corner in 
the Journal, for I have already had 
rather more than my share of " space." 
But there are a few words that I would 
like to sa}'. 

Mr. Colburn, in the December Num- 
ber, would like to know where he can 
find a good place to start an apiary, not 
too far from Chicago. Now, I don't 
wish to boast of my localit}^, nor would 
I like to coax any one here, lest he 
should afterwards be discontended and 
then blame me for so doing. Therefore, 
I would say, that he could lind many 
such places as he mentions, between 
here (Berlin) and Milwaukee, — there is 
plenty of Basswood^ and the countiy 
is old enough so that white clover 
ias well set in, wherever it has 
an opportunity to groAV. In addition 
to this, Ave have plenty of buckwheat — 
at least in this A^icinity — and also many 
cranberry marshes, Avhich Avere referred 
to as being of A^alue, by the editor, in 
the November Number of the American 
Bee Journal. 

Berlin is about 180 miles from Chica- 
go, and can noAv be reached Avithout 
change of cars, via Mihvaukee, Avhich is 
90 miles from Chicago. 

If the gentleman wishes further in- 
formation I shall be glad to answer his 
-questions through the mails. The best 
way, howeA'^er, to ascertain the truth, 
would be to pay us, or this j)art of the 
country, a Aisit. 



Mr. Frank W. Chapman gives a re- 
port from his ra])e seed. I am sorr}'' 
he is so sensitive as to give up its cul- 
ture, because his neighbors make fun of 
him about his " turnip patch." But I 
don't see any fun in it. Mr. ])adant 
and my brother, in Illinois, ])lanted 
turnips expressly for Bees ; and J can't 
see Avhere the laugh comes in. But 
some people are, perhaps, more easily 
amused than your humble servant. He 
further states that he thinks it Avas too 
dry. Well, from what I haA'^e learned 
about the Aveather in Illinois last Sum- 
mer, I should think it V)as too dry. 
Mr. Dadant rej)orts nearly an entire 
failure, 1,000 lbs. only, from 230 stocks, I 
think, because of the severe drought. 

Rape seed should be planted on good, 
rich soil — soil Avhere wheat or other 
grain has been raised, will be good, be- 
cause grain Avill leave that portion of 
nutriment in the soil Avhich rape re- 
quires — and, of course, the weather 
must be favorable for it, as Avell as for 
other farm products. Lastly, the time 
for harvesting must be Avell watched ; 
as soon as the kernel is filled and turns, 
cut it ; and as soon as sufficiently dry, 
haul it in. 

Mr. Editor, the December issue is, in 
mj^ judgment, of extraordinary interest. 
Long live the American Bee Journal! 
for it is the "right boAver" in the pack 
of different Bee journals that adorn our 
shelf. J. D. Kruschke. 

Berlin, Wis. 



For the American Bee Journal, 

Chips from Sweet Home. 

Two years ago I lost six hives by dis- 
ease, and last winter I lost fifty-fiv^e 
hiA^es, being all I had. They were left 
on their summer stand. This Winter I 
put ninty-fiA^e hives in my cellar during 
the first cold snap, all but seven Avere 
put in three days after they flew, the 
seven tAvo days later, Noa'. 28th. I now 
have four cases of the disease out of the 
seven. They haA^e been very uneasy 
CA^er since taken in. My cellar is 20x24, 
the sides and bottom are cemented, a 
chimney built on the bottom of the cel- 
lar, with an opening at the bottom in 
Avhich there is a continual draft, besides 
four windoAVSAvhich lopen nightstocool 



30 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



the cellar and close daytimes. I have 
never given m}^ opinion as to the 
cause of the disease, for I had none. 
I noticed Bees which were housed early 
escaped the disease. 

I will now give what I suppose to be 
the cause of the disease, and if there are 
any exceptions we shall be pleased to 
hear them. 

All Bees which have died of the dis- 
ease have been exposed to a week or 
more of cold weather, during which 
time they go?'ge themselves with honey, 
if then they are moved into cellars or 
Bee houses, or are kept confined by 
cold weather so that they are unable to 
empt}^ themselves, dysentery will be 
the effect every time. 

Will " Novice," or others who have 
fed sugar syrup, try an experiment as 
follows? Leave a hive out during a 
week or more of cold weather, then, 
without allowing them to discharge, 
take them in a Bee house or cellar, and 
report the result. 

To-day I set the four ill-fated hives 
out and let them fly. 

D. D. Palmer. 

Eliza, Mercer Co., 111. 



Bee Notes from Darwin. 



Bees have solved a recondite problem. 
They have made their cells of a proper 
shape to hold the greatest possible 
amount of honey, with the least possible 
consumption of precious wax, in their 
construction. ^ 

No human workman is skilful enough 
to do what a crowd of Bees can do — 
working in a dark hive — make cells of 
wax of the true form. 

The number of humble Bees in the 
country will depend upon the number of 
cats! How can that be? Because the num- 
ber of Bees is dependent upon the num- 
ber of field mice, which eat the Bees. 
Hence the more cats, the fewer mice; and 
the fewer mice, the more Bees. 

If the whole germs of Humble-Bees be- 
came extinct, or very rare, the heart's 
ease and red clover would become rare 
or wholly disappear. How is that? Be- 
cause Bees promote the growth of those 
flowers. The visits of Bees are necessary 
to the fertilization of some kinds of 



clover, and almost indispensable to the 
fertilization of the heart's ease, for these 
Bees do not visit this flower. Humble- 
Bees alone visit red clover as other Bees 
cannot reach the nectar. 

In a word — no Bees, no seed; no seedy 
no increase of the flower.. The more 
visits from Bees, the more seeds from the 
flower; the more seeds from the flower,. 
the more flowers from the seeds. 

Nearly all our orchidaceous plants ab- 
solutely require the visits of insects to re- 
move their pollen-masses and thus to fer- 
tilize them. 

Twenty heads of unprotected Dutch 
clover yields 2,990 seeds. The same 
number protected frorai Bees produced 
not one seed; 100 heads of unprotected 
red clover yielded 2,700, and the same 
number protected from Bees not a seed. 



Pruning Broods. 

Pruning brood combs is generally 
quite unnecessary, in fact is more often 
injurious than otherwise. If they ever 
require excision, it can only be when 
they are so overcharged with pollen as 
to render breeding impossible, in which 
case the operation should be performed 
in the Spring. Pruning them after the 
Bees have swarmed and cast, is very un- 
wise for several reasons.. First, there is a 
possibility that during a glut of honey,, 
the Bees would build an excess of drone- 
comb, or supposing their queen to be 
lost, that they would build drone comb 
exclusively, if any; second., that having 
to replace the excised comb, they would 
be less likely to yield a surplus in their 
super; and, third, there is the undoubted 
fact that Bees winter much better in old 
combs than in new ones,, because being 
coated with so much silky fibre, they are 
the warmer of the two, and again there 
is the chance that in an unfavorable sea- 
son they may be unable to build any 
comb at all. — British Bee Journal. 



A person who has familiarized himself 
to Bees, can by means of the passion of 
fear impressed upon them, and by that 
dexterity in the management of them,, 
which can only be acquired, by practice,, 
manage Bees as he pleases. — Wiidman. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



31 



Bee Keeping for Farmers. 

Some have adopted Bee keeping as the 
business of life; and these have mostly 
attained a flattering success. Others en- 
gage in it as a pastime and amusement 
chiefly. 

Apiculture has made great advances of 
late years. The intelligent Bee-keeper 
no longer consigns his favorites to a hol- 
low log, or rude box, nor what is even 
worse, to any of those absurd contrivan- 
ces which have proved the ruin of thou- 
sands of happy colonies of Bees, and pro- 
voked the disgust of their unfortunate 
owners. But providing himself with 
some form of movable comb hive, well 
constructed, and having a sufficiently ca- 
pacious brood chamber (or main apart- 
ment) and suitable arrangement for sur- 
plus honey, he enters upon the pursuit 
with fair prospect of success. Those who 
have once learned how to keep Bees, 
will not soon abandon the pursuit. — JFes^- 
ern As^riculturist. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Queen-breeding and the Cost of 
Italian Queens. 

I was once amused by a would-be 
wise Bee-man, under the following cir- 
cumstance : I was on ni}^ way to in- 
troduce a number of Italian queens for 
a friend, when I reined my horse up to 
a watering trough, and the following 
dialogue took place : 

AVhat is that in your buggy, boxes of 
honey ? (inquired Mr. Johnson, a portly 
farmer.) 

No sir, I have some Italian Bees and 
queens in those boxes. 

Now, Mr. Davis, you are doing wrong 
in scattering all those yellow jackets 
through* the country. They are run- 
ning the black Bees out, and they won't 
work, they don't make any honey. 
What do you get for those queens ? 

They are worth, when safely intro- 
duced, five dollars each. 

Five dollars each ! Oh ! I thought you 
was a Christian man. Five dollars 
each — It don't cost anything to raise 
queens ; not more than it does to raise 
flies. 

I replied. Mr. J., you may possibly 
lie under a misapprehension of the facts 



in the case. If Italian Bees were as 
you describe them, they would be quite 
likely to perish during our long, cold 
Winters. But, sir, you are quite mista- 
ken about the industry of the Italian 
Bee ; and I would like to ask how much 
experience you have had in queen rais- 
ing ? 

Oh ! I never raised any queens, but 
my Bees always have queens enough. 

We argued the case at some length, 
but he " would not be convinced." Mr. 
J. was one of those men who hold to 
an error on any subject, with the same 
tenacity as to the most precious truth. 

But let us try the figures on the cost 
of rearing queen Bees for the market, 
as it appeal's that an erroneous view 
has obtained in some quarters. Queen- 
breeding, like any other enterprise, 
should be prosecuted in the best modes 
of the art, to secure the best results. 
To do this we think that the nucleus 
system proposes the most advantages 
for producing queens in any considera- 
ble quantity. We will make an esti- 
mate of the results of 100 nuclei hives. 
The first item of expense will be the 
cost of hives, which for getting iip in 
good shape, ready for use, will cost 
about one dollar each, or $100.00 for 
the lot. To stock 100 nuclei with Bees, 
say by the first of May, will require 
the Bees and most of the combs of 
twenty -five fair stocks. To produce the 
sealed queen cells will take the labor of 
about ten stocks more, making thirty- 
five stocks. 

Now for the results : In this latitude, 
good queens can not be produced more 
than four months in the year, viz.. May, 
June, July, and August; and a good 
average is 400 queens for the season. 
Now let us see what our thirty -five 
stocks should produce in honey if not 
used for queen breeding. It has been esti- 
mated at 200 pounds extracted honey per 
stock, some stocks yielding''.300 pounds. 
But we will take the lowest figure, 200 
pounds each, or 7000 pounds, which at 
sixteen cents per pound would be $1120. 
Add to this the labor of an experienced 
Apiarist, which for the four working 
months Avould be reasonable at $100 
per month— $400. Add to this the dif- 
ference in the value between thirty- 
five first class stocks with their increase, 



32 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



and 100 nuclei hives, sa}^ $275, and 
we have a total of $1795 as the cost of 
400 queens — or $4.49 each. 

We considet" the above a fair esti- 
mate for any locality Avhere strong col- 
onies will average 200 pounds each, 
surplus honey. In less favorable locali- 
ties the cost would be reduced. But 
where stocks could collect from fifty to 
fifty-three pounds per day, the cost of 
queens would be verj' much increased. 
In our estimate we have omitted a 
number of Items on each side of the 
question, but as they would so nearly 
balance each other, they would not ma- 
terially affect the result. 

W. J. Davis. 

Youngsville, Pa. 



are troubled with Asiatic cholera in the 
Spring, I will let you know it. 

Black Jack, Kan. iM. a. o. 



Foi" the American Bee Journal. 

Feeding Bees out-doors the first 
days of December. 

Thus far we have had a very favorable 
Fall and Winter for Bees. Only about 
one week ago, I was doing what per- 
haps ought to have been done sooner, 
viz., feeding up with sugar S3'rup a few 
of the weaker colonies. The weather 
was balmy and nice, and the Bees very 
lively ; and for about three days, I had 
them very busily employed. 

My mode of proceedure was thus: 
I took some tin plates, and after put- 
ting straws, little chips, etc., as rafts 
and foot logs for the Bees, I removed 
the back glass ])artition of the inner 
chamber, and slid the plate, full of syr- 
up, under the lower ends of the combs, 
on the top of the bottom of the frames, 
and as near to the cluster as possible. 
This is the best wa}^ I have tried to get 
the Bees to do " big work." When 
empty (which can be seen without 
opening into the brood-chamber), the 
plate can be replenished from the top 
of the hive through a hole in the hon- 
ey-board. In this way they do not have 
any cloth to penetrate first, but have 
only to crawl down the cluster, which 
forms down to the syrup, and help 
themselves. Robber Bees did not troub- 
le much, but one or two of the weakest 
I ke])t closed while feeding them. I 
•will put these hives in the cellar when- 
ever thcAveather is severe, and if thev 



Bee Keepers' Association of Mississippi. 

At a meeting held at the Fair' 
Grounds, Jackson. Mississippi, on Sat- 
urday, the 15th of November. 1873, the 
following named gentlemen organized 
themselves into an Association, to be 
known as the Bee-Keepers' Association 
of Mississippi. 

W. F. Stanclefer, Di-y Grove, Hinds county, Miss, ; 
L. F. AU'ord, Jackson, Hinds county; P. F. Rajan, 
Pelahatchie, Kanlciu county; S. R. Sorsby, Spring 
Ridge, Hinds county; T. A. Catchings, Jackson, Hinds 
county; M. P. Simpson, Jackson. Hinds county; D.M. 
Wilkinson, Jackson, Hinds county; J. M. Shaw, 
Jackson, Hinds county; F. S. Hunt, Jackson, Hinds 
county; D. V. CuUey, Madison Station. Madison coun- 
ty ; J. E. Goodlett, Terry. Hinds county ; E. W. Cab- 
aniss. Clinton, Hinds county; W. D. Smith. Edwards. 
Hinds county; J. W. Ennis, Auburn, Hinds county; 
J. S. Barfield, Jacksou, Hinds county ; Joseph Gray. 
Raymond, Hinds county; Col. Johns, Boltons, Hinds 
county ; J. J. Lester, Jackson, Hinds county ; W. S. 
Cable, Clinton, Hinds county; O. P. Wright, Jackson, 
Hinds County; George Boddie. Jackson, Hinds coun- 
ty; N. S. Elkins, Brownsville, Hinds county; S. J. 
Carter, Mississippi Springs, Hinds county; S. P. Baley, 
Jackson, Hinds county; T. W. Harris. Jackson. Hindf- 
county : A. J. Frantz. Brandon, Rankin county ; C. W. 
Hicks, Clinton, Hinds county; E. M. Alford. E. Cook. 
Dr. W. F. Graves. John H. Echols. L. F. Childs. 

The following resolutions Avereado])t- 
ed : 

1. Resolved, That this Society shall be known as 
the Bee-Keepers" Association of Mississippi. 

2. Resolved. That the annual meeting of this 
Association be held at Jajkson. Mississippi, at the 
time of the State Fair, or at such other time aud place 
as the President may direct. 

3. ResoIved. That we ask the co-operation and aid 
of all interested in Bee-Keeping, by reporting their 
successes and reverses, through the columns of the 
Farmers' Vindicator. 

4. Resolved, That a committee be appointed to 
examine and test all Apiarian improvements, that may 
be sent to this Association, and report on tuc same. 

5. Resolved, That we tender our thanks to the 
Editor of the Faumers' Vindicator, for the use of a 
cohuun iuhis paper for the benefit of our Association. 

L. F. Alford, President. 

W. F. St.\ndefer, Secretary. 

The following otHcers were elected to serve for the 
ensuing year: 

L. F. Alford, President. Jackson. Hinds County. 

Dr. T. A. Catchiugs, Vice-President. .Jackson, Hinds 
county. 

W. F. Standefer. Secretary. Dry (Jrove.Hinds county. 

Josepli Gray. Treasurer, kayii'iond. Hinds county. 

The following committee was a|)p()inted under the 
fourlh resolution: S. K. Sorsby. W. 1"". Standefer, W. 
S. Elkins, F. S. Hunt and .las. Barlield. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



33 



The Bee and its Winter Habits. 



Valuable cxtrat-ts from an addret^s de- 
livered before the Bee-kee]>ers' Conven- 
tiou, by Prof. A. .1. Cook, of the Agri- 
cultural College. Tiansing, Mieh. 



Mr. Presidknt : — I think I hazard 
nothing in the remark that no manual 
labor pursuit yields as great a per cent, 
on the eapitiU invested as apiculture. 
During the season just past — in no wise 
an extraordinary one as to the honey 
harvest — my Bees have netted me over 
833 per colony, about 200 per cent, on 
their value. Add to this the fact that 
1 started with only one Italian colony, 
and have Italianized ni}' whole apiaiy, 
and you are enabled to. see that the 
protits of Bee-keeping are by no means 
inconsiderable. And this is not an iso- 
lated case. It is to be hoped that all 
of you are subscribers to that most ex- 
cellent periodical, the American Bee 
Journal, of Chicago. In that you have 
read of Adam Grinim, of Wisconsin, 
with his several apiaries and immense 
returns, which are often fairly start- 
ling ; of A. I. Root, of Ohio, vi^ho is do- 
ing Avonders not only in obtaining pro- 
digious returns of honey, but in foster- 
ing apiarian pursuits. 

Yet I would not assert that this 
bright picture of profit — and I might 
aver of real pleasure, as w^ell — has not 
its shadows. The agriculturist has his 
droughts, the pomologist his dreaded 
blasts of AVinter, the merchant his eras 
of depreciated stock, so also the bitter 
is mingled with the sweet in the apiar- 
ist's cup, and how many apiarists all 
through our country, since the bitter 
experience of the past two Winters, 
have little of the swefet in their expres- 
sion as you speak to them of Bee-keep- 
ing. They too can speak of the Winter 
of their discontent. 

Let us therefore analyze closely the 
dangers in the way of successful Winter- 
ing of Bees, in the light of their history 
and habits, and see if we ma}' not at 
least hope to avoid in future the stumb- 
ling block w'hicl) has so essayed to over- 
throw us in the successful prosecution 
of our fiivorite business. 

That Bees will endure very severe 



cold is certain ; that they are ever so 
frozen as to be thus destroyed needs 
proof I knew a colony of Bees to win- 
ter Avell during the terrible cold Winter 
of 1871-2 in a hive with an unsealed 
crevice, and resting on the summer 
stand. Now all animals while hiber- 
nating take no food nor exercise, hence 
there is little destruction of tissue, and 
little exertion. Now it is not probable 
that, could we keep our Bees during all 
the months of Winter at an even tem- 
perature — at about the freezing point, 
or a little above — they would, if nor- 
mal and healthy. Winter w-ell, and con- 
sume scarcely any lood at all. Does not 
this explain the not uncommon phe- 
nomonon of strong colonies wintering 
on three or four pounds of honey? 

Now, if the above proposition can not 
be disapproved, is not one of our chief 
desiderata in Avintering to secure such 
conditions as will insure even tempera- 
ture ? 

With the best management there Avill 
doubtless be more or less food consumed 
during Winter ; hence good food is in- 
dispensable. By good food I mean good 
thick honey gathered from the flowers^ 
and all capped over, or else coffee A 
sugar fed by the middle of September, 
or so early as to be all capped over be- 
fore Winter and rest comes on. Again, 
during the early Spring breeding must 
commence. This only follows upon 
warmth, activity and food-taking. Thus 
w^e need not only good honey to serve 
as food for the mature insect, but there 
must also be an ample supply of pollen 
or Bee bread, that the larva) or imma- 
ture Bees may receive proper food. 
Hence we conclude that our second 
desideratum, in successful wintering, is 
to have the stores wdiich are designed 
for Winter consumption, of the best 
quality, and also a sufficient amount of 
Bee bread that the eai"ly Spring brood 
may not lack nourishment. 

Again, it is a truth well understood 
by all physiologists that the greater the 
animal's activity, the more rapid the 
destruction of tissue, and unless the tis- 
sues can have periods of rest, they wull 
soon become powerless to perform their 
allotted function, and hence death must 
result. Suppose w^e should labor con- 
stantlv. taking no rest, how soon w'ould 



34 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



"we succumb, becoming victims of unre- 
mitted toil. Would we keep our mus- 
cles in good condition we must give 
them stated intervals of rest. Thus we 
understand the phenomenon of sleep, 
which is only a generalization of that 
necessity which causes the woodman to 
lower his axe, being an imperative re- 
quisite to the recuperation of a tired 
body, a body so exhausted that the nerve 
as well as muscular system needs to 
rest. 

Now, in the light of the above, can 
we wonder that the " busy Bee" ever 
active to obtain the most from a not 
over long harvest — or in quest of that 
which is not, so busy that the apiary 
not only swarms with life by day, but 
sends forth the full, joj^ous note of in- 
dustry all the hours of the long night 
through, should present a longevity so 
brief. Is it not beautiful, and does it 
not merit our gratitude — this fact that 
the little Bee becomes a willing martyr 
to the love of storing ? Because of this 
unrivaled activity, the worker Bee lives 
only from two to three months. Now, 
suppose the queen ceases laying the 
last of August, as she is quite sure to 
do, if old or poor, especially if the Bees 
are gathering no stores. By the time 
Winter sets in the Bees will all be old, 
and in the Spring the few that have sur- 
vived will endure but few flights, so 
that colonies — as was the case with so 
many in our State during the past sea- 
son — will Winter through, only to suc- 
cumb to the more genial spring days, 
giving no signs of dysenter}^, nor yet of 
starvation. 

Bo again, it is probable that to in- 
sure certain success in wintering, we 
must see to it that breeding continues 
well into the Fall, that every hive shall 
have brood in October. 

Mr, Hosmer, of Minnesota, was the 
first, as far as I know, who gave this 
explanation, and reason certainly sus- 
tains the view, unless forsooth, the Bees 
that are old in Fall, revive by the long 
Winter's rest, renewing their youth. So 
we see, to uniform temperature in Win- 
ter, and sufficient and the right kind of 
stores, it is well to add the advice sug- 
gested by the above, to so manage as to 
have the brood reared in our apiaries 
8ate in the Fall. 



Our last theory as to disastrous win- 
tering is an entirely visionary one ; 
Epidemic — a very convenient explana- 
tion for we seem to give a reason, yet 
when we analyze it, it is no reason, nor 
are we usually able to give a reason 
when we decide thus. 

A few 3'ears ago the chinch bugs, 
which for a long time had been very 
numerous and destructive in Illinois 
suddenly disappeared. Dr. Shimer, a 
distinguished entomologist, at once pro- 
nounced it epidemic. Later experience 
demonstrated that excessive rains ban- 
ished them. That exceeding dampness is, 
happily, very destructive to the chinch 
bug. So too the silk worm epidemic in 
France,yet the thorough and most praise- 
worth}^ researches of Pasteur, brought 
to light the real cause of febrine, and 
consequently the cure was made known 
and silk-culture saved from utter ex- 
termination. 

So too in Bee diseases, I fully believe 
that the maladies M^hich have been so 
disastrous the past two Winters come, 
as any one ma}" prove, within the easy 
range of our understanding, and escape. 
Should I be mistaken, or should a more 
intricate trouble appear among us, we 
need not even then despond, for the ex- 
perience of the past bids us rest firm in 
the hope that with careful study, ma- 
king use of the appliances which science 
brings to our aicl, we shall be able to 
explain and conquer the most compli- 
cated disease. 

Now having the theory of safe win- 
tering before us, which, as we have 
seen, combines even temperature a little 
above freezing point, good and sufficient 
stores, and late Fall brood, let us exam- 
ine and see if there be any experiments 
or experience that will sustain this 
theory. 

The past Winter I buried my Bees in 
snow, making them the nucleus of a 
snow bank from the last of November 
till the 1st of March. The result was, 
they preserved an almost death-like si- 
lence, consumed very little honey, and 
in theSpi'ing there was not in any hive 
a sufficient quantity of dead Bees to fill 
a small tea cup. In fact, I never saw 
colonies appear brighter, or do better 
than they did. It has long been the 
opinion of observing Boe-keepers, found- 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



35 



■ed on experience, that oven Winters, 
with steady, continuous cold, are far less 
disastrous than clian<;eal)lo ones where 
there are many ])eriods of warm 
-weather. 

Again, those who have celhirs, or 
special depositories where they arc cn- 
oibled to keep the temperature uniform, 
Jiave alwaj's been the most successful. 

This also explains the — what some 
would Ciill absurd theories of Gen. D. 
L. Adair, of Kentucky, and Mr. Balsch, 
of our own State, that Bees require no 
■ventihUion to ensure safe wintering. If 
in an even temperature, never rising 
iihove 35° F., the Bees are so dormant 
that they really do need very little air. 
To prove this I froze up the opening of 
•one of my snow-bound hives, last Winter 
— the entrance of all of them were 
■deeply covered with snow — so that it 
was hermetically sealed, and yet, I 
never had a colony Winter better. 
There was not a tablespoonful of dead 
Bees on the bottom of the hive in 
the Spring. This at least tends to prove 
that Bees,if kept from getting too -warm, 
will need not only very little food, but 
.also very little air. That it is not from 
cold Winters that the Bee-keeper need 
iiave apprehension, but from periods of 
«iufficient heat to arouse the Bees from 
their torpor. 

We next speak of the kind of honey. 
In the Fall of 1871-2,1 placed twelve col- 
onies of Bees *iu a dry, dark and quiet 
■cellar at theAgricultural College, where 
I had for yeai"S kept Bees from the last 
•of November till the last of March, 
without any loss. The previous Autumn 
had been, as you will remember, un- 
precedentedly dry. There were scarce 
any floM^ers in bloom, yet the Bees were 
verj^ active gathering stores, even to 
the very verge of Winter. In October 
I prepared the colonies as usual for the 
cellar. Found much thin, unsealed 
honey. Supposing that it would thicken 
and be capped over in a few days, I 
took special pains to leave it in the hive, 
taking out all the nicely capped honey 
which they had stored early in the sea- 
son. I did not sell all of this nice honey, 
but kept a'little of it over. 

Having placed the Bees in the cellar 
at the approach of cold weather, the 
last of November, not dreaming that 



any bit of harm could come to my pets, 
1 left the college, not returning till the 
last of January. Imagine my Hur])rise 
upon visiting my Bees, at finding that 
the usual and supposed quiet had given 
way to a terrible uproar. Upon exam- 
ination I found over half the colonies 
dead, and the five that were still alive 
were in a sore condition, indeed. I se- 
lected one colony, in no wise better than 
the others, on which to experiment. I 
assure you, faith added not a whit to 
my success. I took my fresh, good 
honey and placed it in the hive, taking 
out all that was tainted or besmeared. 
My surprise was equal to that of the 
prophet, for those "dry bones" did live, 
and that colony netted us about $80 
the next Summer. I need hardly say 
that the other colonies all died, though 
I gave them all the opportunity to drop 
their foeces. The honey proved to be 
still thin and uncapped and very un- 
pleasant to the taste — in fact, fairly 
sickening. The odor of the diseased 
colonies, caused no doubt by their ex- 
cessive discharges, was also very nause- 
ating. 

I now think that the real source of 
the honey was in the insect secretions 
— though I did not think of it then. 
The dry Fall was very favorable to in- 
sect life. Our beach trees were fairly 
covered with a plant louse — (^Pemphigus 
imbricator, Fitch.) Other nectar secret- 
ing plant lice were very abundant. On 
the Tulip trees were hosts of large bark 
lice — a species of Lecanium, w^hich also 
secreted a sweet substance — we may 
call this honey dew. I think louse se- 
cretion a more fitting cognomen. Now, 
as the Bees were seen constantly swarm- 
ing in these trees, is it not more than 
probable that this was the source of the 
bad honey, and the cause of the terrible 
Bee malady of the Winter of 1871-2? I 
visited and examined a good many apia- 
ries around Lansing and Owosso, some 
of which had escaped, while most had 
met this fatality, and it seemed to me 
that both of these conditions could be 
easily accounted for on this theory of 
poor honey, we only having to consider 
locality and management. 

As many of you know, Mr. Hosnier, a 
very, intelligent and successful apiarist, 
of Minnesota, accounted for the terrible 



36 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



fatality of the Winter of 1871-2 by tlie 
absence ofFall bi*ood in the hive. Now, 
while I was sure that this was not the 
correct explanation in the vicinity of 
Lansing, as I never knew my Bees to 
have more late Fall brood than during 
that Autumn, yet I thought that it 
might account for loss in some localities 
where the extreme drought precluded 
any late bloom, and where there were 
perhaps no nectar-secreting insects ; es- 
pecially as it was not difficult to find 
localities where Bees had died without 
appearance of dysentery. So during 
the Summer of 1872, I removed the 
queens from two colonies, preventing 
the rearing of brood from August till 
late Fall. In all other respects these 
colonies were treated the same as the 
remaining colonies of my apiary. All 
the colonies wintered well, with no ap- 
l^earance of dysentery, but these two 
died off so rapidly after setting them on 
the summer stands, that in a very few 
days my apiary numbered two less col- 
onies. Those which had brood October 
Ist the preceding Autumn, not only 
came through the Winter, but have 
done exceedingly well during the past 
Summer. Hence, so far as this experi- 
ment goes, it proves that successful 
wintering demands that we should keep 
our Bees breeding well into the Fall. I 
quite believe that neglect in this par- 
ticular was the direful spring of last 
Winter's woes — especially about Lan- 
sing. 

Do you ask then, how would I pre- 
pare my Bees for Winter? I most cheer- 
fully answer : 

1st. I would arrange to protect them 
against warm winter weather, by so 
guarding them that they would not 
feel it. 

This ma}' be done by preparing a 
thick, double-walled special depository, 
by placing them in a cool, dark, quiet 
and dry cellar, which is beyond the in- 
fluence of changeable weather; or, if it 
is preferred to leave them on their sum- 
mer stands, by either making them the 
center of a huge snow bank, in which 
case caution must be taken to so arrange 
that water from molting snow can iwt 
run into the hives. (The wind-break 
of the apiary might be so constructed 
that nature would bank up the snow 



for us, by placing our screen a little tO' 
the west of colonies which we Avish to 
protect) ; or, by putting the hives near 
together, we could place boards about 
them, and pack in with saw-dust, straw 
or shavings, and thus protect them from 
the changes of Winter. Yet^ if we are 
not sure to keep them cool and quiet^ 
we must be careful not to stop up the 
entrances to the hives. 

To secure good Winter stores we may 
either follow Mr. A. I. Root's sugges- 
tion, extracting the honey and feeding 
a syrup made of coffee A sugar,, a safe 
and economical method^ as the honey is- 
worth enough more than the sugar tO' 
more than ^my for the ti*ouble ; or, we 
may take pains tliat they have none 
other than honey gatliei*ed from flow- 
ers and all capped over as soon as the 
buckwheat harvest is past. I should 
prefer, too, that they have a good 
quantity of Bee-bread, that there may 
be no hindrance to earl}^ Spring breed- 
ing. 

Again, I would have none but very 
fertile queens, and be sure to have 
brood in October, even th-ough in ex- 
treme cases I might have to feed to se- 
cure it. 

I should have some ern^pty comb in 
the center of the hive, and should pre- 
fer to have at least thirty pounds of 
honey in each hive, though if rightly 
managed, I should expect, my Bees to- 
consume but a small part of it. 

Having made use of the above pre- 
cautions during the past Winter, not 
only with my own Bees and those of 
the college, but also by suggestions se- 
curing the same in a neighboring apiary, 
wintering in all of the three cases was 
attended bj' the very happiest success, 
while so far as I know there was not 
another colony of Bees Wintered in the 
whole localit}'. 

Now, Mr. President, I would not be- 
too positive that I have got to the core 
of this subject of wintering Bees, for it 
behooves us all to be veiy slow to ex- 
press 0]iinion!^ adverse to those enter- 
tained by such cautious, candid men, as 
Mr. Quinby and A. I. Root, and even 
more slow to generalize iji matters com- 
plicated by life, Avhere very many ex- 
periments are ever necessary to render 
us certain as to results. Yet T feel con- 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



37 



lident that the above suggestions have 
experimental foundation sufficient to 
merit a hearing, and I as fully believe 
that if heeded they will very matei-iall}^ 
change the ('om])lexion of aj)iai'ian 
pursuits in our State. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

'What KiUed the Bees." 



The answer given to this question by 
Mr. Quinbj', in the December number 
•of the Journal, is — -^cold." He says : 
^' I have made diligent inquiry, and 
studied cause and efi'ect with the best 
of my ability, and uow^ repeat my con- 
viction that cold is the cause of the 
failure to winter, dysentery being an 
dntervexiing linlv." Again : "I know of 
nothing to jDroduce dysentery, except 
>cold weather.^' And again : "No doubt 
other causes destroy lives sometimes, 
but I have yet to find the first case 
where a large number, with suflficient 
honey, was lost, and cold not at the 
bottom." 

Mr. Quinby, as well as Mrs. Tupper, 
"to whose views on this subject he refers 
as coinciding with his, is deservedly 
Jiigh authority on aj^icultural questions. 
His long experience, close observations, 
.and unquestioned candor, entitle his 
opinions to great consideration. But, at 
the wish .<Df being considered pi-esumptu- 
■ous, I will take the liberty of stating a 
few facts in my own experience, which 
eeem to me to refute this theory of Mr. 
<iuinby. 

In the Autumn of 1868 I had nine 
■stocks, eight in box hives and one in a 
Xiangstroth, and all strong in numbers 
^nd rich in stores. They began to die 
■about the first of November^ some time 
before " cold weather^' had set in. My 
.attention was first attracted to the mat- 
ter by an unusual number of dead B^es 
found in the morning before some of 
the hives, while the others were yet 
free from such trouble. The affected 
stocks continued to die, one or two of 
them so rapidly that before the last of 
November all of the Bees in them were 
dead. The surviving colonies were 
housed for Winter about the first of 
December, some of them at the time but 
slightly affected with the malady, and 



others not at all. My house was made 
especially fbi- the purpose. It was about 
eight feet s(piare on the inside ; had 
double walls, with the space of 10 inches 
between them filled in with saw-dust ; 
and was slightly ventilated at the to]). 
The temperature within was quite even, 
seldom falling below the freezing point 
in the coldest weather. With all this 
protection every Bee I had died rvith 
the dysentery boi'ove the last of February. 
All those hives had "sufficient honey," 
som^ of them having on hand thirty or 
forty pounds of solid comb; nor was 
it possible that cold was at the "bottom" 
of their loss. 

As this disease was a mystery to me, 
I wrote to Mr. Quinby soon after my 
Bees began to die, for light on the sub 
ject, and received from him a very satis- 
factory answer. The cause, to which 
he then attributed the disease, was 
much more consistent with the facts, in 
my judgment, than that which he now 
assigns. It was impure honey. 

In the Fall of 1871, I had over sixty 
stocks in Langstroth hives, which I put 
up for the Winter about the middle of 
November. These I placed in a dry, 
dark and warm cellar, under my kitchen 
and dining room. In the same floor I 
had kept through the previous Winter 
ten stocks, with the loss of not over half 
a pint of dead Bees to the whole lot,' 
and on an average, by actual weight, of 
five and a half pounds of honey to the 
hive. This cellar is so warm that I 
have kept Irish potatoes in it, without 
any covering, through the coldest 
weather.' My sixty odd stocks had not 
been in it over a month before they be- 
gan to die with the unmistakable dys- 
enter}', and before the ensuing Spring, 
forty-three entire colonies had perished. ' 
It would be utterly absurd to assume 
that they died from cold, either direct- 
ly or indirectly, for there was nothing 
cold about them. Nor did they starve. 
They had enough honey, such as it was. 
But the most of it was gathered late in 
the Summer, mainly from buckwheat. 
The prolonged drought in the latter 
part of the Summer had caused them to 
consume most of their early stores. The 
ten stocks that had Wintered so suc- 
cessfully^ the year before, had honey 
that was stored in the early part of the 



38 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



season. This was the only perceptible 
difference in the condition of the stocks 
of the two Winters. If there was any 
difference in their temperature, the 
stocks that died were the wanner. 

I have now twenty-seven colonies in 
the same cellar. They were stored 
away about the middle of November, 
and are now (Dec. 22nd) in excellent 
condition. About the 1st of October I 
found two or three of my strongest 
stocks literally starved to death. On 
further examination the serious fact 
was disclosed, that in the twentj^-seven 
surviving stocks there w^ere not twenty- 
seven -ponndB oi honey I I immediately 
purchased a barrel of good coffee sugar, 
made it into syrup, and fed it to my 
Bees. They are no w temporarily Winter- 
ing almost entirely on sugar syrup, a 
few of them only having the smallest 
amount of honey ; and the less they 
have of it. the better, in my opinion. 

It may be that cold will produce dys- 
entery ; but I feel certain that its ab- 
sence, or rather, the presen ce of warmth, 
will not always prevent it. While 
Bees should be kept in a comfortable 
temperature, they should also have a 
pure and healthy diet. The food, my 
observation proves, is of more import- 
ance than the temperature. Why, or 
where, the honey is impure, I am not 
now prepared to say ; but that it is at 
times unfit for the use of the Bees, I 
have no doubt. That good sugar syrup, 
well cooked, is a healthy and sale Bee 
food, I have demonstrated to my satis- 
faction. Hereafter, if the droughts do 
not render it unnecessary, I shall ex- 
tract all the honey from my Bees in the 
Fall, and feed them upon syrup. 

M. C. Hester. 

Charlestown, Ind. 



Translated for the American Bee Journal.. 

Dzierzon. 



The most complete check upon robbing 
Bees is to place a bunch of grass, or wet 
hay over the entrance to the hive. The 
Bees will find their way to the entrance 
to their own hive, the robbers will be 
caught by the sentinels in passing through 
the grass, and soon cease their pilfering. 
— Exchange. 



EXTRACT FROM THE HISTORY OF BEE-KEEP- 
ING IN THE GRAND DUCHY OF HESSE, 
IN COURSE OF PUBLICATION 
IN "DIE BIENE." 



Italian Bees increase faster and have 
many {}ualities superior to the black. 



For the purpose of perfecting our 
essay, we shall here submit the general 
remark, that, not only France, who is- 
well known to claim for herself the 
credit of all great discoveries and in- 
ventions, but also Germany has denied 
to Pastor Dzierzon the merit of having 
discovered anything new. They ar- 
"•ued thus : The foundations on which 
the great discoveries of the present era 
rest, were present long before the ap- 
pearance of Dzierzon ; the incidental 
points at which the old and new eras 
separate, must be sought for where the 
first bright rays of light fell on that 
mysterious darkness of bee-life — the 
sexiuil relations of the three different 
orders of bees. Into this darkness^ 
however, before Dzierzon's time, some 
fiaint glimmers of light had fallen ; and 
he, like all great explorers of unknown 
territory, had his forerunners and pio- 
neers. Already had a Janscha (died 
1774), a plain farmer of Upper Carnolia 
and later, professor of Bee-keeping in 
Vienna, made, by his observations in 
the large apiary founded by the Em- 
press Maria Theresa, the discovery that 
the queen is impregnated by the drone 
outside of the hive, and but once during; 
her life-time. The discoveries of Schir- 
ack, that queens may be reared from, 
worker eggs, was also earlier, as also 
his discovery of fertile workers. Based 
upon these discoveries, and also the in- 
vestigations made by the Natural Phi- 
losopher, Eaumer, did Francis Huber^ 
Avith the eyes of his assistant, Burnens^ 
(Huber having become blind in early 
manhood), make further observations, 
and located a chain of facts which 
spread a light over the natural history 
and domestic economy of the Honey- 
Bee. Then also the invention of the 
movable-comb system was worked out,, 
in anticipation, by the frame or leaf 
hive, which served Huber in his obser- 
vations, and was afterwards much im- 
proved by Morlot and others. Now^ 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



39 



only the man was wanting, able to 
make one grand, general experiment, 
embracing the preceding observations 
and discoveries; and who, like Huber, 
would be able, with unbending will, to 
pursue this new system of natural phi- 
losophy to the conviction of its oppo- 
nents. 

^nd this man was none other than 
Dzierzon. To desire to take away from 
him the merit of being the real founder 
and discoverer of this new system of 
Bee-cultui*e, would be but the repetition 
of that old, and oft -repeated history, in 
which little minds seek to oppose the 
genius that discovered a new idea. 
This jealous spirit is so. deeply implant- 
ed in mankind, that, among the an- 
cients, it often served as a source of 
ridicule. When Pythagoras had dis- 
covered his renowned mathematical 
theorem, for thankfulness he offered to 
the gods one hundred oxen (hecatomb) ; 
and since that time it has been said, 
all oxen shudder when a clever thought 
is revealed to the world. 

John Dzierzon, born in 1811, in a 
villiage of Middle Silesia, studied, in 
1830, at Breslau. Roman Catholic the- 
ology, having at the same time, a 
strong inclination for natural history 
studies. In 1835 he was located as 
a priest at Carlsmarkt, in Silesia. His 
parish was small, and his labors light. 
All his spare time was given to prac- 
tical Bee-culture, and the careful study 
of all the previously published Bee lite- 
rature, and the careful testing of the 
various discoveries concerning the nat- 
ure of the Bee. Of great value to him 
now, in his observations and experi- 
ments, was his arrangement of the hive 
with movable combs, which he used 
long before they were known in other 
circles. His first essays appeared in the 
Fraxiendorfern Blattern. His first con- 
tribution to the Eichstadter Bienenzei- 
tung appeared in No. 12, of 1845, p. 122. 
Shortly afterwards, a new and im- 
proved system of Bee Culture, by Pas- 
tor Dzierzon, was published by Bruck- 
isch, commonly called '' Theorie and 
Praxis.'' So little profit did Dzierzon 
then anticipate from this valuable work, 
that he allowed it to pass into other 
hands, and it was published with vari- 
ous notes, which served to deteriorate 



and mar it. Later, his supplement to 
"Theorie and Praxis," was publisherl 
under commission by Beck, in Nord- 
lingen. Since 1846, he has been a con- 
stant contributor to the Eichstadter Bi- 
enenzeitung, and, at the great annual 
gatherings of the German Bee-keepers, 
he is the king around whom they all 
cluster. 

But he had a hard battle, until he 
had broken the way, and made .such 
able oj)ponents as Busch and Baron von 
Berlepsch, his friends and well wishers. 

It is well known how he searched 
deeper into the natural history of the 
Bee, and called to his aid the honored 
Zoologists, Leuckart and Yon Siebold. 
The result of all his scientific research- 
es and practical experiments, he gave 
to the world in his great work, the 
second edition of which was published 
in 1869, by Schneider, in Mannheim, 
'' Die Biene und ihre Zucht mit bewe- 
gliehen Waben in Gegenden ohne 
Spatsommertracht." We are not ex- 
aggerating, when we call this work an 
achievement-an event which marked the 
beginning of the new era, since it is a 
storehouse containing within itself all 
the theoretical and practical knowledge 
of bees gained by past observation. 
More than this it points the waj^ into 
those regions from which the vail has 
not vet been raised. 



Is Black Comb Useful? 



Black comb, unless it be very old and 
choked with pollen and filth, is as useful 
for breedig purposes as any other. For 
guide combs it is better than any other, 
as it is tough and will not break away 
from its fastenings as new comb will. 
Care should be taken, notwithstanding, 
to discard all comb from which the Bees 
of former seasons have not hatched out. 
Sometimes in old combs some cells may 
be observed from which the sealing has 
not been removed, some such cells may 
have small perforations in them, their 
crowns being sunken, and their contents 
dried up; others may still retain the re- 
mains of dead brood, but wherever these 
are seen the comb should be consigned 
to the melting-pot, for there is danger 
that the combs are infected with foul 
brood . — British Bee Journal. 



40 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Novice on Wintering, etc. 

Dear Bee Journal: Permit us to 
thank M. Qiiinby for his excellent and 
opportune article on Wintering, and al- 
so for the ver}^ fair and gentlemanly 
way in which he expresses it as his 
opinion that our views of the Bee dis- 
ease are not wholly correct. If we 
have not been as respectful in express- 
ing our views of some of the suggestions 
that he has advanced, and Ave fear such 
has been the case, we sincerely crave 
his pardon. In regard to the unkind 
Avay in which some other writers have 
persisted in treating us and perverting 
our language, we have nothing to add, 
more than that we shall never take the 
trouble to set them right. If the ma- 
jority of our readers have misunder- 
stood us in that way it is certainly time 
our regular contributions gave place to 
something more valuable. 

In regard to Bees suffering with dys- 
entery when properly housed, we will 
mention our own experience, first given 
in the Journal, Vol. 4. Thie month of 
February that Winter was so warm for 
days together, that we could not reduce 
the temperature of our cellar below 50°, 
even by opening the door and windows 
nights, and every warm spell, it seemed 
to us then, only aggravated the disease. 
When we could reduce the temperature 
to 35°, the Bees became quiet, but noth- 
iug else we could do would keep them 
in their hives at all. A part of them 
were placed in the cellar in November, 
but the majority remained out until 
December. After placing them on their 
Summer stands, matters seemed no bet- 
ter, for they flew out and kept dying 
until May. Those who have followed 
our writings will remember that we 
have had such colonies every Winter 
since, more or less ; and they have been 
invariably those that were allowed to 
have natural stores. Perhaps the Win- 
ter of 1869-70 may be considered an ex- 
ception ; for we then wintered every 
colony and they all had natural stores, 
which happened to be wholesome, as in 
years before. 

Now in directing attention to those 
who have lost Bees carefully housed, 
in cellars. Bee houses, etc., we cannot 



give a case where these repositories 
had been warmed by a stove, for we 
had no record of such an experiment. 
The principal trouble we apprehend is 
that Bees will leave the hives, even in 
the dark, when the room is warmed to 
50° or thereabouts. In fact we have 
always had the most trouble in Winter- 
ing during warm spells. Last season 
we lost quite a number of small nuclei, 
which died under circumstances that 
convinced us that some kind of artifi- 
cial heat might have saved them — i. e., 
during times of very cold weather, such 
that the interior of our Bee house show- 
ed at times not more than 25°; but at the 
same time our ^strong colonies seemed 
to lose nothing. 

After the coldest spell we have had 
this season, the weather changed sud- 
denly, so quickly in fact, that while the 
walls, hives, etc., were near 32°, a 
stream of warm, damp air was pouring 
in through the ventilator to such an ex- 
tent that everything was damp. A 
friend of ours, who has entertained the 
same opinion as Mr. Q., built a fire in a 
stove he had provided for the purpose, 
and raised the temperature quickly to 
80° or more, and then let the fire go 
down before the Bees had time to be- 
come aroused. He says the result was 
quite satisfiictory. His Bees, like ours, 
were confined to the hive with wire 
cloth. It may be that some such course 
will enable us to winter Bees safely, on 
natural stores even ; and we shall be 
pleased if such prove to be the case. 

' We presume that Mr. Quinby, in 
speaking of the latter method, has tak- 
en into consideration the fact that Clov- 
er Honey now sells by the barrel at 
twenty cents, and that sugar syruj) 
equally thick, costs not over eight centw. 
If a Bee-keeper had his honey in a bar- 
rel, and his colonies needed food, would 
he hesitate before deciding which to 
feed ? 

We would refer Mr. Quinby, to arti- 
cles found in back numbers of the 
Journal, to prove tbat Bees die, even 
when carefully buried, housed, or put 
in a cellar. Please see pages 5, 206, 
253, 254, 261, A^ol. v ; 286, Vol. vi ; 264, 
Vol. vii ; 34. 92, 93, 248, Vol. viii. We 
call attention especially to the report of 
Mr. .lohnsor, page 248, Vol. viii. Mr J. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



41 



intbrmod us in conv^ersation, that lie bad 
thoroughly tried warming them in a 
warm room, etc., etc., but all Avithout 
avail ; and that sealed comb of the 
same hone}' given to a healthy colony 
brought from a dii^ance, icill kill them 
in one weefi. even in Api'il. It is true 
that all of the above do not point in 
one diivction ; but they furnish a large 
number of facts. 

We have at ])resent a colony of Bees 
in a room kept constantly warmed up 
to from 50° to G0°. In spite of food, 
pollen, etc., and a wire-cloth house to 
fly in, we cannot induce healthy brood- 
rearing ; but the Bees seem to be dying 
off eveiy day, much faster, indeed, than 
those in the Bee house at about 40°. — 
AVe have had them thus for about three 
weeks. Although the queen lays eggs, 
no brood appears. The confinement 
eeenis to be very objectionable. They 
iilight on the wire-cloth boundaries of 
their prison, and many will not volun- 
tarily go back even at night. 

Quite a large number of our Bee- 
keepers, with Mr. Gallup among them, 
contend strongly in favor of out-door 
Wintering : and such letters i-each us 
from all directions — facts observed both 
practically and experimentally. Have 
you,too,abandoned double walled hives ? 

It may be proper to say that our re- 
marks in regard to the hive which 
•" Scientific " offered to furnish at 50 
cents each, were intended onl}- as pleas- 
untry, and without the least feeling of 
ill nature. Should " Scientific '' not feel 
inclined to accept the above explanation, 
we have nothing further to offer. He 
who will undertake to furnish good hives 
for 50 cents, or even $1.00, will receive 
our earnest thanks for the good he will 
do our people, and we think we shall 
have no trouble in convincing the most 
incredulous of our sincerit3^ The hives 
shall be made to use any of the popular 
frames — those mentioned on page 266 
of last June number, for instance, and 
the only other condition is, that they 
be approved of by the editor of the 
Journal; and, to help the cause, we 
will pay for a standing advertisement of 
the same in this Journal one year, un- 
less some of those who find fault with 
cur efforts will come forward and help 
pay for it. and thus show their disinter- 



estedness. It is not "Novice," simply, 
you are opposing now, but the cause of 
Bee-culture. If you would see hives 
made to a gauge, like Elgin watches, 
stand up like a man, or " forever hold 
your peace." Chicago will perhaps be 
as central a j)oint as any for the under- 
taking, and, what is better, will be so 
far from " Novice " that he can have no 
hand in it except to pay for an adver- 
tisement for the year. 

We certainl}' did not mean to insist 
that Mr Muth had had no experience 
with Bee disease, we only conjectured. 

Has no one else a word of encoui-age- 
ment for the fair stranger, Cyula Lins- 
wik, who has entered our midst? or 
are our sex all so intent on their own 
affairs that they cannot spend time to 
encourage real merit ? In our opinion, 
the writer of those articles, although 
the information conveyed may not be 
of great j^ractical value, has a power of 
delineation* and a delicacy of touch, 
such as has never before, since Mr. 
Langstroth's book, graced Bee litera- 
ture. Will both herself and " Sister 
Nellie " accept the thanks of one who 
means well, even if his efforts be at 
times ill-timed, and injudicious. 

Mr. O. can certainly take off his box 
honey quicker than we could extract a 
like amount ; but our honej' would be 
all ready to ship at a low rate of freight 
by rail, while his would need consid- 
erable " fixing " before it could be safe- 
ly shipped over one hundred miles at a 
like expense (see Dadant's articles). 
There is certainly no need that we 
should defend the cause of extracted 
honey longer, for attention seems being 
turned in that direction with a strong 
current from all sides. 

Using cloth instead of perforated tin for 
feeding has been quite unsatisfactory, 
for the reason that if thick, it feeds too 
slowly, and, finally, not at all, after the 
syruj) has dried on them ; if the cloth 
was thin, the Bees gnawed through it, 
and then 

We are beset by reverses, as well as 
encouraged by occasional success. We 
still hope ultimately to succeed. To 
those who give us credit for feeling 
sincere pleasure in all the advances in 
Apiculture, wo subscribe ourself as of 
old, Novice. 



42 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Murdering Bees. 

Query. — I have a straw skep with wooden 
top, in which my Bees were hived 18 months 
ago. They threw oft' a strong swarm last May, 
and I phiced a super over them, containing a 
large and tempting piece of guide-comb, in 
which they made not a drop of honey. I 
took away the super early in September, and 
since then my Bees have been killing each 
other, hundreds lying dead under the hive, 
and I see them fight on the alighting board. 
The murdered Bees are all small compared 
with the generality of Bees in my hive, but 
certainly belong to it. These massacres take 
place at an interval of a week or ten days, 
and especially on Sundays. Can I prevent 
this ? 

Reply. — We have had a precisely 
similar case in our own apiary during the 
past season. The Bees destroyed, were 
bred in the hive, but when a few days 
old were mercilessly massacred. The 
queen was a pure bred Ligurian, raised 
in May last, but from the backwardness 
of the season and the col'dness of the 
weather we judged she had been imperfect- 
ly fertilized. Almost all her progeny were 
very small, had usually only one broad 
golden band across the abdomen, next 
the thorax, the remainder being jet 
black. They were pretty little Bees with 
sharp pointed tails, quite diiferently 
shaped to the ordinary Bees, and were 
evidently considered useless in hive. 
Having determined that the fault was 
with the queen we dethroned her, and 
gave the stock a fertile imported one, 
and since then all has been well. 
Whether the original queen (by stress of 
weather) became too old ere fertilization 
took place, or whether she met an im- 
perfect drone, perhaps one of the proge- 
ny of a fertile worker which are said to 
be imperfectly developed we cannot say, 
but judging from our own case we think 
it probable your Bees will perish during 
the ensuing winter months unless you re- 
move their present queen, and give them 
one whose progeny will be perfectly nor- 
mal . — British Bee Journal. 

In the Island of Madagascar, and the 
Mauritius Islands, a species of Bee is 
found {Apis unicolor) of a bright shining 
black, without spots or colored bands. 
The honey, which is highly s])oken of, is 
at first of a green shade, but becomes red- 
dish-yellow with age. 



Plants and Trees. 



BEE AGENCY NECESSARY TO FRUITFULNESS 
AMONG PLANTS, AND THE SORT OF TREES 
BEST FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTING. 



The name "hone}^," is said to be de- 
rived from a Hebrew word signifying 
delight. Whether ornot this derivation 
is correct I cannot say, as I am no He- 
brew scholar, but it seems very appro- 
priate, as there is scarcely another word 
which has been so universally employed 
from the remotest ages, to represent 
what is delightful to the senses and as 
a figure of what gratifies the mental 
and moral perceptiojis. For this rea- 
son, amongst others, the labors and 
mysteries of the Bee-hive have been a 
source of profit and recreation to man- 
kind in all ranks of life, as well as a 
fruitful fund of figures and illustrations 
to adorn the writings of poets and phil- 
osophers. Hence people can offer few 
truer forms of evidence of real sympathy 
with the most elevated and refined in 
past ages, than in the interest they take 
in this branch of rural industry. But 
aside from any interest in Bees as honey 
gatherers and waxmakers, there is an- 
other matter as important as this, aris- 
ing from the service which Bees perform 
in the economy of nature in the fertiliz- 
ation of plants. All stock raisers under- 
stand well the importance of crosses in 
breeding. But few people are awaro 
that the same principle holds good in 
the fertilization of fruit and flower blos- 
soms. Which is to say, that though in 
the majority of plants the blossoms are 
perfect, each one containing the pollen 
necessary to fertilize the ovules, yet it 
is well known to botanists and horticul- 
turists, that the pollen of one flower has 
a great deal more fructifying power on 
the ovules of another flower of its kind 
than upon its own, this causing the first 
to set better and adding to at least its 
quantity. Mr. Charles Darwin, Pro- 
fessor A Gray, and other eminent botan- 
ists have proved that many flowers in 
which the stigmas may be easily dusted 
with their own pollen, remain sterile 
unless the}' receive pollen from other 
flowers. This cross fertilization is ef- 
fected through the agency of Bees and 
other insects. All of which mav be 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



43 



easily demonstrated by coverin<jj some 
flowers with thin gauze, admitting light 
and air freely, but excluding the Bees, 
and letting others remain exposed for 
them to work on. 

And it 'is a significant fact in this con- 
nection, that naturalists have never, 
thus far, been able to discover that the 
nectar or honey deposited about the 
ovaries of flowers is of any use whatever 
to them, except to attract the Bees and 
other insects; seeming to show that this 
is a wise provision of the Creator to se- 
cure fertilization. But I propose to dis- 
cuss this matter more at length in a fu- 
ture article, in which I will attempt to 
clear the Bees of the charge of being de- 
structive to fruit and gi-apes. I desire 
here merely to point out that the Bee- 
keeping interest, like every genuine in- 
dustry, harmonizes with and promotes 
other industrial pursuits; and that a 
wise regard for the common good is 
manifested by consulting the wants of 
the Bees in selecting flowers, shrubs and 
trees to shade the streets, and beautify 
public and private grounds. Especially 
as this costs no more, and it greatly en- 
hances the primary objects of setting 
out the trees by giving the variety which 
is essential to beauty. Now it so hap- 
pens, that of the trees which are not 
evergreens, those which afford the rich- 
est pasturage for Bees are the handsom- 
est and most valuable for ornamentation. 
A certain proportion of locusts and 
maples would be well enough, but they 
have been set along every street and in 
almost every lot, till they are so common 
that they cease to please. How much 
thC' appearance may be improved can 
be seen on a few places about this city, 
whose owners years ago had the good 
taste to intersperse with these a variety 
of other trees less common and more 
beautiful. If one-half the locusts in and 
around Lexington were replaced by lin- 
dens and yellow poplars, the city would 
present a much more attractive appear- 
ance, and the Bees would have a better 
range for gathering honey. 

The best districts for Bees are those 
from which the timber has not been re- 
moved. The yield of honey in the 
mountainous parts of Kentucky is much 
more certain and abundant than in the 
Blue Grass Region, where white clover 



abounds, which has generally been su])- 
posed to be one of the best hone}' plants, 
but which has proved of late years un- 
reliable. The reason probably is, that 
trees being mostl}^ deep rooted and 
shading the ground are not so much 
eft'ected by drought as small plants. 
The linden or basswood, as it is called 
in the north, is so highly prized for its 
abundant yield of honey, that many 
Bee-keepers are planting orchards of it 
for their Bees. Mr. Furman of Iowa 
states that he has known a single stock 
of Bees to gather fifteen pounds of 
honey in a day from basswood blossoms. 
Mr. Hoslner of Minnesota, says that one 
of his stocks gathered fifty-three pounds. 
Mr. Cogshala of New Yoric, says that 
his Bees gathered six barrels of honey 
from basswood in the time that it took 
the same Bees to gather one barrel from 
white clover, and that the basswood 
honey was better in quality. The yel- 
low poplar yields as much hone}' as the 
linden, but the quality of the honey is 
not quite so good. Other trees might 
be mentioned of smaller growth than 
the above, but scarcely less value either 
for honey or ornament, as the sour- 
wood and serviceberry. But those who 
care to give the matter any attention 
can easily learn what kinds to select, and 
to the consideration of all such I res- 
pectfuU}^ commend the subject. — D. 
Burhank, in Farmers' Home Journal. 



A Plant Destructive to Bees. — The 

large-podded milk weed, almost invari- 
ably causes the death of every Bee 
alighting upon it. The Bee either ad- 
heres to the plant or else bears away a 
small scale sticking to its feet, and crip- 
ples itself fatally in attempting to re- 
move the annoyance. — Agricultural 
Report. 

"He maj^ be regarded as a master 
in Bee-culture who knows how to win- 
ter his stock in a healthy condition, 
with the least loss of Bees, the smallest 
consumption of stores, and with the 
combs unsoiled." — Ex. 



The cross of the Italian drone] and 
black queen is preferable to the ^other 



cross. 



44 



THE AMEEICA2^ BEE JOURNAL. 



cl 



nt^timmq 




W. F. CLARKE, Editor. 



CHICAGO, FEBRUARY, 1874. 



Bee-keepers' Meetings. 



The importance of association, when 
there are common objects to carry out, 
is readily conceded by all intelligent 
people. The value of consultation about 
matters, in regard to which there is 
room for difference of opinion and prac- 
tice, is also generally admitted. Our 
business interests are represented and 
protected by Boards of Trade. AVe 
have Agricultural Societies, Farmers' 
Olubs, and Granges, to look after the 
great foundation industry. Conven- 
tions and meetings, almost without 
number, are held to advance the multi- 
farious enterprises, which have been 
set on foot by the active mind of man. 
No sensible individual undertakes to 
carry out, solitary and alone, the ends 
he is aiming to accomplish, when there 
are others, equally anxious to succeed 
in the same direction, with whom he 
can consult and co-operate. 

One would suppose that very little 
reflection or argument would suffice to 
convince Bee-keepers that their inter- 
•ests call for organization and associa- 
tion. Yet it seems more difficult to 
bring them together for united counsel 
.and action, than almost any other class 
of people who have interests in common. 
The patent hive business is no doubt 
largely responsible for this. It has in- 
troduced and fostered an Ishmaelitish 
spirit among Bee-keepers. Apiculture 
has come to be regarded, not as a peace- 
ful field where all might work harmoni- 
ously, and i-eap a harvest of sweetness, 
but rather an a hunting gr(tiin(l. where 



prey is to be chased and spoil secured. 
We are glad to know that this state of < 
things is j)assing away, and that a bet- ■ 
ter day is manifestly coming, in which 
the clashing of pecuniary interests and 
antagonistic aims shall no longer oper- 
ate to keep apiarians asunder. Alread}' 
some progress has been made in the 
establishment of organizations, and the 
holding of meetings, but it is only a 
few of the great host of Bee-keepers 
who have allied themselves together, 
and met as " friends in council" for the 
advancement of apiculture. Indiffer- 
ence has, no doubt, had quite as much 
to do in keeping Bee-men apart, as busi- 
ness rivalry. It is remarkable how 
apathetic some are, even when their 
own advantage is manifestly involved. 
We do not believe that any thoughtful 
attendant at a Bee meeting, where ex- 
perienced apiarians gave their views 
freely and fully, ever went away with- 
out feeling that the cost of coming was 
a mere bagatelle, compared with the 
benefit obtained. A single wise sug- 
gestion may turn the scale of a year's 
operations of the apiary, from loss to 
profit. Questions may be asked, and 
answered, to which no Bee-book furn- 
ishes a repl}'. The mind may obtain a 
clue, or be put upon a track, the results 
of which will be highly valuable. A 
Bee meeting is a school for beginners, 
and a college for those more advanced. 
We can help on the cause of apiculture 
on such an occasion, both by imparting 
what we know to others less informed 
than ourselves, and by sitting at the 
feet of apiarian doctors who have far 
outstripped us. There is moreover, the 
pleasure and ])rofit connected with ma- 
king the personal acquaintance of fel- 
low-Bee-keepers, especially those of 
note, whose writings we have read 
with interest, and whom it is a great 
satisfaction to meet face to face, and 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



45 



think of afterwards, as no longer strang- 
ers, but friends. Yet notwithstanding 
these and other obvious advantages of 
association, how difficult it is to obtain 
a large membership, or to secure a full 
attendance. How rarely do we read 
in the reports of these meetings, that 
they were unanimously attended, or 
marked by any enthusiasm. Even the 
National Society has never nuide such 
a muster as might reasonabl}^ have 
been expected at its annual sessions. 
Yet, if all had been imbued Avith the 
earnestness oIl some^ — if every one had 
com'e who could as well have done so 
as those actually present, there would 
have been no cause of complaint, but 
rather abundant reason for jubilation. 
We regret to learn that the Louisville 
meeting was thinly attended, owing to 
a variety of unfavorable circumstances, 
but we hope this will not discourage 
those who fi'om the beginning have had 
faith in the society, and have shown their 
faith by their works. Let every officer 
and member resolve, that the next 
meeting shall be the best ever held, and 
do all in their power to make it such. 
The place of meeting is conveniently 
central, and we have no doubt the 
Pennsylvania Bee men, with President 
Hoagland at their head, will spare no 
pains to make the needful preparations' 
to secure travelling, hotel and hall ac- 
commodation, so that if there is only a 
grand rally from East, West, North 
and South, the Pittsburgh meeting of 
1874 will far outstrip its predecessors. 
•There are other and local gatherings 
which ought to be well sustained. The 
Northeastern and several State associa- 
tions, have yet to meet. Let there be 
an extra etfort ou the part of Bee-keep- 
ers to attend them. Do not o-rudire a 
little time or money. The outlay will 
pay you well, and be of sei-vice to others. 
This matter should be viewed not in 



the light of inclination merely, but as a 
duty. Ease and comfort would perhajw 
<lictate staying beside one's warm and 
cozy fireside, but if duty calls else- 
whei'C, it is ours to obey the summons,, 
in the assurance that the highest haj)- 
piness comes in the train of doing right.. 
'^roo much stress cannot be laid on- 
the importance of getting up and vigor- 
ously sustaining neighborhood meet- 
ings in all those localities where Bees 
are kept by a number of parties. Even 
if they are attended only by a few, they 
will result in much good. We do not 
know of a pleasanter or better method 
of promoting apiculture than by hold- 
a weekly or fortnightly meeting from 
house to house around the little neigh- 
borhood of Bee-keepers. A case in 
point occurs to our recollection. It is 
that of three Bee-keepers who have for 
several years been in the habit of meet- 
ing in this way. They discuss each 
others' methods and experiences, read 
and criticize apicultural publications, 
and concoct questions, answers and ar- 
ticles for the Bee journals. It need 
hardly be said, that they are a most in- 
telligent trio of Bee-keepers, and that it 
is a high treat to spend an evening in 
their company. We could wish to see 
their example followed wherever an as- 
sociation even as modestly small as 
theirs, can be formed and worked. 



In our hurry, getting out the January 
Number of the Aisieuic.vn Bee Journal, sev- 
eral annoying errors oreurred. We hope to 
have less of them in tlic future. A few cor- 
rections are important. On page 7, second 
lino of article on " Feeding," for " keeping,'' 
read " feeding." Seventh line from top of 
second column, for "open," read "only 
window." In tlie liiird line, for "hives," 
read " sources." 



E. Kretchmer & Co.'s Price List of Bee- 
Keepers' supplies is on our table. It contains 
24 pages, and will be sent free to any one 
desiring it. Address E. Kretchmer & Co., 
Coburg, Iowa. 



46 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Voices from among the Hives. 

J. L. Davis, of Holt, Ingham Co., Mich., 
gays: — "I write this in response to Adair's ob- 
servation, that the clipping of a queen's 
wings is an injury. Some years ago, I ob- 
tained a swarm of Bees from the woods. 
Brought it home in the log, just as it was 
found; after sawing off pieces at both ends, 
we set the log up in our yard for a hive. The 
Bees swarmed in June ; after alighting, I saw 
the queen and caught her by the wings, and 
called for scissors ; before they came, how- 
ever, she turned around so many times, that 
the wings came out by the roots. I sup- 
posed this would kill her, but she lived until 
lier sixth year, to my certain knowledge (she 
might have been older). Her hive swarmed 
once every year, and sometimes twice. I 
<jould always recognize her by her peculiar 
appearance, and so kept track of her. I 
liave clipped hundreds of queen's wings 
since, and never thought that it gave them 
pain, or injured their usefulness. In clip- 
ping queen's wings, have the comb on which 
she is hanging up before you with the queen 
in sight; with the left hand take hold of her 
left wing as she is crawling upward ; hold on 
just hard enough to make her gi'asp the comb ; 
then with the scissors clip about half of the 
large wing ofT. In doing this keep the breath 
from the Bees, work slowly and carefully, 
and you will be satisfied." 

S. Scott, of College Hill, O., writes: — "Our 
season thus far is termed an open Winter. 
The weather report for December stands as 
follows: Rain, 6i inches; snow, li; clear 
days, 1; average temperature, 36 degrees; 
lowest temperature, 10 degrees, morning of 
30th. In our vicinity, as far as I have learn- 
■ed. Bees are wintering well with those who 
give them care and attention. The past sea- 
son was a good one for honey, both in qual- 
ity and quantity. Two swarms that issued 
■on the 5th of June ^avc a surplus of twenty- 
one and thirty-two pounds respectively, of 
pure comb honey, besides their homesteads 
full remaining untouched on the last of July. 
Though black Bees do well when flowers are 
abundant, my preference is for the Italians. 
We read sometimes of moth-proof hives, but 
it takes a strong colony of B(h»s to keep a 



good hive moth-proof. The plan of putting 
split elders under hives for the worms to 
crawl under, is an old one; but if destroytng 
the worms is not attended to daily, the elder 
will prove a hot-bed for the propagation of 
the insect. It is far better to spend the time 
in encouraging the little wren by building 
small boxes, four by five inches square, with 
inch auger holes for entrances. Their keen 
eyes are ever on the alert for worms and in- 
sects, of which they consume a great many 
daily. I think it is also a good plan to have 
young turkeys as well as ducks near the Api- 
ary. They can be seen early and late among 
the hives watching for millers. I consider 
them of great value to those keeping Bees.." 

J. F. Montgomery, of Lincoln, Tenn., 
writes: — "Last year Bees did but little in 
the way of storing surplus honey, though af- 
ter the main season was over, they stored 
honey enough to last them through the Win- 
ter. I have now thirty-eight colonies, all in 
good condition except one, which has a young 
queen reared after the drones were all killed. 
On 3d of this month, Jan., I put out rye 
flour, and in less than an hour they were 
swarming around it by hundreds. I am in- 
tending to move my Bees this year a distance 
of ten miles, to where there is an abundance 
of linn. I think I can make it pay me. If 
I do, I will report after the season is over. 
I use Murphy's honey extractor, which I like 
better than any other I have seen." 

N. M. Carpenter, of Ellington, N. Y., 
writes: — Although the past two Winters have 
nearly cleaned out my Bees, my enthusiasm 
has not abated in the least, nor can I get 
along without the old American Bee Jour- 
nal. All through this section of country, 
nine-tenths of the Bees died last Winter. 
But the past season has been a good one, and 
the business is rapidly renewing again, and 
with a few favorable years will be as pros- 
perous as ever. No theory which I have ev- 
er seen oficred in any of the Bee journals in 
relation to the late mortality among Bees is 
at all satisfactory to me; nor will I at this 
time atten.pt to offer any of my own, al- 
though I feel quite confident that I could go 
into Winter quarters with forty-eight swarms, 
and come out with more than one, which 
was my experience lust Winter." 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



47 



W. H. Tenant, of Eureka, Wis., writes: — 
■" I wintered thirty -six swarms of Bees with- 
out any loss. I increased them to seventy 
swarms, and sold a little over $400 worth of 
Honey Bees. At this date they appear to be 
in a healthy condition. Success to the Amer- 
ican Bee Journal and all its subscribers." 

Em Cori.k, of Cornersville, Tenn., writes: 
— " Bee-keeping is in a very backward state 
in this section of country. The Frame Hive 
has not been used here more than two years, 
though I believe, taking evei'ything into con- 
sideration, we have as good a locality for 
Bee-keeping as there is in the United States. 
"We Winter on their Summer stands, the hive 
remaining as it does during the honey har- 
vest. Our Bees are Wintering finely, so far 
as we can judge by inspecting them. I have 
ninety colonies that I expect to come through 
all right, unless some accident happens. Our 
Bees Wintered well last Winter, nnd so far 
this Winter has been nothing to compare 
with the last, for cold weather. I wish the 
American Bee Jocrnai. success." 

R. B. Price, of Delphi, O., writes: — " My 
little girl was stung on the bottom of her foot 
by two Bees, producing the usual symptoms. 
We first saw a red streak where one of the 
Bees hafl stung her, which soon spread until 
she became a brilliant scarlet, from head to 
foot. She looked as though she would have 
convulsions, and having a pitcher of ice wa- 
ter upon the table I bathed her head, which 
gave her temporary relief; whenever such 
symptoms appeared I applied the ice water 
I also gave her a dose of whisky. For sev- 
eral hours afterwards she had fever and 
thirst. My Bees are Wintering well so far; 
I am trying friend Muth's plan, and like it 
well, as it keeps the combs diy and Bees 
<;omfortable." 

George O. Tompkins, of White Plains, N. 
Y., writes: — " The January number of the 
American Bee Journal has come to hand. 
Its new dress makes a very neat appearance, 
-and I hope it may give better satisfaction 
than ever in the hands of its new manager." 

Aaron A. Trullinger, of Lake City, la., 
writes: — "My Bees Wintered well last Winter. 
I kept them up in my chamber. I am trying 
.the cellur this Winter. I doubled mv stocks 



last Summer, and got forty pounds of liox 
honey, per hive. My Bees went into Winter 
quarters in good order." 

S. HoAGLANi), of Mercer County, Pa., 
says that "Our Bees are Wintering finely up 
to date." 

Mrs. R — wouUl like to enquire of any one 
who knows, whether Santa Clara, California, 
is a good locality for Bees. 

"A Lady" wishes to ask "Novice" the fol- 
lowing question, viz: " In seasons when 
honey, the natural food of the Bee, becomes 
so impure as to poison the Bees, is it not also 
unfit for table use ?" 

H. M. Noble, of Mount Pleasant, Iowa, 
writes: — " I have had very poor luck with 
Bees for the last three Winters. In 1870 and 
1871, I lost twelve out of thirty-five swarms. 
In 1873 and 1873, I lost twenty-two out of 
forty swarms. In 1873 and 1873, I lost 
twenty-nine out of thirty two .swarms. This 
left me with three swarms last Spring, and 
those very weak. I increased them to thir- 
teen, and got three boxes of honey and one 
and a half gallon of extracted honey, and 
have now got them in a cave where they will 
not be likely to freeze, though they may die 
some other way." 

C. L. Young, of Ohio, writes: — "From 
circumstances connected with my Bees, I 
have good reason to believe that some of them 
have lived more than two years. According 
to my opinion, Mr. Quinby is the nearest 
right, in his opinion as to the cause of the 
much talked of Bee disease." 

John Barfoot, Wellsville, Mo., writes: — 
"Last season was a disastrous one for Bee 
keepers — Bees scarcely sustaining themselves. 
There was but little surplus honey. The 
strong probability now is, that nearly all old 
hives will winter over, the Winter so far be- 
ing mild and wet." 

W. F. Standefer, Dry Grove, Mississippi, 
writes: — "Our County Bee-Keepers' Society 
meets again on the first Saturday in Febru- 
ary, and will, hereafter, hold Quarterly meet- 

incrs." 



Our Correspondents will oblige by writing 
with ink. Pencil writing, after being rub- 
bed in the mails, &c., becomes indistinct, 
anil our compositors find it dilficult to read. 



48 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



« * — < ^ I I _ 

THOMAS G. NEWMAN, Manager. 



RATES OF ADVERTISING. 

SOLID NONI'AKEIL MEASUKE. 

First insertion, per line $0.'3i 

Each subsequent insertion. ]ht line Ih 

One square, 10 lines or less, tirst insertion 2. (ill 

liditorial Notices, solid Nonpareil, per line :5(i 

Next page to Business Department and second aiui 
last page of cover, doul)le rales. 

"■A deduction of 20 per cent, made on advertise 
ments inserted three months, m i)er cent, for s;:. 
mouths, and 50 per cent, for one year. 

Twelve lines of solid Nonjjareil occupy one inth 
One column contains '.10 lines of solid Nonpareil. 

Bills of regular Advertisers payable quarterly, if in 
serted three" months or more." If inserted for less 
than three months, payable monthly. Transient ad 
vertisements. cash in advance, ^\'e adhere strictly to 
our printed rates. 

Address all communications and remittances to 
the Manager. 



Honey Markets. 



CHICAGO. — Choice white comb honey, 28 
@30c; fair to good, 24@28c. Extracted, 
choice white, 14@16c; fair to good, 10@12c. 
Strained 8@10c. 

CINCINNATI. — Quotations from Chas. 
F. Muth, 976 Central Ave. 

Comb honey 15@35c, according to the 
condition of the honey and the size of the 
box or frame. Extracted choice white clover 
honey, 16 cts. '^ ib. Choice extracted honey 
16@18 cts. fl ft. ■ 

ST. LOUIS. — Quotations from W. G. 
Smith, 419 No^-th Main st. 

Choice white comb, 25@29c; fair to good, 
16@22c. Extracted, Choice white clover, 16 
@18c; choice basswood honey, 14@16c; fair 
to good, extracted, 8@12c; Strained, 6@10c. 

NEW YORK. — Quotations from E. A. 
Walker, 185 Oakland st., Greenpoint L. I. 

The sale of honey is dull here, and a large 
quantity is now upon the market. The 
prices rule as follows: 

White honey in small glass boxes, 25c ; 
dark ir)@20c; Strained honey 8@12c. Cu- 
ban honey, $1.00 1^ gal. St. Domingo, and 
Mexican, 90@95 "j^ gal. 



The " National Bee Journal," published at 
Des Moines, Iowa, by Mrs. Ellen S. Tupper, 
is on our table. The January number is a 
good one. We have made arrangements to club 
the " National," with the old and reliable 
Ameuican Bee Jouknai,, for fiJ.OO a year, in 
advance, — thus saving our subscribers |1.()0. 

Any numbers that fail to reach subscribers 
by fault of mail, we are at all times ready to 
send, on applicalion, free of charge. 



New Advertisements. 



Our fresh announcements this month are- 
numerous. Our subscribers will be interested 
as well as remunerated by reading all our ad- 
vertisements over carefully. 

E. J. Worst announces his reduced prices 
for Italian Queens for 1874, and also Premi- 
um Poultry Eggs. 

Jas. J. H. Gregory's Catalogue of Vegetable 
and Flower Seeds is splendidly illustrated; 
and will be sent to all desiring it, free of 
cost. 

The firm of Baldwin Brothers has been 
dissolved. L. W. Baldwin is breeding Queens, 
and quotes prices. 

E. W. Hale is ready for an engagement ta 
take charge of an apiary. 

Wm. W. Cary invites every reader of the 
Amekican Bee Journai, to send for his cir- 
cular of prices for pure-bred Queens. 

Mrs. Tupper calls attention to her late pur- 
chase of the "National Bee Journal," and 
would not refuse subscriptions accompanied 
with the cash. 

The Illustrated Journal, with its mag- 
nificent chromo, is announced; also its club 
rates with the American Bee Journal. 

Nevins' Straw Mats are now on the market, 
and may be obtained. of Charles F. Muth. 

D. A. Pike has Italian Bees and Italian 
Queens for sale. 

C. F. Muth's new announcements arc. 
"Clover Seed," "Honey Plants" and "Honey 
Jars," with new price list. 

An illustrated annual, entitled " Tht Busy 
Bee," is announced at 10 cents. 

Dr. J. P. H. Brown mentions his importa- 
tion and breeding of Italian Queens. 

The Western Agriculturist is published at 
$1 a year, and gives a Chromo entitled "The 
" Sheperdess." 

J. W. Winder has just finished his "New 
Honey Extractor," and promises to lay it be- 
fore the readers of the Ajlerican Bee Jour- 
nal in the March number. 

Adam Grimm oflfers to sell 400 colonies of 
Italian Bees, and quotes prices. 

S. W. Cole will supply full colonies of 
Italian Bees and Queens, &C., &c. 

J. E. Moore invites you to send for his cir- 
cular giving directions for introducing 
Queens, &c. 

J. H. Stevens will buy honey in St. Louis, 
and invites consignments. 



Heyes' Lincerin. — Having used this arti- 
cle in our family for years, we can confident- 
ly recommend it. See advertisement. 

We want a few copies of the July and De- 
cember Numbers of tlu^ Aimeiucan Bkk 
Journat- for 1873, and will Ji)ay twenty-five 
cents ea(-h for them. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



49 



To Those Interested in Bee Culture. 



At the sixth iiiuuial mooting of the Michi- 
gan Boo-Koopcrs' Association, it was decided 
to hold a special meeting at Kalamazoo, to 
commence AVednesday, May (5, 1874. It is 
especially desired tliat all members be pres- 
ent, and, in behalf of the Association, we 
urge every Bee-keeper in Michigan to attend. 
A cordial invitation is also extended to all 
persons interested in the science of Bee-cul- 
ture whetlior residing in this or other States. 
iSuroly much good may be derived from a 
comparison of experiences next Spring, and 
from the able pai)ers tl\at will then be pre- 
sented. Timely notice will be given of all 
further arrangements. Address communica- 
tions or inquii'ies concerning the subject to 
Fkaxk Benton, Sec'i/. 

Shelby, Oceana Co., Mich. 



Newspaper Decisions. 

1. Any person who takes a paper regularly 
from the post-oftice — whether directed to his 
name or another's, or whether he has sub- 
scribed or not — -is responsible for the pay- 
ment. 

2. If any person orders his paper discon- 
tinued, he must pay all arrearages, or the 
publisher may cantinue to send it, until pay- 
ment is made, and collect the whole amount — 
whether tlie paper is taken from the office or 
not. 

3. The courts have decided that refusing 
to take uewsinxpers and periodicals from the 
post-office, or removing and leaving them 
uncalled for, is prima facie evidence of in- 
tentional fraud. 



Clubbing Bee Journals. 

Several of our subscribers have requested 
us to say what we will club with other Bee 
publications for. We therefore quote the 
following: 

The American Bee Jouknal and the "Na- 
tional Bee .Journal," by Mrs. Tupper, for 
$3.00 a year in advance. 

The American Bre Journal and either 
'* The Bee-keepers Magazine," or the " Agri- 
culturist," by H. A. King, for $2,50. . 

The American Bee .Journal and " Novice's 
Gleanings," for $2.50. 

The American Bee .Journal and the " Na- 
tional," the " ■Magazine," and "Gleanings," 
for $4.00 in advance. 

All the above one year, $5.00. 

Any of the above and the " Illustrated Jour- 
nal," and our magnificent Large Fruit Chro- 
mo, for $2.00, in addition to the retail 
price of the Bee jHiblication selected. 



Publishers needing cuts or engravings, 
will do well to address the Manager of tlie 
American Publishing ('omi>any, who have a 
large supply for sale tliat have appeared in 
"The Illustrated Journal." 

Should any subscriber wish to discontinue 
taking our Journal, he should address a let- 
ter to the Manager, and enclose the amount 
due, and it will then cease to visit liim. Any 
other course is dishonorable. 

Newly Paten'I'ed Hives. — Three Bee 
Hives have lately boon i)atented. Wm. S. 
Hough, Canada; Leonidas Adams, Mason 
City^ Ills.; and Leander J. Diehl, Butler, Ind. 
are the patentees. 

After February 1, 1874, we shall mail a 
Printed Receipt to every one sending money 
to this office. Those who do not get sucli 
Receipt by return mail, should notify us, that 
we may ascertain the cause of delay. 

To new subscribers, we will send the 
American Bee Journal for three months 
for 25 cents, on trial. Now is the time to 
send in hundreds of such trial subscribers. 
Who wants to TRY IT? 

Any one having paid $2.00 for the Amer- 
ican Bee Journal for 1874, and desiring to 
obtain the "Illustrated Journal," for 1874, 
and our magnificent Fruit Chromo, may 
send us $1.50 more and obtain them. 

We shall, hereafter, publisli a Honey Mar- 
ket Report each month, so that Bee-keepers 
will know how honey is selling, not only in 
Chicago, but in St. Louis, Cincinnati, San 
Francisco, and New York. We shall do our 
utmost to make the Journal in all respects 
an organ for Bee-keepers throughout the Un- 
ion. We shall take pains to ascertain who 
is responsible, so that none shall be wronged 
out of their dues. 

The " Home Grange " is published at St. 
Louis in the interest of farmers. It contains 
also profitable miscellaneous reading for the 
fireside. It is issued monthly, at the low 
price of $1.50 a year. 

Wilson's Herald of Health is issued month- 
ly by the Southern Publishing Co., of Atlanta, 
Ga. Besides being a periodical devoted to 
the science of health, it has a department of 
Agriculture and Domestic Economy. It is 
the only popular work of the kind- published 
south of New York. Its terms are $2.00 a 
year. 

Eight cents is now the fee for registered 
letters — instead of fifteen cents, as hereto- 
fore. Let all register, who cannot obtain 
a money order, bnt let none register who can. 

Those who are owing for advertisements 
for the past year are requested to send the 
money to this office without delay, as we are 
closing up the old books. 



50 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Single Copies of the American Bee Jour- 
nal are wortli 30 cents eacli. 

Not one letter in ten thousand is lost by 
mail, if rightly directed. 

Additional names to a club already formed 
may be sent at any time at the same club rate. 
Upon the wrapper of every copy of the Jour- 
nal, will be found the date at which subscrip- 
tions expire. 

Subscribers wishing to chau.ge their post- 
offlce address, should mention their old ad- 
dress, as well as the one to which they wish 
it changed. 

Journals are forwarded until an explicit 
order is received by the publishers for the 
discontinuance, and until payment of all ar- 
rearages is made as required by law. 

When a subscriber sends money in pay- 
ment for the American Bee Journal, he 
should state to what time he thinks' it pays, 
so that we can compare it with our books, 
and thus prevent mistakes. 

Persons writing to this office should either 
write their name, Post-office, County and 
State plainly, or else cut oft" the label from 
the wrapper of their paper and enclose it. 

Every subscriber is requested to look at 
the date after his name on the wrapper label 
of this Number of the American Bee Jour- 
nal, and if it is not correct send a postal 
card to this office, and tell us and we will 
make it right at 07ice. 

The postage on this paper is only twelve 
cents a year, if paid quarterly or yearly in 
advance at the post-office where received. 
We prepay postage to Canada, and require 
twelve cents extra, except when Canada 
money is sent. 



We have received four chromos from H. 
A. King, of New York, which he ofters as 
premiums to subscribers for his Bee Maga- 
zine and National Agriculturist. They are: 
The Flowers of Paradise, The Cross, a 
Landscape Scene on the Rhine, and a Revo- 
lutionary Scene. The chromos are very fine 
indeed, and will satisfy all who get them. 
They are large and well executed. 



THE MILLENARIA.N. 

The MiLLENARiAN advocates the personal retui-n of 
Christ to our earlh, his literal reign over Israel and 
the nations, the resurrection of the holy dead at the 
commencement of the Millenium, and their reiyn with 
Christ during the Millenial day and beyond. It also 
advocates the necessity of a life of trust and obedience 
in order to a partiiiiiatioii in that kingdom which 
shall stand forever. The literal fultlllment of Proph- 
ecy, and the signs which foreshadow the nearness and 
certainty of His coming who is the Desire of Nations 
are also 8i)ecially examined. 

Tekms: $1.00 per yi^ar, in advance. Single Cojjies 
10 cents. Address all orders to, 

II. V. Keed, 
No. 37. Tribune Building, Chicago. 



Advertisements for The American Bee. 
Journal must reach the office by the 35th. 
of the month, in order to insure insertion in. 
the succeeding number. 



NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 



NOTICE TO ALL ! 

CITJTS and descriptions of a New Honey Extractor, 
' made entirely difl'erent, and warranted superior 
to all will appear in March Number of the American 
Bee Journal. Our 24 page Illustrated Circular and 
Apiarian-supply Price List for 1874 is now ready, with: 
the Xew Hoiiey E.\traetor. It will be forward- 
ed to any address on receipt of a three cent stamp. 

Address, J. W. WINDER, Importer and Breeder 
of Italian Queen Bees. 
feb74ml 132 Fourth st. Cincinnati, O. 



RAPE AND RAPP. 

WE herewith tender our thanks to Bee-Keepers 
for past favors, and are again ready to furnish 
Rape and Rapp, at 35 cents per pound. Three pounds 
sow an acre. Shall have a pamphlet ready by March 
1st. treating on its culture, with other interesting mat- 
ter, which will be sent free, to those ordering 3 B)8; 
To all others, 10 cents. Address, 
feb74m4 KRUSCHKE BROS., Berlin, Wis. 



SALE OF 400 COLONIES 

OF 

ITALIAN HONEY BEES 

Having accepted the office of cashier of the Far- 
mers and Merchants Bank of Jeti'erson, lately or- 
ganized in this place. I will be unable to care for all the 
850 Stocks of Honey Bees I have now on hand. I will 
therefore 

Sell 400 of Them. 

These Bees are all pure Italians, and will be sold at 
the following prices : 

Single colonies, or in small numbers $13.00 

Ten to Twenty colonies, per colony, 12.00 

Twenty, or more " "■ 11.50 

These Bees will be delivered free of charge at the 
express station in Jefferson, and safe arrival at the 
nearest express station of the purchaser guaranteed. 

Each of these stocks is in an eight frame Lang- 
stroth movable comb hive, in good condition, and 
with honey enough to last them to May 15, or longer. 

TERMisi : Cash in advance. 

ADAM GRIMM, 
feb74m3 JeHerson, Wis. 



1865—1874. 

THE HONEY HOUSE 

C. O. PERRINE, 

Corner|Lake and Market Sts., 

CHICAGO. 



Be not deceived by imitations 



^ 



American Bee Journal 

DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO BEE CULTURE. 



Vol.. X. 



CHICAGO, MARCH, 1374. 



No. 3. 



Central Iowa Bee-Keepers' Association. 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Jan. 21, 1«74. 

The tliii-d annual meeting of tliis associa- 
tion, was called to order l>y D. W. Thayer, of 
Vinton, its President, and the following 
officers Averc elected by ballot: 

D. W. Thayer, Vinton, President. 

D. E. Blakeslee, Anamosa, 1st Vice-Presi- 
'dent. 

Thos. Hare, Marion, '2nd Vice-President. 

J. M. May, Cedar Rapids, Secretary and 
Treasurer. 

W. H. Furman, Cedar Rapids, Asst. Secre- 
tary. 

On motion of J.M.]\Iay, the following res- 
olution was unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, that the thanks of this Associa- 
tion are hereby tendered to Dr. A. B. Mason, 
-of Waterloo, for his interest in its prosperity, 
and for his faithfulness as its Secretary ; also 
that we learn with deep and sincere regret of 
his loss by tire, and tender to him our sym- 
pathy; also, that this resolution be recorded 
•in the minutes of this Association and a 
<;opy sent to Dr. Mason. 

The President appointed Messrs. 'Blakeslee, 
Furman, and Newcomb, to prepare subjects 
for discussion during the sessions of this meet- 
ing. 

During the absence of the Committee, Dr. 
J. Oren of Laporte city, raised the question 
as to the condition the hive of bees is left in 
when the honey extractor has been used. 

Mr. Furman stated that he had used the ex- 
tractor three years and found it advantageous 
— could make more profit from honey extract- 
ed from the comb than by box honey, though 
sold at less price per lb., and when properly 
used, the brood-comb was unimpaired and 
the stock of bi'es would lie quite as vigorous 
as those when the extractor was not used. 

Dr. Oren thought when the extractor was 
used the best honey was thrown from the 
comb, and as the bees had only lately made 
poor honey, he thought tliat was one cause of 
the losses of bees in 187;j. 

Dr. Blakeslee and Mr. Hunt expressed the 
■opinion that it made no difference whether or 
not the extractor was used. 



Mr. Hare claimed that the loss of bees iu 
1872 and 1873 was due to the very cold win- 
ter, and unfavorable spring. 

Mr. Hunt recommended a "clamp" as the 
means of securing the safety of bees. 

In answer to an inquiry, the President ex- 
plained that a clanq) means an excavation in 
the ground about 8 or 10 feet square, across 
the top of which is placed timbers. On the 
timbers hives are placed in a pyramid form 
with a space, like a chimney, in the center 
for ventilation, communicating from the ex- 
cavation, to the air at the top of the pyramid. 
On this pyramid, poles, scantling or boards 
are placed in a roof form, and on this a coat- 
ing of straw 4 to 6 inches, and on the straw 
about 8 inches of earth is placed to make a 
roof. 

The President gave his experience of win- 
tering bees in cellars well ventilated. He 
spoke also of his uniform success in the use 
of the extractor. 

Dr. Oren qualified his previous remarks on 
the extractor, by saying that he was not whol- 
ly opposed to it, though he did not use it. 

Convention adjourned until 9 o'clock the 
following day. 

SECOND DAT. 

The President in the chair. The Secretary 
read a letter from Mrs. Tupper of the Nation- 
al Bee Journal stating that she would be un- 
able to lecture before the Convention as an- 
nounced, on account of a failure of the trains 
to make connection. Her communication 
contained the suggestion that the Central and 
State Societies consolidate, also an invitation 
to the Association to hold its next meeting at 
Des Moines. Ordered placed on file for fur- 
ther consideration. 

The business committee reported the fol- 
lowing questions for discussion : 

1. What are the benefits of the honey ex- 
tractor in the apiary V 

2. What is the test of pure honey '? 

3. What benefits are derived from feeding 
bees in autumn '? 

4. Is the Italian superior to the native or 
common bee 1 

5. What is the best method of dividing 
swarms witli a view to increasing the stocks ? 
and is it desirable to divide them ':* 



52 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



6. Will upward ventilation in the cellar or 
room where bees are wintered prevent damp- 
ness and disease V 

7. AVhat is tlie best forage for bees '? 

The fimt of these questions had been quite 
thoroughly discussed in tlie absence of tlie 
committee— but in addition, Dr. Blakeslee stat- 
ed it as his opinion that if properly used the 
product of the apiary would be doubled, and 
agreed with Mr. Thurman that honey could 
be afforded at less price than box honey and 
yet the aggregate pro tit would be greater. Mr. 
llare stated that some purchasers thought it 
was a spurious article because separated from 
the comb by a new and novel process, and the 
public mind needs to be disabused on this 
point. Further discussion showed a large 
preponderance of opinion in favor of the ex- 
tractor when properl}' used. 

The second question was briefly discussed. 
Dr. ®ren said that a chemical test was the true 
one, while the Presicfent, Mr. Thurman, Mr. 
Hare and others believed that the experience 
of most persons would enable them to deter- 
mine the matter, especially when considering 
the fact that the globules of the pure article 
were unlike the spurious. The pure would 
keep longer and not become candied, and the 
taste would also indicate the difference. By 
bringing pure honey to a boiling heat and al- 
lowing it to cool gradually, it may be kept 
years in a liquid state without injury. 

On the tldrd question the oi)inion was quite 
general that the swarms should be allowed a 
liberal supply of pure honey, and small, late 
and weak stocks should be fed in the autumn 
or incorporated with strong swarms. 

The fourth question was warmly discussed. 
Dr. Oren said he could not respect the Italian 
bee as lie once did, and yet he liked them 
very well. Mes.srs. Thurman, Hunt, Good- 
hue, Hare, Pierce, Thomas, Tangman, New- 
comb, Porter, of Illinois, and others, were 
generally agreed in their praise of the Italian 
bee. 

On the fifth question each had his own pe- 
culiar method for dividing and hi\'ing swarms, 
all agreeing that the honey-bee, of whatever 
nativity, knew how to sting. 

The Hix'th question elicited a full discussion 
as it involved the vital points in relation to 
the great loss of bees in the winter of 1873-;i, 
and in the spring following — many losing 
their entire stocks, and others nearly all. 
The cellar, the clamp, burying them, allow- 
ing them to remain on the stands as in the 
summer and (covering them with lilankets, 
were severally considered. Tlie concurrent 
opinion was, however, that in any case, a dry, 
pure atmosphere and a Avarmth or tempera- 
ture of ;]() to 50 degrees and uniform as near 
as practicable, should be maintained to se- 
cure safety and freedom from disease. Freez- 
ing and dampness should never be; allowed. 
The severity of tlie winter of 18T2-;5, followed 



by a backward, wet s])ring made very indif- 
ferent forage for those that survived the win- 
ter, and want of experience in giving proper 
care, contributed to superinduce disease and 
the heavy or total losses. Still, those who- 
observed the most approved care and caution 
hitherto used by the apiarian, suttered heavy 
losses, indicating that much is to be learned, 
and that thorough search into the cause of the 
disaster should be made, and remedies sought; 
also, that special encouragements, legislative 
or otherwise, should be atforded those who, 
in the face of discouragements, dilligently 
pursue a research that promises so much 
wealth to the State. 

The seventh question was considered at 
some length. Linn and Alsike clover were 
highly appreciated. Mr. Hare, also Mr. Fur- 
man, said they had raised this clover for bee 
pasturage and were much pleased with it. 
It should be sown early, on well prepared 
ground — even on snow if the land had been 
thoroughly prepared in the preceding fall, 
arid a hay crop, as well as honey, would be 
the result. Great care should be observed 
in selecting seed, lest sorrel (a bane to the 
farmer) should be mixed with it. 

Convention adjourned until the following 
day, at !)i o'clock. 

TIITUi) DAY. 

Convention called to order by the President. 
The question whether or not bees were taxa- 
ble property was raised by Mr. Goodhue and 
discussed generally by the members of the 
Convention, when the Secretary offered as a. 
means of solving the question the following 

MEMORIAL. 

To the General Assembly of the State of 
low*, in Senate and House of Representatives- 
assembled : 

Your petitioners, citizens of the State of 
Iowa, respectfully call your attention to the 
following considerations : — First, That Iowa 
has, until 1878, been deemed one of the best 
bee raising and honey producing States in the 
Union — its trees and flowers furnishing, in 
the language of apiarians, abundance of bee 
pasturage. Second, That in the winter of 
1873-0, and in the spring following, about 
five-mxths of the swarms of bees in the State 
perished by disease. Third, that many per- 
sons have become discouraged, and have 
abandoned, or propose to abandon, the busi- 
ness, preferring to do so tliai> to be taxed on 
so precarious ;i business. Fourth, That the 
native riches, in honey, of the tree and flowei' 
blossoms referred to, will remain undevelojied 
and valueless, unless the gathering and util- 
izing of this dormant wealth is in some way 
fostered and encouraged ; and as the State 
may advance its material interests by encour- 
aging those now engaged in apiculture and 
inducing others to do so, and as no injury 
can arise to the State or its revenues, but ex- 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



53 



actly the rcverso, wo ask for the eniictnu'iit of 
-a hnv t'xenipthiii; from laxiition, iiiul from 
levy and sale on cxi'dition, honey-bei's and 
their iM-oducts until the year IHSU. And your 
petitioners as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

The above memorial was unanimously 
adopted as the jietition of the Convention, 
jind was ordered to be signed by the Presi- 
•dcnt and Seeretary, and forwarded to Senator 
Kephart of Linn C'ounly, with a recjuest that 
lie will aid in proeurinu" tiie passaije of the 
law prayed for. 

On motion, eitizens, associations and socie- 
ties similar to our own, favorable to the ob- 
ject, are requested to join us iu our efforts to 
procure the enactment of the law desired. 

After the customary vote of thanks avus 
passed, the Convention adjourned to meet on 
the third AVeduesday in January 1875, at 
Cedar Rapids. 

I). W. TiiAYKK, Pre,s. 

-J. M. May, Si'c\i/. 



For the American Bee .lournal. 



Our Afflictions. 



Not always is the bee-keeper's path 
•strewn with clover-blossoms — 

" Roses. C^'ula ! you mean roses," in- 
terposes Nellie, looking over my shoul- 
der with a critic's eye. 

No, indeed ! What bee-keeper, worthy 
of the name, would exchange clover-blos- 
-soms for roses ? Moreover, the phrase 
is more truly descriptive, besides being 
considerably less shop-worn." 

Not ahvays is the bee-keepers' path 
•strewn with clover-blossoms, nor alwa^^s 
to his eager lips may the honeyed 
'draught of success — 

" Which is his mead ! '" queries Nellie. 

Putting down my pen. with mild se- 
verity I speak: "My dear, if you have 
any sensible suggestions to offer" — 

A succession of brisk, snapping sounds 
accompanied by an odor as of burning 
coffee, creates a iliversion whif-h enables 
Nellie to make a not altogether inglori- 
ous retreat to the kitchen. 

Resuming m}' pen with an unhappy 
consciousness of l)eing unable to begin 
exactly whei-e i left off, I spend some 
moments in peri)lexity, niblpling at the 
end of the holder. I become aware, at 
length, that it will be necessar}' to take 
an entirely fresh start 

* ' * * * ;;: * 

Do my readers — any of them — re- 
.meraber our •• maiden '" swai-m, of last 



July? We thought its story told; but 
alas! there is a sequel. ■• Happy is the 
nation that lias no hist(»i-y," says a wise 
old proverb: and no less t i-ue is it of a 
colony. 

From the time that our "maiden'" 
swarm — No. 7 by name — decided to ac- 
cept the situation and make the best of 
it, they had furnished no occasion for 
criticism. Their ten fi-ames were speed- 
ily filled Avith fauUlessl}' regular combs, 
whereof but a ti-ifling amount was drone 
comb. In some shallow frames above, 
they likewise put goodly beginnings of 
worker comb, for which next season 
will find use. 

On the l(3th of October, when I made 
for them winter passages and removed 
surplus hone}', my only anxiety was 
lest there were too many bees for prof- 
itable wintering. At this time there 
was a little capped brood, but neither 
eggs nor larva'. The day being some- 
what cool, and unnecessary exposure 
an evil, I made no search for the queen, 
and did not see her. 

The bees were unusualh' cross, and, 
in subduing them, I used a little tobacco 
— something I had never done before. 
(Be assured, however, that it was not 
used in masculine style. ) Whether this 
had, or had not, any connection with 
what followed. I cannot tell. 

Toward night of this day, an unusual 
commotion was noticed at No. 7. There 
was running to and fro at the eittrance, 
and htirrying hither and yon, as viewed 
through the observation-glass. Apply- 
ing my hand to the glass, I found an 
unwonted degree of heat. We agreed, 
Nellie and I, that it was curious ! We 
agreed, too, that we were unable to 
solve the m^-stery, and also to wait 
calmly, and without much anxiety, for 
the excitement to subside. 

A latent fear, however, awoke me 
early next morning, and impelled me 
to go forth to make rencAved investiga- 
tions betbre breakfast. It was a cool, 
frosty morning. To my surprise, the 
observation-glass was still warm, and 
the bees were still excited. While I 
pondered, I noticed at the entrance a 
dead body of unusual appearance, and 
bending nearer, I saw, to my unspeak- 
able horror, that it had no wings! that 
it was a queen — even my poor Rebecca! 



54 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



*^ 



(The experienced bee-keeper, who has 
lost whole colonies, or mayhap, an en- 
tire apiary, by disease, or frost, or fire, 
will bo kind enough to conceal the 
smile he may not be wholly able to re- 
press. To lose the queen to one's strong- 
est colony, so late in the season, was 
misfortune enough for a beginner. But 
this queen was peculiarly dear to me, 
as being the oldest queen of my own 
rearing,and the onlj- queen whose wings 
I had heartlessly clipped.) 

When sufReiontly recovered to do so, 
I picked up the little body and vainly 
tried to warm it to life with my breath. 
Then, having carefully but hopelessly, 
deposited it in a warm place, I obeyed 
a summons to breakfast, and seated 
myself to pour the cofliee, with what 
was meant for a calm and tranquil de- 
meanor. 

" Are you sick. Cyula ? " inquired 
Tiichard. 

" Oh no ! " I responded, with a ghast- 
ly smile, and a sudden but nerveless 
attack upon a large potatoe. 

" Shan't I make you some toast, Cy- 
ula?" anxiously inquired Nellie, a few 
moments later. 

" Oh no, I believe I am not very hun- 
gry this morning." 

"But wouldn't you like a cup of tea ? " 
persisted Nellie. 

" No, — your coffee is delicious, Nel- 
lie," hastil}' raising my cup. 

" I believe that you had not tasted 
it ! " she exclaimed, half indignantly. 
"It is one -half, at least, cold coffee 
warmed over ! " 

Conscious guilt prevented other reply 
than an apologetic smile. A little after, 
Nellie's hand stole across under the 
corner of the table, and gave my dress 
a sj^mpathctic twitch. As I looked up, 
"What is it?" her eyes asked. 
" Nothing — that is — after breakfast 
1 will tell you," I responded in an un- 
dertone ; and then, having replenished 
the empty cups, I escaped to the next 
room, whither Nellie soon followed me: 
her breakfast, spite of my good inten- 
tions, having been almost as effectually 
spoiled as my own. 

An hour afterward — vai'ious plans 
having been diseussc<l and rejected 
meanwhile — Nellie suggested : 
" Send to Mr. foi- a queen." 



" 'Tis too late, I fear." 

" Do you fear that he has no queens 
left ? or that the weather may be too- 
cold to send one?" 

" Both." 

" But since nothing better can be 
done you might try." 

Briefly told, the trial was made. Fort- 
une favored our attempt more thart 
could have been expected ; and about 
twelve days after Rebecca's decease, we 
received through the postoffice, a cun- 
ning little cage, holding the much de- 
sired queen, with about a score of at- 
tendants. The tin}^ colony had been 
amph^ provisioned with half a stick of 
candy and a small sponge of water. Not 
a bee had died during the four days 
which had elapsed between the posting 
and the receipt of the small package. 

We felt then that our trial was over. 
To suppose that our bees could be un- 
reasonable enough, and so ungrateful 
as to object to their new queen, scarce- 
ly occurred to us as a possibility. We 
had so identified ourselves with the col- 
ony in their loss, had been so affected 
by their plaintive nioanings (or what, 
to our excited imagination seemed 
such), by their restless searchings, and 
aimless wanderings — in short we had 
made their grief so much our own, that 
— as in effect we have already said — 
we scarcely thought to ask oui'selves, if 
they would sympathize with us in our 
joyful reception of the new queen. In 
our simplicity we took it for granted. 

Nevertheless, we thought best to pro- 
ceed according to rule : so, for more 
than forty-eight hours, the bereaved 
colony were permitted to make th®^ 
acquaintance of their new sovereign^ 
through the meshes of her cage. Thea 
the final 'introduction was performed 
with great ceremony, and according to 
all the rules of etiquette for such cases- 
provided. Apparently, it was success- 
ful. \ had one night of peaceful repose. 

Next morning, just to make assur^ 
ance doubly sure, I sent out Nellie to 
examine the entrance of the hive, I 
watching her through the window. 

She brushed away a few dead bees^ 
examining them in a manner satisfac- 
tory enough to her interested observer^ 
until, with a sudden start, she glanced 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



55 



up at the window. It was enono;h — 
the story had been told ! 

J left the window, and presently Nel- 
lie came in to tell me, what I already 
knew — the new queen had been mur- 
dered by her rebellious subjects. 

Cyula Linswik. 



North Eastern Bee-Keepers'Association, 

THE FOURTH ANNUAL CONVENTION, HELD 
AT UTICA, N. Y., FEB, 4 AND 5, 1874. 



FTRST HAY. 

After the preliminary business mutters were 
disposed of, President M. Quinby, of St. 
•lohnsville, delivered his opening address, 
from which we jirint extracts as follows : 

WHY UOK'T FAKilERS KEEP BEES. 

This question put to most farmers might 
be briefly answered, Because I don't know 
how. But, like tlie Yankee, who answered 
one question by answering another, it indi- 
cates the importance of asking wJiy we do 
not know how. And answering this involves 
the asking of a thousand others in the multi- 
plied ramiflcatious leading from it. Do not 
expect me to answer all, or even very many, 
for the very significant reason given above, 
I do not knoic how. 

Bee-keepers desirous of promoting this 
branch of science, must present inducements 
to the farmers themselves, before they have 
any to present to their sons. Nearly all that 
have been ottered have been presented very 
unskillfully. One class simjily believes that 
improvements have been made in the hives, 
without understanding why they are improve- 
ments; and we find some hives patented, not 
because they are improvements, but because 
they are difterent from others. Bought and 
sold, not because they will promote bee-cul- 
ture, but because money is expected to be 
made without labor. Practical knowledge 
of management can no more be bought with 
a price, than capacity for the school-boy. 
Failure has been the consequence of suppos- 
ing it could, and to-day ten empty hives can 
be found piled up as wasted lumber, where 
one can be found containing bees. The result 
presents but few inducements for the farmer 
to begin bee-keeping. Another class — small 
to be sure — endeavor to make bee-keeping 
attractive to the masses. Owing to the pe- 
culiar training of the farmer, and his own 
ignorance of the subject, their etlbrts have 
proved nearly abortive. 

Two years ago, sonu; progressi\e bee-kee])- 
ers attended the discussion on this subject, at 
the rooms of the State Agricultural Society. 
It was expected some success would follow 
their efl'orts, as some important jioints in 
their experience were given, the result of 



what they knew — little in comparison to 
what will be known — and they gave it freely, 
without money and without i)ri(;e. It was 
shown very conclusively that a man had .se- 
cured, in one season, So, 000 lbs. of surplus 
honey, and saved his bees for another year, 
his sales amounting to over $7,000. We ex- 
hibited very clearly by this one case the 
amount that could be collected on a small 
area of land. And this in turn gave very 
clearly the amount produced in the area of 
the whole State — which amounted to mill- 
ions upon millions of pounds — that of other 
States not mentioned. The object in making 
this statement was to show" that there was no 
lack of honey to gather, now wasted, to en- 
gage all the enterprise likely to be enlisted in 
a hundred years yet. The object in stating 
the amount collected by one individual, was 
to show the difference in results, between the 
old and new method of bee-culture. 

Understanding something of the manner in 
which farmers had been educated in this mat- 
ter, and suspecting it might not be received 
as a truthful relation, it was suggested that a 
committee be appointed to investigate the 
statements made by the society. A resolution 
to that eft'ect was oftered, but never carried 
out. Had it been, it might have settled the 
point relative to the facts. A prominent 
member, an otficer of the society and chair- 
man of the meeting, who seemed to know 
something of bees by his own experience, 
said that he had kept bees many years, and 
never found them very profitable. Once in 
al)out five years in good seasons, they paid; 
other seasons it was more trouble to keep 
them alive, than they paid for, advised young 
farmers to be very careful how they invested 
in the business. In these remarks we find an 
answer to the question why a certain class 
do not keep bees. Coming from a prominent 
man, all would suppose him qualified to de- 
cide. On what grounds the decision was made 
was not asked. He evidently did not believe 
the statement made by the society. But his 
experience of twenty years ago could not be 
supi)osed to have any great value now, and it 
was hardly fair to give it as proof that bee- 
keeping would not pay, thus discouraging fu- 
ture effort. Sheep husbandry has been 
taught for thousands of years. Should a man 
that discovered some improvement over his 
neighbor's management at this late day refuse 
to give it to his neighbor; or should the neigh- 
bor, if it should be given him, refuse credence 
to his story because he had kept sheep many 
years and thought he knew about all there 
was to be known on the subject, and say that 
some years they paid very well, but he thought 
the chances of dry weather, i)oor pasture, poor 
fences and other casualties made it rather 
ri.sky business ? Should he not be careful how 
he discourages progression '/ This course, no 
doubt, discouraged bee-keei)ing the more be- 



56 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



cause of the high source from which it came. 

Teacliers iu any uew science must expect to 
labor without recompense iu worldly wealth. 
It must first be established beyond dispute 
that it is a science, that there is knowledge 
yet to be had for the inquirer. There must 
be created a desire to obtain this knowledge 
before any recompense is thought of. I will 
not say that some of the objections raised 
liave their foundation only in spite, but they 
certainly savor a little of it. It would almost 
seem as if the greater tlie success, the stronger 
the opposition. 

The greatest calamity that has befallen bee- 
keepers the past two winters, has been the loss 
of stocks. Whenever a similar calamity visits 
the dairyman or horse breeder, like the rind- 
erpest or epizootic, the whole country is agi- 
tated. Not a paper but hoists the signal of 
distress, losses are enumerated, damages re- 
counted, remedies suggested, and sympathy 
without stint given. 

But when the bee-keepers are assailed Avith 
reverses like the devastations of the moth, 
foul brood, calamitous wintering, etc., etc., 
not a note of distress is sounded, nor a word 
of sympathy uttered, perhaps because we are 
weak in numbers. Unless we can help 
ourselves, it appears we must not expect to be 
helped. How much have we done toward 
solving the problem of the past two winters ? 
Among all the theories yet advanced, only a 
small part, as yet, seem probable. Dysentery 
in one of its worst forms, is common immedi- 
ately preceding the death of tlie colony. 
Most of us have inquired into the cause of 
dysentery. It has been suggested that it is in 
the unhealthy quality of tlie honey, and pure 
syrup of sugar has been substituted as food 
for the bees, hoping to avert the disease. Oth- 
ers have supposed that simply protracted cold 
will produce it. Others have taken this view 
of il : When the bee has filled itself witli its 
food — honey or syrup — and is kept warm 
enough, tlie liquid portion passes oft' into the 
air, in the form of vapor, while the more sol- 
id part is changed into wax, or passes as ex- 
crement in a dry state. But when the single 
bee is chilled for only a sliort time, or when 
the cluster is chilled betw een the combs in 
the hive so as to prevent those on the outside 
of the cluster from changing places with 
warmer ones inside, the liquid portion is not 
exhaled, but remains in the abdomen till it 
can no longer be retained, and they leaver and 
discharge it, soiling eveiything near at liand. 
They seldom return, and tiie cluster grows 
smaller, till gone. 

It is i)roper that we should, like skillful 
physicians, examine tlie subject in all its 
bearings, and if we are fortunate enough to 
find the cause, we may possibly tind the rem- 
edy; in which ca.se we shall l)enefit bee-keep- 
ers as much as the philanthropist who helped 
discover the cause and remedy of rinderpest. 



i If bees can be made to pass the winter as 
I safely as cattle or horses, we shall have taken 
! one important step toward advancing bee- 
I keeping. I think they can. Some of the 
i younger members among us may yet consider 
this calamity a blessing. They may be led 
to guard against future disaster successfully, 
by the investigation of facts which would 
never have been thought of but for the dis- 
aster. 

The fear of stings is greatly iu the way of 
progression. Can we not do something more 
to remove some of this faint-hearted timidity ? 
There is much to be done in this line. The 
man can do but little in studying the nature 
of the bee who is constantly thinking of stings, 
instead of his studies. If he makes the sting 
a study — and it is a broad one, — he must get 
rid of the dreadful fear of it, or he will not 
progress very much. lie may sit quietly 
down, take the sting, with or without a mag- 
nifier, and he will see that he has only a small 
instrument of warfare, so minute that a punc- 
ture in tlie flesh made with it, would not be 
realized were it destitute of poison. He will 
then inquire what made the smart. Exam- 
ing closer he will discover at the base of the 
sting quite a lump detached from the bee's 
body — apparently a part of it — saturated with 
a clear, transparent liquid; it may be seen 
glistening over the surface before parted 
from the bee. When thrust into the skin a 
very small particle of the subtle poison is 
transmitted into the flesh, producing the sens- 
ation so much dreaded. 

When a quiet cluster is resting and dis- 
turbed moderately, tliey simply put up the 
abdomen in such a way that it will not touch 
another bee, put out the sting, and exude a 
tiny globule, nearly covering it, saying as 
plainly as actions can speak, " You must be- 
ware how you proceed further. See what 
the Creator luis given us as defense against 
the ruthless spoiler. You have wronged us 
for ages. We begin moderately, as you have. 
Now we have given you a sight ; we have 
given you a snitt"; we can give you a taste." 
When he can understand their language, if he 
is judicious, lie will set himself to interpret- 
ing it — will try to see under what circum- 
stances bees are disposed to sting; see when 
this acrid poison is set afloat in the air, 
and what eflect it has on other colonies; see 
if a quick motion, while this is in circulation, 
does not attract attention. He will discover 
that bees, when busily engaged bringing 
stores have less time to resent insults — real 
or imaginary — than when quietly reposing 
on a cool morning; and that on a pleasant 
day they are less spiteful; and that such 
time is the best to work with thi'm. When 
this poison is floating about, informing sur- 
rounding bees that they have been disturbed, 
he will in(|uire if any substance will neutral- 
ize or destroy it. He will find that smoke of 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



57 



Tiijis, paper, wood, or tobacco, thoroughly 
<litVuscd throiiiih the atmosphere, will do it 
■let^eetually. This has lon<? been used. But 
he will ask if the best way of ajiplyinj!; it has 
yet been discovered; if he is thorough he will 
iiiul whether it can be api)lied so etVectually 
that none of this poison will be perceiUible 
in the air, and no bee have cause for anger or 
disposition to sting. And he may go into 
their midst without fear, nor tremble at the 
a])proach of a tiny bi'C; and he can jiursue 
his studies and make disioveries unmolested, 
and add to our knowledge of the science. 

When this is known, this inirsuit will be 
made more attractive and profitable to ladies 
und children, and eiw.n fdrmerx' .sons. When 
we can trace the natural history of the bee as 
it is, not as said to be by thousands who have 
<lrawn on imagination for theories, that can 
be upset by the first scrutinizing observation 
of facts, we shall be more likely to interest 
the student. Witness the mistakes made — 
almost with his last breath — by one of the 
most profound naturalists of the age, liefore 
a college of students. It was copied by the 
agricultural press extensively. It was criti- 
cised by one who had made this branch of 
natural history a specialty. Few, probably, 
would dare sanction the criticism, not know- 
ing enough of the real history of the hee, to 
decide upon its merits; they would be likely 
to conclude, as most of us would, that the 
eminent man was probably nearest correct. 
It is our duty to examine all these things, 
tthat we may be able to decide for ourselves, 
and advance science. 

I have endeavored to show that Ave are not 
ito blame for what we do not know — that we 
•cannot make a thought. But when we have 
a thought, which, given to others, would 
make them think, and we refuse to give it, 
are we not censurable ? I have endeavored 
to give some of the reasons why the people 
do not keep bees; also some reasons why 
they should keep bees. Will each of you go 
farther and explain things clearer. 

Upon motion of Captain Hetherington, a 
"vote of thanks was tendered to President Quin- 
by for his able address. Mr. Alexander, of 
Camden, expressed his deep appreciation of 
the unselfish motives and generous good will 
which induced the President and other emi- 
nent bee-keepers to prepare addresses for the 
instruction of their fellow-men when no hope 
•of pecuniary reward could incite them. 

Mr. S. Alexander, of Camden, read a pleas- 
ing paper, of which the following is an ab- 
stract : 

Whether the Darwinian theory of evolution 
be the true one, that matter is its own law- 
maker, or whether, with Agassiz, it requires 
some special hitches occasionally, or whether, 
with Davis' harmonial phi]osoi)hy, that sjiirit 
acts in and througli matter, is to me, at pres- 



ent, of very little account — enough that this 
world contains bees and men, and that they 
are, mutually advantageous, and, perhaps, 
mutually instructive. While others, with 
philanthroi)ic intent, are hoping to educate 
them to resignation to be i)lundered scientific- 
ally, as we are legally, be mine the task to 
try to educat(! myself, by studying some of 
their peculiarities and characteristics. 

Their polity, their government, their way 
of doing things, 1 think is somewhat instruct- 
ive. They can not be said to be strictly 
communists but thorough co-operationists, 
which I think is as far as they have gone, and 
farther than we have gone. I think we might 
take some useful lessons from them ; for in- 
stance, from their manner of disposing of 
gentlemen of leisure, though on humane and 
philosophical principles,! am opposed to cap- 
ital punishment; but I am willing to let them 
try out-door exercise even if the coming sea- 
son be somewhat inclement. Whether these 
gentlemen are credit mobiliers in the hive or 
out, or only go in for w'atering stocks, I will 
not attempt to say, but the patrons of hus- 
bandry of the hive seem to consider them as 
middle-men, only to be used when absolutely 
necessarj', and at all other times worthy of 
immolation. Whether they go for salary 
grab, or civil-service reform, seems entirely 
inconsequential to the internationals, Italian 
or otherwise. Indeed the gold-ringed counts 
seem to be as radical as our black republicans. 
And then there is the woman question; here,' 
perhaps w^e differ some, the most of our lady 
apiarians maintaining, I presume, that it is the 
best government ever devised by bees or men 
— queen in regal dignity, presiding with 
graceful authority; while others, — and that 
they should have the Quiuby authority in 
their favor ! that it is a strict democracy. 

Captain Heathcrington, Treasurer, read his 
report, acknowledging a total of receipts of 
$51.00, including the previous year's balance. 
The receipts of the last convention were $17. 
The expenditures for the year were $21.09. 

Agreeable to a suggestion, the Secretar}- 
read the Constitution, and an opportunity wa.s 
offered for the enrollment of new members. 
Several new names were added to the list. 

The election of officers for the coming year 
was eft'ected with the following results : 

President — M. Quinby, of St. Johnsville. 

Vice President — S. Alexander, of Camden. 

Secretar}^ — J. 11. Nellis, of Canajoharie. 

Treasurer — J. E. Heatherington, of Cherry 
Valley. 

President Quinby presented the following 
question for discussion : " Does the clipping 
the wings of the queen injure her capacity for 
usefulness V " 

P. H. Elwood had never observed that clip- 
ping, properly done, injured the queen. If 
the clipping Avas too close he had known the 
workers to kill her. 



58 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Secretary Nellis asked how short to clip. 

Mr. Ehvoocl thought one wing two-thirds 
oft" was best. 

Mr. Quinbj' stated that the object of clip- 
ping was to prevent the queen from ftyiug 
when the swarm comes from the hive, and 
without the queen the .swarm Avill not depart. 
yThe question is, Is the queen rendered less 
fertile by the clipping V 

Mr. Nellis. At the Louisville Conven- 
tion, a member read a paper on bees' wings, 
in which it was stated that .several of the 
functions of the bee were located in the 
wings, such as breathing, etc. I think the 
theory very erroneous. I have practiced clip- 
ping for live or six years, and have seen no 
bad results. I have at present more than 
forty queens with wings cut oft' and consider 
them as servicable as others. 

Mr. Doolittle, of Onondaga Co. I would 
like to ask how many wings were cut, and 
what instrument was used V 

Mr. Nellis. I have sometimes cut all the 
wings two-thirds oft', and I did not consider 
the queen injured. Formerly I cut the wings 
with a knife, but now I use a small pair of 
lady's scissors. I would advise cutting tlie 
wings on one side two-thirds oft'. 

Mr. Vandervoort. I have clipped ({ueens 
for ftfteen years, and never saw any injury 
from it, except where I had cut so short as to 
hurt the bone. 

Captain Heatherington. I have practiced 
clipping some time. I have had three and 
four hundred clipped at once. Clipped queens 
are more likely to be superseded. I think 
this happens because the ([ueen is regarded 
as a cripple by the otiier bees. But I shall 
practice clipping, nevertheless. 

Mr. Doolittle. I am certain that clipping 
oft' both wings and one leg will not injure the 
queen's capacity. 

Mr. Alexander. I have no doubt that the 
bees perceive the deformation, and are led 
to supersede her. I think, also, tliat contin- 
ued clipping might, after generations, aft'ect 
the insect. "There are sensations located in 
the wings, and bees communicate by the 
noise made by them, but convenience calls 
for clipping, nevertheless. 

Mr. Doolittle. I think I can prove the abil- 
ity of clipped queens. 1 have clippeci oft" a 
queen's wings and a hind leg close to tlie 
body, and the bee worked for four years. 

Mr. Heatherington. Tlie point needs wi- 
der proof tlian a single instance. 

Mr. Doolittle. I liave several queens all of 
wliose wings are clipped close to tlie body. 

Mr. Bc^ltsinger, of Onondaga Co. I agree 
with Mr. Doolittle. 1 have .seen his crippled 
queen. She is a good eft'ective queen. 1 have 
clipped for eight years. I began by clipping 
one of the four wings, and the queen went 
with tlie swarm. 1 then elipi)ed oft" eveiy 
wing entirely. I have ninety queens witlunit 



a vestige of a wing, and I can say. Do not be 
afraid to clip oft" the Avings. 

Mr. Heatherington. I am certain that na 
queen with a wing clipped can light witli a 
swarm upon a tree. 

Mr. Doolittle. I have known of cases like 
that instanced by Mr. IJettsinger. 

Mr. Nellis. I think even a little of the wing 
clipped would retard the flight. I can not 
comprehend how a queen with a whole wing 
gone could go with a swarm. 

Mr. Quinby. I know of a case in which a 
sw^arm went out Avith a young queen, and 
left the clipped queen in the hive. Perhaps 
some of the contradictions may be accounted 
for by the fact of new queens. 

Mr. Doolittle. A queen, after ridding her- 
self of her eggs, becomes as slim as a working 
bee, and can fly with one wing gone. 

Mr. Elwood. I claim that clipi)ing off" all 
the wings subjects them to liazard in falling, 
as a C[ueen with part of a Aving gone could 
not fall as one with all gone. I think clipping 
one Aving on each side of the body might bal- 
ance the insect and enable it to fly. 

Mr. Heatherington. A clipped queen is 
most likely to drop from a cluster in moving. 

Mr. Bettsinger. Black bees arc more liable 
to drop than the Italians. Italians cling close 
ly to the comb. I experiment continually, 
and have tried to see Avhether the clipping 
injured the queen. The Avings are to beai' 
the body through the air. They cannot use 
them in the hive. They cannot make a noise 
Avith them; they can not do anything Avith 
Avings but go through the air. The ([ueen's 
business is in the hive, wings are of no use 
there. 

The question next presented Avas, "How 
soon after hatching is the queen capable of 
laying ? " 

Mr. Quinby had knoAvn them to lay in sev- 
en days. 

Mr. Nellis believed, in the working .season, 
the average Avas nine days. 

Mr. Doolittle said the shortest time he had 
knoAvn Avas thre(! days, generally from four 
to six days. ]Mr. Bettsinger approved of four 
to six days, under favorable circumstances, in 
the majority of cases. Mr. Ehvood said, once 
his trouble Avas to get them to lay at all. 
Sometimes tAvo Aveeks elajised, and in the fall 
it was longer. Mr. Bettsinger Avould kill 
queens Avhicli did not lay in ten days. By 
favorable circumstances, he meant a full 
SAvarm, Avith bees Avorking well and i)utting in 
lotsof honey. Mr. Doolittle made a distinction 
between natural, arliticial and forced (lueens. 
He thought forced ([ueens good for nothing. 

Vice I^resident Alexander, assuming the 
chair, submitted the question Avhether tho.so 
queens raised by artiflcial nu-ans are equal to 
the natural jn'oduction of the hive. 

.Mr. Doolittle said he meant, by forced 
queens, those which are h: t''hed in From seven 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



59 



to ton days. An artificial queen, hatched in 

from I'levt'ii to tiftceii days, is as gootl as a 
uatural ((lU'i'n. 

Mr. Quinhy liad raised (luecns for ten years. 
Ho never raised one which came out short of 
ten days, lie knew nothinu; of five or seven 
days (lueens. lie pive the bees brood and 
watched the time; tliey never gained but a few 
hours on llie ten days. He could not see what 
was meant by forced iiueens. IIoav are tlu;y 
distinguislied" from a natural ([ueeny They 
are raised in a small box containing forty t)r 
fifty eggs. Tlie bees find they have no (lueen 
and go to make one. The whole attention of 
the group is directed to producing a (jucen. 
In a full hive there are combs to be taken 
care of. In the box the bees can work for the 
queen. The fertility of queens raised in a lit- 
tle box shows the better care their rearing has 
had. 

Mr. Doolittle's idea was that queens could 
be hatched in seven days, taking larva* five 
days old. He had raised such ([ueens and they 
were useless. It may be done in a full hive 
or in a nucleus box, the result is the same. 

Captain Heutheringtou asked how he could 
estimate the age of a larva. 

Mr. Doolittle said a larva live days old 
nearly filled the cell, and the bees can convert 
sucli a larva into a queen. His method of 
raising queens is by taking the queen out of the 
hive, and inserting brood of another species if 
he wishes to make a change. In the hurry 
to get a queen the bees will take the larvie 
which can make queens soonest. 

Mr. Bettsinger used the small box first, and 
then raised (lueeus artificially in a natural way 
in a full stock of bees. First take away the 
queen, then in G or 8 days cut off tlie- cells 
started and introduce eggs of the kind wished 
for. As the egg hatches into a larva, the bees 
feed it and thus secure natural queens, arti- 
ficially. 

Mr. Vandervort had raised queens since 
1868, and had never known a queen to hatch 
in less than 10 days. 

Mr. Doolittle said his experiments were 
very accurate, and he was satisfied with his re- 
sults. 

SECOND DAY. j 

Mr. Quinby culled for the discussion of the j 
question, " The best mode of wintering bees." 
Mr. Bacon said his trouble is in " springing" ! 
bee«, and he wished that added to the ques- i 
tion. The discussion followed : '• 

Mr. Quinby. For forty years I have kept 
bees, and during the last two years I lost ma- 1 
ny more than usual. I propose to inciuire \ 
into tlie causes of the fatality. If the cause ' 
is in the honey, or in tlie temperatun', wt; i 
should know it. The honey has probably j 
not changed from year to year. The cold | 
weather Iiks been severe and protracted. 



Experience should be related upon this ques- 
tion of cau.ses. 

,Mr. Bacon, of Verona. My first lesson in 
bee-keeping was severe. I was nearly stung 
to di'atli in ( hildliood. 1 have kept bees ever 
since. 1 never liad any experience with dys- 
entery ill bees until the last two years. I have, 
until two years, kept bees successfully in a 
cellar. 1 have had h'ss difficulty with tlie old 
box hives than with the franu! hives. I nev- 
er had, until lately, any cases of dysentery 
witli the box hives. Last jear I noticed it, 
but it was in frame hives. I put out the bees 
in good condition in April. Tlie weather was 
cold. My l)est bees were goni^ by the first of 
j\lay. They died seemingly in the fields. I 
believe the cold winds killed them. Their 
constitutions were first weakened by the long 
winter and by the poorer quality of the hon- 
ey, and the cold air struck tliein down. Aliout 
the first of June the Aveather changed, and 
bees which had any life revived. I have now 
built a bee-house. I dug a trench two feet 
deep, twelve by eighteen feet. I filled it with 
stone. This was the foundation for the sills. 
My .studs were five inches deep. I boarded 
outside and inside and filled in with dry earth. 
Overhead the ceiling was close and filled in 
to the tops of the joists with earth also. I 
filled the windows with closely fitting saw- 
dust boxes. The doors were like safe doors 
and filled with sawdust. My walls have three 
thicknesses of boards, five inches of dry earth 
and two inclies of dead air. I ventilate with 
a tube six inches square made of boards nail- 
ed together. This tube has a damper in it, 
and runs along the fioor, and has holes bored 
in it to let the air escape into the room. I 
have top ventilation with two five-inch aper- 
tures, which may be closed. I put in the 
bees, packed closely, one stock above anoth- 
er. The room is darkened comfortably. I 
put the bees in, in November. The weather 
Avas very severe about the middle of the 
month. Before the bees Avere put in, I heat- 
ed the room A^ery warm to drive out the moist- 
ure, then put out the fire and let it gradually 
cool doAvn. In January, on a fine day, 1 took 
out half the bees and gave them a chance to 
fiy. After a time, those taken out had no 
dysentery, Avhile those Avliich had not been 
aired had it. I am very reluctant to enter 
the bee-house Avith a light. The temperature 
runs about forty degrees on an average. It 
is Avarmer than I ever kept them before. The 
cost of my building Avas $125 in cash; no 
charge being made for my time. A building 
of the .same kind might be built rougher and 
cheaper. I believe sugar feeding Avill not 
save bees. It may lie a little better than hon- 
ey in some respects, but not generally trust- 
Avorthy. My frame liives Avliich failed to 
Avinter Avcre scA'cnteeu by nine and one-half 
inches. I never Avill use any frames short of a 
foot di'ei) in the clcitr. Bees will winter be ter 



60 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



in a deep hive. I put straw over some of the ; 
hives, and tliey did better tlian those without. ; 

L. C. Root. In wintering bees, tliere arc 
three things necessary : Proper condition i 
when going into winter quarters, proper tem- 
perature, and quiet. Bees are usually in best 
condition to go into winter quarters, when 
the honey is stored from time to time during 
the season — the amount being increased as 
tlie brood diminishes. This leaves empty 
comb where bees cluster. The principal ob- 
jection to late fall feeding is the hive contains 
no brood, and the honey or sugar fed is stored 
too much in the centre of the combs. We 
tind that about forty -five degrees is the proper 
temperature where they are subject to any 
jar. I think if tliey could have perfect quiet, 
they would stand a much higher temperature, 
and consume a less fiuantity of honey. In 
our cellars the present winter, where the ther- 
mometer stands at forty-five to forty-seven 
degrees, one swarm consumed two and three- 
fourths pounds during November; one and 
three-fourths during December; one and 
three-fourths jiounds during January. An- 
other swarm consumed four and three-fourths 
pounds during November; two and three- 
fourths during December; five and three- 
fourths during January. The difference in 
quantity is owing to warmth and quiet. 

S. A. Cleveland. I believe we should report 
our losses. A year ago I had forty swarms 
in good condition. From all my frame hives 
I had extracted the honey. I continued to 
feed one-quarter of a pound a day of sugar, 
until April 1. They seemed in good condi- 
tion. I set them out, and they were raising 
young bees. About April 2()th I noticed they 
did not eat the honey. I only succeeded in 
getting seven through the spring. Four out 
of six in box hives survived. They had no 
honey taken from them during the year be- 1 
fore. Last year my record was all reverses, j 

M. n. Tennant. Quiet is what bees need, f 
I went into my bee-house Wednesday even- 
ing, and I never saw better swarms than [ 
those fed with my feeder. I feed nothing ' 
but pure box honey. I have succeeded very j 
well with straight "A" sugar. My house is j 
fourteen by sixteen feet, above ground, with ; 
saw-dust-filled walls, ventilated above and j 
below, the current of air passing up the cen- ! 
tve of the room, and the bees standing around | 
tlie sides. I put cleats on the fioor, and then [ 
piled the hives one above the other, bringing | 
them out a little from the wall. I think a ■ 
floor should be avoided, as you can not step 
on it without jarring. One winter I only i 
went into the bee-house four times, and only | 
lost two swarms. , In the spring I lost eleven. ', 
I found them around on the fen(^es, where | 
caught them and chilled them 



the wind had 
fast. 

L. C. Root, 
ruins the bees. 



It 



is i)rotracted cold which 
wind from one direction 



will drive the bees to the other side of the 
hive. They will eat all the honey on that 
side and die. They cannot get back to the 
food on the cold side. Getting excited induc- 
es the bees to leave the cluster, and then they 
get chilled easily. 

R. Bacon. I am slow to believe that cold 
alone produces dysentery. We should learn 
the cause for a certainty, if possible. 

S. Alexander. I believe with Mr. Root 
that long detention in the house will not in- 
jure the bees. We bought a hive of a neigh- 
bor who left it in until IVIay 15. It was the 
best hive we had. We put out the bees early, 
and saved them, but those left in until May 
were the best bees. The idea in modern hives 
is to make them non conductors. This, of 
course, makes it slow business to warm theui. 
Thus protracted cold results. This might 
account for Mr. Bacon's bees not doing so 
well in frame as in box hives. 

J. H. Nellis. This would work if bees 
were not capable of producing warmth. In 
an article written some time ago, Mrs. Tupper 
asserts that she wintered bees very success- 
fully in a cellar, under a living room in which 
children were constantly romping. I once 
wintered bees, some in box, some in frame 
hives, under ten feet of snow, from January 
to April. I shoveled them out and rapped on 
the hive with no result. They were dormant, 
and it took an hour to re^■ive them. The}' 
were in good condition. I have wintered 
bees very nicely in a cellar at a temperature 
of forty degrees. The last two winters have 
been disastrous, howevei*. The winter of 
1872, I had seventy-seven stocks in the cellar 
— forty-four in box hives. Lost more than 
one-half of those in box hives, and but few 
of those in frame hives. I think the bees in 
frame hives were stronger and more thorough- 
ly bred. I lost about one-fourth of my stocks. 
In tlie fall I fed five stocks on sugar syrup. 
They wintered better than tiie average, yet 
not satisfactorily. Those subsisting on late- 
gatheied honey wintered as well as those sup- 
plied \Nith honey stored early. The cellar 
averaged probably about thirty-five degrees. 
I think they should be kept warmer — about 
forty-two degrees, and after the first of 
March they should be warmed frequently to 
fifty degrees. I would have them breed con- 
siderably afti-r the first of ]March. I think 
the scarcity of young bees at the time stocks 
are taken from the cellar, the prime cause 
of disaster in the spring. The old bees die 
of natural c-auses, and leave what little brood 
is started, unprotected. I have known 
stoi-ks in rickety box hives to winter well out 
of doors in llu' nu)st exposed situations. Facts 
are so apparently contradictory, that I cannot 
reach any certain conclusion. 

Capt. Ileatherington. We bought some 
bees in Vermont of a Frenchman who had 
left his bees until May. His bees were in as 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, 



(U 



fine condition as I ever saw anywhere. 1 
tliink they were put in early. The shelter 
was ratheV defeetive, hut the walls were niaiU' 
of earth, and the prine.ii)le was eorreet. The 
ttoor was of earth. I lind a hee-rooni an e\- 
rellent plaee for keeping; honey in the sum- 
mer, and to avoid the danger of jarring the 
floor, a eoating of saw-dust might l)e used. 
1 began wintering in a building, and was suc- 
cessful. 1 left some out of doors and they 
were stronger. 1 changed in-door i)raetiee to 
t)Ut-door wintering, and changed to straw 
hives to winter out of doors. Straw is a good 
conductor of nu)isture and non-conductor of 
heat; that is what we nei d. Since we clu\uged 
to the Quinby hive and changed the tem- 
perature we have lost many swarms. 1 have 
now a special bee-house. The foundations 
are banked with earth. The floor is doubled, 
with thick paper between. The paper is 
made of prairie gra.ss. The frame is a balloon 
frame, with plaster board on each side, and 
side boarding outside, and ceiling inside be- 
sides. The space between the studs is filled 
with planing machine shavings. The walls 
are " furred " out and another thickness of 
paper so put on as to make a chamber of 
confined air, and ceiled again inside the paper. 
The walls contain three thicknesses of plaster 
board, three thicknesses of boards, and six 
inches of stuffing. The joists overhead are 
three by eight inches. The plaster hoard and 
ceiling board are fastened beneath the joists, 
the space filled with stuffing and plaster 
board, and tight flooring placed above. The 
building is eighteen by twenty -four feet, with 
partition through the middle, and hives on 
shelves around the sides. I am favorable to 
the use of dry earth in the walls. 

R. Bacon. I line with rough boards, and 
the influence of the dry earth can be gained 
through the cracks between the boards. I 
will give a hundred dollars for a method 
which, with fair management, will enable me 
to keep bees through the winter. 

L. C. Root. The convention can afford to 
give $5,(XM). 

G. M.Doolittle. . ]\Ir. Bacon's trouble with 
dysentery was caused by his disturbing the 
bees left in, and not because some were taken 
out and others left in. I believe if a swarm 
dies before February 1 , it was good for noth- 
ing when it was put in. I began with Mr. 
Quinby's method and wintered bees in the 
cellar. They did well the first year. The 
next year they came out well, but dwindled 
away because of the cold spring. Isext year 
there were many soiled combs. In the spring 
I lost heavily. I then began out-door win- 
tering, sweeping the snow around the hives 
aft«r every storm. I used Novice's quilts, 
and packed straw in the caps above. Until 
January 1, all was well. Then they began to 
steam up. The hive was in commotion. I 
took off the straw, leaving only a quilt. The 



quilt is calico cloth lined with cotton. The 
next morning they were still in Inid condition. 
I took them into the cellar and got the hive 
through, but it was not of much use. 1 be- 
lieve too warm weather is more dangerous 
than too cold. Fifty degrees 1 believe is too 
warm. It is too warm when they begin to 
breed. Last s])ring niy bees came out in good 
condition. For two weeks we had warm 
weather and the l)ees worked well. Then 
came the cold w eathcr. After five days the 
]arv;e were mostly dead. Many hives had 
only a double handful of young bees. I 
would not have bees comnu'n(;e breeding un- 
til after the first of February. I had a hive 
without brood until May, raid it was the best 
hive 1 had. I madt' forty-five dollars from 
that hive. 

L. C. Root. Don't close your hives at the 
bottom, so that the bees can not get out if the 
temperature induces them to fly. 

R. Bacon. I tried shutting up hives at the 
bottom, and supposed they were doing well, 
I examined the bees, and found the boards 
covered two inches deep with dead bees. 
Don't let bees think they are imprisoned. 
I leave a good deal of ventilation at the bot- 
tom. 

G. M. Doolittle. I have examined my 
closed hives, and found only five dead bees 
under one hive, and not more than a table- 
spoonful under another. I seal them up as 
tight as I can get them without sealing-wax. 

N. N. Bettsinger. I Avinter bees out of 
doors, putting straw on the top, with a hood 
over the hole. The steam passes through the 
straw% and freezes the hood tight. This tight 
closing is continued from January to spring. 
The bottom entrance becomes frozen up, and 
the hive is almost air-tight, so far as I can 
see. My bees are wintered on honey gath- 
ered in September and October. 1 do not 
believe that bees can cluster on the honey 
without freezing. Bees can stand a low tem- 
perature, even when away from the cluster. 
When they die here it is because of moisture, 
not cold. There is less moisture in the clus- 
ter than in the honey-combs outside. I keep 
my bees out of doors, and sweep the snow 
around them, sometimes covering the hives. 

Mr. Bacon. I have seen bad air burst t,rom 
a closed hive in such quantity as to extinguish 
a candle. In opening the hives the bees were 
found to be dying fast. I want to know how 
bees can live in such air. 

Vice President Alexander. I have in mind 
an instance in which bees, being much dis- 
turbed, generated heat enough to melt the 
comb and let the honey run down upon the 
floor. The bees were confined. I had a case 
of a ruined hive when closely shut in, and I 
think it came from lack of air. 

Mr. Vandervort. If cold has caused the 
mortality among bees, M'hy didn't it affect us 
years ago? I have known bees on the prui- 



62 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



ries of Illinois which have withstood long pe- 
riods of very cold weather and fixed winds. 

A gentleman said : I think the more air the 
bees get the better they will go tlirough the 
winter. I had a swarm with a season crack 
in tlic hive, standing in an old shed all winter, 
and they were in excellent condition in the 
spring. I think it is dampness rather than 
cold which kills the bees. 1 never had any 
trouble until within the last few years. 

Mr. Elwood. The theory was advanced at 
the last Convention tliat carbonic acid gas 
settles in the bottom of hives. I liave inves- 
tigated the subject with care, and find the 
theory to be erroneous. The constant tenden- 
dency of gasses to diffuse and intermingle 
renders it impossible for the hive to fill in 
that manner. 

AFTKKNOOX SESSION. 

President Quinby called the meeting to or- 
der at half-past two, and briefly reviewed the 
points, made at the morning session concern- 
ing winter care of bees. lie said : There is 
need of ventilation, and need of quiet from 
excitement. Dysentery is produced by the 
cold. The continued chill prevents proper 
digestion, and the disease soon follows. To 
*l)rove that dysentery does not result from the 
food, I will refer to a hive fed with sour hon- 
ey which did just as well as the others. An- 
other liive which I kept in a cold place and 
fed with the best food, were taken with the 
disease. I argue further, that in a warm, 
healthy state, the liquid part of the food is 
volatifized and passes into the air. In the 
disease the assimilation is faulty, and the 
fluid passes out as an excrement and causes 
the dysentery. I think temperature will be 
found to have more effect upon the health 
than the lack of ventilation. Keep the bees 
healthy, so that the excrement is dry when 
discliarged. It is not well to let them out to 
discharge a liquid excrement, which they 
will do "when chilled, but keep them in and 
keep them warm, so that the discharge may 
all be dry. 

Mr. Ellsworth. The fact that dysentery 
can be brought on almost instantly, is quite a 
corroboration of the idea that it is caused by 
sudden chilling. 

Mr. Bacon. Bees used to be handled far 
more carelessly some time ago than now, and 
were chilled more often; yet they did not 
luive dysentery. 

The time ha\ing arrived for the discussion 
to be closed, the next business in order, the 
selection of the place for the next meeting, 
was called up, and Utica was chosen. After 
some desultory remarks, the Convention ad- 
journed to meet in Utica the first Wednesday 
in February, 1875. 

We, herewith, present a table showing 
facts concerning the stocks and yields of 
some of our bee-keei)ers, as rejiorted to the 



Secretary of the Convention. We believe this 
is the first publication of the kind which has 
been made in this region, and hope the begin- 
ning may lead others to furnish us with re- 
ports of their operations : 



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THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



(i;5 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Wintering Bees. 

In the cxi)ericMicc related by Mr. 
Hester, in the American Bee Journal 
for Fcbruar}', I cannot recognize that 
in the cases i-eported there is bee-mahi- 
dy. Mr. Hester remarks, that in the 
autumn of 1808, one or two bee oums 
perished ; the bees dying one after an- 
other, in November. Is it not probable 
that the colonies were queenless, and 
that the bees perished for that cause? 
In a normal colony, the place occupied 
by the queen is tlie central point foi" 
^ tiie bees to cluster. In a queenless col- 
' ony, the bees, having no queen to keep 
them compact, the cold nights kill 
those which ha])pen to be outside of the 
main cluster ; and soon the number of 
bees is too much reduced to maintain 
the warmth necessary for their exist- 
ence. 

The surviving stocks were put by Mr. 
Hester in a room which was too much 
exposed to the effects of the external 
temperature 

•of the room fell to the freezing point. 
\and that accident, according to Mr. Hes- 
ter, took place several times from Nov- 
ember to the last of February, the bees 
-were forced to eat more to maintain the 
temperature in their cluster, and of 
<'ourse needed to empt}' themselves; 
i)ut as they remained four months in 
rheir repository, they got the dysentery. 
It is probable that the colonies would 



ofbees, canbe too warm, if there are 
.six;ty stocks heaj)e(l u]> in it. The bees 
become restless: fatigued l)y their ex- 
ertions, they eat too nmch, and they 
die of dysentery. 

But there was neither bee-malad}-, 
nor bad hone}-. In the fii'st case, there 
was too much cold ; in the second, thei-e 
was unevai)orated hone}' not fit to win- 
ter bees, unless they can go out some- 
times to eni])ty their intestines; and 
pi'obably too much warmth foi- them to 
remain as quiet as it ii^ necessary for 
their health in winter. 

Cn. I)AnANT. 

Hamilton, 111. 



For the American Bee .lournul. 

Do Bees Injure Fruit ? 



Mr. Editor; Last fall I wrote an 
article, under the above heading, to the 
New York Tribune, in which I stated 
my observations, and censured that 
wise (?) Professor Eiley for his bee-de- 
When the temperature 1 stroying recipes and advice. But they 

did not see fit to publish it. 

Perhaps Prof. Eiley know^s all about 
bees; so did Agassiz, and yet we know- 
he was in error, when speaking about 
s-u^arming, comb-building, etc. 

Had Prof. Eiley made close observa- 
tion, he would have found that bees do 
not puncture fruit, and would have had 
no occasion tojjublish his ignorance, by 
giving his cobalt recipe. He would 
have been all jilive in the spring, had ! have benefited mankind a great deal 



Mr. Hester given them the chance of 
emptying thcii- intestines once or twice 
in the course of their long confinement. 

In the winter of 1870, Mr. Hester put 
ten stocks of bees in his cellar, and they 
Avintered in fine condition. In the same 
■cellar, in 1871, forty-three colonies out 
-of sixty perished. This winter, tAventy- 
scA'en colonies, put in the same cellar, 
ill January appeared A^ery healthy. 

Nowhere can a bee-malady be proA-ed 
by such facts. Certainly the unevapo- 
rated honey, which the bees of 1871 had 
to eat. was one of the causes of the death 
of the forty-three colonies ; but the 
w.irmth of the cellar Avas A'cr}' apt to 
help in the bad result. A cellar which, 
with ten or twent}* colonies, is of a 



more had he taken a dose of the mix- 
ture himself, for I think avc can spare 
such professors better than the bees he 
has caused to be killed. 

This fall I- took a bunch of Delaware 
grapes (the most tender variety we 
have here), and put it on a hive, direct- 
ly over the bees, and watched proceed- 
ings ; but not a single berry was opened ; 
then I broke a fcAV berries, upon which 
they Avent immediately to Avork, suck- 
ing them dry, thus shoAving that some- 
thing l)esides bees does the mischief 

Now, if bees Avere so destructive to 
fruit as some tr}* to make out, how is it 
that so many are kept in Germany, 
France and Italy, where fruit, especial- 
ly grapes, is so extensively raised 



suitable temperature for the Avintering | They knoAv that bees are beneficial to 



64 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



fruit culture, and bee-keeping is encour- 
aged instead of persecuted. 

In Italy there is a law regulating the 
size of hives and frames. If the bees 
destroyed fruit, there would have been, 
in those countries, laws enacted long- 
ago to prevent their being kept. And, 
further, if bees destroyed grapes, would 
they not do so every year, and not some 
years^only, as several writers state in Re- 
port of Agriculture tor 1671 ? It may be 
said that bees do not woi'k on the same 
flowers ^every jenv (linden and buck- 
wheat, for instance), but that is because 
they secrete no honey, but grapes al- 
ways contain juice. 

But no matter how foolish and 
groundless a theory is, it will have some 
supporters. II. O. Kruschke. 

Berlin, Wis. 



For the American Boc Journal. 

Notes on Wintering. 

So many different and conflicting the- 
ories have been advanced regarding 
this branch of our science, that I feel 
it must be approached with caution. 
The reason for this caution should be 
apparent to each of us who may care 
to instnuct our brother bee-keepers on 
the sn'MTJeQt before us. And why? That 
which will suit us in Pennsylvania ma}^ 
be greatly at variance with both the 
practice and interest of those residing 
in Iowa or Minnesota, or even those in 
Tennessee or Kentucky. The effect of 
the climate, the amount of honey gath- 
ered in the fall from natural sources in 
the various localities, and many other 
things should be taken into considera- 
tion if we attempt to solve the problem 
of the "successful wintering of bees." 

I doubt not but that in the higher 
latitudes, a carefully constructed win- 
tering house should be the prominent 
object of the bee-keeper; and even with 
us, it nuiy prove an important auxilia- 
jy, but after many years of careful 
observation and experiment, I have con- 
cluded that he who will lead us to suc- 
cess by giving us a complete system of 
out-door wintering will be considered 
our greatest benefactor. With this ob- 
ject carefully in view, 1 have made the 
most of my experiments in relation to 
this matter. .\ few of them, with vour 



permission, I will give to your readers. 

On the 17th day of November, I pre- 
pared my hives for winter (it should 
have been two weeks earlier), having 
previously cut winter passages in all the 
combs. I use the Langstroth hive al- 
most exclusively — the double hive. I 
packed at sides with either dry leaves 
or old rags, and the caps with clean 
straw. I removed the honey boards 
from nearly all the hives, and in their 
place I put a box frame of ])roper size, 
made of plastering lath, and covei'ed 
with burlaps or common bagging. This 
frame I filled with clean straw, left 
about one inch ventilation in front for* 
the flight of the bees, and left the back 
ventilator in the cap open. Permit me 
here to say, that for wintering purposes 
I prefer the single hive, made of one 
and one-half inch stuff, to the double 
hive. 

On examining stocks packed as des- 
cribed, I find at our lowest temperatui*e ' 
(eighteen degrees) this winter, that the 
bees remained at the top of the frames 
among their stores. I have tried vari- 
ous coverings for the frames, cotton and 
woolen quilts, heavy paper, dry leaves, 
corn-cobs, etc., etc., but find nothing 
equal to the box frame filled with straw, 
except, perhaps the corn-cobs ; these 
appear to Ije the best absorbents of 
moisture, and at the same time afford 
the most complete ventilation of the 
hive. 

These are the only preparations I 
have made this winter, with the excep- 
tion of the fact that I have covered 
every hive with light boards to protect 
them from rain and snow. This I also 
do in the heat of summer to protect 
them from the sun. 

As I hope to give you further note* 
on this subject, I will close this already 
too lonor communication. "B '' 

Beaver, Pa. 

For the American Bee Journal, 

What Gallup has Seen. 

We have seen a stock of bees win- 
tered under the following cii'Cumstance+H; 
They were in an old fashioned straw 
hive ; confined in the hive, and set on 
some loose boards directly over the fire- 
place in a log dwelling-house, where 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



«)5 



there was a fire kept day and uight. In 
this ease the}- bred all winter, and liad 
no dysentery. Again, we have seen 
bees wintered, both in Canada and AVis- 
consin, in the Weeks hive, suspended 
two feet from the ground, with no |)ro- 
teetion from winds or weather, and the 
bottom-boai'd suspended to the bottom 
of the hive, with one inch space all 
around the bottom of the hive. On this 
plan, also, tlie bees did well and had 
no dysentery'. We have seen hives set 
on top of a stum]), raised on inch blocks 
from the bottom-board, exposed to 
wind and weather with the thermome- 
ter forty degrees below zero at times 
during the winter, and no dysentery. 
We have .seen bees in box hives, with a 
two inch hole in the top, the hive set 
on top of a stum]) ex])Osed to Avind and 
weather, two inch hole ]H"otected from 
i"ain and snow, bottom closed u]) tight, 
and no dysentery. 

These Avere all single cased, or single 
boarded, hives, and, strange to relate, 
all wintered on their own stores — no 
coffee sugar or sugar syrup. It would 
seem that the Almighty, according to 
some theories, made a grand mistake in 
not making bees so that they could 
make their own sugar syrup, if honey 
was not intended for them. 

We have seen twenty-five stocks 
wintered in a dry, warm I'oom in the 
cellar, with cement floor, and ke])t so 
warm that they bred all winter. These 
Avere box hives, turned bottom uj), with 
bottom -boards removed ; and no dysen- 
tery. We might go on enumerating 
cases like the above. 

If we understand Mr. Hosmer, his 
small stocks breed all winter and come 
out strong in the sjjring, etc. It has 
been remarked, that extra smart bee- 
keepers cannot sto]) to theorize ; but we 
must be allowed to theorize, for it was 
by comjiarison, or theorizing, that we 
gained our present knowledge in the 
business. Our theory is, that bees kej^t 
perfectly dry, as in the above cases, 
discharge the excremental jDortions of 
their food in small and perfectly dr}- 
pellets, or, in other words, all moisture 
is entirely evaj^orated from the excre- 
ment while in the abdomen of the bee, 
and then their discharge takes jilace in 
the hive, and lies on or in the bottom 



of the hive without any detriment to 
the colony whatever. 

Such colonies, in the above condition, 
do not show any .s])ecks on the snow in 
their first flight. Their abdomens nev- 
er show any distention or enlargement 
from the retention of excrement. Of 
course, old bees die of old age in the 
hive, but they are all ])erfectly dried 
up, no mistake about them whatever.. 
But in a damp cellar, if our bees breed, 
we always have to set them out occa- 
sionally, for the 5'oung, or ])ollen con- 
sumers, to have a ])urifying flight. 

E. Gallup. 

Orchard, Iowa. 



For tlie American Bee Journal . 



The Use of the Extractor. 



In my article on "How to Feed and 
Winter Bees," in the January number, 
there are several mistakes. 

In the first sentence the word keeping 
should be feeding. I did not mean to 
say that honey from other hives often 
jjroves fatal to the bees, but that honey 
from other sources often does, when the 
bees have been long confined to their 
hives. Nor did I mean to say that bees 
should never be fed much more syruj) 
than they would consume in preparing 
food for their young, but that when 
feeding exjH'essly for the ]3urpose of 
propagating bees, care should be taken 
not to give them much more syrup than 
they would consume in preparing food 
for the young larva\ and for construct- 
ing combs for the brood when necessary. 
When there are more bees in the hive 
than are necessary for rearing all the 
brood the queen is capable of producing, 
they may be fed more, if suitable room 
is given them in which to store surplus 
honey, so as to prevent them from fill- 
ing uj) the brood combs with syruj) 
instead of brood. 

I would also say that when there is 
found to be more honey in the brood 
combs in the spring than is necessary 
for the colony in rearing brood, it should 
be removed with the extractor, leaving 
honey only in the uj^per part of each 
comb. A good way of converting this 
surplus honey into combs and brood, is 
to insert an empty comb-frame in the 
central part of the brood nest as early 



«6 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



nud as often as the bees can properly 
occup3" and fill them without danger of 
chilling the brood, or checking its de- 
velopment. By this method, with a 
strong colony of bees and proper care, 
brood and combs will be produced rap- 
ridly in the spring, particularly during 
fruit blossoming. By this means, the 
colony may be made very populous, 
kept from SAvarming, and the largest 
])Ossible amount of honey secured from 
the hive. If honey in the comb is pre- 
ferred, then at the close of the main 
honey season feed the bees the extract- 
■ed honey, or good sugar sja-uy), giving 
them all they will use while being fed. 

A. T. Wright. 
Kokomo, Ind. 

For the American Bee Journal. 

Review of the January Number. 

Whilst reading the article on " Feed- 
ing Bees," page 7, I notice that the 
■writer recommends the "most refined 
grades " of sugar. Now in this I beg 
leave to differ with him for the folio w- 
ang reasons : In past years we have fed 
nearl^MxU the various grades of sugar 
i)i the market, watching the result 
closely, and find that the "most refined 
grades," such as coffee A, loaf-sugar 
and crushed, are too much inclined to 
crystalize in the comb-cells and on the 
-vessel M'herein the syrup is used, and 
not one of the grades named seemed to 
be an}' better than coffee C, which, in 
fact, is better for bees, because less in- 
clined to crystalize ; it also costs less, 
is more readily dissolved, and readily 
taken by the bees. The various grades 
'Of brown sugar should not be fed, as the 
syrup is more liable to ferment. The 
writer further says : " Molasses or sor- 
ghum should never be used." I see no 
objection to the bee-keeper using them, 
but I have so far failed to induce my 
bees to use them in an}^ shape. 

Not too much can be said in favor 
and on the manner of spring feeding to 
stimulate breeding; many overdo the 
thing and have the brood-cells stored 
with syrup. Another portion of bee- 
Iceepers underrate the value of sup- 
plying their bees with meal or flour, 
and many of our western bee-keepers 



express their willingness to supply 
meal, did not our high winds blow it 
away. Again the want of water in the 
hives, when cold days prevent the bees 
from getting it. causes a check in breed- 
ing, and very frequently the young 
worm, just hatching, perishes because 
the nursing bees cannot obtain the ne- 
cessary water to prepare the food foi- 
the larvfe. To obviate this we have ex- 
perimented for years to produce a feed- 
er that will enable us to furnish bees in 
their hives, with syru]), water, or meal, 
until we have at last succeeded in per- 
fecting it. 

On page 8, we find a desci-iption of 
"Adam Grimm's Bee-feeder." As that 
article might lead some of its readers 
into trouble, it may not be amiss to 
state that the feeder was patented May 
6, 1873; the perforated screw cap, and 
projecting rim foi'ming specific features 
in said patent. If the patent was all 
owned by myself the "trouble " above 
named would not be very serious ; but 
over one-half of it has passed into other 
hands. 

As a contrasting item on " The Wings 
of Bees," page 9, I would say that I 
have an imported Italian queen bee 
that has had both of her wings clipped 
close to her body as a special mark, and 
this for /ye seasons ; and last year she 
was one of the most prolific queens in 
my yard. If she lives another year she 
will do well as a specimen without lungs. 
But what is the use of lungs or their 
equivalent, if bees can live without air, 
as Mr. Adair stated some years since ? 

Cobui-g, lOAVa. E. KllETCHiMER. 



Care of Honey Bees in Winter. 

Many successful apiarians contend 
that there is no better way. to winter 
honey bees, than to allow the hive to 
remain isolated in the yard where the}' 
have been kept during the summer and 
autumn; and they point to their success 
in many years past for reliable evidence 
to cori'oborate the correctness of their 
assertion. The fact that honey bees 
have been kept satisfactorily in the fore- 
going manner, does not prove that such 
a practice can be recommended as the 
best under all circumstances; for hun- 
dreds of apiarians have attempted to 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL 



(>7 



keep theii" bees without proper pi-otec- 
tion dnriiiii; the winter, juul have lost 
iiearl_y every slvip". There is one fact in 
which all intellii'-ent bee-keepei-s will 
ii«:^ree, which is, that a colony of bees 
will pass the winter best when the hive 
is kept in a location wliere the tempera- 
ture will not be rapidly affected by the 
rapid transitions from warm to very 
cold, and vice irrsa. Cue thing in par- 
ticular should be guarded against, 
which is this: No hive should be ))Iaced 
where it will be exposed even for a 
single hour to the rays of the sun. 
When a hive stands in the sunshine for 
i\ few hours, the walls will be warmed 
up, the little workei-s will be eidivened 
and the pleasant outlook will invite 
thousands of them to spread their wings 
and tly away to the fields. But, before 
ihey have flown a hundi-ed yards, they 
are frequently chilled to such an extent 
that they drop to the ground and perish, 
as they cannot i-ecover sufficient 
strength to return to their homes. 
This teaches the eminent importance of 
guarding eveiy hive from the fury of 
fierce winds and also from the cheerful 
sunshine. When the hive is in an iso- 
lated place it needs a cover to turn the 
rain and snow, and boards, rails or brush 
placed on every side to obscure the light 
of the sun and to break the force of a 
cold wind. So long as the bees are kept 
in the shade, well pi-otected, w^hero they 
can discover little or no light, the tem- 
perature of the interior of the hive will 
be "more uniform, and only a limited 
number will escape from the hives and 
])erish.— A^. r. Herald. 



Ventilation. 



Bees require houey in winter to keep up 
nnimal heat — the carbon of the honey is burn- 
ed in the body of the bee as coal burns in a 
stove. If the hive is too cokl, the bees will 
be found to flap their wings in the chister and 
thus increase their lieat as man does by clap- 
ping his hands in cokl weather. This requires 
just so much more expenditure of honey as 
food. Dr. Carpenter, speaking of an experi- 
ment, says a bumble bee was found to pro- 
duce one-third of a cubic inch of carbonic 
acid in the course of a single liour, during 
which its whole body was in a state of agita- 
tion, from the excitement consequent upon its 
capture, and yet, during the whole twenty-four 
liours of the succeeding day, which it passed 



in a state of eomiiarative rest, tlie quantity of 
carbonic acid geiicraled bv it was absolutely 
less. 

From tlic.se consiilerations, it is manifest 
tliat unnecessary loss of heat is exactly ecpiiva 
lent to unnecessary loss of honey ; tlie walls 
of the liive, therefore, should be as non-con- 
ducting as possitde, and in ordei- to make these 
tlie most non-conducting, they should be kept 
dry. Ventilation is a nu)st important means 
of keeping the walls dry. This will be seen 
if we consider the fact that heated air has a 
much greater capacity to absorb vai)or than 
cold air, and that the v^q)or thus absorbed 
rises. Now if there be an escape for this vaj)- 
or at the top of the hive, the air heated inside 
the hive by the bees will pass olT charged with 
moisture, and thus leave the inside dry. And 
the admission of air at the bottom Avill bring 
cool air, which whim heated by the bees will 
absorb the moisture and pass it off at the toj), 
and thus by a circulation keep the inside dry, 
and warmer than if this moisture were retain- 
ed. — Live Stock Journal, 



Letter from Miss Anna Saunders. 



Mr. Editor: I have just reached 
home after an absence of several weeks 
and find many letters applying for seed 
of the sage tree, and information con- 
cerning it. I am sending the seed to 
all applicants, but will answer most of 
the questions through the Bee Journal, 
as they seem to be of general interest. 

This tree was grown from a cutting 
and commenced blooming about the 
second year. T liave never known it 
to be cut down, or injured by cold 
weather, as many of our tropical plants 
are ; so, I think that with careful culti- 
vation during its early years, it may 
adapt itself to your climate. I do not 
know whether it is honej" or pollen, or 
both, that the bees get from its blos- 
soms. It commenced blooming about 
the 1st of last July. 

Peaches, plums, &c., are in bloom now 
(Feb. 9), and my bees are exceedingly 
busy. They are carrying in loads of 
pollen, and, I suppose, honej^, but 1 
have not examinecl the hives to see, 
fearing the little baby bees would be 
chilled. The mercury has been 62° 
the greater part of to-day. Will some 
wise bee-keeper tell us what is the low- 
est temperature at w^hich it is safe to 
open hives out of doors? 

Woodville, Miss. 



68 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 




W. F. CLARKE, Editor. 



CHICAGO, MARCH, 1874. 



Italian Bees. 



Joseph Barlow of Blackheatb, Out., asks: — 
"What is your opmiou of the Italian bees? 
Are they more profitable than the common or 
black bees ? Some say they are and some say 
they are not. I have the common bees, but 
if the Italians are better, I should like to get 
them." 

The unanimous opinion of all bee-keepers 
competent to judge, is that the Italians are 
vastly superior, in several important respects, 
to the common or black bees. 

t. They are better honey-gatherers. This 
is the main excellence to secure in bees. We 
keep them for the stores they will collect, and 
our profits come from the excess of what 
they treasure up after supplying their own 
wants. What percentage more of honey they 
will gather, over and above the average of 
what the black bees will do, has never been 
ascertained, but it has been sufficiently de- 
monstrated, that they are more active and 
energetic workers, that they will go out on 
foraging expeditions during weather which 
confines black bees to the hive, and that they 
will gather honey from sources not accessible 
to the black bee. 

2. They are more quiet and peaceable. 
This is a very important point, inasmuch as 
it is essential to the best success in bee-keeping, 
that the bees should be freely handled. Art- 
ificial swarming, change of queens, extract- 
ing honey, putting on and taking ofl:" boxes, 
and a variety of other occupations, necessitate 
access to the interior of the hive, and render 
it desirable to have bees to deal with, that do 
not easily become irritated and infuriated. 
It is frankly admitted that the Italians, when 
once made angry, are worse to contend with 
than the common bees, but there is no need 
to enrage them, and they are not easily pro- 
voked. When a hive is opened, the common 
bees incline to rush out ])ell-mcll, while the 



Italians cling to the comb, and remain quiet. 
With care, an Italian stock can be handled as 
well without smoke, as common bees with it. 
The utmost gentleness is requisite at all timc« 
in doing anything among ])ees, and if this is 
practised, it is remarkable how amiable the 
Italians will behave. Occasionally things will 
happen calculated to try the temper of most 
peaceably inclined bees, just as the gentlest of 
human beings will sometimes be exposed to 
provocation. Jkit, under ordinary circum- 
stances, the Italians will be found much more 
pacific than the common bees. 

'S. They are less liable to be infested with 
the moth. For some reason or other, the 
black bees more readily succumb to this in- 
sect pest, than the Italians. Possibly it is be- 
cause of the untiring energy and resolute de- 
termination of the Italians. The moth is a 
stealthy, insidious enemy, burrowing in secret, 
and worming itself into possession of the 
sheets of comb, but an Italian colony of aver- 
age strength, will hunt them out and prevent 
their making headway. Many bee-keepers 
who, when they kept the common bees, were 
greatly pestered with the moth, testify that 
on substituting the Italians, this annoyance 
came to an end. 

4. They are more handsome. It would 
be foolish to sacrifice more substantial quali- 
ties for mere beauty, but, other things being- 
equal, it is natural and proper to prefer that 
which is beautiful to that which is plain and 
homely. The Italian bee is a more genteeland 
shapely insect than the common bee, while its 
golden-banded jacket looks very attractive, 
whether glittering in tlie sun, or covering the 
sheets of comb. The queens of this breed are 
often very beautiful. Just as our best breeds 
of horses, cattle, sheep, swine and poultry are 
better looking than the common varieties, and 
please the eye more, while their nobler qualities 
commend themselves to the judgment, so it i.s^ 
with the Italian as compared with the com- 
mon bee. 

For these reasons, we certainly advise our 
correspondent to get the Italians. As a change- 
of breeding stock only, they are worth the 
trifling outlay necessary to obtain them. 
There has naturally been very close breeding 
"in-and-in," as it is termed, among bees, and 
analogy suggests that this cannot fail to be 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



6? 



<it^trimcnt!il. The importation of Italian lues 
has been worth all it. has cost to thebec-keep- 
»'rsof tliis continent, in this view of the matter 
alone. The pioneers in this direction were at 
(Considerable cost, and have not reaped so rich 
a return, as those who are indebted to them 
for bringing this valuable, breed of bees witli- 
in general reach. Five dollars per queen, the 
aTcrage price, is by no means a large sum, 
when the possible benefits are taken into ac- 
count. By judicious management, a single 
queen may be made to Italianize a moderate- 
ly sized apiary in the course of one season, 
thereby doubling the ^■alue of every hive it 
contains. 

While on the sulijcct. we may as well men- 
tion, for the information of the novice in 
bee-keeping, and the general reader, how 
the process of the Italianizing is accomplish- 
ed. As all the eggs in a hive are laid by a 
single queen, it is only necessary to substi- 
tute an Italian queen for the common one, to 
accomplish the change of breed. It is usual 
to remove the common queen a week before 
her succes.sor is introduced, by which time, 
queen cells will be far advanced. By cutting 
these out, all possibility of the bees rearing 
another black queen is destroyed. They will 
then more readily accept a strange queen. 
There are various ways of introducing queens, 
liut the safest, especially for beginners, is to 
cage the queen about thirty hours, and fix the 
cage so that the bees can have free access to 
it. They will soon get reconciled to lier, ac- 
quainted with her, and will feed her. After 
<vbout the length of time specified, it will be 
■quite safe to liberate her. When there are 
several hives to Italianize, the new queen 
must raise a supply of drones, and the black 
ones must either be destroyed or confined to 
their hives to prevent their mating with the 
young queens. This is the great difiiculty in 
tran.sforming stocks and keeping them pure. 
As bees mate when on the wing, there is a con- 
stant liability of the' queens meeting common 
drones. A single hive is soon and easily 
Italianized. Bees in the summer time are very 
short-lived. Within three months after the 
introduction of an Italian queen scarcely a 
black bee will be seen in the hive. Italianiz- 
ing several stocks with one (lueen, is a work 
of more time and difficulty. 



Newspaper Decisions. 

1. Any person who lakes a paper regularly 
from the post-otMce — whether directed to liis 
name or another's, or whether he has sub 
scribed or not — is responsible for the pay- 
ment. 

2. If any person orders his paper discon- 
tinued, he must pay all arrearages, or the 
publisher may continue to send it, until pay- 
ment is made, and collect the whole amount — 
whether the pajur is taken from the office or 
not. 

t5. The courts have decided tlnit refusing 
to take newspapers and periodicals from the 
l)ost-office, or removing and leaving them 
uncalled for, is prima facie evidence of in- 
tentional fraud. 



Clubbing Bee Journals. 

Several of our subscribers have requested 
us to say what we will club AA'ith other Bee 
publications for. AVe therefore quote the 
following: 

The American Bkk Journai. and the "Na- 
tional Bee Journal," by Mrs. Tupper, for 
$:3.(X) a year in advance. 

The Amki{icax Bee Journal and either 
" The Bee-keepers' Magazine," or the " Agri- 
culturist," by H. A. King, for $3.5(». 

The A^reRiCAN Bee Jouiinal and "Novice's 
Gleanings," for %'i.m. 

The American Bee Journai- and the " Na- 
tional," the "Magazine," and "Gleanings," 
for .$4.00 in advance. 

All the above one year, i|.^.00. 

Any of the above and the " Illustrated Jour- 
nal," and our magnificent Large Fruit Chro- 
mo, for $2.00, in addition to the retail 
price of the Bee publication selected. 



To Those Interested in Bee Culture. 



At the sixth annual meeting of the Michi- 
gan Bee-Keepers' Association, it was decided 
to hold a special meeting at Kalamazoo, to 
commence Wednesday, May (5, 1874. It is 
especially desired that all members be pres- 
ent, and, in Ix'half of the Association, we 
urge every Bee-keeper in Michigan to attend. 
A cordial invitation is also extended to all 
l)ersons interested in the science of Bee-cul- 
ture whether residing in this or other States. 
Surely much good may be derived from a 
comparison of experiences next spring, and 
from the able papers that will then be pre- 
sented. Timely notice will be given of all 
further arrangements. Address communica- 
tions or inquiries concerning the subject to 
Fr.\nk Benton, Bec'y. 

Shelby, Oceana Co., Mich. 



THE AMERItJAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Voices from Among the Hives. 

E. S. FuwLEK, Biirtk'tt, ()., writes: — '' Bees 
in this piirt of tlie country Avere all wintered 
on their summer stands, without protection, 
seldom beini^ confined to their hives more 
than six weeks without a chance to tly, and 
not that lengtli of time more than once during 
the winter.'' 

T. J. DoDUs, LeClaire, Iowa, writes: — 
" My bees have now been in the cellar sixty- 
three days; all quiet; no signs of dysentery. 
The thermometer ranges from thirty-four to 
thirty-eight degrees." 

Wm. FAUiiKSp:i{, Vevay, lud., writes : — 
" Bees are wintering well here; no disease so 
far." 

E. Gaij>ui', Orchard, Iowa, writes: — "Bees 
are wintering finely thus far. My bees are on 
their summer stands. They had a splendid 
flight yesterday. Those in the cellar are in 
excellent condition. No danger of bee dis- 
ease in a mild winter, unless tliey have very 
bad management." 

A. I. Root, 3Iedina, ()., Writes: — "In re- 
ply to the lady's ([uery, on page 47 of the last 
JouKNAi-,, I would say, we have never found 
the honey that seemed to disagree with the 
bees when confined to their Jiiees by winter 
Lceather, deleterious to the human family at 
all; on the contrary, it is oftentimes the very 
best table honey. I never intended to con- 
vey the idea that the honey was poisonous, 
only that it seemed to disagree with the bees 
some seasons; and that sugar-sprup was uui- 
forndy healthy for them. We never get bad 
tasting honey here, but a friend sent us a sam- 
ple from a distance, saying it would kill bees 
at any season. It tastes like poor sorghum 
syrup. We have never had any experience 
with such honey, but have had bees die badly 
in March, w hen fed on very nice, sealed clov- 
er honey." " Novice." 

W. F. Staxdki'kk, Dry Grove, Miss, writes: 
— " Bees are doing well. Three or four combs 
of hatching brood, and a few drone cells are 
observable." 

W. S. Boyd, Bethany, O., Writes:—"! 
have been engaged in the bee business for 
three years, and when last spring opened, 1 
had only one hive with bees in it, but had 
invested $!»2. 1 bought three hives for $8.75, 
antl now 1 hav(! seven, and have sold near 
on(; hundred pounds of honey. With the idd 
of your paper, and the knowledge 1 have 
gained (which 1 consider worth more than 1 
have spent for the bees), 1 intend this spring 
to buy all the 1 ces 1 can get at a reasonable 
figure; and by the use of the extractor, to 
liave something to report to you next fall de- 
cidedly in comnii'udation of the bee business." 



Tnos. I. CoKNEi-rus, Ludlow, Ky., writes: 
— " All the bees in this part of the country are 
doing finely this winter. We have had no 
dysentery, and none in prospect." 

D. I. Wells, Boliver, Tenn., writes: — " My 
bees have inci-eased quite rapidly. I started 
last spring with four black stocks, which in- 
creased to ten, and three Italian, which in- 
creased to twelve, and one went to the woods. 
One Italian stock, purchased of Dr. Hamlin 
the spring before, sent out a swarm on the 
11th, another on the 13th, and another on the 
22nd of April, some of which sent out one 
or two swarms, but no surjdus honey. Is 
there any remedy for such behavior V I sup- 
pose my bees are all in good condition, as 
they are Hying ^ery freely every warm day, 
which occurs in our locality every week or 
two during the winter." 

H. E. CuKHY, Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, 
writes: — " Bees in this neighborhood are do^ 
ing well. To-day (Jan. 21), the thermometer 
rose to seventy-four degrees in the sun, and 
of course our bees had a good fiy — the second 
this year. The previous one was on Jan. 4. 
My bees never looked so Avell at this time of 
the year, and I have no doubt we will begin 
the season Avith every encouragement. Last 
spring I tried an experiment, at least it was 
such to me, although the same thing is done 
in Germany. I found, on examining what 
was left of my apiary, one hive very weak. 
I w ill not pretend to say how many were left, 
but it was a sorry sight. I first made a box 
six or eight inches deeper than a one story 
Langstroth hive, and after putting six inches 
of manure in the bottom, I set my weak hive 
in, and then packed the sides and back with 
the same, so that it was surrounded w ith ma- 
nure, excei)t the front. I then put a blanket 
and mat on the top, and then left it undis- 
turbed. In a few days, on looking into the 
hive, I was surprised to find what a number 
of eggs the queen had laid. The decomposing 
manure generated such a heat, that she did 
not have to confine herself to just such space 
as she had bees to cover. In a few weeks it 
was my strongest hive, and gave me the lar- 
gest return of any stock I had. 1 took two 
hundred pounds extracted white clover honey 
from it, besides a swarm artificially, and, on 
November l(i, they had at least twenty-three 
pounds to winter on. Although it will not do 
to jumi» at conclusions too suddenly, more 
esix'cially in bee-culture, I am convinced that 
those who have Aveak stocks, in the spring, 
Avill find the above a great help Avith but little 
trouble. Of course enough of bee-bread and 
honey, and upAvard ventilation nuist be given, 
otherAvise the combs Avill mould." 

H. Nesijit, Cynthiana, Ky., Avrites: — " Last 
Avinter 1 lost sixty-seven out of seventy colo- 
nics, and the three left Avcre mere handful?. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



I bought six small black colonies in June, and 
now i have tAvtMity-six in good condition, all 
Italiani/cd. They are now carrying in two 
gallons of tlour daily. Bees are wintering as 
well as I ever saw them. I have abandoned 
the bee-house and winter my bees out of 
doors." 

D. D. Pai-mkh, Eliza, 111., writes:—" The 
seven diseased hives which 1 had, are now 
(Feb. 7) all dead, and fifteen more are dis- 
eased. I have seventy-eight left; the most of 
lliem look well." 

JospuMi ^I. Bkooks, C'olumbu.s, Ind., writes: 
— "My seventeen colonies of bees are in the 
cellar, wintering on sugar syrup exclusively. 
All arc in the best condition, so far." 

G. E. CoiiiJiN, St. Johns, Mich., writes: — 
" By actual measurement, I find that fifteen 
worker lirood-cells made by black bees, span 
liiree inches; while fourteen worker brood- 
cells made by Italian bees, span the same dis- 
tance. That is, nine sciuare inches of surface 
of brood-comb made by black bees, contain 
two hundred and twenty-live cells; whereas, 
the same surface of brood-comb made by 
Italian bees, contains only one hundred and 
ninety -six cells. Does not this difference in 
the size of tlie cells indicate a corresponding 
difference in the size of the bees ? I believe 
the usual process of Italianizing supplies the 
([ueen with the combs of black bees only. Is 
it, therefore, possible to rear full-sized and 
perfect Italian progeny in those cells ? If so, 
what sized cells will they, in their turn, 
build ? AVill soiue one of experience answer 
these questions ? " 

Edgar McNitt, Centre Village,' O., writes: 
— " My bees have done very well the past sea- 
son. I am able to report an average of about 
fifty pounds of honey to the hive. One hive, 
furnished with empty combs, gave me three 
swarms and eighty pounds of honey. In- 
cluding the increase in swarms, my uett profit 
for the season was one hundred and twenty- 
five per cent. Last year I wintered two 
swarms, one on sealed, the other on unsealed 
honey, and both came through in good con- 
dition. I had a swarm of lialf -bloods that 
died while I was trying to Italianize them. 
There were no signs of dysentery. To ascer- 
tain that tlie honey had nothing to do with 
their death, I procured a starved swarm, and i 
put it in the depopulated hive without clean- j 
ing it out in the least, and the bees flourished j 
as well as any of mj^ other swarms." 

Jonas Scholi,, Lyons Station, Ind., writes: 
— "I am somewhat in doubt as to the best way 
of doubling colonies. In the past two years 
there has not been very good success in this 
region in the method of taking full frames 
from a hive to be doubled, and filling out 
with empty ones. It seems to cut the hive in 
two. Tlie ([ueen often will not cross the 



empty space, but remains on one side of the 
hive. On the opposite sid(; tlic combs will be 
filled with honey as fast as tiie brood liatches, 
wliile tlie new comb built on that side, will 
most likely be all drone comb. As a strong 
colony, with a prolific (pieen, when placed in 
an empty hive, builds comb rapidly, if the 
yield of honey is good, may we not conclude 
that when comb is to be built for all the in- 
crease, the best plan is to divide the bees on- 
ly, not the comb ? Bearing in mind that in 
this locality very little comb is built bcifore 
May 15, and after June 2~>, will sonu^ practic- 
al bee-keeper give us the benefit of his knowl- 
edge on this subject V Bees are wintering finely 
here." 

B. G. FoRBUSu, Algona, Iowa, writes: — 
" I am but a novice in bee-culture. One year 
ago next April, I purchased twenty stands of 
bees. During the earlj^ summer of last year, 
I increased to forty stands, by artificial' 
swarming. I am surrounded with basswood, 
but there was a total deaith in its bloom. 
About the first week in July, I was surprised 
with the sudden filling up of every available 
cell of my hives witii a very thin, washy, ac- 
rid honey, which proved to be sumac honey. 
I was nonplussed, and wrote to Mr. Gallup 
in regard to it. He advised me to extract it, 
and keep it for feeding purposes. 1 had no 
sooner begun to follow this advice, when, to 
my surprise, it was evaporated to a fair con- 
sistency, and after six months I find it much 
less acrid, and good for table use. The months 
of August and September were gay with 
golden-rod and many other wild flowers. My 
hives were soon tilled with honey of the best 
quality, and the hives were literally stuffed 
with bees and brood. In view of what Prof. 
Cook says about late brood, I tremble, for 
there was no speck of brood in my hives after 
the loth of September. But I carried my 
hives into winter quarters full of honey, and 
populous with bees. I put thirty-two stand» 
in the cellar, with from three to six inches of 
air-space under the combs, and heavy, white 
ducking over the frames according to Mrs. 
Tupper's plan. They are in good condition. 
I took out about three hundred pounds of 
surplus honey. Nine "New Idea" hive* 
w^ere left on summer stands, banked up with 
snow, a la Gallup. From this, my first year'a 
experience, I prefer a four thousand inch 
hive." ' 

John Wahl, Greenfield, 111., writes: — 
" Last season I went into winter quarters with 
forty-one hives, coming out in the spring with 
twenty-six. I liad only four swarms winter 
on the summer stands. I. use the Langstroth 
hives, of thirteen frames. The last four sea- 
sons have been so dry that we have had no 
flowers out of which to make honey, and so, 
whatever the breed of bees or the kind of 
hive used, our failure has been unavoidable." 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



ck 



hn^mm\ 




THOMAS G. NEWMAN, Manager. 



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Honey Markets. 

CHICAGO. — Choice wliite comb honey, 2'S 
@;^0c; fair to good, 24@28c. Extracted, 
choice white, 14@ 16c ; fair to good, 10@12c; 
strained, 8(ft)10c. 

CINCINNATI.— Quotations from Clias. 
F. Muth, 97C Central Ave. 

Comb honey, 15@35c, according to the con- 
dition of the honey and the size of the box or 
frame. Extracted choice white clover honey, 
IGc. ^y %. Choice extracted lionev, 10@18c. 

V It.. 

ST. LOUIS.— Quotations from W. (4. 
Smith, 419 North Main st. 

Choice white comb, 25@29c; fair to good, 
lG@22c. Extracted choice white clover, 16 
@t8c. Choice basswood honey, 14@16c; fair 
to good, extracted, 8@12c; strained, 6@10c. 

NEW YORK.— Quotations from E. A. 
Walker, lof) Oakland St., Greeupoint L. I. 

The sale of lioney is dull here, and a large 
quantity is noAv upon the market. The prices 
rule as follows: 

White honey in small glass boxes, 25c ; 
dark 15@20c. Strained honey, 8@12c. Cu- 
ban honey, .fl.OO ^ gal. St. Domingo, and 
Mexican, 90@95 "^ gal. 

SAN FRANCISCO. — Quotations from 
Stearns and Smith, 423 Front St. 

Choice mountain honey, in comb, 22^@25c; 
common, 17@20c; strained, 10@12c, in 5 gal- 
lon cans. Valley honey, in comb, 12@17c; 
strained, 8@10c. 



Eight cents is now the fee for registered let- 
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Let all register, Avho cannot obtain a money 
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Should any subscriber wish to discontinue 
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American Bee Journal 

DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO BEE CULTURE. 



Vol. X. 



CHICAGO, APRIL, 1874. 



No. 4. 




Correspondents should write only on one side of 
the sheet. Their best thouuhts and practical ideas are 
always welcome ; no matter how rough, we will cheer- 
fully "fix them up." 



For the American Bee Journal. 

The Bee Disease. 

The question, What caused the loss of so 
many bees, durhig the two or three last 
winters, seems to be attracting more atten- 
tion, at the present time, than anything 
t'lse connected Avith bee culture. And there 
is probably no other point upon which there 
is such a diversity of opinion, or upon the 
proper solution of which, so much depends. 
That there has been some general cause for 
the losses which bee-keepers have sustained 
throughout the Northern States, is too 
palpable to admit of successful contradic- 
tion; but that there has been any cause 
operating that cannot, with proper care, be 
remedied by the apiarian, I do not believe. 
Neither do I believe with some of our 
apiarians, that the loss was caused by an 
epidemic; nor with others, that it was the 
result of the bees eating from honey. I 
believe that it was caused, mainly, by cold, 
and disease engendered by the same. 

That there was dysentery, I freely admit, 
for I saw the most convincing proofs of that, 
among some of my neighbor's bees that 
died, but in every case it was wliere bees 
were wintered on the summer stand, or 
placed in cold depositories — no better, if as 
good, as the summer stand. I will mention 
a few of the many cases that came under 
my observation last winter : 

J. W. Hulet, living about one-half mile 
south, put his bees, consisting of eight 
swarms, in a cold shed, filled in with 
sawdust, four inches thick at the ends and 
one side, the other side being inch boards. 
He lost six of the eight swarms by dysentery. 

Lewis Skeels, living a short distance 
south-west, wintered his bees on their 
summer stand, and lost all he had, by the 
same disease. 



I put eighty-eight swarms in my bee-house, 
which is frost proof. Three of the eighty- 
eight swarms were made up of bees taken 
out of my nucleus hives, at the end of the 
queen-rearing season. One of the three was 
queenless, being put in the house as an 
experiment, and the other two had young 
queens that had not layed any eggs, so far 
as I knew, when put into the house. I lost 
these three, probably from old age of the 
bees, as those taken from the nucleus hives 
w^ere nearly all reared during the summer 
months, and two of my regular swarms by 
starvation, and that with from fifteen to 
twenty pounds of honey in their hives, the 
bees having clustered at one side of the 
hive, their stores being at the other; and one 
swarm from some unknown cause. The 
rest came through in good order. There 
was little or no appearance of dysentery, 
the combs of those that died being clean and 
bright, except where the cluster of dead bees 
had slightly caused them to mould. 

Now, if it was bad honey that killed my 
neighbor's bees, by giving them the dysen- 
tery, why did mine not have it V Their 
honey could difter l)ut little from what mine 
had, since they were kept so close together. 

]\Ir. E. L. Arnold, living five miles north, 
wintered his bees, consisting of twenty 
swarms, in his cellar, and did not lose any, 
while his neighbors lost from one-fourth to 
one-half of all they had. 

Mr. J. K. Miller left his bees on their 
summer stands until some time in January, 
and up to that date lost seven out of thirty- 
eight, and a number of the rest were so 
weak, he thought they could not live until 
spring. He then put the rest of them in his 
cellar, and only lost one swarm after they 
were carried in, and in that he thinks the 
bees were nearly all dead before they were 
put into the cellar. 

It has been asserted that bees carefully 
housed, had suffered about as much as those 
wintered on their summer stands. There 
may liave been such cases, in some localities, 
but there has certainly been none in this 
section. 

I fear that extracting the honey and feed- 
ing syrup, in order to prevent the dysentery, 
will kill more bees than it will save, owing 



76 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



to the feeding not being attended to early 
enough to give tlie bees time to seal up their 
stores before cold weather. In most cases, 
perhaps, there will be no necessity for de- 
ferring the feeding until it is too late, but 
where it is desired to extract the honey that 
is gathered late in tlie fall, before feeding, I 
fear in a fall like that of 1873, where the 
cold sets in earlier than usual, some of our 
most careful bee-keepers will sometimes be 
caught before they are through with feeding. 
In cases of that kind, I should certainly 
prefer sealed honey to unsealed syrup. 

Too frequent disturbance of bees, after 
they are housed, is often, I think, a prolific 
cause of loss. Tlie injunction to " see them 
often " is right to the point, so long as they 
can fly out, but when they are housed, my 
advice would be to let them "severely 
alone. " 

We should see that they have plenty of 
stores, and that those stores are in the right 
place, before they are put into winter quar- 
ters. Also, that the room in whicli they are 
wintered, be dark and warm, and the temp- 
erature as even as possible. I notice the 
bees are the most quiet in my bee-house, 
when the thermometer stands at about forty 
degrees. If it went much below that, I 
should want it, as Mr. Quinby says, to go 
enough above to make that the average. 
With these things attended to, we shall have 
but little cause to fear the ravages of the bee 
disease. At least, according to my expe- 
rience. James BoLm. 

West Lodi, O. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Do Bees Destroy Fruit? 

The following letter by Mr. Kruschke and 
comments of Prof. Riley we publish from the 
Neio York Tribune, at the request of both 
parties. Barring the personal feeling, which 
is too common among controversialists, the 
articles will be found interesting. 

Many complaints have been made that 
bees destroy fruit. Being a bee-keeper, I 
consider it also my duty to be a bee defen- 
der. Various theories are indulged in. Some 
assert that bees prevent the fruit from set- 
ting; others maintain that bees puncture the 
fruit when ripe. A correspondent of 'The 
Tribune, in the fore part of summer, com- 
plained that bees destroyed his peaches, and 
not knowing what to do, asked for advice 
through your columns, whereupon the learned 
and wise (V) Prof. Riley took it upon himself 
to give a recipe, with which to poison the 
bees, and lu; also stated that by such man- 
agement he had known one-half of an apiary 
to give out. lie would have benefitted man- 



kind a great deal more, had he taken a dose 
of the mixture himself. Does Prof. Riley 
not know that his bee-destroying recipe has 
gone before the world, among people some of 
whom are still more ignorant than himself ? 
Does it not trouble his conscience, to be the 
destroyer of the most admirable, busiest, and 
most profitable insect created ? And all be- 
cause some ignoramuses imagine the bees de- 
stroy their fruit without any facts for evi- 
dence. 

In the Report of AgHculture for 1871, 
some state that bees had destroyed their 
grapes, which led me to take close observa- 
tion. Accordingly, I took a bunch of Dela- 
ware grapes (the tenderest I could get) and 
put them on the hive, directly over the bees, 
and watched proceedings, but not a single 
berry was punctured; then I broke a few of 
the berries, upon which they immediately 
went to work and sucked them dry — thus, 
showing that something beside bees must 
open the grapes, or any other fruit, before 
they can touch it. Perhaps it is in the 
growth, or in the weather, or the work of 
some other insect, but don't lay it to the in- 
nocent bee. How is it tliat we don't hear of 
such complaints in Germany, France, and 
Italy, where fruit, especially grapes, are 
raised so extensively, and bees kept in great 
numbers V If the bees were so destructive to> 
fruit, would they not have enacted laws long 
ago, to prevent their being kept? Such ia 
not the case ; on the contrary, bee-keeping ]&■ 
encouraged. In Italy there is a law regulat- 
ing the size of hives and frames. 

If these prejudiced complainants would 
only investigate a little closer, they would 
see how ridiculous their condemnations ap- 
pear to a close observer. Practical bee- 
keepers of America are unanimous in their 
answer to this question. They declare bees, 
do not injure fruit of any kind. Many of 
them are extensively engaged in fruit culture, 
and they say bees help in impregnating 
blossoms, by bringing the pollen of the male: 
and female blossoms in contact. Finally, I 
would say to those complainants. Procure 
and diligently read one or all the bee periodi- 
cals published in this country, and thoroughly 
post themselves on bee culture, and not de- 
pend entirely on their own investigations, 
which is not sutRcient, for even Agassiz. 
makes blunders in the bee line. — [H. 0. 
Kruschke, Green Lake Co., Wis., in N. Y. 
THbune, Dec. 31, '78.] 

COMMENTS KY l>ROF. CHARLES. V. RILEY. 

In the article which Mr. Kruschke attempta 
to criticise, I stated that I expected to have 
most bee-keepers down on me, and his pro- 
test is but one of several which, while they 
charge ri\e with all sorts of ignorance and 
crime, only betray the ignorance of their 
authors, and utterly fail to disprove tlie facts 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



77 



T htivc stated. AH Kiicii pix)tests that I have 
soon, so far, arc markod by passion, bias, and 
personality, rather than dispassionate argu- 
ment or pi'osentation of facts. 

Mr. K's isohited e.\perinient is interesting, 
.«o far as it goes; but " Oiiic swallow don't 
make a summer,^' and one experiment can- 
not negative accumulated evidence. All the 
hubbub in the world, from prejudiced bee- 
keepers, cannot change facts that have been 
witnessed by hundreds of others, as well as 
myself. Bee-keepers may do their best to 
shear the fact of its importancio, but all the 
most winning sophistry will not annihilate it. 
They may observe and cover it with the drift 
of adverse opinion, but, like the bowlder, it 
will remain unchanged by the superincum- 
bent deposit, and stand forth boldly, long 
after the evanescent and incoherent sur- 
roundings have beeu washed away by the 
stream of truth. I am as contident that bees 
at times cut the skin of tender fruit, as I am 
that they cut their comb or the caps of their 
cells; and as Mr. K. docs not seem to have 
much confidence in the reliability of my own 
observations, I will say that he will not only 
find proof of the direct injury which bees do 
fruit in the reports of the Department of Ag- 
riculture, but in the reports of the difterent 
State Horticultural Societies, and in the col- 
\imns of industrial journals. 

To the last assertion made by Mr. K., I 
was myself a successful bee-keeper for over 
three years ; and not one bee-keeper of large 
experience and reputation, has undertaken to 
controvert the facts I have stated. On the 
contrary, Mr. L. T. Waite, of St. Louis, Mo., 
and Mr. L. C. Francis, of Springlield, 111., 
"well-known as successful and intelligent 
apiarians, have both admitted the truth of 
Tvhat I wrote; and "Ella," the bee-corres- 
pondent of The Chicago Tribune^ whom I 
know to have large experience, in a recent 
discussion of the question, says: "What- 
ever our opinions may be, they must at least 
yield to stubborn facts, and, in case 
■such facts, are presented to a court 
of justice, there can be little doubt 
that the bees will be convicted. " A whole 
volume might be filled with evidence in sup- 
port of my position, from reliable observers; 
but, not to waste more time, let me say to 
Mr. K., as to another article in Tfie, Rural 
Neic-Torker [in answer to another corres- 
pondent of the Journal, viz : Chas. D. Hib- 
bard, who also has something to say against 
"this saiuent Prof. Riley"— C. V.'li.], that 
" in advising extreme measures in an extreme 
case, I by no means make general war upon 
bees : for I have too long communed with 
these busy little insects, not to have an ad- 
miration for them as great, at leastj as that 
professed by some of their more noisy 
champions. 



"If, in exceptional seasons, when no flowers 
otter their coveted sweets, these bee-keepers 
who have largo ai)iaries, witli fruit-growers 
for neighbors, would proi)erly feed their 
bees, said neighbor would have little cause to 
complain. " Mr. L. B. Ilogue, of ]>elmont 
Co., Ohio, in The Tribune of July 2;3d, last, 
suggests as a remedy for the dilHculties which 
fruit-growers experience from the bees of 
negligent and cari'less neighbors, that, in- 
stead of fly poison or the planting of Asclep- 
ias, a few acres of catnip [Nepeta) be planted 
for bee-food — an excellent suggestion, pro- 
viding it is made to the bee proprietor, and 
not to the fruit-grower; for the latter must not 
bo expected to take care of the former's 
property. 

REPLY BY MR. KRUSCHIvE. 

Since the above was in type we have 
received the following reply from Mr. 
Kruschke : 

In reply to Prof. Riley, Mr. Editor, 1 
would remark that he says that he expects 
bee-keepers will be down on him. AVell, I 
would like to know how many horticulturists 
have thanked him. 

Not only bee-keepers are down on him, 
but all peace and justice loving persons must 
criticise him, for any such course as he ad- 
vises would bring enmity and discord among 
neighbors, even if bees were guilty of punct- 
uring fruit. It would be no more just to 
kill bees than it would be to kill cattle if they 
break into another man's enclosure. 

He compares my isolated experiment with 
" one swallow," etc.; but the Prof, has not 
even a single " swallow " to otter in his argu- 
ment, and says one experiment cannot nega- 
tive accumulated evidence. But I say a sin- 
gle demonstrated fact is worth more than 
volumes of theory to the contrary ; and theory 
is all the evidence he has to otter. When 
Galileo, by the means of his telescope, dem- 
onstrated to the world that the earth moves 
around the sun, his single iso^a^frZ experiment 
upset all the volumes of theory accumulated 
on that subject. When Columbus sailed 
westward, and found land beyond the waters, 
his demonstration negatived all theory to the 
contrary. 

So I, with a single experiment, overthrow 
all presumptive evidence to the contrary. 
For I have not, and do not presume the Prof. 
has, heai'd of or seen a like experiment prov- 
ing the contrary. He calls my experiment 
isolated. I would like to know on Avliat the 
Prof, bases his ro/ifdence concerning the 
fruit-destroying propensities of bees V Seeing 
bees on fruit is not proof that they puncture 
it. The question to be answered is simply 
this : Has he seen bees in the act of cutting 
the skin of the fruit V If he cannot ansvver 
affirmatively, all his gushing about a bowld- 



78 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



cr, truth, etc., amounts [to nothing, for it 
may prove a volcano. It is not neces- 
sary for me to consult horticulturists, or hor- 
ticultural works, for they can oft'er no posi- 
tive evidence, and I shall accept no one's ij)se 
dixit. The same is true of those bee-keepers 
he refers me to — they merely admit it as pos- 
sible, but I can give him the names of ten 
bee-keepers who deny the charge, to his one 
who admits it, but I should consider neither 
evidence, unless they have tested it as T did. 

The advice given by Mr. Hogue, of Ohio, 
in the New York Tribune cannot be praised 
too highly, while his (Riley's) cannot be too 
severely condemned. The former will give 
equally satisfactory results whether practiced 
by a horticulturist or a bee-keeper, for cat- 
nip will grow with as little trouble as milk- 
weed. His experience and experiments with 
bees must have been with a view of destroy- 
ing them, since he knows so well how to do 
so ; but he says he loves them and does not 
make open war upon them. AVell, no; it 
cannot be called warfare, but a cowardly 
assas.nnation, criminal in its nature. 

I shall continue my observations every fall, 
and at times when there is little or no bee 
forage, and if I find that bees cut the skin of i 
grapes I shall acknowledge it. But shall not 
then indorse bee-destroying recipes and catnip 
culture. More might be said, but this is al- 
ready loo long. 11. O. Krusciike. 



not be long till the dish is filled with drowned 
bees, but in a little while bees and dish will 
be cleaned ofl" perfectly dry, the bees none 
the worse for their sweet bath. 

C. C. MrLLEii. 
Marengo, Ills. 



For the American Bee Journal. : 

A Cheap and Good Feeder. ! 

It is an infringement on Novice's. We use i 
a good many of the ordinary self-sealing tin i 
fruit cans, and each year my wife discards | 
some that have been used and become a little 
rusty. Then with a punch of any kind, or an 
ordinary jack-knife, I make a num))er of j 
holes in the lid or cover of the can, fill the [ 
can with honey or syrup, put on the cover, i 
invert, and place over a hole in the honey [ 
board. The honey will not run out only as ' 
the bees eat it out. As these cans are thrown 
away, the only cost is punching the holes in ! 
the cover. These cans hold three or four 
pounds of honej'', and cost, when new, from 
six to twelve cents. Mr. (Irimm lold me his 
improved Novice-feeder cost twenty-fiAc cents 
each. If the ])rice were the same, I think I 
would prefer his. 

ANOTHEK. 

When feeding a very small quantity for 
stimulating purposes, when the weather is 
warm enough for the bees to remain at or 
near the entrance, 1 use ordinary sauce 
dishes. Put in two or three table spoon- 
fuls of diluted honey, set the dish at the 
entranc;e, and if tlic bees do not immediately 
attack it, tap on the liive. Of course it will 



Index to Back Volumes. 

As a matter of reference I have always 
kept an index of back volumes at the front 
page of my latest volume of the American 
Bee Journai., so that by reference to it, I 
might find any important item in any of the 
various volumes. I find it almost indispen- 
sable in my search. I send you a portion of 
the items found in the letters H and I. 

H. Vol. Page. 

Hiving Swarms. ------ i. 256 

Hybridizing Bees. ----- j. 231 

Hives, Pai)er. -------- iv. 2:30 

Honey Sulistitute. ----- iy. 8!> 

Honey Boards. ------- i. .57 

Honey Extractor. - - vol. iv. 144, vi. 208. 

Honey Extractor, How to Make. - vi. 278 

Honey Extractor, "Novice's." - iv. .58 

Honey BoxeSjto Make Bees Leave, iv. 212 

Honey Boards. Tallow for. - - iv. '?A 

Honey, to secure a large Yield. - vi. •> 

Honey Boards, Corn-cobs for. - iii. (> 

Honey Bee, Anti(iuity of. - - - vii. 26 

Honey Dew, Analysis of. - - - viii. 17 

Honey Artllieial. "Dzierzon." - viii. 84 

Honey Boards, Cloth for. - - viii. 87 
Honey as a Medicine, vol. viii. pp. 07, 101,210 

Honey Ditterent (lualities of. - - viii. 103 

Honey, to Keep. ------ viii. ICMr 

Honey Quilts. ------- viii. 118- 

Honey Plant. " Rape." - - - viii. 2.51 

Hives, "Novice's.' ----- yiii. 50 

Hives, Roofing for " Adair." - viii. 250 

Honey Boards, '■ Alley.' - - - viii. 174 

I. 

Introducing Queens, vol. i. ISC, 

vol. iii. I), iv. !(>■ 

Introducing Queens, (Ijangstroth). vi. 100> 

Introducing Queens, (Dzierzon). vi. 272 
Introducing Queens, ((irinuu). 

vol. iii. .5<i. iv. 240 

Introducing Queens, (Editorial). \'. 18 

Introducing Queens, (Alley). - ii. 187 

Introducing Queens,((;enuanplan). vi. l'.>7 

Introducing Queens, (Kohler). - iv. 21 

Introducing (^hieens. (Alley). - - vii. 150 

Introducing (Queens. (Dadaut). - vii. 'W> 

Introducing (Queens, Virgin. 

I vol. viii. 2()ti, viii 88- 

t Insects and Fruit. - - vol. iii. 22, iii. U>7 

! Improved Bee House. ----- v. 164 

Italiaiii/.inn l!ox Hives, " Grimm." iii. \h^ 

llaliani/.ini; I'.lack Bees. - - - vii. 270 
Italian vs. Black Bees, (Lang- 

strotli)- --------- viii. 28 

Italians and Sweetened Water. - viii. 1.50 



Kepeated observations show that the secre- 
tion of honey is powerfully influenced by 
tlic electricity of the atmosphere : and 
bees never labor more actively than dur- 
ing Inimid, sultry weather, ov when a 
thunder storm is a])iu'o:;c]iiiej,. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAI.. 



79 



For the American Bee Journal. 

The Bee Disease in Western New York. 

As my experience with the bee disease (so 
called by many good aiiiariuns) has been of 
a character not to make its repetition desira- 
ble, I i)roposi' to jiive a lew facts connected 
therewith, hoping that some of your corres- \ 
pondents will correct me if I have arrived at 
a wrong conclusion. 

Our apiary is located on the western slope 
of the Genesee, about seven miles west of the 
river, in a line not far from one mile uorth 
of west from the village of Geneseo. Al- 
though during cold nights the mercury in the 
therniomeler sinks several degrees lower on 
the tlats than on the uplands, yet, owing to 
protection of these flats from winds, in the 
middle of clear, calm days, the temperature 
at times was of sufficient warmth to admit of 
bees flying, whereas at the distance above 
mentioned they had no opportunity to leave 
their hives from late in the fall till the latter 
part of winter, consequently when the op- 
portunity did come what had not been frozen 
out were in an emaciated condition and hard- 
ly able to regain the hive after once leaving 
it. 

Thus reduced in numbers, they were una- 
ble to recruit, and consequently, they gradual- 
ly dwindled away, leaving the hive well stored 
with pollen, comb and honey. Out of an 
apiary of over sixty colonies in the spring 
of 1873 we had but one swarm left. 

Our neighbors fared no better, for through- 
out the length and breadth of this elevation 
of country — bordering both sides of the val- 
ley — from Ontario to Pennsylvania, (a part 
of the fairest and most fertile section of 
Western New York,) the same scene of dis- 
aster and desolation to a greater or less ex- 
tent prevailed, and bee-keeping received a 
blow from the eftects of which it will require 
some years to recover. Piles of empty hives 
stood where was once flourishing apiaries, and 
the busy hum of millions of industrious work- 
ers was hushed, and silence reigned supreme. 

From the facts above stated I am led to be- 
lieve that the great loss of bees throughout 
the country was by protracted cold weather 
without any favorable opportunities for 
purifying flights. In the valley proper, the 
loss was not above the usual average as they 
had several chances to fly, and consequently 
came through strong and healthy, but as you 
traveled east or west from the river, the ele- 
vation gradually increasing, the greater would 
become the loss, till you arrived at what 
raigth be termed the dead line. 

Another circumstance which serves to con- 
firm me in the opinion that there was no epi- 
demic, is that I took some b'-f^s with frames 
of comb left by bees which had died from 
the disease the winter before, to a person in 



Avon, who hived into them new swarms, 
which came out in the spring in fine condition, 
strong, healthy, and without any sign of dis- 
ease. I again have all my hives and combs 
refilled with bees and never had them do bet- 
ter than they have done the past season. 

I will close by saying that if re-using liives- 
and ttouibs from which bees died out the 
season before, will not spread and propagate 
disease could there have been any epidemic 
connected therewith ? When with due care 
we can count on wintering our bees with as 
small a percentage of loss as on other live 
stock, then will bee-keeping be established 
upon a surer basis, whereas, of late hundreds- 
of dollars have been invested in the business, 
from which there has not been received any 
adequate returns. C. R. Isiiam. 

Peoria, Wj^oming Co., N. Y. 

Berlepsch on the Culture of Rape. 

In order to make the inti'oductioii- 
aiid culture of rape successful I have 
gathered testimonials in regard to its 
value as a farm crop, and honey plant, 
from the rape growers in Wisconsin. 
I have also written to Mr. Berlepsch, and 
received the reply which is given below. 
Since it is the most important report,, 
and testimonial from such high author- 
ity concerning a honey plant, over 
given in the American Bee Joirnal. 
I thought it of sufficient interest to pub- 
lish. It will surely be found interesting, 
and will encourage the culture of rape, 
which, I am quite certain, can be made 
a success, here in America, as in Ger- 
many. 

Berlin, Wis. II. O. Ivruschke. 

Munich. Bavaria. Feb. 8th, 1874. 

Deak Bee Fkieni):— Your appreciated letter 

of Jan. 19th. is at Jiand In reply 

to your question. I would say, that I can an- 
swer you with certainty. 

During the years— between 1841 and 18.58 — that 
I was a practical agriculturist, I cultivated 
rape (see pamphlet) to a large extent, and can,, 
in consequence thereof, and from knowledge 
otherwise gained, testify most assuredly, that 
in all Geniiany there is "no itlant yielding more 
honey than rape. I know of instances, occur- 
ing in my i>wn experience, where a very popul- 
ous colony of bees, during the tinic; rai)e was iu 
blossom, gained a weight of twenty pounds and 
over in one day. 

On tlie tenth of ^lay 184<5 there was near me a 
sixty-live acre lield hi blossom. The weather 
was'excellent, and my strongest colony, which 
I placed on a jilatforin scale, gained that day 
over twenty-one pounds in weight. I know 
only of one other plant that can be c(mii)ared 
with rajie as a honey-yielding plant, and that 
is esparcet. It is i>rol)al)ly the best fodder- 
yielding i^lant for cattle and slice]). It flouri.shes 
on the pt)orest soil, if only not wet. and from ten 



SlO 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



to fifteen years without re-sowiug, and yields 
•enormous (luantities of fodder. 

('oncernluu' tlie value of rape as a farm crop, 
I can sa,\' it is \ery great, often yielding a net 
inciiuie of .-^:!i i)er acre. The soil however must 
be rich and well tilled. 

August, Baron vox Berlepsch. 

P'or the American Bee Journal. 

California for Bees. 

Mil. Editor. — -I see in the February num- 
ber of the Journal an inquiry if this part of 
the world is good for bees, and in answer 
would say that I believe it is the best in the 
"world, both as to quality of honey, quantity 
and healthiness of bees. In support of my 
assertion will give my reasons for making 
■them. 

In the winter of 1871-3 I bought eight 
stands of bees in box hives, transferred tliem 
into the American Iua-c, and in May I divided 
each hive, making sixteen. I put them on a 
little place I put up at the foot of the moun- 
tain, as I was then suffering from a cough, 
caused from a wound receiveo through the 
lung at the battle of Shiloli. I thought I 
would rusticate a few years, if I lived ; but 
when the warm weather came on I felt so 
much better, I left the bees and ranch and 
went to town, leaving my bees in charge of a 
jieighbor who lived a half mile away, I in- 
structed him to put on extra boxes, and did 
not return until the last of Jul)-, when I found 
them all full. I took out all the honey I 
could, without disturbing brood nests, and 
fitted up a lot of extra boxes, and melted out 
the honey in the sun, as I then had no ex- 
tractor, and left my bees again in the care of 
the neighbor, and did not return till the last of 
November, when I found all full again, and 
1 went through the same process of pruning, 
and took the honey to market, and found I 
had 3,500 lbs. of good white honey, which I 
sold for 13 and I'S cents per lb. 

I remained on the ranch that winter; and 
in the spring transferred all my bees to the 
Langstroth hive, and divided, so that I com- 
menced the season with thirty-four swarms, 
and increased to fifty, and by using an ex- 
tractor and remaining with the bees through 
the summer and giving them the attention I 
could, which was but very little on account 
of ill heilth, I got 7,000 lbs. of extracted 
lioney of a very superior quality. I got from 
■one swarm that came out in May, 403 lbs. of 
honey in comb, and left it in fall with twenty- 
two frames full of honey and brood. 

I would like to make arrangements with 
some firm in the East to ship my honey to in 
the barrel, and have them bottle it and put it 
on the market for me. I am satisfied that 
the poorest honey we have will compare with 
your best basswood. Honey Avas very dull 
sale here last 'year. J. \V. Montoomerv. 

San Bernardino, Cal. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Feeding Bees. 

While I thank Mr. Marvin very much for 
his proffered instruction, allow me to say that 
our kind reporter made a mistake in report- 
ing me to have said, "is there a remedy" for 
irritating bees, while shaking them from 
deep combs. I have no deep combs, and 
never expect to have. I would much rather 
use the Bingham depth of five inches, than 
fourteen. 

I have all pure Italian bees (thirty-three 
colonies), and having no blacks to contend 
with, had thought of propagating queens for 
the market, but now am determined to pur- 
chase twenty or forty colonies of black bees 
for next season's operations, and practically 
test the superiority of the Italians (if they 
have any) over the blacks, — all tilings con- 
sidered. Shall allow no increase from either ; 
shall keep all in the same yard ; give all equal 
chances. 

I hold (with Mr. Dadant) that sugar is not 
honey, until it goes into the honey sack and 
becomes acidized. Hence bees should not 
be wintered on sugar poured into the combs, 
but on sugar Jioney made by feeding in the 
fall. My experience leads me to say, that 
all kinds of out-door wintering is good, that 
will give the bees plenty of oxygenized air 
of a temperature not lower than thirty-five 
degrees Falirenhcit. Have not heard of any 
such, however. 

If Mrs. Harrison will take a two-ciuart fruit 
jar, and punch about seventy-five holes the 
size of a pin, through the cover, and then 
after filling the jar, screw on the cover, and 
insert through a hole in the honey-board, or 
cover, she will have a twenty-five cent feeder 
that will feed as little as she pleases, and will 
feed in autumn, enough for wintering in 
seventy-two hours, or three such on a hive, 
will feed the same in twenty-four hours. 
You can see at all times, just how liusiness 
progresses. Have used tlie Grimm feeder 
with perforated tin, instead of wire, screen. 
For spring feeding, punch only ten holes. I 
have only inch holes in my covers, so T make 
a hole just the size of the jar top, through a 
board (ixOx^, and place this over the inch 
hole and insert the jar, which will not blow 
over, and leave a half inch space between the 
hive cover, and perforated jar cover. The 
same may be put over a slot in the honey- 
board. I used twenty-four such, to feed 
winter stores to sixteen colonies, the jiast 
fall. I believe (after much experience) that 
making hives double wall, is throwing away 
money." They are not as durable as single 
wall hives, and in no way any better. Have 
tried hundreds of each, side by side, and the 
above is our experience. 

Dowagiac, Mich. ,I.\mes IIkddon. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



81 



For (lie American Bee Jouniiil. 

Letter from Kansas. 

THE I'KOrKK MAN. 

A few clays ago I received a letter from 
]Mr. A. Chapman, of New Cuniberlaiul, West 
Virfi'inia. lie speaks of a mau that met me 
with a lot of queeus on my way home from 
Kelly's island. Then he asks me " who the 
l^roper man is to write to, to get queens from 
there, and whether 1 think the queens raised 
there are pure." He then goes on to say that 

•''he thought Mr. the proper man, and 

ordered a lot of queens of him, which, how- 
ever, he regarded as impure, and he feels 
very much aggrieved." All of which ques- 
tions we are unable to answer, because we 
•are not the " proper mau, " and have never 
been to Kelly's island, nor received any 
<iueens from there. If the man that obtained 
a lot of queens at the Island, will answer Mr. 
Chapman's questions, no doubt he will take 
it as a favor. We find no fault with queen 
breeders that live up to their contracts, but 
when they advertise that they warrant the 
queen to be pure, and when they do not 
prove to be such, will furnish other queens, 
•or refund the money, we naturally under- 
stand from such a contract, that we are 
buying queens that have not been tested, and 
take the chances. 

If every oue in a dozen should prove to be 
hybrids, we have no business to complain, if 
the money is refunded, or other queens sent, 
us we may elect. But would we not natur- 
ally come to the conclusion that if a large 
majority of the queens sent out by any 
breeders, were impure, that he was not the 
proper man? In buying that kind of queens, 
we are well satisfied if three-fourths or more 
of them are pure. But in ordering tested 
queeus, it is a difterent thing. The breeder 
in that case cannot make you good by either 
refunding the money or furnishing you 
another queen. If the queen should prove 
to be impure, you have sustained a damage 
■equal to the value of the queen, or more, be- 
sides having your money refunded. 

THE MELIPtTLT. 

I was sorry to see the opinion of Mr. 
Adair, thus : that the " extractor has been 
overrated. If bee-keeping is to be made a 
success, it will not be accomplished with the 
use of the Honey Emptying Machine." This 
decision, however, is logical, from the stand- 
point of the melipult. Will not somebody 
furnish the General with a good, common 
Honey Extractor, without so many scientific 
principles about it, as the "melipult?" That 
machine, we believe, would be a success in 
scattering hayseed among politicians. 

WINTERING BEES. 

What is the cause of the dysentery ? Xow 
who would not like to know that ; and how 



to winter bees without loss ? Tlie causes are 
laid down positively by Mrs. Tupper. "Too 
much honey; too many oUl bees; too much 
cold ; too much disturbance." Mr. Quinby 
agrees with her, as far as the cold is con- 
cerned. And Mr. Hoot, with his sugar 
syrup, without acid, has the panacea. But 
what seems the strangest of all, is, that bee- 
keepers wont belie\'i! it. There is no oue 
that has faith in another's theory, and it is a 
mooted question whether success in each 
case depends solely on faitJi or merit in the 
prescription. Now, if it was the cold, the 
disturbance, the old bees, too much honey, or 
bad honey, why was it that my bees all win- 
tered safely too years ago ? All old bees — 
some full of honey, some nearly empty — 
swarms of all sizes, and disturbed every few 
days V But last winter, with my bees in the 
same cellar, treated the same way, only not 
disturbed as much, two-thirds of them or 
more had the dysentery, and last fall they 
were breeding a month later than the year 
before ! Hives of all conditions were among 
the eighty that were put in last year, and those 
that escaped the dysentery, were some of the 
very smallest swarms. Some of the best and 
heaviest, and some medium, including four 
or five hives that were supplied with sugar 
syrup without acid, was among the first to 
die. As Mrs. Tupper says, they "miserably 
perished " every one. I might say here, that 
I was n«t testing the sugar syrup, because I 
had faith in it; but, from the fact that Iliad 
orders for more honey than I had a surplus 
to fill, extracted several hives clean, to get 
enough to fill the last order, so that a want of 
faith could not have been the cause of my 
failure. 

RAISING BROOD WITHOUT POLLEN. 

I take the negative side of that question. 
I tested it last season, by confining a queen 
on a frame, with young bees that had never 
had access to pollen, and they could proceed 
no farther than merely hatch the eggs. But 
a swarm of bees that had been feeding young, 
might have prepared food enough in their 
stomachs to raise a large number of bees, if 
confined to a hive that has no pollen in it. If 
pollen is not necessary, what fools the bees 
are for collecting it. 

RECIPE FOR FOUL BROOD. 

We noticed in the Journal for Novembei-, 
a sure cure for foul brood, which being a 
compound of some nine difterent ingredients, 
we think would either kill or cure; but it 
looked to us as though there must be some 
mistake. Three of the ingredients amounted 
to eighteen pounds, which, with the rest, were 
to be pulverized and put in a flask, with a quart 
of brand, but it would take a pretty large flask 
— at least one that would hold four gallons, 
and then a quart of l^randy would not moisten 
the compound; in fact, we think it would 



82 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



not more than lay the dust on the top. We 
look for more light on that perscription. 

THE DYSENTERY. 

We are satislled that this is a disease that 
no one yet knows how to cure or prevent. 
We find at this writing (Dec. 16) that the 
dysentery has commenced among our bees. 
There has been no very bad weather yet — the 
coldest day was not more than ten or twelve 
degrees below^ the freezing point. We now 
have our plans in readiness, and we will, this 
winter, test two entirely new methods of win- 
tering, and if either of them prove a success, 
it will be known in due time. 

N. Cameron. 

Lawrence, Kansas. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Our Queenless Colony- 

All wise apiarians agree, we believe, in 
recommending that a colony queenless at the 
approach of winter, be united with another 
colony — the weakest you may have. 

But if your other colonies are all strong, 
are quietly clustered, and in all respects have 
been cared for as well as your knowledge and 
situation will admit, do you improve their 
chances for successful wintering by disturb- 
ing their slumbers and unnecessarily augment- 
ing their number ? 

This ciuestion we found ourselves called to 
consider, when, on the first of November, the 
murder of their new queen had left No. 7 in 
a hopelessly disorganized state. The weather 
was cold. Our well-regulated colonies were 
sound asleep. It would require at least three 
of these to provide room for our rebels. 
Should we disturb them? And should we 
trust their queens — beautiful Esther, dusky 
and capricious, but sprightly and interesting 
Cleopatra, and our w^ell-beloved Eve — in the 
presence of these regicides'? We decided 
that we would not. 

Another course of procedure was to shake 
the bees from their combs, upon the snow, 
thereby saving some thirty pounds of honey. 
I cannot say this plan received much consid- 
eration. As what might be done by a stern 
old veteran bee-keeper, it was alluded to, and 
its comparative profitableness admitted. But 
our organ of destructiveness is too small for 
such heroic action, and not for one moment 
did we fancy ourselves capable of it. 

On the discovery of our second loss we had 
dispatched a somewhat frantic appeal to Mr. 

for another queen; but this was done as 

a drowning man catches at straws — quite 
hopelessly. 

So, at last, we found but one course left to 
us — to take as good care of the colony as pos- 
sible and wait for si)ring. We were the bet- 
ter satisfied with this decision, that a sugges- 
tion to the same eflect accompanied Mr. 's 



reply to our request for another queen. T© 
this was kindly added the promise of advice 
as to management in the spring. Thus en- 
couraged, we began to regard No. 7 in the 
light of a new study, and, if the whole truth 
be told, with more of interest than either, or 
all, of our six more hopeful and praiseworthy 
colonies could elicit. 

During November, which with us was ex- 
tremely cold, the queenless colony were in a 
constant state of agitation. How to keep 
them dry, and stitficiently cool — for when 
the mercury went down to the neighborhood 
of zero, they were reasonably quiet — was a 
constant study. The entrance was shaded, 
but seldom was there a day so cold that a 
a few bees did not find their way out, to per- 
ish in the snow, while in moderate weather 
the number thus lost was somewhat appall- 
ing. Whenever, after severe cold, the weather 
moderated, they impressed us as having re- 
discovered their queenless state. 

About the first of December we discovered 
at the entrance a number of immature bees. 
On examination these proved to be tiny 
drones — a little thicker, and a trifle shorter 
than workers. The first warm, sunny day 
thereafter, Dec. 4, we eagerly improved the 
opportunity aftbrded for a peep inside. On 
the central combs we found hundreds of the 
dwarf drones, for the most part rather young 
and dow'ny, but evidently in good health, and 
very much at home. Of course thej^ had 
been reared in worker cells ; and we puzzled 
ourselves with conjectures as to whether the 
bees knew what they were about. Were 
they quite satisfied with the questionable 
shape in which their carefully nurtured brood 
had emerged ? And could we hope that the 
experiment had taught them anything, or 
must we look for a continuation of this prof- 
itless brood rearing ? We saw at this time 
no larvte, nor did we notice any eggs. There 
was one large, clumsy, half completed queen 
cell. We made a careful search for a young 
queen, (albeit we could not understand how 
there could be one,) and finally concluded 
that our little drones must be the progeny of 
a worker. From this time until Dec. 16, there 
was little change. As before, the bees were 
noisy and restless ; as before they came forth 
daily to perish on the snow. Had not the 
colony been of unusual strength in the be- 
ginning, we fear that our experiment, in this 
way, wotild have come to an untimely end. 

Dec. 16 was warm; and again we opened 
the hive. We were gratified to learn that no 
more little drones were being reared. Tliere 
were, however, plenty of eggs — some cells 
containing a dozen. Many of these seemed 
shriveled, the same cell often containing two 
or three fresh ones. Opening another hive, 
I was fortunate enough to find some nice 
looking eggs, properly arranged. Cutting 
out a piece of comb containing about fifty 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



83 



eggs, I inserted it in a comb belonging to the 
queenless colony. Would they recognize the 
superior value of these eggs, and properly 
care for them ? 1 was curious as to this, but 
hud nothing further in view. Three days 
later tiiese bees had become as quiet as those 
of our other colonies. The mortality occa- 
sioned by their leaving the hive suddenly 
ceased, for they suddenly ceased to come 
forth . We marvelled greatly, and were happy 
enough when on Jan. 8 we were able once 
more to investigate. 

On examining the piece of comb inserted 
Dec. 16, we found to our chagrin — nothing. 
Greatly disajipointed for the moment, we 
proceeded to lift the next comb. Here we 
found a little capped drone brood, in drone 
comb. Near the center of this was suspended 
a long, slender, capped queen cell ! The bees 
seemed to be deeply interested in it, and clus- 
tered about it so thickly that it was with 
some ditticulty that we assured ourselves that 
the cap had a brownish and soou-to-be-lifted 
appearance. 

"Have you your penknife, Nellie?" 1 
eagerly demanded. 

Nellie answered my query by coolly taking 
the frame from my fingers and carefully drop- 
ping it into its place. 

"I think we will leave her to introduce 
herself," she said gravely. "These bees are 
so very peculiar and punctilious, — they might 
object to taking her from the point of a 
knife ! " 

" But," I remonstrated, " the cell may con- 
tain only a dead or dying drone; I should 
have found out." 

" You don't think so, neither do I, neither 
do the bees, evidently; and you don't want 
to risk bringing about a relapse from the 
quiet of the past two weeks, to the old dis- 
content and restlessness — you know you 
don't." 

Nellie sometimes forgets she is my junior, 
Imt, in consideration of her ordinary docility, 
I usually yield to her upon such occasions, 
and console myself for the temporarj^ abne- 
gation of authority by holding the reins a 
little tighter when I recover them. 

In the present case I only remarked mildly, 
" Well, admitting that a worker egg was car- 
ried across from the piece of inserted comb, 
and successfully deposited in the queen cell, 
what has become of the remaining forty-nine 
(more or less) worker eggs ? " 

" Oh," said Nellie, "they only succeeded 
with the fiftieth egg; the remaining forty- 
nine didn't bear transportation." 

"An explanation more convenient than 
probable, I suspect." 

" Well," said Nellie, " I can suggest an- 
other—shall I ? " 

"Certainly; why not?" 
" Because it is rather shocking. Perhaps 
the eggs were hatched. Somewhere, I have 



seen a suggestion, or an assertion, to the ef- 
fect that for the compassion of royal jelly, 
young larvie — " 

"That will do, my dear; I remember ! I 
very much i)refer your first explanation." 

We closed the hive with the mental agree- 
ment that it would lie well to search for our 
hypothetical (lueen on the next warm day. 

Such a day — a day both warm and still — 
came not until Feb. 28. But with it, alas ! 
came company; guests whom, on ordinary 
occasions, we delighted to honor. As it was 
— well, we womanfully choked down our 
bitter regret that our friends had not chosen 
washing day, or any other day lint this — met 
them smilingly, and entertained them as best 
we could, while the warm, sunny hours of 
the afternoon — hours that for weeks we had 
sighed for — passed by, and our opportunity 
was gone ! 

We console ourselves only by reflecting 
that spring is at hand, and the colony is still 
alive. That it is much reduced in numbers, 
we must admit; but, we, nevertheless, regard 
it hopefully. The bees that we see at the 
entrance are, now, as bright, as small, and 
as active as their more favored neighbors. 
In any event, we shall not change our present 
opinion — that for truly enjoyable winter bee 
keeping, a queenless colony is indispensable ! 
Cyula Linswik. 



For tlie American Bee Journal. 

Clipping Queens' Wings; 

SIZE OF HIVES; "NEW IDEA" HIVES; ANI> 
OTHEK THINGS. 

At the late meeting of the North American 
Bee-Keepers' Society I read a paper on the 
Wings of Bees, showing that thej'^ must be 
important organs aside from their mechanical 
use as organs of flight; in fact that they are 
a part of the pulmonary system, and that 
any injury to the wings must affect the 
strength and value of the queens. Mr. Root, 
in his " Gleanings," without publishing the 
paper at all, says I say that " bees breathe 
through their wings," leaving it to be under- 
stood that I state that they compose the entire 
lungs, when any one who will read the paper 
will see that I take no such position. 

I wrote to Mr. R. an explanation of his er- 
ror and suggested to him that it would be 
fairer for him to publish the paper so that 
the readers might judge for themselves. He 
publishes a part of my letter, only. He still 
refuses to publish the paper, for which he 
gives the following reason in his February 
number. He says: 

" We declined publishing the paper then, 
and do now, on the ground that very few peo- 
ple indeed are capable of deciding what is 
truth and what is error in the micros'^opic 
world," and he goes so fur as to take to task 



84 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, 



the Rural Neio Yorker aucl other papers, for 
publislimg it, because, as he states it, " mau- 
kind are so prone to take up and disseminate 
error," etc. Now it seems to me tliat Mr. R. 
is assuming a censorship over the press that 
is not called for, and is assuming a dogmatic 
position that he would condemn in others. 
It has been but a few mouths since in criti- 
cising me and the " whole popular science 
world," as he called it, he very learnedly 
quoted a Latin maxim, '■'magna est Veritas et 
jv'evalebit" which might be paraphrased, and 
if not more original, be equally truthful, 
" magna est vardtas et in'evalet" for self -suf- 
ficiency must prevail to an alarming extent 
with any one who pronounces " very few 
people capable of deciding what is truth," 
etc., and believes that " mankind are so prone 
to take up and disseminate error," etc., and 
relies on his own infallibility as one of the 
"few capable" of dictating what people 
should read. 

Are the " people " who read the bee journ- 
als and the rural press in need of such censor- 
ship ? I had come to the conclusion that bee- 
keepers as a class had more than an average 
•of intelligence, even in a country like ours, 
where the government is based on the intelli- 
gence of the people as a whole, and where 
the freedom of the press is based on the the- 
ory that falsehood and error can do no harm 
where free speech and an unshackled press 
have full license to combat them, for as Mr. R. 
says, " Truth is mighty and will prevail." 

Mr. Root makes a quotation from " Carpen- 
ter on the Microscope" confirming the des- 
cription I give of the wings, except he says, 
"This circulation [he is speaking of the 
blood and not of the nervous or pulmonic 
system of the wings], may be seen readily in 
the wings of bees young and growing, .... 
those organs especially whicli are peculiar to 
the perfect insect being then in a state of 
rapid growth and having then a vigorous cir- 
culation of blood through them; but this 
^movement soon ceases and the wings dry uj)." 

The last italics are Mr. Root's. I might 
reply to this in the language of Mr. Root by 
calling it "sheer folly" or "twaddle" or 
some of the hard names he so freely applies 
to all that differ with him, but I cannot be- 
lieve that Carpenter is a fool, (I believe folly 
is defined to be " the acts of a fool,") or that 
it is " idle silly talk," which a "tattler" is 
guilty of, for he would likely be surprised at 
the use that Mr. Root made of his language, 
so contrary to the observations of every other 
eminent naturalist. 

In the larva state the bee is composed of 
thirteen segments, eleven of these have each 
two spiracles or breathing holes, one on each 
side of the body. As it approaches the pupa 
state these spiracles are gradually obliterated 
and grow up, so that all of those on the seg- 
ments that finally form the abdomen disap- 



pear, and those on the thorax are alone left. 
As the bee approaches the pupa state there 
appear on the thorax over four of the ante- 
rior spiracles little pad-like projections which 
are the wings doubled up in wads, which may 
be seen through the pellicle that envelopes 
the pupa at that time. This skin sloughs oft" 
in the semi-pupa stage and releases the wads, 
and it is at this time that Carpenter says that 
the " circulation may be readily seen,'" as 
then the wings are but a pulpy mass and so 
translucent that there is no difficulty in ob- 
serving the circulating ftuid, for the circula- 
tion is " then vigorous " to promote their de- 
velopement and " rapid growth." " But this 
movement soon ceases and the wings dry 
up." Of course they do, for the limp, pulpy 
mass assumes a difterent consistency and de- 
velopes the complicated elements of the 
wings, and there is no longer any necessity 
for an excess of moisture in the wings. The 
circulation is thence hid from sight inside of 
the horny tubes and under the covering of 
minute hair-like xtapillcB that cover the wings. 
And this is all that Carpenter means to say. 

One other statement of Mr. Root deserves 
a little notice. He says: 

" So far as eminent naturalists and ento- 
mologists are concerned, we have only to say 
it will be the worse for them, if they endorse 
the paper in question, and its winding up es- 
pecially." 

Now as friend R. is the oiily naturalist 
among the many who have read the paper 
who does not endorse it, the " whole popular 
science world " must be in a bad fix. Icim't 
tell how he intends to punish them, but I sup- 
pose he will publish them in the " Humbug 
and Swindle " department of his Oleanings. 
Would not it be a sad spectacle ? But what 
is the winding up of this paper that he con- 
demns as "specially" outrageous? The last par- 
agraph is the statement of a fact that has been 
settled among uaturalists f or a longtime: i. e. 
that the bee inftates its body with air when 
about to fty, so as to decrease its specific gravi- 
ty, and assist it in flying This is not only appli- 
ed to insects, but ornithologists state that birds 
do the same thing, even filling the hollow 
barrels of their feathers and quills with heat- 
ed air or gas. In this fact lies a very strong 
reason why the wings of insects should per- 
form the office of lungs, for when the body 
is inflated there are valves at the openings of 
the spiracles that close and retain the ilir, 
just as in holding the breath, so at the very 
time that free respiration is most needed, it is 
impeded most, unless the wings perform 
the oflicc of pulmonary organs; for the blood 
always flows more actively to the members 
of the animal body that are most in exerci.se. 

The great difficulty with ]\Ir. R., and all of 
the unscientihi;, is that they overlook the 
fact that nature accomplishes the same cud 
by very opposite and diverse means. Because 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



85 



man and the higher animals have certain 
parts of their structure specialized as lungs, 
they infer that every thing tliat breathes must 
liave like organs, and that the functions can- 
not be exercised by any other. The special 
breathing apparatus of worms consists of sim- 
ple tilaments placed on tlie head, and they do 
not take air into the body at all, and in addi- 
tion to these tilauients, the whole surface of 
tlie body serves as lungs, so that if a worm 
be cut in two both i)arts will live, and become 
independent animals. 

St. George ISIivarts, in Nature for Decem- 
ber, 187;j, p. 108, says our skin is by no 
means popularly credited with the great im- 
portance really due it. " Only the skin ! " is 
an exclamation not unfrequeutly heard, and 
wonder is very often felt when death super- 
venes after a burn which has injured but a 
comparatively small surface of the body. 
Yet our skin is really one of our most import- 
ant organs, and is able to supplement, and to 
a very slight extent to replace, the respective 
actions of the kidneys, tlie liver, and the lungs. 
[See Huxley's Elementary Physiology, Lesson 
v., §19.) 

The same authority tells us that, " In the 
frog we have this cutaneous activity devel- 
oped in a much higher degree. . . . Its res- 
piratory action is both constant and import- 
ant. This has been experimentally demon- 
strated by the detection of the carbonic acid 
given out in water, over the head of which a 
bladder had been so tightly tied as to pre- 
vent the possibility of the escape of any 
exhalation from the lungs. The fact of 
cutaneous respiration has also been proven 
by the experiment of confining frogs in cages 
under water for more than two months and a 
half, and by the cutting out of the lungs, the 
creature continuing to live for forty days. 
Indeed, it is now certain that the skin is so 
important an agent in the frog's breathing 
that the lungs do not suffice for the mainte- 
nance of life without its aid." 

The only argument that Mr. Root uses 
against the theory is, that practical experi- 
ence disproves it, and he gives instances where 
queens have been prolific afterwards and 
lived a long time. Mr. I. L. Davis, of Mich- 
igan, appears in your February number with an 
instance of the same sort. But I can not admit 
that the instances cited by either have any 
weight, from the fact that the hives in which 
the bees were kept re(iuired no great vigor in the 
(jueens to keep up the population and to 
swarm, and the fact that such queens lived 
from three to six years proves nothing, for 
it is not contended that it will take their 
lives. My experience is that queens with 
mutilated wings most generally live longer 
than those with perfect wings, just as you 
see many unhealthy men that exert them- 
selves but little, outlive the more robust and 
vigorous, not so careful of their vital force. 



It is now conclusively demonstrated that 
the conditions under wliich we have been 
keeping our bees liave restilcted the queens, 
and tliat in jiroperly constructed hives, with 
management adapted to their nature and in- 
stincts, the fecundity of the queen is incredi- 
ble. Some two years ago I published a small 
book drawing the attention of apiarians to 
what has become known as the " New Idea 
Theory." It has been much ridiculed by 
Mr. Root and others, but that lias not pre- 
vented its successful use all over the country. 
I will not go into the details of the theory 
here, as this article is already of a tedious 
length. At the late meeting of the North 
American Bee-Keepers' Society, when the 
subject of artificial swarming was under con- 
sideration, I gave a statement of the main 
points of it. In the synopsis of the proceed- 
ings as published, it is too much abreviated 
to give a fair understanding of it. I there- 
fore send you an extract from the full report, 
giving the whole of it, and as it will answer 
many questions continually asked me, and 
at the same time show Mr. Root and Mr. 
Davis, why I do not consider their reported 
instances as tests of the wing theory, request 
you to publish it in full. If you have not 
room for it in the same number with this, 
give it in your next, if you please. 

D. L. Adair. 

Hawesville, Ky. 



For the American Bee Journal. 



Murdering Bees. 



Under this heading the February number 
of the American Bee Journal copies an ar- 
ticle from the British Bee Journal, in which 
an English bee-keeper relates that the bees of 
one of his straw hives destroyed each other, 
and says that the murdered bees are of a 
smaller size. The editor of the British Bee 
Journal, in answer says, that he has experi- 
enced the same with his bees and that he thinks 
it is on account of their small size that these 
bees are murdered. 

I have seen sometimes a similar accident 
in my apiary, several years ago; and I 
searched for the real cause. Having mova- 
ble combs, I have not been long in ascertain- 
ing it. The bees killed were very young, 
and the murderers were the oldest. These 
old bees were not killing their sisters to rid 
the hive of them, but the young were starved 
by the famished gatherers, which could find 
nothing in the fields and nothing in the hive to 
appease their hunger. 

I have ascertained that the newly hatched 
bees consume more honey in the first fort- 
night of their life, than they have consumed 
from the egg to their last transformation. 
Tne newly born bee is very small ; after two 
days it is very big, even bigger than the old 



HH 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



workers, and for fifteen days it eats plenty of 
honey and bee-bread, to perfect and harden 
its organs. During that time it remains in 
tlie hive and nurses the larvse. 

When the crop of honey fails, and when 
there is nothing to eat in the hive, the old 
bees seem irritated to see these young bees so 
fat, so well filled with the product of their 
work, and they force them to give back the 
honey that they have in their stomachs. The 
poor young bees are pinched and tortured 
until their stomachs are empty. Then they 
run into every corner of the hive to escape 
from their tormentors, which, still famished, 
do not leave them till they are starved to 
death. Then the poor young bees, which 
were so fat, in well provisioned hive, have 
their abdomens shortened and curved inside. 
When they are in such a state, it is impossi- 
ble to restore them to health. I have tried it 
in vain. When I have encountered similar 
accidents, I had seen the provisions of the 
colony several days before, and it seemed 
that they were sutficieut for the brood; but 
the brood after hatching, ate so much that 
the bees were starving, and the young were 
sucked dry by the old. For five or six years 
I have never seen such a case; for I take 
the greatest care to see that my bees have 
enough honey for their young. 

In the ease alluded to, the correspondent 
of the British Bee Journal says, that the 
massacre took place at intervals of one week 
or ten days, especially on Sunday. Some 
ultra Christian will probably think that these 
bees were killed because they had worked on 
the holy day. But the naturalist will, no 
doubt, think with me that the massacre hap- 
pened on the day when nothing was found in 
the fields by the bees ; and as our mother 
nature does not know the seventh day, the 
lack of honey in the fiowers must come from 
some natural and not miraculous cause. 

When a similar accident arrives, the surest 
and quickest way to stop the massacre, is to 
give the colony one or two good combs of 
honey. No doubt a few of the bees, too 
much famished, will perish; but the murder- 
ing will be stopped instantly, and the colony 
saved. Ch. Dadant. 

Hamilton, 111. 



Destroying Millers. — Mr. Philipson, 
an extensive bee-keeper of Genesee 
county, Michigan, says: "In the even- 
ing, plaee a shallow dish tillecl with thin 
tar in front of the hives, with a small 
lamp so placed in the center of tlie dish 
as to bring the light near the tar. The 
millers being attracted by the light dive 
for it and go into the tar. In a short 
time all the millers in the vicinit}' of the 
apiarj' will be caught." 



Artificial and Non-Swarminff. The 

"New Idea" Theory and 

One Story Hives. 

AN EXTRACT FROM THE UNPUBLISHED 
TRANSACTIONS OP THE NORTH AMERICAN 
REE-KEEPERS' SOCIETY, AT LOUISVILLE, 
DECEMBER, 1873. 



The question under consideration 
was, "Is artificial swarming as good 
or better than natni-al swarming?'' 
D. L. Adair. — Moved that the Society 
answer in the affirmative. 

Winder. — Why? We should give 
some reason for such an answer. 

Adair. — Because natural swarming 
is always the result of disorganization, 
and a colony of bees in a properly con- 
structed hive, properly managed will 
not swarm, while it admits of extensive 
multiplication of stocks, by artificial 
means, without materially injuring the 
old colon}"; and as long as such a hive 
is so managed no drones will l)e pro- 
duced, and all the comb built will be 
worker comb, and no attempt will be 
made to build queen cells. 

A. J. Murra}' of Tennessee. — Did not 
think that giving the bees room \vould 
prevent swarming. While in the Con- 
federate army he assisted in cutting a 
bee tree in which he found two colonies 
in one hollow, the only division between 
them was 'the direction of the comb; 
and in another cavity in the same tree 
there Avas a iiew swarm that had taken 
up its quarters, which he sup])osed had 
swarmed from one of the others ; yet 
there was plenty of unoccupied room in 
the large hollo\v. 

Adair. — Still the queen may have 
been crowded for room. 

Murray. — Knew of another colony 
that passed through a ventilator tube 
in a house, into a large room, where 
they located themselves and the}' 
swarmed. They certainly were not 
crowded. 

Adair. — The extent of room, however 
great, will not prevent swarming, unless 
other conditions are present. It is the 
circumscribing of the brood nest that 
produces disorganization, and whenever 
the queen produces more eggs than she 
has room in the brood nest to de2)osit 
the proper balance of the hive is destroy- 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



87 



cd, and it will result in the disorgauizii 
tiou that produces s\varinini>-. In the 
8])riBg, when the queen is laying but 
little^ the brood nest is small. The 
<3ueeu begins at a given point to lay; 
first occupying a s))ot of about one and 
one-half inches in diameter on each side 
of one sheet of comb; then taking into 
her circuit a point opi)Osite on each side 
of the two adjoining sheets. Around 
this centre she continues to lay, gradu- 
ally enlarging the nest for twenty-one 
da3's. At" the end of that time the 
^•oung bees produced from the first eggs 
laid begin to emerge from the cells and 
she returns to the centre to begin her 
circuit anew, tilling each cell as it is va- 
oatetL Around this brood nest the bees 
fill the cells with bee-bread and outside 
of that honey. ( Bees never deposit 
bee-bread away from the neighborhood 
of brood.) Thus a bi-ood nest is formed 
and if nothing obstructs it, will extend 
equally on all sides of the point at 
which the queen began to la}', and as 
the cells around it are filled with food, 
when she again reaches the circumfer- 
ence she finds her limits restricted. By 
this time, honey is coming in freely and 
she is stimulated to ])roduce more eggs 
than she has cells to receive them ; the 
perfect balance of the hive is destroyed 
and preparations for swarming is the 
result, and even though the colony 
were located on the ceiling of this large 
halL, they would swarm just as certain- 
ly, for the queen Avould be as much 
crowded as if she were in a small hive. 
To questions asked, he said that the 
remedy for this was to have a hive so 
constructed that it will admit of push- 
ing apart the frames, in the middle of 
the brqod nest and inserting empty 
sheets of comb, if early in the season, 
but if the bees were in a condition to 
make wax rapidly, then empty frames 
were best, as the bees would fill them 
with comb as fast as lieeded by the 
queen. It is important that the insert- 
ed frames, whether empty or with comb, 
should be placed in the middle of the 
brood nest, and not to one side, as the 
queen w^ill thereby be induced to occupy 
them solidl}' with eggs, and while she 
is doing that, the bees emerging from 
the cells in the comb forming the old 
nest will be giving more rooin, and 



greater fecundity will be the result; 
when, if the frames are inserted to one 
side, she will be slow to occuj)}- it, and 
before she can do so it will be filled 
with bee bread and honey. 

When the queen has thus, at iiitei-- 
vals, been given all the room she can 
occup3', and all compactly together, it is 
not probable that any further care will 
be necessary to prevent swarming dur- 
ing the honey season, provided, there 
is enough room in the same chamber to 
fui-nish room for the work of all the 
bees she can produce. Room given in 
boxes or top or side apartments will do 
no good, for the bees will not work in 
them freely, and whenever the brood 
chamber is filled to tlji> ends, the bees 
will double back on the brood nest, and, 
as they find empty cells in it, will pack 
them with pollen and honey, and in a 
little while the brood nest will be re- 
duced m size so that the queen will be 
again crowded, and the swarming im- 
pulse brought on from the disorganiza- 
tion so produced. 

The hive should be of one story, and 
long enough to be certain that it will 
aftbrd sufficient room for the work of 
the enormous colony of bees that will 
soon result from such management. 
B3' careful estimate he had found in a 
single colony, so managed 170,000 bees. 
In it there was no drone comb con- 
structed during the season, and not a 
drone was reared in it ; and, although 
drone comb was placed in the brood 
nest, the queen did not lay in it, but 
the bees filled it with honey. 

An ordinary hive with a broad cham- 
ber of 2,000 cubic inches capacity will 
not accomodate exceeding 20,000 bees 
with working room. Whenever it 
much exceeds that number a swarm is 
cast, regardless of the amount of room 
there is in the top or side apartments. 
For while there might be room for stor- 
ing honey, the nursing bees and wax 
producers would be crowded into the 
brood chamber, and however large the 
brood, nest may have been at first, it 
will soon be filled with stores, particu- 
larly bee-bread, and swarming is bound 
to result. Even if the bees clo work in 
the boxes and the wax-workers and 
honey gatherers are drawn out of the 
brood chamber, it leaves the hive in 



ss 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



scarcely a better fix, for the nursing 
bees are left to crowd it, and the pollen 
gatherers will not store the bee-bread 
away from the brood nest, but near to 
the larvfe to be fed ; and as they will 
gather more than can be used in rear- 
ing the limited brood that can be hatch- 
ed in so small a space, the comb soon 
becomes j)acked full of it. The bees 
will remove the honey from the cells in 
the brood chamber to make room for it, 
and the bee-keeper will be j^leased that 
his boxes are being so rapidl}^ filled. 
But the bees swarm. Not a bee is left 
in the boxes. They are taken off", full 
of honey perhaps. He looks into his 
brood chamber, and what does he find? 
Somewhere he finds a few patches of 
brood mixed in with cells full of bee- 
bread, and perhaps the greater part of 
the comb stuffed full of bee-bread, — 
there is bee-bread everywhere, enough 
to feed a hundred thousand larvtie, in- 
stead of the few thousand that they 
have left cradles for. The melipult 
will not extract it, and perhaps it is left 
in during winter, excluding the weak 
colony from the cells, and they have to 
live as best they can between the cold 
sheets of pollen, or more likely entirely 
die out before spring, from cold and 
starvation. 

This j^icture is not overdrawn, for 
every experienced bee-keeper has seen 
hives in that condition, without being 
aware of the fact that it w^as the fault 
of the hives, and not of the bees. 

A Member. — What is the shape and 
size of the hives you use. 

Adair. — The hive should be long, and 
as wide as the length of the frames. — 
The frames to set in it crosswise. If 
the frames are large the hive need not 
be so long. The entrance should be at 
only one end. This is inqjortant. But 
there should be two holes, three-eighths 
of an inch by three inches, and about 
five inches apart. The brood nest 
should be in the middle of the hive, and 
in no event should the bees be allowed 
to fill the hive, so as to reach either end, 
for as soon as they do, they will double 
back the honey and crowd the brood 
nest. 

Murray. — Will a queen that lays so 
abundantly live long? Will she not 
soon become exhausted ? 



Adair. — She will not live long. At 
the end of the second season she will 
likel}^ be worthless. The ovaries of the 
queen have the germs of a certain num- 
ber of eggs in them, and, when they are 
laid, no more can be produced, and she 
should be superseded whenever she be- 
gins to decline in fertility, for when she 
begins to fail, preparations will invaria- 
bl_y be made for swarming. 

Murray. — What do you gain then if 
it shortens the life of the queen? 

Adair. — You gain a great deal. A 
hive so managed produces as much in 
one year as, under the swarming sys- 
tem, it might produce in four or five^ 
and it is but little trouble to have young 
queens to supply the places of the old 
ones. 

A Member. — In Avhat shape do you 
get your surplus honey; in the comb or 
extracted. 

Adair. — Some of both ; but coml) hon- 
e}' is the most pi'ofitable, and the bees 
will make more dollars' worth of it, in 
most seasons, but he would not be with- 
out the melipult, as it could hardly be 
dispensed with. 

A Member. — How do you get your 
brood nest in the middle of the hive ? 
Will the bees locate it there? 

Adair. — The bees will locate it as near 
to the entrance as they can. In the 
hive he uses, the frames are closed at 
top, bottom and sides. He can hook 
together any number of them, closing 
the ends with glass in the summer, so 
that the hives can be easily examined. 
In winter, he closes them with straw 
or shuck mats. He hooks together, at 
first, enough to accomodate the bees- 
with room for a few days, and until the 
brood nest is established. When the 
bees fill them too near either end, he 
adds more on the ends to give room for 
the workers and in the centre to enlarge 
the brootl nest, and afterwards, as oftea 
as demanded, so that the queen never 
Avants for room, nor the workers for 
space to biiild comb and store all the 
honey they can gather. 

A Member. — How long is your hive? 

Adair. — At first he thought that a 
hive three feet long would be sufficient, 
but found it too small. He then made 
them four feet long, holding thirty-two 
frames ten by thirteen inches inside. — 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



89' 



This is large oiiough, when the extract- 
or is used or the comb honey is talcen 
out often, but he hiul used them twice 
that size and had the bees to occupy all 
of the frames but five or six. Five feet 
long, with frames of that size, will do 
if attended to, but they must bo larger 
if the honey is left in them. 

A Member.— If 3^our bees don't swarm 
how do you increase them ? 

Adair. — lie made artilical swarms, 
and could increase his bees faster than 
from smaller hives, as the material was 
so abundant; foi" a nucleus, or even a 
good swarm, could be taken out without 
reducing the colon}^ to the dimensions 
of the strongest colon}- you can have in 
a hive of ordinary size, and without 
materially checking its jDroductiveness. 
He generally formed a nucleus of two 
or three sheets of brood, one or two of 
empty comb and one or two entirely 
empty. He hooked them togethei', set 
them in the cellar or a dark room for 
three or four days, then set them out, 
and as soon as they raised a queen built 
them up by adding brood as near ma- 
turity as he could get. The surplus 
queen cells were used in forwarding 
others. He had made as high as eight 
artificial swarms out of one hive, at one 
time, giving each a queen cell. With 
the addition of a little brood about the 
time the queen becomes fertile, thc}^ 
soon become strong colonies. Of course 
in such instances the parent colony was 
reduced to a small size, and was naate- 
rially checked in productiveness, and it 
took them some time to recover. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

That Patent Bee-Peeder. 

The jSIarch number of the Journal is just 
received, aud of course is devoured at 
once. Friend Kretchmer, on page sixty-six, 
refers to my article on " Mr. Adam Grimm's 
Bee-Feeder, " aud says the feeder was pat- 
ented May 6, '73, aud speaks about the per- 
forated screw cap. The cap is not perforated 
in Mr. Grimms' feeder, as friend K. will see 
if he looks the article over. I certainly 
should not have given a description of it for 
all to use, had I known it was patented. 
3Ir. Grimm uses a good many of them in his 
apiaries, aud told me I could make and use 
as many of them as 1 chose, for the feeder 
was one of his own (jetting up, and ivas not 
patented, and would not be by Mm. Any one 



was free to use it. He certainly did Jiot 
know any one had a similar feeder, or that it 
was covered by a patent. Will Mr. Grimm 
please notice tins, and explain the matter to 
us ? I see in tlie advertisements, Mr. K. has 
liis feeder described as using "water, syrup, 
houey, or meal, and ventilates the hive at 
pleasure." A diU'erent feeder altogether, 
from ours, which is not calculated for feed- 
ing meal, and is no ventilation whatever, to 
the hive. 

We have had a mild winter, for bees in 
this part of the country, so far. A part 
in houses, packed in straw, of about a foot on 
all sides, with cloth quilts on, summer en- 
trance open, with wire cloth tacked over 
them. One lot were shut up just one hund- 
red days, and came out strong, bright and 
clean, with few dead bees. AVhile some that 
were wintered on their summer stands, lost a 
large share of their bees. Some writers 
speak about banking their hives in snow. 
That might de in ISIinnesota, but not in Illi- 
nois, for we only have a few inches, gener- 
ally, and that is liable to disappear in a few 
days. W. M. Kellogg. 

Oneida, Ills. 



For the American Bee Journal.. 

Plants For Bee Forage. 

Mr. Editor : — It would be an interesting 
item of information which every correspond- 
ent could communicate through your col- 
umns, if from all localities, they would give 
your readers an account, if only in a very few 
words, of the 2}lants, with dates of begin- 
ning and ending of flowering season, which 
serve for bee forage in their neighborhoods. 
It would be interesting to note the quality of 
the honey made from difierent flowers. 
Many plants, whose flowers furnish either 
pollen or honey, are overlooked because 
either the flowers are inconspicuous, or do 
not constitute a very important element in 
bee-forage. Often are some of the earliest 
flowers, particularly of trees overlooked, be- 
cause the spare honey is not obtained from 
them, although they are among the most 
essential to success. Furnishing early forage, 
they give the nourishment which is needed to 
get all things ready for the real honey-gath- 
ering we are more immediately interested in. 
Many a locality produces no spare honey, or 
very little, just because no good, early forage 
is at hand. In other places, as soon as bees, 
can fly abroad in spring, they can obtain all 
tliey need to stimulate them to build up the 
colony to a good working condition. I re- 
peat it, every contributor can give at least 
one item of interest, if he tells us, in order, 
what bees gather stores from in his region, 
from first to last. 

Lockland, Ohio. John Hussey. 



:'90 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



ck 



dr, 



^^miftiai||pti| ^iJtmial 



W. F. CLARKE, Editor. 



Bee-Stings. 

One of the most formidable hindrances to 
the extension of bee-lieepiug, is the fear of 
being stung. If you suggest to any one well 
situated for the purpose, the advisability of 
starting an apiary, most likely the objection 
Tvill at once be made, that the wicked little 
creatures are so mischievous with their stings, 
that there is no desire to have anything to do 
with them. The impression many people 
seem to have, is that the chief mission of the 
bee is not so much to store honey, as to 
sting all and sundry. Bee-keeping will always 
be confined to a select few, until popular 
mistakes are corrected, and more light is dif- 
fused in regard to this aflair of stinging. 

As a matter of fact, bee-stings are " like 
.angels' visits, few and far between." It is 
-only now and then that any one is punished 
thus, even in localities wliere large numbers 
»of bees are kept. When it is considered that 
■ordinary colonies contain twenty or thirty 
thousand bees, and that the population of, 
say forty hives, is about one million, it must 
he evident that stinging is a rare and excep- 
tional thing, and so far from its being the 
■chief business and constant aim of these in- 
sects, it is very seldom resorted to. "Were it 
•otherwise, and as too many unreflecting per- 
sons think; were bees as apt to sting as mus- 
>quitoes are, it would be absolutely impossi- 
ble to keep an apiary. 

All creatures have means of defence fur- 
nished them adapted to the repulsion of those 
■enemies by which they are likely to be as- 
sailed. Self-preservation is the first law of 
nature. Man is the chief enemy of the bee. 
Though this busy little worker is intended to 
-do important service for the human race, it 
must have protection against the very beings 
whose interests it i,s meant to serve. If bees 
were as harmless as flies, no honey would be 
stored for mankind. Their operations would 
constantly l)e interfered with. Every school- 
boy and little child would so "meddle and 
muddle," tliat the order, discipline, industry 



and usefulness of the hive would be destroy- 
ed. The sting is therefore a beneficent pro- 
vision of nature, without which the bee could 
not accomplish its mission or fulfill its destiny. 
Some exceedingly scientific apiarians, indulge 
the dream of being able some day, to breed 
out the sting, or at any rate, the disposition 
to use it. Whether this dream will ever be 
realized, is a very doubtful matter, and wheth- 
er its realization would, on the whole, tend 
to advance the interests of bee-keeping, is 
perhaps even more doubtful. 

Some people afi"ect to despise a bee-sting. 
We do not. A bee-sting is no joke under any 
circumstances, and under some circumstances, 
it is a very serious and painful aftair, as we 
can testify from personal experience. In 
parts of the human body, where there are 
important blood-vessels and main lines of 
nerves, near the surface, causing the poison 
to act quickly and spread rapidly, a sting is 
sometimes dreadful, especially if inflicted at 
a time when the virus injected is more than 
usually powerful. For it is well known by 
experienced bee-keepers, that the poison is 
more virulent at some times than it is at 
others. We were once stung in the central 
point of the upper lip. The poison took im- 
mediate eft'ect, and spread with astonishing 
rapidity, upward to the head and downward 
to the throat and stomach. The pain was- 
excruciating. Sickness, burning fever and 
various alarming symptoms quickly resulted. 
It was three or four days before the ett'ect of 
that one sting passed off. There have been 
cases in which a single bee-sting has caused 
death. It is therefore no sign of wisdom to 
ridicule the matter, but rather to estimate the 
thing as it really is, and endeavor to guard 
against it. 

Intelligent acquaintance with the habits of 
the bee, and the use of proper precautionary 
and remedial measures, will either prevent 
stinging altogether, or will secure immunity 
from any serious and fatal consequences. 

In the first place, it should be distinctly 
understood, that when bees are out foraging, 
they are too intent on their work to sting, 
unless they are interfered with, fought at, 
crushed, or made fast in some way. If hu- 
man beings would mind their own business 
as dilligently as the bees do, it would be well 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



91 



for them. Quarrels and disagreetiicnts would 
seldom occur. It is perfect folly to start with 
aft'right at the presence of a bee. The music 
of their industrious hum, as they fly from 
flower to flower, loading themselves with 
honey, should no more awaken fear than the 
noise of a loom, a spinning-jenny, or machin- 
ery of any kind. If you meddle with the 
works, you may be hurt, and the same is true 
of the workers. But let them alone, and you 
are safe enough in both cases. Nor is there 
unusually any danger in quietly watching 
bees as they issue from and return to their 
hive. The stupid practice of hurrying about 
and striking at any bee that may happen to 
come near, is a sure way of exciting anger 
and provoking the infliction of a sting. 
Quiet movements, avoidance of all striking, 
standing stock-still, with the head slightly 
hung down, if the bees exhibit any signs of 
excitement and auger, will secure exemption 
from all harm. Even if pursued by enraged 
bees, gliding into a thicket of bushes, and 
remaining there a few seconds, will be found 
a sure means of escape. 

The utmost liberties may be taken, and the 
most delicate operations performed among 
bees, with due care and precaution. As they 
are excessively nervous and irritable crea- 
tures, nothing should be done in a hurry. 
All sudden jars and rude movements must be 
avoided. They must be dealt with most 
gently and tenderly. Any kindof smoke is an 
eft'ectual means of subduing and quieting 
them. It will prevent their becoming excited, 
and reduce them to composure even after ex- 
citement has commenced from any cause. 
Bee-keepers who smoke tobacco, a -e accus- 
tomed to employ the fumes of their favorite 
weed for this purpose, and it accomplishes 
it very effectually. But it produces a stupi- 
fyiug and irritating eft'ect afterwards. Smoke 
from chips, saw dust, cotton rags, or even 
paper, will answer as well. The most con- 
venient source of smoke is a bit of dry-rotted, 
hard wood, or "punk" as it is sometimes 
called. It burns without flame, will keep 
alight until the whole is consumed, may be 
laid close at hand, and readily used whenever 
wanted. When there is a necessity for open- 
ing a hive, it is well to blow two or three 
pufts of smoke in at the entrance; within 



five minutes or so, it will have taken eflect. 
Then with slow and cautious movements, the 
hive may be opened. Usually a quiet, con- 
tented hum, will show that the inmates are 
peaceable. But if there is excitement and 
more or less rush hurridly out, a few addi- 
tional pufls of smoke will reduce them to 
submission, so that it will be safe to proceed. 
Care should be taken not to crush or kill any 
of the bees. The slaughter of a single one 
will sometimes enrage a colony, previously 
quite docile. But should such an accident 
occur, a fresh dose of smoke will restore 
order. 

Smoke is thought to have two eftects. 
First, it creates a slight panic among the bees, 
leading them to fill themselves with honey, 
and in this condition they are no more dis- 
posed to sting than an Englishman is to quar- 
rel just after eating a good dinner. There is 
a sense of fulness, contentment and satisfac- 
tion. Secondly, it neutralizes the poison- 
odor. Anger causes bees to elevate their 
tails, and a tiny drop of poison will ooze out, 
the odor of which rouses the war spirit . The 
same eft'ect is produced when a bee is killed. 
Smoke counteracts this odor, and so induces 
quiet. There is a third effect of smoke which 
may be brought about, though it is not good 
policy to have recourse to it, because it leaves 
them cross and irritable. A strong dose of 
tobacco, or puft'-ball smoke, will absolutely 
stupefy them, so that they will drop from the 
combs, and lie harmless and helpless at the 
bottom of the hive, until restored to their 
senses by fresh air. 

Bees employ a substance called propolis to 
fasten frames and fill up crevices in the hive. 
In hot weather this is quite soft and waxy, 
but in cool weather, it becomes hard and 
brittle like glue. In opening a hive and tak- 
ing out frames, the propolis is of course dis- 
turbed, and when it is hard, this cannot be 
done witliout some jarring. To avoid this as 
much as possible, it is advisable to use a form 
of hive and style of frame that can only be 
glued very little; and also to open the hive 
and operate upon it in the middle of the day, 
and when the weather is warm. 

We advise bee-keepers, and especially be- 
ginners, to use a veil and gloves. They give 
confidence, induce calmness, and guard 



92 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



against accident. A veil may be readily 
made of net or thin gauze, and the best gloves 
we know of, are the cheap harvesting ones 
made of sheep-skin to protect the hands from 
thistles. 

Various remedies are used to antidote bee- 
stings. Any alkalie application is good. 
Common washing soda and blue-bags, are 
generally at hand, and may therefore be recom- 
mended. A drop of honey, a little garden 
soil, spirits of hartshorn, alchohol, and tinct- 
ure of iodine, are among the external appli- 
cations advocated. In severe cases, a dose 
of whiskey or brandy is said to be good. A 
wet sheet pack is also recommended. But 
we have discarded every other application 
since becoming acquainted with a German 
remedy lately introduced. A drop or two 
will remove all trace and effect of a sting in 
a very few minutes. It costs but a trifle per 
bottle, and a single bottle will last a bee- 
keeper for a lifetime. 



®h^ §^ § (E of §tt §ufx\\^. 



CONDUCTED BY PROF. A. J. COOK. 



ARTICLE I. 

Of course I have wondered why the wise 
managers of the dear oIq Bee Journal, chose 
me from all the fraternity to conduct this 
department. I suppose the answer would be 
suggested by the oft repeated assertion of 
school directors: "Any one can teach our 
school, they are all beginners." But, slyly, 
they are fooled, for our best educators think 
that those just commencing need the wisest 
instructors. So all will see that there is one 
joke connected with this department, however 
dry it may be in the main. 

BEGINNERS. 

Who are thay, who should be eager to lend 
me their ears each month, whom I am to lead 
understandingly into the ways of pleasantness, 
and the paths of rich pecuniary reward V All, 
I answer, whether in country or town, who 
have si)ace for one or more bee-hives, who 
are not now keeping bees, and who desire 
either more money or more pleasure, and who 
can give a few minutes weekly to jileasure 
and to prolit. Kspec.ially farmers, who need 
something to supplement, their regular busi- 
ness, and add to the length of their purse. 1 
am a teacher, yet last year, by spending not 



more than an hour a week, from May to Octo- 
ber, and even that only when I needed the 
rest and recreation, my three colonies of 
bees netted me over $100.00, and all may do 
this, if they will but inform themselves, and 
work intelligently. That able bee-keeper, 
Mr. E. Rood, so long the genial President of 
our State Society, used to say no one should 
keep bees, who could not make a neat hive. 
I have heard others say no one should become 
a bee-keeper who did not enjoy being among 
bees. But I would say: Let all keep bees, 
who have a taste for the wonderful in nature, 
which they wish to gratify, or a desire to " in- 
flate their individual currency," which may 
thus be done with perfect safety. 

But, say the eager ones, how are we to com- 
mence ? Just what I am about to explain to 
those who will attend. And more, I will war- 
rant success to all who will heed and obey. 
First, as a preface to your beginning, sub- 
scribe for the American Bee Journal, and 
purchase either Langstroth on the Honey Bee, 
or Quinby's Mysteries of Bee-keeping. The 
first to be carefully read, the second to be 
! studied and kept ever close at hand for refer- 
ence. 

HOW TO get the bees. 

A beginner should be satisfied to begin with 
about two colonies. If you can find some 
one who has bees in movable comb hives, 
that suit you, for sale, by all means take them. 
If the hives do not suit, it will be cheaper to 
get those in box-hives, as in either case, you 
would wish to transfer them into a suitable 
hive. But you ask. What is a suitable hive? 
It must have movable frames, and then the 
more simple the better. Discard all doors, 
drawers, traps etc., which only involve ex- 
pense, and are worse than useless. I prefer 
a square frame, say a foot each way, as per- 
mitting the most compact arrangement for 
wintering, and as less apt to be severed from 
its full comb, when handled or placed in the 
extractor. Those who know nothing of hives 
could not do better than send to A. I. Root 
(Novice) for a two story Gallui) hive for a sam- 
ple, and be sure to get the tin corners for the 
frames. His bent tins on which the frames 
are to rest, you can, as you make a hive, re- 
place by a narrow strip of heavy tin, which 
you can easily tack on. This is cheaper, and 
I think just as good. Also replace the old 
honey board by Novice's quilt or a piece of 
old carj^et or heavy cloth which will do as 
well. I am thus particular about hives, as 
very much dei)ends on a correct start in tliis 
direction. 

now TO select the colonies. 

Go to the Apiary on a warm day, note those 
hives from which the bees rush out as though 
they were jxicked, and from such select your 
two colonies; for the beginner especially, 
should have none but strong vigorous colonies. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



93 



Your colonies homo, (it will be well to place 
them where they are to remain for the sum- 
mer, on separate stands four or five inches 
from the ground, a board standing ofl' a foot 
or more from tlie entrance to the ground, 
facing tlie east, and set under a tree or bush, 
tliat they may be shaded from the sun during 
the heat of tlic day,) you had better feed them 
every day or two, a little syrup made citlier 
from brown or maple sugar. This will stim- 
ulate to a rai)id production of brood, the great 
desideratum at this season. A cheap, easy 
way to feed, is to take an old oyster can, melt 
both ends out, then tie a piece of factory over 
one end for a bottom. If you liave a movable 
comb hive, cut a llap, by cutting on three 
sides, out of your quilt or carpet, just the size 
of the can, turn this back, and set the can on 
and turn in the syrup. The bees will sip up 
the tluid as it oozes tlirough the factory. This 
is covered by the upper story of the hive, or 
the same that covers the boxes in summer. 
The can may be as easily placed on the holes 
in the top of a box hive and protected by the 
same box that covers the honey boxes in the 
season of gathering. This feeding had better 
be continued sparingly till the fruit trees are 
in full bloom, and even afterward, if there are 
several successive days too cold for the bees 
to fly, or if there are no flowers to gather 
from. . 

But you ask, How^ am I to get the bees into 
my new hive '? As soon as the bees are busy 
gathering honey, select a bright warm day, 
and when the sun is well up, and the bees all 
at work, don your bee hat and gloves, for 
every beginner should protect himself, and 
with a burning piece of rotten wood or roll of 
cotton cloth, blow some smoke into the en- 
trance of the hive, keep doing this for five min- 
utes, then invert the hive and place a liox, 
previously prepared, at least of the capacity of 
a half bushel, and which just fits the hive, on 
top of it, wrap a cloth about the lines of junc- 
tion, so that no bee can possibly get out, then 
rap on the lower hive with some small sticks 
for twenty or thirty minutes, paying no heed 
to the many bees constantly returning from 
the field; at the end of this time, take ofi'the 
upper box very carefully set it on the old stand, 
and so raise it up that the " uots" can go in. 
Take the old hive, with the few still remain- 
ing bees, and carry it to some close room. 
Dotf hat and gloves, for these bees will not 
sting unless pinched, and with hammer and 
axe pry the old hive carefully apart, striving 
not to break the comb. With a long knife 
cut out the cards of comb, entire if possible. 
Take each as it is cut out, place it on several 
thicknesses of thick cloth, which rest on a 
board say two feet square, which in turn rests 
on a barrel. Place a frame on the comb, and 
cut the comb so that it will just fit in the 
frame. Place the comb in tlie frame and fast- 
en in by winding with two small wires or 



strings. Do so till all the comb is neatly and 
carefully fitted into the frames. Be very 
careful not to injure th(! lirood. Carry the 
hive, with its frames all in place, and quilt 
on toj), liack to tlie stand, set it on a l)oard, 
with the front raised, say a half of an inch, 
place a wide board in front, and taking the 
box (you now liave the veil or hat and gloves 
on,) shake all the bees on to the board close 
up to the hive. They will soon take posses- 
sion, and feel entirely at home, and show tlieii- 
appreciation of their new home, by going 
speedily to work. In three or four days they 
will have fastened in the combs, and you can, 
protected and armed with smoke, proceed to 
take oft' the strings or wires. In all your 
handling of your bees be careful not to make 
a quick motion, nor jar the bees. If afraid, 
remember you are well protected and forget 
that you have any nerves. Do all this and 
keep studying your book, and in the next I 
will instruct you further. 



^u^isiti0U!!Si and §^u^tvn\si» 



CONDUCTED BY CH. DADANT. 



INTRODUCING QUEENS. 

"What is the best mode, for a beginner, to 
introduce an Italian queen ? " 

J. E. B., Nauvoo, Ills. 

As soon as the Italian queen is received, 
hunt for the black queen and take her out. 
Then put the Italian queen in a cage made 
with a piece of wnre-cloth, about eight meshes 
to the inch, four inches square, and rolled in 
the shape of a tube. Both ends are stopped 
with a bit of corn cob. The cage is put 
horizontally between two brood combs, one 
inch or so under the top bar, and as much 
as possible against sealed honey, which 
should be scratched a little, so that the queen 
can feed herself, if the bees don't take this 
care. 

The next day, remove the cage, and replace 
one of the hoppers with a bit of sealed honey. 
Put the cage back in the same place, and 
shut the hive, acting very quickly. The bees 
Avill suck the running honey, and cut the 
damaged cells. Some of them will cut at the 
cage and will caress the queen, who will go 
out very quickly and be well received. 

The theory of introduction is fixed upon 
this fact, that if the bees are unaware of the 
call of their queen, they will construct no 
queen cells, and will more easily accept 
a strange queen, than if they had com- 
menced their preparations to take a queen; 
and in the second place, if the colony 
is (luiet, without robbers, and the queen her- 
self ([uiet, too, she will not be considered as 
a strange bee. 



94 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



As it is necessary to avoid robbing, when 
you open the hive the second day, if you have 
been annoyed by robbers, while hunting for 
the bhick queen, it is safer to wait until even- 
ing, when the bees are all at home. Yet the 
operation is more easily performed at mid- 
day, and the robbers are little to be feared, 
if you act quickly, although quietly. 

"I see in the American Bee Journal, that 
Mr. Furman, and several other bee-keepers, at 
the meeting of the Iowa Central Association, 
have said that pure honey would not become 
candied. My expense is altogether difterent ; I 
have quite pure honey entirely granulated. 
Can you give me your experience on the sub- 
ject?" 

J. M. A., St. Louis, Mo. 

The honey from rape, granulates very 
quickly. I have seen, in Italy, such honey, 
gathered in April, granulated in the combs in 
August. The honey from clover, melilot, 
lucern, sainfoin, linden and buckwheat, 
granulates also, although not so fast as the 
rape honey; while the honey jdelded by sev- 
eral trees does not granulate. I have seen 
kouey as good and as liquid, after tAvo years, 
as if it was newly gathered. It was acacia or 
locust honey. 

Therefore, the granulating of honey does 
not indicate its want of purity; on the con- 
trary, in France, where the best quality of 
honey comes from sainfoin, the thorough and 
even granulating is considered the best test of 
purity. 

For the American Bee Journal. 

Simple Bee Feeder. 

A very simple, and at the same time effect- 
ual, feeder may be extemporized by filling a 
glass vessel (a tumbler or a fruit jar is best) 
with honey or syrup, placing a saucer upon 
it and quickly inverting them. This allows 
the bees to take the food from the entire cir- 
cumference of the vessel without their becom- 
ing daubed with the liquid, which may be 
made thick or thin as desired. Any number 
required may be quickly and inexpensively 
obtained in the dining room of any family. 
By using glass vessels the bee-keeper may tell 
at a glance how fast the food is being taken, 
and which need refilling. Of course they 
must be placed on the top of the hives or 
frames and securely covered to prevent rob- 
bing. Many feeders are based upon this same 
principle of atmosplieric pressure, but none 
are more effectual, simple or inexpensive. 
Dr. D. R. Porter. 

Manhasset, Lonp; Island. 



Swammerdani found nearly four thousand 
cells built, in six days, by a new swarm con- 
.sisting of less than six thousand bees. 



Voices from Among the Hives. 

CiT. Dad ANT, Hamilton, Ills., writes:— "Bees 
are wintering finely. " 

•losKPir A. Hakt. Craig, Ind., writes:—" Bees 
are wintering better here, than for many years- 
past. " 

A. F. Hakt, Apyleton, Wis., writes :— " Bee* 
seem to be wintering here very well, although 
we have had a long winter. " 

H. 0. Kruschke, Berlin, Wis., writes : — 
" The Journal improves with every issue. It 
has got into the right hands at last. " 

D. S. McCallum, Hornellsville, N. Y., 
writes : — "I have about eighty swarms of bees, 
and they have wintered finely." 

R. R. Murphy, Fulton. Ills., writes : — " Bees 
have wintered well in this part of the country, 
and the prospect is more encourageiiig for bee- 
keepers, than for several years past. The white 
clover has not winter-killed the past winter, as 
it did the two previous ones. " 

Dr. Jared p. Kirtland, East Eockport, 
writes :— " As I am over eighty years of age, and 
have ceased to cultivate bees, I wish to be con- 
sidered on the list of retired apiculturists, like 
my friend Mr. Langstroth. I began the pursuit 
in the siunmer of ISIO, and witli the exception 
of a very few years, have continued it till very 
recently. " 

J. A. Maxfield, Saxon, Ills., writes :— 
"Bees have wintered well, with me. I lost 
twenty-one swarms last winter and spring, 
leaving me three swarms. I increased them to 
six, and have wintered in the cellar for four 
winters. The first winter and this they win- 
tered well. My cellar is under the kitchen, and 
was built on purpose for wintering bees. There 
are not fifteen swarms of bees within three 
miles of me. My bees are all black. " 

D. H. Keller, Duncan Falls. Ills., writes : — 
" Last winter, I lost a few hives by placing 
them too close to the damp stone wall in our 
cellar, where they became wet and diseased. 
This winter. I put other hives in the same 
place, placed cottee sacks over them, leaving 
the tops otf. and they did not become eveii 
damp. So it would be well to note, that after 
all, ventilation is what saved them this winter, 
and no ventilation killed them last winter. My 
cellar is a very dry one. I tried an experiment 
as follows : I set a strong hive in the middle of 
the cellar, covered it with a l)lanket, closed the 
hive below, and then put the lid tightly on the 
blanket. In about a week I examined, and 
found that the lid was covered witli large drops 
of water, and the blanket was becoming wet. I 
then removed the lid, leaving nothing but the 
blanket on top. All went right from that time. 
I set them out about the nuddh^ of February, 
and they are now (March M) all alive. I have^ 
forty-nine stanils." 

P. D. Jones, Mt. Morris. N. Y., writes :— " I 
wish to make an inquiry in regard to extracting 
honey in the sprin<f. Can it be done ? I have 
fourteen swarms that are in good condition at 
the ]iresent time. I have exanuned live or six 
of tliein, and tuul tlicy arc l)ree(ling finely, buti 
think they have loo uuich honey. ' I have esti- 
mated it to be from twenty-live to fifty pounds 
to the hive. I have kept bees for" the last 
twenty years, and have never had them winter 
on so small a (piautity of honey as they have 
had this winter, it seems to me, if there was 
less lioney and more empty combs, that they 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



95 



would build up faster than in their present con- 
dition. The honey is of a .yood (|iii\lity. and 
very thiek. TluMiiiestioii with me, is. Whether 
tlie iioney can he taken from new eombs with- 
out destroy inji' them. Tlie eombs are very white, 
and easily broken. I have never used the Ex- 
traetor : in fact, 1 have never seen bu( one, and 
tliat a home-made one. 1 desire inlormarion 
from tiu)se tliat are not interested in the siile of 
machines. 1 am wintering my bet's on their 
summer stands, by drivinu; stakes in the trround, 
one foot from tiie" hives, and paekinii wdii tlax- 
straw to tlie top of tiie liive, on all sides, except 
the front, wliicli 1 leave oi)en. I jiive no uj)- 
ward ventilation. L use the American and 
Langstroth liives. Last winter I lost fourteen 
out "of twenty swarms, with a disease entirely 
new to me. but have seen nothinji of it as yet. 
this winter, and hope that I never shall again. " 

Tuos. IIuTciiiNs, Wvoming, Pa., writes : 
— "I am what you w(nild call a careless bee- 
keeper. I have about ninety hives of bees. 
Some in the American and some in the (Jn(HMi 
hives; but most of tlieni are in theQninl)y hive. 
I am living in Wyonung Valley, Luzerne Co., 
Pa. We have not luul a good bee season here 
for the last five years. There are no basswood 
or linden trees in this locality. Buckwlieat and 
white clover are the principal honey producers. 
Honey v.aries here in jirices; the nicest box 
honey brings from thirty-five to forty cents. 
The most I ever got from one hive, was forty 
pounds, fourteen-pound boxes. That was from 
the Quinby hive. It seems almost incredible to 
me when I here of such large yields of surplus 
honey, in other localities, to keep bees. The 
winter here has been very favorable for bees, 
not being very severe; but we are now having 
very cold weather, to what it has been the pa.st 
few months. Last winter I lost forty stocks of 
bees, the weather being very severe. ]My opin- 
ion is, that when bees are strong enough, and 
left onthesiunmer stands during'the winter tliey 
do the best; but all late and weak swarms I jiiit 
in my cellar, it being very dry, turning my hives 
upside down. I feed them' about every" two or 
three weeks. I feed them syrup made of two- 
thirds "A" sugar, afid one-third water, boiled 
and strained. ' I feed them by pouring it in 
among the bees. I see by your JoraxAi,. 
that some feed their bees in November. Is it 
because they have no honey ? It they have 
honey, do thev want feeding ? I think it 
would be small business to rob them of their 
honey, and have to feed them sugar syrup or 
any other food. " 

A. E. Rich, Metamora, 111., writes:— "The 
winter thus far (January 17th) has been very 
nio(U'rate, and my bees are weathering it very 
well out of doors.' I have always wintered in 
the cellar heretofore — or rather tried to do so — 
but I think that in reasonably mild weather the 
bees are better off outside. I have most of 
niin(> in straw hives, and think them superior 
on many accounts for both winter and sinnmer. 
Fully nine-tenths of all the bees in this section 
of country fr<i/.e to death, or died from some 
other cause, last winter. Some persons made 
special preparations for winter, others made 
none, with perhaps no perceptible difference 
in the result. The most successful man I liave 
heard of in this region, however, had his bees 
in rickety box hives, on the west side of his 
smokehouse, which stands right in the teeth of 
the northwest winds. The hives stood on a 
bench nearly three feet from the ground, and, 
in some cases, the front edge of the hive pro- 
jected five inches beyond the edge of the bench! 
lie lost not more tliau one in five or six. An- 



other neighbor, wlio had p;ra<Ied Italians, got 
through the winter with nine out of twelve, but- 
before swarming (inn- he lost all but one. In 
all the other cases, exeei)t my own. the bees- 
were blacks. I predict — that is, 1 siini)lv gue.ss. 
—that there will be this ])resent winter far les.s- 
loss in this region of connlry than for two 
years past. .My own bees, aiid I ]iresiime i( 
was the case generally, kejit l>reeding for iiearlv 
three months later in the summer and fall thaii 
heretofore, and went into winter (luarters with 
a goodly number of young, strong and healthy 
bees, and I hope tlicre will be less freezing- 
this winter and less kiss next s])ring. I increas- 
ed my four stocks to twehf, got considerable 
extracted honey, mainly from heartsease and 
buckwheat, and it is that kind of lioney tliey 
are wintering on now— the same that gave them- 
the dysentery two years ago." 

Skymoitr Ritggi-es, Saratoga, N. Y., writes: 
— " The bee business in this section, is in a very 
backward condition, with few exceptions. 
Many use box hives, without a chance to putoit 
boxes, unless put on the outside of the Jiives. 
They leave their bees on the summer stands- 
through the winter. I have noticed this winter,, 
some bee-keep<'rs had hives without bottoms, 
set upon four one-inch blocks, protected from 
west winds only. I don't see how bees can 
stand such an airin»-. I could not winter bees: 
that way, unless the hives were large, filled 
with comb, and colonies very popidous in the- 
fall. The fact is, most bee-keepers around 
here know nothing of modern bee-keeping. I 
informed one man not long since, that he ought 
to have Quinby's or Langstroth's book, and the 
Ameiucax Bee .lorKNAi.. ' Oh,' he says, 
'they want money for their books, I can get 
along without them.' The same afterwards, 
said the drones laid all the eggs. Last fall I 
set box hives in the cellar; January 2M set the 
bees out at 12 o'clock, it was warm and still, 58^ 
in shade, at 2 p. m. it was cloudy, and a furious 
wind arose. ^lany bees were blown away, as; 
they were flying (juite briskly. The next day I 
set the box liives back into the cellar. They 
have not shown any signs of dysentery, whether- 
in the cellar or out, up to this date (March 10). 
Mr. Perrj', the only ])erson here, besides my- 
self, that uses movable comb hives, had 1,400 
lbs. honey in glass boxes last year. He has 8f> 
colonies, winters in cellars, but never saw 
Quinby's or Langstroth's bookor the Journal. 
It has been a favorable winter for bees so far."' 

E. S. Fowi.EK. Bartlett, O., whites:—" There 
are no bees kept in Ibis part of the country 
(save what few I kee])) in movable frame hives, 
except as the farmers keep them the old fash- 
ioned way. We have never had bee cholera or 
dysentery as an epidemic except the winter of 
"(i8 and '69. It was not an unusually ';old winter 
with us, while the winter of "72 and '7:! was the 
coldest for ten years or more without any dys- 
entery; hence the cold weather theory don't 
suit my experience. I have always been able 
to produce dysentery by leaving a colony 
queenless for two months, before the time they 
([uit breeding in the fall. — Old bees not winter- 
ing as well for me as young ones, at least I am 
not able to give another reason for the difler- 
enee. I have no reason for doubting nor any 
experience to confirm the opinion that the 
honey gathered some seasons is not healthy for 
the bees. Perhajis difFerent caus(^s ojierate in 
promoting an<l aggra\ating the disease in dif- 
ferent parts of tiie country— hence the differ- 
ent opinions. Let us not be in too great a iuirry 
to see who will have the honor of guessing, 
right first." 



"96 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



ck 



^h 4ti 



^ttt^nmt||)q|f$ttii|aL 



THOMAS G. NEWMAN, Manager. 



RATES OF ADVERTISING. 

SOLID NOXPAREIL MEASURE. 

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Each subsequent insertion, per line, 15 

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Not one letter in ten thousand is lost by- 
mail, if rightly directed. 

Single Copies of the American Bee Jour- 
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Additional names to a club already formed 
may be sent at any time at the same club rate. 

Newly Patented Hive. — John W. Walk- 
•er, of Nashville, Tenn., has obtained a patent 
•on his new hive. 

Upon the wrapper of every copy of the 
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scriptions expire. 

j|@°» We will club the American Bee Jour- 
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Any numbers that fail to reach subscribers 
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es of rain, and the season is very late and cold. 

Subscribers wishing to change their post- 
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dress, as well us the one to which they wish 
it changed. 

Laugstroth's patent on movable-frame hives 
■expired last year. There is now no patent 
■covering movable frames — all such are pub- 
lic property. 

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Vol. 3, of the American Bee Journal, and 
will pay 50 cents each for them. Who will 
send us some V 

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publisher may continue to send it, until pay- 
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whether the paper is taken from the office or 
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twelve cents extra. 

Hereafter we shall mail a Printed Receipt 
to everyone sending money to this office. — 
Those who do not get such Receipt by return 
mail, should notifiy us, that we may ascer- 
tain the cause of delay. 

When a subscriber sends money in pay- 
ment for the American Bee Journal, he 
should state to what time he thinks it pays, 
so that we can compare it with our books, 
and thus prevent mistakes. 

Publishers needing cuts or engravings, will 
do well to address the Manager of the Amer- 
ican Publishing Company, who have a large 
supply for sale that have appeared in "The 
Illustrated Journal." 

Should any subscriber Avish to discontinue 
taking our Journal, he should address a let- 
ter to the Manager, and enclose the amount 
due, and it will then cease to visit him. Any 
other course is dishonorable. 

Every subscriber is requested to look at 
the date after his name on the wrapper label 
of this Number of the Ajierican I5ek Jour- 
nal, and if it is not correct send a postal 
card to this office, and tell us and we will 
make it right at once. 

Binding. — We have been requested to get 
sets bound for some of our subscribers, and 
have made arrangements to get the nine Vols, 
bound in three vols, for $4.00, or the same 
in four vols, for jJ^o.OO. Those who wish to 
avail themselves of these liberal terms nmst 
send their numbers by express to the jNIanager. 



American Bee Journal 

DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO BEE CULTURE. 



Vol. X. 



CHICAGO, MAY, 1874. 



No. 5. 




Correspondents sihould write only on one side of i 
the sheet. Their best thouirhts and practical ideas are : 
always welcome ; no matter how rough, we will cheer- ' 
fully '• fix them up." ' 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Items from Argus. 

[Mr. Editok : — Your remarks in the Feb- 
uary number on bee meetings are to the 
point, unci demand the attention of every 
bee-keeper, inasmuch as it is for their 
interest to meet, tell their experience, com- 
pare notes and criticise. A bee friend 
suggests that every Town, County and 
State ought to have meetings as often as 
desired, and that delegates be sent to the 
State Convention, and let these again send 
delegates to the National Convention, hav- 
ing their expenses paid. 

In this way the best talent will be col- 
lected, when subjects of the most im- 
portance will be discussed, and a greater 
interest awakened, and, too, the published 
reports of such meetings will be of far 
greater interest as well as benefit to every 
progress-loving bee-keeper. As a rule, so 
little has been done at these meetings it 
really did not pay for the time and money 
spent. And another thing : some of the 
ideas advanced are not fit to be published 
unless we intend to progress crawfish fash- 
ion. 

Take for instance the Convention at 
Topeka, Kansas, held last September (see 
AsiERic.lN Bee Journal for November) 
where some new ideas were advanced that 
may lead to a '^^ great discovery in apicul- 
tural .science.'" Mr. Meador says after the 
queen is impregnated " all the eggs produce 
femals, and that the male bees were generally 
produced by eggs from, the worker bee that 
was fed for the purpose." Now all practical, 
intelligent bee-keepers know that is not so, 
for a hive in a normal condition never has 
a fertile worker, and all the drones in such 
a hive are produced by the queen. One 
season's operations in an apiary will con- 
vince a mere tyro of this. 



Again, Mr. O. Badder says he " removed 
a dozen or more eggs from worker cells to 
drone cells, and at the same time removed 
the queen from the hive, and all the eggs 
thus removed hatched perfect drones as far 
as the eye could detect. No other solution 
could be given to this experiment than that 
the bees removed the spermatozoa that 
changes the character from male to female 
after they had been placed in the drone 
cells." 

From these statements I conclude as fol- 
lows : — 

1 . The experiment was a very imperfect 
one, because there was not that careful mi- 
croscopical examination necessary to test 
the truth of his statement. 

2. His conclusion is a very erroneous 
one, because the egg is not fertilized by the 
life-giving principle, the spermatic filament, 
remaining on the outside, as his language 
would seem to imply. 

3. The whole shows an unpardonable 
ignorance of physiology, because it over- 
turns the well-established facts in the re- 
production of the honey-bee. It is very 
evident that the nature and permanent lo- 
cation of the spermatozoids is not under- 
stood, for we learn from the best authority 
that when an egg leaves the oviary it slips 
past the seminal duct, where it receives a 
portion of its contents, and the seminal fila- 
ments being very active soon find their way 
into the micropyle or opening of the egg. 
Now how the bees could remove the 
spermatozoids from the egg without de- 
stroying such a delicate article I will leave 
for Mr. Badders to explain. 

I was somewhat surprised at the secre- 
tary sending the statements, and more so 
wiien the Editor published them without 
note or comment. A good deal has been 
said i-egarding the cause of bee disease, and 
some, I think, have arrived at pretty near 
the truth, but it is just fun to see Friend 
Quinby astride his hobby, old Boreas, and 
shouting with all his might, "I tell you, 
gentlemen, it is cold that kills the bees, for 
what I know / tmno." 

Behind hin. tiway in the distance, is an- 
other hobby. Old Sirupy\ its rider is hatless, 
coatless, and belaboring his nearly worn 
out favorite. He is also shouting at the top. 
of his voice : " 'Taint cold that kills the 



100 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



t)ees, depend ou't ;" "'tis bad honey;" 
■" 'twont do;" "'twill kill every time;" 
" 'twould be a great gain in honey if sugar 
rsyrup were used, besides nary a bee will 
catch the disease." 

I also see betwixt these two, another rider 
•on his stout, short lard favorite, old Truth. 
I think I hear the gentleman say. Well, if 
those two friends would only meet here- 
abouts they would find out they were both 
right. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

"Novice." 

Mk. Manager : — Allow me to congratu- 
late j'ou on having made arrangements 
^whereby you can furnish a good, patented, 
two-story Langstroth hive in Chicago for 
the moderate price of $3.30. We would 
also suggest that as the preference is now 
strongly turning in the direetion of double- 
widtli instead of two-story hives, you make 
arrangements, if practicable, to have them 
made in that way when they are to be used 
exclusively for the extractor. We believe 
the expense of making is a little less if any- 
thing. 

As your offer will doubtless furnish a 
:good many with sample hives to work from, 
we somewhat regret that the size of the 
frame is between any of the sizes in our 
classification of frames. As you give only 
inside dimensions we cannot tell the exact 
size of your frames, so much depends on the 
thickness of the lumber used. Is it not best 
when speaking of frames and hives to give 
outside dimensions of the former, and inside 
dimensions of the latter, for these must be 
«xact ? 

While we are anxious to give Adair full 
credit for all his suggestions, we cannot think 
it proper to call double or treble-width hives 
all " New Idea Hives," for the " New Idea" 
•wa^, if it is not now, set forth as a patent 
hive, and in some respects, it seems to us, a 
little inconsistent. See Progressive Bee 
■Culture, inside of first cover, where he con- 
demns the extractor. His price then given 
for a Langstroth hive fitted up on the " New 
Idea" plan, witJi right to use, is ten dollars. 
Double-width hives were used in our county 
before this work was published, for he had 
mentioned in public, making hives four or 
more feet h>ug. Such hives have an un- 
deniable advantage over the two-story hives, 
for the extratitor, but it certainly was not 
Mr. A's reason for recommending them 
thus. We at first doubted their giving an 
equal amount of honey, but should they 
give more, as he claims tlusy will, we cer- 
tainly owe him a vote of thanks for his 
labors in turning the attention of apiarists 
in that direction. The testimony from 
those using them is strongly -in favor of 
them, instead of the two-slorv hives, if we 



make some few exceptions, although re- 
ports seem to equally favor side entrances, 
in place of only one at the end, as Adair in- 
sists on. 

In regard to the "queen's Avings " busi- 
ness, we are perfectly satisfied to leave the 
matter with our readers as it is. Adair has 
opened and closed the subject, and we have 
had " our say " in the interim, which we 
have no wish to change or modify since his 
last. 'Twere no more than justice, how- 
ever, to say that we did publish Mr. A's 
letter in full, every icord contained in it, 
yet he accuses us of publishing only a part. 
If we thought that any one besides Adair, 
understood that we were intending to take 
upon our shoulders the task of punishing 
" Eminent Naturalist " we might reply to 
that. 

Agassiz's lecture on the honey-bee might 
have passed uncontradicted twenty years 
ago, but in the present stage of bee-culture 
it was only the "worse for him " his per- 
sisting in his absurd teachings. How many 
of our readers have questioned with them- 
selves whether he might not have committed 
great errors in other matters as well as bees, 
and as that would be out of our domain 
should we not hesitate before accepting his 
teachings as truth when we were not pre- 
pared to discriminate ? 'Twould be a huge 
joke indeed to think of giving the task of 
" root"-ing out all the error in the " popu- 
lar science world," to let alone the task of 
punishing them for their folly, to 

Your old friend, 

Medina, O. " Novice." 



For the American Bee JournaL 

Out-Door Wintering. 

"Novice" says on page 41, February 
number : Quite a large number of our bee- 
keepers, with Mr. Gallup among them, con- 
tend strongly for out-door wintering." I 
must here make an explanation. I do not 
advocate wintering small standard stocks 
in ordinary standard hives on the summer 
stands, by any means ; but large powerful 
stocks such as I now raise and such as I 
want for profit, I believe it would be rather 
difficult for the most of people to winter in 
a cellar. Then again such large hives are 
unwieldy to carry in and out. I have them 
so heavy that they are all that two men can 
lift, let alone carry about etc., I have 
stocks that liave as many bees in them as 
four ordinary standard, strong stocks, or six 
common stocks. Every person ought to 
know that such stocks would be difficult to 
keep cool enough in a cellar. I have been 
led to experiment in the direction of large 
hives by seeing bees in a room or small 
house fixed on i)urpose. We have seen at 
diftVrent times extraordinarily numerous and 
strong stocks in sucii cases, and it occured 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



101 



to us that with the extractor and movable 
combs, we might make this avaihible ; and 
thus far we have not been disappointed in 
tlie results. If we have strong, powerful 
»*toeks there is always warmth enough to 
properly evaporate tlie honey ; whereas in 
small standard stocks it is frequently the 
case that the honey is not properly evapo- 
rated and especially is this apt to be the 
case in cool, wet seasons. In the large 
hives there is no tendency to stop breeding 
at every cessation of honey gathering, for 
a few days at a time, as there is in common 
or small standard hives. 

Novice will probably say, as he has said 
before that we are trying to befog or puzzle 
the novices in bee-keeping. But let him 
consider that others besides Gallup and 
Adair are trying thosf experiments and 
Arriving at like conclusions. We are aware 
that a hive of four times the capacity of 
tlie ordinary standard, or two thousand cub- 
ic inches, looks large, and we are perfectly 
willing to admit that it is large. But what 
will you do about it ; tliat is the question. 

If I mistake not, 'Sir. llosmer says, that 
in the past season he has made some for ex- 
periment, of fifteen thousand cubic inches. 
I know of no law to prevent, and so we 
will have to let him go on as he sees fit. 
But Mr. Hosmer says that he has been rais- 
ing or keeping his best or most prolific 
queens. Now that is just what I contend — - 
that I cannot atlbrd to sell a queen for one 
dollar that I can build up a stock from that 
will occupy a hive of six or eight thousand 
cubic inches. My impression is that Nov- 
ice's Hives and Queens are both cheap at 
one dollar each ; and my hives and queens 
may be cheap at five dollars each. Who 
knows. Let every one decide for himself. 
I have sold queens at fifty cents each, but 
they were only fifty-cent queens, and I 
never claimed that they were anything 
else. 

The bees are wintering splendidly in this 
vicinity. E. C4allvp. 

Orchard, Iowa. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Criticisms Examined. 

A friend having called my attention to 
the last number of Gleanings, I borrowed 
the pai)er, and found that " Novice " quoted 
from my circular to shew that a calculated 
jield of one or two hundred pounds of box 
honey, or two or three hundred pounds of 
<?xtracted, is a little too much. He " wrote 
Mr. Q. asking the question," etc. I do not 
see tliat this amounts to anything more than 
an eflbrt to show that I have made a false 
estimate, and at the same time give an ex- 
cuse for a sort of tirade against the hive. 

He would be pleased to hear where any 
one had succeeded in obtaining that average. 



Had he quoted a little further from that 
same circular, he would have told his 
readers where it was done. He very ingcn 
iously gives the number as twenty-five or 
fifty stocks, wliH'li 1 said nothing about, 
and it did not belong to him to do it. Why 
did he not put it at five hundred ? He 
would be still surer not to hear of a case. 

I ask of any man of even common fair- 
ness, to decide if it was so very absurd ti) 
calculate that what had been done, and re- 
peated, might be done again. 

I don't claim to know it all, and doubt 
not, much will be learned after we have all 
gleaned to the best of our ability. A cal- 
culation of even a few pounds more may 
yet be made. He asks if it "was wise to 
put it so high when his own apiary averaged 
less." Without claiming to be particularly 
wise, I majr venture to express a fear that 
Novice is partially blinded by prejudice. 1 
would ask if it was just to hold forth what 
my apiary does before his readers, as a cri- 
tei'ion to judge of what can be done by 
others, and withhold the fact — -which I pre- 
sume he knows — -that I have sold my best 
bees every year. AVhen I get an order, I 
select the best — sometimes sell off all the 
best, and then take from the next best, bees 
enough for several swarms for the purpose 
of rearing queens, which do not store sur- 
plus, and often have to be fed what otliers 
have stored. 

Justice would take this into " calculation." 
I rather think that my estimate was made 
when thinking of the bees that I sold rather 
than of such as I kept myself. Of course / 
meant good hives. 

We all know of the reduced condition of 
a large number of stocks in the springs of 
the last two winters. Few men would de- 
pend on such for a fair average, especially 
if they took into account the fact that brood 
had to be taken from the best of these 
reduced hives to build up the poorest. 

Now about the hive, which seems to 
trouble him, in view of " blasted hopes," 
etc. He asks, " Has he ever considered 
that the hive itself is only a plain, simple 
boxV " 

No, sir. I have not so considered it. 
When I have made a bottom board of the 
size I want, and a frame which I hook to it, 
and it stands alone, and I make a half dozen 
more, and stand by the side of it, and then 
take boards just the width and length of the 
frame and set one on each side, and one on 
top, I claim that it is a hive of itself, not 
" a simple box," nor particularly "cum- 
brous." The frames constitute a part of it. 
Much has been said about getting hives the 
right size. This one is adapted to the wishes 
of all. Frames being added any time to 
accommodate a large swarm, or taken oflF if 
the swarm becomes reduced. It is easier 
managed, and is much more efficient than 



102 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



any hive with which I am acquainted, 
though of course, as it is, there is no more 
room to set the boxes for surplus tlian the 
cheap one he describes. 

He continues : — '' Full directions could 
be published in the circular, or even given 
in the journals, at the trifling expense, to 
him, of making the measurements and de- 
scriptions once." Now if he feels that he 
has not done his share of working for 
nothing, suppose ?ie gives " descriptions and 
measurements," at the " trifling expense" 
he speaks of. T would very much like to 
see it given so plainly that it " could be 
easily made for four dollars." Two or 
three years since, I sent him a hive, without 
charge, appendages and all, rather than 
undertake to describe it myself. I would 
like to seethe late improvements belonging 
to the appendage — a device to clasp the 
corimrs—fnUy described. Perhaps he could 
tell how to make it cheaply. If a man does 
not want anything but the simple hive, to 
be used for extracting only, I still think it 
best, and I would like to see it fully de- 
scribed as well as appendages. 

As it is desirable for many to secure box 
honey as well as extracted, I have endeav- 
ored to adapt it to either, the advantages of 
which are easily understood. The boxes 
that sell best in market are made of glass, 
costing more than if made of wood to hold 
the same amount. These boxes, when put 
on the hive at the side or top, must not be ex- 
posed to the light or storms. I have enclosed 
them by getting out boards for the sides 
and top, of the right width and length, and 
have succeeded, after much thought, in 
having the clasps at the corners — that hold 
as firmly as nails — so that they can be 
loosened, and each piece taken away sepa- 
rately, without a jar, and so quietly that 
not an angry bee can be seen. It was not 
completed with one effort. Like all else 
that is worth much, it had to grow gradu- 
ally ; was altered again and again, and 
when at length I succeeded in getting the 
present hive and appendages, I found it had 
cost me in experiments, mechanical labor 
and brain work ten times the amount asked 
for it. If any man wants what I use, he 
can have it by jniying a very small part of 
what it has cost me for the " know how." 
There are a few men — I mean those with 
some generosity — who are willing to share 
somewhat in the expense of getting a good 
thing. Suppose a man disposed to get up a 
paper. First, he must liave matter, which 
ought to be liis own, to put in it. Then he 
must re(;kon type, ink, paper, press, and the 
labor of printing, etc. He does not get his 
expenses back when he has printed one or 
a dozen papers, at seventy-live cents a copy. 
But when he has everything ready, he can 
print the second copy, or the thousandth, 
for a few cents only, and then, if he does 



enough of it, he can get remuneration, and 
a little more, at seventy-five cents a copy. 

It may look to some like "pecuniary 
profit." Now it would be hardly possible 
to find a man so ungenerous as to claim that 
because his last paper cost a few cents only 
he should furnish it at cost before he got 
recompense for making the first, or even 
then. Is there any parallel in the two cases 
— in making a hive and making a paper ? 

As it is pretty well known how "cum- 
bi'ous " the hive of itself is, I will not dwell 
on that, but when it " seems " to him that 
the smoker would be "cumbrous" I fear 
that some of his readers might take his 
" seems " for facts, and I beg that they sus- 
pend judgment till they see it work. If I 
should send him one, it might turn out as 
with a friend of mine who says he sent him 
a patent feeder. If he did not claim the 
invention, he substituted a tea-kettle for the 
tin tube to hold the feed, and sells it with- 
out changing the principle, calling it the 
"Tea-kettle Feeder." There are some men 
in the community from whom there is no 
protection, a patent will not do it. A man 
can spend his time and money till all is ex- 
liausted, endeavoring to assist his fellow 
men, and when he oft'ers to let others share 
a small jiart with him, he finds men ready 
to discourage him by offering the same 
thing for just what it costs them after being 
shown how to make them. How has it 
been with Mr. Laugstroth, who has benefit- 
ted bee-keepers thousands of dollars, and 
expended time, money and intellect in 
giving us a hive — in principle worth more 
than all before it — in procuring a new vari- 
ety of bees, and has due him some recom- 
pense. But here is a man that has appar- 
ently done his best to discourage anything 
of the kind, by telling where hives and bees 
can be had for the trifle that would go but 
a small way towards it. It tends unjustly 
to deprive Mr. L. of his rights, and gives 
him to understand that he will not be paid 
for employing his talents to promote bee- 
culture, and he seems compelled to relin- 
quish the pursuit. What have we gained 
in the entl by being persuaded to purchase 
a hive or buy a queen for a dollar ? We 
have all heard of the man who peeled the 
flint for a penny, and spoiled his knife cost- 
ing fifty cents. 

There is much more that ought to be 
said, but this must suffice at present. 

St. Johnsville, N. Y. M. QriNUV. 



II. (). KurscTiK, Berlin. Wis., remarks as 
follows: "In niv article, 'Do Bees Injure 
Fruit,' in the Mareli mniihcr of tlie Amkki- 
ovN Bkk Jdiknai,. I stated that the New 
>'ork 7'r(/»H;ic had not seen lit to publish a 
siniihir article. Hut since that, I Imd tliat it 
was ])uV)lislu'(l ill the 'VrU)\inc of Dec. ;>1. It 
had escaped iiiv notice, and hence 1 thought 
it had not been published. I herein apolo- 
gize to all concerned." 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



103 



Apiary for May. 

This month the hiboi-s of the bee- 
keeper will beg-in in earnest, populous 
colonies will begin to prepare for 
swarniiiiiji; towards the last of the 
month, and where artiticial swarming 
is not resorted to, they should be kept 
constantly under the eye of the bee- 
keeper, in order that the}^ may be 
hived, and not be permitted to escape 
to the forest. AVheu the swarm has 
been shaken down in front of the hive 
the bee-keeper should sprinkle them 
with cold water, (especial)}" if the 
weather be (piite warm), and all the 
bees should be brushed up to the en- 
trance of the hive and driven in, after 
which the hive should be moved with- 
out delay to the stand it is to occupy, 
as, if it is left where the swarm is 
hived until night, the bees will have 
marked the location, and many will 
visit the spot the next day and perish, 
for on leaving the hive after beinir 
moved to a new stand the bees do not 
view and mark surrounding objects, 
having done this the day previous 
where they w^ere hived and left till 
nightfall. As a natural consequence 
many must be lost, not hjiving mark- 
ed the last location of their hive. 

It will still be highly necessary to 
see that the colonies are not destitute, 
tor it often happens that the weather 
is so cold and wet. whilst the fruit 
trees are in bloom, that they are not 
able to collect honey sufficient to last 
them until white clover blooms. This 
will often be the case at the North ; in 
the Southern States it Avill of course 
be otherwise. At the South bees may 
be expected to store a surplus of 
honey for their owner, and swarming 
will be quite brisk. A close lookoul; 
should be kept after the moth, as 
many colonies will still be unable to 
cover all their combs, and are liable 
to be destroj-ed by these ravagers. 
If wren houses are put up, so as to 
induce these little birds to build close 
to the apiary, they will catch many 
moth millers. It is stated by pretty 
good authority, that ducks are exceed- 
ingly fond of moth millers, and that 
they will catch many of them if per- 
mitted to take up quarters about the 
bee hives. If, however, the bee hives 



are kept in the kitchen garden, where 
cabbage plants are growing, it may 
puzzle the bee-keeper somewhat to 
hire his ducks not to eat them along 
with the moth miller. 

It will be well enough for the bee- 
keepei- to select his ground this 
month, ill which to sow a patch of 
buckwheat, for the special benefit of 
his bees. When the time of the season 
arrives for sowing it, the farmer who 
keejis bees can also afford to make 
preparations to sow Alsike clover 
seed another season, as the seed will 
not be likeU' to cost as much as at 
present. This variety of clover is not 
only superior for bee forage, but is 
also excellent for hay, being inferior 
to no other variety cultivated in this 
country, but is said by many to be 
superior to our best red clover, giving 
a larger 3'ield of both seed and hay. 
Care should of coui'se be taken in 
the selection of parties to purchase 
seed from, as it is not alwaj'S pure. 
I have seen some that was simply 
common white clover seed and green 
besides, so much so that it would not 
gro w. — Scientific Farmer. 



For the American Bee .Tournal. 

A Visit to Adam Grimm. 

He isn't gri?n at all. A round faced, 
clean shaven German, of medium stature, 
perhaps tifty years old ; very earnest, and 
witlial pleasant in manner, impressing you 
at once as athorouglily candid, honest man. 
Slow to adopt new ideas, his careful con- 
servatism will, no doubt, sometimes appear 
to the more volatile Yankee as old fogy 
stubbornness. 

On a very hot day last summer, just at 
the beginning of the bass-wood harvest, I 
went to one of his apiaries, and found some 
eighty hives under a little cluster of lindens, 
in the centre of which sat his daughter 
Maggie, pretty well covered up with a huge 
sun-bonnet (Katie is married — the one who 
did the big day's work extracting). Very 
shortly Mr. CTrimm put in an appearance on 
his round of visits to his different apiaries, 
for he had in all some seven or eight hun- 
dred colonies. For a bee veil he has what 
looks for all the world like a Dutch night- 
cap made of heavy sheeting, having the 
face covered with a wire cloth, in the cen- 
tre of which is a round hole, through which 
passes streams of toliacco smoke and words 
of wisdom. He occupied himself princi- 
pally that afternoon in putting on boxes, 
taking olf the honey board entirely, and 



104 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



putting the boxes directly on the frame. 
The boxes did not quite cover the frame, 
leaving a space of an inch or so at the back 
end, and then he blocked up the back end 
of the cap or cover so as to allow free up- 
ward ventilation. Bee-keepers take a note 
of this, as Mr. Grimm considers it a xtrorifj 
point, making a decided amount of differ- 
ence in the amount of honey stored. In 
the spring he had fed several barrels of ex- 
tracted honey, and considered himself 
largely the gainer by it. 

Mr. Grimm thinks he can do better with 
boxes than to depend upon the extractor. 
Certainly, with his large number of hives, 
it would be a difficult thing to keep the 
honey extracted. He does not get so large 
a yield per hive as many others, but having 
so many hives his aggregate yield is, I be- 
lieve, larger than that of any other. The 
question of extractor versus boxes, perhaps, 
depends upon the number of colonies kept. 
If I had Novice's number, I certainly should 
use the extractor— if Mr. Grimm's, I should 
be inclined to boxes. 

After all, is not the important question, 
how to get the most money from one's whole 
stock of bees rather than to get the largest 
yield per hive V If so, I think Mr. Grimm 
is entitled to the palm. He showed me, on 
a previous visit, accounts of one year's 
work, yielding him ten thousand dollars. 
His own belief is that his success is due 
mainly to the superior breed of bees he has. 
As is pretty well known, he prefers the 
smaller dark Italians. I mentioned to him 
that I had kept my bees the previous winter 
in a cellar with tight cement bottom, and 
they had come out very mouldy. He re- 
plied that he had been obliged to abandon 
the nice cellar with cement bottom that he 
had built a year or two previous, and be- 
lieved a cellar for bees should not have 
cement bottom. 

Recently Mr. M. M. Baldridge mentioned 
to me one or two cases in which bees had 
kept unusually well in cellars with open 
cisterns in them. Perhaps the water ab- 
sorbed the impurities of the air, and the 
earth bottom of a cellar may act in some- 
what the same way. 

Mr. Grimm thinks highly of Novice's 
bee-feeder, but doesn't like his quilt. He 
uses for a honey board a plain pine board, 
an inch thick, with a hole (inch hole, I 
think) for the bees to pass through to feed. 
Instead of feet as Novice; has under his 
feeder, he has a close rim of tin which 
supports the feeder and prevents the escape 
of heat. 

Mr. Grimm has lately commenced the 
banking business, but thinks he can make 
more money bee-ing, so he will continue in 
both departments. 

As I took no notes of my visit but depend 
entirely on my memory, I may possibly not 



represent everything exactly straight, but I 
should not be so veri/ sorry if I did tell a 
few lies about Mr. Grimm, if thereby I 
could get him to give a correct version with 
his own pen in the Amekican Bee Journal. 
Although a very busi/ man, I don't be- 
lieve he is so seltisli as to deny us the benefit 
of his experience if he really thought it was 
wanted. What little business I have had 
with him has been most satisfactory, and if 
I were buying bees or queens I would 
rather not see them, but trust to his selec- 
tion. If having all the bees one can take 
care of, a pleasant wife and family, and a 
comfortable home, can make one happy, 
Mr. Grimm ought to be happy. 

B. LUNDERER. 

For the American Bee Journal. 

California as a Bee Location. 

Mn. Editor : — The enclosed letter will 
explain itself. If you think it is not too 
lengthy to publish in the American Bee 
Journal, it would be interesting to many 
readers, as it has been to me — especially 
those seeking good " bee " locations. 
Cynthiana, Ky. H. Nesbit. 

H. Nesbit, Dear Sir : — I hasten to answer 
your letter, which was received a few days 
ago. Most of the honey shipped from here 
is strained by the heat of the sun, by put- 
ting it on perforated iron plates in a boat- 
formed, glass covered reservoir, from which 
it runs into the "tank." The wax melts 
after most of the honey lias run out, goes 
through the plates, and when cold is re- 
moved from the strainer. 

Three years ago I got a honey-extractor, 
and since then several other bee-keepers 
have commenced using it. A few only put 
honey up in the comb — mostly in two 
pound cans. It is difficult to ship comb- 
lioney in frames to San Francisco, owing to 
the many changes it has to go through : 
from apiary to railroad, from there to a 
lighter, then to a steamer, and finally to a 
wagon, before it is received at the stora 
This will, however, be remedied, when wc 
in a few years, get a railroad through to 
San Francisco. 

This, as well as the adjoining counties of 
San Bernardino and San Diego, is a very 
good locality for bee-keeping. As we have 
no snow except on top of the mountains, 
and very little frost, in many places none 
at all, we leave the bees on tiieir summer 
stands without any protection, and the bees 
are flying every day except when it is 
cloudy or rains, which, alas ! does not hap- 
pen as often as we desire. There is no time 
during the year when there are not some 
flowers to work on. The last four or five 
years have been very dry, owing to a 
scarcity of rain in the winter. It is a mira- 
cle if it rains here between May and No- 



THE AMERICAN' BEE JOURNAL. 



105 



vL-mber. Consequently the bees have 
swarmed very little, and the only safe mode 
of increase is by artifit-ial swarming. 

This winter, however, we liave had more 
rain than of late, and everybody expects a 
<!;()od honey season. By using the extractor 
you c;an in any ordinary season rely on get- 
ting an average of at least one hundred 
pounds of honey from each swarm, besides 
Uoubliug your "stock, as I shall further ex- 
plain. The honey season lasts from May 
till the eiul of September. In July the 
tlowers give very little honey ; in August 
and September the bees gather some, but 
The principal harvest is during May and 
June. It does not require much to take 
Them through the winter, but we generally 
leave them all the honey they have in the 
lower story at the end of the season. The 
bees here are, with a few exceptions, all 
black. Foul-brood troubles us some, but 
not enough to discourage anybody. 

We plant nothing for the bees, although 
it might be well to have a field of rape or 
other honey-producing plants coming in by 
the first of July. Bees are worth from 
.f 2.50 to |5 in box hives. Mr. Harbison, I 
believe, sells Italians in his frame hives at 
^12 a swarm. Box hives are still much 
used, the honey being cut out of the upper 
part, and strained as described above. The 
same method has been used a good deal 
with the Harbison hive, which for a long 
time has been the principal frame hive in 
use here. A couple of years ago, however, 
Mr. John Beckley of Minnesota introduced 
the Langstroth hive, which is being adopted 
by a number of bee-keepers, and, no doubt, 
■will be " the '' hive within a few years. 

The size of our frames is eleven and 
three- fourths inches long by nine and three- 
fourths inches deep, outside measure. The 
iiive, being eighteen inches long inside, will 
take from ten to twelve frames in each 
€tory, according to the thickness of the 
leomb. All the apiaries kept for business 
are situated at the foot of the mountains or 
in the canons. Many bees are found scat- 
tered round in the valleys, but only a few 
at each place, as the harvest-time is short, 
and the bees will just gather enough for 
their own use and for home consumption. 
They swarm, however, much more antl 
■earlier in the valleys than in the mountains, 
because the willows and some other plants 
commence blooming about New Year, and 
give an abundance of i)ollen and some 
honey, which stimulates the bees to breed 
■early. 

The honey from willow and mustard, the 
principal honey-sources in the valley, is 
strong and not very palatable, besides gran- 
ulating very fast. AVild sage gives a fine 
flavored, colorless honey, sumach a straw- 
colored honey with good flavor. The for- 
aner always lakes the best price. So in 



looking for a location for an apiary, or 
" bee-ranch," as it is liere called, these are 
the principal plants to have near and in 
abundance. Alpilaria, yellow alfalfa (wild), 
sycamore, oak, mountain-mahogany, grease- 
wood, and a variety of other plants and 
trees give considerable honey. In some 
localities the alders are often covered with 
honey-dew in the fall. 

A few enteri)rising bee-men ar(^ this year 
trying an experiment, which, probably in 
time, will hv. repeated by many others. 
About New Year they moved their bees to 
the valley, where they are already prepar- 
ing to swarm, raising queen-cells and drones, 
and a few hives have even before this date 
been divided. By the first of May they 
will have been doubled, moved back to the 
mountains, and commenced their honey 
harvest in good earnest. As I have only 
been in the business four years, I cannot 
tell you what the increase would be for so 
long a time as you ask ; and being inexpe- 
rienced and "bothered" with an unman- 
ageable patent hive, I have not had much 
success in that respect. Moth-worms have 
been more troublesome than foul-brood, 
seeming to thrive exceedingly well in this 
warm and dry climate, and aided, no doubt, 
by the half-hundred safe retreats in the 
just-mentioned hive, where the moths are 
proof against the attacks of the bees. 

Nearly all the honey from here goes to 
San Francisco, mostly in five-gallon tin 
cans, and sells at from eight to fifteen 
cents for strained and extracted, and twelve 
to twenty-five cents for comb-honey. We 
have had considerable trouble in disposing 
of the honey for the last two years. It 
would remtiin in the store, there being no 
demand for it, until it was candied, and 
then be sold for a very low price. Twelve 
and one-half cents is, however, the average, 
and regarded a fair price for strained honey. 

The Bee-Keepers' Association of this 
County has now taken the matter in hand, 
and we hope to succeed in getting better 
prices and quicker returns by putting the 
honey up in cans and glass jars of sizes to 
suit customers, and by placing the bulk of 
the honey in the hands of one firm, which 
will prevent the price from falling as low 
as it has of late. At the last meeting, a few 
days ago, the president was authorized to 
go to San Francisco, and confer with 
merchants there about the sale of honey for 
the coming season. We are also in com- 
munication with Mr. Chas. F. Muth of 
Cincinnati, O., in regard to the sale of jars, 
no action having been taken yet on that 
matter by the Association. Several mem- 
bers expressed, at the last meeting, a desire 
to take their part in a car-load, but it was 
thought best to wait until we hear from 
San Francisco which size of packages will 
be most desirable. 



106 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



If you are an " old bee-keeper," bee- 
keeping will no doubt pay you well here, 
and if you want to raise fruit, you can, on 
suitable land and with the necessary water 
for irrigation, add this branch to your re- 
sources. It is customary here to take bees 
"on shares," giving half the increase and 
half the products to the owner, the same 
receiving back the original stock at the end 
of the term, and both parties sharing the 
expenses equally. Few bee-keepers hire 
any assistants except in the height of the 
season, and the wages range from tifteen to 
forty dollars and board. From OxiC to two 
hundred hives may be kept in one place, 
according to the size and quality of the 
range. Clarke's and Harbison's apiaries 
are in San Diego County, south of here, and 
about one hundred miles distant. Harbi- 
son has formerly resided at Sacramento, 
but I see by the American Bee Journal 
that he has removed his bees south. 

We move the bees from twenty to thirty 
miles when moved as above mentioned. 

I believe, now, that I have answered all 
your questions. Any further information 
shall l3e cheerfully given, as far as I am 
able. You are at liberty to publish this in 
the American Bee Journal if you think it 
will interest any body else. My address is 
at present, Los Angeles. Care of Henry 
Beckley, Esq. Respectfully, 

Wm. Mutu-Rasmussen. 

Los Nietos, Feb. 24, 1874. 



Forthe American Bee Journal. 



A New Smoker. 



For the American Bee Journal. 



Wintering Bees. 



Could 1 have ordered the weather the 
past winter I could not have been suited 
better. Our losses had been sevei-e the 
two preceding ones, causing much anxiety. 
The past winter will throw much light on 
many points that have been suggested as 
the cause of loss. We have had warm 
spells frequently, which seems to be addi- 
tional proof that steady cold was at the 
bottom of the trouble. 

That dysentery is not caused by the 
quality of the honey is strongly proved by 
there being none of it when they have been 
kept sufficiently warm. I know a lot of 
bees that have been kept in the cellar since 
the tenth of November, where the mercury 
has not been below forty-two degrees nor 
above fifty degrees during the time. Never 
in better condition — combs bright and 
clean. I hope that whoever has kept strict 
account of tlie temperature will report con- 
dition of their bees, whether disquieted 
from any cause, and how much. We shall, 
after a while, get the proper temperature, 
so that we can winter bees as safely and 
surely as cattle or horses. 

I have much more to say on this subject 
some day. M. Quinby. 



Mr. Editor. — Seeing so many contrivan- 
ces for smoking bees, I will send you direc 
tions for making a smoker that I have used 
and like very much. Take a piece of paper 
eight inches by twelve, and with corn silk 
make a solid roll of about one inch thick ; 
paste down the edge of the paper and you 
will have a smoker that you can depend on.- 
You can blow the smoke where you want 
it ; it leaves no bad efl'ect on the bees. 

A great many bees have been lost here 
this winter, I think it was because they were 
all old bees. C. W. Stokes. 

Atchison, Kan. 



For the American Bee JouraaL 

Which is Best? 

We keep bees for the honey and wax 
they secure us. Aside from these objects, 
we should no more think of keeping them 
than of keeping hornets and wasps. As 
honey is the principal object, the number of 
colonies kept, and the character of our hive* 
and honey receptacles, should be formed 
and regulated with reference to that object. 
They, in the number of their colonies and 
hives, may be so regulated as to give a very 
handsome return at a very trifling expense, 
or so as to require considerable expense, a 
great deal of care and perplexity, and their 
product be very trifling and unsatisfactory.. 

In the opinion of many, success in bee- 
keeping depends upon luck and chance. 
Care and skill, with intelligence, will be 
likely to secure good luck or success. The 
careless and inattentive will fail, there is UO' 
chance in this matter. If the number of 
colonies in a field exceed the capacity of 
the field, some of them must perish. If 
the capacity is greatly exceeded by the 
number of colonies, probably all of them 
will perish. The number of colonies will 
be increased by swarms in the swarming 
season something in proportion to the size 
of the hives. Very small hives will proba- 
bly give most swarms. Very large hives 
will probably not swarm at all. If standing 
in the hot sun, the size of the hives does^ 
not secure against swarming. Eft'ectively 
shaded from the sun, a hive of one thousand 
cubic inches, or more, will not be likely to 
swarm ; a hive of two thousand cubic 
inches, or less, will be likely to cast from 
one to four swarms. The operation of these 
hives will be, the small ones will average 
two or three swarms each. The providing 
for three or four colonies for winter will 
leave little room for surj^lus. 

If we commenced with one, at three 
swarms from each hive, the first season 
there will be four, the second season six- 
teen, the third season sixty-four, the fourth 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



107 



two hundred and fifty-six. In a field that 
will sustain but about thirty swarms, they 
must most of tliem perish the third winter. 
In a field that would sustain sixty swarms 
only, they must perish the fourtli winter ; 
.and some of them have been fed the tliird 
winter or have jierished then. 

Suppose that, instead of thirty small 
swarmiuiX hives, we plaee eight or ten 
swarms in hives of about twenty-five hun- 
dred cubic inches in a breeding and winter- 
ing apartment, with surphis honey boxes to 
contain one hundred pounds of surplus 
honey in intimate connection with the 
breeding apa.rtment ; if eft'celively shaded 
from the sun, they will average in a good 
season one hundred pounds each. 

If they are screened from the heat of the 
eun, and in a cool place, there will vei*y 
few, if any, swarms issue from them. If 
the season is an unfavorable one, they will 
find honey enough to fill their wintering 
apartments, and furnish some surplus. 
There is no danger of starvation. There is 
room for thirty colonies with little surplus ; 
there is surely, then, room for ten colonies 
and some surplus in a poor season. 

The investment in bees in such hives has 
^something of permanency. The keeper 
need have no fear of loss from starving. 
He need not have any anxiety about his 
bees running out. If his stock is kept 
Avithin the capacity of his field, if his sur- 
plus boxes are placed on in season, and his 
bees duly shaded, he has but little trouble 
or care about them but to remove the sur- 
plus boxes when filled, and supply the 
•empty ones when needed, and secure his 
surplus honey. 

It is necessary to observe tke.se few 
things : 

1. Limit the number of your colonies to 
the capacity of your field. Better to fall 
short of than to exceed the number that 
will have full employment in gathering the 
honey. 

3. Give ample room in the breeding and 
wintering apartment — two thousand five 
hundred inches at least. Then if you have 
not too many bees in your field, it will be 
unnecessary to feed them, with the ample 
room for stores ; and it is simply the ques- 
tion whether you will have the honey in 
your field with little trouble and care, or 
will you live in constant care and perplexi- 
ty, get at most not one-lenth of your honey, 
and have your bees almost all perish in 
•every three, four or five years. 

Jaspek Hazex. 

Woodstock, Vermont. 



For the American Bee Journal. 



"Our Contributors." 



Waldridge, a German writer, says he saw 
forty large bee-hives filled with honey, to 
the amount of seventy pounds each, in two 
■weeks, by being placed near a large field of 
huck-wheat in flower. 



I find the American Bee Jouknat. in- 
variably both interesting and instructive. 
Often re-reading many articles whicii have 
appeared in tlie last eight montlis I feel like 
thanking ail the correspondents, both old 
and new, for contriliuting to make us such 
a readable paper. 

AVhile I deeply regret that Mr. Langstroth 
has been unable of late to contribute any- 
thing to the pages of the Jouhnai. from his 
rich store of knowledge and experience, I 
am pleased that Mr. (Juinby again favors 
us with occasional articles. Although this 
is an age of progn^ss and new ideas, we 
cannot well dispense with the safe counsel 
and instruction of these two veteran bee 
masters. Mr. Quinby gave us a noble and 
dignified article on one of the knotty ques- 
tions of the day, and while I must dissent 
from the conclusion he arrives at, in regard 
to a warm house being the only safe way 
to winter bees, I admire the spirit and style 
in which his ideas are given. 

Mr. Chas. F. Muth tells us of the success- 
ful wintering of bees on their summer stand 
by himself and some of his neighboring 
bee-keepers, and thinks that it can be made 
uniformly successful. Will not those who 
adopt this plan of wintering, give us more 
particulars. I know that there is quite a 
difference in wintering in the vicinity of 
Cincinnati and colder locations, though 
that vicinity was noi exempt from the bee 
disease. But I don't intend to discuss this 
subject here, I merely wish to call out "Our 
Contributors." 

We have not heard lately from Mr. Bick- 
ford who used to practice successful winter- 
ing out doors, in a colder climate than Cin- 
cinnati, and who gave some very interesting 
articles on several subjects. I know that 
the readers of the Jouunal would be pleased 
to hear from him again. 

Let not "Novice" be discouraged in the 
good work he is doing, even if patent hive 
men and others who are trying to humbug 
the bee-keeping community, do fly into a 
passion and use discourteous language be- 
cause their tricks are exposed. 

And "Gallup" — how could we do with- 
out his practical, strong, common-sense 
articles ; deducted from his close observa- 
tions and reasonings. Though an old hand 
at the " bee business" he is far from being 
an " old fogy "and don't intend to be a 
whit behind any new ideas and progress in 
his favorite occupation. 

Thanks to friend Adair for his many 
excellent contributions. I hope that he will 
continue to give us the results of his scien- 
tific and theoretical investigations, and the 
practical working of his " new ideas." 

There are many other names I might 



lOi^ 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



mention which I would lilte to see continued 
upon the list of contributors, in fact I 
would like to have them all continued. — 
Some who used to write very acceptably do 
not write as often now as I would like, -such 
as Grimm, Argo, Price, Nesbit, the Davies, 
etc., etc., with my quondam friend Tho- 
mas, who, although he may not be able to 
convince us that he still has the " best hive 
in America," I know he can write interest- 
ing and instructive articles on other sub- 
jects. His idea about that bee disease, in 
my opinion, is about the best that has been 
advanced. 

And will not our sister bee-keepers let us 
hear from them oftener V What say you 
Miss Cyula Liuswick, Miss Ella Dunlap, 
Miss Katie Grimm, Mrs. Harrison, and other 
sister bee-keepers V I can assure Miss Lins- 
wick that her delightful sketches are eager- 
ly read and admired by one, and I believe 
by all the readers of the Journal. When 
we have young ladies visiting us and I wish 
to interest them in bee-keeping, which I am 
sure to do, I read to them Miss Cyula's 
narrative of her experiences and Miss Katie 
Grimm's accouut of her great honey harvest. 

Last but by no means least is the contrib- 
utions of selections and translations from 
foreign bee journals, which I hope to see 
continued. 

It requires variety* in a paper devoted to 
such a specialty as bee-keeping to make it 
interesting, and that the numerous corres- 
pondents of the Amekican Bee Journal 
have given it, and that is one cause of the 
strong attachment felt for it by its subscrib- 
ers. Tiiaddeus Smith. 



Bees Eating Grapes. 

As I have cultivated bees in a part 
of France where grapes are the main 
crop, near the hills of Burgundy, cele- 
brated for the wine produced by the 
culture of the sugared pineau, a grape 
I'icher in sugar than all the American 
kinds, I think I can bring some light 
on the discussion existing between 
Prof Riley and my friend Kruschke. 

There has been considerable discus- 
sion between the wine growers and 
the bee-keepers, in the above named 
district, and it is, to say, ver}' well 
established that bees are uruible to 
cut the skin of grapes. 

In order to ascertain the fact the 
most juic}' and sugai'ed grapes, pears, 
sweet cherries, plums, apricots, etc., 
were put inside the hives; never have 
the bees attacked them, if they were 
not ])r('viously scratched. Tlie ex- 



periment was repeatedly made, it was- 
discovered also that the first cutting 
was made by a kind of wasp, or by 
birds, or caused bj^ the rain falling 
when the fruit was ripe. (See the 
seventeen years of the French journal 
-Zy' Apiculteu?\) 

In Italy the same experiments have 
led to the same result. 

It is therefore unjust to accuse the- 
bees of the mischief It is to be re- 
gretted to see such distinguished meUj, 
as Prof Riley, bring forward the ac- 
cusation, and some bee-writers sustain 
it, who, with a more careful observa- 
tion would have arrived at altogether- 
different conclusions. 

It is not the first time that scien- 
tists have received lessons from prac- 
tical bee-keepers. At the end of the 
last century Shirack had to contend 
with the scientists of his time, to 
j)rove that bees can raise queens from 
worker eggs. 

Later, Dzierzon has proclaimed 
the pai'thenogenesis, in spite of the 
European scientists, whose ideas were- 
knocked down by the discovery. 

Later, Langlois, a french scientist^ 
made an ass of himself in advancing 
that the cells and the food were able 
to change the sex of bees. 

Last year, Prof. Agassiz was laugh- 
ed at by the bee-keeper, for his idea on 
the building of the cells by the bees. 

It happens too often for the pro- 
gress of science that, in order to get 
fame, some writers bring forward as. 
fixed facts, some ideas altogether con- 
tradicted by experience. Some year* 
ago Prof Warro amused the reader* 
of the American Bee Journal by his 
theory of procreation in bees. To-day 
it is Mr. Adair Avho has inherited that 
situation, with his balanced colonies,, 
his wings which act as lungs^and pro- 
bably as nose and ears. Fo'rtunately 
these hazarded assertions are toO' 
baseless to obtain credit among the 
bee-keepers. They show how great 
is the diversity of minds in the human 
race. Ch. Dadant. 

Hamilton, 111.. 



East Fricsland, a province of Hol- 
land, containing 1200 squarp miles, 
maintains on an average, 2000 colo- 
nies of bees j)er sqiuare mile- 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



10!) 



How to Extract Honey. 

With a good extractor, ouc that will hold 
the comb tirni, you can extract honey 
from new coi\ib without breaking it; and — 
in addition to obtaining enough from a few 
hives to i)ay for a machine — extracting it 
will leave the bees in a much better lon- 
dition. 

Take out the outside combs in which there 
is no brood. You can not extract old, thick 
honey from combs in which there is brood 
unsealed, Avithout throwing out more or less 
brood and it is best to let such combs alone. 
If the day is warm extract the honey at once. 
If the weather is cold, ])Ul them in an empty 
hive and carry them into a warm room, 
wliere they should be left a few hours, or 
until the comb will bend slightly without 
breaking, before extracting the honey. 

Townley, Mich. J. II. Towkley. 



Bees vs. Fruit— A few Facts. 



"aKGUS" to TKOF. RILEY. 

With all due respect for Mr. Riley as an 
entomologist, allow me to say that, in my 
humble opinion, he has signally failed to 
justify himself in recommending the de- 
struction of bees, even in extreme cases. 
But to the question, "Do bees injure fruit? " 
Mr. Riley says they do, and also says, "I 
never fear the truth and never write anything 
that I am not ready and comj)etcnt to de- 
fend." Now, all this may be true, Mr. 
Editor ; but we must make considerable 
allowance for youthful zeal. I find, as I 
grow older, I change my mind on many 
things; and I even dare to think as Mr. 
R. gains in years and experience lie, too, 
may change his opinions, not only upon this 
subject but upon others, his ideas on the 
grape vine aphis included. 

Permit me now to look briefly at the 
proof that he ofl'ers, to establish what he 
pleases to call the truth. The first is a let- 
ter from I. W. Pcnn, who says: — "1 like 
fruit, large and small, to become throughly 
ripe; but from early to late in the season 
the place is infested with myriads of bees 
belonging to persons that fail to provide 
food for them . * * The choicest peaches, 
the sweetest pears and the most delicious 
grapes are hollowed out by the starved and 
ravenous insects." Looking at this testi- 
mony your readers would be apt to come to 
the conclusion, if they had never seen bees, 
that they had a bill like a bird or teeth and 
stomach like a squirrel. Look at the state- 
ment "the fruit was hollowed out;" and 
again," I and others of the family were 
severely stung by the bees lurking within." 
Now, would this kind of evidence satisfy a 
competent jury V True, it might be called 
circumstantial evidence, but not enough to 



convict and punish with death. Now, 
would this species of reasoning satisfy IVIr. 
Riley on any other subject? Would he 
not require a more careful examination be- 
fore jumping to a concilusionV If not, I do 
not think he is the fortunate possessor of 
the mantle of Father VValch. 

The next witness on the stand is .J. II. Wer- 
landy, who says he was so annoyed by his 
neighbor's bees that he lost his entire peach 
crop, which was rendered unfit for market 
by their injuries. This witness might just 
as well be dismissed without comment, "see- 
ing there is not one single proof oftered. 
Now let us hear the testin'iony of Mr. Riley 
himself: — "This objection to bees under 
certain circumstances comes from the real 
and direct injury they do to the fruit." 
This is merely gratuitous assumption. 
Again, "The mouth of the honey bee is fit- 
ted both for lapping and biting." Well, for 
the sake of the argument, suppose it is ; how 
far would this testimony go to convince a 
jury. If Mr. Riley was brought up on a 
similar charge? It will doubtless be very 
clearly seen by every intelligent and candid 
reader that the statements given are very far 
from being sufficient to establish the fact 
that bees injure fruit. 

Now let us go back to Mr. Penn's orchard 
and see if we can't find some other cause for 
the destruction of his fruit. " Here are also 
some ornamental trees and evergreens, in- 
cluding an Arborvitaj hedge to shelter the 
small birds, which became very tame under 
the kind of treatment they received." I ask 
Mr. Penn what he thinks the birds live 
upon V Not all insects I can assure him ; 
and, to convince himself of this, let him go 
into his orchard by the peep of day, and per- 
haps he will find the birds as well as the 
bees enjoying themselves. I have been 
longer in fruit than bee culture, and I know 
the birds have had many a dainty meal of 
the best of my grajies, cherries and straw- 
berries ; and I also know that at times they 
have had the lion's sliare. Mr. Penn says 
he is kind to the birds, doubtless convinced 
that they are his friends. A few years ago 
a fierce controversy was waged upon the 
bird question ; some thought they did more 
harm than good; l:)ut mercy and truth at last 
prevailed, and now they enjoy their full 
liberty both in the field and orchard, for the 
good they do. Again, Mr. Penn says, "My 
loss last year in money value was consider- 
able." This is only one side of the money 
question ; he has failed to give the bees any 
credit; but I hope in time he will learn bet- 
ter, and, as R. Holland truly remarks, 
"Any one who goes through the world 
with his eyes open, is sure to find out some- 
thing that even professional naturalists did 
not knoAV before." 

Some seasons fruit "don't set good." 
Why ? I have in my mind at present a large 



110 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



pear tree whose branches in the spring were 
white with bloom; but thei-e came one of 
those heavy, dashing rain storms and washed 
out the pollen, and of course there was little 
or no fruit on the tree, except one branch, 
and that was loaded with fruit, for it hung 
under and was protected by the eaves of 
the house. If there had been plenty of bees 
in the neighborhood to have fertilized the 
rest of the tree, more fruit would have been 
the result. Providence never works with- 
out means ; and it is admitted by all natura- 
lists, and Mr. Riley himself Avill not deny it, 
that the bee is a means of not only giving us 
more fruit but a greater variety. Art in 
this has done much, but Nature more. 
With this view of the matter the means that 
Mr. Riley has recommended for the de- 
struction of bees will not justify the end; 
for it has been observed, from the days of 
Aristotle to the present time, that where 
there is an abundance of bees there is an 
abundance of fruit ; therefore the more fruit 
the more money. These facts are so well 
established no proof is required. 

But there is something else, of a serious 
nature. The flight of a bee is ascertained 
to be about a mile in two minutes. Now, 
the bees that fill their sacs (or first stomachs) 
at Mr. Riley's poison dish will not all die 
there, but thousands will fly home and de- 
posit their load in the hive. If this honey 
is used at home or taken to market, who 
will be responsible for the consequences V I 
think friend Riley has made a great blun- 
der, and I would counsel him to be careful 
where he buys his honey, for if he lias any 
facts to communicate upon this important 
subject, the public cannot well spare him at 
present. In conclusion I would ask him 
if he ever kept bees and how he managed 
to keep them at home ? — Rural Neic Yoi'ker. 

For the American Bee Journal. 

A Prolific Mother. 

In the queen bee, the mother of the colo- 
ny of bees, we have an abundant breeder, 
amounting to many thousands each year of 
her life. All the bees in the old colony are 
her progeny until three weeks after the issue 
of the last swarm from the hive. As the 
old queen issues with the first swarm, all 
the bees in that colony for the whole season 
are produced by her. Likewise all the bees 
which constitute the after-swarm, sometimes 
amounting to three or more swarms. The 
first swarm with which the old queen issues 
sometimes gives a new swarm. That is her 
progeny. 

We have many thousands in the first 
swarm, many thousands in the after- 
swarnis, many thousands in the first swarm 
produced by the old queen after her 
establishment with the first swarm in her 
new home, and n\.iuy arising from her 



brood left in the old hive at the time of 
her issue with the first swarm. I will not 
name numbers, as there are great difier- 
ences in the strength of difi"erent colonies, 
and it would be only guessing ; this one 
can do as well as another. It is enough for 
our present purpose to understand that it is 
a sufficient force, with the late additions 
made by the young queens, to carrj'' two, 
three, four or five colonies through the 
winter. But the expectation of much more 
than this may be considered a vain hope. 
By following this course from year to year 
with small hives, a large number of colo- 
nies may be secured. But little surplus 
honey is secured, and the point is soon 
reached where the field will not supply food 
for their support, and large numbers, some- 
times all of them, winter-kill or starve to 
death. 

I think it must be apparent to every 
reasonable, reflecting man that if the labor 
can all be expended and its profit all se- 
cured in one hive, and all but that part of 
it necessary for winter stores be secured in 
surplus boxes ; instead of being very tri- 
fling in amount, from one-half to three- 
fourths of it may be secured in surplus 
boxes in the best shape for market. Of 
this I have no doubt, hav'ng secured from 
one hive in one year one hundred and forty 
pounds, in another year one hundred and 
forty-five pounds, and in another two hun- 
dred pounds. In other years less, varying 
from one to two hundred ]iounds. 

In my operations with this hive, I have 
known no swarms to issue except from 
neglect to give the room furnished by the 
surplus boxes before the preparations for 
swarming had commenced, or from neglect 
to sutficiently guard from heat. 

Last November I removed from the vi- 
cinity of Albany to Woodstock, Vt., proba- 
bly to close my days. My bees I left in 
care of my son, who informs me by letter 
that but one colony has died. 

Jasper Hazen. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

A New Subject!?) 

The subject in regard to the mortality of 
bees, during the last few years has been 
discussed in nearly every number of our 
journals, ever since that fatal winter. 

I would now like to ask : Have we 
finally discovered the true cause V Can we 
prevent it in the future ? Quinby, Dadaut, 
"Novice," — in fact, nearly every bee-keep- 
er of importance in the land, have given 
their experiences and opinions. One says 
it is on account of the long continued cold ; 
another lays the fault to bad honey ; 
another to bad ventilation, and dampness ; 
another calls it an epedemic. 

If these questions, as to the cause, were 



TilJli AM.±!iJKlUAiN HtLHi dUUitJNAlj. 



Ill 



put to uie, in conclusion at the end 1 would 
l>robably reply "yes"; for there seems to 
he some truth in each statement. 1 think 
many have come to the conclusion, after 
perusing the various reports, that if we 
keep our bees in future in a place where 
the temperature will average forty to forty- 
five degrees, and wliere the dampness will 
not accumulate, and where the bees will 
be kept dark and qui<'t, there is but little 
danger of loosing them by dysentery. 

The loss of our bees, winter before last 
was thc^ cause T Inn'e no doubt of loo cold 
winter quarters. We kept our bees last 
winter in a clamp made similar to one de- 
scribed in the Amkkk an Bep: Joitrnai., 
Vol. ix, No. 3, page :!8, by Chas. D. Ilib- 
bard. We, however, made some improve- 
ments by packmg one foot of straw against 
the ground walls, and also on the bottom. 
We turned the bottom boards of hives up- 
side down and set the hives on the four 
inch cleats that are nailed on the bottom of 
the bottom boards, thus giving them four 
inches open space on two sides for ventila- 
tion. We put them two deep and covered 
them with tAvo feet of straw. The cover- 
ing of the clamp consisted of one foot of 
straw upon which we threw about one 
foot of dirt. !Ne.\t time however, we will 
put on even more to make sure. 

We put in sixty-one colonies, in a room 
eleven by si.xteen feet, centre of roof ten 
feet from 'bottom. Could put in about 
twice as many. 

In this nest of straw as it w-ere, they kept 
up a temperature ranging from thirty-five 
to fifty degrees — forty-fiAc being about 
the average. They came out etiected a 
little with dysentery ; those that set in the 
uitper tier were generally less efi'ected than 
those on the bottom ; and as some of the 
frames were a little mouldy, we came to the 
conclusion that there was too much damp- 
ness. Three were found dead, four have 
since died. The death of a couple might 
be laid to the fact that they were but few 
in numbers, and these were mostly old bees. 
If there be any truth in the young bee 
theory, the more we know about it, the bet- 
ter. Another fact came to my notice that 
might assist in verifying the young bee 
theory, it is this ; — I made three stands in 
August, two were supplied with capped 
queen cells, the other had an old queen, 
these are all living though they were weak 
in numbers in the fall, but as I fed them 
well with sugar syrup, they kept on breed- 
ing longer than others not fed, neither were 
they badly effected with dysentery. 

Make it then a rule to give bees the con- 
ditions above named, viz: warmtli, dryness, 
plenty of ventilation, feed them nil in the 
fall, keep them in perfect darkness, disturb 
them as little as possible, and I think dysen- 
tery, or " that bee disease," will be extinct. 

Berlin, Wis. J, D, Ki'.usciikk. 



For the AnnTifan lU'O Journal. 

Apiculture in Kansas. 

Mr. PjDitor : — This winter has not been 
a very favorable one on bees in this State. 
Ithas been a winter, like all its predecessors, 
jH'culiar in many respects. The thermome- 
ter in this vicinity has never once been 
beloAv 7,ero during the winter months just 
past. There has been a vast amount of 
freezing and thawing, with protracted spells 
of weather during which the air was in a 
very humid condition. In noticing my bees 
lately, I saw more signs of mouldy combs 
than any preceding winter. Such is es- 
l)ecially the case Avith those wintered on 
their summer stands. Why combs become 
so very mouldy in some hives while in 
others the combs are perfectly bright, 
where all probabilities would lead one 
to suspect a like result, has always been 
to me a little mysterious ; but the ventila- 
tion, quantity and age of bees, and quantity 
of comb in the hive, are conditions which 
if properly understood would solve the 
problem to a great extent, no doubt. 

The Legislature of this State passed an 
act approved March Gth, 1873, relating to 
the collection of statistics of the industries 
of the State by assessors. Apicultural 
statistics w^ere collected under the following 
heads, viz.: "Number of stands of bees, 
native and Italian, to be stated separately, 
kind of hives used, number of pounds of 
honey produced, and the source from 
wiiich the greatest yield of honey is gath- 
ered." The secretary of our State Board of 
Agriculture in his report for the year 1873 
— which was laid before the Legislature a 
short time before its adjournment — gives the 
following, which is the aggregate synopsis 
taken from the statistics relating to bee 
culture, and which were taken for the first 
day of March, 1873 :— 

Number of stands of native bees, 13,345 
" Italian " 1,640 
" "pounds" honey, 135,384 
" wax, 3,686 
The secretary also reports the following : 
" According to the census returns of 1860, 
the number of pounds of wax returned was 
1,181 ; in 1870, 2,208 ; in 1873, 3,686. 
The number of pounds of honey returned 
in 1860 was 16,944 ; in 1870, 110,827 ; in 
1873, 135,384. In 1873, 14,885 colonies of 
bees are reported, 13,345 of which are na- 
tive Allen County reports ' sun- 
flowers and Aveeds and flow^ers generally ' to 
be the best source of honey in that county. 
Tw^elve counties report buckwheat ; three 
counties report linden. Linden, sumac, 
white elder and smart-weed, appear in most 

of the reports Buckwheat, clover 

and basswood, are reported as giving the 
gi'eatest yield of honey." 

Perhaps the report by counties as given 



112 



THE AMERICAl^ BEE JOURNAI-. 



Ijy the secretary would give the reader some 
idea of wliere the best portions of the State 
for bee-keeping are found, but we have not 
deemed tliis of sufficient importance to the 
general reader to copy it from the report. 
M. A. O'Neil. 
Black Jack, Kan. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

My Experience. 

Mr. Adair, in his article on the wings of 
bees, holds out the idea that to cut a queen's 
wing is like taking away part of a man's 
lungs. I will give you my experience dur 
ing the last year with stocks of bees with 
queens' wings clipped — some a little oft", 
some half ofl', and some more than half 
off, just as it would happen in giving a clip 
as they would run on the comb. 

I moved twenty-four of my best stocks 
to a large poplar grove {Uriodendron tulipi- 
fera) on the 17th day of last May. They 
were in two-story Langstroth hives, twenty 
frames, ten by seventeen inches, and by 
June 5th they were crowded and began to 
swarm. By the 13th I had to take 1263 
pounds of honey from them with the ma- 
chine, except 101 pounds that was in boxes. 
I was careful to remove all queen cells, but 
in about eight days they were swarming 
again, sending out enormous swarms, so 
that on the 24th I had to take 1440 pounds 
more honey with the machine. By this 
time I never had stocks so strong in num- 
bers. Now if clipped queens do that way 
I say '■'■ clipp em "every time — Gen. Adair 
to the contrary notwithstanding — for had 
not these queens' wings been clipped, I per- 
haps would have lost half of tlie bees, for 
on the day before I went to take the last 
honey there were eight swarms out. The 
owner of the lot where the bees were, knew 
nothing about taking care of bees. I had 
them so arranged that the queens could 
crawl back into the hives so of course the 
swarms would go back themselves. Now 
if any one knows of queens being injured 
by clipping let us hear from them. 

I then moved those bees to a linwood 
gi'ove on the 20th (except two stocks that 
were so crowded that they smothered on 
the way). The weather set in very wet and 
linwood bloom was worth but little, so that 
I only got 850 pounds of honey from that 
source. Eight of the best of the twenty- 
four hives had on tliree boxes each (tliat 
would hold about sixteen pounds each) 
from May 17 until June 13, and only had 
101 pounds of honey, while the other six- 
teen hives gave 1102 pounds of honey, be- 
ing 09 pounds each, while the others only 
gave 20 pounds in tlie comb, eacli, making 
a diftcrence of only 49 i)ounds each in 
favor of sluny honey. 



I have now one hundred and twenty-two 
stocks in the bee-house. I gave them in 
the fall about 1100 pounds of "A" coffee 
sugar, made into syrup by putting one 
pound of water to two pounds ©f sugar and 
let it boil a few minutes, and feed so that 
the bees and honey in each hive wouM 
weigh about twenty pounds, my bee-house 
is an upper story, inside sixteen by eighteeoi 
feet, eight feet high, double walls filled 
with saw-dust, the temperature has not been 
below thirty-nine degrees Fahrenheit this, 
winter. In tlie last twenty-three days I 
have swept up eighteen pounds of dead 
bees — please tell me what is the matter. 
The summer entrance of the hives are open, 
upper story oft", and the cover laid on the 
lower story. The hives are piled three to 
four hives high, in four rows, with room 
to walk in front of each row. The temper- 
ature has been up to fifty-five degrees, two 
or three times for perhaps a little over a 
day at a time, it generally stands at about 
forty-four degrees. The room is perfect- 
ly dark with ventilator eighteen by eighteen, 
inches regulated at will. I enter the room 
through a trap door in the floor. 

On April 15th my bees were reduced to 
ninety-two in number and several very 
weak. In the last ten days I have fed my 
bees two hundred and eight pounds of "A"" 
coffee sugar, and if this cold Aveather con- 
tinues ten days longer, I will have to repeat 
the dose, which goes to show that the 
weight of the bees and honey in the fall 
should be more than twenty pounds for 
some winters. That has always been 
enough with me, heretofore. 

Last spring I had bees in forty -four 
hives, which gave altogether a little over 
4,000 pounds of honey. I have sold 3,600 
pounds of it, at an average of twenty -three 
cents per pound. The balance we have 
used, except about 200 pounds of bass-wood 
honey, that was gathered in very wet 
w^eather, and has soured a little. This I 
will feed to a few hives when the weather 
gets warm, and observe the ettect it will 
produce on them. P. W. McFatrid(5E. 

Carthage, lud. 



The instinct of bees in the construction 
of their cells has always been an object of 
wonder to those who are capable of appre- 
ciating it. Every cell has straight lines and 
sharp corners ; but never does any cell pre- 
sent its sharp corner to its neighbor's cell — 
a soft even side to every neighbor's side. 
Each fit to each, firm to support, and yet 
soft in the contact. No interstices are left 
where filth might accumulate to annoy and 
defile. Thus let man meet man as they 
tread the crowded path of life. Always a 
side to your neighbor that is soft and strong. 
No sharp corner of selfishness that will 
pierce your brother. — Arnot. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



113 



ttttdtmilW^ ^lattnial 



W. F. CLARKE, Editor. 



CHICAGO, MAY, 1874. 

Clipping the Wings of Queens. 

For sonu' years past it has been custom- 
ary witli the best ai)iarians to clip the wings 
of queen bees as a precaution against swarm- 
ing. 

At the annual meeting of the North 
American Bee-keepers' Society, held at 
Louisville, Ky., in December last, doubts 
as to the propriety of this course were rais- 
ed by Gen. D. L. Adair, one of the best 
apiculturists, both as to theory and practice 
on the continent. In a paper on the wings 
of the bee, it was contended that various 
important functions, breathing included, 
were performed by these organs, and it 
was argued that they could not be mutila- 
ted without injury. 

This paper having appeared in the reports 
of the Louisville meeting published in this 
and other journals, has naturally led to the 
matter being pretty freely debated among 
bee-keepers, "Novice" in his "Gleanings," 
has pronounced strongly against Gen. 
Adair's views, but failed to do him the 
justice of publishing the paper itself. Our 
last issue contained a very able reply from 
Gen. Adair, to "Novice's" criticisms. — 
The subject has also received attention in 
other quarters. 

At the annual meeting of the North-East- 
ern Bee-Keepers' Association, which met in 
Utica, N. Y., during the first week in Feb- 
ruary, this subject was very fully discussed 
and a number of the most experienced bee- 
keepers gave it as their decided opinion, 
that clipping a queen's wings does not in- 
jure her capacity for usefulness. Secretary 
Nellis had practised clipping five or six 
years, and observed no bad results. At 
the present time, he had more than forty 
queens with wings cut off, and considered 
them as servicable as others. Captain 
Hetherington, we believe the largest bee- 
keeper on this continent, also practised 
clipping. He sometimes had three and 



four hundred clipped at once. Mr. Doolit- 
tle liad done more tlian all the rest, for he 
liad tested the capacity of a queen who not 
only had her wings but also a hind leg clip- 
ped off, and yet did effective duty for four 
years. The general .weight of testimony 
was decidedly in favor of clipping. Mr. 
Quinby however, who proposed the ques- 
tion for discussion, was very reticent in 
regard to it, expressing no detinite opinion, 
but merely testifying that he had known a 
case in which a swarm went out with a 
young queen, leaving the clipped queen in 
the hive. Other speakers incidentally 
admitted that clipped queens were apt to 
be superseded, the bees evidently regarding 
them as deformed or crippled. 

We have never tried this practice, and 
are therefore liable to be considered incom- 
petent to say anything against it. But we 
can at least be permitted to state why we 
have never tried it. One reason has been, 
tliat we object, on principle, to the unneces- 
sary mutilation of the creatures domestica- 
ted by man. Docking horses' tails, clip- 
ping terriers' ears, ringing pigs' noses, pick- 
ing the feathers off live geese, cutting off 
the combs of game cocks, and the like, are 
all of a piece with clipping the wings of 
queen bees. Another reason for our avoid- 
ance of the practice has been, that we are 
unable to see how it can be kept up without 
injury. If it is a wise and necessary thing 
to do, then it must be done to successive 
generations of queen bees. Now, though 
no serious evil may result from its being 
done once in a while, it must entail weak- 
ness if done continually. A woman, here 
and there, may, by accident, loose an arm 
without perceptible detriment to the race :, 
but if every bride were deprived of an arm 
on or before her marriage, we are of 
opinion that the mutilation would tell disas- 
trously upon coming generations of human 
beings. If General Adair should prove to 
be right, and the important functions he 
suggests are in reality performed by the 
queen's wing, then assuredly serious injuries 
must result from the mutilation. 

Moreover, we are opposed to all unneces- 
sary meddling and fussing with bees. There 
is a wise management and supervision of 
the busy little workers, wliich is man's part 



114 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



in the production of honey, but beyond this 
it is impertinent interference and annoyance 
to disturb their wise economies. The 
swarming instinct may be checked, regula- 
ted, and watched over, but we do not be- 
lieve it can ever be annihilated, or if it can 
be, it will be at the cost of such a change 
in the disposition of the bee, as will greatly 
lessen its value to man as a gatherer and 
■storer of honey. 

Finally, we believe the All-wise Creator 
made no mistake in giving the queen-bee 
wings, and that it is, on the whole, best she 
should be permitted to retain them. One 
•of the speakers at Utica said he began the 
clipping business by clipping off one of the 
four wings. Then the queen went with the 
swarm. So he took to clipping off " every 
wing entirely." Another said, " Queens 
■cannot do anything with their wings but go 
through the air. Their business is in the 
hive ; wings are of no use there." It is as- 
tonishing to see with what cool presumption 
some people constitute themselves advisers 
extraordinary to Infinite Wisdom, and pro- 
ceed to carry out improvements in the Cre- 
ator's plans. The queen-bee had wings 
when the Lord God surveyed his finished 
works, and pronounced them good. An 
inspection of them now would not result in 
the denial of wings to the royal insect, or 
in any other improvement whatsoever, see- 
ing that all the Divine works are, like their 
glorious Maker, perfect. The Creator's fiat 
as of more weight by far than the creature's 
fancy, and we are content, in our bee-keep- 
ing management, to conform to all the Di- 
vinely-established laws of bec-lifc, instead 
of trying to change, or even presuming to 
suspend them. 



Why don't Farmers keep Bees ? 

Mr. Quinby, of St. Johnsville, N. Y., a 
high authority on everything pertaining to 
bee-keeping, discussed the above (juestion 
in a paper read before the North-Eastern 
Bee-keepers' Association at its recent annual 
meeting, lie assigns four reasons for the 
neglect of bee-keeping on the part of farm- 
ers. 1st. They don't know how. 2nd. 
They doubt if it will pay. -Jrd. They have 
had such poor success in wintering bees. 
4th. They are afraid of being stung. 



To these reasons, quite suflicient in them- 
selves to account for the fact that very few 
farmers keep bees, we would add another — 
namelj^ want of enterprise. There is a 
quality for which successful men of busi- 
ness are noted which is very scarce among 
farmers, and which we call "enterprise." 
It leads to the trial of new and improved 
methods ; to the making of ventures here 
and there on the principle, "Nothing ven- 
ture, nothing win ;" to an intelligent scru- 
tiny of things generally ; and to energetic 
action in any direction that seems to 
promise adequate reward for dilligent 
effort. 

For some cause or other, this quality is 
lacking in the great majority of farmers. 
Were it not so, there would be more manur- 
ing and better tillage of laud ; fewer bars 
and more gates ; some display of taste 
about rural homes ; a general adoption of 
improved stock ; carefully kept farm ac- 
counts ; and many other things that are as 
rarely found around country homesteads as 
hives of bees. 

Enterprise is the result of education, and 
of that sharpening of wits which comes 
with the association of minds and the fric- 
tion of ideas in the social and business con- 
tracts of life. Agricultural colleges for 
farmers' sons, and for any who contemplate 
rural industry ; the circulation of agricul- 
tural periodicals and books ; more visiting 
and travel on the part of farmers and their 
families ; the establishment and energetic 
working of farmers' clubs ; and such like 
means, will tend to cure an evil whose pres- 
ence is indicated all around us in bad farm- 
ing, woe-begone looking homes, tumble- 
down fences, ill-bred stock, absence of 
gardens, and last, but not least, neglect of 
bee-keeping. 



THE ILM STRATED JOI'RIV AI.. 

As a spcciiiicn of tyimgraphy this magazine 
is deserving of all Hie jiraisf' that has been 
b('sto\V(Ml upon it by the Press of the country. 
All the engravings are, without exception, 
of a high (h'grcc of uierit. both as resju'cis the 
subiect and the cxcciition. The literary de- 
jiartment is well sustained. The number i.s 
filled with interesting reading of permanent 
value. A volume of this beautiful journal 
will be a source of pleasinc to every posse.ss- 
or of it. I'ublislied by the American Publish- 
ing Company, Kooni'^T, Tribune Building, 
Chicago, for onlj' $'2,.')0 a year. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



115 



QwM&TiQ^^ !i^x^ ^jsrmrmm&. 



CONDUCTED J5Y Cil. DADANT. 



QUESTION. 

In Vol. ix. \o. 5, jiatic lod, of tlic Amkiucan 
Bkk .JoiKNAi, in an iirticlc from V. V. I), that 
no qiu'cn can o(H'U|)y more than 8(),(HH) to .S5,(X)0 
inches of brood at one time. .J. IJ. K. 

Aberville. Pa. 

A.NSWKK. 

There is a Utpsus pliuiHrov typographical 
error, it is not so.ooo Indies, but SO.UOO cells of 
brood. 

l^rESTIONS. 

1st. I have four swarms. One 1 want to 
transfer to a Langstroth hive, 1 would lilce to 
know how to transfer them. 

'2nd. (iive me sonu; reci])es for bee stings, 
and tell nie where I can prociu'e bee gloves 
and a good smoker. Mrs. W. M. 

p]lyria, O. 

AXSWKUS. 

The best time for transferiug bees is April 
and May. ('hoose a warm day ; send some 
puffs of smoke in the hive to be transferred 
and remove it, putting a decoy hive in its 
place, carry the hive a few yards from the 
apiary, invert it and put upon it a box or 
empty hive, as nearly as possible of the same 
width, wrap them up with a cotton cloth to 
prevent the bees foom running outside, while 
drumming the bees in the empty box. 

The drunuuing is done with two sticks of 
wood and should last from fifteen to twenty 
minutes. It is not necessary to drum all the 
time, but at intervals. When only a few bees 
remain in the combs, remove the box, in 
which the swarm has ascended, and put it in 
place of the decoy hive. The bees that are 
hovering aboiit will enter it. Take care not 
to shake or jar it, for the bees would fall on 
the gi'ound. 

Bring the hive, deprived of its bees, in a 
room ; with a long knife loosen the combs 
from the sides of the box, and pry off one side 
with chisel and hammer. If there are sticks 
across it, remove or cut them. 

You should have prepared beforehand some 
No. 10 wire, cut in pieces half an inch longer 
than the height of the frames, in which you 
intend to transfer. The wires are bent at 
right angles, three-eighths of an inch from 
both ends. With an awl bore a small hole in 
the edge of the upper part of the frame, three 
or four inches from the end ; then, with a 
light hammer diive in the end of one of the 
wires ; the opposite end is driven In the lower 
part of the frame ; put two or three wires at 
equal distances. Then lay the frame upon 
the table, with wires under. You sever the 
first comb from the hive ; cut it off the exact 
measure ; put it, or part of it, in the frame, 
so as to fill it, you fasten two or three wires 
to hold the coml)s in place, where they will 
remain straight and firm. 



To fix the small bits of combs, put across- 
the wires some stiff straw or dry weeds to 
make a kind of grate which will hold the 
combs firmly. 

Take care to have the comb in the sanu? 
way that they were in the hive. Do not put 
drone comb in the frames, and when you ])ut 
the frames in the hive be careful to put all 
the brood combs together. 

The vacant space in the hive should be filled 
with empty frames, or better, with worker 
combs fastened in frames, if you can get 
some. The proper place for drone comb is in 
the surplus box if you have an extractor. 

Do not put the frames in the hive as soon as 
the combs are fastened in them, but put theuk 
somewhere to drain ; for the less running 
honey you have in the hive the less will be the 
danger of robbers. When all tlu> frames are 
placed, shut up the hive and bring it on the 
stand where the transferred hive stood. Re- 
move carefully the box containing the bees,^ 
put the frame hive in its place, spread a cloth 
in front of it, and shake the bees on this- 
cloth. As soon as they have nearly all en- 
tered, contract the entrance to help the bees 
in repelling the robbers. 

Six or eight days after you should visit all 
the frames, one after another, and remove the 
wires with a knife. 

Some bee-keepers in transferring use twine, 
some employ sticks of wood. I have tried 
both, but I find wire greatly superior. Do not 
be alarmed at the immensity of the work, but 
try it and you will succeed. The transferring 
is the work best adapted to familiarize tlie 
beginner with the bees and the building of 
comb. 

2. Several recipes are given to remove the 
pain and prevent the swelling of bee stings. 
As both these effect very capriciously,^ 
sometimes the pain and swelling being im- 
mense, while at other times they are a mere 
nothing, all the remedies applied have in turn 
won and lost the reputation of being good for 
bee stings, while the truth is that not one is 
altogether effectual. The small drop of venom 
being deposited under the skin, no drug ap- 
plied on the skin can penetrate deep enough 
to neutralize it. Yet when one fears that the 
subsequent effects will prove fatal, the appli- 
cation of compresses soaked in cold water are 
to be resorted to in order to remove the subse- 
quent inflamnuition. 

It is also an obvious fact that the human 
body can get used to the venom of bees, and 
that the more you are stung the less will be 
the pain and swelling of the sting. But as 
this last remedy is not very pleasing, I advise 
the beginners to avoid the sting as much as 
possible, and they can obtain this result in 
learning to handle bees. 

First. Use a veil of black material put upo» 
a round hat with a large rim, a common 



116 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



laborer's summer hat is very good for that 
purpose. Tlie veil passed around the rim 
has a rubber string whicli ties it against the 
neck. 

Second. Use smoke to prevent the anger of 
the bees. P'or a smoker nothing is better 
than a small lump of white rotten wood per- 
fectly dry, or a roll of linen or cotton rags 
interspersed with some sprigs of dry grass. 

I have seen in Italy ivnd in France several 
kinds of bellows and smokers ; one which 
seemed to me very easy to manage was a tube 
of tin a little more than an inch in diameter 
and about eight inches long. This tube was 
filled with a roll of linen or cotton rags which 
burned slowly. To extinguish it the cotton 
roll was drawn inside of the tube and the tube 
was driven in the ground. 

If bees are unusually cross, go before the 
entrance of the hive and send in two or three 
puffs of smoke ; remove the cover of the hive, 
raise carefully the honey board, sending some 
smoke inside the hive. Remove the honey 
board, send a little smoke between the combs, 
and your bees will be in good disposition for 
the time of your operation. As soon as you 
see some bees running to and fro on the tops 
of the frames, quiet them with a little smoke. 

Remember that the handling of bees is more 
easy between ten in the morning and three in 
the afternoon— in a clear than in a cloudy day 
—in spring and summer than in fall, and with 
Italians, pure Italians, than with black, gTay 
or hybrid bees. 

As to gloves, I cannot advise their use, for 
they are inconvenient. It is better to leave 
them alone, and to learn to handle bees. 

QUESTION. 

I prefer artificial swarming. How should I 
start the nuclei ? 

ANSWEIl. 

It is impossible to answer your question. 
That will depend on the force of your colonies 
and the season. Here in Hamilton, Hancock 
Co., we start the first nuclei in May, but some 
years we have to defer it till the first of June. 

QUESTION. 

Are the bees, placed on a lawn, disturbed 
by the noise of a mower close to their hives, 
and will the moving of their stands to mow 
the grass have a bad effect ? C. E. S. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

ANSWKK. 

The noise of the mower will not effect 
the bees if it does not strike their hive. But 
the man would be exposed to their stings. 
To remove the bees at every mowing would 
be a big job if the colonies are numerous ; and 
unless closed up before removing the hives 
the bees would he greatly disturbed. I advise 
to close up the hive before sunrise, and to 
mow innnediately, so as to keep the bees 
closed as litth^ as i)ossible, taking care to open 
the entrances befon^ the heat wf itke dav. 



To Beginners in Apiculture. 

BY PROF. A. J. COOK. 

ARTICLE II. 
During the coming month —from the 
last of April to the last of May — our little 
models of industry and thrift will need but 
little care and but little attention, though 
they had best receive a great deal of the 
latter. How often we hear something like 
the following from our lady friends : 
"How I wish the same luck would bless 
me that attends Mrs. M. in the care of 
house-plants ; " and as often we feel like 
saying : Undoubtedly it would, my dear 
madam, did you love them as well and care 
for them as assiduously. It is loving care, 
not luck, that keeps the noxious dust-particles 
and scale-insects from the houses, and 
makes the ruinous attempts of the little 
aphis and wee spider futile. So, too, with 
our bees. He who loves to watch, closely 
observe, aye, and tenderly fondle, will be 
the one whom " luck " will bless. So I say 
commence at once those frequent attentions 
which will acquaint you with the wondrous 
life-history of your little help-meets, make 
you to understand their needs, and so culti- 
vate a reciprocal acquaintance that your 
closest scrutiny, so far from disquieting 
them, will be rewarded by the discovery of 
all their usual operations. The wax se- 
creters will yield their palets, the little cell 
architects will rear their marvellous struct- 
ures, the labor-worn gatherers will empty 
their stomachs, the staid old queen continue 
her egg-laying, and the old drones — those 
bummers of the hive — will stare at you. 
And all this before your very eyes. If you 
wish the best success, you must open the 
hives and make very frequent examinations, 
and thus very soon you and the bees will be- 
come mutually fearless, and you can abandon 
the sooner those cumbrous appendages, your 
bee gloves. But in all this, strive never to 
jar the bees, nor make a quick motion. 

WITHIN THE HIVE. 

Now, on the warm, pleasant days — you 
will open the hives on no other — what will 
you expect to see as you peer into the se- 
crets of the hive's interior ? First, if you 
have followed instructions, you will find 
almost every card of comb literally covered 
with bees ; and if you examine closely 
enough, you nuiy see the old queen herself. 
You will know iier by her very long body, 
looking as though it needed a prop. Trouble 
not at its length, for from the queen's 
abdomen are to come those millions of 
eggs, the very germs of the apiarist's suc- 
cess — not now, but in a few weeks. You 
will also sec the fat, corpulent drones, 
shorter than the queen, but larger than 
either (picen or workers. Don't grumble at 
the plump, lazy gentry, for, unlike their 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



117 



■prototypes among us, they have their use 
an the economy of iJieir society. 

You next examine the comb. You dis- 
•cover tliat some cells are much larger than 
others. In these the drones are reared, 
while in the smaller cells the queen only 
places worker eggs, from which only 
workers will develop. Bending closely to 
the comb, in your eagerness to see all, you 
behold the long, cylindrical, slightly curved 
•eggs, fastened to the very bottom of the 
smaller cells, for so early — in April — no 
drone eggs are to be seen. At the to}^ of 
the cards of comb you note considerable 
•capped honey, and so sharp has become 
your observation that you even observe 
that the caps are light colored, and slightly 
<;oucave. Lower down on the cards you 
«ee patches of small cells capped over, but 
the caps are darker and convex. While 
looking at one of these cells, you behold 
with utter astonishment the emergence of a 
young bee all fresh and wrinkled. This, 
then, is the brood, and you are in raptures 
to see the large amount of it, and lisp 
something about the profit of early stimula- 
tive feeding. 

Along the last of May, perhaps not till 
June, though the experience has been mine 
■even the first week in May, you behold 
'drone brood, in the large cells of course, 
and here the caps are not only convex, but 
•even project, so that drone brood is a 
marked feature of the hive. Happy are 
you if you find very little of this. If there 
is much, cut it out and cast it away, for 
more than a very few drones are worse 
than useless. Now you must watch very 
closely, for soon there will be built from 
the face or edge of the comb great queen 
cells looking like wax thimbles. Now let 
your sharpened observation have its perfect 
work. Note which of your colonies is 
strongest in bees and brood, and cut all 
drone brood and queen cells from the other 
hives. Here is your opportunity to select 
in breeding bees. 

TO REAR QUEENS. 

Now watch for queen cells in your best 
colony, and so soon as you see them, with 
a creamy looking substance at the bottom, 
or at the risk of the bees swarming you can 
wait for them to be capped over, take one 
good one on each of four frames, or if this 
is not possible, cut out of the comb con- 
taining the cell a wedge-shaped piece, 
widest above, and place in an opening cut 
in other combs, being very careful not to 
press or injure the cell. And thus with 
four frames each containing a capped 
queen cell you can proceed. Now if you 
have a hive with frames a foot square, that 
will take twelve, divide the hive into four 
separate apartments, entirely close, by in- 
serting division boards, and cover each 
apartment with a separate quilt. Place this 



on a bottom board so cut that the bees can 
pass out of and into each apartment from 
dillerent sides of the hive — to the end 
apartments from the ends, to the middle 
from the sides. Now take the frames with 
the queen cells, also well covered with bees, 
but in no case containing the (jueen, and 
place one in each apartment, (to to the 
other hives and lake four frames with nmcli 
brood and some honey, and also (covered 
with bees. Put one of these into each of 
the apartments. The old bees will return 
to the old hives, while the young bees will 
not quarrel, and will be sufficient in num- 
bers to cover and care for the brood. Thus 
in about sixteen days you will probably 
have four good queens, and will be prepared 
for artificial swarming, which I will de- 
scribe in good time. Of course you will 
insert empty frames in the old hives, four 
in each, and destroy all the queen cells ex- 
cept the four you used. With the added 
room the old colonies will not probably 
build more queen cells. If they do build 
more, destroy them. 

Be very careful that the bees in your nu- 
cleus hives cannot pass from one apartment 
to another under the quilts, else the first 
queen hatched will destroy all the others. 

If before cutting out the queen cells the 
bees should swarm, you can hive them in 
another hive — which of course you have 
all ready — by shaking or brushing them 
into a box or basket, and emptying them 
on a board in front of the hive. In all 
such cases put at least one comb of brood 
in the new hive, for then they will scarce 
ever go oft', but in this particular case it 
would be better to take from their old hive 
four frames containing the least brood, also 
four frames from the other hive containing 
brood — though in this case shake off all the 
bees — and give them to the new colony 
with four empty frames, and make the four 
nuclei in the old hive. The convenient 
form for nuclei is another recommendation 
in favor of the Gallup frame. Thus well 
started in queen raising, we will read the 
old Journal, study our book, and by all 
means not forget to look very often at the 
bees, and wait for further instruction. 



S. R. Peck, Newport, Ky., writes :— •' The 
April number of the American Bee Jour- 
sal contains an Editorial on the subject of 
hee-stings and their remedies, and concludes 
thus : " But we have discarded every other 
application since beconiing acquainted with a 
Oerman remedy lately introduced. A drop 
or two will remove all trace and effect of a 
sting in a very few minutes. It costs but a 
trifle per bottle, and a single bottle will last 
a bee-keeper for a life-time." Please inform 
us in the May number of the American Bee 
Journal where, and of whom, the remedy 
can be obtained, and oblige a subscriber." 



118 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Voices from among the Hives. 

W. M. Steeia', California, Mo., writes : — 
" The black bees around here have all died 
during the past winter, except live colonies. 
I shall Italianize mine as soon as the weather 
will permit." 

MiJS. EiiLicN 8. TiippER, Des Moines. Iowa, 
writes :— '"My bees have wintered well. They 
liave come out of the cellar in splendid condi- 
tion. There will be a small fortune in bee- 
keeping this year." 

W. S. Irish, Norton Centre, Ohio, writes : 
— "The AMEKif'AN Bee Joltknal is a wel- 
come visitor, and I wait anxiously for eacli 
number. Long may it prosper and continue 
in its good work." 

Abkam Baixjerow, Georgina, Canada, 
writes ; — "My bees are in splendid condition. 
I wintered them in the cellar under my 
dwelling-house. There was one hundred 
swarms, and 1 lost only two. I placed them 
on their summer stands March 18th. Last 
season I had about two tons of box honey." 

H. W. S. writes : — •' I think it would be well 
to call the attention of bee cultivators who 
also raise grapes and other fruit to tire charge 
made by many that bees depredate on fruit, 
and to reijuest them all to notice particidarly 
the coming sunnner to ascertain the truth or 
falsehood of the charge. It would also be 
well to notice whether bees do any service in 
fi'uctifying blossoms of fruit or vegetables. 
If many observers woiUd publish the result of 
their observations it would be of great benefit. 
Fruit-raisers who have no bees are threaten- 
ing to jmison the bees, whicli they can easily 
do, and it will be very useful to convince 
them that the bees are their friends and not 
their enemies." 

Samuel Porter, West Ogden, Mich., 
writes : — " I have been engaged in practical 
bee-keeping for the last two years. In the 
spring of 1872 I transferred six swarms into 



th( 



the movable frame hive. I increased them 
to nineteen, and lost nine in the winter of 
1873. I then bought three, which raised my 
number to thirteen. I increased the thirteen 
to twenty-seven last summer, and got two 
liundred pounds of smpLus box honey. I 
think that is not so very bad for a beginner. 
Bees wintered well and are in sjilciidKi condi- 
tion at this time. I am now feeding mine on 
corn and wheat Hour mixed. They seem very 
fond of it. Take from two to three pounds 
per day." 

Ciias. F. Mutii, Cincinnati, O., writes : — 
" Bees wintered well everywhere apparently. 
It is, therefore, no wonder that mine have 
done so well under their straw mats. At an 
examination on the first of March I t'ourul 
them all (thirty-foiu- stands) in first rate con- 
dition. Only one (one of the strongest hives 
at that) had lost its queen, and had to be miit- 
ed with another. Twenty-nine stands had 
two sheets with brood. One hive luwl brood 
in three sheets ; two in one sheet ; and one 
hive had fresh laid eggs only. A few days 
ago I found a ([ueen crawling on the roof. 
■^1 he hive she had come out of had two sluH'ts 
with brooil. It was not very strong, but 
would pass for spring. The (pieen die(l, and 
the bees had also to be united with another 
swarm, 'i'o sum the matter up— I do not be- 
lieve that another lofdf thirty-four hives of 
bees in our jtart of the country Wintcri'd better 
than mine did, whether they were wintered 
in-doors or not, or wlietlier" they had sugar 
syrup for winter stores or honev!" 



n. E. CiiKRY, Cincinnati, writes :—" Vege- 
tation is very forward. A week's fine weather- 
will bring everything out in leaf. Bees that 
went into winter quarters in any kind of con- 
dition have come tnrough with ffi/iiKj colors. 
I have heard of but few losses, aiid those 
were no fault of the bees. We ai-e expecting 
the apples to bloom the middle of Ai)ril, and 
then our honey season commences. If the 
weather is favorable, there will bt; considera- 
ble honey gathered from the fruit blossoms. 
All ^^'e neeii is the honey, and for that we 
have only to wait." 

D. M. Hale, Lima Centre, Wis., writes : — 
" I.coumienced the winter of 1S7'2-:] with 14 
stocks of black bees and 2 of Italians. Tliey 
came out all right in the spring. 1 did not 
lose any through the winter, out as soon as I 
stood them on their sunnner stands the black 
bees commenced swarming out and leaving 
their hives. I exanuned them, but saw no 
reason why they should, as they had plenty 
of honey. I changed them to eleven (Kidder) 
hives. "But it did no good. They would 
swarm two or three together, till I had only 
six left, and some of them were very weak. 
My two Italian swarms went to work well. I 
increased my six to twenty-two, and Italian- 
ized them all. I kept them in the cellar un- 
der my kitchen last winter, and they have 
come out strong this spring, and do not show 
any signs of leaving the hive. They have 
gone to work with a vim, and every pleasant 
day they make the air ring with the"ir music.'* 

A BuitNT Child from (Jeorgia, writes :— I 
have been perusing the Amp:ricax Bp;e 
Journal of the last year, and like it so nuich 
tluit I want to continue it, and send herein 
the needful. I did not like the recrimination 
which was so rife, and am glad to see it 
lessened. Another objection I have is the 
space occupied l)y the business routine of the 
meetings of societies. It is not of interest to 
nine out of ten to read who is president or 
secretary of this or that society. Let us have 
more honey and less condj. But the article 
by Dzierzoii — page 220 of the .January number 
—is worth the full vearly subscription. In the 
March number, "Why don't farmers keep 
bees ? " I will in part answer. Because they 
see some trying to do so, first swindled by i» 
patent hive veildt-r out of foiu' times the worth 
of tlie article ; then buying a swarm of Italian 
bees, and fiiuling the (jiieon but two thirds the 
size of tht^ representations of her on letter 
backs, and havmg her killed in a day or so by 
her followers, aiul thus losing enough to buy 
honey for years." 

James Bolin, West Lodi, ()., writes : — 
"Where the bees were properly cared for, 
they have wintered welt, but where their 
owiu'rs trusted to " luck " in wintering, the 
loss, in sonu' cases, has been (piite severe, 
amounting, in one case that came to my 
knowledge, to four out of five, and in another 
to the entire stock. I put one hundred colo- 
nies in my l)ee-house Nov. IHtli, and took 
them out ftlarch 2nd, andfouiul them all right, 
but had the uusfortune to lose one colony by 
starvation, with ])lentv of honey in the hiv*!. 
during (he scvert' ro\(l wcatlu'r that occured 
the second week in March. The bees had 
clustered at the south side of the hive, wliiclj 
stood facing east, and the honey beinj^ at the 
north sid(^ the cold wind prevented their 
reaching it, so they perished. I have nuide 
the loss all right again, however, bv jintting 
the bees from a l)ee tree 1 I'ouud in tin' woods 
in th(^ hive witli tiie cond)s and honey left l)y 
the swarm that perished. Bees are working 
on rye Hour, with a rush, wlieuevcrit is warm 
enough for them to be out of tlu'ir hives." 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



119 



M.D.I)., Newburgh. N.V., writes :— " I liave 
a little to relate in tlie bee line, liaviiiij just 
eoiniueneed the business by purciuising three 
hives of eonnium bees, one of thcin without 
any honey, as I soon diseoveretl. Of course 
they had to be fed or starve. 1 determined to 
feed candv. 

liast fall a eandy store in tliis eity was 
ovt>rruu with honey-bees, so completely were 
they starved out here. 1 asked them what 
kind of candy they worked on, they showed 
me some made in harscaUed vanilla chocolate 
candy, that is candy made very soft and 
tlavoi'cd witli vanilhi and covered witii choco- 
late to kec]) it toj;cther. The bees woidd take 
every bit of the inside out and leave nothing 
but a mcr(> shell of chocohite. I bought some 
and fed it to the ln'cs. they seemed verv fond 
of it, I also put some in sugar syrup and they 
were ixMtecfly crazy for it. It a])])ears to me 
to be just thethingwith plain syrup making 
it taste almost as good as honey. Would not 
vanilla be a good thing to i)erfume the hive, 
to give them'all one smell wlu'U uniting them 
etc., etc '.' Has any one tried it '? 

I want a bee feeder, and getting an idea 
from one of your corresiKJudents about a tin 
can with end" melted otf, 1 am going to make 
one a little dilferent. I will describe it thus : 
Tin can. ends otf, over this tie factory muslin 
(outside), letting it down inside to near bot- 
tom, placed over the hole on top of the box. 
Then fill nearly full of syrup. But you may 
say it will run "out too fast. Well, that can be 
easily obviated, put clean tine sand into the 
bottom, with syrup sufHcient to regulate the 
flow, then you have a feeder, and a perfect 
filter also, costing less than two cents. 

J. P. MooKE, Binghampton, N. Y., writes : 
— "I commenced the season of 1873 with 
seventeen stocks of bees, having lost four 
in the spring and sold one. Ten were in fair 
condition by the 20th of ^Nlay ; the other seven 
were much reduced, but by taking brood 
from the strong ones, I was able to build up 
five of the weak ones by the time honey com- 
menced to yield. The other two I run for 
increase and sui-plus queens, and was able by 
feeding and using my four hives of empty 
comb to increase the two to eight full stocks 
and five half stocks or nuclei. Two of the 
nuclei died in the winter, and the other three 
are very weak (I prefer full stocks for winter), 
and raised ten surplus (pieens. The fifteen 
that the boxes were put on, were run entirely 
for box honey, without increase, as we have 
things so arranged now that when we get a 
hive filled with brood, in time to put on boxes, 
we can have them put all then- surplus in 
boxes, if the (jueen is prolific, without at- 
tempting to swarm, and without the trouble 
of handling the brood. The product of the 
fifteen stands thus : — 

By returns from honey shipped, 1864 

lbs. at an average ot about 27%c., ?t;498.32 

Honey sold at home, 120 ll)s. {w Ifiq., .$19.20 

Honey reserved for home use, .50 lbs. .tiiS.OO 



Total .«.52.5..52 

Or an average of about 1:5.5 lbs. (.'!i!35.00) per 
hive. Two of my neighbors hav(^ done (luite 
a,s well, and perhaps better. Their avm-age 
ha,s not been c^uite as high on surjilus, l)ut 
they have more nicrease. Bees have wintered 
very nicely in this section, but the weather 
is quite cold now, and snow is on the ground." 

W.M. HouTZ, Milton Cc^itre, O., writes :— 
"My losses are heavy this spring. I say this 
spring, because I lost no bees until after the 
4th (if March. .Since that date I have lost 
thirteen swarms, and am sure of losing more. 



because the weather is so cold that they can- 
not increase any. and the clusters are so 
small that they will not live long enough to 
raise any brood. Out of thirty swarms put in 
winter ((Uarters 1 think 1 will probably have 
ten left. Ilow is that for imiirovcd hives ? I 
\isited a bee-kee|ier that used nothing but a 
l)ox about twelve inches s<inare and fourteen 
inclu^s deej). lie started into tln^ winter witli 
thirty-six swarms, and let them set on the 
summer bench without any |irotection at all, 
taking otf the suri>ius l)ox that sut loosely on 
to]>. and laid on a thickness of brown paper, 
and then laid boards tight on that, and 
he saved every one. I was sur])rised to see 
that he lost noiu\ whihi I lost heavily. Yet I 
am more enthusiastic than ever this season. 
1 am determined to make it a success in 
wilder. We can all raise bees and get honey 
in the summer-time to our satisfaction, but 
winter— or ought I to say long-continued cold 
springs ?— is the great and imiiortoiit ques- 
tion. Well, if I had worked last fall to the 
ideas that I had in view at that time, 1 would 
have been a good many stocks better olT, but 
it got too cold before I commenced, conse- 
(luently I could not handle the bees as I knew 
tliey should be.'' 

Francis M. Woodland, Fairfield, HI., 
writes : — "Last spring and early summer the 
rains w^ere so constant that the flowers se- 
creted no honey, or at least the bees could 
gather none in this part of south-eastern Illi- 
nois. In consequence, the drones were killed 
off. and the bees swarmed out to leave the 
few drops of honey in their hives to the 
hatching brood. Tliey then turned their at- 
tention to the grocery stores, and bushels of 
them were destroyed in the windows before 
they could be relieved by feeding. On the 
first of June they were weaker than at any 
time in the winter, and were all poor, besides, 
with no brood. The black bees did not re- 
cover, but the Italians soon rallied, and be- 
came so strong by August that they poured 
out in large swarms to such an extent that I 
had my hands full for more than two weeks. 
Then the .Spanish needle bloomed and — I will 
only say that I believe Gallup and Hosmer 
both. Spanish needle bloom lasts ten to 
twelve days ; does not yield as much as Liu, 
but is of a better (luality, of the color of 
bright gold, and very thick" My bees are now 
in fine condition, with brood and stores, and 
peach buds are just opening. And now I wish 
to know if any one has a similar experience, 
as I do not remember to have seen anything 
written on the subject. It is this : when a 
fertile worker was " running a hive " and a 
card of brood and eggs were given them, I 
have never succeeded in ])rocuring queen 
cells on that card at the time. But always, 
upon the introduction of a second card with 
eggs and brood, (pieen cells were at once 
started on it. Qiicn/: Were tlie old bees of 
the hive too old. and the young bees from the 
first card foo i/oinu/, to start ([ueim cells be- 
fore the eggs weic too old ? And did the bees 
hatched from the first card start the cells on 
the second ? Who will answer ?" 

Abnek ,]. Pope writes: — "At the last 
meeting of the N. A. 1>. K. ,S.. the following 
resolution was adoi)ted : •Ilesolved, That the 
Secretary make an ollicial report, in pamphlet 
form, of the proceedings of our annual meet- 
ings, as soon as he has the funds to do so.' All 
that desire to become members and have the 
proceedings, should send immediately their 
names and postoftice address, and the annual 
memberslnp fee of sl.OO, to Abner J. Pope, 
Sec'y, ITO Park Avt'iuie. Indianaiiolis. Ind. ' 



120 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



^nti|wat|^t4^mtn|«I 



THOMAS G. NEWMAN, Manager. 



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Bills of regular Advertising payable quarterly, if 
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advertisements, cash in advance. We'adhere strict- 
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Address all communications and remittances to 
the Manager. 



Honey Markets. 



Not one letter in ten thousand is lost 1)\- 
mail if rightly directed. 

Single ':opies of the Ameeicax Bee .Jox^];- 
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Additional names to a club already formed 
may be sent at any time at the same club rate. 

Upon the wrapper of every copy of the 
JouKNAE will be found the date at which 
subscriptions expire. 

Any numbers that fail to reach subscribers 
by fault of mail, we are at all times ready to 
send, on application, free of charge. 

Subscribers wishing to change their post- 
office address, should mention their old ad- 
dress, as well as the one to which thev wish 
it changed. 

JoLHNAi-s are forwarded until an explicit 
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discontinuance, and until payment of all ar- 
rearages is made as re(iuirea by law. 

Persons writing to this office should either 
write their Name, Post-office, County and 
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advance at tiie post-office where received. 
We prei)ay postage to Caiuxda, and re(piire 
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When a subscriber sends money in pay- 
ment tor the .\mki;i('A\ Bkio .Jorr.xAi,, he 
should state to wiiat time he thinks it pays, 
so that we can compare it with our books, 
and thus prevent mistakes. 

BiM)i.\(i. — We have been re(iuest('(I to get 
sets l)ouud for some of oiu- suDscribers, and 
have made arrauginnents to get the nine Vols, 
bound in three vols, for $4A){), or the sauu' 
in four vols, for .•;?.").<»(». Those who wish to 
avail themselves of the.se liberal terms must 
send their nuiuiters by express to the Man- 
ager. 



CHICAGO.— Choice white comb honey, 28 
@30c ; fair to good, 'i4@28c. Extracted, 
choice white, 14@16c ; fair to good, 10@l3c ; 
strained, 8@10c. 

CINCINNATI.— Quotations from Chas. F. 
Muth, 97() Central Ave. 

Comb honey. l.5@3.5c. according to the con- 
dition of the honey and the size of the box or 
frame. Extracted choice white clover honey, 
ItJc. ~i^ It). 

ST. LOUIS.— Quotations from W. G. Smith 

410 Nortli ^lain st. 

The Honey marked is improving. A No. 
1. box honey is scarce, and can bt^ sold at 
good tigures. 

The spring is late and the bees are still con- 
fined to the hives. I have heard of very little 
mortality in the bees in Missouri, so far. — 
Connuon strained honey will sell well here 
now and at good figures. We (luote : 

Choice white comb, '2.^@29p ; fair to good, 
l<iC"3'ic. Extracted choice white clover, lt)@ 
18c. Choice basswqod honey, 14@l(ic ; fair 
to good, extracted, 8C«12c ; strained. ()@10c. 

NEAV YORK.— Quotations from E. A. Wal- 
ker, 135 Oakland st., Greenport, L. I. 

Whit(^ honey in small glass boxes, 3.5c ; 
dark l.iW^Oc. "strained honey, 8@13c. Cuban 
honey, Sl.OO ^^ gal. St. Domingo, and Mexi- 
an, 'Miq'.}'} pi gai. 

SAN FHANCISCO. — Quotations from 
Sterns and Smith, 423 Front st. 

The season is about two weeks late. The 
])rosi)ect is very flattering for a big yield. We 
shall have no new honey until June. We 
quote : 

Choice mountain honey, in comb, 33>^@35c ; 
common, 17(« 3()c ; strained, 10@13c, in .5 gal- 
lon cans. Valley honey, in comb, 13@17c ; 
strained, SC/llU^ 



. We want several copies of No. 1, Vol. 

3, of the AMEiiif'AN Bee .Joi uxae, and will 
pay .'lO cents each for them. Who will send 
us some ? 

Every subscriber is reqiu^sted to look at the 
datealt'.'r his name on the wrapper label of 
this Ninnhcr of the Amekuan Bee Jouk- 
N.M,, and if it is not correct send a postal 
card to this office, and tell us and we will 
nuike it right <it once. 

If you paste anything on a Postal Can!, 
when you send to this office, we have to 
pay six cents ])()stage on it. The law de- 
mauds that there shall be nothing attached to 
it in any way, without luxyiug double letter 
postage. 

Some articles in this number are too per- 
sonal. As tiie articles were of value, we con- 
cluded to i)ul)lish them attended with this 
//i/7(/ rcbiiUc. 

The Michigan Association of Bee-keepers 
will meet at kalamazoo, on Wednesday next, 
May (ith. 

Our subscribers in Europe, can uoiv procure 
Postal Money Orders on Chicago. This plan 
of sending uioney is sate and economical. 



American Bee Journal 

DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO BEE CULTURE. 



Vol. X. 



CHICAGO, JUNE, 1874. 



No. 6. 



Cirmspi^ttdttt^, 



Correspondents should write only on one side of 
the sheet. Their best thoughts and practical ideas are 
always welcome ; no matter how rough, we will cheer- 
fully '■ lix them up." 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Adair Talks About Novice. 

Mk. Editor : — When the New Idea Hive 
and theory was first made public, Mr. Root 
became terribly excited over it, and time af- 
ter time, in your columns, warned bee- 
keepers against it, as he does against every- 
thing he knows nothing about. Why, sir, 
he skinned Gallup and me over and over. 
We told him then, that the two-story Sim- 
plicity Hive had so completely filled his 
brain, that he had no room for anything 
else. The hive has noAv been tested for 
three seasons, and everything claimed for 
it has been established as true, by the best 
apiculturists in all parts of the country. 

Root is too much of a Yankee, not to see 
how the thing is going, and consequently 
we now find him recommending, manufac- 
turing and selling the much-abused "New 
Idea." He has even gone so far as to 
adopt the "Adair" size of frame, and now 
charges an extra price for an extractor that 
fits any other. We are glad to see this, but 
Ave must say that he submits with a bad 
grace. As long as he fought it, he never 
once thought that the Idea was old. If it 
turned out to be a failure, he was willing 
to saddle the whole disgrace on me and 
Gallup, who he charged were trying to puz- 
zle and befog the " ignorant " bee-keepers. 
But as soon as it turns out successfully, he 
joins in with others. See American Bee 
JouRNWL for May, 1874, where he admits 
that " the testimony is strongly in favor of 
those over the two-story hives " but is un- 
generous enough to suggest that it is no 
"New Idea" at all. He says, "Double 
width hives were used in our country be- 
fore this work (Progressive Bee Culture) 
was published, for he had mentioned in 
public, making hives four or more feet 
long." I did mention it at the first Indian- 
apolis convention in 1870, and had a hive 



there on exhibition. I had then used it 
several years investigating its practical 
workings. In the same article he insists 
again that " The ' New Idea' was, if it is 
not now, set forth as a patent hive," as if 
that was an objection to it. But why does 
he so often repeat what is not so ? I have 
repeatedly stated in answer to him, and 
others, that I never asserted a patent on it. 
He refers the reader to inside of the first 
cover of "Progressive Bee Culture," where 
he says, " His price then given for a Lang 
stroth hive, fitted up on the ' New Idea ' 
plan ^oith right to use is ten dollars." Now 
nothing of the sort is to be found there nor 
in a7iy other place. The proposition made 
on the cover of " Progressive Bee Culture," 
is just the reverse of what he states, and is 
as follows : 

"/w order to enable all to secure the bene- 
fits of tJie ' New Idea ' Hive, I will furnish 
them with samples of Langstroth hives or 
those of similar construction, arranged for 
frames in the centre, and the ends filled 
out with my section honey boxes, with a 
right to use the honey boxes on any hive, 
for $10.00, etc." 

I sometimes think, Mr. Editor, that I 
will quit writing about bees, for I must be 
incompetent to make myself understood. 
It is annoying in the extreme, to have 
what I consider the plainest sentence I can 
frame, perverted into just the opposite. 
Another is to be found in the same article 
of Root's, where he says I "condemn the 
Extractor." I have never done so, but 
merely stated that its value is overestimated 
by such enthusiasts as Mr. Root. / have 
never condemned the Melextractor . On the 
contrary, have always advised every one 
keeping bees, to use it. It is indispensa- 
ble to successful bee-keeping. But if I find 
that I can make box or comb honey more 
profitable than extracted, can I not have 
the privilege of saying so without subject- 
ing myself to such unfounded charges ? If 
I find that the clipping of the wings of the 
queen is injurious, and attempt to show on 
physiological grounds recognized by the 
most eminent naturalists, why must I sub- 
ject myself to being called hard names, and 
ridiculed by men whose experience has not 
been such as to enable them to detect the 
damage and cruelty of the mutilation ? and 



124 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



(ff* 



must I have the perversion go forth that I 
state that the wings are " lungs, and nose, 
and ears ? " If I have ideas of the respira- 
tions of insects, differing from those stereo- 
typed in the bee books, vv^hich I think lead 
to injurious methods of ventilation, is it 
fair to have every one vpho wishes to cast a 
slur, to be repeating that " Adair says bees 
live without air ? " 

I don't wish to be understood as enter- 
taining any ill will towards Mr. Root. I 
like him. His spicy flippancy is refresh- 
ing, and he makes a lively little paper well 
calculated to tickle the fancies of the peo- 
ple, and is doing a good work. His month- 
ly dish of gossip, seasoned as it is, with in- 
terjections, ejaculations, and occasionally 
with about as much poison as turns pickles 
green when made in a brass kettle, but don't 
kill anybody, ought to be read by every- 
body, for he will stick in, at intervals, 
something of value ; but we think it should 
not be made a " legal tender " among bee- 
keepers, for so fallible an adviser won't do 
for an oracle. Has he ever settled down 
on anything? Take his writings for the 
last seven years, and see how often he has 
changed his notions about almost every- 
thing connected with bee-keeping. He first 
got up an Extractor, which he thought was 
perfection, and that he would not exchange 
for any other, particularly if it was " pat- 
ented," but we do find him a season or two 
later (1871), throwing it aside and using the 
Peabody, which is patented. He accepted 
an agency, and let no occasion slip to putf 
it, and induced many a bee-keeper to buy 
it. After using it a year or two, he turns 
around and condemns it, and gets up an- 
other. 

He first started out with the tall frame, 
in the American hive. Suddenly he vibra- 
ted to the opposite extreme, and tells us no 
frame will answer unless it be the Shallow 
Langstroth. If it is any deeper, it is too 
tall, if any narrower, it won't do. In 1872, 
(American Bee Journal of April) we find 
him a little unsettled on the subject, for he 
says, "Our greatest objection to the Gallup 
frame, is the labor of handling so many. 
Quinby uses the largest frame we know of, 
and we really like the idea." In the Ameri- 
can Bee Journal for July, he gets down a 
little, and says : 

"The best colony in our apiary, we be- 
lieve, is in a two-story hive, frame one foot 
square, and they are really pretty to handle ; 
just the thing for ladies to handle, but for 
some other reasons we prefer the Sliallow 
frames." 

Since tlien lie has had no settled notions 
about it, until lately (that is since the " New 
Idea " has struck in on him.) He now 
adopts the Adair size that is 10x13 inside 
measurement, and can give as good reasons 
for its being the best size, as he ever gave 



for any other, and it is hard to tell what his 
notions will be a year hence. 

As to hives, — a year ago he was particu- 
larly horrified that any one would use any 
other than a two-story Simplicity Lang- 
stroth, but to-day his wind mill buzz-saw 
with all hands, P. G. blue eyes, "and such 
neighbors as call in, are putting in extra 
time on the " New Idea," that he has so 
heartily condemned. In fact, he has aban- 
doned every principle of his former hives, 
even to turning the frames across the en- 
trance, instead of following Langstroth and 
all the hive men that he has at times pat- 
ronized. 

I am not finding fault with these last 
changes, but am surprised that after the 
war he has waged on everythhig I have 
written, that he should in the end adopt 
every principle that my ridiculous theories 
have established, for it was out of the 
" theorizing " that he found so much fault 
with, that the new hive grew. If he will 
disprove the theory advanced in Progressive 
Bee Culture, the hive he is now recom- 
mending as a " Standard," is worthless as 
all hives are that are not adapted to the in- 
stincts of the bee. He will find, however, 
that he will have to abandon his $1 .00 notions 
before he can work the hive perfectly. A 
hive 30 inches long, is too small. The 
smallest I have, are 36 inches long, 
and cannot nearly accommodate the bees, 
even in a poor season. If he will give 
more room, and disturb the brood nest as 
little as possible, except to give plenty of 
room to a vigorous queen, with all her 
members and organs perfect, including her 
wings, he will soon have an opportunity to 
verify all of the theories that he has consid- 
ered so absurd. He cannot do it in a 30- 
incli hive, for such a queen will fill it all 
with brood from end to end. 

Do you remember how many feeders he 
has adopted as the best, and then aban- 
doned for something else, from his triangu- 
lar glass feeder, all the way up to the 
"Tea Kettle" that Mr. Quinby says he 
plagiarized, or something of that sort, — and 
how many vagaries he has indulged in, and 
recommended, such as sending bee eggs by 
mail, hatching them by artificial heat, and 
his many crude notions about wintering, 
ending in covering his hives with horse 
manure, and the loss of the most of them, 
which he informs us in May Gleanings, 
will prevent him from supplying those 
$1.00 queens that he has talked so much 
about '? If you will look way down in one 
corner of page 55, of Gleauings-in-Bee-Cul- 
ture, or How - to - realize-the-most-money- 
with-the-smallest-expenditure-of -capital- and 
-labor - in - the-care-of- bees-rationally-consid- 
ered, for May, under the head of " De- 
pository of blasted hopes, or letters from 
those who have made bee-culture a fail- 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



125 



ure," you will find him whispering to him- 
self as follows : 

"That you cannot winter bees, is very evident, 
and unless you can show us that you can summer 
them, we sliall have to conclude you are no bee- 
keeper at all. " 

(He certainly must have forgotten to feed 
his bees on A. Coffee sugar syrup). 

For these, and many other reasons, we 
long ago concluded that Root, or "Novice," 
as he takes pride in calling himself, is not 
a safe guide, nor capable of the job he has 
undertaken of regulating the whole bee 
world. D. L. Adair. 

Hawesville,^Ky. 

Sundry Questions and Answers. 

CONDUCTED BY CH. DADANT. 
QUESTION. 

How am I to subdue bees, and shake them 
off deep combs ? I find it makes them cross. 
0. S. Bkown. 

ANSWER. 

Here is the way we remove the bees off 
the combs, to be emptied with the extractor : 
We take out of the hive the combs to be 
emptied and w^e replace tiiem by as many dry 
combs ; we close the hive ; then with a small 
broom of blue grass or with a goose wing we 
brush the bees in front of the liive. As the 
work is done quickly the bees do not have 
time to become cross. 

QIIE.STIONS. 

1st. At what time does basswood blossom ? 

2nd. How many basswood trees are requir- 
ed to furnish a colony of bees with as much 
honey as tlicy can gather ? How old are they 
when they first blossom '? 

3rd. Will they grow on poor dry sandy or 
gravely land of drift formation ? 

4th. Has Esparcet ever been tried in this 
country ? Where can the seed be obtained ? 

5th. 'is there any honey yielding hedge 
plant that sheep will not browse ? 

H. A. Spkague. 

AN.SAVERS. 

1st. Basswood blossoms about as soon as 
the main blooming of clover is over. Here 
(Hancock Co., 111.) it blossoms between the 
1st and loth of .July. There are two kinds of 
basswood which can thrive in the northern 
IStates and which do not blossom exactly at 
the same time. 

2nd. It is impossible to answer the second 
question. Some times the basswood flowers 
seem to have been dipped in honey, while at 
other years the blossoms contain nearly no 
honey. We have planted a nursery of bass- 
wood in order to give the trees to our neigh- 
bors to plant as shade trees around their 
dwellings. We think that plan a good one. 
Lindens will bloom after six years, may be 
sooner, if planted already large. 

3rd. From what I know of basswood which 
is growing extensively in France, around the 



cities, I think it will grow in the jtctorest 
soils. 

4th. Esparcet is a plant so useful that I 
cannot but suppose that it has been tried in 
this country. May be the hard winters have 
killed it, or i)erhaj>s it has been tried on wet 
soil. Yet I believe that it can succeed in 
some parts of the United States. 

Esparcette,or sainfoin,()f Burgundy, {Hedis- 
artvrn onobrychls) like a calcareous soil ; its 
flower is a rose and pretty. It is very good for 
hay, as its French name indicates : sain- 
foin, healthy hay, and is unsurpassed for 
honey, as to quality and (juantity. 

There is in France a great quantity of 
plants pertaining to the same family {the le- 
guminous) which for the greater part would 
prove a good acquisition for this country. I 
can name : — the carnation clover, or farouch. 
(trifoUum incariwtuin) which can be sowed 
in March to be cropped in JiUy or August, or 
sowed in June for September. A very good 
plant for hay and honey. 

The Lucern {medicugo sativa) varieties : 
media, falcata, etc. The lucern gives three 
to six crops yearly for six or eight years, in 
France, its flowers are deep violet and give 
very good honey. 

The lucern lupulina {med. lupulina) an- 
nual with yellow flowers ; good for hay and 
honey. 

The lotus corniculatres— good for wet soils. 

The gesses (lathyrus) varieties : sativus, 
hirsuties, cicera, prutensis, etc. 

The vesces {vicin) varieties : sativa, cien- 
nis, cracca, this last so pretty that it is called 
in France vescc elegante. 

The ers ervillia {ervuia ervllUa) 

The Lentil (ervxim lens) 

All these plants belonging to the same 
family are good for honey, and are cultivated 
for hay ; the last named is commonly eaten 
by the French people ; it is with its seeds 
that the French house-keepers make the 
puree de lentUles. 

I think it is impossible to find the seeds of 
the above iilants on this side of the Atlantic. 
If any bee-keeper wants to try one or many 
of them, I will be glad to get them from 
France for them, without charging anything 
for my work. I am aciiuainted with several 
French bee-keepers wlio will cheerfully take 
the trouble of buying and sending the seeds 
desired. 

5th. I know of no honey yielding ])lant 
good for hedging in this country. 



In describing the " smoker" on page 131 
of our last issue, the printer made Mr. Cut- 
ler's name Isaiah instead of Josiah, and it 
ought to have stated that had but just 
commenced the 84th year of his age. 



126 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Italian Queens— Cost of Raising. 

In the Feb. issue, M. Davis writes on this 
subject, and puts the cost at a reasonable 
sum — taking his climate into consideration.. 

Being the first person to reduce the price 
of Italian Queens from $20.00 to $2.50 
each, let me say that I have never made 
any money at that price. In this part of 
the country, we are not sure of getting a 
fair honey crop ofteuer than three out of 
five years, and have often sent out as mauy 
as 900 queens in a season. 

A Ohio man, who advertises to sell Queens 
at $1.00, is honest enough to say that he 
does not warrant them pure, as he has so 
many black bees in his locality — neither 
will he warrant safe arrival. I will not at- 
. tempt to raise queens at less than $3.50 
each ; if my bees would store one-half a? 
much honey, as this $1.00 queeu-bee-man 
claims that his bees will store for him. 

Adam Grimm says that good queens can- 
not be raised for $2.00, even in the best of 
localities. 

Some think Mr. Quinby correct about 
the bee disease, and some do not. My op- 
inion is that the cause is poor quality of 
food gathered by the bees in the fall pre- 
vious. 

Last season the quality' was never better 
here, and my bees seem to be doing well on 
summer stands, and we have had only 
three weeks of very cold weather. Next 
season I intend to build a bee-depository on 
the plan of Mr. T. C. Ware, of Towauda, 
Ills. Will Mr. W. give his plan to the 
readers of the American Bee Journal ? 
We consider it the best one yet, as it re- 
quires but little labor and expense. 

H. Alley. 

Wenham, Mass. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Doolittle's Article. 

Our last article carried us to Dec. 6. 
About that time the snow all disappeared 
from our hives. The mercury stood at 57 
in the shade, but it was windy. Our bees 
had not had a chance to fly since Oct. 23, 
and they did fly some, in spite of the wind, 
although nearly all that went out never re- 
turned. Dec. 16, bees had a nice fly with 
the mercury at 45 in the shade. We had very 
mild weather from Dec. 6 to Jan. 4. Jan. 
4, the mercury stood at 63 in the shade, 
and our bees flew to their hearts content. 
Jan. 22 it was very mild, until Jan. 30, 
when it became cold, and on the night of 
Feb. 1, the mercury stood at 18 below 
zero, which is as cold as we very often get 
here, and 3 degrees colder than any time 
during the winter of 1872-3. March 2nd 
and 3rd were splendid days for bees, and 



we had a chance to examine nearly all of 
them ; we found our 54 colonies and 4 
nuclei, all in good condition, with the ex- 
ception of one colony and one necleus, which 
had decreased in numbers so they occupy 
but three rows of comb. We found brood 
in all we examined from four square inches 
of comb, with eggs and forage in the cells, 
up to 200 square inches, with brood in all 
stages, and plenty of young workers. 

The winter on the whole has been a very 
mild one, with but little snow. We have 
never known the mercury to sink to zero, 
unless we had snow enough to bank at 
least to the height of the broad chamber of 
the hive. As mild as the winter has been, 
we have kept them banked out of sight 
nearlj' half of the time. We put straw in 
the caps to our hives march 20, to set them 
to breeding rapidly. It makes them so 
much warmer. 

We tried two, during the winter, with 
caps packed with straw, but when we came 
to bank them with snow, they became so 
warm and uneasy, we had to take it out 
again. We keep entrances closed as tight 
as we can make them, except when the 
bees can fly, and take no trouble to have 
any crooks or holes in the cap; neither do 
we fear their smothering. 

G. H. DOOLITTLE. 

Bowdens, N. Y. 



Bee Notes and Queries. 

" What is the Best Hive?" — asks a cor- 
respondent. Probably there are not a half- 
dozen bee-keepers in the country who 
would unite in recommending the same 
hive as "the best." 

Asters as Bee Plants. — A correspondent 
writes: — "lam satisfied the common As- 
ter is an excellent honc'y-produciug plant. 
A friend of mine, an experienced bee-keep- 
er, recommended it to me, and my experi- 
ence with it two seasons confirms the recom- 
mendation." 

To keep Moth out of a Hive. — An Illinois 
lady says, "A teacupful of Italian bees will 
keep all the moth out of a hive. You need 
not buy a hive which runs to a point at the 
bottom so that the moths will roll out; an 
Italian swarm of bees are a perfect protec- 
tion against moth." 

Remedy for Bee-Stinys. — A bee-keeper 
says: — " I have made one discovery — that a 
preparation or Ledum palustre (Labrador 
Tea) honui'opathically prepared, is a sover- 
eign remedy for bee-stings." But he does 
not tell us hoic to prepare it. 



Samuel Porter, West Ogden, Michigan 
writes : — " The May number suites that 1 tool< 
;2(i() i)()uml.s of surjllu-s honey from my hives 
It sliould have been 1"2U0 pounds." 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



]27 



Novice. 

Deak oi,d American Bee Jouknal : — 
We iire riglit glad to sec your pleasant face 
so early in the month, and also to find that 
your liumble servant is still remembered oc- 
casionally on its ])a!ies. Toll Argus that 
"old Syrupy" has got his hat and coat on 
now, for in fact this 2!)tli day of April has 
been about as cold as any day in January. 
The ground is frozen, and snow has been 
on it ifor two days, yet we are happy to add 
our Ucenty-Hco colonies stood it without any 
further diminution of their numbers. If 
he did call us "old Syrupy," we thank him 
for his remark that Truth might be found 
somewhere betwixt Mr. Quinby and our 
own "hobby," although the "meeting" 
seems unlikely just now for some time to 
come, from the tone of Q's letter. 

We are so used to being taken to task, 
that we think we have become almost har- 
dened, i. e., in such uway that we can take 
a "big crack" right square on the top of 
the head, and look up pleasantly after it, 
instead of feeling about for something with 
which to give our opponent a "harder 
crack " back again, as we have done by far 
too often^ and thus keep up controversy. 
We are perfectly willing to leave the matter 
to the judgment of our readers, and will 
abide by their decision after having sub- 
mitted enough from Mr. Q's circular to 
show just what he does claim for his hive. 
He says : 

"In consequence of the advantage which 
this hive enables us to take of the labors of 
the bees, by preventing their swarming, 
etc., it is safe in a good season to calculate 
on an average of one or two hundred 
pounds of box honey, or two or three 
hundred when the combs are emptied with 
a machine — which will sell for more in one 
season than the price of colony." 

The only question is, whether Mr. Q. 
is justified in offering Ids hive for sale to 
novices with so high an estimate, and more 
especially using the words," on an averaged 

Mr. Q. did make us a present of the hive, 
and he has our sincere thanks for the same, 
for we presume he then supposed it would 
prove profitable in our locality also, but the 
fact would not deter us an instant from 
giving our honest opinion of the merits or 
demerits of anything prominently before 
the people. 

With Mr. Quinby's full consent and ap- 
proval, — and it must be given more pleas- 
antly than in his article alluded to, we will 
undertake the task of giving full directions, 
with illustrations, on these pages, for mak- 
ing a perfect fac simile of his hive for four 
dollars. After that, if no one can be found 
to do it, we will make them singly or by the 
quantity for that price, or 25 per cent. 
less, packed ready to nail, everything 



furnished. The sample we are to model 
from, shall be some one that he has sold 
before this appears in ]irint. 

Mr. Van Deusen did also send us a small 
bee-feeder, but we wrote him at once 
(thanking him), and telling him Me Iiad 
been using the same tiling for some time, 
and that we were sure a patent would not 
"hold" on the simple idea of covering any 
utensil with perforated tin, to be used in- 
verted, as a bee-feeder. This was some 
time ago, but long before that the same 
device had been described many times, (and 
is now) in the earlier volumes of this very 
American Bee Jocknal. Instead of using 
fruit jars and oyster cans, with many holes 
punched in them, wa- suggested using a 
whole "teakettle," because it would hold 
from twenty-five to thirty pounds,— or 
enough for winter, at once. E. Kretchmer, 
on page sixty-six, March number, mentions 
the same thing again, as being patented, 
and so far as his caution is concerned, we 
would respectfully invite him to try the 
"strength "of such a patent on ourselves 
to commence with, before trying to con- 
vince the public tliat the very useful and 
simple device is not free property to every 
one. If this appears hard on Mr. K., we 
would say by way of apology, that he is an 
old offender, and has led many good people 
to question whether they had a right to 
make and use such simple^feeders. 

Mr. C. C. Van Deusen, Sprout Brook, 
New York, has ram a patent on a very sim- 
ple device, for filling these feeders, and as 
they are sold at a fair price, "right" in- 
cluded, it may be many times best to pur- 
chase them of him. We feel sure he will 
agree with what we have said in this matter. 
We respect our patent laws, and would up- 
hold them when they are not made a pre- 
text for the now almost obsolete " right "- 
selling swindle. 

On the contrary, we think quite favor- 
ably of Gallup's strong stocks for out-door 
wintering, and agreed with him in thinking 
they perhaps would not do so well in-doors. 
Had he and Adair explained in a few sim- 
ple words that their " New' Idea " was "a 
long, one-story hive, with lots of bees in it," 
we should have had no trouble in getting at 
it. Some way, there always seems to be 
more of a temptation to "hit back," when 
Gallup gives one a " clip," than any one else. 
Why do so many keep tilting at Notice's 
dollar queens and hives? We only pro- 
posed that it would be a benefit all around 
for any one to sell any queen before 
she was tested, for fl.OO. Would 
such queens be in any way inferior in 
fertility? Very many excellent breeders 
now offer untested queens for $1.(J0, and 
their customer stands an equal chance of 
getting the very best. Selling queens 
known to be poor, for fl.OO each, wou'd 



128 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



be an act of dishouosty, and would sooner 
or later bring its own reward. 

Please do at least give us the credit of 
disinterestedness in this matter, for we feel 
sure the business will pass along more 
briskly if queens are sold as soon as fertile, 
at a low price, and the accommodation will 
be on both sides. When the possessor of a 
queen has tested her himself, he is satisfied, 
and lie is rarely otherwise. 

Many are the beekeepei-s who would feel 
that the business paid tolerably well, were 
it not for the unceasing demands and con- 
tinued outgoes; if we have shown any, how 
they could lessen expenses and still be just 
as well off, we shall have fulfilled our pur- 
pose in writing. If in our zeal we have 
now and then gone to extremes, please ex- 
cuse it on the ground that it was only what 
might be expected from your old friend 

Novice. 

P. S. — When we get each one of our 
twenty-two colonies built "out" so that 
they fill a ten-foot hive, we suppose the 
queens will be worth ten dollars each, and 
were it not for spoiling their wings, we 
might cut them up in ten square slices at a 
dollar each. Speaking of wings, reminds 
me that we have read of ants biting off the 
wings of the mother ant as soon as she was 
fertilized, for some reason best known to 
themselves. Can't some one tell us more 
about it, and are the ants to be censured for 
going contrary to nature ? 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Do Bees Injure Fruit? 

W. F. Clark : — Dear Sir : — In the March 
number of the A3ierioa2^ Bee Jouknal, 
(p. 63) Mr. A. O. Kruschke, of Berlin, 
Wis., accused the iV. Y. Tribune of not 
publishing an article on the above-men- 
tioned subject, in reply to and in censure of 
" that wise (?) Prof. Riley." To show that 
the accusation was unjust, I mailed the 
correspondence of the Tribune, which you 
have kindly published in your April num- 
ber (pp. 76, 77). Permit me to say further, 
in reply to Mr. K's remarks, that I have no 
personal feeling in this matter, and I can 
well attbrd to leave it to your readers to 
decide, from which side comes the person- 
ality. For while the charges of crime and 
presumption, the taunts of sapieucy and 
"wisdom," and cowardice might well 
arouse some feeling of the kind, I have en- 
deavored to avoid such. My object is to 
state the truth, and my opinions are based 
not on a single experiment, but on repeated 
observation. Mr. K. may stigmatize them 
as presumption, but others will show more 
consideration and less egotism. Mr. K. 
may consider it liis " duty to be a bee-de- 
fender," but I know no other duty as a nat- 
uralist, than to state my convictions as to 



the truth; and herein lies my "crime." I 
have seen bees cut into fruit, and there is 
no imagination about it. The wisdom of 
my recommendation to the horticulturist 
who in extreme cases suffers from bee- 
injury, may be questioned; but none but 
prejudiced persons will dotibt my statement 
of fact, and call my opinion based thereon 
presumption. Facts so often witnessed in 
the vineyard are not overthrown by a sin- 
gle adverse experiment. We have laws to 
protect us from the inroads of cattle left 
roaming at large, and if in exceptional times 
when the ordinary food of the commons is 
short or entirely lacking, our neighbor does 
not take proper care of his four-legged 
stock, but allows it to depredate on crops, 
legal redress is at command. But under 
similar exceptional circumstances, we have 
no legal protection from his six-legged 
stock. 

Finally, I hope Mr. K. will, as he prom- 
ises, continue his experiments; and as they 
may not all turn out like his first, he may 
yet learn to cultivate a due degree of mod- 
esty in the use of unpleasant and personal 
epithets; for truth will in the end " shame 
the devil." 

Inline 15, p. 77, " observe " should read 
"obscure." Yours, etc., 

C. V. Riley. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Bee-Keeping in the South. 

We of the South, the native home of the 
bee, know but little yet of his management 
as practiced by our Northern neighbors; 
and, in fact, the results produced by some, 
as at least claimed, are perfectly astound- 
ing to us. Some, however, pretend to ac- 
count for it by saying that bees know their 
necessities, and prepare for them according- 
ly; that in cold climates they lay up greater 
stores than in warm ones, and that on the 
peninsula of Florida, where there is no 
frost, they lay up no stores at all. This 
theory I believe to be nothing more than 
theory, and that upon trial will be proved 
to be wholly without a foundation in truth. 

We have none but the native bees here, 
yet, and I wish to learn to manage them 
more successfully before making any furth- 
er investments. I saw the first movable 
comb hive last year. Transferred two col- 
onies on the 25th of July. One was de- 
stroyed by moths ; the other did well They 
arc now working vigorously, and, if not 
prevented, will throw out a swarm in a few 
days. I have watched bees more closely 
the past winter than ever before, and I do 
not think there were ten days in succession 
at any time during cold weather that they 
could not rty out; and by the 14th of Feb. 
they were in full blast, gathering honey and 
pollen from a thousand fiowers. This must 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



129 



appear strange to you in the North, who 
are compelled to keep the poor fellows 
buried in cellars half their lives, in order 
that they should live the other half. I do 
not know what particular flower here gives 
the greatest yield, but I guess the bees 
know, and I suppose the supply is ample. 
Where the tlowers are so numerous and so 
buried as they are here, there can be no ex- 
cuse for idle bees, if there are any such. I 
can see no reason why the business should 
not be more protitablc here than farther 
north, if managed with the same care and 
skill. " .1. B. Mitchell. 

Hawkinsville, Ga. 



For the American Bee .Journal. 

Bee-ology in Kentucky. 

I will give the readers of the Ameiucan 
Bee Journal a sketch of Kentucky Bee- 
ology as practised hereabouts. There is 
l)ut one scientific bee man in this part of 
the country. I allude to R. M. Argo, of 
Lowell. The farmer, the mechanic, the 
merchant, indeed all hands here, keep — or 
rather, "keep at" — a few stocks of bees, 
but pay little or no attention to them. If 
one or two stocks, say out of ten or a dozen, 
happen to do pretty well, the owner will 
say he had "good luck," if not, "bad 
luck." 

Kentucky until the last two or three years 
was, perhaps, as good a State for bees and 
honey as any. Our principal dependence 
for honey here is upon the white clover and 
liasswood, or rather, as aKentuckian would 
say, " Linn." 

In 1872 we had a short crop of both, 
last season scarcely any of either ; conse- 
quently our bees did no good whatever. 
Out of a dozen good, strong hives I did not 
get over twenty-five pounds of cap honey. 

I imported the first Italian bees brought 
to the State. In the year 1861 I purchased 
two queens, one of Rev. L. L. Langstroth, 
and the other of Mr. K. P. Kidder of Bur- 
lington, Vt., I received the one from Mr. L. 
all right, and with the aid furnished by his 
instructions had but little difficulty in get- 
ting her safely introduced into a stock of 
common black bees. When I received the 
one I ordered of Mr. Kidder, the comb in the 
box had been broken down and the queen 
crippled. I introduced her, but she soon 
died. I informed Mr. Kidder, but he would 
not replace her. 

I watched the progress of the other with 
much interest, and in about lifteen days 
saw her progeny begin to come forth. As 
no one in the county had ever seen an Ital- 
ian bee it was (juite a curiosity, and many 
persons came expressly to see it. I after- 
wards ordered some queens from Mr. L. 
for some friends, but owing to the great 
quantity of full-blooded black bees in the 



county it was impossible to keep them pure, 
and until Mr. Argo, of Lowell, went into 
the business, some years afterwards, and 
purchased all the black bees in reach of his 
apiary it was impossible to raise anything 
like pure queens. Finnell. 

Kirksville, Ky. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Pleasant Remarks. 

On page 41 " Novice " intimates that we 
have hard feelings toward him, because on 
page 143, Vol. ix. we resented his imputa- 
tion that we sought to advertise our sim- 
plified Simplicity Hive and frame in the 
pages of the .Iournal. We are certainly 
pleased to learn that he was only indulging 
in one of his pleasantries. We are frank 
to say that the aforesaid "pleasantry" 
touched our sensitiveness, and we wrote 
the answer on the spur of the moment, and 
when it appeared in print we were sorry. 
If Novice feels hurt, let him consider the 
hard raps he has given others who have 
feelings as well as he. Those free criti- 
cisms have produced wounds that mere 
explanations will never heal. 

We rejoice to see a difterent tone in the 
writings of some of our bee men, and in the 
conduct of our Bee Journals. Instead of 
being conducted for selfish interests, and 
utterly ignoring each other's existence, there 
has arisen a brotherly feeling and a dis- 
position to lend a helping hand. We ob- 
serve that since the birth of Oleanings, 
Novice has come down to a milder way of 
expressing himself than formerly. We are 
happy to see it, and if we have written any- 
thing not in accordance with kindly feel- 
ings we crave pardon. We will accept 
"pleasantry" as an explanation, and trust 
Novice will treasure up nothing against us 
for our hasty remarks. 

Hartford, N. Y. Scientific. 



For the American Bee Journal, 



Bees' Breathing. 



"In your April number, page 84, second 
column lower half, Mr. Adair makes some 
assertions which have often been made by 
others, but which appear to me so foolish 
that I cannot help noticing them. He says: 
"The last paragraph is the statement of a 
fact that has been settled among naturalists 
for a long time, i. e. that the bee inflates its 
body with air when about to fly, so as to 
decrease its specific gravity when flying. 
This is not only applicable to insects, but 
ornithologists state that birds do the same 
thing, even filling the hollow barrels of 
their feathers and quills with heated air or 
gas." Now I want Mr. Adair to explain. 
I will grant for the sake of argument only 



130 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



that the bees' body has hollows in it, not 
filled with anything but air or if he chooiies 
not even air, and also that birds have hol- 
low bones and feathers. This latter is not 
peculiar to birds. Animals have hollow 
bones where great strength is not needed 
and because nature does not put material 
where it is of no use. Now if these hollows 
in bees or birds have no air in them before 
they fly, how can they make them lighter 
by putting air into them. That would 
make them heavier. If these hollows have 
air in them, that air is at about the same 
temperature as their bodies. If they could 
make it warmer it would be no lighter un- 
less they could expel some of it and thus 
make a partial vacuum. But they cannot 
make it warmer and therefore cannot expel 
it. They might press more air in but that 
would make their bodies heavier. — In short, 
bees or birds have no power to make their 
bodies lighter or heavier at will. I think 
Mr. Adair cannot properly call his supposi- 
tion a settled fact. W. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

The Extractor versus Honey Boxes. 

A great many experienced apiarians are 
advocating the exclusive use of the extract- 
or for obtaining surplus honey, speaking of 
boxes (with them) as things of the past and 
looking upon those who use them as inclin- 
ed to " old fogyism." 

In this age of the 19th century, progress 
and improvement are the watchwords ; are 
we not then a little too much inclined to go 
after things of the "new idea" order — 
throwing up our hats every time we hear of 
anything in bee-culture which strikes us 
as being a deviation from the old path — 
running our apiaries upon windmill princi- 
ples — talking about barrels and hogsheads 
of honey to be secured the coming season 
in spite of drouth or storm, when in fact 
our stocks are daily diminishing in num- 
bers, and it is only by exercising the great- 
est vigilance that we can prevent the native 
blacks from running out our pet Italians. 

That the extractor is an indispensable 
article in a well managed apiary, probably 
all acquainted with its working will admit; 
but that beautiful comb honey is to be 
supplanted by the extracted article will 
only take place when the eye hath lost its 
admiration for beauty, a-nd fancy and style 
have nothing to do with the sale of this 
staple luxury. 

So long as the idea of crushed bees and 
other imiHirities is connected with the sight 
of strained honey, just so long will that 
put up in fancy boxes continue to com- 
mand the higher price. 

Were all honey raisers the coming season 
to run their ajnaries exclusively for extract- 
ed honey, and the season be as good as was 



' the past, I fear our markets would be glut- 
ted and the crop find, at wholesale, a price 
but little above that of ordinary strained. 
Tlie low price at which it was quoted the 
past fall and winter in the principal places 
' of consumption throughout the country I 
think will bear me out in making this pre- 
I diction. 

While honey in glass boxes in New York 
was quoted at from 30 to 35 cents a pound, 
wholesale ; extracted and strained was only 
put down at from 12 to 15 cents a pound. 
To be sure we sometimes get a better price 
for it when put up in jars, but how are we 
to keep it from hardening ? In the lan- 
guage of D. W. Quinby, commission mer- 
chant, handling large quantities of honey, 
and brother to M. Quinby, "it soon 
candies, looks like lard and don't sell." I 
have a doubt as to whether these advocates 
of the slinger theory believe they obtain as 
nice an article by using the extractor, as 
that stored away, evaporated and sealed by 
the bees themselves. Has it the luscious 
richness to the taste ? I have heard good 
judges of honey say it has not. 

For example, take from the box a flake 
of white comb honey built just the right 
size to fit a small plate, and it is of itself 
an ornament even to the table of the rich 
and will tempt the palate of an epicure. 
Slice that comb up into small squares to be 
passed to each individual, and can anything 
in the shape of liquid honey excel, or even 
compare with that which drains into the 
bottom of the dish from the severed cells- 
clear as water from the limpid spring — 
aromatic as the flowers from whicli it was 
culled — tempting to both eye and taste and 
pure as ever are the unadulterated pro- 
ductions from natures laboratory. 

The symmetrical beauty in the structure 
of the comb, each tiny cell a perfect hexa- 
gon and solving a mathematical problem 
in Euclid, furnishes a subject for conversa- 
tion, and all are ready to praise the indus- 
try of the little bee endowed with such 
wonderful instinpt. No wonder the old 
poets sang to its praise ; for the product 
of its labors furnished an article of export 
from the islands of the Mediterranean to an 
extent beyond anything we hear of in these 
modern times of imported queens and 
honey slingers. 

I do not make these comparisons in a 
fault-finding spirit, but merely to look the 
subject square in the face without ignoring 
what others have done before us. 

For the past few winters bee-keepers 
have had a serious difficulty to contend 
with and I fear the advantage gained in 
building up swarms by the use of the 
movable-comb frame is more than offset 
by disastrous losses in wintering, and a 
close canvas would probably show that in 
the United Stales there is not more than 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



181 



one bee-keeper where there were ten several 
years ago, and is not this loss often greatly 
endangered by tlie too free use of the ex- 
tractor, often leaving hives in a starving 
condition at the close of a good season ? 

Some of our largest raisers and shippers 
of box honey are among those who do not 
report their experience through the bee 
journals. 

A few years since Capt. J. R. Ilethering- 
ton of Cherry Valley, in tins State, sent to 
New York market 2."), 000 pounds of box 
honey " as reported" of his own raising. 
The same fall Baldwin Bros., of Sandusky, 
N. Y., shipped to the same market 10,000 
pounds, mostly from their own apiaries, 
although at the same time extensively en- 
gaged in raising Italian queens for sale. 
. I w^as informed by a commission mer- 
chant that a firm in Steuben Co., made one 
shipment of 5 tons. Besides these large 
quantities there were a great many smaller 
lots varying from 500 to 5,000 pounds 
yielding to the producer an income of no 
mean significance. The same course has 
been pursued every fall since, except per- 
haps not on quite so extensive a scale. 
Could the managers of these apiaries be 
induced to give their experience through 
the columns of the bee journals, what an 
amount of testimony would be given in 
favor of using boxes, besides adding a 
large amount of practical information to 
their columns already so replete with use- 
ful knowledge. It inatters not how large 
may be the crop if we have our surplus in 
suitable shaped, four-sided glass boxes, it 
will find quick sale at good remunerative 
prices without return or loss of barrel, as 
box honey in this shape sells at gross 
weight without any question, the boxes 
often paying 100 per cent, above cost of 
manufacture. We are well aware that 
glass weighs heavy, yet consumers want it 
in this shape and are willing to pay a fancy 
price for a fancy article, and in this case it 
pays better to let them have their own way, 
and not be quarelling about tare on old 
wooden boxes. The season for 1874 is 
now at hand, and as many apiaries will be 
run almost exclusively either for box or 
extracted surplus, I hope at its close those 
of us whose lives are spared will have the 
benefit of a good many favorable reports 
pro and con ; yet with many others I am 
loath to believe that fancy box honey will 
ever be supplanted by the extracted article. 
C. R. ISIIAM. 

Peoria, Wyoming Co., N. Y. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Report from my Apiary. 

On making an cixamination of my sixty 
odd stocks last August, I found all excei)t 
about ten, on the verge of starvation. I 
immediately commenced feeding, and in 
the early part of September united so many 
as to reduce my stocks to fifty, and then 
fed my bees over three barrels granulated 
sugar. Wintered on their summer stands 
without the loss of a single one. Found 
one this spring, queenless, which I united 
with a weak one. My bees now, are in 
splendid condition; good brood in all, and 
])lenty of stores. 

On returning home from church on yes- 
terday, and after getting my dinner, I 
walked out in my Ijee yard, and the first 
thing that attracted my attention, was a 
swarm just issuing, this one being the first 
of the season. Was not expecting a swarm 
so soon. I have to report the loss of hund- 
reds of colonies in our county last winter. 
The cause wns nothing more nor less than 
starvation. The old idea of luck in bee- 
keeping has with me entirely exploded. 1 
am buying plenty of nice, empty worker 
comb at twenty -five cents per pound. The 
season so far has been very unpropitious 
for the honey -gatherers. The " oldest in- 
habitant" says we have had more rain this 
spring than was ever known before. The 
rains are followed by cold and cloudy days. 
The main honey crop here is gathered 
from wdiite clover, which is said to be (this 
spring) unusually good. As last season 
here was the poorest ever known, I am in 
hopes this will be the best know^nfor years. 
Will. Wilson. 

Bardstown, Ky., April 27, 1874. 



When a hive of bees is kept in a state of 
alarm by the tormenting ingenuity of mis- 
chievous boys, the time in which they 
would be ranging over the fields in search 
of honey and pollen, will be lost in defend- 
ing their premises. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Queen Clipping. 

The extent to which this practice is now 
being carried, is to my mind, truly alarm- 
ing ; bids fair to endanger the very exist- 
ance of the Italian race of bees, and thus, 
if persisted in, break up bee culture as a 
pursuit. 

I do not stop to enquire how far Gen. 
Adair may be right or wrong in his scienti- 
fic theories, or his opponents in opposing 
them ; but am firmly convinced that to 
maim anything, impairs its efficiency. 
There are a few considerations which seem 
to me conclusive arguments against this 
practice. 

1st. Those from analogy. We look for 
stout offspring from stout parents ; weak 
from weak. We are told that fish found in 
the Mammoth, and other caves are blind, 
having been shut out from the light for 
generations, — showing that the proper ex- 
ercise of the muscles, nerves, and othei" 



132 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



organs of the eye is necessary to preserve 
the sight. Should we clip the fins of these 
fish for a like number of generations, 
would not the muscles whidh propel the 
lius, wholly or partially perish from lack 
of proper exercise, and thus produce either 
a finless race or one with puny fins. Con- 
fine the arm in a sling from childhood to 
manhood, and thus suspend the exercise of 
the propelling muscles of the arm, and 
what is the result ? a shrunken and useless 
limb ; on the other hand, for the same 
length of time, wield the blacksmith's 
sledge with the same arm, and^OAVcrfully 
developed muscles are the result. 

We are told that a race of bob-tailed 
dogs has been produced by the s,uccessive 
severence of the dorsal extremity. 

We know the turkejs, and other do\nes- 
tic fowls, as well as animals, have by 
domestication been dwarfed in their powers 
of locomotion by the no longer vigorous 
exercise of those muscles which speed their 
movements ; and their progeny are like- 
wise feeble in the muscles of propulsion. 
Thousands of analogies might be adduced 
to show that -'like begets like " but these 
would seem to suffice. In all the cases of 
impaired locomotion the propelling muscles 
have been idle for generations, and thus 
weakened. The progeny of the succeeding 
generation partakes of the weakness in this 
respect of the preceding. 

If bees should excel in any one thing, it 
should be in their powers of flight. Now 
clip the wing or wings of- the queens or 
mother bees, and keep up this clipping for 
generations, thus stopping in the line of 
descent the healthful exerciser of the wing 
muscles, must it not inevitably result, if not 
in a wingless, at least in a race with impair- 
ed wings. Long before they became wing 
less the operations of the hive would cease. 

3ud. I believe the workers re^rd a clip- 
ped mother with suspicion, and at times 
supersede her, or else she dies more readily 
from this cause. Three out q| five of my 
clipped queens died last sea^ii^ two of 
which I found dead in front of tlMr hives ; 
whilst out of thirteen undipped queens, I 
lost not one that I know of. 

3rd. Clipping does not always prevent 
the queen from trying to lead the swarm, 
in which case she falls and may perish. 

4th. It is inconsistent with the spirit of 
the age, which is to improve both animals 
and plants rather than to deteriorate. Clip- 
ping cannot improve or produce a more 
perfect insect. Some writer even advocates 
clipping one leg. If the queen has any use 
for wings and legs, that use is impaired by 
this practice ; and is it not wiser and safer 
to' pursue that course which to say the least 
cannot injure, in preference to that which 
may, and let her wings and legs alone V 

Decherd, Tcnn. E. D. Sankokd. 



For the American Bee Journal, 

Natural and Artificial Pood. 

Among the many peculiar conceits of 
mankind, there is none perhaps more com- 
mon than that of investigating one's own 
ideas with a greiy deal of importance ; even 
though the same ideas, or supposed dis- 
coveries have been common to others long 
before and not emblazoned as anything at 
all wonderful or astonishing. 

An Ohio bee-keeper having been led from 
some cause or other to feed sugar to bees 
with seeming good results, straightway 
proclaims the fact to the world, as a great 
discovery of his own, when the truth is 
that it had often been done before, and 
without very greatly agitating the bee 
world. 

Doubtless bees can be wintered on sugar 
syrup, if properly prepared ; but that it is 
in any way superior to the food which 
nature has taught the honey bee to gather 
for its own use, I am very far from believ- 
ing. 

Man may often by scientific knowledge 
concentrate, intensify, or direct nature's 
forces to certain ends and objects, but 
when he attempts to substitute one of her 
provisions for another, he very rarely 
improves ubou the original. While I 
disbelieve in the superiority of sugar as 
food for bees, still less do I believe in its 
prophylactic properties. At its first sug- 
gestion as a remedy for or preventive of 
so called dysentery in bees, I am incredu- 
lous for the foregoing reasons, and the 
results of many experiments of eminent 
apiarians as well as my own, has tendered 
to dissipate entirely the idea of its sanitary 
qualities. 

Perhaps an item of my own experience, 
bearing upon this question might not prove 
uninteresting. 

In August 1872, after basswood had 
ceased to yield honey — which is the last 
we get here of any consequence — I found 
that my bees' stores were insuflicient to 
winter upon ; consequently I fed to some 
25 stocks, U barrels of A coffee sugar 
made into syrup. It was fed during the 
hot days the last of August, so the bees 
could put it in good shape for winter ; and 
in order to thoroughly test the properties 
claimed for it, I fed a few late swarms, 
which had made considerable comb, but 
little honey, sufficient sugar syrup to last 
till spring'. In order to show that the 
syrup was well prepared, I would say that 
I can show any amount of it to day in the 
combs of the hives, out of which the bees 
died, that is not grained at all, but is of 
good consistency and in fine condition for 
bees. 

About the 1st of January following, my 
bees connnenced dicing of dysentery, and 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



133 



the first to die were some of those fed ou 
all sugar syrup, and before the 1st of May 
every cue fed with sugar, was dead. 

I do uot wisli to be understood as saying 
that tliose fed with sugar sutlVrcd particu- 
larly worse than those not fed at all — for 
the mortality was very great among all — 
but that it "had no effect in preventing 
disease, nor has it in any other cases that 
came under my observation. It may uot 
be out of place to say that my bees 
were wintered on their summer stands, in 
movable-frame, double-cased hives, and 
nicely quilted on top. I went carefully 
through my apiary and placed (after feed- 
ing was done) empty combs in the centre 
of the hives, and the honey or sugar each 
side of them. 

The great mortality of bees for the past 
two winters is a fruitful subject for discus- 
sion ; as yet, but little light has been 
thrown upon the matter, although I have 
full faith that it may and will be finally 
understood. 

I will not attempt at this time to give 
any theory of my own upon the most 
vexed question, but may at some future 
time give some facts of my own experience 
bearing upon the subject. N. M. C. 

Ellington. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

My Experience in Bee-Keeping. 

I have kept bees, more or less, for the 
past four years. During this time my ex- 
perience has been of a varied character. 
Tlirough the summer season my bees have 
done well, and amply rewarded me for 
my labor and trouble. But my high hopes 
and bright anticipations were destined to 
be blasted by the loss iu wintering. 

In the winter of 1870, seven swarms came 
through all right on summer st;iuds. I 
bought two in the spring of 1871 ; took four 
on shares, increased, and commenced the 
winter with twenty-three swarms on sum- 
mer stands. Tliey all died, and the spring 
of '72 found me without a bee, — but not 
discouraged. I concluded to stick to the 
old motto, "If you don't at first succeed, 
try, try again," and "what other folks can 
do, why with patience may not I ? " 

In July I again ventured to invest, and 
bought four young swarms, also one 
swarm of Italians. As they were late colo- 
nies, they did increase, and I again attemp- 
ted to winter these five swarms ou summer 
stands, with but light protection. I was 
again doomed to disappointment and loss. 
The spring of '73 found my bees all dead, 
witii plenty of honey in their hives, which 
showed they were not starved to death. I 
now made up my mind not to try out-door 
wintering again. I was determined not to 
give up if it took my " bottom dollar." In 



April I bought ten colonies of hybrids, six 
of which died before the first of May. 
Then, besides, one colony of i>ure Italians, 
bought of E. Gallup, in June, proved to be 
very prolific, I Italianized and increased 
artificially to nineteen swarms. Took from 
them 300 lbs. honey, twenty-five of which 
were comb honey, and the remainder "ex- 
tracted." Did not get my extractor till 
late in the season. Sold both comb and 
extracted honey for 25 cts. per ft., and 
could have sold 1,000 lbs. more if I had had 
it. The extracted was taken in preference to 
comb. I prepared my bees for winter, 
by taking the covers off and raising the 
honey-boards, to give ventilation, and set- 
ting them in the cellar, about two feet from 
the ground. All except two had an abund- 
ance of natural food. The temperature 
ranged from 32 to 40 degs., usually 35 deg. 
They are iu fine condition, except two, 
which we have fed on candy. 

E. A. Sheldon. 
Independence, Iowa. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Grallup's Ne"w Idea Hive and its 
Advantages. 

Some one has asked for a description of 
the New Idea Hive, as I use it. For an ex- 
periment, I have used my standard frame. 
But if I was going to commence anew, I 
sliould make the frame wider, for reasons 
which I will not now attempt to give. I 
make the hive four feet long (inside meas- 
ure) twelve inches deep, and fourteen 
inches wide. This hive holds thirty-two 
worker combs. I double case the sides, 
leaving one-fourth inch dead air space be- 
tween outer and inner case. The object of 
double walls is, if bees cluster against the 
wall, it is warm; while if they cluster 
against a single wall in extreme cold 
weather, the consequence is chilled bees and 
dysentery. I use three honey boards, or 
the Bickf ord quilt will answer, just as any 
one fancies. I use a four-inch chamber, 
spread cloth over the frames for winter, and 
fill in witli two or three inches of sawdust. 
Now place the roof over all, make winter 
passages through the centre of all the 
combs, but the two front ones, close the 
rear entrance and you are ready for winter. 

I make entrances in each end just alike 
nearly aci'oss the end at the bottom, and 
regulate with entrance blocks ; and a little 
above the centre I have an inch hole in each 
end. With a full stock, and in hot weath- 
er, both ends are open. The inch hole in 
summer, while the bees are gathering honey 
rapidly, allows the moisture to pass off 
which is evaporated; and we never have a 
puddle of water for the bees to pass through 
early in the morning; and in winter, provid- 
ing the hive gets buried in snow, the bees 



134 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAI.. 



will never smother, — sven if the lower en- 
trance should become fastened up with ice. 

You will see that the combs run cross- 
ways of the entrance in this hive. The ad- 
vantage of this hive is, bees winter per- 
fectly, and with as little consumption of 
honey in proportion to the number of bees, 
as they do in a cellar or special repository. 
They never fly out in winter, providing we 
have the cluster four combs from the en- 
trance, unless the weather is warm enough 
for them to take a flight without loss. We 
never have to shade the entrance as we do 
other hives, with combs running from front 
to rear to prevent the bees from flying in 
winter. It is a perfect nonswarmer, pro- 
viding we take their honey from them and 
do not allow them to restrict the queen 
from breeding. We can raise more bees 
in this form of hive with less manipulation, 
than any other form we ever saw, and it 
always takes bees to gather honey, with us. 
j.vlr. L/angstroth, in a private letter, says, 
" The improvement in hives is as great an 
advancemeiit in bee cultiore, as the invention 
of the movable comb or extractor.'''' 

Again, providing we place a large swarm 
in this hive, all the comb is built worker- 
comb, and if we take out a comb and in- 
sert an empty frame, it is flUed with worker- 
comb every time with us, and this is an 
item of no mean value. Mr. Adair has 
been ridiculed for advancing such ideas, 
and 1 may be also. But there are people 
that wish to advance in bee culture, and 
tnere is no harm in giving our ideas to such, 
i have fully tested the hive, and am so well 
satisfied that I shall make more of them. 
i have a stock that now occupies twenty- 
six combs, with bees. I wintered one small 
late swarm in the hive last winter, for an 
experiment, and I never wintered with bet- 
ter satisfaction in the cellar, and my strong 
stocks wintered splendidly, and every one 
Knows that the winter of 1873 was severe 
enough as a test, to satisfy ^^ the most 
fastidious. 

in this hive we have no use for a divis- 
ion Doard. Understand that what I call a 
strong swarm would be two swarms put 
together from ordinary 3,000 cubic inch 
hives. We have ascertained to our own 
satisfaction, that one good queen without 
any care whatever, will .occupy over 4,000 
cubic inches of comb in the ordinary man- 
ner with brood, in this form of hive. We 
use the extracted or cell-comb honey in the 
frame. In this climate we can extract all 
tlie honey made up to the middle of August, 
with perfect safety. In such a hive, and 
witli the Italians, and good, common sense, 
we have a permanent institution. 

iS^o cold, chilling, dampness, or imperfectly 
evaporated honey, causes dysentery. We 
liave no dysentery in this hive, providing 
we use good, common sense. The Italians 



will renew their queens almost invariably, 
and with my management there is no feed- 
ing to be done at any time. They are self- 
supporting. They breed later in the fall 
and earlier in the spring; consequently are 
always strong in numbers, and with us 
strong stocks are the sheet anchor to suc- 
cessful bee-keeping. 

The past season was the poorest that I 
have seen since I came West. I sold my 
stock down to fifteen all in large twin and 
New Idea hives. From seven I increased 
up to thirty-six, and from the other eight I 
took 800 lbs. surplus. Now I am not the 
only person that has beeii testing this hive. 
But I have had it tested in Michigan and 
other parts of this State, and think I am 
not mistaken if I do claim that every 
person will like the hive, or that every one 
will succeed. But I claim that what I have 
done, others can learn to do. This morn- 
ing, with the thermometer 20 degs. below 
zero (Feb. 24, 1874) by listening at the front 
of my twin hives, the bees are making a 
loud, roaring noise, showing conclusively 
that they have to consume honey largely to 
keep up the warmth. But listen in front 
of the long hive, and we only hear a gentle 
buzz or hum, and in moderate weather we 
can hear nothing, unless we jar the hive, 
showing just as conclusively that the con- 
sumption of honey is but a trifle in com- 
parison. 

Now I have used two-story hives, and 
could use them again, but I know that a 
two-story hive is not adapted to wintering 
on the summer stands ; neither can we raise 
anywhere near the same amount of brood 
that we can in the horizontal hive and con- 
tinuous chamber. The diflerence is so 
marked when we take the season through, 
that any person must be terribly prejudiced 
that cannot see it. The hive will cost more 
than one dollar, and it will be worth more. 

E. Gallup. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Top and Side Surplus Boxes. 

A question in which some are interested 
is : " Are top or side surplus honey boxes 
best?" 

When a new swarm enters an empty hive 
and commences work, they commence at 
the top of their hive. For this there is a 
very obvious reason. The form of their 
todies and the nature and form of their 
comb, makes this the most convenient way 
to operate. From the top they can hang in 
clusters and work upon the comb and build 
down half way to the bottom of the hive be- 
fore the top is fully completed. If top sur- 
plus boxes are used when first placed in the 
hive, they will probably enter them first. If 
it is a small colony it will be some time be- 
fore coml) will be prepared for the deposit 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



135 



of eggs in the body of the hive, and brood 
will be raised in some of the boxes, injuring 
the surplus honey. If the breeding apart- 
ment is as high as the boxes, the boxes on 
the sides, may be enttn-ed by a part of the 
swarm, at the same time with tlie commence- 
ment in the breeding apartment without 
danger of brood in the boxes. If the 
swarm is a large one, from 50 to 100 lbs of 
surplus honey may be expected the tirst 
season. 

The side and top boxes both may be 
placed on as soon as the weather becomes 
warm enough, that no delay may be caused 
to the breeding. 

" Which are best for surplus f 

This question sometimes receives an an- 
swer according to tlie interest or prejudices 
of the writer. If a man uses top boxes 
only, in his operations ; he probably thinks 
and pronounces them best. If one has used 
only side boxes, he probably is decidedly 
in favor of side boxes. 

I have thoroughly tried both. I have 
had 24 side boxes upon a hive and no top 
boxes. I have had 18 side boxes and 9 top 
boxes upon a hive at the same time. I 
have been unable to discover any important 
advantage of one over the other, as to time 
of commencement or success in using them. 
Those upon the top have some advantage 
from the warmth arising from the body of 
the hive. The side boxes may have the ad- 
vantage of ease of access and proximity to 
the entrance to the hive. 

I have made it a rule to place guide comb 
in my boxes to encourage early commence- 
ment in them. In the top boxes, the en- 
trance is through the bottom, and the guide 
comb is attached to the top. My side boxes 
have glass on the outer and inner end of the 
box. Inside glass is from one-half to one 
inch narrower than the height of the box, 
leaving an entrance of one-half to one inch 
wide between the glass and the top of the 
box. I attach guide comb to the top of the 
box so as to come even with the glass, of 
about one inch square. I remove the mov- 
able partition having the sheet of comb in 
the breeding apartment entirely uncovered. 
I then set the nine side boxes on each side; 
three on the bottom of the hive with the 
inner end of the box, one-half inch from 
the comb in the breeding apartment ; bring- 
ing the guide comb so near that the bees 
can pass to it as readily as from one sheet 
of comb to the other in the hive. I then 
place the nine top boxes upon the top of the 
hive and the side boxes. With boxes thus 
prepared and arranged ; the nine boxes were 
as readily entered and occupied and fitted as 
those on the top. I think the important 
points are; have your boxes on early; place 
them in intimate connection with the hive, 
with small pieces of guide comb to encour- 
age early commencement in storing suiplus. 



To attach the guide comb, when construct- 
ing the boxes, I prepare 10 or 13 more or 
less ready to receive the top, I lay the top 
bottom upwards, cut as many pieces of 
guide comb as are required; I take a lighted 
candle in my left hand with pieces of guide 
comb in reach, heat the edge of the pieces 
in the candle and then press tiiem to the top 
board; and when cool nail the top board ia 
its place. It is some gratification after- 
wards to see the bees engaged in filling them 
all up. J,\srER Hazen. 

Woodstock, Vt. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Machine-Extracted Honey. 

Since the introduction of the honey 
pump, bee-keeping has become quite a 
source of income to the intelligent bee- 
keeper, and machine-extracted honey bids 
fair to end the demand for comb honey. 
The public are very easily convinced of the 
superiority of the machine-extracted honey, 
however persistently the people in general 
stick to old customs. The most these 
Thomases need in order to be convinced, is 
to be shown the mode of extracting. 

The production of machine-extracted 
honey is of so much more profit to the 
bee-keeper than the production of comb 
honey, that it is w^orth while to take the 
trouble to convince the ignorant that the 
former is the best and purest honey of the 
two. Every respectable bee-keeper soon 
gets a good patronage among his neighbors, 
but the quantities of honey we produce are 
so large that it requires a little extra exer- 
tion to dispose of them. Our best honey 
should be put in glass jars, in small quanti- 
ties, and every store in the neighborhood 
should be supplied with "pure machine 
extracted honey." It should be put up 
about like canned fruit, in boxes and jars — 
properly marked with the name of the 
producer. I adopted some years ago, the 
square jars holding 1 and 2 lbs. honey, and 
find them to work admirably. I put a 
dozen jars in a box, and find a ready sale 
at the following prices : 
1 gross (12 boxes) Itb jars honey @ 
1 " 2ft " 

1 doz. (1 box) Itt. " 



Ifti 



jar 



$42.00 

82.00 

4.1)0 

7.50 

.40 

.75 

1.00 

a good 



lib honey 

2ft " 
1 " 3ft " 

For 1 ft jars, especially, I found 
wholesale trade, wliile the retail trade in 
my store was about alike in 1, 2, and 3 ft 
jars. I wish to add that 9!) out of every 
100 of my customers buy my machine- 
extracted honey in preference to the 
choicest comb honey. I have bottled and 
sold, since last season, more than 10,000 lbs 
of honey, I sold it, not with the aid of an 



136 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



agent, but as customers would call for it at 
the stoi-e. 

Having bought respectable lots from 
cliflferent parties, I had some experience in 
the diflerent ways of putting up. This is 
what I wish to speak about for the benefit 
of all concerned. We are all apprentices 
yet, and may be profited by a liberal ex- 
change of ideag. 

Crystalization spoils the ready sale of 
honey, although we all know that pure 
honey will crystalize. Some kinds will do 
so quicker than others. Linden honey for 
instance has, in my experience, crystalized 
when white clover honey has shown no 
signs of it, and some white clover honey 
has crystalized while other white clover 
honey has kept perfectly clear. 

I have now on a shelf a dozen or more 
of 31b jars of my own honey, which show 
not the lo:ist signs of crystalization, while 
I have bought no honey of anybody since 
Novemlier, or end of October but was 
crystalized. My own honey is very clear, 
of a rich golden color, and thicker than the 
thickest syrup. That part of my honey 
which formed into crystalization, did not 
expand in the jars but rather contracted, 
like lard, after having cooled off. And 
when brought to its fluid state again, by 
putting the jars in hot water it retained the 
same substantial thickness. Not so with 
any other honey I had bought. I had 
filled several barrels of honey in half gal- 
lon fruit jars, to prevent it from candying 
in the barrels. The jars had tin covers 
slipped over the mouths. After crystaliza 
tion had taken place, I found the covers as 
if on icebergs, sticking one or two inches 
above the jars, honey running down the 
shelves, several jars burst in the lower tiers 
where the covers could not give, and more 
jars would have burst but for my partly 
emptying them in time. One and two 
pound jars, being corked and tinfoiled, had 
the corks driven out etc. Nothing of that 
sort happened with my own honey. What 
was the reason? 

I had been particular to leave my honey 
standing for a day or two after extracting, 
in tin buckets made for the purpose — stone 
jars, when buckets did not holdout etc., 
when I had a good chance of having it 
skimmed perfectly. I think it essential to 
not leave a particle of wax in the honey 
Ijefore we put it away for safe keeping, 
Avhether in barrels or jars, as that particle 
of wax may form tlie nucleus for the 
crystalization of the honey. I used to 
])cat all of my honey, but found the honey 
would get dark whenever the fire was too 
Btrong. 

Next season I shall have a receiver made 
of tin to hold HOU or CU(» lbs, when I .shall 
have a better chance to let the honey stand 
a few days after extracting, then skim the 



top perfectly and draw from below the 
pure article. The last out of the receiver 
may be heated over a slow fire if necessaiy. 
I should never be satisfied with the honey 
running through a strainer from the pump 
into the barrel which was then to be cork- 
ed up. 

Here I would ask : Has the honey too, 
something like animal heat, which should 
evaporate before the honey is put up in 
tight vessels V I have heard of pure honey 
souring in jars or barrels, and I see it stated 
by prominent bee-keepers that uncapped or 
fresh collected honey is too thin and 
watery to extract, etc. Now I may say 
there is no thicker honey than mine, and I 
never had any sour. May not this hasty 
shutting up be the cause of all this trouble ? 
I have never let the bees cap any honey 
when I could help it, have pumped every 
week or whenever the cells were filled. 
This saved time and labor to both parties, 
and I have not yet seen my honey excelled. 
During last month a customer ordered a 
gross of honey and asked me to exchange 
two boxes, which had crystalized. They 
would have been sold long ago, he said, if 
the honey had not been candied. Accord- 
ingly we opened our boxes to dissolve the 
honey by setting the jars in hot water, (no 
need to uncork them, but they have to be 
relabeled) before delivery. The last four 
boxes in one row had stood there ever since 
the last honey harvest, it was my own 
honey and not a jar had crystalized, while 
all the rest of the jars had crystalized per- 
fectly, most of them with corks driven up 
a little, as far as the lid would admit. 

To sum up the matter I would say : 
Honey should stand sometime after extract- 
ing — to cool oft', (?) and be skimmed perfect- 
Ijr and freed from all other substances (run- 
ning through a strainer is not sufficient) 
before it is put up in air-tight vessels. 

Some bee-keepers have the bad practice 
of sticking a piece of comb honey in a jar 
of nice machine extracted honey. This 
may look nice in the eyes of the ignorant, 
but it does not look well in the eyes of 
those knowing better, and it is no more the 
pure honey, it contains also a piece of wax 
with those impurities which always will 
adhere to the comb. Besides it does not 
take a piece of comb to convince con- 
sumers that the honey is pure. Pure honey 
recommends itself. 

Hives not only require a proper handling 
of the bees but also a proper handling of 
the product to make bee-keeping a success. 

Cincinnati, O. Chas. F. Muth. 



If bees are not allowed to possess any- 
thing analogous to reason, the regard for 
their queen, and the watchful care of their 
young, must result from some pleasurable 
sensations derived from them. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



137 



For tne American Bee Journal. 

Shall we Clip our Queen's Wings ? 

Gen. Adair, to wliom I thiuk we are 
much iudebted for his " New Idea Hive," 
holds that the air tubes, which help 
to form the veins of wings, are important 
aids- in respiration; hence, clipping the 
wings, clogs respiration, and renders the 
queen imbecile. 

Again, accidental "peculiarities are inher- 
itable; should we then crop our queen's 
wings, at the risk of creating a race of 
wingless queens? First, as to the facts : — 
Surely, neither structure nor a false phys- 
iology, can hope to refute the well-grounded 
facts gleaned from experience. The real 
proof of the pudding is still in the eating; 
and who of us, that are experienced bee- 
keepers, have not demonstrated that wing- 
clipped queens are, in every way, the 
equals of those with " undamaged respira- 
tion." An Italian queen, with clipped 
wings, procured from ]\Ir. Langstroth, and 
three years of age, netted me $40.00 during 
the season of 1873. Half of my queens 
had wings clipped, and they were fully the 
peers of the others. All these netted me 
over $30.00. Now, friend Adair, is not 
that pretty well? I believe the experience 
of nearly all, will refute your theory. 

Now for the theory : — To be sure, there 
are tracheae iu all the wings, whose cer- 
tain function is to convey air to arterialize or 
oxygenate the blood which is to nourish the 
wings; but after the wings are once fully 
formed, they need no further nourishment, 
unless broken down by use. The queen, 
after her marriage flight, has no further use 
for her wings in a well-kept apiary ; so they 
need little or no nourishment, blood or air : 
iu fact, are eflete appendages, and may as 
well — yes better — be cut off. In both the 
white ants (neuropterous), and common 
ants (hymeuopterous), the economy of the 
colony, and also the nature and functions 
of the individuals, are very similar to the 
same among bees; and in their case the 
workers bite oil' the queen's wings, to pre- 
^■ent swarming. Yet these queens are very 
fertile, and apparently very healthy. Can 
we doubt that nature would have provided 
for the despoliation of the queen-bee's 
wings, except that, in nature, swarming 
was a necessity, and demanded perfect or- 
gans for flight ? Domestication changes 
ati'airs, and thus should change manage- 
ment. 

No ! Air and trachett are only needed 
to insure growth and nutrition of the part 
(tlie part gone), the air and tubes are no 
more needed. As well declaim against 
amputation of a limb, because it would cut 
off the supply of blood. I believe the two 
cases are strictly analogous. 

But would not the deformity become a 



permanent inheritance ? It has not, witli 
ants;uor in higher animals lias cropping 
the ears, branding or cutting ofl' the tails, 
for untold generations, given us cause to 
fear any danger : and this too, with organs 
of far greater vitality. Because some tailless 
cat, in some distant clime, is re-ported to 
have brought forth tailless kittens, breed- 
ers have made very much of a principle, 
which every dog experience proves to be 
exceptional. Congenital deformities, to be 
sure, are apt to be transmitted, but the same 
is not true of deformities acquired after 
Ijirth. 

The editor of this journal, compares this 
practice to the obsolete practice of docking 
horses' tails. The cases are no ways simi- 
lar, I think. This is painless, and benefi- 
cial; the other, cruel, useless, and shocking 
to morality and good taste. 

Again, God would not have made wings 
for the queen, etc : — Surely, our friend, the 
editor, did not ofter this as a serious argu- 
ment. This argument would strip us of 
our clothing, take the shoes from our 
horses, and render the males of nearly all 
our domestic animals much less useful and 
tractable. 

Domestication makes changes desirable; 
and man has been given a mind capable of 
suggesting improvements upon nature; else 
why our houses, barns, or even our im- 
proved hives ? 

It is strange that Dr. Packard should 
have added his commendation to this 
theory. He must have supposed that prac- 
tice or experience demanded it. Yet this 
is not the first mistake, or hasty conclu- 
sion, from men of rare scientific acquire- 
ments. Else why did Prof. Riley give 
credence to the error, refuted by anatomy, 
and contrary to all experience, and correct 
observation, that bees eat into grapes, 
when, forsooth, they only lap up what is 
rapid!}' going to waste, through the mis- 
chief caused by the stronger jaws of wasps, 
or frugivorous birds ? A. J. Cook. 

Agricultural College, Lansing, Mich., 
May 9th., 1874. 

For the American Bee Journal 

Extraordinary Swarming in March. 

On the 11th. of Feb., the day being 
warm and suitable, 1 carried my hives out 
of the cave and let them have a purifying 
flight. The day following being cool, they 
were returned to the cave and left there 
until the 17th of March when they were 
carried out and placed on their summer 
stands. The day was suitable, being warm 
and calm, and in a short time the air was 
alive with them. Before we had finished 
their removal and while carrying others 
out, I noticed a great many bees about a 
certain hive, and remarked to my son, who 



138" 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



was assisting me, that there was aa extra 
strong colony. We placed the last one on 
its bench about 2 o'clock p. m., and I must 
confess I felt much gratified that all the 
colonies were alive and in a condition to 
do well ; for my experience the two 
winters before, had been attended with 
such a loss that I felt quite a relief when 
the last hive was out and each one contain- 
ed a colony of living bees. (For during 
the winter of 1871-72 and spring following 
I lost 26 colonies. And in the winter of 
1872-73 and spring following I lost 93, 
leaving 23 to start out with in poor condi- 
tion. They all died with dysentery.) About 
3 o'clock p. m. the supposed strong colony 
was found to be swarming out and the 
bees lighting on several hives around, rush- 
ed in but soon came out again, joined by 
the inmates, and such a swarming mania 
was a new thing to me. The air Avas full 
of bees from all the hives and it appeared 
as if most of those loo were siezed with the 
same excitement and joined the big crowd. 

After going through the regular course 
of swarming they settled in two clusters 
several rods apart, and each one contained 
enough bees to make ten or a dozen fair 
colonies at this season of the year. Well, 
here was a damper, and as I stood and 
looked at those two huge piles of bees, the 
pleasant visions of swarms in June, and 
honey too, — Oh, my, how quick thej^ vanish- 
ed ! And this unlooked for "matter of 
fact " in its huge proportions hung before 
me, and the question was : How can I 
save these bees 'i 

The sun was within an hour of setting, 
the wind had come in from a cool quarter, 
and soon the bees would be much chilled. 
One queen seen on the ground was used to 
make a colony with ; then hastily passing 
round among the hives, the weakest were 
selected and an ordinary sized swarm of 
bees given it, until they were all disposed 
of. The weather becoming too cool to 
meddle with them, they had to be left for 
some time. As soon as it became warm 
enough, I began transferring the colonies, 
to clean hives, and helping the destitute as 
well as I could. 

I find I have lost 26 out of 81, with quite 
a number of feeble colonies to build up. 
The greatest loss sustained was by the de- 
population of the hives from the bees in 
the air at the time of joining the swarming 
party and leaving the numbers in the hives 
so small that they perished during the cold 
spell that followed. I have kept bees for 
over 35 years, and have on some occasions 
had colonies in the spring, destitute of 
stores, come oft" and attempt to enter 
another hive but all these except the first 
one that came oft" left stores and brood. 

My hives are placed on benches in rows 
and about 8 feet apart. If this should 



come under the notice of Messrs. Quinby, 
Grimm, Gallup, or any other apiarian of 
extensive experience, and they perceive 
wherein I have erred, I shall feel mucli 
obliged if they will point it out to me. 
Atlanta, 111. L. James. 



An Enterprising Settler in Nebraska. 

The Loioell (Nebraska) Register prints the 
record of an enterprising settler. Mr. M. S. 
Budlong settled on the edge of Franklin Co., 
Nebraska, bordering on Kearney Co., in 
March, 1872. When he arrived on his home- 
stead, with his two sons, he had two spans of 
horses, but only eleven dollars in money. At 
the beginning of 1874 he had 100 acres of land 
under cultivation ; an orchard containing .500 
young apple trees, 100 pear trees, and loO 
cherry trees, and a vineyard of .500 gi-ape 
vines. Mr. Budlong is now about to plant 200 
apple trees, 200 peach trees, and 500 addi- 
tional grape-vines. 

The homestead is in .Southern Nebraska, 
and on the level ])rairie ; and no man, who 
has the spirit of Mr. Budlong need fear to 
settle where there are no trees to shade his 
roof-tree from the sun. If he plants as Mr. 
Budlong has done, in five years his orchard 
will be coming into bearing ; and, if he has 
made a wind brake of Cottonwood, he will 
have ample fuel for his stoves. 

Certainly, eleven dollars in cash is not ade- 
quate for the needs of the ordinary settler, 
though there are numerous instances in Neb- 
raska of men starting in this way upon no- 
thing, as it were, and in a few years working 
themselves into positions of comfort. — Sucli 
men are brave and enterprising ; but a capital 
of $.500, at least, is a good thing upoji which 
to start. The larger the capital — given skill, 
enterprise, courage and industry, without 
which money is of little moment — and the 
greater the gain. There is abundant room 
and ample scope in Nebraska for men like 
Mr. Budlong, 



For the American Bee Jouriu;!. 

Rape and what to do with it, etc. 

Many readers of the Ameiucax Bp:e Jour- 
nal enquire of us where they can find a 
market for rape near them, in case they sow 
some ? In our pamphlet we state that the 
proprietors of the Fond du Lac Oil Works 
will establish an agent wherever a car load of 
rape can be bought, so you can have a market 
right at your door. But if that amount can- 
not be had, the s(!ed may be sent to them in 
grain bags. Or it may bo fed to stock ; there 
can hardly be anything better for sheep, it is, 
of course, nuich richer than oil cake ; there- 
fore only a very small quantity should be 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



139 



given at a time. It could be mixed with 
ground feed, we cannot say in what propor- 
tion as we have not tried it. It would thus 
make very rich and lieaUhy food for cattle 
and horses. 

Our thanks are due to frieiul Dadant for 
the light thrown on the grape and bee sub- 
ject. Fortunately for me it lights up my side 
only, while it leaves Mr. lliley in the dark ; 
it will afford him a sort of magic lantern 
view, where, in order to see the object, one 
nmst be in the dark. 

Hope the advice given by II. W. S. will be 
fcfllowed by those who care to know the 
facts. It is certainly important to know 
whether bees are guilty or not. And by fruit 
and bee cultivators taking close observations, 
we shall know for a certainty, leaving no 
room for doubt. In some parts of the coun- 
try bee-haters are crying aloud for laws for- 
bidding bee keeping ; asserting that they are 
a nuisance, and that they destroy fruit, and 
raise the deuce generally. And if bee-keep- 
ers do not remonstrate they will tinally suc- 
ceed in making such laws. 

We as bee-keepers should stand by the bees 
and their keepers, if these charges can be 
proven to be'false. H. O. Kritschke. 



To Beginners in Apiculture. 

BY PROP. A. J. COOK. 



In the article of last month was given the 
method of queen rearing. Perchance aye, 
very like, the beginners first effort will be 
fruitless. Or instead of four queens he may 
succeed but partial Ij'. obtaining but one, two, 
or three. In this case, or even if his first 
attempt be an entire success, he had better 
repeat the operation and be siu-e that the first 
year's experience has made him an adept at 
queen rearing. Any time that we desire 
queen cells, we have but to remove a queen 
from the colony — always from our most 
esteemed colony — and queen cells will be im- 
mediately built, and very soon filled. Not 
only beginners, but every bee-keeper should 
always have a good number of extra queens 
during the honey season. The reason for 
this will appear in the sequel. 

TO IXCKEASE OUR COLONIES. 

It is not in the province of these articles to 
show that artificial division of colonies is 
superior, hence preferable to natural swarm- 
ing. But all experienced bee-keepers know 
this to be the case. Convenience, as well as 
the best success, demands that the beginner 
should practice artitical swarming. The 
apiarist may make two colonies from one, or 
what will be better for our beginner, be con- 
tent with an increase of one colony at a time. 

Take vour rotten-wood and smoke both the 



old colonies very thoroughly, and also one of 
the nuclei, which has hatched out a queen.— 
The queen shoiUd have been hatched 7 or 8 
days, that you nuiy be sure that she has met 
a drone and been fertilized.— Place after the 
thorough smoking, the nucleus frames, 
(lueen, bees and all into a separate hive, then 
take o or 4 frames, bees and all, from each of 
the old hives, being very sure not to include 
the (pieen, as such a mistake would involve 
the loss of a queen and a check in the oi)era- 
tions of the old hive, and that too at a season, 
when inactivity is attended with serious loss. 
Put these frames in the new hive with 
the two frames taken from the nucleus. Now 
fill in all three hives with empty frames. — 
These may be put between full frames so as 
to insure straight comb building, or as I pre- 
fer all at one end, so as not to separate brood, 
in which case the apiarist must see that the 
comb is built true to the frame. Now place 
your nucleus hive say,onefoot to one side, and 
place your new colony so that the entrance 
shall be^very near where that of the nucleus 
was. By moving a few inches each day the 
hive can soon be placed where desire may 
dictate. The old bees taken from the old 
hives will return, while the young ones, the 
bees from the nucleus, and the rapidly hatch- 
ing brood will soon make a strong colony. 
The free use of smoke will prevent fighting 
which would seldom ensue without it, as the 
new hive through mixing of bees, together 
with the great number of young bees, will 
almost always change anger into surprise. 

Now as the bees grow in strength, the col- 
onies may gi'ow^ in nvnnber by a repetition of 
the above process. By thus making new col- 
onies from several, all the colonies are kept 
strong as they do not feel the loss of the few 
bees, few frames, and comparatively small 
amount of brood. I now have hives (May 9th) 
with ten frames of brood— frames one foot 
square. They could easily spare -S or 4 
frames. The great point in successful bee- 
keeping is to always keep the colony strong, 
as this fortifies against nearly all the ills in 
bee-keeping. Another point equally import- 
ant already hinted at is to suffer no pause in 
the labor of the hive during the honey sea- 
son. See to it that no hive is (pieenless even 
for a day. 

As the warmth and bloom draw on see to it 
that your bees have plenty of room. If the 
queen has no room to deposit eggs from the 
fact that all the cells in the breeding depart- 
ment are full of honey, buy an extractor and 
extract it. If the workers need more room 
for storing, put on boxes or put some frames 
in your upper story. If both queen and 
workers have plenty of room and are shaded 
from the hot sun. I think the bees wiW 
never hang idly from the outside of the hive. 



140 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



ci 



^mii^xm{§ts\ ^mn\^l 



W. F. CLARKE, Editor. 



CHICAGO, JUNE, 1874. ' 

What is Honey? 

Gen. D. L. Adair is reported to have said 
at the North American Bee-Keepers' Con- 
vention : " Strictly speaking, there is no 
distinct substance that can be called honey. 
The bees gather from flowers, from the 
diff'erent sweets known as honey dews, and 
from the saccharine juice of fruits and 
plants, substances that consist chiefly of 
sugar in some forms, mixed with other 
secretions and essential oils, and store it in 
the comb cells, and it is called honey. It 
necessarily varies widely, depending on the 
source from which it is derived. All honey 
is sugar containing vegetable substances in 
solution with it. Sugar in all three of its 
forms is, in a general sense, the sweet prin- 
ciple of plants, fruits and trees. Cane- 
sugar, fruit-sugar and what is known as 
grape-sugar, vary but slightly in their con- 
stituent elements, and can be chemically 
converted into each other. They dift'er 
only in the proportion of hydrogen and 
oxygen, or the element of water. Bees 
will gather and store up anything that sugar 
in any of its forms are mixed with, so as 
to give a decided sweet taste ; and while it 
may be true that in the process of gather- 
ing and transferring to the hive, no chem- 
ical change takes place, they mechanically 
change its taste by its absorbing the scent 
peculiar to the hive, and often change its 
consistency by a process of evaporations of 
any excess of water." 

Gen. Adair is a very scientific and suc- 
cessful apiarian, and we can usually en- 
dorse his views to the full. But he is oc- 
casionally hyper-philosophical, and pushes 
science too far. It may be qui^e true that 
sugar is the basis of all sweets, honey in- 
cluded, but it is convenient, to say the least 
to have distinctive terms for the var- 
ious saccharine substances, though the one 
luscious principle pervades them all. Only 
confusion of ideas can come to the popular 



mind, by forcing too much philosophical 
accuracy into common modes of speech. 
Thus, we call one form of sweet, molasses; 
another, syrup; and still a third, honey. 
What is the good of arguing that there is 
no distinct substance that can be called 
molasses ? It is the popular and commer- 
cial name of a liquid sweet obtained from 
the West Indies, having a peculiar flavor, 
and capable of being distilled into rum. 
Yet we all know that its main constituent 
's sugar, or the saccharine principle. So of 
honey. It is a liquid sweet, gathered from 
a thousand flowers, acted on in some pecu- 
liar way by the honey-gatherers, and poss- 
essing a flavor and properties peculiar to 
itself. But mankind were pretty well 
aware, before Gen. Adair delivered his phil- 
osophical disquisition, that honey was 
mainly composed of sugar. 

There is a question as yet unsettled 
among scientific bee-keepers, to which Gen. 
Adair seems to give the go-by altogether. 
He says, "It may be true that in the pro- 
cess of gathering and transferring to the 
hive, no chemical change takes place " in 
the sugary stores collected by the bees. On 
the other hand, it may be true, as many 
suppose, that a chemical change does take 
place, and that the formic acid in the body 
of the bee so acts on the gathered sweet as 
to transform it essentially. There may be 
more than an influence mechanically ex- 
erted by the odor of the hive. Each hive 
is generally considered to have its peculiar 
scent, and hence in joining swarms or in- 
troducing new queens, it is good policy to 
introduce smoke or some perfume to con- 
found the bees for a time, until the new 
colonists or newly-introduced queen come 
to smell like the rest. But honey, if gath- 
ered from the same flower, is all alike, no 
matter in what hive it is stored. At any 
rate, human senses cannot detect any difter- 
ence. It is therefore quite as probable that 
the change is chemical, as that it is merely 
mechanical. On the whole, we are in- 
clined to think that the great majority of 
people will persist in believing that there 
is such a thing as honey. If they should 
come to a ditt'erent opinion, and conclude 
that it is mere sugar, "only that and noth- 
ing more," we fear it will spoil bee-keep- 
ing, and that it will no longer be possible 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



141 



to obtain twice or three times as much as for 
common sugar. " Where ignorance is 
bliss, 'tis folly to be wise." 



Successful Wintering. 

To the Editor o/ American Bep: Journal. 

Sir : — I notice an item in your valuable 
paper, as follows : — "He may be regarded 
as a master in bee culture, who knows 
how to winter his stoclv in a healthy con- 
dition, with the least loss of bees, the 
smallest consumption of stores, and with 
the combs unsoiled." 

Well, then, I am a master in bee culture, 
for I have succeeded in all of the above 
particulars, combs nice and bright, bees all 
alive, and my strongest stocks have not 
consumed more than 15 lbs. apiece. I will 
tell you how I proceed. I study the "Bee- 
Keeper's Guide," use the " Thomas " hive, 
have built a bee-house according to the 
"Guide," only I make the walls 18 inches 
thick, tilled with oat straw well packed in, 
have two doors, one to open inside and the 
other out, and put newspapers between 
these two doors. Through the winter I 
open the bottom ventilator when the 
weather is warm, and close it again when 
the weather grows cold. 

I prepare my hives for winter by remov- 
ing the honey board, and place on a frame 
of inch stulf covered with wire cloth, then 
till the cap with wheat straw, by turning it 
over, and filling it in nicely, so that it will 
not fall out when placed on the hive. I 
leave the bottom ventilator of the hive 
open. My bees are always healthy on 
natural stores, and I think it too bad to ex- 
tract all their honey and winter them on 
sugar syrup. Yesterday my bees were 
working lively on meal prepared of two 
parts of buckwheat flour, one of wheat 
rtour, with a little sorts and bran mixed 
in. — I am, etc., 

Il.A MlCHENER. 

Low Banks, April 14th, 1874. 

[We congratulate our correspondent on 
his attainment of the degree of M. B. C. — 
" Master in Bee Culture." His plan of 
wintering is undoubtedly a good one, 
though we should fear, without a large 
amount of ventilation, the bees would be 
too warm in an ice-proof house, with the 
hive cover stuffed full of chaff. Growing 
experience, however, inclines us to the 
opinion that bees are oftener hurt by get- 
ting chilled than by being kept over-warm. 
To judge by the small amount of honey 
consumed, we .should be inclined to think 
Mr. Michener has hit the happy mean 



between the two extremes of heat and 
cold. We should like to know if his house 
is regulated by the use of a thermometer, 
and if so, at what degree of temperature he 
keeps it. We should also like to know if 
the past winter is the only one during 
which his bees have been treated in the 
manner described, or if he has had several 
years' experience of the method. We are 
acquainted with numerous bee-keepers, 
whose experience has been very variable 
in wintering their bees in a similar way. 
We believe that this was the case with Mr. 
Thomas himself, whose plan, as described 
in the " Guide," Mr. Michener has substan- 
tially followed. We can testify that it has 
been ours. " One swallow does not make 
a summer," nor does one sea.son's success 
in wintering a lot of bees constitute an 
apiarian a " Master in bee culture." What 
is wanted is a definite method, which has 
only to be followed to secure uniform and 
certain success. So far as we know, no 
such method has yet been demonstrated.] 

Back Volumes. 

Complete sets of back volumes are scarce. 
But few can be procured at any price. We 
have a set, consisting of the nine volumes 
(complete), which we offer for sale, either 
bound or unbound, for a reasonable sum. 
Many of the numbers we have paid fifty cents 
each for, to complete them. 

We have several single volumes (complete) 
which we will send postpaid for f 2.00 each. 

Several volumes, which lack only a single 
number ot being complete, we will send post- 
paid for .'S1..50 each. 

Vol. 1, we can supply in cloth boards, post- 
paid, for .ffl.2.5. Bound in paper covers, $1.00, 
postage 10 cents. This volume is worth five 
times its price to any intelligent bee-keeper. 
It contains a full elucidation of scientific bee- 
keeping, including the best statement extant 
of the celebrated Dzierzon theory. These 
articles run through eight numbers, and are 
from the pen of the Baron of Berlepsch. 

'^W' Beginners in bee-culture, who desire 
to read up in the literature of bee-keeping, 
are earnestly advised to obtain these back 
volumes. Many of our best apiarians say 
they would not sell tlieir back volumes of the 
American Bee Journat> for ten times the 
sum they cost, if they could not replace them. 
They are exceedingly valuable alike to begin- 
ners and more advanced apiarians. 



142 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Voices from among the Hives. 

Archibald Smith, Roswell, Ga., writes: 
— "The season lirrc, altliough mild, has been 
so %vet since January, that bees have hardlj' 
got a living; notwithstanding the fruit bloom 
was very abundant." 

John Daavson, Pontiac, Mich., writes:— 
" This has been a poor spring for bees. 
They wintered well enough till March, but 
there have been many days that were just 
warm enough for bees to fly and get lost. I 
have known bees to gather pollen from the 
gray willows, on the 7th and 8th of March; 
but it was April 30th, this year, before any 
wer(^ taken in, and we have had frosty nights 
and cold, bleak days ever since. The buds on 
fruit trees have hardly begun to swell yet." 

W. A. B., Bridgeport, Ct., writes:— "The 
best thing I have ever tried for ee-stings, is 
to first pull out the sting, and then take a 
small tube, the end of a liollow key for in- 
stance, and fi]uily press round the sting for a 
short time. The reasons for its action, I 
think, are two : first, it jiresses out the poison ; 
second, it bruises the flesh so as to partly 
stop its spreading. It must be done very 
quick to do any good. I have tried it, and "a 
good many other remedies, and this has done 
the best." 

H. W. WixoM, Mendota, Ills., writes:— 
" The past winter has been easy on bees, l)ut 
the spring has been very rough. I have lost 
nearly one-third of mine since the middle of 
March. There lias been so much high and 
cold wind it seemed to i^revent them from 
breeding, and the old bees ai-e thinning out 
very fast. Those that are left will be' very 
weak. The case is about the same generally 
throughout this section of country. It is 
now raining and cool, and it is hard to tell 
what the final result will be." 

Henky Claussen, Mishicott, Wis., writes: 
— " My bees have wintered well. I ]Hit them 
into the cellar Nov. 5, seventy-one in number, 
and carried forty-two of them out April 2, 
and the rest April S. I lost only one hive, 
because they had nothing more to eat. Three 
colonies lost their queens. One was an old 
queen, but the other two were raised last 
sinimier. My bees are all in good condition, 
although the weather has been cold almost 
all the time since I took them out. On A]iril 
20 we had a snow storm; the snow was lying 
about a foot deep, and a good deal of it is 
lying on the ground yet (April If)). Some of 
my colonies have brood in four, and some in 
five frames. I hope for a good season." 

E. A. Sheldon, Independence, Iowa, 
writes: — "My nineteen stands of bees that I 
put in cellar "on Nov. 18, w(>re taken out April 
17, all alive and in si)lendid condition, save 
two that died for want of bees enough to 
keep up natural heat. They had plenty of 
natural stores. The seventeen that are left 
are working at a rapid rate, bringing in both 
honey and pollen, although no fruit trees are 
in blossom yet. They have gathered from the 
willow, mostly, of which we have an abund- 
ance here. I wintered in a dry cellar, with 
caps off, board raised, and front entrance 
open full size. The thermometer ranged 
from 32degs. to 40 degs., generally from 34 
degs. to 38 degs. Occasionally I raised it to 
50 degs. by artificial heat. They were quiet 
all winter, and had no disease or mouldy 
combs, are now about one-half full of brood. 
I use the Oalhii> frame hive. I have used 
other sizes, but like this best." 



Wm. Morris, Sidney, Iowa, writes:— "The 
past winter has been a long one with us, but 
rather mild, and bees seem to have consumed 
more honey than usual. The spring is very 
backward, and now (April 20th) the ground is 
covered with snow. We have had two days 
since the elm came out in bloom, that the 
bees gathered pollen. With that exception, 
they have been unable to get any forage, ex- 
cept flowers fed them. I am trying to keep 
bees, and hitherto have had reasonable suc- 
cess, up to within the last two weeks. Since 
that time, the conceit has gone from me, I 
went into winter quarters, with twenty-seven 
colonies. They were in the Champion hive, 
part of them in the size containing eight 
frames, and part ten. In the fall I removed 
to the cellar twelve colonies, part in the large, 
and part in the small hives. In February, 
those in the cellar were all in good condition, 
but those on their summer stands were more 
or less aifected with the dysentery. On ex- 
amination I found every small hive affected, 
but no signs of dysentery in a single in- 
stance ambng the large ones. A few warm 
days seemed to set all right, and I was 
pleased at having come through the winter 
without hfsing a colony, but my rejoicing 
was of short duration. About two weeks ago 
the ^^'eatlu'r was pleasant, and the bees flying, 
when to my suri)rise four colonies left their 
hives. AVe succeeded in settling one, but the 
other three went " where the woodbine twin- 
eth." I examined the deserted hives, and 
found all nice and clean, and plenty of honey- 
brood and eggs. It is a mystery to me what 
caused it. At first I feared that it was caused 
by having previously examined them to see 
if all was right, but my neighbors sufl:'ered 
loss in the same manner. They had a large 
colony in a hive, which came out and settled 
on a tree. They knocked tiie hive to pieces 
and transferred the cond) with what honey 
they could save, to a movable comb hive, and 
then hived the bees in it. They went to work 
immediately, as if nothing had happened. 
The remaining honey in the hive weighed 40 
lbs. So neither disturbance nor want of 
honey could be the real cause. Now what I 
desire to know is: Are large hives less liable 
to be affected with dyseiitery, than small 
ones ? And what is the cause of bees leav- 
ing their hives, stores and brood, as ours have 
done ? Can some of your nmnerous corres- 
pondents give the desired information ? " 

D. D. Palmer, Eliza, 111., wTites :— Wish- 
ing to in-ocure a basket-full of new chips, I left 
New Boston at 4 p. m. April l(i, in a covered 
buggy drawn by the iron horse and reached 
Keokuk at 9 : 1.5 p. m., crossed the Mississipj)i 
on the iron bridge, and on awaking next 
morning I found myself at Hamilton, III., 
and within about two miles (bee-line) of Ch. 
Dadant and Son. According to directions I 
followed up the creek, occasionally stop})ing 
to view nature's works, which in this place is 
grand and )ucturesque, till I came to a town 
composed of bee-hives of various colors and 
arranged in rows under the shade of a natxu'al 
grove. At the upjier end of Main Street and 
near to the above mentioned town is the resi- 
dence of the i)roprietor ; to which I hastened 
my stei>s and found myself in time for break- 
fast. BtM's and bee-keepers was the topic of 
conversation during which I was shown 
photographs of a few apiaries and of many 
euuuent bee men of Eurojie and America, 
besides an endless nuudx'r of circulars of 
bees and hives. Every letter and circular 
receiv(Ml finds its appropriate place for pre- 
servation. 

I have formerlv thought, when reading an 



TUJi AMi^ilUUAJN ±JEE JOUKJNAL. 



143 



article translated from soin(» foreign bee jour- 
nal that, we sliould be vt-ry thankful to l)a- 
daut and others for that tedious task ; hut 
Hndin<^ that C. P. Dadant can take a French 
or Italian journal and translate in Enf^lish as 
fast as we usually read, 1 have concluded to 
give him credit i'or his ability instead of a 
tedious task. C. V. Dadant announces that it 
is warm enough to open hives ; we arm our- 
selves with hee hats, made by attaching 
bobouette to a straw nat and at the lower 
end is a piece of elastic which fits around the 
neck, a shallow box witli a handle in the 
middle and divided into suitable apartments 
in which is carried the different articles need- 
ed in the apiary. 

A number of hives are to be fixed for shii>- 
ping and now for the rnodus operatidL Each 
hive is examined to see if pure and if strong 
enough to fill the order. To secure the frames 
an ingenious bent wire is used at the bottom, 
it hcing one of Ch. Dadant's inventions, next 
the frames are properly spaced and nailed 
witli brads, then the honey— board is nailed 
and cover etc. I saw several queens and they 
were very uniform in size and color. They 
are well "located for shipping facilities, but 
the honey resources are not plenty when com- 
iiared with Sweet Home. In all things they 
have system and order. The hives are all 
numbered behind and to each is nailed a tin 
black-board holder, the black-board being 
about 3x4 inches, having upon the corner of 
one side the number of the hive and upon the 
opjiosite side a liquid-slating on which is 
written with pencil the condition of the hive, 
age of queen etc., the writing is turned in- 
ward to prevent being erased, when empty 
the black side is turned outward. The nuni- 
bered side can be inverted or changed in 
various ways to mean as many different con- 
ditions. 1 said that his liives were numbered, 
the nuclei for raising <|ueens were numbered 
by letters of the alphabet. 

Tliey use the wax comb-guide described in 
(Jleanings page 13, vol. 2. Also the divisible 
frame, i. e. dividing a full sized frame into 
e(iual halves for the nuclei — see Ch. Dadant's 
description on page 39 of Gleanings vol. 2. 

They believe bees should have'salt, and for 
that purpose they have a stand in the apiary 
on which they invert a small-mouthed jar, 
having previously filled it with strong brine 
and covered with muslin which is tied around 
the neck. Is salt necessary or beneficial ? 
Of what use d(^ bees make of it ? Why do 
they prefer water that is salty ? 

C. P. Dadant used a slate pencil for his 
black-board writing, it suggested the idea to 
me that a slate would be better than a board, 
I accordingly procured me eight school slates 
for 70 centSj which I cut in 64 pieces about 
23^x3 inches each of which is large enough. On 
one side I have put the number of hive and 
on the opposite I put the record and condi- 
tion of the hive. While talking with W. T. 
Kirk of Muscatine, Iowa, about the above he 
said : " Why not drill a hole in the slates 
and hang on a nail "? If slates could be pro- 
cured without frames they would not cost, 
labor and all, over one cent each, which is 
less than the black-board, and so far I think 
much better to write on. With a rule and 
slate pencil I laid off the slate and then I 
sharpened one end of a file with which I cut 
it on opposite sides and tlicn broke as glaziers 
do. And with a brace and the above file I 
drilled the holes, slate is soft and easily cut. 

I forgot to mention in its place that Dadant 
uses the " quilt " or rather a very heavy mus- 
lin, they dip the edges in bees-wax to prevent 
the bees cutting, then the original honey- 
board is placed on top to hold it down. 



J. M. Simmons, M. D., Lauderdale, Mis.s., 
writes :— "I Ixmgiit 4 box hives, and one of 
King's .$10 cdose-toj) hives and transferred my 
bees and combs to them. 

King has the idea in some respects if he 
would cut the fi-am(>s to %, leave off his 
supers and make the hives longc^r and deeper. 
Ijast fall having r(!ad so nuich by Novice 
about wintering I nnluced my 10 stocks to 6, 
but I think the 10 would have wintered better 
aiul now 1 would have 10 stocks instead of 6. 
Last fall I sent to K. M. Argo for two Italian 
queens ami he sent me some fine-looking 
ones, but no directions about nuiking queen 
cages, so I lost one in introducing them. 
After my loss I introduced one of the old 
queens and they must have killed her, as I 
found the hive queenless when I examined it 
in January. I commenced this year with six 
hives but having to unite the queenless one 
and letting one starve I reduced my stock to 
four. In wintering my stocks last fall I did 
not kill any of the (pieens, and the first warm 
spell this year, two swarms came out of two 
of the united hives and went back. I ex- 
amined the hives and found a dead (jueen in 
each and many bees dead in the hives and 
outside. Well, I supposed just then that I 
was minus two queens and many bees from 
disease, but I found upon examining the 
frames two very fine large queens and they 
are to-day the finest queens I have, and have 
the largest stocks. 

These swarms remained in those hives all 
the winter and as soon as the weather moder- 
ated they took a notion to separate but find- 
ing it rather too cold outside, they returned 
and were killed. In March I was examining 
one of my hives and found them killiug their 
queen, superseding her, for they had started 
a queen cell. I cut it out and "gave them a 
frame of eggs and brood from my Italian 
stock and now have two fine Italian (lueens 
and two stocks instead of one, but I am afraid 
they met common drones instead of Italian as 
I had some of both. I have tried to keep the 
common drones out of my hives by killing 
and uncapping. I want " to Italianize all 
stocks this year. 

I find there are two kinds of native South- 
ern bees in this section, one a little black bee, 
cross and spiteful, stinging every thing that 
comes near, the other a large yellow bee as 
large as the Italian and very much like them 
in their disposition and habits. l)ut they have 
none of the Italian marks, tliey must l)e a cross 
of the Italian, for my (lueen's are as large or 
larger than the Italians, but much darker. I 
never use smoke unless I want to unite them, 
and not always then. I have dispensed with 
supers and converted my two-story hives into 
single story hives 34 in. long holding 31 or 33 
fraines 13x9 in. inside measure. 

INIy bees have (luit sugar since they got 
natural supplies, unless it is cool or raining, 
then they work on it. I don't think handling 
bees often injures them, if the weather is 
pleasant, for inine don't stop working unless 
I disturb them a good deal, and 1 think some- 
times that opening the hives is a benefit and 
starts them out when if left alone they would 
do nothing. 

I am trying a small patch of Alsike clover 
to see if it will do for our hot climate. Buck- 
wheat does well here, tried it here last year 
and bees worked on it freely. This has 6een 
a bad season for bees but tliey have com- 
menced gathering lioney. The great trouble 
with us is insects, and want of frame hives, 
most all use the box and gum hives and call 
the queen the king bee, and say it is wrong to 
sell oees but you can steal them and all is 
'O.K.'" 



144 



THE AMEKICAJN BKK JOURNAL. 



.-4 



1 ttt^f kart ^4 J<ruii|al 



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CHICAGO.— Choice white comb honey. ;i8 
I @30c ; fair to good, 'i4@28c. Extracted, 
choice white, 14@16c ; fair to good, 10@13c ; 
I strained, 8@10c. 

CINCINNATI.— Quotations from Chas. F. 
Muth, 976 Central Ave. 

I Comb honey, 1.5@.3.5c, according to the con- 
dition of the honey and the size of the box or 
frame. Extracted choice white clover honev, 

I 16c. ^ lb. 

! ST. LOUIS.— Quotations from W. G. Smith 
419 North Main St. 

Choice white comb, 2.5@29c ; fair to good, 
16@32c. Extracted choice white clover, 16@ 
18c. Choice basswood honey, 14@16c ; fair 
to good, extracted, 8@l'2c ; strained, 6@10c. 

NEW YORK.— Quotations from E. A. Wal- 
ker, 13.5 Oakland st., Greenport, L. I. 

White honey in small glass boxes, 'i5c ; 
dark 15((r 2()c. Strained honey, 8@12c. Cuban 
honey, ■51.00 ^ gal. St. Domingo, and Mexi- 
an, 'M(a:'X) %> gal. 

SAN FRANCISCO. — Quotations frcm 
Sterns and Smith, 423 Front st. 

Choice mountain honey, in comb, 22>^@2oo ; 
common, 17@20c ; strained, 10@12c, in 5 gal- 
lon cans. Valley honey, in comb, 12@17c ; 
strained, 8@10c. 



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lacking only one or two numbers each, we 
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send for them at once. 



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American Bee Journal 

DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO BEE CULTURE. 



Vol. X. 



CHICAGO, JULY, 1874. 



No. 7. 



4<rm$jj<jndttw4, 



For the Amerieaii Bee Journal. 



Wintering, etc. 



I felt very much encouraged as the win- 
ter months passed away, to find all my bees 
alive, as well those left in my charge for 
the winter by the firm of Nunn Bros., of 
Oberliu, amounting in all to 133 stocks — 30 
of my own and 103 being one of Nunn 
Bros.' apiaries. But the spring months 
bi'ought very different results. On Feb. 
5th all were alive, and apparently in good 
condition. A few lacked stores, and had 
to be fed accordingly. On the 7tli of Feb. 
I found 8 of my own dead, and 4 or 5 of 
Nunn Bros.' and every warm day in which 
the bees could fly showed that another one 
or more had run its allotted time — but the 
worst had not yet come. It was certainly 
hard to see 50 or GO stocks die, and apjJa- 
reatly no cause, but to see the remaining 
ones dwindle down to small, weak stocks 
and have to unite them and notice them in 
a few days still diminishing, and that in 
April, and uniting as many as 3 or 4 to- 
gether, and in May still be weak I felt 
blue as I had never liefore. I united and 
united, until I reduced my own to 3 stocks 
and Nunn Bros.' to 26, leading them with 
the choicest queens. Then some of them 
seemed very undecided whether lift^was 
worth the living or not, but others proAred 
remarkably well. " 

Before I ask the cause of such mortality, I 
must give the circumstances somewhat in 
detail. Plives, Standard liangstroth; some 
well packed with straw; nearly all had 
blankets; about 20 with honey-boards, all 
of which died; straw packed in upper 
stories. Last time of exti-acting, iu Septem- 
ber. The week following each liive had an 
average of 351bs. of honey, and 8 or 10 
frames of brood, (some even 10) and many 
of tliem younu' (jueens. There were very 



Correspondents should write only on one side of 
the sheet. Their best th()ni,'hts and practical ideas are 
always welcome ; no matter how rough, we will cheer- 
fully '"fix them up." 



few older than 3 years — that is queens of 
the fall of 1871, mostly the production of 
1872. 

The strangest part is the manner in 
which the bees acted. In the month of 
Maj' I opened a weak stock and discovered 
that the bees were not clustered, but spread 
all over the hive; brood scattered around 
in all stages; bees paying little attention to 
it, and the queen trying to be where most 
of the bees were. On opening one hive, 
the queen appeared to be disgusted Avith the 
ungallantry of her attendants, and flew out 
without a follower. They all left honey in 
abundance with the exception of about 0, 
which left little or none. 

If Adair's theory is correct, that a queen 
can lay all her eggs in a season, then it is 
possible that the queens being unable to 
keep up the colony, was the cause, as some 
of them had kept from 15 to 20 frames full 
of brood all the summer. But on the other 
hand there has been a number of stocks die 
around here, or rather iu a certain direction, 
and I am inclined to think that Prof. J. P. 
Kirtland is correct in attributing it to an 
epidemic; for when travelling 18 or 20 miles 
from here, I found a section of country 
where all the bees had died, whether in 
movable frame or box hives. On either 
side of it, very rarely one had died. 

Perhaps some one will account for it a 
little more satisfactorily than I can. I 
would like to know tlie opinion of others 
about it. 

I spoke of Nunn Bros, leaving their bees 
in my charge for the winter. Their object 
was to take a trip to Europe; and while in 
Italy they purcliased 30 queens, and arrived 
at their destination (Oberlin, O.) witli 27 
living, which I think is rather remarkiible 

I see an Advertisement in every Journal 
of "Winder's New Extractor," working 
from the bottom, r.vTKNTED. If your read 
ers will refer to the ApriUor May No. of the 
American Bee .louJtNAi, for 1873, they 
will find an article headed "A new con- 
tributor." They will see that I used one 
then, (before Mr. Winder's was patented) 
and I have had it for 3 years. I do not 
claim to be the inventer. It was suggested 
to me by Nunn Bros., and I carried out 
their principle, and as they did not wish to 



148 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



patent it, I spoke of it in the Journal think- 
ing otliers miglit value it as well as myself. 
I would like to know wherein Mr. Wind- 
er claims his patent. Avis. 



For the American Bee .lournal. 

Artificial Swarming. 

1 take from my prosperous colonies, two 
frames of brood with adhering bees, until I 
have enough to fill a hive. Watch careful- 
l}'', about the time the first (pieen hatches, 
and cage her, before she destroys the other 
([ueens. This week, I caught the first queen 
that hatched, in one of my new colonies, 
l>ut her in a cage, leaving her until the next 
day in the hiv(! where she hatched. 1 then 
made a new colony, and placed a frame of 
))rood and adhering bees, with a queen 
ready to hatch from this hive ; 1 then re- 
leased my queen in the hive where she 
hatched. 

In a few hours queen No. 2. was out and 
was well received. I intended to catch her 
before she destroyed her rivals, but was 
too late. I obtained four queens in this 
way, from one new colony. I have never 
succeeded in cutting out a queen cell and 
giving it to a queenless one. 

I wish the fathers in apiculture would 
stop grinding their axes for a little while 
and give us their modus operandi. 

Peoria, 111. Mrs. L. 1I.\ki{is()X. 



For tlie American Hee .Journal. 

How to make Artificial Swarms. 

Those wlio have movable comb frame 
hives will find it to their interest to arti- 
ficially swarm their bees. There are many 
ways by which this can be done, and of all 
the different modes, 1 have found tlui fol- 
lowing to be the most satisfactory in my 
experience ; 

I will first go to stock No. 1 and take 
away one-half of the combs, taking about 
one-half of the brood and one-half of the 
honey, putting in their place empty frames. 
Do not put two empty frames togethei', but 
l)etween frames of comb, so that the bees 
will build Ihe new comb straight. I brush 
the bees all ofi' of those frames of comb 
etc;., and take a new hive and place them 
in it, with alternate empty frames as above 
stated, for same reason. Now I go to stock 
No. 2, b(!tween eltjven and twelve o'clock, 
and remove to anotlier part of the apiary, 
always selecting a strong stock, and put the 
new-nuid(! hive in its place, and you will be 
surprised at tlu- number of work bees that 
will go ill and take possession of this new 
luve ; and finding they have no (jueen, will 
soon commence making ([ueen cells. Mut 1 
generally, nine or ten months prior to this 
time, have set my best and choicest etjlDny 



to raising queen cells ; so that I now save 
ten days by going to that colony and cut- 
ting out a queen cell and inserting it in this 
new made stock, which I do from four to< 
six hours after I let the workers in as above 
stated. In this way the apiarian can keep 
his stocks strong all the time and increase 
them remarkably fast ; and should any 
stock from any cause become weak or need 
strengthening, you can give it a comb of 
brood and all the bees that cling to the 
comb, from a strong colony ; but you must 
be careful not to take the queen with them ; 
better shake the bees from the comb unless 
you know that the queen is not on it. 

J. M. Dorr. 



Fertile American Bee .Journal. 

The Bees and Grapes. 

One word about bees eating grapes. The 

past three Falls have been dry with us. 1 

have two fine vines on the south side of 

my house within 20 feet of my bees. Not 

a grape did they touch. In my garden not 

40 feet my bees, I have several vines. Two 

years ago I caught the yellow birds eating 

the grapes. They would alight on a stem 

and pick a hole in every grape ; then the 

bees took the balance. I put up some rags 

' and scared the birds away. I had no more 

trouble with the bees. Those on my house 

they did not touch: I had 171 stands of 

'• bees. I have watched them closely, and I 

' don't believe a bee ever molested a grape 

until they had been opened by birds or 

something else. A man is to be pitied that 

: would recommend poison for bees, or 

\ would kill the little songsters for a few 

grapes that they kept the worms from them 

! all summer. I never write for publications 

'\ as it would tax the editor too much to put 

i it in shape. F. Searles. 

Hadley, 111. 

Not a bit of it. Give us your best 
' thoughts and we will always be glad to put 
j them in shape. Every practical bee-keeper 
\ is invited to write. We want variety, and 
i our bee-men are invited to send us every- 
j thing of interest. — Euitoh. 

*P'or the Anuricau Bee .lournol. 
Sundry Notes. 

I Spring ha.s been so lagging that our pets 
j have not done as well, up to this time, as 
I is usual ; and what was quite remarkable 
, the ("herry, apple, pear, horse-chestnut, sugar 
i maple, lilac, and currant were in bloom at 
'. the same time, and of course stimulated 
' breeding greatly, although a fortnight later 
than last year. 

I attempted to raise a few queens as 
early as the first Aveek of May, but the bees- 
would not respond. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



14!) 



There is no pleasure in the apiary, next 
to a lieuUhy condition, equal to that of 
<iueen raising ; anil no disappointment 
greater than when you liave put your trust 
in man, and liave sent f-jr tested (pieens at 
a price and find them wanting. 

I passed a good part of last summer in 
such disappointments, and as it is three 
weeks at least before one can detect the 
imperfections, it is a great loss of time in 
any apiary ; and it might be a serious loss 
to one who dependeil upon ciueen raising 
as a source of income. Late in the season 
I sent for a low-priced queen, and by 
return of mail received a beauty, which 
proved to be pure and prolific, and from 
her T have raised my early queens. Such 
has been my experience witii high and low- 
priced queens. 

For my part I do care whether the color 
of the queens, young or old, are of the rich 
chestnut, or tiie lighter and as some think 
mor(i beautiful goUlen, but I do not want 
too much of tlie " horrid black," as this 
makes me disti-ust the purity of tlie ances- 
try. 

If the queen cell is started from the egg, 
or from the worm only a day old, and is 
attended by enough bees to keep it liberally 
supplied with food and sufficiently warm, 
I have fountl no dift'erence between such a 
raised queen and one from a crowded 
colony at swarming time. 

Have you e^'er known queenless Ijees to 
take an egg from a laying queen that was 
caged and put over the frames ? I suspect- 
ed it, this spring, from the fact that the 
tirst two or three queens that hatched from 
a breeding hive, in which I had placed a 
caged hybrid queen for safe keeping, were 
of a beautiful golden color, while the rest 
were nearly as black as common bees. To 
test this I twice made a colony of bees in 
empty combs, or combs to which no queen 
had had access, for at least a fortnight ; 
and in both instances queen cells were 
formed near the top of the combs, and eggs 
deposited in them. In one of them I let 
the bees raise a queen which proved to be 
a hybrid. May not this be a source of 
error, and a reallj' good ciueen cojidemned ? 

In two instances last summer, I found 
two laying queens at the same time in the 
same hive. One of these old queens rAier 
liked the colleague idea for I put her into 
another colony and after tilling the hive 
with brood, repeated this partnership oper- 
ation. In trying this again I lost her, by 
introducing. E. P. Abup:. 

New Bedford, ^lass. 



I'or ilic .Viucriciiii Wee Journal. 



The Bee Malady. 



The odor exhaled from the hives, and the 
size of the bees on their return from forag- 
ing excursions, are always sure indications 
whether the flowers contain honey. 



The all-ab.sorbing ^opic of the unusual 
mortality anu)ng bees during the past few 
years, seems ta be neitiier exhausted nor 
satisfactorily Explained. My experience 
in handling bees commenced more than K) 
years ago, antl I have been an iuterestcid 
bee-kcepcr the greater part of my life. 1 
iiave wintered them and closely observed 
their habits and conditions in the States 
of New York, Pennsylvania, Indiana, and 
Northern Minnesota, where we had four 
months of steady cold, every winter, and 
for the last four years in this place, near 
Cincinnati, <). 

I have read all of interest or importance 
that has l)een published on the subject in 
this country ; besides considerable from 
Germany. I have, during the last ti^'e 
years, visited many apiaries to try to 
ascertain the cause of loss or failure, where 
there had been such. The result of all this 
research has been to convince me most 
fully and lirmly that I have obtained 
enough of the experience of others, com- 
bined with my own, to enable me to win- 
ter bees in any climate between the south- 
ern line of Ohio and Lake Superior region 
with as little loss as horses, cattle, mules, 
poultry, or any other farm stock. I am 
prepared to give facts and figures which 
w'ill demonstrate the correctness of my 
views and render them acceptable. While 
nearly all the prominent bee-keepers of the 
country have given their views upon the 
subject of the recent great mortality of 
bees, no one has, seemingly, solved the pro- 
blem, even to his own satisfaction ; but 
nearly all have made some point or points 
in the right direction. 

Mr. James Bolin of West Lodi, ()., says, 
in the April No. of the Amekican Bee 
Journal, p. 75 : "I believe it was caused 
mainly by cold and disease engendered 
by the same. That there was dysentery, I 
freely admit, for I saw the most convincing 
proofs of that among some of my neigh- 
bor's hee that died ; but in every case, it 
was where the bees were wintered on their 
summer stand or, ]ilaced in cold deposi- 
tories — no better, if as good as the summer 
stand." 

Then he goes on to state a number of in- 
teresting cases which would strongly indi- 
cate the correctness of his conclusion, and 
the same has been so often expreseed by 
Quinby, and many others, and demonstrat- 
ed by stated facts which cannot reasoua])ly 
be doubted, we may as well mark down 
right here one point gained. 

Now we will try to demonstrate as clear- 
ly that no degree, or continuation of cold 
experienced in any portion of the United 
States is sufficient to cause lliis mortalitv 



lt)0 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



among the bees when all other couditions 
are right. 

In the winter of '60 and '67, the fir&t 
winter that the disease appeared in epi- 
demic form, I was living 200 miles north 
of Hosmers' place in Minnesota, where 
the bees are usually confliied to the hive 
for months at a time by the cold, and dur- 
ing some portion of this time the mercury 
was frozen at 42 below zero, and, as Major 
Jack Downing said, " it would have been a 
iiood deal colder if the thermomikin had 
been long enough." Here it was common 
for the bees to remain on their summer 
stands 2 or 8 feet above the ground, in the 
open air, with no protection whatever ex- 
cept what a single inch board aflbrded. 
The hives were mostly the box, of the tall 
persuasion. Some of them were made 
w ith a chamber above for surplus. These 
had a cloth laid over the holes above and 
lilled in witli tine hay. Others were made 
with a partition through the centre and one 
apartment used for surplus. This apart- 
ment was left empty and the passage holes 
open at the top, middle, and bottom. All 
had fly-holes open half Avay from top to 
bottom. It was a very rare thing to hear 
of any loss among bees there. An old bee- 
keeper who had been there much longer 
than I had, said to me " our bees are never 
injured by the cold if they are properly 
ventilated." But, said he, "you must 
never depend upon lower ventilation for 
. the moisture will condense and run down, 
freeze and stop it up, and then the bees are 
gone." 

We ne\er fed anything but honey up 
there. I heard of no extensive loss there, 
except in oue instance. One man wintered 
60 swarms in a depository made for the 
purpose, and lost 40, mostly after setting 
them out in April. 

Is it natural stores that causes disease 
among the bees V Friend Hill, who took 
the premium for the best conducted apiary 
at the last Cincinnati Exposition, keeps 
from 80 to 100 swarms which he winters 
on tlicir own stores, and has had no sign of 
disease among, them during the last four 
year.s. His bees winter on their summer 
stands, and he uses a lilauket and dry 
leaves over them in the cap. Hives sliai- 
low, Langstroth. 

Friend Muth winters on top of his store 
ill a bleak situation, same hive, blanket 
and straw mat laid over the frames, a strip 
of board an inch thick laid accross each 
end of tiie mat leaving an inch space 
between the mat and the cover, for the cir- 
culation of air, to keep thiiigs dry. The 
situation is in the business portion of the 
city. He has near 40 swarms 1 believe. 
All wintered on tiieir own stores, also with- 
out trace of disease foi' four years past. 
He wintered a swarni two veavs aiio thai 



contained less than a pint of bees, outside, 
in a full-sized Langstroth hive, without di- 
vision board — also natural stores. 

Friend Gano, — a wholesale hardware 
merchant in the city, keeps about twenty 
swarms for pleasure. Has had them for 
many years, is very observing and well- 
posted in their habits and needs. He is 
situated in the suburbs, 2^ miles from me ; 
winters out, on natural stores, and no pro- 
tection except abundant ventilation, in this 
wise : fly-holes open below, surplus boxes 
removed, leaving the passage ways all open 
through the honey toard into the surplus 
chamber, and the caps so open as to give 
the occupants below abundant opportuniiy 
to see the stars. He has had no disease 
among his bees. A portion of his hives 
are tall and a portion, the shallow Langs- 
troth. In cold winters he has had quite a 
number of swarms starve to death in the 
shallow form of hive, with ample supplies 
all round them, but none above the cluster. 
During the long cold spell a year ago last 
winter, he removed the hon^y board from 
one of these shallow hives and laid several 
pieces of honey in the comb on the frames 
and set up a couple of thin boards to par- 
tially cover them inside of the cap ; and 
they came through the winter in that con- 
dition and made one of the most prosper- 
ous stocks he had that season. 

Last season I kept the combs in the 
brood-nest of all my hives clear of honey 
with the extractor, until the last week in 
June, and the conse([uence was, the hives 
were crowded with bees and the combs 
full of brood. On the 1st of July honey 
gathering ceased almost entirely. After 
this no brood was reared of any amount 
except what the combs contained at the 
time, and when winter set in they were 
more reduced in numbers than I ever liad 
them before in the fall, and were all old 
bees. In October they got a little honey 
from the aster. In November I gave them 
a thorough examination, and estimated the 
amount of supplies by taking out and 
weighing a part of the combs and estimat- 
ing the others. The heaviest stock was 10 
lbs. Hives were numbered and the amount 
in each noted. I then fed Ihem syrup. 

April 10th the :54 stocks were in fine con- 
cision. Two lost their queens, oue ciueeii 
was a drone layer, not pure, and I killed 
her. And a few days s^inee I found a 
queen in a knot of bees, and made a mis- 
take and gave her to a wrong stock and 
the (pieenless stock was robbed during my 
absence. My bees were all in the Langs- 
troth hive, on summer stands with straw 
mat and ([uill or blanket over the frames ; 
the cap on, with the cover raised i inch all 
round by tacking on bits of thick leather 
for the cover to rest on. M. Nkvixs. 

oiiio. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



151 



Michigan Bee-Keepers' Association. 

>SPKING iSEsSSION. 

Kalamazoo, Mich., May 6, 1874. 

Pursuant to a call for special session of 
this association, a goodly number of bee- 
keepers assembled at the Corporation Hall, 
in this city, to-day. Convention called to 
order at two o'clock P. M. In the absence 
of the secretary — Frank Benton — II. A. 
Burch was elected secretary pro tern. After 
the usual reading of minutes of previous 
meeting and the transaction of business 
relative to the financial atfairs of the Asso- 
ciation, the programme for the meeting 
was taken up. Papers were presented and 
read as follows : 

Standards of Excellence in Bee-Culture, 
by Herbert A. Burch ; in which the writer 
took occasion to demonstrate the necessity, 
and urge the adoption of " standards of 
excellence " by which veiy efficient aid 
might be rendered the apicultural frater- 
nity. 

Transferring, and Hurplus Honey, by C. 
I. Balch ; delineating a simple and safe 
plan for beginners in apiculture. 

Artifrial Swarminc/, by T. F. Bingham ; 
a novel method, having much to recom- 
mend it. 

Low Hives, by Julius Tomlinson ; in 
which the writer portrayed the advantages 
of shallow frames. 

Wintering, by Prof. A. J. Cook ; setting 
forth in brief and concise form, the essen- 
tials of success in wintering bees. 

The discussion of the topics embraced 
in the foregoing essays, though somewhat 
desultory, possessed much interest, being 
instructive withal ; a brief epitome of 
which, we give as follows. 

T. F. Bingham. — Can we rely upon ob- 
taining drones from young queens ? 

C. I. Balch. — Yes, in abundance. 

A. C. Balch. — I have no difficulty in 
inducing young queens to fill all the drone 
comb I give them. Am troubled with 
superabundance, rather than paucity of 
numbers. 

Henry King. — Is it safe to open hives in 
cold weather ? 

T. F. Bingham. — Yes at any time when 
the bees will not freeze. Though the 
books caution against chilling brood, ac- 
tual experience has demonstrated that this 
danger is wholly imaginary. The more 
hives are opened, the belter for the bees. 

H. King. — Can we not ascertain the 
presence or absence of the queens, without 
the trouble of closely examining each hive, 
separately V 

T. F. Bingham. — There is no more neces- 
sity of opening hives to ascertain queenless- 
ness, than there is of employing a micros- 
cope for that purpose. Place your ear 



close to the hive and tap it sufficiently hard 
to wake the bees ; if the response is ener- 
getic and ceases almost instantaneously, 
they have a queen ; but if the response; is 
languid and dies out slowly, they :;re 
queenless. I have found this rule so inv; r 
iabaly correct, that I never oi)en liives to 
ascertain queenlessness, even if examining 
hundreds, and never make mistakes. 

Julius Tomlinson.— I have fully tested 
Mr. Bingham's plan, and have found it 
simple and perfectly reliable. 

Mr. Evarts. — Are there outside indica- 
tions of a queen's presence in the hive ? 

T. F. Bingham. — If immature young 
bees are seen in front of a hive, it is satis 
factory evidence of the presence of a queen . 
Queens, like some persons, are erratic in 
their movements, eluding the most careful 
search ; and to ascertain to a certainty 
the presence of "her majesty" without 
examining the combs, is a great saving ol' 
time in managing a large apiary. 

Mr. Evarts. — Will queenless stocks gather 
pollen ? 

Pres. A. C. Balch. — Not to any extent. 

T. F. Bingham.— They will in the fall. 

C. I. Balch. — Yes, if they have drone 
layers. 

James Heddon. — Queenless colonies are 
easily distinguished by the diminutive pel- 
lets of pollen that the bees gather in spring. 

Dr. Southard. — Has any one experienced 
difficulty in regard to queens dying the 
present spring V 

T. F. Bingham. — I have lost a great 
many, and had it not been for reserve 
queens which I wintered, should not have 
had a swarm left to-day. Have lost 160 
stocks as it is. Two years ago, when I 
lost heavily, the queens died from over 
work ; but the present spring, there has 
been but very little brood to be found even 
in the strongest colonies. 

Pres. Balch.— Will Mr. Bingham tell us 
the cause of his loss in wintering ? 

T. F. Bingham. — Special interposition of 
Divine Providence through the hand of 
man. 

C. I. Balch related instances of queens 
deserting their hives. One queen that per 
sisteutly refused to stay at home, deported 
herself as " becometh " a queen, when 
given to a queenless colony. 

Albert CanifF. — Why this loss of queens ? 
My own theory is that the old bees die and 
the hive becomes depopulated ; they swarm 
out. 

T. F. Bingham. — My queens died ui 
their hives. I experience little or no diffi 
culty in wintering bees ; but how to 
"spring " them ; that's the question. 

Pres. Balch. — My bees have become 
very much reduced in numbers, by the 
bees getting lost while " out a foraging," 
on chilly spring days. 



152 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



James Heddoa. — I can only account for 
the loss of bees by desertion, on the ground 
that they become dissatisfied and seek to 
better their fortunes, the same as people 
do by "going West." 

J. P. Everard agreed with Pres. Balch 
relative to the cause of the weak condition 
of bees the present spring. 

A. Caniff. — Why will one swarm with 
only a pint of bees stick to their home, and 
prosper, while another with two quarts 
swarm out and die? 

James Heddon. — Some bees, like human 
beings, can stand more grief than others. 

C. I. Balch. — When my bees were first 
placed on their summer stands they were 
in good condition, though having but little 
brood. A cold, stormy spell of weather 
soon followed, which materially injured 
them. Returned them to the cellar soon 
after, and had they been left out two weeks 
longer all would have been ruined. When 
replaced on summer stands in April, a 
dozen stocks did not have as much brood 
as one should have had, when first taken 
out in the previous February. 

After some further discussion of the 
why's and wherefore's of losses sustained 
in wintering, the subject of hives was tak- 
en up and discussed at considerable length. 
From the brief synopsis given below, it 
will be seen that a wide diversity of views 
were held and expressed on this " knotty 
question " of what is best in a bee-hive. 

J. R. Everard favored the size and shape 
of the "New Idea" frame. The advan- 
tages which will accrue from this style, 
will, in my opinion, render it the coming 
frame of the future. 

James Heddon. — I cannot agree with the 
ideas advanced by Prof. Cook, relative to 
the square frame. The long frame recom- 
mended some years ago by Quiuby is pref- 
erable, especially for wintering. 

C. I. Balch. — If we expect to succeed in 
making apicultural pursuits a success, we 
must use a frame that will give us a com- 
pact brood nest. This will greatly aug- 
ment our success in wintering. Several 
years ago I constructed several hives hold- 
ing ten frames in the usual manner, with a 
stationary division board in the rear. — 
Back of this was a space for holding two 
c;ombs, a one-inch hole giving bees access 
to them from main apartment. In winter, 
left it open and have never lost a swarm in 
them. 

James Heddon. — In my county, there is 
but one hive that has been continuously 
occupietl by bees during the past seven 
years. This was an old box hive, that had 
remained on summer stand every winter, 
having abundance of ventilation. In trans- 
ferring it in April, obtained 250 pounds of 
Jioney, and bees enougli for two good 
Kwarms. 1 found drones In iibuudance. 



Though this additional evidence in favor of 
large combs. 

Sec. Burch. — What were the dimensions 
of the hive ? 

James Heddon. — Three feet square, and 
thirty inches deep. 

Mr. Evarts. — I have experienced diffi- 
culty in obtaining box honey on large 
hives. What is the remedy '? 

James Heddon. — To get the most honey 
you must have it stored in close proximity 
to the brood. 

C. I. Balch. — I have had 210 pounds of 
honey stored by a swarm in a large hive. 
It was comb honey obtained in small 
frames. I get more than twice the amount 
of surplus honey in large hives than I do 
in small ones, while the bees in the latter 
are verj' apt to come up missing in the 
winter. 

J. P. Everard. — Difference of locality 
influences the result. We should not loose 
sight of this. 

James Heddon. — Cause and ettect follow 
each other. Can Me 'not ascertain the 
cause V 

Pres. Balch. — When bees are wintered 
on summer stands, I find old box hives, 
full of cross sticks, do the best. Ease of 
access to all parts of the hive, and little 
ventilation are thus secured. The space 
around movable-frames is a great detri- 
ment in winter and early spring. If we 
could dispense with it entirely, so much 
the better. 

A. S. Haskins. — Which is the best loca- 
tion for surplus honey, heavy timbered 
land or " openings?" 

H. A. Kuapp. — I prefer a location which 
was originally an unbroken forest. 

C. I. Balch. — Much depends on the 
season. One season timbered land may be 
the best, and the next vice versa. White 
clover is very uncertain in its yield of 
nectar. 

Adjourned till eight o'clock p. m. 

EVENING SESSION. 

The convention was called to order 
promptly at eight o'clock. President Balch 
in the chair. The subject of discussion 
for the evening was announced by the 
chair to be " Winterihg Bees,'' in its broad- 
pst sense. Pres. Balch read an able paper 
oA "Ventilation" and the relation it sus- 
tains to the loss in wintering bees. 

The discussion was opened by 

James Heddon. — Ventilation is an im- 
portant feature of successful wintering. 
Wintering oG stocks in a special repository 
that woufd hold 150. Gave ample upward 
ventilation. When the temperature was 10 
degrees below zero outside, it was 84 
degress im the repository. Bees are more 
quiet with a higher temperature. In order 
to attain the best results, keep the tempera- 
ture at 45 degrees or above. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



153 



H. A. Kuapj) wintered in a cellar several | 
years without ventilation, and lost heavily. 
The past two winters had taken oil' honey 
boards, tilled the cups with straw, and liad i 
jiood success. 

Pres. Balcii. — Did you winter in a house 
cellar ? 

H. A. Knapp. — I did. 

Pres. Balch. — That at'counts for the loss. 

H. A. Knajip- — I think not. The t^vo 

past winters I had the bees directly under 

a living room — never had better success. 

My cellar is very dry. 

James Heddon. — It seems from reports 
that bees have wintered well with and 
without ventilation, and vice versa. One 
tiling is certain : long continued coufine- 
>uent and severe cold weather produce dis- 
astrous results. 

H. A. Knapp. — Ventilation should be 
_iven so as to avoid direct currents of air 
lirough the brood nest. 

T. F. Bingham. — Xotwitlistanding this 
learned discussson on ventilation, success 
depends altogether (!) on luck. 

The secretary read a paper entitled a 
''New Method' of Wintering" by H. E. 
Bidwell, detailing the success attending 
experiments made with a view of attaining 
complete and uniform success in wintering 
bees. This method gives promise of being 
a simple and efficient safeguard against loss 
In '• Winter Bee-Keeping." 

T. F. Bingham. — Mr. Bidwell's plan is 
certainly unique ; and if it shall prove 
what is now hoped for it, will be one of 
the greatest achievements of modern api- 
culture. I am convinced that one-day's fly 
with the mercur}^ at 45 degrees is only an 
aggravation. Not until the bees had flown 
uhree or four days in succession with the 
temperature at 6(t degrees, w^as dysentery 
checked in my own apiary. It is a disease, 
just as much as typhoid fever. Cold may 
aggravate the disease, but does not cause 
it. An afiected swarm will communicate 
the disease to those around it, either by 
contagion or the uneasiness caused by ex- 
citement. Gave lower ventilation — none 
above. Think the last immaterial. Bees 
must fly at least once a month, commenc- 
ing in December. 

James Heddon. — I tried Mr. Bidwell's 
plan ; success limited. 

C. I. Balch.— When I learned of the 
" Bidw^ell method " I decided to test it at 
once. Did so and failed. I then visited 
Mr. Bidwell and found it a complete suc- 
cess with him. Jly own failure was own- 
ing to non-compliance with the requisite 
conditions. 

T. F. Bingham. — Much has been said in 
reference to dysentery being caused by 
honey. Close observation convinces me 
that, while honey may aggravate the dis- 
ease, it is never the prime cause. "Novice " 



has lauded sugar syrup to the skies, assert- 
ing that it will winter bees without loss. 
Had he not better demonstrate that Jie can 
do this, before making such sweeping 
assertions. 

Jas. Ileddon. — I wintered in a .special 
repository. Sugared one half ; all winter- 
ed equally well. Those left out-of-doors 
in 1872 all died before those inside had any 
disease. 

Dr. Southard. — Have fried many plans, 
and lost in nearly all. Wintered in cellar 
the past winter. Bees went into winter- 
quarters very strong. Combs moulded 
badl}', but lost only one swarm when set 
out ; lost very many since. Honey was of 
a better quality than the year before, but 
lost more bees. 

C. I. Balch. — Have had more candied 
honey the present spring than ever before, 
and have lost more bees also. 

T. F. Bingham. — I used artificial heat in 
my building the past winter, and think it 
indispensable. Had no dampness — no cold 
— and not a mouldy comb. Every comb 
is bright and clean — the bees leaving the 
hives to die. Think 35 degrees the right 
temperature. High temperature and breed- 
ing go together. Science may aid us, but 
after all we must trust to luck (?) and Pro- 
vidence for results. What are moth-proof 
store-combs worth, provided they can be 
made? 

James Heddon. — Double value ; that is, 
if natural combs are worth $6 per hive of 
ten combs, artifical ones would be worth 
|12. I would willingly make that difter- 
euce. 

T. F. Bingham. — If ^sve can procure 
drone comb for wintering, w^e can avoid all 
disease. Bees gormandize pollen and rear 
brood, which is the cause of dysentery. 

James Heddon. — -In feeding sugar syrup 
last fall found little or no brood — abund- 
ance of pollen. Deprived a portion of 
natural stores and pollen, substituting the 
sugar. All wintered equally well, and all 
.breed alike this spring. Had all young, 
vigorous, Italian queens. 

T. F. Bingham. — We continually hear of 
i the wonderful workings of the bee : its 
skill in science, and proficiency in archi- 
■ tecture ; the hexagonal cell, etc. The 
truth is, bees build the hexagonal cell be- 
cause they could not do otherwise ; were 
compelled to this in order to perpetuate 
their own species. 

Pres. Balch. — So far as my own experi- 
ence goes, all insects work by instinct, not 
science. In wintering, I experience more 
difficulty in spring, the warm days enticing 
them away from home in search of food — 
than in cold weatlier of winter. 

After further discussion, the subject of 
time and place for the next annual meeting 
was taken up. Many were opposed to 



154 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



having it in connection with the State Fair 
— too much outside attraction to make tlie 
meetings a success. Later in the season, 
when the bee-keepers could command more 
leisure, was deemed preferable. The con- 
vention finally adjourned to meet in Kala- 
mazoo, on the third Wednesday of Decem- 
ber next. 

H. A. BuRCH, Sec. pro. tern. 

We give below statistics, as far as ascer- 
tained, of what our bee-keepers did last 
season. We think the showing not alto- 
gether unfavorable, even when compared 
with that of the National Society. It will 
doubtless be observed that the " bee-dis- 
ease " has not subsided altogether "out 
West." 



Name.'? 

OF 

Membeks 






I-?,?? 



>., .+j 



'^O 



A. C. Balch.... 
T. F. Biugham.. 

H.A. Burch 

C. I. Balch 

B. Bennett 

James Heddon. , 

Mr. Ward 

A. J. Daniels . .. 

C. J. Daniels . . . 
A. S. Haskins... 
W. B. Kroiuer.. 

F. E. Fowler 

Mr. Bvarts 

Mr. Dicer 

Mr. Wilcox 

Mr. Lominsou . . 
H. A. Knapp. . .. 

A. Canitf 

Dr. Southard . . . 

H. King 



I How 
iWinfr'd 






O C3 



11 38 



Mr. Hudson . . 
J. P. Everard . 
J. Toralinson . 
H. E. Bidwell. 



lOOi 



300| Box., i Cellar 
60001 '• ..iHouse 
2100, " ..; Cellar 



1000 1 Est 

4200 " 
175i " 



300 

400 

500 

,460 

7000 



Box.. 



Oat doorj 
House . .1 
Cellar .. 



Out door 



iCellar 

Box. .lOut door 



Ext ..j Cellar .. 

Box.. iOut door 

Box&[ 
Ext. ICellar .. 
Cellar & 
out-door 
Cellar .. 



Box. 



Ext . . ' 

" .. j Out door 
Box.. I Cellar .. 



34 

15 

60 

36 

6 

6 

1 

10 

7 



2 

14 
11 
14 
14 

29 
29 

34 

24 

5 

154 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Novice. 

Dear Bee Journal : Were we to set 
about picking all the flaws in friend Adair's 
writings and works that we could, as 
though we had a case to work up, and 
bound to show all his weak points, etc., 
we presume we might keep up an animated 
controversy all summer. Some would ap- 
plaud and say, " now you've got him. Nov- 
ice, he can't get around that," and perhaps 
an equal number would say, " Adair is too 
much for him, he had better twist out of it 
as he has a way of doing, etc., etc. ; " and 
perhaps a few might profess a particular 
sympathy Avith each ones side when writing 
them, and this latter class are productive 
of the most mischief perhaps of all. One 
I'lass would becoiiic more and more settled 



in their convictions that Novice was the 
aggressor, and the other vice versa; and no 
real good would come of it all, any more 
than will perhaps from further arguments 
at present in regard to " Queen's wings." 

Perhaps Mr. Adair is 'right, and that we 
have not done him justice. If so, we beg his 
pardon and will endeavor to submit with 
better grace when we see reason to con- 
clude he is right all through Progressive 
Bee Culture. In place of arguing as to 
what is on the inside page of the cover, wt- 
would ask those who have the curiosity, to 
read it and form their own opinion. If 
we misrepresented, we beg pardon, for we 
did not intend to, and cannot see now that 
we did, in substance. 

Although Mr. A. has taken extracts here 
and there from our w^ritings, and held them 
up in a way that makes one look ridiculous, 
and in a few places does us gross injustice, 
we cannot really think it best to censure 
him so much, for this is a common method 
of attack in controversies. Again, several 
things appear badly against us because all 
the facts are not known ; one of them is in 
regard to the Peabody Extractor. 

Were we to tell just how we came to 
recommend it publicly w^e should di'ag 
another person forward into a controversy 
perhaps, so we prefer to let the blame rest 
on us. With the rapid strides bee-culture 
has made, it has many times been hard to 
decide what is best, and we really must 
confess on looking back that Mr. Adair has 
some reasons for his charge respecting 
what we have advised. 

Will he and some others remember that 
our opinion was continually asked and is 
yet, on many difficult points, and we could 
do no better than to answer them to the 
best of our honest convictions. If he ever 
had any such foolish belief that we are 
"capable of the job of regulating the whole 
bee world," we certainly are cured of it 
now. Reports of losses of whole apiaries 
come to us from all quarters, and under 
seemingly almost all circumstances, and 
we honestly haven't a word of advice to 
ofl'er. If friends Adair and Gallup, would 
tell us how many colonies they had in the 
fall, and how manj' they have now, — May 
29th, — we might form an opinion as to how 
much aid we might hope to expect from 
adopting their long hives and mammoth 
colonies. So far as we can learn, stocks 
made purposely of double strength in the 
fall, have fared but little better. Although 
as we have said, failures are reported when 
everytiiing seemed most favorable. On the 
other hand. Apiaries located but a short 
distance away, have wintered as usual 
under even unfavorable conditions. Dys- 
entery seems to have had little or nothing 
to do witli it this spring, but the trouble 
seems to have been simply a dwindling 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



155 



Mway of the bees, until none sire left to care 
for tlie brood. We Imve never yet found 
a case that reported unfavorably in regard 
to sugar for wintering when the full facts 
were brought out, umess it be the one on 
pages 132 and 138, and we would be much 
obliged to the writer of that article for his 
full address. 

It is well known, we believe, that our 
reverses have been given just as faithfully 
to the public, (perhaps more,) as our suc- 
cesses and we cau hardly consider it fair 
to make an enumeration of the former only, 
as Mr. Adair has done, sending eggs by 
mail, for instance ; — this we were induced 
to do by accepting the statements of some 
whom we considered trustworthy, before 
we had had an opportunity of verifying 
the matter ourselves. However we offered 
to refund all money sent us for eggs, as 
soon as we discovered it to be a 
failure. And by the way here comes some- 
thing queer. Mr. Adair, among the rest, 
wrote us f or'eggs, saying his stock of Italians 
had got reduced or failed, or something of 
the sort, and at the convention he states 
that a number of queen cells were started 
on the inserted con^h and all of thern pro- 
duced queens.'''' 

This was the only instance we know of 
when a single queen was reared when the 
eggs went out of our immediate neighbor- 
hood, or so far that they could not be in- 
serted in a hive the same day. Why should 
Mr. Adair class it as "vagaries," if he suc- 
ceeded so well, in fact far beyond everyone 
else y Since we have got your ear friend 
A. please tell us where the "Annals" is that 

' your advertisement keeps saying was out 
in Dec. 1873. 

We are not yet convinced that queens on 
an average can use more than 20 combs, 
when we are, we will make hives longer. 
You wouldn't have a body believe a thing 
before they thought it was so, would you? 
We dont wish to appear to doubt what you 
and Mr. Gallup say about the capability of 
your queens, but those we are acquainted 

\ with frequently' fail to occupy ten Langstroth 
frames. Shall we accept it as a fact that 
the very idea, of occupying a "New Idea" 
hive tills their little selves with the bound- 
less ambition of being able to fill every cell 
with eggs in 24 or more frames ? 

In soberness, the bees we have known, 
and the ones we get letters about, do not 
deport themselves near up to accounts we 
get from Quinby, Hazeu, Gallup nor Adair 
— begging their pardon if they object to 
being thus put into a " four horse team," — 
and we have seen them tried in 18 or 20 
frames spread out horizontally for several 
years past too. But we do get by far too 

I many accounts of " blasted hopes," to de- 
cide that bee-keeping at the present time 
••oukl even be considered a safe business 



for anyone to embark in largely. 

Our ofler to make the Quinby liive 2^i per 
cent less, ready to nail, sliould read 25 cents 
less, ready to nail. 

We beg pardon, Mr. Editor, if we are 
writing rather dolefully, but we have no 
facility for invoking merry words when 
prospects do not seen\ to warrant them. 

At present we have only 10 ([ueens, anc 
scarcely bees enough with them, for 3 good 
colonies. Unless Mr. Adair objects, on the 
ground that we have not earned the title, 
we would prefer to keep on as your old 
friend, Novice. 

P. S. It is no more than justice to our- 
selves to add that we made the remark 
over a year ago, that if atf much honey 
could be secured in a hive of double width, 
as with the two story one we had belter 
adopt it simply to avoid the laborious 
operation of lifting ofl' an upper story in 
extracting. A trial of such hives in diflfer- 
ent localities, it seems, would demonstrate 
that full as much honey can be secured 
thus. Now the Langstroth frame was 
planned with an idea of a two-story hive, 
or at least for surplus boxes on top. Should 
we abandon them and spread the 20 frames 
out horizontally, we would have a hive 
much more difficult to handle than one 
wuth narrower and deeper frame; also, it 
would be difficult to make a cover for such 
a hive with a single board which can be 
done readily with a frame not exceeding 14 
inches in depth. Mr Langstroth suggests 
such a frame (see page 38 Oleanings) Avith 
no thought of Adair's " New Idea," and in 
deciding on the dimensions of a frame to 
be used solely for the extractor we had no 
idea of copying the above more than in 
adopting the frame which he had named 
the Adair frame in our classification of 
frames. This frame being about midway 
in length and depth between the extremes 
as Mr. Gallup partly states it, it would seem, 
that there would be a greater probability 
of its being adopted as a standard. Our 
reason for turning the frame crosswise is 
that, in using such hives in our Hexagonal 
Apiary they must almost of a necessity be 
turned so as to stand close up to the grape 
vine trellises, or they would obstruct our 
walks. We prefer the entrance in one or 
both ends, because in using a division 
board it can be adjusted without interfering 
with the entrances. In recommending our 
Standard hive to our friends we do it with 
no expectation of realizing any such great 
advantages as the advocates of the "New 
Idea" claim, over the two story hive. If 
it answeres just as well we shall be pleased, 
because it lessens the labor of extracting ; 
if it shall do all that Adair claims for it 
under all circumstances, we will most 
cheerfully record him the full credit of 
horizontal hives over two story. 



156 



THE AMERICAN BEE j6URNAL. 



Do not our readers agree that we are 
excusable in feeling much hesitancy in 
.accepting Adair's reasoning? see page 129 
Bee Breathing ; and shall we clip Queens 
Wings"? page 137. The former seemed to 
us to be only the reviving of an exploded 
theory so palpably erroneous as to| require 
no other notice than to simply call it 
"folly". Prof. Cook has our sincere 
thanks for coming forward at a most op- 
portune moment, and giving such support 
to our position, as could only be furnished 
by a skilled Entymologist. With pleasure 
we accept scientist's apology, and also 
thank him for his kind reproof. 



Bees as Architects and Mathema- 
ticians, 

Man is obliged to use all sorts of engines 
for measurement — angles, rules, plumb-lines 
—to produce his buildings and to guide his 
liand ; the bee executes his work immediate- 
ly from her mind, v/ithout instruments or 
tools of any kind. "She has successfully 
solved a problem in higher mathematics, 
which the discovery of the differential cal- 
culus, a century and a half ago, does not 
enable us to solve withuut the greatest 
difficulty." The inclination of the planes 
of the cell is always just so that, if the sur- 
faces on which she works are unequal, still 
the axis running through it is in the true 
direction, and the junction of the two axes 
forms the angle of 6U degrees as accuratel}^ 
us if there was none. 

The manner in which she adapts her work 
to the requirements of the moment and 
place is marvelous. In order to test their 
ingenuity, Huber glazed the interior of a 
hive, with the exception of certain bits of 
wood fastened on the sides. The bees can- 
not make their work adhere to 'glass, and 
they began to build horizontally from side 
to side ; he interposed other plates of glass 
in difterent directions, and they curved their 
combs in the strangest shapes, in order to 
make them reach their wooden supports. 
He says this proceeding denotes more than 
an instinct, as glass was not a substance 
against which bees could be warned by 
nature, and that they changed the direction 
of the work before reaching the glass, at 
the distance precisely suitable for making 
the necessary turns, enlarging the cells on 
the outer side greatly, and on the inner side 
diminishing tliein proportionately. As the 
different insects were working on the differ- 
ent sides, there must have been some means 
of communicating tlie proportion to be ob- 
served ; while the bottom being common to 
both sets of cells, the difficulty of thus 
regularly varying their dimensions must 
have been great indeed. — Scientific Ameri- 
can. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

The Bee Disease. \ 

For three years past I have remained 
somewhat silent in regard to the calamity 
among bees termed. Dysentery, learning 
what I could from the bee journals and 
other sources; so many conflicting opinions 
have been expressed that I should even 
now be left in the dark as to the cause, 
were it not for the dear-bought experience 
I have had during these three years. I 
will give a few facts and let others judge 
for themselves. 

In the spring of 1871 I took a quantity 
of bees to work on shares, the latter par; 
of the season was very drj' and no breed- 
ing of consequence was done. In the fali 
the man that owned the bees took his 
away. He sold some 20 swarms that I did 
not learn the fate of ; about 60 that he 
retained were put in a cellar in the bank. 
All but two or three swarms came through 
in good condition. I bad 110 swarms 
which I packed by the side of a tight board 
fence with straw betwixt, behind and 
above. Some 20 of the number were put 
into a cold cellar. All had the so-called 
Dysentery, and I lost 80 swarms before 
May. In the season of 1872 I increased up 
to 83 swarms, packed again as before in 
winter, not being satisfied but that was the 
best way yet to winter out of doors. In 
the spring of 1873, May 1st, I had lost 76 
swarms, leaving 7, and 2 of which could 
be said to be in good condition ; the other 
5 seemed to be demoralised, killing and 
superseding their queens. All had the 
dysentery but the two swarms above men- 
tioned, they were very strong. The. 
swarms were a part of 14 left on their 
summer stand in the Badger State hive to 
test the quality of the hive for wintering. 
My neighbors again wintered his well in 
the cellar. 

Not being entirely discouraged with my 
losses, I went at it again with a will. 1 
bought some bees and Avorked some on 
shares, so that in the fall I had some 4-') 
swarms. 

Not daring to venture another Poland win- 
ter, I concluded to build a bee-house to put 
the pets in ; I built it double-walled of 
wood, 8 inches between filled with saw- 
dust, and the outside veneered with brick, 
nuvde double doors and ventilated with my 
bees in, the thermometer indicating fronv 
35 to 40 degrees above zero. I think it 
would have been better if I had seen it up. 
to 50 as some of the very small swarms 
had the dysentery while all the strong ones 
did well, bred up and came out strong thi.-; 
spring ; some of the stocks that I worked 
on shares the owner took away the last of 
November. I ad\ iscd him to put them in 
a warm tilace but he had more contldeuce 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



157 



in his owu judgment than in mine. I 
saw him the first of April, " Well, neigh- 
bor," said I, "how are the pets?" "All 
dead,'' he replied. " "Where did j'ou put 
tliem?" " I put them in the barn on the 
scaffold over the north door. They were 
being opened half a dozen times a day all 
winter. A very little hay was put over 
them." This was the very worst place he 
could put them, unless on top the barn ; 
well, I went to see them and sure enough 
they were all dead, while mine that stood 
by the side of his before dividing, were all 
alive. 

With the experience I have had, I have 
come to the conclusion that long continued 
I'old or dampness will produce the so-called 
dysentery. Weak swarms will suffer first 
even in the same room or out of doors. I 
would not say that some other causes might 
not produce a disease of a similar kind. I 
knew once some ten years ago that the bees 
died with a disease resembling the dysen- 
tery. The season before had been very 
wet, so much water in the honey collected 
that but little was capped over when cold 
weather came that winter. In the ensuing 
spring many bees died. 

We are now brought to May 23rd. Bees 
came out of winter quarters comparatively 
good, but the long, cold spring has carried 
away probably one-half the swarms that 
were in good condition the first of April. 
So you see we have the blues again. I am 
running about 35 swarms at home. Some 
are in the Excelsior Hive, some in the Bad- 
ger State Hive, and some in the High Pres- 
sure Hive, a combination of the two. It is 
so arranged that two single ones may be 
worked, — single at 2500 cubic inches, or 
combined may be made to hold five, ten or 
twelve thousand five hundred cubic inches. 
It may be worked with ten, twenty, thirty 
or forty frames. It may be worked two- 
story on Novice's plan, a long one-story on 
Adair's plan, with 40 six-inch boxes on 
Hazen's plan, with the twin hive plan of 
Gallup, or long boxes and little frames plan. 
I will report hereafter the success of each. 
A. H. Hart. 

Appletou, Wis. 



For tlje American Bee Journal. 

Do Bees Injure Fruit? 

I have noticed a controversy in the 
American Bee Journal in regard to bees 
destroving fruit in which statements were 
made, I am sorry to say, in language that 
the subject did not by any means call for. 
We may present facts and arguments with- 
out unkind words. 

I have been associated with bee culture 
half a century. Have kept bees and culti- 
vated fruit together for about twenty years 
;ind will present a few facts. Langstroth 



says at page 85 of his excellent work on 
bees, " the jaws of the bee being adapted 
chiefly to the manipulation of wax, were 
too feeble to enable it readily to punctui-e 
the skin even of his most delicate grapes." 
This was for me conclusive, but to the 
facts : 

1st. Three years ago Thomas Atkinson 
introduced the Queen Bee Hive with a slide 
at each side to form an air chamber to 
equalize the temperature of the hive. This 
slide was made of paper-board nailed to .-i 
wooden frame, and the bees cut it into 
holes, till pints of paper dust had to be re- 
moved, and the paper-board had at consid- 
erable cost to be changed and wooden pic- 
ture-backing put instead. This was th(; 
case with some hundreds of hives. 

2nd. In transferring bees, to fix the 
comb into the frames, I tied the combs in 
with cotton cord, and the bees cut that ant'' 
pulled it out, many getting fastened in the 
string and dying ; they also cut out hemp 
twine in the same manner, and chair-seating 
cane is now used entirely. 

3rd. Having 5 acres in grapes of many 
varieties, my daughter, in gathering Con- 
cords called my attention to the bees 
alighting on the fruit on the other side of 
the trellis and eating the grapes ; and both 
of the past seasons all of the family have 
watched the bees aligliting on perfect ber- 
ries, cut the skin and fill themselves with 
juice. It is so with the finer kinds of 
plums, pears and the thin skinned peaches. 

My loss in this manner has been quite 
considerable. I love the bees, love to keep 
them, do keep them, and just so with fruit, 
but the facts are true and it is only just 
that they should be known. 

Having had about 30 colonies the damage 
was considerable, but, then, bees are kept 
by my neighbors and they feast on the fruit 
as well as my own, and I would lose the 
fruit and not have any honey if I gave 
them up. 

Whether there are differences in climate 
or in the want of a full amount of bee for- 
age in St. Louis Co., Mo., it is at present 
hard to say. Nay, may not the instincts 
and habits of the bee develop, and as he 
finds fruit-juice more abundant and more 
easily obtained than the nectar of dowers, 
may he not prefer it ? 

As the season of all these fruits will soon 
be with us it will be a good opportunity to 
watch, make notes and report. 

Names could be given as witnesses but 
facts will convince much better. Kind 
tones are more taking and equally as im- 
pressive as harsh, unkind words and low 
slang or inuendoes. 

I feed my bees when they need it and 
never poison or brimstone them. 

Wn.LiAM Muir. 

Fox Creek, Mo. 



158 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Do Bees Injure Fruit? 

In the June number of the American 
Bee Journal, Prof. Riley tries to sustain 
his position, by affirming that lie has seen 
bees cutting into fruit. I have just read an 
article in the journal V Apicoltore of Milan, 
Italy, (May no.) that I translate, in answer 
to that bold assertion. 

" Being a lover of good wine, I manufac- 
ture mine with shrivelled grapes ; my crop 
amounts annually from 30 to 40 hectolitres* 
of such wine, worth an average 1 franc 75 
centimes to the litre. -j- As my grapes are 
gathered, I spread them upon a mat of reed 
or straw, in a sunny place, in front of my 
apiary ; where they remaia to shrivel for 
about 15 days. 

For the first two or three days the mats 
lire covered with bees ; but I do not care, 
for I know that they do no damage ; 
having ascertained that they gather only 
the juice of the berries, rotten or damaged. 
As soon as the injured berries are sucked 
dry, the bees quit visiting the mats, for 
tbey cannot cut the skin of the berries. In 
iuy case I can say that, instead of damage, 
bhe bees help me greatly ; for they take ott' 
ontirely, from the bulk of my crops, the 
putrefied juices, which would give a bad 
bftste to my wine." Gactano Taxini. 

Coriano, Circ. di Rimini, February, 1874. 

I think that afj«r such testimony, the 
assertion of Prof. Riley is of little account. 

Hamilton, 111. Ch. Dadant. 

* An hectolitre is equal to 2o gallons, 
t Equal to $1.40 the gallon, that price is very 
high for Italy. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Doolittle's Article. 

Our bees had but four days on which 
they could fly, from March 3rd to May 4th ; 
and by the 15th of April all brood rearing 
liad ceased in small and medium ^ocks, 
and pretty much so in large ones. On 
Marcti 18th the mercury rose to sixty 
degrees in the shade, and bees were seen at 
work qnite briskly on stumps of the sugar 
maple, but with the night it became cold 
and we had steady winter weather until 
April 15th, when they had a chance to fly 
again. On April IDth, 32nd, and 25th, 
snow fell to the depth of one foot, and 
lasted until May 3rd, during which time 
the mercury did not rise above 41 degrees, 
even in tlie middle of the day, and went 
down as low as 18 degrees. 

May Uth it came ofl' (luite warm, and the 
bees began to hatch the few eggs the queen 
had laid, and brought in the first pollen of 
.lay account, which was from elm and soft 
aaple. iSkunk's cabbage was in full 
)loom from March 20th to April 18, but it 



was so cold that the bees could not get to 
it. On the whole, we think it was the 
worst spring for bees we ever knew. May 
4th the first day that we could really work 
at bees, we examined them and found some 
so weak that we thought it best to unite 
them. We did so, and now have 51, one 
of which proves to be queenless, so we 
shall call it but 50 stocks to commence the 
season with. Golden willow commenced 
to blossom May 20th, from which our bees 
frequently get from 5 to 7 lbs. of honey, 
but owing to the cold and rainy weather 
they could get nothing, and what was 
worse still, they killed nearly all the larvie : 
so little but sealed brood and eggs remain- 
ed. May 24tli it became warm again and 
our bees have done their level best ever 
since, and the hives are beginning to be 
quite well populated with bees. Apple 
trees blossomed May 29th and our strongest 
stocks made a gain of 12 lbs. of honey dur- 
ing the time they were in bloom. White 
clover was nearly all killed from freezing 
the past winter, so we do not anticipate 
much from that, but basswood hangs as 
full of buds as we ever saw it. We forgot 
to say we put one swarm in manure "a la 
Novice," and that died out-right some time 
during the cold weather of April. Our 
first drones were flying June 5th, which is 
nearly two weeks later than we ever knew 
them before. We have spread the brood 
once in six days, so we have our strongest 
stocks nearly full. What we mean by full, 
is brood in from 8 to 10 Gallup frames. 

By the way does not Gallup and Adair 
get oif some pretty big notes about the 
capacity of a queen for laying ? We have 
had queens from nearly every breeder in 
the United States and the best we ever had 
would not keep more than ten Gallui> 
frames full of brood, or about 900 square 
inches of comb, occupied with brood for 
two months in succession. We came to 
the conclusion that 800 square inches of 
comb would be about the average, so last 
year built our new hives to hold but nine 
frames instead of tw^elve. As the bees will 
have some honey and pollen in their combs 
the 9 frames give us about 800 square 
inches of brood, or 1380 cubic inches comb 
space. We place 42 boxes of 2 lbs. capa- 
city in this hive and expect to get all the 
honey the bees make in the boxes, but last 
year they storeil enough to winter on in 
the frames. 

Why does not Adair tell us how much 
honey he receives on an average in his 
apiary with those prolific queens and large 
hives'? Let us figure a little and see what 
is best. 800 square inches of comb would 
give 40,000 worker bees every 21 days or 
1,905 every day, and as 45 days is the aver- 
age life of the bee in the working season 
we would get 85,(525 bees on the stage of 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



159 



action at once. 21 old stocks of the above 
brood capacity worked by us in 1873, pro- 
duced on an average 80 lbs. of box honey, 
and 60 stocks worked by N. N. lietsinger, 
Marcellus Falls, N. Y., produced on an 
average 100 lbs. of box honey. Now as 
4,000 cubic inches comb capacity (the 
amount Gallup and Adair say their prolific 
(queens will keep occupied with brood) is 
neai-ly three times the capacity of the hive 
used by B. and myself, they must get the 
enormous amount of 250,000 bees on the 
stage of action at once. This would be 
5,700 bees daily or that amount of eggs for. 
the queen to lay everj^ 24 hours. As it is 
estimated that, by the use of the extractor 
one-third more honey can be obtained than 
with boxes, an apiary with such queens 
should produce on an average 320 lbs., to 
be equal to that produced by us or 400 lbs. 
to equal that produced by Betsinger. As 
c4allup's hives worked exclusively for ex- 
tracted honey produced in 1873 only 100 
lbs. per colony (the same amount produced 
by Betsinger in boxes) and as it will take 
three times the honey to feed the brood in 
the large hive, we will leave the reader to 
tell which is best — one colony in a large 
hive to produce 100 lbs. of extracted 
honey, or three colonies in small hives 
with the same amount of brood to feed, to 
produce 300 lbs. of box honey. If friend 
Adair can give a better report than Gallup 
we would like to hear from him on the 
subject, as we want all the light we can 
get. G. M. DoolittijE. 

Borodino, N. Y. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

How to Introduce Queens. 

I write with a sincere desire to beneiit 
many a fellow bee-keeper, who, when the 
fine golden queen arrives will ask himself 
the perplexing question — "How shall I in- 
troduce her." I have been so uniformly 
successful since I adopted the following 
method that I unhesitatingly recommend 
it. It is certainly as safe, and I verily be- 
lieve much safer than the common practise 
of caging, and the advantages over that 
plan are too obvious to need mentioning. 

To illustrate — Have a new queen at hand, 
also two empty hives B and C, the latter 
should be nicely cleaned. Now open A 
and proceed to tind the queen you wish to 
supersede. This over, the work is soon 
over. I look over the frames, guess where 
she is and lift that frame out first. When 
satisfied she is not on it, place it in B, and 
try another. If not found on this, the 
(ihances are, if she is a black queen, that 
you will have to search the corners of the 
hive for they are shyer than the Italians. 
The queen dispatched, remove A and place 
'■ with its entrance near wliere that of A 



stood, but with positions reversed. Now 
replace the combs in C, first shaking ofl' 
the old bees. Tlie young ones will do no 
harm, and in ord(!r to confuse the bees still 
more, I cliange the positions of the frames 
where the combs will admit of it. These 
all in place, cover with the quilt, now roll 
up a corner at the back end, and slip her 
majesty in, roll back and put on the cover. 
Place a hiving-board in front ; put the two 
hives (if there are bees in both,) at the fool 
of this on their sides, and let the bees enter 
A gradually, like a natural swarm, thus 
introducing them to the queen, who by this 
time is less confused and feeling more at 
home than themselves. The bees all in, the 
hive should be turned so as to occupy the 
exact position that A did. No bees will be 
lost, and my experience has proven to me 
that all will be well. The regular order of 
business resumed at once, the same as if no 
change had occurred. 

Perhaps I ought to have said, that I 
usually have at hand some sweetened water 
scented with peppermint and sprinkle the 
combs slightly before putting on the quilt, 
and also the bees, before allowing them to 
enter, though I have occasionally omitted 
this precaution, and observed no diiference 
in the result. E. K. G. 

Appleton City, Mo. 



The Late Dr. T. B. Hamlin. 

It is a painful duty to announce the death 
of so prominent an apiculturist as Dr. T. B. 
Hamlin, — one who as a friend was so higli- 
ly esteemed by all who knew him. This 
sad event occurred at his residence, near 
Edgefield Junction, Tennessee, on the 24th 
of last May. 

Dr. Hamlin was born at Red Hook, on 
the Hudson River, N. Y., in June, 1810. 
At the age of sixteen he was left with no 
near relatives and but little education. His 
prominent position and financial success in 
life are wholly due to his own indomitable 
energy and perseverance combined with his 
uprightness of character. At about eighteen 
he was foreman of the largest watch-making 
establishment in Albany N. Y., and prob- 
ably the largest in the United States. After 
preparation in dentistry at Albany and while 
watchmaking in Lee, Mass., he commenced 
the practice of that profession in Virginia. 
While there he took an active part in the 
organization of the first dental association 
known in the world. He aftei-wards re- 
moved to Alabama and thence to Nashville, 
Tenn., where for twenty-five years he fol- 
lowed his profession with eminent success. 

More than forty years ago the young 
watchmaker of Albany, shortly after his 
marriage in Lee, Mass., where he had es- 
tablished in watch-making, commenced the 
keeping of bees. This last named occupu- 



l(i(l 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



tion was continued for many years there- 
niter in conuecliou with his profession as a 
dentist. In 18(il his health, which had failed 
early in life, became quite poor, and he gave 
up the practice of dentistry and repaired to 
the sea-coast at Newport, R. I. At the close 
of the war Dr. Hamlin returned to Tennessee 
and devoted his whole attention to bee cul- 
ture and the nursery business. The exten- 
sive business of the " Cumberland Nurseries" 
which he established in connection with 
3Ir. B. B. Barnum — a practical nurseryman, 
was conducted mainly by the latter, while 
he devoted his attention almost wholly to 
the apiary. He was the first to introduce 
the Langstroth movable comb hive and the 
improved methods of bee culture in the 
South, and to engage in the importation 
and rearing of Italian bees, which he did 
extensively, and aided in their introduction 
throughout the United States. He assisted 
greatly in establishing the "Tennessee Api- 
arian Society " of which he was President, 
and also, the "National Bee-Keepers' Asso- 
ciation," being Vice President of the latter 
at the time of his death. His interest and 
enterprise in the promulgation of apiarian 
knowledge, especially in the South are 
worthy the highest encomiums. His own 
success in increasing his bees from a few 
colonies to over three huudi-ed and contin- 
ually getting large returns from them, 
furnishes a practical proof of the reliability 
of his teachings. His little work on bee 
culture has wrought a great change in the 
manner of keeping bees in many localities 
here. 

Dr. Hamlin's marked energy of character, 
his perseverance, his lofty aspirations after 
perfection and his kindness and afiection as 
a husband, a father, and a friend are well 
worthy of imitation. An upright, zealous 
member of the Church, a prominent leader 
in the Masonic fraternity, held in high ap- 
preciation by the members of his profession, 
and an enthusiastic master af apiculture, he 
is mourned by a large circle of friends and 
relatives, who alone are comforted by the 
knowledge that he so lived that 

" When the suininons came to join 

The innumerable caravan that moves 

To the mysterious realms, vi'here each shall take 

His chamber in the silent halls of death. 

He went, not like the young slave, at night, 

Scourgefl to his dungeon, but sustained and soothed 

By an unfaltering trust in God, he approached his 

grave 
i-.ike one that draws the drapery of his couch 
About liini. and lies down to pleasant dreams." 

Fr..\NK Benton. 
Edgefield Junction, Tenn. 



The bees do not deposit in the cells all 
the pollen they gather. Many of the pel- 
lets are taken from the gatherers as thej' 
return with laden tliighs, and are consumed, 
to qualify the worlcers for secreting wax or 
preparing food for tlie older larva*. 



Sundry Questions and Answers. 



CONDUCTED BY CH. DAD ANT. 



QUESTION. 

As you are in charge of the questions in tlie 
American Bee Jouknai., I would ask you 
to answer tlie following through tlie Journal 
I would like to import queens myself. To 
whom shall I send ? Are the queens sent 
through the mails or as freight ? and at what 
cost ? What proportion usually reaches this 
country in safety ? You could give much 
information to many readers on these ])0ints. 

Hartford, N. Y. J. H. Mahtix. 



For the last seven years I liave been trying 
to find an Italian bee-keeper able to send 
queens so packed as to reach this country 
alive. Since my return from Italy, I have 
received three invoices ; one containing '?>() 
queens : 38 were dead — only two were alive. 
What was the matter ? The Italian breeder 
had failed to comply with the simplest pre- 
cautions that I had indicated. 

In a subseciuent invoice all the queens were 
dead, for the same reasons. 

It is impossible to imagine lifiw queer are 
the ideas which can germinate in tlie minds 
of the Italian bee breeders. In an invoice of 
1-1 queens, I found five that were put up in 
queen cages, very pretty queen cages indeed, 
with two or three workers, and all dead of 
course. In that invoice one (pieen alone was 
alive, after 2o days journey : it cost me more 
than f 50 in gold. 

In his second invoice the same man tried a 
second time his queen cages, in spite of my 
warning, and refused to replace the (pieens 
that died in them, and feared that it was im- 
possible to send queens here alive. 

Another l)ee-keeper sent me 1(5 queens, and 
put under tlie package, without my cogni- 
zance, three bottles of wine for sample. My 
correspondaiit at Havre informed me that 
they were seized by the French custom-house 
ofiicers, while I was liere going every day to 
the express ottice, and writing everywhere to 
know why my bees were so long to arrive at 
Hamilton. I wrote to the sender to replace 
thein, but he made his second invoice so un- 
willingly and so carelessly tliat very few 
(lueens arrived here alive. 

1 could narrate many more of these costly 
experiments made by the Italian breeders, at 
niy expense. 

In my long experience I have received but 
two or three invoices whicli could give a 
beneficial result. Combs broken or loose in 
the boxes ; too many or too few bees ; too 
mucli or too little honey ; sponges witii sugar- 
ed water ; unsealed honey ; sealed brood 
instead of honey ; rougli handling ; boxes 
phuuui on their sides or in the vicinity of nox- 
ious matters in the steamers ; too long delay 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



IGl 



ill the voyage ; and moths. Ah ! yes, moths ! 
One day I received a package of Ki (lueens ; 
not one live l)ee in the IfJ boxes, bnt plenty of 
living and flying and creeping moths in every 
I)ox. llow good that sniclled ? Prof. Mona 
wrote to me, a few years ago, that, in Italy, it 
was impossible to send bees withont sending 
moths ; the winters are too nnld there to kill 
the moths. 

Never have I seen so many moths, at the 
same time, as in a well known and far famed 
apiary of Italy. 

In fact, I have received but one package 
witliout moths and that invoice was the last, 
received a few days ago, with 8 living queens. 
Eight living queens out of Ki, after 37 days 
journey. That was marvelous ; but the bees 
were so carefully packed ; the little atten- 
tions that I had prescribed had been so com- 
pletly observed, together with some others so 
intelligent and ingenious cares, that I have at 
once sent to that careful breeder an order for 
10() queens, to be sent in six packages, from 
week to week. This man lives not far from 
the shores of the Adriatic Sea, in one of the 
best bee districts of Italy. He is a very care- 
ful and successful Apiarian. I could say, the 
first careful bee breeder that I have foiuid in 
Italy. 

Many bee-keepers, of this' country, after 
losing money in their importations, have 
given it np in disgust. But, in spite of the 
losses and disappointment, I have persever- 
ed ; surely there are some conditions which 
would insure success. Of course I had to 
learn these conditions, one after another, by 
examining tlie boxes on their arrival here ; 
the requisites of a successful joru-ney being 
determined, the most difficult to be found : 
a man who could com])ly with them without 
varying, to do better. 

The Importation of bees is like gambling, 
with its illusions and its deceptions. When 
the bees arrive, I feel the same sensations as 
a gambler at the lottery ; and too often the 
result is the same : loss, dead loss. But to- 
day I am sure to have turned the chances on 
my side ; if the man continues to prepare the 
bees as he has done for his first invoice, and 
I do not doubt it. 

(^UESTIOX. 

In your answer to H. A. Spraoupjs in the 
,Iune Xo. of the Ameiucax Bek .Jouknal. 
you say that you know of no honey yielding 
plant, good for hedging, in this country. Will 
not the honey locust, (glcditschia trUvwnth- 
o.s) answer the purpose ? Edgak SA(iEi{. 

ANSAVEK. 

The honey locust would make a good hedge 
were not the cattle so fond of its leaves and 
young sprouts. 1 know a Frenchman who 
tried it, but had to protect his hed,ge against 
the teeth of his cows. 



QrESTION. 

I wish to know what color the ])ure bred 
Italian bees are ? I purchased a (lueen two 
years ago, about two-thirds of lier progeny 
are wliat I take to be pure, that is are not 
(piite as dark as the native bee, with three 
yellow bands around them ; the others are 
about tlie color of the native bee. I fear she 
is hybrid, will you iilease inform me U])on 
that point. ' W. F. Ferox:sok. 

AXSWEU. 

The pure Italian bees have three leather 
colored bands around the abdomen, /. c, the 
lirst small ring which is attached to the 
corslet, then the second and the third. This 
third ring is more or less bordered with 
black. When the bee is empty, the leather 
color disappears and the bee seems to have 
but two yellow rings. All the bees in a pure 
colony have the three rings visible, in the 
young bees as soon as they have taken their 
first meal ; in the old bees when they return 
from the fields, in the time of honey harvest, 
yometimes, even in Italy, there are a few 
black bees among the thousands of well 
marked, but it is not a mark of impurity. 

The color of bees is not always a sure test 
of purity. By selecting the yellowest (lueens, 
for several generations, there are produced 
bees with so much yellow and so thin black 
borders on the rings, that a slight dash of 
black blood cannot be detected in their pro- 
geny. It is on that account that some (pieen 
breeders do not like the impoi'ted Italian 
(lueens, the smallest stain of black being 
visible in their progeny, these breeders 
obtain from them a less number of seeming 
pure queens and consequently they claim 
that the Italian bees are injurious. Yet this 
false idea is fast disai)pearing, for I have 
received lately orders from breeders who 
three years ago complained of the Italian 
queens : and who now want dark colored 
bees, because they are more hardy and more 
fertile tlian the light colored. 

As for myself. I consider tlie color of the 
bees but a second test of purity. My first 
test being the demeanor of the bees, when 
the combs are taken out of the hive. The 
quieter, the purer are the bees. 

If the progeny of the queen that you receiv- 
ed two years ago was then such as you 
describe it, she was impure. It is more pro- 
bable that, after vou received her. she was 
replaced and that her daughter failed to mate 
with a pure drone. 

QUESTIOX. 

I am using the Langstroth hive — is it good".' 
I think if there is any better. I would like to 
know it. W. T. F. 

AXSWEK. 

The Langstroth hive is good, but I prefer 
the old Quinby (not the new) enlarged to 11 
or I'i frames. I use two sizes of hives : C^uin- 



162 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



by with from 11 to 16 frames 18 inches long 
by 11 inches deep ; and the American witli 
16 frames 12 by 12 inches, with partition 
boards in both. Every year I find tliat there 
is more brood and more profit in the larger 
and shallow frame. If I was to begin anew, 
I would choose a hive with 11 frames 16 
inches long by 12 high, inside ; or 16)^ by 13 
outside. I give to the upper bar of the 
frames, % inch of thickness, to prevent warp- 
ing under the weight of honey. 

For winter the brood chamber is reduced 
by the partition boards to 8 frames, with a 
dead space on both sides. 



To Beginners in Apiculture. 

BY PROF. A. J. COOK. 

One beginner had a colony swarm last 
week, and though he hived them according 
to the rule already given, and although they 
seemed to take full possession, yet one thing 
was omitted — putting a comb of worker 
brood in the new hive, — and in about an 
hour all came out and left for a wood-land 
home. And thus was lost a splendid colony 
of Italians, worth at least $10. 

Another beginner,- — Mr. B. — was follow- 
ing directions, but as the queen cells were 
not yet capped, he thought to wait a little 
longer, and went to business as usual. 
About 9 o'clock a prime swarm issued from 
one of the two colonies. Mrs. B. who had 
never seen such a thing done, but had care- 
fully read directions, and talked them over 
with her husband, went bravely at work, 
followed directions exactly, aud the result 
is that Mr. B. now has three fine colonies 
instead of two. 

So let me repeat, that I may emphasise 
the advice, never hive a colony in case of 
natural swarming, — which will occasionally 
happen in the best regulated apiaries, — 
without putting into the hive some brood, 
even eggs will not do. There must be 
capped and uncapped brood, and the above 
experience makes the farther advice perti- 
nent to all beginners who are in the bonds 
of single bitterness, immediately procure a 
brave intelligent help-meet. 

Again our beginner should commence to 
start some more nuclei, for all the summer 
through, queens will be needed. If the 
season is good you may at least hope to in- 
crease from two to six, though if the .season 
is not extra (jood, you must not expect much 
honey with such increase. You also may 
need to replace poor queens. 

Be sure that all through the months of 
June and July, your bees have plenty of 
room, thus you will be more apt to get 
worker brood comb — that with small cells 
— and more than this, you will preclude 
that necessary idleness, which can never be 
<'onducivi' t(» the luippiness and well being of 



the "busy bee." Every hive should con- 
tain empty cells, and empty frames, that 
the gatherers may have room to store, the 
queens to lay eggs, and the comb-builders 
to form their beautiful white structures. 
A non-observance of this advice, and the 
workers will hang outside the hive, the 
palets of wax go to waste, and, the queen 
ceasing to lay eggs, the colony will become 
weak, unable to protect itself against 
robbers, and moths. 

We are now in the midst of the locust 
season, at the dawn of the white clover, 
and that regal season, — the bass-wood — 
will come very soon. So now, as seen, is 
the time to get our box honey, if we desire 
it. Simple boxes will do. They may be 
made from six to ten inches each way with 
glass on two sides and long narrow holes 
cut in the bottom, the top and other two 
sides of half inch pine, put these immedi- 
ately on the frames. 

During the hot weather be sure to have 
your bees shaded from the hot sun, not at 
morn, aud eve, but at noon-tide. I have 
known bees to honey outside the hive just 
because they could not endure the oven -like 
interior. The formation of a screen, by 
placing boards a little above the hives, 
worked like a charm. Idleness was at once 
banished, and the happy hum of returning 
industry, told of a rich harvest of prospec- 
tive sweets. 

One new beginner has already banished 
veil and bee-gloves. Another was too rash, 
and was fearfully stung. It is best to use a 
good degree of caution and smoke, aud re- 
tain at least the veil, till all show of 
nervousness is gone, and you have a perfect 
understanding with your pets. My friend, 
aud old pupil Mr. E. Benton, now in charge 
of the large Edgefield Junction Apiary, 
writes me that the late Dr. Hamlin — whose 
urbanity, candor, and Christian integrity 
were so pre-eminent that his decease makes a 
sad loss in our fraternity — never used smoke 
and did not believe in it. He further adds 
that the bees were very cross. In early 
spring and late summer and autumn, I 
believe that even the experienced Apiarists 
had better use smoke. 

If any find a queen missing before having 
extra queens, give the colony comb Avitli 
eggs from your best queen. In my next 
article I will give directions for introducing 
queens. 

Agricultural College, Lansing. 



It is a common practice to rub the inside 
of a hive with aromatic herbs, a solution of 
salt, or other substance, with a view of 
making the hive more acceptable to the ex- 
pected swarm. But the most experienced 
and observant bee-masters deem this alto- 
getlicr unnecessary, if not injurious. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



i(i:i 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Feeding Bees. 

I tind in our bee journiils consklerablo 
written upon tlie subject of feeding bees. 
I tliinlv it an object wortliy of considersition 
and ellort, to tind and pursue a system that 
will save the necessity of feeding at all. 
To secure this it is only necessary to adopt 
a hive in which we (-an eftectivcly control 
the swarming and limit the number of col- 
onies to the amount of honey produced by 
the accessible tield. 

The great body of farmers do not desire 
to, and will not make, bee-keeping a prin- 
t-ipal business. Wiiat they do in securing 
the honey produced in their fields must be 
done incidentally, other interests of the 
farm claim their principal attention. I 
presume few will be found among them to 
use movable comb hives, to raise Itiiliau 
queens ; or honey extractors to furnish ex- 
tracted honey for market. That must be 
done by experts in the business, whether 
they are farmers or not. 

For them the best hive will give about 
3,500 cubic inches in the breeding and win- 
tering apartment ; and as much more in 
small frames or boxes, for storing surplus. 
With such an arrangement, the bees will 
be very likely to make a fair arrangement 
with the farmer, and gather the honey in 
his and other surrounding fields, at the 
halves. If the field is very good and the 
season fine, they give him two-thirds, 
requiring only one-third for consumption. 
My enquiry is whether it will not be better 
to give this room in the breeding apart- 
ment, and save the necessity of feeding at 
all. 

These thoughts have occured to me now 
on reading, P. W. McFartridge's experi- 
ence, in the May numlier of the American 
Bee Journal page 112 — he gives as the 
product of his apiary a little over 4,000 lbs. 
He tells us that he has fed 1,100 lbs. of A 
coffee sugar, and that 200 lbs. of the honey 
soured a little he reserves for feeding. This 
leaves 2,700 lbs. of honey. 

With 250 cubic inches ample room is 
given for storing a winter's supply for the 
bees, and feeding is unnecessary. 

There nmst, however, be another condi- 
tion implied to prevent danger, that is, that 
there are not too many colonies in the field. 
If there are more colonies in the field than 
can be supplied Avith winter stores, they 
must be fed or starve, even if each colony 
had a meetiug-houso to work in. 

I liid it ditficult to so express my ideas 
upon this subject as to be understood. 

1. If an apiary is located in a field yield- 
ing 12,000 lbs. of honey, and each colony of 
bees for breeding and winter, will consume 
GO lbs. ; 200 colonies would consume it all. 

2. One hundred colonies would consume 



6,000 lbs. and give 6,000 lbs. in surplus. 

3. Fifty colonies would consume 3,000 
lbs. and give 9,000 lbs. in surplus. 

4. If you put 300 colonies into the field 
there would be but an average of 40 lbs. to 
each colony for both breeding season and 
winter, and a great amount of A sugar or 
something else must be fed, or almost all 
of them starve to death. 

In the last vase a few of the strongest 
colonies might get an early start, and live 
throughout the winter. Possibly some of 
them give a little surjjlus ; but nine-tenths 
of them more or less would starve to death. 
Some of them would die so early that the 
moths, in their weakened state, would 
weave their webs. Some of them would 
wander over the combs defiling them. — 
Some would crawl or fiy out of the hive 
and die, and some would try robbing to 
make a living. Nobody knows what the 
matter is. Some lay it to the moths ; some 
to dysentery ; some to robbing ; and some 
to "don't know," while the whole truth is 
there are far too many bees. There might 
have been some cases where the bees left 
some honey in a part of their hive that was 
out of their reach in a cold spell, and it is 
even said, "Oh, no they did not starve to 
death, there was honey left. " 

In the case of 200 colonies having 60 lbs. 
each in the field, perhaps one quarter just 
go through the winter and only half perish. 

In the case of 100 colonies they would 
not give 00 lbs. each but some might give 
100 lbs. and some 20 more or less. 

So in the case of 50 colonies, 180 lbs. 
each. As has sometimes been known they 
may range from 100 to nearly 300 lbs. 

What I would urge is that 100 colonies 
in the supposed field is better than 200. 
And 200 colonies is better than 300. 

Indeed the farmer had better have no 
bees than to have so many more than his 
field will supply. From 50 to 100 colonies 
is a full supply for the field ; 100 colonies 
would store half the production in surplus. 

While we are taught by some that "there 
is no danger of overstocking the field," I 
believe without one doubt that three- 
fourths of the ditticulties we encounter 
arise from over-stocking. 

Woodstock, Vt. Jasper Hazen. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

My Experience. 

It is some time since I have written for 
the AmeriCzVN Bee Journal, but during 
that time my experience has been worth 
gold. In 1872, I lost 43 hives by dysen- 
tery, and last year, I lost 15 hives from 
robbery. At the end of the year I bought 
a beautiful $2 queen from "Olley." This 
queen died last season in a strong hive, 
which started cells profusely I counted 



1G4 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



52 cells ou a single frame. I Italianised 
my whole Apiary. I had carefully cut 
away all droue brood from the black bees 
and left my pure Italian drones to preserve 
the queen cells. As soon as one queen 
came out a black queen was killed and her 
body cast out. 

One day I had occasion to go to the 
blacksmith's, on my return home, I found 
my whole farm on fire ; in less than an 
hour everything was consumed except my 
bees, and an old potatoe cellar. I and my 
family took shelter in an improvised log 
hut for 14 days. Then I had prepared a 
new abode, and was prepared to put my 
bees in the cellar by Dec. 14th. They 
needed feeding all winter. Lost one, and 
had 31 left. Fed with colfee A sugar. 

On Feb. 1st, I examined and found all 
in good condition. 

On March 15th, I found one hive dead 
from dysentery, another queculess and a 
gallon of dead bees on the floor. 

As soon as the cleansing was done, I fed 
them warm honey, poured in the large 
drone cells on one side ; then that was set 
outside to cool, then laid it down on a news- 
paper, honey downwards and poured the 
other side full. Such frames contained 
from 4 to lbs. Feeding was easy in that 
manner. I fed until the 5th of May. — 
April gave me one day that bees could fly. 
I have lost 6 swarms in all. I intend to 
run up my swarms this summer to power- 
ful colonies. 

I intend to experiment with the Gallup 
system. My frames are all 12x12, this is 
my standard. Joseph Dufpeler. 

Wegnoick, Wis. 



For the American Bee Journal. 



Spare the toads, but place your hives out 
of their reach, for they can soon destroy a 
strong colony if they can get near enough 
to the entrance to catch them, as they pass 
in or out. Watch the toads late in the 
evening and at niaht. 



Many people are fond of bees — indeed 
liave a passion for them ; but it is not 
enough to be fond of them, they must be 
skillfully taken care of, according to cer- 
tain rules, applicable in every case, but 
more particular in bad years. Mistaken 
care annoys them — niggardliness ruins 
them. — E.rchange. 



Hives, or the habitation in which the 
bees live, bleed and work, have been made 
of dificrent materials, and in difi'erent 
forms, according to the fancy of people of 
different ages and countries. Melissus, 
King of Crete, is said to be the first who 
♦ invented and taught the use of bee jiives. — 
Bonner. 



Gallup on Artificial Queens. 

We have never, to our recollection, given 
the readers of the American Bee Journal 
our ideas in full on artificial queens. We 
have given them in Mr. Mitcliell's paper, 
and sent them in full to Mr. King ; Ijut he 
was afraid that his readers might learn 
something contrary to his teachings, there- 
fore did not publish it. In my opinion 
"Novice" and others have led many a 
beginner astray, by advocating that there 
was no difterence between artificially and 
naturally reared queens. Langstroth, 
Grimm, Adair, and the late Dr. Hamlin, 
and others, agreed with me in full . Quin- 
by says that thei'e is no difference and even 
went so far as to accuse me of never hav- 
ing had any practical experience in raising 
queens, etc. 

NoM' to the question. What are the con- 
ditions for natural queen raising? We 
have abundance of bees, consequent!}" 
warmth, we have abundance of food of the 
right kinds, and M'e have abundance of 
youiug or nursing bees to prepare that food 
properly for the queen larvae Now if the 
novice in the business will see that he 
has all those necessary conditions and eggs 
or larva; just hatched, whether in nuclei or 
standard hives, he or she will raise natural 
queens every time — nothing artificial about 
them. Ou the other hand, we will suppose 
we do as many queen breeders have done ; 
raise artifical queens about in this manner : 
Measure out a sufficient quantity of bees, 
place them in a nuclei hive, and give them 
comb, eggs and honey and no pollen. 
Confine t^em for 3 or 4 days before giving 
them their liberty, and in a majority of 
cases pay no attention to the age of the 
bees selected, but get mostly old bees, or 
those incapable of digesting or preparing 
the natural food for the larva?, etc. Queens 
raised under those circumstances are artifi- 
cial, or raised under circumstances contrary 
to nature. In such cases queens have hatch- 
ed out in nine days repeatedly, and in some 
instances they have been known to come 
out in eight days ; but we never have nine- 
day queens, if we make up our nuclei of 
young or nursing bees. For the novice 
in queen breeding must bear in mind that 
bees at a certain age are incapable of di- 
gesting pollen, and preparing the necessary 
food for larvjc. Now we will tell yuu how 
we raise queens. If in nuclei hives, we use 
three standard combs and always keep 
abundance of nursing bees, and if they do 
not gather pollen enough we suj^ply them 
with i)ollen from other liives, and we like 
to have them have quite a quantity of 
larv;^ on hand to feed, at the time of start- 
ing queen cells, so that they are preparing 
the necessary food in large (juautities, and 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



105 



we raise natural aud prolific queens, 
every time, — there is nothing unnatural 
about them that \vc could ever discover. 
]Sow, suppose, as soon as the young queen 
becomes fertile aud commences laying, we 
remove her and allow the bees to start 
queen cells from those eggs. There is no 
larv« to feed, as it is all sealed or hatched 
out, and the bees are well advanced as to 
age, or in other words there are but very 
few nursing bees, etc., we may succeed in 
raising a good ([ueen, and we may not. 
There is no certainty about it. Thousands 
of queens have been sold by queen breeders 
that have been superseded the first or 
^ second season after being received. A 

good queen properly raised ought to be 
good for four seasons. Langstroth and 
Grimm know how to raise good queens, 
but they could not raise them for $\ each, 
consequently both have ([uit the business. 

We might liave explained our ideas long 
ago on this subject, but we should not then 
have drawn out so many ideas from others. 
In otlier words, we like to have those that 
have received their first stock of bees give 
us their instructions. It amuses us huge- 

Now " Novice," would it not have been 
just as well to have criticised Gallup on the 
queen question, after you knew what his 
ideas were, as to criticise before you knew V 
Give us a clip aud see what effect it will 
have. 

I like " Novice's " grit. He gives his in- 
structions to-day and contradicts them to- 
morrow, and thereby gets himself into 
•^ inextricable snarls, yet he never gives up, 
like our friend Price, who killed himself 
by trying to instruct others in what he did 
not know himself. 



F^or the- Anierican Bee Journal. 



My Mary Ann. 



My beautiful, beautiful, Mary Ann. — 
Yes ! that same old story over again. The 
crow whose chicks were white. Not so 
fast my friend ; not so fast : She is not 
my daughter, neither is she a blonde ; but 
a bronze colored queen. 

Well ; why such an ado over ]VIary Ann ; 
others have raised queens as good as she, 
and have made money too with bees, 
Avhich is more than you have done. Let 
me feel joyful over Mary Ann any how. 

I value money, from tlie enjoyment I 
can get from its use. AVhat if the coffee A 
does disappear mysteriously. You know 
"my dear," we have not had a doctor in 
our house professionally, since those bees 
arrived at the express office, so strangely. 

The doctor always said, exercise in the 
open air. How much good could I get, 
sweeping the side-walks with trailing 
skirts ? You do not wear trains. I know 



I don't ; but when a person talks to me of 
taking a walk for exercise, I think of the 
Yankee who wanted work, and a man told 
liim, lie would hire liim ; and set liiin to 
pounding on a log, witii the head of an axe. 
lie tried it awhile, but soon threw down 
his axe, exclaiming I can't dp this : I must 
see the chips fiy. 

You always scatter so. I thought you 
were talking about Mary Ann. You keep 
quiet now, while I tell of Mary Ann's 
wrongs. 

I have already been taught to respect 
the advice and opinion of the stronger sex ; 
so when Mr. Harrison recommended put- 
ting Mary Ann in the cellar, I silently ac- 
(juiesced. Put tliose five in the cellar, 
they will consume less there ; (I knew all 
the time coffee A had much to do with it). 

We tucked Mary Ann, and her compani- 
ons under their quilts, and carried them 
gently into our cozy little cellar. When 
old boreas raged without, how thankful I 
felt that these "fire pets" w'ere protected 
from his blasts. 

These bees flew on the 7th of Nov., aud 
we put them in the cellar on the 10th. We 
carried them out for a fly, on tlie 2nd of 
Dec, returning them as soon as quiet. Ou 
the 3rd of Jan., the thermometer being at 
76, at 11 o'clock, carried them out for a 
fly. They all flew finely, but I did not 
like the appearance of ^he combs. 

On the 11th of Feb. carried bees out, 
finding them in a dismal state ; O, those 
bed clothes ; damp and disagreeable ; no 
more quilts for me. Some of the colonies 
had quarts of dead bees. Plenty of honey, 
with no appearance of dysentery. As the 
weather was very warm, I cleaned out the 
hives, and placed them on the east side of 
the house, protecting them on all side^, 
except the front, with straw. Made little 
sacks and filled them with straw, that just 
fitted into the porticos, so the wdnd could 
not blow them out. Every night, and ou 
cold and windy days, I protected the fronl-v 
in this way. • 

Every fine day some of these bees weDt 
a visiting, and forgot to come home. One 
by one they dwindled away, until May liJth 
1 found I only had Mary Ann and a hand- 
ful of bees. I caged her and filled up the 
hive with frames of brood and bees, releas- 
ing her the next day, after sprinkling al'i 
thoroughly with sweetened water, scented 
with the essence of sweet anise ; she is now 
the adored mother of a thriving and pros- 
perous colony. 

I wintered successfully 11 colonies in 
the open air. Hereafter, I shall winter iu 
the open air, as th^ Dutchman says 
"shingled mit straw," every time. I put 
in the cap, a gunny sack filled with straw, 
raising the cover slightly for ventilation. 

Peoria, 111. Mrs. L. Harrison. 



166 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



-i 



tn^wmiBqjftfttv 



W. F. CLARKE, Editor. 



CHICAGO. JULY. 1874. 



Theories and their Advocacy. 

It is during tlie working season that 
most of the theories of bee life are evolved 
from the apicultural mind. While the 
Iiees are busy building cells, the bee-keepers 
are busy building theories. There are 
minds that have a natural faculty for the 
construction of theories, even as bees have 
a natural faculty for cell-construction. 
Theories ought always to be the results of 
observation, and should be based on facts. 
But they are often like those pleasant 
stories we sometimes meet with, and which 
are headed, "founded on fact." This is 
generally fair notice that among what 
is strictly true, there will be interwoven a 
good deal that is purely imaginative. Im- 
agination is very well in its place, but it 
must be excluded from the realm of 
science. It is pleasing and useful in light 
literature, but considerable of a nuisance 
mixed in with the solid and sometimes 
prosaic affairs of real life. Not a few of 
the most important of human interests have 
sutfered from the tendency of mankind to 
spin theories out of cobwebs, and to go to 
the realm of investigation with their 
theories ready made. Most of the diificul- 
ties in theology have arisen out of precon- 
ceived theories, which their authors have 
sought to uphold, when framed, out of the 
Book. Bee-keeping has sutfered in the 
same way. People have gone to the hive 
to get evidence in support of a favorite 
theory, instead of going to it without any 
theory, to gather facts as the material out 
of which to manufacture theory. A certain 
member of the British Parliament was 
frank enough to confess that he trusted to 
his memory for wit, and to his imagination 
for facts. Not a few draw on the imagina- 
tion for facts, who have not self-knowledge 
enough to be aware of it, nor candour 
enough to own up about it. Theories 



require the utmost deliberation and care in 
construction, and, like Italian queens, are 
not worth much until well tested. 

When a theory is adopted on what are 
considered suflicient grounds, it should be 
advocated with modesty and forbearance. 
Haste in forming a theory is usually fol- 
lowed b}' dogmatism in contending for it. 
A man who is patient in constructing a 
theory, will be patient in urging it upon 
the acceptance of others. Slow in espous- 
ing it himself, he will not be surprised to 
find many who are slow as himself, if not 
slower. Impatience to get credit and 
honor from those to whom a theory is an 
nounced, not unfrequently betrays theorists 
into unseemly behaviour. Some espou'se 
theories as they do matrimonal partners, 
and afterwards illustrate the proverb about 
marrying in haste, and repenting at leisure. 

Theories, if well-founded, will bear the 
test of criticism, and the sensitiviness of 
many to a dissenting word, argues no 
great amount of confidence in their own 
views. What is based on fact, can nevei- 
be overthrown. It is like tlie " tall cliff " 
immortalized by a great poet : — 

"Though round its base the rolling clouds arc 
Eternal sunshine settles on its head." [spread. 

We commend these general, and as we 
think, timely remarks, on "theories and 
their advocacy." to all and sundry who 
write for the American Bee Jouknai,. 



Bees and Grapes. 

It has often been insinuated by the 
ignorant that bees injure fruit ; and some 
time ago, a benighted little village in New 
England undertook to expel all bees from 
its limits because of their supposed depre- 
dations. An American naturalist of some 
note, not very long since brought this 
accusation against the bees, and recom- 
mended fruit-growers to protect themselves 
against these industrious insects by the use 
of certain recipes that would attract anil 
destroy them. But the great majority of 
fruit-growers are too keenly alive to their 
own interests to take any steps toward the 
suppression of bees or bee-keeping. It is 
pretty certain that by collecting and 
distrilmting the pollen of plants, the bees 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



ig; 



accomplish fructification in many cases 
where otlicrwisc it would not take place. 
There is no conclusive evidence to sustain 
the suspicion of their injuring fruit. C!h. 
Dadant, who is now settled in Illinois, but 
wlio for many years kept bees near the 
hills of Burgundy, says in a recent number 
of the Amkuican Bkk Jovknal, It is well 
established that lices are unable to cut the 
skin of grapes. In order to ascertain the 
fact, the most juicy and sugared grapes, 
pears, sweet cherries, plums, apricots, etc., 
were put inside the hives ; neAi^er have the 
bees attacked them if they wei'e not 
previously scratched. The experiment 
was repeatedly made ; it was discovered 
also that the first cutting was made by a 
kind of wasp, or hj birds, or caused by 
tlie rain falling when the fruit was ripe. 

A Wisconsin bee keeper also writing to 
our journal says, "Last fall I took a 
bunch of Delaware grapes (the most 
tender variety we have here,) and put it on 
a hive, directl}^ over the bees, and watched 
proceedings ; but not a single berry was 
opened ; then I broke a few berries, upon 
which they went immediately to work, 
sacking them dry, thus showing that some- 
tliing besides bees does the mischief." 



Fhe idea is entertained by many intelli- 
gent bee-keepers, that where the bees 
have been suspected, with any air of 
probability, of doing injury to grapes, the 
skin of the fruit must first have been 
punctured bj' some other insect, thus afford- 
ing the bees access to the pulp. On this 
point a correspondant of the Rural New 
Yorker, writing from Mai-cellus, N. Y., 
says : — " There is much complaint made in 
the papers of bees eating grapes in ditifer- 
ent localities, which 1 doubt not is true ; 
but I wish some scientific man would give 
a close examination, even with a magnify- 
ing glass, and see whether some insect has 
not been gnawing the skin in the night ; 
for we know that the corn worm comes at 
night, eats oti' the blade, and the snail eats 
holes in the young tobacco leaf and is not 
seen in the day time ; and there may be 
insects flying in the night, like the light- 
ning bug, that gnaw the grapes. Now% in 
this section almost every house has a grape 
vine, and there are bees ke])t in many 



places all over town and this village ; and 
I have kept bees and grapes over ;}() years, 
but have never heard the first complaint. 
I wish there could be some close examina- 
tion made." 

Back Volumes. 

Coiuiilete sets of back vohnues are scarce. 
But few can be procured at any price. We 
have a set, consisting of the nine volumes 
(complete), which we offer for sale, eitlier 
bound or unbound, for a reasonable sum. 
Many of the numbers we have paid fifty cent'< 
each for. to complete them. 

We have several single volumes (complete) 
which we will send postpaid for |!2.00 eaeh. 

Several volumes, which lack only a single 
number ot being complete, we will send post- 
paid for .lyl.oO each. 

Vol. 1, we can supply in cloth boards, post- 
paid, for f 1.25. Bound in paper covers, SLOO, 
postage 10 cents. This volume is worth five 
times its price to any intelligent bee-keeper. 
It contains a full elucidation of scientific bee- 
keeping, including the best statement extant 
of the celebrated Dzierzon theory. These 
articles run through eight numbers, and are 
from the pen of the Baron of Berlepsch. 

JI:^" Beginners in bee-culture, who desire 
to read up in the literature of bee-keeping, 
are earnestly advised to obtain these back 
volumes. Many of our best apiarians say 
they would not sell tlieir back volumes of the 
American Bee Jouexat> for ten times the 
sum they cost, if they could not replace them. 
They are exceedingly valuable alike to begin- 
ners and more advanced apiarians. 



A Choice of Six Volumes p^ok jSo.— Hav- 
ing a few back volumes complete, and some 
lacking only one or two numbers each, we 
will give the purchaser the choice of six of 
such volumes for SS.OO. until tliey are disposed 
of. As only a few can be supplied, those who 
wisli to avail themselves of this offer, should 
send for them at once. 



B^" We want several copies of No. 1, Vol. 
2, of the Amekioan Bee Journae, and will 
pay 50 cents each for them. 

The postage on this paper is only twelve 
cents a year, if paid quarterly or yearly in 
advance at the post-office where received. 
We prepay postage to Canada, and require 
twelve cents extra. 

When a subscriber sends money in pay- 
ment for the American Bee Jouuxae, he 
should state to what time he thinks it jiays, 
so that we can compare it with our books, 
and thus ])revent mistakes. 



168 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



Voices from among the Hives. 

O. L. Bam-akd, of Maloiie. N. Y., writes : 
— " Most of tlu; hee-keepers in tliis vicinity 
have lost a large proportion of tlieir colonies 
since setting tlieni ont this spring ; but bj' 
feeding mine a little they have increased in 
numbers, altiiough they luwe not swarmetl 
out as yet." 

Wm. Pekry, (Sh., Lynnville, Tenn.. writes: 
— " Our honey harvest has been very tight the 
present season. There has not been much 
increase in stocks. The very wet spring, 
followed by a drought of some five weeks, 
has proved quite unfavorable for honey 
gathering."' 

E. Gallup, Orchard, Iowa, writes :— "The 
bees are swar))iing and doing finely. The 
spring" was cold and backward, which makes 
them late in swarming, but the flowers all 
produce honey this season. They are now to 
work on Alsike and white clover. The bass- 
wood or linn is going to blossom v(uy pro- 
fusely ; so look out for honey." 

.J. H. Ckistie, Dyersburg, Tenn., writes : 
— " My bees are doing well. The winter was 
mild, and the spring opened early, but cold 
and wet. Bees could gather nothing to make 
honey of, and many starved to death. All 
were put back at least a month. The poplar 
is our best honey food, and it is in bloom 
now. We have besides this, holly, maple, 
elm, and black gum. My bees are all of the 
black kind. I inteuil to Italianize them 
soon." 

John Barfoot, Wellsville, Mo, writes : — 
'• So far this has been a good bee season. 
Honey dew connnenced here May 22nd and it 
has continued up to this time, with the excep- 
tion of two days while it rained. We have 
also had our usual supply of bee pasture from 
flowers. We are in the midst of swarming. 
The Messrs. Baldwins, since their advent 
here, have infused new life into bee-keeping. 
Hives have increased 5 pounds in a single 
day here lately. 

L. BuRDiCK, Galesburg, Mich., writes : — 
"Ovu' bees wintered very well last winter. 
But a great many were lost during the month 
of April, who tiew out anil died ap])arently 
without disease, the (pieens living till about 
the last. They laid some eggs but did not 
hatch, for the want of bees to take care of 
them. The bees might have died with old 
age. Any information on this subject would 
be thaid<fuily received. The season here has 
been good for bees, up to this date. 

Samuel Luetht, (inadenhutten, Ohio, 
wiites :— *■ Bees wintered well in this locali- 
ty. One of our Italian colonies treatetl to 
liorse manure as recouuiiended l>v •" Novice." 



did not seem to derive much benefit from the 
process. The manure was put aroniul the 
hive up to the honey board on three sides, 
and the front was protected by straw and a 
board placed in front of it. The prospect for 
surplus honey is poor, owing to the long con- 
tinued dry weather. 

Frank Searles, Hadley, Hi., writes : — 
■' I wintered I2ii swarms and lost but one. I 
have only lost 8 swarms in the last three 
years. The weather for the past ten days 
has been very unfavorable— clouds, rain, and 
wind. The fields are white with clover, and 
my hives are full of bees. All they want now 
is fine weather. Swarms that I did not think 
gootl eiu)ugh to sell 1.5 days ago are now in 
first-class condition. They have done finely 
on the locust trees, for the past few days." 

C. II. English, Sullivan, Mo., writes:— 
" We have a good bee range here. The 
natural timber is very good. Sugar trees, 
soft maple, walnut, gum, and linn are among 
the l)est. They also make honey from a vine 
called •• poison vine," wild grapes, etc. 1 
intend hedging my farm with a kind of liaw - 
thorn, resend)ling sugar haws. It l)looms in 
.June. Bees are very fond of it ; and it makes 
a good hedge, and the berries are good for 
hogs. Red raspberry is the best honey plant. 
Its leaves are dripping with hont^y dew. My 
hives are full of honey, some in boxes. I 
have had several swarms. I use black bees. 
Some day I will give you my experience." 

M. QxjiNBV, St. .Johnsville, N. Y., wi'ites : 
— " When I first read on page 106, tiie heading 
' A new smoker " I thought • a contrivance 
for smoking bees " had reference to the way 
smoke was applied. Instead of a new way 
of applying smoke, it seems that only the 
material that he recommends to make it of is 
new. He concludes by saying ; ' You can 
blow th(» smoke where you want it, it leaves 
no bad effect on the bees." Are we to infer 
from this that some kinds of smoke do leave 
a 'bad effect ?' If so, I would like to enquire 
what kiiul does it, and in what way it does 
it. All bee-keepers ought to be interested, as 
our success in bee managenuMit depends on 
the judicious use of smoke. If any kind is 
detrimental, it is important that I know it, as 
I am just now reconnnending an indiscrimi- 
nate use of what is most convenient, and am 
unabh^ to detect any difference. When ' corn 
silk rolled in paper' is most convenient. I 
would advise using it. How to apply smoke 
conveniently, and effectually, without blow- 
ing the breath away, has been a long study 
with me. Any one that has a convenient 
method would confer a favor on the bee- 
keejiing comnmnity. by making it public." 

\V. M. Kkllocuj, Oneida. HI, writes: — 
"Bees arc doing finely al iircscut. tilling their 



THE AMERICAJ^ BEE JOURNAL. 



uyj 



hives with l)('(>s and honey ; I have had to 
use the extractor to keep them from crowding 
tlie queens out of doors. Stoclvs in small 
hives are preparinjj: to swarm, raising ([ueens, 
drones, etc., while those with movahle divi- 
sion boards, where we can give them i)lenty 
of empty comb, seem to be t'ontent with rais- 
ing lots of brood and lugging in the honey for 
us to sling out. Have nuide some new stocks 
and soon will have some more. AVe are hav- 
ing plenty of rain, so that bees have all they 
want to do to tend to their knitting ; but 
yesterday was so diunp they could get no 
honey from tlu^ tlo\VL*rs, so they pitcheil into 
I'verything that had sweet to it, by thousands, 
and were so cross one couldn't touch them 
with a ten foot pole. 

On page 142 Wm. Morris asks, "are large 
hives less liable to be atfected with dysentery 
than small ones?' With our bees that died 
otf in the spring of 'To, they did not get the 
dysentery till they were reduced to about a 
liint of bees, none of the stocks in large hives 
having it, till weak in bees, or the small hives 
either, for tliat matter. For my part 1 do not 
think it makes nnich ditfercnce in the size of 
the hive, if they have plenty of bees ; and as 
U) the cause of the disease here, we think it is 
to b(? laiil to the long continued cold rains 
and winds, keeping the bees from breeding, 
and what few were left iuul to gorge them- 
selves so with honey to keep up sufficient 
warmth, and then being conlined to the hives, 
gave them the dysentery. 

D. D. Palmer (page U8) speaks of the ' in- 
genious bent wire ' that Mr. Dadant uses to 
secure franuis at the bottom of the hive in 
shipping, but leaves us with our curiosity 
unsatisfied. Friend Palmer, can't you give 
us a description of it so we all can have the 
benefit of it ? or is it a:patented article '.' If it 
is, of course we'll fhave to pay for the nse of 
it." 

M. Np:vins. Cheviot. Ohio, writes:— "My 
;>4 stocks of Italians are doing finely. They 
have worked nxjre freely on red clover during 
1 he past two weeks than 1 ever knew tliem to 
do before. One swarm, from which I took 4 
frames of brood in March. April, and May, 
has now nuide oO lbs. of comb honey in the 
small franu's, and ."iO lbs of extracted. This 
liivejhas been weighed every day since the 
4th iust., and on 4 of these days has made 4 
lbs. per day of comb honey, and almost 
entirely from red clover. 

I see some imiuirv is made through the dif- 
ferent journals for a con\enient plan for 
weighing. 1 have a fixture which is conveni- 
ent. Take three strips of sawed stuff, 2 in. 
wide by I14 in. thick, (or round poles will do) 
and .s or ;> ft. long. 8have the top of each so 
they will fit together when the lower enrls 
are spread some ."> ft. apart. Fasten the toj) 



ends together with an iron bolt. Now you 
liave a tripod. 41^ ft. from the foot fasten a 
cross piece from leg Xo. 1 to leg Xo. 2 of suf- 
ficient strength to bear the weight in the cen- 
tre, of anything you desire to weigh. Across- 
the centre of this cross piece attach a lever, 
letting the inside end project just far enough 
to reach past leg No. :j, fasten a cleat to i-est 
the end of the lever on. Attach a ring to the 
lever about midway between the cross bar 
that supports the lever and leg No, 1]. Take- 
a piece of rope, tie tin; two ends together and 
you have it long enough to go under the hive 
double and come up on each side near the top 
ot the hive. Tie a spreader to the rope on 
each side of the hive near the bottom to keei*- 
the rope sufficiently spread on the bottom of 
the liive. I nse a leather strap over the top 
of the hive, and through the rope on each 
side of the hive to hook the steelyard into so 
that it can readily be adjusted by a buckh; to 
the right length to just swing the hive clear, 
when the lever comes to a horizontal position 
and rests upon the cleat on leg No. 3, I fre- 
quently leave the hive suspended there fron» 
day to day. The outer end of the lever pro- 
jects over the cross bar far enough to give 
sufficient leverage to raise the hive easily by 
bearing down on it. The ring on the lever is 
for the upper hook of the steelyard. 

All bee-keepers will readily see the great 
advantage of weighing a sample hive every 
day so as to know just what calculation to 
make about supplying additional storage 
room etc. etc., without having to open and go 
through the hives, which is always an inter- 
ruption to them when storing honey rapidly. 

The above apparatus is a great convenienc<? 
on a farm, and for many piu'poses aside from 
weighing bee hives. 1 once had a lot of 40 or 
50 beeves on the farm, which I desired to 
slaughter. 1 nuide a tripod 12 ft. high with a 
light tackle-block attached at the top, and a 
pole accross two of the standards near the 
foot with a crank on one end for a windlass, 
Shoot down a steer in the lot or any place 
where you could have a fair swing in the 
ail-, set the tripod over it and with one hand 
1 could lift it into any desired position for 
dressing, or. raise it clear from the ground. 
When dressed it could be run up out of the 
way of dogs, to hang over night, or a wagoii" 
backed under to take it away. This appara- 
tus was made of tamarac poles and was so 
light that a man could easily carry the whole 
rig half i; mile on his shoulder. 

My hives all stand on little posts driven m 
the groinid. one at each corner of the hive. 
Old broom handles, sawed off s or 10 in. long 
are sufficient if the groun<l is hard. Let the 
hive come within 2 or o in. of the ground. 
This plan affords no harbor for ants, spiders, 
rotton-wood, lice^ etc., and is very nice, 1 
bank u]i in the trout of my hives with coai 
ashes, even with the alighting board, to keep 
the grass and weeds down and giv(! the bee.'* 
a smooth and easy i)assa>je. 



170 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



4 



m^wMi^q^ntinnl 



THOMAS G. NEWMAN, Manager. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 

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Ten subscribers, sent at the same time 14.00 

Twenty subscribers, sent at the same time, . . . 23.00 
Send a postage stamp for a sample copy. 



Honey Markets. 



RATES OF ADVERTISING. 

SOLID NONI'ARIEL MEASUKK. 

first Insertion, per line # .30 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 15 

<One square, 10 lines or less, first insertion,. . . . 3.00 

Next page to Business Department and fourth 
iind last page of cover, double rates. 

Twelve lines of solid Nonpariel occuppy one inch. 
One column contains \m lines of solid Nonpariel. 

Bills of reguhir Advertising payable quarterly, if 
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than three months, payable monthly. Transient 
iidvertisemeuts. cash in advance. We adhere strict- 
ly to our printed rates. 

Address all communications and remittances to 
THOMAS <;. NEWMAN. 

Room 27, Tribune Building, Chicago. 

Books for Bee-Keepers may be ^obtained at 
tliis office. 

Not one letter in ten thousand i.s lost by 
mail it rif^litly directed. 

Single copies of the Amekicax Bki: .jouii- 
,NrAL are worth 20 cents each. 

Upon the wrapper of every copy of the 
Journal will be found the date at which 
jiiibscriptions expire. 

Any numbers that fail to reach .subscribers 
by fault of luall, we are at all tinu^s ready to 
riend. on application, free of charge. 

The (U'rmaii Bee-Sting Cure can be obtain- 
ed at this ofiice. Sent by Express for .l^l.UO. 
It cannot be sent by mail. See notice. 

Our sul)scribers in Eiir()j)e, can iimv procure 
Postiil Moiu'V Ordei-s on Chicago. This plan 
^)f sending uione\ is safe and economical. 

Subscribers wishing to change their post- 
office address, should mention their olrZ ad- 
dress, as well as the one to which they wisli 
it changed. 

JouJtNAL.s aie forwiirded until an ex])licit 
■order is recei\ed by the publishers for the 
discontinuance, and mdil payment of all ar- 
rearages is made as required by law. 

Persons writing to this otlice should either 
write their Name, I'ost-ollice, County and 
iState plaiidy, or, else cut olf the label I'roui 
tiie wrapper of theii' papei- and enclose it. 

We have received a Postal Order Ironi 
,Shanon, Wis., in an envelope containing 
nothing else. We do not know from whom it 
rame, nor for what it was intended. Will 
.Kome om^ inform us.' 

The Hev. \V. F. Clarke has resigned the 
Kecitoi'shij) (»t the Canada School of .\gricnl- 
ture. Not linding it c(nnpatil)le with his 
.other duties, be relnsed the honor. 



CHICAGO. — Choice white comb honey, ;i8 
@oOc ; fair to good, ;M(<«):iSc. Extracted, 
choice white, 14@1()C ; fair to good. lU(ai2c ; 
strained, 8@I0c. 

CINCINNATI.— Quotations from Chas. F. 
Muth. 970 Central Ave. 

Honey has been coming in moderately 
for the past; few weeks. Honey from fruit 
blossoms, this spring, is abundant. The 
harvest of white clover honey was duly in- 
augurated two weeks since, in this section. 
The quality is excellent. 

Comb honey, 1.5(a;3.5c" according to the con- 
dition of the honey and the size of the box or 
frame. Extracted choice white clover honev. 
16c. f ft. 

ST. LOUIS.— Quotations from W. C. Sunth 
419 North Main st. 

Choice white comb, 2.5(((;29c ; fair to good. 
U')0(-i;lc. Extracted choice white clover! lti((» 
LSc. Choice basswood honey, 14@l(ic ; fair 
to good, extracted, 8@12c ; strained, ()(((HOc. 

NEW YOEK.— Quotations from E. A. Wal- 
ker, lo5 Oakland st., Greenport, L. I. 

White honey in small glass boxes. ■i:'h- : 
dark 15(«20c. "Strained honev. S((i l:ic. Cnban 
honey, ••?1.00 f gal. St. Domingo, and Mexi- 
an, 96(a'9.5 ^ gal. 

SAN FRANCISCO. — Quotations from 
Sterns and Smith, 4r2.'] Front .s;t. 

We received the first new honey about 
June 1st ; the season is four weeks late in 
honey. The quality, so far this season, is 
superior. From information derived from 
all sources, the yield this season will be 
very large, and we shall have to look to the 
East for a market. Comb in wood, new, 
and well filled, 20 (w 30 cents "}l=lft ; in tins. 
2ft tins, comb, $3.50 (a 3.75 per doz. But 
little new strained has yet come in, and 
dealers are only buying small lots. 



Special Notice. 

During the past ton months of " Panic," 
the receipts of the American Bee Jouunai. 
have been very light. We have cheerfully 
"carried" thousands of our subscribers, 
and now trust that they, will respond as 
soon as possible, as we have obligations 
that must be met at once. IMany subscrip- 
tions ran out with the .JUNE luimber, and 
now we hope to hear from them, as well 
as from those that expired before that 
time. 

We shall continue to send the Amektcax 
Bek .louKNAi. to all our subscribers until 
we get an explicit order for a discontinu- 
ance, and we hope those who not wish to 
continue their subscriptions will notify us 
by letter or Postal card, either when they 
exi)ire or before that time. 

We have purchased of Geo. S. WagiuT 
Esq. and the Rev. W. F. Clarke all the 
back subscrijitiou and advertising accounts, 



American Bee Journal 

DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO BEE CULTURE. 



Vol. X. CEDAR RAPIDS, AUGUST, 1874. No. 8. 



immimuktw^, 



Correspondents should write only on one side of 
the sheet. Their best thoughts and practical ideas are 
always welcome ; no matter how rough, we will cheer- 
fully '"fix them up." 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Bees, Birds and Grapes. 

What the Greeks or Ilomans may have 
said or written on this question fails to 
come down to us in history. But we find 
the bee and tlie grape side by side, oecu- 
pying the most deliglitful portions of our 
globe for ages, witliout threat of deadly 
poisons or other violence, till you come to 
America in the year of our Lord, 1873. 

Over twenty years have I cultivated both 
bees and grapes, consequently myaflections 
are about equally divided between the two. 
On a lot of some acres 1 have many of the 
Choice fruits of the climate, with grapes in 
profusion. 

My colonies, say 00 to 80 in number are 
located under Apple, Peach, Pear, Quince, 
Cherry, Grape and Plum trees, where con- 
tact occurs necessnrially every season. Be- 
ing a person of leisure, my opportunities 
have been good to closely inspect this ques- 
tion. Itoo like Prof. Eiley and hundreds 
of horticulturists and apiarists have seen 
bees cut into small fruits, especially grapes 
and peaches. 

I too with all my family have had our 
fingers cruelly stung in gathering th.ose 
fruits when ripe. In years departed I have 
witnessed my bees swarming by the thous- 
ands on my trellises, a])parently threaten- 
ing the entire destruction of my grape crop, 
to say nothing of my pears and peaches. 
My neighbors too, both learned and un- 
learned, give their unimpeachable testimony 
to the same state of facts among them- 
selves. 

Surely this ought to be sullicient to con- 
vict every bee in tlie land, and, as the law- 
yers say, we might here rest the case. Now 
I have summed up all I care about on this 
side of the question, and am free to say, 
there is not any evidence touching the vital 
point at issue. Who cares what bees eat 



in general. All Aviuged insects live on 
something. Every barefooted boy in the 
land can testify to bees extracting the juice 
from poniice laying around a cider mill, 
}>ea!;hes, pears or grajies tliat have been 
maimed, crushed, eaten into or broken 
open by some other agency. But not one 
living soul of all the parties to this ques- 
tion have seen with the physical eye, a 
honey bee at any time or under any cir- 
cumstances pounce upon a bunch of grapes 
or other fruit untouched by birds or in- 
sects, perfect in all r{*spects ; and with its 
mandibles eat through the skin or rind and 
open up its contents to a free banquet ! 
And 1 challenge all parties interested ia 
this controversy to come forward through 
the columns of this journal, not with cir- 
cumstantial or superficial evidence, but 
with facts bearing directly upon this vital 
point. 

The season of 187?. visited a fearful 
drouth on this portion of Ohio, and the 
bees and l)irds alike were hard up forprov- 
inder and made sad havoc with our grapes. 
Some citir.eiis counted their loss as high as 
twenty bu^^hels and vigorously pressed the 
Village Council to expel the bees by ordi- 
nance beyond cor])oration limits. Acting 
on the spur of the moment they actually 
passed an ordinance to its second reading 
(repeating the Wenhaiu farce) imposing a 
heavy penally for keeping bees within said 
limits. In tlie mean time I had not been 
idle, but applying tests to satisfy our peo- 
ple of their error, I invited them to come 
upon ray grounds and sec for. themselves 
the Robhins, Red-birds and Orioles that lay 
dead under my vines and fruit trees with 
grape seeds'in tiieir stomachs and mouths, 
as I had often shot tlienv in the act of biting 
open the grapes as they hung on the vines. 

Our bees were undergoing a test also — 
three hives had as many bunches of ripe 
concord graj>es tacked to their fronts — that 
passing out aiid in, contact was unavoida- 
ble ; on the tilth day they remained un- 
touched save the bees hunting through and 
over them to find an open berry. Then I 
opened with my knife say a quarter of the 
berries on each bunch and true to their in- 
stinct they began taking up the juice before 
1 completed the job. In about forty-eight 
hours they had taken up all the juice aud 



172 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



and pulp I had offered them, and four days la- 
ter, when I removed the bunches, not a sm- 
o-le' berry had they opened, but were busily 
fnspecting those that remained, doubtless 
waiting for some stronger power to lead in 
the business. 

The bald hornet, both black and yellow, 
are experts in cutting into peaches, pears, 
grapes, &c. In handling fruits, I have seen 
them cut through the rind of ripe and ten- 
•der peaches with great facility, thus leadmg 
the way for the more feeble insects to fol- 
low and take up their contents, and therein 
lies the great mistake with the hundreds of 
complainents. Birds and hornets are few 
indeed when compared with bees, and 
whilst they glide along opening up and in- 
viting to the feast, are rarely noticed. The 
honest bees, tarries to appropriate for the 
supply of his home, and is seen by the 
million and condemned as thieves and bur- 
glars. 

The most persistent and clamorous ot 
our citizens, who had threatened bee-men 
with the law and our bees with strychnine 
were the first to come forward and thank 
me for what I had placed before their eyes, 
as the true solution to the whole question ; 
for all who took the trouble, accomplished 
exactly the same results by the same means 
that I had used, and no further complaints 
have reached my ears to this day. 

Would it not be much more commend- 
able for horticulturists as well as scientists 
to keep their eyes open to facts as they ex- 
ist, tlian to make and publish to the world 
' their sweeping declarations, founded in er- 
• ror and so prolific in mischief, wherever 
■' they take root. 

■■■ To Prof's. Dadaut, Cook and Krusehke: 
••■ let us cordially thauk you for the light you 
li have shed upon this important controversy 
' and in the mean time keep your powder 
'•• dry. 
: . Athens, Ohio. J. W. Bayakd. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Handling a Delicate Subject. 

In writing to our friend. Prof. Cook, we 
did not intend lo convey the idea that Dr. 
Hamlin never used smoke in handling his 
bees, as the Professor has it stated in. his 
July article to beginners ; but we meant to 
say that he objected very strongly to its 
general use and only resorted to it when 
absolutely obliged lo do so. He was of 
the opinion that smoke of any sort, though 
it (luieted the bees for a time, left them in a 
. very irritable condition from which they 
would not recover for some time. lie im- 
agined that from handling his bees for a 
long tune with the use of but little smoke, 
he had developed in tliem an extraordinary 
peaceful disposition. Then, too, he thought 
•the smoke stopped the labor of every bee in 



the hive and left them filled with honey, 
idle, and sluggish for some time after its 
use. On opening hives in the spring with- 
out using smoke, with the greatest possible 
care and when the bees were gathering 
honey, we frequently found that the result 
would be a hasty retreat and an arming 
with a good smudge. Simply the odor of 
the person while standing on the leeward 
side of the hive often aroused them. Surely 
the labor of the whole hive was interrup- 
ted. By using, as has always'been our cus- 
tom, just a trifle of smoke on first opening 
the hive and then placing it near at hand so 
the fumes would scent the air about the 
hive, those same cross bees are quite easily 
handled, while the danger of arousing the 
peaceable ones is wholly avoided. The 
smoke seems to neutralize the scent of the 
poison floating in the air as the hive is 
opened. When properly used we have 
never seen any ill-eflect arising from the 
application of a small amount of smoke. 
Some stocks will require more than others 
on the start to subdue them, and occasion- 
ally one will scarcely ever need it, yet it is in- 
dispensible at times. The greater rapidity 
in the handling of stocks with smoke, is a 
strong point in favor of its use, even if it 
does not leave the bees with as peaceable a 
disposition. We think bees once irritated 
will remember the occurrence longer than 
they would a thorough smoking, and tlnrt, 
by the timely use of a little smoke, it is much 
better to prevent their getting once 
aroused than to attempt the handling of 
them ^yithout the smoke when there is 
danger of their becoming angered. In 
proof that the smoke does not induce an 
uo'ly disposition I would state that those 
same colonies that were cross in the spring 
on the first opening of the hives at a time 
when they were gathering honey rapidly, 
can now be handled on w^arm days with 
little or no smoke and but little danger ; 
yet they are not gathering a drop of honey, 
but are persistently endeavoring to take the 
little sweetness accumulated by some of 
their less fortunate neighbors. When the 
smoke is used in the manner describedthey 
always observe a proper decorum realizing 
that their master is at hand. 

We class ourselves as "a beginner," 
(Northern winters have necessitated our 
beginning several times,) so Prof. Cook's 
articles apply to us ; and, though we spent 
some time studying bee-culture under the 
Professor's direction and are willing m 
most matters pertaining to the subjectto 
follow his excellent advice, yet in the third 
paragraph of his .hily article he has some 
advice which for the present at least, we 
shall have to put along with the advice on 
queen clipping,— as a total loss upon us. 
He says to "all who are in the bonds ot 
single .bitterness, immediately procure a 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



173 



brave intelligent helpmeet." But really af- 
ter writing the sentence wc have come to 
the conclusion that it docs not include us or 
else we are not capable of comprehending 
our own condition. We never became 
aware that avc were "in the bonds of sin- 
gle bitterness," but always thought it 
freedom ; then, too, we have always been 
accustomed to consider the occupation of 
the apiarist as a sweet one so we should 
label tlie condition which the Professor ev- 
idently means to describe as the freedom of 
single sweetness. As far as bravery and 
intelligence are concerned we presume there 
arc many young ladies both North and 
JSouth that would answer to that descrip- 
tion, yet were we not afraid of a "^severe 
trouncing" (see Sept. Oct. and Nov. No's. 
of Bee-keepers' Magazine for '73,) we should 
be inclined to say that most of tliem would 
take but little interest in the cultivation of 
the "little busy bee" or as they sometimes 
term them," miserable stinging things." 
However we should do injustice did we 
not mention that there is one Southern 
jMiss who surely takes an interest in bee- 
culture, else she would not have ridden six- 
teen miles horseback through the rain and 
on the Fourth of July to receive two Ital- 
ian queens. 

We well know that Mrs. C. is an excel- ' 
lenc helpmeet, yet we never remember 
seeing her in the apiary. Taking the views ' 
expressed in the above statement of the case 
we think the Professor ought to try and 
have the beginner think himself suthcieutly 
blessed if he but procure a companion who 
would prove a "brave intelligent helpmeet" 
outside of the apiary. Besides when too'- 
mauy "bee-fplks" are around there is great 
danger of one's getting "bee on the brain," 
— a very bad complaint Avhichin most cases 
narrows the mind down to one thing, and 
, confines its sphere of action, thus making 
■of what might be a man, a mevn macJiine. 

Edgefield Junction, Teun. F. B. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

A Lady's Experience. 

I think as I am considerably indebted to 
yourself and the Gleanings for the de- 
gree of success I have been favored with. 
I will give you an account of the experi- 
ence I have had, since the fall of 1872. I 
bought, at that time, 3 colonies of bees in 
Langstroth hives, for which I paid $2(J. 
I increased them last summer to 4, and in 
the fall united my 2 nuclei, thus I win- 
tered out of doors o stocks on natural stores 
and fed a little sugar syrup ; I had no sur- 
plus honey, the season being poor. To say 
I was afraid of my bees would hardly ex- 
press it. I almost laugh now when looking- 
back over the last summer, to think how I 
have overcame many dithculties, and I al- 



most dread to think of those nights of al- 
most hysterical excitement ; how the bees 
seemed to swarm around me as soon as I 
closed my eyes to sleep, and nothing Imt 
the continued angry buzz (as I imagined) 
greeted my cars day and night, and then 
those horrid slings. I liad to go to our 
physician 2 or 3 times. (Now please do 
not laugh it is not polite you know, espec- 
ially when one suspects you have been in a 
similar position yourself.) I asked him 
Avhether I had not better give up those bees 
entirely. I had not been well and he 
thought I needed something to draw my 
attention out of that gloomy state into 
which I had sunk. So I attended to the 
millers, around the blocks, and clipped the 
grass in front of the hives and watched 
them whenever I could. If woi-k kept me 
in the house all day I often stole glances 
through the wiixdow, or when I rested and 
I read Longstroth on the Honey Bee in the 
evenings, (I did not know anything, about 
bee journals then,) when I made these arti- 
ficial swarms how I trembled, and how 
heated I got, and the little rascals seemed 
to know I was afraid of them. They came 
out all right last spring. I fed them a lit- 
tle, and opened the spread, as Mr. Doolittlc 
recommended. You see I had the Amj^ri- 
CAX Bee Journal to study then, it has 
been worth very much to me. I have an 
acquaintance who lives about 3 miles from 
us, who owns about lUO colonies ; he has 
kindly instructed me from time to time ; 
he has not used the extractor yet, but I pre- 
sume he Avill soon. 

Last March I bought 5 stocks in box 
hives. I transferred them very success- 
fully. Some were in fine order ; one was 
destitute of brood and honey, I think. I 
bought them just in time to save them. I 
gave them brood and honey from some of 
the other hives, and now they are my best 
stock, exceptoue. I drummed them out 
and opened the side of the hive, on which 
the combs lay fiat, with a cold chisel, bor- 
rowed from my liusband's mowing machine. 
When I asked for it, he laughed and con- 
sented- to lend it if I would return it to it's 
place, and remarked that he supposed I 
would have all of his tools about those 
hives if he did. not look after them. Of 
course it was duly returned, I do not like 
to hear men grumble especially when, thej' 
are in the house. T)ve first, week in May 
I visited A. I. RooL & Co., of Medina ; the 
day was very waim but little daughter Edith 
and myself hr.d a very pleasant time. Mr. 
Root certainly is a gentlemen, and Miss 
Andrews took especial pains to show us 
their, apiary, and I learned what I could. 
1 fear I troubled them with questions, but 
as some Americans I have heard say, "I 
wanted to know." Mr. R. has a pleasant 
home, and a very nice family ; especially 



174 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



little blue eyes. We have a little fair-haired 
girl with a sunny smile, wlio the otlier day 
got a stiug while adjusting the bloclcs as 
she had seen me do. She kept me awake 
that night, and the next morning Mr. M. re- 
marked my wearied appearance, and said, 
"Wife. I do not think it pays to have that 
baby stung like tliat ; I fear your bees are 
a poor investment." I had iny own private 
thoughts and again bathed my baby's stiug 
with amonia, and said nothing. Poor dar- 
ling, she often puts that hand forme to Hiss, 
and tries to tell me about it. Sir, I thought 
I was transferring bees ; but I see I have 
wandered far away. I will tell you the re- 
sult of those bees at some other time. 
Elyria, Ohio. Mrs. W. M. 

Cause of Bee Swarming and Mij^ra- 
ting to the Forests. 

The period of incubation by the queen 
commences early in the spring. It is rapid- 
ly generative, and when the honey season 
approaches, the cells are well stocked with 
eggs, larvse, &c. At this time, the working 
bees sally forth to labor day after day with 
untiring assiduity to stock their homes with 
a winter'3 supply of provender. During 
the busy season they intimate a negligence 
toward the royal blood by packing cell 
after cell with their wealth and rapidly con- 
tracting the queens domains — the cells for 
her deposits. The breeding space of the 
hive thus becomes rapidly narrowed, and, 
finally, the queen, having no empty cells, 
locates in some remote place, generally on 
or near the edge of a comb, and continues 
her deposits. The latter, on the edge of the 
comb, are eaten by the working bees. 
Thus situated, the royal influence of the 
queen is limited, and unexerted. The 
wealth of the community has unsettled the 
kingdom. The entire swarm seems to be 
dis-loyal. It presents the condition of a 
nation which has lost its sovereign. The 
working bees, powerful in wealth, construct 
royal residences or "queen-cells," in which 
they rear queens ; and to be certain lest the 
royal blood should become extinct. The 
royal family consists of many queens, heirs 
expectant, and when these youtliful queens 
are hatched, the old queen, jealous of lier 
regal honors, undertakes to destroy her 
rival queens. Unable to succeed, as an 
army of workers surrountl and defend the 
young queens, the old queen abdicates her 
throne, and sallies forth from her late 
dominions, accompanied by her loyal sub- 
jects, old and young, whirling and buzzing 
in dire confusing. After all of the disaUcc- 
ted have left the hive they settle with the 
queen upon a shrub or bush. This i6*tvhat 
constitutes "swarming." 

In swarming, it is believed tliat a regular 
and permanent organization is not entirely 



affected until after the departure of the 
swarm from the parent hive to cluster in a 
body, not unlike a mass convention. Im- 
mediately on swarming, the greatest tumult 
and confusion ensues throughout the ranks, 
at the same time manifesting a desire to 
alight sufficiently far from their late abode, 
so as not to be interrupted or annoyed 
wliile completing their organization and 
arrangements for their prospective home. 
Here we notice a striking pecularity. All 
the bees that are capable of taking wing, 
young, middle aged and aged (except those 
that are employed in nursing the young 
larvae, brooding over the chrysalis, or are 
out in the fields,) accompany the swarm to 
seek their new habitation. 
~ Here is wisdom and order created out of 
disorder and rebellion. The Author of all 
things has " most wisely" fixed their dispo- 
sitions so as to prevent the overthrow of the 
old colony. A large number of bees are 
absent from the fields, amassing honey, at 
the time when the swarming takes place. 
These, no doubt, amid the unsettled condi- 
tion of home affairs, would join the new 
colony and leave the parent home unprotec- 
ted and defenceless. • The combs w^ould be- 
come despoiled and ravaged by the irrup- 
tion of those little barbarians — the moth 
family, the infant queens would die from 
want of careful nursing ; the germ of 
another new colony — the larvai and chrysa- 
lis — would be lost in the general wreck, 
without the protection afibrded by these 
absentees, who, when they return, oiler the 
necessary care to preserve the household 
with its interests. 

When a new colony leaves the hive, and 
goes off without alighting on a shrub or 
bush, it is, as a general thing, those swarms 
which hang upon the outside of the hive. 
It is an unusual occurrence, that swarma 
which hang upon the outside of the hive 
leave until they have sent oil' ambassadors 
to select a suitable home for their future 
abode. 

Now if bees are hived immediately after 
they have alighted, or before they have 
dispatched their agents to select a new tene- 
ment, they w ill not leave at all, if their new 
residence has been made agreeable, and 
clear of everything oilcnsive to them, and 
sufficiently commodious. (For it is want 
of room that causes swarming.) Then, to 
secure the new swarm we reccommend 
" artificial swarming." — From Flander'a 
Bee BiO'c. 



Honey is never found in the second sto- 
mach of the bee, but only in the first. The 
latter contains only the Myme, being the 
digested or partially digested food, which 
passes into the intestines, and the final ex- 
creta there show that the food consists 
mainly of pollen or bee-bread. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAI-. 



175 



For the American Bee Journal. 

A Voice from Pennsylvania. i 

In writing for Uic Jouknai., I wish more j 
would give their experience in bee-keeping, j 
whether good or bud, that ntliers might j 
protit thereby ; for, as I understand it, tlie \ 
object of tlie paper is to give practical in- j 
formation, and not to dispute over difter- 
ences of opinion, until bad blood is aroused 
among those who should be the best of 
friends. I believe there arc many success- 
ful bee-keepers who could give valuable in- 
formation; but I fear the great fault of 
humanity— seltishness— may perhaps pre- 
vent them. 

Bees have not done so well here this year 
on account of the late and cold spring; they 
wintered very well, bui as the season ad- 
vanced I found three hives did not increase, 
and upon examination I found them queen- 
less, a misfortune which I see by the pro- 
ceedings of the Michigan Convention ; others 
have met with this winter to an unusual 
extent. The cause may be in my case the 
age of the queens, for I have not had a 
swarm for two years. My room for stands 
being limited, and honey my object, I have 
entirely prevented swarming, by giving 
plenty of room for surplus, early in the 
season and ease of access to the surplus 
frames or boxes. I never clip the queens 
wings, and my experience is that it is entirely 
unnecessary. My bees are of the black, or 
as some call them the gray variety. I ex- 
pect shortly to receive several Italian queens 
to supply my loss, though I am not over 
sanguine of great improvement, for 1 see 
upon occasions that I have visited the fields 
to observe, that a good many gray bees are 
at work on the red clover, though I do not 
think bees like it very Avell, which is per- 
haps the greatest reason they do not visit 
it more, for it secretes honey in abundance; 
and if some can get it, others would try 
much harder than they do, if they liked it. 
I use the Quinby hive as described in his 
work on the bee, enlarged to hold 14 frames 
10x18 inches inside measurement, with two 
dividers, making the main hive, or winter 
house of S frames, with a dead air space on 
each side for winter protection. By re- 
moving the dividers six small 5 Iti boxes or 
18 small frames may be placed on each 
side for surplus, or if the extractor is used, 
the whole hive filled out with full sized 
frames. The bottom board under the main 
hive or 8 central frames is loose and joined 
to the side bottoms by rabbets. The side 
bottoms are nailed to the hive which makes 
it stronger, and keeps it always square and 
firm. The bottom board is held in place 
by 2 buttons underneath. 

I find this form of bottom board nwich 
more convenient than in those that are all 
in one, as some of my first were made. 



Honey board made of G pieces — after Quin- 
by. I had some willi holes, but threw 
them away. Cap fits down over all, and 
rests on a loose moulding frame held in 
place by a screw or nail on each side, and 
may be left down to the bottom board for 
further protc-ction in winter. Top the same 
as the IJay State hive and loose. Portico 
moAiible. It makes the hive easier to han- 
dle and lighter. When I commenced keep- 
ing bees, I tried wintering in the cellar and 
lost heavily, but since I leave them on their 
summer stands, I have not the slightest sign 
of dysentery, and loose very few. In win- 
tering, I have never yet (except when I tried 
the cellar) given upward ventilation, and 1 
am not sure tliat it is ever necessary; it is 
not the true principle of ventilation for 
buildings, then why for bees, besides why 
do they so carefully close up every upper 
hole and crevice — -even to wire gauze put 
over the holes or openings in the honey 
board, even in hot weather V I believe the 
true principle — as I saw recommended some 
time since in the Jourx.a,l — would be to 
give plenty of open space below the combs, 
and not open the top and let the heat pass 
off. 

The whole of my stock at this time are 
natural swarms and yet I liave never had .;i 
swarm leave for the woods, or leave the 
hive I introduced them into, and yet I nev- 
er even gave them a piece of comb to start 
on. I incline the hive slightly forward and 
mostly secure straight combs. 

I am located in the rural part of the 24th 
Avard of the city of Philadelphia, near 
George's Hill and the Park, and my bees 
have a fair field for pasture. They swariu 
here about the first and second week in 
June in favorable seasons, am\ I ihave had 
them as early as the 10th of May darioffith^ 
blossom season. Our best and largest yie\^\ 
of honey comes from the Tulip Poplar—' 
the queen of honey-producing trees. It 
[ scarcely or never fails as white clover and 
^ basswood sometimes do. Its blossoms open 
successively for a long time, indeed without 
it bee-keeping here, I think, would be a 
failure, althoiigh there is considerable bass- 
wood and white clover. The leaves of the 
Poplar frotiuently yield largely of honey- 
dew in the fall. I would like to recommend 
them to Novice while he is planting au 
orchard of honey-producing trees. They 
grow quite as rapidly as basswood and are 
very handsome shade trees. Bees will not 
work on fiour here in the ejnlng; perhaps 
the reason is tliat they get natural pdllen 
from the shade-tree maple, whicli is so very 
plenty, and blossoms when the weather is 
at all favorable as early as February. 
Being utar to a good market I prefer 
: boney in tlie comb and iind small frames 
5i by 6^ inches in the clear, 7 or 8 to a case, 
and glass at each end, just the thing. They 
eell well, are convenient to handle, easy tu 



I7G 



the: AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



LC-t the bees out of, when full; and wlien 
the honey seuson is over 1 join those tilled 
nnd sealed ones together into full cases, and 
extract the honey from those partially tilled, 
find they arc worth pounds of honey the 
next season in starting tlie tees to work 
early on surplus, and thereby also })revent 
.^warming. By having one full siz.ed comb 
in the middle of the case, and small combs 
•or pieces warmed and stucli fast to the 
frames I secure straight combs and a comb 
to eacli frame every time. 

"Do bees injure fruit V" I see is now up 
for debate. I say, no ! I have grapes hang- 
ing over and all around them, and so have 
also my neighbors. I have watched them 
closely and though I frequently see them on 
the ground at the broken and fallen grapes 
and occasionally a defective one on the 
vine I have never yet seen them open a 
sound grape. I have observed that tliey 
act in "the presence of, or in going over 
sound grapes as if tliey liad no idea of 
sweets being in their neighborliood, but 
break one open and they then soon go for it. 
Three years ago one of my neighbors did 
complain about my bees eating all his 
grapes, and lie said lie would not get any, 
tlie latter was really true, for he got very 
few, but it was because they Avere diseased, 
as he soon discovered, and nearly all fell 
off or rotted on the vine. 

"Do king-birds eat worker bees?" is an- 
other question whicli has been disputed, but 
I say from personal knowledge that they 
do, and a great many of them too; while I 
am writing, I hear tliem up in tlie air on the 
top of some large maple trees which sur- 
rounds my neighbor's house. They are af- 
ter bees, for I have shot a number of them 
and sometimes their craws were stuffed with 
bees, and on careful examination I found 
most of them to be worker bees. I have 
also watched them in the park, (which is 
full of them, as they are not allowed to be 
shot.) They are very tame there, and there- 
fore I could get close to them. I have seen 
them leave a small twig of some ornamen- 
tal shrub and dart doAvn among the white 
clover, take a bee, and return to the twig, 
iirst beat the bee to death holding it in its 
))ill, and then swallow it, and in a few min- 
utes, go for another, I can assure you I felt 
very much like going gunning for king- 
birds about that time. 

Artificial combs have been talked of in 
Conventions and in the Journal. Has any 
one succeeded in getting bees to work and 
raise brood in them ? If so, can any one 
inform me wdiere to send for one, as I 
would like to see and try them. I have an 
idea that they might be made of vulcanite, 
such as is used in making artifiicial teeth, 
as it is put to almost every use now. 

At the Centei-.nial Fair to be held in Phil- 
.-idclphia in l.S7() almost every' interest that 
can be mentioned except bee-keeping' has 



been referred to an appropriate committee. 
Why is this? There are several org inized 
bodies of bee-keepers in the United States. 
I thought I would call attention to it through 
the Journal, though I know there is some 
objection to having bees Avhere there will 
be such a lage number of people and horses. 

Philadelphia, Pa., J. R. "Wells. 

P. S. I wish those who advertise would 
state price, and not wind up w'ith send for 
circular, for bee-keeping time is often 
precious, queen raisers I fear sometimes 
forget that in filling orders. W. 

For the American Bee Journal. 

Fruit and Forest Culture in Nebraska. 

At this time there is great interest at- 
tached to the subject of tree-planting on the 
prairies. It is a Avell settled point that the 
forests of the country — vast as these are — 
will not forever bear the enormous demands 
now made upon them. As trees grow rap- 
idly in prairie soil, it is beyond doubt that 
the great plains Vtill aflbrd sites for some of 
the forests of the future. Not forests 
where for hundreds of miles there is noth- 
ing but trees ; but forests, after the fashion 
of the old world — except that the main in- 
cident in their creation will not be to afford 
coverts for game — where woodland, arable 
and pasture alternate Avith each other. In 
Nebraska, the settler has special induce- 
ments to plant trees. The law of the State 
gives a bounty in the shape of remission of 
taxation for tree-planting; and, in four or 
five years, tiie farmer begins to reap Iiis ad- 
vantage in fuel groAvn upon his land, and 
in the fruit ripening in his orchard. The 
new timber hxAV, also, will stimulate forest 
culture. This laAV, as amended by Con- 
gress during its present session, gives 160 
acres of land to Avhosoever will plant forty 
acres to trees, and cultivate the same for 
eight years; and this Avithout any condition 
as to residence, so that a homesteader or 
buyer of railroad land can, when there is 
Government land in his vicinity, have 160 
acres as a gift, if he will plant one-quarter 
to one of the most profitable crops that can 
be put into the ground. Some time ago 
your correspondent was favored on this 
matter of tree-growing, Avith the experience 
of Mr. V. C. Uttley, of Nursery Hill, Otoe 
county, Nebraska, Avho has resided eleven 
years on a Nebraska farm, and Avho, be- 
fore that, Avas a farmer in Ohio. He says 
that the fruit grower need have no fear in 
planting on the open prairie. Apple trees 
tlourish on the highest blulls, care being 
taken, by the planting of cottouAvood as a 
wind- break, to shelter the orchard from the 
liighest Avinds. ]\Ir. Uttley has also found 
the black Avalnut adapted to Nebraska soil ; 
and indeed, it is naturally adapted inasmuch 
as on' the banks of our rivers and creeks 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOI i;.\\L. 



tliese trees grow luxuricntly. As the result 
of expericucc, Mr. Uttley commeiuls to the 
tree-phi liters! in Nebniskii : bhick wahuit, 
soft iiiiiple, box-eUler, pophir, cottonwood. 
honey U)eust, butternut, American and Eu- 
ropean hirehes and all evergreens, lie has 
experimented with most kinds of trees ; and 
his conclusion is that these are the best for 
the settler to plant — and to plant in the 
Spring. N. A. E. 



For (he Aiiu'rifuii Koc Journul. 

Novice's Answer. 

31k. EuiTon : — We should like to make a 
mild protest against the position in which 
our excellent correspondent, Mr. Gallup, 
places Novice in his article on page 1G4. 
We believe that we should go to work to 
rear queens in just about the same way that 
Mr. G. would, and cannot think that our 
readers have understood us as ever having 
advocated queen-rearing in the manner he 
mentions. That many who rear queens for 
sale, do. 'Tis needless for us to refer to 
where we have narrated on these pages our 
experiments in rearing queens with old bees 
and small clusters, and how they laid eggs 
only a week or two, A:c., for our readers 
certainly remember. Please, Mr. Gallup, 
be a little more neighborly. Although we 
agree perfectly on queen-rearing, we fear 
we do not quite agree on hives. 

As a great deal has been said about the 
Gallup hive as described on page 1:33, we 
would like to add our opinion, but it is cer- 
tainly respectfully tendered, and given in 
all candor. As to the length of the hive we 
have nothing further to add than what we 
liave said heretofore, but we cannot help 
feeling doubtful about the double casing, 
and air space; on the same page, mention 
is made of disastrous losses where double- 
cased hives were used, and our friend fed 
on sugar syrup too. Also, the case of Mr. 
EUvood, mentioned by Quinby, who lost 
bees by dysentery when fed on syrup, was 
in double-cased hives, or at least something 
to the same eflect ; and without going far- 
ther, we will only mention that our neigh- 
bors, Shaw ifc Son., put a good colony last 
fall in a hive or box v\'ith double walls, 
filled with sawdust on top, bottom and 
sides, and the walls were eigJtt inches thick; 
they died with dysentery in its worst form 
very early in the Avinter. Double-walled 
liives have been advocated, patented, tried, 
and abandoned, by bee-keepers the world 
over from the veriest novice up to both 
Laugstrotli and Quinby for years past, but 
yet Mr. G's. plan may be a little ditrerent 
and it is well not to be too hasty. A colony 
that can cover 2G combs in February, cer- 
tainly should be able to keep warm, inde- 
pendent of any aid from the sun in occa- 
iionly warming up the sides; but Mr. G. 



also mentions wintering a weak colony 
thus : Wiis this simply because bees fre- 
(luently wintered well almost any way, or 
was it on account of tlie double-walls V 
Please Mr. (i. tell us how these hives came 
through the si)ring. AVe cannot under- 
stand how it is, tiiat the long hives only 
build worker comb with friend (iallup, 
when they build drone-comb almost every 
time with us, ]\Iedina bee-keepers, as in fact 
they do from all accounts we receive of 
them. One of the best bee-keepers in our 
country who uses the Gallup frames and 
has followed faithfully Mr. G's. excellent 
articles from the commencement — uses di- 
vision boards constantly and would not 
give it up "no how;" but he cannot yet 
make comb in large colonies, and he has 
bees and brood on 20 or more Gallup frames 
in the long hives at this present time. Now 
although we have had our say, it may still 
be that the " New Idea Gallup llive" will 
cure all the troubles in wintering which we 
most sincerely hope maybe the case, for if 
somebody dont help, we really fear we 
shall forever be only a Novice. 

P. S. We may be mistaken in saying 
that Quinby has abandoned double-walls 
for out-door wintering, if so we are sorry — 
no, we mean we beg pardon. While we 
think of it, does any one know that the 
Quinby hive without boxes is a veritable 
"New Idea," and although 'twas given to 
the public years ago, no one has ever even 
said "thank you." 

If any one should find that glass for the 
outer walls of the hive secured all advantage 
from the sun and the dead air space too, 
remember we inserted it several years ago, 
but never tried it, like lotsof other "blamed 
good ideas that our head is always 'chuck' 
full of." (Xir 10 colonies are now 31 and 
are bringing in basswood honey at an un- 
precedented- rate. We have actually got 
almost a barrel on this 7th of July, 1874. 



For the American Bee Jonrnal. 

Ants and Cockroaches. 

In my correspondence and the bee 
journals there is much complaint against 
ants in bee hives, while there is nothing 
said of cockroaches. I have ants enough 
in my apiary ; but the cockroaches are ten 
times as troublesome. The ant does not 
steal honey out of the hive, nor trouble the 
bees to my knowledge, but the cockroaches 
do both. All the ants want is a warm and 
dry place, for a nest on top of the honej' 
board where they can enjoy the warmth of 
the bees below, and this is but a portion of 
the year, from 3Iay to October, while the 
cockroaches are present the year round. 
When you go to open a stand with an ants' 
nest on the honey board, it is no small job 
to brush them oil', and when you raise the 
board a great many get inside and w^orry 



178 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



the bees very much for a few miuutes. 
Those -who will take the trouble can keep 
the ants away by rubbing the outside of the 
liive with green elders or turpentine, or 
corperas, but none of this will keep the 
cockroaches away. 

I find the cockroaches very thick in my 
apiary all summer, and in winter they are 
on top to enjoy the warmth of the bees, 
and inside of weak stands. That they do 
steal honey and live on it through the win- 
ter there is no questioning. In proof of 
their fondness for honey, I have often set 
out mugs and bowls with honey and water 
to drown moth flies at night, but the result 
would be about one hundred drowned 
cockroaches to one moth fly. Also the 
sweetened water that I use in introducing 
(jueens, wintering bees, etc. I can set cups 
nowhere in the apiary at night but the next 
morning it will be perfectly clean, and 
cockroaches found in it. 

I have tried a great many devices to get 
rid of them, but all in vain. The best I 
ever tried was to go through the hives on a 
very cold day, and brush off the cock- 
roaches to freeze which they readily do, 
but there is an evil in this plan ; it disturbs 
the bees which should not be disturbed in 
cold frozen days. I have found a still bet- 
ter plan. I am in the poultry business, and 
have put a trio of Buff Cochins in the bee 
yard, and trained them to follow me around 
on warm days, and eat the cockroaches as 
fast as I can brush them off. This I find 
to be a good plan with no evil in it. I 
have never had a fowl eat a live bee. I 
have seen fowls go to the entrance of a 
hive and pick up a worm without disturb- 
ing the bees. I have also seen them go 
round a hive looking on the sides for moth 
flies, and I believe this is one reason why 
the moth is no trouble to me. 

Lowell, Ky. R. M. Argo. 

The most complete check upon robbing 
bees is to place a bunch of grass or wet 
hay over the entrance to the hive. The 
Ijees will find their way to the entrance to 
their own hive, the robbers will be caught 
by the sentinels in passing through the 
grass, and soon cease their pilfering. 

Crystallization of Honey. — The action 
of light causes honey to crystallize. The 
ditficulty may be obviated by keeping it in 
the dark, the change, it is said, being due 
to photographic action ; and that the same 
agent that alters the molecular arrange- 
ment of iodide of silver on the excited col- 
lodian plate, causes the syrup honey to as- 
sume a crystallic form. It is to this action 
of light that scientists attribute the working 
of bees by night, and they are so careful to 
obscure the glass windows that are some- 
times placed in their hives. Therefore, 
keep honey away from the light. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Gallup Again. 

AVithout doubt the Extractor lias killed 
its thousands of stocks of bees. Now, Mr. 
Editor, publish the above without explan- 
ation, and, oh, horror of horrors, how CTal- 
lup Avould catch it. In many cases it has 
been used without the least particle of rea- 
son, and the bees have all died of dysentery, 
or that terrible bee disease. Perhaps we 
could illustrate better by telling of one of 
our mis-moves a number of years ago. — 
Soon after learning to drum out bees, we 
made a grand discovery. Mind that there 
were then no bee journals, or perhaps we, 
Novice-like, should have been caught giving 
instructions to others, when we knew 
nothing ourselves. 

Right here, allow me to say for Novice's 
consolation, that we passed through the 
same ordeal that he is now going through. 
Tliat is, we were very forward in giving 
our knowledge to others, before we had 
any to spare. 

But to our story. We thought that we 
could drum out our bees in August, place 
them in a new hive, (w^e used the old box 
or chamber hive in those days,) and in 2/ 
days the young bees would be liatched and 
we would drum them out also, and unite 
them with the others ; they would then fill 
the hive and winter, and I could have the 
old stores, etc. This was a wonderful dis- 
covery and I, Novice-like, spread the news 
of the discovery far and near. But by the 
month of February these bees had a terrible 
disease ; in fact, they all died of dysentery, 
(fine stocks). They had honey enough, but 
it w'as made or gathered too late in the sea- 
son, consequently was not properly evapor- 
ated or matured, and the result as stated 
above. 

Now, is it not a fact that many, in order 
to get a large yield of honey, extract too 
late in the season ? They have the neces- 
sary amount in weight but not in quality. 
You will recollect of one person telling in 
the back numbers of extracting late in the 
fall, and their filling up and that all died 
with dysentery. That person requested 
some one to give the reason why they died, 
and we told him he had given the reason 
himself, etc. Now, if we winter bees on 
honey we want that honey of good quality 
and made in the proper season, and when 
the bees are raising brood rapidly, and 
have large quantities of bees of the right 
age to properly manufacture or evaporate 
it. 

Here is another question for our consid- 
eration. The two-story hive has been laud- 
ed to the skies by Novice, when practice 
and experience has taught us and others 
that it is entirely in the wrong form, as 
the beeB are not able to properly evaporate 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



170 



their lioucy iu cool weather and raise brood 
as rapidly and abundantly as they outrht to 
in a liive of tla- proper form. In the" New 
Idea " forni we have the brood nest always 
warm, consequently breeding can bo car- 
ried on rapidly, and honey stored at the 
same time, without the animal warmth es- 
caping into an upper story and away from 
the brood nest. Now, if we extract all the 
honey on the loth of August in our climate 
except from a few central combs in the 
In'ood nest, we have room enough for the 
bees to breed and store from SO to 150 lbs 
of honey without any more disturbance for 
the season. This honey we leave in the 
hive until the bees begin to gather rapidly 
the following season, and it is stored where 
it is convenient for tlic bees to get at and 
still docs not keep the brood nest cool or 
take away one particle of warmth from the 
brood nest. The consequence is that we 
have no feeding to do at any season of the 
year, for it is a well-established fact that a 
strong powerful stock of bees with abun- 
dance of store do not need any stimulation 
to induce them to breed early enough for 
iill practical purposes. 

Now, here is another consideration. A 
■^leighbor of mine uses box hives 14 inches 
liigh and 18 or 20 inches square, and his 
bees have not died or had the dysentery 
while the neighbors' bees have died by the 
thousands ; he winters on summer stands. 
My impression is that the injudicious use 
of the extractor, two-story and small stan- 
dard hives has killed thousands and thou- 
sands of stocks of bees. Why did not my 
liees have the terrible disease tliat has been 
so prevalent all over the country ? There 
has been other causes besides the injudici- 
ous use of the extractor to kill the bees. 
Years ago we lost heavily at dillerent times 
find at that time we were not willing to at- 
tribute our losses to our own ignorance, 
but it was a fact nevertheless. Whose 
advice is the best — ^the advice of those who 
fail, or that of those who succeed. Let the 
"Novices" decide for themselves. 

Yours truly, 

Orchard, Iowa. Galllt. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Gallup and Queen Rearing. 

Don't set it down too positively, friend 
Gullup, that " abundance" of food of the 
right kind and "abundance" of warmth 
are all the requisites of successful queen 
rearing, simply because you don't see other 
conditions present when a full colony of 
bees are raising queens at will. We should 
remember that a colony of bees are a whole 
— they are one individual, the same as a 
swarm of cords and nerves that form the 
human body are one, except they are 
seperable for a short time. Taking this 



for a basis, is not the whole colony the 
parent of tlie queen as well as all the ofl"- 
spring? AVe all know that animal magnet- 
ism is the essence of animal life, and that 
parents greatly endowed with this life-giv- 
ing jirinciple will ])roduco the stixtngest 
otVspring, other things being ctiual. Now, 
would it not be natural to suppose that a 
full colony of bees would be sure to pro- 
duce ihc best (pieens. I believe the best 
queens we get are those reared in cases of 
superceedure when' the tchole colony remains 
together till the /latrhiny of the (lueen, at 
least. 

"Novice" says, on page 53 of Gleiminr/s 
for May, that, "to be sure many will say 
she can't lay eggs, and brood can't be rear- 
ed without more than eighty-two bees. — 
But why V Ans. A lack of "animal mag- 
netism." Now, friend Gallup, don't accuse 
us of having been only six years in the bus- 
iness ; for we see you criticise Mr. Quinby 
who has been engaged in apiculture much 
longer than you, and has had no " big 
farm " to take his attention either. I am 
no stickles for old methods and systems, 
nor do I believe that queens reared at will 
of the colony are as good as those properly 
reared at the will of the apiarian. I think 
I can shovv^ that prolificness in the mother- 
bee, beyond a certain limit, is of no value. 
The qudUty of the bees in our apiary is 
what we need, and not a great number /ro?// 
one queen, or a few queens. 

Apiarians have dreaded the swarming 
impulses of their apiaries worse than the 
moth, and this I believe has been owing to 
a limited knowledge of the science. We 
have known how to take a profitable advan- 
tage of the powers of bees, so long as this 
impulse did not interfere, but when it did, 
we were left in the dark and our plans 
thwarted. AVhen we understand how to 
^^se this impulse to the best advantage, we 
shall foster and encourage it. Then shall 
we appreciate the Italian bee in its broad- 
est sense. 

Now a word for "Novice." No apiarian 
has done more for me than he. I look 
upon the changes of his mind, we hear so 
much about, as evidences of his progressive 
nature. The above is simply our views. 
Let the watch-word be "onward " through- 
out our apiarian lines, and hence let us 
speak our minds freely, not for spite, but 
for the advancement of our pet science, 
and let us change our minds publicly, as of- 
ten as we do privately, which will be often 
if we observe closely and experiment large- 
ly. Convictions do not come at will but 
are always forced upon us. 

Dowagiac, Mich. James Heduon. 



The bees throughout the world, as known 
collectively to the richest cabinets, number 
about two thousand species. 



]8(> 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



For the American Ece Journal. 

Our Honey Markets. 

Mk. Editor : — I v:\s\i to ask through the 
.TouKNAL wlicthcr other apiarians, wlio ship 
lioney to any amount, liave any difficulty in 
getting returns. 1 have had considerable, 
and it is only because I feel it a duty due 
to my fellow bee-keepers that I now make 
public several transactions witli honey mer- 
chants. For over a year there lias been au 
advertisement in the American Bee Joxjr- 
XAL of Baumeister ifc Co., wanting 10,000 
lbs. of extracted honey. In answer to that 
advertisement I otlered lo buy them honey, 
and have their reply stating what they 
would pay and what commission tliey 
would give for buying. I bought consider- 
able, and with some of the product of my 
own apiary, collected about six barrels, and 
Avrote them to that cllecl, stating the qual- 
ity of each barrel whether basswood, clover, 
mixed or fall honey. By fall houej'Imeau 
that collected principally from bone-set, 
buckwheat, fall astor, butter-weed, (or as 
some call it, tire-weed,) golden rod and a 
number of other honey plants of minor im- 
portance, all blooming at so nearly the 
same time as to render it dithcult to say 
which tiavor predominates in taking a sam- 
ple from a barrel. At the time I wrote I 
also said that I had had au offer of 15 cents 
l)er pound for it in the warehouse but as I 
liad written to them previous about it, they 
had the right to the lirst choice, and if they 
wished to take it at that price I would send 
it, and in repl}' Avas ordered to scud it on. 
But upon their receiving it they wrote say- 
ing that the honey was not as represented. 
In marking the barrels I did not rely entire- 
ly on my own judgement but on the judge- 
ment of two other apiarians, to whom I can 
refer ; Init the trouble came afterwards. I 
looked for money but none come. After 
waiting a month or two I went to Chicago 
' to see about it and found they had sent 
$20(1 in a letter addressed with wrong in- 
itials. That being made clear and satisfac- 
tory, they faithfuilj' promised to send me 
iftlOO the following week, giving also a note 
for f 1.10 payable in one month, and $20 in 
cash. The liouey amounted to $470. In- 
stead of the $100, only $.■)() came and that 
two weeks late. Tlie note was paid on 
time ; but the $')() they now refuse to pay, 
saying they will only give $2.") ; and it is 
three week since they otlered that and I ac- 
cepted it, liut still llu'v do not even send 
that. 

I have given a rather lengthy account of 
this one transaction, as 1 would like to 
know if any others have liad business witli 
this firm, ;ind whether they do business 
generally in that style. 

I also sent a bill of honey to J. \V. AVin- 
der of Cincinuati, amounting to $1L'0; he 



complained of nothing but "panicky times." 
AVheu the money was due I received $7.> 
from liim, but for the last few months can- 
not hear a word. 

I wrote to the Chicago Honey House, -JGO 
Wabash Avenue, asking what they would 
give for fall honej^, and stated that I had a 
barrel (I use 500 ft barrels) to dispose of. 
They offered me 15 cents, if clear. I ship- 
ped it, saying it was candied, and now they 
do not want it at all. 

Who arc the staunch men to whom wc 
can ship lioncy and feel sure of having 
speedy returns. AVe can better afford to 
sell for 13 cents cash, than wait six months 
at 15 cents, not knowing whether it Avill 
ever come. Wm. W. Bird 

Ohio. 



For the .Viiierifan r,ec .Tournal. 

Our Opinion of Artificial Queens. 

Dear Journal ;— IMethinks your contri- 
bution from S. W., Mo., is far and few 
between. Last fall, I predicted that many 
blaclc bees in log gums would starve. So 
they did. Mine (Italians) all wintered, and 
liave made some surplus. I like Ga,llup's 
article in the July No., page 1G4, on artifi- 
cial cpieens, and commend it to beginners 
in bee-keeping. I would like to have the 
line of distinction between natural and 
artificial queens drawn upon a little differ- 
ent ground. I think natural queens are 
those produced by natural sAvarming and 
none others, (iueens that are produced 
from any and all other causes are artifi- 
cial. 

If Ave take the queen aAvay from a strong 
colony of bees in Avarm Aveather, Avheu they 
arc getting plenty of stores from the field 
and have bees in all stages of existence, 
from the egg up to the field Avorkers, avc 
are apt to raise good prolific, Avcll-colored 
queens, large size and long lived ; but they 
should know no scarcity of food. If they 
need it, they should be fed daily the first 
eight days. Such queens as these Ave call 
ai-tificiul. Gallup calls them natural. 
Such queens as Gallup calls artificial, I do 
not take any stock in. lu fact I do not 
have any confidence in any of those Ioav- 
priced queens, and I do not believe the ex- 
pert bee-keeper can afVord to raise good 
queens (or Avhat avc call good queens) tested 
anil Avarranted for $2 and $;5. He Avould 
do better to devote his time and force for 
surplus honey. If those cheap (lUeens are 
thrown on the market, it will have a great 
tendency to hinder the introduction of the 
Italian bee. 1 Avould much prefer paying 
$5 to $8 for a (pieeu that Avas actually 
Avorth that, than to pay $2 for a cheap one 
and run the risk of Ix'ing totally disap- 
pointed. 

I beg leave to diller with ^Ir. lla/.en, ou 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



LSI 



page 10;5 of tlie Amkuican Tkk Jouk- 
XAL, ill regard to over stocking tlie liolil. 
Probably we in tlie West are diirerently 
situated ill resjieet to bee pasturage to what 
they are in the East. When ^Ye have good 
honey llowers here, we never have bees 
enough to gather all, until rain or dry 
weatlier stops them from work, and we 
should always bi; prepared with our 
colonies, strong and largo enough, in case 
of failure in llowers, to secrete honey ; for 
such colonies will live when others will 
starve to death, and more especially if they 
be Italians. E. Listun. 

Cedar Co., 3Io. 



For the American Kcc Journal. 

Double Story Hives. 

WHiile bees are storing honey vapidly 
they should have more room within their 
hives than at other seasons. They need 
this both to prevent sv/arniing and to 
secure from them the largest yield of 
honey. A given number of bees in one 
liive will store much more surplus honey, 
than the same number divided out into 
Jieveral hives. One of the most important 
rules to be observed, where surplus honey 
is the object, is to keep tJie stocks strong. 
The queen should have all the combs she 
can supply with eggs, and the Avorkers as 
many as they can till with honey. Yv'hen 
the hive is in this condition, and the ex- 
tractor is freely used, there is little if any 
danger of swarming, and an abundance of 
honey will be obtained. 

Ordinary single-cham'ier hives contain 
about ;25UO cubic inches of space. For 
mediu'u sized stocks in ordinary seasons of 
the year, this Avill be room sufficient ; but 
when the tlowers arc secreting honey pro- 
fusely, and the queens are laying freely, 
twice that space should be given them. 

Some intelligent bee-keepers hold that all 
this room should be furnished iu a single- 
story hive. Their theory is that the work- 
ers will extend their construction of comb, 
and the queen her deposition of eggs, from 
the centre to either side, more readily than 
above or below, this may, or may not, be 
correct ; I am not jirepared to deny or 
attirm. But 1 have aiiet with no difficulty 
in getting either the queens to lay or the 
workers to work in eitlier upper or lower 
stories. I have had no experience with 
these large single-story hives. It seems to 
me, however, that whatever adviuitages 
they may have in other respects, tiiey must 
be very cumbersome and unwieldy A\iicu it 
becomes necessary to move them. I should 
think it would also be quite difficult to con- 
tract the space within them to suit a small 
stock, or to winter even a full stock. 

I have been using for several seasons a 
double-story hive, which has given me 



entire satisfaction ; and b<'fore ;^iviiig a 
brief description of it, I will say that I 
liave no " axe to grind" in doing so, as 
there is no jKitent o;i it, so far as 1 am con- 
cerned and I keej) none for sale. It con- 
sists of two bo.\es of the same si/(% set one 
on top of the other, each tilled with \<-\\ 
frames. It is clienply made and easily 
liandled. Tlu; lees are wintered in the 
lower story. When they Iccomc strong iu 
the spring, the second or upper story is set 
on, and to induce the bees to work above, 
without any delaj'', a few of the frames of 
brood are put in the upper box. The work 
tiieir goes on iu both stories as well as in 
one before. Ko honey brood or portion of 
any kind is used between the stories. 

My hive is modilied after the Langstroth., 
but, I think it is more convenient and ks^ 
expensive. Each chamber or stol^>'^ is, Iiy 
inside measure, 13 in. long, I4i- wide and 
10 deep. I have a 4 in. portico in front of 
the lower story, bat Avhile this answers 
some good purposes it is not es.sential. I 
use poplar lumber and have it dressed to I 
of an inch in thickness. The sides arc 10 
in. wide, the front eiid 8/} and the rear end 
9i. Both end pieces are set with their tops 
I of an inch below the upper edges of the 
sides. On these ends are suspended tlie 
frames. The upper piece of each frame is 
made tirst 19 in. long, the ends of which 
are beveled oft' to prevent interference Avith 
the ends of the upper story. 

The upjier story is made without bottom 
and tits nicely on the lower. Each end of 
it also drops down i of an inch below tb« 
edges of the sides. The inside lower edges 
of these ends are beveled off' so as to lit 
down over the ends of the frames in the 
lower chamber. Strips are nailed accross 
the entls of both stories to strengthen them, 
and to furnish handles by which to lift them. 

A cap or cover is made to fit either story, 
by nailing strips around and under the 
outer edges of a l.'oard a'nnit bS in. wide 
and 23 long. 

Anyone that can use a savr and hammer 
can make these hives, and I consider them 
as good as the best. I have never had a 
swarm of bees from one of these hives 
since I have been using them. This season 
I have had 2(5 in use, and have taken from 
them 110 gallons of honey. From one 
hive I have extrticted 14 gallons, and taken 
about a dozen full cords of 1 rood to build 
up weaker hives. They iire all now in 
good condition, and Avell supplied with 
honey. I have already started 2(5 nucleus 
hives, and as fast as <he queens become 
fertile, will build them up to ten frames. 
This will reduce all the double-hives down 
to single chambers. I do this now because 
the honey season is over with ns. We may 
have a little in September, but caunot cal- 
culate with any certainty on that. 

Charlestown, Ind. ^M. C. IIkstej; 



182 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

M}^ Management of Bees. 

My apiaiy is built slightly facing the 
southeast, in order to have the morning 
sun. The bee stand is built upon a post, 
Avithiu the enclosure, "svith no connection 
■with outside parts ; this prevents a direct 
communication to the hive, by ants and 
other preying insects. 

Ants are sometimes trouljlesomc — to pre- 
vent them crawling up the post, a band of 
raw cotton, passed around the post of the 
stand, will make an eflectual barrier. 

Hives. — I have used the common hives 
for years, also, common hives with surplus 
honej^-boxes ; also, the Langstroth ^Move- 
able Comb, and many other popular hives ; 
am now using the American Bee Hive, 
Avhich I think superior to any that have 
copie under my notice, and have been tak- 
ing 100 per cent, more honey from them 
than from any other kind. In the spring, 
I overhaul all my swarms, cleaning out all 
litter that may have accumulated during 
the winter, and occasionally give them a 
little honey, Avhich seems to encourage 
ibem to begin their labors ; and if any sur- 
5)1hs honey has been taken the previous fall 
t seldom replace the empty boxes till the 
swarming season is over — too muclL room 
l^revents swarming. 

Swarming. — Artificial swarming is much 
spoken of, and perhaps profitably practised, 
but I prefer natural swarming, for I am 
confident that it is much better for the 
parent stock as well as the young swarm. 
Swarming usually begins in May, about the 
middle, and sometimes earlier ; the first 
swarm needs little or no care, it being gen- 
trally strong and vigorous, and goes to 
work with a will, frequently surpassing the 
parent stock in surplus stores. The second 
swarm appears about 12 days later, does 
not number as many, and seldom gathers 
more stores than is necessary for its winter 
use ; occasionally a third swarm issues, 
weakca- in number, and having less time to 
provide for themselves ; they need more 
care than rest, though I have at times car- 
ried them for mUes, where buckwheat fields 
are numerous, and they have turned out 
more than self-sustaining. I generally 
Aveigh all my hives before using them, then 
when occupied by the bees, on re-weighing 
them in the fall, I can tell whether they 
have sufticieut honey for their substenance. 
A swarm and stores, independent of the 
hive, should weigh at least 2.') lbs. ; when I 
find tliem below that weight, I always feed 
them during the winter. Honey, of course, 
is the liest food, though .some make a syrup 
of Avhile sugar, or use sugar candy. In 
giving them lioney, it should be placed 
within tlie hive where they can have easy 
access to it ; if it is in the comb, where I 



have a movable comb hive, I place it in 
the frames, but strained honey should be 
placed in a small wooden trough, (tin or 
metal will sour the honey) then at intervals 
I place straAvs so as to give them sure foot- 
ing, and thus prevent them from falling in 
the honey and drowning. They require 
more food upon a bright, warna day ; dur- .| 
ing the extreme cold days they are in a 
state of torpor. 

When swarming is over, I put the sur- 
plus honey-boxes in their respective places, 
and take them out about the 1st of October 
or even earlier, taking care to leave suffici- 
ent for tlieir maiutainauce during the com- 
ing winter ; at times, I have taken from 40 
to 50 lbs. of beautiful white honey from a 
single hive. B. R. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

ArtiScial Swarms, etc. 

On page 148 friend Dorr gives his 
method of artificial swarming. We have 
tried that way too, but do not like it, for it 
breaks up the stocks so badly, it gives them 
too much empty space. 

Here is our plan. Say you have five 
stocks ; go to four of them and take out 
two frames of brood and honey from each, 
shaking the bees back into the hive, and 
put in an empty hive ; then move No. 5 to 
a new place and set your hive filled with 
brood combs in its place ; all flying bees 
from No. 5 will enter the new hive and 
soon be building queen cells, unless you 
can give them a capped queeu cell, as 
friend Dorr says. No. 5 will soon have 
more flying bees, and will hardly know 
they have been molested, for while the 
young bees arc hatching and eating honey, 
the queeu Avill be filling the empty cells 
with eggs before the older bees can fly to 
fill them with honey. You can give each 
stock an empty frame or two if you like, 
but to give a ncAv stock one-half of the hive 
in empty combs is too much, I think. 

And still another one, which I think is 
even better. Place j^our empty hive Avhere 
you wish it to stay ; go to your four stocks 
as before, take 2 or o frames of brood, 
according to tlie amount they can spare, 
and shake the bees off on the alighting 
board of your empty hive, being sure you 
h.ave not got the queen. The flying bees 
will rise and go back to the old stock, 
Avhile the young bees will travel into the 
empty hive where the frame of brood is 
placed after shaking them oil'. Give them 
6 or 8 frames of brood and honey shaking 
each at the front, and then if you have not 
bees enough to suit, take out more frames 
from old hives and shake ofl" bees till you 
have enough, giving the combs back to old 
stocks. If you have a queen cell to give 
the new stock, all right, if not, they will 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



183 



attend to it tlicuiselvos. The j'oung bees 
will not tight each other, as we have used 
Italians, hybveds and blaeks all mixed to- 
gether. 

EEES AND GRAPES. 

Some of our hives stqad close to our 
grape-vines, have had them under the vines 
and none over 5 ft. away, and Ave never 
yet saw bees touch them. It's all bos7i. 
Eoll up the evidence, friends, and let's 
'' squelcW the poisoners ia their infancy. 

BEE QUII.TS. 

To those who use or are going to use 
quilts for their hives I would advise them 
to not use cotton-cloth, but take woolen ; it 
is more porus than cotton and will not take 
tire from sparks when bees are smoked 
with rotton wood, etc. If you use cotton 
you maj' step out into your bee yard some 
day and lind one of your stocks doing a 
laud office business in the way of a bon- 
11 re. 

Since June loth we have had no rain and 
things arc getting pretty dry, but bees are 
getting honey, for combs are nearly full 
that were extracted on the first of this 
month. W. M. Kellogg. 

Oneida, 111. 



For the American Eec Journal. 

Caution ! 

Believing it the duty of everyone to ex- 
pose fraud wherever found, I harewith sub- 
mit the following — my experience — to the 
consideration of my brother bee-keepers : 
Last season I obtained IO.jO fts box honey, 
and wrote C. O. Perrine, for the purpose of 
making arrangements for the sale of the 
same. 

I gave a clear statement of the condition 
of my honey. In the lot there were 12 
Adairs sectional boxes — 14x20x5 of -^ inch 
stutT, with glass on both ends. Most of it 
was put up in boxes 5x5xG, glass on four 
sides, with f inch stufl' for top and bottom; 
,' perhaps about 20 were of the same dimen- 
^ sion, with glass at two sides — the other 
.'iides of I lumber. The honey was about 
one-half Linden, the other half Buckwheat. 

I stated in my first correspondence with 
him, that I wanted gross (that is, weight of 
boxes included) weight for all my honey. 
In answer to my letter he stated he would 
pay 27c per B. ; and gross for small boxes. 
* In my reply I stated that my large boxes 
contained not as much lumber per pound 
of honey as the small ones, and as they 
were as convenient for retailing, if not more 
so than the small ones. I wanted gross for 
all. Ino reply was made touching this 
point, and my honey Avas sent supposing 
this understood. 

About tico weeks after shipment, I re- 
ceived word that honey was received all 



"O. K." (he promised to pay Avithin a Aveek 
at most, after receipt of honey) but busy 
times made it impossible for him to get at 
the tare. About tAvo Aveeks after this, and 
after I had Avritten stating I needed money 
bad, I received a check of .^100.00. Aboiit 
four Aveeks after this, I received $('(0.0(1 
through a draft, and four Aveeks later an- 
other $50.00 bj' the same process. 

He finally Avrote asking if 25c JJ It) A\'ould 
do me, the honey l)cing not as bright as he 
supposed ; and as prices then were, lie 
Avould be glad to sell the BuckwJient for 
that price. I replied no, for lie had but 
ottered a medium price— honey being then, 
when the bargain Avas made — 25 to oOc per 
lb. I stated further, he should have made 
this request in tlie Ih-st place ; and that I 
thought I had Avaited long enough for .my 
money, without being compelled to lose 
two cents per ih on it. He finally sent the 
balance. On figuring uji, I found I Avas 
about $25,00 behind; that he kept back in 
deducting boxes to that amount. I wrote 
him in regard to this, and threatened to ex- 
pose him if he did not do the fair thing — I 
received no satisfaction. 

I Avould advise bee-keepers to bcAvare. 
Tardiness in payment is sufficiently annoy- 
ing Avithout indulging in such trickery as 1 
have enumerated above. 

If Perrine did not intend to pay me for 
gross weight, he should have said so, seeing 
I insisted upon it. "Be not deceived by 
imitations !" he puts at the end of his ad- 
A'ertisement. Yerily I say, beware of such 
imitation ! Adam Grimm hit him a severe 
blow and I hope this addition will either 
make him a fair dealer or force him from 
lack of patronage, to shift his business into 
more prompt and reliable hands. 

Berlin, Wis., J. D. KursciiKE. 

P. S. Have just received a statement 
from Mr. Dadant to the etTect that they are 
always paid gross for honey in Adair's sec- 
tional boxes. J. D. K. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Things Seen and Unseen. 

AVIIAT I HAVE SEEN. 

I have seen in the bee journals a great 
many reasons Avhy the bees die. Some are 
all right, but nearly all Avrong ! I have 
seen bee-ivcepers so anxious to obtain sur- 
plus that they robbed bees in the fall, mid 
the consequence Avas the bees died of star- 
vation during the Avinter ! 

I have seen bee-keepers so anxious to mul- 
tiply, they kept their stocks all the time in 
a Aveak condition ; but the result Avas less 
brood and little or no surplus ! 

I have seen an empty comb put in be- 
tween the brood combs in order to hasten 
matters; but I haA'e seen it act as a divis- 
ion board; the queen remaining on one 



184 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



side and the bees building queen cells on 
the other, thus causing trouble in the 
camp I 

I have seen a ten-days (lucen live just as 
long, and proving equally as prolific as one 
liatched in the usual time, though the for- 
mer iirc not to be recommended ! 

V.'HAT I WOULD LIKE TO SEE. 

I would like to see bee-keepers when re- 
porting how much honey they obtain from 
a single hive or number of hives, be just as 
particular to state the size of their hives, 
for in my humble judgment tliere is some 
difTerence between ;i hive holding ten frames 
and one holding fifty ! 

I would like to see bee-keepers wlien re- 
porting how much surplus they have ob- 
tained, to give some credit to providence 
iind not all to their oicii skill or particular 
Jdve tliey are using ! 

I would like to see every contributor to 
the Bee Joukx.u. when lie errs either in 
judgment or practice, to early and freely 
confess it 1 Why V Because it is noble 
and manly ! 

I would like to see a good feeling prevail 
amongst bee-keepers, if they do cross each 
other's path once in a while, and also 

I would like to see the managers of the 
Bee Jocr;xAL report before tlie year is out, 
that no man (nor even a woman) owes them 
anything — not even a grudge ! tSo mote it 
he ! AKcrs. 



For the Anu-rican Bcl- Juurnul. 

Transferring Beea. 

]\Iany persons having the old box gum, 
and wishing to use a frame hive, are puz- 
zled to know \\o\v to get the bees from the 
old gum to the new hive. It may seem to 
be a terrible job, but the oj^-ration can be 
performed in uu hour, and if care is used, 
without a sting, even if working without a 
veil or gloves. The best time to transfer 
is early in the spring, when the fruit trees 
are in bloom, though it can be done any 
time during the summer, and the combs be 
soft, but you Avill have to feed them. All 
tiie tools that are necessary are, a hatchet, 
cold chisel, and a long knile. Select a room, 
or an outliouse, with one Avindow. Under- 
neath the window fix a stand or table about 
five feet long. Take an old sheet, double it 
up to about the size of the frame, to lay 
the comb on, so as not to bruise the cells. 
Lay your tools along side, and some sticks, 
made about one incii longer than the frame 
is wide, and three-eighths thick ; also rub- 
ber rings, such as are used on car tickets. 
Fine wire or string will do to tie the comb 
into tiie frame, but not as good as the sticks. 
There are many ways of fastening the 
comb into the frame. After transferring 
one hive, you can use your ingenuity. Se- 



lect the gum, blow smoke in at the entrance, 
and rap iiriskly on the outside of the hive 
for a few minutes, until they set up a hum 
of peace. liemove the hive to the room, 
and leave a box in the place of the hive, to 
catch all returning bees ; invert the hive, 
and cut out the side of the hive parallel to 
the comb ; the bees will get out of your 
way ; lay two sticks down on the quilt, and 
a frame on top ; cut out a comb ; brush all 
the bees oil' ; lay it on the frame, and cut it 
to fit ; lay two sticks on top ; spring the 
rubber rings over the ends ; raise the comb, 
and place it in the hive, having it at your 
right hand ; continue to remove all the 
comb in a like manner, usijig care that you 
put the combs in the new hive in the same 
rotation tlutt they were in the old hive. 
Shake all of the bees out of the old hive m 
front of the new one, and they will all go in 
like a nev/ swarm; or, after placing two 
frames in the new hive, brush all of the 
bees adhering to the comb into the new 
hive, and by the time you are through, 
nearly all of the hecs will be in the hive. 
After closing up the hive, let it stand for 
awhile, and if the bees are still quiet, you 
may be sure the queen is in. If she is not, 
the bees will run all about the entrance and 
over the hive, hunting for something, as 
they are, for their queen. Look around for 
a cluster of bees, pick them up with a dip- 
per, and put them in the hive, and if the 
queen is with them, all will soon be quiet, 
lieturn it to its old stand, shake out the 
bees in the box in front of the hive, and 
they will all go in. In three or four days 
after, open the hive, pull off the top rings, 
and pull the sticks out, as by that time the 
combs Avill be fastened to tlie frames. They 
are all right now. After performing the 
operation you will l)e surprised to see how 
easy it is, and how quiet the bees are at 
being thus stirred up, and you will also see 
the advantaue of the frame hive. 

A. J. MUKKAY. 
For the American Bee Jouriml. 

Ho'^v to Introduc3 Virgin Qaesns and 
make New Colonies. 

Take your Queen ]^ursery and put into 
each cage, l)etween the tins, a few cells of 
sealed honey in new comb, or a small piece 
of sponge, well saturated with honey, for 
feed for the hatching queens, so that they 
will not starve if the bees fail to feed them. 
Now cut from the combs as many queen 
cells as you have jirepared cages in the 
nursery, and suspend one in each cage with 
the sealed end downwards, as found in the 
combs, remembering always never to jar 
or compress the cells in any wa}^ and also 
to see that you have good, large perfect 
cells, and generally not cut from the combs 
before the iith or 10th day. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



185 



The cages of the nurst'iy being thus sup- 
l)lied Avith feed for tlie (luceiis wlien they 
liatch, and a good, perfect queen cell in 
each, Ihc doors of the cages are to be closed, 
and adjusted in the nursery frame. 

Then remove from a strong colony one of 
its centre combs, and introduce the nursery 
into its place, to remain until the ([uecns 
emerge from tlie cells. As they emerge, 
each cage containing a virgin queen, may 
be removed from the nursery and placed in 
one of the adjacent coml)s of the same col- 
ony, on either side of the nursery, by cut- 
ting out a piece among the brood large 
enough for the cages. Then each comb, 
^ separately, ■with tlie cages and all the ad- 
hering bees, is removed and i)laced iu a new 
hive Ijetween two combs of hatching brood, 
taken from other colonies, the bees being 
lirushed olf. On the next day, near sun- 
down, each of these new colonies so made 
may be opened, and the combs, bees and 
(lueeus, well sprayed with perfumed sweet- 
ened water, and the queens set at liberty 
by opening the door of the cages, she can 
pass out while the bees are engaged clean- 
ing the spray oil" of themselves, combs and 
(lueen, and receive her kindly, being of the 
same scent, and hatched in the same hive. 
As soon as the queens become fertilized and 
laying, add more combs of hatching brood 
from other stocks to each new colony, 
ttrushiug the bees from the combs added 
back into their own stands, repeat these ad- 
ditions of brood and combs until your new 
stocks are complete. Thus we can raise 
and introduce virgin queens into new col- 
v^ onies with general safety. The cages can 
' be removed from the new colonies iu a day 
or two after the queens are set at liberty. 
While doing this you can see if your young 
<iueeus are all safe. 

If we use all black stocks in this method 
we can soon convert them into Italians, if 
we use none but pure Italian queen cells. 
Kach comb in the nursery colony, becomes 
the active workers in the new ones, and 
♦^ t-lie brood from other black colonies adds to 
the supply, until the new queen's brood 
begins to hatch. J. Davis. 



Does Bee Culture Pay? 

When any new enterprise is started or 
any old employment of man which, in this 

' last age to make money in large sums, has 
become neglected, and the thoughtful man 
suggests its revival under the advancing 
help of science, the question is at once, 
'"Does it pay, or will it pay ?" 

So it is with bee culture. It has paid all 
who have givou.it proper attention, and it 

■ pays well even those who give it only heed- 
less care, and Icecps bees more as an amuse- 
ment for old age or young girl or boy in 



tlic family, that their attention may bo 
sometimes agreeably taki'n up in watching 
this laborious and ingenious liltle worker, 
whose labors furnish such a luxury as hon- 
ey. We give the following concise answer 
to this question from one of our exchanges: 

"We believe that no stock upon a farm 
will pay lietter than ;i few good stocks of 
lt:'.lian bees. They jirovide for themselves 
without giving their owner any trouble 
whatever, and with very little attention at 
certain seasons of the year and with suitable 
quarters i)rovided for their health, shelter 
and workshops, they will yield a rich crop 
of line marketable honey which will always 
sell at a good price. 

"If there is a land on earth which should 
How Avith milk and honey it is ours, and 
yet owing to our own improvidence, there 
are very few farmers who have either milk 
or butter to sell, or even to supply their own 
wants in abundance, and scarcely one in a 
thousand who has honey for sale. Tell 
them that they ought to keep a few stocks 
of bees and raise hone}% and one Avill tell 
you "his grandmother tried it once when 
he was a chiip and she had no luck with 
them." Another will say he docs not want 
to have "his wife and cliildren stung nearly 
to death by the darned things." Another 
will tell you how he "knew a man who 
has kept bees for the last fifteen years 
and never made a cent from them." An- 
other will say he has more than he can do 
now (raising cotton, we suppose, on all his 
land, and hauling bought hay and corn for 
his stock,) and cannot ittlbrd to "bother 
with bee gums." 

"The management of Ijees is very simple, 
and can be easily learned. A little looking 
after in the morning when they tly, and in 
the evening when they return, a little patch 
of white clover and buckwheat, and a few 
plants suited for bee food, and a little pro- 
tection in the winter, are all that is needed." 
— Bultimore Sun. 



For the American Hoc JouiuhI 

Bee Keeping. 

We were requested to make a statement 
relative to the average yield of honey pro- 
cured by us, per colony, during the time we 
have been keeping bees, but not having 
kept any account of honey taken, except 
for the past three years, and during that 
time more by estimates than by actual 
weights, we cannot give sueh a report as 
desired, though the following estimate may 
be of interest : 

1871. Average per colony, 10 lljs.; av- 
erage sales, 22 cents per lb.; average value 
of honey per colony, $l(t, (box honey). 

1872. Average per colony, 4;] lbs. ; av- 
erage sales,, 22 cents per tl>.; value of lion 
cy per colony, !{;0.40, (f box, j- extracted) 



186 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



1873. Average per colony, 16 lbs.; av- 
erage sales, 25 cents per tt..; average val- 
ue of honey per colony, $4, (.V frame, i ex- 
tracted). 

The most box honey taken any year from 
4\ny one hive, !»8 pounds ; that Avas in 1871, 
and we are confident that twice that amount 
could have been secured just as well, but 
our bees then were all in small hives af- 
fording poor advantage for supplying them 
with boxes. This year promises to be a 

; good one for a honey crop, and with our 
present increase in colonies, (natural and 
artificial) Ave hope to be able to make a 
good report for the current year. 

One of the main things in successful bee- 

. keeping is, to keej) all the stocks strong. - If 
you get very anxious to have colonies in 
abundance, send for a "bee man" who is 

: the representative of some new-fangled 
moth-trap, or some other remarkable de- 
Aice by means of Avhich the bees are 

"happy and glorious 
0"ur nil the ills of life victorious." 

and have him divide each one of the old 
stands into four or five new ones, but you 
will be likely to i>ronounce bee-keeping in 
Kansas a humbug as your bees "play out" 
and leave you debating the question in your 
own mind whether "it is better to be born 
lucky than rich." 

Artificial division, done in a proper man- 
ner and at a proper time, is a very good 
Avay to increase the number of colonies, but 
. (iuecns or capped queen cells, from strong 

• colonies should be ready to give each di- 
N vide, and Ave aim to improve the stock at 

the same time, by procuring queen cells 
' made in strong colonies and noted for their 
good traits as honey gatherers, Avhether 
they be hybrids or Italians. This year Ave 
have secured a couple of cells from one of 

■ our neighbors, from a colony (and he has 
several colonies like it) that seems to be a 

■ cross betAveen the Italian and an extra large 
gray looking bee, which kind Avith him 
gathers one-third more honey than his oth- 

. er bees. We make new colonies by placing 
three or four frames containing brood, but 
no old bees, in an empty hive, first placing 

. the queen cell in one of the center ones, 
then Ave remoA'e one of the strongest col- 

• onies, six or eight feet away on a straight 
line Avith the front and facing the same 
way, then Ave place the ncAv one on its stand. 

' This is best done Avhen honey is abundant 

. and in the middle of the day Avhen there 

are plenty of bees out at Avork, and by 

night there Avill be a strong SAvarm and the 

hive removed not materially injured. 

Thus Ave make a third one from tAvo, or a 
third one by taking a sheet of brood from 
each of several diU'ercut hives. As a means 
of strengthening Aveak colonies a promi- 
nent bee-keeper suggested the idea to us of 
V exchanging the queens of the Aveaker ones 



Avith those of the stronger, as Avith him 
queens not thought to be very good were 
generally thus rendered more prolific. 

There is considerable diflfereuce of opin- 
ion in regard to the comparative merits of 
the Italian and the black bee. We have 
several of what were said to be the pure 
Italian, but the queens Avere all short-lived. 
As for profit in honey we doubt their su- 
periority over the hybrids. The hybrids 
seem to be very excellent bees and during a 
year of scarcity Avill do much better than 
the blacks. Last year fully demonstrated 
this fact to us. It seems that almost any 
kind of a change from long continued in - 
and-in breeding, is beneficial. 

Kansas. M. A. E. 



A Visit to a Bee-Hive. 

UESCRICED BY THE FAIKY FLYAAVAV. 

'■ How doth the little hiig.y bee 
Improve each shiuiug hour, 
And gathering honey day by day. 
From every opening flower? " 

" How doth she, indeed ? " I said to my- 
self as I awoke one bright morning. 

The thought Avas suggested by a noisy 
bee, Avho Avaked me by trying to enter my 
lily-bell, and I resolved that I would look 
into the matter. So I Acav out of my lily, 
and to the nearest hive, to make inquiries. 

Bees are high-spirited and quick-temper- 
ed persons, I knoAv, but a fairy can make 
her Avay anywhere. 

The hive was a neat building, pleasantly 
situated in an orchard. On one side a clo- 
ver-field, full of perfume, and on the othc r 
a gay llower-garden. 

At the door of the hive I was met by a 
number of sentinels, one of whom address- 
ed me rather sharply, Avith "Who goes 
there." 

"A friend," I replied, " who wishes to 
learn something of the Avays of the bees, 
and how they make honey. 

" Your passport," said she. 

"I never thought of such a thing," sai<l 
I. 

"Do you intend to go into the honey 
business yourself '? " asked she. 

"By no means," I replied ; "I am the 
fairy FlyaAvay, and only Avant information 
and amusement." 

" I Avill send a messenger to our Queen," 
said the sentinel. 

The messenger soon returned with the 
Queen's permission to go entirely through 
the hive, escorted by one of her own body- 
guard, excepting into the royal apartment. 

I then entered the doorway, where I was 
greeted by my guide, Avho gave me her 
name, Deborah, and ushered me, with a 
grand fiourish of her Avings, into a Avide 
gallery passage. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



157 



lu the middle of the liivc I saw a loug 
string of bees, reaching from the roof to 
the tioor, each bee clinging to her neighbor, 
:iud remaining motionless, while other bees 
ran up and down, as though upon a ladder. 

' ' What is that ? " I asked my guide. 

^ "A bee-rope, " she replied, " a short cut 

from the top to the bottom of the hive." 

I remarked that I thought it might be 
some kind of dance. 

"No," said she. "In the winter when 
there is no work to be done, we sometimes 
dance in the sunshine before the hive, but 
never at any other time. We are too busy. " 

This seemed to me rather sad but I did 
not say so. 

In the gallery Ave saw bees hurrying 
about in all directions, too busy to notice 
US', and never disturbing or interfering 
with each other in the least. 

"These are our workers," said Deborah. 

"About how many of them are there?" 
1 inquired. 

"There are 20,000 of us all told," she 
replied, "one Queen, or Mother-bee, bless- 
■ ings on lier majesty ! some hundreds of 
( drones, and the rest workers." 

" They must be tired enough if they al- 
ways work as fast as these do," I said. 

"No," replied Deborah, "they like it. 
A true worker-bee is never content to be 
idle. Would you like to see the Nurser- 
ies ? " continued she. 

"Anything you please to show me," I 
replied. 

We then turned through the side gallery 
into a quiet corner of the hive, where we 
found curious cradles or cells, of ditfereut 
s^zes, made of the purest white wax. 

" Here the eggs are laid by our queen," 
said Deborah, " generally about two hun- 
dred a day, but often many more." 

"Then your Queen must be busy, as 
well as the rest of you," I said. 

"No one works harder," replied my 
guide. 

I thought of our beautiful Queen, with 
her delicate wings, and felt that a bee-hive 
Tjfe'as not much like Fairy -land. 

"And will these eggs ever turn into real 
bees?" I asked. 

"Oh yes," said my guide, "in three or 
four days they hatch into worms." 

"Something like catterpillars and butter- 
flies?" I asked. 

"A little," she replied, " but in this case 
tlje young worms are worth taking care of, 
as the bees are valuable and industrious 
persons, while buttertlies and idle and use- 
less." 

" You are mistaken there," I said, "they 
are useful to us fairies. In our long flights 
we could not do without them." 
. "Ah," said she, "I never heard of it be- 
fore." 

"When the eggs turn into grubs or 



worms," continued she, "the workers find 
plenty to do to take care of them. Each 
little worm must be carefully fed for five 
days, witli water, and bread, and honey." 

" What kind of bread ? " I asked. 

"Oh, bee-bread," she replied, " nothing 
else Avould suit them. The cells are then 
sealed up, that is, a nice lid or cover is put 
upon each one, and the Utile worms must 
take care of themselves for awhile. Every 
worm is expected to line its cell neatly, 
with a silken webbing, and tiien roll itself 
up in a cocoon for a time. Ah ! we arc 
just in time to see the cells closed." 

And, to be sure, there were attendant.s 
sealing up the cells, a small white worm in 
each. I must confess it made me shudder 
to look at them for I never did like worms! 
It is so dreadful to meet one in the folds 
of a rose. 

But I fancied the little worms seemed un- 
easy at the idea of being shut up, and so I 
told my friend. 

"Ah well ! " said she, " It is the only way. 
We all go though with it. Before many 
days they will come out perfect bees.— 
AVings and legs all right." 

"And must they go to work as soon as 
they are out," I asked, "and not dance 
once ? " 

" No," replied Deborah. " They are not 
strong enough to fly until they have been 
fed one or two days. Tlien they begin to 
work in good earnest." 
_ I observed that the cells were of difterent 
sizes, and inquired the reason. 

" The largest and handsomest cells," re- 
plied Deborah, "are for the young Queen 
bees or Princesses. The next size for the 
drones, and the smallest for the workers." 

" Can the cells be used more than once," 
I asked, " or are they done with, like last- 
year's bird's nests ? " 

"The royal cells are all destroyed when 
they have been once used," she answered, 
" but the others are cleansed and the silken 
webbing is left to strengthen them, and 
they are then better than ever." 

"How long does it take to turn from 
eggs into bees?" I enquired. 

" Sixteen days for the Queen bee to be- 
come a perfect insect. Twenty-four days 
for the drones, and twenty-one for the 
workers," she replied. i 

"And have the attendants nothing to do . 
but to feed the little ones? " I asked. 

"Oh yes," said Deborah, " they attend 
the Queen, do the fighting, prepare the 
wax, make the combs or cells, collect the 
honey by day, and store it by night, and 
keep the hive in order. The drones lead 
an idle life. They will die, rather than 
work. They will not even feed themselves 
if they can find any one else to do it. 
And, to tell the truth, like all idlers in a 
busy community, they are such a bother. 



ISS 



THE AMERICAN EEE JOURNAL. 



that about once a year we have to kill them 
oir." 

"My dear Deborah ! " I exclaimed in hor- 
ror, "you cau't mean it !" 

" Yes. It is the custom. Tliey don't 
seem to mind it. But let us look now at 
Ihe store- rooms," said she, hastily changing 
the subject, as well she might. 

In the storerooms we saw rows upon 
rows of cells, fitted one upon another, and 
every one filled with clear honey, and se- 
curely sealed. 

"This is our winter store," said my 
guide ; "pure honey, made from the white 
clover, and put up in the combs by the 
Workers." 

" IIow do they make the honey V " I asked. 

"They gather it," she replied. "We 
; send out thousands of bees every morning, 
to all the gardens and fields around. Mig- 
nonette makes good honey, and so do apple- 
blossoms. We usually make from two to 
; six pounds a day. The bees often fly as 
far as two miles from the hive, and then 
come back loaded with honey and pollen. 
Each Worker has a tongue or proboscis 
with which she licks or brushes up the 
honey, and puts it into her honey bag. 

"Stop a moment" said she to a Worker 
who was hurrying by. " You will observe, 
my dear, that the hinder legs have some- 
thing like baskets, on the side, in which 
the pollen or bee-bread is carried. 

"I see it," said I "I have often watched 
the bees coming out of flowers, covered 
with yellow dust." I then took the op- 
portunity to mention to her that I lived in 
a lily-bell, that I sometimes danced the 
greater part of the night, and that the bees 
were very much in the habit of waking me 
at an unreasonable hour in the morning. 

She said she would attend to it. 

" And how do the bees make wax?" I 
asked. 

" By a process best known to themselves," 
replied Ueborah. "It is not in my line 
just now, and I am quite sure that I could 
not describe it to you. The bees say they 
•cannot tell how they do it, but they wish 
40 keep the secret to themselves. The 
sides of these cells are the one-hundred and 
eightieth part of an inch in thickness. So 
you see we must use an immense quantity 
of wax." 

"You must, indeed," I replied. And are 
the cells always made in this shape?" 

"Yes," said she, "they are six-sided. 
The early bees fixed upon that as the best 
for strength and economy of space,, and no 
change has been made since. However, 
Bumble-bees, she added with a slight ex- 
pression of scorn as though she had said, 
the Beggars, "have a way which they pre- 
fer. They put it up in bags, and store it 
under-grounil." 

This was no news to me. Such a thing 



has been done in Fairy-land as to "bor- 
row " a little honey from the bumble-bee, 
in time of scarcity. But I said nothing. 

" And you tell me workers do the fight- 
ing. Is there much fighting to do?" I ask- 
ed. "A great deal," replied Deborah. — 
"We have many enemies, bother on them I 
Mice, catterpillars, moths, snails, Avasps, 
robber-bees and other evil-minded crea- 
tures ! " As she said this she buzzed fierce- 
ly and unsheathed her sting. 

"Look here a moment," said she, "and 
you will see one of them." 

And there in a corner, guarded by a 
squad of bees, lay a wretched snail prison- 
er in his own shell. The edge of the shell 
was covered with a strong cement, which 
held it firmly to the floor. 

"I think we have him now, the villain !" 
said my guide. " His shell is fastened with 
propolis." 

" What is propolis? " I asked. 

"It is bee-glue," she replied, "resin from 
the buds of the trees." 

At this moment we heard a low murmur 
of "The Queen ! the Queen !" and turning, 
we saw passing through the principal gal- 
lery, a magnificent bee, large and more 
stately than any of her subject, though her 
wings were much smaller than theirs. The 
under part of her body was golden, the up- 
per part dark. 

She was surrounded by her body guard, 
and as she passed, her subjects politely 
backed out of her way, to give her room, 
and some oft'ered her refreshments in the 
form of honey. 

" What would become of us, if anything 
should happen to our beloved Queen ! " ex- 
claimed Deborah. 

" How long has she reigned ? " I enquired. 

"More than two months," she replied. 

"And how much longer may she reign?" 
I asked. 

"She may outlive us all," she replied, 
" Queens live four years, and workers only 
from six to nine months. Our old Queen 
went away with a swarm to another hive. 
"But now," she continued, "if you will 
come back to the gallerj^ I will oflcr you 
some of our best honey." 
;■ This was tempting, even to a fairy, and 
we are considered dainty ; that is, the crick- 
ets and grass-hopper call us so. I tasted 
some honc}' and found it delicious. 

"This is not like the honey one finds in 
the flowers," I said. 

"We have our way of purifying and pre- 
serving it," said Deborah. 

"And bee-bread. Can you tell me ex- 
actly how to make it ?" I asked. 

"That is not allowed," she replied, 
" though it would do no harm, as no one 
but a bee could ever make it. It is made of 
the polen of flowers, and honey and water; 
and it wants a great deal of kneading. But 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOUllNAL. 



m> 



it is ouly fit for the food of young bees. Wc 
okl ones never eat it." 

" And do tlie young princesses eat it loo?" 
I asked. 

"Not at all," she replied. "They arc fed 
upon royal jelly." 

"And'what is that ?" I asked. 

"Don't ask it !" she replied. " It is tlie 
greatest secret of all. Off goes my head, if 
I tell you ! " "And by the way," said she, 
perliaps it -will be bettor to say nothing 
about the Drone business." 

" Perhaps it will," I replied, "for I have 
known our fairy-queen to imprison one of 
her subjects in a pea-pod a whole hour, for 
only pinching a gnat." 
^^ "Ah ! yes," said she, " not our idea of 
discipline." 

She then escorted me to the door of the 
Jiive. I thanked her, recommended less 
work and juore dancing, invited her to call 
on me in m}^ lily-bell, and took my leave, 
feeling that I had really learned something 
of the ways of the busy bee, if not how she 
makes houey. The next day I sent to my 
friend Deborah, by a buttcrtly, the finest 
four-leaved clover I ever saw, knowing that 
i to be the best return I could possibly make 
for her kindness. — St. Niclwlas. 



Entrance Holes to Hives. 

The honey bee ordinarily in its wild state in- 
habits hollow trees, the entrances to which 
are either through long slits or large holes, 
through which it has ample room to pass, 
without brushing off the pellets that stick out 
from its sides. A worker bee can pass easily 
through a hole three-sixteenths of an inch 
high, but in passing through a round hole of 
that diameter the pollen would be dislodged. 
A drone requires a hole nearly }i of an inch 
in diameter to pass througli, so that in mak- 
ing entrance holes to hives it is evident they 
slioukl be at least H of an inch high, to allow 
(li'ones, as well as the queen and workers, to 
pass ; but they should not be any higher, if 
>ve expect to exclude mice, immble bees, 
"Sjjliornets and other enemies of the bee, larger 
than they are. 

Now, did the bee carry its load behind it as 
the leaf-entter docs, a round hole of >4 of an 
Inch in diameter would be large enough, but 
t-he load on each side sticks out from its sides 
so that more room must be given laterally, 
oven for the passage of a single bee at a time 
-'-but as, during active working, there is. a 
constant flow of passing bees, it must be 
mucli Viider. 1 find the width should be at 
least n in. But a single hole is not sulficieut, 
even of th.at width, on account of their pecu- 
liar manner of ventilation, by which they are 
enabled to keep up a constant circulation of 
fresh air through the hive and regulate the 
temperature. There should be two such holes 



at least four or live inches apart, but on the 

same side; of the hive. All otlier openings 
should be closed tiglit. If thus arranged, the 
left hand hole will be used for ventilation, 
and the other for tlie passage of most of the 
bees. 

(inerry : Why do hv<'<. always use the left 
hand hole for vent ilatlou '.'—Cor. Suulhern 
Fanner. 



Movable Homes for Bees. 

It is well known tliat bees may be moved 
from place to place, and, honey-secreting 
plants being in abundance, they will store 
large quantities of honey. A contemix>rary. 
in illu.strating this, n)entions the following 
circumstances said originally to have appear- 
ed in the London Tinuss in 1830. It will of 
course be taken with a large allowajice for 
"salting " by those who know bees : 

As a small vessel was proceeding up the 
channel from the coast of Cornwall and run- 
ning near the land, some of the sailors ob- 
served a swarm of bees on an island ; they 
steered for it, landed, and took the bees on 
board ; succeeded in hiving them innnediate- 
ly, and proceeded on their voyage ; as they 
sailed along the shore, the bees constantly 
flev? from the vessel to the land, to collect 
honey, and returned again to their moving- 
hive ; and this was continued all the way ui> 
the channel.— TFcs'tcr?! Buvdl. 



Honey-Dew. 

Amyntas, in his Stations of Asia, quoted 
by AthenoBus, gives a curious account of 
the manner of collecting this article, which 
was supposed to be superior to the nectar 
of the bee, in various parts of the East, 
particularly in Syria. In some cases they 
gathered the leaves of trees, chiefly the lin- 
den and oak, for on these the dew was 
most abundantly found, and pressed them 
together. Others allowed it to drop from 
the leaves and harden into globules, which, 
when desirous of using, they broke, and 
having poured water on them in wooden 
bowls, drank the mixture. In the neigh- 
borhood of Mount Lebanon, honey-dew 
Avas collected plentifully several times in 
the year, being caught by spreading skins 
under the trees, and shaking into them the 
licpiid from the leaves. The dew was then 
poured into vessels, and stored away for 
future use. On these occasions the peasants 
used to exclaim, " Zeus has been raining 
honey I" — History of Insects. 

The rule generally adopt'Ml for taking bees 
is for the second party to furnish hives, take 
care of the colonies for a term of years, and 
return old stocks with half of the increase. 



190 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



^nt4iiat||)q^lmtiital 



AV. F. CLARKE, Editor. 



AUGUST, 1874. 



X 



Bees and Wasps. 



Sir Jobu Lubbock has just read a paper 
on the above subject at the Linnasan Society. 
The paper commenced by pointing out, 
with reference to the power of communica- 
tion with one another said to be possessed 
by Hymenoptcra, that tlie observations on 
record scarcely justify tlie conclusions 
which have been drawn from them. In 
support of the opinion that ants, bees and 
wasps, possess a true language, it is usually 
stated that if one bee discovers a store of 
honey, the others are soon aware of the 
fact. This, however, does not necessarily 
imply the possession of any power of des- 
cribing localities, or anything which could 
correctly be called a language. If the bees 
or wasps merely follow their fortunate 
companions, the matter is simple enough. 
If, on the contrary, the others are sent, the 
case will be very different. In order to test 
this, Sir John kept honey in a given place 
for some time, in order to satisfy himself 
that it would not readily be found by the 
bees, and then brought a bee to the honey, 
marking it so that he could ascertain 
whether it brought others or sent them, the 
latter, of course, implying a much higher 
order of intelligence and power of com- 
munication. After trying the experiment 
several times with single bees and obtain- 
ing only negative results, Sir John Lub- 
bock procured one of Marriott's observa- 
tory-hives, which he placed in his sitting- 
room. The bees had free access to the 
open air ; but there was also a small side 
or postern door which could be opened at 
pleasure, and which led into the room. 
This enables him to feed and mark any 
particular bees ; and he recounted a num- 
ber of experiments, from whicli it appeared 
that comparatively few bees found their 
own way through the postern, while those 
which did so the great majority flew to the 
window, and scarcely any found the lioney 



for themselves. Those, on the contrary, 
which were taken to the honey, passed 
backwards and forwards between it and 
the hive, making on an average, five jour- 
neys in the hour. Sir John had, also, in a 
similar manner, watched a number of 
marked wasps, with very similar results. 
These and other observations of the same 
tendency appear to show that, even if bees 
and wasps have the power of informing 
one another when they discover a store of 
good food, at any rate they do not habitu- 
ally do so ; and this seemed to him a 
strong reason for concluding that they are 
not in the habit of communicating facts. 
When once wasps had made themselves 
thoroughly acquainted with their way, 
their movements were most regular. They 
spent three minutes supplying themselves 
with honey, and then flew straight to their 
nest, returning after an interval of about 
ten minutes, and thus making, like the 
bees, about five journeys an hour. During 
September they began in the morning at 
about six o'clock, and later when the morn- 
ings began to get cold, and continued to 
work without intermission till dusk. They 
made, therefore, rather more than fifty 
journeys in the day. Sir John had also 
made some experiments on the behavior of 
bees introduced into strange hives, which 
seemed to contradict the ordinary state- 
ment that strange bees are always recogniz- 
ed and attacked. Another point as to 
which very diff'erent opinions have been 
propounded is the use of the antennae. 
Some entomologists have regarded them as 
olfactory organs, some as ears, the weight 
of authority being perhaps in favor of the 
latter opinion. In experimenting on his 
wasps and bees. Sir John, to his surprise, 
could obtain no evidence that they heard at 
all. He tried them with a shrill pipe, with 
a whistle, with a violin, with all the sounds 
of which his voice was capable, doing so, 
moreover, within a few inches of their 
heads ; but they continued to feed without 
the slightest appearance of consciousness. 
Lastly, he recounted some observations 
showing th;it bees have the power of dis- 
tinguishing colors. The relations of insects 
to flowers imply that the former can distin- 
guish color ; but there had been as yet but 
few direct observations on the point. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



191 



Consolidation. 

AVc think we shall give pleasure to a 
large majority of the bee-keepers of Amer- 
ica when we announce that the National 
Bee JouiiNAi. is with this mouth's issue 
united wiUi the " old reliable" Amekican 
Bee Jouunal. The time has passed when 
the friends of either Journal,, have any 
points at issue, or any personal feeling in 
the way of a union, ou the common ground 
of a deep interest in bee-keeping, and an 
ardent desire to see a .Iouknal devoted to 
their interests so sustained as to be worthy 
their support and an object of national 
pride. 

There may have been in the past a divi- 
sion of interests and a difference of opinion 
upon patent hives which engendered strife 
and seemed to make it necessary to support 
two journals. Those things belong to the 
past, and we know that the time has come 
to bury the hatchet and all agree to make 
our one Jouhnal what it ought to be — a 
medium where bee-keepers of experience 
can exchange opinions upon both prac- 
tice and theory, and also where begin- 
ners may find reliable counsel, and timely 
hints upon all doubtful points in their new 
employment. 

By the union of these journals we are 
enabled to secure the services of all the 
best writers in the World upon the topics 
of which it specially treats. We shall also 
be enabled to improve it in all respects, 
and we are sure that wu shall publish a 
journal which every bee-keeper will feel a 
pride in supporting. 

There is always an increase of strength 
aJ in a union of interests upon proper grounds, 
and this consolidation is one so manifestly 
wise, that we are sure to receive such an 
endorsement as will make us strong in our 
aim to issue the best periodical ever sent 
forth, devoted to any special interest- 

We have decided to publish the consoli- 
dated Bee Joui{na_l not only in Chicago, 
but also in Cedar Rapids, because Iowa is 
now the centre of the bee-keeping interests 
of this country. West of us, the business 
is being rapidly developed. Our subscrib- 
ers are numerous in California, Colorado, 
Nevada, Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri, 
while enterprising bee-keepers are found 



both north and south of us. It is evident 
that in these new fields the best pasturage 
for bees ou the continent is found. The 
State of Iowa has furnished for years some 
of the most progressive bee-keepers in the 
country, who arc prepared to be safe ad- 
visers for beginners at the West. 

While we are dependent upon our sub- 
scribers for the material aid which is to 
enable us to carry out our plans for their 
good, we ask it not as a favor to us, for we 
shall send out a journal which no bee-keep- 
er can afford to do without at any price. 

Seasonabl3 Hints. 

If bee pasturage fails at any time by 
reason of dry weather, it is usually in the 
early part of tliis month or latter part of 
July. Ilivcs that have been gaining in 
weight, may now be losing daily, and 
except in the morning and evening, when 
bees are out for water and pollen, they 
hang idly about tlie hives. Rains in most 
localities have started buckwheat and fall 
flowers into growth, and if properly 
managed, bees will soon begin to gather 
fall stores abundantly. What they need 
now, is room near the centre of the hives 
Avherc the queen can deposit her eggs, so 
that young bees can be reared to supply 
the places of those tiiat will be used up in 
gathering the fall honey. 

If the combs have not been emptied 
with the extractor, do it now ; not to take 
away all supplies, but to make empty 
space for two purposes : 1st, to give the 
queen room. 2nd, to stimulate the bees to 
exertion. There is nothing like a "vacu- 
um " to do this. 

Even when there is abundant honey in a 
hive, it sometimes pays to feed sugar syrup 
or diluted honey, to colonies in which we 
find the queen has stopped laying, or she 
has ceased to cherish her eggs. We have 
known them to begin again, as if it were 
spring in 24 hours after tliey had been 
fed in this way. To use the extractor and 
return the combs with some honey " loose" 
upon them will answer the same purpose. 

A good supply of water is also essential 
now. Springs and brooks from which 
they have had their supply may now be 
dried up. Your neighbors will complain 



192 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



for the first time, perhaps, that your bees 
annoy them by hanging about watering 
troughs, drains and pump-spouts. Make a 
place or places, some rods from your hives, 
where the bees can drink safely, and keep 
them always supplied. It is well to toll 
them to their trough by putting pieces of 
comb, and sweetening the water at first. 
A little salt thrown in every day keeps the 
water sweet, and some claim, is beneficial 
to the bees. 

While honey is not secreted in flowers, 
be cautious about opening hives, lest rob- 
bers are attracted. The morning from 7 
o'clock to 11 is tlie time in this month to 
open hives, safely. 

Queen raising may proceed now to even 
better advantage than at any other season, 
if care is taken to make every nucletis self- 
supporting ; by this we mean that each 
queen-rearing hive should have young bees, 
old bees, brood at all times, and plenty of 
honey. 

Queens may be exclianged now, poor 
ones killed, either impure or not prolific ; 
and young ones given to them. We never, 
hoAvever, take a queen from a full colony 
until we can give it one that we are sure is 
a better one. We would not put a queen 
into sucii a colony until we had tested it in 
a nucleus. 

The care which we recommend, in order 
to keep the colony raising brood, is really 
the first step towards successful wintering ; 
a subject of vital interest now to bee-keep- 
ers, and on which we shall have much to 
say in succeeding numbers. E. S. T. 



Sees and the Centennial Fair. 

Mr. J. 11. AVePiS in his communication 
for this number says " nearly every interest 
that can be mentioned except bee-keeping, 
has been referred to committees preparatory 
to the Centennial Fair to be held in Phila- 
delphia 1876, etc." 

He is in error in supposing that the bee- 
keeping interest has been neglected. At 
the meeting of the National Society at 
Louisville, last December, a committee was 
appointed fconsistingof Gen. Adair, of Ken- 
tucky ; Mrs. E. S. Tupper, of Iowa ; and 
J. W. Winder, of Cincinnati ; with the 
President of the Society, ex-offlcio ; and 
authorised to appoint sub-committees where 
ever they deemed proper. The fiuestion as 
to wliether bees sliall be allowed at tlie 
Fair is still an open one, except in observa- 
tion cages ; but tlicre are multitudes of 
other things — honey extractors, arlific-ial 



comb, choicest honey in various forms, 
queen shipping cages, etc.j to say nothing of 
hives, out of which a most valuable and 
instructive as well as interesting exhibition 
may be made. This committee will report 
at the Pittsburgh meeting, doubtless, and 
receive aid and counsel as to future prepar- 
ations. 



Honey Dealers. 

We have published the articles from 
Messrs. Bird and Kruschke, complaining of 
our honey markets and merchants, with 
great reluctance. We do it " under pro- 
test "hoping that no one will feel that we 
desire to be unjust. Our columns are open 
to anything that the accused may have to 
say, as to their reasons for the seeming un- 
fair dealing. 

We can say ourselves for them, that 
times have been hard ; honey as a luxury 
which people can do without, has been 
slow of sale, and it takes time to turn it 
into money. AVe know that if Mr. Winder 
has made no return.s "for a few months" 
as Mr. Bird saj^s, it is because he has 
received no money from his sales, on 
which to report. 

Joseph Dutfeler writes to us that he is 
willing to publish a card to the eflect that 
Mr. Perrine paid him in full for his honey, 
even though it was all burned, and he had 
no insurance on it. We have made collec- 
tions of Baumeister »fc Co. for parties and 
have the promise of money from them, for 
others, as soon as they can pay it. 

Those who send honey to market es- 
pecially from a distance must remember 
that expense and time must be expended 
by the consignee to get it into market. One 
firm tells us that they have received 1230 
lbs. of honey from California. The first 
bill paid by them Avas $57 freight charges ! 
Finding it impossible to sell it in bulk, 
they went to the expense of $100 for glass 
jars and tumblers, and took the trouble to 
put it into them. It will sell now, and 
at a profit ; but the consignees, doubtless, 
will begin to grumble before they receive 
their returns, and then be dissatisfied with 
scanty i)rofits. 

Our advice to those who have honey to 
sell is to sell it out-right, if possible, even 
if at a less price. If this is not possible, 
send it to dealers of established reputation, 
take receipt for exact weight and until 
returns are made, exercise charity and pati- 
ence. In some places where you think 
there is no sale, a liome market may be 
secured by taking the trouble to put your 
honey into attractive shape. 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



193 



fmSrd^i 




QUESTION. 

rieaso inform your subscribers in your noxt, 
how fai- nortli bees may bo kept with prolit ? 

G. O. Gkisx. 

ANSWEPv. 

Boos are kept very successfully in tlie 
nortliorn part of Russia, and winter tliero out 
of doors safely. They are also kept in Can- 
ada and in the extreme north-east of Maine. 
In Aroostook County, and as far north as 
Prescpie Isle (Maine), bees winter well and 
are. very profitable. Anionu the mountains of 
Colorado bees do well. Gur opinion is that 
wherever flowers are found, bees may be kept 
jiuccessfuUy, if their owners have judgment 
(•nough to adapt their care of them to the 
climate and location. 

QUESTIOX. 

1st. Does the queen have a call which she 
constantly makes her presence known by ? 

2nd. What state or temperature of the 
weather it will do to open hives for the pur- 
pose of examining brood, etc.? 

Srd. The reason why bees cluster before 
going to the woods ? W. M. A. 



1st. It would seem tliat she does not, from 
the fact that we have known a populous hive 
to be without a queen "?A hours without dis- 
covering her absence. . 

The only times we have heard the call of 
the queen are when she was under guard of 
v/orker bees to prevent her 'going out with a 
swarm ; and again when we have confined 
one in our hand for a few moments. It is at 
times, like the first, that the noise of young ■ 
queens is heard before a second swarm issues 
which is called "piping." Sometimes this' 
•; ' noise is made by a queen before it ' hatches 
from its cell. 

2nd. It will do to open hives and take out 
;.,: the comb, whenever bees are flying freely. ^ 
W When they are not, it is safe to leave them 
luidisturbed. 

Tjrd. We think the main reason why bees 
cluster, before leaving is, that the queen in 
great swarms, is unable to fly freely when 
she first leaves the hives, her ovaries being, 
full. AVe have seen hundreds of eggs on the 
leaves of a branch where a swann had set- 
tled. Swarms containing young queens fly 
longer and usually settle higher. They sel- 
dom show any disposition to go to the woods 
at first, as they liave no special attraction to 
the young queen with them and will not fol- 
low her as they do the '• mother " bee in first 
swarms. 

'i QUESTION. 

How long are we to write you nothing 
encouraging about our bee-keeping '.' Here 



we are again at the end of our honey year 
almost, ami still the same ohl story "bees 
doing poorly." My 4.S swarms came. Out of 
niy cellar in' the si)ring in very fine condition, 
loosing only one, and only f(!W cases of 
dysentery ; "but the spring mouths carried oif 
10 or 12 more— some of my best stocks. "N(tv- 
ice" calls itjby the, rigid nauu!—" dwindled 
away." No cause for thest^ losses that i could 
see. Honey plenty, combs bright ; every- 
thing in perfect condition. Very little us(i to 
talk about the causes of these losses, for I do 
not think INIr. Editor, wt; do not, any of us. 
know. After summer came, swarms came on 
fast, and swarmed timely ; I'ven in fine condi- 
tion for the largest blow of whitt; clover J 
have seen for years ; and the drouth came 
with the clover blow ; and to-day we are 
burnt, dried, and roasted. I have got seventy 
swarms now— that is bees enough. Who cares 
if they only make honey enough for their 
own " use." K- Daijt. 

AXSWEP.. 

If you want more honey, do not expect to 
increase your stocks so much. An increase 
of 23 swarms on 48 is all you can expect, 
without looking for much surplus. 



Voices from Among the Hives. 

X. K. FEDEX, Mitchellville, Tenn., writes : 
"Bees have done very well here this season. 
I commenced with 1» colonies in the spring, 
increased them to 14 ; and got 750 pounds of 
honey up to June 10th. Since that, they have 
been cut off by dry weather." 

.TosiiuA AnxEn, Crestline, O., writes :— 
"Basswood bloom is over. There were the 
most flowers on the trees that I ever saw ; 
but the bees did not collect very much after 
all. White clover was a failure. There was 
a profuse swarming. Some hives swarmed 
as much as three times." 

E. DiFANY, Norton, 0., writes :— " I began 
with 24 swarms last spring, and now I have 
72. Three have not swarmed yet. Some of 
my first have swarmed again ; in fact my 
bees swarm nearly every day. I expect if it 
does not get too dry, to run up to OU or 100 
swarms, all naturafswarms but one." . 

.T. M. Marvin, St. Charles, 111., writes :— 
"My 140 old stocks have increased to 200. 
My surplus is five tons. A neighbor's, under 
my care, 8 stocks increased to IS ; surplus 7.50 
lbs. Honey superior in cpiality. Stocks in 
splendid condition, and nothing to do, on 
account of a severe drouth, the worst ever seen 
in these parts." 

■ Chriptophek Ghlmm, .Tefferson, Wis., 
writes:— "I wintered ]:i4 swarms and lost 
none through the winter ; l)ut spring was 
very cold aiid wet, so that I had to unite four 
swarms, which got very weak with the 
others. I have got, at this date 07 natural 
swarms and all are doing finely. The bass- 
wood, or lime, are nearly through blossom in 
this part of the country." 

M. T. EMT5RV, Poplar Bluff, Tenn., writes : 
—"I went into winter quarters last fall with 
.57 colonies. They went through safely with 
the loss of about 7 or 8 (pieens. 1 sold two 
colonies. The sprinsi was very unfavorable 
up to the 1st ot May. Since that time we 
have had but three light showers. I have 
taken about 2500 lbs. of lioney from them. 
Some of my bees have considerable honey yet 
to spare." 



194 



THE A:^IErJCAN BEE JOURNAL. 



ck 



^^xmf^t^ ^nm\nl 



THOMAS G. NEWMAN, Manager. 

TERMS OF SUBSCaiPTION. 

Single subscriber, one year $2.00 

Two Bubscribers. seut at the same time 3.50 

Three subscribers, sent at the same time, 5.00 

Six subscribers, sent at the same time 9.00 

Ten subscribers, seut at the same time, 14.00 

Twenty subscribers, seut at the same time, . . . 25.00 
Send a postage stamp for a sample copy^ 

RATES OF ADVERTISING. 

SOLID NONPARIBL MEASURE. 

First insertioti, per line $ .20 

Each subsequent insertion, per line 15 

One square, 10 lines or less, first insertion, 2.00 

Next page to Business Department and fourth 
and last page of cover, double rates. 

Twelve lines of solid Nonpariel occupy one inch. 
One column contains SKi lines of solid Nonpariel. 

Bills of regular Advertising payable quarterly, if 
inserted three months or more. If inserted for less 
than three months, payable monthly. Transient 
advertisements, cash in advance. We adhere strict- 
ly to our printed rates. 

Address all communications and remittances to 
TUOMAS G. NEWMAN. 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Special Notice. 

During the past ten months of " Panic," 
the receipts of tlic American Bee Journal 
have been very light. We have cheerfully 
"carried " tliousands of our subscribers, 
and now trust that they, will respond as 
soon as possible, as we have obligations 
that must be met at once. Many subscrip- 
tions ran out with the JUNE number, and 
now we hope to hear from them, as well 
as from those that expired before that 
time. 

We shall continue to send the Amkkica:t 
Bee Journal to all our subscribera until 
we get an explicit order for a discontinu- 
ance, and we hope those who not wish to 
continue tlieir subscriptions will notify us 
by letter or Postal card, either v.hen they 
expire or before that time. 

We have purchased of Geo. S. Wagner 
Esq. and the Kev. Yv'. P. Clarke all the 
back subscription and advertising accounts, 
and hence everything due to the American 
Bee Journal of whatever kind or nature 
must now to be paid to the undersigned. 

We hope thosu wlio are in arrears will 
send the amounts due us, during tliis 
month, as we are in pressing need of it, to 
cancel obligations already given for these 
very accounts. Who will respond? 

TnoMAS G. Newman, Publisher. 



Honey Markets. 



^ We have received a Postal Order from 
Shanon, Wis., in an envelope containing 
nothing else. We do not know from whom it 
came, nor for what it was intei'.ded. Will 
some one inform us? 



CHICAGO.— Choice white comb honey, 28 
@30c ; fair to good, 24(a)28c. Extracted, 
choice wliite, 14(i;t'l(5c ; fair to good, 10@12c ; 
strained, 8(«j10c. 

CINCINNATI.— Quotations from Chas. F. 
Muth, 970 Central Ave. 

Comb lioney, 15@3.5c, according to the con- 
dition of the iioney and the size of the box or 
frame. Extracted clioice white clover honey, 
IGc. ~<^ lb. 

ST. LOUIS.— Quotations from W. G. Smith 
419 North Main st. 

Choice wliite comb, 2.5@'29c ; fair to good, 
16(a)22c. Extracted choice white clover, 16@ 
18c. Choice basswood honey, 14@lfic ; fair 
to good, extracted, 8@12c ; strained, 6@10c. 

NEW YORK.— Quotations from E. A. Wal- 
ker. 135 Oakland st., Greenport, L. I. 

White^ honey in small glass boxes, 2.5c ; 
dark 15(a2()c. Strained honey, 8@12c. Cnbaa 
honev. $1.00 ^ gal. St. Domingo, and Mexi- 
an, 96@95 -^ gal. 

SAN FRANCISCO. — Quotations from 
Sterns aiiid Smith, 42S Front st. 

Southern Coast Honey is coming in very 
freely, and the crop will be very large. j 
AVe are selling comb in two pound tins, two * 
dozen in a case, for shipping at $3.75 per 
dozen. Sold mostly for the Mantaua and 
Idaho trade. Strained honey, in 5 gallon 
coal oil tins, 8 and 10 cents TJ^ft. We have 
sold several lbs. of clioice Montana strain- 
ed at 11 cents. Comb honey in frames 
14 @ 22 cents, according to quality. 



Books for Bee-Keepers may be obtained a$ 

this office. 

Not one letter in ten tiiousand is lost by 
mail if rightly directed. 

Single copies of the American Bee Joub- 
NAL are wortli 20 cents each. 

Upon the wrapper of every copy of the 
JounNAi> will be found tiie date at which 
subscriptions expire. 

Any numbers that fail to reach subscribers 
by fault of mail, we are at all times ready to 
send, on application, free of charge. 

The Gorman Bee-Sting Cure can be obtain- 
ed at this oHice. Sent bv Express for $1.00. 
It cannot be sent by maif. See notice. 

Our subscribers in Europe, can noir procure 
Postal Money Orders on Cliicago. This plan 
of sending money is safe and economical. 

Frank Seables, Iladley, Will Co , Ills.. 
has 50 swarms of itulian Bees which he will 
sell for??8.00 each, in any amount, if seut for 
soon. 

Subscribers wishing to change tlieir post- 
oftioe address, sliouid mention tiieir old ad- 
dress, as well a.s the one to whicli tiiey wish 
it changed. 

Persons writing to this office should either 
write their Name, I'ost-office. Ccmuty and 
State i)lainly, or else cut otf the label from 
the wrapper of their paper aaid eaciose iL 



American Bee Journal 

DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO BEE CULTURE. 



Vol. X. CEDAR RAPIDS, SEPTEMBER, 1874. No. 9. 



4<^m$iion(U}Wf 



Correspondents should write only on one side of 
the sheet. Their best thoutrhts and practical ideas are 
ahvajs welcome ; no matter how rough, we will cheer- 
fully "fix them up." 



For the American Bee Journal. 



Spring Dwindling. 



You may possibly tiiid the following 
Mortli a place in your pajter : 

Much has been said about the dwindling 
down of bees this spring. I have observed 
the same phenomen without finding the 
solution. I wintered 20 stocks of Italians 
on summer stands. 3 stocks died in Feb- 
ruary with sutficient honey. The balance 
or 26 stocks remained good and lively. I 
made in May and June 17 new swarms, but 
the bees would not increase much. Many 
stocks even seemed to dwindle down in 
June, when I found one day that a tly of a 
peculiar long form, caught and sucked my 
l)ees. Becoming awake to the subject I 
found many such bee-killers, who were 
very greedy on the poor bees. No book or 
journal speoks of them. At last, I found a 
description of them in Prof. C. V. Riley's 
Second Annual Missouri Report, page 121; 
all three species are there described. I found 
and killed a large number. At first I found 
watching on grass, Evaux Barbardi and no 
other. After that disappeared, a similar 
fly Asileus Seriieus and then as less Mis- 
souriensis appeared. The latter two I found 
in large numbers on buckwheat and wild 
flowers. They abound at this day, although 
I catch with an insect net as many as pos- 
sible, often 50 in an hour. I am sure these 
creatures have killed over 100,000 of my 
bees, and I am convinced, that there is no 
other bee enemy to be compared with these 
flies. The swallow's seem to be fond of 
them, also other birds. This fly will des- 
troy a bee in five minutes. They pounce 
upon them while alighting on grass or 
flowers, holding them helpless with their 
long feet, and inserting their short but 
pointed proboscis into their chest, they droi) 
witli them to the lower part of the stem of 
a plant and sucking a little while, let their 



victims fall to catch another. Bee-keepers 
should be awake, as there is no doubt, but 
this insect retards the progress of hives more 
than anything else. The flies are from \ 
to li inches long, with a long pointed ab- 
domen, marked with light colored wings. 
Wings transparent, color from yellow to 
brown. Feet long, strong and hairy. Pro- 
boscis (the sucking apparatus) strong, short 
and pointed. I give tliis rough descrip- 
tion to enable every bee-keeper to recognize 
them quick. They fly with a short deep 
"hum" almost like a bee's hum, only short- 
er and deeper in tone. 

Bee-keepers should report on this Insect. 

Sigel, 111. Chas. Some. 



For the American Bee Journal. 



Some New Thing. 



This has been an unusual summer for 
swarming. Notwithstanding! commenced 
early dividing them. When the swarming 
season came on, they went into swarming 
in real earnest. At first I accommodated 
them with new homes, and gave each swarm 
a frame filled with brood. All went on well 
but still they continued to swarm. I then 
came to the conclusion, as the basswood 
harvest was just approaching, there must 
be something done to keep them together, 
or lose our favorite supply of surplus honey ; 
so I commenced cutting out the queen cells 
from the parent hives, but almost invaria- 
bly failed in keeping them together. The 
following day, out they would come and 
continued day after day to come out. Fi- 
nally I concluded to try an experiment some- 
thing entirely new to me, but perhaps not 
new to our old experienced bee-keepers. 
As they refused to accept their old homes, 
I put them in an emjity hive, setting them a 
proper distance from their first location, 
then proceeded to take out the frames with 
adhering bees; examining closely I removed 
all the queen cells, adding them to the new 
swarms, I had no more trouble with them 
coming out. Instead of putting the new 
with the old, I put the old with the new, 
having tried the above experiment on some 
8 or 10, I consider it a success. 

The early part of the honey season was 
poor, the white clover proved a failure. Up 



^f!f 



IHiL AiliJiiULAliJ BLE JULII.nAi.. 



to the beginning of basswood bloom tliey 
scarcely gathered honey enough to supply 
the young bees. There was an unusual 
crop of basswood bloom, which began to 
open about the 1st of July and lasted until 
the 15th. During that time the little fel- 
lows put in full time. I never knew bees 
to store up such an amount of honey in as 
short space of time. The hives now are filled 
to their utmost capacitor, with the exception 
of the comb occupied with brood, leaving 
no place for the queens to propagate their 
eggs. I have thrown the honey out of 16 
frames, wlrich amounted to 65 pounds, sold 
in the city of Adrian at 18 cents per Iti. I 
shall use the extractor sparingly, in order 
to keep them working in the boxes as much 
as possible. I have now 59 colonies. I 
calculate I could extract 1500 pounds at this 
time. I use the Barker & Dicer improved 
hives with sectional honey boxes. These 
boxes will stand at par with any I ever 
used. They can be safely shipped to any 
part without sustaining the least injury; the 
retailer can separate each section without 
injuring the honey, by cutting the paper at 
each dsvision of tlie section; each section 
contains from 2i to 3 lbs. and when placed 
upon the table it cannot fail to please the 
eye as well as the taste. 

Samuel Porter. 
Lenawe Co., Mich. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

The Sale of Honey. 

Mr. Editor: — The burden upon my mind 
at the present time is, the great disparity be- 
tween the price obtained by our honey-pro- 
ducing fraternity for their product and the 
price paid by the consumer. Large honey 
houses in Cliicago (for instance) buy up the 
honey in bulk at 16 cents per lb. for ex- 
tracted and 25 to 30 cents for comb. Here 
it is put up in appropriate packages and 
shipped away again to wholesale dealers in 
other towns, who in turn distribute to smal- 
ler wholesale dealers and retailers. I pre- 
sume there are none of these middle men 
handling honey for fun, but each one must 
make his profit, and the consumer pays from 
30 to 40 cents per lb for extracted and, 
from 40 to 50 cents for comb. Now the 
question arises, is it necessary for the pro- 
ducer to pay so many shipping bills. I 
have not found it so in my experience. I 
put my honey up in attractive style for re- 
tailing and deliver it direct to retail dealers 
who sell it for me and retain 10 per cent of 
sales for their service. I use the square 
lioney-jar made for the purpose. The smal- 
lest packages sell most readily. 

My honey has netted over 30 cents per It) 
for extracted and 40 cents for comb for the 
last four years. 

Cheviot, O. M. Nevins. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Report of my Apiary. 

Editor Bee Journal : — I congratulate 
you upon the consolidation of the two 
great Bee periodicals of America. "Long 
may it wave," is the worst wish I have for 
it. I cannot get along without it. 

We are having a good honey season 
here ; the best we have had since I have 
kept bees, (which has only been about 4 
years) but I am not gomg to derive much 
benefit from it, for I have neglected my bees 
shamefully all summer. I extracted over 
300 lbs. on July 21st from 8 colonies of 
black bees most of whom had cast 2 or 3 
natural swarms. I have now 19 colonies, 
which will all be in condition for winter 
before the end of this month, if all goes 
well with them. I put 12 colonies in a 
clamp last fall and succeeded in wintering 
them all through, but lost two in " spring- 
ing," and two others were so near gone 
they will have to be helped in order to 
make them fit for winter ; so that I had 8 
medium stocks to commence with. I shall 
try to do better next year. 

Nelson, Pa. John Atkinson. 

For tlie American Bee Journal. 

New Method of Wintering. 

Dear Edit(jr: — I noticed in j'our July 
number remarks upon a new method of win- 
tering bees, by Mr. Bidwell, given to the 
Michigan Bee-Keepers' Convention, I be- 
lieve. The manner of wintering is not 
given, and that is what calls me out to write 
this article. If Mr. Bidwell has a plan for 
the safe wintering of bees, he is entitled to 
as much honor as Langstroth has enjoyed, 
in giving to the public the moveable frame. 

There is nothing so puzzles the bee- 
keeper as the successful wintering of his 
bees, seventy-five per cent, of the losses 
arising from the want of that knowledge. 
Any man that can show the bee-keeping 
fraternity a safe method of doing so, is a 
public benefactor, and should not hide the 
knowledge of the same from us. I do not 
charge that Mr. B. desires or is doing such 
a thing; nor do I expect the information 
gratis, if Mr. Bidwell does not wish to 
give bee-keepers the same. I would 
like to know liis address, that I might buy 
the right. One of these two things Mr. 15. 
should do: Either to give the public, 
through your journal, his mode of winter- 
ing, in season for a trial the coming winter, 
or let us know, through your columns, 
what will be the price of it. I will be will- 
ing to pay liberally for it. If this catches 
Mr. B.'s eye, I hope he will allow me to 
know his address, or that you will furnish 
it if you can, that I may correspond witli 
him. If he or you will do so, lilia'lbe 



TUi]' AMJ<]lUUAi\ BKhl JOLOAL. 



ttt: 



I more than grateful. It seemed to be no 
secret to many present at the convention, 
and you could not tind the subjei-'t that 
would he more valuable to your subscribers 
than to get Mr. Eidwcll to give through the 
columns of the Ameiiic.vn Bkk JouiiNALhis 
mode of wintering bees. Please give tliis 
more than a passing notice, and oblige, 

C. D. HiBKAUO. 



Chips. 

Mr. Editor: — 'Tis hot; it's more 'n hot ! 
While the haysoeders are doing their stack- 
ing and rosting, and while my bees are 
pumping the buckwheat and sap blossoms 
dry, I'm sitting in the coolest part of the 
house, and enjoying and admiring the in- 
dustry of Nature's creatures. How grand 
it is to contemplate how everything is sub- 
ject to our will ! We are the cap-stone of 
all creatures — all are beneath us ! The 
faithful horse does our drudgery; the cow 
gives us nourishment, and when her milk 
ceases to flow in sufficient quantities, she 
bows her head for the fatal blow, after 
which we consume her very hide and hair ! 
The tireless bee furnishes us with that 
sweet luxury with which we are so well 
acquainted. And the Granger, in his meek- 
ness, provides us with the toping-out varie- 
ty. Oh, how everything is adapted to our 
wants ! especially if we have lots of the 
"filthy lucre" to get what we want; which 
I haven't. 

While in this cheery mood, I would like 
to run over the images of the "Old Reliable" 
and stick in a few words right and left; 
and as Bro. Gallup likes to hear the opin- 
ion of baby bee-keepers or novices, this is 
written for his especial benefit. 

CAN BEES EAT FRUIT ? 

It is often asserted by some of the best 
apiarists that bees cannot cut the skin of 
grapes, &c. Now, if they can gnaw the 
edge oft' of wood, and eat large holes 
through building paper, and cut through 
strong cotton cloth, and all this I have seen 
them do. Why can they not as well cut 
the skin of fruit, if they wish ? But the 
trouble is, I don't believe they have a mind 
to; they want direct access to the juice. 
They will suck corn-stalks, raellous — in 
short, everything that is sweet; but they 
will not dig for it. 

C.VN OLD BEES BUILD COMB AND NURSE BROOD? 

In the American Bee Journal "Adair" 
saj^s old bees won't build comb or nurse 
brood. I don't know about the brood, but 
I've seen them build comb. I saw a hand- 
full of bees last week (Aug. 5,) that came 
through the winter queenless, and they had 
a piece of comb built as large as my hand. 

WHAT KILLED TIIE BEES? 

Mr. Gallup, as I expected, attributes my 



loss of bees to the extractor. Perhaps he 
is right; but then one of my neighbors lost 
as many — all lie liad — and had never seen 
an extractor; didn't know one from a saw- 
mill; he kept his bees in a similar winter 
quarter as mine. To nie, now, it would 
have been a wonder had tliey lived; it was 
as cold where I hwj tliem as it was 
out of doors, and occasionally warming 
them up did the work of destruction com- 
pletely ! 

MODEIi BEE MANAGEMENT. 

I think it cannot be long since that "H. 
R.," with my "Management of Bees," ever 
saw the first bee journ.d, for it does seem if 
he had, he would not mention his hives 
stuck up on posts, and these wound about 
with cotton to keep oft" tlie ants — perhaps a 
balloon attaclied to each hive to suspend it 
in mid air, would be quite an improvement 
on his plan. We don't intend to secure a 
patent on this, so that that progressive(?) 
bee-keeper may use it if he likes. He still 
keeps box-hives and considers natural 
swarming best. Well, no wonder his arti- 
cle reads as if it had l>een written twenty- 
five years ago. Forty to fifty dollars' worth 
of honey from a single stand ! Well, that 
explains the value of his management. Why, 
I could get that, if my 1;ees were in the car- 
cass of a lion, as we read about, provided 
they followed the ribs in comb-building, 
and these same ribs were arranged to take 
out, so I could swarm artificially — but read 
the article and learn ! 

DO ANTS ROB TICE BEES ? 

Mr. Arga says; "Ants don't steal honey 
out of the hives." Now, tliat's strange; 
for they will steal it wherever else tiiey can 
get it, and I have an opinion that they make 
no sci'uples stealing it from those that give 
them shelter and warmth. 

WILL HONEY CRYSTALIZE IN THE DARK. 

On page 178 there are a few words, writ- 
ten b> I don't know v.i.o, to the eflect that 
it Avill not. Wonder how the "tarnal light" 
goes into cellars and insiJe of a honey-tight 
cask; for witli me it will crystalize in this 
condition. But perhaps it wasn't dark 
enough ; so I would advise bee-keejiers when 
they think they have their honey in a suffi- 
ciently dark place to keep it from crystal- 
izing, to make it a little dci.rker ! 

A GREAT DISCOVERY ! ! ! 

Mrs. Tupper says: "Salt thrown into 
water will keep it sweet." If so, why not 
feed our bees with salt water, instead of 
sugar-syrups? But hold on, "Notice" — or 
any other man ! I made the discovery, al- 
though ]\Irs. T-. may have spoken of it; but 
I made the application a'nove mentioned — 
so keep your hands ott\ To make sugar, 
all we have to do is to sweeten water with 
salt, boil it down, and you will get as nice 



i JU 



1 liih AiUiijiiiL/iii'i — nTTTr-TnTnTTTxrn: 



a sugar as you ever saw; for salt is so clear 
and white, you know. AVheu this discov- 
ery is generally known, salt will be worth 
something. 

HOW DO YOU LIKE IT? 

How do you like to hold up a frame for 
inspection, with a bunch of black bees 
dangling on the bottom, so you can't set it 
down witliout crushing about fifty; how 
do you like to have a bee come at this 
critical moment and plant you one between 
the fingers V I don't appreciate this sacri- 
fice of the "busy bee ! " If I had been 
brought up in a Christian community, under 
these circumstances, I think I would swear. 

Mr. Editor, there is no use trying to 
white-wash these honey-merchants ; you 
can't get around their actions, "nohow." 
bay Perriue did do the fair thing with 
some; he even paid two of my neighbors 
5 per cent, interest on the money not sent 
on time, but that don't help my case in the 
least. I think I and Mr. Bird had better 
light our lanterns, and, like Diogenes, hunt 
for an honest honey-merchant. 

Yours, J. D. Kkuschke. 

Berlin, Wis., Aug. 18. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Scraps. 

The old "American Bee Journal" 
since it lost its founder and head, the late 
Samuel Wagner, has been moving around 
considerably, though it has been in good 
and faithful hands. And now as it has 
"gobbled up" another journal we can say 
good bye to the "National," but we 
hav'nt lost it, though it has uuirried and 
changed its name. / like the change first 
rate and wish success to tJie new order of 
things. 

Friend Argo says his cliickens will pick 
worms off the bottom board and not touch 
any bees. I think ours can beat that, for 
besides getting what few moths there are, 
they will go uo to a cluster of bees and 
pick out the flies and drones by the half- 
hour, and I never saw but one take a work- 
er and he dropped it and looked as though 
he had made a mistake and was sorry for 
it. Plow will that compare witli king 
birds ? 

To the advice to "keep bees" I would 
add keep chickens, set your hives up from 
the ground and snap your fingers at moths. 

Friend Hester says: "I have had no 
experience with these large single story 
hives," and, "I should think it would also 
be quite diflicult to contract the space with- 
in them to suit a small stock, or to winter 
oven a full stock." AVe use the Langstroth 
frame, Adair size, IG and 20 frames to the 
hive, and find them to work well. We had 
but one strong stock in the spring, a 20 
frame hive. Made one new stock, bought 



5 light ones, and built them all up mostly 
from the big stocks, and have extracted 34 
lbs. of honey besides. The hive has al- 
ways been full of brood, at least 16 out of 
the 20 frames, and is now very strong, 
enough bees and brood for two good 
swarms. 

As to using them for light stocks, that is 
easy enough ; just put in a division board, 
or two of them, and give them room as fast 
as they require it. I transferred a light 
stock from box hive to 16 frame hive ; 
could get but five frames of comb out of it 
for them ; put in the division board and 
now tliey are a good strong swarm. 

In wintering you can put the swarm in 
the centre of the hive, with a board or wire 
division on each side and pack the two 
ends with clean straw, or shavings which 
will absorb the moisture and keep the bees 
dry and warm. 

in the old directions for transferring it 
was always stated to put the brood the 
same side up as in the old hive. All of us 
"Novices " thought it was all law and 
gospel and so took special pains to do it. 

We have a glass fish tank and the bees 
gather around it by hundreds to get the 
dripping water. While looking at the fish 
we noticed one bee who did'nt seem to care 
about the ills of life, for she had a big hole 
stove in on one side as large as a pin head, 
the scale sticking out at right angles. The 
said bee came after a load of water 4 or 5 
times in an hour, and we uoticed her for 
several days. How is that for presever- 
ance under difficulties ? 

A writer in the National some time ago, 
said in regard to the qualities of Black and 
Italian drones : "Don't be afraid of black 
drones, but let them fly if any should be 
out at this time. Your Italian drones know 
what is up. You will then have an oppor- 
tunity to test the superiority of Italian 
drones over black ones. You will also no- 
tice that if there are any black queens fly- 
ing at this time in your neighborhood, 
there will be a majority of them fertilized 
by Italian drones." 

Your Italian drones know what is up ! 
Yes, they do, "in a horn." I made three 
new stocks for a friend, and one of his old 
stocks raised a new queen. They had hun- 
dreds of Italian drones, eleven swarms in 
all. About a fourth of a mile from them 
are four of the insignificant black stocks, 
while in difl'erent parts of the town are 
about 40 stocks of Italians, and uo other 
blacks within a mile. Three out of the 
four new queens mated with black drones, 
and one or two others that I know of. One 
of the black stock swarmed, and the new 
queen in the old hive mated with a black 
drone; — four bhick stocks against over 40 
Italians. Superior fiddlesticks ! 

Oneida, 111. W. M. Kellogg. 



THE AMi:Kit'AiN BblK JUUilNAL. 



-rw 



For the American Bee .Tourniil. 

Wintering Bees. 

Ou the 31st of OctoluT last your, I put in 
my cellar, 12 stands of bees ; and before the 
loth of November 120 stands. The cellar 
is lGx'24, and dry. I took from 50 stands 
from one to live frames each. So ten or 
twelve swarms had only 3 frames left. 
The 50 hives had three to seven frames in 
each. All are 8 frame hives. I took them 
from the cellar ^larch 17 and 18th, and of 
the 120 hives but two swarms were dead. 
I afterward lost G more, by being qiteen- 
less. jNIy bees were never in better con- 
dition than last spring. I saw little dif- 
ference between those from which I took 
the frames and, those I did not. I would 
not recommend the removal of more than 
two frames, and think that beneficial. 

When swarming began, I had 98 swarms, 
which I inc:reased by natural and artiticial 
swarming to 175. I lost several swarms 
which went to the woods. Swarming 
closed July 1st. I took with the extractor 
G,OUU pounds of honey in two weeks, all of 
which was linden or basswood. Have on 
hand 8,000 lbs. >• The crop was cut short by 
not less than 10,000 lbs. 

Of all honey plants I have tried, the Mel- 
iott Clover is the best. The drouth does 
not aftect its product of honey. I shall 
have ten acres in bloom next year. Seven 
years experience teaches me that it pays 
to have plenty of artiticial pasture. 

My lowest average hive, was 40 lbs. per 
Mve old and young, the highest 80 lbs. I 
think the proper average should be 50 to 
75 lbs. each. 

j\Iy bees wintered so well in the cellar, 
I have enlarged the cellar to 24x58. and 7 
feet high, and shall try it again. 

R. Miller. 

Campton, Lee Co., 111. 



For the American Bee Jourual. 

My Report. 

We are having an uncommon good run of 
basswood honey this season. In fact honey 
has been too plenty for those not having 
extractors. I have been moving about 
with mine pretty lively for the past week, 
and the experience I have liad among my 
neighbors I think would convince the most 
skeptical of the usefulness of the extractor, 
as I have found stock after stock without 
an egg or young grub in the hive and every 
cell full of honey, except a very little cap- 
ped brood. I would like to ask some of 
those who do not believe there is any use 
in the extractor, what they would do in 
that case without it ? It is no use to give 
them empty frames, for as fast as a cell is 
built and sufficiently lengthened out to con- 
tain a drop of honey it is filled, and some 



hives that I nearly emptied last Saturday 
(five days ago) were filled again so quick 
that the ((ueen did not get in a patch of 
eggs as big as my hand. So much for 
Michigan. Now a word for the moth. 

My advice to those that raise such a "hue 
and cry" about the moth, is to get a 
mechanic to make their hives. I do not 
mean a man that lias jack-plane and scratch 
awl and calls himself a joiner, but a man 
tliat can and will fit two iiieces of board to- 
gether so that tiie worms cannot build a 
nest between them. Then let your stocks 
be either strong or weak and you will have 
no trouble with worms. I have thirteen 
stocks of bees and I do not think I have 
found to exceed three or four moth worms 
about the hives this season, and only one 
inside the hive at that. The only secret 
there is in it is this : I make my hives so 
that there is no crack or crevice in them 
where a worm can hide, and the bees keep 
them out. Now all you unbelievers come 
and see for yourselves. But perhaps you 
will think as the negro told the Irishman 
wnen he asked what made him so black : 
"I'ts the climate." Not so, my friends, 
for my neighbors have the same climate 
that I have and some of them have plenty 
of moth-worms in their hives. They buy 
cheap hives. 

I very often see advertisements of patent 
hives with moth-trap attachments, etc. 
Please let me give my experience with a 
Buckeye hive ; moth trap and all. Last 
month in the natural course of events there 
fell into my hands a stock of bees in a 
Buckeye hive, and also an empty hive of 
the same sort. Two or three days after I 
got them home they swarmed, and not 
having anything else handy, I hived them 
in the empty Buckeye hive (after inserting 
a couple of cards of comb from the other 
hive) ; and to save speculation I might as 
well remark that I saw the queen safely on 
a card of comb, and then closed the hive. 
They appeared to go to work all right but 
in about 8 or 10 days they swarmed out. 
I opened the hive and found they had 
made but very little comb, and that all 
drone comb. There was not an egg in the 
hive — pretty good evidence that they had 
raised a young queen. Now the question 
was what had become of the old queen. 
Time will show. I cut out the queen-cells 
and hived them back again and the first 
spare time I had I made a hive and trans- 
ferred them, when I found that the young 
queen and the swarm were in the body of 
the hive, while the old queen and a little 
handful of bees were down in the moth 
trap ! 

That was the reason they raised a young 
queen and swarmed out, by my not ex- 
pecting any such thing and cutting the 
queen cells out. 



200 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



If the traps will not catch Millers, they 
will sometimes catch queens, so buy one 
by all means of the first pedlar that comes 
along. H. P. Gallup. 

Medina, Mich. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

How One Man Got Rid of his Drones. 

Mrs. Tupper : — Your valuable favor of 
the 8th inst., to hand. The bees reached 
their home on the evening of the 23rd, in 
apparent good condition. The next day I 
noticed some dead ones at the entrance, 
■which I removed frequently during the 
day with a small wire. Prompted by curi- 
osity and with the hope of relieving the 
labor of the bees in bringing their dead to 
the door, I opened the hive in the evening, 
lifted all the frames out, brushed out and 
gave the box a good clensing, returned the 
frames and be^s without offending a single 
bee so far as I knew. I think about half 
the colony were dead —say one pint. 

From book information, I concluded 
there was a surplus of drones in the colony. 
How to get rid of them was the question. 
Drone catchers were patented and what 
could I do. The laborers were working 
finely but the surplus of gentlemen of ele- 
gant leisure was annoying. With a small 
bit of paste-board, with a notch one-eighth 
by three inches long placed over the en- 
trance, settled the question speedily. The 
laborers could enter but the drones could 
not. A little squeeze on the head settled 
the business for them, and to all appear- 
ances the colony is doing well. Several of 
my neighbors want bees and the Journal, 
but are a little demoralized by the delay of 
our jailroad up the Platte, and think they 
must wait another year. 

D. Hausbaugh, 

South Platte, Colorado. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Wintering Observations. 

It has been some time since I have felt 
like writing to the Bee Journal but now 
that my bees have done well, I am encour- 
aged to take up the pen again and give my 
experience and observations that they may 
possibly be of benefit to brother bee-keep- 
ers. Trusting that the wintering question 
will receive the fullest discussion before an- 
other winter comes down upon us with its 
uncertainties and disastrous results. 

I put twenty-six swarms in the cellar 
November 21st, all except two supplied 
with natural stores, and nearly all strong 
swarms. Now, as Mr. Quinby, on page 
106, desires to compare notes in relation to 
temperature, here are a few facts gleaned 
from personal observation. The portion 



of the cellar in which the bees were stored 
was near an outside door, and though bank- 
ed with straw, during our severest cold the 
temperature fell two degrees below the 
freezing point. A few days after, the tem- 
perature arose to 40 ° , and two swarms, 
one of them upon which all early honey 
had been extracted leaving fall honey ex- 
clusively, showed signs of dysentery. The 
latter swarm was very large and vigorous, 
occupying a three-foot hive with Adair size 
of frame. We had several of these cold 
snaps and every time the temperature arose 
dysentery was developed more and more 
virulent in the large swarms. Until being 
set upon their summer stand the remainder 
smeared their combs and themselves in a 
fearful manner and froze up solid. Now, 
was it the honey or the cold, or a little of 
both that accomplished the ruin of this 
swarm ? All of the rest wintered well 
whether fed on syrup or natural stores. 

On the 10th of March they were set upon 
their summer stands. A careful examina- 
tion showed no sealed broods except in a 
very few hives. The queens had apparant- 
ly just commenced to lay. In two days af- 
ter setting them out the weather changed 
and a cold spell intervened. Upon the next 
warm day an examination showed no seal- 
ed brood but the queens had just com- 
menced to lay, the first eggs of the ten days 
previous being destroyed. Three times we 
made these examinations through the 
months of March and April with like re- 
sults, no brood rearing and all the while a 
constant dimunition of old bees, and event- 
ually the swarming out fever left me, by 
the middle of May, with only six swarms 
out of twenty-six, and only two of these 
were strong. These had sealed brood 
when set upon their summer stands. 

With the temperature of the cellar at 40 ° 
or 45 ° the bees were very quiet — about 
45 ° would be my " standard." 

During the past winter bees wintered 
upon their summer stands and were in better 
condition than those that were housed. I 
have also observed that during the past 
three severe winters, bees wintered in a 
neighboring village where the hives were 
entirely surrounded by buildings, and came 
through in the very best condition. 

Now having lost heavily and observed 
closely, let us see if there was not a remedy, 
if it had been applied in time. Fine food 
and an even temperature of 45 ° would 
have banished dyscutary. They would not 
have dwindled down in the spring if each 
swarm had been examined and not set out 
until each had capped brood. This could 
have been obtained by feeding syrup and 
supplying pollen. And here let me suggest 
the experiment of feeding rye meal late in 
the fall. Will bees work upon it at that 
time? If they would, a supply might be 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 



201 



stored and reserved imlil spring. 

While extriicting we often observe that 
cells of certain con\hs are about two-thirds 
tilled with pollen while the other third is 
filled with lioney and capped over. This 
was evidently put up for spring use. The 
honey being put in with it for its better 
preservation. We all know that pollen 
moulds very easily. Can we not learn 
something from this fact also? Several 
combs containing pollen could be preserved 
in honey. And we want to know what 
would give the queen the laying fever in the 
spring more readily than the insertion of a 
frame of pollen dripping with honey. 

We trust these facts will receive due at- 
tention during the coming fall. 

" Scientific." 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Chips from Sweet Home. 

Dear Editor : — Ten years ago we be- 
came interested in bees by taking orders 
for the Thomas Hive. We handled bees 
some for six years and four years ago 
Palmer Bro's made a special business of 
them for two years, then we dissolved 
partnership and I bought Sweet Home. In 
the winter of '72 and '78 I lost all (54 hives) 
the bees I had. Of some 700 or 800 hives be- 
tween New Boston and Muscatine (20 miles) 
only about 15 or 20 were alive in the spring, 
and last winter took the most of them to 
parts unknown. In the spring of '73 two 
neighbors and I bought 96 hives in Ken- 
tucky, I shipped them 80 miles by rail and 
about 600 miles by boat. I increased my 
share (4<t) to 95 hives, this spring had 85 
living. I now have (July 10,) 67 hives, am 
running them for extracted and box honey. 
I use Longstroth and Thomas Hives, am 29 
years old, weigh 140 lbs., have a library of 
books and geological specimens, have an 
observing hive in the parlor, the bees pass 
out and in through the wall, all the work- 
ings of the once mysterious hive can be 
seen by lamp-light or sun; it consists of one 
comb and glass on each side. Our apiary 
is shaded by a natural grove. Our Sweet 
Home Honey Slinger consists of a station- 
ary tub w^ith handles and a faucet at the 
side or the bottom, and a revolving frame 
which is run by fanning mill gearing, it is 
much better than a revolvahle can. W^e 
carry our combs to and from the hives in a 
rectangular frame supported by four legs 
which are long enough to keep the frames 
from the ground; the frame is carried in 
front of the peason by grasping the two 
end pieces; the combs are so placed in the 
frames that the ends are to and from us. 
If robbers are plenty we jar it as we enter 
the honey-room, and if a few follow us in 
they fly to the windows, which are made 
revolvahle, so that a Jiip puts them outside. 



now WK SAVE COMBS FltOM THE MOTU. 

The roe just mentioned consists of my« 
self and a blue-eyed boy of 21 months old, 
we two complete Uie i'aniily of Sweet Home. 
We have had a great amount of good comb 
destroyed by moths. We tried limestone, 
and last season we hung them on poles iu 
the shade ; the wind blew them down, 
damaging them, hut now we have them 
safe at last in our cellar, which is 20x24 
feet, having a chimney in the center with 
a draft-hole at tlie base which is continu- 
ally drawing the damp bottom air out ; al- 
so 2 windows on each side covered now 
with fine wire-cloth. Last spring we put 
our combs (enough for a hundred hives) ia 
there, soon we found the moth eggs hatch- 
ing, it being cold in the cellar the worms 
nestled closely together and we readily fed 
them to our poultry ; but some few were 
overlooked and are coming out winged 
moths and are seen to fiy to the windows 
where I am certain to put my fingers on 
them. My bee-shirts I have made as oth- 
ers except buttons a little closer on the 
bosom and elastic in the waist-bands. 

While on a visit to Dadant & Son., of 
Hamilton, 111., I became very much in favor 
of using the black-board instead of a book 
as I had formerly been doing ; but seeing 
C. P. Dadant use a slate pencil, I thought 
why could not slates be used instead of 
boards, I accordingly procured a few 
school slates from which I took the frames 
and cut them in pieces of 2^x3 inches bore- 
ing a hole in the middle of one end and 
hung them on nails, these slates cost me a 
little over a cent apiece and the cutting is 
readily done by any sharp instrument and 
a straight-edge. They are cheap, durable, 
writing-lasting, and always just where we 
want them. 

Mercer Co., 111. D. D. Palmer. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

My Experience. 

I have just noticed Mr. C. Hester's "Ran- 
dom Notes" in the June number of the 
National Bee Joitrnal, as we live only 
eight miles apart, I will give you my mode 
of operating with my bees last winter, my 
success this season &c., &c. I have no 
cellar to winter in, consequently I winter as 
you may say out of doors, it's true I have 
them under a shed, and protected from the 
north and west winds. I went into win- 
ter quarters last winter with 14 colonies, at 
the time I put them up, there was not one 
pound of honey iu the 14 stocks. I fed 
them sugar syrup, made precisely as Judge 
Hester did his and fed them in like man- 
ner, by pouring in the empty combs, but I 
fed mine at intervals through the winter, 
that is on warm days. I (>ame through the 
winter with 10 stocks losing four, which I 



202 



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAI-. 



am confident starved, not giving them syrup 
sufficient. My stocks came through in a 
very weak condition,, the spring being very 
cold and backward they did not get to 
breeding until late, but after the weather 
did begin to get warm, their increase was 
more rapid than I ever experienced before. 
Seven of the ten is all I have extracted any 
honey from during the season, that being 
so nearly gone, it was all they could do to 
keep or get up the strength of the colony 
to make one divide from. I use the double 
Langstroth hive, and from the upper stories 
of the seven stocks I have extracted four 
hundred and fifty lbs. of honey this season, 
the lower stories contain sutficient honey 
to winter them through. I have divided to 
eighteen this season. I will try wintering 
ou their own honey and' if I do not have 
success hereafter I will try Judge Hester's 
plan, extract all and feed syrup. I must 
state how I saved one of my pet stocks af- 
ter I placed them on summer stand. I 
went out one warm morning about the 20th 
of April, I noticed the bees just able to 
crawl from the front entrance of the hive. 
I immediately opened the house and found 
the bees on the cards just able to move and 
the queen on the bottom of the hive as I 
thought dead. I immediately got some 
syrup and on examining closely, found my 
queen with some life yet. I placed some 
syrup to her and she eat it. I sprinkled 
syrup over the mass of bees on the cards 
lightly. I then filled all the empty cards 
•with the same, and in one hour I examined 
again, found them quite lively, during the 
day they removed the syrup from the outer 
cards to the center and this summer that 
stock has made one divide and furnished 
me over 50 lbs. of honey ; in one half -hour 
longer the stock would have been gone. 
The reason of their consuming the syrup so 
fast was they were breeding rapidly. 

Jas. R. Wilcox. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Bee Notes. 

There seems to be a perfect dearth of 
honey ; no flowers, no honey-dew ; .nothing 
but pollen from corn tassels, and, what- 
ever it is, that bees get from fruit. Hives 
that contained honey a month ago, now 
have almost none. But for the cotton blos- 
som now unfolding,* bees would have to be 
fed, something the fogies never think of. 
Bees are doing nothing in boxes, and on 
inquiry find it to be a general thing ; a state 
of idle inactivity seems to reign through- 
out the neighboring apiaries. A good patch 
of Buckwheat and Alsike clover have been 
very much needed this year, and it be- 
hooves apiarians to see to it that the same 
state of afl'airs is not repeated next year. 
The golden bauds might succeed in finding 



honey, but our black bees have well nigh 
given up the game. For one, I am anxious 
to see an accurate drawing and description 
of your hive, and am mm anxious to know 
whetlier or not a different style and size of 
hive (than the one you use) is best for our 
long and hot summers and short winters. 
Dr. I. P. H. B., of Augusta, Ga., could give 
valuable information on this subject. Can't 
he be induced to give an article for this 
paper on "The proper size of Hives for the 
South." J hope so. 

S. C. Edgefip:ld. 



J. P. Moore, Binghampton, N. Y., says : 
I commenced tlie season of 1873 with sev- 
enteen stocks of bees, having lost four in 
the spring, and sold one. Ten were in fair 
condition by May 20 ; the other seven were 
much reduced, but by taking brood from 
strong ones, I was able to build up five of 
the weak ones by the time honey com- 
menced to yield. The other two I run for 
increase or surplus queens, and was able 
by breeding and using my four hives of 
empty combs, to increase the two to eight 
full stocks and five half stocks or nuclei. 
Two of the nuclei died in the winter, and 
the other three are very weak, (I prefer full 
stocks for winter), and raised ten surplus 
queens. The fifteen that the boxes were 
put ou were run entirely for box honey, 
without increase, as we have things so ar- 
ranged now that when we have got a hive 
filled with brood in time to put on boxes, 
we can have them put all their surplus in 
boxes, if the queen is prolific, without the 
trouble of handling the brood. 



Hints from Bee-Keepers. 

If several days of rainy weather should 
succeed a warm coming oft", they may die 
of famine, if timely relief of honey is not 
given them. — Wildman. 

Queens are not equally fruitful. While 
some breed slowly or not at all, others will 
speedily increase in prodigious numbei's. — 
Keys. 

No true lover of bees, I am persuaded, 
ever lighted the fatal match that was to 
destroy his little innocents with livid flames 
and a smoke that strikes them dead with 
its intolerable stench, without much con- 
cern and uneasiness. — White. .i 

It is commonly the practice to rub the 
sides of the hive with aromatic herbs, or a 
solution of salt, or other substance. But 
the most experienced bee-master deems this 
altogether unnecessary, as it can be attend- 
ed with no advantage whatever.— //acAer. 

Always have the cheerful rays ,of the 
morning sun fall upon your hives ; but 
contrive to throw a shade'^'irpou their front 
for a few hours in the middle of tlie day, 






±Jtlii AiVlJMVlL/iVlN JJJLJi JUUlViNAlj. 



iW5 



wlieii the ^veatlle^ is very hot. Such a 
shade will be grateful to your bees. — Nxttt. 

Bees e.\{>ress no more love for their keep- 
ers than for strangers, but they (the keep- 
ers) being used to them, with greater cou- 
lidence venture among them, while some 
(more fearful) beholding, fancy that the 
bees respect and love them more than 
strangers. — Purchase. 

Workers alone have the property of 
secreting wax. Scak's of it ranged in pairs 
are contained in minute recei)tacles under 
the lower segnu'uts of the abdomen. * * 
This substance is produced by a particular 
organ, after the nuuiner of other secre- 
tions. — Iluber. 



When Bee-Keeping don't Pay— 
What then? 

Hogs have been sold for less than value 
of corn fed in fattening. Cattle brought 
less than cost of raising. Poultry could be 
had for less than value of food fed them. 
Yet all required as much care as if sold at 
a profit. We would, however, think that 
farmer very unwise who would quit the 
raising of live stock or grain, because of 
low prices or severe winters. If the bee- 
keeping farmers would use as much pre- 
caution in preparing pasturage and shelter 
for their bees as they do for other live 
stock, I doubt not that a few years of ex- 
perience, backed with a comparative table 
of facts and figures, would convince them 
that bee-keeping would prove as remunera- 
tive as any business in which they are 
engaged. 

The man who expects a large crop of 
fine fruit each year, without pruning or 
cultivating his orchard ; he who hopes to 
harvest a heavy crop of wheat, corn, or 
oats, without properly plowing or pulveriz- 
ing the soil ; he who expects to cut a heavy 
swath of hay, every year, from a meadow 
he devotes half a year to pasturage ; and 
the bee-keeper who expects to get a large 
yield of honey without giving his bees any 
attention whatever — are all sure to be dis- 
appointed with their business, and will 
declare it don't pay. — Ex. 

For the American Bee JouriiRl. 

Successful Bee-Keeping. 

I came through the winter with all my 
colonies, 36 in number, most of which 
were in good condition. The spring open- 
ed favorably and my expectations were 
great, but about the 1st of April the rain 
set in, and I think my bees only worked 
two days during the whole month. I fed 
them occasionally, but nearly every queen 
ceased laying and all the hives killed their 
drones. 



Tlie rain ceased the 1st of May, and the 
poplar commenced blooming at the same 
time, but alas I my bees were not strong 
enough to bring in honey as I wished them 
to, but to make the best of what could not 
be helped I commenced doubling up, put- 
ting two and sometimes three colonies to- 
gether and so reduced n>y colonies to 22, 
leaving the queens and what bees adhered 
to one comb in the old hive with a division 
board on eac'h side. These I would give 
room as they increased, and have made 
strong colonies of them all. 

From the poplar I took 1('32 lbs. of ex- 
tracted honey which I thought doing pretty 
well, but when the sourwood bloomed the 
bees exceeded my highest expectations. 
From the sourwood I have taken 2004^ lbs. 
which makes a total of 8():J0i lbs. and 
have mcreased my bees to 0!) colonies all 
in good condition with honey enough to 
spare at least 5(i() lbs. which 1 will take as 
soon as the buckwheat commences to 
bloom. The sourwood makes the prettiest 
honey I ever saw ; when poured on the 
whitest letter paper, you can see no differ- 
.ence in the color of the paper and the 
honey. 

I tiiink this a splendid place for bees. I 
have lived here a little more than two 
years and am highly pleased, and right 
here I would say to any of our northern 
bee-keeping friends who think of emigrat- 
ing, that I don't think they could find a 
place more suitable. The woods are thick 
with poplar and sourwood besides other 
blooms in abundance. The water which 
is pure freestone cannot be exceeded any- 
where. The air is pure and consequently 
healthy and society as good as could be 
desired. Lands are cheap ranging from .5 
to 15 dollars per acre. AVe have in our 
midst a great many families who have 
moved here from the northern States, all 
of whom are well pleased. These families 
are all United Presbyterians, have built a 
large and comodious house for worship, 
have regular preaching and Sabbath 
school. 

We have other churches near by, Metho- 
dists, Missionary Baptists and Baptists, and 
within a few hours ride, Cumberland and 
other branches of Presbyterian churches, 
We have built and furnished a large two- 
story academy, which is now under Prof. 
John A. Ramsey of the Indiana State Uni- 
versity as principal. Tution has been put 
down to ihe lowest figures tmd no person 
could find a better place to educate their 
children. 

Any one desiring to learn more of our 
country can do so by addressing. Rev. J. 
W. Wait, Prof. J. A. Ramsey, or your 
humble servant, .1. F. IMoNTooArERY. 

Lincoln, Lincoln Co., Tenn. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Where the Linden grows. 

Dear Jouknal : Oue of your corres- 
poadents (R.H.M. I think), wishes to know 
uow far south the Linden grows. I am on 
the high ridge of land or " divide" between 
the liead-waters of the Guadalupe and the 
Piedronalis, about two thousand feet above 
the Gulf, iu lat. 30 deg. ; and a dwarf or 
mountain linden grows on all the creeks 
that flow from the " divide" into these two 
rivers. It lias never been seen any lower 
down than tiiis, that I know of. I sent to 
Michigan last March for 50 linden cuttings 
and set them out in San Antoniii (lat. 29, 
30 deg., and 750 ft. above the Gulf) and 
they all perished though I mulched them 
and kept them well watered. I think the 
season was too far advanced and intend 
trying some more this fall. The " divide " 
is a fine range for bees. I have known 
one person to have as many as 7 trees at 
one time, standing in the forest, which he 
had found by coursiug wild bees from 
water, and I obtained my dozen swarms to 
start with this spring for nothing. 

Texas. S. J. Newcomb. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Success in Wintering. Is it 
Attainable? 

Probably no other topic in connection 
with apiculture has of late been the subject 
of such extensive experiment and thorough 
investigation, as the one which heads our 
article. In view of the heavy losses which 
have been sustained by American apiaians 
during the past three years, the interroga- 
tion — Is success attainable ? — has become 
one of no small significance. We believe 
it requires no argument to convince any 
candid mind, that the cause of apiculture 
in our country must m\iterially sutt'er, un- 
less some method shall be devised that will 
insure more uniform success in " Winter 
Bee-Keepiug " than has been attained dur- 
ing the past few years. 'Tis true that we 
do not lack for theory to account for these 
losses in wintering, and demonstrate how 
the way henceforth be avoided. But the 
simple fact that many apiaries have again 
been deciinalecl by that fell destroyer, de- 
signated as the " bee disease," is sufficient 
evidence that there is yet abundant need of 
further investigation. 

Sugar syrup which was announced with 
such a llourisii of trumpets, as being the 
panacea, per se, for all our troubles, has 
been tried and found wanting. A uniform- 
ly warm tem])erature has done better, 
though not a specific for the " bee disease." 
And so of other theories ; none have prov- 
ed universally successful. 

Please tlou't infer from the above, that 



we intend to convey the impression that no 
one has succeeded. But we do say that in 
sections where the bee disease has prevail- 
ed many have failed, despite extra care and 
exertion to secure the conditions necessary 
to success. 

Really then, is success — complete uni- 
form success — attainable? We believe it 
is, 2^fovided the requisite conditions are 
complied with. But what are these condi- 
tions ? 

According to our best authorities, W'e 
might enumerate an abundance of whole- 
some food, prolific queens, young bees, 
empty comb in the brood nest, a uniform 
temperature of 40 degrees Farenheit, and 

well, " you know the rest." But are 

these all ? Let us see. Bees we are told 
are "natives of warm climate," where 
polar Masts and arctic's cold is unknown ; 
where their joyful, busy hum is heard 
alike in dreary January or bright July. 
Notwithstanding this fact, the honey bee 
has vied with man himself in manifesting 
qualities, characteristically cosmopolitan ; 
having with him become acclimated to 
many an uncongenial clime. Yet for all 
this, a fearful mortality has ever and anon, 
decimated the ranks of " bee-dom " iu our 
more northern latitude, blasting fond hopes 
and depleting unfilled purses. This has no 
doubt often been the sequence of careless- 
ness and ignorance, though of late the 
destroyer has often baffled the hand of 
skill and science. But must these scenes 
of desolation be witnessed with the return 
of each succeeding winter? Is there no 
"safe retreat" by which success maybe 
attained? Or, are the conditiotis necessary 
to success unattainable ? 

After devoting much time and thought 
to the investigation of this ])roblem, we 
arrived at this conclusion, regarding its 
solution : complete succesi is to be attained 
only by approximating the conditions which, 
surround the bee i7i its native clime. This 
involves a point which seems to have 
hitherto escaped the discriminating discer- 
ment and analytical acumen which has 
characterized the modern Yankee investi- 
gator ; supply natural conditions and suc- 
cess is yours. But this is impossible. How 
are we to arrange our bees so that they 
may fly in December, January, and Febru- 
ary wliere the mercury will jiersist in 
neighboring with Zero? Away with your 
vain tanlalliziiig theories, 'tis impossible. 

Be patient dear reader and we'll explain. 
We, too, thought 'twas impossible, but 
were mistaken ; and here's how we ascer- 
tained the fact. 

A friend, by name of H. (we withold his 
real name and address, to save him the 
annoyance of "a thousand and one " inter- 
rogations) thought if he could manage to 
give his bees an occasioaal " airing" during 



the season of frost and snow, it would do 
'em good. (By the way, no abler or more 
successful investigator ever graced the 
ranks of those engaged in apicultural or 
pomological science in this or any other 
country, than this same II.) Tliinking and 
acting are synonymous terms witli him, in 
matters that engross his attention. So on 
a clear frosty morning in December, he 
l^.laced three colonies of bees in a " hot- 
l)ed," as an experiment. Presently the 
genial rays of old Sol raised the tempera- 
ture of the interior so that a few bees came 
to the entrance of the hives to reconnoiter. 
•' Surely" says the advance guard, " spring 
is here again ; leb's have a play-spell and 
enjoy the bright, warm sunshine." So say- 
ing they took wing and commenced buzz- 
ing around in good earnest. They were 
soon followed by their napping comrades (?) 
and in a few moments longer the " voiding 
room " was a scene of wonderful activity. 
In less than fifty minutes from the time 
they commenced to lly all was quiet again, 
the bees had had a good purifying flight, 
and strangest of all, scarcely a dead bee 
could be found to indicate the "'lapse of 
time." This experiment, so auspicious in 
inception and satisfactory in results, was 
followed by others on a larger scale, in- 
cluding about To colonies in all. As a 
result, our friend says that hereafter, his 
bees will go into a hot-bed in November. 
He thinks that every colony in fair condi- 
tion in October can be brought through so 
as to be in just as good, or even better con- 
dition, the following May. He is naturally 
quite enthusiastic over the success of his 
experiments and well he may be, for in our 
humble opinion, it is one of the discoveries 
of this age of invention, one that will mark 
a new era in successful bee-culture. For, 
despite cold, snow, and wind, we can give 
our bees an opportunity to fly almost any 
day in the winter and spring season, when 
the sun shines, which makes our success in 
wintering doubly sure. 

But we're getting verbose again — a com- 
mon fault of ours when deeply interested 

in any subject and must close. At 

some future time we will give the details 
of management necessary to insure success 
with this method of wintering,; also its 
cftect upon early brood rearing, and other 
topics connected therewith. 

S. Haven, Mich. Hekbert A. Burch. 

P. S. Please don't write us, making 
enquiries relation to bees or bee-culture. 
Our time is too fully occupied to answer 
such letters even at " one dollar each." If 
you wish our opinion upon any given point 
send your enquiries to the AMf:RicAN Bee 
Journal for publication, and we'll cheer- 
fully answer them to the full extent of our 
ability. Please do try and bear this in 
mind. H. A. B. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Southern Bee Notes. 

j\Iks. TiTiTER : — I have just received and 
perused the June No. of the "National" 
with interest. It would give more satisfac- 
tion if corresi)ondents would give their 
parish or country. I live on the same 
meridian as your correspondent " Y " of 
La., and although we had a poor yield of 
honey after the middle of April, we have 
not thought of feeiling. We live on Ver- 
million river near the sea marsh, and have 
extensive forests on the southern border of 
an extensive prairie. "Y" may live east 
of the Mississippi and I should like to 
know his surroundings. 

During March and early part of April 
we had a great flow of honey from willow, 
peach, plum, etc. The great rains, follow- 
ed by drought, cut ofl' the yield ; but for 
some weeks my bees have revived, as have 
the crops, from bountiful rains. After 
two years impartial trial I find difTercnt 
experience from Robert J. Collinson. The 
Italians are much the easiest handled. — 
They are also much less -disturbed by 
worms ; they are more prolific and make 
more honey. 

In reply to your correspondent R. H. M. 
page 145, I will state that every southerner 
knows basswood by the name of linn, the 
bark of which is often stripped by negroes 
for chair bottoms, horse-collars, etc. It 
grows freely here. J. B. Ramsey, 

Abbeville, La. 



jggg"- Who will answer the following 
question ? How to purify wax, and pre- 
vent its becoming of a dark color. 

S. S. Elliot. 



My bees have stored about 60 lbs. to 
the stand, so far this season. It is very 
dry at present. Edgar McNitt. 

Centre Village, O. 



For the American Bee Journal. 

Moving Bees in Winter. 

Editor American Bee Journal : — I am 
40 miles from Milwaukee, in the best honey 
producing portion of Wisconsin. I moved 
twice between the last of October and 12th 
of January, 1874. I moved six hives of 
bees four miles to the city of Milwaukee on 
a wagon, then 30 miles on a freight train ; 
then 4i miles on a half -spring wagon over 
the roughest road I ever saw. The bees 
were placed in the cellar and 14 days after 
I gave them a flight. The cellar is dug 
into a hillside, is covered with wood and 
gravel, and averages 80 to 40 deg. heat. 
The 14th of December it was about 57 deg. 
on the sunny side and I took the bees out 



206 



THE AMEIUCAJN HKK JOURNAL. 



for a flight which entirely cured the dysen- 
tery of which I liad discovered symptoms. 
I feed them warm sugar and syrup. 

On the 6th of January they were again 
packed for an 18-niile trip on a sleigh over 
a rough road, and they were again placed 
in a cellar. On the 11th of February, they 
had another flight. I lost but half of one 
swarm which was caused by a frame get- 
ting loose and chrushing them. Who will 
say bees cannot be moved in winter ? I 
would risk a swarm 200 miles on an ex- 
press train, if packed so as to let the heat 
out at the top of the hive — not in front, for 
then the heat remains iu the hive, and the 
second day the bees are sick. Flat bottom 
hives are useless iu this cold climate — too 
damp. I make my own, and use no pat- 
ents. 

From 3 swarms bought last May, I have 
increased to 7, and 4 nuclei, and while 
basswood was in bloom I could have used 
the extractor every three days, but I was at 
home only Sundays and got but half the 
crop. From one second artificial swarm I 
took 34 gallons of white clover honey. 
Kow, the swarms average 60 lbs. per hive. 
I have sold a few queens. I am partly 
satisfied with Grimm's sending pure Ital- 
ians but the queens 3 out of 3 were old. I 
have raised 15 young queens, and