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Full text of "The American bee keeper"

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VOL. VI. 



Jf\NUfVRY, 1896. 



NO. 1. 



A Napoleonic Method. 

BY WILDER GRAHAME. 

One of Napoleon's points of success 
was in the readiness with which, when 
occasion required it, he "made a sac- 
rifice;" that is, in military parlance, 
allowed a certain portion of his army 
to be destroyed in order to save the 
rest of it or bring it through victorious- 

I never heard that Napoleon was 
particularly distinguished as a keeper 
of bees, though I believe he did adopt 
the busy insect as his symbol. No 
doubt had he undertaken it his apiary 
would have stood prior (in point of 
time) even to Dr. Miller's. At all 
events I think it frequently pays bee- 
keepers to adopt a few of Napoleon's 
rules, such as 

" Every lost moment brings oppor- 
tunity for disaster." "The truest 
wisdom is a resolute determination.'' 
" Victory belongs to the most preserv- 
ing." " Providence is always on the 
side of the last reserve, etc. All this 
however, is foreign to what I started 
to elucidate; viz., "making a sac- 
rifice." 

In swarming time the care of the 
apiarist is by no means over with the 
capture of the bees. Bees carry sup- 
plies with them usually to last them a 



few hours, depending upon gathering 
fast enough to keep up the supply. 
Now suppose the bees should come 
out at a time when there is little hon- 
ey. Again, supposing there was 
plenty of honey to be gathered but 
weather wholly unfit to gather it in. 
I have found bees starving with honey 
in all the trees about them. And yet 
again, when swarms come out as late 
as many did this season it is sometimes 
an impossibility for the bees to lay in 
their winter stock unaided. And still 
again, not a few have been entertain- 
ed after carefully swarming a colony 
to see them afterwards deliberately 
come forth and take wing for a more 
distant country. For all of these evils 
the Napoleonic method is suggested 
as a remedy. 

In selecting the colony or colonies 
for the " sacrifice," care must be taken 
that swarms are taken strong enough 
to fulfill their duty. By stimulating 
build them up early in the spring; 
then add a second story of brood 
racks, Do not use a honey-board. 
If the queen goes into the second sto- 
ry so much the better; only, be sure 
and keep queen cells cut out, lor no 
swarming is vvanted here. 

Whenever a new swarm comes oif, 






la^^ 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



/anuaty 



go to your " sacrifice" and secure one 
rack built full of comb and well filled 
with honey. Place this in the new 
hive about the center. The effect is 
obvious and magical, No more de- 
serting swarms, unless gross negli- 
gence is tolerated in some other re- 
spect. No starving bees. No trouble 
of feeding the young swarm through 
a run of stormy weather. 

There may be people who will say 
that they have already adopted the 
practice of giving at least one full 
rack when convenient. Exactly , and the 
"sacrifice " is intended to make it al- 
ways convenient enough, that it will 
always be done. No sections are ever 
to be allowed upon it, as they make 
it very inconvenient to get at the 
frames. Keep everything about that 
hive as convenient as possible for re- 
moving frames. 

The number of swarms required for 
this office depends upon the size of 
the apiary. One good colony ought 
to furnish fifteen or twenty frames 
before the swarming season is over, if 
conditions are at all favorable and 
they are got to work in good time. 
In some cases much better has been 
done ; in others, much worse. Tow- 
ard the end of the swarming season it 
is not at all necessary to confine one- 
self to the frames filled in the upper 
story. Of course empty frames are 
to take the place of those removed, 
but if the swarms issue too fast and 
one is sometimes called upon to hive 
young colonies when the upper racks 
are all exhausted, just remove a lower 
one and proceed as before. In most 
seasons it will be safe to reduce the 
old colony in that way down to four 
or five racks. 



This method obviates the necessity 
of disturbing some colony of honey 
producers. It is better to disturb one 
swarm often than to interrupt the op- 
erations of several occasionally. Brood 
rack filling is then their regular work 
and they are never called from the 
sections to fill a missing rack, as no 
sections are ever given them. Say 
what you will, every change of this 
sort causes delay, especially when it 
requires shifting the work from one 
story to another. This is an age of 
specialties and he is most successful 
who is readiest to adopt the modern 
system. And it is profitable to make 
specialists even of our bees, allowing 
some to make a specialty of comb 
honey, some of extracted, some of 
new swarms. Why then should we 
not go another step and retain some 
specialty for producing a necessity in 
any well regulated apiary, extra brood 
racks for young swarms ? The other 
specialties require different arrange- 
ments in the hives for the very best 
results. Experience will also prove 
that many little details may be so ar- 
ranged for the removal of the racks 
from a hive kept for that particular 
purpose that will render the process 
much more convenient. There is no 
necessity of spoiling a colony for the 
production of honey as soon as its du- 
ties as brood-rack filler are done. But 
none the less is it a matter of economy 
to set aside enough hives prepared 
and arranged in the most convenient 
manner for this purpose, and then 
confine that duty strictly to those col- 
onies, never disturbing others for a 
similar purpose ? 
Pa. 

Subscribe for the Am. Bee-Keeper. 



189G. 



TSE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



A Few Healthy Dont's for 
Beginners 

BY ED. JOLLEY. 

The success of the beginner depends 
as much on knowing what not to do as 
it does on knowing what to <lo, and as 
nearly all writers are telling what to 
do, I will tell a few things that ought 
not to be done. 

In the first place, don't get too 
many colonies to start with. Two is 
enough. Not more than four or five 
at the outside. After having secured 
your start don't be in too much of a 
hurry about increasing your stocks. 
Don't divide them into a number of 
small colonies and expect to be able 
to get a crop of honey. With your 
limited experience you will simply 
sacrifice your honey crop for increase 
and still have no experience in what 
is essential for a beginner to learn, 
the art of holding colonies advantage- 
ously for securing a crop of honey. 
Have patience, and don't try to go too 
fast. Let your efforts be directed to 
getting your colonies strong for the 
honey flow, and always do all you can 
to discourage swarming rather than 
encourage it, and then you will find 
they will increase as fast or faster 
than your growing knowledge will 
enable you to handle them proficiently. 

Don't be too particular about the 
variety or color of your bees, and 
whether they are thoroughbred or not, 
but see that each colony has a good, 
prolific queen. If you find one whose 
queen is not as proliffc as she ought to 
be or has other undesirable qualities, 
don't attempt to raise one to take her 
place but send to some reputable breed- 
er and buy one. By sending off for 
queens to replace undesirable ones you 



always have a sufficient infusion of 
new blood in your ai)iary to insure 
you good queens when your colonies 
swarm . 

Don't load up your smoker and go 
delving into your bee hives without 
being able to give a sensible reason 
for so doing, if you were called upon 
to tell why you were disturbing them. 
Never make a move in the apiary 
without a motive. 

After having secured a crop of 
honey don't be in too much of a hurry 
about disposing of it. Put it up neat, 
clean and attractive, and then demand 
a fair price for it, and see that you 
get it too. You must remember that 
you are building a honey trade upon 
which your future success in bee keep- 
ing will depend. You are now laying 
the foundation, as it were, and you 
cannot afford to put honey on the 
market in a careless manner or sell it 
cheap because you only have a little 
of it, as the customers who get it will 
always expect to get cheap honey 
from you. Besides you are doing an 
injustice to your brother bee keepers 
by accepting anything but a fair 
price. 

After having started in the spring, 
and had one summer's experienoe, 
don't spend your time the following 
winter inventing a hive that will rev- 
olutionize the bee keeping world, for 
hiyes and frames of every conceivable 
size and shape have been tried , and 
over a quarter os a century of experi- 
ence by the leading scientific bee 
keepers has decided that the hives 
and frames now catalogued as stand- 
ard by all supply dealers are the near- 
est approach to perfection that has yet 
been attained. 

Don't buy hives that take other than 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



January 



a standard frame, for they are sure to 
be a vexation to you in the end. 

Don't conduct new and costly ex- 
periments in your apiary until you 
have had several years of experience 
in the more common methods of bee- 
keeping. By that time you will have 
learned enough to let the other fellow 
do the experimenting. Experiment- 
ing is costly business, as I happen to 
know by experience. I followed this 
will-o'-the-wisp two or three years 
and made some grand inventions and 
many new and important discoveries, 
but just as I was about to turn them 
over to the bee-keeping public and 
become its everlasting benefactor, I 
invariably found that some other seek- 
er had been there ten or fifteen years 
before, and that tha thing I had spent 
so much time and money on had long 
since been discarded for having no 
other merit than encumbrance. And 
so it will be with any that go beyond 
their light. 

Don't fail to get one or two good 
standard works on bees and study 
them carefully. Besides, subscribe to 
one or more Bee Journals, or as many 
as you can afford. I know the begin- 
ner is apt to think he cannot afford 
any, but the truth is if he has but one 
or two colonies of bees, he cannot af- 
ford to do without them. I take six 
and my name is not Vanderbilt either, 
but I get so much practical good out 
of them I cannot afford to do with less. 

Don't get discouraged if your honey 
crop don't equal your expectations. 
There are years when the best of the 
bee-keepers instead of getting honey 
will have to go down in their pockets 
to get food to winter the bees on. But 
any bee-keeper worthy of the name 
will take that as a matter of course 



and live in hopes of a better future. 
Some other time I may tell you of 
some of the failures I have made and 
point out some of the things I stumbled 
over. 

Franklin, Pa. 

^ ■■■ ^ — 

A Visit with a Neighbor. 

A LOOK ON THE DARK AND THE BRIGHT 
SIDE OF THINGS. 

BY MRS. OLIVER COLE. 

" Good afternoon Mr. Titus, come 
right along. You see I am very busy 
with my pets. It is a lovely day and 
the bees are flying. What little busy 
bodies they are ; improving every 
moment. Yes! it is remarkable weath- 
er for this time of the year ; the 8th 
of November. What good can they 
do flying now ? They cannot gather 
any honey for us. You see some col- 
onies are bringing in pollen. What 
good is that now ? No doubt they 
have enough of it for they did not 
make us a pound of honey. I have 
no honey to eat on my buckwheat 
cakes this winter, but we make a syrup 
of granulated sugar, which is cheap, 
and we should be thankful for that. 
Besides I prefer it to honey." 

" What can bees get pollen from 
now ? " 

" I cannot say unless they get it 
from dandelions which the warm rain 
brought forth these few warm days. 
As 1 was crossing the river yesterday 
I stopped and looked at them with a 
thankful heart. It seemed like a 
promise of plenty in the future. The 
bringing in of pollen shows us the 
strongest colonies with a prolific queen. 
If we have thought that any were 
without a queen, we know they have 
when we see them work like this. I 
could go around my apiary and select 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



the strongest colonies for business and 
the tested queens by their progeny. 
I have some as pretty yellow bees as 
you ever saw, but those dark, three- 
banded ones are the bees for all pur- 
poses. It pleases me to see them so 
lively this month. I believe they will 
winter well." 

" If any of ray bees live through 
the winter I have a mind to sell them 
off in the spring. Bee-keeping does 
not pay late years." 

" Did you look them over to see if 
they had honey enough to winter on, 
or do you double up the weak colo- 
nies, if any ?" 

" No, if they cannot take care of 
themselves they may die . I have too 
much work on my farm, and they 
never pay me for any extra work. I 
am about discouraged with them. 
What have you been doing with your 
bees today ? " 

" I have been taking off a few feed- 
ers which were left on until now. I 
feed some with sugar syrup ; those 
that did not have enough stores for 
winter. I have been putting on some 
Hill devices over the frames." 

"What is that for?" 

" It gives the bees a winter passage 
over the frames to full combs of hon- 
ey. They move to the honey over the 
frames when they cannot go down 
around in cold weather." 

" I would never pull that sealed 
covering off of the bees to put that 
frame or " device " as you call it, over 
them. It is not natural to do so. 
They seal down their covering very 
closely , and what is nature I let alone." 

" I have had doubts myself about 
this being the best way. I have 
thought as you do, yet I believe that 
the majority of bee-keepers hx their 



bees in this way for winter. I think 
if we could cut two or three passages 
through the combs in some way it 
would be better. Many believe in 
ventilation above the bees. They 
would not get much through the wax. 
ed down covering. To carry out this 
theory I put a clean piece of burlap 
over the frames ; then I put a very 
thick cushion of oat chaff over all and 
tuck down the corners well so the heat 
cannot escape. The chaff cushion 
will absorb moisture, if any, and keep 
the combs from molding, for bees can- 
not live on damp, moldy combs." 

"Well! the bees will die anyway, 
fix them up as you will, I do not 
want much to do with the pesky 
things. They are too uncertain. You 
never know when you are going to 
have a good year for honey or wheth- 
er it will pay to fuss with them." 

" I think you are looking all on the 
dark side of bee-keeping. We must 
look on all sides for a little profit. I 
get a great deal of pleasure from my 
bees, as well as considerable profit 
some seasons. Bee-keeping is a good 
schoolteacher. It teaches one patience 
and perseverance." 

"We farmers must work at some- 
thing that will pay." 

"That is very true, but do you 
know when you plow and drag your 
ground for potatoes that you will get 
a crop? You must mark the ground, 
plant and fertilize, cultivate, hoe, put 
on Paris green three or four times, 
hill them up, dig them, carry them in- 
to the cellar and then sell them for 
only 15c a bushel, if you sell them 
just now. Very soon you may hear 
they ai'e 20c, and thinking they will 
be no higher in price you will carry 
them out of the cellar, load them into 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



January 



a wagon, draw them to a car perhaps 
three or four miles away, and for over 
40 bushels you will receive $8.00. 
This is not very large pay for .the 
amount of work, but it is what is be- 
ing done this fall, yet you would not 
say you will never plant any more po- 
tatoes or sell your farm. Our divi- 
dends did not net us more than 35 to 
40 cents for 100 pounds of milk some 
months this season at the factory. We 
would not sell our cows because of the 
drought of one or two seasons. We 
must look on the bright side of things. 
Keep our bees and love them. Work 
the harder. Raise a little of many 
things. We as individuals and a na- 
tion are very wicked. We must learn 
to look to God the source of all bless- 
ing more than we ever have before 
and we will then reap a rich reward. 
Sherburne, N. Y. 



Wintering Bees in Box Hives. 

BY CHAS. H. THIES. 

A reader of the American Bee 
Keeper requests me to give my opin- 
ion on the following : " Will bees 
winter better in box hives than they 
will in a movable frame hive ?" 

This question has often been discus- 
sed, yet 1 will try to give my experi- 
ence. I prefer to have all my bees in 
movable frame hives toj get the best 
results in wintering. If you have an 
old box gum full of old tough comb 
well filled with honey, and the hive 
full of bees — the hive being freejfrom 
cracks or openings, whereby the heat 
would escape and the cold find a way 
in — I should say the old box hive is a 
first class hive for wintering. But 
should the box hive be as most that I 
have seen, full of large openings, the 
cover flat and full of cracks, the hive 



half full of new comb with little hon- 
ey in them and the comb about half 
covered with bees, I would call the 
box gum a very poor hive to winter 
bees in. 

Often in these box hives the queen 
fails during the latter part of the sea- 
son, and the bees do not supersede her. 
You probably cannot get at her to re- 
place her with a young vigorous queen, 
hence your colony will get very weak 
before the winter arrives, and the 
chances are it will be dead before 
spring. 

The movable frame hive is so ar- 
ranged that it can quickly be made 
comfortable for a colony of most any 
size. If you have a weak, small col- 
ony in a frame hive and leave them 
the full eight or ten frames with ten 
or fifteen pounds of honey scattered 
all over the frames, the chances are 
that the bees will hardly pull through. 
But a bee-keeper with a little experi- 
ence and ordinary intelligence would 
not leave his bees in this condition 
and expect a surplus the following 
season, if they live through the winter 
at all. Contract your brood chamber 
according to the size of the colony of 
bees ; leave them plenty of good hon- 
ey where they can get at it, no matter 
how cold the winter should be ; place 
a good cover over the frames, and 
over all a good tight cover to keep 
them perfectly dry ; tilt the hive a 
little forward so that all moisture that 
may collect can run out at the en- 
trance ; aud I think you will agree 
with me that a frame hive is much 
superior to a box gum for wintering. 

I am satisfied that you already agree 
that a frame hive is superior during 
the summer season. In conclusion 
would say that if you are satisfied 



18!)(). 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



with wiuteriug your bees only, aud 
are sure you will always have your 
box hive full of old comb filled with 
good honey, and the hive full of bees, 
continue with this kind of a hive ; 
but if you want to winter your 
bees and winter them for some pur- 
pose, by all means use none but mova- 
ble frame hives. The old box hive 
has not been laid aside because we 
wanted a change, but because in the 
frame hive we found something better. 
Steeleville, 111. 



Notes and Comments. 

BV H. E. HILL. 

A Toledo, 0., man refused to 
devulge the secret of an effectual foul 
brood cure, which he has held for 
eleven years. JNIay his tribe never 
increase. 



In parts of "old Mozzura" the past 
season has been one of the best for 
honey ever known. 



Our national flower signifies "en- 
couragement." This is a particularly 
appropriate when considered from the 
standpoint of a bee-keeper. Give us 
plenty of Goldenrod. 



Every bee-keeper should familiarize 
himself with the symptoms of of foul 
brood, that its presence would be 
readily detected. 



In relating 'a bee-hunting episode, 
in A. B. J., J. H. Andre says ; " I 
made an examination of the bees and 
found them all of one size and shape, 
which everyone that has knowledge of 
bees knows that it proves they belong 
to the same colony." This is noteworthy 
only because of its erroneous infer- 
ence. Bees of the same race or strain 



may be identical in appearance, though 
bred in difl'erint states, or hemi- 
spheres, while the progeny of one 
queen sometimes differ perceptibly 
both in markings and in size. 



Sam Wilson, the Tennesee prophet, 
thinks the moisture in the ground 
during the fall months foreshadows 
the honey crop of the following sea- 
son. I believe it is R. Mc Knight 
who says the nectar secretion is in 
proportion to the amount of carbonic 
acid in the atmosphere. We must 
have not only the " honey-plants " but 
the conditions, for a crop. 



A writer in the A. B. J., suggests that 
that the workers may control the sex 
of eggs in drone-rearing, since they 
develope either a worker or a queen 
at will. The fact that bees often 
dwindle and die of queenlessness 
proves ,their inability to produce a 
female from an unfecundated egg. 



Now, Mr. Newman has retired from 
apicultural journalism, Prof. Wiley 
ventures forth as of yore with "scien- 
tific pleasantries " calculated to injure 
bee-keeping interests. Mr. Abbott in 
A. B. J., comments in a befitting and 
forcible manner upon Prof. Wiley's 
conduct, which appears to be a little 
less than a mania. He may, however, 
find the press of today quite as 
" warm " as thirteen years ago. 

The construction of a super that 
firmly and squarely supports the sec- 
tions \ of an inch above the top-bars, 
admits the tiering up, protects the 
edges from propolization, that maybe 
used with or without separators, and 
from which the finished goods may be 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



January 



released without force, combining 
simplicity and moderate cost, still af- 
fords ample scope for the inventive 
genius of the fraternity. 



It is said that buyers in San Diego 
are paying but 2^c per lb. for Califor- 
nia honey. By the time the trans- 
portation companies and the non-pro- 
ducing " middlemen" are satisfied, 
however, the consumer will pay a 
much higher price for it than he 
would, had the producer received a 
fair price for his goods, under a co- 
operative and equitable system of 
distribution. AVith the advantages of 
such a system the consumer could 
buy cheaper, the producer would re- 
ceive just remuneration for hisjlabor, 
and the middleman would be released 
from his present burden of cares and 
schemes, and at liberty to engage in 
some legitimate avocation that would 
add to, instead of detract from the 
worlds storehouse of wealth. 



A union of the N. A. B. K. A., and 
the N. A. B. K. U., seems quite evi- 
dent and eminently desirable. There 
is indeed a " broad field of labor" for 
such an organization, and, I opine, 
hundreds of dollars waiting only for 
the announcement that the union has 
been effected, to pour into the treasury. 
My dollar is ready. 



We have a few copies of A. B. C. 
of Bee Culture, with paper cover, 
which we will send post-paid for 50c 
each. 

Clubbing List. 

We will send the American BeeKeeper with 

the— PUB. PRCE. BOTH. 

American Bee Journal, (81 00) 81 35 

Americiin Apicuitunst, ( 75; 1 15 

Bee-Keeper's Review, (1 00) 1 35 

Canadian Bee Journal, (1 00) 1 25 

Gleanings in Bee Culture, (1 00) 1 35 




(From the Canadian Bee Journal.) 

WHAT IS INDICATED BY OOLOE 
IN ITALIAN BEES? 



BY J. P. H. BROWN. 



"What is indicated by color in 
Italian bees?" 

Before I can proceed to answer this 
question I beg leave to ask another, 
and to make a few observations there- 
on. Is the Italian bee a fixed type or 
race with a distinct individuality, or 
only a variety of a'pis melificaf That 
it is only a variety and not a fixed 
type, is a fact well established, both 
by its physical characteristics in 
breeding and by a study of its geo- 
graphical distribution in its "Sunny 
Italian clime." 

But to constitute a variety or breed 
of any species there must be some dis- 
tinguishing characteristics. Thus, 
the different breeds of cattle, horses, 
swine, poultry, etc., can readily be 
distinguished from each other by cer- 
tain physical markings, and by pecul- 
iarities of temperament. This same 
law applies to the Italian bee. 

We have been accustomed to find it 
in those Italian districts where it ex- 
ists in its highest state of development, 
with the three abdomical segments 
next the thorax of a color varying 
from a bright yellow to a dark leather. 
These three yellow bands are claimed 
to be a test of purity ; but there are 
physical conditions that prevail is this 
variety of bees that are really more 
reliable as a test of purity than the 



1890. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



yellow band:;. For instance, the pure 
blooded bte will maintain its ])osition 
on the combs] and will not run and 
scamper when the smoke is ai)i)lied 
and the hive opened, like bees of otb--^ 
er varieties. The queens are less ex- 
citable and not so easily frightened. 
1 wish here to be understood.that these 
observations apply to Italian bees as 
received from Italy. 

Every experienced breeder of Ital- 
ian queens know that by a selection of 
his yellowest female and male stock, 
he CHn, in a few generations, produce 
bees with bands much yellower and 
brighter than the original imported 
stock ; and if there is an introduction 
of Cypian or Syrian blood, the yellow 
is further extended and increased. 
Queens from such stock may be bright 
yellow ; drones brilliantly mottled 
with gold ; and workers with four or 
five yellow bands. The dull markings 
of the Italian ancestors are obliterated 
by the brightness of the golden bean- 
ies. It is very questionable in my 
mind whether these Americanized 
four and five banded bees can, Avith 
propriety, be called Italians. There 
is a change of physical characteristics 
from the original. They can not 
strictly come within the text of my 
paper. Color here is no criterion of 
purity. It only indicates that there 
has been a selection of yellow stock 
for breeding. 

My text confines me to the mark- 
ings of Italian bees as we get them 
from Italy. These must be pure if 
the fact of their coming from that 
country can make them so. The col- 
or of imported Italian queens vary 
from quite dark to yellow ; drones 
from nearly black to mottled with 
yellow ; workers with three bands 



varying from dark leather to bright 
yellow. In some cases the third band 
can not be seen till the abdomen is 
distended with honey. The queen 
progeny of many imported queens 
may vary from nearly black to yellow. 
Now, we cannot say that the imported 
queens that produce dark queens, 
drones or workers, are impure, or 
claim purity for only the bright ones. 
The dark color does not indicate im- 
purity any more than the light color 
indicates purity. We have seen that 
the Italian bee is only a variety, and, 
as such in breeding, it is liable to 
sport or revert back toward the orig- 
inal — sometimes to dark, sometimes 
to yellow ; but still maintaining the 
three bauds as a sort of standard of 
excellence. Without some standard 
of excellence, or ideal bee, it is im- 
possible to breed a variety up to a 
high attainment. 

When the breeder of bright yellow 
bees embodies in his bee vigor of con- 
stitution and an increased capacity 
for gathering honey as the prime fac- 
tor, and color as a secondary constitu- 
tion — utility leading beauty — we shall 
have the bee of the future. Color, 
then, in the Americanized Italian will 
indicate excellence in the bee, and the 
insect itself will stand as a monument 
to the skill, patience, and persever- 
ance of its developers. 



(From Bee-Keepers' Record.) 

ABOUT BEES AND BEE-KEEPING. 



SUCCESSES AND FAILURES; OR, " DO BEES 
PAY?" 



The question, "Do bees pay?" is 
one upon which I suppose 11 is impos- 
sible to hope for unanimity of opinion, 
for while the large majority of bee- 
keepers would answer in the affirma- 



10 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



/atiiiaty 



tive, a few take distinctly opposite 
views. The opinions entertained by 
the latter class will in no way in- 
fluence those who already keep bees 
and derive profit therefrom, but it 
does affect a considerable number of 
would-be bee-keepers, who are deter- 
red from entering into the pursuit by 
these adverse reports. It may, there- 
fore, not be out of place to consider 
why such varying results should fol- 
low equally well-meant efforts made in 
the same direction. 

Many people — attracted, may be by 
some glowing report of success, but 
knowing almost nothing of the salient 
points of bee management — start bee- 
keeping with a rush, expecting to 
realize a big profit at once. 'J'hey 
fail, as a matter of course, and are in 
consequence fully persuaded that 
" bees don't pay." Of this class it 
may be said, "and a good job too ;" 
for if bees could be made to pay with- 
out an effort at something like intelli- 
gent management, backed up by a fair 
knowledge of " the art of bee-keep- 
ing," the pursuit would be swamped 
by the very number of its votaries. 

Others, again, start bee-keeping, 
and in their mind's eye see " fortune 
in the bee-hive," if the thing is only 
gone into on a sufficiently extensive 
scale. They hear of "big takes" 
from single hives, and by the use of 
the multiplication table jump to all 
sorts of extravagant conclusions. A 
few have been known to spend large 
sums in the purchase of bees and ap- 
pliances in starting bee-farms as a sole 
means of income ; but Dame Fortune 
is shy ; a season or two of honey-fail- 
ure comes, and the looked for full 
coffers remain empty ; consequently 
the bee-farmer becomes discouraged 



and disheartened, and his "bees don't 
pay." Another of the " failure " class 
takes the bee-fever badly, procures a 
few stocks of bees, and at once goes 
off his head about them for a short 
time, but the reaction sets in, or a new 
hobby is taken up, the bees are neg- 
lected, and failure follows as a matter 
of course. 

A still further and more numerous 
example is found in those who get 
bees and think they have done all 
that is necessary ; who never feeds 
nor give them any attention whatever, 
begrudging every farthing it becomes 
necessary to spend upon them ; who, 
in fact, never do anything to or for 
their bees save talk ; and when a sup- 
er requires putting on or taken off, go 
to the bee-man of their village, or to 
some willing neighbor, and ask him to 
do it for them. Denial is, to say the 
least, not easy ; and so those who of- 
ten can ill spare the time have their 
good nature imposed upon in a way 
that is unfair, if not worse. In this 
class we also find those who, when 
advised to undertake some little nec- 
essary operation for the bees, welfare, 
say, "Oh, yes, we will do it by-and- 
by ;" hut they don't. The natural con- 
sequence is that, so long at others 
tend their bees for them, all goes well, 
but once they are thrown on their 
own resources they come to grief, and 
later on help to raise the cry " bees 
don't pay." I could put my finger on 
many belonging to what may be term- 
ed the " awful examples " of this class, 
and it is eventually in the apiaries of 
such that we find disease, dirt, and 
everything that to a bee-keeper of the 
right sort is abominable. 

There is yet another class who, no 
matter how much thev make out of 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



11 



their honey-crop, think it "good bus- 
iness" to lead others to believe that 
"bees don't pay." So far as profit 
they religiously keep their own coun- 
cil, sometimes going so far as to make 
raisleadingj statements with the idea 
that by so doing they are keeping 
others from opening an opposition 
"shop." We thus arrive at the very 
fair conclusion that selfishness and 
mismanagement are the two prime 
factors of the problem why " bees 
don't pay." 

Leaving, then, for a time the fail- 
ui'es, and] endeavoring to arrive at 
what is most likely to lead to success, 
a rather curious fact has to be borne 
in mind, viz., how largely experience 
teaches that a score or so of hives 
well-managed give a greater propor- 
tionate return for^the time aud outlay 
expended then is obtained where a 
very large number are kept. The 
reasons for this, however difficult to 
understand at first, become fairly 
plain if we bear in mind the increased 
burden of .management when a very 
large apiary is taken in hand. As 
stock increases so is the labor more 
heavily felt, and Avhat once was a 
pleasure, when a few hives were kept, 
becomes a trouble ; the interests flags, 
and imperceptibly, but surely, the 
energy and attention necessary to suc- 
cess fall away, with the result we haye 
mentioned. 

But to come to the brighter side of 
the question. 1 have presonally had 
to do with a good few beginners dur- 
ing the past year, some of these in 
comparatively poor honey districts, 
too ; yet I do not know of one whose 
bees have been a financial failure ; 
simply, as I think, because they have 
gone the right way to work. They 



have each started in a small way, giv- 
ing all the neces!«ary time, care, and 
attention to their few colonies, and 
the result gathered from figures now 
before me shows an average of 35 lb. 
to 90 lb. per hive, according to their 
districts. I quote brief particulars of 
one or two cases ; — 1. Bees cost 8s., 
hive homemade, surplus taken 90 lb.; 
increased to two stocks (good district), 

2. Bees and hive costs 23s,, surplus 
43 lb., sold at Is. per lb.; no increase, 
but bees now very strong (bad district). 

3. Bees in skep transferred to home- 
made hives in May, 33. lb. surplus in 
sections, sold at Is. per section ; no 
increase (poor district.) These few 
cases may serve to illustrate my point, 
which is that good results can only 
follow intelligent management, wheth- 
er on the part of a beginner or an old 
hand. 

For myself, I can honestly say that 
after keeping bees under many varied 
conditions, sometimes '^wasting the 
whole season and practically wasting 
stocks in carrying out some, perhaps, 
useless fad or crank of my own, I am 
perfectly satisfied that there is no 
business, hobby, pastime, or pursuit 
that gives so much profit for the out- 
lay, to say nothing of the pleasure and 
the health-giving side of the matter, 
as a few well-managed hives of bees 
in careful and thoughtful hands. 

To be successful, observe first the 
golden rule — *' Don't put off till to- 
morrow that which should be done 
today ;" second, regard it as absolute- 
ly necessary to make a study of your 
bees ; the third, give them the atten- 
tion they require at the right time. 

H. W. Brice. 



See Clubbing Rates on page 8. 



12 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



January 



(From the Progressive Bec-Keeper.) 

WILL GOOD YEARS OOME NO MOEE? 



BY DR. C. C. MILLER. 



Some seem to have settled into tlie 
belief that the forests have been cut 
away, cultivation has destroyed the 
wild flowers, and that as a conse- 
queuce we are never again to have 
such yields of honey as in the past. 
Others again come up smiling at the 
close of each year of defeat, prophesy- 
ing good things to come, and hopefully 
recounting all the omens for good. 

I think there is no denying the fact 
that in general the past few years 
have not been as good as formerly for 
the majority of bee-keepers. And I 
plainly confess that 1 don't know 
anything about the future of bee-keep- 
ing. But I incline rather to join the 
ranks of the optimists. The wise man 
says: " Say not thou. What is the 
cause that the former days were better 
than these ? for thou dost not inquire 
wisely concerning this." But I sup- 
pose I may be allowed to discuss 
somewhat the reasoning of those who 
do inquire. 

As already mentioned, it is thought 
by some, perhaps by a good many, 
that the advance of civilatiou and cul- 
tivation has so changed the flora that 
no further explanation is needed for 
the falling off in honey crops. There 
may be something in that in certain 
localities. A good deal in some. For 
where linden has been a chief source 
of nectar and the trees have all been 
cut down, there can be no question 
as to the result. But lindens ai'e not 
found everywhere, and in many places 
they have not been cut down, and 
failures have occurred in their pres- 
ence. 



The destruction of wild flowers by 
the plow doesn't cut so great a figure 
as many imagine. Look over the list 
of wild flowers that yield great crops 
of honey, and that are destroyed by 
the plow and tell me what they are. 
Such plants as fire weed are not great 
in number, and are found in only a 
few regions. Besides, in large areas 
such as the state of New York and 
parts of some other states, all the wild 
flowers were gone years ago just as 
much as they are now. The disap- 
pearance of its crops didn't occur 
along with the disappearance of the 
wild flowers, but some time after. 

Again, the failures oE| recent years 
are attributed to climatic, electric or 
other occult influences. It may be. 
Who knows ? I'm sure I don't. The 
weather is responsible for a good many 
things, and quite possibly it may be 
the guilty party. 

But I fancy I hear some one say : 
" Suppose you do locate the place, what 
are you going to do about it?" Well, 
nothing I suppose, " Then what's the 
use talking about it?" Well, now, 
there may be some use in talking 
about it, even if we can't do anything 
about it. A good many of us do a 
good deal of thinking about it. 
We've got to — can't help ourselves. 
After running bluntly up against 
partial or total failures for a number 
of years, Ave can't help but think about 
the question whether it is wise to con- 
tinue making preparations for crops 
that never come. And a thing that's 
worth thinking about ought to be 
worth talking about. For myself, if 
the past two seasons are to be an index 
of the future, the sooner I get out of 
bee-keeping the less I'll lose by it. 
And I'd give something to know what 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



13 



the next fiive or ten years will bring 
in the way of pasturage.* 

Notwithstanding the fact that ray 
bees have given no surplus for two 
years, I'm putting thera into winter 
quarters with a good bit of the same 
hopefulness I had in years gone by 
after a good season. I'll tell you a 
little how it looks to me. If it's the 
presence or lack of blossoms. I don't 
see any reason why there may not be 
many blossoms next year as there were 
ten or fifteen years ago. My chief, 
indeed ray almost sole source of sur- 
plus is white clover. Sometimes plants 
and blossoms are scarce, sometimes 
bloom in abundant. I dout know 
any great reason why next year may 
not be one of their abundance. 

If it's electric or other conditions 
that make the trouble, no one that I 
know of can tell much about them, 
and as the whole matter lies in the 
region of uncertainty, why not ex- 
pect good conditions as well as bad for 
next year ? The weather with all its 
appurtenances and belongings is pro- 
verbial for its chaugeableness. We've 
had changes for the worse, are we not 
just as likely now to have "them for 
the better? Two years of total fail- 
ures is a somewhat remarkable thing. 
It would be still more remarkable if 
we should have three. 

Notwithstanding the many failures, 
there were also successes. This year 
is reported by some as the best year 
ever known. May it not come our 
turn next year ? I think I never 
knew a better fall yield, iu my locali- 
ty, than the present year. Although 
it gave me no surplus, it was still val- 
uable, for it saved feeding for winter. 
Now if the bees took a fresh grip on 
the fall harvest, why may they not 
do it on the next white honey harvest? 

There is also a probability of in- 



creasing acreage of honey plants in 
the future. Rape, alfalfa, crimson 
clover, sweet clover and perhaps other 
things are talked of as promising for- 
age plants where they are now little 
known. Who knows what possibili- 
ties there may be in that direction ? 

On the whole, I think I'll not brim- 
stone my bees just yet, 

Marengo, 111. 



THE NEW BIKTH. 

A BRIEF NEW YEAR SERMON BY DR. LYMAN 

ABBOTT PASTOR OF Pl.YMOTH 

CHITKCII, BROOKLYN. 

Christmas and New Year Day are, and 
should be, times of introspection, of self- 
examination, to ascertain whether achieve- 
ments are not falling far short of ideals, and 
whether tiie ideals themselves are not be- 
comine; dim. Invariably it will be found 
that this it true. Everybody needs a newer 
and diviuer life than that of the days that 
are gone. They need more spirituality. No 
intellectual development, no culture, no 
moral obedience to laws of conduct, can 
take the place of spiritual life. It is 
the absolute necessity of humanity. 
No finger-drdling will enable a girl to see 
the kingilom of music ; no Greek grammat- 
ical grind will enable a student to see the 
kingdom of literature. The artistic sense 
mmt be born before art or literature are 
even as much as seen. So no drill in creed 
or ritual will ever open the windows of the 
kingdom of God and let the soul look in. 
The sense of spiritual realities must be born 
within the soul. A new life must begin ; 
and this life must be born from above. If 
it be true that we miuit, it is true that we 
may, become new creatures. We may bury 
the past_,in the depths of the sea. It may 
become as foreign to us as though it were a 
pre-existent state. The moral and spiritual 
nature may be re-formed. The very sub- 
stratum of character may be changed. No 
man Or woman need despair. No one has a 
right to say in exculpation lo himself, "It 
is my nature ; I was born so." He can ac- 
quire a new nature; he can be born again, 
born out of the dead p ist. The secret and 
origin of this new and divine life is the love 
of God, and this omnipotent love may be 
obtained by meriting it, by setting Christian 
ideals higli, and striving to live up to them, 
not in the letter merely, but in the true spirit. 
New Year's is an excellent day to begin to 
live a spiritual and unseltish life ; and even 
if the efforts are not wholly .successful at 
first, they will result, nevertheless, iu lasting 
good. — Fiom " Neiv Thoughts for the New 
Year," in Demor cat's Magazine for January. 



14 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



January 



The American Bee-Keeper, 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG CO. 



TERMS : 

50 cents a year in advance ; 2 copies, 85 cents ; 3 
copies, SI. 20 ; all to be sent to one postofRce. 

Postage prepaid in the U.S. and Canada; 10 cents 
extra to all countries in the postal union and 20 
cents extra to all other countries. 

ADVERTISING RATES: 

15 cents per line, 9 words; $2.00 per inch. 5 per 
cent, discount for 2 insertions ; 7 per cent, for 3 in- 
sertions; 10 per cent, for 6 insertions; 20 per cent, 
for 12 insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or before 
the 20th of each month to insure insertion in month 
following. Address, 

THE AMERICAN BBE-KEEPEE, 

Falconer, N. Y. 

i8®°Subseribers finding this paragraph marked 
with a blue cross will know that their subscripiton 
expires with this number. We hope that you will 
not delay in sending a renewal. 

4®"A blue cross on this paragraph indicates that 
your subscription expired last month. Please re 
new. 

EDITORIAL. 

The Annual Convention of the 
Ontario Co. N. Y. Bee-Keepers' 
Association will be held at Cananda- 
igua N. Y. Jan. 24-25, 1895. This 
is expected to be the most interesting 
meeting of bee-keepers that will be 
held in this state during the winter. 
A special invitation is extended to 
bee-keepers everywhere — Everybody 
will be welcome. 



We have a quantity of Alley Drone 
and Queen Traps pattern of 1894 
which will be sold at 25c each, regu- 
lar price 50c. These traps are just 
as good for practical purposes as those 
of more recent pattern. 



Wm Grerrish, East Nottingham, N. 
H. will keep a complete supply of our 
goods during the coming season and 
Eastern customers will save freight 
by ordering from him. 



We want a large quantity of bees- 
wax, and will pay 30c a pound cash 
or 32c a pound in goods for good 
clean wax freight paid to Falconer, 
N. Y. 

Jenny Atchley says that Dr. Miller 
is "off the track" when he claims 
that " Lessons in Profitable Bee- 
Keeping '' that have recently been 
running in the Southland Queen were 
filched from A. B. J. It seems that 
Mrs Atchley was the author of the 
articles and they were first printed in 
A. B. J. with her permission. 



We will send the American Bee- 
Keeper one year with the Cosmopol- 
itan for $1.25. The Cosmopolitan is 
a monthly magazine containing an 
average of over 100 pages and 80 il- 
lustrations each month. 



Our 1896 Catalogue will be mailed 
the latter part of the month. 



Up to the present time the weather 
has been very open, and with many 
warm days, with indications of an 
open winter throughout. A mild 
winter would be of great advantage 
to bee keepers. 

"How TO Manage Bees," a 50c 
book, and the American Bee-Keep- 
er a year for only GOc, or A. B. C. 
of Bee Culture and the Bee-Keeper 
one year for 75c, or including Glean- 
ings one year for $1.65. 

A few copies of the article ' ' Giant 
Bees of India," by Frank Benton, 
are left. We will mail them to any 
address at 5 c each. 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



15 



We have just received advance 
proof sheets of " Bulletin No. 1. New 
Series," to be issued in a few days by 
the Entomological Division of the 
Agricultural Department at Washing- 
ton and is entitled "The Honey Bee, 
A jManual of Instruction in Apicul- 
ture." It will be a pamplet contain- 
ing about 120 pages and is written by 
Mr. Frank Benton who is well and 
favorably known throughout this and 
man}' foreign countries as one who is 
thoroughly competent to treat the 
subject in a most exhaustive manner. 
A brief perusal of the work shows 
that he has not slighted it in any way. 
It contains ver}' comprehensive and 
practical instructions in bee-keeping 
and is written in plain language that 
can be readily understood even by the 
merest novice in apriculture. The 
object in issuing the work is to more 
thoroughly disseminate a knowledge 
of bee- keeping among the farmers and 
to stimulate the industry among those 
who are alreadj^ engaged in it, and 
enable bee-keepers everywhere to gain 
a knowledge of bee-keeping that will 
enable them the more surely to ac- 
quire a fair remuneration for their 
work and investment. The book will 
be profusely illustrated many of the 
illustrations being there produced for 
the first time. 

The work is for free distribution by 
the Goverment but as the edition will 
be limited to a few thousand copies, 
only those who apply early will prob- 
ably be able to obtain a copy. Mr. 
Benton deserves great credit for the 
thorough manner in which he has 
treated the subject and no doubt the 
work will be widely read and quoted. 

From the advance proofs of ' ' The 



Honey Bee" shortly to be issued we 
quote the following instructions re- 
lative to selecting of a site for an 
apiary. 

' ' The apiary should be located 
where no surface water will collect 
during heavy storms, yet the ground 
should not be very uneven, but rather 
a gentle slope. In the colder portions 
of the United States a southeastern 
exposure is decidedly preferable, 
though in the South the slope of the 
site is less important to the welfare of 
the bees ; a direct southern or south- 
western exposure, however, will be 
found extremely uncomfortable at 
times both for the operator and for 
his bees. A windbreak, such as a 
board fence, a hedge, or a row of 
evergreens on the north and west, is 
advisable as a protection against sharp 
winds in the winter and early spring, 
which keep many bees from reaching 
their hives even when near the en- 
trances. Some shade is desirable, yet 
such density as to produce dampness 
is extremely detrimental. In moist 
elevated regions, which are of course 
cool, no shade will be needed, except 
temporarily for newly hived swarms. 
Tall trees are objectionable in or near 
the apiary, because swarms are likely 
to cluster so high as to render their 
capture difficult and dangerous. 
Some of the self-hivers or non-swarm- 
ing devices now offered for sale may 
with improvement yet accomplish the 
end in view, but heretofore clipping 
one wing of each laying queen and 
using all precautions to prevent after- 
swarming, making artificial swarms, 
selection in breeding, or any other 
means known to limit swarming, have 
not sufficed to prevent the occasional 



16 



TEE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



January 



issuance of a swarm with a queen 
having wings. Therefore it is advis- 
able to have the apiary located under 
or near low trees, where the hives can 
be readily seen from the house. 
Carniolan, Italian, and .Cyprian bees 
give less trouble to passers-b}' or to 
live stock than do ordinary brown or 
German bees, or hybrids of these 
races, yet whatever race be kept, it is 
best to have the apiary as secluded as 
the necessary or desirable conditions 
will permit. 



American and I^nglish Girls. 

American women in Paris have 
been grossly insulted by a benighted 
iieathen of an Englishman who had 
classed them with his own country- 
women in some tirade he was mak- 
ing on "the little Frenchwomen." 
American girls adore their French 
sisters and utterly despise their Eng 
lish cousins. The reason is not far 
to seek. The American girl is pret- 
tier and better dressed than the Eng- 
lish girl. That is the lovely Ameri- 
can's opinion of herself. Her broth- 
ers, uncles and grandfathers are 
quite in accord with her. One of 
them, who evidently knows what he 
is writing about, says, "The English 
woman dresses herself to look like a 
guy, and as she has little but a 
ghapeless plank to start on she gen- 
erally succeeds." 

This spirited citizen of the great- 
est country in the world winds up 
with an elegant invitation to us to 
come over and see for ourselves. 
"If half the race of whisky and soda 
drinking, bacon and egg eating, eye- 
glass folding islanders should come 
on a visit to the States (Chicago in 
particular), they would be so enter- 
tained the;.'^ would never return." It 
is very kind of him, and we know that 
Chicago is famous for its pigs and 
its butchers, but why mix them up 
With American girls? So long as 
thoy havo big enough dowries we 
don't mind how they get them. — 
Kealni. 



German Villaf?* XJfe. 

Heidelberg is- in natural location 
a curiously situated place. The 
town is built at the jjoint where the 
Neckar river shortly before it emp- 
ties into the Rhine emerges from a 
winding defile in the mountains. 
The river abuts so close to the moun- 
tain edge there is scarcely room for 
a town, so that the houses have been 
stretched out along one principal 
street. This is the so called Haupt- 
strasse, or main street, which is of 
course neither wonderful nor beau- 
tiful. It is simiDly a winding road- 
way where one may observe various 
phases of German village life. The 
shops are nearly all located here, 
where not only the natives trade, 
but where are found all those vari- 
ous novelties and souvenirs which 
are distinctly of the place and which 
tourists are so addicted to carrying 
home with them. The other lead- 
ing street, and the one most fre- 
quented by foreigners, is the so call- 
ed Anlage, a broad earth path be- 
neath a double line of trees, adjoin- 
ing at one end a small park. This 
is the aristocratic quarter, where 
nearly all the hotels are situated. 

In common with all German towns 
and cities, the soldier life on this 
street and elsewhere is very much 
in evidence. A regiment with its 
stirring music goes marching 
through the town once or twice a 
day to keep alive the martial spirit 
of the people and to impress them 
with the power of the government. 
It would seem that there might be 
in Germany one or two particularly 
pretty little towns, such as this is, 
perhaps excluded from the military 
jurisdiction, where those people 
might resort who are not so fond of 
the army. The German government, 
however, trusts so little in the in- 
nate goodness and reliability of the 
individual that such a course has 
never commended itself to it. — Hei- 
delberg Letter. 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEKPER. 



17 



r- AKD 



>0V/. 



. You whu ■ .t you see, 

( Often . . .'i^^lit; 

Stars uri' , .,, - M.; ■ : y. 

In the w, ;•; ill ti;.' ). 'if: 
All tho da., ihi-y li<- cui.ci'aii'd 

By (bo t,'. ry of \h" s.vi. 
But at ovi- they stand r jvoaled 
111 tho azure, one by one. 

Bo the daylight of a smile 

M;iy but v«;il tho human face 
Hidiug for a little sviiile 

Doubt and caro and sorrow's trace; 
So, when shadow clouds of woe 

O'er a happy facu arise, 
Still beneath tho shadows glow 

Stars of joy in gentle eyes. 

Lifo is arrhed with changing skies, 
Earely ai\' tliey what they seem ; 

Smiles we li.-.Vf, and also sighs- 
Much we l:no\v, but more we dream { 

Look beue;i.h the oiitward show, 
To tho suidow or the; light, 

And from what j'ou purely know 
Learn to see and judge aright. 

' —Exchange. 

EXCHANGE OF HOLES. 



All his life Charlie Staahope had been 
gnite ready to admit that his morals 
were somewhat faulty. Sometimes he 
admitted it genially, sometimes with a 
mild self reproach, but always with the 
^ir of beiug quite irrespousible for his 
failing:^, and indeed he was one of those 
pien whom scarcely any one judges 
liardly. Good looks, a. pleasant smile, 
pa easy alTectionateness and a generous 
(band aie excellent covers for very seri- 
pus faults if a too fervid liking for the 
pood things of this life, including wine 
end women, is ro be counted among 
them. 

"Ilaug it, you know, a pretty woman 
can always make a fool of me, " he used 
to ftclaiowkdge, "and I positively can- 
not help it. Lilian knows it too. " 

Lilian was Mrs. Stanhope, andshecer- 
taiuly hud abundant reason to know it. 
Charlie had married her in a fit of in- 
fatuation for her beauty and amid the 
pmiuous projJiecies of their friends as 
to their future happiness, and if the 
pnshiiud and wife had been philanthrop- 
icaliy inclined they might have had 
the .satisfaction of knowing that they 
jstlil alforded a thrilling topic of conver- 
sation to their social circle. 

In tho course of five years of married 



11 TO tl ^rc hi\\\ been much for Lilian to 
forgivG. and OhurliG had a habit of sud- 
denly oonfes.siug hinii^elf to her and re- 
ceiving :ib!Johition for his sins, under 
the fihadow of which for a month he 
would live irreproachably, forswear his 
club, going tt) no supper parties and es- 
corting his wife to af tornoons and balls 
and reverting altogether to the hus- 
band-lover of their honeymoon. In very 
truth it is nctt too much to say that he 
loved and respected his wife above any 
living creature; only it was not in his 
uature to bo faithful to any woman. 

"Yen are a saint, Lilian, my pure 
v;hite lily," ho often said in his fits of 
remorse, "and I'm a black brute, not fit 
to ki.'^.s the hem of your dress." 

A}i(i ho thoroughly. believed it, too, 
for tlie time being. 

So when one morning he came down 
to breakfast and opened and read a cer- 
tain letter tliat was lying on his plate 
)jo only experienced a furious anger 
8g£»i;!=:t tho author of it. It was written 
in n blind a^vkwardly sloped the wrong 
way and obviously feminine, and bore 
the ominous signature, "A Well Wish- 
er, " and aontained nothing but a sav- 
uj^e and cuarse attack upon his wife, 
ooapling her nanio with that of a man 
who iiiid jnst ber^Ji notoriously expelled 
f:<rm a fcniiu; club fur cheating at cards. 
Clmrl'.e's hkiiu'.rouie face flushed darkly, 
and l>o nuitcerrd a savage oath under his 
bretith 

'■Vriisit (]t:\'il"< sinna women are I Can't 
tht-'T f ^'en lo'iTO Lilian alone? She, of 
all V, oi.u'ij i;i the Y^'orld, to be written 
of io! ^t'.-; t!\;t jado, Maud Bellair, I'm 
coitiin i:n.-> hn-s !:cver forgiven me for 
rofn^ii ? to znirodaco her to Lilian. 
WeJ, 1 miy bo a blackguard myself, 
but my wi^'o ,s^..-.ll never speak to such 
V\Ouicn. She must never know of it. It 
woaUl half kill hoi, and if I showed it 
to hur nho misnl, t orhaps, think I sus- 
l.>«<ct*-d her. T suji-t-ct Lilian! Great 
ho'ivcn^, v/liat v/ouI,l tho world be com- 
ing to — and to ccupk' her name with 
Hng'i Dacrc's! Il's a pity she didn't try 
to Invent f!onie,thin^ a little more proba- 

•lis li-ith in hia A'ife was not shaken 
foi Ri inct-mi. No devout worshiper 
Voui<l ihiuk of dethroning his pure, 
whiio Idol l.tjcau.se Bome miscreant 
tiirowfc h olod oi' (iirtat it, but tho words 
^f (h>i lt>;tc.r fiiHcinnted him. as thiuss 



18 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Jamcary 



ixnptM'-lbie and njODs^trous do, and he 
Viw fo abso.-li'd iu it that he did not 
Jiw*. 1 f ooti-toy coming through the open 
fiorrr, aiid fitaiUid violently when a hand 
W»o IhUI on l;is arm and Lilian's voice 
said I 

"Whatever are you scowling at so fe- 
rociorjHly?" 

"On, nothing of any consequence — a 
stupid letter," he said confusedly, try- 
ing to crumple it up; but his wife put 
her iinyer on it. 

"JVii! you eo anxious I shouldn't see 
jt?" she said r'iprn;tchfully. 

•'It isjj't v;hat you think at all, Lil, " 
he sail!, gacssing her suspicions. "It's 
not a lettei- from a woman — at least — I 
nibau it'B of no importance." 

"Let ine see it. then," she persisted 
gaatly. trying to draw it away. 

"^ih. don't read it, dear. • It's an 
Bbominahl.?. sijiirneful letter ! I wouldn't 
Lave yon poUnto your eyes by reading 
it," ho gaid. talceii off his guard. "I en- 
treat you !;i5f to read it!" 

"Why, yon luusf. think I am some- 
thing iuor<3! tb'.uj a woman to refrain aft- 
er that." j^iiid Mrs. Stanhope, smiling as 
^be drpv it fiojn his reluctant fingers. 

Bho ^*ti,) ft vMry lovely woman, slender 
and I'jit with piuheiic gray eyes and a 
8ersyi-W fud Uiouth, and the smile gave 
jun u»M ht'^l u>'.i>-ii nor boauty wanted. 

"7>.::>'t 111 uk L I'.eed it for an instant! 
I knov-' v.cii »'!;ough who's done it," 
paid ^.'harlie nob]y, but she held up her 
band f'->r silence, as she quickly read the 
fibeet. Ho oDxild see her eyes traveling 
from lino to line ; could see a flush 
^juickly ri.so to her forehead, and as 
futfflT o.hai}.!<e to whiteness. 

■ -* I il, mj darling! I knew you 
Bouid not irLiiuii it; I ouj^litn't i < have 
let you read it," he said, catching at 
her as she swayed slightly, but she freed 
herself and stood facing him, with part- 
ed lips. 

"Then you don't believe it?" she said 
Blowly. 

"Believe it! My God, what a ques- 
tion from you to me! My queen, my 
Baiut ! As if I'd believe all the world 
pgainst you !" lie broke out, passionate- 
ly. "I've been a bad lot myself, but do 
you think I don't know a good woman 
when I find one ?" 

"You'd believe mo against all the 
world," sheechoed, "but if I joined the 
World against myself what would you 



believe then?" 

"I don't know what you mean. Don't 
jest on such a subject, and, trust me, 
I'll make the woman who wrote those 
lies smart for it. " 

"But they are not lies," said Lilian 
Stanhope slowly. "It is the simple 
truth. ' ' 

He looked at her in utter bewilder- 
ment. What did she mean? What was 
she talking of? Was she out of her mind? 

"You don't seem to understand," she 
said quietly. "Every word in that let- 
ter is true. " 

He did not answer, but still stood 
gazing at her. She had crossed over to 
the mantelpiece and stood with one el- 
bow resting on it, her face turned to- 
ward him. The sleeve of her morning 
wrapper had slipped down, and he could 
see the curve of her round, white arm. 
Perhaps he would still have believed her 
if she had no« suddenly smiled such a 
smiJe as he had never dreamt of on her 
face. 

He did not know what he said — per- 
haps he only made some inarticulate 
cry — but he sank into a chair and hid his 
face iu his hands from that look. 

Neither of them spoke. It seemed to 
him tliat minutes were merging into 
eternity. The ticking of the clock on the 
mantelpiece was like the strokes of a 
hammer on his brain. His heart seemed 
shrinking under the touch of redhot 
iron. 

Lilian vile I Oh, it was incredible, 
impossible, some hideous dream ! 

He raised his head again to look at 
her. Surely a lifetime had passed since 
that smile, and yet the clock had only 
marked three minutes. 

"I am glad you know, "said his wife. 
"I was so tired of pretending to be 
good." And she stretched her arms as 
one laying down a heavy burden. "I 
wonder you have never guessed it be- 
fore. " 

"Guessed it! I — I reverenced you too 
much to insult you by a thought. " 

"You mean virtue was my role, and 
it was for you to play sinner. Oh, you 
were too egotistical. You wanted always 
to play lead. " 

"Oh, what did it matter how much I 
sinned? I was never good. But youl 
You have been a saint in heaven to me. " 

"No woman is ever a saint, and, re- 
member, I have been your wife five 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



19 



years. 1 -was good once, but your love 
has beeu a liboral edncatiou for me." 

Her whole bearing seemed altered. 
The sweet sadue.«s of the mouth had 
changed to mockery; her voice rang 
clear and hard. Every word struck home 
to his soul as nothing had ever done in 
the cf'urse of his gay, successful life. 

"Then I have damned you and my- 
self," he said hoarsely. 

"Don't lalk so primitively. We have 
beeu educated out of all that now," she 
answered. "There are hundreds of 
husbands and wives in our own case." 

"But this man — Dacre" — he brought 
out the words as if they burned his lips. 
"You — yon au't love him?" 

She shiugged her shoulders carelessly. 

"Love? What does it mean? He wag 
sufficiently amusing. Did you love 
Lady Fanccurt, Miss Bellair and — but 
why extend the list?" 

"I? That is quite another thing. A 
man ' ' — But he stopped short under the 
scorn of her eyes. 

"What will you do? You can't di- 
vorce me. You could never appear in 
court with such a record as yours," she 
went on. "I don't see, myself, why this 
should make any difference to us. We 
know the truth about each other now 
and can be nmtually complacent." 

Thevileness of such words on her lips 
was unbearable to him. He sprang up 
and caught her by both arms, studying 
every line of her face with savage inten- 
sity. 

"Are you going to kill me?" she said, 
shrinking a little. "I did not take your 
confessions so tragically. " 

"I can't believe it. I can't understand 
it," he muttered. "You, who were 
worlds above me, to have sunk so much 
beneath me !" 

"I think we are on a level footing 
now," she retorted. "Our sin is of the 
same quality. ' ' 

"But I know myself for the black- 
guard I am, and yt)u — oh, Lilian, don't 
you realize what it is for you?" 

She shook her head slightly. A sud- 
den hatred of him had sprung up in her, 
and instinctively she knew that nothing 
she could do or say would wring his 
heart as did her callous bearing. 

He looked at her for an instant with 
despairing eyes and then caught her to 
him as if he would kiss her, but re- 



coiled, and, loosing her, dashed roughly 
from the room. — St. Paul's. 



Seems to Be a Long: Lived Set. 

A list of the los.ses which the Royal 
society has suffered by death during the 
past year shows that the pursuit of sci- 
ence is not unfavorable to longevity. 
The list comprises 19 fellows and seven 
foreign members, and the average life- 
time of these 26 men was a fraction 
over 761^ years. The average age of the 
seven foreign members was 79 years and 
5 mouths, the oldest being Franz Ernst 
Neumann, 97, and the youngest Henri 
Ernest Baillon, 67. The 19 fellows had 
an average lifetime of 75 years and 7 
months, the oldest being Bisset Haw- 
kins, 98, and the youngest George Ed- 
ward Dobsou, 47. The fellows were not 
all scientific men, one of them being 
Lord Aberdare, 80, and another, the 
Earl of Selborne, 83, but statesmanship 
and law also seem to favor length of 
days. — London News. 

One Way to Tell Time. 

"What time is it?" I asked the jani- 
tor of a down town ofiice building. 

The old fellow reached into his vest 
pocket, pulled out a battered silver 
watch, looked at it intently, and then 
taking a pencil from another pocket jot- 
ted sometiiing down on a bit of paper. 
Next he reached into another pocket and 
pulled out a second watch, the compan- 
ion of the first, looked at it and again 
jotted something down on a bit of paper. 
Then he began a little computation on 
his slip of paper, after which he an- 
nounced : 

"At the time you a.sked, sub, it was 
just 37 minutes past 3. That's exact." 

"Much obliged," I said. "But will 
you kindly exi)laiu to me why you had 
to look at two watches and go through 
all that figuring before you could tell 
me?" 

"Why, you see, sub," he replied, 
"this here watch that I carries in my 
test is a mighty good watch, but it loses 
just ten minutes every day. This other 
watch that I carries in my pants is just 
as good, but it gains ten minutes every 
day. So first I looks at one, and then I 
looks at the other, and then I takes my 
pencil and fignres out the average be- 
tween the two. That way I gets the 
time exact, suh. " — Buffalo Express. 



20 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 



January 



A BROWN LTIAF. 



tb the woods today a leaf fluttered down ; 
It was wrinkled and old and bent and brown, 
feut it met the wind and bepan to p]u,y, 
And I watched it until it whirled away. 

And I could but wonder, when time and grief 
Bhould have made me old and bent as the leaf, 
Would my heart be as young and full of glee 
As the brown leaf playing in front of me? 
•—Frank H. Sweet in Ladies' Home Journal. 



A GEORGIA COLONEL. 



Colonel Joseph George ■Washington 
IlilJs is the king of Red Clay, one of the 
mountain kingdoms that lie a-straddle 
of the state line which divides Georgia 
and Tennessee, and is one of the most 
noted characters of that mountain re- 
gion. 

In the seventies Colonel Mills was a 
Republican, residing in Atlanta, and 
ran for congress on the Republican tick- 
et about the time of the political up- 
heaval that brought on such radical 
changes in the state government. He 
was a victim of existing circumstances, 
and without waiting until the ballots 
■were counted he gave up the fight in 
disgust. 

Not long afterward he removed to the 
remote corner of the commonwealth 
■where he now resides and possessed him- 
self of the historic town of Red Clay, 
including the ancient council house 
where Andrew Jackson and the chiefs 
of the Cherokees met for the last time 
preparatory to the removal of the tribes 
to their new territory in the west. He 
is full of anecdotes, and his stories car- 
ry one back to the days of the old Geor- 
gia militia, of which he was one of the 
commanding officers. 

"I shall never forget, " said he one 
day, "my first experience as a drillmas- 
ter. I was elected captain of a company 
down in Cobb county, the muster roll of 
which included the warlike denizens of 
the forest depths in the neighborhood of 
Lost mountain. Hunters, traders, trap- 
pers, squatters and crackers of low de- 
gree were included in this organiza- 
tion. I knew the character of the men 
that I had to deal with, and as my fa- 
ther was Major General Enoch R. Mills, 
then commanding the justly celebrated 
Georgia militia, I felt that I must keep 



tip tlie dignity of my office by arraying 
myself not only in authority, but in all 
the gorgeous habiliments of a high offi- 
cial in the Georgia militia. 

"I called to mind an old friend of my 
father's, Captain Howell, who lived 
over in Gwinnett county and who had 
recently resigned the command of his 
company. He possessed a gorgeous uni- 
form, with the most fetching epaulets 
that I ever beheld, and I made up my 
mind that I would apply to him for the 
loan of his paraphernalia to wear at my 
first drill, which was to occur on the 
following Friday. It was in the heat of 
the summer, after crops were laid by, so 
I mounted my gray pony and rode to 
the home of Captain Howell, who ex- 
tended to me an exceedingly warm re- 
ception. 'Lend you my coat and epau- 
lets:' said he when I told my mission, 
'Of course I will. I will do anything for 
the son of General Mills, who is my 
warm personal friend, sir, I am proud 
to say. Try on the coat and let us see 
how it fits. Aha, it is the very thing. 
Take it, with my compliments, sir, epau- 
lets and all, and may you wear it with 
the same distinguished honor with 
which your esteemed father has won the 
uniform of a major general of the Geor- 
gia militia, sir. Here is my sash, also, 
sir. ' And he handed me a silken sash as 
long as a fence rail, with a gold fringe 
on it like an old fashioned window cur- 
tain. After bidding him an affectionate 
adieu, I mounted the gray pony and 
started back home. 

'* 'Hold on there,' shouted Captain 
Howell after I had ridden a few paces. 
'Here is something else that you will 
need. Captain Mills.' And he overtook 
me and handed me a copy of Scott's tac- 
tics. I present you with this, sir, as the 
highest authority in the land. It has 
been carefully compiled by General 
Winfield Scott after the most approved 
methods and usages of the greatest com- 
manders of the age, sir. It is above and 
beyond all statutory law and is second 
and subservient only to the constitution 
of the United States, sir. Only follow 
its instructions and carry out its regu- 
lations and your future is assured, Cap- 
tain Mills. ' 

"With the uniform and sash carefully 
packed in my saddlebags and that copy 
of Scott's tactics in my left hand I rode 



1890. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



21 



off down the winding road in tbe direc- 
tion of Lost mouufaiu, where the citi- 
zen soldiers of iijy command were pur- 
suing their peaceful avocations. A cas- 
ual inspection of the cover of the book 
Bhowed me a military officer in full reg- 
imentals, and as I opened it and began 
reading my heart. swelled and my bosom 
glowed with military enthusiasm and 
patriotic ardor. 

"About 2 o'clock in the afternoeiu I ar- 
rived in the heart of the forest around 
Lost mountain, and it occurred to me 
that as I had never drilled acompuny of 
soldiers I ought to engage in some pre- 
liminary tactics and not make a display 
of my iguorfince to the men whom I ex- 
pected some day to lead to glory. So I 
turned aside into the forest, and after 
riding for 200 or 300 yards through the 
densest woods I ever saw I dismounted 
at the root of a fallen tree and tied my 
pony. 

"Divesting my.se]f of my coat, I put 
on the emblazoned and epauletted gar- 
ment presented to me by CaiDtain How- 
ell and invested myself with the glow- 
ing sash and its tinseled tassels floating 
in the wind. Taking position close to 
the fallen tree, where I thought it 
would be utterly impossible for any one 
to come upon me without my discover- 
ing his approach, I assumed a haughty 
and commanding posture, and with a 
copy of Scott's tactics opened in my 
hand I began drilling the imaginary 
squadron. 

" 'Carry ahmsl' I called in stento- 
rian tones. 

" 'Order ahmsl' 

'• 'Eight shoulder ahmsl' 

" 'Present ahmsl' 

" 'Recover ahmsl' 

"Baving gone through with this part 
of the evolutions to my entire sali-sfac- 
tion. I began on that portion of tbe 
manual which referred to loading and 
firing the old flintlock muskets then in 
use by the Georgia militia. 

'* 'Di-aw rammer!' 

" 'Bite olT cartridge!' 

*' 'Charge cartridge!' 

" 'Recover rummer I' 

" 'Open pan 1' 

" 'Prime paiil' 

" 'Clo.so pan I' 

" '2iake ready 1' 

•• 'Take aim !' 



=• 'Firel' 

*' 'Cease firing!' 

" 'Carry arms 1' 

** 'Well done, comrades,* said I, in a 
congratulatory voice to my imaginary 
squadron. ' You do remarkably well for 
men who have seen so little service. ' 
Then bracing myself against the log I 
called out : 

" 'Attention, company!' 

•• 'By the right wheel I' 

" 'Forward! March 1' 

"Then I began to imitate the tramp 
of soldiers, 'hep, hep, hep. Closer order 
there, men, clo.ser order ! Close up the 
rear rank! Steady men, steady 1 Halt, 
comrades!' said I, taking a step for- 
ward. 'You must learn to keep step. 
Keep your eyes front and follow your 
guides and hold your muskets in posi- 
tion. This will prevent so much confu- 
sion. 

" 'Forward, march! Hep, hep, hep, 
hep. ' 

" 'Halt!' 

" 'Stack ahmsl' 

•• 'Break ranks!' 

'• 'Comrades, ' cried I, in a voice trem- 
bling with enthusiasm, 'it affords me 
pleasure to compliment you upon your 
proficiency and the care and attention 
which you have given to these tactics, 
which are taken from the methods and 
usages of the greatest commanders of 
the age. I feel that I can rely upon each 
and every one of you to do his full dtrty 
toward his commander and his country 
when occasion offers. I feel from your 
gallant and soldierly bearing and exem- 
plary conduct today that your bosoms 
are inspired with that patriotic devotion 
to home and country which are the 
mainspring of every soldierly virtue. 
In the flash of your eyes and the bearing 
of your manly forms I behold that pride 
of patriotism which should animate our 
country's defenders, and I know that, 
should any foe invade our country and 
attempt any usurpation of our liberties, 
you would spring to arms and march in 
the defense of your country and your 
firesides to death or glorious victory.' 

"'Captain Mills,' said I, imitating 
the supposititions voice of my first lieu- 
tenant, 'we Itave listened with the pro- 
foundest pleasure to your words of kind- 
ly commendation, which we trust we 
gball merit in our future conduct. We 



23 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



January 



Lope to do full justice 1o all your c:x 
pectations, aud Id ihe d.iys to coma .u- 
stead of Caplain Mills we hope to hill 
you as Major General Mills, command- 
ing the Georgia militia.' 

" 'Lieuteuant, ' said I iu a trembliug 
voice, as if too much overcome for ut- 
terance and drawing my bandanna hand- 
kerchief from my hat, 'I cannot express 
the feelings of deep gratiUcatiou which 
your words have inspired iu my heart. 
I only hope that our relations may be 
always as pleasant as they have beeu on 
this occasion of our first meeting as com- 
mander and faithful followers. It is 
now with feelings of the deepest inter- 
est iu your future welfare that I bid you 
goodby. ' 

" 'Captain Mills,' said I, again imi- 
tating the lieutenant, 'we all join iu re- 
turning to you our most hearty good 
wishes. Comrades, three cheers and a 
tiger for Captain Mills of the Lost 
Mountain volunteers.' 

" 'Hip-hip-hoo-ra-y !' 

"When the echoes of that cheer had 
died away, I palled off my military coat 
and sash, carefully wrapped them up 
and placed them in my saddlebags 
along with a copy of Scott's tactics, and 
donning my everyday overcoat I started 
to mount my horse. I had one foot in 
the stirrup when I heard a little rustling 
in the foliage of the fallen tree. 

"Turning around, I stood face to face 
with the tallest mountaineer that I ever 
laid eyes upon. He rose slowly out of 
the crotch of the tree, and it seemed to 
me that he grew taller and taller as he 
straightened himself. He was red whisk- 
ered, red faced and cross eyed, and his 
flaming hair fell in wild profusion from 
■under his coouskiu cap. In his hand he 
held one of the old fashioned squirrel 
puncher rifles that glistened in the sun 
as he fixed me with his stern and bale- 
ful gaze. 

" 'Well,' said he, catching a deep 
breath, 'I've seen fools, I've read of 
fools, I've heard of fools, but of all the 
goldarned fools that ever I saw you are 
the goldarned infernalest. ' 

"By that time I had recovered my 
composure to some extent, and reaching 
in my pocket I pulled out a $2)^ gold- 
piece, the only money I had. 

" 'Look here, my friend, I don't sup- 
pose that you feel any particular inter- 



est in telling about this thing. You just 
take this and say no more about it.' 

" 'Well,' said he, sighing regretfully, 
'as I am not in the fool killing business 
I reckon I'll take you up. But I feel 
that I am missing a mighty fine oppor- 
tunity. ' 

"I mounted my horse and rode off, 
and that cross eyed mountaineer kept 
bis word. But never in all my experi- 
ence have I had such a close shave as I 
did on the occasion of my first drill."— 
Chicago Record. 



The Only Requisite. 

What is known in the United 
States and in England as "evening 
dress" for men plays quite a differ- 
ent part on the European continent, 
where the "swallowtail" coat and 
white cravat are regarded as requi- 
sites for "full dress" on any cere- 
monious occasion, whether during 
the day or in the evening. 

When the celebrated pianist, Hans 
von Bulow, went to England for the 
first time on a concert tour, he was 
much surprised to find that the cus- 
tom of the country made his dress 
suit inappropriate at afternoon con- 
certs, where he was expected to ap- 
pear in a frock coat with light trou- 
sers. 

Soon after his return from his tour 
a young pianist called on him to get 
his advice and opinion in regard to 
a comprehensive pianoforte method 
which he had just published under 
the title of "L'Indispensable duPia- 
niste." 

"Ah, my dear young friend, " cried 
the great musician with a whimsical 
smile, "you are far behind the times. 
You ought to travel and enlarge 
your mind. Then you will find out 
that the pianist's only 'indispensa- 
ble' is a pair of light trousers."— 
Youth's Companion. 



, Appropriate. 

In a bookstore: Customer — Have 
you "The Prisoner of Zenda" in pa- 
per? 

Salesgirl— No; bound.— Exchange. 



18'J(i. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



23 



THE CRANBERRY. 

Bow It Is Planted and IJeared and Where 
It I'^lourishcs. 

The cranlberry is native to cold, 
mossy bogs, sncli ns lio on the santly 
slopes of tlio Atlantic states and 
about the upper ^i-eat lakes. Where 
cold waters flow slowly through 
sands bogs arise. By the growth of 
ages a pond fills with vegetation and 
becomes a peat bog, the lower vege- 
tation decaying under water, form- 
ing peat. From the tangle of laurel, 
fern and sphagnum of the surface 
the change is gradual through dense 
masses of wnry stems of the true 
peat lying 20 or 30 feet below. In 
some of the bogs in southern New 
Jersey forests are buried. The bog 
sustains many hardy perennial 
shrubs, often heathlike plants, with 
a great quantity of whitish corallike 
moss called sphagnum growing up- 
ward from its decaying base. This 
vegetation holds slow moving waters 
like a sponge, and on its upper por- 
tions the cranberry, which is a sort 
of heather, flourishes in company 
with sheep laurel, ferns, rushes and 
saplings. The first step in cranberry 
tillage is to shave off from two to 
four feet of this surface. This proc- 
ess, called turfing — it is strictly 
unturfing — is followed by drainage. 
Ditches are dug at intervals of about 
five rods. A surface of sand is next 
spread over the top. The white life- 
less sand of the Massachusetts coast 
seems best suited, and in this warm 
bed the cuttings are stuck, some- 
times at regular intervals, sometimes 
sown broadcast and harrowed under. 

The first two years is a struggle 
with weeds. By the third the cran- 
berry gets ahead and keeps so. Aft- 
er the third year it comes to bear- 
ing. The plant is one of the beauti- 
ful allies of the heathers — a wiry, 
slender shrub, perennial and trail- 
ing, but miscalled a vine. It contin- 
ues to bear from 15 to 20 years and 
oan be mowed for pruning. Culti- 



vation consists chiefly in protection 
from the frosts and in dry seasons 
in moistening the lower part of the 
bed. This inclpdes a system of irri- 
gating ponds, dikes, gates, etc., of no 
small extent. In winter the bogs 
are laid under two feet of water to 
protect the vines from being winter 
killed, and they become frozen lakes. 
In spring they are drained off, but 
there is anxiety until June 10 on ac- 
count of the possibility of frost after 
the buds are set. Small bogs can be 
flooded soon enough to be protected 
against sudden frost, but this is not 
practicable on the large systems, 
which depend on water several miles 
distant. — Springfield (Mass.) Dnion. 



How They Made Up. 

He was a very nice looking young 
man, but he aiJiDeared nervous, and 
all the clerks in the ofQce looked at 
him curiouslj' when he rushed in 
and asked permission to use the tel- 
ephone. ' ' I want to talk to my wife, ' ' 
he explained, "and there is a tele- 
phone in the drug store next door 
tons, where she can talk to me." 
He was told to help himself. He 
went into the little glass apartment 
and closed the door, but he was not 
used to a telephone, being under the 
impression that it was necessary to 
shout into it at the top of his lungs, 
and so the clerks heard the entire 
conversation. 

"Hello! Is that Smith's drug 
store? Well, this is Mr. Jones. 
What? Mr. Jones ! J-o-n — Yes, 
that's right, next door. Will you 
call my wife to the telephone, please? 
Yes, I'll hold my ear here." A long 
pause, and then in a voice softly 
modulated: "Is that you, dear? I 
want to tell you how sorry — What? 
I say, I want to tell you how — You 
can't hear? Now, is this any better? 
Hello, dear! No, nol Don't bring 
the man to the 'phone. I'll try 
again. I — want — to — tell — you — how 
— sorry — I — am — for — being — cross 
— to — you — this — morning. Yes. Do 



24 



TIIK AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



January 



you forgive me? What? Oh! You 
say 'long a.eo.' Oh, you dear girl 1 
What's that funny noise? What? 
Spell it. Yes. K-i-s. Oh, yes; I 
understand. Here's one for you, 
sweetheart." 

Heretho young man made a noise 
like the pop of a champagne cork. 
Then he called oft' and walked away 
from the 'phone, blushing happily. 
— Philadeljohia Eecord. 

Sir Artliur Sullivan's Speech. 

I remember sitting before Sir Ar- 
thur Sullivan when he came to the 
old Fifth Avenue theater to produce 
"The Mikado. " He led the orches- 
tra well enough, -but when the per- 
formance was ended he was expected 
to make a siieeoh. Of all the speeches 
I ever heard from the lips of a full 
grown man that was the most re- 
markable. It consisted of 20 stutters 
and a stammer, 100 hesitations and 
1,000 dashes, countless "er's" and 
etill more "and er's. " He had his 
Ibaton in his hand and in his nerv- 
ousness nearly beat himself black 
and blue with it. — New York Press. 



Paper Gas Pipes. 

Gei'man papers assert that gas 
pipes made of paper are a success. 
Manilla paper strips are passed 
through molten aspbaltum and then 
molded under heavy pressure. Aft- 
er cooling, the pipes, which may be 
of any desired length, receive a wa- 
terproof coating. 



Unlucky. 

"Look here, young fellow," said 
the gentleman with the waxed mus- 
tache to the tramp who was stealth- 
ily approaching the vicinity of the 
free lunch counter, "if you're at all 
superstitious, I'd have you know 
that you're the thirteenth man who 
has worked that free lunch today." 

"Well, I guess 13 is dead unlucky, " 
replied the itinerant. "No. 12 seems 
to have got the last of it." — Yon- 
kers Statesman. 



CATCHING WILD PONIES. 

Hundreds of Animals Corralled on an 
Island Off Virginia's Coast. 

Chincoteague is a small island in 
the Atlantic close to the shore of 
Accomac county, in Virginia, Assa- 
teague is a long, narrow peninsula 
lying outside of Chincoteague and 
protecting it from the assaults of 
the Atlantic. Chincoteague is a 
glittering little island, brilliant with 
sand and salt water, densely peo- 
pled, well wooded and haunted by 
mocking birds. There is neither 
poverty nor crime there; drunken- 
ness is almost unknown, and doors 
are always unlocked. It is the 
boast of Chincoteague that no slave 
ever lived upon its soil, and that the 
island remained true to the Union 
throughout the war of the rebellion. 
There are no better sailors anywhere 
than the people of Chincoteague, 
and there are no stancher little boats 
than the Chincoteague canoe with 
double leg of mutton sail. 

Nobody knows positively the ori- 
gin of the Chincoteague ponies. It 
is only known that they have roam- 
ed the marshy pastures of the island 
for at least a century, and there is a 
tradition that the ancestors of the 
ponies camo ashore from a wrecked 
ship in the eighteenth century. 
These doubtless were full grown 
horses, and the Chincoteague pony 
of today is a degenerate through 
droughts in summer and exposure 
in the open pastures through long 
winters. But, degenerate as he is, 
the Chincoteague pony is a fine, 
hardy and often beautiful animal, 
with strength out of proportion to 
his size and when well broken has 
strength, agility and speed. He is 
from 10 to 12 hands high and from 
600 to SCO pounds in weight. From 
250 to 400 of these little creatures 
roam the island pastures. Thore 
are perhaps half as many on the 
lower end of Assateague. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



25 



A stalJK.n Icaus upon tlie pastures 
a group ut from lU to Ji5 mares and 
oolts. Tlio loader is on the constant 
lookout for danger, and at his snort 
his "whole polygamous family take 
to their heels. The ponies are real- 
ly far from wild, and one may easily 
approach within 15 or 20 yards of a 
group at pasture. The older stal- 
lions become fierce and quarrelsome 
and have to be removed from the 
pastures from time to time lest they 
should destroy one another or the 
younger stallions. 

They are all excellent swimmers, 
and -when the pastures become bare 
on Chiucoteaguo they frequently 
swim to the neighboring islets where 
the salt grass is still green. It is 
not uncommon to see from the top 
of Assateague light a group of horses 
bathing in the surf. The colts are 
born and nurtured upon the open 
pastures, and the annual pony pen- 
ning is for the double purpose of 
branding these colts and selling some 
of the older horses. 

Ponny penning day is still a fete 
day on CLiucoteague, The pen for 
the horses is built near the center of 
the village, and on the morning of 
the pony penning men and boys 
mounted on swift and well broken 
ponies ride out to the pastures to 
drive in the wild creatures. The 
groups of ponies are slowly driven 
together on the pasture and then 
started town ward. As the pen is 
neared the guards thicken, so that 
the whole band is easily driven into 
the inclosure. Branding irons are 
heated ; men with rojje nooses on the 
end of long poles leap into the pens. 
The colts are thrown to the ground 
and held there while the iron is ap- 
plied. The branding done, the auc- 
tion follows. Unbroken horses fetch 
from %2o to §40 each. Others bro- 
ken to harness fetch as high as $60. 
Well matched pairs sometimes fetch 
$150. The ponies have long been 
the pets of children of well to do 
families on the mainland and of late 



jrwars nave Deen soja over a large 
part of the United States. They are 
larger than Shetland ponies and 
more beautiful. — Cor. New York 
Press. 



No Courtship In Jerasalem. 

Of courtship as it is known in 
America or England there is none 
whatever in Jerusalem, writes Ed- 
win S. Wallace in Ladies' Home 
Journal. A young Mohammedan 
never sees the face of the girl who 
is to become his wife until after 
marriage. His mother and sisters 
may see her and report their impres- 
sions, but if it is a case where the 
union is by them considered a desir- 
able one they are likely to accredit 
her with charms she does not pos- 
sess. Among Jews and ChristiMis 
there is a greater latitude in this re- 
spect, though the young people are 
never permitted to see each other 
without the presence of a third par- 
ty. In every case the services of an 
intermediary are necessary. Brides 
at 14 are not uncommon and at 12 
occasion little remark. I have known 
of one bride 10 years of age. She 
was a Moslem. 



Prejudice. 

"Why is it you have so violent an 
antipathy to Righter's works? You 
never read any of them?" 

"No, but I smoked one of the ci- 
gars named after him once." — Indi- 
anapolis Journal. 



A Misunderstanding. 

Suitor — Beg pardon for interrupt- 
ing, buti— er — have just come — er — 
that is, I have just been speaking to 
your daughter, and she referred me 
to you. 

Old Gentleman — Gee crickets 1 I 
wonder if that girl thinks I am 
made of money. You are about the 
fortieth bill collector she has sent in 
today. If she doesn't marry pretty 
soon, 1*11 be bankrupt. — New York 
Weekly. 



26 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



January 



His Identity Fixed. 

"Yes," said the man -with the im- 
posing conversational manner, "this 
country has much to learn." 

"Think so?" replied the hotel 
clerk. 

"Emphatically. I am daily pained 
by its deficiencies in art, music, sci- 
ence and literature. What it wants 
is some person — some cultivated per 
son like myself, for instance — to 
show it how its books should be writ- 
ten, how its music should be com- 
posed, how its array should be dis- 
ciplined, how its government should 
be conducted" — 

Here he was interrupted by the 
shrill stage whisper of one of the 
bellboys : 

"Hi, Chimmy, tell de boss ter fire 
dat bride an groom out'n de parler 
suit on de secon floor. We's got de 
emperor of Germany wit' us in dis- 
guise. "-^Washingtun Star. 

The Glass Snake Only a Brittle liizard. 

The glass snake, which is not a 
snake any more than it is a turtle, 
has a tail about two-thirds its entire 
length. This tail, like the tails of 
about all lizards in the United States 
that I have met with, is very deli- 
cate and easily broken off at times. 
When a fourth to a half, or even 
more, of tba animal is detached and 
the head wriggles away, and the re- 
mainder and sometimes a larger part 
squirms in sight, it is an astonishing 
spectacle, and I am not surprised 
that the ignorant should clothe the 
creature wfch mysticism. But, as a 
matter of fact, all sensible people 
know that the fragments do not re- 
unite, for it vvould be impossible to 
fit together the ruptured blood ves- 
sels and shaviered nerves and restore 
the animal. Btill this story of tra- 
ditional force is believed by a host 
of people, along with other surpris- 
ing hoojD snake tales, milk snake 
whoiDpers, with quill throwing por- 
cupine relations and a thousand and 
one other and lesser untruths.- 



LONDON UNDERGROUND ROADS. 



Disagreeable to Travel on and Pay Poor 
I>ividends. 

John Fowler, with a small syndi- 
cate as his backers, laid down 43 
years ago an underground line of 
railway from Paddington station of 
theGreat Western railway to a point 
near King's Cross of the Great 
Northern, thus joining those two 
great streams of traffic. It was not, 
however, until 20 years later that 
the real basis of the present system 
was laid down by the Metropolitan 
Railway company. This was what 
is now known as the "inner circle." 
Some time afterward the Metropoli- 
tan District Railway company was 
formed, and the scheme then became 
of a more comprehensive character. 
Neither of these companies bas 
benefited its shareholders to any 
appreciable degree. The Metropoli- 
tan commenced paying 5 per cent 
dividend, but this dwindled down to 
3 7-8 in 1889 and has remained about 
that figure since. The Metropolitan 
District company never paid any- 
thing but a fraction and since 1883 
has paid no dividend whatever. The 
nominal capital of the Metropolitan 
is $58, 425, the number of miles in 
work being 38. The gross receipts 
average $300,000,460, and the net re- 
ceipts $1,964,000. The working ex- 
penses per mile amount to $1,500,- 
000, while the revenue per mile is 
$91,170. As for the District com- 
pany, its nominal capital is only 
$36,570 and its length of way 19 
miles. Its gross receipts average 
$1,985,000 and its net receipts $1,- 
036,000. 

The discomforts and dangers of 
this means of locomotion can never 
be estimated by any one who has 
not made a trip on the underground. 
At such centi'al stations as Gower 
street, where the traffic is great and 
the rails are laid down more than 30 
feet below the earth's surface, it is 
impossible to breathe without ill ef- 



189(5. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



lects. Tliore is no adequate outlet 
for the volumes of snlphurous smoke 
■which ponr from the tunnels as the 
trains pass through, and accordinp;- 
ly the station is filled with noxious 
fumes. Even in the hottest weather 
it is hotter to keep the windows of 
the railway carriages closed, hut 
■when the carriage is crowded, as at 
certain times of the day it always is, 
to excess, this is ohviously impossi- 
ble. Leading medical experts have 
given it as their distinct opinion 
that the underground railways have 
been directly the cause of a large 
number of new diseases. Those who 
constantly use the "underground," 
for so the lines of both companies 
are familiarly alluded to, develop ail- 
ments of the heart or lungs, while 
the eyes also frequently become seri- 
ously affected. To the stranger the 
effect of a journey on either the Met- 
ropolitan or District railway is sin- 
gularly painful. It produces head- 
ache and nausea and affects the 
chest and lungs in a marked degree. 
To a stranger the difficulties of 
travel by the underground are al- 
most insuperable. The lines are laid 
down in circles. Thus there are an 
inner, a middle and fin outer circle. 
The inner circle embraces the city 
proper and runs from Aldgate round 
to Aldgate again. But it is on the 
outer circle that the uninitiated 
traveler is m<jst likely to go wrong. 
He may be within five or ten min- 
utes' walk of the point he desires to 
arrive at, and not knowing this he 
goes to the Metropolitan or District 
railway and asks if he can book for 
such and such a station. The clerk 
always replies that he can, and the 
unlucky wight is put on board a 
train which will carry him round 
the whole Metropolitan area and 
take an hour in tho doing of it. — 
Chicago Times-Herald. 

War as a CiviUier. 

Merchants undoubtedly in early 
times penetrated foreign tribes and 



uatioijs ana Drougnt nome m adai- 
tion to their wares stories of what 
they had seen and learned abroad. 
But tho merchants wei-e too few, too 
ignorant and xn'ejudiced and too lit- 
tle given to observation to spread 
much useful information in this 
way, and their peoples were too self 
satisfied to give up any customs and 
beliefs of their own for those thus 
brought them. 

How, then, could any effective re- 
sult from national contact be pro- 
duced? In primitive times the only 
effective agency must have been 
that of war. Destructive as this is 
in its results, it has the one useful 
effect of thoroughly commingling 
diverse peoples, bringing them into 
the closest contact with each other 
and forcing upon the attention of 
each the advantages possessed by 
the other. The caldron of human 
society must be set boiling before its 
contents can fully mingle and com- 
bine. War is the furnace in which 
this ebullition takes place and 
through whose activity human ideas 
are forced to circulate through and 
through the minds of men. — Charles 
Morris in Popular Science Monthly. 

The NeTT Girl In Tr. . ■.,,;-. 

"Miss Minnie Eerthn Learned will 
now give us sonic very interesting 
experiments in chemistry, showing 
the carboniferous character of many 
ordinary substances, after which she 
will entertain us with a short treat- 
ise on astronomy and an illustration 
of the geological formation of cer- 
tain substances and close with a 
brief essay entitled 'Philosophy Ver- 
sus Rationalism.' " Thus spoke the 
president of a young ladies' semi- 
nary on tho class show day. 

A hard headed, old fashioned farm- 
er happened to be among the exam- 
ining board, and he electrified tho 
faculty and paralyzed Miss Minnie 
by asking, "Kin Miss Minnie tell 
me how unich 16 3-4 pounds of beef 
would come to at 15 1-2 cents a 



28 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 



Jattuary 



poundy" 

"Why, really, I— I"— gasped Min- 
nie. 

"Kin you tell me who is the vice 
president of the United States?" 

••Why— I— I— Mr. B., isn't he? Or 
is it"— 

"Kin you tell me where the Mis- 
sissippi river rises and sets?" 

**I — I don't just know." 

"I reckoned ye didn't. Gimme 
the good old days when gals and 
boys went to school to I'arn sense." 
—Our Dumb Animals. 



A I^ittle story of Stevenson's. 

I remember how Stevenson's face 
looked when he said that long though 
he had been tied to sedentary habits 
and deeply though he loved the art 
they permitted him to practice, the 
one thing in the world that he held 
to be the best was still the joy of 
outdoor living. It was a beautiful 
face just then, because it revealed a 
Boul which could endure without be- 
moaning itself. And for the same 
reason it was beautiful again when 
it turned merry over a little tale of 
attempts to learn the art of knitting 
as a solace for hours of wearisome 
languor — unavailing attempts, al- 
though he had persisted in them un- 
til he brought himself to the verge — 
nay, he declared, actually over the 
verge — of tears. An amusing little 
story it seemed as he told its details, 
yet in itself and in the manner of its 
telling it might have moved a lis- 
tener to tears in his turn, so uncon- 
scious did the teller seem that a life- 
long story of smiling conflict with 
bitter denials and restrictions, when 
reduced to its very lowest terms, 
then showed the vei'y sharpest, most 
tragical edge of its pathos. — "Robert 
Louis Stevenson and His Writing," 
by Mrs. M. G. Van Rensselaer, in 
Century. 

A writer in an Austrian paper says 
that Prince Biismarck's family is of 
Bohemian origin, and that the name 
was originally spelled "Duschek. " 



MANY JEKYLLS AND HYDES. 

Strange Double Lives Led by Well Known 
People. 

There are numbers of people who 
lead double lives. While in some 
cases the motives which influence 
such persons are pretty evident in 
many others one seeks a reason in 
vain. 

A lady well known in fashionable 
society, particularly in select ball- 
room circles, and whose wealth and 
personal attractions are matter of 
common comment, is in the habit of 
donning the role of a ballet dancer 
at a celebrated west end theater, 
where, under an assumed name, she 
finds ready employment. Her dual 
life is carefully kept a secret save 
from one or two of her most inti- 
mate friends, and neither her aristo- 
cratic connections on the one hand 
nor her associates on the stage on 
the other have any conception that 
Lady A — of polite society and Cissy 

M — of the theater are one and 

the same person. What the lady's 
motives can be for indulging in this 
dual existence it is not easy to see, 
but it is a fact that any scheme for 
the social improvement of theatrical 
employees finds in her a ready and 
munificent patron. 

Another lady, also well known in 
society, leads a curious double life. 
During the London season she occu- 
pies a legitimate place at the head of 
numerous social functions, but di- 
rectly the curtain is drawn over the 
high class carnival she shuts her big 
house in Mayfair and retires to the 
country, where, under another name, 
she superintends and carries on a 
prosperous business in the cheese 
farming line. When the season be- 
gins again, the management of the 
concern is placed in competent hands 
and the lady resumes her station in 
society. Money making is evidently 
not the influencing motive for this 
twofold existence, for the lady's 
private wealth is large, and the prof- 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



29 



xva or ine concern mentlonea are 
said to be greatly discounted in acts 
of charity. 

A dual life seems to possess great 
attractions for people in high sta- 
tions. A certain peer, bearer of a 
name that has in its day done 
doughty service in political life, 
spends half his time in his wonted 
sphere as a member of the aristoc- 
racy and the other moiety he whiles 
away by donning the blouse of a me- 
chanic in an engineering workshop. 

In similar manner another mem- 
ber of the hei'editary house is in the 
habit of often dropping his iden- 
tity as one of the "upper ten" and 
seeks and finds employment as en- 
gine driver on one of our prominent 
lines of railways. Yet another live 
lord is credited with leading the dual 
existence of a peer of the realm and 
driver of a hansom cab. 

The motives that influence such 
oases as these are different from the 
reasons actuating a London clergy- 
man whose income from clerical 
duty is so small that he finds it nec- 
essary to conceal his identity during 
four days of the week in order that 
he may supijlement his scanty sti- 
pend by doing the work of a wine 
merchant's clerk. 

By far the larger proportion of dual 
lives are adopted for nefarious pur- 
poses. Charles Peace, the notorious 
hurglar and murderer of Mr. Dyson, 
is an example of a criminal who for 
a long time successfully adopted a 
double role in life. At Lambeth, 
Greenwich and Peckham, where he 
successively resided in first class 
style, Peace led the life of a gentle- 
man of independent means, enjoying 
the respect of his neighbors, none of 
■whom had the remotest idea of asso- 
ciating him with the daring bur- 
glaries perpetrated in their midst 
during his residence among them, 
and of which he was in reality the 
author. It was the intimacy which 
his assumed position gained for him 
in getting admittance to the hDiuiAa 



of the gentry around that enabled 
him to commit some of his most no- 
torious robberies. — London Tit-Bits. 



Pencil Boxes. 

The pencil boxes now so common- 
ly carried by school children are 
made in about 125 different styles. 
They retail at from 5 to 25 cents 
each. Formerly all the pencil boxes 
sold in this country were imported 
from Germany, but for the last few 
years we have been making pencil 
boxes in America. About one third 
of the boxes sold here are of home 
manufacture and of superior quali- 
ty. The production is steadily in- 
creasing. All the locks used ar€ 
imported from Germany. There is 
a box made here with a catch instead 
of a lock, an American idea, which 
is made here entire. The cheaper 
German boxes are made by hand at 
the homes of the makers. The bet- 
ter ones are made in factories by 
tnachinery. All the American boxes 
are made by machinery in factories 
located in lumber growing regions 
in proximity to the wood supplies. 
— New York Sun. 



Met the Enemy and Won. 

"That new trunk of yours came 
through all right. It must be very 
strong." 

"Yes. The baggage man is wear- 
ing his arm in a sling." — Detroit 
Free Press. 



The Waltz In 1781. 

I was engaged in looking at these 
fine people when a gentleman and 
lady came whirling by and had al- 
most overwhelmed me. I could not 
imagine what they were about. I 
had scarcely extricated myself from 
the danger with which they threat- 
ened me when another and another 
couple came twisting by in like man- 
ner. I found on inquiry that this 
was a favorite German dance called 
a waltz and is performed in the fol- 
lowing manner: The lady and gen- 



30 



THE AMERICAN BllE- KEEPER. 



January 



tleman Sia: ^i lar;o vo taco. Tiie gen- 
tleniaii p. ..; iiis ax'iB around the 
lady's v.ai,-r, and -with the otber 
hand lie ^c^Xi. firm hold on her arm. 
You ^vould at first think they \\ere 
going to wrestle. Thus prepared 
and the gontleman having got so 
good a purchase upon the lady they 
begin to spin around and around 
with a velocity which would have 
made nie gidd.y in half a minute. — 
"Twining Papers." 

The Englisbi Tongue. 

It is said that the Duke of York's 
household is the first royal entour 
age in England to speak English. 
The queen's still holds to German 
for a steady language, and even the 
Prince of Vvales' comhines German 
and English, v;ith French mixed in. 

In fact, Babel was not more bless- 
ed with foreign tongues than these 
homes of the reigning family, but it 
seems the Duke and Duchess of 
York both determined to be "Eng- 
lish, you know," and commanded 
their household to stick to the ver- 
nacular without any regard for prec- 
edent. The czar of Russia, who 
boasts of having married an English 
princess, though she is wholly Ger- 
man, has also announced that Eng- 
lish shall be spoken with Russian at 
his court. This is because the czar- 
ina, having found the latter very dif- 
ficult to speak, her fond husband 
wishes to spare her all the annoy- 
ance possible. English is the finest 
language in the world, anyhow. — 
Boston Herald. 



POWER OF SPEECH OF THE CAT. 



A Substitate. 

"Have you 'The Manxman?' " in- 
quired the dignified customer with 
the gold headed cane. 

"The what?" said the new boy at 
the book store. 

" 'The Manxman.'" 

"I gwess you mean marksman, 
don't you? We've got a 'Life of Buf- 
falo Bill' I can sell you for 10 cents. 
How's that?"— Chicago Tribune. 



Argument In Favor of the Theory That 
Felines Can Converse. 

Theories of articulate language in 
the anin^al kingdom are advanced 
every day. Some of them are seri- 
ous, like Professor Garner's notion 
of an intelligent and intelligible 
speech of apes, but the most inter- 
esting are those which treat of the 
matter in a half humorous way 
which does not tax the credulity too 
far. Such a one is the theory of a 
feline tongue, exploited by the blind 
author, Marvin Clark, in his little 
book on ' ' Pussy and Her Language. ' ' 
He declares that the "smooth and 
liquid passages in our poets which 
express onomatopoeia are butechoeg 
from that most beautiful of all lan- 
guages, that of the cat." 

The one most like it among human 
tongues, he says, is the Chinese, the 
sounds in each being musical, mel- 
lifluous and pleasing to the senses. 
As in the Chinese, too, words in the 
cat's language have various mean- 
ings, according to the inflections of 
the voice. The number of words is 
very great, but the author has made 
up no complete lexicon of them as 
yet. The following 17, says a writ- 
er in the Buffalo Commercial, are 
the most important and frequent in 
the conversation which cats struggle 
to carry on with members of the 
household: Aelio means food; lae, 
milk; parriere, open; aliloo, water; 
bl, meat; ptlee-bl, mouse meat; 
bleeme-be, cooked meat; pad, foot; 
bo, head ; pro, nail or claw ; tut, limb; 
papoo, body ; oolie, fur ; mi-ouw, be- 
ware; burrieu, satisfaction or con- 
tent; yiaou, extermination; mi- 
youw, here. 

Of primitive words it is believed 
there are not more tha^ 600 in the 
cat tongue^ and many of these are 
obscure, for the cat relies greatly 
upon signs for making its meaning 
clear to those who havo neglected a 
study of its articulate speech. Thus 
the last word in the foreeoinff Hat is 



isyo. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Bl 



used by a matronly cat in calling 
her family together, and sLe will 
continne to nse it ■while caressing 
thera. 

"But the meaning of the word is 
neyer so well understood by kittens 
as when uttered in a sharp tone and 
repeated a number of times, more as 
an explosive than otherwise, for it 
is a warning of danger and a call for 
instant action from the mother cat, 
■who is imperious in her demands for 
obedience." 

Then there is the word "mi-youw, " 
■which is varied to "wow-teiouw- 
yow-tiow, wow-you-ts-s-syow, " end- 
ing in an explosion. The author be- 
lieves that the ^YO^d thus uttered 
signifies both defiance and a curse 
"and comes so near to bold, bad 
swearing" that he refrain.? from 
giving the English for it. 

There may be skeptical pe/sons 
■who will ridicule this theory, but we 
should say that it was just as rea- 
sonable as Professor Garner's, while 
the language of the cat sounds far 
more articulate and significant of de- 
sign than the squeaky vocabulary 
■which he brought home from goril- 
la land. One thing is certain — the 
means for carrying on investigation 
in the interesting field of feline lan- 
guage are available in almost every 
household, and to obtain the desired 
conversations from which a volumi- 
nous treatise upon it can bo written 
it is not necessary to go to Africa 
and remain fur six months shut up 
in a cage in the heart of th e forest. 

A florist, who claims to know, says 
New York u.ses 30,000,000 roses and 15,- 
000,000 ruirnatiODS every season. 



The Difference. 

Teacher — What is the difference 
between industry and luck? 

Boy — One door. 

Teacher — Humph! How do you 
explain that? 

Boy — Industry is what you has 
yourself. Luck is what your neigh- 
bor has. — Pick Me Un. 



Up and Down. 

Gadzooks— I tell you, Younghus- 
band dresses up his pretty wife in 
great stj^le. 

Zounds— That's all right, but her 
women friends make up for it by 
giving her a dressing down when- 
ever they talk about her. — New York 
Tribune. _^ 

RUDY'S PILE SUPPOSITORY 

is guuriinteed to cure Piles and CoiL-tipiition. or 
money refunded. 50 cents per box. Send two 
stamps for circular and Free Sample to MARTIN 
RUDY, Registered Pharmacist, Lancaster, Pa. 
No Postals Answerkd. For s«le by all first- 
class druggists everywhere, and in Jamestown, 
N. Y.. by FRANK W. PALMETER. 412 

Honey and Beeswax Market Report. 

Below we give tlie latest and most authen- 
tic report of the Honey and Beeswax market 
in different trade centers : 

Kansas City, Mo.. Dec 20,' 9.5.— Oood demand 
for honey. Price of No. 1 white comb V^J^cents. 
Amber ]2c. Dark 10c Extracted white OJ^ to "c. 
Amber 5 to iiMc jer lb. Bark i\i. Price beeswax 
22 to 25c per lb. 

Hambux & Bearss, 514 Walnut St. 

Dktuoit, Jlich.. Dec. 20. 1<S95.— The demand for 
honey is good, r^upply fair. Price of comb 12 to 
15c per pound. Extracted 6 to Tc per lb. Good 
demand for beeswax. Supply not heavy Prices 
2" to 28c per lb. 

M. H. HtNT. Bell Branch, Mich. 

Albany, N. Y., Dec li>. 18!I5.— .Moderate demand 
forlhoney. Supply not large. Price of comb 9 to 
15c per lb. Extracted i\i to ()}4c per lb. Good 
demand for beeswax. Supply light. Prices 2s to 
32c per lb The demand for honey is light as it al ■ 
ways is near the Holidays. 

H. R. Wright. 

Boston. Mass., Dec. 23. 1S95. — Fair demand for 
honey. Supply equal to the demand. Price of 
comb 14 to 15c per lb. 1 xtracted 5 to (ic per lb. 
K. E. Blakk k Co., 75 Chatham St. 
Cincinnati, C. Dec 20. 1895.— Only a fair de- 
mand for honey, (jood supply. Price of comb 12 
to 14c per lb. Extracted 4 to 7c per lb. Good de- 
mand for beewax. Good supply. Prices 22 to 27c 
per lb. All business is too slow for this time of 
the year and honey is no exception to the rule. 
Chas. F. Muth a Son. 

Cor. Freeman and Central Aves. 



Pasteboard Boxes or 
Cartons, 

For holding 1 lb. sections off 
honey, very cheap. 

For prices address, THE W. T. FALCONER 
M'F'6 CO., JAMESTOWN, N. Y. 



32 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



January 




WHITE SEWING MftGHiNtCO 

CLEVELAND; OlflO. ^ 



Italian Queens 

Untested May $1.25 June 

$1.00 July to Oct. 75c 

each. 3 for $2.00. 

lestea Queeus $1.50 each. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
Send for free illustrated circular to 
THEODORE BENDER. 
12-tf Canton, Ohio, 




ERS OF BEES and those in- 
tending to keep bees should 
write us for large ill list' d eat- 
aldgue and cupy cf ^\.\ii'.ni- 

CAN BF.E-KEKPKR.(niOntbl\ .) 

Ourii/- ices avblowestsiudslock 
largest. We keep everything 
used by bee-keeprs.including, 
text books, comb foundations. | 
allstvleshives,ctc. Addri^s 

W. T. Falconer Mfgl 
Co. Jamestown, N.YT I 



ri;- iccs arblowtst'dudslock 

BEES 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE W T FALCONER MANPG CO 



VOL. VI. 



FEBRUARY, 1896. 



NO. 2. 



Many Bees, Much Honey. 

I5Y G. M. DOOLITTLE. 

Some years ago I secured 566 
pounds of extracted honey from one 
colony of bees in one season, and re- 
ported the same to several of the 
different papers, especially those de- 
voted to bee culture. This was con- 
sidered a large yield at that time, and 
is still so considered by those who 
have not kept posted along the lines 
of large yields since then, yet many 
of our best bee-keepers believe that it 
is possible to obtain 1,000 pounds 
from a single colony in a good season; 
in fact nearly or quite that has been 
reported once or twice, while reports 
of 600 pounds and above have been 
made by several. However, as some 
are skeptical on this point of large 
yields, believing that they are more 
fallacious than otherwise, perhaps a 
few words regarding how it is done 
will not be amiss, especially as a letter 
lies before me asking that I explain in 
the American Bee-Keeper how such 
results can be secured. In the spring 
of the season jabove mentioned I se- 
lected an ordinary colony of bees, and 
set it apart for extracted honey. I 
built them up as fast as possible and 
when the fruit trees came in bloom 



the queen had brood in twelve frames, 
and from that source I obtained 16^ 
pounds. A few days after this the 
twelve frames, bees and all, were set 
into a hive four feet long, and a div- 
ision board placed at the rear of the 
frame of comb. Once a week two 
more empty combs were inserted in 
the center of the brood nest until the 
hive contained twenty combs well fill- 
ed with brood. As white clover was 
not yielding honey, the hive was filled 
out with frames of empty comb, which 
numbered 32. I did not expect that 
the queen would occupy any of these 
last twelve combs, but in this I was 
mistaken, for before white clover was 
through yielding honey I found brood 
ine every one of the 32 combs, which 
if placed compactly together, was 
fully equal to fifteen frames of brood, 
coming out to the wood all around. 
Each frame would give at least 100 
square inches, making all due allow- 
ance for the ,few cells of pollen that 
would be scattered about in different 
cells, and each square] inch gives 50 
worker bees, hence there were 5,000 
bees to hatch out of each of these 
frames every 21 days, or 75,000 from 
the fifteen frames. The average life 
of the bee in the working season is 45 



34 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



February 



days, hence it will be seen that the 
queen can place two and one- seventh 
generations of bees on the stage of ac- 
tion, to where one generation dies off. 
Two and one-seventh times 75,000 
equal 160,700, as the number of bees 
in the hive during the basswood yield. 
It was a sight worth beholding when 
they were just starting for the field in 
the morning, for they would rush out 
like an army, and then, later, the en- 
trance would be a' living mass going 
to and fro. From clover, they gave 
186 pounds ; from basswood 287| 
pounds, and from buckwheat, 76 
pounds, making 566 in all. Now, 
supposing that instead of securing 
this large amount of bees in one hive, 
I had not worked them at all, but had 
left the bees to take care of them- 
selves, as the most of the doubting 
ones do leave their bees, what would 
I have had ? The queen would have 
only laid moderately, so that by the 
time white clover had begun to yield 
honey they would have had only 
about from 25,000 to 30,000 bees. At 
about this time the bees would have 
swarmed, thus dividing their number, 
while there would have been no lay- 
ing queen in the old hive to lay eggs 
for the basswood and buckwheat 
workers, for nearly or quite three 
weeks. Besides this there would in 
all probability have issued one or more 
after-swarms, this dividing the bees 
still more, thereby defeating the pros- 
pect of any honey at all from the old 
colony, so that were we to call 20,000 
bees an ordinary colony as kept by 
the majority of bee-keepers we would 
not be far Jout of the way. This 
would give but about 71 pounds per 
colony, had that colony of bees been 
divided up in this way, so that in 



reality that big yield when brought 
down in this way to its proportion, 
according to the number of bees, there 
were in the hive, is nothing very 
great after all ; for no one would call 
71 pounds of extracted honey per col- 
ony, in a good season, an exaggerated 
report. How long will it take would 
be bee-keepers to understand, that it 
is bees that gather honey, not the 
number of hives that they have stand- 
ing in the yard. A large colony of 
bees will do more than will a small 
one, in proportion, for the outside 
elements do not have that chilling 
effect on the hive' of a populous col- 
ony that they do on a hive with a few 
bees in it. Thus more bees go to the 
field, and all work to better advantage. 
For years it has been forced upon me 
more and more that the main secret 
in securing a large yield of honey, is 
to get plenty of bees, just at the right 
time to take advantage of the honey 
harvest. If these bees are brought 
on the stage of action too early, they 
are of little use, and if too late, they 
only become consumers instead of 
producers. Sensible people hire lab- 
orers just when they have labor to be 
preformed ; not before, and not after- 
ward, and why should we not be as 
sensible in regard to the producing of 
the bee laborer ? If a^ person under- 
stands their location and secures their 
bees as above, they will have no cause 
to complain of their yield of honey, if 
the season is such and they have flow- 
ers to secrete nectar. On this one 
thing of securing bees in time for the 
harvest, more than on any other one 
thing, depends our yield of honey, 
Borodino, N. Y. 



Subscribe for the AMERICAN BEE=KEEPER. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



35 



Does Bee-Keeping Pay ? 

EY C1IA8. H. TUIES. 

This question I have often seen 
asked through the journals, and have 
seen it answered as often, and this 
C[uestion is daily asked me, and my 
answer is yes, or I surely would quit 
the business. Yet while / can make 
it pay it does not follow that you can 
make it pay, or at least not that you 
will make it pay. Unless you have a 
natural liking for the business you 
will hardly make it pay, this we will 
find in all kinds of business, either 
you will drive your business or your 
business will drive you, just this is 
one great trouble with many of our 
bee-keepers, nothing will be done with 
the bees or in the apiary until it is 
just absolutely necessary, and often 
not then. In some branches of busi- 
ness certain things can be postponed 
or delayed for a time without any 
serious loss, but bee-keeping surely 
does not belong to this kind of busi- 
ness, if you are behind with your work 
in the apiary you will surely have a 
loss, which you cannot regain by dili- 
gent labor afterwards. 

Ever since I have kept bees I have 
tried to be ahead with my work, i. e. 
I would try to have everything pre- 
pared as much as practicable during 
the winter months, and yet I don't 
remember of a single season where I 
was as well prepared as I might have 
been, this has convinced me that we 
cannot commence preparations any to 
soon, and I now make it a business at 
the close of one season to make ready 
for another. I am well aware that 
doing everything in the right way and 
at the right time does not always as- 
sure or secure us a success, but often 
it decides our success, and it is always 



very desirable. To make anything 
pay in dollars and cents requires some 
thought and study. We may be able 
to learn a great deal by reading, by 
observation, etc., but because some- 
body else made a certain thing pay by 
following a certain course does not 
assure you of the same success. You 
must learn from practical experience 
what methods are best adapted for 
you to pursue, and what is best for 
your locality. 

In conclusion would say, make all 
possible preparation now, then if we 
should again fail in securing a good 
big surplus we will know that we did 
our part of the work, and if we do not 
then need them they will be ready for 
another season. Thus far we have 
had a very mild winter in Southern 
Illinois. Bees appear to be wintering 
nicely, and should this mild weather 
continue all through the winter might 
it not be possible that it would make 
a change for the better in bee keep- 
ing ? At any rate I am expecting to 
again see one of the good old honey 
flows as of old. 

Steeleville, 111. 

Successful Bee Keeping. 

BY JNO. F. GATES. 

Since I wrote about keeping bees in 
large box hives for breeding I have 
received so many letters on the subject 
that from sheer force of numbers, if 
kept up, will persuade me into the 
belief that I am "some pumpkins" 
or drive me into know-uothingism, 
and either event would be sad. There- 
fore, to save my conscience from re- 
morse for not answering those who 
forgot to enclose postage, I will try 
and make the matter plainer with 
reference to box hives for breeders, 



36 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



February 



although I do not see how I can add 
more to the subject, and to answer 
the questions as propounded would be 
too much. I think if I explain the 
principle as well as I can it will cover 
the ground. The majority of bee 
keepers are not experts, and they have 
a hard time with their ups and downs 
in bee-keeping, and to this class was 
my article directed. Although Dr. 
Miller and others in the front rank 
have written to me favorably on the 
subject, I don't expect the world to 
fall over itself in an effort to adopt 
the plan, yet the plan is a good one I 
think, and will bring delight when in 
spring you see those long sheds open 
only to the east, full of tall hives, 
strong with bees, heavy with honey, 
and roaring with delight as the bees 
crowd and push in a mad rush to se- 
cure the early pollen, and with large 
parts of the combs filled with hatching 
brood, and ah ! sad fate, they have 
gathered unto themselves several doz- 
en swarms that were weak and belong- 
ed to some[ expert but thought they 
needed hovering. Of course you are 
sorry for that, and can well afford to 
make it right, for you aren't slipping 
two steps back at every one taken 
forward, and that is the principle or 
idea of the whole theory, simply that 
farmers and all who care to keep bees 
can have a substantial income every 
year if pursued on this plan with no 
worry about their bees dying, and they 
skip all the work and fuss attending 
the keeping of them in small hives. 
Because a small hive if good to put a 
large swarm in and compel them to 
store section honey in good shape, it is 
not always prudent to winter them in 
such small hives. Because you salt 
down a pig in a barrel after he is kill- 



ed, it isn't very prudent to winter him 
in a barrel when alive. You see we 
can't run live stock by machinery. 
We must conform to the natural if we 
would have success. I don't hate 
patent hives, I simply try to find 
something better for wintering bees, 
and have found it. 1 think the 
winter problem^ will never be solved 
by the majority of those who winter 
in frame hives, and this very uncer- 
tainty keeps our supply dealers be- 
wildered as to their chances for the 
next season. It is hardly thus with 
any other branch of farming, which 
is pursued on a more natural basis. 
I think supply dealers would reap a 
greater harvest under the new method, 
and be far more regular in their out- 
puts of supplies. But I'm off the 
subject of this article, and repeating 
some of which I have already said in 
others. You can read in previous 
articles of the beautiful unstained 
honey taken from those large swarms 
which come off just at the right time, 
and are put in as small hives as possible, 
and run for all they are worth, and 
then in the fall done with as you wish, 
it matters little what, for sure haven't 
you got an acre or two of those solid 
old breeders with which to do the 
same thing over again next year. 
Certainly you have, and the way 
people fall oyer themselves in an 
effort to see which will be able to 
purchase your spotless honey is amus- 
ing. Now friends, by your questions 
you seem to think I have got some 
peculiar patent hive for breeders, or 
perhaps you half suspect that I am 
almost ready to launch it in the sea of 
credulity, and that with a good head 
of steaaa I will plow the already over 
burdened waves of misery, and make 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



37 



confiisiou Miul misery more confound- 
ed and unhappy, and at last reach the 
haven of rest with many tons of shin- 
ers in my pocket. But you are mis- 
taken, I aint built that way. I am 
rather inclined to be conservative. I 
try never to let a thing go out of my 
hands until I have unsnarled it, then 
I ara willing to try to show others how 
to do the same thing. I see that in 
the mad rush for the unseen, unthink- 
able and unheard of, there has been 
some grand principles in bee-keeping 
overlooked. That while new inven- 
tions are often valuable, it is not wise 
to say all old ways are foolish, or to 
call all fools vvho have lived before 
our time, or that some old systems 
cannot go hand and hand with new 
inventions to great advantage, and he 
who is wise will, it seems to me, com- 
bine the good which he may find in 
both old and new with out prejudice. 
By the questions asked me I see I 
have got into the habit which most 
people fall into, of not explaining 
things plain enough. I will try and 
do better. When 1 said my breeders 
■were 18 or 30 inches tall, I meant that 
between those figures was safe ground, 
but to be exact, I have found that 24 
inches tall by 12 inches square is the 
best size. When I say six or eight ^ 
in. holes in the top of the hives, it 
might seem a little indefinite, for a 
beginner, and perhaps half of that 
number would be enough. It is a 
hard matter to lay down iron rules in 
such cases, for locations and coudi- ' 
tions vary so much that one rule 
might not work well for all. I would 
advise beginners to try some hives 
with one ^ in hole, others with 2 holes 
same size, and others with three, and 
perhaps some with four on top of the 



hive for ventilation with a very loose 
box that is not made of very sound 
lumber, except on top, turned) bottom 
up over the holes, then watch and see 
which winters best. I will try and 
write another article and tell what I 
know about ventilation which is about 
as important a part of bee-keeping as 
there is. I dont know of any book 
which treats on the care of bees in box 
hives. All bee books treat on tearing 
box hives to pieces thus ruining their 
best prospects, but I will try and tell 
you in the A. B. K. how to keep them 
in box hives. 

Ovid, Erie Co., Pa. 

^ ■■■ ^ 

[Read before the Ontario Co.. (N. Y)., Bee-Keep- 
er.s' Association, Jan. 25, 1896]. 

Gravenhorst on Apis dorsata. 

TRANSLATED BY FRANK BENTON. 

The opinion of one of the foremost 
bee-masters of Germany in regard to 
A-pis dorsata is certain to receive the 
respectful consideration of thoughtful 
bee-masters, not alone in his own 
country, but also in the western world. 
In the Deutsche illustriete Bienenzeitung , 
for November 1895, (Vol. XIII, No. 2), 
page 71, the editor, C. J. H. Graven- 
horst, quotes from the article on this 
subject* written by me for the annual 
meeting of the Ontario County, (N. Y). 
Bee-Keepers' Association in 1895, and 
says : 

" On this side as well as on the other, 
that is, in Germany as in America, 
Apis dorsata, the great bee of East 
India, is constantly coming up in arti- 
cles in the bee journals as well as in 
essays at conventions. While some 

*N<)TE.— "Apis dorsata: the Giant Bee of India," 
by Frank Benton. Read before the Ontario Co., 
<N. Y).. Bee-Keepers' Association, Jan. 26, 1895, 
and published in the American Bek-Kkkper for 
March, 1895. 



38 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



February 



bee-keepers have not given up the 
hope of being able to cultivate in 
modern bee- hives this, the largest 
species of the honey-bee, and of being 
able to obtain a cross between it and 
our ordinary bee, others contend 
against the possibility of the fulfill- 
ment of these hopes. We acknowl- 
edge frankly that we belong to those 
bee-keepers who have no more given 
up the hope of utilizing Aph dorsata 
for apiarian or scientific purposes than 
have Messrs. Dathe, of Eystrup, and 
Frank Benton, of Washington, D. C. 
These two gentlemen are the only real 
bee-masters who have observed, studied 
and handled the East India bee in its 
native land. When Benton returned 
from his East India journey we re- 
ceived from him about a dozen speci- 
mens of Apis dorsata, half of them 
workers and the others drones, but no 
queen. At the first glance we saw 
that the insects sent to us were honey- 
bees, which differed from our bees 
only in size and color. A difference 
— such as, for example, is claimed by 
Vogel between these two species of 
bees — like that between a wasp and a 
honey-bee, exists no more than be- 
tween a pony and a large work-horse, 
or a Cochin China fowl and an ordi- 
nary native fowl. Upon viewing these 
two species of animals anyone says at 
once : those are horses and hens. So 
also in our case : those are bees, and 
not bees and wasps. 

''The workers of the East India 
honey-bee are, as already remarked, 
exactly like our workers as regards 
the form of their bodies only they are 
about as large as good-sized, well-de- 
veloped virgin queens from an after- 
swarm. Also as regards the markings 
of Apis dorsata there is, aside from the 



changing, azure-blue color of the 
wings, no striking difference between 
a pure Egyptian or a finely marked 
Italian on the one hand, and the East 
India bee on the other. And now as 
to the drones of the latter. They have 
not only the form of body which is so 
characteristic of the drones of our 
native bees, but also exactly the size 
of body, as well as of head, thorax, 
abdomen, wings, and legs of large 
native drones. The somewhat differ- 
ent coloration counts as nothing at all. 
Why, under such conditions, should a 
desired mating of the East India bee 
with the native not take place just as 
well as between a pony and a larger 
horse, between a Cochin China fowl 
and our common fowl — especially 
when we consider further that Apis 
dorsata produces exactly such wax and 
in the same manner as our Apis rnelli- 
fiea, and that her honey is of the same 
quality as that of tlie latter ? The 
style and manner in which the East 
India bee constructs her combs — in a 
single, wheel-shaped disc attached to 
the under side of a branch or of any 
overhanging rock, that she leaves her 
combs and migrates further when for- 
age fails — these peculiarities, which 
are determined by surrounding condi- 
tions, can hardly stand in the way of 
their crossing. All this, as well as 
their experiences in general with ^pis 
dorsata, have by no means discouraged 
the two gentlemen, Benton and Dathe, 
in considering further experiments 
with the East" India bee — indeed, to 
undertake these experiments in case 
opportunity for such should occur. 

" Frank Benton in an article on 
'Apis dorsata or the Giant Bee of 
India ' recently published by him, 
says, after having answered certain 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



39 



objections which some had brought 
up against a larger bee than our do- 
mestic bee : 

" ' Some one has stated that 1 thought 
Apis dorsata could be crossed with our 
hive-bees. But no one can point out 
where I said it nor show it over my 
name. I have, however, stated that, 
considering the fact that the drones 
oi. Apis dorsata are about the same 
size as our own, it is possible they would 
mate and produce offspring. But 
that does not in the least imply that I 
think they would do so. And the fact is 
I consider it extremely doubtful, — 
another case where only careful ex- 
periment will decide. Distinct species 
of animals do cross, and occasional 
instances have been noted where the 
offspring has proved fertile. The 
drones of Apis dorsata resemble very 
much those of Apis mellifica in size 
and general appearance, which argues 
in fav'or of their crossing, but their 
habits differ somewhat, which is, of 
course, against it. Whether, should 
they cross, the result w^ould be an im- 
provement is also a question which 
only actual trial will ever settle. 

" JNIr. Benton closes with the follow- 
ing : 

"'In conclusion I would add that 
the settlement of all these points and 
other interesting and more purely 
scientific ones connected with these 
bees, is something which I have long 
believed worth the effort and expense 
of another journey to India. In this 
opinion Mr. Dathe agrees with me 
fully, and he even proposed when I 
met him in Fairport at one of the 
great German-American bee-conven- 
tions, that we undertake together a 
journey to India after Apis dorsata. 



But the uncertainty of direct personal 
gain, indeed I might say the certainty 
of not being able to cover the personal 
expenses of such a journey if under- 
taken privately, together with the 
fact that it would require some ready 
capital at the outset, will probably 
leave such work to be performed, as 
it ought to be, by our national gov- 
ernment, which spends annually many 
thousands or dftllars for the further- 
ance of her agricultural interests and 
for the advancement of pure and ap- 
plied sciences.' " 
Washington, D. C. 

THE ICE AGE. 

For centuries the North was an ice-locked 
land, and conditions of life had changed. 
From the pole to the southern ice limit, not 
one mountain projected its head above the 
unbroken snow: even Mount Washington 
was deep down under the surface. 

Manhattan Island lay buried at least fif- 
teen hundred feet under the ice ; a wild, 
weird stillness rested over this favored spot, 
interrupted only by the crashing of the ice 
as pieces broke from the end of the glacier 
beyond the Narrows and, as icebergs, floated 
out to sea. 

Ages had now passed since man first ap- 
peared in his primeval home. Some pro- 
gress the race had made, but man was siill 
a rude and untutored savage : his crude 
weapons were only pieces of roughly chipp- 
ed stone ; but it was man with progressive 
and endless mind. And as the years pass- 
ed the rude palfeolithic ancestor gave place 
to men with a higher degree ot primitive 
art ; fiint tipped arrows and axes of stone 
now gave man the mastery over every ani- 
mal: food was uo longer a matter of cliance, 
but a matter of skill Siill, at war with the 
elements, wild beasts, and savage neighbors, 
it was a fearful struggle : the world at the 
best was then no Garden of Eden. 

For twenty thousand years or more the 
ice, with iis variou> advances and retreats, 
covered the North. Then began its final 
departure ; but it was probably as slow in 
going as it had been in coming. The land 
began gradually to sink, tlie waiers became 
milder, and the summers longer. — Harvey 
B. Bashore, in February Lippincott's. 



40 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



February 




Mr. Editor. — Allow me to make a 
correction, explanation, or whatever 
may be necessary, to straighten out a 
a matter about which two paragraphs 
have appeared in A. B. K. The South- 
land Queen printed a series of lessons 
upon which the editor of Gleanings 
commented favorably, evidently un- 
derstanding them to be original mat- 
ter. I corrected him by saying they 
were copied from the American Bee 
Journal, Then he understood that 
they were copied without credit, and 
said, "This is a surprise. We turn 
to the Atchleys for a reply to this 
charge." I replied that there was no 
charge against the Atchleys in what I 
had said, and that they had acknow- 
ledged the source of the lessons, only 
I wanted to correct him in crediting 
to one paper what belonged to another. 

Now you have the whole thing in a 
nutshell, and you will see that 1 have 
never made any charge whatever 
against the Atchleys, and I'm wonder- 
ing just a little where you gel any 
authority for saying that I charged 
them with "filching" from the A. B. J. 
The only charge that can be made 
against them in the matter is careless- 
ness in not crediting each time when 
copying, for in one number no credit 
was given, and that number being the 
one upon which the editor of Gleanings 
commented, led him into the mistake 
of supposing that the matter was 
printed as original, a mistake that 
was entirely excusable on his part. 



But you will see that until the present 
moment I never made even this much 
of a charge, merely saying the articles 
were copied. C. C. Miller. 

Marengo, 111., Jan, 15, 1896. 

[We are very glad to be " set to 
rights " on the matter, and that the 
Atchleys are clear from all blame. 
The trouble seems to have been with 
the editor of Gleanings. It was from 
Gleanings that we got the idea that 
the articles were " filched" and owing 
to the close acquaintance between Dr. 
Miller and the editor of Gleanings we 
took it as a matter of fact that the 
remarks of the latter were absolutely 
authentic. — Ed.] 



W. T. Falconer Man'f'g. Co., 
Jamestown, N. Y. — Gentlemen : Your 
favor of Jan. 6th received today. 
Please find enclosed Post-oflice Order 

for to pay for our supplies. We 

could not be any better satisfied with 
our supplies received from you last 
year and no doubt these will be the 
same. Yours, Loan Bros. 



Editor Am. Bee Keeper. — Dear 
Sir: My subscription to the "Bee 
Keeper " expired with the close of 
'95, but please enroll me for 1896^and 
I will pay you when ordering my sup- 
plies. I am not discouraged in bee 
keeping, although last summer was a 
partial failure. The cold wave in 
May prevented increase, therefore I 
have new hives empty. I trust the 
future will be brighter. Although I 
live in a section destitute of basswood 
yet I managed to secure from 22 hives 
one thousand one pound sections of 
fall honey, principally from buck- 
wheat, and my bees were in good con- 
dition for wintering. They are win- 



189G. 



TUE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



41 



tering very nicely thus far, especially 
those iu the thin vvalleil hives In niy 
opinion this hive is a first class one 
for wintering bees. I just take off 
the surplus cases and put the flat cov- 
ers on and allow the bees to seal it 
fast; then I pack with leaves at the 
sides and on top and keep a snow ex- 
cluder at the entrance and they are 
left on the summer stands. 1 have 
not lost one swarm since using these 
hives during a period of four years. 

Yours truly, Elwood Bond. 

McMichaels, Pa., Jan. 25th, 1896. 



DEATH OF iMKS. LYMAN C. ROOT. 

Editor Am. Bee Keeper. — Dear 
Sir : The sad intelligence reaches me 
of the death of Mrs. Libbie Quinby 
Root, only daughter of Mosses Quinby 
and wife of Lyman C. Root, which 
occured at their home in Stamford, 
Conn. Jan. 16, 1896. 

Mrs. Root was stricken with par- 
alysis on the morning of the 15th and 
died the following morning. She was 
a woman of rare intelligence and had 
she given her attention to literary 
pursuits would have gained celebrity. 
Bee-keepers knew her as a literary 
editor of Q,uiuby's Bee Keeping and 
later of the same as revised by her 
husband. The sketches from which 
the engravings were made for these 
works were also from her pencil. She 
was a natural artist and iu drawing or 
painting from nature displayed gen- 
uine artistic talent. Her highest am- 
bition centered in her home and in 
the education of her two daughters. 
No matter how busy with household 
duties or the entertainment of visiting 
bee-keepers, time was found for the 
daily lessons of the girls, and also for 
reading and discussing with the fam- 



ily the best books and literature. In 
thus giving her life so unselfishly to 
the improvement of others her own 
character developed by the maturing 
of those qualities of mind and heart 
that must endure forever. It is grat- 
ifying to be able to state that her 
husbaud and family fully appreciated 
her many excellent qualities. Her 
presence, her sympathy and her coun- 
sel will be sadly missed in the home 
circle. Bee-keepers everywhere in 
the English speaking world will unite 
with me in extending heart felt sym- 
psithy to Mr. Root, the daughters and 
aged Mother Quinby. 

P. H. Elwood. 
Starkville, N. Y., Jan. 22, 1896. 

woman's sphere. — ELIZABETH CADY 

STANTON SAYS THAT THERE IS NO 

LONGER A " WOMAN'S SPHERE." 

The education of a man and a woman 
should be the same, because their spheres 
are the same, with different duties accord- 
ing to the capacity of the individual. 
Woman, like all created things, loves, moves 
and has her being obedient to law, explor- 
ing with man the mysteries of the universe 
and speculating in the glories of the hereaf- 
ter. The question is now the sphere of the 
individual, irrespective of sex. Woman are 
now in the trades and piofessions, — every- 
where in tlie world of work. They have 
shown their capacity as students in the sci- 
ences, tlieir skill as mariners, and their 
courage as rescuers in life boats. They 
are close on the heels of men in the arts, 
sciences and literature, in their knowledge 
and understanding of the vital ((uestions of 
the hour, and in the everyday, practical 
duties of life. A woman should be given 
the opportunity to know all that a man 
knows, and her educ;»tion should teach her, 
first of all, self respect and self-reliance, — 
From "The Education of Our Girls,'" in 
Demorests Magazine for February. 



42 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPEB. 



February 




(From Ontario Co. Journal). 

ONTAEIO OOUNTY BEE KEEPEES' 

ASSOCIATION'S ANNUAL 

MEETING. 

At the Ontario County Bee Keep- 
ers' association's annual session held 
in this village last Frida}"^ and Satur- 
day, various subjects of interest to 
apiarists were discussed. 

Walter F. Marks, president, in his 
annual address, advocated the adop- 
tion by the society of a system of 
marketing, whereby the producers of 
a first class honey would be assured of 
securing first class prices. He would 
have an inspector appointed by the 
society to place a stamp upon all No. 
1 honey, which stamp would bear the 
seal of the association, and be a guar- 
antee to purchasers of the quality of 
the product. The plan was adopted, 
and E. H. Perry was appointed honey 
inspector. 

The secretary read a translation 
from a German Apiarists' publication, 
entitled " Gravenhorst on Apis Dor- 
sata," which contained comments on a 
paper read before the local association 
last year, prepared by Frank Benton, 
of Washington, D. C. After the 
reading of the paper, it was moved 
by H. L. Case, that the petition offer- 
ed at the last annual meeting, for the 
introduction of the Apis Dorsata be 
endorsed by the association. This 
was done, and the executive commit- 
tee was instructed to have the petition 
printed and distributed. The Apis 
Dorsata is the giant bee of India. 



The following officers were elected : 
President, W. F. Marks, Chapin villa ; 
Vice Presidents, Lee Smith, Vincent ; 
H. L. Case, BristolCenter ; E. H. Perry, 
South Bristol ; Secretary, Ruth E. Tay- 
lor, Bellona; Treasurer, Heber Roat; 
Reed's Corners; Honey Inspector, E, 
H. Perry, South Bristol. The Asso- 
ciation has a membership of forty, in- 
cluding honorary members. 

The question box was an interesting 
feature of the meeting. Among the 
exhibits were different samples of 
comb foundation, manufactured by J. 
VanDeusen & Son, of Sprout Brook, 
N. Y. ; A.I. Root Co., of Medina, O.; 
Schmidt & Thiele, New London, Wis.; 
and Aug. Weiss, Hortouville, Wis. 
J. Van Deusen, of Sprout Brook ; F. 
A. Saulsbury, of Syracuse, and C. B. 
Howard, of Romulus, Secretary of 
the Seneca County Bee Keepers' As- 
sociation, were welcome visitors and 
participated in the discussions of the 
meeting. A vote of thanks was given 
the Village Trustees for extending 
the use of the Hall for the meeting 
gratis, and the newspapers and exhib- 
itors were thanked in like manner. 



CRIMINAL BEES. 

HONEY GATHERERS THAT HAVE VERY 
LOOSE MORAL IDEAS. 

Almost every form and variety of 
human crime is to be found among 
animals, ('ases of theft are noticed 
among bees. Buchner, in the 
" Psychic Life of Animals," speaks of 
thievish bees which, in order to save 
themselves the trouble of working, 
attact well stocked hives in masses, 
kill the sentinels and the inhabitants, 
rob the hive and carry off the provis- 
ions. After repeated enterprises of 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



43 



this description they acquire a taste 
for robbery and violence. They re- 
cruit whole companies, which get more 
and more numerous, and finally they 
form regular colonics of l)rigand bees. 

But it is a still more curious fact 
that these brigand bees cau be pro- 
duced artificially by giving working 
bees a mixture of honey and brandy 
to drink. The bees soon acquire a 
tastes for this beverage, which has the 
same disastrous efifects upon them as 
upon men. They become ill disposed 
and irritable and lose all desire to 
work, and finally, when they begin to 
feel hungry, they attack and plunder 
the well su^iplied hives. 

There is one variety of bees — the 
sphecodes — which lives exclusively 
upon plunder. According to INIar- 
chall, this variety is formed of in- 
dividuals of the halyetes species, 
whose organs of hidification were de- 
fective, and which have gradually de- 
veloped into a separate variety, living 
almost exclusiv^ely by plunder. They 
may thus be said to be an example of 
innate and organic criminality among 
insects, and they represent what 
Professor Lombrosso calls the born 
criminals — that is, individuals which 
are led to crime by their own organic 
constitution. — Forum. 



HOW TO DESTROY MICE IN A 
BEE HOUSE. 

We do not believe in advocating 
cruelty to animals, but we are forced 
from last years experience to advocate 
most strongly the use of any and every 
means to rid the hives from mice. It 
is very important indeed that this 
should be closely looked after — equal 
quantities of arsenic, white granulated 



sugar and flour mix-ed dry, put on 
little pieces of paper about the hives 
or apiary, where it can remain for 
some time without being exposed to 
dampness, is a very sure way of ridding 
the place of mice, yet in some instan- 
ces where they can feed on bees in 
hives they seem to care little for the 
poison. Another plan we have adopt- 
ed, which frequently gave us good 
satisfaction : Take a pail half full of 
water, scatter a little wheat chaff on 
the top to make it look like a chaff bin. 
A board from two to four feet long, 
with one end on the floor and the oth- 
er on the side of the pail, in fact bet- 
ter one on each side of the pail, then 
scatter a little bran, meal or flour, dust 
it lightly on the board. 'J'he mice 
will run up and look down upon the 
chaff where you have the meal scat- 
tered, they will jump down off the 
board on the chaff in the pail to get 
the meal, the chaff will sink around 
them, and the mice drown. We have 
caught five or six in a pail in one 
night this way. We recollect once, 
that in one of our own apiaries having- 
several deer-mice and a chipmouk, 
which had gone into the bee-house 
from a neighboring wood about twen- 
ty rods away. They were so anxious 
to investigate the pail business that 
they got into it. Perhaps rats might 
be caught in the same way. 

"How to Manage Bees " is a 50c 
book for beginners in bee keeping. 
We will send it postpaid for 25c. 



Clubbing 


List. 




We will send the American BekKeepkh 


[ with 


the— 


PUB. PRCE. 


BOTH. 


American Bee Journal, 


(81 00) 


SI 35 


Ainericiiu Apiculturisi, 


( 75) 


1 15 


Bee-Keeper's Review. 


(1 00) 


1 35 


Canadian Bee Journal, 


(1 00) 


1 25 


Gleanings in Bee Culture, 


(100) 


1 35^ 



44 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 



February 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG CO. 

TERMS : 

50 cents a year in advance ; 2 copies, 85 cents ; 3 
copies, SI. 20 ; all to be sent to one postofSce. 

Postage prepaid in the U.S. and Canada ; 10 cents 
extra to all countries in the postal union and 20 
cents extra to all other countries. 

ADVERTISING RATES: 

15 cents per line, 9 words ; 82.00 per inch. 5 per 
cent, discount for 2 insertions; 7 per cent, for 3 in- 
sertions ; 10 per cent, for 6 insertions ; 20 per cent. 
for 12 insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or before 
the 20th of each month to insure insertion in month 
following. Address, 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
Falconer, N. Y. 

i>^Subscribers finding this paragraph marked 
with a blue cross will know that their subscripiton 
expires with this number. We hope that you will 
not delay in sending a renewal. 

tS'A blue cross on this paragraph indicates that 
your subscription expired last month. Please re 
new. 

EDITORIAL, 
Elsewhere we publish an article on 
the Apis Dorsata (Giant Bees of 
India) by Grravenhorst, the well 
known German Bee writer and trans- 
lated hy Frank Benton. We are 
heartily in favor of the importation 
of some of these bees into this coun- 
try, and we are sure there are many 
leading apiarists who are of the same 
mind in this respect, notwithstanding 
the fact that certain editors of bee 
papers have apparently endeavored to 
stifle the idea. No one is in position 
to know whether or not the introduc- 
tion of Apis Dorsata would be bene- 
ficial, and no one can know until the 
thing is tried. It would not cost 
very much to do so, and if proper 
steps are taken no doubt the govern- 



ment can be induced to take the mat- 
ter in hand. We understand that the 
Ontario Co. (N. Y.) Beekeepers As- 
sociation are having necessary forms 
gotten ready, and will circulate peti- 
tions among the bee-keepers through- 
out the country asking the Secretary 
of Agriculture to secure and intro- 
duce into the United States the Giant 
Bees of India. 



By referring to the supplement to 
this number of the Bee Keeper our 
readers will notice that The W. T. 
Falconer Manfg. Co. are making un- 
usually low prices on all goods, and 
especially sections where other goods 
are ordered with them. The sections 
offered are not culls, but equal to 
those they have been selling the past 
two years, and are known everywhere 
as the ' ' Falcon Sections, the best in 
the world." They have sold the 
same quality of sections within the 
past month in carload quantities at 
very much higher prices. As the 
offer is a limited one every one who 
may be in need of supplies should 
take advantage of it. 



A great many subscriptions have 
expired the past two months, and .we 
shall be glad to receive a renewal of 
each. We will send the Bee-Keeper 
the balance of this year to new sub- 
scribers for 25 cents. Remember 
the Bee-Keeper is regularly com- 
posed of 32 pages, 16 of which relate 
exclusively to bee-keeping, and the 
remainder to miscellaneous literary 
subjects. This is a special advertis- 
ers edition. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



45 



We have a quantity of Alloy Drone 
and Queen Trap patterns of 1894 
which will be sold at 25c each, regu- 
lar price 50c. These traps are just 
as good for practical purposes as 
those of more recent pattern. 

We are informed by Mr. Benton 
that there were but 1,000 copies of 
Bulletin No. 1 (The Honey Bee) print- 
ed, and consequently a great many 
who ask for a copy could not be sup- 
plied. However a resolution has 
been introduced iu congress author- 
izing the printing and distributing of 
20,000 additional copies. If this 
goes through, as no doubt it will, 
probably all who apply will obtain a 
copy. The work is of unusual merit, 
and we shall reprint extracts from it 
from time to time for the benefit of 
those of our readers who may not be 
fortunate enough to obtain a copy. 



Dont fail to notice the great reduc- 
tion in price of our well known Falcon 
Sections, for sample orders with other 
goods. 



Wm Gerrish, East Nottingham, N 
H. will keep a complete supply of our 
goods during the coming season and 
Eastern customers will save freight 
by ordering from him. 



We want a large quantity of bees- 
wax, and will pay 30c a pound cash 
or 32c a pound in goods for good 
clean wax freight paid to Falconer, 
N. Y. 



" How TO Manage Bees," a 50c 
book, and the American Bee-Keep- 
ER a year for onl}' 60c. 



" Mme Modjeska, the once famous 
actress, according to an item in the 
British Bee Journal, is now a Califor- 
nia farmer with 766 colonies of bees 
on her ranch at the foot of the Santi- 
ago Peak. What's Rambler about ? 
or is he keeping it all to him.self ?" 
(Dr. Miller in Gleanings.) There is a 
mistake somewhere, Modjeska is not 
one of the "has been ' famous act- 
resses, but 18 now, and within a month 
has appeared in some of the principal 
Eastern Cities. We clip the follow- 
ing from a current paper : 

Cincinnati, Jan. 25. — Mme Mod- 
jeska is reported in better condition, 
though still unable to say when she 
will be able to act. 



"The very latest exploit of the thrif- 
ty German pirates, in their warfare 
against American goods, appears to 
be the way of adulterating hone}'. 
A German newspaper complains that 
the German markets are flooded with 
adulterated honey from America to 
the extent of 5,500,000 pounds per 
annum. There can be no doubt 
about the fact of this bad honej' being 
in the markets over there, but a later 
investigation has shown that the hon- 
ey was originally brought over from 
America in its pure and normal con- 
dition, and that it was subsequently 
adulterated by the Germans them- 
selves. In view of the hundred other 
enterprises of the same sort, this lit- 
tle trick will, of course, occasion no 
surprise. The only question that will 
arise in regard to the matter is, 
'What next? ' " 

We clipped the above from a well 
known trade journal and must say it 
is all news to us. Probably the 
amount of honej' stated is greatly 
exaggerated. 



See Clubbing List on page 43. 



46 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



February 



Grand Offer to Subscribers. 

We will send the Bee-Keeper 6 
months, and a box of seeds contain- 
ing 12 different packages of garden 
seeds and 3 papers of Flower 
seeds (value $1.40) for onl}^ 60c post- 
paid or the Bee-Keeper one year and 
all the seeds for 75c. Or we will 
send the Bee-Keeper 6 months and a 
copy of How to Manage Bees (price 
50c) for 50c. The Bee-Keeper 1 year 
and the book for 60c. Remit in 
postage stamps. 



The Porter Spring Escape. 



There is a prevailing idea that if a 
sample copy of a newspaper or maga- 
zine is taken from the postoffice it 
makes the person receiving it liable 
for the subscription price of same. 
This is entirely erroneous. Any one 
receiving a periodical after the term 
of subscription has expired cannot be 
compelled to pay for it, but should of 
course notify the publisher that the 
paper was no longer wanted. 

Read the great offer on the red sup- 
plement. The Celebrated Falcon 
Sections almost give away. 

We have several copies of the 
pamphlet " Giant Bees of India" by 
Frank Benton, and will mail a copy 
to any one for 5 cents. 

A great many sample copies of 
this number will be sent to former 
subscribers, customers and friends 
and we hope that many who receive 
them will send in their subscription. 

We will send the American Bee- 
Keeper one year with the Cosmopol- 
itan for .$1.25. The Cosmopolitan is 
a monthly magazine containing an 
average of over 100 pages and 80 il- 
lustrations each month. 




The above illustration shows the 
new Porter Spring Escape for honey 
room windows. It is a modification of 
the well known Porter Bee Escape, 
which is now universally used by bee- 
keepers, The top or oval part is perfor- 
ated along the edges so that it can be 
readily tacked to the casing or window 
frame. The body is made of perforat- 
ed tin to admit light and its open end 
is extended into a cone to prevent 
robbers from crawling into the sides 
of the springs and interferriug witli 
the bees passing out, which would oc- 
cur if it were left open the full width. 

The interior part is reversed in po- 
sition from the regular Bee Escape. 
The springs used are somewhat broad- 
er and are set slightly more open. 

To apply these escapes to the win- 
dow, merely make J or |- inch holes 
through the screen wire at the upper 
corners, or if you do not wish to injure 
the wire cloth remove the tacks from 
the corners and turn the cloth down 
until triangular holes of corresponding 
size are found, and then tack the es- 
capes in a virtical position over these 
openings so the bees can pass through 
them into the escapes. 

In case the window is provided with 
an escape made by extending the wire 
cloth above, close the bee escape with 
a strip flush with the top of the win- 
dow and proceed as before. 

A thorough trial of these escapes 
has proven that they meet all require- 
ments and that they are a perfect 
device for the purpose. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



47 



Our Business. 

On the next page we present our 
readers with a "bird's-eye view" 
of our plant as seen from the north- 
west side. The printing was done 
from a zinc etching made from a pen 
and ink sketch, and is a very correct 
representation. 

We have been manufacturing bee 
keepers' supplies for the past fifteen 
years, beginning on a small scale with 
a factory only 40x80 feet. From 
time to time an increasing business 
made it necessary to enlarge our cap- 
acity, until today we can truthfully 
claim to have the largest factory of 
the kind in the world. 

Our machinery is run by water 
power and we also have a 150 h. p. 
engine with double boilers, our own 
electric light plant and double exhaust 
fans for carrying the sawdust and 
shavings from machines to the fire 
under boiler. All our buildings are 
heated by steam and are protected 
from fire by a complete system of 
automatic sprinklers. We have three 
large lumber yards which never con- 
tain much less than one million feet 
of such lumber as we constantly use. 

Owing to the extensive competition 
and poor honey crops, the bee supply 
business has not increased very rapid- 
ly during the past two or three years, 
and in order to keep our large force 
(usually over one hundred men) busy 
the year round we have added other 
lines of goods, so now in addition to 
bee keepers' supplies we manufacture 
annually large quantities of household 
and school supplies of different kinds. 
Our factory is equipped with machin- 
ery for making almost everything that 
can be made of wood. 



Comb foundation is made in a sep- 
arate building built expressly for the 
purpose, and our make of foundation 
is well and favorably knovvn. We 
have special processes for cleaning 
the wax and manufacturing the 
foundation. 

In connection with our plant we 
have a saw mill where is made a large 
portion of the lumber used- by us. 

We are always glad to see our cus- 
tomers and friends, and you are cor- 
dially invited tO; call upon us when- 
ever convenient when we will be 
pleased to show you what we do and 
how we do it. 

Honey and Beeswax Market Report. 

Below we give tlie latest and most authen- 
tic report of the Honey and Beeswax market 
in different trade centers : 

Kansas City, Mo.. J.<in. 22, 180G. — The demand 
for honey is good. Supply light. Price of 1 lb. 
comb 11 to 1-lc per lb. Extnictcd ^Yz to &/z(i per 
pound. No beeswax on the market 

Hamblin ife Bearss, 514 Walnut St. 

Detroit, Mich.. Jan. 21, ItiOti.— Fair demand for 
honey. Supply equal to the demand. Price of 
comb 12 to 15c per pound. Extracted 6 to 7c per 
lb. Good demand for wax. Small supply. Prices 
27 to 28c per lb. 

M. H. Hunt, Bell Branch, Mich. 

Cincinnati, 0.. Jan. 22, 1896.— The demand for 
honey is slow. Supply good. Price of be.<t white 
comb honey 12 to 14c per lb. Extracted 4 to 7c per 
lb. The demand for wa.x is good.; Smiill supply. 
Prices 25 to 28e per lb. 

Chas. F. Muth ct Sox, 

Cor. Freeman and Central Aves. 

Albany, N. *Y., Jan. 22, 180(5.— The demand for 
honey is very slow. Supply liberal. Price of 
comb 8 to 14c per lb. Extracted 4 to (ic per lb. 
The demand for beeswax is good. Prices 2s to 32c 
per lb. Light supply. 

H. R. AVright. 

Boston, Mass., Jan. 23, 1890.— Fair demand for 
honey. Supply equal to the demand. Price of 
comb 14 to 15c per lb. Extracted 5 to Oc per lb. 
K. E, Bi-AKE ik Co., 75 Chatham St. 

RUDY'S PILE SUPPOSITORY 

is guaranteed to cure Piles and Constipation, or 
money refunded. 50 cents per box. Send two 
stamps for circular and Free Sample to MARTIN 
RUDY, Registered Pharmacist, Lancaster, Pa. 
No Postals Answered. For sale by all first- 
class druggists everywhere, and in Jamestown, 
N. Y., by FRANK W. PALMETER. 4-12 



48 



THK AMERICAN BKK-KKEPER. 



February 




O 

d 

u 

z 

o 

< 



<« u 



t/3 ^ 






oa. 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE W T FALCONER MANPG CO 



VOL. VI. 



/Wf\RCH, 1896. 



NO. 3. 



President's Address to Ontario 

Co., N. Y., Bee-Keepers' 

Association. 

Organized Method of Grading and Mar- 
keting Honey. 

BY W. F. MARKS. 

Fellow Bee- Keepers and Friends : We 
must take hold aud make our organiz- 
ation beneficial to our pursuit in every 
possible way. We should not be con- 
tented to jog along in old ruts that 
have ruined nearly every bee-keepers' 
organization. We must get out and 
make ours a model and modern organ- 
ization. We represent a pursuit that 
according to the last United States 
Census Report produced 63,894,186 
pounds of honey in 1889. 

Mr. Benton, of the U. S. Dept. of 
Agriculture, estimates the present an- 
nual value of apiarian products of the 
the United States at S20,000,000. 
The question is, what part of this vast 
amount do the bee-keepers get? Do 
they get full value for their products ? 
Certainly not, although they are 
abreast of the times in all improve- 
ments and place their products before 
the public in an attractive and modern 
style. They still market the products 
of their apiaries in a primitive and 



ruinous manner, without system or 
method. One of the main objects of 
our organization and of this meeting 
should be to devise and perfect some 
plan for marketing the products of 
our apiaries by some intelligent and 
organized method that will increase 
the demand aud maintain values. 

I believe it would be desirable and 
practical to place our best honey in 
the market under the guarantee of the 
association in such a manner as to cre- 
ate a demand for it from cash buyers. 
Under any organized system of trade 
it is first necessary to establish some 
official supervision. As one step to- 
ward such a system, and for the sake 
of bringing this subject fully before 
the meeting, in hopes that some plan 
will be adopted, I will submit a plan 
for your consideration. 

I would have the association adopt 
an attractive Stamp and elect a Honey 
Impector. He would be a disinterest- 
ed party, and acting in an official ca- 
pacity it will be his duty when called 
upon to inspect and if satisfactory at- 
tach the stamps of the association to 
the case of honey in such a manner 
that the case can not be opened with- 
out breaking the stamps. The stamp 
should have printed upon it the name 



50 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



of our associalion, viz : "Ontario Co., 
N. Y., Bee Keepers' Association, 
Honey Stamp." And in a congpicuous 
place it should state that, "This case 
of honey has been inspected by the 
Honey Inspector of the Ontario Co., 
N. Y., Bee-Keepers' Association, and 
the honey within, if these stamps re- 
main unbroken, is Guaranteed to be 
Grade No. 1, White." I would not 
have the stamps of the association at- 
tached to only one grade of honey and 
that the best. By grading both Fancy 
and No. 1 together as No. 1 we get a 
superior grade which will please the 
purchaser every time, and is a credit 
to both the purchaser and the associa- 
tion. This plan will in a short time 
not only create a demand for the 
honey sold under our seal but will add 
to its market value. Do not get the 
idea that the association will under- 
take to market your product; such is 
not the present idea, although it may 
be found practical when the inspector 
has the confidence of both the pro- 
ducer and dealer for him to assist ; 
time will tell. We should do nothing 
that will forfeit our position as a dis- 
interested party. You sell your own 
honey, and each section and case 
should have the name and address of 
the producer stamped upon it, the 
association, through its inspector, 
guaranteeing the grade, and that a 
superior grade of No. 1, — which it cer- 
tainly would be if we include fancy 
in the same grade — but as we aim to 
create a popular demand for honey 
bearing our seal, it is desirable that it 
should be, if anything, a better grade 
than we guarantee. 

This method would establish confi- 
dence between the buyer and seller, 
and in the honey, it must be evident 



to you all, if, when offering your 
honey to the trade you could state 
that it had been examined and sealed 
by the honey inspector of the Ontario 
County, N. Y., Bee-Keepers' Associa- 
tion, that this fact would create confi- 
dence in your honey although the 
party addressed may not ever have 
heard of the association or seen any 
of your honey, and as the grade is 
guaranteed by a disinterested party it 
would relieve the producer of that 
responsibility. 

A similar system, in some respects, 
has been used in this county in mar- 
keting other products, and the grati- 
fying result will be given to you by a 
gentleman who is familiar with it. 
What has been accomplished by oth- 
ers can certainly be done by us. 

I wish to speak of one thing more 
in connection with this proposition, 
and it is necessary to the success of 
the plan, and that is of the proposed 
honey inspector. This is not a desir- 
able, but it is an important position 
upon whom would rest in a great 
measure the success or failure of the 
method. He should be a person who 
is known to grade his own honey 
right, and will act in his official ca- 
pacity without fear or favor. Further- 
more, we should discourage the con- 
signing of honey to be sold on com- 
mission. It is unnecessary and ruinous. 
An improved method of marketing 
honey is the most important problem 
which we have to solve. I trust you 
will take hold of this problem with 
sincerity, and if at first you do not 

succeed you will try again. 

^ ■■■ ^ 

"How TO Manage Bees," a 50c 
book, and the American Bee-Keep- 
ER a year for only 60c. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



51 



Painted, vs Unpainted Hives. 

HY (i. M. DOOMTTLK. 

As the tiiue is at hand when all en- 
terprising bee-keepers should be pre- 
paring for next season's work, I 
thought a few words on the desirabil- 
ity of painting hives might not be 
amiss. All will admit that hives look 
much better and will last longer if 
painted than if left unpainted. But 
after years of experience with both 
painted and unpainted hives in the 
same apiary, I contend that bees will 
not do as well in a painted hive as 
they will in an unpainted one. But I 
think I hear some one asking " where- 
in is an unpainted hive better than a 
painted one?" Principally in this, 
that if properly covered it will keep 
the bees dryer at all seasons of the 
year, and owing to this dryness they 
are consequently much warmer. As 
unpainted wood is porous the moisture 
evaporates or passes through all parts 
of the hive, keeping the bees dry, 
warm and quiet, avoiding any undue 
consumption of honey, as well as dis- 
ease. Several years ago I had a num- 
ber of box hives, some of which were 
painted, while others were not. I set 
them out of the cellar about the first 
of April, in as near an equal condition 
as well could be. In the morning 
after every cold, frosty night, there 
would be water running out at the 
entrance of those that were painted, 
and on tipping them up the combs 
were found to be quite wet on the 
outside next the hive from the con- 
censation of moisture, while those in 
the unpainted hives were dry and nice, 
and these last increased in numbers 
faster and swarmed from one to two 
weeks earlier than did those in the 
painted hives. This gave a greater 



force of bees to work in the honey 
harvest, which in turn gave a larger 
yield of honey, and this gave more 
money for me to jingle in my pockets. 
" But," says one, " 1 use ground cork, 
cut straw, sawdust, forest leaves or 
some other absorbant in the top of the 
hives to take care of the moisture, by 
letting any excess that may arise pass 
through these and out of the top of 
the cover." This will nelp much as 
far as the moisture is concerned, but 
if not done on a scientific plan it will 
let out much of the heat, which is so 
necessary for the welfare of the col- 
ony in early spring, by such a direct 
draft process. Even if done properly 
I cannot help thinking that hives will 
keep bees better if unpainted. Paint 
is useful only so far as looks and 
durability is concerned, and is posi- 
tively injurious as retarding the evap- 
oration of moisture. 

This is the result I have arrived at 
after 25 years of experience and close 
observation with single walled hives, 
and I believe the damage to the bees 
is far greater than the cost of a new 
hive occasionally, where ordinary 
hives are used, say nothing of the cost 
of the paint or time in putting it on. 
However, with chaff or double walled 
hives the case is different, for then the 
moisture is driven through the first 
wall of unpainted lumber, out into 
the chaff or other packing, from 
whence it goes out through the many 
cracks and ventilators provided in the 
outer shell of the hive. From this 
comes the reason, largely, why bees 
winter and thrive so much better in 
chaff packed hires, rather than that 
the extra protection has all to do with 
it, as some claim. Bees can endure 
any amount of cold provided they are 



53 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



kept dry, but wet, dripping combs 
and hives, they are not able to stand, 
where cold is added to it. Thus, in 
accordauee with the views expressed 
above, I paint all of my double walled 
or chaff hives, and leave all of the 
single walled hives unpainted. 

COLONIES, HOW TO SELECT. 

A correspondent writes that he de- 
sires to buy some bees soon and wish- 
es to know how to select good ones, so 
I thought a word or two on this sub- 
ject might not be amiss to the readers 
of the American Bee-Keeper. A 
majority of persons, especially begin- 
ners, are apt to think that if a hive is 
heavy with honey and there are live 
bees in it, such are the ones to pur- 
chase, without regard to what kind of 
comb there is in the frames or size of 
colony . This is a mistaken idea. I 
will give the readers just what I do in 
selecting colonies myself. As there 
are those at the present time who per- 
sist in keeping bees in box hives, and 
as bees in such hives can be purchased 
for less money than they can in frame 
hives — besides the frame hive might 
not be to my liking — I usually select 
box hives where I can find them, and 
then transfer to such hives as I use. 
Colonies may be selected any cool day 
in March or April by turning the 
hives over carefully so as not to arouse 
the bees. Examine the combs care- 
fully and see that they are all straight 
and nearly all worker combs, and there 
should be bees in at least five spaces 
between the combs, and six or seven 
spaces filled with bees would be all the 
better, with from ten to fifteen pounds 
of honey. If possible, I select such 
colonies as cast a swarm the previous 
season, or an after-swarm, as such will 



have a young, prolific queen. If the 
time of selection is a cool morning, 
with the sun shining brightly, you 
will have no trouble in seeing down 
into the hive by turning the mouth 
toward the sun in such a manner that 
the rays will strike the combs, bees, 
etc., lighting^all up nicely. In this 
way there is no guess work about the 
matter, and if we are to succeed no 
guess work must be allowed. Now 
about the price. Three dollars is about 
the price usually asked for bees in 
such hives during the month of April, 
but I have seen colonies sold at auc- 
tion for from six to eight dollars that 
were worth but little more than the 
honey which was in the hiye ; and I 
have seen colonies sold for $1.50 that 
were better worth $10 than others 
would be as a gift. The same holds 
good regarding any of the hives in use. 
A person had better pay five or six 
dollars for a hive that has the frames 
filled with straight worker combs, well 
stocked with bees, than have a hive 
with combs built crosswise of the 
frames, with two-thirds of that drone 
comb, and an old, poor queen, but 
plenty of honey, given to him for 
nothing. If you send to parties at a 
distance for bees, whatever the price 
may be, require of them that the col- 
onies shall be in the condition given 
above for a good colony. If you can 
purchase colonies in frame hives that 
suit you, you can well aford to pay 
from one to two dollars more for each 
than you do for those in box hives, but, 
as a rule, if you must transfer, you can 
do it best from box hives, for in them 
the combs are more likely to be larger, 
so as to cut to better advantage than 
they are in frame hives. 
Borodino, N. Y. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



53 



Bees and Chickens. 

BY MRS. OLIVKR COI.K. 

As I am taking a rest from the cares 
of my apiary, and my bees are quietly 
slumbering, my thoughts run toward 
some improvement in and about the 
bee yard. We have now more time 
to read and think than at any other 
tirhe of the year, and to keep up with 
the advance of modern bee-keeping 
we must read and learn all we can 
from those of more experience in api- 
culture, yet sometimes I think the 
more I read about it the less 1 know, 
as so many differ in their opinions. I 
think in this locality it is best for each 
one to use his own judgment which is 
the best way to manage his business. 
As we are never too old to learn, and 
everyone is struggling to learn a better 
way how to secure the most honey and 
increase their stock our best teacher is 
experience. 

Sometime ago I thought I had a 
good idea as how to keep the grass 
down in my apiary without the cost 
of cutting it. The grass seems to grow 
more thrifty there than in our mead- 
ows, owing no doubt to the fertilizer it 
has in the way of chaff and dead bees. 
My idea was to build a wire fence 
around my apiary and a hen house at 
one corner, also a convenient gate 
through which to pass, then put in 50 
or more fowls, give them the run 
through the apiary and it would be 
fine for them, and more than that they 
would keep down the grass. High 
grass in an apiary is a great nuisance, 
for I have often soiled my dress and 
nearly spoiled my shoes in walking 
through it in the morning before the 
dew is off while looking after my 
queen cells and caging queens. I had 
planned all very nicely for the future 



when I happened to take up an old 
number of Gleanings and this is what 
I saw : " Bees and Chickens, by C. H. 
Luttgens." This interested me and I 
read it. In substance it was as fol- 
lows ; "As I first mentioned chickens 
as drone brood and drone eaters some- 
time ago perhaps the readers of Glean- 
ings are under the impression that I 
keep both in one yard, which is not 
the case, as I well know the disadvan- 
tages outweigh the advantages in so 
doing, as was described by Grant Sco- 
field a few months ago, but he has 
missed or not yet experienced the 
worst of the evils derived therefrom, 
and of which I should like to inform 
your readers. Last year 1 had several 
hatches of young chickens, of which 
some escaped through the fence. 
They soon made good drone catchers 
and bee eaters. Three got stung over 
the eyes, of which but one recovered, 
and two died in great agony after sev- 
eral days. I would have killed them 
to relieve them but for the fancy 
stock. While I agree that bees and 
chickens are nice to keep together, 
they should be kept in separate yards." 

Reading this has discouraged me 
with my plans, and if any of the read- 
ers of this have tried bees and chick- 
ens together with success I shall be 
glad to hear from you through the 
Bee-Keeper. 

Sherburne, N. Y. 

"How to Manage Bees '" is a 50c 
book for beginners in bee keeping. 
We will send it postpaid for 25c. 



Clubbing List. 

We will send the Americak Bee-Kekpkb with 

the— PUB. PKCE. BOTH. 

American Bee Journal, ($1 00) 81 35 

American Apiculturist, ( "5; 1 15 

Bee-Keeper's Keview, (1 00) 1 35 

Canadian Bee Journal, (1 00) 1 25 

Gleanings in Bee Culture, (1 00) 1 35 



54 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Macch 



Open Letter to the Bee-Keep- 
ers of the United States. 

Felloxv Bee-Keepers : — We have pre- 
pared for circulation a petition asking 
the Secretary of Agriculture of the 
United States to take steps to secure 
and introduce Apis Dorsata, the giant 
bee of India, into this country. It is 
a duty that the government owes and 
is willing to render our industry. (See 
Report of Secretary of Agriculture, 
page 25). Owing to the rapid disap- 
pearance of the bumble-bee the intro- 
duction of these bees will soon be a 
necessity in the successful growing of 
red clover for seed, if for no other 
purpose. That these are a distinct 
and large race of bees there is no 
doubt, but of their practical value we 
know nothing, and never will until 
we have thoroughly tested them. As 
progressive bee-keepers and honey 
producers we should not rest until 
every spot on this earth has been 
searched and every race of honey bees 
have been tested. We should do it 
for the advancement of scientific and 
progressive apiculture, for ourselves 
and for posterity. Our association 
has taken hold of this with sincerity 
and expects the united support of the 
bee-keepers of this country. And 
with their support the end of the 
nineteenth century will witness anew 
era in apiculture in which the bee- 
keepers of the United States will take 
a leading part. Yours fraternally, 

Executive Committee, Ontario Co., 
N. Y.. Bee-Keepers' Association. 

Copies of thn-se petitions may be ob- 
tained by anyone who will circulate 
them by addressing 

W. F. Marks, 

Chapinville, N. Y. 



A New Super. 

BY ED. JOLLEY. 

"The construction of a super that 
firmly and squarely supports the sec- 
tions \ inch above the top bars, ad- 
mits the tiering up, protects the edges 
from propolization, that may be used 
with or without separators, and from 
whence the finished goods may be re- 
leased without force, combining sim- 
plicity and moderate cost, still affords 
ample scope for the inventive genius 
of the fraternity. "-^H. E. Hill. 

I made and tried a few supers as an 
experiment last season that answered 
about all the requirements of Brother 
Hill, except the \ inch bee space. I 
prefer f of an inch for bee spece as I 
have less burr combs with ^ inch 
space than any other that I have tried, 
and I think I have tried everything 
from a scant J to a full \ inch. 

As to the super, it is simply a rim 
4f inches high and 17 inches long, in- 
side measurement, and as wide as the 
brood chamber of the hive it is to be 
used upon. Mine were made for an 
8-frame dovetailed hive. All there 
was to it was the rim and following 
board scant 17 inches long, and two 
wedges. To fill this super with sec- 
tions I place the rim on the table, then 
put in the sections, allowing them to 
rest on the table. Four sections will 
be a neat fit lengthwise, and six rows 
of four sections each, or 24 sections, 
will fill a super for an 8-frame hive. 
Having got the sections placed prop- 
erly I put in the following board at 
one side between the sections and the 
rim, insert and tighten the wedges, 
and the super is ready for business. 
Separators may be used if desired. 

This super supports the sections as 
firmly and squarely as a super having 
bottom slats, section holders or T tins. 
It admits of tiering up as well as any 



189G. 



THE AMEEICAN BEE-EEEPEB. 



55 



other super made. It protects the 
edges of the sections from propoliza- 
tion by beiugso firmly keyed together. 
The bottoms of the sections are en- 
tirely unprotected, but if exactly 
spaced there will be very few burr 
combs. The liottoms of the sections 
may be a little stained, but not much. 

This super has other advantages 
besides simplicity and cheapness. I 
think the bees enter it more readily 
than where the section holder is used 
because the sections are the thickness 
of the bottom bars of the section 
holders nearer the brood nest, and the 
bees have that much less wood to pass 
through to get into the sections. 

It lias an advantage over the T super 
in not having so many places for tne 
bees to plug in for propolis, besides 
the sections are held firmer and squar- 
er without the T tins than they are 
with them. 

You will observe that the new super 
is the thickness of the two end bars of 
the section holders, shorter than the 
old dovetailed super. To make it„fit 
the dovetailed hive I had to nail 
strips the thickness of the end bars of 
the section holders on each end of the 
super; that is, the new super was 1;^ 
inch shorter than the dovetailed super, 
and a g inch strip on each end made 
it fit the dovetailed hive. 1 made 
and tried about a hall" dozen of these 
supers last year ami likeii them very 
well. I shall try them more exten- 
sively the coming season. 

Franklin, IVnna. 




We want a large quantity of bees- 
wax, and will pay 30c a pound cash 
or 32c a pound in goods for good 
clean wax freight paid to Falconer, 
N. Y. 



Editor American Bee-Keeper, 
Dear Sir : Bees in this locality, St. 
Andrews Bay, Florida, work nearly 
every sunshiny day during the winter. 
I have not yet been al)le to learn the 
source from which they gather so 
much pollen, but it evidently comes 
from the tities and marshes, where the 
flowers bloom under the protection of 
the evergreen shrubs. Pee-to peaches 
and strawberries have been in bloom 
since December. Peach trees are also 
now in bloom. The lovely yellow jes- 
samine of the south is now in all its 
glory, as are also the daffodils. 

The movable frame hive is slowly 
marching through Florida, and Italian 
bees are being introduced. As far as 
my observation goes there is no honey 
here equal to the white clover honey 
of the North. Yours truly, 

Mrs, L. Harrison. 

St. Andrews Bay, Fla., Feb. 17, '96. 

The W. T. Falconer M'fg (Jo., 
Gentlemen : The goods shipped me 
have been received, and are first class. 
Thanking you for your prompt atten- 
tion to small orders, I remain, 

Yours truly, Jas. E. Gibson. 

Oneonta, N. Y., Feb. 26, 1895. 

The W. T. Falconer M f'g Co., 
Dear Sirs : * * * * Your goods 
are certainly the best we ever used, 
and we take pride and pleasure in 
recommending them to all our bee 
keeping friends. Yours trulv, 

Olmstead Bros. 

East Bloomfield, N Y., Feb. 28, '96. 



56 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 




(From Progressive Bee-Keeper.) 

WILL THE GOOD YEARS GOME 
AGAIN ? 



C. H. DIBBERN. 



No doubt during the last few years 
of disappointment and failure, many 
have become discouraged, and not a 
few will give up the apparently hope- 
less contest. And if the present indi- 
cations were to continue indefinitely, 
it would be worse than folly to give 
all our time to a business that does not 
pay. Twenty years ago we could look 
for a good honey year, just as surely 
as we could for a good corn year, and 
the failures were the exceptions. 
Now, however, in this locality — and 
the same conditions seem to prevail 
quite generally over the central states, 
that four years out of five may as well 
be called failures. Then, too, we were 
beginning to pride ourselves that in- 
vention had made such progress that 
the up to date bee-keeper would soon 
be able to double the honey crop of 
our grandfather's day. I do not un- 
dervalue the great value of recent in- 
ventions; but the fact is, nothing will 
take the plnce of an abundant yield 
from the flowers — not even the sugar 
barrel, if we could get it for nothing. 
In times pa.*t we depended mainly on 
■white clover, supplemented by bass- 
wood, golden rod, heartsease and other 
flowers, and they seemed to yield all 
that could be desired, and we never 
dreamed that these sources would ever 
fail, any more than that the time 



would come when our rivers would 
dry up. But our parching, hot, dry 
summers, and snowless, cold winters, 
have about used up the white clover, 
and other wild flowers are much less 
abundant than formerly. Somehow, 
too, they do not seem to yield the 
nectar they formerly did — even the 
basswood. But, says someone, we 
know all this from recent experience; 
what we want to know is, can we re- 
verse this order of things ? 

Now, if we could order the weather 
to our liking, this question might be 
solved easily enough, but of course 
that can not be done. Our wishing 
does not help matters, for how often 
did we not hear during the past sum- 
mer that someone wished it would 
rain, but the hot, burning days kept 
right along. Of course, when normal 
years, with a sufficiency of rainfall 
come again, we may expect old-fash- 
ioned yields of honey, but should the 
dry years continue, can we not do some- 
thing to make the apiary pay ? I think 
the cause of a lack of honey yield- 
ing flowers, is apparent to all, and in 
the restoration or supplanting of such 
flowers would seem to be in the right 
direction. But I fear many of us, and 
1 acknowledge myself among the num- 
ber, have more bees than our localities 
will support ; in fact, we are over- 
stocked in these years of floral dearth. 
It is quite likely that with one-half 
the bees we would have got some sur- 
plus, instead of being obliged to feed 
sugar for winter stores. 

The question now seems to be, what 
can we do to increase the honey yield- 
ing flowers in our vicinity, and what 
flowers will it do to depend on ? I am 
satisfied that many farmers can be in- 
cuced to sow honey plants that are also 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



57 



valuable for other lantiing purposes, 
if the matter is properly presented to 
them. A few years ajjo I mailed 
many alsike clover i-irculars, and .sev- 
eral good-sized fields of clover iu reach 
of my bees was the result. In .suitable 
localities many could be induced to 
sow alfalfa that would bless both 
farmer and bee-keeper. Rape is anoth- 
er crop that may prove a success. But 
while recommending, don't forget 
sweet clover, that king of honey-plants 
and best friend (though unappreciat- 
ed) of the farmer. If farmers who are 
also bee-keepers, would take hold of 
this, and show what a valuable plant 
it is, aside from bee-keeping, to other 
farmers, many would be induced to 
sow whole fields of it. Of course 
much can be done to sow it in waste 
places, where it will not interfere 
with anyone. It will all help, and 
should the good years come again soon, 
we would be " right in the swim sure." 
But should the dry sersons continue, 
we can still do a good deal to help 
matters by reducing the number of 
colonies, if over-stocked, and increas- 
ing our floral area. 
Milan, Ills. 



From Bee. Keepers' Record, (Br). 

HIVES. 



WM. MC NALLY. 



As one gets older in the bee business 
and looks back over the teachings of 
the past, some thoughts as to the fu- 
ture course bee-culture is likely to as- 
sume present themselves. Since the 
late Rev. L. L. Langstroth, of Amer- 
ica, gave to the world in 1853 the mov- 
able frame hive, there have been man}- 
changes in hive structure. Every shape 
and form that man could devise has 



been tried, and now, nearly half a 
century later, there is a strong con.sen- 
susof opinion gradually coming round 
in all civilized countries, to the plain, 
simple form of hive as first introduced 
by that distinguished veteran. In 
coming down to more recent times 
early in the eighties, it was frequently 
to be seen at our national bee-shows; 
prices given for hives, the cost of 
which WHS not less than £3 and £4 
each. These were the days when the 
homes of the honey-bee were "fear- 
fully and wonderfully made," and 
when the cost of twenty such would 
build a comfortable cottage for the 
bee-keeper himself to live in. Times, 
however, have changed since then, 
and the bee-keeping novice now profits 
by the experience gained in past days, 
from those who have tested all the 
ideas propounded, at various times, in 
the world of bee-cuUure. 

In taking a glanee around my own 
apiary, which has gradually built it- 
self for well-nigh twenty years, hives 
of all shapes and sizes, outwardly at 
least, may be seen. Several of these 
are now obsolete, others again are get- 
ting the worse for wear, and I have 
decided for the last year or two to 
save further expense on them, and run 
them down before they are finally 
converted into firewood. When a vis- 
itor happens to call who contemplates 
starting bee-keeping, the question gen- 
erally asked is : " What sort of a hive 
do you recommend to a beginner ? " 
Invariably the reply given is, "If I 
had to start bee-keeping now, I should 
adopt, as the best all-purpose hive, one 
of the plainest and simplest possible." 
Experience has shown that, to make 
the honey-raising industry a source of 
profit the working expenses must be 



58 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



kept at a minimum, and hives form a 
large portion of the outlay. Appear- 
ances, nowadays certainly, go a long 
way, and a neat, well-kept apiary, is al- 
ways attractive and instructive. Were 
it not for this fact, any hive made of 
four pieces of rough unplaned wood, 
holding the given number of frames 
with a stand of some sort, and well 
wrapped to keep it warm and dry, 
would yield as good results as the 
most elaborate and expensive hive in 
existance. Bringing down bee-keep- 
ing into more business-like shape, such 
makeshift arrangements as above 
mentioned are unnaudy, and most ex- 
perienced hands will now say that the 
best form of a hive is one consisting 
of a plain outer shell, sufficiently large 
to hold the brood-box of frames with 
at least 12 in, to 16 in. of supering 
space above. Every part interchange- 
able and alike, divisable for cleaning 
purposes, and easy to handle. In oth- 
er words, simplicity, interchangeabili- 
ty, and cheapness are the main essen- 
tials of successful bee-keeping. Pre- 
pared wood can be got so cheaply now- 
adays, that anyone handy with tools 
can, at a cost of a very few shillings, 
during the dull season of the year, fit 
up his own hives. Frames and sec- 
tions can be bought ready made and 
accurately cut by machinery much 
cheaper than with any hand labor. 
Glenluce, N. B. 



(From the Review). 

APIS DORSATA AND OTHER BEES. 



J. E. CBANE. 



I notice occasional references in 
bee- journals to Apis Dorsata; whether 
it is likely to prove of value or other- 
wise, and a few thoughts in reference 



to it may not be out of place at this 
time. As is known. Apis Dorsata is a 
native bee of Southern Asia and adja- 
cent islands, is much larger than our 
domesticated bees and builds its combs 
upon the underside of the branches of 
tall trees. Apis Testacea seems to be 
a variety or closely allied species to 
Apis Dorsata whose home is among 
the islands of Malaysia or the Indian 
archipelago and in most respects quite 
like Apis Dorsata. Both varieties are 
described as somewhat ferocious and 
their stings very severe ; although I 
believe Mr. Benton was able to subdue 
them readily. 

The outlook is, not to say the least, 
very hopeful, but when we remember 
their superior size and active habits, 
their ability to gather honey and build 
comb, I for one have a lingering de- 
sire to possess them. 

Because this bee has not been do- 
mesticated does not prove it incapable 
of domestication. 

The yellow bees of Italy, known to 
Virgil and Aristotle, have but recent- 
ly been disseminated over the earth. 
Because Apis Dorsata is a native of 
the tropics does not prove its unfitness 
for the more temperate regions of the 
earth. While it is true that most ani- 
mals, birds, and plants are not adapt- 
ed to a wide range of climate there are 
many notable exceptions. Naturalists 
are not agreed as to whether our do- 
mestic fowls come from one or more 
original species, but all unite in the 
opinion that all the various breeds 
came originally from southern Asia. 
The silkworm is also traced to the 
same locality. 

We are told that our humble or 
(bumble) bees are found as far south 
as the equator, and one of our arctic 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



59 



explorers found one in northern 
Greenland quite at home. 

More than this, our common hive 
bees are found not only in temperate 
regiiins of the earth but within the 
tropics as well. I am not sure that 
anyone can tell us where Apis inelli- 
fica was first domesticated. The earli- 
est records of its beint; cared for by 
man are from Eiiypt, so far as I know, 
which would indicate that its early 
home was either western Asia or 
uortheru Africa. 

The habit of the Apis Dorsata of 
building its combs upon the under 
side of the branches of trees would 
seem to be a serious objection, but we 
sometimes lind our hive bees doing 
something quite like it. During the 
past season I had a colony leave the 
hive and go underneath and build its 
combs and start its honey on the un- 
der side of the bottom board. 

Still, we can not help thinking that 
this habit of comb building would 
make Apis Dorsata, for the present, 
unprofitable and their honey of little 
value except for the extractor. 

Could we find a bee twice the size 
of the common bee, strong and active 
and withal building its combs in a 
hollow receptacle it would seem to be 
a decided acquisition. May we not 
expect to find something of this sort 
in southern Asia ? Is it idle to say 
that had there been such kind of bees 
they would have been introduced be- 
fore this ? Let us remember it is only 
forty or fifty years since the large 
Asiatic breeds of fowls, that have 
proved so valuable, have been import- 
ed. Great Britain alone claims to 
have oUO species of wild bees, which 
are, a large part of them, of the type 



of our humble bees. How many species 
of bees closely allied to our domestic 
bees there may be in southern Asia 
no one knows, but we believe that 
among them some will be sound of 
great value to the honey producing 
interests of the world. 

In looking over an old vol. of the 
American Bee Journal I came across 
the following under the title 

A CHINESE BEE. 

"The Apicultural Section of the 
Entomological Society, at its annual 
meeting in Paris, August, 1874. made 
many interesting statements. M. Dur- 
aud Saint Armand, a government offi- 
cer in Cochin China, states that the 
country possesses a bee twice the size 
of ours, which, consequently, ought to 
have a probocis long enough to extract 
the honey from red clover which is 
known to be very abundant. This 
bee is found in great numbers all 
along the coast, in a wild state, in 
hollow trees, and the natives hunt 
them for their wax. The extensive 
forests of this country are leased for 
the product of wax, which is to be 
sold to the Chinese." 

Here then would appear to be our 
l)ee twice the size of Apis mellifica and 
living like them in hollow trees. Can 
not our bee friends in France give us 
more information in regard to these 
bees ? I believe a large portion, if not 
all, of Cochin China is now in the 
hands of France. I should not have 
thought so much of this statement had 
I not in conversation with a retired 
missionary learned of the same, or a 
similar bee, under domestification by 
the Chinese in western China. As he 
was a young man, a native of this 
town, brought up on a farm, I felt 
that his statements were worthy of en- 
tire confidence. He said the bees of 
western China were in size midway 



60 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Marcli 



between our hive bees and the humble 
bee, and were, like our domestic bees, 
kept in hives ; and must be of gentle 
disposition as he had seen a colony 
clustered in a crowded street, yet no 
one seemed afraid of them. I had 
hoped before this to have secured 
specimens of them , but owing perhaps 
to the unsettled condition of the coun- 
try 1 have not as yet received them. 
I supposed when he first told me of 
them they were the Apis Dorsata 
which the Chinese had domesticated, 
but I now thiuk they must beloug to 
another species. 

With the opening of the interior of 
China to the .commerce of the world i 
may be possible to secure these bees, 
which may prove of much greater val- 
ue than Apis Dorsata. Or they may 
be brought by the French from a 
point much further south. 

Middlebury, Vt. 



(From American Bee Journal). 

NECTAR AND ITS SEOEETIO'^I. 



BY W. H. MORSE. 



What is nectar, and what are the 
conditions necessary to a copious sup- 
ply of it ? 

In the first place I want to say that 
the previous year has very little to do 
with supplying the nectar for the year 
following. (I can hear scores say that 
won't do, but it is a fact, nevertheless). 
Let us take, for instance, a small ap- 
ple tree in the first year of its exist- 
ence, and upon careful investigation 
we shall find that as the sap rises in 
the spring in this small tree, and, in 
fact, all trees, it is little more than 
water impregnated with a small 
amount of fertilizer held in solution 
by ihe surrounding moisture, but 



when it rises in the spring, and reach- 
es the leaf buds and unfolds them, 
then the laboratory work begins, the 
sun's rays of light act on the wonder- 
ful organism of the leaf, and the young 
plant begins to receive from them the 
prepared sap which goes to build up 
the plant in general, and stores suffi- 
cient chemically prepared tissue to 
mature its buds for next year ; and so 
it goes on until it acquires sufficient 
age to make the peculiar fermentation 
necessary to produce fruit-buds, and 
the little parts of the flower are in an 
embryo state, lying dormant through 
the winter, but as spring advances the 
flowers open up, and then the labora- 
tory work is so wonderful — all man's 
achievements seem puny in the con- 
templation of this little flower. The 
sun's rays of light are the great agent 
in the work. If any one doubts it, 
put a red flowering plant in total 
darkness as soon as its flower buds can 
be seen, and give it heat and water, 
and its flowers and leaves will be white, 
or almost so. So we see that the sun 
is the base of the work, marking the 
petals with such beautiful tints of col- 
or, and forming the essential oils 
which give the flower its perfume, and 
ades vigor to the pistil and stamens, 
and to the nectary, which is the part 
of the flower that is of interest to us 
as bee keepers. 

Now. I have tried to give the pre- 
ceding to back up the statement I 
made, that the preceding year lias 
nothing to do with filling this nectary 
with nectar. True, it builds it in em- 
bryo, but does nothing more. No, 
friends, it is when the atmosphere is 
favorable that plant life seems to take 
on that excessively luxurious growth 
that delights all lovers of Nature, 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



61 



that the flowers are changing the sap 
into nectar, depositing it into the 
nectary by such wonderful process 
that man cannot imitate it even if he 
had thousands of years to try. In fact, 
it would be almost like getting a straw- 
berry from a rose bush, or vice versa. 
I used to think it possible to work 
that way, but in actual practice I 
struck snags on all sides, and had to 
give it up. 

But some plants have the power of 
producing nectar under favorable cir- 
cumstances, such as sweet clover and 
many others. J'hen th'ere are plants 
which it seems take spells and pro- 
duce an extensive amount of nectar 
one year, and not any for several 
years following— tropical plants grown 
in greenhouses are especially so. I 
remember a peculiar case of this kind ; 
it was with a plant named " Hoyacar- 
nosa." It was planted out in a large 
conservatory, and twined itself to a 
trellis suspended to the roof, and the 
year in question it flowered excessive- 
ly, and secreted so much nectar that it 
dropped from the flowers, soiling 
everything underneath them ; and the 
same flowers produced nectar until 
they perished, as nearly as I can rec- 
ollect it, six or seven days from the 
time they began to produce nectar. 
Now this plant was handled the same 
in every way for four years after- 
wards, and if I had not seen what I 
have described I would have said that 
the flowers were destitute of any organ 
to hold nectar, let alone produce any. 
What should cause it is a knotty 
point, but such is the case with all 
nectar producing plants, which all old 
bee keepers know. 

Florence, Nebr. 



Grand Offer to Subscribers. 

We will send the Bee Keeper six 
months, and a box of Seeds contain- 
ing 12 different packages of Garden 
Seeds and 3 papers of Flower Seeds 
(value $1.40) for only 60c post-paid, 
or the Bee Keeper 1 year and all the 
Seeds for 75c. Or we will send the Bee 
Keeper balance of the year and a copy 
of ' 'How to Manage Bees, " (price 50c) 
for 50c. The Bee Keeper 1 year 
and the book for 60c. Remit in pos- 
tage stamps. 

HORSE OR MOTOR. 

The horse and the motor have entered the 
lists in a contest for supremacy. Both in 
Europe and in this country the horseless or 
autemobile vehicle is announced as the com- 
ing means of locomotion, not only in cities 
but in rural localities. And the revolution, 
as its prophets assure us, will work a change 
in present methods radical enough to enable 
the humblest farmer to furrow his fields with 
a new-fangled plow operated by its own 
motor. We shall see, also, motor-driven 
farm wagons loaded with produce en route 
to market, the living horse left idle in his 
stall to die a natural death, while his suc- 
cessor, the mechanical horse, does his work, 
and does it better, more cheaply, and more 
quickly. 

In the cities we are promised as sweeping 
a change in methods of haulage as the street 
railways experienced wlien the electric and 
cable cars supplanted the horse cars and 
caused us to wonder why we had waited so 
long for so easy and satisfactory a means of 
covering long distances. We shall have 
motor-driven delivery wagons, vans, drays 
and express wagons. Stage-coaches, cabs 
and all other public conveyances will no 
longer rattle over the (!ohble-stones to the 
clatter of lioofs, but will glide swiftly along 
on rubber-tired wheels actuated by a motor 
secreted under the seat. All vehicular trans- 
portation, even to the delivery of the matu- 
tinal can of milk or the hist bill of goods 
purchased at a big dry goods shop, will be 
accomplished by the magic of the motor. — 
Oliver McKee, in March Lippincctt's. 



63 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



MaecJi 



The Ameriean Bee-Keeper, 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG CO. 



TERMS : 

50 cents a year in advance ; 2 copies. 85 cents ; 3 
copies, $1.20 ; all to be sent to one postofiBee. 

Postage prepaid in the U.S. and Canada; 10 cents 
extra to all countries in the postal union and 20 
cents extra to all other countries. 

ADVERTISING RATES: 

15 cents per line, 9 words ; S2.00 per inch. 5 per 
cent, discount for 2 insertions ; 7 per cent, for 3 in- 
sertions; 10 per cent, for 6 insertions; 20 per cent, 
for 12 insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or before 
the 20th of each month to insure insertion in month 
following. Address, 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
Falconer, N.Y. 

j9®"Subscribers finding this paragraph marked 
with a blue cross will know that their subscripiton 
expires with this number. We hope that you will 
not delay in sending a renewal. 



49"A Red Cross on this paragraph indicates that 
you owe for your subscriprion. Please give the 
matter your attention. 



EDITORIAL. 



At this time all bee keepers are 
looking forward to the coming honey 
season and wondering what the har- 
vest will bring forth. The result, 
good or bad, does not depend entirely 
upon the coquettish caprices of good 
dame nature, and this is fully realized 
by many of us. We know that no 
matter how bounteous the flow of 
nectar no surplus will be stored unless 
our colonies are built up strong and 
are ready for the harvest. Weak 
colonies hardly gather enough honey 
for their immediate wants, even dur- 
ing the most abundant flow. Prep- 
arations should have been begun as 
early as last fall by uniting weak 
colonies, introducing young and vig- 
erous queens and providing abundant 



winter supplies of food for the bees. 
Now the most that can be done is to 
stimulate brood rearing in every pos- 
sible manner and then prevent swarm- 
ing as much as possible. ' ' The more 
bees the more hone}^, " is an old say- 
ing and a self evident fact. 



Among no other class of journals 
in the world will be found so many 
"soft" sayings, self praise, mutual 
editorial flattery, and railings over, 
personal domestic misfortunes as are 
found in the bee journals of this 
country. It is a cause for regret that 
our "journals cannot be conducted up- 
on a more dignified and impersonal 
plan such as is followed out by the 
bee papers of other countries and all 
other classes of journalism. We may 
be regarded as somewhat pessimistic 
on this matter, and possibly bee keep- 
ers are difl'erent from those who fol- 
low other vocations, but we do not 
think so, except as they may have 
been educated to be so by the bee 
journals to which we have alluded. 
We never could conceive how it could 
be of any interest to any but a few 
personal friends whether the editor 
eats soup, beans or beef, or whether 
he eats at all, as long as he furnishes 
what he is paid to furnish, an instruc- 
tive and interesting journal. Nor is it 
a matter of vital importance to the 
great majorit}'^ of his readers whether 
he has just had his last wisdom tooth 
extracted, nor that his youngest boy 
has recovered from the measles. We 
have only the kindliest feeling toward 
each and every apiarian editor in bee- 
dom, but cannot help feeling that in 
filling their editorial columns with 
such matters they are doing them- 



1896. 



TUB AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



63 



selves and their readers an injustice. 
For our part, if such are the require- 
ments of an editor of a bee journal, 
after six years trial, we have to admit 
that we cannot bring ourselves to it. 



The revolution in Cuba and the 
consequent devastation of the whole 
interior of that island has temporarily 
wiped out the bee industry there. 
Formerly we sold large quantities of 
supplies to Cuban bee keepers, but 
since the disturbances began there we 
have received no orders. There were 
also large quantities of beeswax im- 
ported into this country from Cuba, 
but none comes at present. This ac- 
counts, in some degree, for the scar- 
city of wax this season. 



Wm Gerrish, East Nottmgham, N 
H. will keep a complete supply of our 
goods during the coming season and 
Eastern customers will save freight 
by ordering from him. 

In the March number of " Harpers' 
Monthly Magazine " we notice an arti- 
cle on "Bee Keeping in Arcadia," 
describing a visit to some of the large 
bee ranches in Ventura county , Cali- 
fornia. The principal facts pertain- 
ing to bee culture are obtained in an 
interview with an old bee man named 
Martin, — not J. H. Martin the well 
known writer of the "Rambler" arti- 
cles so frequently seen in "Glean- 
ings " and elsewhere. 

We will send the Americ.vn Bee- 
Keeper one year with the Cosmopol- 
itan for $1.25. The Cosmopolitan is 
a monthly magazine containing an 
average of over lUO pages and 80 il- 
lustrations each month. 



We are in receipt of a copy of a 
petition to the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture for the introduction of the Giant 
Bees of India into the United States. 
The petition is gotten out by the On- 
tario, (N. Y.,) Bee Keepers' Associa- 
tion. Copies can be obtained by any 
one who will circulate them by ad- 
dressing W. F. Marks, Chapinville, 
•N. Y. 

A mild and comparatively open 
winter is now drawing to a close with 
an unusually "cold spell," and an 
abundance of snow, but the cold and 
snow came too late to do much harm 
to the bees and they should come out 
next month in first class condition. 
Bee keepers who are delaying in 
sending in their orders for supplies 
are cautioned not to wait too long. 
It is better to order now and be sure 
to have your supplies on hand when 
wanted than to order late and have 
perhaps to wait for them owing to 
the rush of orders that are sure to 
come in April ann May. 



The supply business seems to be 
gradually getting into the hands of a 
few manufacturers and dealers. 
There are not nearly so many adver- 
tisements of supplies in the different 
bee journals as there have been in 
3'ears gone past. This is noticable, 
also, in reference to the queen trade. 
Perhaps it is because the demand is 
not so great. 

We have a quantity of Alley Drone 
and Queen Trap patterns of 1894 
which will be sold at 25c each, regu- 
lar price 50c. These Traps are just 
as good for practical purposes as 
those of more recent pattern. 



64 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



Elsewhere in this number of the 
Bee Keeper we reprint an article on 
"Hives," from the last number of 
the "Bee Keepers' Record," publish- 
ed in England. Sound sentiments 
are there expressed, and our readers 
will do well to read it. 



"We are glad to note that consider- 
able interest is being awakened on 
the subject of importing bees of the 
Apis Dorsata variety. The giant bee 
of India, as it is called, may not be a 
desirable acquisition to our American 
apiaries, but it is a good plan to try 
them. 



It is a noticable fact that there have 
been no new bee papers started this 
year. This has not happened be- 
fore in several years, and is an indi- 
cation of "hard times" among bee 
keepers. 



If any of our renders have failed to 
receive a copy of our annual price 
list we will be glad to mail one upon 
application. Special low prices pre- 
vail this season. 



We are always glad to receive arti- 
cles for publication. They come 
handy sooner or later. If you have 
any news of any kind concerning 
bees, write us about it and we will 
publish it for the benefit of our read- 
ers. 



We are paying 30c a pound cash 
for good beeswax, delivered at our 
railroad station at Falconer, N. Y. , or 
we will allow 32c a pound in goods. 



A great many subscriptions have 
expired the last two mouths, and we 
shall be glad to receive a renewal of 
each. We will send the Bee Keeper 
the balance of this year to new sub- 
scribers for 25 cents. Remember the 
Bee Keeper is regularly composed 
of 32 pages, 16 of which relate exclu- 
sivel}' to bee keeping, and the remain- 
der to miscellaneous literary subjects. 

RUDY'S PILE SUPPOSITORY 

is guaranteed to cure Piles and Constipation, or 
money refunded. 50 cents per box. Send two 
stamps for circular and Free Sample to MARTIN 
RUDY, Registered Pharmacist, Lancaster, Pa. 
No Postals Answered. For sale by all first- 
class druggists everywhere, and in Jamestown, 
N. Y., by FRANK W. PALMETER. 4-12 

Honey and Beeswax Market Report. 

Below we give the latest and most authen- 
tic report of the Honey and Beeswax market 
in different trade centers : 

Cincinnati, 0.. Feb. 24, 1896.-;-The demand for 
honey is fair. Fair supply. Prices of best white 
comb honey 12 to 14c per lb. Extracted 4 to 7c per 
lb. Good demand for beeswax. Scant supply. 
Prices 25 to HOc per lb. for good to choice yellow. 
(JuAS. F. MuTH <fc Son, 

Cor. Freeman and Central Aves. 

Kansas City, Mo.. Feb. 21, 189(;.—'l'he demand 
for honey is good. Supply equal to the deuiand. 
Price of 1 lb. comb 11 to 14c per lb. Extracted 4J/^ 
to tjj^c per pound. No beeswax on the market. 
Hamblin k Bearss, 614 Walnut St. 

Dktroit, Mich.. Fe.b 22. 1896.— Slow demand for 
honey. Fair supply. Price of comb 13 to 15c per 
pound. Extracted t; to 7c per lb. (iood demand 
for beeswa.v. Fair supply only. Prices 27 to 28c 
per lb. M. H. Hunt, Bell Branch. Mich, 

Albany, N. Y., Feb. 21. 1896.— Very good de- 
mnnd for honey. Ample supply of Buckwheat. 
Small supply of Clover. Price of Buckwheat S to 
10c per lb. Clover 12 to loc per lb. I-J.xtracted ; 
plenty on hand at 4 to 6c per lb. There is a large 
stock of Buckwiieat comb honey on the market, 
but Clover is choice. 

Chas. W. .McCulliiugh k Co. 

Boston. Mass., Feb. 26. 1896. — Good demand for 
honey. Plenty of .No. 2 honey. Fsiir sui>ply of 
No. 1. I'rice of comb 10 to 12c per lb , and 14 to 
15c per lb. i xtracted 5 to 6c pei-lb. Fur demand 
for beeswax. Lighf sur'Ply. Price 25c per Ib.^ 
E. E, Blake k Co., 75 Chatham St. 

Chicaoo III . Feb 20, 1896 —White comb honey 
is .selling at li!c, Light amber 12c per lb. Dark 
amber not wanted. Kxtracted honey, white. 6c., 
iight amber 5yic per lb. Dark amber 5c per lb 
In barrels 1 to 5c per lb. Beeswax 28 to 29c per 
lb. After the holidays the demand for honey is 
limited, however we have about di.-posed of our 
receipts. 

S. T. Fish k t o,, 189 South Water St. . 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



G5 



PLAYING DOMiNOS. 



MistreFH Morning— well she knowi 
How to play at doniiuo.s 
With th(! children, bliihe and gay, 
Wide awake at break of day. 
First she shows her bluest skies, 
Matched by Mary witii her eyes, 
Next she plays her breezes light, 
Matched with Lucy's l.aighter bright. 
Then she throws her sunshine true. 
Matched with smiles by merry Lou, 
Flowers come now, sweet white and red. 
Matched by Josie's flowerlike head. 
For each charm the; morning throws 
In this game of domiuos 
Bomething sweet the children bring, 
Matching her in everything. 
If the game goes thus all day, 
Who will be the victor, praj'? 

—Amos R. Wells in St. Nicholas. 



A MIDNIGHT MIRAGE. 



It was nearly midnight. The ironing 
was done, and the clothes lay heaped on 
the table in snowy piles still hot from 
the iron. Ann Quinn drew a chair up to 
the little kitchen window that over- 
looked the river and sat down with a 
sigh of pain, for her back ached. She 
tested her chin in her hand and stared 
through the faint tracery of familiar ob- 
jects on the glass to the water beyond, 
lying dark and glossy under the stars. 

"I wonder if Mis' Niles wants that 
chipped beef for breakfast," thought 
Ann Quinn, for she was both a cook and 
a laundress. "Guess I'll fry them cold 
potatoes left from dinner, too," she con- 
tinued, her eyes resting on a faraway 
cluster of electric lights that trembled 
like a diamond pendant. 

Presently, as she sat there, the red 
rim of the moon pushed itself up behind 
some trees on the opposite shore. Ann 
Quinn watched it rising, with a medita- 
tive look. "It's terrible red. Them lit- 
tle branches looks like they was drawn 
on it with a pen. I wonder what that 
black thing in the water is !" she broke 
off as a feeler of moonlight slipped 
across the river to where something 
black and long bobbed stiffly in the cur- 
rent. She shaded her eyes from the lamp 
and pressed her face close to the glass. 
"Looks like a man," she muttered. As 
ehe spoke the thing wheeled about and 
began drifting in toward the stone 
breakwater beneath the window. Slow- 
ly it drew near, the little moon sparks 



dancing in its wake. It floated into the 
shadow, and she strained her eyes in 
vain to follow it. 

"Guess I'll go to bed," she said, giv- 
ing one mcjre look into the darkness. 
She did not go, though, for suddenly 
she saw a lean hand thrust over the 
breakwater, then another, and the next 
moment the figure of a man crawled out 
on the stone below her. 

Ann Quinn started back, her heart 
pumping like a steam dredger, for she 
heard the thick splash of wet feet com- 
ing up the steps, and she saw a face 
pressed against the window that she had 
just quitted — a drawn face, yellow, pale 
as the handkerchief knotted about its 
throat. 

"Let me in, Ann Quinn," said the 
lips, though she heard no voice. "Let 
me in. " 

She stood staring, her broad cheeks 
whiter than the plates on the dresser be- 
hind her, but she did not move. The 
man waited a moment ; then he pushed 
up the sash and swung himself into the 
room. 

The lamp blinked and guttered in the 
draft, and a door slammed. Ann Quinn 
quivered from head to foot. The man 
stood looking at her with famished eyes. 

"A lifetime, a whole lifetime," he 
whispered at last, and his voice sound- 
ed cold and empty as the echo in a 
vault. 

"Go away !" cried Ann Quinn. "And 
take your wet hand off my ironing. " 

The man moved and stared at the 
piles of clothes on the table. 

"Did you do that?" he asked in a low 
voice. "And are you tired?" 

"Yes, I d-d it, and I am tired," she 
replied, stealing her way stealthily to- 
ward tiie door. 

As she moved, her terror lent a new, 
catlike grace to her awkward body She 
looked almost like another woman in 
the swaging light — a woman with nar- 
row, wicked eyes and ]i;he motions. 
The man stepped quickly before the door 
and stood there, his clothes flooding the 
black river water on her clean floor. 

"And all this time you have worked, 
while I have had more, a thousand 
times more, than I could use. Aud we 
have lived utar each other here in the 
same city and never knew it. " He cov- 
ered his face with his hands aud groan- 
ed. "Our sin — what was it that we 



66 



THE A ME It J CAN BEE-KEEPER 



March 



Bhould reap sucti louelyjears in punish - 
merit?" Then he moved toward her, his 
arms outstretched : "My love, my lost 
love! Give me one kiss, my first since 
that other grave closed over us. " 

Ann Quinu gulped, and her hair rose 
softly. "If you touch me, I'llkill you!" 
she said hoarsely, catching a knife up 
from the shelf behind her. The man 
seemed not to hear her ; he grasped her 
in his arms and crushed his mouth on 
hers, and his lips were wet and cold. 

Ann Quinn leaped away from him and 
buried the great knife in his heart. He 
looked into her terrified eyes, and a 
shadow fell on his face. 

"See," he said mournfully, "you 
have stabbed me — again ; but this time 
it is to. late. " 

She looked, and there was no blood 
gushing from that great slash — only the 
drip, drip of the thick water. Then she 
covered her face and prayed, for she saw 
that the man was dead. 

There was a long silence, broken by 
the chime of a clock in the house behind 
them. The man shivered. "An hour 
more, dear God, only an hour more!" 
he pleaded, and he wrung his hands, 
crying hurriedly : "How can I say it all! 
How can I make her understand !" He 
seized Ann Quinn's arm and shook her 
fiercely. 

"Remember, woman! Try to remem- 
ber ! Have I forgotten? Havel not lived 
alone — waiting — and you never came?" 

She brushed her rough hand over her 
eyes, something stirred in her torpid 
brain. As the summer lightning, thread- 
ing the sky, will show a sudden pearly 
perspective of unseen cloud mass, theu 
flash out, leading the saiiii- L"jd uigilit it 
found, so the soul of Ann ^>Liiun opened 
for an instant beyond her wretched, worlc 
ridden world, only to cK e again as 
quickly. The man caught her look and 
asked, his voice teuse and quivering: 

"Those faded lilies of the valley, 
there in that cup, why did you keep 
them only from the flowers you threw 
away this morning?" 

"They — they — smelled good," an- 
swered thowTjisiG, troubled, bewildered. 

"Only that?" 

"Yes, only that." 

"Have you never dreamed of some 
one you loved, some one apart from this 
miserable squalor I find you in?" 

The blood flooded her sallow face. 



"What business is that of yours? Go 
away, I say!" she added weakly, giving 
him a push and catching at the table to 
save herself from falling. 

"Tell me," he pleaded, "have you 
never missed me, who was more to you 
those few short years ago than life or 
honor?" 

Ann Quinn looked into his eyes and 
laughed. There was no mirth in that 
laugh, though, and he shielded himself 
as it she had struck at him. Then he 
spoke again. 

"Listen," he said. "Tonight in a far 
land my soul will be born anew. Until 
then the veil is lifted. But we will 
cheiit God and love and law — you and 
I together. Soon my eyes will be blind- 
ed, and I shall not know you except by 
this. Take it and keep it always over 
your heart, and though you be old and 
bent, and though you be a little child, 
still I shall kujw you. " 

Ho thrust his hand into his breast and 
drew out a leather case. He opened it 
and pushed something toward her. She 
looked. It was a faded spray of lily of 
the valley. Then he reached into hie 
pocket and threw a canvas bag down on 
the table. "Take these," he said. 
"There is enough here to keep you from 
this drudgery. " He pointed to the iron- 
ing. "And now I must begone. The 
river calls to me. " 

They stood looking at each other in 
silence. The light swam before Ann 
Quinn's eyes, and everything blurred but 
that white face staring into hers. Near- 
er it came, ever nearer, and she felt her 
muscles quiver in resistance, then grow 
lax ; there was a pause, a gasping breath, 
and she had thrown herself into his 
arms. The cold ooze from his wet hair 
trailed on her neck. Closer and closer 
they swayed together, locked in each 
other's arms; then, with a strange, thin 
cry, like the wail of a newborn child, 
the man tore himself away and leaped 
from the window into the night beyond. 
There was a heavy splash and silence. 

The wind had blown out the lamp. 
Ann Qaiuu groped her way to the table, 
dazed and stupid. She struck a match. 
It sputtered and went out. Theu she 
crawled away into a corner, her wide 
eyes fixed on the open window. The 
moon swam high, and the river ran 
molten silver beneath it. The little stars 



1896 



77/ A' AM Hill a AN BEE-KEEPER. 



G7 



set. aud the gray scroll of inoruiug un- 
rolled aorosa liio uight. Still sho sat 
there, her eyes Used ou the erupty wiu- 
dow space. 

yuuiieuly .she stood up, and she felt 
old aud dizzy aud laiue. She reached 
out and picked up the cauvas hag the 
man had given her. She shook it, aud 
there roiled out ou the '■ahle a great 
haudful of unset ruhies. Auu Quinn 
stood sruriugat them until the fir.sl suu- 
beani came sjf ting through the darkne.s.s, 
liglitiug them iuto a thousand crimson 
sparkles. 

There was a rap at the door, aud she 
thrust the jewels from sight. It was 
only the miikman, aud he looked at the 
woman's face in disappoiutmeut. "So 
you've heard the news already?" he 
asked. 

"What news?" 

"Why, didn't you kuow they've found 
the body of Ellis Price, the milliouairo, 
drowned not a hundred yards from this 
very spot?" 

"No," said Ann Quinu. 

"Yes, aud they think he must have 
beeu murdered. He left home to go to 
the bank with some rubies he had for 
his uicce's wedding, aud they weren't 
on the body anywhere. " 

"Muruered — murdered 1 What would 
they do if they found — some one with 
them rubies?" Ann Quinu asked thickly. 

"Why, haug him high as he'd 
swiug, " answered the milkmau. 

Ten minutes later Auu Quiuu stole 
down to the riverside. She reached over 
and dropped a haudful of stones into the 
water — a haudful of stones that shone 
like blood drops. Down they sauk into 
the gray river slime. But on the ripples 
above them huug sumethiug too light to 
sink, for it was only a dried stem of 
lilies of the valley. 

Ann Quinu watched it drift out of 
sight. Then .-he turned back to the house 
to get breakfj.-jt. — Julie Closson Kenly 
in San Francisco Argonaut. 

Mr Switterda's Sehool. 

Early in the eighteenth century a Mr. 
Switterda announces that ladie.s and 
gentlemeu who desire in a very short 
time to speak Latin, French or High 
Dutch tiueutly, and can spare but two 
hours a %\eek. will be faithfully taughc 
by him accordiiig to a very easy and de- 
lightful method, full, plain, most expe- 



ditious and effectual. "Every oue, " he 
coutiuues, "is to pay according to his 
quality from 1 to 4 guineas a month, 
but he (Mr. Switterda) will readier 
agree by the great. " A good contrast to 
the above is the plain aud homely de- 
Ecription of "a school about 40 miles 
from Londou. The master has had much 
success with boys, as there are almost 40 
ministers and masters that were his 
scholars. His wife also teaches girls 
lacemaking, plain work, raising paste, 
sauces and cookiug to a degree of exact- 
cess. His price is £10 or £11 the year, 
with a pair of sheets and one spoon, to 
be returned if desired. " — Cornhill Mag- 
azine. 

Kissing:. 

.An English journal i^rints the follow- 
ing : "A very disagreeable habit of the 
king of Poyrugal is that he kisses his 
male friends. The princes of our reign- 
ing hou.se all do this, aud of oour.se it is 
common enough abroad ; but, thank 
heaven, so far this nasty looking (no 
matter how really innocent) habit has 
never become fashionable in this coun- 
try. It is of course all a mere question 
of etiquette, but let us fervently pray 
that Englishmen when they meet with 
or part from their friends will never get 
to think it the correct thing to kiss one 
another. Etiquette in parting varies all 
over the world. In America the men 
shake hands aud the women kiss one an- 
other and sometimes cry, for the Amer- 
ican ladies are champion weepists. Id 
I France and in Italy even more thewom'- 
jen weep, while the men kiss aud hug 
one another almost as vigorously as if 
they were in a wrestling match. An 
English woman shakes hands with a 
man of her acquaintance, while in Spain 
she always gives her hand to be kissed. 
It makps the same seusatiou in Madrid 
for a man to take a woman's hand and 
shake it as it would in London for a for- 
eiguer to seize a lady's baud aud kiss it- " 

A Grave Mistake. 

Music Piiblislier (to song writer) 
— You have made an error in this 
duet which would hurt its sale with 
our lady customers if published. 

Song Writer — Why, what is it? 

Music Publisher — You have given 
the last word to the man. — New 
Y'ork Herald. 



68 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEKPF.R, 



March 



THE FiN DE SiECLE DAMSEL. 

She has hair that is fluffy, straight, banged or 

half cnrled ; 
Has a parasol, oft by her deft fingers twirled. 
She has eyes either brown or black, gray or 

true blue; 
Has a neat fitting glove and a still neater shoe. 
She has cheeks that make bitter the envious 

rose. 
She has trunks upon trunks of the costliest 

clothes. 

She has jewels that shine as the stars do at 

night, 
^nd she dances as Ariel dances— or might. 
She's accustomed to sitting on rocks in the 

glen. 
She's also accustomed to sitting on men. 
There's not much in her brain, but there's 

heaven in her smile. 
Her profession is love, and she flirts all the 

while. 

— Munsey's Magazine. 



A BICYCLE THIEF. 



A certain news agency had telegraphed 
abroad the report that I am in Switzer- 
land, not for the benefit of my health, 
but for the purpose of stealing bicycles, 
and they added that I was an expert 
thief, and, for a time at least, I had 
succeeded in baffling the most praise- 
worthy attempts of the police of two 
towns to capture me. 

While this statement is naturally flat- 
tering to me it is nevertheless a libel, 
and, in fact, if I cared to use strong 
language I might go so far as to take 
the last syllable away from the word 
"libel." 

The whole trouble arose through 
Switzerland not having a proper lan- 
guage of its own, that hilly country pre- 
ferring to express what few thoughts it 
has in a mixture of French, German and 
Italian, depending on what particular 
canton you happen to be in. They say 
that the Swiss are natural linguists. 
Unfortunately they are. Any combina- 
tion of sounds you may make means 
fiomething to any Swiss to whom you 
happen to be talking, for he knows so 
many languages that you are sure to hit 
one of them, and so you convey ideas to 
him that you had no thought of express- 
ing. 

October weather is lovely in Switzer- 
land. Most of the visitors have then 
gone, prices come down one-half, and 
the air is sweet and cool, with usually 
a cloudless sky. 



Under these circumstances 1 thougJbt 
it would be a nice thing, as the roads 
were good and the scenery picturesque, 
to take a bicycle tour right around Lake 
Thun, beginning at the town which 
gives the lake its name, going around 
the north side of the lake to Interlaken 
and returning by the south shore. 

The hotel keeper told me that if I 
went up the street, turned to the right, 
went under an arcade until I came to a 
tunnel, penetrated that and emerged on 
another street, turned to the left and 
kept on I would come to the shop of a 
man who would let me have a bicycle 
on hire by the day or the hour. I fol- 
lowed the directions as closely as possi- 
ble and thought I recognized the shop 
because a bicycle was leaning against 
the wall. The owner was leaning 
against the doorway, looking at the bi- 
cycle outside. The following conversa- 
tion in many languages took place be- 
tween us : 

"Habeu sie un bicyclette a louer?" I 
opened on him with the above impartial 
mixture of German and French. It 
seems he understood me to ask if that 
was his bicycle, whereupon he replied 
in four languages : 

"Yaw, yaw, oui, yes, se. " 

Then, throwing in a bit of Italian, I 
led off with : 

"Quanta costa la machine a la hoor, 
Oder per tag?" 

Now, I submit that to any educated 
person, or even to a university man, 
this sentence said as plainly as print, 
"How much do you want for this ma- 
chine by the hour or the day?" I tried 
afterward to get the magistrate to see 
this, but he, not knowing Italian, shied 
at the very beginning of the phrase. 
The owner of the bicycle on oath de- 
clares that he thought I asked how 
much the bicycle had cost him. He says 
that he answered he paid 500 francs for 
that brute of a machine, made in 
France, while I understood him to agree 
to let me have it for 5 francs a day, 
which was cheap. I was in a hurry to 
be off and was afraid he might repent 
his offer, so I said it was all right, and 
I would take it, whereupon, without 
further parley, I wheeled the bicycle 
into the middle of the road, sprang on 
its buck and was off, leaving the aston- 
ished man standing by his door, too 
thunderstruck, it seems, to make any 



1896. 



Tllh: A MKIHC 1 .V liEK- KEEPKR. 



(i!) 



outcry until I had passed beyond hl8 
sight at the first turuiug of the road. 

I pedaleil sereuely ou, little realizing 
what a couiuioiiou I had left behind 
me, and the one funuy thing about this 
most regrettable episode is that I spent 
an exceedingly c^uiet, peaceful and en- 
joyable day, not knowing I was pursued, 
making no attempt to elude anybody 
and yet eluding them in what appeared 
afterward to be by subtle and crafty 
dodges. The ujagistrate could not be 
persuaded that my sitting on the ve- 
randa of a restaurant in the main street 
of Interlaken, with the bicycle in plain 
view of everybody, was not the brazen 
act of a hardened criminal, who knew 
the police would be searching for him 
in the back streets. 

When the man standing against the 
doorway had recovered partly from his 
amazement at my sudden flight on his 
machine, he rushed to the police station 
and told the authorities there a plausi- 
ble foreigner had engaged him in polite 
Ollendorfiaj conversation, and, while 
Ilis mind was distracted in trying to f ol 
low his remarks, had seized the oppor- 
tunity and also the machine and was at 
that moment making his way to the 
Dorth road toward Interlaken. 

Now, capture under these circum- 
stances seemed to be deliciously easy. 
There were no branching off roads. The 
mountains were on one side and the lake 
on the other, ou neither side of which 
was bicycling practicable. Therefore all 
the two policemen had to do, when they 
mounted their machines, was to ride 
faster than I did, and so overtake me. 
As I had no idea that a race was ov\ I 
plunged along in a leisurely manner 
and would undoubtedly have been taken 
near Interlaken if it had not been for 
the fact that some years ago a company 
built a funicular lailway from the mar- 
gin of the lake a mile or so up to St, 
Beatenburg. I had lived in St. Beaten- 
burg once, and I remembered that the 
road from there to lulerlaken was a 
good one, so I Ihouciht' that perhaps it 
would not I e a bad plan to go up on the 
railway and coast down to Interlaken. 
I knew a nnm who had done it once. I 
can well bt^lievo now that no one ever 
tries it the second time. The car goea 
up to St. Beatenburg threip or four times 
a day only, but wht u a couple of miles 
away from the ];uuling I saw a steamer 



coming in, and I knew if I reached the 
lauding about the time she did I would 
get a car. 

I am not a racer, but I thereupon put 
in my best licks to make connection 
with the mountain railway. The road 
at this point is as level as th^ lake itself 
and only a few feet above it. My 
thoughts turned to the railway because 
I knew that beyond the lower end of it 
the carriage road rose high above the 
lake, pa.ssed through several tunnels and 
then went down to the Interlaken plain. 
By taking the up car I would avoid all 
this and have it down hill all the way. 
The policemen, it seems, caught sight 
of me as I was making my spurt, and 
they at once put on extra steam, but 
there is a deep bay just before one 
reaches the funicular, and they lost 
sight of me as I turned the point. I had 
reached the top of the railway funicu- 
lar, and I bicycled the mile or more 
along the street, high up above the lake, 
on one side of which is scattered the 
village of St. Beatenburg, with its won- 
derful view of the snow mountains — the 
Jungfrau, the Eiger, the Moncb and a 
host of others. 

I found the ride down the zigzag road 
not such fun as I had expected. I saw 
the brake was not going to last if I 
kept on, so I had to walk most of the 
way down. Coming to a more level 
ground, I cycled gently into Interlaken, 
making for the place where they sell 
Munich beer, and there, over a mug 
and a sandwich on the main street, I 
made my frugal lunch, with the bicycle 
standing against a pillar of the veranda. 

After a smoke I proceeded out of In 
terlaken and took the south road that 
borders the lake. This road is not so 
good for cycling as the other, being 
much more hilly, while the roadbed is 
more stony. I therefore walked a good 
deal, taking it very leisurely, and in 
course of time I was overtaken by a po- 
liceman, who also was walking his ma- 
chine. He asked me if I had met a man 
on a bicycle coming from Tbun, and I 
told him quite truly that I had not. 

He seemed discouraged and told me 
all about the bicycle theft and the arre.st 
of the wrong man. He feared the thief 
had hidden in the forest until he and 
his comrade went past and then perhaps 
twok the steamer across the lake, or the 
villain might merely have pretended to 



70 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



take the uor.ii ro id, v,h.Je in re:.] ly 1 ■ 
weut by the sraith Thus the policemaii 
hoped to meet him yet I promised t) 
keep a lot.kcnt, ami the of!ic!er ^\eut en 

Whei! I reached Thuu and came tu 
the place \Yhe?o I got the bicycle, I 
fouwd the man was in Interlaken, sud 
his wife, who knew all about the ret 
bery, was amazed tq see the tbief re- 
turn the machine and iDlace 5 francs rr'i-:: 
his thanks on the coun'er. 

I regret to f^ay that the apparent hov- 
esty of this act-on did not commend i" 
self to the authorities. They looked c:i 
it as the ruse of a crafty scoundrel, \.\S' 
realized that, so vigilant were the po- 
lice, it was impossible for him to es- 
cape, and so endeavored to throw dust 
in the eyes of the wise men of the place. 
I therefore had 1 3 pay the expenses cf 
the chtiee and apologize to everybody 
concerned. 

Thus the bicycle, at 5 francs a day, 
was not so cheap as I had at first sup- 
posed. — Luke Sharp in Detr.oit Free 
Press. 

An Attentive Gallant. 

Among the audience at one of the 
popular theaters wp.vq a young man and 
a young woman who appeared to be 
either newly married or on the verge of 
it. The young man was as attentive as 
he could be, and the young woman, who 
wore all the earmarks of a spoiled child, 
took all his little kindnesses as a matter 
of course. Between the first and second 
acts the courteous gallant whispered to 
his fair one for a moment, and she nod- 
ded her hdad affirmatively. The youi:;; 
man arose and went out of the thea'er 
through a door leading to an adjoin ii!;; 
candy store. He returned a few minutes 
later accompanied by a colored boy i:i 
white coat and apron, who carried in 
one hand a tray with a glass of soda 
water upon it and in the other a napkin. 
He stood in the aisle while the young 
man besouglit h:s lady to refresh herself 
with the glass of soda. The eyes of the 
entire audience were upon them. The 
young woman sniffed at the glass dis- 
dainfully and waved it aside. A face- 
tious youngster in the front row of the 
gallery ruthlessly fractured the prevail- 
ing silence with the suggestion: "Slap 
'er on de 'rist, de sassy t'ing. Get 'er 
some shampy. She don't want none o' 
yer temp'rance drinks." The young 



man blushed and sat down and looked 
miserable during the rest of the play.— 
Philadelphia Record. 



An Old Love Lietter. 

The following love letter, written by 
a Kentuckian in his youth, and bearing 
date in 1823, may be of use to some of 
our more modern but less effusive and 
tropical lovers, as an example in erotic 
epistolary correspondence : 

My Dear and Adorable Polly— As the 
heavens yield gloomy aspects, making null 
and void my timidical feelings, I sit down to 
promulgate to you, most holy and immaculate 
virgin, that I hold a kind of biennial reverence 
for your most sacred charms, but owing to the 
1 intense frigidity of the circumambient atmos- 
tphere it has discomboborated my respiration 
like a ship tossed on the tumtiltuous ocean in 
sight of the delightful land and then tossud 
back again. Oh, if there is any tender pity 
lies within that snowy bosom, delay my raging 
passion, or I shall doubtless pass out of this 
world in a hu.rricane of sighs to that sweet 
elysian which gives dreams of consolation to 
heal lovesick hearts. Your fond adorer, etc. 

It may reduce the percentage of ro- 
mance to state that the writer died an 
old bachelor about 20 years ago. — New 
York Sun. 

Royal Etiquette. 

On one occasion Queen Victoria, Lonis 
Philippe and the Duke of Wellington 
paid a visit to Eton college. They were 
invited to sign the visitor's book. The 
French king thoughtlessly took up the 
pen and signed his name at the top of 
the page. Etiquette, however, forbade 
Queen Victoria to sign her name under 
any other. She therefore signed on the 
top of the next page. She then took np 
the pen and handed it to the Duke of 
Wellington, who was so excited at the 
contretemps that he actually signed his 
liame"Weg£,'ington. " And, by the way, 
it maybe i-ecorded that etiquette forbids 
the queen to converse with tradesmen. 
When a purveyor waits upon her, the 
queen addresses her remarks to an 
equerry, who in turn addresses the ex 
pectant merchant.' — Philadelphia Times. 



No Danger. 

"My dear," said young Mrs. McFlim- 
eey to her husband, "I do wish you 
would not go about the house in your 
shirt sleeves. People will think your fa- 
ther worked for a living." 

"They won't when they know his 



1H96. 



THE AMEBIGAN BEE-KEEPKB. 



71 



How Tom Scott Iteeame Rich. 

An iuterestjng stuij is tuld by T. O. 
Curtis of Lowville, Columbia couuty, 
iibnut Tom ycott, x\w milliouaire Jum- 
beimau, who died some years ago. Mr. 
Curtis came to Wisconsin iu the forties 
and eugafred iu hauling goods from Mil- 
waukee to the pineries. While iu Mil- 
waukee he uiet a young man who had 
fallen into ill luck. He had a few hind 
warrants, Innvever, from which he 
hoped to realize a few hundred dollars. 
These warrants were given to Mr. Cur- 
tis to sell. He afterward disposed of 
them for several times the amount the 
young man had expected to receive for 
them. 

In the meantime the young fellow had 
gone to New York city. The money was 
forwarded to him and reached him in a 
very opportune time, being the means 
of placing him iu a position where he 
became, later, tie bead of one of the lar- 
gest dry goods firms iu the great metrop- 
olis. 

Some years afterward Mr. Curtis vis 
Ited New York, where be was joyously 
received and royally entertained by the 
merchant prince whom he had "placed 
on his feet," as he himself expressed it, 
a few years before. Tom Scott at this 
time bad a sort of store at "the Rap- 
ids," but bis stock had so dwindled 
down that he remarked to Curtis that be 
would have to do some hard scratching 
iu order to obtain a new stock. Curtis, 
remembering his New York friend, 
signed a joint note with Scott and ob- 
tained from the gentleman the desired 
goods. "That," says Mr. Curtis, "was 
Tom Scott's starter in life." — Milwau- 
kee Wisconsin. 



\Vorkinff Under Pressure. 

It is said that the liighest recorded air 
pressure under which men have worked is 
50 pounds to the square inch. Forty-five 
pounds has boon found about as much as 
the averape workman can stand. When 
it is ueoc^sary, in such as sinking cais- 
sons, to work under such pressure as this, 
the men are changed frequently. If the 
charactor of the excavation is such as to 
allow considerable leakage, the men can 
work nmch longer than otherwise, owing 
to the ccnstant change of air. The neces- 
sity of breathing the same air over and 
over again, is said to bo productive of 
worse results than the high pressure. — 
Baltimore American. 



ini) Came Hard. 

In Fr-.»uce, as in most other countries, 
It is necessary to give one's age when 
making a statement in a court of justice, 
as well as in many other official pro- 
ceedings. But Frenchwomen of mature 
years are noted above all other women 
for tlieir unwillingness to stale their age. 

On one occasion a lady who had to 
testify was accompanied to the court by 
a numerous company of her friends, and 
when the magistrate asked, "How old 
are you?" there was such a coughing 
and clearing of throats, as of people suf- 
fering from severe colds, that all that 
could b9 beard in the courtroom was 
" ty years!" 

Through the amiability of the magis- 
trate, this more than half .suppressed re- 
sponse was allowed to stand, but the 
tribunals are not always so lenient. On 
another occasion a magistrate asked a 
woman : 

"What is your age, madam?" 

"Whatever you choose, sir," an- 
swered the lady. She was under oath. 

"Yoii may put down 45 years, then," 
said the magistrate to the clerk. "What 
.is your occupation, madam?" 

"Sir," said the witness, "you have 
made a mistake of ten yearsinmy age. " 

"Put down 55 years, then," said the 
magistrate. "Your residence" — 

"Sir," exclaimed the lady, "my age 
is 35 years, not 55 !" 

"At last we have your statement," 
said the magistrate, and be proceeded 
with the examination. — Youth's Com- 
Daniou. 

Why Hnnt For It? 

Tommy's Mother— Did you hear 
about poor Mrs. Jones? She ran a 
needle into her hand. The doctors 
had to open every finger trying to 
find it. 

Tommy— What made 'em do that, 
mammaV Why didn't they get the 
lady another needle?- ^ = -* 



Were Not In Her Set Anyhow. 

The teacher of the infant class at the 
Sunday school, to interest the little ones, 
had begun to tell them the story of the 
fall of man, when a mite of a girl was 
heard to exclaim half aloud, "Oh, I'm 
BO tired (if that story about the Ad- 



72 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



A. European Idea. 

Orseof tl:e most clunacteristic features 
of Europe-.'.ii prisous as a whole is that 
prisoners are allowed to have a portioc 
of their earuii^gs. This system prevails 
in France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, 
Eussia, Sweden, Denmark and other 
countries. The amount earned by the 
prisoners varies considerably where it 
depends upon piece work. In France the 
average salary of the prisoner is 35 cents 
a "uy. Of, this amount the prisoner is 
allowed tu spend one-half while in pris- 
on for supplementary food and clothing, 
postage, etc. , though no expenditure is 
made without the approval of the ad- 
ministration The other half is reserved 
until the time of his discharge. A three 
years' prisoner has to his credit on leav- 
ing an average of $50, a fonr years' 
prisoner $7() and a five years' prisoner 
about $90. — Chicago Record. 



SxperimentinST. 

Some gentlemen, cruising round a 
part of the Irish coast, observing that 
about the same hour every day a boat 
containing two men and a woman took 
its passengers from the shore, and after 
a short time returned with them, in- 
quired the reason. 

"My men," said one, "what makes 
yon come cut here every day? Is it that 
you like it so much?" 

"Oh, your honor, not at all, but, 
your honor, the wife and me's going 
soon toAustraiy, and so we're just prac- 
ticing the saysickness, that we may be 
used to it when we start. " 

"Well, and do you find yourselves im- 
proving?" 

"Ah, sure, your honor, the wife's ill 
every day, but she's gettingonpurtily !" 
—Strand Magazine. 



first S:g:iit of a Railway Train. 

A country boy who was brought up in 
a remote region of Scotland had occasion 
to accompany his father to a village 
near which a branch line of railway 
passes. The morning after his arrival, 
when sauntering in the garden behind 
the house in which they were staying, 
he beheld with wondering eyes a train 
go by. For a moment he stood staring 
at it with astonishment, and then, run- 
ning into the house, he said: "Fayther, 
fayther, comeoot. There's a smiddv ran 



off wi' a row o' houses, an it's awa' 
floon by the back o' the town." — Lon- 
don Telegraph. 

The Butcher and His Customers. 

"What, 're legs o' mutton selling for ?" 
asked Griddlerack, entering the butch- 
er's shop of Cleaves. 

Cleaves looks about him cautiously 
and then whispers, "We're asking 14, 
but we'll let you have it for 13. " 

"Comeuow," says Griddlerack, "none 
of your shinanigans. You just sold a leg 
to Eabbage for 12>^." 

To this Cleaves promptly replies : "But 
not for such mutton as this. I could sell 
you such mutton as I sold to Rabbage for 
10 cents — if I had any left. " 

"Nonsense! I saw yon when you cut 
it off, and I know it came off the same 
sheep that this did." 

Cleaves — You're a sharp one, you are, 
Griddlerack. There's no getting the 
start o' you. And nobody wants to. 
Leastwise, I don't. Let me tell you the 
dead truth about it, Griddlerack. Rab- 
bage's leg did come off the same critter, 
and I did sell him for 12)2, but what's 
a fellow going to do? Rabbage is such 
a confoundedly close buyer, it's next to 
impossible to sell him. So when he 
came in just now I put the price way 
down, but he didn't get ahead of me so 
much as he thought he was going to. I 
cheated him on the weight — see? 

Griddlerack — Oh, that so? All right 
then ; I'll t#ike that leg. — Boston Tran- 
script. 

Different Views. 

"Do yoti ever go to church?" asked a 
city missionary of a woman who had 
applied to him for assistance. 

"No, I don't," was the reply. "The 
fact is, I ain't fit things to wear. My 
husband's been out 0' work so long I've 
run out 0' things, and, anyhow, me and 
my husband have such diff'rent views 
I'd have to go alone if I went at all. " 

"What are your views:" 

"Well, I'm a Methodist, and my hus- 
band, he's one o' these here Knights o* 
Eithiiiii, " — Youlli's Conmanlon. 

First Negro Minstrel. 

The first man who ever sang a negro 
song on the stage was an actor named 
Herbert. He sat in a chair before the 
curtain. He painted his face with black 

T)aiiit.. taiiiied jiotk h a inrr tl> a » jj*^* ^" ""■■ *- 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



73 



How She Got the Ne^s. 

Two Louisville woineu who are "great 
friends," jih the phrase goes, froui one 
cause or another had j)ot met for several 
■weeks, though living only a few stjuaros 
apart. The other night one dauje went 
dow'n to visit the other one and said ou 
entering the house : 

"Margaret, I came down to visit you 
because I heard you were sick. " 

"Well," answered Margaret, who 
seemed a tritle out of sorts, "you took 
your time about it. I have been sick a 
■week. ' ' 

"Yes," Deborah replied, "but I could 
not come sooner because you took such a 
roundabout way of letting me know you 
were sick. " 

"Roundabout way? I don't reninmber 
sending you any word at all. How did 
you hear?" 

"Well, you wrote the news to your 
daughter Alice in Milwaukee; slic wrote 
to my daughter Mary in New Oi'leans ; 
Mary mentioned it when she wrote to 
me — and that is how 1 h-ippened to 
come over." — Louisville Courier- Jour- 
nal. 



Artificial Scenting: ol Flowers. 

Flowers that have lost something of 
their perfume are now scouted ariificial- 
ly by watering thenj wii:h an ali;oholic 
solution of essence, \ising a liitl<; glycer- 
in to fix the odor. Thus, for violots, the 
liquid is composed of 100 grams of 
glycerin and 10 grams of essence of 
violet. In many places, while .-centen 
violets are comparatively rare, the un 
scented kinds grow wild in great profu- 
sion. These are now bought up in large 
quantities, scented artificially and put 
into the market in advantageous compe- 
tition with the perfumed violets grown 
by the horticulturists. Cut flowers -which 
have wilted from time or transportation 
are revived by being plunged into a 
■weak solution of sal ammoniac. Flowers 
■which have little or no scent are also 
perfumed for sale by being put into a 
box with ice and tlien saturated with 
a current of carbonic acid charged with 
perfume. — London Public Opinion. 



near Sunderland, he was returning to 

his host's house alorjg a lonely road, 
when he was acco.s*ced by a robber. The 
latter was a believer in the right of 
might and requested Mr. Mackenzie to 
turn out all the cash he had got. "Well, 
my dear man," replied Mr. Mackenzie, 
"you know I am big enough to thrash 
you. If it's money you want, I'll give 
you half a crown." The robber would 
not accept this very charitable offer. 
Mr. Mackenzie "doffed" his coat and 
gave him what the man is now jjleased 
to call "a dashed good hiding." That 
thrashing did the man a great service, 
for he afterward left the paths of vice 
and became one of Mr. Mackenzie's 
many converts. 

An XliUMtriouH PUi ■\. 

It was in 1859, when he was embas- 
sador at St. Petersburg, that Prince Bis- 
marck studied Russian. The suspicious 
ex-chancellor, who once declared that 
blotting paper was "an invention of the 
enemy," wished to dispense with inter- 
preters. He engaged a young law stu- 
dent to give him lessons. M. Alexeleoff 
has lately furnished some particulars of 
his former pupil. 

The pronunciation of certain syllables 
was a great difficulty, and Bismarck got 
out of temper more than once, but he 
finally mastered the language well 
enough for his purpose, and then disput- 
ed the remuneration which had been 
agreed upon. 

Bismarck carefully kept his knowl- 
edge of Russian a secret from the court, 
with the result that he occasionally 
gleaned information not intended for 
him, but ou one occasion the czar, who 
was talking in Russian to Prince Gort- 
shakott', noticed that the embassador was 
looking very fixedly at hiju, and at once 
guessed the truth. He a^Ked Bismarck, 
point blank, if he understood Russian, 
and the "man of blood and iron" con- 
fessed, much annoyed at having been 
found out. — Pearson's Weekly. 



Muscular Christianity. 

The Westminster Budget tells a char- 
acteristic story of the late Rev. Peter 
Mackenzie of London. Many years ago, 
after delivering a lecture in a village 



Out of His Liine. 

The Boston Transcript reports that 
two gentlemen fell into a talk about 
books. 

"What do you think of the 'Origin of 
Species?' " asked one man. 

"I have never read it," was the 
other's reply, "in fact," he added, "I 
am not interested in financial subiecta " 



74 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



O'N'E TJTTLE T^CTJR "ERt "DAT. 



The ■v\i'ii5.1e I sleeping lay 

One liltle hour pre clay, 
Befoi'e my ■window on the tree 
X swalU-w 8ang this song to mo, 

One little hour ere day. 

Kcw listen to my lay, 

Thy lover I betray. 
The while I sing this song to theo 
Another maiden kisseth he, 

^fm little hour ere day. 

Oh, nje, no further say! 

Ah, hush, no more betray I 
Fly, swallow, from my sill away. 
Ah, love and faith, a dream are they 

One little hour ere day. 

— Eduard Moerike. 



CHOLLY'S STORY. 



It was too warm an evening, even fol 
a smoking concert, Cliolly said as h« 
came out of his room, attired all in 
white, looking a perfect picture of man- 
ly beauty. Cholly was a blond specimen 
of the male sex, blue eyed, golden hair- 
ed, a stalwart representative of tha 
Saxon type. He was 27, well placed as 
regards this world's wealth and position. 
Life to him — thanks to old Egerton 
Bailey, his late father — was a pleasant 
pastime, the world a charmed play 
place, where girls worshiped him and 
men voted hira a trump. So much for 
Cholly, debonair, kind hearted and 
handsome, who had traveled the world 
over, making friends wherever he went. 

Cholly's prediction that it was too 
warm even for a smoking concert on this 
particular evening was verified by the 
slim attendance there on his arrival. 
Only eight men out of the 30 expected 
found their way to the usual rendezvous. 
By general agreement the music was 
banished, coats discarded, negligee atti- 
tudes assumed, and the eight men 
amused themselves by relating anecdotes 
and personal experiences. 

"By thev.ay, Cholly, " at last a friend 
said to the blond Adonis, who, sprawled 
on a sofa, was listening quietly to the 
conversation, "you're very silent to- 
night. You've just arrived from the 
west too. Come, haven't you some blood 
curdling tale to tell us of western atroc- 
ities, cowboy 'breaks' or Coxey out- 
rages? These fellows' stories are stale. 
We require something spicy to stir us up 



a nignt lUie tiTis. " 

"Well. I did have an adventure, but 
its recital won't be spicy, Tracy. I don't 
think it will be the style you care for." 

"Out with it! Out with it!" seven 
voices simultaneously exclaimed. "Is it 
a Christian Endeavor story, Cholly?" 
asked Tracy. "You do look awful sol- 
emn. " 

"No; it's a Sunday school talk," said 
Andy ViG:irs, a very young man with a 
new mustache and a drawl. 

"All right," said Cholly quietly; "if 
you fellows don't be quiet, I won't tell 
it." 

"Go on, Cholly. Don't mind the 
calves, " grunted old Major Poole. "Tell 
us your story, man." 

"It will interest you, major. Doubt- 
less you remen)ber the Donovans of 
Limerick — i -etty Kate, they called one 
of tliem. I met them in Dublin." 

"Do I lensember her? May me eyes 
fall out of me head if I ever see her 
likes agaiu^ — eyes like violets, hair like 
ink and a skin like peaches and cream. 
And a fi;:,'ger ! God bless you, boys, she 
had a figger like a goddess. She could 
ride cress country like a bird. Never 
saw such a rider before nor since. But, 
Clanlly, me boy, I thought you were 
'gone' ir» that direction. Oh, the pair 
you'd have m^e!" 

Cholly blushed scarlet ; the company 
exchanged glances. "Seems to me," 
said Andy Vicars, "that the major's 
telling this story. Go on, Cholly; hold 
the platform." So Cholly cleared his- 
throat, as Andy said afterward he seem- 
ed mightily upset by the major's re- 
marks, wiped the perspiration from his 
flushed face and began : 

"Yen tee, fellows, my story will have 
to con8i>st of two parts, the introduction 
and the-sequel. It begins in Ireland four 
years ago and ends in Canada four days 
ago. It was in Dublin tiiat I first met 
Miss Kale Donovan of Limerick. She 
was a stunner, as the major says, the 
best cross country rider I ever saw. She 
was poor as »• church mouse and proud 
as Lucifer. She was an orphan ; had been 
brought up by her uncle, old Peter Don- 
ovan. He had three daughters of his 
own, but none of them could hold a 
caiiule to Miss Kate herself. From what 
I saw during the time I was in Dublin 
I don't think the trio cared much for 
pretty Kate ; they were jealous of her 



189G. 



TUB AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



75 



and took pains to show it id many pettj' 
ways, particularly when Captain Gor- 
don, who was considered a niatrinfonial 
catcli, appeared on the scene and devoted 
himself to Kato. " ^ 

"Captain Bnpert Gordon of the Forty- 
seventh ?" queried Major Poole. 

"The very same, a dark beggar, with 
a bad mouth and lots of money. 

"Well, he was the man that set all 
the Dublin girls wild. They literally 
lionized him. He was douce enough 
there. He was asked everywhere, and 
old Peter Donovan was mad enough 
when he asked him for bis niece and 
not for one of his daughters. They 
said the three girls never spoke to Kate 
for weeks. 

"Poor Kate! She hardly knew what 
to do. bhe was very unhappy. She told 
me all about it oue evening at a dance. 
She had a devil of a life in her uncle's 
house, and Gordon seemed very fond of 
her. She didn't know what he really 
was: neither did I, or I could have 
warned her. They were married in Sep- 
tember. In November Gordon took her 
to the Riviera after the honeymoon was 
over. A fellow who met them there told 
me that Kate — that is, Mrs. Gordon — 
looked miserably unhappy, and people 
said Gordon ill treated her. However 
that may be, she did not stay with him 
very long. Oue day a woman appeared 
at the hotel where they were staying. 
She was a gaudily attired specimen, not 
overculfured. She registered as Mrs. 
Captain Gordon and forred herself into 
the Gordon private rooms. Gordon 
hadn't a word to say. He owned up 
that he had married her five years be- 
fore soniewnere, wheieh^s regiment was 
stationed — 1 forget a\ here. There was a 
terrible soeae, which ended by Ka!o 
leaving the ni.tcl. Ko oue knew where 
she went. j\ly iriend, an Engli.«hmau, 
who told me jr.st v>l;at I have told you, 
tried to foi.'ow her and offered to do 
what he coukl for hor in a monetary 
way. He was a gentleman and meant 
well by her. the refused all offers c-f 
assistance and disappeared as if the 
Mediterranean had swallowed her up. 
Be hoard uf her again at Marseilles. 
She had been singing in a cafe there. 
She always had a pas.cable voice and 
played the banjo well. Pour Kate! Pi :r 
pride was dragged in the dust ; her heart 
was broken. " 



ChoIIy paused to wipe the perspiration 
from his face and take a few sips from 
a tumbler beside him. The old major, 
for a wonder, kept silence, froin time to 
time shaking his head sorrowfully. 

"I suppose that is the first part of the 
story," broke in Andy Vicars. "It is 
deuced sad. Hope the little girl got back 
to her uncle. " 

"Uncle!" growled Major Poole. 
"Poor child ! He didn't want her. He 
was a cruel hearted, mean old sconndrel, 
was Peter Donovan. He never treated 
the girl right when he had her. " 

Cholly nodded bis head affirmatively 
to Major Poole's assertion and continued 
his story : 

"This all happened four years ago. 
No one heard anything during that time 
of pretty Kale Donovan, for, you see, she 
wasn't Mrs. Gordon, after all. An aunt 
of hers did have the grace to write to 
me, making inquiries. She had heard 
that Kate was in the United States, in 
a place called Pennsylvania, and would 
I make inquiries, as I lived, no doubt, 
near thereV You know, these old coun- 
try people, as they call themselves, think 
that the United States are about as large 
as an English county. " 

"Do I know it?" interrupted the ma- 
jor. "Why, a lady in London once asked 
me to personally deliver a small parcel 
of china to her daughter because I lived 
in New York, near where her daughter 
was settled. I took the parcel, thinking 
to see the address of some street here. 
Where do you think the fair creature 
lived?" 

"New Jersey?" hazarded Vicars. 

"Maine?" queried another. 

"No!" roared the major. "Idaho!" 

"Guess you didn't accept the com- 
mission, major," said Cholly. 

"Well, no. I relieved my mind by re- 
citing sundry words not in Webster's 
Dictionary. Go on, my boy. Tell us all 
you know of pretty Kate Donovan." 

"I came through Canada on my way 
from the west a few days ago," contin- 
ued Chnlly. "We changed cars at a 
place not far from Toronto and had 
some hours to wait for connection. 
Strolling iiround, I came to a place 
where a ciuus was in full swing — dou- 
ble tent, sideshows, all complete. Con- 
sulting my watch, I found I had time 
to see the performance. An English 
steeplechase was advertised as the chief 



76 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 



March 



atlractiou. irl. .1 jj t coii'njtr)ced v, 1. , u 
I took my scat in (he fir.st row, closo to 
the riug. I t-ao hardly tell you my i'e 1 
iugs when I recoguized the first lady 
rider -who entered. It was Kate Dono- 
van. ' ' 

"Good heavens!" ejaculated the 
major. "Come to that?" 

"Yes; it was Kate, graceful, lithe, 
nervy as ever, looking like a queen 
among those painted judys and rough 
men. " 

"How could you sit there and see it?" 
groaned Major Poole. 

"I hadn't to sit long. I recognized 
her instantly, r'^d, poor girl, she saw 
mel" 

"Knew you?" gasped the major. 

"Yes; slie turned pale under the hor- 
rible paint and rouge she was daubed 
with. Somehow she seemed to lose her 
nerve all of a sudden. The horse, a vi- 
cious black beast, swerved to one side 
suddenly — major, fellows, I cannot tell 
it, it was too horrible." 

"Kate Donovan to lose her nerve on 
horseback? I (;aunot credit it," said the 
major in an awed tone. 

"I was in the ring and by her side in 
a moment," Cholly continued, not no- 
ticing the major's interruption. "She 
knew me, jKior girl, when her eyes 
opened for the first time. She died with 
her hands t ,:<htly clasped in mine. " 

"Did she sa ay anything?" asked 
Andy Vicars. "Did she tell you any- 
thing?" 

"If she did, you're not the one I'd re- 
peat it to," said Cholly fiercely. "The 
last words of a poor dying girl are hard- 
ly club talk, not if I know it. " 

So saying, Cholly seized his coat and 
strode angrily from the room. 

The other men looked at each other 
significantly. 

"He's hit hard," said the major. 
"Poor fellow ! If you had seen Kate, 
you'd not blame him. I always thought 
he liked her. " 

And Cholly, as he strode along the 
street homeward, cursed his own folly 
in telling the .story of pretty Kate to 
such an audience. "As if they cared," 
he muttered. They were a set of hard 
hearted, cold, cynical men, and he 
(Cholly) was a fool for telling the story. 
Somehow he had never realized before 
that he had cherished an ideal for the 
past four years, and that ideal was the 



woman who but a few days before had 
died in his arms. Tell that idiot Vicars 
what she said? Cholly smiled grimly as 
the thought struck him, for only he 
knew what thojie last words had been. 
They echoed in his ears even now in the 
din and noise of the New York evening: 
"Cholly, dear— dear Cholly!" 
If she had only said them four years 
ago, he thought miserably as he shoved 
his key into the latch of his home door. 
— Vanity. 

Napoleon's Generosity. 

Count de P had been raised by 

Bonaparte to honors and dignities, but 
for some unaccountable reason he be- 
trayed the confidence which his patron 
had reposed in him. When Bonaparte 
became cognizant of the man's treach- 
ery, he ordered him to be arrested. He 
was to have been tried the following 
day and in all probability he would 
have been condemned, as his guilt was 
fully established. In the meantime 

Mme. de P solicited and obtained 

an audience of the emperor. 

"I am very sorry for your sake, ma- 
dame," he said, "that your husband 
should be mixed up in an affair which 
places his ingratitude in so glaring a 
light." 

"Perhaps he is not so guilty as your 
majesty supposes," said the countess. 

"Do you know your husband's signa- 
ture?" inquired the emperor, taking a 
letter out of his pocket and handing it 
to her. 

Mme. de P rapidly perused the 

letter, recognized the handwriting and 
fell into a swoon. When she came 
around, Bonaparte put the letter into 
her hands, saying : 

"Take it. This is the only legal evi- 
dence that exists against your husband. 
There is a lighted fire behind you." 

The countess quickly snatched up the 
important document and threw it into 

the flames. P 's life was saved, but 

as for his honor, not all the influence of 
a generous emperor could avail to restore 
it. — Chicago Daily News. 



The Egyptian reed which was used 
for making the pens found in Egyptian 
tombs is a hard variety, growing to 
about the diameter of an ordinary goose 
quill. Pens made from it are said to last 
for a day or two and do excellent work. 



18<)G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEKPEB. 



77 



Glad to See Him. 

Now luembcri: of uoii};ies.s feel shy and 
loiiesou^e. To be thrust snddei)]y in 
aniouj; almost 400 nieuihers, many of 
whom they have never seen, and only a 
few of whom they have ever heard of, 
is rather a trying experience. To make 
a speech under these conditions takes 
some courage. James Kerr, ex-meniber 
of congress from Pennsylvania, recently 
told of his experience in going into con- 
gress for the lirst time. He came down 
from Pennsylvania raw and green. He 
sat in his seat for several days, and in 
that time managed to pick up a formal 
speaking ac(iuaiutance with one or two 
of his neighbors. Cue day he was sitting 
in his seat, disconsolate, listening to the 
reading of some tiresome bill, when the 
member who sat next to him, who had 
served two terms, came in like a breeze 
and said cheerily: 

"Hello. Jim. " 

Mr. Kerr wheeled in bis chair and 
said eagerly : 

"Say that again, will you, old man? 
It sounds like home." 

"Well, Jim, let's go down to Murray- 
ville and talk about home." 

The reference to Murrayville is unin- 
telligible to the outsider, but Mr. Kerr 
had learned by that time that the name 
referred 1o the house restaurant, where 
oysters and the cup that cheers were to 
be had. and they wended their way 
down stairs. — New York Tribune. 



pUJlert up ;Jiif5t outside the scene. 

This is considered generally to be the 
most effective of all the hoof beat ma- 
chines. — Now York Herald. 



Making tlie Sound of Hoof Beats. 

In these days of war plays and stage 
realism the sound of hoof beats is worked 
into pretty uearlj' every melodrama. 
Very few people know how the effect is 
produced, and very few, too, could make 
the noi.'-e right even if they had the ap- 
paratus. It takes quite a lot of practice 
to be a good "horse," as it is called. 
The necessary outfit consists of a table 
on which is a long marble slab covered 
with rxibber graduated from an inch 
thick down to the thinness of a piece of 
paper. The operator has strapped to 
each hand half a cocoanut shell, on the 
edge of which is fastened a horseshoe. 
He starts in pounding them on the thick 
rubber to imitate hoof beats in the dis- 
tance and gradually works along to the 
thin i)art as they are supposed to come 
nearer, and finally ends up with a clat- 
ter on the bare stones as the horse is 



And Tlien He Proposed. 

There had been a brief interval of si- 
lence, and he felt that be ought to say 
something. 

"I see that the students of sociology 
have figured it out," he began, "that 
education" — 

He paused as if in doubt whether he 
ought to proceed. 

"Yes?" she said encouragingly. 

— "that education is having a bad ef- 
fect upon matrimony, " he continued; 
"especially the education of women." 

"I never did believe in too much ed- 
ucation," said she softly. 

She waited for him to speak, but he 
said nothing, 

"I'm glad I never knew my lessons, 
anyway," she added. 

Some men are slow to take a hint, 
but they are quick to understand when 
they are hit with an ax. 

He saw the point. — Chicago Post. 



A S?(tory of Hassom. 
The Washington Post tells a story il- 
lustrating the politeness of Minister 
Ransom. One day, when he was in tbe 
senate, as he was going down the Cap- 
itol steps, he saw approaching a very 
dull, long winded man. Ransom was 
alarmed. He was in no mental or phys- 
ical shape to bear tbe brunt of a full 
fledged bore just at that moment. He 
must do something to save himself. As 
the dull one drew near. Ransom, in bis 
desperation, greeted him with short- 
ness and hurried by. The other had 
paused, but at this brief dismissal, as it 
were, turned away up the steps. Ran- 
som was smitten of conscience at his 
own rudeness. It was foreign to his po- 
lite and flowery instincts. He must do 
something to take the soreness out of 
the man. Ransom turned pleasantly 
when some ten steps separated him from 
the bore and called out: "Goodby, 
Simpkins ! I've been thinking a mighty 
heap about you lately, Simpkins!" At 
this Simjikins began to betray symp- 
toms of returning. "But don't come 
back, Simpkins," remonstrated Ran- 
som, wildly motioning with both hands. 
"I've been thinking a mighty heap 



THE AMKRWAN BEE-KEEPER. 



MiirrJi 



about yo. -utjy, kimpkius, but dou't 
come back ; dou't come back!" 



Conkling and Thurman. 

Senator Roscoe Coukling was once 
addressing the senate in an impassioned 
manner and seemed to direct bis re- 
marks to iSeuator Tburman. At length 
the latter got irritated. 

"Does the senator from New York," 
he roared, "expect me to answer him 
every time he turns to me?" 

For a moment Mr. Conkling hesitat- 
ed, and everybody expected a terrific ex- 
plosion. Then with an air of exquisite 
courtesy he replied : 

"When I speak of the law, I turn to 
the senator from Ohio as the Mussulman 
turns toward Mecca. I turn to him as I 
do to the English common law as the 
world's most copious fountain of hu- 
man jurisprudence." 

The usually decorous senate broke in- 
to a storm of applause, and the Tbur- 
man eye moistened a little. It is ever a 
pleasure to be complimented, but to be 
complimented as a lawyer by Roscoe 
Conkling— that was praise indeed. The 
two statesmen were the best of friends 
and greatly enjoyed each other's society 
•when "off duty." — Baltimore Ameri- 
can. 

The Preacher Performed His Part. 

It has long been a matter of contro- 
vereyhowfar the end justifies the means 
in getting money for good purposes. 
There are occasionally found people who 
object to the extortion of a church fair 
•where you get in for 25 cents and out 
for $25, and who say that the rafle of a 
charity bazaar differs from no other 
gambling except that nobody but the 
directors ever win the prize quilts. A 
gambler from Ohio, who had made a 
big fortune in a saloon and faro bank, 
Bays that last winter he attended a col- 
ored church in Florida where the 
preacher announced that a special bless- 
ing would be asked for all contributors. 
One brother put in a dime. "De Lord 
bless Brer Jones 1" exclaimed the preach- 
er. "Brer Johnson, God bless you for 
that quartah. ' ' When it came to the 
gambler, he fished out a $20 bill. 
"What name?" asked the almost breach- 
less collector. "It doesn't matter. lam 
a gambler from Ohio. " "Gamblahfrom 
Ohio I" shouted the collector. The paa- 



tor rolled up his eyes and dropped on 
his knees: "Twenty dollars from de 
gamblah from Ohio ! May de good Lawd 
prosper him in his business!" — New 
Orleans Picayune. 



The Alaska Bunndary. 

Alaska was not much thought of at 
the time of its purchase, and there is a 
tradition that the money we paid for it 
really reimbursed Russia for other good 
offices of hers in our behalf. But now it 
is seen to have been worth far more 
than it cost. It is likely that we do not 
know as yet anything like the full meas- 
ure of its possibilities. It is worth re- 
taining to the exlremest boundary. Brit- 
ain knows something of its value, as 
she knew that of the Columbia river 
years ago. We should know enough 
about boundary problems by this time 
to defend our own without shrinking or 
carelessness. 

It is not probable that the Alaska case 
ever will come to arbitration. It will be 
settled, like the Maine and Oregon 
boundary disputes, by negotiation and a 
treaty, and the United States will lose 
no territory. — Portland Oregonian. 

The "Bad Man's" Sense of Humor. 

A young man from way down east 
had gone to Denver armed with an old 
fashioned Alien revolver — "pepper box" 
that weapon was called in those days. 

In a gambling house one night he be- 
came involved with a "bad man" in a 
quarrel and drew forth his "pepper 
bos." The "bad man," who was really 
a tough citizen from the mountains, and 
who had not the "remotest idea of fear, 
and who was always armed with a pair 
of big navies, threw up his hand in well 
feigned dismay and said: 

"Heavens, man ! Yon ain't a-goin to 
throw that at me, are you?" 

For the sake of his joke he spared the 
young man's life, and to that one of the 
wealthiest and most respected citizens 
of Denver now owes the fact that he is 
doing business in the western metropolis. 

He is a monument of that border 
man's sense of humor. — Chicago Times- 
Herald. 

A Witty Judge. 

The late Lord Bowen, besides being a 
great judge, was also a great wit, and 
many interesting bonmots of his are be- 
ing recalled just now. On the occa sion 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



of the qnet'u's jubilee the judges were 
drawing up au address to the queen. 
"Cousciou.s a.s we are of our shortcom- 
ings," ran the addre.ss. "Conscious as 
we are of oup another's shortcomings," 
suggested Lord Bowen. 

Sometimes his wit was very incisi-ve, 
BS, for instance, when he remarked : 
"Truth will out — even in an affidavit." 
Not the lr:ist happy of his recorded wit- 
ticisms was the remark he made when 
oongratuiated on his appointment to be 
a law lord. He would, he said, find the 
work easy, his duty being to give his 
opinion after so many others had given 
theirs. "In fact, I only have to agree, 
aud might well have been raised to the 
peerage as 'Lord Concurry. ' " 

irrog Egg CurioBitles. 

Frogs' eggs are laid before they really 
become eggs in the true sense of that 
word. They are always laid under wa- 
ter, and when fir.st deposited are covered 
with a sort of envelope in the shape of a 
thin membrane. In this shape they are 
very small, but as soon as they come in 
contact with the water they rapidly ab- 
sorb that element, and in so doing go 
through a queer transformation. The 
thin membrane containing the little 
Beedlike eggs is quickly changed into 
great lumps of a clear jelly like sub- 
stance, each section joined to the other, 
the whole forming a string from a few 
inches to several feet in length. On the 
inside of each of these lumps of jelly 
the eggs come to perfection, and in due 
course of time add their quota to the 
frog population of the world. — St. Louis 
Bepublic. 

The Achsean Hieagae. 

The Achaean league was formed by the 
J 3 towns of Achifa for mutual protec- 
tion against; foreign aggression. It was 
broken up by Alexander the Great, but 
reorganized B. C. 280 and again dis- 
solved B. C. 147. The second of these 
leagues comprised all the leading cities 
of the Peloponnesus, and, indeed, most 
of the cities and states of Greece. It was 
this league which contended with the 
Bomans for the independence of Greece; 
but, its troops being defeated by Metel- 
lus at Scarphaea and by Mummius near 
Corinth, the league was dissolved, and 
all Greece submitted to the Roman 
domination. 



Kins: Alphonso's Tact. 

Alphoiiso king of Aragon, was one 
day examining tlie different articles in 
his jeweler's shop in company with 
many ladies of his court. He had scarce 
ly left the house when the jeweler miss- 
ed a diamond of great value and ran 
after hinj, complaining of the theft. The 
king, not willing publicly to disgrace 
any of his attendants, commanded a 
large basin full of sand to be brought 
him, into which ho directed each person 
to put in the hand clinched and to draw 
it out flat. By this means the diamond 
was left in the sand, unknown by 
whom. — Household Words. 



Not Interested. 

An old man and his wife were last sum- 
mer sailing on a steamer between Black- 
pool and the isle of Man. As the sea 
was rather rough and the old woman 
unaccustomed to sailing she said to her 
husband : 

"Oh, John, this ship is going down." 
"Well, never mind," said her hus- 
band. "It isn't ours. " — London Fun. 



A Tramp's Trick. 

"Say, partner, yer from New York, 
ain't ye?" I heard one tramp say to an- 
other the other day as they sat sunning 
themselves on opposite sides of the path 
in Union square. 

The weary gentleman addressed made 
an evasive reply intended to create the 
impression of a negative without being 
one in terms. 

"Yes, y'are," continued the first in 
an aggravatingly persistent tone of 
voice. "I've been watchin yer, an 
yer've been keepin that foot o' yours 
moviu all the time yer was asleep, an 
th' ain't but one place in this country 
where the gazabos learn that, an that's 
in City Hall park, New York, where 
yer have to give the cops some kind o' 
excoos while yer settin up sleepin or 
they'll run yer in. I've been there, 
partner, an I kin do it myself. 

"But. say," and the voice assumed a 
confidential, contemptuous tone, "you 
don't have to do it in this town. " — San 
Francisco Chronicle. 



The state of Iowa is so far from being 
wholly agricultural that it has 59,174 
persons engaged in its factories, whose 
annual outpu t i s $125.049 ,183. 



80 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



March 



World's Fair 
Award. 

We are the only Suel 
R..r)fiiig C". MWMided 
^3 Mediil and DiplmiiH 
for PATTEXT VW J?0«»FI\'« at World's 
Columbian Exposition. We are also large manu- 
t'acturers of all styles of Mi-.tal IUioF'No, Siding, 
Ceiling, ktc. Si-nd for Catalogue and I'rice List- 
Men tion this paper. 
Sykes Iron & Steel Roofing Co., Chicago and Mies. 




F Large llSusfrated 

REE CATALOG, 

Containing cuts and descriptions of 
Everything Needed by Bee-Keepers 

Also instructions in Wintering, Treatment of Foul 
Brood. Production of Covah and Extracted Honey, 
etc. AVax made up or bought. 

HUNT'S FOUNDATION FACTORY, 
2-3 Bell Branch, Mich. 





PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE W T FALCONER MANFG CO 



VOL. VI. 



fVLRIL, 1896. 



NO. 4. 



A few Remarks on Bee-keeping. 

BY JNO F. (iATKS. 

What is there in connection with 
bee-keeping that looks so nice, home- 
like and safe as those long rows of 
open sheds full of large, tall hives of 
bees, with their fronts worn and stain- 
ed with the constant traveling in and 
out of the vast throng of busy work- 
ers? They look as though they could 
take care of themselves so far as all 
natural enemies are concerned, and 
you can depend upon them to do so. 

If you had been down south about 
the time of our late unpleasantness 
you could have learned, as I did, some 
pertinent facts about bees. You would 
have seen many such sights as 1 have 
described. It was no uncommon 
thing to see a hundred hives of bees 
in one yard. The soldier boys liked 
the looks of them too, and the boys 
learned some of their first lessons in 
apiculture down there when they got 
a choice old pioneer gum, as they 
called them there, and done it up in a 
blanket and reached a safe place 
where they could remove the blanket. 
At first their mouths watered, then 
their eyes watered, and about that 
time they usually concluded it was 



time to go back to camp. Some would 
be doctered up for neuralgia, others 
for erysipelas. Of coui'se 1 never did 
any of these things. The boys have 
learned since that it was the wrong 
time of year to do up bees in blankets. 
Well, it goes to show that such strong 
swarms can and will protect them- 
selves from their natural enemies. 

While little care needs to be taken 
in the south in regard to what is call- 
ed freezing out, here in the north we 
have to be more careful. Bees can 
be raised and kept by the hundred 
swarms in one place as well as anoth- 
er. 1 have studied the problem of 
wintering bees on summer stands, 
and believe I have mastered it. I 
saw that the greatest success could 
only be obtained by outdoor winter- 
ing; first, because it afforded a way 
of keeping those large hives, and it 
also saves an immense amount of 
labor carrying them in and out of the 
cellar, and if once understood would 
prove much safer than cellar winter- 
ing; then again, the vast number of 
bee-keepers that will winter their bees 
outdoors an^'way would profit much 
by a thorough and safe method of 
doing; so. 



82 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April 



You may say you want to get all 
you can out of your bees and must 
use small hives in order to do so ; then 
if you lose them you have got some- 
thing out of them. Well that is a 
good way to do if you are going to 
quit the bee business, or if you are a 
believer in luck, but it is not a very 
sensible thing to do no matter who 
does it, for can't you see that you 
worse than sold your bees when you 
done it? 1 know bee-keepers, I mean 
bee- killers, who have been twenty 
years trying to make money by keep- 
ing bees , but so far have only suc- 
ceeded in making simpletons of them- 
selves. They don't know any more 
now than when they commenced, but 
they thought they did and talked a 
good deal about it. I ain't quite sure, 
but still I think I am right when 1 
say these same ex-bee-killers have 
turned patent right men. If they 
must kill their own bees, why do they 
sell implements, which will destroy 
bees, to innocent people? 1 would 
not talk so, but when you consider 
the vast pressure that is under the 
safety valve you won't wonder that a 
little blows off now and then. No man 
takes kindly to the loss of hundreds 
of dollars, and such losses are apt to 
make him remember the source 
whence they came. 

Yes , I remember my early experi- 
ence in bee-keepine; I remember 
when young and ignorant of the first 
rudiments of bee-keeping 1 would go 
to some man who knew how and ask 
him a few questions, and he would 
act as if his teeth would drop out if 
he opened his mouth. One even told 
me that he got as high as two dollars 



for answering a few questions. 1 
concluded that he must live on corn 
in the ear, and I left him without 
buying any bristles. All these things 
have taught me to deal very kindly to 
those who don't know how to keep 
bees, or who stand in need of help. I 
do it because a Christian should, for 
"no man liveth to himself," never- 
theless some animals do. 

There is no great secret about keep- 
ing bees successfully any more than 
there is about raising farm crops or 
live stock of any kind, except that a 
little neglect is more apt to prove fatal 
to bees on account of their being the 
smallest animal raised. If you put 
the same proportion of hogs or other 
stock in as small a space accordingly 
as bees, and have poor ventilation, 
and separate them by partitions so 
they can't huddle together, in the 
manner as the modern frames separ- 
ate the bees, and especially if instead 
of natural food you supply a scanty 
allowance of some food wholly unnat- 
ural to them, 1 say what do you 
think would be the result in the 
spring? 

You see if you only understood a 
few plain facts in regard to the prep- 
aration and care of your bees, there 
need be no more chance of your los- 
ing them than there is of your losing 
any other farm stock. I will try to 
tell 3'ou next time just how to man- 
age box hives so as to be sure of your 
bees. I will give directions for all 
four seasons. 

I don't italicize my words, for I am 
heavy enough to hold my end of the 
plank down without it. There are 
many who are almost discouraged, 
and don't know what to do. They 
are the ones that long to be told, 
while there are others who are a long 
way off from being told, simply be- 
cause they desire to be burned yet a 
little more. 

Ovid, Penna. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



83 



Box Hives as Breeders. 

BY W. J. DAVIS. 

Mr. John F. Gates has given us his 
idea on the above topic iu the pnges 
of the American Bek- Keeper, and 
it must be confessed that he makes it 
appear that as a permanent fixture a 
lot of big box hives, set out in the 
yard, with never a hands turn of 
labor, save to hive the big swarms 
that issue from them early in the 
season, would be a good thing. He 
gives as about the proper size of such 
hives 12 inches square and 2 ft. high. 
He also speakes of hiving those big 
swarms in small hives, giving abund- 
ant surplus room and getting a large 
yield of superior honey, that people 
will fairly tumble over each other in 
their haste to purchase. 

Now, Mr. Editor, that is just the 
state of things that bee-keepers would 
like to see. But allow me to make a 
suggestion or two that might be an 
improvement on the said box hives. 
There are some things even in a box 
hive that sometimes need setting to 
rights. For instance, not one swarm 
in 100 hived in such hives would fail 
to build too much drone comb. 2d, 
Swarms are always liable to become 
queenless, and how would we remedy 
these abnormal conditions ? To break 
out drone comb from such hives would 
only be to have drone comb rebuilt. 
Let me suggest a hive that would 
enable us to overcome these defects 
that would surely present themselves 
as above noted, viz : A hive 12x13 in. 
inside measure and 20 inches high, 
made in two sections, each 10 inches 
high, filled with 16 brood frames. 

These hives, if made ro gldy, can 
be made almost as cheaply as box 



hives, and the frames could be fur- 
nished by supply dealers very cheaply. 
The young swarms could be hived in 
^ size and worked for comb honey for 
all they are worth, as Mr. Gates sug- 
gests, and in the fall two of them 
could be united by simply placing one 
over the other. There should be a bee 
space of about ^ of an inch between 
the upper and lower frames, which 
would always insure winter passage 
for the bees in the middle of the hive. 
The top should be a sound board, well 
cleated at the projecting ends to pre- 
vent warping, and if occasion requir- 
ed the cover could be removed and a 
section case placed on top and cover- 
ed with the hive cover. 

Another advantage this hive would 
have over a hive with fixed combs is 
that in case of too much or too little 
honey in any particular hive an ex- 
change of combs is possible. 

Youngsville, Pa. 

Notes and Oominents. 

BY H. E. HILL. 

Our first swarm for 1896 issued 
February 28th. 



Speaking of supers. Why don't 
somebody make a super for holding 
sections that fills the requirements ? 
Make " a super as is a super." 

To prevent quilts from unraveling, 
roll them up and touch the edges to 
melted wax. 



A strong putty knife is the very 
handiest tool about our apiary work. 



A nice lump of wax at the end of 
the season will amply repay the care 
of having a handy receptacle in which 



84 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April 



to drop all small particles of comb 
when at work in the apiary. 



In the American Bee Journal, F. 
L. Thompson, a Colorado specialist, 
substantially avers that the life of the 
"specialist" is "one continual round 
of pleasure." Doubtless his success is 
attributable directly to the pleasure 
he finds in the persuit of his business. 
A determined yet rational ambition, 
born of innate love for the " art," will 
ultimately achieve success, and only 
those possessing this prime requisite 
need hope to escape the fate of all 
others who have been beguiled into 
our ranks by avaricious motives, as at- 
tested by pages of apicultural history. 



A current newspaper item is to the 
efEect that an apiary has been estab- 
lished in an Arizona penitentiary and 
the convicts are required to attend the 
bees which flit at will over the prison 
walls and return of' their own accord, 
thus affording envious amusement to 
the denizens of the "pen." 



Australian bees have been success- 
fully introduced in England, but the 
English bee-keepers do not regard 
them as possessing any merits. They 
are about one-third the size of the 
common house fly, and are valuable 
only as a curiosity. They are unable 
to sting, but bite and cannot endure a 
temperature below fifty degrees Fah- 
renheit. — Falmouth, (Mass.,) Enter- 
prise. 



The inqniry is made in the Ameri- 
can Bee Journal, whether or not honey 
gathered from mountain laurel is 
really poisonous as supposed. Laurel 
was abundant within range of my 
apiary in Pennsylvania, where I kept 



bees for ten years, and disposed of sev- 
eral thousand pounds of honey. Dur- 
ing that time, though funerals were a 
frequent necessity, not once did a cor- 
oner's jury find that laurel honey had 
inticed the " grim monster." I think 
it is all bosh. Who has actual knowl- 
edge ? 



Any one who contemplates fasten- 
ing foundation into one hundred sec- 
tions this season , yet fails to provide 
himself with a Daisy fastener, is mak- 
ing a big mistake. It is the only effi- 
cient device of which I know that can 
be worked all day without the appli- 
cation of muscle, lubricant or unbe- 
coming language. 



George Holbrook's 3-year-old child, 
while playing near the home of its par- 
ents in Letcher county, Missouri, was 
stung by a yellow jacket. The little 
one screamed and its mother ran to its 
assistance. The sting had entered its 
left leg below the knee. The limb be- 
gan to swell rapidly, the child went in- 
to spasms, and in ten minutes after the 
insect had stung it the little one died. 

Spruce Bluff, Fla. 

^ ■■■ ^ 

Selling Honey. 

BY CHAS. H. THIES. 

The bee journals have of late devot- 
ed considerable space to the above 
question. It is one thing to produce 
a crop of honey and have it in mar- 
ketable shape, and quite another to 
dispose of it to the best advantage of 
the producer. 

The majority of bee-keepers have 
about concluded that the home mar- 
ket should be supplied first. I for 
one have decided so for myself long 
ago, even though we get a little less 
for the product. In the home market 



-1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



85 



we know in advance what we will get, 
besides we have no high freights or 
commissions to pay. But to establish 
a home market for your honey you 
will have to do some hustling. Adver- 
tise your goods thoroughly, olfer peo- 
ple some inducement to give your arti- 
cle a fair trial, and if your honey is 
what it should be you will soon be 
able to dispose of a considerable quan- 
tity right at home. 

One very important item in culti- 
vating a local demand is to never sell 
your customers a poor article unless 
you thoroughly explain the faults of 
an inferior article should you sell it. 
Then. if they insist on having honey 
of a lower grade because you are sell- 
ing it a little cheaper, or should you 
be without any that is first class, let 
them have it ; but [ think it a better 
plau not to sell a poor grade of honey 
in the home market under any cir- 
cumstances ; better use it for feeding 
the bees. 

After having built up a good home 
trade you will have to be careful in 
order to keep it, or to build it up still 
more. Even if you have a good repu- 
tation and are considered honest and 
reliable, your honey may some day be 
called "bogus" if you are not care- 
ful. Remember that many consum- 
ers know very little about honey. I 
have known partie.'? to buy nice ex- 
tracted white clover honey, and alter 
finding that it granulated they pro- 
nounced it sugar and lard and proba- 
bly believed it to be such, when a lit- 
tle explanation in advance, or a label 
explaining the peculiarities or honey 
placed on the package would have 
made all clear. Remember it is easier 
to prevent false rumors than to stop 
them. 

Steeleville, 111. 







Editou American Bee-Keeper, 
Dear Sir: It is no misnomer at the 
present time to call Florida the "Land 
of Powers." Leconte pears are very 
abundant in this locality, and the 
trees are white with blossoms. I have 
counted twenty eight single flowers in 
one cluster which appears at a little 
distance to be one huge blossom. 
Early varieties of peaches have fruit 
as large as an haz-1 nut, while necta- 
rines and early varieties are holding a 
carnival of pink. Pink and white 
are the principal colors now. This is 
paradise for plums. The air is redo- 
lent with the perfume of ti-ti. It has 
delicate white blos^soms growing in 
raceme and is a thing of beauty. 
. There are so many white honey 
flowers now I do not see how the bees 
decide for which to give their prefer- 
ence. 

Florida is making rapid advance- 
ment in improved bee culture and 
horticulture. Moj<t any of the Chi- 
nese or Japanese fruits do well here. 
Yours very truly, Mrs. L. Harrison. 

St. Andrews Bay, Fla., Mch. 12,'96. 

The W. T. Falconer M'p'g Co., 
Gentlemen : Enclosed find check for 
the balance of ray account. I have 
not unpacked all of the goods yet but 
presume they are all right. I have 
three different makes of hives on hand 
but yours are superior to all, both in 
workmanship and quality of material, 
>^ % Yours truly, Geo.R Gray. 

March 20, 1896. 



86 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April 



The W. T. Falconer M'p'g Co., 
Gentlemen : Since you have asked for 
some experiences of bee keeping I 
have concluded to write you some of 
my own with those of others. Last 
winter I put all my bees into the cel- 
lar, but did not give them an airing 
on any of the warm days as T should 
have done sometime during the winter. 
The result was that two colonies died, 
the dampness having caused diarrhea. 
I could not have any fire in the cellar 
and the Aveather was at one time very 
cold. The bees were in box hives, and 
it was impracticable to use a Hill's 
device. Of course as soon as I found 
that they were not doing well I took 
them out. This year the bees so far 
are all right. 

One of my neighbors who has kept 
bees for a longtime, mostly in old box 
hives, always winters them upon the 
summer stands without any protection, 
but last wiuter he told me he lost 
about fifteen, and that he has become 
disgusted with the business, as he has 
but five colonies left. He said that 
in several of the boxes there was 
plenty of honey, and he supposed 
there was some disease that was the 
cause of the death of the bees. I 
think that could he have used the 
Hill's device over the combs and had 
the device covered, he might have 
saved some at least of the swarms. It 
seems that some of them were not 
provided with sufficient food, and so 
would have died anyway as the weath- 
er was so cold and seyere that the bees 
could not break cluster to get food 
outside. 

I tried feeding a small swarm by 
placing a small box of honey directly 
above the cluster, the entrance to the 



honey being through a two inch hole. 
It did not work satisfactorily. The 
result was that all the bees died. 
Yours respectfully, T. V. S. 
March 18, 1896. 



The W. T. Falconer M'f'g Co., 
Gentlemen : Please accept thanks for 
quick reply and shipment of goods. I 
cannot praise your hives too highly. 
If I have already told you this, just 
accept this also. Yours truly, 

A. L. Smith. 

Rahway, N. J., Mch. 14, 1896. 



Editor American Bee-Keeper : 
In a recent number of the American 
Bee-Keeper Mr. G. M. Doolittle writes 
in regard to painting hives and I will 
admit that I am somewhat puzzled. 
Now I believe it is admitted on all 
sides that the bees plaster the sides of 
their hives with propolis. This looks 
to me as if they wanted a smoother 
surface to travel over and also to ex- 
clude the moisture. The same process 
would prevent the moisture from es- 
caping through the hive. Now to help 
in that direction I use the best white 
paint, for without paint or propolis I 
think the moisture from outside would 
more than counterbalance that from 
within. His test may decide the mat- 
ter for him, but as I look at it leaves 
me in doubt. Amateur. 



The W. T. Falconer M'f'g Co., 
Gentlemen : Your goods came to hand 
in good order, and I am very well 
pleased with them in all respects. 
Please accept my thanks for your 
promptness. Yours truly, 

Sol. Harpst. 

Kremis, Pa„ March 14, 1896. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



87 




I From Aniericuii Bee Journali. 

BEE-FORAGE -SOME IMPORTANT 
SUGGESTIONS. 



BY PKOF A. J COOK. 



The general failure of the honey 
crop for so many seasons during the 
last decade in nearly all portions of the 
country, and the absolute failure in 
arid regions like Southern California, 
whenever the rainfall comes short of 
a certain limit, gives to this subject of 
honey-plants, more than merely a 
passing interest. 

In the great North East of our 
country, before the great forests of 
basswood and tulip were cleared away, 
and the great marshe.-i with their pro- 
fusion of boneset, golden-rods, asters, 
etc, were drained — and possibly we 
may add, before the seasonal droughts, 
consequent upon the removal of the 
forests and drainage of swamps — each 
and every sea.-on was a honey season, 
and the expression of "honey-years" 
had no significance, and so was un- 
heard among bee-keepers. In Cali- 
fornia, if the rainfall is less than 15 
inches, experience proves that the 
honey-production will range from 
nothing to less than half the ina.\i- 
mum crop. 

These facts make it desirable that 
the bee-keeper should study thorough- 
ly the bee-forage of the country, 
should know the honey-plants, the 
quality and quantity of honey which 
each is likely to produce, and the 
effect of drouth and other seasonal 



peculiarities upon the nectar-secretion 
of each species. 

This subject suggests two practical 
considerations, both of which will en- 
gage the thoughtful attention of every 
wise bee-keeper: In securing a loca- 
tion, he will give earnest heed to the 
native bee-plants, hoping to secure a 
rich bee-pasturage, without any extra 
labor, in the natural resources of his 
neighborhood. Many a Michigan and 
Wisconsin bee-keeper has been led to 
rejoice in by-gone years, because of 
the near proximity to his bee-yard of 
a grand forest of basswood, or of a 
broad expanse of marsh-land. Even 
today, the great basswood forests of 
Wisconsin make that, perhaps, the 
leading honey-state of the great North 
East. Year after year the willow-herb 
of the pine- clearings of Northern 
Michigan, supplemented by the berry- 
bushes of the same treeless tracts, has 
given a rich honey crop of finest qual- 
ity to the bee-keepers of that region. 
If the apiary is along a stream, so that 
variation in moisture will prolong the 
season of bloom, then the bee-keeper 
will rejoice in greater prosperity. Mr. 
Doolittle and others along the Mohawk 
River in New York have felt the 
benefit of such location. In Southern 
California a good range of white and 
ball sage in both valley and canyon, 
hard by the apiary, followed by gen- 
erous acres of wild buckwheat, will 
give a wondrous crop in seasons of 
bounteous rainfall. If eucalyptus 
and alfalfy are found in quantity, 
then he may be more independent of 
the rainfall. 

After the location is decided, then 
the enterprising bee-keeper will antic- 
ipate drouths, winds, cool seasons, and 
endeavor to add to the native recourc- 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April 



es in his section, which he will almost 
always be able to do, so that if possi- 
ble he may rejoice in a bountiful 
honey harvest each season. Let us 
consider what may be wisely attempt- 
ed in this direction. 

It is well if the bee-keeper has so 
wisely located that he will be content 
to make his location his permanent 
home. Then he can fix up his apiary 
so that it will be his pride, and the 
pride of his section. This will make 
his bee-keeping more than a mere 
business, it will become his pleasure, 
and he will mingle poetry with the 
prose of life. Once permanently lo- 
cated, and the bee-keeper may set to 
work to make his locality all that it 
is possible to make it. By proper 
thought and wise management this 
may be easily and cheaply done. 

In the first place, let me urge, that 
it will not pay to plant good land 
with bee plants exclusively for honey. 
My own experiments, extensively car- 
ried on for a series of years, at the 
Michigan Experiment Station, as also 
private experiments by others, makes 
this more than mere opinion — make 
it really demonstrated fact. But it 
will pay oftentimes to scatter seeds of 
the mints, sweet clover, viper's bugloss, 
great willow-herb, etc., on all waste 
places near by the apiary. It will 
pay to line the roadside with tulip, 
linden and other nectar-producing 
trees, and get our neighbors to do the 
same, even if we have to pay some- 
thing towaidrt the purchase of these 
trees. Mr. D. A. Jones did very much 
of such work about his home at Bee- 
ton, Out. Mr. Root planted out many 
basswoods at Medina, and now is reap- 
ing the advantage which must swell 
with the years. To raise buckwheat 



and Alsike, and induce one's neigh- 
bors to do so, may be very wise. All 
this, the tree-planting, and buckwheat 
and Alsike growing pays, aside from 
the bees axd honey, and should re- 
ceive most thoughtful attention by all 
our bee-keepers. I believe that bee- 
keepers of the East may well adopt 
these suggestions. With little ex- 
pense, they may add materially to 
their income by just such planting or 
tree-setting. 

Sometimes by moving bees the bee- 
keeper can keep in the range of bee- 
forage. Many bee-keepers have ad- 
ded greatly to their incomes by mov- 
ing bees to regions of basswood bloom 
or fall flowers. 

Mr. Haibison told at a recent Farm- 
ers' Institute at San Diego, Calif., how 
he secured a large growth of ball-sage, 
by planting, and how it increased the 
value of his location very materially. 
This was on waste hill land, and so all 
clear gain. There are great areas of 
such tracts along the mountains and 
in the canyons of this favored region, 
and Mr. Harbison's suggestion may 
well receive thoughtful attention. 

Another bee-tree — or bee-trees, for 
there are, it is said, more than one 
hundred species — which California 
should observe and study with the 
greatest care, is the eucalyptus. It is 
destined to become the greatest shade- 
tree of this State. It blossoms from 
September to April, depending upon 
the species ; is a favorite with the bees 
whenever in bloom, and seems to fur- 
nish much and excellent honey. Some 
of the trees are woudrously beautiful, 
and the tassel-like bloom, white, buff 
or crimson, with the curious caps to 
the flower-buds is not only woudrous- 
ly beautiful, but exceedingly interest- 



1S9G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



89 



ing. Eucalyptus globulus, or blue- 
gum, is tbe common one. Tbis tree 
bas an entirely different foliage wben 
young from tbat of lat( r growlb and 
years. 'JMie wbite blossoms are sbowy, 
and are freely visited by tbe bees. 
But it blossoms in winter when the 
bees are not numerous and when they 
are mostly shut in tlie hivea, so that 
the amount of honey is not great, 
though I knew bees to get not a little 
blue-gum honev during the last win- 
ter. I have some of this honey now, 
and have just sampled it. It is ara- 
ber-colorcd, very sweet, and has a 
very peculiar flavor, which I think 
might become very pleasant with use, 
but I doubt if it would be as well lik- 
ed at first. It is claimed that this 
honey has rare medicinal properties, 
which seems not at all improbable. 
The deep-red showy blossoms of 
eucalyptus fissi folia, which will make 
this tree a great favorite, blossoms 
from August to October, and attracts 
the bees. By proper selection of spe- 
cies we can have blossoms from Aug- 
ust to April. 

Eucalyptus robusta is quite a favor- 
ite for planting in this locality at pres- 
ent, because of its beautiful habit, 
and foliage, and the strong, thrifty 
growth which it makes. It blossoms 
at the same time with the common 
blue-gum. 

Eucalyptus corniocalyx, so called 
from the long, horn-like cap that cov- 
ers the bloom in bud, blossoms in Oct. 
and Nov. It is so curious and inter- 
esting that it may well be planted. I 
saw the bees thick about the blossoms 
in November while the cap was only 
slightly raised and not yet failing 
from the blossoms. I have much hope 
from these encalyptus. They come 



from arid Australia, and more than 
likely they will be indifferent to the 
most severe drouths. Indeed, this is 
more than a guess, for the winter of 
1893-189-4 was one of the driest ever 
known iu this region. The bees were 
idle— entirely idle — all through the 
following summer. I saw not the least 
evidence of honey-gathering after 
fruit in March and April. Yet my 
bees gathered quite an amount of 
honey in December and January of 
the following winter from the blue- 
gum. 

I think it behooves all of us in 
Southern California to keep close 
watch of our bees and their storing 
from eucalyptus, and at all such times 
be sure to make note of date of bloom, 
earliest and latest, and unless the spe- 
cies is surely known, send bark, leaves, 
bud and blossom to some one who can 
identify it, that we may learn the 
most valuable species. Bee-keepers 
near Smiley Heights, Redlands, where 
there are over 80 species of this genus, 
or at Santa Monica, where the State 
Forestry Station is located, and where 
there are a large nu^nber of species of 
the eucalyptus, can do excellent ser- 
vice in this direction. I am trying to 
secure such data, and already have a 
long list of species with rate of growth 
and time of bloom. 

I think bee-keepers may well do all 
in their power to encourage road-side 
and field-planting of eucalyptus. Such 
plantations as are being made all over 
the grand Elysian Park at Los Ange- 
les, are large with promise to bee- 
' keepers. It is said that there are over 
1,000 colonies of bees in buildings in 
the city. No doubt they get much of 
their food from the eucalyptus groves 
that are so numerous and so attractive 



90 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April 



to others than bees. We all do well 
to make a close study of bee forage, 
and whenever we notice bees thick 
upon any bloom, be sure to find the 
name of the plant that attracts. The 
Bulletin just issued by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Washington, D. 
C, has extended and carefully pre- 
pared tables of bee-plants, with time 
of bloom. We should all do what we 
may to make such tables fuller and 
more complete and accurate. It is 
also very desirable to make a note of 
the color and excellence of the honey, 
and the power of the plants to secrete 
at times of severe drouth. 
Claremont, Calif. 



(From Farm Journal for February). 

THE BUSY BEK 



You have such a February face 

So full of frost, storms and cloudiness. 

From every outward appearance, 
beemen will not put on such a face 
this coming spring. The winter so far 
has been favorable, and gives indica- 
tion that it will be milder and shorter 
than the preceding. This will drive 
the frost and gloominess out of the 
apiarists, who will find their hives 
responding to roll call in the spring. 

In open winters bees begin to breed 
earlier. Care must be exercised not 
to allow them to become scarce of 
food. To prevent this it is well to 
examine them on pleasant days and 
ascertain the amount of food each 
hive possesses. Supply those that are 
short with combs of sealed honey, or 
good sugar syrup made from granu- 
lated sugar. It will be well to reduce 
the size of the brood chamber of all 
hives that are short of bees. This is 
easily done by inserting a division 
board, fitting closely the inside of the 



hive. Reducing the space adds to the 
comfort of the bees and enables them 
to generate enough of animal heat to 
hatch their eggs. Whenever bees 
cannot do this they are gone. There 
is no help for them unless the apiarist 
can give them a frame of brood that 
is full of bees just gnawing out of 
their cells. This will soon enlarge 
the number of bees and generate the 
necessary amount of heat. Be sure 
to have a comb of honey on each side 
of the cluster whenever you contract 
the size of the brood chamber. 

In the month of February bees be- 
gin to breed if the weather is not too 
severe, in latiture 40 degrees north. 
This will be on a very small scale. In 
the centre of the cluster when exam- 
ined a small circular batch of brood, 
varying from the size of a quarter to 
that of a silver dollar will be found. 
This will continue to increase, always 
in a circular form, until the comb is 
full. 



We club Farm Journal with the 
American Bee-Keeper, and will send 
it all of 1896 to every new subscriber 
to our magazine at 50c a year, and to 
every subscriber who will pay up all 
arrearages, if this notice is mentioned. 



(From Gleanings.) 

SOMETHING OP MY MANAGEMENT 
IN THE APIAEY. 



BY F. GREINER. 



The more experience I gather in the 
management of bees, the more I be- 
come aware how difficult it is to lay 
down rules to be followed year after 
year, with any guarantee of meeting 
with highest success. In my location 
a honey season is an unknown and un- 
certain quantity, and much depends 



1896. 



TUE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



91 



still upon luck or circumstances which 
we can not foretell. So our precon- 
structed and most petted plans aften 
come to naught. As not all shoes can 
be made over one last, expecting to fit 
all and every foot, so we are obliged 
to modify our plans to suit the seasons 
as they are. Some years our honey 
season opens from the first to the mid- 
dle of June (this is rare); some years 
about a month later (more often), and 
other years nearly two months later, 
closing about August 25 to 28. Per- 
haps once in twenty years we may ex- 
pect honey-dew after that, lasting, un- 
der favorable circumstances, some two 
weeks. With these prospects I may 
commence operations the fore part of 
May if the month comes in warm 
enough. We may have at this time 
some colonies exceptionally strong ; 
often some begin to lay out by May 1. 
Now, if the honey season dot;s not open 
till in July these colonies are wasting 
their energies unless some use can be 
made of them during May and June. 
If more increase is desired, dividing 
these colonies would serve a good pur- 
pose ; but feeding may possibly have 
to be resorted to. I have always been 
an opponent of this kind of feeding. 
I don't do it ; for if the honey season 
does fail, more sugar will be needed 
in the fall ; and should it so happen 
that bees do not winter well, we may 
lose our investment. Furthermore, 
should a fair honey flow set in soon, 
our divided colonies would not be well 
fitted to store surplus; they could not 
be depended on until basswood opens. 
A better use of these strong colonies 
can be made by drawing on them for 
equalization. I greatly prefer to help 
up the weaker colonies — not the weak- 
est, however. At this time the weather 



is as yet uncertain and changeable, 
and we must guard against chilled 
brood. In equalizing T take but one 
brood-comb at a time, replacing with 
an empty comb, or even one solid 
with honey. The latter I scrape so as 
to break cappings ; I also select such 
brood-combs as contain capped brood 
as much as possible. 

If, by the time apple-bloom com- 
mences, all colonies should be in tol- 
erable good shape, some of these 
strongest colonies may be dequeened 
and allowed to raise a young queen. 
Tne old queens may be saved and set 
aside with a brood-comb and adhering 
bees, and then allowed to build up 
during the season. If two such nuclei 
are united later on, a harvest may be 
expected of them from buckwheat. 
But I do dislike to give up any of 
these queens. Although old they are 
probably good ones, and I try to save 
them all. Later on it will be seen 
that it frequently happens dur- 
ing the summer that we have brood 
combs to dispose of. Such I use to 
build up the nuclei, and I generally 
succeed in getting them in shape to 
take advantage of the late flow, so 
they will give a surplus. 

When the prospect of basswood 
bloom was good, and no increase, or 
little of it, desired, I have practiced 
this kind of dequeening with good 
success about June 20-25, or about 12 
to 15 days before the basswood flow is 
expected ; but nearly matured cells 
were then given. The object is to 
have our young queens begin to lay 
as basswood begins, or, rather, a few 
days before. Such colonies are prac- 
tically in the same condition as colon- 
ies having cast a swarm, oxcept that 



92 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April 



they are much stronger; they are in 
good working order. 

Colonies having swarmed but once, 
I find, will work nicely after they get 
their queens, providing honey is com- 
ing in sufficiently. The Heddon meth- 
od reduces the parent colony to a 
mere fraction, which is of little further 
good that season ; for this reason I 
abandoned the Heddon method of pre- 
venting after-swarms long ago. To 
reinforce my young swarms I prefer 
to hive them on the stands of some 
other good colonies not having cast 
swarms, treating these colonies some- 
times, if thought best, as the parent 
colony in the Heddon plan. More 
colonies can thus be gotten in working 
order for the basswood flow. I do not 
suffer any colony to cast more than 
one swarm. All second swarms are 
returned after cutting out the queen 
cells. Should a second swarm unite 
with a prime swarm while out in the 
air, I make no attempt to separate 
them ; but the next prime swarm is 
hived in the hive having cast the sec- 
ond swarm. Quite a numbor of col- 
onies are treated on this plan in my 
yard during the latter part of the 
swarming season every year; only, in 
practicing it. I do not wait for the af- 
ter swarm to issue, but hive the prime 
swarms into such hives as have cast 
their prime swarms five or six days 
previously. 

Swarms issuing during the main 
honey-flow (from basswood) I also hive 
in empty hives on the same stands 
whence they came ; shake all bees 
from parent colonies off and in with 
them; give section cases to swarms, 
and use brood-combs to build up nuc- 
lei made during the earlier part of the 
season. All young swarms are given 



a reduced brood chamber, hiving them 
on empty frames provided with foun- 
dation starters (strips f inch wide), 
never using full sheets. The later the 
swarms isssue, the more the brood- 
chambers are reduced, commencing 
with seven L. frames or their equiva- 
lent, later on using six, then only five 
or half-stories. 

At any time, should flowers yield 
honey to any amount, section-cases are 
applied to the strong colonies. It is 
an impossibility to have all colonies in 
working order all the time ; but since 
the flow from linden is the more re- 
liable (with buckwheat to follow), I 
aim to have all colonies strong when 
it commences, but also have some col- 
onies ready any time. In favorable 
years we may get some honey from 
sugar maple, fruit bloom and clover ; 
but only clover amounts to anything, 
if anything does at all, and I believe 
it is better to allow the bees to store in 
the brood-chamber from the first-nam- 
ed sources to bridge over the different 
periods of honey dearth. To those 
colonies that I expect to work in the 
sections during the earliest part of the 
season I give only a few sections, dum- 
mies being used in the cases, with 
chaff cushions on top. If we can sup- 
ply sections with nice white comb in 
them, we are all the surer of the bees 
occupying, filling and finishing them. 
Comb foundation I do not use in full 
sheets in sections at any time. . I feel 
a good deal like a prominent German 
bee-keeper who recently said in the 
Bienenzeitung, " If we should use comb 
foundation in our comb honey we 
should soon drive many of the pur- 
chasers of our honey away from the 
markets." I myself am not only a 
producer of comb honey, but also very 



189G. 



TUE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



93 



largely a consumer, and I consider 
foundation an undesirable adjunct to 
my comb honey when it comes to the 
eating part. 

Since keeping bees I have experi- 
enced only one season with a continu- 
ous honey flow from beginning of bass- 
wood to the end of buckwheat; but 
ordinarily we have a honey dearth be- 
tween the two, lasting from 8 to 16 
days, and I find it pays me well to re- 
move all sections after basswood is 
over, sort out all partly finished ones, 
and have them finished up on a few 
of the best working colonies during 
this time. I feed extracted honey in 
somewhat diluted form. When open 
cases are used, such course can not be 
so well pursued; but I believe nearly 
all comb honey producers use separa- 
tors now. 

Although ray aim is section honey, 
still I also raise some extracted honey, 
for my own use and home trade prin- 
cipally. I find, however, nice white 
extracted honey, put up in one-pound 
glass jars, (screw top preferred), sells 
as well as comb honey in some large 
cities ; but it must reach the consumer 
before it granulates. 

In fitting my comb honey for market 
I always scrape sections perfectly 
clean, stamp each with my name and 
address, put them up in 24-pound 
crates, glassed and otherwise neatly 
made, and sell early. In shipping I 
combine with the grape-growers of mv 
town, and so I secure very low freight 
rates to the principal cities, quick 
transit and safety ; also avoidance of 
breakage, etc. It would be to the ad- 
vantage of honey producers in gener- 
al if they would follow the example. 
Prof. Cook is right on this subject. 

Naples, N. Y. 



(-.OMPARATIVE STllKNGTH OF THE GKEAT 
NAVIES. 
In considering the navies of other coun- 
tries, that of Great Britain stands of course 
pre-eminent. It amounts to between four 
and tive hundred vessels, of wliich one 
liundred and twenty are armored cruisers, 
and it employs eighty thousand men. It 
aims to be equal in offensive and defensive 
strength to any two other navies combined. 
For example, in the matter of battle-ships 
Great Britain has built or is building fifty- 
four ; France, thirty-seven; Kunsia, eigh- 
teen ; Germany twenty-two ; Italy, twenty- 
one ; United States, six, — a total of one 
hundred and fifty-eight. Thisof itself rep- 
sents an outlay of fully three hundred mill- 
ion dollars, and only one class of ships is in- 
cluded. In the matter of armored cruisers 
the figures are : Great Britain, one hundred 
and twenty ; France, seventy ; Russia, six- 
teen ; Germany, twenty eight ; Italy, six; 
United States, three; Austria, twelve; Spain, 
six ; total, two hundred and sixty-one. This 
represents an outlay of at least two hundred 
million dollars.— From " Tlie Great Navies 
of the World," in Demorest's Magazine for 
March. 



MOI'NT VERNON. 

Whatever those who visited this old home 
upon the Potomac may have thought of the 
life there, it was ever the dearest spot on 
earth to its master and mistress. General 
Washington wrote in his diary, when he 
quitted his home in April, 1789, to enter 
upon his duties as Chief Executive of the 
new nation, "About ten o'clock I bade adieu 
to Mount Vernon, to private life, and to 
domestic felicity, and, with a mind oppress- 
ed with more anxioas and painful sensations 
than I have words to express, set out for 
New York," while Mrs. Washirgton al- 
ways spoke of the days spent away from 
home amid the stir and excitement of public 
life as "lost days." — Anne HoUingsworth 
Wharton, in April Lippincott's. 



"How TO Manage Bees," a 50c 
book, and the American Bee-Keep- 
ER a year for only GOc. 



94 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



April 



The American Bee-Keeper, 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG CO. 



TERMS : 

50 cents a year in advance ; 2 copies, 85 cents ; 3 
copies, 11.20 ; all to be sent to one postoffice. 

Postage prepaid in the U.S. and Canada; 10 cents 
extra to all countries in the postal union and 20 
cents extra to all other countries. 

ADVERTISING RATES: 

15 cents per line, 9 words; $2.00 per inch. 5 per 
cent, discount for 2 insertions ; 7 per cent, for 3 in- 
sertions; 10 per cent, for 6 insertions; 20 per cent. 
for 12 insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or before 
the 20th of each month to insure insertion in month 
following. Address, 

THP] AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
Falconer, N. Y. 

-OS^Sub&cribers finding this paragraph marked 
with a blue cross will know that their subscripiton 
expires with this number. We hope that you will 
not delay in sending a renewal. 

9^' A. Red Cross on this paragraph indicates that 
you owe for your subscriprion. Please give the 
matter your attention. 

EDITORIAL, 

We learn from the Progressive Bee- 
keeper that 928 patents have been ob- 
tained on bee hives in this conntry. 
The greater number of these were 
taken out by persons who could ill 
afford to spend their time and money, 
and not one of those patents have 
" filled a long felt want " of the bee- 
keepers. On the contrary but one or 
two patent hives are in use at all, ful- 
ly 98 per cent, of all the hives in use 
today being unpatentable. It is gen- 
erally poor policy to patent anything 
for the use of bee-keepers as the sales 
are generally so small that the cost 
of patent can hardly ever be realized. 
One of the reasons for this is the 
fickleness of the trade, this year one 
method is generally practiced, while 



next season something entirely differ- 
ent will be advocated. The fact is, 
the great majority of bee-keepers are 
groping in darkness, and blindly fol- 
low where every Moses may wish to 
lead them, and the Moseses of the 
"bee-keeping fraternity" are not few. 



"How to Manage Bees " is a 50c 
book for beginners in bee keeping. 
We will send it postpaid for 25c. 



At this time anyone who has any- 
thing to sell to bee-keepers should 
edvertise it liberally. Supplies of all 
kinds, queens and bees are now in 
great demand and will be for the next 
two months or more. While the indi- 
cations during the past three months 
have been very discouraging in the 
Eastern States for a good season, 
everything is looking more hopeful 
now and looks as if the next three 
months would far exceed our expec- 
tations. 



Wm Gerrish, East Nottingham, N 
H. will keep a complete supply of our 
goods during the coming season and 
Eastern customers will save freight 
by ordering from him. 



We are in receipt of a copy of the 
by-laws of the California Bee-keepers' 
Exchange. The Exchange will doubt- 
less have a large membership and 
will be a great benefit to the honey 
producers of the Pacific coast. 



We will send the American Bee- 
Keeper one year with the Cosmopol- 
itan for $1.25. The Cosmopolitan is 
a monthly magazine containing an 
average of over 100 pages and 80 il- 
lustrations each month. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



95 



We notice that the dull times have 
had the usual effect of reducing the 
prices of bee-keeping supplies, and 
some dealers are offering their goods 
at prices which are actually below the 
cost of making. We do not believe 
in doing business "for fun." It 
works well for a while but cannot 
last. However we propose to protect 
our customers against any prices 
made b}' competitors, and will dupli- 
cate all prices made hy any other 
dealers anywhere for goods of equal 
quality and merit. 



We want a large quantit}' of bees- 
wax, and will pa}' 28c a pound cash or 
30c a pound in goods for good clean 
wax freight paid to Falconer, N. Y. 



We will send the Farm Journal, 
(Phila.) and the Bee-Keeper one year 
for 50c, or will send the Farm Journal 
one year to everyone who owe a year 
or more subscription and will pay up. 
(Mention this offer). 



We have a quantit}" of Alley Drone 
and Queen Trap patterns of 1894 
which will be sold at 25c each, regu- 
lar price 50c. These Traps are just 
as good for practical purposes as 
those of more recent pattern. 



We are always glad to receive arti- 
cles for publication. They come 
handy sooner or later. If you have 
any news of any kind concerning bees, 
write us about it and we will publish 
it for the benefit of our readers. 



We are paying 28c a pound cash 
for good beeswax, delivered at our 
railroad station at Falconer, N. Y. , or 
we will allow 30c a pound in goods. 



Kditor York , of the American Bee 
Journal, takes exceptions to our recent 
remarks concerning the self praise, 
flattery and "softness" which is so 
prevalent among certain bee editors, 
and in his weak way attempts to retali- 
ate. Evidently the shoe fitted ; the 
shot went home. Well, editor York, 
you are one of those at whom we aim- 
ed. We hope 3'ou only received a flesh 
wound and will profit by it, for such 
silly stuff is heartily condemned by 
every intelligent one of your readers. 

Grand Offer to Subscribers. 

We will send the Bee Keeper six 
months, and a box of Seeds contain- 
ing 12 different packages of Garden 
Seeds and 3 papers of Flower Seeds 
(value $1.40) for only 60c post-paid, 
or the Bee Keeper 1 year and all the 
Seeds for 75c. Or we will send the Bee 
Keeper balance of the year and a copy 
of ' 'How to Manage Bees, "" (price 50c) 
for 50c. The Bee Keeper 1 year 
and the book for 60c. Remit in pos- 
tage stamps. 



A gieat many subscriptions have 
expii'ed the last two months, and we 
shall be glad to receive a renewal of 
each. We will send the Bee Keeper 
the l)alance of this year to new sub- 
scribers for 25 cents. Remember the 
Bee Keeper is regularly composed 
of 32 pages, 16 of which relate exclu- 
sively to bee keeping, and the remain- 
der to miscellaneous literary subjects. 



Clubbing List. 



We will send the American BeeKef.pkk with 

the— PUB. PRCE. BOTH. 

American Bee .Journal, (ifl no) SI 35 

Americiiii .Apicultiirist, ( 75; 1 15 

Bee Keeper's Review. (1 dU) 1 35 

Canadian Bee.lournal, (1 00) 1 25 

Gleiininps in Bee Culture, (1 00) 1 35 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April 



Tli-j SUt'i) Has lirainB. 

The teudencyof successful business is 
to eulaigeiiieut, and with eulargeniert 
come a new multitude of agents, a new 
variety of markets, a new kind of com- 
petitive danger, to avert which absolute- 
ly requires mind. The very number of 
bis employees compels the great trades- 
man of our day to become a judge of 
character; the very expansion of his 
market drives him to study many coun- 
tries, many tariffs, many laws, and his 
extreme danger from competition makes 
of him an artist, a chemist and a critic. 
The process is slow, because he is al- 
ways governed by the idea of selling, 
and he often learns rather to know pub- 
lic taste than to know what taste is and 
to seek in his purchases the popular 
rather than the good, but still the proc- 
ess must develop his mind. — London 
Spectator. 

Value of Celery Boot. 

The root of the celery plant is not as 
■widely appreciated as it should be. An 
authority cited by the Boston Journal 
Bays of it : 

"The root of celery has been sadly de- 
spised, outrageously misunderstood. It, 
too, is at the service of man during 
greenless months, when, so feeble is his 
imaginat'ou, he seldom soars above 
eprouts. It may be boiled, and then 
white sauce well becomes it; it may be 
fried in close embracing bread crumbs ; 
it maybe fashioned into a puree; it may 
be stewed. Why let it linger longer, the 
wallflower of the green grocer's stall? 
Celery, in root and bunch, soothes — a 
rival to opium. Eat it for which of its 
many excellences you will, only see that 
you eat it. " 

It 'Wasn't a General's £srs> 

An amusing anecdote is given in the 
ftladras Mail about Calcutta life of a 
bygone generation. It relates to Lord 
Wellesley (Duke of Wellington) and is 
as follows : The great man had been 
given a bad egg for breakfast, and 
gniffing at it he called to his valet : 
"Lamell, a bad egg! What an atrociou.s 
thing to have given me 1" The valet 
hurried up with a serious face, examin- 
ed the egg closely and then exclaimed: 
"I entreat your forgiveness, my lord. 
The stupid servant has given your lord- 
shin in mistake an aid-de-camp's egg." 



India Rubber Tree Fruit. 

The fruit of the india rubber tree is 
somewhat similar to that of the Ricinus 
communis, the castor oil plant, though 
somewhat larger. The seeds have a not 
disagreeable taste and yield a purplish 
oil. It is a fairly good substitute for 
linseed oil, though it dries less rapidly. 
Mixed with copal blue and turpentine, 
it makes a good varnish. The oil may 
be also used in the manufacture of soaps 
and lithographic inks. The seeds are 
somewhat like tiny chestnuts, although 
darker in color. The Indian girls are 
fond of wearing bracelets and necklets 
made of them. 



He Won His Bet. 

One must take the word of an arch- 
deacon, or I should be inclined to re- 
quest further particulars in the case of ■ 
the patron whom Archdeacon Wilson 
mentioned at the conference at Carn- 
forth the other day. A certain living — 
so said the archdeacon — had fallen va- 
cant by death. The patron summoned to 
him his legal adviser, who explained 
that the presentation must be entirely 
gratuitous, "But, "added the lawyer, 
"I will bet you £1,000 that you do not 
present my son-in-law." Curiously 
enough, the son-in-law was the lucky 
man. — Lo ndon Realm. 

His Razor. 

Husband (shaving) — Confound the 
razor ! 

Wife — What's the matter now? 
You're dreadfully cross tempered. 

"The razor is so dull." 

"Dull ! Why, I ripped up an old skirt 
with it only yesterday, and it cut beau- 
tifully. " — Chicago Record. 

Balloons In War. 

Blinkers — Do you think balloons will 
ever be useful in war? 

Winkers (who has a good memory)— 
Well — er — they might come handy iu 
case of a draft. — New York Weekly. 

A Dollar's Worth of Information. 

Mr. Keep Cash — Did .you write to 
that man who advertises to show people 
how to make desserts without milk and 
have them richer? 

Mrs. Cash — Yes, and sent him the 
dollar. 

"What did he reply? 

"Use cream. " - ' , 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



97 



THFi ELECTRiC SPIRIT, 



With wild winRS fi-t ttnt d I ride the wires. 

My lift' liiids issue in blinding flres, 

Bright sh!;pos are wrought by my flying 

breath, 
But my touch is flan)e, and my kiss is death. 

Since man hath bound me with coil and chain, 
Nor sea nor space can his word restrain, 
I wind my circles of burning speed 
The round globe over to serve his need. 

Of warring winds I am king and lord; 
The sTornis conic wielding my radiant sword. 
I laugh in light as the swift strokes fly, 
The .sullen thunders make slow reply. 

With mystic passion I yearn from far 
To my secret home 'neath the northern star, 
And thence, on the vast Llack walls of night, 
I fling great rays from my gates of light. 

Time flees before me, and none may know 
My cour.se as from star to star I go. 
For I an) life. In the utmo.st dark 
God's touch enkindled my fervid spark. 

Think ye to know me, O ye who raise 
My torch of llanje on the world's highways? 
Ask him who:e throne is the central light 
Of countless svuis in their wheeling flight. 

With fierce strength fettered, I ride the wires. 
Prometheus spirits have tamed my fires, 
But God alone, in his chosen hour, 
Can free the force of my nameless power. 
—Marion Couthouy Smith. 



4 RUSE THAT LOST. 



She was my first love, aud so far as I 
can tell, she may prove to be my ouly 
one. She is now a buxom wife with 
some four or five rosy, rompiug children, 
and I am still a bachelor. But time is a 
great healer, aud I can now tell the story 
of my luckless suit with DoraRudgwick 
without a paug. 

Dora was the only daughter of a re- 
tired Loudon medical mau. At the time 
I first made her acquaiutauce her father 
had retired from practice aud was a 
widower. I fell head over heels iu love 
■with the girl — though I can hardly be- 
lieve it when I look at her today — aud 
she consented to marry me if the old 
doctor gave his consent. She never pro- 
fessed to have auy deep affection for me ; 
she liked me, however, aud was willing 
to become my wife if her papa approved. 

But the eccentric old man would not 
hear of it. I remember how dejected I 
■was after he had told me, with consid- 
erable vigor, that I could not become his 



son-ln-Iaw, and bow' Indignant I felt at 
bis declining to give me any reasons for 
his decisiou. The following day I met 
an old college friend in Bond street — 
Douglas Bligh. 

" You are not looking very bright, " he 
said. "What are you worrying about?" 

Bligh also was a doctor. He had walk- 
ed the same hospital as old Rudgwick, 
only n:auy years later. 

"A Jove aftair, " I confessed, with a 
forced smile. 

"AIj ! I (bought something of thesort. 
Girl throwu you over?" 

"Ko, not the girl — the father!" 

"Oh, that's uothing! If the lady is 
williug, love will find cut a way, and 
papa will come rouud. " 

"Ee is a pigheaded old doctor — I befl 
your pardon, but I suppose a doctor may 
sometimes be pig headed like the rest ol 
us?" 

"Undoubtedly. Do I kuow him?" 

"Dr. Gcrdon Rudgwick." 

"Oh, yes. I am acquainted with him. 
I also cucfa met Miss Rudgwick. I con- 
gratulate you, old fellow. A charming 
young lady, 'p'^n my v/ord. But the old 
man — ha ! ha— no wonder he rejected 
you!" 

"Why?" 

"You are too healthy 1" 

"Too healthy!" 

"Yes. You ought to have some in- 
teresting and deep seated disease — some- 
thing complicated and lingering!" 

"I — what on earth are you driving 
at, Bligh?" 

"Don't you know? He's" — and he 
touched his forehead with his forefinger. 

"You don't mean it?" 

"Yes. He is mad on one point. He 
has a contempt for healthy people, and 
respects ouly those who are suffering 
from some terrible disease." 

"But his daughter never told me." 

"She doesn't know. They have kept 
it from her. And this is the cause of his 
want of parental affection. There is ab- 
solutely nothing the matter with the 
young lady. Isow, what he wants is a 
son-in-law riddled with disease. You 
must get seme internal growth or" — 

"Good heavens, Bligh!" 

"Come with me and I will coach you 
up in all the symptoms of a most inter- 
esting malady. Everything will then 
turnout according to your best wishes." 



08 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April 



"But Low did you discover you were 
in possession of this striking disease?" 
eaid Dr. Rudgwick in a state of ecstasy. 

"Well, I have had suspicions for a 
long time," I replied, "that sotuethiug 
was wrong, but I kept the opinion to 
myself. A few days ago, however, I 
tried to insure iny life, and the medical 
officers of half a dozen companies reject- 
ed me. I then went to a first class man, 
was thoroughly overhauled, told exactly 
what was the matter with me and in- 
formed that I was one of the most ex- 
traordinary cases that had evt'r come 
under his notice. He gives me only six 
Inonths. " 

"Ah ! The symptoms are most remark- 
able. I have not been so in::fcre.sted for a 
long time. It is certainly a vet y curious 
case, unprecedented in its complexity. " 

"Do you really think it is sof.ericjs?" 

"Oh, I hope so. I think I ix\\.\y safely 
assert that the man you 1j*vo coj'.sulred 
is absolutely correct in his dia;^uoi;i'^, if 
the symptoms are as you say. " 

"Do you think I shall survive it?" 

"Not unless you allow the course of 
the disorder to be interfered w"th by 
those sentimental quacks who i:inder the 
advance of pathological scieica by sock- 
ing cures. ' ' 

"But six months is very short, " I said 
despondently. 

"Not at all. With care, the thing may 
be induced to run its course even more 
quickly. Drugs and a low diet may be 
made t'? do a cood deal in accelerating 
matters. " 

"What would you advise? Should 1 
consult Sir John" — 

"No, no, no ! Don't consult anybody. 
Don t meddle with it, or vou may spoil 
all." 

"But perhaps a cure" — 

"Cure, sir! Don't talk such sickly 
nonsense, or I shall begin to think it 
possible that you could do such a mean 
and dishonorable thing as to rob medical 
science of one of the most instructive, 
beautiful and striking cases that have 
ever enriched the literature of pathol- 
ogy- " 

"What, then, is the use of pathology 
if doctors are not to cure?" 

"Pathology, sir, treats of diseases, 
their causes, elfects and symptoms. It 
is a branch of knowledge, an imeiestiug 
abstract study, a recreation. It has 
nothing to do with treatment, cures and 



Buch like quackeries." 

"But v/hat may be sport to you is 
death to us. " 

"Why, we must all die, and what 
could be nobler than to die in the cause 
of science? By the way, you were speak- 
ing to me about mv daughter the other 
day." 

I shook my head in a melancholy 
manner. 

"Well, I have been thinking I spoke 
hastily. She is yours. I shall be proud 
to have you as a son-in-law. To watch 
the course of your complaint will be a 
jDrivilege and a delight. Marry as soon 
as ever you like. I think you will find 
r>ora somewhere about the house. See 
her and fix the matter up. " 

But Dora was not to be seen that day. 
She had gone to her room indisposed. 

When I called the next morning, the 
housekeeper told me that Miss Rudg- 
wick had gone on a visit to friends at 
Brighton, but had left a note for me. I 
opened it and read as follow-s: 

"I overheard your talk with papa, 
and am so very, very sorry for you. I 
do 60 hope that your state is not so bad 
as you fear, and that you will not lose 
courage and will soon get well. 

"Of course everything must now be 
at an end between us. It would be mad- 
ness to talk of marriage. I shall always 
think of you as a very dear friend, and 
I want you to believe that you will have 
my most sincere sympathy." 

I put the letter in my pocket and 
went home. What a mess I had made of 
it ! First I had gained the consent of 
Dora and failed to obtain that of her 
father. Now I had obtained the doc- 
tor's consent and lost the daughter's. 
Fancy her overhearing all that I said 
and thinking I was speaking the truth 
about the diseased state of my body 1 
And yet, why should she have supposed 
I was lying? 

One thing was certain. I must find 
her out and explain all. Dr. Rudgwick 
knew the name of the friends whom 
Dora had gone to, but he could not tell 
me thsaddress. He had been accustomed 
to allow her to go and come pretty much 
as she pleased. 

A week passed, several days of which 
I had spent at Brighton, without any- 
thing being heard of her. One morning 
I strolled round to Dr. Rudgwick's to 
learn whether his daughter had written. 



18U6 



THE AMKRICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



99 



wheu I Raw au empty cab standing at the 
door. 

"Miss Dora lias just arrived, sir. I'll 
tell her you are iiere. " 

I stepped into the drawing room and 
■wailed. In a few minutes I heard the 
dear girl running down the stairs. My 
heart leaped with joy. 

"How do you do':" she said, placing 
her little hand in mine and looking in- 
to my eyes with infinite pity. "I do 
hope you are better. You are looking 
pretty well. " 

"My dear Dora, I was never better in 
my life. That was all untrue about my 
illues.s. I am in perfect health." 

"Untrue?" 

"Allot it. I will explain it to you 
another time. " 

"Then you are not going to die in six 
months?" 

"I hope not, nor in six decades. Are 
you sorry?" 

"Sorry? Of course not, but" — 

"I have your father's consent to our 
marriage. Darling, you will now be 
mine?" 

"Impossible I" 

"How so?" 

"Well, the fact is — I — I am mar- 
ried!" 

I sprang hack amazed. 

"You see, I thought you were a doom- 
ed man. I heard it from your own lips. 
Marriage with you would have been 
mad, impossible. And papa's strange 
talk alarmed me, especially when he 
gave his consent. I was terrified and 
feared his anger. So I went away to 
friends at Brighton. There I mot Cap- 
tain Aiusworth. He was my first love, 
and I have never reallj- lost my affection 
for him. He asked me to marry hiiL, 
and — well, I did so at once, as he is go- 
ing out to India. You really cannot 
blame me, can you?" 

No; I didn't exactly blame her, but I 
cursed my f.-'te, and I told Bligh that he 
was the bigj^est fool in his ijrofessior, 
for which he has never thoroughly for- 
given me, though he says he has. — Lou- 
don Tit-Bits. 



NaiJoleoD's Advice About Horteiise. 

Louis, who was governing Holland 
with reference to its own best interests, 
and (.rdering theafiaiis of his own fam- 
ily rigidly, but admirably, received a se- 
vere and passionate reprimand from 



«Le emperor for his economy. What was 
wanted was pay for the troops, plenty 
of conscripts, encouragement for the 
Dutch Catholics, and a giddy court, 
where men would forget more serious 
things and where Queen Hortense could 
make a display. "Let your wife dance 
as much as she wants to. It is proper 
for her age. I have a wife 40 years old, 
and from the field of battle I recom- 
mend her to go to balls, while you want 
one of 20 to live in a cloister, or, like a 
wet nurse, always bathing her child." 
— Professor Sloane in Century. 

A Bond. 

"Yes," said the Cumminsville sage, 
"I don't doubt that having fought in 
the same regiment is calculated to bind 
men together firmly, and so is a mem- 
bership in the same lodge, but for real, 
heartfelt sympathy gimme two fellows 
who have the same kind of rheuma- 
tism. " — Cincinnati Enquirer. 



Saw Him Fed. 

Ccntrary to general belief, Munchau- 
Eon is not dead, or he must live in the 
persons of some of the continental tour- 
ists you meet around the Metropole and 
tho Victoria. They repeat this conversa- 
tion of one of those enterprising but pre- 
varicating end of the century explorers: 
"I visited Russia, Qei-many, Austria, 
Italy"— 
"Indeed I So you saw Venice?" 
"Well, I rather guess I did." 
"Did you see the lion of St. Mark?" 
"Of course I did. Why, I saw him 
fed." — Washington Post. 

Overdoing It. 

"Now, I maintain, " said Miss Strong.S 
"that there is no place filled by man 
which a woman cannot fill. Is that com- 
prehensive enough?" 

"It is very comprehensive, " replied 
Mr. Northside, "but I am prepared to 
go still further in advocacy of woman's 
ability. " 

"Are you?" 

"Yes, I am. On the seat of a street 
car, for instance, she can fill two men's 
places." — Pittsburg Chronicle - Tele- 
graph. 

Oregon has 18,798 hands in her fac- 
tories and makes every year $41,432,- 
174 worth of goods. 



100 



THE AMERICAN BKK-KEKPER. 



April 



Within my gcrdi'n bouiids are set 
Sweet nicrjci y and sad regret. 
And •vvhcif njy orchard blossoms glow 
The winds of life forever blow. 

Here falls the rain, here springs the 

seed. 
The perfect flower, the perfect weed, 
Eejoice together, side by side, 
In equal sunlight, satisfied. 

The fruit that mingles gold and red 
Is born of beauty withered. 
The fruit that mingles red and gold 
Ib young because the bough is old. 

My garden and the world Inclose 
Alike the thistle and the rose. 
My garden and the world are one 
In kinship both of storm and sun. 

—New York Tribune. 



THE MIRROR. 



There was once a kingdom where mir- 
rors were uukuown. They had all been 
broken and reduced to fragments by or- 
der of the queen, and if the tiniest bit 
of looking glass had been found in any 
house she would not have hesitated to 
put all the inmates to death with the 
most frightful tortures. 

Now for the secret of this extraor- 
dinary caprice. The queen was dread- 
fully ugly, and she did not wish to be 
exposed to the risk of meeting her own 
image, and knowing herself to be hide- 
ous it was a consolation to know that 
other women at least could not see that 
they were pretty. 

You may imagine that the young girls 
of the country were not at all satisfied. 
What was the use of being beautiful if 
you could not admire yourself y 

They might have used the brooks and 
lakes for mirrors, but the queen had 
foreseen that and had hidden all of them 
nnder closely joined flagstones. Water 
was drawn from wells so deep that it 
•was impossible to see the liquid surface, 
and shallow basins must be used instead 
of buckets, because in the latter there 
might be leflectious. 

Such a dismal state of affairs, es- 
pecially for the pretty coquettes, who 
were no more rare in this country than 
in others ! 

The queen had no compassion, being 
•well content that her subjects should 
suffer as much annoyance from the lack 



of a mirror as she felt at the sight of 
one. 

Eowever, in a suburb of the city there 
lived a young girl called Jacinta, who 
was a little better ofif than the rest, 
thanks to her sweetheart, Valentin. For 
if someone thinks you are beautiful and 
loses no chance to tell you so he is al- 
most as good as a mirror. 

"Tell mo the truth," she would say. 
"What is the color of my eyes?" 

"They are like dewy f orgetmenots. " 

"And my skin is not quite black?" 

"You know that your forehead is 
whiter than freshly fallen snow, and 
your cheek? are like blush roses." 

"How about my lips?" 

"Cherries are pale beside them." 

"And my teeth, if you please?" 

"Grains of rice are not as white." 

"But my ears — should I be ashamed 
of them?" 

"Yes, if you would be ashamed of 
two little pink shells among your pretty 
curls." 

And so on endlessly, she delighted, 
he still mere charmed, for his words 
came from the depth of his heart, and 
she had the pleasure of hearing herself 
praised, he the delight of seeing her. So 
their love grew more deep and tender 
every hour, and the day thai he asked 
her to marry him she blushed certainly, 
but ifc was not with anger. But, un- 
luckily, the news of their happiness 
reached <he wicked queen, whose only 
pleasure was to torment others, and 
Jacinta mere than any one else, on ac- 
count of her beauty. 

A little while before the marriage 
Jacinta v,as walking in the orchard one 
evening when an old crone approached, 
asking for alms, but suddenly jumped 
back with a shriek as if she had stepped 
on a toad, crying, "Heavens, what do I 
see?" 

"What is the matter, my good wom- 
an? Wbat is it you see? Tell me." 

"The ugliest creature I ever beheld." 

"Then you are not looking at me," 
said Jacinta, with innocent vanity. 

"Alas! yes, my poor child, it is yon. 
I have been a long time on this earth, 
but never have I met any one so hideous 
as you !" 

"What! Am I ugly?" 

"A hundred times uglier than I can 
tell you. ' ' 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



101 



•Uut my eyes" — 

"Tliey aio a i-uit of dirty gray. But 
tliat wuuld bo uothiug if you had not 
such an outrageous squint I" 

"My couipJexion" — 

"It looks as if you had rubbed coal 
dust on your forehead and cheeks." 

"My month" — 

"It is pale and withered, like a faded 
flower. ' ' 

"My teeth"— 

"If the beauty of teeth is to be large 
and yellow, I never saw any so beauti- 
ful as yours." 

"But, at least, my ears"— 

"They are so big, so red and so mis- 
shapen under your coarse elf locks that 
they are revolting. I am not pretty my- 
self, but I should die of shame if mine 
were like them. "' After this last blow 
the old witch, having repeated what the 
queen had J aught her, hobbled off, with 
a harsh croak of laughter, leaving poor 
Jacinta disstjlved in tears, prone on the 
ground beneath the apple trees. 

Nothing could divert her mind from 
her grief. "I am ugly — I am ugly 1" she 
repeated constantly. It was in vain that 
Valentin assured and reassured her with 
the most solemn oaths. 

"Let me alone! You are lying out of 
pity. I understand it all now. You nev- 
er loved me. You are only sorry for me. 
The beggar woman had no interest in 
deceiving me. It is only too true — I am 
ugly. I do not see how you can endure 
the sight of me. " 

To undeceive her he brought people 
from far and near. Every man declared 
that Jacinta was created to delight the 
eyes. Even the women said as much, 
though they were less enthusiastic. But 
the Eoor child persisted in her conviction 
TOTTT pnc wn» a rriiuT've object, and 
when Valentin pressed her to name their 
wedding day, "I, yourwife!" cried she. 
"Never ! I love you too dearly to burden 
you with a being so hideous as I am." 
You can fancy the despair of the poor 
fellow so sincerely in love. He threw 
himself on his knees, he prayed, he sup- 
plicated ; she answered still that she 
was too ugly to marry him. 

What was he to do? The only way to 
give the lie to the old woman and prove 
the truth to Jacinta was to put a mirror 
before her. But there was no such thing 
iii.the kingdom, aud so great was the 



terror inspired by (Le ueen that no 
workujau dared maku oi;h. 

"Well, I shall go to court," said the 
lover in despair. "Harsh as our mis- 
tress is, she cannot fail to be moved by 
the tears and the beauty of Jacinta. She 
will retract, for a few hours at least, 
this cruel edict which has caused our 
trouble. ' ' 

It was not without difficulty that he 
persuaded the young girl to let him take 
her to the palace. She did not like to 
show herself and asked of what use 
would be a mirror, only to impress her 
more deeply with her misfortune. But 
when he wept her heart was moved, and 
she consented to please him. 

"What is all thisV" said the wicked 
queen. "Who are these people? And 
what do they want?" 

"Your majesty, you have before yon 
the most unfortunate lover on the face 
of the earth." 

"Do you consider that a good reason 
for coming here to annoy me?" 

"Have pity on me." 

"What have I to do with your love 
affairs?" 

"If you would permit a mirror" — 

The queen rose to her feet, trembling 
with rage. "Who dares to speak to me 
of a mirror?" she said, grinding her 
teeth. 

"Do not be angry, your majesty, I 
beg of you, and deign to hear me. This 
young girl whom you see before you, so 
fresh and pretty, is the victim of a 
strange delusion. She imagines that she 
is ugly. " 

"Well," said the queen, with a ma- 
licious grin, "she is right. I never saw 
a more hideous object." 

Jacinta, at these cruel words, thought 
she would die of mortification. Doubt 
was no longer possible ; she must be 
ugly. Her eyes closed; she fell on the 
steps of the throne in a deadly swoon. 

But Valentin was affected very differ- 
ently. He cried out loudly that her maj- 
esty must be mad to tell such a lie. He 
had no time to say more. The guards 
seized him, and at a sign from the queen 
the headsman came forward. He was al- 
\7ay8 beside the throne, for she might 
need his services at any moment. 

"Do your duty," said the queen, 
pointing out the man who had insulted 
her. The executioner raised his gjeam- 



102 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April 



Ing ax jusi MK .iiiciuta caiue to herseli 
and opened lier eyes. Theu two suneks 
pierced the air. Oue was a cry of joy, 
for iu the glil leriiig steel .Taciuta saw 
herself, so cliarniiu^^ly pretty, and the 
other a scream df anguish as the wicked 
soul of the queen took flight, unable to 
bear the sight of her face iu the im- 
promptu mirror. — From the French in 
Short Stories. 



Tips Expected For Free Shining:. 

Many retail shoe dealers have iu their 
stores a porter whose duty it is to polish 
the shoes of customers free of charge. 

A movement is now on foot among 
some of the barbers to establish the 
same custom iu connection with their 
business, and it will be no surprise if 
the new year finds signs hanging iu 
some of the shops reading, "Shoes pol- 
ished free of charge." 

Of course those who start the custom 
will have a large run of new trade, 25 
per cent of which they will retaiu, after 
the custom btcorces generally establish- 
ed, if good barbers are employed. 

A shoe dealer who was one of the first 
to establish the custom said the cost i 
practically nothing after the original 
outlay for chairs and brushes, as the 
colored porter is well paid by the tips 
he receives. 

It is cuntf^nded by some of the barbers 
that the p.urer would be well paid for his 
trouble by lips and the customer would 
feel that he had saved money by getting 
shaved there, as no oue considers money 
given away iu tips as money spent. — 
Chicago Journal. 



Atlienian Street Car Pleasantries. 

Conductor — You got aboard after i 
took the fares, I believe? 

Passenger — Not after you took mice. 

Conductor — But I do not remember 
takiug yours. 

Passenger — Very likely. Neither do I. 

Conduct or (receiving nickel) — Thanks. 
Northampton street ! — Boston Tran- 
Bcript. 

A Good Name For It. 

"My bicycle has been injured in the 
Windpipe," said Gildersleeve. 

"What on earth is a bicycle's wind- 
pipe?" asked Tillinghast. 

"The VBry part that is on earth, the 
pneumatic tubo. " — Detroit Free Press. 



Coffee. 

Many persons who are unable to drink 
coffee that has been boiled or made by 
putting the coflFee directly in boiling 
Water and cooking at or above the boil- 
ing point tor a certain number of min- 
utes are able to drink without any dis- 
agreeable consequences either present or 
future coffee made by percolation — that 
is, by inclosing the coffee in a bag of 
some kind or in a wire gauze strainer 
and pouring the boiling water upon it. 
This method of coffee making should al- 
ways be used in households where the 
members breakfast at different hours, 
and where only one pot of coffee is 
made. In France, where chicory is often 
added to the coffee, percolated or "drip" 
coffee that is quite strong is often made 
and tightly bottled or sealed so that ite 
aroma cannot escape and kept in a cool 
place for several days. As it is wanted 
it is heated very hot and served with hot 
milk, and, if you want it absolutely per- 
fect, heat your cup also. Percolated cof- 
fee is considered more economical than 
that boiled. — New York Post. 



Illustrates a Phase of Clericalism. 

One of the most famous of mediaeval 
utterances is a curious mixture of dia- 
bolical wit and savage fanaticism. It is 
told of the Papal Legate Milo, at the 
sack of Beziers, in the "crusade" against 
the Albigeois. History, or tradition. 
Bays that when it was asked how it 
would be possible to distinguish the 
heretics in the town from the Catholics 
the legate cried out: "Kill them all! 
God will kuow his own. " So the story 
goes. But did the legate ever say it? 
Or was it said by Arnold, the Cistercian 
abbot? Did anybody say it? The only 
thing absolutely certain is that, express- 
ing, as it did, in the pithiest style, the 
spirit of mediaeval fanaticism in religion, 
It might very well have been uttered by 
Bomebody. — Loudon News. 

San Salvador. 

San Salvador is built on a volcano. It 
has been three times destroyed by an 
earthquake, but the people are becoming 
accustomed to such occurrences. Earth- 
quakes are pretty frequent, and while 
one is naturally very nervous there is 
really little danger to life. The shocks 
have been known to come as frequently 
as 80 times in an hour. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



103 



THE WANDERER. 

Cfpon a mountain height, far from the aem, 

I found a j-holl. 
And to my listening tar ll.c lonely thing 
Ever a song of ocean seemed to sing, 

Ever a talo of ocean seemed to tell. 

How came the shell upon that mountain 
height? 
Ah, who can say 
Whether there dropped by some too careless 

hand 
Or whether there cast when ocean swept the 
land. 
Ere the Eternal had (ordained the day? 

Strange, was it not? Far from its native deep, 

One song it sang, 
Sang of the awful mysteries of the tide, 
Sang of the misty sea, profound and wide. 

Ever with echoes of the ocean rang. 

And as the shell upon the mountain height 

Sings of the sea 
So do I ever, leagues and leagues away, 
Bo do I ever, wandering vv'hero I may, 

Sing, O my home; sing, O my home, of theel 
—Eugene Field. 



IN WARTIME. 



Just below the dam the water ■wheel of 
Euzebio, the miller, creaked noisily in 
its ponderous revolutions, while from 
the opposite bank the mill of Anselmo 
growled a muffled accompaniment. 
Friends from childhood, the lives of 
these two old widower millers of 70 
gave a silent contradiction to the popu- 
lar axiom concerning men of the same 
employment. 

And the picturesque beauty of the 
spot! Behind Euzebio'smill the pasture 
ground sloped gently to the river's edge, 
and, crossing it, ran the pathway down 
which the mules were driven, laden 
with grain for the mill. Along the bank 
a row of tall popJars threw fantastic 
shadows upon the placid surface of 
the millpond. The river slipped easily 
along between its sandy margins, now 
glistening in the sunlight, now hiding 
itself within the recesses of some cane 
plantation and emerging at length to 
fall in clear and transparent streams of 
sparkling water upon the wheel, which 
churned them into a snowy whiteness. 

In summer, when the water was low, 
the two old comrades used often to visit 
one another, boldly cros.';ing the stream 
by the stepping stones below the dam, 
but when the autumn rains had swollen 



the slow moving river into a noisy tor- 
rent they were obliged to content them- 
selves with calling from bank to bank. 

Sometimes Euzebio would say: 

"Speak louder, Anselmo. I don't heai 
yon. ' ' 

"What do you say?" the other would 
ask, advancing to the river's edge and 
leaning forward anxiously. 

And Euzebio, making a speaking 
trumpet of his hands, would shout: 

"I don't understand." 

When they finally succeeded in mak- 
ing themselves heard, they would agree 
that the water wheels were more noisy 
than they ut^ed to be, and that the river 
had never been so turbulent. Ah, yes! 
It was the creaking of the wheels that 
kept them from hearing and not the 
weight of the years pressing upon their 
shoulders ! 

Euzebio had a son, a fine looking fel- 
low of 22, tall, well built and as 
straight as an arrow. A great worker, 
daybreak would find him already busy 
in his father's mill. "He toils like a 
Moor!" the neighbors would say ap- 
provingly. Every one liked Simon, and 
he was a general favorite at the merry- 
making of the neighboring villages. 
Sometimes after one of these gatherings 
the priest, a staid and solemn personage, 
would come to remonstrate with Euze- 
bio upon his son's behavior of the night 
before, whereat the old man was accus- 
tomed to shake his head reprovingly and 
cast down his eyes, whether to better 
express his condemnation or to hide the 
twinkle in them no one ever knew. 

And Anselmo had a daughter, Mar- 
garida by name, a pretty girl of 19, 
with that sweet, natural beauty of the 
country, and her loveliness of face and 
form was but a fitting accompaniment 
to a gentle and loving disposition. Mar- 
garida and Simon had been playmates 
from babyhood, but when the girl had 
reached her fifteenth year this childish 
intimacy began to give place to a maid- 
enly reserve on her part and to an atti- 
tude of chivalrous devotion on the part 
of her companion, while in his heart a 
deep and earnest love was slowly 
springing into life. 

Margarida would feign annoyance 
whenever Simon summoned up the cour- 
age to speak of his love and of the p:nn 
her indifference gave to him, and A\i h 
a frown on her pretty face vvcuid 



104 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April 



abruptly change the subject. The maiu- 
eu's disdaiu of her lover's pleading!?, 
however, ruerely added fuel to the pas- 
eiou that flamed in the heart of the 
joung ruiJler. 

"Margarida," he said to her oue day, 
"if thou vvilt uot marry me, 1 shall 
have to die a bachelor." 

"There are plenty of girls, Simon." 

"And see thee become another's!" 
cried the lad, with tens in his eyes. "I 
don't know what I should do — it would 
kill me !" 

And was Margarida so cruel as really 
to despise the love of her childhood's 
friend and playfellow? Wait awhile; 
we shall soon see how far a woman's 
love and devotion can go. 

At the time of which we write war 
had just broken out between the follow- 
ers of Dom Pedro and Dom Miguel. 
When the terrifying news reached the 
village, the mothers shuddered as they 
looked upon their sons, returning weary 
from the pl^w. 

"Nobody knows the number killed," 
said the messenger. "It is the end of the 
world!" 

The next day a squad of soldiers en- 
tered the village, and, marching to Euze- 
bio's mill, drew up line, while the oflS- 
cer in command, with a couple of pri- 
vates, entered. A few minutes later the 
horror stricken neighbors saw them 
inarch away with Simon in their midst, 
with bound arms like a felon appre- 
hended of justice. The father tried to 
follow them, but age and weakness held 
him back. Hearing the cries of the peo- 
ple, Maigarida came running to the 
spot, and when they told her that Simon 
had been impressed into the service of 
Dom Pedro, she fell I'ainting in ICnze- 
bio's arms. 

A week later shots were heard in tht 
distance and the bugle calls of a bat 
talion. A skirmish was evidently taking 
place near by. At midday a column of 
troopers passed through the village, and 
all pressed forward to see if Simon were 
among them. Yes, there he was, but 
how changed ! Breathless and exhausted, 
covered with dust, his shoes in holes and 
clothing torn, they saw him march by, 
bending wearily beneath the weight of 
his knapsack. As he passed them he nod- 
ded to his acquaintances, while his eyes 
searched eagerly for a glimpse of Mar- 
garida or his father, but in va in ! Ar^^ 



so, with a heavy heart, he passed on. 

When Margarida was told that her 
lover had just gone by, she wanted to 
run ahead and catch up with the bat- 
talion. 

"And mingle with the rough sol- 
diers!" cried an ancient dame. "God 
save us, child I Dost thou know what 
thou art saying?" 

"Is not Simon a soldier, Aunt Joa- 
quina?" asked the girl tearfully. 

At uigiitfall a melancholy procession 
neared the village. A file of soldiers 
led the way. Behind them came a slow 
moving line of farm wagons, make- 
shift ambulances, filled with the wound- 
ed. There they lay, heaped together, 
the dead among the dying. Oh, it was 
a pitiful sight ! The sobbing women 
ran from cart to cart, searching for the 
face of some loved oue. 

Suddenly, from amid the cloud of 
dust surrounding oue of the ambulances, 
a faint cry was heard : 

"Fii-therl Mar-ga-rida! I am dying!" 

And oue of the wounded men was 
seen to let his head fall forward upon 
his breast, while from the edge of the 
wagon his left arm hung limply. 

The soldier leading the horses of this 
ambulance shook his head as Margarida 
came running toward him, asking for 
her lover. The rumble of the cart wheels 
droned her words. Sorrowfully she 
turned away, but as the cart passed her 
the arm extended from its side caught 
her eye, and springing forward she 
seized the hand in hers, and examining 
with intentness a ring the dead man 
wore fell back into the arms of her 
friends, with the cry of a breaking 
heart ; 

"Oh, Simon, my love! Dead! Dead!" 

When a neighbor went to Euzebio's 
house to tell him of his son's death, he 
found the old man seated on the edge of 
his bed, praying, with his eyes fixed on 
a crucifix he held in his hand. 

"Pray for his soul," said the friend 
sadly. 

The old miller, who had become very 
deaf, raised his head and asked in 
alarm, "What is it?" putting his hand 
to his ear. 

"Dead," shouted the other. 

Euzebio rose to his feet, and, with 
pale face and set eyes, made his way to 
the head of the bed, and took down an 

old musket, f.ha<-..haitu/ tKoiio 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



105 



"What is that for, Uncle Euzebio?" 
inquired his frieud. 

"I will kill them !" said the old man, 
in a trembling voice. "I will kill 
them !" 

But as he crossed the threshold of his 
house, gun iu hand, a volley rang out 
from the foremost squad, and the old 
man fell forward on his fuce, dead. 

The next morniug ib neighbor's boy 
came running houio. white with fear, 
sobbing and trembling, and told his 
mother that a little briow tlio dam he 
had seen the body of a woman, drifting 
— drifting — 

****** 

In after years I revisited the scenes of 
my childhood. It was a beautiful April 
morning. I found Margarida's father 
seated iu front of his mil], his chair by 
the river's edge, enjoying the warmth of 
returning sprmg. He told me of iSimon's 
deatli and of the tragic fate of his 
frieud Euzebio. but when he began to 
speak of» his daughter, his Voice failed 
him, and, turning his head away, he 
■whispered to himself: 

"Oh, my Margarida!" 

And silent, motionless, like a man in 
a dream, he gazed with fixed eyes upon 
the river that slid softly by his feet, as 
though within its depths he beheld her 
Gmiling face. — Chicago Inter Ocean. 



Couldn't Congratulate Her. 

M. Paul Deroulede, the French poet 
and dramatist, was captain of a company 
in the service of the Versailles govern- 
ment of national defense in 1871. At 
one time he had to lead his company 
against a street barricade in Paris 
raised by communists. 

Some signs of resistance had been ob- 
served behind. As Deroulede marched 
his men onward, a woman sprang to the 
top of the barricade, aimed a chassepot 
rifle at the leader and flred. 

The soldiers ducked their heads, but 
no one was hit. They marched on, De- 
roulede in advance. He smiled, eying 
calmly the woman, who leveled her 
gnn at him and tired again. Once more 
no one was hit. On went the soldiers 
steadily, their captain smiling, the 
woman on the barricade continuing to 
chaige her piece and to lire each time 
as nearly as she could at Deroulede. 

Presently, however, the soldiers w«^''o 



on tne carncaae. The woman threw 
away her gnn and stood with folded 
arms. She was one of the petroleuses — 
the furious fighting women of the com- 
mune. Deroulede looked behind the 
barricade to see who else was defending 
it. No one was there; the woman was 
alone. 

Then he took off his cap, bowed low 
to the woman, and said very politely, 
"Madam, I regret exceedingly that I 
am unable 1o congratulate you, but real- 
ly, iu view of your markmanship, I can- 
not. " — Youth's Companion. 



Til*" Creajrent of the 3IoIiainmedan8* 

The crescent symbol of the Moham- 
medans has nothing to do 'With their 
peculiar religious opinions and cere- 
monies. It was not oj .yiually a symbol 
of the followers of Mohummed at all, but 
was first used by the Byzantines. Thou- 
sands of coins have been found in all 
parts of Turkey which date back to the 
time when Constantinople was known 
as Byzantium, and on each of these the 
symbol of the cresceui: appears, proving 
conclusively that it was in use as an em- 
blem among the people of that region 
long before Byzantium was overthrown 
and its name changed to Constantinople. 
The story of the origin of the crescent 
gymbol is as follows: When Philip of 
Macedonia besieged Byzantium, he had 
[danued to storm the city on a certain 
cloudy night, but before his arrange- 
aaent.«! were completed the moon shone 
out and discovered his approach to the 
besieged citizens, who accordingly 
marclied out and repulsed his forces- 
something wliich would have been im- 
possible in the darkness. After that 
event all Byzantine coins bore the sym 
bol of the crescent moon, which was al- 
ways alluded to as the "Savior of By- 
zantium. " 

After many years the hordes under 
Mohammed II captured Conslautinople. 
At that time the crescent was used ev- 
erywhere and upon everything. Suspect- 
ing that there must be magical power 
iu the emblem the Mohammedans ap- 
propriated i;, and have since used it as 
their only symbolic decoration. — St. 
Louis Republic^ 

The first of the modern bank notes 
were made in China about the year 1000 
A, D. 



106 



THE AMKRKJAN BEE-KEEPER 
TTFKSHTITJ SCHOOL. 



April 



"Order! Order!" cried the teacher. 
But the naughty thing was done- 
Eddie rubbed out Tommie's lesson, 
And the fight had just begun. 

Little chubby hands were clinching 
Jackets torn and rumpled hair. 

They coii.ld never sit together, 
They were such a naughty pair. 

So the teacher straightway stood them 
In the corner, with high caps. 

And two little outstretched palms 
From her ruler got ten slaps. 

"Now, then, tell me all the trouble," 

Said the teacher at recess, 
But they both talked loud together, 

Each one anxious to confess. 

"Hush, now, children," said the teacher; 

"Let Eddie speak; one at a time." 
So Eddie answered, all defiance, 

"Tom said his n)a uz prettier 'n mine." 
—Ida Hammond Clark in Kansas City Star. 



A HOUSE TO LET. 



It was advertised iu tlio papers aftei 
this fashion : "A bijou resideace, suit- 
able for small family. Charmingly situ- 
ated on one of the loveliest reaches of 
the Thames. A house of unique design 
and exceptional sanitary arrangements. 
Sloping garden 1o river, boat, boat- 
house, stabling, fruit garden," etc. 

Yet despite the alluring character of 
this aimouncemeut, the bijou residence 
went through two seasons unlet, its 
notice boards leaning lower and lower 
as the seasons ^vent on over the stone 
boxed fringed garden walls with pa- 
thetic irresponsibility. 

At length, sinmltaueously one morn- 
ing iu late July, two people caught the 
glow of that announcement from oppo- 
site corners of England — the one a 
man, the other awomt.n — and they bent 
their faces iu its direction. 

A geographical — as well as a railway 
time book — dispensation decreed also 
that these two people should make their 
debut simultaneously at the little way- 
Bide station, situated some mile and a 
half from the bijou residence in ques- 
tion. After that, how much fate or des- 
tiny had to do with it, how much man, 
how much woman, remains problemat- 
ical. I defy two people of the opposite 
sexes to walk for a mile and a half 
along a boxed in country lane and not 
be oppressively conscious of each other. 



1 dety a man possessed of the slightest 
moiety of taste not to pick out the vari- 
ous beauties of that woman if she have 
them and briefly tabulate them on the 
retina of his appreciation as he walks. 
I defy h.cr, if she have a grain of that 
coquetry which is said to be innate in 
woman, not to display those beauties to 
the best advantage for his especial de- 
lectation. 

And what woman ever walks along a 
country I'oad rich in wild flowers with- 
out stuppiig every five minutes to pick 
samples of t Jem? 

Finally, the two drew up at the gar- 
den gr.te, if not simultaneously almost 
so, the man pushing the gate wide fof 
her and waiting, and they arrived fad 
to face under the trellised porch. 

Thev. unnuj had put a bunch of scarlet 
rowan berries in her hat, a correspond- 
ing bunch in her waistband. She held 
sufilcient wild grasses and flora in her 
arms to decorate a font at a harvest fes* 
tival. Her dark gypsy face had caught a 
glow from these berries; her dark eyeJ 
shone; she was not young, the man 
thought, but extremely attractive. 

The sound of advancing footsteps — 
footsteps presumably of the caretaker — 
roused him from his temporary aberra- 
tion. It occurred to him that speech was 
the only thing possible to save the situa- 
tion. He raised his hat, displaying a 
grizzled but putriciau head, and smiled. 

"Is the housG let then?" he asked. 

The woman showed a gleam of teeth 
under t ho rich undulating curve of her 
red lips. 

"That was just the question I was 
going to put to you, " she answered. 

"I<o," he said. "I have merely come 
from Dorchester to look at it." 

"And I have come from Cromer. " 

In the pause cf which announcement, 
a woman, in sunbounet and clogs, with 
that reticence which the caretaker ex- 
hibits when she does not want to let the 
house, slowly opened the door. She 
moved back, making room for them to 
enter, making at the same time a de- 
preciatory movement with her bare 
arms. "It's all very nice and convenient 
like," she said, indicating the tiny 
drawing room on the right, the tiny din- 
ing rocni on the left, the lilliputian 
kitchen in perspective, the narrow stair- 
v/ay intervening, "fur a bachelor, or a 
spinster, but not fur them es is married. 



181)G 



THE AM KinC AN BEE-KEEPER. 



107 



For t)ieiu es is married— an T flayer 
myeelf is I knows, being myself a mar- 
ried WdUKU) — this 'ere bijou residence 
ain't 'all, nor yet a quarter, large enough. 
A U'au may be es fond o' his wife es 
ever it is possible fur 'im to be, a wo- 
man may bo cs fond of 'er 'usbsnd es 
'er ever ken be, but they don't want to 
bo knocking up agin each other all the 
livelong day. " 

Hero the ficiure in the rowan berries 
stni!n:arily disappeared into the tiny 
dra',viiig room. The tall patrician man, 
pretcruaturaiiy embarras.scd, strode into 
the ti'jy dining room, and the garrulous 
caici'al'or was left to fmi.sh her speech 
yi enipty benches. Slie imagined herself 
to be a woman of singular penetration, 
howfTor. It was her boast that she 
oovrj-i grr.sp a situation at a glance and 
takfi ii nil ill. Therefore she was by no 
uawtj^s'di:- concerted till a flutter of skirt.s 
emo'e- hfr e;\r and Iho woman wiih the 
rowiin !)crrJrs reappeared, the juau hav- 
liig k>-iio up stairs, saying in a v.t isper, 
Vith iiijlsiiaticn titfC^nMo in every 

"Ti.r.t i^entlemau is a perfect stranger 
to nje. I Iv.ive never seen h;ni before 
today ;d niy life. We cluuice5 to arrive 
at '::e sta' ion together and to v.">»lk ".ip 
to iLe ho'^eo together. And cc./ you 
oau go. There is no cccci&icu fcr ycu to 
follow me «>ver the ho'ise. I prGur to 
lock at ir sili.ue. By the hjv,'' ehe rdu- 
«d. "I hiuMjld advise the ov,-iior.= 1 1" it to 
prit ;t in other hands. You eviucntly 
don't want to ler it I" 

It doe.s not take long to look o^-sr a 
eix rc;.;-ied fotta,;;;e. In ten in In ales the 
ir:i»!i was cut on the .slope cl' {jarden in 
the rear looking illy ahead of hira 
across the t'iach. Co had seen in a flash 
through the stairc..^!-; window the rowan 
berries going up staii.-;. Ho caught in a 
flash now ihe rowr.n berries coming 
down. 

"Will she go stra'pht out by the hall 
door," he asked himself, "or come into 
the gardtij?" 

A rustle of the silk skirts coming 
down the path toward him, a glimpse 
of a couifly figuie silhouetted momen- 
tarily against the pendent ivy, was the 
agreeable answer to this query. 

"As we have both come very long 
distances and indisputably upon the same 
quest," she began, "it is but fair, in- 
deed the right and civil thing to do, I 



tuink, to ask you if you have come to 
any decision about the house? I be- 
lieve" — here her eyebrows went up, and 
she showed a gleam of teeth — "in all 
business matters man takes precedence. " 

"But, in matters of sentiment," he 
interrupted her, "woman." 

"Sentiment?" she said. "Do yon 
think, then, that even in her business 
transactions a woman is necessarily sen- 
timental?" 

"I certainly do," he answered. 

She moved on down nearer the flagged 
edge of the reach and stood looking 
away across it to the green meadows op- 
posite, each detail of her charming per- 
son duplicated in the water with dis- 
tracting accuracy. 

"Ah, if you knew me better," she 
said, "yon would find that I am a most 
prosaic creature. I threw aside senti- 
ment ten years ago, when I threw aside 
my youth. My head at this moment, if 
you could only see the workings of it, 
is full of the prosiest speculations as to 
the drainage of the cottage, the exact 
character of the soil on which it stands, 
for I have a strong suspicion it is built 
upon clay. I am propounding, too, 
whether I like the kitchen range. The 
scullery strikes me as having been 
thought of afterward, and about the 
bathroom fittings I am just wondering. 
It seems to me they are inadequate, as 
compared with the flowery suggestion 
of sanitary perfection conveyed in The 
Daily Telegraph ; and, well, the draw- 
ing and dining rooms are certainly rath- 
er circum.sc bed, aren't they?" 

"Yet, at me same time, you are agree- 
ably pleased on the whole?" he suggest- 
ed. 

"On the principle that nothing, even 
in six roomed cottages on the banks of 
the Thames, can entirely reach the full- 
ness cf our expectations — yes. " 

He smiled and spread his hands. 

"In that respect the best of us are but 
as little children ever searching after 
what is absolutely impossible in this 
world — perfection," he answered. 

"Yes, why is it? We should not like 
it if we could get it either. Yet we 
search, search, search, and waste our 
whole lives. " 

She turned her arch glance toward him 
and waited. 

"It is our disease. Perhaps it is put 
there purposelv that we should not 



108 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 



April 



grow too fond of li^iog. Besides — and 
here comes the irony of it — if every- 
thing were perfection we shouldn't 
know it. " 

"No, we should want counteracting 
foils, like milestones, to show us it is 
perfection." Her eyes traveled up the 
green slope toward the house, and she 
added, reverting to it: "But you, you 
also, like this by no means faultless bi- 
jou residence. Yes, I can see by your 
face. Your face assures me that you 
hava seen something today that pleases 
you." 

He dropped his hazel eyes upon her 
and leaned on his cane. 

"Yes," he said slowly. "I have cer- 
tainly seen something that pleases ml 
today. But," he added quickly, "I an( 
•willing to waive priority if 1 have it, 
which I doubt, in your favor and back 
out of all competition with regard to 
the bijou residence. After all, what 
does it signity? I am a bachelor; any- 
thing will do for me. " 

"And lam a spinster," she said with 
a smile. "Why should not anything do 
for me?" 

"For all their never 'avin met till 
this 'ere morning, they seem to be 
mighty friendly," observed the care- 
taker watching their departure down 
the shady road together later. "It 
seems to me to be more a question of 
taking each other than taking the house. 
They ain't said nothing about the house 
one way or t'other, but they 'ave said 
a good deal about each other judging by 
their eyes. " 

The woman picked more wild flowers 
as she went back, the man assisting her. 
Midway down the dusty lane they rested 
on a fallen oak, the victim of a recent 
cyclone, and told each other their biog- 
raphies. At the inn, close to the rail- 
way, they lunched together in the inn 
parlor, criticising the proprietor's ideas 
of art afterward, a task of elastic qual- 
ity according to the degree of opportu- 
nity for lingering desired. And she — she 
never looked prettier, even in her palm- 
iest days. 

Have you ever traced the genesis of an 
acquaintance? It may be quite as capa- 
ble of wide advances and undreamed 
conclusions as the genesis of speech. 
Vou may begin in the tropic of Cancer 
and end in yiberia ; or you may begin in 
Siberia and end in the tropic of Canctu 



it's all a matter of chance. But this 
man and this woman began and ended 
in the tropic of Cancer, and so there was 
a marriage in the paper, but the bijon 
residence is still unlet. — George Wemyss 
in Sketch. 



He Made Books. 

Miss Eosebud (at her first race) — And 
who did you say that gentleman in the 
checked suit was? 

Mr. Straighttip — Oh, that is S — , the 
bookmaker. 

Miss Rosebud (enthusiastically) — Do 
bring him up and introduce him. You 
know I dote upon authors. — Exchange. 



Easily. 

Cumso — What would you take to 
stand all night on bronze Penn's hat on 
the top of the city hall? 

Bumso — A bad cold. — Philadelnhia 

Call. 



Henry Clay. 

A Lexington merchant, in conversa- 
tion with the editor of The Gazette a 
few days ago, related this interesting 
reminiscence of Henry Clay: "I remem- 
ber when a youth and an enthusiastic 
Clay Whig of coming here during the 
canvass of 1844 from my home in Har- 
rodsburg, with the Clay club of Mercer 
county, on whose banner was the mot- 
to, 'We Are Few, but True, ' to unite in 
the celebration held that year in Lex- 
ington. The barbecue was given at the 
race track. There a number of distin- 
guished orators addressed the multitude 
— among them Tom Corwin, Judge E\v- 
Ing, probably James C. Jones of Ten- 
nessee. But after this half century, 
that which I now remember most dis- 
tinctly and what most impressed me 
v.'as this — that Mr. Clay did not go out 
to the grounds. He considered it be- 
neath the dii;uity of a presidential can- 
didate to electioneer. How well I re- 
member seeing him, as the procession 
in which I walked passed his oflSce 
(thou with his son, James B. Clay, on 
Sliort street, near the engine house), 
standing in the doorway with his head 
uncovered, and with the rare grace 
which few men possessed, bowing to the 
passing multitude that was wild with 
huzzas, banners and music." — Lexing- 
ton Gazette. 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN DKK-KKKPER. 



109 



••WHEN ELI'S HAD 'HIS DINNER." 

On loni,', hot Sinulay aftornoons, 

Wlii'ij we've K<'t lionio from meetin. 
An Eli's cliiinf^^'d his pantaloons, 

He's awlul set on catin. 
He's iliar out latii'oiiseross 'twould shame 

An uni'onverti^l sinner. 
I havtr to stand a heap of blams 

Till i-AVa got his dinner. 

An so I'm never very slow 

To K -t the kettU' l.ilin; 
I call it <iuty, for I know 

His temper is a spilin, 
I warm the taters an the meat 

^n don't let nothin hinder, 
An then I let the feller eat. 

An Eli gets his dinner. 

Now, Eli's not a greedy man. 

But .somehow, eome a Sunday, 
He'll I'at a bigger dinner than 

He'd think of on a Monday. 
An when he's done ho tips his chair 

Baek 'gainst the kitcnen winder. 
An soon you'll hear a snorin there 

When Eli's got his dinner. 

But when he's dozed a little while. 

Half wakin an half sleepin. 
He'll wake up in a better style 

For Sunday an a deakin. 
He'll talk so pious an so kind, 

'Twould touch u hardened sinner; 
A better man you'd never find 

Than Eli after dinner. 

—Chicago Inter Ocean. 



BIG TOM, CONVICT. 



There were those who said that con- 
vict 1280 was ianoceut of the crime 
■which sent him to prison for such a long 
term of years, but that there was scarce 
a hope of his ever being a free man 
again. They meant that he was tech- 
nically guilty. He had sought to save a 
•woman from a beating at the hands of 
her husband, and in the struggle and 
excitement he had struck a blow which 
caused the death of the man. It was 
accident, iu a sense, but it was also 
manslaughter. No man who is a man 
will stand by and see a woman beaten, 
and yet if he interferes he must take 
his chances with the law. Big Tom, as 
the convict was sometimes referred to, 
was, like most big men, a child in his 
gentleness and goodnature. He did not 
complain, but he gru^ved. He thought 
of the years and years which must drag 
away before the prison doors would open 
to him, and he moved about like a 
•weak, old man. The prison officials felt 



pity for tuo inuu, Lui a couvict is a con- 
vict, and all must be treated alike — all 
who show obedience to the rules. They 
sized him up as childlike and good na- 
tured, and yet they said to each other as 
they talked of bim : 

"Look out for Big Tom! He will 
break loose some day and do some des 
perate thing!" 

They thought it would come during 
the tirst six mouths of his term — then 
during the second — then they almost 
became afraid of him. Men who are 
slow to anger — who go on grieving, 
brooding and bearing a mental burden 
for weeks and mouths are devils when 
the climax comes. 

Big Tom had the management of the 
trip hammer in the machine shop. Had 
they put him in the shoe shop or tailor 
shop he would have rebelled at once. 
His place was beside the biggest pieca 
of machinery in the shops, two pieces 
of machinery, as it were — Tom and 
Trip. Day by day and week by week 
and month by month, as the ponderous 
hammer rose and fell and its blows 
shook the very earth for yards around, 
making the convict smile and look 
proud, the guards had an eye on him 
and kept saying to each other: 

"It will come. It is only delayed. 
When he breaks loose, he will kill some 
one and have to be killed in turn." 

Nearly half of the second year had 
passed, and the giant convict had never 
even sulked, when one day there came 
into the sliop as sightseers a husband, 
wife and little girl 4 or 5 years old. 
Children are seldom seen in prisons, 
and it is a rare thing that they are 
taken into the shops in the yards. If 
any one in that prison knew that 
convict 1280 had a daughter — a fair 
haired, handsome child, who could only 
walk alone when the jury pronounced 
his verdict of "guilty" — he had for- 
gotten the fact. His wife had visited 
him as often as visitors were allowed, 
but the child had never been seen with- 
in the grim walls. Knowing that her 
husband had killed a man by accident, 
the wife could bear to see him wearing 
the horrible stripes of a convict, but to 
let the child look upon him, to gaze in 
wonder at the iron bars, to ask why all 
those men were there, a thousand times 
no I And so this was the first child Big 
Tom had seen since the heavy doors shut 



110 



THE AMERICAN BKE-KEEPER. 



April 



him in. Fcr er, moiher aud obild came 
close to hiiu ii'id gazed at the pouderuus 
hamrcer wj.n vouderiiig eyes. You 
would have i.-gued th, t the sight of the 
child would have softeued the cuuvict'.s 
heart aud brought tears to his eye^, bu^j 
it did not. Ir brought a feeling of ujad- 
ness, of desperation, of *reuzy. To save 
a wonjan froui a brutal beating at tljo 
bands of a drunken, \vorthle.-s thing nur 
fit to be classed with men he had struck 
a blow. 

A jury had called it murder iu the 
second degree, and he \vas here in pris 
on on a sentence almo.st never eudnr^. 
Be had been wronged, and the kuowi 
edge of it fired his heart aud broug.ic 
the long expected outbreak. "With a sud 
deu cry which startled every one in the 
noisy shop Big Tom made a spring for- 
ward, seized the child in his arms, aud 
there was a shout of defiance on his lips 
as he held her at arm's length a; I 
glared about him. The mother of \\vd 
child gasped for breath and staggered 
back to the wall aud sank down. Th3 
father stood staring, as if struck dumb, 
but presently held out his bauds iu si- 
lent supplication. Big Tom gjowerod 
Hud muttered iu reply. He was a con- 
vict, a childless father. He was dead 
to his child — she was dead to him. He 
could not make another father's heart 
ache and throb aud grieve as his did, 
but he would secure revenge. 

After mutteriug he was silent. No 
one cried out. Guards and convicts were 
seemingly stupefied. There was the hum 
of machinery, but not of voices. Con- 
victs turued from forge and anvil and 
bench aud lathe and held their brearb. 
The two shop guards leaned forward i;i 

their chairs and looked and looked, but 
they did not move or cry out. 

"What will he do with the child?" 
The two men work;ug at the trip 
hammer with Big Tom had falleu back. 
He had control of the mach neiy which 
worked it. The answer to t'le question 
could be read iu his eyes. Men bad 
wronged him under cover of the law. 
He had beeu deprived of liberty, de- 
graded and disgraced. Death were more 
merciful than such a sentence as his, 
and in dying he would secure reveuc:;e 
A piece of irou had been left uuder The 
hammer. There was heard the sound of 
crash ! crash! crash 1 as the mass of iron 



rose and fell at regular intervals — that 
Bounded above the monotonous hum of 
the machinery. 

"He will thrust her under the ham- 
tnerl" 

So thought each guard and each con- 
vict — so thought the father, whose feet 
seemed chained to the floor and whose 
face was whiter than the dead. One of 
the guards could have touched a button 
and signaled the engineer to shut off 
steam, but he did not move a hand. 
Either guard had a fair mark to shoot 
at, but their pistols were not lifted. Up 
and down — up and down went the ham- 
mer, but suddenly the belt was thrown 
over on the loose pulley and the mass 
rested on the anvil. It seemed to those 
who looked as if they had been looking 
through a mist — such a mist as rises 
from earth of a summer morning. It 
seemed to them that this mist thinned 
out — cleared away before the influence 
of a rising sun, and by and by they saw 
the child nestling on Big Tom's hairy 
breast, one baud smoothing his cheek, 
and seeming to come from a long dis- 
tance off they heard her childish voice 
saying : 

"No, you wouldn't hurt Nellie — you 
wouldn't hurt Nellie! What makes you 
cry? Have you got a little girl too? 
Won't they let you go home to see your 
little girl?" 

And the couvicts advanced step by 
step, and the guards crept forward, and 
lol Big Tom's tears were falling as he 
bugged the child more tightly and kiss- 
ed her fair hair and rosy cheek. There 
■was silence yet — silence as he walked 
to and fro aud wept and sobbed and 
lifted the child till she could clasp her 
tiny arms about his neck and rest her 
cheek agaiust his. Not a whisper among 
the convicts — not a move from father or 
mother or the guards. By and by Big 
Tom placed the child in its father's 
arms, wiped the tears from his eyes on 
the sleeve of his striped jacket, aud 
with a "God bless the little darling!" 
and a "Thank ye, sir!" he returned to 
his work, aud the hammer was lifted 
and held in waiting for the hot iron to 
be placed on the anvil beneath. 

The guards motioned for the other 
convicts to go back to their benches and 
forges, and a minute later the visitors 
bad gone and work was in full blast. 
The long expected outbraak l"*^ oama 



18'J6. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Ill 



and goue. Fur ^0 seconds Big Tom had 
felt t-uuh a raging bate in his soul that 
he was trauf^formed into a human devil. 
The child had smilod into his burning 
eyes — her soft touch had lulled him — 
her words had brought back his reason. 
Was he punished? No! A year later he 
was pardoned, and today another fair 
haired, blue eyed, smiling child puts 
her arms about his neck and says : 

"You are such a great, big papa, but 
you wouldn't never hurt nobody, would 
you?" — Detroit Free Press. 



A Gentlemanly Profession. 

A city man was lately asked to recom- 
mend a nice, gentlemanly profession in 
which a quick fortune could be made 
without risk. He replied that he knew 
of only two such professions, and they 
were both rather hard to get into. They 
were the professions of Kaffir million- 
aire and American railroad reorganizer. 
The Kaffir millionaire is not entirely 
unknown to our readers, but perhaps 
they are not so well acquainted with the 
railroad reorganizer. His native habitat 
is New York, and he is only to be seen 
in London as a bird of passage. He may 
honor us with his company for a few 
days when on his way to the Riviera or 
the upper Nile, bvit he would be making 
himself too cheap if he were to recog- 
nize such a thing as bu-^iness when he 
"had only run over for a short holiday. " 
His work here is done vicariously 
through sympathetic agents or public 
spirited committees. He has also com- 
mittees in New York, and nowadays he 
finds it necessary to have syndicates and 
underwriters as well. 

A playful professional fiction assumes 
that these committees have been elected 
by the reorganized bond and stock hold- 
ers to protect their interests. Another 
pleasant illusion gives the syndicates 
and the underwriters credit for stepping 
into the deadly breach to save the reor- 
ganization scheme from imminent peril. 
And they have to be paid accordingly, 
or, in professional phraseology, "com- 
|)ensated. " — Saturday Review. 



leiesi, looking upou that scene, so graph- 
ically illustrated, of Gireely and his lit- 
tle band of surviving explorers strug- 
gling with death and worse. At the 
same time we were listening with sad- 
ness to the eloquent recital which was 
given to groups of visitors every few 
moments by the attendant, when sud- 
denly, durin;4 a pause in the proceed- 
ings, an old granger — that was his ap- 
Jiearanco — broke out feelingly, 'I alius 
bought it was a shame that Qreely 
wa'n't elected president and said so to 
the Grant ciowd to hum at the time.' " 
•-Washington Post. 

A Racial Difference. 

There can be no question that Tery 
many of tlie differences, mental and 
bodily, that exist between the aver- 
age Frenchman and the average Eng- 
lishman are caused by the distinct 
methods of education that prevail on 
the different sides of the, channel. You 
would not like your son's only school- 
ing to be obtained in France. On the 
other baud, you have a pretty distinct 
belief that if French boys were sent 
over here young enough and put to good 
English schools, they would grow up 
into a very fair sort of Britons. A typ- 
ical story of the ways of French school- 
boys, with their ushers, is reported in 
recent morning papers. Some spirits 
had been smuggled into one of the 
dormitories — a thing, we fear, not al- 
together unknown in some English 
establishments. It is even conceivable 
that the English master who discovered 
the bottle would have confiscated it to 
his own use, but this would not have 
been at the invitation of his pupils. 
But the French pion in question was 
contented to make one of the party, and 
as he was not so used to rum as his pu- 
pils, he got so terribly drunk that he 
died. Happily for the French boys, 
their compuls(jry military service gives 
them an opportunity, later on for learn- 
ing a little discipline. — Pall Mall Ga- 
zette. 



Greely and Greeley. 

"Do you know," said Representative 
Aldrich of Chicago, "meeting. General 
Greely recently reminds me of a day at 
the World's fair, when we all stood 
with open mouth wonderment and in- 



What a vast deal of time and case 
that m^n gains ■who is not troiib'yd 
with the spirit of impertinent curi- 
osity about others. — Anon. 



112 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



April 



The General of the Army, the General 
commanding the U. 8. ('orps of Engineers, 
Vice Pres. Webb cf the New York Central, 
and John Jacob Aster, compose the Cosmo- 
politan Magazine's l^oard of Judges to de- 
cide the merits of the Horseless < arriage 
which will be entered in the May trials, for 
which the CosmopdJitan offers I^OOO in priz- 
es. This committee ig undoubtedly the most 
distinguished that has ever consented to act 
upon the occasion of a trial of a new and 
useful invention. The interest whicli these 
gentlemen have shown in accepting places 
upon the committee is indicative of the im- 
portance of the subject, and that the contest 
itself will be watched with marked interest 
on both sides of the Atlantic. 

F Large Illustrated 
REE CATALOG, 

Containing cuts and descriptions of 
Everything Needed by Bee-Keeper8 

Also instructions in Wintering, Treatment of Foul 
Brood. Production of I'omb and Extracted Honey, 
etc. Wax made up or bought. 

HUNT'S FOUNDATIOV FACTORY, 
2-3 Bell Branch, Mich. 

JOHN F. STRATTOg^'S 

CELEBRATED 

GUITARS, 




Importer of and 

\v hoiesale Dealer in all kinds of 

MUSICAL MERCHANDISE, 

811 , 813, 815, 817 East 9th St. , New York. 



Honey and Beeswax Market Report. 

Below we give the laiest and most authen- 
tic report of ilie Honey and Heeswax market 
ia different trade centers : 

Cincinnati. 0.. Mch, 19. 189(5.— The demand for 
honey is fair Supply good. Price of be.-t white 
comb 12 to 14c per lb. Uood demand for beeswax, 
i^upply fiiir. Prices 2.5 to :^0c per lb, for good to 
choice yellow. Chas. F. Muth <fe Son, 

Cor. Freeman and Central Aves. 

Kansas City, Mo.. -Mch. 19, lS9ii.— The demand 
for honey is good. Supply equal to the demand. 
Price of 1 lb. comb 11 to l-lc per lb. Extracted 43^ 
to &/-ia I'Cr pound. No beeswax on the market. 
Hamblin k Bearss, 514 Walnut St, 

Dktroit, Mich.. Mch. 19. 1896.— The demand for 
honey is slow. Moderate supply of good honey. 
Price of comb 12 to 13c per lb. Extracted 6 to 7c 
per lb. (lood demand for beeswax. Fair supply. 
Prices 2ti to 28c per lb. There is considerable 
poor comb hon-y in commissio'i houses, some so 
unsightly as to be almostunsaUible, 

!VI. H. Hunt, Bell Branch. Mich. 

Albany. N. Y., Mch. 18. 1896.— The demand for 
buckwheat honey is very good, but there is no 
clover on our market. Price of" comb honey 8 to 
10c per lb. Plenty of extracted but selling slow at 
4 to tic per lb. Good demand for beeswax. Light 
supply. I'rices 28 to30c per lb. Every lady reader 
of the Amkrican Bek-Kkkper should senda2cent 
stamp for our Scripture Honey C;ike Receipt. 

Chas. W. McCullough & Co, 

Boston. Mass., Mch. 20. 1896.— Good demand for 
honey. Fair supply. I'rice of comb 14 to 1.5c per 
lb. 1- xtracted 5 to Scpclb. Fiincy comb in car- 
tons wanted. K. E. Blake & Co., "5 Chatham St. 

THE STKATTOIV 

Band Iivstruments 

Wilicloct our NEXT PKESIDENT. 

Now is the time to form new Bands for Campaign pur- 
poses. We are offering special inducements for 1892. 
St-iirt at muf for lllii.^tnlt^',! rii{:llO)-ue, 

JOHN F. STRATTON, 

MANUTACTURERS. „ 

NEW rOKS. 




MANY lyrsziTir idesas 

and the good old ones- 
in the building of the 



combined 



ECLIPSE 
BICYCLE 




Serve to produce a Wheel Light, Strong, Saje, Durable and Fast, as 

good as the best ; and better than a great many good ones. 

THEY STAND THE TEST. 

Our art catalogue explains it all in words and pictures. Sent Free. 

ECLIPSE BICYCLE CO., Ei^mira, N. Y. 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE W T FALCONER MANFG CO 



VOL. VI. 



Mf\Y, 1896. 



NO. 5. 



A Flower Garden for Bees. 

BY BKSSIK I.. rUTNAM. 

The old custom of niakiug becsaud 
poultry "pick thoir own living" is 
now regarded as unprofitable ; and 
pasturage for l)ees is one of the ques- 
tions of major importance to the pro- 
gressive apiarist. While there are 
several standard plants upon which to 
depend for the main supply, the mul- 
titude of those which yield a smaller 
quantity, — in many instances smaller 
because of the limited number of in- 
dividual plants, — is not fully appre- 
ciated, the value of these auxiliaries 
underestimated, and a source which 
might easily be rendered of no mean 
importance permitted to remain unde- 
veloped. 

Flowers are now regarded as a nec- 
essary adjunct of the farmhouse, — a 
sort of index regarding the degree of 
refinement of its occupants. And 
why not, in making selections during 
the coming season, include a liberal 
supply of such as the bees can enjoy ? 
The returns will really be three-fold. 
You will have the pleasure afforded 
by the flowers themselves, the enjoy- 
ment of seeing the busy little insects 
at work, and finally the fruits of their 
harvest. 



One of the most beautiful and in- 
teresting annuals which the writer has 
recently grown is Cassia Chaiiuecriste, 
the Partridge Sensitive Pea, a native 
of sandy fields southward, and one of 
the indigenous plants now included in 
the catalogues of a few of the leading 
seedsmen. This plant was selected 
for ornament alone, but the crowd of 
bees which thronged about it so long 
as a blossom remained soon gave suffi- 
cient evidence regarding its utility. 
The foilage is pinnate, resembling 
that of the acacia or sensitive plant. 
While not sensitive to the touch like 
the latter, the leaflets close together at 
the close of day to re-open w'ith the ris- 
ing of the sun. Pressed specimens can 
only be secured in good shape by tak- 
ing the portfolio to the garden, for the 
leaflets close as firmly shortly after 
being plucked as though taking their 
nocturnal rest. The flowers are more 
than an inch in diameter and of a 
bright yellow, the two upper petals 
being handsomely marked at the base 
with purple. 

A distant relative of the cassia and 
a plant whose pea-shaped flowers at 
once proclaim it as one of the legumes 
has the three-fold virtue of being a 
dainty contribution to the flower vase, 



114 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May 



furnishing a wholesome and palitable 
material for soups, and attracting 
winged visitors by its nectar. The 
foihige of the lentil somewhat resem- 
bles that of the vetch, as do also the 
pale blue flowers. The pods contain 
small lens-shaped seeds, in fact the 
name of the lens originated from the 
Latin word for lentil, and was given 
on account of the close similarity in 
form to that of the seed of this plant. 
The seeds are a staple article of food 
in some parts of the Old World, and 
more than one family of emigrants 
has been homesick for the " linsen " of 
the Fatherland, seed of which they 
neglected to bring with them across 
the sea. The seeds are gathered and 
threshed when ripe in a manner simi- 
lar to beans ; they may be cooked in 
any way liked for beans or peas, while 
their smaller size renders them savory 
in much less time than that required 
for cooking our standard garden 
legumes. 

The cleome, or spider flower, is cu- 
rious and interesting, and its long 
spikes of white or pink form a fine 
background for plants of lower growth. 
The stamens are much longer than the 
clawed petals, and render the name 
spider plant a most appropriate one. 
Seeds are formed in long pods some- 
what similar to those common in the 
mustard family, and after the first 
flowers become transformed into ripen- 
ing fruit at the base of the raceme, the 
terminal buds still continue to form ; 
thus a single spike will produce flow- 
ers for several consecutive weeks. Of 
this plant Prof. Cook says in his Bee- 
Keepers' Guide : " This plant thrives 
best in rich, damp, clay soil. It is 
only open for a little time before 
night-fall and at early dawn, but when 



open its huge drops of nectar keep the 
bees wild with excitement, calling 
them up even before daylight, and 
enticing them to the field long after 
dusk. This cultivated species, C/eome 
pungens, is a native of South A.merica. 
A less showy species, though one per- 
haps even more valuable, is C. integ- 
rifolia, the Rocky Mountain bee plant, 
indigeous from Minnesota to Kansas, 
and frequently cultivated in gardens 
for its nectar. 

Southern apiarists reap a rich har- 
vest from the cotton blossoms. While 
we cannot afford to grow it in quanti- 
ties here for the honey alone, a few 
plants in the garden will furnish in 
their large creamy or pinkish flowers 
and curious bolls, even though the 
latter fail to mature, a profitable sub- 
ject of study for the children, and 
one that will delight the bees. 

Then there are candytuft, sweet 
alyssum, mignonette, and many other 
plants almost indispensable to the 
flower lover, and while in small quan- 
tity not to be regarded as a material 
source of the honey crop, yet close at 
hand and alluring to the bees when 
not actively engaged on some of the 
staple plants. They may be reckoned 
akin to the knitting work with which 
the industrious housewife of olden 
times made use of the odd moments 
which would otherwise have been lost. 

Let those inclined to make light of 
the small part which a flower bed 
would furnish to a colony of bees, re- 
pair to the crocus bed on the first 
sunny days. The blossoms are liter- 
ally alive with the busy insects, which 
evidently want to make up for their 
long imprisonment, at least they never 
seemed more hard at work, and a first 
glance at them among the blossoms ia 



1896. 



TJIE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



115 



sufRcieut to show that the latter fur- 
nish an abundance of pollen, to say 
the least. These bulbs can now be 
obtained for a triile, and as they die to 
the ground after blooming, the space 
can later on be filled with annuals, 
while their bright faces, sparkling 
with the drops of the melting snows, 
are ever welcome harbingers of spring. 



Transferring, 

BY G. M. DOOLITTLK. 

A correspondent writes, that he 
wishes I would tell him, through the 
columns of the American Bee-Keeper, 
how to transfer bees from box hives 
to movable frame hives, as he has 
purchased some bees in box hives 
which he wishes to transfer in the 
spring. The first requisite is to make 
some holes at the proper distance 
through the center of the sides, top 
and bottom bars of the frames, con- 
tained in the movable frame hives. 
These holes should be made with an 
awl or fine bit of the right size to take 
wire nails one and one-half inches in 
length. I make about three holes 
through each part of the frame, or 
twelve holes to each frame. Our 
correspondent says he wishes to trans- 
fer his bees in the spring. Bees can 
be transferred by a skillful hand at 
any time of the year, but for the un- 
skilled there are only two really fav- 
orable times for transferring. The 
first is during fruit or apple bloom, 
and the second is twenty-one days af- 
ter the first or prime swarm issues. If 
done in fruit bloom, comparitively 
little brood and honey is in the way, 
while honey is coming in to prevent 
robbing, as well as to enable bees to 
rapidly repair their combs. If done 
twenty-one days after swarming, there 



will be no brood in the hives except a 
little drone brood, so there will be no 
loss from cutting through it, as all the 
eggs laid by the old queen will now 
be hatched, while the young queen 
will only just be laying. Besides hav- 
ing the frame and nails ready, aboard 
about two feet square will he neces- 
sary, and a barrel or box of conveni- 
ent height for the operator, to place 
the board upon. On one side of the 
board should be tacked two or three 
thicknesses of cloth, stretched out 
straight and tight, so that the brood 
and combs will not be injured by 
placing them upon it, if you are not 
always careful in handling. Having 
these things in readiness, together 
with a long bladed knife, proceed to 
the hive and blow a few pufEs of smoke 
in at the entrance to alarm the bees, 
when the box hive is to be turned 
bottom side up and the frame hive 
placed on the stand the box hive oc- 
cupied. Blow a little more smoke 
over the exposed bottoms of the combs, 
and place the cap to the hive, or any 
suitable box, over the bottom of the 
hive, a little to one side, for the bees 
ta craw'l into. It is often said that 
the box must fit so tightly that no bee 
can get out, and after having such a 
fit made, the bees must be drummed 
up into it by pounding upon the sides 
of the hive with small sticks; but I 
find that the tight joint is unnecessary 
and that all the drumming required is 
done by splitting the old hive apart, 
preparatory to cutting the combs out. 
Select the side of the hive to which 
the combs run parallel, if possible, and 
proceed to pry off the side of the hive, 
using a cold chisel to cut the nails if 
necessary. If there are cross sticks 
through the center of the hive, these 



116 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May 



must be cut off with a saw, or other- 
wise, so they can be twisted and work- 
ed out of the combs as soon as the first 
comb is out so you can get hold of 
them. By this time the bees will all 
be off the combs next to you, when 
the first one is to be cut out of the 
hive and laid on the prepared board. 
Now lay a frame on the comb, and 
mark the comb by the inside of the 
frame. Take off the frame and cut 
out the comb a hair larger than the 
marks, so that it will fit closely. 
Next press the frame over the comb 
until it is as nicely in place as if the 
comb had originally been built there, 
when the nails are to be pushed into 
the comb through the holes made for 
them, thus securing the comb in the 
frame as you have it fixed, when it is 
to be hung in the hive. To take the 
frame from the board, raise board and 
all until the frame stands in the posi- 
tion it will when hanging in the hive, 
when there will be no danger of the 
comii falling out, in lifting it. If you 
attempt to lift it otherwise, the honey 
which has run out will cause it to 
stick to the board, and this, together 
with the weight of the comb, will be 
quite liable to cause it to leave the 
frame in spite of your nails. Place 
the comb in the hive, when the bees 
which have returned from the field 
will take possession of it, licking up 
drip, etc. Proceed to cut out the rest 
of the combs and fit them in the 
frames in the same way until all are 
used, and set in the new hive, always 
placing them in the new hive in the 
same relative position as near as pos- 
sible which they occupied before, 
otherwise much brood might be lost, 
should the weather become cold soon 
after transferring. If drone comb to 



any amount is found, this should be 
left out, for by so doing you will save 
the raising of a host of useless consum- 
ers. If many pieces of nice worker 
comb are made, by the combs not cut- 
ting to advantage, they can be fitted 
into the frames and fine wire wound 
around to hold them in place. If af- 
ter you have used all the good comb 
you still do not have enough to fill all 
the frames, it is well to fill the other 
frames with comb foundation , as the 
bees will be likely to fill these frames 
with drone comb, if they are allowed 
to build comb in empty frames under 
these conditions. As soon as the 
combs are all in , and the inside work 
completed, close the hive, and hive 
the bees which are in the box into it 
the same as any hive would be swarm- 
ed. Now wait two or three days until 
the bees get the combs all repaired 
and fastened to the frames as they 
wish them, when you will open the 
hive and remove the wire nails, wire, 
or whatever you use to hold the combs 
in the frames, when you have your 
colony in your new hive in just as 
nice shape as if they had originally 
been hived in it. If a scarcity of 
honey exists at the time of transfer- 
ring, so that robbing is liable to oc- 
cur, you should wait until near sun- 
set to do this work, or have a screen 
tent to set over you and the hive dur- 
ing the operation. 

Borodino, N. Y. 

We will send the American Bee- 
Keeper one year with the Cosmopol- 
itan for $1.25. The Cosmopolitan is 
a monthly magazine containing an 
average of over 100 pages and 80 il- 
lustrations each month. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



ir 



Successful Beekeeping. 

BY .INO. F. GATES. 

This article will be devoted as nearly 
as possible to the method of handling 
or working bees in box hives through 
the four seasons of the year. But 
first I will say that I would not advise 
any one to abandon any plan of their 
own which has proven to be success- 
ful, but they could try my plan in ad- 
dition to their own and see which is 
best. I am talking more especially 
to those who are in hard luck aud 
have failed in all their plans. 

Now we will commence in the 
spring, and supposing yo i have a few 
colonies left aud believe my plan to 
be best, and you wish to adopt it. 
Perhaps your idea at first will be to 
rush your bees all into box hives, but 
•don't do it that way. You must go 
slower. There is very much in this 
world that is done entirely too quick- 
ly and hastily. Don't always do a 
thing the first time you think of it, 
but think of it a number of times be- 
fore you do it, and if it suits you then 
do a little of it. 

You could make a few box hives 12 
or 13 inches square by 24 inches high, 
or any size within an inch or two of 
those figures just as your lumber hap- 
pens to come, for there is nothing 
particular about a few inches in the 
5ize of hives for breeding as no cases 
are used on them. Nail the top on, 
and bore a couple of half inch holes 
in the top, which if dug open every 
fall will give ventilation enough per- 
haps. Put in old fashioned cross 
sticks about one inch square mid-way 
in the hive, and nail them in. Leave 
the front board g of an inch shorter 
than the sides and back for an en- 
trance clear across the hive. Lay 



some blocks over the holes in the top 
of the hive, and make a loose box 
about 6 or 8 inches high that will 
cover the top of the hive, and place it 
on it and your hive is done. 

You see there is no frame, no comb 
guides, nothing in the hive but two 
cross sticks, aud right there is where 
success is commenced, for the bees are 
not compelled to follow out any unnat- 
ural method as they are obliged to do 
when on frames and starters ; but they 
are at liberty to build their combs in 
their own natural way, and will richly 
repay you for giving them the privi- 
lege. Now 1 would put the first 
swarms in these box hives, and as 
each one is hived move the old colony 
to a new stand as far away from where 
it stood as convenient, and place the 
box hive where the old one stood. 

Now, here is where you will begin 
to squeal, as some perhaps will, for 
they at once see that this plan has put 
an end to surplus honey for that sea- 
son. Well, most certainly it has; but 
can't you see that a little present gain 
given over to its just owners will bring 
large profits in the future? "As ye 
sow, so shall ye reap." "Cast thy 
bread upon the waters, and after many 
days it shall return." "Such meas- 
ure as ye give to others shall be meas- 
ured to you again." 

My plan is a little slow, but sure. 
If you growl about one year given to 
set you right so you can go ahead and 
keep ahead, why don't you growl about 
the many years that you have lost 
without any profit or practical results 
for good at all ? Why don't you growl 
because you can't pick ten bushels of 
apples off of each of your trees which 
are a year old? Oh, yes ! I see ; if 
you could you would and you would 



118 



TEE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



May 



growl if you could not, but as you can 
not you are willing to show a magnan- 
imous spirit and give those trees ten or 
more years tu produce their first bushel 
of fruit. Now won't you give your 
bees one year to get entrenched so that 
every winter wind will not dislodge 
them or blow the life out of them ? 
They would be fully as safe I think as 
your apple trees. Then an apiary 
would be as solid an investment as 
your trees, and should be raised by the 
acre and eveuly distributed through 
every orchard on every farm. Then 
people could have honey , and those 
people who get sick because they 
think twice in succession without rest- 
ing, would smile a sad smile, and say 
that the day of sugar honey and " cuu- 
ningality " is passed, and that farmers 
were surely contriving to protect their 
own interests, and perhaps would soon 
be making sugar out of honey, thus 
destroying the sugar cane industry. 

Well, now, to come back to my sub- 
ject ; did you ever notice in box hives 
how far apart the combs are that give 
the bees their natural clustering place 
or nest ? That is why they winter well, 
and if they winter well your success 
is assured because the winter problem 
is all that stands in the way of success 
with the majority of bee keepers. 

If you have plenty of large breeding 
Colonies you have about as safe an in- 
vestment for an income as a man can 
have unless you invest in real estate. 

Well, as fall approaches you won't 
be bothered with robber bees, so you 
can stop worrying for once in your 
life about the robbing problem, for 
the robbing bee would be pretty well 
jaded after getting through with the 
guards of such hives, and would be apt 
warn his friends to keep away ; yet it 



is well enough to watch them some. 
Late in the fall take the blocks off the 
holes on top of the hives, and dig out 
the glue so as to be sure the holes are 
open for ventilation. This I believe 
to be the most important part, for no 
matter how large a hive is the mois- 
ture must be carried off. 

Do not disturb the bees in winter 
by digging at the hive entrance to 
keep it open. As a general thing you 
can, and it is better to let them alone, 
and I believe it would be better to do 
so. If I should say be careful not to 
let the entrance get clogged with ice, 
some might be after them every day 
with broom, shovel, tongs, hammers, 
knives, etc. In the spring let them 
alone also, except to cover the holes in 
the top of the hive. When they swarm 
you will admit that a bee keeper is a 
poor stick that could not get from 
eight to fifteen or twenty dollars worth 
of honey from the swarms of each 
breeder by putting them in as small 
hives as they can stay in and pressing 
them for all they are worth, and do 
with them as you please afterwards. 
The old breeders can go on the even 
tenor of their way year after year, and 
you will rejoice not only in the hope 
but the certainty of your success in 
bee keeping. 

Ovid, Peun'a. 

— ■ ■■ ^ 

Bees and Chickens. 

BY CHAS H. THIES. 

In the March number of the Ameri- 
can Bee Keeper Mrs. Oliver Cole asks 
to hear from those who have tried 
keeping bees and chickens in the same 
yard. I have had several years ex- 
perience in keeping bees and poultry 
in the same yard, and have never had 



189G. 



rilE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



119 



any trouble outside of what scratching 
they do, 

I have ray home yard of some 150 
colonies well set with fruit trees, such 
as peach, plum, cherry, etc., also some 
grape vines. This gives shade for the 
apiarist and bees ; and at the sa.ne 
time I have a nice lot of bloom for 
my bees, and a very nice crop of fruit 
for myself. It also gives the bees a 
chance to cluster at swarming time 
without getting away from the apiary, 
and settling in the top of some big 
tree. It also improves the looks of 
the place, and I always like to see 
see things neat and tidy; in fact the 
appearance of a place has a great deal 
to do with encouraging or discourag- 
ing us in our work. The trees and 
vines need some cultivation, and that 
is the time when I do not enjoy hav- 
ing chickens around ; at least not un- 
til after we had a rain to settle the 
ground some. 

My ol)ject in keeping bees and 
poultry in the same yard is to keep 
poultry among the fruit trees, having 
read at different times that poultry 
would destroy many insects that injure 
fruit and fruit trees. If my chickens 
have ever eaten bees, or even drones. 
I have never seen them do it ; and I 
have never known my poultry to be 
stung. At one time I noticed a pul- 
let that acted as though it had been 
stung, and for several days acted as if 
in great pain, and al.-o seemed to have 
lost sight to a certain extent, but in a 
few days was all right. This may 
have been caused by a bee sting, but 
I do not know. 

If any great evil existed in keeping 
bees and poultry in the same yard I 
should know something of it by this 
time, as this yard is where i breed my 
queens, and 1 spend a great deal of 
ray time there, and so would be able 
to observe what is going on. 

Steeleville, 111. 



United States Association of 
Bee Keepers' Societies. 

BY W, 1'. MARKS. 

The bee keepers of this country need 
a National As.s()ciati()n, organized on 
business principles that are systematic 
and representative. Did it ever occur 
to you how absurd it is for a few indi- 
viduals to meet and organize an asso- 
ciation, elect a /eio honorary members 
from various localities, give the asso- 
ciation a big name, and imagine that 
they constitute or represent the bee 
keepers of this great country ? Such 
an organization never has had, never 
will have and does not deserve the confi- 
dence or respect of the bee keepers of 
this country. There is no use of try- 
ing to fix up any dead or dying so- 
called organization for any purpose. 
Let us, as G. W. Broadbeck suggests, 
begin and build up through represent- 
atives from the various State, County 
and District Bee Keepers' Sr)eieties, 
that are or may be organized, a Nati- 
onal Society. It will be representa- 
tive from the start and will command 
the respect of not only the bee keep- 
ers and all other citizens, but of the 
National and every State Government. 
Such an organization will not only 
control but can tiemand and dic- 
tate legislation pertaining to our in- 
dustry. We want an organization 
that can not be controlled by a few in- 
dividuals for personal or selfish ends, 
an organization organized for business 
pnrj)oses, and controlled by Bee Keep- 
ers' Societies from every part of this 
country, where every Society and 
every member will have an equal 
voice in its management. I would 
respectfully call the attention of all 
bee keepers and Bee Keepers' Socie- 
ties in the country to this subject and 
trust that its agitation will lead to an 
organization that will be a credit to 
our industry for all time. 

ChapinviUe, N. Y., April 20, 1896. 



120 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May 







The W. T. Falconer M'f'g Co., 
Gentlemen: The bee hives came all 
safe and sound ; everything entirely 
O, K. We have got them all put to- 
gether and find everything entirely 
satisfactory, and are much pleased 
with them. When in want of more 
goods will let you kiow. Yours truly, 

Paris, Apr, 4. A. W. Burritt. 



The W. T. Falconer M'f'g Co., 
Gentlemen: I received the goods some 
days ago, and found them in good 
order, and the goods are first class. I 
am very well satisfied with them. 
Yours truly, 

Taylor, Apr. 7. Henry R. Fritz. 



The W. T. Falconer M'fg Co., 
Gentlemen: The goods were received 
O. K., and are very nice. 1 am very 
much pleased with them. Thanking 
you for your promptness, and for such 
nice goods, I remain. Yours truly, 

So. Easton, Apr. 6. Chas. W. Hill. 



The W. T. Falconer M'f'g Co., 
Gentlemen: The hives arrived O. K., 
and everything in first class order. I 
have put thetn together and they are 
daisies. Every joint fits like " der 
paper on der vail." 

Yours respectfully, 

H. H. Decker. 
Johnsonburg, March 16. 



"How to Manage Bees " is a 50c 
book for beginners in bee keeping. 
We will send it postpaid for 25c. 




(From Progressive Bee-Keeper.) 

BREEDING FOR IMPROVEMENT. 



DR. C C. MILLER. 



Every now and then someone talks 
about making improvements in bees 
by properly breeding them, and pretty 
generally that is understood as refer- 
ring to scientific breeders that are 
away beyond us every-day bee-keep- 
ers. What I want to do just now is 
to make clear as I can the belief that 
every bee keeper who has three colon- 
ies of bees in movable comb hives, can 
do something toward improving his 
stock. I'm not sure that he might do 
so with only two colonies in box hives. 

Indeed I don't believe it needs any 
great amount of skill to develop 
strains noted for excellence in some 
one given direction. To be sure, there 
is the difficulty that we cannot control 
the fecundation of our queens, and 
that's a bad drawback, but then we 
have as an offset that queens can be 
bred very rapidly, allowing us to reach 
many generations in a very few years. 
Besides, even if we can't control fe- 
cundation, and can't control the drones 
that are about us, we can gradually 
change the character of all. Every- 
one knows this who has perseveringly 
bred Italians with blacks all around 
him. At first most of his queens 
would meet black drones, but by and 
by his neighbors' bees would be so 
changed in character that blacks would 
no longer be in consideration. 

Look at what has been done by con- 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



121 



stant selection of the yellowest bees to 
breed from. The three bands have 
been increased in numbers until a 
solid yellow has been obtained. Then 
there are Dr. Murdock's bees bred for 
size. I had some natural comb of 
their building, no foundation being 
used, and the worker cells instead of 
measuring five to the inch, were four 
and a half, and some of them nearly 
as large as ordinary drone cells. J. 
Mc Arthur has secured a strain of bees 
that do not sting under ordinary, or 
even extraordinary, provocation, such 
a thing as kicking over their hives not 
serving to irritate them. 

Now what are the things to observe 
in rearing bees? I don't think the 
matter is too complicated for the very 
inexperienced. Select your best queens 
to breed from. Thai's one thing, and 
that's about the only thing generally 
looked after. But you'll get on twice 
as fast if you'll pay attention to the 
males as well as to the females. In 
some cases a good deal more than twice 
as fast, for only through the drones 
can you make any impression on the 
bees surrounding you, unless indeed 
you can get your neighbors to intro- 
duce the right kind of queens. 

I suppose any man would be called 
foolish who should pay no attention 
to what colonies he raised queens 
from, but should be careful to suppress 
all drones except those from the best 
working colonies. But he might get 
on full better than he who takes the 
greatest pains as to his queens with- 
out looking after the drones. 

In selecting colonies to breed from, 
it isn't best to depend entirely on 
those which produce the most bees. A 
queen may be very prolific, but if her 
bees do so little at gathering that the 



immense amount of brood prevents 
accumulation of suri)Ius, what good is 
she ? 

But it's pretty safe to go by the ac- 
tual work accomplished by a colony. 
If queens are raised from colonies that 
have given best results in the matter 
of surplus, and if the queens thus rais- 
ed meet drones from other colonies 
equally good, there is likely to be im- 
provement, at the same time not for- 
getting an occasional infusion of new 
blood. 

Two or three writers have lately 
urged the importance of attention to 
the matter of longevity in bees. It is 
claimed that some strains of bees live 
longer than others. If this be true, it 
is quite important. A colony of bees 
whose workers should live a week 
longer than the average ought to do a 
fourth more work. For if the life of 
a w^orker be 42 days, and if it com- 
mences gathering when 16 days old, 
that leaves 26 days for field work, and 
a week would be more than a fourth 
of that. But I confess it may not be 
the easiest thing in the world to find 
what your longest lived bees are. 

Much easier will it be to determine 
another thing that in some localities 
at least might be of very great im- 
portance. I refer to the length of bees' 
tongues. Glossometers have been in- 
vented by which the length of bees' 
tongues can be accurately measured. 
A Frenchman, M. Legros, has invent- 
ed perhaps the best, and he finds the 
average length of a bees' tongue is a 
shade more than a fourth of an inch, 
and by careful selection he has suc- 
ceeded in having a strain with tongues 
about a sixth longer. At first thought 
it may appear a difficult thing to 
measure a bees' tongue, but the matter 



132 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May 



is very simple. The arrangement is 
such that you can easily see how far 
down the honey is emptied in a dish 
covered with gratings through which 
the bees reach their tongues. 

I have nothing to say against yellow 
bees — there may be good ones among 
them, and there may be bad ones — 
but I believe that if as much attention 
had been given to some of the points 
I have mentioned, leaving color to 
take care of itseif, we might have 
more valuable bees today. And I be- 
lieve that any bee-keeper can do 
something to establish improvement. 

Marengo, Ills. 



(From Auiericau Bee Journal). 

THE PAST AND PRESENT OP BEE- 
KEEPI'^TG. 



BY G. M. DOOLITTLE. 



Having occasion, lately, to look over 
an old diary to find something that 
was called in question, Iran across an 
item which was written by a friend to 
prove that bee-keeping was always to 
be a lucrative business, which item 
read as follows : 

" Notwithstanding the great demand 
for bees, and the immense quantities 
of honey that are produced from year 
to year, the amount largely increasing 
each year. I do not see any reason to 
think that overstocking or overpro- 
duction is a factor that need trouble 
us in this generation. At any r^e I 
don't see that the price of nice honey 
is any lower than years ago." 

This was written in 1884, or about 
12 yeai'S ago, and in reading there 
was a strange sound to it; strange, not 
only from the standpoint of 1896, but 
from the standpoint of 1869, as well, 
at which time I commenced to keep 
bees. I fell to wondering if "this 
.generation " that existed 12 years ago 



had passed away, for surely, if I read 
our present bee literature aright, both 
"overstocking" and "overproduction" 
are causing a wail to come from near- 
ly every hand. Hear Mr. Hutchin- 
son tell in the Review how the forests 
have been cut off, the swamps been 
dried and the fence-corners cleaned 
out, till the flora which we had a few 
years ago — which invited the little 
busy bee to a sumptuous feast — was 
becoming nearly as scarce as the trails 
of the Indian. Then hear Dr. Miller, 
and others, asking if the good old 
times will ever come again ? All of 
which point to the fact, that whether 
overstocked or not, from some reason 
the average bee keeper does not secure 
the average good crops of honey that 
they did years ago. 

Then look at the talk of low prices, 
the planning to form a honey associa- 
tion, and the censure of our commis- 
sion men, who realize only 10c a pound 
for nice white comb hcney to their 
consignors, where they sell at 14c., and 
ask yourself if overproduction is not 
figuring in this matter of low prices. 
If it is not overproduction that makes 
the low prices for honey, what is it ? 
Commission men were not formerly 
criticized for charging 10 per cent., 
for that was the usual charge during 
the early seventies. All must admit 
that the market price of honey is 
much lower than it formerly was, and 
when 10 per cent. *is taken from a low 
price it hurts the honey producer 
much worse than it does to have the 
same per cent, taken from a high 
price. Some honey producers can sell 
their honey to advantage about home, 
in neighboring villages, but the large 
producer must always seek a market 
for his produce in the large cities, and 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



133 



the price obtained iu these cities has 
very much to do with home prices ; 
hence the " market price " is what we 
have to look to in determining wheth- 
er overproduction has had anything 
to do with the matter of prices. 

I commenced bee keeping 27 years 
ago the present spring, and at that 
time honey in six pound boxes, hav- 
ing glass on two sides, brought 25c per 
pound, delivered at the railroad, while 
in the fall of 1869 I was offered by a 
party from New York city, 50c per 
pound for the little 1 had. the advance 
of 100 per cent, being caused by a 
very poor season during 1869, so that 
the supply was very much less than 
the demand. 

The season of 1870 being an extra 
good one, the price fell back to 25c 
again, at which price I sold my crop 
of that year, as well as that of 187l 
and 1872. Owing to the loss of bees 
during the preceding winter, the sup- 
ply was insufficient again, so that in 
the fall of 1873 I sold at 27c., taking 
my whole crop, light and dark, togeth- 
er, while in 1874 I received 28|c per 
pound for the whole of my crop. 
Those prices brought more persons in- 
to the business, which, with but little 
loss in wintering, caused honey to drop, 
so that 26c was the price I obtained 
in 1875, while in 1876 the supply was 
again adequate to the demand, and 25c 
was the selling price. 

That the readers of the American 
Bee Journal may know something of 
the past, without going over the mat- 
ter for themselves, I have carefully 
looked up the market reports as given 
in our bee papers, and here give an 
average of quotations as I found them. 
For 1874, 28 to 30c. ; 1875, 27 to 30 ; 
1876, 23 to 25 ; 1877, 20 to 22; 1878, 



12 to 16; 1879, 20 to 22; 1880, 18 to 
20 ; 1881, 18 to 22 ; 1882, 22 to 25 ; 
1883, 18 to 20; 1884, 17 to 19 ; 1885, 
15 to 18; 1886, 14 to 16; and during 
the past 10 years the prices have 
ranged between those of 1886 and the 

13 to 15c of the present. Previous to 
1874 I fail to find any quotations in 
any of the bee papers which I have. 

From the above it will be seen that 
honey quotations at present, and for 
the past 10 years, are fully 100 per 
cent, lower than they were in the early 
seventies. Another thing, which is, 
that honey in such shape as was sold 
from 1868 to 1873 at 25c or above per 
pound, would not net today over 6 to 
8c in any market. To bring from 13 
to 15c now, honey must be very fancy, 
in one pound sections, without glass, 
which means nearly if not quite six 
times the labor and expense to the bee 
keeper that six pounds of honey, in 
one box, meant 25 to 30 years ago, so 
that honey really does not bring, tak- 
ing all these items into consideration, 
much more than one-third what it did 
"years ago." Wherein lies the trouble? 
Is it not overproduction, w'hich my 
old friend of years ago said would be 
no factor " in this generation ? " If 
not in overproduction, wherein does 
it lie ? Will not some one tell us, for 
when we know the cause we may be 
able to apply a remedy ? 

Borodino, N. Y. 

(From the Southland Queen). 

OAENIOLAN BEES. 



BY C. B. BANKSTON. 



I am frequently asked to give my 
experience with Carniolan bees, and 
will do so. 

There are some things about this 
race of bees that are a little strange. 



124 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May 



We queen breeders very often allow 
our colonies to go queenless for quite 
a while. With Italians this does not 
matter so much, but with the Carnio- 
lans it has a bad effect, for those that 
I have left queenless have always turn- 
ed out a regular mess of laying workers. 
Last spring I purchased a fine breed- 
er. She raised a large swarm of work- 
ers and died out. They raised a young 
queen and she was lost on her mating 
trip, and in a few days apparently the 
whole swarm began laying, and I nev- 
er saw just such a mess. I introduced 
a queen but she never done any good. 
She was very pi'olific, but the workers 
continued to fill the combs with their 
eggs in such numbers that no brood 
could be raised, and they finally dwin- 
dled down to a handfull and starved 
out. During a honey flow I slipped a 
queen in at last and left another hive 
queenless for about two weeks. This 
being so late in the season, I did not 
think the workers would lay, but they 
did. I introduced a queen, and the 
workers continued to lay and they are 
still at it. They have consumed twice 
as much honey as any other hive in 
the yard. I do not know that this 
condition of affairs is characteristic of 
the Carniolan bees or not, as I have 
had only one year's experience in 
rearing them. But there is one thing 
I do know, that in all my experience 
with other races I have never had as 
bad cases of laying workers as I have 
described above. The bees are good 
workers and fine breeders, most excel- 
lent cell builders, and very gentle 
when pure, but when cross-mated 
with other bees, will sting you all over 
in a minute. If I was running my 
bees for increase I would prefer the 
Carniolans, as they seem to increase 



faster than the Italians. They are 
better comb honey producers than the 
pure Italians, but for extracted honey 
I am like Judge Terrell ; give me the 
pure Italians — they swarm less and 
get the most honey. If I was a honey 
producer and knew what I do about 
the two races of bees, I don't know 
that I would spend much money in 
exchanging one for the other, as they 
are both good enough. In queen rear- 
ing I believe the Carniolans are the 
best, especially where cells are built 
above a queen excluder. 
Chriesman, Texas. 

(From the American Bee Journal.) 

POISONOUS HONEY.-DO BEES 
GATHER IT? 

BY ED. .TOLLEY. 
"apis VIRUM " IN ALL HONEY. 

Novice desires the readers of the Bee 
Journal, who keep bees where moun- 
tain laurels grow, to speak as to the 
wholesomeuess of honey gathered from 
it. He gives a very good description 
of mountain laurel as it grows herea- 
bouts. It grows in great abundance 
on the mountains of Pennsylvania; 
and the bees work some on it, but not 
enough to get much surplus from it. 
I believe the honey has never been 
known to injure any one here, nor 
does it seem to have any deleterious 
effect on the bees. The leaves of the 
shrub are generally conceded to be 
poisonous. I never knew cows to eat 
it here, but sheeD, left to their own 
resources too early in the spring, have 
been known to eat it, and it generally 
resulted in giving the owner a job of 
picking the wool off their dead carcas- 
ses, too. The blossoms are generally 
considered to be harmless. 'J'he boys 
living near enough, gather and sell 



189(5. 



TEE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



125 



great quantities to the city folks, 
and I have never heard of any one be- 
ing poisoned by them. 

Like Novice, I, too, am somewhat 
skeptical about poisonous houey. I 
would like to see some of the so-called 
poisonous honey sent to a chemist for 
a chemical analysis. I have kuown 
horses to be made yery sick by being 
turned into a nice field of clover, and 
have heard of them even dying from 
the same cause, but that would not 
warrant any one in saying that green 
clover was poisonous. The danger was 
in the eating to excess of food to which 
they were not accustomed. 

As a matter af fact, there is more or 
less poison in all honey, as in nearly 
everything else we eat. The mite of 
poison that the Author of Nature has 
compounded with the various things 
we eat, is as necessary and indispensi- 
ble to our well being as any of their 
other properties. All honey contains 
more or less A'pis virum, which, as a 
drug, is a powerful and deadly poison. 
If we consider the very small amount 
of this poison that is injected into the 
body by the sting of a bee, atid note 
the effect on those that are not used 
to being stung, we may have an idea 
how powertul this poison really is. 

When 1 first began keeping bees, a 
sting within two or three inches of the 
eye was sufficient to nearly close it, 
and the effect would last for a day or 
two, but now I am so inculcated with 
this poison that it has little or no ef- 
fect. In those days, too, if I ate hon- 
ey with any degree of excess, a violent 
pain in my stomach was sure to fol- 
low. This, too, passed gradually away 
on becoming used to honey. Now, if 
I had not been interested in bees, and 
had bought houey of uncertain source. 



and had been seized with violent 
cramps in the stomach shortly after 
eating it, I might well have been ex- 
cused for saying and thinking that the 
honey was poisonous. It is owing to 
the presence of Apis vlrum in honey 
that so many people are benefited by 
its use. 

The Apis vinivi makes honey really 
a medicine for several diseases. If 
more honey was used there would be 
less backache and kidney trouble ; so 
says Dr. J. M. Wallace, late of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, but now of this city, for 
whom I have extracted considerable 
Apis virum. He says it is one of the 
most potent of drugs in the treatment 
of kidney diseases and Bright's dis- 
ease, and many others. He says that 
the virtue of Apis virum is becoming 
better known and appreciated by the 
medical fraternity, day by day, and 
that it will be used in much larger 
quantities in the future than hereto- 
fore. 

I collected and sold considerable 
Apis virum last season, and have two 
orders standing now to be filled as soon 
as possible. I intend to try to work 
up an extensive trade in Apis virum, 
I have invented a device for extract- 
ing it from the bees without injuring 
them, and by which I can extract as 
much in one hour as a small army can 
do with tweezers. If the readers of 
the Bee Journal are interested, and 
want to know more about this depart- 
ment of bee culture, 1 will describe it 
more fully some other time. 

Franklin, Pa. 



"How TO Manage Bees,'" a 50c 
book, and the American Bee-Keep- 
ER a year for only 60c. 



126 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May 



THE LAST DUELS IN AMERICA. 

The last duel occured in Augusta county, 
.early Saturday morning, June 30, 1883. 
The penultimate one came off near Rich- 
mond, at sunrise on Sunday, June 6, 1880. 
iS'obody wa« killed in either, fortunately ; 
but one who was a principal m each of them 
was dangeriDusly wounded in both. The 
last fatal duel was that between Mordecai 
and McCarty, which was fought near Rich- 
mond in 1872, wherein Mordecai was killed 
and McCarty very badly wounded. — W. C. 
Elum, in May Lippincoti's. 



SPRING FEVER IN THE FEET. 

If that very painful and troublesome 
complaint, spring fever in the feet, is pres- 
ent, the hot foot-bath should be used every 
night, adding a spoonful of alum to the salt 
and mustard, and rubbing the feet after- 
wards with alcohol and lemon-juice in equal 
proportions, or with a weak solution of car- 
bolic acid. This treatment will speedily 
reduce the swelling, and the tired feeling 
and soreness are at once relieved by either 
lotion. They are so valuable remedies 
that they ought to be on every toilet-table. 
— From " Spring Ailments," in Demorest's 
Magazine for April. 



PRIZES FOR OUR READERS. 

The publishers of the Ladies' Every 
Saturday will give $70.00 in Gold, besides 
Gold Watches, Silver Tea Sets, Fruit 
Services, Silver Water Pitchers, Silver Fern 
Dishes, Silver Coffee Cups and Saucers, 
Silver Knives and Forks, all of good plate, 
also Genuine Diamond Rings, Music Boxes, 
Boudoir Clocks, China Sets Sewing Mach- 
ines, Chafiing Dishes, etc., in order of 
merit, to those sending the largest number 
of words made from the letters contained in 
the two words, " L-A-D-I-E-S' W-E-E-K- 
L-Y." 

LADIES' EVERY SATURDAY is an 
up to date, illustrated weekly for women 
and girls with over 40,000 circulation. 
The publishers are actually giving away 
thousands of dollars to introduce their 
charming sixteen page journal into new 
homes, and will offer one of the above re- 
wards to any person sending a list of not 



lees than fifty words. Three two-cent 
stamps must be enclosed with name and ad- 
dress, for sample number, containing full 
particulars and names and addresses of 
hundreds who have already received valua- 
ble rewards. Stamps refunded to any one 
having cause for complaint. Write at once- 
and address, LADIKS' EVERY SATUR- 
DAY', " D," 9iO Walnut Street, Philadel- 
l^hia. Pa. 

Philadelphia Daily Call says, " Ladies' 
Every Saturday is vivacious and captivat- 
ing." Philadelphia Evening Star says, 
" The prosperity of the l.adies' Every Sat- 
urday is not to be wondered at.'" The 
Philaielphia Daily News says, " Ladies'" 
Every Saturday is firmly entrenched in the 
favor of the fair sex, especially in Phila- 
delphia.'" The Philadelphia Public Ledger 
says, " The Editor of Ladies' Every Satur- 
day gives full measure for the cost."^ 
Philadelpliia Record says, " Ladies' Every 
Saturday bids fair to bicome a most wel- 
come weekly visitor." 

Wm Gerrish, East Nottingham, N 
H. will keep a complete supply of our 
goods during the coming season and. 
Eastern customers will save freight 
by ordering from him. 

We will send the Farm Journal^ 
(Phila. ) and the Bee-Keeper one year 
for 50c, or will send the Farm Journal 
one year to everyone who owe a year 
or more subscription and will pay up. 
(Mention this offer). 



We have a quantity of Alley Drone 
and Queen Trap patterns of 1894 
which will be sold at 25c each, regu- 
lar price 50c. These Traps are just 
as good for practical purposes as 
those of more recent pattern. 



Clubbing List. 

AVe will send the American Bee-Keeper with 

the— PUB. PRCE. BOTH. 

American Bee Journal, ($1 00) $1 35 

American Apiculturist, ( 75; 1 15 

Bee-Keeper's Review, (1 00) 1 35 

Canadian Bee Journal, (1 00) 1 25 

Gleanings in Bee Culture, (1 00) 1 35 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEErER. 



127 



The Smeriean Bee-Keeper, 

PUBLISHKD MONTHLY BV 

THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG CO. 



TERMS : 
50 cents a year in adviince ; 2 copies, 85 cents ; 3 
copies, 81.20 ; all to be sent to one postoffice. 

Postage prepaid in the U.S. and Canada; 10 cents 
extra to all countries in the postal union and 20 
cents extra to all other countries. 

ADVERTISING RATES: 
15 cents per line, 9 words; S2.00 per inch. .5 per 
cent, discount for 2 ini^ertious; 7 per cent, for 3 in- 
sertions; 10 i)er cent, for 6 insertions; 20 per cent, 
for 12 insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or before 
the 20th of each month to insure insertion in month 
following. Address, 

THK AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 
Falconer, N. Y. 

4®"Subscribers finding this paragraph marked 
with a blue cross will know that their subscripiton 
expires with this number. We hope that you will 
not delay in sending a renewal. 

4S"A Red Cross on this paragfaph indicates that 
you owe for your subscriprion. Please give the 
matter your attention. 

EDITORIAL, 



In another column will be found 
some very sound suggestions in regard 
to the organization of a representa- 
tive National Bee Keepers" Associa- 
tion. Such an organization is much 
needed. There are numerous local 
societies of more or less prominence 
throughout the countr}- whose com- 
bined efforts in any one direction 
would almost invariably be rewarded 
by success. These societies represent 
thousands of bee keepers. If a Nati- 
onal organization could be formed on 
a plan of one representative for each 
certain number of local members, 
such representatives being sent by 
each society and his expenses paid by 
the society represented, an organiza- 
tion would exist which would be rep- 



resentative and whose deliberations 
and actions would be of unquestioned 
weight. The present so-called organ- 
ization which meets annually under 
the name of the North-Arnerican Bee 
Keepers' Association is of the utmost 
uselessness to anyone outside of those 
who attend. A few whp can afford to 
stand the expense for the sake of the 
"good time" they have, and the 
direct and indirect pecuniary benefits 
derived, attend these meetings, read' 
and hear read a few old ideas in new 
guises, "hobnob" with each other 
for a day or two, then go home and 
dream over the " nice time " ail win- 
ter. But as we have said before, no 
benefit is derived by the bee keepers 
generally who do not attend. This is 
all right as far as it goes. The mem- 
bers ' ' pay their money and take 
their choice," and those who do not 
go or belong have no reason to grum- 
ble, for it costs them nothing, but 
what we want is something represen- 
tative, an organization of such a size 
and make up that it will count among 
its members many men of brains, who 
will act for the general sood and have 
the authority and backing to enforce 
their acts. Let us organize a National 
Bee Keepers Association that is Na- 
tional. Further suggestions are in 
order. Let us hear them. 



Elsewhere we reprint an article by 
G. M. Doolittle, (from the Am. Bee 
Journal), on "The Past and Present 
of Bee Keeping,"" wherein he brings 
up the question of the prevailing low 
prices of honey during the past few 
years. Up to 1875 the market price 
of comb honey seldom fell below 22c 
a pound. Since then the price has 



128 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May 



gradually declined until 15c has been 
the highest limit in most markets for 
the past four or five years. Mr. Doo- 
little thinks overproduction is the 
cause, but this can hardly be the case. 
We believe today there are fewer bees 
kept throughout the country than at 
any previous .time for ten years. In 
Western New York a few years ago 
one could pass along the country 
roads and see apiaries on every hand. 
Today they are a rarity. In some 
Western States they have undoubtedly 
very much increased in numbers, but 
the decrease in the East has more 
than counterbalanced such increase. 
There are, undoubtedly, several caus- 
es for low prices. For the past few 
years sugar has been very low in 
price. Sugar syrup and glucose also 
is now extensively used in the man- 
ufacture of goods where formerly 
honey was used. Wages are much 
lower than they were a few years ago, 
thus restricting the ability of many 
former customers to buy hone}', it 
being classed among luxuries, and 
above all the prices of almost every- 
thing have materially declined and 
why not honey ? 



Reduction of Prices. 

Foundation has been reduced 3c a 
pound from prices in our 1896 cata- 
log. This is owing to the lower price 
of wax. 

Our No. 1 Falcon Polished Sec- 
tions we now offer at $2.50 for 1000, 
$4.50 for 2000, $6.40 for 3000, $10 
for 5000. Less than 1000 same pric- 
es as formerly. 

Beeswax is lower. We are now 



paying 25c cash or 28c in trade, per 
pound, delivered at our railroad sta- 
tion, (Falconer, N. Y). This price is 
not guaranteed. We will pay highest 
market price when wax is received. 
Prices are liable to be reduced again 
within a short time If you have any 
wax to sell it is advisable to send it 
now. 



We will duplicate the prices on 
hives and supplies offered by any 
first class manufacturers — and in 
many cases can do even better by you 
than anyone else. 

Christmas Tips. 

One of the objectious to Christmas 
boxes, writes James Payn, is that one is 
eeldom quite certain whether one is 
giving to the right people. Dumas tells 
us that he took some pains to discover 
one Christmas day what he was payiog 
for. A second lamplighter excited his 
suspicious. "I have already made my 
little present, " he said, "to the man 
that lights the street lamp." "Yes, 
sir," returned the other, "but I am the 
man who puts it out. " 



Spurgeon's Points For the Preachers. 

"Mind you avoid inappropriate 
texts," said Mr. Spurgeon one day to 
his college students. "One brother 
preached on the loss of a ship with all 
hands on board from 'So he bringeth 
them to their desired haven,' and an- 
other returning from his marriage holi- 
day : 'The troubles of my heart are en- 
larged. Oh, bring me out of my dis- 
tress!' Mind your figures of speech are 
not cracked. Don't talk like the brother 
who said, 'I fly from star to star, from 
cherry beam to cherry beam. ' Get 
among your people or somebody may be 
saying of you, as one old lady said of 
her minister, that he was invisible all 
the week and incomprehensible on Sun- 
days. Shun all affectation in the pul- 
pit, and mind you never get into the 
goody goody style. One of this sort said, 
'I was reading this morning in dear 
Hebrews.' " — New York Observer. 



THE AMERICAN BKE-KEEFER. 



129 



SOLACE. 

De summor's sunipin mighty gay, 

De wimor's mighty sober, 
But JL's' IjL'twix 't-ni an between 

Am gorgi'ous oU- 0.-tober. 
So doan' i,'it cUaviic:;s' 'bout de fros* 

Dat nick yor bu'n de wood: 
De 'siinnnou am u-ripuuiu an 

De 'possum's gittin good. 

De wrrtahniillion's dono played out. 

But dah am joy in sight ; 
Do punkin's mighty temptin ef 

Yoli only cooks it right. 
So take yoh pardniTs an n^joice 

Do way dat poople should; 
Do 'siminon am a-ripenin an 

De 'possum's gittiu good. 

—Boston Globe. 



FOR ANOTHER'S SIN. 



Sir Morriiner Barbican was an old 
mau, oue of the old types of English 
aristocrats — fiery, imperious and inor- 
dinately proud of the integrity of his 
nauje and ancestry. At the time I went 
into his employ, years ago now, he was 
living alone with his only daughter at 
bis family seat in Gloucestershire. 

A strange looking, tall lady was Miss 
Linda Barbican, with large, black eyes 
and pale, hard set features, bearing the 
traces of some inward sorrow. 

Sir Mortimer, I learned, had bad a 
eon, whom he had disinherited and dis- 
owned, owing to some act which had 
brought dishonor on the name of Barbi- 
can, and he forbade all mention of the 
scapegrace of the family. 

A young man, shabbily dressed, with 
a reckless albeit a handsome face, stood 
on the doorstep and scanned me nerv- 
ously as I looked questioniugly at him. 

"Is my — is Sir Mortimer Barbican 
disengaged?" he asked huskily. 

"Yes, sir," I answered. "Will you 
please come in?" 

"Is there any one in the library?" 

"No, sir. " 

"Then show me in and tell your mas- 
ter I must see him. " 

"Very well, sir! What name shall I 
give?" 

"Oh, never mind the uame! He'll 
know me fast enough," he added bit- 
terly. 

Sir Mortimer looked up in a surprircd 
way when I conimuuicated to h ■ \.^..^ 






>^tici v.'.'aijcci lu BwO 



him. He opened Ihe door and gtrode in- 
to the room. 

"Father!" 

That was all. One short, despairing 
cry, and father and sou stood face to 
face once more. 

A gray, drawn look stole over my 
master's face as for a brief moment he 
stood eying the prodigal who had so 
mysteriously reappeared. Then he found 
bis tongue. 

"So it is you, you hound!" he said, 
his features working strangely, while 
there was a tone of suppressed rage in 
his voice; "it is you, is it? Have you 
forgotten how we parted? Have you for- 
gotten," his voice rising ominously, 
"how I cast you off and forbade you 
ever to step in my house again? Be off 
before I forget myself and whip you 
out, as you deserve." 

"I will speak," cried the younger 
man. "As there is a God in heaven, I 
am innocent! But since you will not 
hear me, I will not try to save you. May 
it be on your own head, and may you 
reap as you have sown ! But you will 
have the comforting assurance of know- 
ing that you have sent me to the devil, 
and I curse you!" And, striding from 
the room, the younger mau passed out 
into the hall. 

I hastened to open the door for him. 
As he was passing out into the night he 
turned. 

"You are a stranger to me, " he said, 
after a brief space, "but your face looks 
like an honest one. If you can contrive 
it, meet me tomorrow, about this time, 
at the drive gate. It is a matter of life 
and death. " 

The nest morning after breakfast Sir 
Mortimer turned to me and said : 

"If you value your situation here, 
Parkin, you will bear this in mind : Not 
a word of what you saw and heard last 
night, and never mention my — my son's 
name to me again under pain of instant 
dismissal. That is all. " 

It was with some feeling of trepida- 
tion that I repaired to thetrysting place 
that same evening to await the arrival 
of thedi.siuherited son. Having inquired 
my name, he began : 

"You must first know how I came to 
be in this plight. Some years ago a 
forged check in my father's name was 
discovered. Suspicion at once fell on 



130 



THE AMKlllCAN JiEH-KEEPER. 



May 



me, aua, tjjougii luuoceut, 1 was at ouco 
branded as guilty by my father. He did 
not wish to have the family name drag- 
ged into court, so he took the easier 
course of disinheriting me and casting 
me off entirely. My enemy, whoever he 
was — and heaven knows 1 thought I had 
none worth speaking of — had done his 
work well. I became a frequenter of the 
turf, a gambler, and nearly — but, thank 
heaven, not quite — a thief. I was tempt- 
ed some few weeks ago to join a band 
of burglars who contemplated robbing 
my father's house. But though I had 
sunk low I was not quite bad enough 
for that, and, overcome with remorse, I 
determined to seek an audience with 
my father and warn him of his danger. 
The result of that interview you know, 
and" — 

Here he broke off abruptly, a queer 
break in his voice. 

I will pass over the rest of our con- 
versation and merely state the plan 
which the remorse stricken man had 
formed to checkmate the robbers. 

I must explain that at the back of the 
house was a courtyard, shut in on three 
Bides by the kitchen premises of the 
house. It was a small window — that of 
the pantry — which was to be the mode 
of ingress. Young Mr. Geoffrey — that 
was the son's name — was to lead the 
burglars in their enterprise. He would 
conduct them through the window, and 
then, with the aid of myself and Sir 
Mortimer, whom I was to apprise of 
the robbers' advent, would help to over- 
power the others, two desperadoes, for 
they had not wished to have too many 
concerned in the job. 

Friday came, and it was, I am bound 
to confess, with no slight feelings of ap- 
prehension that I looked forward to the 
work which was bt^.-3ro me, for I was 
no fighting man. O.' course I had not 
mentioned the mcLl.i .'.ed robbery to the 
baronet, for that would have spoiled ev- 
erything. 

At 1:3 o clock I stole noiselessly down 
to the kitchen and quietly waited till 
the burglars should arrive. I had not 
long to wait. I heard the muffled sound 
which warned me ihat they had com- 
menced operations, and, slipping away 
as noiselessly as I had come, I departed 
to apprise my master of the outrage on 
his property. 



I loiiLid l.'i]:i s!t<ing iji his bedroom 
on a chair, ciad in his dre.-;s'ng' gown 
and slivjpers. His face was buried in, his 
hands, and he was evidently lost in 
thought. At ray entrance'lie started vio- 
lently np and gazed with wonderment, 
not unmixed with anger, at me, as I in- 
truded i:::yself on his solitude. I at once 
camo to the point. 

"Sir," I said, "there are burglars 
trying to force an entrance at the back." 

Now, my master's bedroom was at 
the extreme wing of the building, so 
that had it not been for the fact that I 
already knew of the contemplated rob- 
bery be would probably have heard noih- 
ing of the burglars, taking for granted 
that they succeeded in reahiug the din- 
ing room, where the family plate — their 
object — was secured. 

He gazed at me curiously for a few 
seconds and then calmly walked across 
the room to his chest of drawers, which 
he opened, taking therefrom a small re- 
volver, which he slipped into his pocket, 
handing another to me at the same time. 

Sir Mortimer took the lead, and, fol- 
lowing close behind him, I noiselessly 
stole along at his heels. Arrived at the 
kitchen door, the sounds inside told us 
we had come at the right moment. The 
baronet threw open the door. The gas 
had been lighted, and standing in the 
middle of the roorp were the three men, 
young Mr. Geoffrey, apart from the 
other two, pallid and haggard looking. 

And then I do not rightly know what 
happened, it was all done so quickly. 

Sir Mortimer, stepping calmly into 
the room, raised his revolver and fired 
at his son, who was waiting for me, 
who had lost all presence of mind,' 
to act on the initiative. With a groan 
he threw up his arms and fell forward 
with a dull thud on the stone floor. The 
other two did not wait for more, but 
with incredible swiftness darted through ■ 
the pantry, and, locking the door be- 
hind them, made good their escape. 

Just then a white robed figure appear- 
ed at the open kitchen door and gazed 
wildly about her. As her eyes fell on 
the body of the man lying prone and 
lifeless on the floor Miss Linda Barbi- 
can, for it was she, rushed forward and 
with a moan threw herself down beside 
her brother, apparently dead, killed by 
his father 1 



laliC 



THE AMERICAN III: H- KEEPER. 



131 



"My ciu has found me out!" sh^ 
moaEetl. "?Iy siu baa fduiid me out !" 
Aud tl;ei], her eves wandering to the 
little pcul of bicxKl which v as crinis-on- 
ing the cold f]^-;.', she cried out; "I can 
bear it no longer! Father, father, the 
forgery Vv'us my work!" 

Castirg one look of concentrated hate 
aud anguish on the wretched girl at his 
feet, he brushed her tremblingly a^de 
and knelt down, moaning softly to him- 
self, beside tlio body of his apparently 
lifeless sou. 

Mr. Geoffrey did not die. His father 
had shot somewhat high, aud the ball 
had glanced along the collar bone, mak- 
ing a long, jagged wound. But still he 
was seriously ill, brain fever setting in 
afterv.-ard, and for some time ho lay 
hoveling between life aud death.. 

I explained fully to the baronet the 
scheme his sen had formed for thwart- 
ing the burgl-.trs, who, by the way, were 
captured some weeks after the attempt- 
ed burglary, and Sir Mortimer's feel- 
ings of remorse aud sorrow at the way 
in which he had wronged Mr. Geoffrey 
•were terribly poignant. 

As for Miss Linda, her story can be 
briefly summed up in the followijig: 
Years ago she had a worthless lover, 
with whom she was completely infatuat- 
ed. Gambling and other forms of excess 
had left him in low water, and his 
sweetheart had forged the check to give 
him the mouey he had needed so sorely, 
laying the blame on and weaving her 
subtle net of accusation around her in- 
nocent brother. What ultimately became 
of her I uever knew. 

If I had only kept my presence of 
mind and carried out my instructions, 
the baronet's hand might have been 
Btaid aud Mr. Geoffrey would not have 
been sliot. But then perhaps Miss Linda 
would not have confessed. Thank heaven, 
there are not many women like her in the 
■world. — Cliicago News. 

Asked by an Insurance Company. 

Here are some of the questions which 
a new insurance company requires to be 
answered ^ati.sfactori]y, and the public 
will agree that there is more reason for 
them than many of the old queries: 

"Do you ride a bicycle? Single or 
tandem? 

"Do you eat (a) hot cakes, (b) ta- 



raale?, (c) iir-jr.^ p-o, (d> vclsh laLi'Liil, 

(e) ra'.v ouioirs? 

"Do you f wallow grape seed&r 
"D-> you c^i'iuk any mixrd di-iuke?' 
"Do yoa over sleep ia a folding bed? 
"Dt you Bmoko (a) cigarot'es, (b) 

uickf 1 cigars? 

"H-avo yon a mother-in-law? 

"Did yon ever attempt suicide?"— 

San Francisco Post. 



Deaths Due to Chloroform. 

It is slated that 01 deaths have occur- 
red within the past year in the United 
Kingdom, cf which 53 were from the 
admiuistration of chloroform. This 
would be a fc:i:'ful indictment against 
the use of that auKssthetio if we only 
knevs? what Vviis the relative proportion 
of patients submitted to its influence ^juA. 
to the influence of other ausesthetics. In 
other words, if the uumber of chloro- 
form cases were 52 times the number of 
nitrons oxide cases, chloroform would 
be no more dangerous, although it might 
have caused 52 deaths for one death 
caused by the latter ansesthetic. — Medic- 
al Press. 



All the Comforts of a Home. 

"By the way, your advertisement 
mentioned 'home comforts,' " said the 
young man in quest of lodgings to a 
Glasgow landlady. 

"Yes, "was the reply. "Ye see ye 
could get a seat wi's in the kirk. (My 
last lodger used to pay for the hale pew. ) 
Then, t' keep yo frae wearyin in the 
eveuiu's ye cud gie the bairus a hau wi' 
their lessons, for their ain faither's uae 
scholar. 

"Aboot yer meals, ye cud just come 
down an get them in the kitchen — it 
wid be hamelike, ye ken. There's little 
Johnny, ye "vid get him to sleep wi' ye. 
He's au awful kicker, but wid keep ye 
fine au hate thae winter evenin's. " 

Then, seeing her auditor making his 
way to the door, she hastened to add : 

"I widna chairge ye onything extra 
for a' thae preevileges. " — New York 
Herald. 

Since the war of 1812 the United 
States army has by no means enjoyed, 
the life of luxurious ease sometimes at- 
tributed to it, for, in the intervening 
years, it has fought 640 battles or ac- 
tions with the ludiaus. 



132 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 



May 



DO YO'u EVER THINK? 



Do you ever think as the hearse drives by 
That it v."; n't he long till you and I 
Will both iid(» out in the big, plumed hack 
Anil we'll never, never, never ride back? 

Do you ever think as you strive for gold 
That a dead man's hand can't a dollar hold' 
We may tug and toil and pinch and save, 
And we'll lose it all when we reach the grave. 

Do you ever think as you closely clasp 
Your bag of gold with a firmer grasp 
If the hungry hearts of the world were fed 
It might bring peace to your dying bed? 
— L. A. W. Bulletin. 



FOUNDED ON FACT. 



"Mr. Eogers, did you say?" 

"Yes, sir; a tall, middle aged gea- 
tleruan," replied my servant. 

I could recollect no acquaintance of 
the name. 

"Ask him to step in here," I said at 
length. 

The man who entered my study was 
a complete stranger to me. He was tall, 
between 40 and 50 years of age, rather 
thin and very angular in his move- 
ments. He wore a short beard, was 
slightly bald and had decidedly pleasant 
features. Wlieu he smiled, his eyes 
seemed to sparkle and he exhibited two 
excellent rows of teeth. 

"I am afraid I am quite unknown to 
you," he began. 

I bowed my head and wondered what 
was coming next. 

"But your name as a rising young 
novelist and writer of short stories is, 
of course, familiar to me. " 

Who could he be? I began to have 
Tisions of publishers and editors clamor- 
ing at my door for contributions from 
my pen. Was he about to give me a 
commission for a new serial? Perhaps 
he represented some leading magazine 
and was prepared to pay sums undream- 
ed of for my tales of love and adven- 
ture. Or was he only some newspaper 
interviewer bent on satisfying the curi- 
osity of his readers respecting my opin- 
ions and manner of life? 

"Pray be seated," I said. 

We sat facing one another on opposite 
sides of the 3i earth rug. It was a cold, 
dull November day, and the bright fire 
that bnrued in the grate was comfort- 
ing. Mr. Rc,;ers took from his pocket a 



copy of a popular magazine and held it 
on his knee. 

"Capital story that of yours!" 

"Which?" I asked. 

"That last one in here," he said, tap- 
ping the covers of i.he book, "the story 
called 'The Mystery of Rowner's Mill. ' " 

"I am glad you like it, but really" — 

"A splendid story! Rather daring 
thougli. " 

"Daring?" 

"Yes — to publish a story of real life 
as mere fiction. " 

"I don't understand what" — 

"But why did you make Maud a dark 
girl? Of course she was fair, as you 
know. Her real name was Mabel, but 
that doesn't matter." 

"You are quite" — 

"Still, yon have hit off Maltby to 
aT." • 

"The story, I assure, you, was" — 

"Written under pressure of time?' 
Yes, I have no doubt of it. But your de- 
scription of the old mill is exact. Row- 
ner's Mill is, of course, Radford's Mill, 
near B . ' ' 

"Allow me to explain" — 

"Quite unnecessary, I assure you. 
You were perfectly justified in changing 
the name. But that passage in which 
you describe the act of vengeance on 
Maltby is remarkably powerful and ac- 
curate. Ah! here it is: 'Seeing his vic- 
tim powerless, Jasper Gore, with the 
strength of a giant, seized him in bis 
arms and for one moment held him 
above hio head in front of the open win- 
dow. Then he hurled the wretched man 
into space. Down, down he fell, until, 
with a splash that was inaudible amid 
the roar and rattle of the mill, Maltby 
disappeared in the deep water of the 
race, and was instantly battered to a 
shapeless mass by the huge revolving 
water wheel !' " 

"But surely you know" — 

"Oh, yes; I know every inch of the 
place. Of course you are a little bit 
rough on me. " 

"On you?" 

"Yes; yoa see, Jasper Gore" — 

T rose to my feet. So far I had hardly 
been able to get a word in edgeways. I 
had not the slightest idea what he was 
driving at. He was exhausting my pa- 
tience. 

"Look l::re, sir," I shouted warmly, 



1S!'6. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



m^ 



"I huvoirt yot the pleasure of knowing 
who you arc. What the — will you kind- 
ly tell mo what you are talking about?" 
"Why, my dear sir, I am talking 
about this story of yours called 'The 
Mystery of Rovvnor's Mill. ' I was just 
saying that you have made me — other- 
wise Jasper Gore" — 

"Gore is one of my characters. I un- 
derstand your name is Rogers!" 

The mau leaned back and roared with 
laughter. I eauk into my chair in a 
ptate of exasperation. 

"Excuse my laughing," he said, "but 
when you put on that innocent air it is 
irresistibly funny. What does it matter 
which name I use, Gore or Rogers — are 
they not one and the same? What was 
easier? You took my real name, Rogers, 
rejected the last two letters, transposed 
the others, and then you had it — Gore!" 

I was now quite out of temper. 

"I don't know what your object is," 
I said, "iu coming here and talking this 
nonsense. The story is pure fiction — a 
simple creation of my own brain — from 
beginning to end. So far as I know, the 
characters never lived, the incidents 
never happened, the mill described nev- 
er had any existence — except iu my own 
imagination. " 

My visitor watched me as I spoke, 
and a grin slowly broadened on his face, 
until he again burst into loud laughter. 

"I should never have believed it!" 
he said. 

"Believed what?" 

"You novelists, it would appear, are 
so steeped iu fiction that you lose all re- 
gard for truth. " 

"What do you mean, sir?" I cried in- 
dignantly. 

"I* it necessary to explain? Here, in 

this magazine, I have a story every es- 
sential detail of which is actual truth, 
and you coolly tell me that it was all 
evolved out of your own brain!" 

"Certainly. So it was. " 

"Now, what is the use of talking 
like that to me — to me? I am Rogers — 
Rogers is Gore. I (call me by which 
name you like) am the man whose acts 
are described iu this story." 

"Do you mean to sit there and tell 
me that you actually committed a crime 
identical with that I have described?" 

"Precisely. I say the story is true in 
every essential detail. Every action of 



the plot, every motive of the characters, 
all the descriptions of places, and even 
portions of llie dialogue are absolutely 
true. I say a.^ain I am Jasper Gore!" 

Imagine my feelings! Never before 
iu the history of fiction writing had so 
remarkable a thing happened. Some oc- 
cult power had clearly been at work on 
my brain azjd directed me to write a 
story founded "on fact in a degree that 
was simply marvelous. The situation 
was so extraordinary that it staggered 
me. I was here fac» to face with the 
murderous ruffian of my own creation. 

What was to be done? I glanced at 
the bell at his elbow. 

"Never mind the bell," hesaid. "We 
shall not want to use that. Listen to 
me!" 

He brought his chair toward me until 
our knees were nearly touching. With 
his hands on his thighs and his body 
bent forward he fixed his penetrating 
eyes on mine. 

"I have told you that I am Jasper 
Gore. But that is only one of the names 
under which authors have used me in 
relating my exploits. You are not the 
only writer who has employed my deeds 
in fiction. You have read Blaudford's 
novel, 'The Red Witness?' Well, I am 
Paul Varnham, the man who poisoned 
his brother and threw the body into the 
limekiln. You have seen the story iu 
the last number of The Masterpiece 
Magazine called 'The Case of Roland 
Wier?' I am Roland, the man who stole 
the bonds and stabbed to the heart the 
only witness to the deed. Why, the 
stains of the crime are still on my 
hands. " 

I shuddered visibly, and cold sweat 
was on my forehead. 

"Metaphorically speaking, " he added 
with a smile, "I suppose you have 
read"— 

"Stop!" I cried. "What is it you 
want of me? Why do you come to tell 
me all this?" 

"I came to make a proposal. I am a 
man of many deeds — crimes, yon would 
call them. The world is getting too hot 
for me. I am iu danger from the sleuth 
hounds of the law. Shelter me; hide 
me, and I will give you material for 
some of the most thrilling stories that 
ever were written. I can keep you goiug 
for the rest of your life — with facts, sir, 
facts ! 



134 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May 



"The Eowner's Mill affair I don't 
know how you got hold of, but it was 
not obtained fairly. But I will not say 
anything about that. Stand by rue, and 
I will make your fortune and your ever- 
lasting fame. Is it a bargain?" 

To accept such a proposal never en- 
tered my mind for one moment. My 
only thought was to get this dreadful 
creature out of my house, whetJjer what 
he said waa true or not. How was I to 
do it? 

Just then my servant knock«id at the 
door and ejjtered. 

"Here is a gentleman wishes to bq8 
you, sir." 

"Say you are engaged," said Rogers, 
rising from his chair and grasping me by 
the arm. 

But the new arrival had already en- 
tered the room. 

"Excuse me, sir," he said. "I have 
come for our good friend, Mr. Rogers. 
He lives with us at X . " 

X I knew to be the place where a 

certain county lunatic asylum stands. I 
saw everything in a flash. He handed 
Rogers over to the care of another man 
in the hall, and the poor fellow went as 
meekly as a lamb. Then the attendant 
came back to me. 

"I hope he has not alarmed you, sir. 
He escaped two days ago. " 

"Well, he gave me an unpleasant half 
hour. The man seems to be steeped in 
crime. " 

"He's all right except on that point. 
He fancies that he is every criminal that 
he reads about in the story books. We 
traced him to your house, and I expect 
he has been pitching a lively yarn about 
some of his doings. Ah ! I thought so. 
But, bless your heart, sir, the poor fel- 
low wouldn't hurt a fly." 

Nevertheless, he had knocked me off 
my work for that day. — Loudon Tit- 
Bits. 

How James Otis Was Killed. 

James Otis was killed by a stroke of 
lightning in Audover, Mass., at the old 
Isaac Osgood farm. May, 1783. Mr. 
Otis wanted a mug of cider. The hired 
man went into the cellar to draw the, 
cider, leaving the cellar door open. Mr. 
Otis was standing in the doorway at the 
side of the house looking ft Wie clouds, 
remarking that a heavy shower was 



coming up. Scarcely had the words been 
spoken when the bolt came down, struck 
Mr. Otis and killed him instantly, then 
passed into a large beam in the cellar- 
way, going the length of the beam to 
the cellar, where it went off into the 
ground. The hole in the beam was large 
enough to thrust one's arm down, as 
the writer has done when visiting the 
Osgood farm — Boston Transcript. 

The Man and the Clothes. 

There was a Methodist minister who 
dressed so well that a friend felt hoi'- 
rified and offered to give him a suit of 
clothes and pay for them provided he 
could have them made according to his 
ideas. The offer was accepted, and the 
tailor was ordered to make a suit in the 
plainest possible fashion. The order was 
filled, and the suit was tried on. The 
giver of it was amazed. So magnificent 
was tlie form with which nature had en- 
dowed the minister that that plain 
Methodist suit upon him looked as if it 
had just been received from Paris. — 
Christian Advocate. 



Oysters. 

"When I was a boy, " said the mid- 
dle aged man, "nobody ever used to 
think of stewing oysters in milk, though 
I believe that barbaric practice did be- 
gin just before the war, but now almost 
everybody eats them that way, and they 
cook them that way in restaurants. It 
seems a pity. The oyster is not the least 
of the blessings vouchsafed to us, and 
why anybody should want to disguise 
its gamy and at the same time delicious 
flavor with milk I do not see. 

"To stew oysters in milk is even 
worse than to dip them in batter before 
broiling or frying them, when but a 
thin coat of cracker dust is all that is 
required, and even this is likely to ho, 
dispensed with on broiled oysters by one 
who has eaten oysters broiled just as 
they come from the shell. 

"But it should not be understood 
from this that batter can reasonably bear 
no relation whatever to the oyster ; far 
from it. There is, for instance, the oyster 
fritter, certainly a very pleasant subject 
to dwell upon. But in this case the 
blessing has been added to the common- 
place, not the commonplace to the bless- 
ing." — Nev; York Sun. 



189G. 



TJIK AMh:nic.\y hek-keeper. 



135 



A Qentleinan of the Old School. 

President Krugci' lives up to Ins Puri- 
tan priuciples. When iu Paris, he refused 
all iuvitatioiis to go out ou a Sunday, 
and he tiiought the costumes woru by 
ladies at the op(Jru or parties very im- 
modest. He said he could not think 
how any lady who respected herself 
could look at a ballot. The only books 
he had ever read besides the Bible were 
the "History of the Princes of Orange," 
"History of the Thirty Years' War," 
Motley's "History of the Dutch Repub- 
lic," Macaulay's writings on William 
of Orange and "The Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress." He said that in the Transvaal 
when a boy was sent to school he was 
provided with a gun and a pound of 
ammunition. He could th-^ bring home 
a bag of game and deiend himself 
Bgainst the Kaffirs, but the parents tried, 
nevertheless, to make these self reliant 
boys understand that the meek shall in- 
herit the earth. 

Another story told of President Kruger 
is that when he got home from his visit 
to Europe he said England was well 
enough, but the land seemed to be all 
owned by somebody. Ouecoulduot even 
go out into the country and sit down 
under a tree to smoke his pipe but some- 
body would come along and say that he 
owned the laud and ask what the 
smoker was doing there. — Buffalo Cou- 
rier. 



Ducking Stools. 

Ducking stools are noticed as existing 
formerly at Chester, Cambridge, Rug- 
by, Southam, Coventry, Nottingham, 
Southwell (Notts), Retford, Grimsby, 
Scarborough, Hull, Beverley, Morley 
(near Leeds), Ilkley, East Ardsley, 
Craven, Manchester, Liverpool, Preston, 
Kirkham, Burnley, Derby, Chesterfield, 
Kingston-on-Thames and Leicester. Ex- 
amples of the actual instrument seem 
still to be preserved at Leominster, Ips- 
wich, Scarborough and Leicester. The 
latest recorded use of the ducking stool 
(the designations cuckiug and ducking 
were, of course, synonymous iu the days 
of Queen Elizabeth) was in l'S09. It 
was at Leominster, when a woman 
named Jenny Pipes, alias Jane Corran, 
"was paraded through the town on the 
ducking stool and ducked iu the water 
near.Kenwater bridge bv order of the 



magistrates. In 1817 another woman, 
called Sarah Leeke, was wheeled round 
the place in the same chair, but not 
ducked, as, fortunately for her, the wa- 
ter was too low. The instrument of pun- 
ishment in question has not been used 
since then. — Notes and Queries. 



A Soothing Car Ride. 

The latest cure for insomnia is cheap. 
The remedy was suggested by an old 
doctor to whom a despairing young man 
had gone for advice. "Of course," said 
the doctor, "I could give you drugs that 
woHld put you to sleep, but in the case 
of a young man that is to be avoided. 
The reason you cannot sleep is your 
nerves are unstrung. That does not nec- 
essarily mean that you must put your 
nervous system to sleep by the use of 
drugs. What you want is a mild excite- 
ment, that will lift your nervous system 
out of the rut it has fallen into. The 
best thing in the world to do that is a 
trolley ride. Don't try to settle upon a 
particular route. Just jurup on any car 
that comes along. Don't even ask the 
conductor where the car is going, but 
just go along with the car. It will sure- 
ly come back some time to the point 
where you took it. If the route is eight 
or ten miles long, so much the better. 
One thing is certain — you will either 
sleep during the ride or as soon as it is 
over." — Philadelphia Record. 



Most Popular Novels. 
The novel or story which has probably 
enjoyed the largest term of popularity 
is "Robinson Crusoe, " by Daniel Defoe, 
published in 1719. This novel attained 
great popularity from its first appear- 
ance and is one of the very few that 
have continued to be popular down to 
the present day, or for more than 175 
years. Defoe died April 24, 1731. The 
next most popular works of fiction were 
the Waverley novels of Sir Walter Scott, 
published iu 18U-1831. So successful 
have these novels been from then till 
now that no fewer than 80 men have 
been uninterruptedly engaged by one 
Edinburgh firm for the last ejuarter of a 
century iu producing them. Of Harriet 
Beecher Stowe's novel, "Uncle Tom's 
Cabin," published iu 1851, more than 
a million copies iu English have been 
eold. — Philadelphia Times. 



13(5 



THE A^fFJtICAN BKK-KEEPER. 



Man 



Mistaken Idea of Teasers. 

It h:is beeu asserted by some one ihafb 
every Jiumau being has a right to hap- 
piness. If that be the case, most of ris 
miss it migljtily — that's all we have to 
eay. A good deal of our failure to be 
happy 3H our own fault, but much of it 
is undeserved and purely the fault of 
others. If we chose to stop and think, 
we would soon see also how we in turn 
inflict Buhappiness xipon others in a 
most uncalled for way. 

When we find one of our friends in 
an irritable mood, do we try to soothe 
him or go away and let him alone? Not 
by any means. We cast about in our 
minds to see what suggestions we can 
make th;;t will irritate him a trifle 
more. This we do as a wholesome les- 
son, we profess. Wo want to teach him 
that there's no use in getting so cross 
about trifles. And what are we that we 
should set ourselves up as mentors to 
teach anybody anything 1 Let them 
learn their own lessons from life. That 
is a better teacher than we could possi- 
bly be. 

Half the unhappiness that comes into 
children's lives — nay, three-fourths, we 
may say— arites from the unkind teas- 
ing and irritation of those older — even 
their adult relatives. "Oh, Mary's so 
cross!" they say, and then they proceed 
to make her crosser if possible by every 
petty aggravation they can think of. 
This should be classed under the head 
of cruelty to children, we think.— Phil- 
adelphia Call. 

Critics and Managers. 

Mr. Charles Wyudham has explained 
that his contempt for the press is not, 
like Mr. Peuley's, absolute, but refers 
only to Christmastide criticisms. He 
holds, in short, that the critics are "but 
mad nor'-uor'west. When the wind is 
southerly, ihey know a hawk from a 
heronshaw. " The truth is that some 
actor managers are superstitious in 
their reverence for the press so long as 
it prophecies smooth things for them. 
A critic the other day got into corre- 
spondence with a manager who thought 
h9 bad slighted one of his productions. 
By way of conclusive testimony to its 
merits the manager sent him a para- 
graph emanating from an obscure press 
agency, to the eifect that "if there is 



ci;c tiling in the world" the lessee of 
this ihsater understands it is the histri- 
onic tastes of the English people." This 
was of course most gratifying, but the 
beauty of it was that the writer of the 
paragraph evidently had not and did 
not profess to have seen the play, and 
had sent the paragraph to the manager 
with a demand for a couple of seats "so 
as to give further particulars in our 
next." Such is the flattering unction 
which some managers lay to their souls. 
— London World. 



Seven Miles of Clothesline. 

One of the most extensive laundries in 
the world is situated in a southern sub- 
urb of London, and was recently visited 
by one of our own representatives. 

The principal building, he writes, is 
upward of 400 feet long and four stories 
high. Over 250 hands are employed, 
and the machinery cost about £18,000. 
There are ten solid ironing machines 9 
feet long, and each capable of finishing 
1,500 serviettes per hour. 

The vast extent of this business may 
be realized on learning that 15,670 arti- 
cles a week ar"^, received from one great 
west end club, and 35,000 in the same 
period from each of several mammoth 
hotels. A hotel like the Metropole or 
the Grand, by the way, uses upward of 
4,000 towels every day. Nearly 3,000,- 
000 pieces of linen of all kinds pass 
through thi^ laundry in the course of a 
week, and seven miles of drying lines 
can be run out at once. —Pearson's Week- 

ly. 



Literary Versatility. 

An editor received the other day a 
curious application for help. The writer 
said: "lam sorry you do not like my 
romance, t'or I feel that I have the secret 
fire in my veins. If, however, you can- 
not accept my book or my poetry, will 
tou give mc a berth as a heavy goods 
porter':'" — London Bookmau. 

The Perspective. 

She waved her hand imperiously. 

"Be very careful, " she commanded 
ber maid, "of the perspective. You 
made rue look dreadfully shallow last 
Bvening. " 

After that the making of her toilet 
proceeded without further interruption. 
—Detroit Tribune. 



189G. 



rilE AMERICAN II EE- HE El' Eli. 



13^ 



THE LAST APPEARANCE OF MOLIIIRE. 



(It fs recorded of Moliere that on the niffht 
of \\VA (.A ;;th ho insisted on going to the thi'U- 
t(>r, as u.Haal, di-synte tho entivatii^s of h's 
friends, to \Aa.y tho "Malade Imaginarie" in or- 
der tiiat the worlinien might not lose their 
wagis.] 
Did you who eat that night to see 

The wizard's hand complete its task 
Guess at the face of Tragedy 

Wliieli lurked behind tin; comic mask? 
Did yon, whose plaudits wild and loud 
Mixed fate and laughter in a breath, 
Behold the actor as ho bowed, 
Crown'd with the cypress wreath of death? 

Across the footlights of the years 

That latest scene shines fresh and bright. 
Only tho lamps are blurred w ith tears. 

Only the laughter fails tonight — 
And, lo! before our startled eyes 

Two centuries dwindle to a span. 
And other silent plaudits rise 

Not for the genius, but the man. 

Actor, there gleams above thy tomb 

No censer which the church can swing; 
No incense, with its dim i;erfume. 

Haunts thy dark rest with dreams of 
spring. 
But surely blessings more divine 

Upon that last appearance fell 
And, with the latest bravos thine, 

Mingled the angels' "It is well." 

And, all unwitting, we today 

Tread in thy footsteps, Moliere. 
We laugh and wonder at the play 

Or strut behind the footlights' glare. 
The shouts of laughter grow more sparse, 

The lamps burn dim, the players flee. 
And Death takes up our petty farce 

And sobers it to tragedy. 

—Nellie K. Blissett in Temple Bar. 



WANTED. 



"An ugly case, " remarked Jim to me 
confidentially; "a very ugly case in- 
"deed!" 

The unconscious patient, borne into 
our surgery upon a stretcher, was fright- 
fully injured. That was evident at a 
glance. 

He was a passenger by a ship just ar- 
rived from the Cape, and while prepar- 
ing to come ashore a heavy box, swung 
aloft by the vessel's crane, had slipped 
and fallen on him. 

Jim Clifford and I were partners in 
an east end practice, close to the docks. 

His blood soaked clothing bore no 
marks which could lead to his identifi- 
cation. 

No limbs were broken, but the neck 
and shoulder were feai-fully lacerated. 



and one side of the face was dreadfully 
mangled. It v>'as not until late the fol- 
lowing evening tliat he seemed to recov- 
er his senses, and then of course he was 
too weak to converse. 

Jim was strongly in favor of his re- 
moval, as soon as jn-acticable, to the 
nearest hospital. The sick man must 
have overlieard our conversation, for he 
signed feebly to my colleague to stoop 
down. 

"Not to the hospital, for heaven's 
sake!" whi.s])ered the poor fellow. 
"Anywhere but there. Stay here — no 
friends — soon be better!" he gasped 
painfully. 

Neither of us had the heart to remove 
our patient against his will, though his 
stay involved one of u.s being constantly 
in the house and the services of a male 
attendant as well. 

Days and weeks slipped by, and, 
though our patient hovered between life 
and death mere than once, he continued 
to stay with us and to engross more or 
less of our atteut ion. 

The singular thing was that apparent- 
ly the patient was without relatives or 
friends in this country — did not know 
a soul in London. So he told us, bit by 
bit, adding that his name was Octave 
Henry, and that he had been in South 
Africa for many years. A couple of rude 
sea chests, sent up from the ship, con- 
tained all his belongings. 

"I'll tell you what it is, " said Jim 
in his own emphatic way as we sat to- 
gether in our snuggery one night, "I'll 
tell you what it is, Fraser, our friend 
up stairs will slip through our fingers 
after all if we don't look out. There's 
brain mischief setting in from some 
splintered bone, and unless we can do 
something to remove the brain pressure 
— well, r,codby to his chance of life!" 

Our patient willingly gave his con- 
sent to the operation, and tlie whole af- 
fair was arrangeel imd carried out with- 
in a week. 

Recovery from the operation of tre- 
panning is always tardy. In the case of 
the man Henry, with his already shat- 
tered physique, it was more than usual- 
ly protracted. 

One morning I remember well. Clif- 
ford and I were by the bedside. The 
patient, for the time being, had revived 
sufficiently to show himself conscious of 



138 



TJIE AMhUllCAN BEE-KEEPER 



May 



our presence aud feebly to sign his 
wants. 

But there was something about the 
appearance of his eyes that morning 
which struck me as being unusual, a 
curious, precccupied lock. When Jim 
and I had left him to the care of his at- 
tendant, I remarked upon this symptom. 

''You noticed it, then?" answered 
Jim moodily. "I thought you would. 
Ah, but that is only one aspect of the 
caEe, not the most serious either!" 

Kcre he broke off abruptly. I waited, 
without speaking, till he began once 
more : 

' 'Did you ever study the subject of 
sense transfer ?nce?" 

I confessed tliat I had not done; so to 
"any gi'eat extent. 

"It begins to occur to me, " continued 
Jim, "that that is what we have to deal 
with in the case — nothing more or less. 
However it has happened, one thing is 
veiy plain to me — that the sense of hear- 
ing in this case is not absolutely destroy- 
ed, but, as I may put it, diverted into 
the optic region — grafted, as it were, 
into the sense of sight. " 

"But is such a thing possible?" I ex- 
claimed anxiously. 

"Yes, theoretically it is," returned 
my partner gravely, ' 'but practically no 
example of it has yet occurred in the 
case — that is, of a human being. I can 
only guess that in the present instance 
purely accidental cau.ses have led up to 
it But the fact remains that, as I have 
just said, the man now sees — actually 
sees, remember — that which, in ordinary 
circumstances, he would have heard. ' ' 

My colleague's diagnosis proved to be 
true, as we soon found. Little by little, 
as consciousness returned, it became 
painfully evident that the patient's 
senses Juid become what I may call, for 
want cf a better word, entangled. 

With what startling vividness, such 
sensations thus took bndily shape before 
him we could ( nly surmise from his ex- 
cited manner. Sensitive to an extraor- 
dinary degree to every breath, every 
whisper around him, his staring eyeballs 
too plainly showed how the faculty of 
vision was exalted, in his case, to a pre- 
ternatural extent. 

"Please, sir," said a maidservant at 
the door; "please, sir, Dr. Clifford 
wants you up stairs at once. ' ' 



cmioi'd and the attendant were hold- 
ing elown the patient by main force 
Rpou the beet. He was struggling to rise, 
and the expression of his face was one 
of terror. His eyes seemeel as if start- 
ing from their sockets. 

"Something has induced a violent 
paroxysm," whispered Jim. "He can't 
last Ion';- if it continues. " 

The sick man sank back on his pil- 
lows. His lips moved. By stooping over 
him I coulel catch some of his words. 

"They are coming — coming now," he 
gaspeel, "ever so far away, but I can 
see them i Something moves before them 
— something elark! I can't make it out I 
Something about to break! "Will it save 
poor Octave? Will it "— 

"Visibly worse, " said Clifford aside 
to me, "and the pulse abnormally high. 
If this goes on, he will be in a high 
fever before long. ' ' 

It was a breathless summer evening, 
but the sky was overcast with murky 
clouds, foreboding a tempest. The ropm 
already grew dark with the shadow oi 
its coming. 

Suddenly there was a loud knocking 
at the front door. Presently I heard 
voices in conversation, then heavy foot- 
steps began to ascend the stairs. 

At that instant a rose colored flash 
gleameel through the darkness of the 
room, a terrific peal of thuneler follow- 
eel, its echoes crashing and rolling as 
if the building were about to fall upon 
our heads. The sick man sprang con- 
Talsively to an almost upright position 
in his bed, then fell backward — dead! 

The door opened. There was a pause, 
and two plainly dressed men slipped 
quietly into the room. 

"Dr. Clifford, I presume?" inquired 
the foremost politely. 

Jim noddeel assent wonderingly. 

' ' I have a very painful duty to per- 
form in respect of yeiur patient here, ' ' 
continued the speaker fumbling a paper 
as he spoke; "a very painful duty im 
deed. But the fact is, I hold a wai-rant 
for his apprehension under the name o\ 
Henry — Octave Henry — on a charge 
of"— 

"My patient," interposed Jim very 
quietly, "has just obeyed another sum- 
mons. The man died while you were 
coming up stairs. ' ' 

From the explanations which ensued 



ISOG 



77/ A' AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



IH!) 



it secnipcl that our late patient" Had long 
boon "wanttfl" by the police on no less 
a charge thiui that of murder. Doubtless 
his nnwilliugness to be removed to a 
hospital arose from his persuasion that 
he was safer from detection in a private 
dwelling. 

Giiilty or not guilty of the crime he 
was accused of, it was long before Jim 
and I ceased to speak of him. Nor, iu 
turn, had he forgotten us. We were 
handsomely remembered in the will he 
had executed before the operation. But 
we will never again undertake the care 
of a resident patient. — Answers. 

Old English Inns. 

A feature essentially English is the 
cheery inn that overlooks the common. 
From that upper latticed window the 
jolly innkeeper of yore would watcli the 
solitaiy horseman of romance crossing 
the heath and perhaps hint his opinion 
of the traveler to the "gentlemen oJ 
the road" — the Claude Duvals — whc 
found it convenient to keep on good 
terms with mine host. But those days 
are gone, and now we can take our ease 
at our inn, with its deep bay windows 
on either side of the entrance, its 
6wiugiug signpost, its horse trough, 
pujnp and out door settle. Enter and yoij 
will find that the bay window forms & 
delightful sunny recess with a seat all 
round. In one instance a branch of s 
vine from the adjoining greenhouse hac 
been trained into this recess, and rounc 
the window bunches of grapes wert 
hanging, some beginning to pui-ple ii 
the wai-m Aiigust sun. The fii-eplace is 
often a great, old fashioned one, witl 
seats on either side of the "ingleneuk, ' 
right under the chimney, while framed 
over one of these fii'eplaces I found the 
following verse from Sir Matthew Hale 

A Sabbath well spent 

Brings a week of content 
And hi-altli for the toils of the morrow, 

But a Sabbath profaned, 

■Whate'er may be gained. 
Is a certain forerunner of sorrow. 

— Temple Bar. 

Dr. Nansen's Pedigree. 

Dr. Fridtjof Nansen's name bein^ 
now mentioned all over the world, hi. 
pedigree has been the subject of recent 
research. The result is that the earlies' 
of the forbears of tlie Norwegian nav 
igator of wliom there is authentic knowl 
edge was Ewert Nansen. a merchant a' 



Flensburg, in Sleswick-Holsteiu, wlic 
died iu 1618. So it is stated in th( 
"Genealogia Nanseniana, " which i! 
contained in an important collective 
work by Christopher Giessing (Copen 
hagen, 1781). Ewejrt Nansen's sor 
Hans went with his uncle on a mer 
chant ship to Russia, became aftersvai'C 
interpreter of the Russian language at 
the court of the king of Denmark and 
later on a special Danish envoy to th( 
czar. Subsequently, as chairman of tht 
Icelandic Trade society, he made manj 
voyages to Iceland and Russia anc 
wrote in Danish a "Compendium Cos- 
moraphicum Danicum, " which hac 
many editions (163.1-46). All the othei 
Nansens are traced from these ancestors, 
one of the first of whom thus showed 
alreiudy a bont for traveling and foi 
writing on his travels. A clear case oi 
hereditary character, going back to twc 
centiiries and a half! Only it is to be 
hoped that Ibsen will leave the subject 
alone and not write a drama called 
"The Man From the Sea. "—Pall Mai' 
Gazctto. 

The Tale Told of a Doctor. 

Apropos of doctors' beards and mi- 
crobes, a lady writes: "Several years 
ago I took the steam cars to and from 
school. For a week or more our family 
physician took the crowded noon train, 
always sitting very near me, and enter- 
ing into conversation. On questioning 
his sister-in-law about bis trips, she 
said : 'Oh, be has a smallpox patient at 
C. , and is afraid to take his carriage for 
fear of communicating contagion. So 
he takes the train. ' I always supposed 
his professional eye looked on me as " 
prospective smallpox patient." — Boston 
Transcript. 

A Lieg^timate Flea. 

Smythe — Do you think Scadds will 
bo severely punished for deserting his 
family aud running away with and 
marrying that young widow? 

Tompkins — No. He's rich, aud hav- 
ing one wife he certainly didn't need 
another, so his lawyer is quite sure he 
can clear him by pleading kleptomania. 
—Truth. 



The ivy leaved lettuce opens its leaves 
aud flowers at 8 o'clock iu the morning^ 
and generally closes again by 4. 



140 



THE AMERICAN HEE- KEEPER. 



May 



THE DEARESTONE IN ALLTHE EARTH. 



Mother. 
Ill line or lany;uaRe there is no other 
Word thut tells so clear a story 
Of life and love and living glory- 
Like that s'A'eet word, 
So often heard 
And yet so little known 
Until into our soul life grown, 
As that wliich names the precious one 
Who only knows her duty done 
When she has folded to her breast 
Her offspring for a longed for rest; 
She who has fought the prize to win 
For a noble life and an entering in 
Through the gates of heaven. 
By promise given, 
Of yielded life for life, of love for love. 
For bringing blessings from above, 
Lifting her offerings up on high, 
Ready for tbeni to do and die. 
And t'iis brief verse 
Woulu fnin rehearse 
The virtues and the modest worth 
Of the dearest one in all the earth. 
Mother. 

—Good Housekeeping. 



HIS CHANCE IN LIFE. 



Miss Vezzis came from across the 
border line to look after some cliilclreu 
who belonged to a lady uutil a regular 
ly ordaiued uurse could come out. The 
lady said Miss Vezzis was a bad, dirty 
nurse and iiiatteutive. It never struck 
her that Miss Vezzis had her own life 
to lead and her own afifairs to worry 
over, and that these affairs were the 
m.ost important things in the world to 
Miss Vezzis. Very few mistresses admit 
this sort of reasoning. Miss Vezzis was 
as black as a boot, and to our standard 
of taste hideously ugly. She wore cotton 
print gowns and bulged shoes, and 
when she lost her temper with the chil- 
dren she abused them in the language 
of the border line — which is part Eng- 
lish, part Portuguese and part native. 
She was not attractive, but she had her 
pride, and she preferred being called 
"Miss Vezzis. " 

Every Sunday she dressed herself 
wonderfully and went to see her mam- 
ma, who livt d for the most part on an 
old cane chair in a greasy tussur silk 
dressing gown and a big rabbit warren 
of a house full of Vezzisses, Pereiras, 
Ribieras, Lisboas and CTonsalveses, and 
a floating population of loafers, besides 
fragments of the day's bazaar, garlic, 
stale incense, clothes thrown on the 



tiuur, percicoats nung on strings for 
screens, old bottles, pewter crucifixes, 
dried immortelles, pariah puppies, plas- 
ter images Oi. the Virgin, and hats with- 
out crowns. Miss Vezzis drew 20 mpees 
a month for acting as nurse, and she 
squabbled weekly with her mamma as 
to the percentage to be given toward 
housekeeping. 

"When the quarrel was over, Michele 
d'Cruze used to shamble across the low 
mud wall of the compound and make 
love to Miss Vezzis after the fashion of 
the border line, which is hedged about 
with much ceremony. Michele was a 
poor, sickly weed and very black, but 
he had his pride. He would not be seen 
smoking a huqa for anything, and he 
looked down on natives as only a man 
with seven-eighths native blood in his 
veins can. The Vezzis family had their 
pride too. They traced their descent 
from a mythical plate layer who had 
worked on the Sone bridge when rail- 
ways were new in India, and they val- 
ued their English origin. Michele was a 
telegraph signaler on 35 rupees a mouth. 
The fact that he was in government 
employ made Mrs. Vezzis lenient to the 
shortcomings of his ancestors. 

There was a compromising legend — 
Dom Anna, the tailor, brought it from 
Poonani — that a black Jew of Cochin 
had once married into the D'Cruze fam- 
ily, while it was an open secret that an 
uncle of Mrs. d'Cruze was at that very 
time doing menial work connected with 
cooking for a club in southern India! 
He sent Mrs. d'Craze 7 rupees 8 annas a 
month, but she felt the disgrace to the 
family very keenly all the same. 

However, m the course of a few Sun- 
days Mrs. Vezzis brought herself to 
overlook the=!e blemishes and gave her 
consent to the marriage of her daughter 
with Michdc, on condition that Michele 
should have at least 50 rupees a month 
to start married life upon. This won- 
derful prudence must have been a lin- 
gering touch of the mythical plate lay- 
er's Yorksliire blood, for across the bor- 
der line people take a pride in marrying 
when they please — not when they can. 

Having regard to his departmental 
prospects, Miss Vezzis might as well 
have asked Michele to go away and 
come back with the moon in his pocket. 
But Michele was deeply in love with 
Miss Vezzis. and that hehiprl b^m *^r, ov.. 



1896. 



TlIK AMEIUCAN BEE-KKEPKR. 



141 



dure. He acciinipaiiied Miss Vezzis to 
mass one Sunday, and after ma-ss, walk- 
ing home thr<nigh the hot stale dust 
with her hand in his, he swore by sev- 
eral saints — whose names would not in- 
terest you — never to forget Miss Vezzis, 
and she swoix^ by her honor and the 
saints — the oath i-nns rather curiously, 
"In nomine sanctissimaB" — (whatever 
the name of the she saint is) and so 
forth, ending with a kiss on the fore- 
head, a kiss on the left cheek, and a 
kiss on the mouth — never to forget Mi- 
chele. 

Next week Michele was transferred, 
and Miss Vezzis dropped tears upon the 
window sa.'^h of the "intermediate" 
compartuK lit as he left the station. 

If you look at the telegi*aph map of 
India, you will see a long line skirting 
the coast from Baekcrgunge to Madi'as. 
Michele was crdcred to Tibasu, a little 
suboffice cne-third down this line, to 
send messages on from Berhampur to 
Chicacola, and to think of Miss Vezzis 
and his chances of getting 50 rupees a 
month out of office hours. He had the 
noise of the bay of Bengal and a Ben- 
gali baboo for company — nothing more. 
He sent foolish letters, with crosses 
tucked inside the flaps of the envelopes, 
to Mi.ss Vezzis. 

"When he had been at Tibasu for 
nearly three weeks, his chance came. 

Never forg(H that unless the outward 
and visible signs of our authority are 
always beft.re a native he is as incapa- 
ble as a child of understanding what 
authority means or where is the danger 
of disobeying it. Tibasu was a forgotten 
little place vv'ith a few Orissa Moham- 
taedajis. i:^ it. TJiese. hearins nothing 
of the collector sahib for some time and 
heartily deS'pisiug the Hindoo subjudge, 
iarranged to .^lart a little Mohurrum riot 
of their own. But the Hindoos turned 
out and broke their heads. Wlieu, find- 
ing lawlessness pleasant, Hindoos and 
Mohammedr.ns together rai.sed an aim- 
less sort Oi Bonny brook just to see how 
far they could go. They looted each 
other's shops, and paid off private 
grudges in the regulai* way. It was a 
nasty little riot, but not worth putting 
in the newspapers. 

Michele v.-as working in his office 
•when he heard the sound that a man 
never forgp'.s all his life — the "ah yah!" 



Oi an ;;. .-^. e^.v, a. (WLen Ihaf sound 
drops ab.-ut tliree tones and changes to 
a thick, droning ut, (he man who hears 
it had bettci' go av.'ay if he is alone. ) 
The native police inspector ran in and 
told Micheln that the town was in an 
uproar and coming to wreck the tele- 
graph oi^iee. The baboo put on his cap 
and quietly dropped out of the window, 
while the police inspector, afraid, but 
obeying the old race instinct, which 
recognizes a drop of white blood as far 
as it can be diluted, said, "What orders 
does the sahib give?" 

The saliib decided Michele. Though 
hon-ibly frightened, ho felt that for the 
hour he, the man with the Cochin Jew 
and the menial uncle in his pedigree, 
was the only repre.^entative of English 
authority in the place. Then he thought 
of Miss Vezzis and the 50 rupees, and 
took the situation on himself. There 
were seven native policemen in Tibasu, 
and four crazy smoothbore muskets 
among them. All the men were gray 
with fear, but not beyond leading. Mi- 
chele dropped the key of the telegraph 
instrument and went out at the head of 
his army to meet the mob. As the shout- 
ing crew came round a corner of the 
road he dropped and fired, the men be- 
hind him loosing instinctively at 'the 
same time. 

The whole crowd — curs to the back- 
bone — yelled and ran, leaving one man 
dead and another dying in the road. Mi- 
chele was sweating with fear, but he 
kept his weakness under, and went 
down into the town past the house 
where the subjudge had barricaded him- 
self. The streets were empty. Tibasu 
was more frightened than Michele, for 
the mob had been taken at the right 
time. 

Michele returned to the telegraph of- 
fice and sent a message to Chicacola 
asking for liclp. Before an answer came 
he received a deputation of the elders of 
Tibasu, telling him that the subjudge 
Baid his actions generally were "uncon- 
Btitutional" and trying to bully him. 
But the heart of Michele d'Cruze was 
big and white in his breast because of 
his love for Miss Vezzis, the nursegirl 
and because he had tasted for the first 
time responsibility and .success. Those 
tPWO make an intoxicating drink, and 
have ruined more men thim ever has 
•^v^hisky. Michele answered that the sub- 



142 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



May 



3nd,^:o yjais'L',- say v.hat be pleased, but 
until the i'.rs'stant ecllector came the 
telcgi'aph s r -jalcr v,"as the government 
of India in TibnKii, and the elders of 
t]ie town vv! uld be li^ld accountable fcr 
further rict'ng. Then they bowled their 
heads and said, "Show mercy!" or 
words to that effect, and vent back in 
great fear, each accusing the other cf 
having bcgiui the rioting. 

Early in the dawn, after a night's 
patrol -svith his seven policemen, Michele 
went down the road, musket in hand, 
to meet the assistant collector who had 
ridden in to cjuell Tibasu. But in tlie 
presence of this young Englishman Mi- 
chele felt himself slipping back mere 
and more into the native, and the tale 
of the Tibasu riots ended, with the 
strain on the teller, in a hysterical cut- 
burst of tears, bred by sorrow that he 
had killed a man, shame that he could 
not feel as uplifted as he had felt 
through the night, and childish anger 
that his tongue could not do justice to 
his great deeds. It was the white drop 
in Michele's veins dying out, though he 
did not know it. 

But the Englishman understood, and 
after he had schooled those men of Ti- 
basu and hfid conferred with the sub- 
judge till that excellent official turned 
green, he found time to draft an official 
letter describing the conduct of Michele, 
which letter filtered through the proper 
channels, and ended in the transfer of 
Michele up country once more on the 
imperial salary of 66 rupees a month. 

So he and Miss Yezzis were married 
with great state and ancientry, and now 
there are several little D'Cruzes sprawl- 
ing about the verandas of the central 
telegraph office. 

But if the Vv'hole revenue of the de- 
partment he r.erves were to be his re- 
ward, Michele could never, never repeat 
vv^hat he did at Tibasu for the sake of 
Miss Vezzis lijeniu'segirl. Which proves 
that, when a ma.u does gcod work out 
of all proportion to his pay, in seven 
cases out of nine there is a woman at 
the back of the virtue. 

The two exceptions must hav« r,Til'- 
fered from sunstroke. — Rudyard Kip- 
ling- 

Judg:e« of the Olympic Games. 

The hellancdcas, or judges, were ten 
in number, selected bv lot frnin the 1 en 



tribes of Elis. They entered upon their 
office ten months before the festival. 
They were first schooled in the tradi- 
tions and regulations of the games, 
then studied the cai^acities of the ath- 
letes while they were still in training. 
They had to decide upon the qualifica- 
tions of the contestants, make up the 
programme of the games, supervise the 
preparation of the scene of contest, act 
as judges in the games, and distribute 
the prizes. It was a position of honor 
and distinction. They came to the con- 
e©Bt«lad in purple robes, and sat in a 
tribune opposite the finish of the races 
in the stadium or hippodrome. They 
seem to have subdivided the function of 
judging, but at least three were present 
to judge in every contest. Their deci- 
sions were usually final, but an appeal 
might be carried to the Olympic senate. 
They were assisted in the execution of 
their commands by a large and well 
organized body cf police. — Professor 
Allan Marquand in Century. 

Independence of Janitors. 

The young man in dinner jacket has 
forgotten his keys — left them in the 
pockets of his afternoon dress. He is 
pulling with all his might the bellknob 
in the midnight air, saturated by rain. 
In the basement drawing room the jani- 
tor is surrounded by blue spirals from 
his cigar, as blond as the hair of a fairy 
princess. The janitor's wife is reading 
The North American Review. Their 
daughter, Ada, whose neck is swanlike, 
is playing a "Reverie" by Chopin on the 
grand piano, painted in delicate repre- 
sentations of roses on a light green back- 
ground. 

In time the young man will break 
the bellrope. — Exchange. 



The Lone Juryman Not Unanimous. 

In the trial of a case in Powell coun- 
ty not long ago the attorneys objected 
to all the jurors who had been sum- 
moned s«ve one. As no others were at 
hand, it was agreed that the action 
ehouJd be tried by the one remaining 
juryman. After the evidence was heard 
the judge told the lone ji>ror to retire 
end mnk« up a verdict. He retired, and, 
after staying out for over an hour, came 
back and reported solemnly that the 
jury had failed to agree upon a yerdict. 
— LeuisTiDc Courier-Journal. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER . 



143 



Honey and Beeswax Market Report. 

Below we ^'ve llie latest :uid most authen- 
tic report of the Honey and Beeswax market 
in different trade centers : 

Cincinnati. 0.. Apr. 'I'l. IS'.Hi.— The demand for 
honey is fair Supply fair. Price of ooiuh 12 to 
14c for be.-t white. Kxt. 4 to 7c Good demand for 
beeswax at -•"' to ;^0c per lb. Supply fair. 

(.'has. K. Muth a Sox. 
Cor. F'reeiiian and Central Aves. 

Dktiioit, Mich.. Apr . 2(i. IS'.Hi.— The demand for 
honey is slow. Supply nut henvy. Price of onib 
II to 14c iKjr lb. E.xtracted .")M^ to 7c per lb. Fair 
demand for beeswax, (iood supply. I'riees 2"i to 
2()C per lb. All the best comb huney is sold short- 
ly after arrival bu- there i> a considerable (luaiiti 
ty of undesirable stock in the commissio'i hnuses. 
M. 11. lIVNr, Bell Branch. Mich. 

Albany, X. Y-- Aiir. 20. Us'.Ki.— On account of the 
warm we;ither and an abundant supply of Maple 
Sugar the demand for honey is verv small. Our 
stock is also quite limited We have a few ca.-^es 
of buckwheat which we offer at 7^ to 8c per lb. 
Extracted 4 to 5c per lb. 

(has. W. McCullough & Co. 

Kansas City. Mo.. Apr. 20, 1S9B.— The demand 
for honey is light- Light supply Price of fancy 
comb 14c per lb. Extr^icted 7m per lb. No boeswiix 
on the market. Prices 22 to 2.')c per lb. We have 
cleaned up this season on all comb hon°y at gi od 
prices. Hambi.in A: Bkarss, 514 Walnut St. 

Boston. Mass., Apr. 20. 1S9().— The demand for 
honey is light. Light supply. Price of comb 14 to 
1.5c per lb. I- xtracted 5 to (icpe'lb. Fair demand 
for beeswax at 25c per lb. 

E. E. Blake k Co.. 75 Chatham St. 



QUEENS! QUEENS! 

:i lJ:uidril it:ill:ill«. breed f.T l)U?ine;-s. No 

better bees in the world. They work like Tigers 
when honey is to be hnd, winter well and handle 
ensv After .June 1, sOc each, ti for S4 50. .-afe 
arrival. 

J. S. KLOCK, 

Urban, Pa. 

One uJlan with the 

UiIAW Combination 
"'"' Saw 

<':in do the work of four 
ni'n using hand tools, in 
Hipping. Cutting-(jff. Mi- 
tring. I< abbet i iig, ( i r ooving, 
(iaining. Usidoing. Edging- 
uo. .Jointing Stufi. etc Full 
Line of Foot and Hand 
I'ower nchinery. Sold on 
Triti/. Ci((<(lo(iue free. 

Se-^eca rails IVl^K Co . 45 Water St., 
2-12 Seneca Falls, N. Y. 

■ m Mi m H^ ERS OF BEES and those in- 
mm ^^ ^^ B^ tending to keep bees should 
W3B MM ^B BaJ write us for large illust'dcat- 
Bm W" v^ W^ alogue and co|iy of A.mkri- 

■ ^^ Lw I^H B can Bee-Kf.epkr. (monthly.) 
* ^ ^Ol ^^B ■ Out pr ices iiT&lowest2iad.stock 
largest. We keep everything 
used by bee-keeprs. including 
text books, comb foundations, 
all stvleshives.ctc. .\ddr's 

W. T. Falconer N\U 
Co. Jamestown, N.T 




);• ices are (owesta.nastock 

BEES 




You Have Seen if Before. 



Tliaf Name Plafe Means 

GONVENI&NGE 



AND 



Sf=\TISFf^GTION 



Whicli of course mean 



GOLD CRANK 

pf\LCOfS 

BIGYGIiSS. 

Send for Catalogue. 

THE YOST MNFG CO.. 
YOST STATION, TOLEDO, O. 



144 



Till-: . I MKRICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Man 



JOHN F. STRATTOS^'S 

CELEBRATED 

GUITARS, 




Importer of and 

Wholesale Dealer in all kinds of 

MUSICAL MERCHANDISE, 

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Messrs. John,F. Stratton 

Dear Sir;.— 1 am pleased to be able to 
State that I ian highly recommend your Rus- 
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Your orders for them should be tremend- 
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Tours truly, CARL THORBAHN. 



THE STI^ATTOIV 

Band Instruments 

Will elect our S EXT PRESIDENT. 



Now is the time to form new Bands for Campaign pur- 
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Send ill oiui- fur llliiKtratFj rafaloEUC. 

JOHN F. STRATTON, 

MANtTFACTURERS, 

NEW roiis. 




Made by Automatic Machinery. 

Lowest in price. Falcon Polished Sections, finest 
made. Higginsville Hives, etc-, cheaply sold. 
Seven Railroads and four Express Companies ta 

ship over. Samples and Catalogue free. 

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5-3 Springfield, 111. 

SECTIONS, BEE-g^EVES 
and other Bee-keep- 



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at bed-rock prices. 

liestof Goods at LOWEST PRICES. 

Write for free, illustrated Catalogue and Price list. 

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VOL. VI. 



JUNE, 1896. 



NO. 6. 



Confining Bees. 

BY (HAS. 11. I'HIES. 

There is much said about confining 
bees, the length of time they will 
stand confinement without a cleansing 
flight, etc. During the past winter I 
had a little experience in the inattter 
without any effort on ray part. In 
preparing my bees for winter in the 
fall of 1895 I doubled ray nuclei, by 
which method some of thera were 
formed to sraall colonies or swarms. 
In forming my nuclei 1 put a thin 
partition in a regular 8 frame hive 
body, which gives me two nuclei to 
each hive, the entrance being at op- 
posite ends. In preparing my bees 
for winter I make one nuclei queeu- 
less and then pull out the thin parti- 
tion board and the uniting is done. I 
next put a thin partition board on 
each side which makes a double wall- 
ed hive on the sides. In putting in 
these boards I happened to entirely 
close the entrance, which remained 
closed all winter and until after the 
weather became very warm. So my 
bees were wintered on the summer 
stands and were confined six months 
without a flight. Of course we did 
not have very cold weather, but we 
had some very warm days. Upon ex- 



amining these bees in the spring they 
appeared to have wintered very poor- 
ly ; in fact upon opening the hive it 
took me a few minutes before I could 
tell what was really the matter with 
them. They acted much as though 
they were queenless, but upon exam- 
ining them I soon found a queen, also 
a good lot of brood of all ages. When 
I made a closer examination I found 
the entrance entirely closed. Take 
this colony tu-day and I am unable to 
see that they are any worse for their 
six months confineraent. Had these 
six months been steady cold I would 
not have been so much surprised, but 
as we had changeable weather they 
surely beca'ue very uneasy, and no 
doubt if they had not had very good 
honey would have died. I do not 
know as this experience will be worth 
much to any one, yet I give it more 
as a curiosity than what it might be 
worth. 

Steeleville, 111. 

Poisonous Honey. 

BY X. HALLOCK. 

I noticed in the last American Bee 
Keeper a letter from Mr. Jolley on 
the subject, "Poisonous Honey. — Do 
Bees Gather it ? 



146 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



It would be diflScult to make a Long 
Islander living on the boarders of the 
Great Plains that abound with a shrub 
known by the natives as Kill calf or 
Staggar bush, believe that they do not 
gather poison from the flowers. Sheep 
or calves eating the tender leaves, 
reel as though drunk and are partially 
blind, but seldom die from the effects. 

Honey gathered from it will on 
many, act in a very short time in a 
strange way. The person eating the 
honey will become dizzy and uncon- 
scious and face and throat will swell, 
and unless prompt emetic is given the 
result is very painful and dangerous. 

The neighborhood where this is 
written was once so afflicted with poi- 
sonous honey that few kept bees; but 
taking up and cultivating the land 
has destroyed the bush, and there has 
not been a case of honey poison in 
forty years, while twelve miles east of 
here where the plant is still abundant 
it is of not uncommon occurrance. A 
party offered me his stock of bees at a 
nominal price recently as his nephew 
had nearly died last year within an 
hour after eating of the honey, and 
he had become afraid to eat it himself. 

These facts lead me tu believe that 
here at least bees do gather poisonous 
honey from the Andromida Mariana 
(staggar bush). 

Queens, Long Island, N. Y. 

Modern, vs. Antideluvian.— 
Progression or Retro- 
gression, Which? 

BY H. E. HILL. 

To the interrogative preliminary to 
the Bee Keeper's April " leader," by 
Jno. F. Gates, I reply : Rows of 
painted hives out from under an old 
shed, on the green grass, in God's 



sunshine, neatly and conveniently ar- 
ranged, with movable combs which 
reverses the order of the " tall breed- 
ers," and enables the beekeeper to 
become boss of the situation ; rows of 
hives that admit of the application of 
apicultural skill, if such a thing ex- 
ists, from which queen cells may be 
saved, stores equalized, treatment ad- 
minstered in case of disease and its 
detection made possible, loss of ab- 
secondiug swarms prevented by clip- 
ping, such conditions as a failing or 
drone-laying queen, queeulessness or 
fertile worker, rectified. Hives that 
will take a super at the beginning of 
the season before their numbers are 
divided by swarming ; when their 
united forces will expend their ener- 
gies in filling the sections with honey 
instead of a part (the swarm) dividing 
their work between the supers and an 
empty brood chamber. The ''beauty" 
of breeders loses its charm when the 
bees persist in covering the exterior 
of their primitave box for ten days, 
like a bearskin robe, before swarming, 
while other colonies, w'intered in mod- 
ern hives, are filling a second super. 
To Mr. Gates those " tall breeders " 
are evidently " a thing of beauty and 
a joy for ever," and his way of put- 
ting his hobby may make interesting 
reading for admirers of "Blessed 
Bees," but it is hardly probable that 
the highest degree of knowdedge and 
incidental success shall come to us 
through retorgressive measures. 

My esteemed preceptor, Mr. J. B. 
Hall, of Woodstock, Ont., once remark- 
ed to me that bee-keeping would pay 
him even if he lost all of his bees 
every winter, but I have never known 
of him meeting with a winter loss 
worth mentioning. He is less fortun- 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



147 



ate than Mr. Gates, however, in that 
with his system of management the 
honey in the brood chambers and the 
sections are not always strictly white. 
The mystery, to me, is, with Mr. 
Gates' method, what becomes of all 
the off grades. 

If the only advantage of keeping 
two colonies to do the work of one, is 
the probable lowering of the percent- 
age of winter loss, this is indeed 
" much ado about nothing." The loss 
of merchantable honey by waiting for 
the bees to swarm and the uselessness 
of the parent colony thereafter, coupl- 
ed with foregoing disadvantages, 
would be much greater than any winter 
loss that ever befel me during ten 
years experience in a county adjoin- 
in Mr. Gates' home in Pennsylvania, 
and several years much farther north. 

There are hundreds of apiarists 
whose winter losses are next to noth- 
ing, that control their bees in modern 
hives, and who would assist any read- 
ers of the Bee Keeper by advice, who 
have not already been wearied by the 
threadbare winter problem, that re- 
gard wintering as such a calamitous 
task that they contemplate adopting 
a system that necessitates keeping 
double the number of hives from 
which they expect returns, and those 
returns necessarily smaller in many 
instances than would be obtained from 
colonies that had not swarmed. 

Spruce Bluffs, Fla. 

Importation of Apis Dorsata — 

An Ofif-Hand Reply to C. C. 

Miller and Others. 

BY W. K. MARKS. 

Gentlemen : — The " reasons " for 
opposing the importation of Apis 
Dorsata, of yourself and others, jnib- 



lished in a late American Bee Jour- 
nal, though not unexpected, are cer- 
tainly remarkable and will be receive- 
ed as they deserve — with the contempt 
of intelligent bee keepers of the pres- 
ent and future generations. I can 
not believe that tne disgusting, un- 
called for, and unchristian, personal 
attacks upon Mr. Benton, are the 
qualities of Christianity or of progress. 
If to obstruct, discourage and oppose 
any and every effort for reform and 
progress are the requisites of a " well- 
informed bee keeper," then, I am 
thankful to say, we are not of that 
class. Perhaps we are not "well-in- 
formed," but we are certainly in good 
company and intelligent enough not to 
discourage any proposition intended 
for the advancement of apiculture. 
You practically admit that the sub- 
ject is beyond your knowledge. Could 
there be a better argument in favor 
of the undertaking than that ? "Will 
you ever know more if no progress is 
made in this line ? You pass lightly 
over Gravenhorst, entirely ignore 
Dathe and Benton, the only men 
competent to speak on the subject 
with authority, and quote at length 
the fallacious theories of Baldens- 
perger and Cheshire. You must have 
been hard pressed for some excuse 
for your position. Are the spiteful 
thrusts at Mr. Benton good "reasons" 
or arguments ? Must the importation 
of Apis dorsata be delayed to gratify 
the personal spite of a few individu- 
als ? I would say to all such , that at 
no very distant date Apis dorsata will 
be domesticated, and will remain to 
bless mankind long after they and 
their memories shall be dead and for- 
gotten. 

After all, I suppose you consider 



148 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



yourselves " progressive bee keepers." 
Who would think it ? The Standard 
defines Progressive as characterized 
by " making or tending to make prog- 
ress ; aiming at or encouraging prog- 
ress ; making effort for advancement." 
Your position does not verify your 
assumption. Imagine men who con- 
sider themselves " well-informed bee 
keepers" resorting to the English 
sparrow and similar bugbears to prej- 
udice the undertaking. " Well-in- 
formed bee keepers," indeed ! Why, 
this was the very argument of a mis- 
informed (I will not say ignorant) 
farmer I met, and furthermoi-e he 
said : " That bees were a nuisance ; 
they eat his peaches, apples and grapes, 
and if we had larger ones they would 
not only eat his peaches, etc., but the 
the pumpkins and everything eata- 
ble." Thus do the two extremes 
meet : the " well-informed bee keep- 
er " and the mis-informed farmer. 
Are they so much alike ? If so, then 
from the " well-informed bee keeper," 
Oh ! Lord, deliver us. The "reasons " 
you advance are not in keeping with 
the intelligence of our times, and in- 
tended only to deceive, prejudice and 
delay. Past events have left a shad- 
ow, and although you are careful to 
conceal it, the real reason for your 
course is apparent. You may " fool 
some bee keepers all of the time and 
all bee keepers some of the time, but 
you can not fool all the bee keepers 
all the time." There is not one word 
in the petition we would change. We 
believe it has already been circulated 
and signed by enough of the best and 
really progressive bee keepers to jus- 
tify us in every assertion. The gov- 
ernment will get these bees if we ask 
it. Would those who are engaged in 



other pursuits, if offered such an op- 
portunity , hesitate or try to delay it ? 
Oh ! shame. Here we are at the end 
of the nineteenth century and you 
think an undertaking " premature " 
that has already been neglected too 
long. We believe that God intended 
man should ' ' subdue and have domin- 
ion over " these beautiful honey bees, 
and to neglect them, generation after 
generation, is a sin. Why not import 
these bees into our own country, where 
we can test them in our own way, and 
in our own time? Your " reasons" 
are too absurd for further considera- 
tion. The time has come for action. 
We will not delay. 

"Art is long, and time is fleeting, 

And our hearts, though stout and brave, 
Still, like mutlled drums, are beating 
Funeral marches to the grave. 

In the world's broad field of battle, 

In the bivouac of life. 
Be not like dumb, driven cattle ! 

Be a hero in the strife ! 

Trust no Future, how'er pleasant ! 

Let the dead Past bury its dead ! 
Act, — act in the living Present I 

Heart within, and Crod o'erhead ! " 

Chapiuville, N. Y., May 18, 1896. 

VASSAR GIRLS AND ATHLETICS. 

All Vassar girls are fond of the well- 
equipped gymnasium, but for out-of door 
amusements perhaps their first choice is for 
a fine long tramp over the hills, rowing or 
skating on the neat little lake close by, or a 
game on the tennis court. " We like to be 
country girls and wear cotton dresses and go 
without our hats," said one fresh-faced, 
healthy student ; and the statistics of the 
woman physician in the infirmary on the 
top fljor, which is a complete little gem of 
an infirmary, bear witness to the Vassar 
girls' wise choice of recreative amusements. 
Increasing interest in athletics has been 
manifested the jiast year. Basket and bot- 
tle ball teams liave been formed, and as the 
college i.s situated far away from the town, 
and the tennis and ball grounds are in the 
shelter of the Plaisance, the students are 
encouraged to this sort of exercise and al- 
lowed to count it as time spent in the gym- 
nasium. — From "A Day at Vassar," in 
Demorest's Magazine for May. 



1891). 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



149 




I b'rom Progressive Bee-Keeperj 

MANAGENG SWARMS HAVING 

QJEi-NS WITH CLIPPED 

WINGS. 

G. M. DOOMTTLK. 



Many seems to think that if they 
clip the wings of their queens they 
will have trouble with their bees in 
swarming time. This thought] eotnes 
from a misunderstanding of the mat- 
ter, I am sure, for with me it is a very 
simple thing to care for a swarm 
whose queen has a clipped wiug, so, 
with the hopes that it may help some, 
I will give the four ditferent ways I 
manage, either of which works well 
with me. The first way is to hive the 
bees on the returning plan, allowing 
the swarm to occupy the place of the 
old colony. This is done as follows : 
When the swarm is seen issuing, step 
in front of the hive far enough so that 
you will not be liable to step on the 
queen should she have gotten out be- 
fore you reach'^the hive, and also so 
you can take in quite a bit of territory 
with the visions, for if too close, you 
will see but little of the ground, which 
causes a longer search with less pros- 
pects of finding the queen, than if 
farther off. As soon as the queen is 
found, let her run into a wire-cloth 
cage, she entering the same readily if 
it is held a little in front of her and 
in an upright position. When she is 
in the cage, put in the movable stop- 
per so as to secure her, when she is to 
be placed in front of the old hive, or 



anywhere you please ; only so you do 
not step on the cage and kill her, as I 
knew a certain person of about my 
size to do once. Next, move the old 
colony to a new stand and place the 
new hive where it stood, placing the 
caged queen at the entrance. In from 
five to thirty-five minutes the bees v»'ill 
miss their queen, (generally in from 
five to eight minutes,) and come back 
to where they started in search of their 
queen, running with fanning wings 
into the new hive, when the queen is 
to be set at liberty and allowed to go 
in with them. The second plan is the 
one which I use when I wish to leave 
the old colony on the old stand, and is 
as follows : Proceed to hunt up the 
queen, as before, and as soon as she is 
found, turn the old hive halfway 
around and off of the ground (to the 
rear) where it stood. Now place the 
new hive where the old one stood, 
placing the queen at the entrance of 
the new hive as bef(;re. As soon as 
they come back and all enter the new 
hive, take the new hive and carry it 
where you wish to stand it, bringing 
the old hive back to it? former posi- 
tion. By these two ways, it will be 
seen that the bees hive themselves. 
No climbing of trees, cutting off limbs, 
or anything of that kind, which our 
fathers thought it necessary to do. 
My third is, when the bees begin to 
cluster on the branch of a tree, which 
I care nothing for, and where they 
can be easily gotten at, I attach a w' ire 
to the cage, and hang it with the 
clustering bees ; and when I get ready 
to care for them I cut the branch from 
the tree, and carry them to the hive, 
which has been previously placed 
where I wish the colony to stand, and 
treat them the same as any swarm is 



150 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



June 



treated. No danger of they going to 
the woods if vou leave them hancrincr 
all day, for should they try it, as I had 
one do once, they will soon come back 
and cluster about the queen again, 
there to stay and try to make a home 
on this limb, unless cared for by the 
apiarist. If any of the readers of the 
Progressive wish to have a swarm 
work in the open air, this gives them 
the clew to how it can be done. The 
fourth plan is to cage the queen as 
before, when a large corn popper is to 
be so held in front of the hive that the 
issuing bees will many of them run 
into it. If you do not see the queen , 
so as to cage her before the thickest 
of the bees have left the hive, catch 
the bees first and then look for the 
queen. Having the bees in the pop- 
per and the queen in the cage, attach 
the cage, by means of a wire hook, to 
the popper so it will hang snugly to 
the bottom of the same. Previous to 
this you should provide yourself with 
a light pole of sufficient length to 
reach the highest place where the bees 
are liable to cluster, into the small end 
of which there should be bored a hole 
of the right size so that the popper 
will screw into it firmly. Having all 
in readiness, screw the popper in the 
end of the pole, raising the same and 
carrying it into the midst of the swarm, 
where they are flying the thickest in 
the air. The bees in the popper will 
fan their wings on the side next to the 
queen, which tells to the those in the 
air that they have found the queen 
and are clustering about her, when as 
a rule the swarm will at once begin to 
cluster on the popper also. Some 
swarms however, are determined to 
cluster on a tree or nowhere, and in 
such a case, as soon as one-fourth of 



the bees have clustered on the limb, 
hold the popper immediately under 
and up against the limb, when the 
balance of the bees in the air will be- 
gin to cluster all over the popper. 
When about two-thirds of the bees 
have clustered, draw the popper away 
from the limb a little, so fixing it that 
you can leave it, when all of the bees 
will leave the limb and cluster on the 
popper as you wish. While you are 
waiting for them to go from the limb 
to the popper you can be getting the 
hive ready, or any other work vou 
may have to do. As soon as all are 
clustered on the popper you can car- 
ry and hive them where you wish, the 
same as you would had you cut off a 
limb. Thus it will be seen that we 
have the bees perfectly in our power in 
swarming time if we clip the wings of 
our queens, and can go about the hiv- 
ing of them with the same deliberation 
we would if setting down to write an 
article for the Progressive, with no 
danger of any swarms getting beyond 
our control. Some fear losing the 
queen, should they not be on the 
ground at once as soon as she leaves 
the hive with the swarm, but should 
it so happen that a swarm issues when 
you are away, the queen will return 
with the swarm, as a rule, if the alight- 
ing board reaches the ground so she 
can do so, and if not she is readily 
found by looking for the little cluster 
of bees which will always find her and 
stay with her when the swarm returns. 
Borodino, N. Y. 



Clubbing 

We will send the America 
the— 

American Bee Journal, 
American Apiculturist, 
Bee-Keeper's Review, 
Canadian Bee Journal, 
Gleanings in Bee Culture, 


List. 

N Bee-Keeper with 

PUB. PRCE. BOTH. 

(81 00) 81 35 
( lb) 1 15 
(1 00) 1 35 
(1 00) 1 25 
(1 00) 1 35 



1890. 



TUB AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



151 



F'roiu the Southland Queen, i 

MORE ABOUT VIRGINS. 



BY L. I.. SiKA(;(;.S. 



Some bee-keepers tell us that queens 
will fill their hives all right if they 
are almost touching each other ; that 
won't work for me. I once arranged 
my hives in rows that looked nice — 
they were about three feet apart — now 
the result ; nearly all young queens 
got lost. 1 kept trying till I ruined 
several good colonies, trying to get 
the queens to laying. I noticed that 
the hives at the ends of the rows had 
laying queens in due time, so I 
thought they must be to close togeth- 
er along the row, then I commenced 
scattering the hives. All that I mov- 
ed out of the rows had their queens 
mated in due time, so I learned by 
costly experience that I must keep my 
hives at least ten feet apart each way, 
and not have any regular way for the* 
hives to face; just set them about our 
yard like we never had any taste for 
pretty things, for we can't keep bees 
for the looks ; it is to much trouble 
and loss. Some say that if queens 
are kept caged while they are young 
it injure them. I can't agree; if they 
are hatched in large cages ?> or 4 in. 
square, right on the combs so the 
queen can help her self to the honey 
as she gets out of the cell. As soon 
as she hatches raise the cage and let 
15 or 20 bees run under it with the 
queen ; now place the cage back over 
them, press it well into the comb so 
they can't gnaw under and get out ; 
be sure there is plenty of unsealed 
honey in the cage. Now you can take 
this comb containing the virgin queen, 
but brush off all the bees that are 
sticking to the comb, or they may 



cause trouble, or cause you to get 
stung ; take her to any hive that you 
want to introduce her to. Catch the 
queen out of the hive, place this comb 
containing the virgin queen in the 
center of the brood nest, close the 
hive, mark the date on the hive so 
you will not forget it, in 8 days after 
that, look in the hive and destroy all 
queen cells, if they are all sealetl take 
off your cage and watch the (jueen, if 
the bees take no notice of hei- she is 
all right, but if they make fight at 
her I just smoke lightly, take my 
corn-cob cage out of my pocket, take 
cob out of one end, place tliis over 
the queen, and as soon as she ruus up 
the side of the cage, lift up the cage 
and put the cob back in place. One 
end should have ^ inch inch of soft 
candy, the other end nothing only a 
small stopper, through this end put 10 
or 15 bees with the queen ; now put 
the cage in the center of brond nest 
and let them alone for two days ; by 
that time she will be out. As a rule, 
introducing virgin queens takes long- 
er, is all the difference that I see from 
laying queens. You must be sure there 
is no way for the bees to raise a queen ; 
if they have unsealed brood in the 
hive, you can't depend oa them re- 
ceiving her. Unless it is swarming 
time I have nearly as much trouble 
to get them to receive queen cells. 
The trouble is they let the queen 
hatch and then kill her. Son)c bee- 
keepers say that after the liive has 
been queeuless 24 hour it is safe to 
give queen cells ; not so with me, 
unless it is swarming time. If honey 
is scarce it is best to wait 5 days. 
Now you see how much time is lost, 
so I had rather let my queens hatch 
first, then introduce as I first describ- 



152 



TEE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



ed and save the five days, and some 
times something will happen to cells 
and your hives are queenless ; that 
makes trouble. Queens hatched in 
small cages, to depend on candy for a 
living, or honey that you may fix in 
the cage for them always look sickly 
to me. They don't like the candy 
while they are young, and some of 
them will starve before they will eat 
it, but if they can get to the comb 
they will stick their heads in every 
cell till they find one that has honey 
in it, then they will stay there and 
eat till you would think it will surely 
make her sick, but don't be afraid, 
for that is what they want. They 
must be nearly starved when they are 
hatched, for if they can't get honey 
right at once they soon die, so be 
careful to hiive unsealed honey in 
cage. Don't throw away virgin 
queens that are under ten days old, 
but keep as near in line with nature 
as you can, both in raising (jueens and 
feeding them. Here is a quick way 1 
have piacticed some with good results, 
for introducing virgin queens. Take 
queen and all combs from them, but 
give them honey in some way, old 
combs from the honey house are good, 
but be sure they have been from the 
bees two or three weeks, so there is 
no chance for them to have eggs that 
will hatch, place wire cloth over the 
hive and tack it down so no bees can 
get out. When the bees all get in 
the hive clo.se the entrance and put 
the hive in the shade, if the weather 
is warm; do this in the morning early, 
and that night just about dark, or a 
little before, take virgin queen in a 
cage by herself to -the hive, have a 
cup of honey with you, thin it a little 
with water, drop the queen in honey 



and stir her around a little, be careful 
not to hurt her, have the hive back on 
its stand, with cover on over wire 
cloth, so not to disturb them, now 
open the entrance on inch, take the 
queen out of the honey on a fork, put 
her right in the entrance, the bees 
will clean her and then treat her as 
their own. Don't touch the hive 
after you put her with the bees for a 
day or two. 
Click, Texas. 



(From Progres-ive Bee-Keeper. i 

SOME COMMOI;^ MLSTAKES OF BEE- 
KEEPERS. 



E. W. MOORE. 



Beginners in bee-keeping are bound 
to make many mistakes in their man- 
agement of bees. I have before me a 
letter from one of the beginners of 
1895, stating that in May, last spring, 
he bought ten colonies of bees and 
that after they built up strong, he 
divided them, letting them rear new 
queens, and that this winter they have 
all but four gone to that sleep that 
knows no waking. 

This is one mistake very often 
made by beginners, trying to increase 
their bees too fast, and thereby get- 
ting their bees so weak in numbers 
and so short of stores that they either 
freeze or starve out before spring. 
And here let me say to anyone buy- 
ing bees this spring : Don't do as the 
one above did, and divide your bees, 
but let them build up and store you a 
surplus, and if the season and honey 
flow are right, your bees will give you 
natural swarms and stow away honey 
for winter use. 

Another mistake often made by ex- 
perienced bee-keepers as well as by 
beginners, it is to neglect feedin_ 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEP:PER. 



153 



those colouies in the fall that havu't 
honey enough to run them for the 
winter, thereby losing many good 
strong colonies, and by neglecting to 
provide for our bees in the fall, I am 
confident is the cause of three-fourths 
of our winter losses, for I am confident 
that more bees darve to death in winter 
and early spring than are lost from 
all other causes combined. 

Another very serious mistake often 
made by beginners and inexperienced 
bee-keepers is spreading the brood in 
early spring, and of putting on the 
supers too early, thereby weakening 
all colonies, and with a good chance 
of having a cold snap, chill all the 
young brood, and if supers are on the 
hives too early, you are depriving the 
bees of warmth that should have been 
kept in the brood chamber, for warm- 
th and honey bees must have in early 
spring if they build up in time for 
basswood and clover harvest. 

Another mistake often made by 
many is hiving a new swarm in a new 
place. Why not put the new swarm 
on the stand of the old swarm, and 
and take one frame of brood from the 
old swarm and give it to the new 
swarm, and move the old swarm to a 
new location, thereby throwing all of 
the field force of workers to the new 
colony and doing away with after- 
swarming ? 

How many bee-keepers are there 
who have gotten their hives, founda- 
tions, etc., made up and ready for the 
coming harvest ? I am afraid there 
are a good many who havn't been 
putting things in shape for the coming 
busy season, and to those who havn't 
ordered and made up their supplies 
this winter, I would like to ask this 
question : When do you intend get- 



ting your supplies ? Better do so be- 
fore swarming time, as it isn't very 
profitable to^vait until you are in need 
of hives and sections before ordering, 
for if you do, by the time you receive 
your goods, the honey flow is a thing 
of the past, and your swarms if 3'ou 
save any of them at all, you will have 
to put them in boxes, kegs, or any- 
thing you can get that will hold them. 
And then what a time you will have 
of transferring. If you want to be in 
the race this summer, better commence 
now, and get everything in place. 

In conclusion let me say that if you 
wish to be successful with your bees, 
you must give them the proper atten- 
tion, and do it at the proper time. 
Furnish them some kind of shade for 
summer, and keep the weeds down 
from around the hives. Procure some 
good text book on bee culture, read 
and duchj the habits of the bees, and if 
you are in love with your pets, you 
will soon learn enough to avoid a 
great many of the mistakes often 
made by beginners. Remember that 
what is worth doing at all is worth 
doing well, and that well begun is 
half done. 

Griffin, Ind. 



(From Ainerican B* e Journal, Oct. 17, li*!).>). 

APIS DORSATA AND OTHEk 
THINGS. 

BY W. K. MORRISON. 

Apis Dorsata has had a hard time 
of it lately, according to some author- 
ities, but I take little stock in "sich." 
Prof. Cheshire's arguments have 
chiefly been relied on to give support 
to specious pleas. Now nothing can 
be more fallacious than Cheshire's 
reasoning on this subject. He must 
have hurried himself when writing on 



154 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



the races, otherwise I can't see how he 
came to write it. Here is the ohnox- 
ious paragraph : 

"Flowers and l)ees have been con- 
stantly interacting. The build of 
every floret is adapted to its fertilizer, 
and, could we suddenly increase the 
dimensions of our hive bees we should 
throw them out of harmony with the 
floral world around them, decrease 
their utility by reducing the number 
of plants they could fertilize, and 
diminish equally their value as honey 
gatlierers. Mechanics, physiology, 
economics, and botany, alike show any 
craving after mere size to be difficult 
to find an excuse." 

As there are 212 species of bees in- 
habiting the British Isles, the readers 
of the Bee Journal can form their own 
opinion of how much violence the in- 
troduction of otie new species w^ould 
do, and I shudder to think of the ter- 
rible havoc that occurred in America 
when Apis Meilifica was set loose by 
foolish settlers ! American historians 
have neglected this subject. As to 
the matter of size, even the British 
fauna is enriched by the presence of 
bees much larger (Borabus),aud which 
are more industrious than our own lit- 
tle pet Apis. According to Cheshire, 
the British farmer ought to abandon 
his magnificent Shire and Clydesdale 
horses, and adopt the little donkey or 
Shetland pony. The work of Bake- 
well and McCombie is not so easily 
overturned, 

"Bee-Master," too, has "put his 
foot in it," in making the astounding 
assertion that the earth has been ran- 
sacked, from pole to pole, in search of 
new bees. Will "Bee-Master" in- 
form an anxious reader who did all 
the ransacking? If it's so, I have a 
bone to pick with the editor of this 
journal. I would like to know who 



made the experiments on Apis Dorsa- 
ta, Nigripennis, Socalis, Dellessertii, 
Indica, Perrottetii, Lobata and Pero- 
nii — all near relatives of our own 
Meilifica, differing only in size and 
color. Being somewhat familiar with 
the Spanish main, I can affirm that 
his assertion is a misstatement, not 
warranted in any degree. 

South America abounds in honey- 
gathering bees, some of which have 
been partially domesticated and more 
might be. Not since the days of 
Azara Hall, St. Hilliare, and Gardner, 
have we had any information of 
moment on the bees of Terra Firma. 
And can "Bee-Master" furnish us 
.with knowledge of the bees of Africa, 
the southern portion of which is a 
veritable floral garden ? I guess not. 
Dr. Jamieson, the explorer, and now 
Commissioner of Matabele Land, and 
Dr. Brotherston, head of the Niger Co., 
have, I know, a knowledge of bee-cul- 
ture, and they would be the last to 
say that Africa has been ransacked 
for new I'aces of bees. This fact re- 
mains, that in certain portions of the 
globe bees are kept by natives, that 
have never been brought under scien- 
tific culture, and many races yet re- 
main to experiment on. 

For my part, I should be glad to 
see a smaller bee than Meilifica intro- 
duced, such as Indica, or even Florea. 
The great flower, Melianthus Major, 
is neglected by European bees, but 
may we not secure the bees that do 
feed on it, in its native land ? 

Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace, who is 
a good bee-keeper, and the author of 
that entertaining book, "The Malay 
Archipelago," gives lucid accounts of 
Dorsata which should be read by all 
those interested. 

Devonshire, Bermuda Isles, July 2. 



189C. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



155 



I From Aniericiin Hee Journal.! 

SOME BEE-NOTES FROM OALirOR- 
NIA. 



BY PROF. A. J. COOK. 



Thk BeivKeei'Ees' Exchange. — 
It is foi'tuuate for the Califoi-nia Bee- 
Keepers' Exchange that the present 
season is so unpromising for a honey 
crop. As yet, we have received only 
about nine inches of rain, while, ac- 
cording to all reports, 15 inches is 
necessary for a good honey crop. 
True, we may get more, but bee-keep- 
ers or ranchmen do not expect much 
rain after this date. Thus, it looks 
very much at present as though the 
honey product of Southern California, 
the present season, would be like that 
of two years ago — nothing. Yet I do 
not believe the bee-keepers will be 
discouraged, or will give up the new 
organization. Those in the regions of 
orchards and alfalfa fields will doubt- 
less get something of a crop ; and 
others have already reaped advantage 
in the lower prices which they have 
had to pay for supplies. I very much 
mistake the temper and spirit of our 
bee-keepers if they let the discourag- 
ing prospect discourage them. We 
will hang to The Bee-Keepers' Ex- 
change, and be ready with the next 
harvest to secure a price that shall 
pay us for our labor in securing the 
crop. 

I quite agree with a recent writer in " 
Gleanings, that every State in the 
country ought to follow the example 
of California, then we should have 
full control of the honey, and could 
demand remunerative prices. I be- 
lieve this is a matter that should be 
taken up in all the associations. State 
and National, and we should not "cry 



quits" until the whole country was 
organized. This consummation will 
surely be realized in the not very dis- 
tant future ; whether we shall reap 
the advantages depends upon whether 
we are ready to act with energy and 
effect. 



Foul Brood. — The subject of foul 
brood is a very practical one in many 
of our bee keeping regions. I know a 
bee keeper not very far from Clare- 
mont in whose apiary a year ago 
there were five or six colonies diseased 
with foul brood. At my suggestion, 
that those colonies should be treated, 
and certainly better be desti'oyed than 
to be left to spread the disease, he re- 
marked that he thought his bees had 
had it before, and they got well. He 
now reports very sadly that every col- 
ony in his apiary has the disease. He 
feels very badly, and has double 
reason for his condition. 

It seems to me that every bee keep- 
er in the country should be thorough- 
ly informed regarding this malady, 
and that we should have such laws 
and inspection as would protect bee 
keepers against this evil. Ontario, 
Canada, has given us a very wise ex- 
ample in this direction. 



Buckthorn as a Honey Plant. — 
One of the most common group of 
plants in California is the buckthorn. 
There are many species of these 
shrubs, and all are very prolific of 
flowers. One, the California lilac, re- 
rembles quite closely the lilac of the 
East, and is very beautiful. Most of 
them, however, are white, and as we 
go through the brush-wood, we are 
constantly running upon these plants. 
I am happy to say that they are very 



156 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



attractive to the bees. I fiud the 
shrubs alive with these little insects, 
bearing away their heavy load of pol- 
en and honey. As they bleom in late 
March and early April, before the 
sage and buckwheat are in blossom, 
they are quite valuable as early bee- 
forage. 'J'his is especially true in out- 
apiaries away from the orchards. The 
genus of the buckthorn is Ceanothus, 
of which genus there are a large num- 
ber of species. Like nearly all of the 
bee plants of California, these buck- 
thorns are a long time in bloom, and 
are thus far more valuable as honey 
plants than they would otherwise be. 



Orange Bloom and Bees. — Dur- 
ing the last few days the hum of the 
bees has been very constant and very 
loud in all the region about Clare- 
mont. The orange orchards are in 
full bloom, and the odor is not only 
very preceptible in the streets near by 
the orchards, but is borne by the 
winds to regions far distant, even to 
apiaries miles away ; thus swarms of 
bees are passing from the apiaries to 
the orange orchards in quest of the 
nectar. 

Appropos to the above, I would say 
that 1 know of no honej^ more delici- 
ous than that from orange bloom. As 
we might expect the flavor reminds 
one decidedly of the odor. 1 have 
often secured enough fruit blossom 
honey in Michigan, so that 1 could 
test its quality. I always found it 
very delicious. There was a delicate 
reminder of fruit preserve which was 
altogether agreeable. Thus I was not 
surprised to learn how exquisite this 
orange blossom honey is. 



Bee-Martin or Kingbird. — It is 
a fact beyond question that the bee- 



bird, or bee-martin, or king bird, 
lyranmis tyrannus, destroys bees, both 
drones and workers, in the Eastern 
States, often to quite an extent. We 
also have a bird said to destroy bees 
here in California. It belongs to the 
same genus as the one already men- 
tioned. These birds sit on a perch, 
and as the bee comes towards the hive, 
darts after it, catches it in its bill and 
flies back to its perch. It is then seen 
to go through certain motions, after 
which the bee is swallowed, and it is 
ready to repeat the operation. I am 
very curious to know what becomes of 
the bee's stinger. From what we know, 
we should expect that the bird would 
certainly get stung in the throat as it 
swallowed the bee. I have seen toads 
swallow bees, and, upon dissection, I 
found just as man)- stings in the toad's 
throat as there had been bees swallow- 
ed. In this case, of course, the toad 
is either callous against the stings, or 
else not sensitive to the poison. Is it 
possible that in the case of the king- 
bird the sting is extracted before the 
bee is swallowed ? True, this would re- 
quire no little intelligence ; but I 
think many of our lower animals are 
brighter than we give them credit for 
being. We should suppose that an 
animal as highly organized as a bird, 
and especially as these fly-catcher.«, 
would be injured if stung so much in 
the throat, mouth, oe.sophagus or stom- 
ach. I wish those who have oppor- 
tunity to observe this matter would 
kill and dissect a bird and find what 
is the truth in the matter. If, as is 
'probable, the bees are found without 
their stingers, then the latter should 
be looked for in the interior part of 
the alimentary canal of the bird. 
Years ago I dissected kingbirds and 
found worker- bees in their stomachs, 
but I regret to say that I never 
thought of the stingers, and so made 
no observations in reference to this 
point. 

Claremont, Calif., April 21. 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



157 



The American Bce-Keeper, 

PUBI.ISHKD MOXTllLY BY 

THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG CO. 



TERMS : 

50 cents a year in advance ; 2 copies, 85 cents ; 3 
copies, $1.20 ; all to be sent to one postoffice. 

Postage prepaid in the U.S. and Canada; 10 cents 
extra to all countries in the postal union and 20 
cents extra to all other countries. 

ADVERTISING RATES: 

15 cents per line, 9 words: S2.00 per inch. 5 per 
cent, discount for 2 insertions; 7 per cent, for 3 in- 
sertions; 10 per cent, for 6 insertions; 20 per cent. 
for 12 insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or before 
the 20th of each month to insure insertion in month 
following. Address, 

THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
Falconer, N. Y. 

i<®*Subscribers finding this paragraph marked 
with a blue cross will know that their subscripiton 
expires with this number. We hope that' you will 
not delay in sending a renewal. 

4S°"A Red Cross on this paragraph indicates that 
you owe for your subscriprion. Please give the 
matter your attention. 

EDITORIAL, 



It looks now as if the honey crop 
of 189G will be the largest for several 
years. The weather since spring 
opened has in this locality been all 
that the bee keeper could ask for. 



"We will send the American Bee- 
Keeper one year with the Cosmopol- 
itan for $1.25. The Cosmopolitan is 
a monthly magazine containing an 
average of over 100 pages and 80 il- 
lustrations each month. 



Evidently queen rearing is not so 
lucrative as in some former years. 
We notice there are very few adver- 
tisements of queen dealers seen in 
the bee papers. 



"How to Manage Bees " is a 50c 
book for beginners in bee keeping. 
We will send it postpaid for 25c. 



At the present time there is no 
particular subject pertaining to bee 
keeping that is receiving any more 
attention than another. This is a 
very unusual .state of affairs. Some 
one ought to start an argument of 
some kind. 



Wm Gerrish, East Nottingham, N 
H., keeps a complete supply of our 
goods and Eastern customers will 
save freight bv ordering from him. 



The bee industry in the Eastern 
States is pretty " dead ''' this season, 
as is shown by the letters and small 
number of orders received. 



We will send the Farm Journal, 
(Phila). and the Bee-Keeper one year 
for 50c, or will send the Farm Journal 
one year to everyone who owe a year 
or more subscription and will pay up. 
(Mention this offer). 



The Worlds Fair Commissioners 
have just distributed the diplomas 
and medals to exhibitors. It seems 
as if pretty nearly everyone got them. 
So many were distributed that they 
are too common to be very highly 
prized. 



If you need any bee supplies send 
along your orders at once. We can 
fill orders very promptly now. 



"How TO Manage Bees," a 50c 
book, and the American Bee-Keep- 
er a vear for onlv 60c. 



158 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



June 



Reduction of Prices. 

Foundation has been reduced 3c a 
pound from prices in our 1896 cata- 
log. This is owing to the lower price 
of wax. 

Our No. 1 Falcon Polished Sec- 
tions we now offer at $2.50 for 1000, 
$4.50 for 2000, $6.40 for 3000, $10 
for 5000. Less than 1000 same pric- 
es as formerly. 

Beeswax is lower. We are now 
paying 22c cash or 25c in trade, per 
pound, delivered at our railroad sta- 
tion, (Falconer, N. Y). This price is 
not guaranteed. We will pay highest 
market price when wax is received. 
Prices are liable to be reduced again 
within a short time. If you have any 
wax to sell it is advisable to send it 
now. 



We have a quantity of Alley Drone 
and Queen Trap patterns of 1894 
which will be sold at 25c each, regu- 
lar price 50c. These Traps are just 
as good for practical purposes as 
those of more recent pattern. 



We will duplicate the prices on 
hives and supplies offered by any 
first class manufacturers — and in 
many cases can do even better by you 
than anyone else. 

THE FEIGNING OF DEATH BY ANIMALS. 

The habit of feigning death for the sake 
of protection can be observed among many 
of the lower animals, — animals which differ 
widely in family, genius, and species. In- 
deed this habit is to be observed in crea- 
tures micrcscopic in size and of exceedingly 
low organization, as well as those as high in 
the scale of animal life as man himself ; for 
even man does not hesitate, on occasions, to 
avail himself of this natural subterfuge 



when he thinks it will aid in the preserva- 
tion of his life. 

With the aid of the microscope one can 
observe and study the natural history of the 
minute animal world which otherwise would 
remain a closed and unread volume. This 
instrument has shown me, beyond cavil, that 
creatures as low in the scale as actinophryans , 
very minute, microscopic animalcules, prac- 
tice death-feigning when surprised by an 
enemy from which they cannot otherwise 
escape. Thus, J have repeatedly seen acti- 
nophryans fold their delicate, hair-like legs 
or cilia and sink to the bottom of their min- 
iature lake (a drop of water) when approach- 
ed by a water-louse, which preys upon them. 
They remain to all appearances absolutely 
without life until the water-louse swims 
awaj', when they unfold their cilia and go 
back to their feeding-grounds, — a bit of 
water-weed, or moss, or decayed wood. — 
James Weir, in June Lippincott's. 



A UNIQUE REFERENCE BOOK. 

To say it contains information of nearly 
universal interest, and tiiat is, practically, 
obtainable by most readers nowhere else, is 
but the simple truth ccmceruing "Alden's 
Living Topic Cyclopedia." The second 
volume, extending from Boy. to Con., con- 
tains the latest facts concerning the nations, 
Brazil, British Empire, Bulgaria, Cape Col- 
ony, (Jhile, C^hinese Empire and others, and 
concerning three states, California, Colorado 
and Connecticut ; also concerning six large 
cities, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Charleston, Chica- 
go, Cincinnati and Cleveland. The facts 
are commonly from one year to five years 
later than can be found in any of the lead- 
ing cyclopedias, and commonly a year later 
than the 1896 almanacs and annuals We 
name only leading titles ; besides there are 
hundreds of others, all of them '' living " 
topics. One wonders how busy seekers after 
knowledge have got along without such an 
up-to-date cyclopedia. The whole series of 
six handy volumes is to be completed during 
the year, and at the surprisingly low cost of 
§l.-5'0 to §8.0U for the set, with liberal dis- 
counts for advance orders. Specimen })ages 
may be had free by addressing the publish- 
er, John B. Alden, 10 and 12 Vandewater 
St., New York. 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



lof) 



.■ i:i(;>Kiii- by a Quick Process. 
Viuegar ii:o.y be luude iu a very short 
tiiuo by a sort of fiheriug process that 
cau bn ban(ilf?d by auy persou of ordi- 
nary iugeuuity. A large burrel has a 
perforated shelf titted iu a few iuches 
below the top. From the holes fall euds 
of pack thread, which are kuotted at 
the upper end so that they may not be 
drawn entirely through. Glass tubes are 
fixed in the shelf as air vents. The lower 
edge of the barrel is filled with holes 
placed about six inches above the bot- 
tom, and a siphon carries off the liquid 
that accumulates below this point. Di- 
luted alcoholic liquor, slightly sweeten- 
ed with honey or with extract of malt, 
is slowly dripped through the holes iu 
the shelf and runs through beechwood 
ehaviugs that have previously been steep- 
ed in good vinegar. The liquor, which 
should be kept at a temperature of 75 to 
85 degrees F. , filters down through the 
threads and over the shavings to the 
bottom of the barrel, whence it runs 
over through the siphon. After awhile 
the temperature iu the barrel rises to 
about 100 degrees F., the chemical ac- 
tion going on meanwhile. It is neces- 
sary to pour the liquor again and again 
through the generator before it is satis- 
factory. From three or four to half a 
dozen filterings are usually suflScient, 
though more are sometimes required, 
depending a good deal on the quality of 
the materials and the temperature at 
starting. — New York Ledger. 

8ho Was Not Engaged. 

Mrs. B. had changed girls, and was 
undergoing the usual catechism at the 
hands of her kitchen's future ruler. 
After a succestr/lon of damsels from "the 
ould dart" her husband had strenuously 
insisted that she try "an intelligent and 
cleanly American girl. " He had found 
such a one and was sure she would 
prove a trea.sure. The lady of the house 
even thought he might not be mistaken, 
so trim and neat was the newcomer. 

"Yes. I'm a splendid washer," that 
person said, "and I can iron shirts to 
beat a Chinaman — I always did up fa- 
ther's at home. I always had time, for, 
you see, I know how to manage. Flat 
things, sheet.s, tablecloths, napkins, I 
fold and lay around in the chairs ; they 
come out beautifully smooth wheu you 



nave sar (ju t!iem a day or two. And 
that reminds me to ask, where had you 
rather I put them, here in your chair or 
your husband's?" 

It took Mrs. B. sometime minutes to 
recover ."Speech, but finally she managed 
to say that on the whole she feared she 
would not suit a domestic so progressive. 
— New York Journal. 



How Crockett Uved. 

S. R. Crockett, the Scotch writer, has 
been telling how he used to raise the 
heat v/heu a hard up student iu Edin- 
burgh. He lodged wnth a friend over a 
great coal station, and he used to go out 
in the evening and pick up the coals 
which the carts had dropped iu the 
streets. "Sometimes, " he says, "I grew 
so bold as to chuck a lump of coal at a 
driver, who invariably looked for the 
biggest lump on his load to hit back 
with, which was M'hat I wanted. Thus 
the exercise warmed me at the time and 
the coai warmed me afterward. And 
occasionally we got a large enough stock 
to sell to our companions, and buy a 
book or two. But I wish, here and now, 
solemnly to state that 1 never, never 
conde.scended to lift a lump off a cart, 
at least hardly — well, unless it was 
manifestly inconveniencing the safety of 
the load or overburdening the safety of 
the horse, you know !" 



A Gibraltar Legend. 

One of the stock of ancient legends 
relating to the Rock of Gibraltar, from 
which the passing griffs were formerly 
regaled, relates how a young Scotch 
subaltern was on guard duty with a 
brother officer, when the latter in visit- 
ing the sentries fell over a precipice and 
was killed. When the survivor was re- 
lieved from duty, he made the custom- 
ary written report in the usual form, 
"Nothing extraordinary." And this 
brought the brigade major down upon 
him iu a rage. "Whati When your 
brother oflicer on duty with you h is 
fallen dov.n a precipice 400 feet high 
and been killed, you report nothing ex- 
traordinary !" "Wcel. sir," replied the 
Scot calmly, "I dinna think there's 
onythiug extraornery in it, ava. If he 
had fa'cu doon four hunder' feet ard 
uot been killed — woel, I should hae ca'd 
that extruornerv. " 



TOO 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Ju lie 



jsugland and Her Friends. 

Englraid as a uation has not and. rare- 
ly has had a friend. She is isolated, 
and the world delights to impress her 
isolation upon her. Once, indeed, she 
drew very close to Holland, so close 
that, after fighting her battles for two 
generations, she offered to make one re- 
public with her, but the only results 
were seven of the fiercest naval engage- 
ments ever known and the ousting of 
the Dutch from their dominion of the 
sea. The only European people who 
having passed from under our rule con- 
spired to return to it were the Gascons 
at the close of the hundred years' war. 
There can be no more curious example 
of the caprices of national friendship 
than tills. Normandy and Brittany, 
nearer to us in breed, climate and posi- 
tion, joyfully cast us out, and the hot 
blooded province of the south, for all 
that it had once rebelled against the 
Black Prince, entreated us to stay. 

With Scotland the j^se was different. 
She had for many hundred years a 
friendship, hardly extinguished until 
the middle of the last century, which 
brought woes unnumbered both upon 
England and herself and many times 
threatened to ovenvhelm England alto- 
gether. So surely as an English expedi- 
tion went to France down came the 
Scots across the border. The victory of 

geville's Cross was won when Edward 
I lay before Calais; the victory of 
Flodden was won when Henry VIII lay 
before Tournay. The story was eternal- 
ly the same. 

If that you will France win, 
Then with Scotland first begin. 

Nothing could shake the friendship 
of France and Scotland, and it was 
when France was in her direst need 
that Scotland came forward to help her 
in her own territory and for reward re- 
ceived the high privilege of guarding 
the sacred person of the French king. 
— Macmill an's Magazine. 

The Thief Discovered. 

An employee in an up town resort 
has been beld under suspicion for some 
time, and came near losing his position, 
on account of the antics of a big tom- 
cat. For v.'eeks the cash registers, when 
counted at the close of the day's busi- 
ness, .showed a deficit of several dollars, 
and no clew could be had to esnlaixi .the 



mysierions absence of the money. The 
proprietor, having' great confidence in 
his employee, was mystified, and not un- 
til a few nights ago was the matter 
made clear. While alone in the place, 
after closing hours, the proprietor was 
startl' d to hear the click of the regis- 
ters, follovred by repeated clicks, like 
those of a uovice upon the keys of a pi- 
ano. Looking up, he found his pet eat 
playing upon the keys of the register 
and apparently enjoying the perform- 
ance as .•much as if he were a feline 
Paderowski. — New York Journal. 



Vindicated the SL.aw. 

A friend of Representative Culberson 
of Texas related the following incident: 

"When Mr. Culberson was prosecuting 
attorney," he said, "there was a crimi- 
nal statute universally disregarded. The 
indictment of a well known man for 
violation of this law v^as secured through 
the efi:'orts of Mr. Culberson, who prose- 
cuted the case with more vigor than al- 
most any he had ever conducted, suc- 
ceeding in securing a conviction and 
sentence to the penitentiary. Then he 
left town, and no one knew where he 
had gone until he and the prisoner, who 
had been taken to the penitentiary, re- 
turned together. Mr. Culberson had 
gone to the governor, obtained a pardon, 
and met the convict at the peu:tentiary 
with it. The law had been vindicated, 
and there %Yere no rcore viclftions of 
that statute in Jefferson. " "^--i--- 



A Model Citizen. 

If anybody wants a model for a citi- 
zen of the highest clei.«;, he may find it 
in this eulogy of a. Boston man, written 
by a friend who was worth havi;:g: 
"Martin Brimmer, freed from privr.re 
cai'e, dedie-ated himself to the comnicn- 
weal ; he took his part in legislation, m 
charities, in education, in cultivation 
of art. He mingled in all public affairs 
— not only miuglen, but led. Nature 
had made him prepossessing. His dig- 
nity, his de: .baratloB. his reserve v. ere 
imposDig, hiy gentle courtesy was vviu- 
uiug, and when at last he intered a few 
pregnant words in a judicial tone the 
majority of his hearers fancied that he 
was but expressing their ser'timent.s, 
while the minority decided that opp:-i- 
tion was vain. The fusion was cc:i)- 
nlete. " 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Kil 



WHAT IS MONEY? 



Money, my boy, is silver and gold 

Or a pii'i'i^ of pictured ij:ipor, 
And tlii^y win) i)ossi;ss it iiianifold 

May cut any kind of a caper. 

Money, my boy, is a worshiped god 

And a dearly troa-surcd idol, 
Used often as a divining rod 

At buriul, birth and bridal. 

Money, my boy, doe.s a world of good 
And more than worlds of evil — 

Good wIkii poured from the hand of God, 
Bad if dealt out by the devil. 

Money, my boy, does not grow on trees. 
Is not always had for the asking, 

Kor gathered in pocket from every breeze 
Without much deceit and masking. 

Money, my boy, will buy place and power, 
Husbands and wives and divorces — 

Truthful and false in selfsame hour. 
Marshaling all kinds of forces. 

Money, my boy, it is sad to say. 
Buys ''body, soul and breeches;" 

Is a curse to those who day by day 
Live only to hoard up riches. 

Money, my boy, both rich and poor 
Fall down on their knees before it. 

No matter how it may come to their door, 
All are quick to receive and adore it. 

Money, my boy, "'What is it?" you ask, 
As if it were something funny. 

A corrt'ct replj- is no easj' task. 
For money is nothing but monej". 

Money, my boy, alone by itself 
Is naught but a name for riches. 

And whether well or ill gotten is pelf, 
That hinders and helps and bewitches. 

But money, my boy, don't pass it by 
When skies grow bright and sunny, 

For it's ten to one that before you die 
You'll find it handy to havo some money. 
—Good Housekeeping. 



A MATEDIOXIAL JAE. 



It might have reniained there a long 
time, Picket's new hat, if Mrs. Picket 
did not repeat every tinae her eyes fell 
upon it: 

"What in the world possessed you to 
buy a.uother new hat when you leave it 
there for weeks without ever opening 
the box it came in?" 

"But, ' ' said Picket, "I have not worn 
it because you ki ep telling me that my 
old one locks all right. " 

"Yes, and you already have 27 hats 
that you have quit wearing, and you 
leave them in your closet covered with 
dust. What in the world do von Irppn 



them tor.' wiiy cTen'T " yOu tnrow V^Lz:, 
away?' ' 

"Throw them away! And yet you 
know very well that you never throw 
anything away. You would not throw 
away a match that had been already 
lighted. You're so fond of saying, 'It 
might ccme in h;mdy. ' " 

" Well, " said Mrs. Picket, "it is true 
that I never throw away things that 
might ccme in handy, but how can old 
hats ever come in handy? What sen.se is 
there in piling up old hats which are of 
no use to any one when there are so 
many pocr creatures who walk the 
streets barefooted?" 

"But," said Picket, "they could not 
wear my hats on their bare feet. ' ' 

"I don't .see anything funny in that, " 
said Mrs. Picket icily. "You know what 
I mean. You needn't pretend that you 
don't understand me. Why don't you 
send for an old clothes man and sell 
him your hats?" 

"I never think of it, " 

"I'd like to know what you do think 
of. I don't think ycii think at all. But 
do as you please. Buy new hats ; wear 
them; den 't wear them. It's your own 
affair." Mrs. Picket concluded with 
saying, 'You make me tired," and she 
retired from the room, slamming the 
door ^^^th a violence which made the 
chandelier rattle. 

"Such is married life," said the 
stupefied PicLat, gazing after his wife. 
"Whether I do a thing or don't do it, 
I am certain not to please my wife. 
Take that new hat, fcr esample! 'What 
did you buy it for, ' said she, 'when you 
never wear it?' and the first day that I 
put it on to go out she will be sure to 
say, 'What are you weai-lng your new 
hat fcr when the ether one is all right 
still?' " 

Some days afterward Picket said to 
his wife, "i am go:ng out. " 

"Indeed, " said Mrs. Picket. "TiTiere 
ai-e you going?' ' 

"I am going to see pocr Marley, who 
is ill." 

"And do you put en your new hat to 
see pocr Marhy?" 

" Just v/hrt I expected you to say," 
remarked Picket. ' ' Ye.s, that is what I 
am going to do. I am going to wear my 
new hat. Gee?" 

"Well, why don't you throw your old 



162 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



one m the closet, with the others?" 

With rising rage Picket took up his 
old hat, opened the closet door and 
hurled the hat into the closet. 

"There," said he, "I hope you will 
give me a rest on this hat business!" 

"That makes the twenty-eighth," re- 
plied Mrs. Picket, with a burst of sar- 
donic laughter. 

Picket went out. He started toward 
Marley's house, but he had scarcely 
gone mere than a couple of blocks when 
it began to rain. 

"There, " said the unfortunate Picket. 
"Just my luck. Beginning to rain. Got 
a new bat on and no um brella. ' ' 

He started into a neighboring door- 
way to wait until the shower should 
cease, and as he did so a man carrying 
a long plank on his shoulder turned and 
swept tlie unfortunate Picket's hat from 
his head into the gutter. 

Cursing like a pirate, the luckless 
Picket pursued his new hat and rescued 
it from the gutter, much damaged and 
covered with mud. A passing good Sa- 
mtu-itau stopped and said to him : 

"There's a hatter a couple of doors 
up the street there. He will brush it off 
and touch it up with the iron, and it 
will be all right. ' " 

"Thank you." said Picket, and he re- 
paired to the hatter's. When he had his 
hat polished, he stood upon the doorstep 
for a moment, and, not wishing again 
to exijose his hat to the fury of the ele- 
ments, he determined to step into a 
friendly restaurant nest door, where he 
would wait uuril the storm was over. He 
went in, seated himself at a table, hung 
up his hat on one of the hooks over his 
head, ordered a sandwich and began to 
look over the paper. But he coiild not 
take ills mind away irum the satirical 
welcome which he kncvy- his wife would 
extend to him v,"hen he returned with 
his damaged hat. However, theEubxon 
had to be crossed. The rain had ceased. 
He rose, and, still reflecting on his 
wife's receprion, took a hat from the 
hook and was about to go when two 
waiters came up to him and grabbed him 
by the collar. 

"Now we've got him, " said one. 

"Yes," said the other; "we've got 
him now. This is the fellow who has 
been stealing hats. ' ' 

Picket, paralyzed with astonishment, 
protested. "What! I steal bats?" bp 



said, "What do you mean?" 

' ' You "will have an opportunity to ex- 
plain this at the police station, ' ' was 
the reply, and the proprietor, who had 
whistled for a policeman at the door, 
turned him over to the hands of a blue 
coated guardian of the peace. The un- 
fortuiiate Picket was yanked along the 
street, followed by a crowd of passers- 
by, v/ho applauded his ai-rest, and a 
number of street boys, who signified 
their disapproval more forcibly by hurl- 
ing mud at him. When the party 
reached the police station, the proprietor 
of the restaurant made his complaint to 
the sergeant there. 

"That's the man, " said he. '■ 'For the 
last two weeks seme scoundrel has been 
coming to my restaurant, and whenever 
he goes oiTt somebody misses a hat. We 
have been watching for him. Now 
we've got him. There he is. This is the 
thief. We caught him in the very act. ' ' 

"But I v\'as simply mistaken in the 
hat, " cried Picket. "If I were stealing 
a hat, I would have two here, but I 
haven't. This is not mine, but you will 
find mine hanging on the hook. " 

"Yes, " said the restaurant man, "I 
know. Ordinarily you were in the 
habit cf carrying a gripsack in which 
you put the other hat. This time you 
came ^yithout it.^' 

"But I am an honest man, " persisted 
the unfortunate Picket. "I am well 
known. Let the officer go to my house 
and he will .see." He gave his name 
and his address; and the sergeant, wav- 
ering in the face of his protestations, 
sent an officer to accompany him to the 
address given. In about half an hour 
the officer returned, bearing an enor- 
mous pile of hats. 

"Here sergeant," said the latter, 
"see what I found in tlie fellow's house. 
His wife had gone out, and it was the 
servant who let me in. ' ' 

"Well, ".said the sergeant severely, 
looking at the accused person, "do you 
still deny that you are a hat thief?" 
gazing at the gigantic pile of hats. 

"I deny it. I deny it in toto, " said 
the unfortunate Picket. "I bought these 
hats. I doii't wear them, but I bought 
them. ' ' 

"You don't wear them. W'hat in the 
world can you do with 28 hats?" 

"Well, my wife has always told me to 



189(i. 



THE AMERWAN BEE-KEEPER. 



163 



sell tnem to au old clothes man. 1 never 
think of it, I van so forgetful. Why, to- 
day I even forgot my tiuibrella. I never 
had any head. ' ' 

"You hi'.ve no head? What do you 
want VN-ith 2.S hats, then?" 

But at this moment a weeping wom- 
an entered the police .station. It was 
Mrs. Picket. She had heard from the 
servant of the plight in which her luck- 
less husband was placed and came and 
told the police sergeant who he was and 
that the hats were really his. But was 
Picket grateful to her? Hardly. He 
wished a th msaud times that she had 
not heiu'd about his misadventure and 
that he had .siicceeded in going through 
all the pains and horrors of a police 
court far rather than that she should 
find him there with the 28 hats — 28 
mute witue.'^ses cf her superior judgment 
staring him in the face. He said to him- 
self mentally, "Never shall I hear the 
last of those 28 hats. " He never did. In 
fact, he got it morning, noon and night. 
He had it with breakfast, luncla and 
dinner. He had it with his soup. He 
had it with his nightcap. He had it 
•with his morning slippers. And when- 
ever the rain began falling and poor 
Picket vs'culd incautiously say, "What 
dreadful wearher!" "Ye.s, " Mrs. Picket 
would reph", "exactly the same kind of a 
day as when you got rid of your 28 
hats. " — ban Francisco Argonaut, 



TWO S.XAKE STORIES. 

TOLD BY ^> GENTLEMAN WHO IS AWAY 
UP IN SERPENTOLOGY. 



Snakes Thai. Fljoulcl Not Be Killed — How 
the Black S.nake lluuts i;nd Captures Ita 
Food^Resccing a Ship From a Python 
Who Had Calmly Taken Possessiou. 

"Sit down and sharpen your pencil, 
while I overhaul rjy mental shelves," 
remarked Mr. Thompscu, curator of the 
zoological collccticu in the park, in an- 
swer to a request for some snake stories. 
"Before giving you some of my experi- 
ences I want to enter a protest against 
the indiscriminate .slaughter of our cmi- 
mon hai'inle^s snakes, such as the black 
snake, garter snake and the like. Every 
farmer should protect them, for they ai'e 



benenciai* msteaa oi being Harmful, a:-; 
is generally supposed by a large major- 
ity of humanity. Any naturalist will 
tell you that the food of the black snake 
consists largely of rats, mice, etc., while 
that of the garter snake is principally 
insects, such as grasshoppers, caterpil- 
lars, etc. 

"Now for some of my experiences. In 
my younger days I was crossing Ashby'.s 
gap. over the Bhie Ridge, Virginia, in 
company with an uncle of the famous 
Black Horse Cavalry Ashby. We were 
making a portion of the ascent through 
quite a deep cut, when our attention 
was attracted by a toad, which rolled 
instead of hopped down the side slope. 
Ashby pulled up the horse and said, 
'There's a black snake after that fellow. ' 
An in.<;taiit after the snake thru.st his 
head throtigh the fence, and on observ- 
ing us dri w back. In the meanvrhile the 
toad had gathered himself together, and 
was hopping at a lively gait up the road. 
Ashby remj'.rked, 'Now I will .show you 
something, " and sprang out of the buggy 
and caught the toad, which he carried a 
short distance and released. Returning, 
he turned the buggy and drove back 
down the road some 50 steps, when we 
alighted and tied the horse. Climbing 
over the fence on the opposite side cf the 
road to that on which the snake had 
made his appearance we stealthily work- 
ed our way tip until we came in sight of 
the point where he was first seen. Lying 
down in the long grass and peering 
through the rails, we did not have to 
wnit long before the snake reappeared. 

"He looked about for a few seconds, 
and then descended the slope down 
which the toad had rolled, and followed 
his trail up the road. On coming to the 
spot where it had b?en picked uj), he 
l^egan to circle, precisely as a dog would 
act on losing the scent. He gradually in- 
creased the size of his circles until he 
struck the spot where the toad had been 
put down, when he made a bee line 
after it. We leaped into the road and 
hurried after his snake.ship, who as soon 
as he discovered that he was being fol- 
lowed turned up tite slope and squirmed 
nut of sight through the fence. Ashly 
said, 'I am sure you are satisfied now 
that a black snake hunts by scent. ' 

"Now I sliall have to take you out to 
South Africa. I livi d in Durban, Natal, 



164 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Ju It t 



•WHICH IS about 1,000 miles around the 
Cape of Good Hope, up toward Mada- 
gascar. One morning I received a note 
from the port captain, asking me to 
come down to the harbor with all possi- 
ble dispatch, as a python had taken pos- 
session of a German brig and I was 
wanted to capture it. Taking one of my 
keepers with me, I hurried down, and 
found quite a crowd on the jetty, among 
which was the crew of the brig. On in- 
quiry I learned that there had been a 
shower during the night, and in the 
morning the mate had ordered one of 
the men to go aloft and shake out the 
sails, in order to dry them. He started 
up, and on reaching the maintop tux'ned 
and came down on the clean run. The 
tar was instantly ordered to hades 
and numerous other places, while the 
valiant mate started aloft to attend to 
matters on his own hook. No sooner did 
his head get on a level with the top than 
he came down at a gait which far ex- 
celled that of the disobedient sailor. He 
instajitly raised the alarm, and the en- 
tire crew lost no time in getting en 
shore and spreading the report that the 
rigging was full of the biggest kind of 
snakes. 

"With the assistance of the port cap- 
tain's binoculars I had no difficulty in 
making a critical examination of the 
entire upper works of the vessel, which 
was anchored about 100 yards from the 
shore. The result was one large python, 
coiled around the laps of the main and 
topmast. Borrowing a sack, I miinaged, 
after much persuasion, to get two of the 
crew to pull myself and keeper off to the 
brig, where they left us and turned 
back to the jetty. I unrove the flag hal- 
yards, made a nocse in one end of them 
and hunted around until I found a stout 
piece of reed some six cr eight feet in 
length. Climbing up the shrouds, I 
make my attack through the lubber 's hole 
by pmichmg his snakeship v\ath the 
reed, to the end cf which I had tied the 
Doose. Ke put his head down through 
the hole for the purpose of fighting me, 
when he was instantly noosed around 
the neck and the halyards made fast to 
the ratlines. lu his violent efforts to ef- 
fect a release he drew back with such 
force as rapidly to choke himself into 
insensibility. Calling to the keeper to 
hold the mouth of the sack open, I 
watched until I thought he was nearly 



at his last gasp, when 1 squirmed up 
on the top, loosened his coils around the 
masts, lowered him into the sack, when 
the keeper immediately cut the noose. 
By the time that I reached the deck he 
had nearly recovered from his severe 
wind stoppage. I gently opened the 
mouth of the sack to have a good look 
at him and discovered from his bloated 
appearance that he had recently par- 
taken of a hearty meal. On the arrival 
of the crew on board it was discovered 
that the captain's fox terrier was miss- 
ing. I therefore concluded that the 
python, in swimming across the harbor, 
had struck the vessel's hawser, up which 
lie had crawled on to the deck, swallow- 
ed the dog and gone aloft to digest his 
meal. ' ' — Bufi'alo Commercial. 

Not Enough Muses. 

The unmusical manager who protest- 
ed when he found a performer in his 
orchestra holding his bow during a rest, 
saying to him, "I don't pay you to 
rest!" was the same one who, on an- 
other occasion, was superintending the 
arrangement of some performers who 
were representing allegorical characters. 

"Here in front," said the author of 
the piece which was to be given, "we 
will put the nine muses." 

"Nine muses!" exclaimed the great 
manager contemptuously. "Nine muses 
would look well in that great space, 
wouldn't they? We will have 36 
.2mses!"— Youth's Companion. 

"Have you any children?" asked the 
janitor. 

"I have," replied the prospective 
tenant. 

"Then you can't have the flat," said 
the janitor decisively. 

"But you don't understand," protest- 
ed the prospective tenant. "My youn- 
gest child is 20 years old, married and 
lives in New Yoa-k, and the Other two 
are in St. Louis. " 

"That makes no difference, " returned 
the janitor. "Orders are orders, and I 
have orders not to rent this flat to any 
one with children. " — Chicago Post. 



It is the old lesson— a worthy pur- 
pose, patient energy for its accomplish- 
ment, a resoluteness undaunted by diffi- 
culties, and then success. — W. H. Pun- 
shou. 



1896. 



THE AMEIilGAN BEE-KEEPER. 



105 



One Way of Catchincr FiUdler Crabs. 

There ai-e various ways of catnliing 
fiddler crabs. Que way of catching tlio 
black or mud fiddler, the one that bores 
into meadow banks alonj? salt creeks, is 
with two boiu-ds so placed as to form a 
deep sided letter V. The fisherman seeks 
a spot where there is a little strip of 
sand at low water, between the base of 
the mud bank and the water's edge. 
The crabs come out of their holes and go 
down to the edge of the VN'ater, often in 
great numbers. The fisherman comes 
over the meadow with his boards, which 
he sets up on edge as quietly as he can 
on the sand, with the opening of the V 
toward the water. Then he alarms tlie 
crabs, and they come scurrying up the 
little beach in multitudes, bound for 
their holes. As they come they cai'ry 
their big claw aloft, somewhat as the 
soldier ctu:ries his gun. It is from this 
habit that Xho. fiddler crab gets the ua.me 
of soldier crab, by which it is also 
known. Those crabs that are ojiposite 
the opening in the V hustle with the 
rest of the line, but when they strike 
the botu-d sides they are thrown more 
and more together, until they converge 
in a mass at the point. The fisherman, 
sitting outside, takes them out by the 
handful. — New York Sun. 



uay, professional sailors feel and ex- 
press for the slodiers who form a por- 
tion of the complement on board a man- 
of-war. 



Leonardo da Vinci. 

Leonardo da Vinci, being a great 
architect and engineer, as well as painter 
and sculptor, left notebooks proving 
that he had studied the flight of birds 
and had planned flying machines to be 
driven by wings or by screw propellers. 
But as Leonai'do was good at figures he 
seems to have abandoned his plans after 
finding out how much force would be 
needed. — Tudor Jenks in St. Nicholas. 



The Weak Point. 

The owner of a menagerie in Berlin, 
U-hich included a ' 'happy family, ' ' con- 
sisting of a lion, a tiger, a wolf and a 
sheep, w^as asked one day in confidence 
how long these animals had lived to- 
gether. ' 'About nine months, ' ' he re- 
plied, "excepting the sheep, which has 
to be renewed occasionally." — London 
Fun. 



Grace leads the right way. If you 
choose the wrong, take it and perish, 
but restrain your tongue. Charge not, 
with lights suflicient and left free, your 
willful suicide ou God's decree. — Cow- 
per. 

MYSTERIES OF THE LOUVRE. 



"Tell that to the marines" indicates 
the contempt which, even to the present 



Walls That Are Believed to Hide the 
Hones of Murdered Men. 

Every one who has ' 'done" the Louvre 
will remember the low pitched and 
somewhat glocmy halls in w^hich are 
stored the treasures of Egypt. Beneath 
these lie yet more darkly mysterious 
vaults, inaccessible to the public, 
though approached by a wide and hand- 
some staircase, such as would lead one 
to imagine that it communicated with 
apartments of some importance. Yet 
one finds at the bottom nothing but 
broad passages disposed in the form of a 
cross, and without any sign whatever 
of door or window. 

A recent examination, however, of 
the solid stone walls gives experts rea- 
son to believe that the masomy is more 
recent than the rest of the structure in 
this, the oldest portion of the fortress 
palace. M. Vaugneux, a well known 
critic, believes that many of the bodies 
of victims killed in the revolution of 
18;j0 were immured here, and that the 
government was afraid to reveal the 
fact when the remains of their comrades 
were collected beneath the Colonne de 
Juillet. 

On the other hand, M. Blondel, the 
architect of the building, and M. Nor- 
mand, the secretary of the Society For 
Protecting Parisian Monuments, hold 
the opinion that these subterranean pas- 
sages led to the oubliettes, into which 
Catherine de' Medici cast those who 
were unfortunate enough to incur her 
hate or fear. A judicious exploration 
would clear up the matter and settle, 
too, several doubtful points as to the 
foundations of Lescot's original citadel. 
Unfortunately, the annual grant does 
not provide for any such archaeological 
research, and it would be necessary to 
appeal for funds to the generosity of the 
chamber. — London Chronicle. 



im 



THE A^[FAiI<'AN JU-.K- KKKPER. 



June 



BEAUTIFUL HANDS. 



As I rememt-er the first fair touch 
Of those beautiful hands tliat I love so much 
I seem to thrill as I then vras thrilled, 
Kissing the glove tliat I found unfilled 
When I met your gaze and the queenly bow 
As 3'ou said to me laughinglj', "Keep it now I" 
And dazed and alone in a dream I stand 
Kissing the ghost of your beautiful hand. 

When first I loved in the long ago 
And held your hand as I told you so. 
Pressed and caressed it and gave it a kiss 
And Slid, "I could die for a hand like thisl" 
Little I dreamed love's fullness yet 
Had to ripen when eyes were wet, 
And prayers were vain in their wild demands 
For one warm touch of your beautiful hands. 

Beautiful hands I O beautiful hands ! 

Could you reach out of the alien lands 

Where you are lingering and give me tonight 

Only a touch— were it ever so light— 

Mj' heart were soothed and my weary brain 

Would lull itself into rest again. 

For there is no solace the world commands 

Like the caress of your beautiful hands. 

—James Whitcomb Eiley. 



DIANA'S SPIDER, 



The Band, Gusset and Seam is a so- 
ciety recruited from an exclusive circle 
of Nob Hill's youtliful matrons. It 
meets through the winter, with aggra- 
vated activity during Lent, at houses of 
the membe- s ; its motto, ' 'First flannels 
to the indigent;" its symbol, a thimble 
crossed by a pair of scissors argent 
on a backgrcuud of flannel gules sur- 
mounted by a spool of thread couchaut. 

The demure maid who serves bouil- 
lon, tea and chocolate to the society's 
fair Dorcases hears tales from every 
quarter of the globe— of life in the sum- 
mer colonies along the New England 
coast, of yachting cruises through Nor- 
wegian fiords in the yellow wake of the 
midnight sun, of walking tours in the 
Landes and camping trips in the north 
woods. She knows her planet better 
than many whose orbits are less cir- 
cumscribed and can safely be relied up- 
on for information regarding elk in Ore- 
gon or salmon in the Columbia, the 
proper time to hunt the grizzly in As- 
siniboia and the relative merits of the 
Andalusian donkey and his twin broth- 
er, the Rocky mountain burro. 

After serving the Bradamante of the 
society with a cup of tea and a caviare 
sandwich, she retii'es to a dusky corner 



of i:he rocni, refills the lamp under the 
brazen kettle and rearranges the Dres- 
den cups and saucers and the jewel 
mounted spoons upon the teakw^ood ta- 
ble. 

When the fluffy haired Mrs. Jack, 
the society's president and the hostess 
of the occasion, begins her story, there 
is a lull in the talk, Which the wind 
fills in with a neatly executed arpeggio. 

Mrs. Jack's mouth droops in wistful 
curves, and beside her eyes an infant's 
would .^eem sophisticated. 

"Jack says I must go with him to 
Africa, but I shall never dare to look a 
tiger in the f.^ce after my experience on 
the Big Mud d>." 

Mrs. Jack r- adventures have familiar- 
ized the society with Tin Cup, Big Bug, 
Bumb ■ • Lee and Medicine Hat. But the 
Big Muddy offers delightful fields for 
speculation, for it has not yet fomid a 
place on any map, and its only high 
roads are the half obliterated trails left 
by the Utes when they unwillingly de- 
parted for new hunting grounds. 

"You remember the bighorn I shot 
after Jack and the guides had tracked 
him for ten days over the Rattlesnake 
range in Wyoming?" Mrs. Jack contin- 
ues plaintively. 

The society remembers the big-i:orn 
as ^^'ell as the giant shark in the Mexi- 
can gulf, the mountain lion and the cin- 
namon bear with amber eyes picked off 
by Mrs. Jack's rifle in the San Francis- 
quito mountains. The idea cf her not 
daring to look a tiger in the face under 
any circumstances taxes the credulity of 
the society. Has she ever known fear, 
ever quailed before beast, bird or fish — 
this modern Artemis? 

When she accompanies her husband 
on his hunting expedition, she wears the 
woods' autumn livery — leaf brown and 
scarlet — an abbreviated skirt and leg- 
gings of brown corduroy, a scarlet leath- 
er shirt with elk's teeth for buttons, a 
hat festooned with trout and salmon 
flies and shining leaders. A cartridge 
belt girdles her slender waist, with its 
depending revolver and hunting knife. 

It is remarkable that Mrs. Jack has 
escaped the cinnamon's embrace, and 
bruin might well be pardoned such an 
indiscretion. 

"Jack has always said that my phys- 
ical coiirage first attracted him. But I 
had never confessed to him that there 



1896. 



Till: 



Ml: U KJA y liKK- KEEPI:li. 



1G7 



w;.i':iu' test to which 1 should be un- 
equal. It crane en the Big Muddy. Lis- 
ten: 

"We were cnmped in the quaking as- 
pen. Snow had fallen, and the elk were 
coming down. You could hear them 
bungling on every side just before dawn. 
It is easy to stop a band of elk as they 
pass near your camp by imitating their 
call upon an empty cartridge shell. I 
have learned the trick, and Jack had 
no hi^sitation in pei*mitting me to cht.)Ose 
my own trail one morning and follow- 
ing it alone afoot, he iuid the guides 
scattering in other directions. The taste 
of the camp coffee was still upon my 
lips, my cheeks tingled with the frosty 
breath of the morning air as I kept cau- 
tiously to the windward of the elk, 
whose trumpeting stirred me like mar- 
tial music. 

"A stray bear track showed here and 
there in the fresh snow. But I was aft- 
er elk. A hundred miles lay between 
our camp and the nearest settlement. 
Ah, the solitude of those woods!" 

Mrs. Jack leans back in her chair and 
sighs remiuisceutly as she gazes into 
the blazing hearth fire, a chai-miug pic- 
ture in her house gown of old blue, 
brightened with gleams of Persian em- 
broidery, interwoven with uncut jewels. 

"I had gone three miles, perhaps 
four, over fallen spruce up the steep 
side of a rugged mountain, when crash 
across my trail came a band of elk, 
headed by a magnificent bull. 

"Crouching Jj! hind a bowlder, I wait- 
ed. I have vraited so often for big game, 
from Alaska (<.) the gulf. Jack says I 
have seen more than he can ever liope 
to see if he lives to be 100. My hand 
was steady, .jack often gets buck fever. 
I never do. I tc^ok deliberate aim. The 
elk came toward the bullet and dropped 
dead without a sti-uggle. Blazing the 
trail as i retraced it toward cainp foi 
the pack animals, I saw that there were 
new beai' tracks. I %s'as not out that 
day for bear, and I did not care to come 
upcm one alone, although I had nc 
thought of shirking the encounter were 
it forced lapcn me. 

"A bear in a bear pit is a clumsy 
creature. In the woods he challenges 
your admiration by his clever fashion 
of covering the gi-onnd without apparent 
effort. The one I soon descried ahead of 



me was luribering akng like a bunch 
of tumblcweed, lengthening the dis- 
tance br tween us at a rapid I'ate. 

"Foolishly I indulged myself in & 
shot at him, striking his .shoulder. He 
turn(d upon me \vith a roar of pain. At 
that instant I nei d( d all my nei^ve. This 
timt; I chose a tree for cover and await- 
ed. He came cu without a halt, straight 
toward me. I fii-ed again, missing him. 
I w:;s just abi.ut to try a third shot 
when the test came, of which I have 
spoken. ' ' 

"The test?'' murmurs the society 
breathlessly. 

"The test of my courage to which I 
had alway.s felt I should be unequal — 
the thing I had dreaded in my ff;rest 
wanderings with Jack. ' ' 

"What!" the society demands, with 
one voice. 

"I had rai«ed my rifle, when I felt 
something fluttering in my hair. I fan 
cied a leader had slipped from my hat 
rim. Oh, hon-or! It vv'as a .spider! And 
as I shook my head violently to dislodge 
it, it stiTiggled into my ear. 

"I have never been conscious of bav 
ing fired that third shot. Somehow the 
rifle was dischai'ged, and by the same 
chance the bullet laid the bear low. 

"I fainted, and when I came to my- 
self I was lying across the bear's body, 
with six strange men standing around 
me. 

"Ten thousand boiler factories were 
at work in my brain. 'Hear the noises!' 
I cried. 'Will no one stop them?' 

"And now comes the strangest part 
of my story. 

"The engineer of Jack's yacht once 
got a mcsquito in his ear. It drove him 
quite mad before we could find a doc- 
tor. He hung over the yacht's side, held 
by six of the crew, begging for death. 
When the doctor aiTived upon the scene, 
he applied a handkerchief wet with 
ether to the man's ear, quieting the 
mosquito's struggles and restoring the 
man to sanity. 

"I believed myself in the man's 
plight — stark, staring mad — when, upon 
this peak cf Darien, 500 miles from an 
ambulajice and a sui'geon, I heard one 
of the men to whom I had so wildly ap- 
pealed reply quietly, 'Have no fear, 
madam. You are in safe hands, for we 
are all doctors. ' 



1G8 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Ju ne 



••They del'Liged my ear with water 
froiQ a nearby stream, which they 
brought iu a tin cup. Finding the spi- 
der still unsubdued, one of the doctors 
asked for a hypodermic syringe. Five 
were instantly proffered. An icy arrow 
penetrated seemingly to the seat of the 
gray matter — still, without effect upon 
the spider, whose pernicious activity 
caused me indescribable agony. 

" 'Ether?' cheerfully returned the doc- 
tor who was attending to me. 'Why,' of 
course. Brcwn, fetch out your ether 
bottle. ' Aiid if Brown did not produce 
from the depths of his waistcoat pocket 
a small bottle of ether may I be in- 
stantly retired from the presidency of 
our society. It transpired later that 
Brown was a physician with an alien 
hobby — entomology — and carried ether 
with him everywhere to anaesthetize 
his specimens. 

"In an instant relief came — such 
blessed relief as only one who has pass- 
ed through an experience like mine can 
appreciate. 

"The rest of the story is soon told. 
When I had gathered myself together, 
the six doctors presented themselves to 
me with due formality. They dined that 
night at our camp on my elk. 

"Jack was thoroughly ashamed of 
m.e. What did the elk and the bear 
matter with the memory of the spider 
fresh in our minds? 

"No, decidedly," Mrs. Jack repeats 
as the maid fetches her a second cup of 
tea, "I shall never dare to look a tigei 
in the face tif ter my Waterloo on the 
Big Muddy. It would have been a pleas- 
ing legend for my tombstone, this: 

"One 
To •whom the forests were an open book, 
■Who joined to Diana's daring the skill of hei 
spear. 

Lies here, 

Slain by a bug in her ear." 

—Mary Wakemau Botsford in San 
Francisco Argonaut. 



Dore as a Beggar. 

Gustave Dore could show invention 
not only in his wonderful illustrations, 
but also in matters of everyday life. 

One day a friend at Verona was tak- 
ing a photogi-aphic view of a pictur- 
esque old street, and Dore tried to as- 
sist by keeping off the crowd of idle 
lookers on. It was a diflScult task, and 
the more he gesticulated and threatened 



rne greater became the tlu'oug. Sudden- 
ly Dore had a .rplendid idea. 

"Wait a minute, " he called out to his 
friend, "and I'll di.sperse them. " 

He then took off his coat, threw it on 
the ground, and, assuming a pitiful ex- 
l^ression, he went round, cap in hand, 
to beg for a few soldi. As he advanced 
the crowd drew back and melted away, 
and his friend quickly obtained the neg- 
ative. — I'hiladelphia Press. 



Castles In the Air. 

Dr. .John Wilkins wrote a work ir 
the reign of Charles II to show the pos- 
sibility of making a voyage to the moon. 
The Duchess of Newcastle, who was 
likewise notorious for her vagrant spec- 
ulations, said to him, "Doctor, where 
am I to bait at in the upward journey?" 
"My lady," replied the doctor, "of all 
the people in the world I have never 
expected that question from you, who 
have built so many castles in the air 
that yoii might lie every night at one oi 
youi' owji.'" — Pittsburg Dispatch. 



Mnman Sroth. 

A very singular superstition has just 
come to light. According to an author- 
ity iu Shanghai, the heathen Chinee 
lives under the impression that the heal- 
ing qualities of the human flesh are 
practically unlimited. 

For this reason when a father or 
mother is taken ill the flesh of one of 
the children is frequently sacrificed in 
order that it maybe made into what one 
might describe as beef tea for the strick- 
en parent. 

Not long ago a clerk in a government 
office deliberately cut off his finger in 
the belief that when made into soup it 
would improve the health of his mother, 
who lay ill. 



Atinosphere. 

There is a wide difference of opinion 
among the learned men of the world as 
to what would be the effect of wholly 
removing the atmosphere. Some think 
that if it were po.ssible to live afterward 
all the stars, planets, etc., would be 
visible in broad daylight. Others de- 
clare that there would be no day, and 
that the sun itself could not be seen un- 
der such conditions. — St. Louis Repub- 
lic. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEFEH. 



1(;9 



YET LUVE CAIN LAST. 

Yet love can la.st, yi-t V ivu ouii last, 
Tin- future be as was the past, 
Ami fai'ih aud foiuhu,'.ss never know 
Tlu' cln') of (Iwiiuiliiig afterglow, 
If t<j familiar luarth there- oling 
The viry:in fre.shiiess of the spring 
And Ai)rirs music still be heard 
In wooing voice and winning word. 

If when autumnal shadows streak 
'Sbtk furrowed brow, the wrinkled cheek, 
Devcm.-;n, deepenizig to the close. 
Like fruit that ripens tenderer grows; 
If, thmjirh the leaves of youth and hope. 
Lie thick on life's declining slope. 
The fond heart, faithful to the last, 
Lingers in love drifts to the past ; 
If, with the gra%-ely shortening days, 
Faith trims the lamp, faith feeds the blaze. 
And reverence, nibtd in wintry whit«. 
Sheds fragrance like a summer night — 
Then love can last I 

—Alfred Austin. 



CAUSE AND EFFECT. 



"Gossip — it's a confounded nnisancel 
That's what I call it! Why can't they 
let us alone? I am accustomed to any 
amount of gossip. People must have 
Bomething to talk about, and I'm sure 
I'm delighted to be able to afford them 
any amusement, but when it comes to 
being smacked on the hstcls. and congrat- 
ulated six times in one afternoon it's 
coming it a bit too strong. I don't 
mind for my own sake — a man can look 
after himself — but I'm thinking of you. 
I was in Ik .pes that you had not heard. " 

"Not heard indeefl! I had tAvo letters 
this momiug and three this afternoon, 
four wanting to know when the wed- 
ding wa.'^ to be iuid the fifth from a girl 
asking to be bridesmaid. I am afraid to 
go out. People fly at me at every cor- 
ner, shake my hands off and say how 
delighted they are, and how charming 
it is, and how they always knew it 
would come to this, and that we are 
made for one another — they never did 
know t^vo people so exactly suit-ed. ' ' 

"Extr;K)rtlinary! That's what they 
say to me. I never was so taken aback 
in my life. Of course we've always 
been good friends, but" — 

"Certainly not. " 

"And I don't think"— 

"Neither do L It's absurd! Utter 
nonsense 1" 

"No, but really — let us have it out 
while we are about it. What can have 



given rise to such a ridiculous report? 
We have b»eu a good deal together, of 
course, because we are in the same set 
and always seem to hit it off, and you 
are such a jolly good dancer and all 
that kindcf thing — but I can't see what 
we have done to set people talking at 
this rate. Honestly, now — I am anxious 
to know — did you ever imagine — that 
is to say, did you think — I mean, have 
I ever" — 

"You never have. No, Captain May, 
and I have never imagined! On the con- 
trary, I don't mind admitting, now that 
we ai"e upon the subject, that I have 
cherished a secret grudge tigainst you 
because you have never given me an op- 
portunity of refusing you. That sort of 
neglect rankles in a woman's mind, and 
now you see for yourself the awkward 
position in which it has placed me. 
Wl-^en people ask if I am engaged to 
you, I am obliged to confess that I have 
never been asked. You ought to have 
thought of this and provided against 
it. It would have been so easy some 
night at a ball or in an interval at the 
theater — the whole thing might have 
been over in five minutes, and then I 
should have been able to say that I had 
refused you, and everything would have 
been happy and comfortable. I don't 
feel as if I could ever forgive you!" 

"Sorry, indeed! You see I should 
have been most happy, only I could nev- 
er feel quite sure that you really would 
re"— 

"How odious you are! You need not 
have been afraid. There never was any- 
thing more certain since the beginning 
of the world. I wouldn't marry you to 
save my life. I v\-ould as soon think of 
falling in love with the man in the 
moon. We have always been friends, of 
com-se, but that couxits for nothing. 
One may like a person very much and 
yet find it quite impossible to go any 
further. I could better love a worse 
man. ' ' 

"Same with me. I think no end of 
you, but when Lewis came up and con- 
gi-atulated me the other day I was 
struck all of a heap. If he had said the 
same thing about a dozen other girls, I 
should have been less surprised, but it 
never occurred to me to look upon you 
in that light. " 

"Oh, indeed! I'm awfully obliged, 
I'm sure, but I don't think much of 



170 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



June 



your taste. There are a dozen other men 
who wouldn't agi-ee with jow, that's 
one comfort. As I am so utterly repul- 
sive in your eyes, I think I had better 
say 'Good tifternoon' at once and re- 
lieve you of my presence. ' ' 

"What nonsense you talk! I never 
said a word about your appearance that 
I know of. That's the worst of arguing 
with a woman — she flies off at a tan- 
gent, and there's no doing any good 
with her. I don't, see vvhy you should 
be ofieuded. You seemed to think it 
just as impossible to fall in love with 
me." 

"That's different — I mean I don't 
care what yoB think, but other people 
think — that's to say, I have always 
been told — Seme people think I am 
very nice, if you don't. I think it's per- 
fectly hateful of you to say such things. 
I should ilke to know, just as a matte? 
of curic;sity, Vvhat it is in me you object 
to so much?" 

"You v;on't like it, you know, when 
you do hear. You'll be in a bigger rage 
than ever. Much better leave it alone. 
Well, if you will have it, I dislike the 
way you do your hair. Wait a moment ; 
it means mere than you think. It is not 
only ugly in itself, but it shows a fatal 
want of perception. Your beauty^if 
you will a]lcv\' me to say so — is of a 
classic order, and if you adopted a more 
natural style of coitiure your appear- 
ance would really be — er — uncommonly 
fetching! 'Stead of that, you persist in 
following a hideous exaggeration of 
fashion, which destroys your individu- 
ality and is utterly uusuited to your 
style. It seems a smail tiling in itself 
but it has XHrreaching consequences. 
The moment v.e :.\:eet I notice it, don't 
you know, and feil annoyed. The whole 
time I am with you I am worrying 
about it. It sf :r v p a chronic state of 
exasperation. Poihi,^ -. you don't luider- 
stand the feeling'' — 

"Oh, yes, I do! Perfectly! I feel the 
same toward you because you will in- 
sist on wearing enormous stand up col- 
lars. I call that a want of perception, 
if you like. I wouldn't be personal for 
the world, but I have seen men with 
/onger necks. When you want to speak 
to your neighbor, you have to twist 
your whole body. It makes me die with 
laughing to see you. " 



■■'Delighted to afford you so much 
amusement. Sorry I make mysrlf so 
ridiculous! You are excessively polite, 
I'm sure. " 

' 'You were a great deal worse your- 
self. You said that I"— 

"Nothing cf the kind. You misun- 
derstood me. I simply remarked" — ■ 

"Don't contradict! You said I was 
an ugly thing, and that it exasperated 
you only to see me. You did ! It makes 
it worse to deny it. I can't think how 
you can look me in the face!" 

"Why get excited? It's really not 
worth while, and you will make your- 
self so hot. It's not becoming to be hot. 
I was about to say when you so rudely 
interrapted me that you had misunder- 
stood .the meaning of my remarks. I 
simply observed"— 

"I don't care a little bit what you ob- 
served. I am not going to talk to you 
any longer. I am going across the room 
to mamma. Good afternoon, Captain 
May. You needn't dance with me at 
Lacly Bolton's this evening, as my hair 
annoys you so much. ' ' 

"I shall ask Miss Cunliffe instead. 
She is a capital waltzer. Your mother 
is waiting for you at the door. Fourth 
and sixth, wasn't it, and the first extra? 
I must ask her at once, as she is so 
much engaged. Good afternoon, then. 
Miss Blanchard, if you will go, and, as 
the goeid little boys say, 'Thank you so 
much for a pleasant afternoon. ' ' ' 

ON THE WAY HOME — HEPw SOLILOQUY. 

"He never thought of such a thing. 
It never occurreel to him to think of me 
in that light. Hateful creature! And 
why not, I should like to know? Doesn't 
he think I'm nice? * * * I never cared 
for him, but he has no business not to 
like me. What horrid taste ! * * * And 
to talk cf a dozen other girls! That 
means Lucie Charvie, I suppose, and 
Adeline Howe. I have noticed that he 
dances with them. * * * I don't see 
why he should like them better than 
me. I'm the prettiest, and I can be aw- 
fully nice if I like. I have never been 
really nice to him — not my very nicest — 
or he wouldn't have talked as he did 
today. * * * I might tiy the effect this 
evening. I meant to be offended, but 
perhaps the other would have more ef- 
fect. I believe I'll try it. No one can 
ever say that I am a flirt, but there are 



1890. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



171 



occasiuii.s vlu'ii It IS a girl's dut}' to 
teach a mu:i a lessou, and he had no 
business to say that about my hair. 

* * * I wonder if he v-a.-; right? Ho has 
awfully good taste, as a rule. I believe, 
after all, it would be rather becoming. 

* * *• I'll get Elise to tiy tonight, imd 
wear my new white dress, and the 
pearls, and I'll say to him the very first 
thing that I'm sorry and ask him to 
dance with me, all the same. Then, when 
he sees how nice I am, he will be vexed 
with himself for being so hasty. It will 
do him no end of good. I'd give worlds 
if he would only propose to me before 
the season is over. I'd refuse him, of 
course, but that wouldn't matter. It 
would be kind t % me to take the trouble, 
because it is dreadful to see a man so 
conceited, and if it were not for that ha 
would be quite chai'ming. * * * I'll be- 
gin this eve:.ii:g. How exciting! Pool 
Captain May!" 

HIS SOLILOQUY. 

"She looked disgracefully pretty. 
Nothing like putting a girl in a good, 
Stand up rage to see what she's made 
of. I never knew she had so much in 
her before. And .she would just as soon 
think of falling in love with the man 
in the moon, would she? That's pretty 
tall. Hang it all! Why do they put 
things in a fellow's head? I was happy 
enough before, and now this has uur 
settled me altogether. * * * A man 
may not want to marry a girl, but that's 
no reason why she should be so precious 
indifferent. I always fancied that she 
had a decided weakness. * * * So she 
wants to laugh at me, does she? Little 
wretch! bhe is always up to some mis- 
chief. I wouldn't object if it was at 
some other fellow, for those dimples are 
uncommonly fetching. I believe she is 
right about the collars, all the same — 
thought so myself more than once. If 
another shape would .'suit me better, it 
seems rather absurd to stick to these. 
'Mim in the moon,' eh? Humph! Well, 
it doesn't do to be too awfully sure — it's 
a bad thing to get into the way of boast- 
ing. How would it be if I took her in 
hand and tried to work a cure? Do her 
all the gofxl in the world to be brought 
down a peg or two and find her own 
level, luid the process would not be un- 
pleasant. Hi, cabby! Stop at the first 
decent hosier's you come to. I want to 
get out. ' ' 



nxtracl i:.'.;m The Times (f foui 
mouth.s luter- 

"Oh the :i6th inst. , at St. George's, 
Hanover square, by the Right Rev. th(: 
Bishop of Ox'bridge, assisted by the Rev. 
Noel Blanchard, the brother of the 
bride, Cyril Aubrey May, captain Royal 
Horse guards, second son of James Eatoii 
May, Esq. , of Brompton manor, Hants, 
to Phyllis ]Mary Olivia, only daughter 
of Major Blanchiird of Barconibe, Co. 
Wicklow, iiiid Ploraire, Ali)es-Mai'i- 
♦iuies. ' ' — Sketch. 



Diamonds. 

Henry Vvard Beecher took pleasure in 
the wonderful colors of precious stones. 
He cared fc;i' them not as jewels, but as 
cry:!tallized dewdrcps and sparks of liv- 
ing fire. Ruskin, too, is said to carry 
diamonds loo^e in his pockets, just so 
that ho may take them out and flash 
them in the snuliE;ht for his own delec- 
tation. And novv' the learned men have 
discovered what women have known al- 
ways — that diamonds came down from 
beaven, for no power on earth was great 
enougii to produce them. This is how 
scientists claim to have found out the 
truth we knew from the beginning. It 
seems that in South Africa experts have 
been puzzled finding in blue earth, the 
natui'al bed of thorough diamond, stones 
which had been fractured, and it was 
evident that no upheaval of the soil 
could have effected such result. Then 
the wise beads bethought themselves to 
see whether there were any traces of 
diamonds in meteoric iron, and sure 
enough such traces are said to have been 
found. So now all the world is ready to 
believe that there are really diamonds 
in the sky. Speaking of word pictures, 
where is there one which could bring 
the diamond more plainly into view 
than this? 

Oh, the v.-onderful laughter of light! 

Oh, the geniu.s of color at play! 

— Brooklyn Eagle. 

Great Aid to Conversation. 

"You play beautifully," exclaimed 
the lovely vision. 

The virtuoso rose from the piano with 
a bow. 

"Thank you," he murmured. 

"You made me think of such a num- 
ber of things to say," the woman pro- 
ceeded, with undisguised rapture.- ^^ 



172 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 



June 



SWttT MYSTERIES. 



Slowly tht! i-eecp in the garden are growing — 

Glad homilies! 
Tides, set \n motion b.y winds briskly blowing> 

Pause ere they rise. 
The nestling shall rise and aspire to heaven's 

gate, 
And the butterfly, though in a shroud, he must 
wait 

In dim surmise, 

Tor all things shall rise. 

Oently kind spring has awakened the flowers- 
Sweet mysteries! 

Swiftly the grub on the ^ving, with new powers. 
To happiness flies. 

Ever with refluent wave and strong motion, 

Landward now march the forces of ocean. 
Grand auguries! 
For all things do rise. 

In the world visible lurks the invisible. 

Making men wise, 
Telling of blessed truths plainly perceptible 

To lovelit ej-es; 
Telling of heaven and the happy tomorrow; 
Telling of joy with no vestige of sorrow 

And of bright skies, 

Where love never dies. 
— C. P. Wilson in New York Sun. 



HALF A MILLION. 



I had been in the dry goods business 
ten years or more and had drudged all 
that while, winter and summer, with- 
out a holiday, except Christmas and 
New Year's day and the Foui-th of Ju- 
ly, when one summer, calculating my 
profits, I made up ray mind that I 
could afford to enjoy myself for once as 
other people did — cut the shop outright 
for a while aild spend a week or so in 
the country. Trade was dull, and I was 
dull too. So as Dobbins' aunt — Dobbins 
is my head clerk — had a house at Shady- 
slope and took a boarder or two and 
was anxious to fill her unoccupied rooms 
that summer, I gave my name to Dob- 
bins to fill up the list and ran down 
there with my trunk and bag about the 
1st of July. 

I felt that it was an honor to Dob- 
bins' aunt as well as to Dobbins, but I 
made up my mind to be affable and 
not to malce them more uncomfortable 
than I could. No matter what your po- 
sition in life, it is very \vrong to put on 
airs, and I never do it, 

"Tell them not to put themselves out 
on my account, ' ' I said to Dobbins, 
"but to treat me just as they do the oth- 



er boai'ders, " and Dobbins said he 
would. 

"Puff of Puff & Co. , " I said when I 
met the aunt. "Don't disturb yourself 
on my account. I am quite simple in 
my habits. ' ' 

She said she wouldn't, though I could 
see it was not every day that the head 
of a firm ctime to Shadyslope. They had 
three or four other people there, a few 
who taught music and composed some, 
you know, and an artist and a doctor 
and a fev^- who wrote novels, but no- 
body cf any importance. 

"When I sat down to the table that 
night, I put them all at ease at once. 

"I distinctly desire it to be under- 
stood that I don't want to disturb any 
one, " I said. ' 'Go on just as you have 
been doing. I want relaxation, and it 
will amuse me. Simple pleasures are 
veiy charming when one is weary with 
application to more important matters. " 

Then I bovved. But you can't exi^ect 
everything of people not up to the mark. 
Two or three laughed — why I don't 
know. 

It was very pleasant there — particu- 
larly pleasant. My landlady had a 
daughter, quite a charming creature, 
with eyes like bluebells and a voice like 
a canaiy. She used to sing a good deal 
with the music man. The moment that 
girl locked at me she appreciated me. 

Before the day was over she was des- 
perately in love with me, and when a 
creature like that gives you her heart, 
how can you look coldly on her? 

Far be it from me to win the affec- 
tions of an innocent girl, knowing as 1 
do that I have a position in the v\'orld 
and must marry with due consideration 
of the fact, but knowing what emotions 
I had awakened in her bosom I felt 
obliged to be kind to her. We walked 
together. We rode, we sung. I felt that 
it was VN^rong, but my feelings ctirried 
me av\'ay. Icften thought to myself, "li 
that girl's father had been in the whole- 
sale line and had left her well off, what 
a bli.ss would have been mine!" But he 
was nothing but a lawyer and had 
scarcely left a penny. Excelsior is mj 
motto. Large retail should always as- 
pii-e to a connection with wholesale. 
And Miss Briggs of Briggs & Bounce 
smiles very sweetly when she bows to 
your humble servant. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



173 



Alus, %vli() shall CDutrol the hi-iU't's 
afft'Ctioiisr Eveliua's beauty and her de- 
votiou touched my soul too deeply. On 
the 1st of beptember, wheu trade \va« 
growing bri.sk. I began to feel that it 
■was better for the i^eace of both oui 
hearts that I should fly. I should forget 
the dream iu a little while. But she, 
poor child, I feared that she would nev- 
er forget me. 

"Adieu," I said as I shook hands 
with her. ' ' Perhaps we shall never meet 
again." 

She turned her face away from ma 
Her emotions overcame her. And I took 
the next train for the city. 

I entered again into the turmoil of 
trade. It was brisk. But nothing could 
make me happy. I accused myself of 
trifling with the affec^tions of an angel. 
She loved me, I thought, and I have 
broken her lieart. — I who secretly adore 
her. 

I lost my appetite. I grew thin. When 
I saw fair creatures of her age bending 
over the counter, my mind flew back to 
her, lovelier than all. When Mrs. Briggs' 
daughter smiled upon me, I th(3ught 
how plain she was and how adorably 
beautiful was Evelina. 

At last — it was in ^October — my head 
clerk claimed a holiday. "I shall spend 
it with my aunt and Evelina, ' ' he said. 
I sighed. 

"A beautiful girl, " said I. 

"Yes, " said he, blushing at the com- 
pliment to the family, I presume. "The 
loveliest girl I ever knew, and a lucky 
one too. ' ' 

"Lucky?" said I. 

' ' Yess ' ' said he. "In a year from this 
time she will be a very rich woman. 
Old grandfather left her everything, 
come of age or marry, and he was Worth 
$500,000." 

"Kalf a million!" I cried. 

My head clerk nodded. 

"Visit your aunt and cousin when 
you will, " I said, "and don't retm-n 
until you feel quite rested. You never 
mentioned to me before, Dobbins, that 
your grandfather left $500,000. " 

"You see it wasn't left tP ne, "he 
said and went off. 

"Half a million! Miss Briggs was 
not worth that. A wholesale business 
was the thing to be connected with, of 
course, but when the heart is touched 



we are willing to sacrifice all else. I 
will fly to your side, Evelina," I solilo- 
quized. "I will recompense you for 
your hour.s of grief by telling you how I 
adore you ! ' ' 

I iDictured the scene to myself. I sa^ 
her as shi^ confessed her love and fainted 
in my arms, imd that evening I ran 
down to Shadyslope to offer my heart 
and hand to Evelina. 

I aiTived after dark. The house was 
very quiet, and as I advanced I reflected 
that my sudden apjDoarance might agi- 
tate Evelina too terribly. I must an- 
nounce myself cautiously. I stole for- 
ward on tiptt)e to reconnoiter. 

Two forms were seated on the porch — 
a faint gleam of moonlight revealed 
them to nie — a lady with her cheek re- 
posing upon a gentleman's shoulder, 
his arm about her waist. They were 
my head clerk, Tom, and his Cousin 
Evelina. I stood as one petrified. They 
were talking of me. 

"He really thought I was smitten, 
Tom, " said Evelina. "He flirted with 
me ten-ibly. " ' 

"Didhedai"e" — began Tom. "Didn't 
he know" — 

"Of course I did not tell him I was 
engaged to you, " said I?velina. ' 'Why, 
Tom, yoti couldn't be jealous of such a 
fellow — a man with no^idea beyond his 
counter. ' ' 

Then Tom kissed her. 

I waited for no more. Fortunately 1 
caught the down train. At 12 o'clock I 
was in the city. At the depot I met 
Simpkins about to start for Albany. 

"Simpkins, " I said, "I've heard you 
speak of a troublesome nephew you de- 
sired to provide for. ' ' 

"Confound him, yes," said Simpkins. 

"My head clerk's place is vacant," I 
said. "Tell him to come to me. " 

"Thank you," said Simpkins. 

I waited for no thanks. I strode away 
and wrote Dobbins that his services 
were no longer required. 

* * » * * * 

I have been married a year to Miss 
Briggs, and her father failed five months 
ago. Simpkins has just been arrested 
for embezzling sundry sums of money, 
and yesterday I passed Tom Dobbins 
and his wife in the street She is ex- 
cessively pretty — lovelier than ever — 
and I feel quite sure, despite qll that I 



174 



THE AMEliJCAN BEE-KEEPER. 



JllfU 



overheard, that her heart is still mine 
in secret. Of course she could not admit 
it, not knowing I returned the senti- 
ment. But when I remember liow much 
we were together I feel sure it must be 
so, and that two he;xrts were broken. 
Quit<? a romantic story mine. Don't 
you think so? — Exchange. 



A Prison Designed by a Convict, 

Perhaps the most interesting fact 
about the building of Wormwood Scrubs 
prison is that the plans for its construc- 
tion were drawn out by a convict in his 
cell while undergoing the probationary 
nine ruonths to a long term of imprison- 
ment. 

The man W' as originally an architect, 
and among the foremost of his profes- 
sion. He was a gentleman by bh-th and 
education, but in early life began to 
abuse his natural gifts, and at the time 
was undergoing his second tei-m of im- 
prisonment for forgery. The completion 
of the work occupied him for nearly six 
months and was effected under great 
disadvantages. In place of a table, for 
instance, he had to pin his paper to the 
wall of his cell, moving it round with 
the sun in order to obtain the best light. 

The prison authorities consider this 
marvelous specimen of architectui'al 
drawing the finest piece of work ever 
done by an English convict. It measures 
in size 5 feet (5 inches, being di"awn to 
the scale of a hmidredth part of an inch. 

The convict displayed the greatest in- 
terest and pride in the erection and com- 
pletion of the prison, which was built 
entirely by convict labor. It contains 
1,381 separate cells for prisoners, which 
cost on an average £70 7s. each, besides 
hospital wai'ds and a chapel. 

The total number of bricks required 
was 35,000,000, each one being made 
by the convicts on the premises, or on 
some adjoining land leased for the pur- 
pose. The iron castings were obtained 
from Portland or Chatham prison, the 
granite from Dartmoor and the Portland 
stone from Portland. The total cost of 
the prison was more than £97,000. — 
London Letter. 



an employer in dismissing a sen'ant. 
An east end shopkeeper discharged his 
errand boy, who sued him for a week's 
wages in lieu of notice. The man justi- 
fied himself by saying that he fomid 
that the boy told lies. 

"Nonsense!" remarked Judge Bacon, 
"All boys tell lies, more or less. It is a 
habit tiiat is not confijied to them. " 

"But it is wicked, " pleaded the shop- 
keeper. 

"Judgment for the plaintiff, with 
costs, " replied the judge. — New York 
Sun's London Letter. 



Boys' Lies. 

It has remained for an English judge 
to of i' -T.lly and legally establish the 
ruling that lying is not wrong, . at least 
it is not sufficiently immoral to justify 



■^ — '-Jlnerable, 

The girl confrv^n-j^d si ti s ithout fal- 
tering. In her defiance-, she'ivas magnifi- 
cent. 

"Do your v\'crst, " he cried "lam 
not a new womun. I am neKher mar- 
ried nor engaged. I do nothing to con- 
ceal my age. I never bathe in the surf. 
I do not shop. I haven't the remotest 
idea if I cau cook or not. ' ' 

With a snort of baffled ra£B the hu- 
morist fled. — Detroit Tribune 

How Fast Does Electricity Travel? 

The above question is frequently 
Rsked in every day conversations, but is 
seldom answered to the satisfaction of 
the querist. Wheatstone says that the 
speed of electricity from point to point 
along a proper conductor is practically 
instantaneous. Various attempts have 
been made to ascertain the exact num- 
ber of miles which the current will 
travel in a given length of time. Ac- 
cording to the most reliable estimates 
which such experimenters have made 
its speed is not less than 114,000 miles 
per second. The writer adds: "Such 
speed is inconceivably great. The mind 
cannot contemplate it without stagger- 
ing. ' ' — St. L( uis Republic. 

Did You Ever Malse Money Easy ? 

M !!. Editor.— I have ivad how Mr. C. E. B. made 
.«<i iDuch iiii'Tipy in the Dish Washer busine.'-s, and 
thiuli I have bett him. I aui very young yet and 
havo ha'^ little e.xppriem'e in ?(>lling goods, but 
have made over eight hundred dollars in ten weeks 
selling Dish \\ a her>. It is simply ^yot derfulhow 
ea-y it is to sell them. All you have to do is to 
show' the ladie.s how they work and they eanrot 
help but buy one. For the benefit of others I will 
state that 1 got my start from the Mound (^ity Dish 
Washer Oo.. St. Louis, Mo. Write to them and 
the.\ will send you full particulars 

I ihink I can clear over S3. 000 the coming year, 
and 1 am not going to let the opportunity pass. 
Tvv it and publish your success for tlie benefit of 
others. J- F. C. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



175 



Honey and Beeswax Market Report. 

Below we give llie latest and most aiitlien- 

tic report of the Honey and Beeswax market 

in different trade centers : 

Cincinnati. 0.. May 2ii. is'.lii. — Slow demand for 
honey. Fair supply. Price of eouib 10 to 14 cents 
per li). E.xtracted 4 to 7c per pound. F;iir de- 
mand for beeswa.v. Good supply. Prices 22 to 2.ic 
per lb. for good to choice yellow. 

Chas. F. Muth it .Son. 
Cor. Freeman and Central Aves. 

Dftroit, Mich.. May 2'). lt>!H).— Little demand 
for honey. The suiipiy of good honey is light. 
Price of comb liJ to i4c per lb. E.\tracted li to 7c 
per lb. Fair demand for beeswax. Good supply. 
Prices 2.') to 20c i)er lb. 

M. H. Hint, Bell Branch. Mich. 

Albany. N. Y.. May 2.i, 18(i().— Price of white 
comb honey 12 so Tic per lb. Dark 7 to 8c per lb 
Extracted 4 to Cic per lb. There is little demand 
for either oomb or e.xtracted honey. Stock of 
comb honey nearly closed out, but plenty of e.\- 
tracted on hand. H. 11. Wright. 

• Albany, N.Y., May 2ti, 180().— Demand for heney 
very slow. Light supply. Price of comb B to 12c. 
Extracted 3 to tic per lb. (iood demand for bees- 
wax at 28 to 32c per lb. Light supply As it is 
between seasons now there is no demand for honey. 
Chas. W. McCulloigh i Co. 
Boston. Mass.. May 25. 189i).— Light demand for 
honey. Fair supply. Price of comb 14 to loc per 
lb. Extracted o t<i Oc ite- lb. Fair demand for 
beeswax with a light supply. Price 25c per lb. 

E. E, Blake k Co., 75 Chatham St. 



Comb Foundation 

Made by Automatic Machinery. 

Lowest in price. Falcon Polished Sections, finest 
made. Higginsville Hives, etc, cheaply sold. 
Seven Railroads und four Express Companies to 

ship over. Samples and Catalogue free. 

W. J. FI INCH. Jr. 

5-3 Springfield, 111. 

One Man with the 

UNION ^^^^s'^aw^^'^" 

Can do the work of four 
men using hand tools, in 
Kipping, Cutting-off, Mi- 
tring. Uabbcting, Grooving, 
(laining. D.'uhimg. Edging- 
un. Jointing Stuff, etc. Full 
Line of Foot and Hand 
Power achinery. ?,ohl on 
Triiil. Ctiinlugue Free- 

Seneca ihails Wlfg Co., 45 Water St., 
2 '2 Seneca Falls. N. Y. 

■ m ■■ ^m W^ ERS~bF BEES and those in- 
UM J M^ B^ tending to keep bees should 
Hv Hg Bm BajV write us for large il lust' dcat- 
Hm ^^ ■"" H^ alogue and copy of A.mkri- 
rn^L ^L| ^^m H CAN BKE-IvKKPER.'monthly.) 
^ ^^ ^^ " Ourjo-icesare/oi(;e«7and«?ocfc 
largest. We keep everything 
used by bee-keeprs.including, 
text books, comb foundations. | 
all styles hives.ctc Addrei 

W. T. Falconer Nlfgl 
Co. Jamestown, N.VT I 




irices are/oi(;e«7and«?ocfc 

BEES 




You Have Seen it Before. 







That Nam^ Plate Means 

GONVENI&NGE 
PL&f\SUR& 

AND 

S-PiTlSFf\GTION 

Whicin o\ course mean 

GOLD CRANK 

pf\LGO IS 

BIGYGLSS. 

."^end for Catalogue. 

TfiE YOST MNFG CO.. 
YOST STATION, TOLEDO, O. 



176 



77//-: AMERICAN BEE- KEEPER. 



June 



JOHN F. STRATTON'S 

CELEBRATED 

GUITARS, 




Importer of and 

Wholesale Dealer in all kinds of 

MUSICAL MERCHANDISE, 

811, 813, 815, 817 East 9th St. , New York. 

Carl Thorbahn. Musical Director. 

Standard Theatre Orchestra. 

Chicago, Ills. April, 14, 1892. 
Messrs. John,F. Stratton 

Dear Sin— I am pleased to be able to 
State that I jan highly recommend your Rus- 
Cian Gut Strings for durability and tone. 

Your orders for them should be tremend- 
ous. 

Yours truly, CARL THORBAHN. 

THE STIlATTOrif 



Bamd Iivstrumeivts 

Wm elect our NEXT PRESIDENT. 



Now is the time to form new Bands for CampaEga pur- 
poses. We are offering speciai inducements for 1892- 
Send al niii-p r»r llliiKtriitfcl Cutala^ge. 

JOHN F. STRATTON, ^ < 

HANUTACTCTRERS, 





Money Made in a Minute. 

I have not made less than sixteen dollars any day 
while selling Centrifugal Ice Cream Freezers. 
Anyone .>;hould make from five to eight dollars a 
day selling cream, and from seven to ten dollars 
selling Freezers, as it is such a wonder, there is al- 
ways a crowd wanting cream. You can freeze cream 
el'^fiantly in one minute and that astonishes people 
so they all want to taste it and then many of them 
l)uy freezers as the cream is smooth and perfectly 
frozen. Every freezer is gurranteed to freeze 
cream in one minute. Anyone can can sell ice 
cream and the freezer sells itself. My sister makes 
from ten to fifteen dollars a day. J. F. Casey <& Co., 
lUli St. Chiirles !St.. St. Louis, Mo., will mail you 
full particulars free, so you can go to work and 
make lots of money anywhere, as with one freezer 
you can make a hundred gallons of cream a day. or 
if you wish they will hire you •n a salary. 



SECTIOfiS, BEE-HIVES 
and other Bee-keep- 
ers' Supplies, 

at bed-rock prices. 

Best of Goods at LOWEST PRICES. 

Write for free, illustrated Catalogue and Price list. 

G. B. LEWIS & 00-, Watertown, Wis. 

3-tf 



We vsrill pay 

22 cts cs&bIic, or 

j^- -^ - ' , 2S cts in goods^ 
Bicycles are \ fo^ ^ood quali- 
ty of Beesusja-x^ 
ffpsiglit paid to 
PALGOmilR, 
W- Y. If you 
have ^n-^ ship 
it to us at once. 

(Pr'ces subject to change without 
ri! tice). 

THE W. T. FALCOiiER M'F'G CO. 



HONEST 
BICYCLES 

$-7500 



"Worth 
$100 
Material \ 

Construction y Unexcelled 

Finish ) 

...SEND FOR CATALOGUE... 

QUEEN CITY CYCLE CO. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 




VOL. VI. 



JULY, 1896. 



NO. 7. 



Using Empty Qombs. 

BV (i. M. DOOLITTLE. 

As I hear of (|uite a loss of bees in 
certain localities and, thinking that 
not all perhaps who read the pages of 
the American Bee-Keeper, realize the 
value of (Mupty combs, I am led to 
give a few expi'iirnents with them, 
and otlVr a few suggestions which 
may be of benefit to some of those 
who are just starting in bee-keeping, 
nnd to those who have empty cnmbs 
from colonies which have died the 
j)ast winter, if not to those who have 
wintered their bees well and having 
much experience along apricultnral 
lines. Wlien I fii'st began keeping 
bses 1 was short of combs, and as my 
bees would persist in building more 
or less drone comb, I was often oblig- 
ed to work colonies for comb honey 
with as few as six <!:illup frames in a 
hive, hi M\)SO days it nas ihought 
that :i iiiv • •■lUviuid r;..-}'.> ^ l.-.-i.; 
2, U«<0 . iil.>i' iiiciici in I i . 

rinil 1 i .. i ', . :,■! r. .'I ud-..|> 
franici . aJ.Jo. ;- Ui ri <? tia'^dic 
workor . ■ -aj I, M\l \ <\ j W ujo 
nootlio'-). .hich is jhI/ about one- 



half tiie number that it takes to fill a 
hive of 2,000 cubic inches. In this 
way I was compelled to lay the found- 
ation of what is known as the con- 
tract system, and the success attained 
by the use of these few combs led me 
to give the matter in print, styling it 
as a successful plan. As I wished to 
make the most of my new swarms, 
they were allowed to build comb in 
the brood department to the hive till 
the yield of honey came on plentiful- 
ly, at which time the sections were 
put on, s.fter shutting the bees (by 
m nins of dummies) on to as many 
combs as they had complete up to 
this time. Thus in 1874-5 obtained 
an average of over 100 pounds of hon- 
ey each year per colony. Full frames 
of drone comb were taken away as 
fast as built, before my bees had 
luatured in ihem ; and in this way I 
obtained .starters for using iu the sec- 
•inns, tiUiug ^Hfn^ cuiiroly full, to bo 
^Lii- d in tlio -^rncr of the -jiu-pl h 
dt^parnM-Mii .rv"^' •"''TaiJ;"'' 30'.?lio>i ;, th'u 
•ici- iring :wty • '.k In -iTae 3?-'t..>ni. 
T< "oa-ie •jocd ar.-bi ^it those •, '>)r3 
f :a.i • ' oio par iil/ 'li'fl with v">i!:,>r 
and dr ne omb, I cut out the Iroae 
-omb and 'Itted the 'orUer from an- 
other frame in the vacant place left, 



178 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



till every frame was filled with work- 
er corah. In these days of comb 
foundaliou, however, it is doubtful 
whether it pays to do much of this 
patching of conibs, but I think to melt 
up full combs, as some recommend, 
and buy foundation to fit in frames, is 
very poor policy. I never could see 
why such advice was given by those 
who had the name of being practical, 
level headed, apiarists. When 
swarms came near or at the com- 
mencement of the main honey flow 
they Avere hived on only five frames 
and as soon as these were filled with 
worker conib, which would be as a 
rule, I sp)'ead them apart, putting in 
each alternate space an empty comb, 
which I had made by patching, or 
gotten by saving through some hook 
or crook, thns completing a hive full 
of comb just when I wished it the 
most. If the swarms were too large 
to work profitably building these few 
combs, as the most of them would be, 
sections were put on so that they 
could be at work in these, this taking 
the pressure of honey off the brood 
apartment, so that the bees were more 
likely to build all worker comb, as 
well as to make the best use of every 
single bee. In this experiment, I 
found that I could secure one-third 
more honey from a swarm treated in 
that way, than from one building the 
whole nine frames full of comb dur- 
ing the height of the -honey harvest, 
and by filling the hive full of comb at 
the time pi' hiving, I obtained nearly 
double the amount .that I. did- when 
using a f.ull hive ,of .frames having 
only starters it them. • If these combs 
could be. filled with honey J as I some- 
times had, themj I could- secure fai- 
raoj-^e. honey, in the sections than -by 



any other plan. It the swarm con- 
tains a good prolific queen, and no oth- 
er should be used in such cases, nearly 
all the honey there was in these combs 
would be in the sections in two weeks, 
as well as that gathered from the 
fields and the combs nicely filled with 
brood. There is nothing of more 
value in the upiary than good, straight, 
worker cotubs, except good prolific 
queens, for the.se two can be called the 
foundation stone of successful api- 
culture. Such combs should oe look- 
ed after with care when away from 
the bees, and the larvse of the wax 
moth should not be allowed to spoil 
them as very many so often allow. 
Some have the idea that'foundation is 
preferable to frames full of comb. 
This I think a mistaken idea, for the 
bees must consume some time iu get- 
ting the foundation worked out to full 
combs, saying nothing of the expense 
of buying it, or the work of putting it 
into the frames. Foundation is good 
in its place, and I use very much of it, 
but I haye it all fitted in frames and 
drawn into combs by the bees, or have 
frames filled with nice worker combs 
by the bees building the same, I can- 
not see any sense in melting it up, or 
allowing the moth to consume it. I 
was pained not long ago, to see hun- 
dreds of moth eaten combs on the 
premises of a prominent bee-keeper, 
who had a few years before purchased 
a foundation machine. ' These combs 
had been looked after/with care in 
years gone by, and were built in the 
frames as straight and true as a board; 
and to my mind, before the' moths' had! 
damaged them, were worth double the 
same amouht of eomb foundation. ' In' 
bee-keeping, as well as in -any other 
business,, pi-osperity , comes only in. 



1890. 



THE AMElilUAN BEE-KEEPER. 



i:!> 



husbanding what y()u already liave, 
and being careful of the outgoes. 
Especially is this the case where the 
best of honey bring less than one-half 
the price it did a few years ago. One 
of the sheet anchors of bee keeping is 
all straight worker comb and if you 
have much, use it in place of having 
the bees build more, or of buying 
foundation, 

Borodino. N, Y. 

Improvement of the Italian 
Bee. 

HY W. J. DAVIS. 

Those who keep bees (with possibly 
a few exceptions) keep thera for the 
profit they may yield, and it is safe to 
■\y , when they cease to yield a profit 
for their owner for several years in 
succession they would cease to have 
owners, and if they existed at all, it 
would be in a wild state. 

J'hat there is a vast difference in 
the profits of different colonies in the 
same apiary, I think no bee-keeper of 
experience and observation will deny. 
One colony on a majority of the col- 
onies of an apiary may yield satis- 
factory returns while other just as 
favorably situated and in equally as 
good condition in the spring will give 
no profit. The only legitimate con- 
clusion that I can arrive at is that 
there is a great difference in the bees 
even of the same variety. (Viz.: 
Italians, German, Carnolan etc.) 
Neither is it surprising that sueh 
should be the case. We find the 
same condition of things among other 
domestic animals. There are cows 
kept which are an absolute bill of ex- 
pense to their owners. 

Most dairymen realize that there 
are cows in their dairy that are not 
for sale, while others are. 



We will not lengthen this article 
l)y {)ai'ticularizing, but simply say 
that the same degree of merit and de- 
merit obtains among horses, cattle, 
sheep, swine and poultry, and an ef- 
fort is being constantly made to prop- 
agate the good qualities and eliminate 
the bad. 

That is just what we should do with 
the honey bee, but we should start 
with the bed. 

The three banded Italians I take as 
the best domesticated honey bee yet 
brought to public notice, and I under- 
stand such to be the verdict of the 
world's best apiarists today. By way 
of practical experience I will say that 
I kept black bees for about 20 years 
and would have given up bee keep- 
ing in disgust had not now hope dawn- 
ed on the pursuit by the introduction 
of the Italian bee. When the seasons 
wQxejust right results were satisfactory, 
but it took about three years of fav- 
orable conditions, (rainfall, etc)., to 
produce one good honey year, and the 
blacks couldn't stand grief. The wax 
moth was troublesome with the blacks. 
They were much disposed to rob. 
Like some people they must do a big 
business or nothing. And then in 
spring they were prone to desert their 
hives, leaving brood, honey, and all 
the conditions one would think favor- 
able to contentment, viz : clean combs, 
clean hive, and sometimes 10 or 12 
pounds of honey, and after flying like 
a natural swarm would try to forceau 
entrance into some othei' hive already 
occupied, and if they succeeded in- 
gaining an entrance they wete sure to 
be killed to the last bee. 

In July, 1866, I' procurec^ two Ital- 
ian queens which were safely intro- 
duced, and the work of Italianizing 



180 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



an apiary of 60 colonies of blacks be- 
gun, which was accomplished in 1867 
and the apiary increased to 120 col- 
colonies. 

I found the Italians proof against 
the wax moth. They would never de- 
sert their hives in early spring, and 
whenever a small amount of honey 
was obtainable, they would secure 
that, and gain in stores, while the 
blacks wouhl require feeding. 

But when the blacks blood was all 
eliminated, I found that the Italians 
were not all alike profitable. I sup- 
posed that the queen that would lay 
the most eggs must be the best. 
That I hioio was a mistake. Some 
queens producing one-half the num- 
ber of Qg^!i that the other did, gave 
much better results in surplus honey. 
The Solons of bee culture told us to 
introduce uew and fresh blood to 
avoid the evil effects of in and in 
breeding. For fifteen or twent}'' 
years I secured by purchase and ex- 
change queens from the North, South, 
East and West, but cross as I might, 
the same fact ])resented itself, that 
some colonies were not worth keeping 
and some queens were worth their 
"weight ii) gold.'" J said why can 
not ail be a> good as the best. We 
can rear queens from only the best 
stocks, but we cannot be sure of the 
young que<'ns being fertilize<l ^^' 
drones froin olonies we might -fj^'-i'f 

When thoi itnliait l> ■ 
fift*^-n (l>n;ir> p..r ■ ■! y 
cny WrtT £M- 'I iln 

Viiiuc: ill ri*. \\t\\ mT yr^v ;.»-.f4' ''1^,.^ h\^ 
fact that Iroes iti the *^i"Mi^' w? • 
worth no mou* ^^e^ • -l-iiy ihuti t.Vi 
hives combs and honey la the fall. 



So it has been my practice for a 
number of years to reduce my stock 
by killing the colonies that did not 
come up to my ideal of what a colony 
ought to be. 

But some men will say " What is 
your standard of excellence?" First 
I would prune out everv colouy that 
shows any signs of black blood. 2nd 
I would kill all the vicious bees, I 
would no more keep a vicious colony 
of bees than I would a vicious cow or 
horse. Any of them would endanger 
a human life. 3rd another class of 
colonies are those that fail to give 
satisfactory results, though in appear- 
ance and temper they may be fault- 
less. Such colonies also must vanish. 
This great difference in productive- 
ness is probably more observable in 
large apiaries. I can account for the 
great differences in colonies only in 
this way. 1st the shorter proboscis of 
the workers of some colonies whereby 
they are unable to reach the nectar 
of certain^ttoweis which are obtainable 
by other.s. 2ud shorter or weakness 
of wing, or 3rd greater vitality and 
longevity of q een and workers. I 
incline to the to the opinion that in 
this the secret lies. 

We do hioxo that it is not the most 
prolific queens that have the strongest 
colonies in the early spring or give 
^"'- ■ nio.st substantial results for the 
,.»n. riiese facts being known it 
r- minds me fo»- itee-l;<H.'pt"'r.^ to solve 

r he fH<"i .• >*^ ''■'»• '•' l'."-'y ''i" i 'g 

■ i' -hi-'e ■'; «' '■■■ *»:!^',h a'.:*n ''n.>? 

.It- same y;>' I «. ;;p. '*!> Mio 

1 .It cut ;ind ; ^ Vi^ ' x) ' ; .-.'!• 

i live oni's vnd th - se<Mir'' ilie 

survival of <hv i:Ih <» 

ITiis has been iii; p in r eev- 



1890. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



181 



eral years and results show the cor- 
rectnes-s of the theory. When the 
niaxitniim nuiiihor of colonies desired 
by and bee-kee{iers is not yet reach- 
ed, the same result?; may be obtain- 
ed by killing iuui(>sirable queens and 
supplying the colony with better ones. 
Abundant "new blood" is secured tiy 
bringing home stocks from two out api- 
aries. If this plan followr-d persist- 
ently for a term of years will not de- 
velope "Apis American " what will ? 
Youngsville, Pa 

Building up Weak Ooionies. 

BY G M. DOOLITTLK. 

From the numerous reports coming 
in, I judge that there are many weak 
colonies of bees in the United Sfates 
the present spring, and if so it will be 
but natural for all having such to 
wish to know bow to best manage 
them. Therefore, I have concluded 
that I could do no better at the pres- 
ent lime than give an article on how 
to build up weak colonies of bees in 
the Amei'icau Bee Keeper, so that 
those having such can use the same if 
they so desire. The all imporlant 
question which confronts at the start 
in this mattt-r of liuilding up weak 
colonies, and a que.-^tiou not fully 
understood by mor^t novices, is the 
best means of securing and keeping 
the degree <»f heat retjuired by the 
law of nature, with the fewest bees 
demanded for the successful rearing 
!)f young l)ees during the fickle weath- 
er of early spring. Ju order that 
brood rearing may go on successfully 
the tenjperature inside of the clusieV 
of bees must be at least 92°, as I have 
proven by many experiments with a 
-elf registering thermometer. Now, 
suppose that we had a cluster of bees 



that on a moderately cool morn- 
ing occupies three or four spaces be- 
tween the cond)s in a full hive con- 
taining 2,000 cubic inches; we w'ill 
usually tind brood in but two combs 
and but small patches at that, with 
this brood increasing very slowly as 
the days go by on account of lack of 
sufficient heat to carry on brood rear- 
ing to the best advantage. Shall we 
leave tliis colony as it is or shall we try 
to help them, is the question ? Many 
will tell us to leave them as they are, 
as to do dift'erently will be only a 
waste of time. For the novelty of 
the thing let us experiment a little 
and see if the advice of the many is 
correct. We will set these two combs 
having some brood in them close to 
one side of the hive and by means of 
a nicely fitting division-board shut all 
of the bees on these two combs, allow- 
ing a little space under one corner of 
the division- board sufficient for the 
bees to run under to secure food 
whenever they wish, from a comb of 
honey placed just outside of this 
board, thus giving them the assurance 
that there is no danger of becoming 
short of stores, thus stimulating them 
to brood rearing. By looking a few 
days later we will find that the queen, 
under these conditions, can and has 
occupied from two to three limes the 
space that luis the one which was left 
v.'iih her b es and biuod in the center 
of a full sized hive. As tlie above 
has been spoken lightly of by some, 
they calling it " spring fussing," I 
have made some experiments rt^gard- 
ing it and for exam{)ie i will give one 
of them. I selected two colonies as 
nearly alike as possible, both being 
clustered between five ranges of combs 
and shut the one on two combs while 



182 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



July 



the other has the whole hive. Both 
were treated as near alike as possible, 
except this, and the result was that 
the one shut on the two frames had 
them filled with brood to the bottom 
bar and our at the corners by the 
tenth of May, while the other had 
brood in the center of three frames to 
the amount of less than one frame full 
or a little more than one-third what 
the other had. When we had gotten 
thus far, it will be seen that we could 
put a comb partly filled with honey, 
(the same having the capping broketi, 
if it was sealed honey, so the bee, 
would become excited in manipulating 
this honey), in the brood nest of the 
first hive, and the queen under this 
stimulating process wouhi fill it with 
eggs and brood in a very short time, 
and that to the bottom and side bars ; 
while if we undertook to stimulate 
the others in the same way we should 
be likely to ruiu m'lre or less of the 
brood which they already had. As 
soon as tl^e bees become crowded in 
this contracted hive we shove along 
the division- board and put in the 
center one omb having the desired 
amount of honey in, enough to cause 
great activity with the bees in remov- 
ing it, yet not enough to be in the 
way of the queens' depositing eggs 
in the cells, and so we continue to do 
until the hive is full, doing this as 
often as the bees become populous 
enough to allow it. This hive will be 
filled with bees and brood long before 
the other thinks of being so, which 
will give us many more bees for the 
harvest, should such be from early 
flowers, such as clover and bass wood. 
This is what is called a judicious 
spreading of the brood. No one, 
whether novice or expert, should 



think of spreading the brood when 
the bees are not crowded for room, or 
when they are covering and holding 
all of the brood that they can ; for 
when they have all of tht- brood they 
can cover it is only a waste of time, 
brood and heat to spread them furth- 
er. To illustrate a little farther: Take 
one of these colonies which we have 
had shut on two or three combs for a 
week or ten days and watch and see 
how many bees are going to the fields. 
Now at night, take out the division- 
board and place the two or three 
combs of brood which they have, in 
the center of the hive the same as they 
w(mld have been had not the apiarist 
interfered, and the next day very few 
bees will be seen leaving the hive for 
field work, while if at night they are 
fixed back as before, double the num- 
ber of bees will go to the field the 
next day, this showing conclusively 
that we are working along the lines of 
natures wants in contracting the hive 
to suit her wants. Of cour.se, this is 
only applicable to April and May 
weather, and not to weather when the 
mercury is 90° in the. shade ; for then 
the heat outside is sufficient for brood 
rearing in any part of the hive, pro- 
viding they are only nurse bees 
enough to feed the brood. Well does 
this pay ? I say yes ! not only in 
dollars and cents, but also in the fun 
there is in seeing the business pros- 
per in your hands, by dint of a little 
extra effort put forth to accomplish 
an object we are desirous of accomp- 
lishing. It is worth something to us 
to he successful in our pursuits. 
Borodino*, N. Y. 

"How to Manage Bees " is a 50c 
book for beginners in bee keeping. 
We will send it postpaid for 25c. 



ISltO. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



183 



Random Notes and Oomments 

BY \V. M. EVANS. 

My experience for 24 years i.s, that 
while my bees and chickens exercise 
their sweet will in my front yard of 
one acre, my loss of chickens from 
stiugs is next to nothing. I often en- 
joy seeing the chickens run for cover, 
which they soon learn to do. I had 
one cute old hen who would stand be- 
tween two hives which were close to- 
gether, and when she heard a drone 
come in she would dodge out and get' 
him before he had a chance to get in- 
to the hive. Then she would dodge 
back to her safety place. I had two 
half grown chickens that would catch 
them on the wing quite often. Did 
not this old hen exercise reason ? 



My way of keeping the grass down 
is as follows : I keep several colonies 
of bees in my bee yard and also our 
riding horses. Animals soon learn to 
run under the cedar limbs to getaway 
from the pursuing bees. More than 
this they learn to wait until the bees 
stop flying before grazing among the 
hives. 

I i)ut legs on my hives as I am op- 
posed to all unnecessary back bending 
and knee serai)ing business. 



Mr. Doolittle's point against paint- 
ed hives is too fine for a 40-horse 
power mciroacope. 



Ed. Jolly's new super without bot- 
tom supports for the sections would do 
very well for a "cussing" instigator. 
None in mine please. I have already 
a supply of instigators. 



W. H. Morse don't quite get up to 
all the cau.ses of the j)roductiou and 
non-production of nectar in different 



seasons. All the visible material 
things of earth are held in an invisi- 
ble condition in the three atmospheres, 
and when these atmospheric conditions 
are favorable the flowers attract the 
nectar and secrete it from the atmos- 
pheres and not from the ground. Sun- 
shine alone will not do it nor the rain. 
Everything in and on our visible 
earth are only efforts produced from 
the world of cause. 



I am much interested in the India 
and Chinese large bees. I wrote Sec- 
retary Morton when he first took his 
office advising the stopping of the 
humbug seed distribution business 
and the using of the Agricultural de- 
partment to introduce new things and 
ideas through the State Experiment 
Stations for the benefit of the people. 
If either of these bees can be intro- 
duced successfully in theUnited States 
the State Experiment Station should 
furnish queens direct to all the apiar- 
ists for their own use, thus killing the 
money grabbing game of the piofes- 
sionals. 



INIy 70 colonies have come through 
the winter on their summer stands 
without loss. 



As to the future supply of honey 
here, 1 expect we will get a return of 
the honey dew on the old field pines, 
which during the last 24 years have 
been our best source fully one half 
the time. Fruit planting will also 
help us in the future as the new fancy 
and taste of England and the North 
for our Virginia red apples has given 
new life to the planting here. The 
Chicago Fair has opened tlie way to 
salvation here for this tobacco cursed 
piedmout section. Our Wine Saps 



18J 



THE A MEnrCA N P. EK- K E i;i'Ei; 



July 



are SI 00 per barrel above the highest 
priced northern appk^s. Our two best, 
the Virginia and York Imperial, are 
50c his/her. Oar justly celebrated 
Albenijirle Pippins have all been taken 
in England ;it the top prices. This 
section of Virginia now produces 
three varieties of the best keeping and 
all around good winter apples, and is 
yet destined to supply even New York 
State with its best winter apples. Our 
Italian sunshine and mineral soil are 
especially adapted to ))roduce not only 
the finest and richest apples, but also 
the mrst beautiful. Our l)lack moun- 
tain cave lands are best for the Pip- 
pins, while our red lands are best for 
the Winesaps and other reds. 







I don't agree with Brother Doolittle 
on transferring bees. For spring 
transfers 1 prefer to make the bees do 
the job themselves. I fix a frame hive 
and generally put one or more frames 
of cumb in it, as I always keep a lot 
on hand, then I set the old gum on 
top of the frames, stop up tight 
around it so the bees have to go down 
through the frame hive. By the time 
the frames in hive are filled with 
brood the comb in gum will be filled 
with honey. I then take it i/ff, knock 
it to })ieces in front of the hive so the 
few bees in it will go into tlie hive. 

For fall transferi-ing I first fix a 
frame hive with enough honey in 
frames for winter ; either by raising 
some of my extra frames of honey or 
by first taking enough from old gums 
too Aveak to keep and fixing the honey 
in frames. Then I set this fixed hive 
on gum ^tand. 

"Bow TO Manage Bees,^ a 50c 
book, and the American liEE-KEEP- 
ER a year for only GOc. 



Editor American Bee Keeper — Dear 
Sir : Six years ago I bougiit two svvarois of 
bees and let them feed on wfiite clover and 
basswood blosst)ms. I have increased my 
swarms to tifty. I think white clover makes 
the best honey, but basswood furnishes the 
greatest amount of honey for the bees to 
gather, f commenced with large hives, but 
am now making up my mind to trim them all 
down to eight inches. I put 27 boxes on 
each hive and all above the brijod r.est goes 
to me. The occupation is not only health- 
ful but profitable, and I intend to enlarge 
my work. The experiences given in your 
columns are very .interesting and valuable 
to me Yours truly, 

Mayville, N. Y. P^verett L. Pike. 



The Falconer M'f'g Co.,— Gentlemen: 
T received the goods in good onier and am 
well pleased with the;u. The sections are 
the best [ ever saw. Thanking you for 
prompt attention, 1 remain, Your^ tjuly, 

Ciirdurov, .Fuiie ISlHi. Edwin Bish. 



Thk P^alconer Man'p'-g Oo., — Dear 
Sirs: The bee supplies were received all' 
riglii and everything tils nicely. We have 
the mo^t of them put togeiher and find 
everything sati8factory. I am much pleas- 
ed with the sf clions. Tiiey are the finest 1 
ever got from any firm. 

Thanking you for your prompluess and 
for sucli nice goods, 1 remain, 

Yi.urs truly, O. O. M.ykioneaux. 

East Liverpiiol, O., June 15. IS'Jt). 



TH^: FaLiCOKKR M'F'otJo., — <^Jentlemen: 

Please t~en<i ' '. '■><ed order as soon as 

pOLsihIe. * * 

Hy the way, liie s'.c'lions and foundation 
which y<.u sent mel.isl spring were splendid. 
I have had ccctisiou to compare them with 
goods from other factories and the sections 
are f..r superior to any I have yet seen. 

Yours truiy. 
Mansfield, June 1895. A. "D. Watson. 



1S9(J. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



1S5 




(From (TlojininsrsL 

SOME HOME HINTS THAT ARE 
RIGHT TO THE POINT. 



KY MKS. 1.. C. AXTKLL. 



Mothers, brush back your hair neat- 
ly before breakfast, and thus set an 
exani{)le for your dauizhters. 

Fathers and brothers, please clean 
your feet before you come into tiie 
hou?e, and help mother to teach the 
younger children to do the same, and 
thus save much labor for the over- 
worked wife and mother. 

Brothers and sisters, say "please" to 
each other when you ask a favor, and 
"thank you" for favors done, and 
thus scatter sunbeams of love and 
cheerfulness in the family circle. 

Let no member of the family excuse 
himself for being cross and wearing 
frowns. It makes everybody feel un- 
comfortable who comes in contact with 
you, and life is too short to plant 
thorns where flowers and fruit ought 
to grow. 

As often as the children have dirty 
faces, send them to wash them, even 
if it is a dozen times a day, and they 
will soon learn to keep them clean of 
themselves. 

Give poor pussy a little new milk 
regularly, and she will thank you by 
i-atching more mice and milk will 
ceep her well if she eats too many rats. 

In teaching the little ones to wipe 
dishes dry, wet the dish-towel in clean 
hot water and wring very dry. It takes 
up the moisture from the dish more 



readily, and the little one will not 
comj)lain she can not get the dishes 
dry. 

When potatoes are pared over night 
to cook for breakfast, do not let them 
stand on the stove hearth or reservoir 
where they will get warm, for that 
will make them soggy, and hard to 
cook. 

Don't try to use dull scissors or 
shears. It dosen't pay. [f husband 
or brother can't sharpen them, buy a 
scissors-sharpener and learn to do it 
yourself. 

If you have fouiul out something 
new, and you would like others to 
share it with you, drop your work im- 
mediately and note it down, or you 
probably will forget to do so in your 
leisure. 

Rub up the lantern. I have often 
seen nicely dre.ssed people carry 
around very dirty lanterns. They 
never think of cleaning. Clean not 
only the glass but ihe whole lantern. 

In washing clothes when kerosene 
is used, always put in enough soap to 
make a good suds. One tablespoonful 
of kerosene to a patent pail of water 
is sufficient. 

Save the apple-parings and throw 
them into a jar of soft water — boiled 
well water will do. When the jar is 
full, press out the parings and sweet- 
en the cider a little, and throw in more 
parings from time to time, and you 
will soon have nice strong cider vine- 
gar. It will come sooner, and be 
stronger, if you can give it a mother 
from other vinegar. 

If it is winter, don't forget to have 
your little strawberry-patch covered 
lightly with straw or .strawy manure. 
It doesn't pay to keep your strawber- 
aies cultivated properly during sum- 



180 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



mer, and then neglect to cover them 
in winter. 

Don't wait to do all your house- 
cleaning atone time, every fall and 
every syring, as people usually do, 
aud thus make the whole family un- 
comfortable for several days, but clean 
a room from time to time the whole 
year round, and thus keep the house 
clean and sweet. 

Call upou your neighbors whether 
you think you have time or not, and 
thus promote a kindly feeling between 
them and yourself; but be careful of 
what you say of others; cultivate the 
habit of saying nothing you would 
not say to their face. 

" Show me the books and papers the 
family read, and I will tell you what 
kind of people the family are," is a 
true saying ; therefore provide good 
reading for both old and young. If 
you are tempted to feel you can't af- 
ford it, let the family live on two 
meals a day until you have saved 
enough, and see if you don't feel, be- 
fore the year is out, your third meal 
has been the best of all. 

Each day after sweeping painted or 
hard wood floors, wi])e them over with 
a mop wrung out in clean water, and 
thus keep your working rooms clean 
and healthy. 

Do not let a tin boiler stand with 
water in it, as it rusts it very soon, 
aud will rust 'the clothes and will soon 
leak ; but as soon as the washing is 
done, wash out and dry, and rub the 
inside with a greased rag that is kept 
for that purpose, aud put the boiler 
away in a dry room, not in a cellar, 
and it will last four times as long as if 
not properly dried and greased. 

Old tin pans that are rusty are unfit 
for milk or food of any kind, as tin 



rust is poisonous, though it pays to 
take care of the old pans. They may 
be used in many ways that will save 
the new pans. 

White specks in butter are often 
caused by the cream becoming dried 
before being churned, the milk being 
set where the wind blew upon it. 
When churned it could not be dis- 
solved. Some would still be seen 
floating in the buttermilk. 

Roseville, 111. 



(From American Bee Journal.) 

THE OARNIOLAN BiiES-THEIR 
COLOR, ETC. 



BY EMERSON T. ABBOTT. 



Just before he discontinued the 
publication of the American Apicul- 
turist, Mr. Alley, in reply to an arti- 
cle of mine, made some statements 
about which I wish to offer a few 
suggestions. I do not do this for the 
sake of controversy, as life is too 
short to spend much of it in argument 
simply for argument's sake, but to see 
if we cannot get the facts a little more 
clearly before us. The matter seems 
important to me, as I am confident 
that the time will come when the 
Carniolan bees will be given more at- 
tention than they are now receiving 
in the United States. I might say, 
in passing, that so far as my informa- 
tion goes, they are likely to prove of 
much more value to the bee-keepers 
of this country than Apis Dorsota, 
about which a good deal is being said 
at the present ?ime. 

But to return to the article of Mr. 
Alley. He asks, addressing himself 
to me ; "Do you know that the sil- 
vergray rings of the dark Carniolan 
bee are merely the result of the j^el- 
low blood in the Carniolan ?" To 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



IS-, 



which I reply that I do uot know 
anything of the kind. The gray bees 
of the South and Southwest have the 
same rings, and these bees do uot 
show even a trace of yellow blood 
when purely bred. More, they pos- 
sess many of the desirable traits of 
the Carniolans, and I am inclined to 
think that they originally sprung from 
the same stock. I have seen colonies 
of these bees in Missouri which were 
as gentle as the Cai'niolans, and that 
stuck to their combs as closely as the 
Italians. The truth of the matter is, 
I think that any who has the gray 
bees without any admixture of Italian 
or the ordinarv black bloods makes a 
mistake if he does not take pains to 
keep them pure. 

Mr. Alley further says : " When 
we breed from imported mothers, the 
progeny, both queens and workers, 
runs back to solid block." This has 
been my experience. They do not do 
that way with me. In fact, the very 
opposite, is true. Every generation, 
if purely bred, becomes more yellow, 
so that it seems to me that the entire 
tendency of the progeny of imported 
Italians, if kept pure, is toward in- 
creased yellowness. 

Again he says *' There are no all 
steel-gray colonies of bees to be found 
in Carniola." While I cannot say 
from actual observation that this is a 
mistake, yet I know that I have had a 
queen in my apiary since I lived in 
St. Joseph, which came direct from 
Carniola, the progeny of which did 
not show even a trace of yellow. How- 
ever, the fact that there is a tendency 
in nearly all bees which come from 
that country to show yellow, does not 
prove that the original color of these 
is yellow. Every breeder of Barred 



Plymouth Rock fowls know that they 
show a tendency to become black, but 
this does not prove that the natural 
color of these fowls is black. There 
is also at the same time a tendency to 
become white, and from this by the 
same process of reasoning one might 
prove their natural color to be white. 
Both are unwarranted conclusions, 
and prove nothing as to the original 
color, or rather, the true color of these 
fowls. They do prove, however, that 
the Barred Plymouth Rocks are what 
may be called a combination breed, 
that is, made up of mixed blood, and 
that the color tends to vary according 
to the pre-potency of the fowl furnish- 
ing the blood which produces the pre- 
vailing color. It is claimed I know, 
that there is a tendency in Nature to 
variation independent of blending 
blood, but I doubt this being true. 
There may be a mixture of blood in 
most bees found in Carniola at the 
present time. If so, we would expect 
all of the progeny of such mixture to 
show traces of it for a long time. 

The longer fowls are carefully bred 
and selected as to a special marking 
or color, the more permanent that 
marking or color will become, and the 
less tendency there will be to varia- 
tion, or to revert back. This is just 
as true of bees as it is of fowls, but we 
would expect any mixture of foreign 
blood th show through several gener- 
ations. AYith proper care and care- 
full selection any color can be bred 
out or iu. You can lake a white hen 
and breed her to a black cock, and 
then by judicious selection breed out 
every tendency of either black or 
white in the progeny, no difference 
which color seems to predominate. 
The predominancy of color, as I said 



ISS 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



above, will depend entirely upon the 
pre-potency of the parent furnishing 
the blood, or, to speak more correctly, 
the germ which produces the tendency 
to the color predominating. This law 
of herdity, as previously suggested, is 
just as applicable to bees as to any 
other animal. I have no doubt but 
what we can take Carniolan bees 
showing a tendency to yellow and 
breed out every trace of gray : or, if 
he choose, he can breed out every 
trace of yellow, that is, if he can con- 
trol the matings. This, of course, 
will take time, but it can be done. 
The doing ^of it, however, would not 
prove anything as to the original col- 
or of the Carniolans. 

Which strain of these bees would 
prove to be the best I am not prepar- 
ed to say. From what little exper- 
ience I have had along this line at 
the present writing I would select the 
yellow. As to ^vhich strain would 
come the nearer being like the bee 
which was tirst given the name Carn- 
iolan, I do not know this, either. In 
fact, I doubt if anyone knows, or 
could demonstrate it beyond success- 
ful contradition. It would require a 
long and careful investigation in the 
native laud of these bees to come any 
where near settling the matter, and 
even then the chances are the ques- 
tion might remain unsettled. It is 
my opinion that steel-gray is the 
original color, but I may not be cor- 
rect. There is one point that is fully 
settled in my mind, and that is, that 
the Carniolans are much more valu- 
able than the mass of bee-keepers at 
the present time seem to think. I am 
thoroughly convinced that all that is 
needed is to put them to the test in 
order to demonstrate their superior 



qualities. I think, too, that the 
mixture of yellow blood improves 
them. Here is a field for some of our 
workers at the experiment stations. 
Will not some one take it up who has 
no financial interests in the result, 
and see what can be developed out of 
it? 

Let me say in conclusion that I do 
not have any of these bees for sale, 
and have no interest in the business 
of any who has. 

St. Joseph, Mo. 



(From American Bee Journal). 

BEE-KEEPERS NOT SUPFERING 

FROM OVER-PRODUOTION OF 

THE HONEY PRODUCT. 

BY H. F COLEMAN. 

I have read with much interest the 
article of Mr. Doolittle on page 163, 
with reference to over-production, but 
I cannot say that I was greatly sur- 
prised at the range of prices of honey 
from the year 1874 to the present — a 
period of 22 years. It it true that 
the difference between 28 to 30 cents 
per pound obtained in 1874, and 13 
to 15 cents per pound obtained at 
present, is very large, but in my opin- 
ion the trouble is not in the over-pro- 
duction of honey, but in the increased 
production of other luxuries and 
necessaries of life, combined with a 
contraction of the currency of the 
country. It is perhaps true that there 
is more honey produced now, than in 
the year 1874, but not to a greater 
extent than the increase in the popu- 
lation of the country, and this being 
true, everything else being equal, 
there should be no very great differ- 
ence in the prices or demand for hon- 
ey. But everything else is not equal. 
There has been a great increase in the 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



189 



production of Fruits and sugars, and 
these combined, at their present \o\\' 
prices, to a great extent, have sup- 
planted honey, and form the princi- 
pal table-luxuries of the people. 

It is a rule, founded in economy, 
that the human family will use and 
subsist upon the cheaf)est commoditi- 
es, if the cheaper commodities will 
meet the ends in view. And this rule 
applies with unusual force at a time 
like this, when there is a stringency 
in money matters. 

If Mr. Doolittle will reflect for a 
moment, he will remember that theie 
has been a gradual decline in prices, 
of nearly all kinds of products since 
1874. Wheat, corn, pork, beef, pota- 
toes and other farm products have de- 
clined to an extent that is almost 
alarming, and we should not be sur- 
prised to see honey in the wake. 

And there is still another rule, 
founded in economy, that has its in- 
fluence on the price of honey. Hon- 
ey is a luxury, and when men are in 
the straits, financially, they curtail 
expense, and the luxuries are the first 
to be dispensed with. 

It is not ray purpose in this article 
to say anything with references to my 
views as to the cause of the present 
financial depression, but we can say- 
that it is very desirable to beekeepers 
that we have an era of prosperity — 
an era that will place within the reach 
of all the real luxuries of life. When 
this time comes, honey will again he 
sought after as an article of consump- 
tion, and the good old day of long ago 
will in a measure be restored. I say 
in a measure, for I do not believe 
with the increased production of sug- 
ar and fruits, which are so easily 
turned into marmalade.-;, jellies, and 



other luxuries, that honey will ever 
again be in as good demand for table 
use as in day gone by. 

I usually sell my honey at home 
and in neighboring towns, and the 
demand is always graded by the sup- 
ply of fruit, and the ability of my 
friends to buy- A few years ago 
(1885) my crop was the largest I ever 
had, but the fruit crop in my section 
was a failure, and the entire crop 
went off at fine prices before cold 
weather. 

Last year my crop was meilium, 
but the fruit crop was large, and the 
result is, i have several hundred 
pounds of nice white honey still on 
hand. 

Notwithstanding the low prices and 
comparatively small demand for hon- 
ey, I do not mean to give up bee- 
keeping ! Neither do I believe that 
Mr. Doolittle will give it up. The 
value of a product is not measured 
alone by the dollars and cents it will 
bring, but by the buying capacity of 
what it does bring. Twenty years 
ago, when we were getting fancy 
prices for our honey, we were paying 
the same kind of prices for what we 
bought. At that time we paid at 
least one dollar per bushel for wheat, 
and other things in proportion, and 
now it will not take a greater number 
of pounds of honey to buy a bushel of 
wheat than then. Of course, I mean 
generally speaking. 

From what has been seen ^from the 
above), we as bee-keepers should not 
bemoan our fate alone, as to low prices, 
but should exercise that broad sym- 
pathy that will extend to all classes 
suffering from the same cause. 

Sueedville, Tenu. 



190 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



(From American Bee Journal.) 

WAX EXPERIMENTS-METHODS OF 

RENDERING QUANTITY 

AND QUALITY. 

BY R. C. AIKIN. 



How shall we render wax ? How 
much can I get from a given number 
of combs, and what will be the quali- 
ty ? We do stick to old methods with 
wonderful tenacity, even when there 
are ways that are better. I have 
rendered wax with water and with 
steam, usmg several different ways of 
applying the heat. I have also used 
the solar way for 10 or 15 years. 1 
have made at least five solar extrac- 
tors, ranging in size from 18x30 in. 
to 6x6 feet. I have made them mov- 
able and stationary ; built two of 
brick, the last one of which is built 
against the south side of my shop, and 
is 6x6 feet, all openings into it being 
in the shop. A furnace is also 
beneath to apply fire when needed. 

Last year I had occasion to melt a 
lot of extracting-combs. I thought 
this a good opportunity to test the ' 
yield of wax from a given number of 
combs. I remember reading years 
ago (I think in Kretchmer's "Bee- 
Keepers' Guide ") that an ordinary 
brood-chamber required about two 
pounds of wax to build the comb to 
fill it. The combs I had to melt were 
in part almost new, both natural base 
and foundation combs. JPart had been 
used for brood, some quite black. I 
first put 100 bright combs into the 
solar, average Langstroth size combs, 
and got 20 pounds of wax. Two 
other lots of 100 each were melted 
separtely, the least yield being 17 
pounds. 

The 100 brighter combs yielded 20 



pounds after having been extracted 
from a few times ; I would expect al- 
most as good a yield from strictly 
new combs — brobably a little less wajj 
but a little whiter. The dark combs, 
I am sure, have as much wax in them, 
but the mass of cocoons carry with 
them probably about 1-10. The 
grade of wax from these three lots 
was almost the same, being a bright 
yellow. The wax left with the refuse 
is not entirely lost, for it makes fine 
fuel and kindling,' thus making the 
dark combs almost if not quite as val- 
uable as the brighter ones. 

Some seem to think there is uo bet- 
ter way to render wax than the sub- 
merged-sack method ; but all things 
considered, the solar is far ahead of 
this method. The first saving is in 
time. I save all odds ends, burr- 
combs, hive-scrapings and bottom- 
board litter, and put all in the solar. 
The very blackest old comb you may 
have — though not yielding as much 
wax as the meltings before-mentioned 
— will give a bright wax from the 
solar ; but if put through water it will 
be very dark. 

Of the afore-mentioned meltings I 
took about a half bushel of the refuse 
and put it in a sack and submerged it 
in a can of water, boiled, stirred, 
punched and twisted the stuff, and yet 
I could not get enough wax to rise to 
make a scum on the water. 1 then 
took the bag out and put it under the 
pressure of my own weight, and 
squeezed out ^ pound of wax — wax 
that was blacker than any I ever saw 
in the darkest brood-foundation. A 
few years ago I tried a similar plan 
on a lot of refuse, and got about 10 
per cent more wax that was quite 
dark but in this case the solar work 



1890. 



TUE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



11)1 



was rushed through, and the stuff not 
left to drain as it should, for I knew 
I was going to treat it again, and 1 
wanted to get the wax out as quickly 
as possible. 1 suppose in the last 15 
years 1 have produced 3,000 or 4,000 
pounds of wax, the most of it going 
through the solar. 

Another important point is the hon- 
ey saved. Here and there are bits of 
of candied honey, covered cells and 
bits that usually would be unnoticed, 
yet turn out quite a lot of honey that 
is saved for feeding. No care is 
needed in picking out patches of hon- 
ey for it will not be lost in the solar, 
but would be by the water method. 
I always accumulate from the solar 
more honey than wax. I always put 
a little water into the pan, for the 
evaporation would make the honey 
into taffy — to thick to pour. 

The first mistake with apiarists is 
to make their solar wax-extractor to 
small. The next mistake is to make 
the box and sash of wood. Wood 
will not stand the extremes of heat 
wet and dry. The putty will loosen 
and cracks open. 1 have a sash part 
wood and part iron. The iron stays 
all right, but the wood part is always 
more or less loose. The walls are of 
brick built upon the ground, and the 
inner parts of tin. It is 6 feet square 
and fronts south. Were 1 to build 
again, 1 would make it longer east 
and west, or, what I think still better, 
build with the corners pointing north, 
east, west and south, makiig a hip 
roof with a southeast and southwest 
slope, and so get the sun all day. 
Large glasss is not neces.sary. I have 
glass in mine that is not over 4 inches 
by 16. 1 use straight-edg-^ glass and 
oil the joints, the glass butted — not 
lapped. 

A large solar will alsM serve as a 
liquefying concern. Once in the 
month of maich 1 liquefied a thousand 
pjunds in two days. The honey was 



in three and two pound lard pails, and 
all put in at one time. Fire was used 
beneath in this case, but where the 
cans of honey are spread over the 
solar so that the sun shines on each 
pail or can direct, the sun alone will 
do the work any ordinary clear sum- 
mer day. 

Should I continue to proHuce ex- 
tracted honey, and have to liquefy the 
same, I would not do it with water or 
steam. An appliance for the use of 
hot air — much on the plan of an oven 
— will do the work just as well, and 
much cheaper, and any kind of a ves- 
sel can be put in. I have been using 
lacquered and stenciled, and it is no 
little satisfaction to be able to melt 
honey right in the pails when it has 
become candied in them. To set these 
pails in water would spoil the paint 
and lettering, but the dry hot air does 
no damage whatever. 

Loveland, Colo. 



Amateur farming. 



Altogether I find farming to Ije a more 
complicated Easiness than I had anticipat- 
ed. During the tirst two years of my 
ownership of " The ?vIoorlands.," a wily 
Long Islander came to rue and pnrsuaded 
me to sell him the hyy on my twelve acres 
for twenty two dollars, because, he assured 
me, " it wasn't tit for horses to eat." When 
my groom also coincided in this opinion, I 
let this accommodiiting farmer have the 
grass, and t'elt quite under obligations to 
him for relieving me ( f such a worthless 
product. The third year, however, when 
he renewed liis offer (and I had sjient sev- 
eral hundred dollars on ha? at thirty dol- 
lars a ton), a su>picion awoke in me that he 
might not be acting in good faith. 1 ob- 
served that his horses ate the bay with rel- 
ish. Why should my horses be so much 
'liore fastidious than his? I according kept 
the hay, »n<.\. mirahile diciu, my l.orses ate 
it and thrived I scornfully rejected the 
the him thit my gmofn dropped (i success- 
or to the afore-mentioned onej, that it was 
the same hay ; that, in other words, I h.ad 
in previous years soM my own hay at less 
than two dollars a ton and bought it l)ack at 
thiriy When in a somewhat acrimonious 
dialogue I sugk-ested this possibility u> the 
Long [slander in question, he stnilr-d in an 
uneasy, evasive kind of way, and remarked, 
" You are getting to be quite a firmer, ain't 
yon ?" — ffjalmar Hjorth Boymen, in July 
Lippincott's. 



192 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



The jlmepiean Bse-Kseper, 



Th^' 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BT 

" -ALCONER MANFG CO.- 



TERMS : 

50 cents h yisar in advance ; 2 copies, 85 cents ; 3 
copies, •fl .20 ; all to be sent to one postofRce. 

Postage prepaid in the U.S. and Canada; 10 cents 
extra to ail countries in the postal union and 20 
cents extra to all other countries. 

ADVERTISING RATES: 

15 ccnt.s per line, 9Avords; S2.00 per inch. 5 per 
cent, di.scount for 2 insertions; 7 per cent, for 3 in- 
sertions; 10 per cent, for 6 insertions; 20 per cent, 
for 12 insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or before 
the 20th of each month to insure insertion in month 
following. Address, 

THK AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
Falconer, N. Y. 

*ir-Subscribers finding this paragraph marked 
with a blue cross will know that their subscripiton 
expires with this number. We hope that you will 
not delay in sending a renewal. 

-8®="A Red Cross on this paragraph indicates that 
you owe for your subscrijirion. Please give the 
matter your attention. 

EDITORIAL. 

The agitation of the subject of the 
importation of the Apis Dorsata, the 
Giant Bees of India, still continues, 
and we hope it will be kept up until it 
is brought to the notice of the Govern- 
ment in such a wa}- that steps will be 
taken to procure some of these bees. 
We have noted with regret that 
Gleanings is not in favor of the pro- 
ject and its views are of course close- 
l.y seconded b}- the American Bee 
Journal. • We have yet to hear any 
good reason why the importation of 
these bees should not be attempted. 



Wm Gerrish, East Nottingham, N 
H., keeps a complete supply of our 
goods and Eastern customers will 
save freight by ordering from him. 



Last month we casually mentioned 
that some one ought to start an ar- 
gument in the bee papers, Friend 



York, of the American B^e Journal, 
in a sarcastic mood, asks wh}' we do 
not start one ourselves and rails at 
us for being exti'emely modest. Now 
the fact is, we have no time for 
arguments. Life is too short for 
us to waste our time endeavoring 
to convince some one that it is better 
to use ten frames in a hive than eight, 
when common sense should teach us 
that each is proper under certain 
circumstances. Perhaps if our sole 
occupation was to write up two or 
three small pages of items once a 
week we would dote on arguments, 
but fortunately or otherwise our time 
for editorial duties is limited to an 
hour or two onl}^ each month. 



We will send the American Bee- 
Keeper one year with the Cosmopol- 
itan for SI. 25. Ttie Cosmopolitan is 
a monthly magazine containing an 
average of over 100 pages and 80 il- 
lustrations each month. 

June was a ver\' busy month for 
us. Our customers did not seem to 
"wake up" much until then, but 
they made up for lost time and 
the month ended with a record of 
many more orders than June nf last 
year. 



We will duplicate the prices on 
hives and supplies offered by any 
first class manufacturers — and in 
man}' cases can do even better b}' you 
than anyone else. 



Clubbing List. 

We Kill send the Amkkic.\s Bek Kkkpek with 
the— 

American Bee Journal, 
Americ'tn Apiculturi?t, 
Bee Keeper's Review, 
Canadian Bee Journal, 
Gleiminffs in Bee Culture, 



PUB. PRCK. 


BOTH. 


(SI 00) 


SI 35 


( 75j 


1 15 


n iio) 


1 35 


(1 00) 


1 25 


(1 00) 


1 35 



1800. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



19:! 



Reduction of Prices. 

Kdii.vDATioN has t)fen roduced .'>c a 
[)()und from prices in our 18i)(i cata 
losi". This is owing to tiie lower price 
of wa\ 

Our .■•■ . I'ai.con Poushed Sec- 
tions we now otter at S2.50 for 1000, 
S4.50 for 2000, 8'i 41) for 3000, st^lO 
for 5000. Less i'imm hkhi <.,ni,. ,,.•;,■- 
es as formerly. 

BkesU'AX is lowi-r. We nre now 
paying 22c cash or 2oc in trade, per 
pound, delivered at our railroad sta- 
tion. (Falconer. N. V). This price is 
not guai-;inteed. We will pay highest 
market price when wax is received. 
Prices are liable to be reduced again 
witliin ;i short time If you have any 
wax lo .sell it is advisai)le to send it 
now 

" A.MKlilCAX POISONS.'' 

The Frenchman, not without reason, calls 
our iced drinks " American poisons." As 
a matter of fact, cool spring water will allay 
thirst much better than iced water ; hut it 
is very ditticult to convince those addicted 
to the iced -water habit of this fact. The 
grave harm caused by iced water is from 
swallowing it quickly and in large quanti- 
ties. ]f sipped slowly and held in the 
mouth for a motnent, the temperature is 
raised appreciable before it reaches the 
stomach, and its cooling effects reach that 
part of the body where they are most need- 
ed, — the head, thror.t, and upper part of 
the chest. For this reason ice cream is 
much less dangerous than iced water; we 
eat it slowly, and it is not only entirely 
melted, bu; also perceptibly warm before it 
enters the stomach. 

This well-known fact, whicii everyone 
can verify for himself, is entirely ignored 
by those alarmists who draw so harrowing 
pictures of the internal economy, represent- 
ing the stomach and its contents as almost 
paralized by the suddenly congealing in 
liuence of the iniroduction of a mass of 
frozen cream. Of course, if it were so the 
danger would be immense, for when the 
stomach is attending to its appointed duties 
— actively engaged in the process of digest- 
ion — it is a little furnace, and any tamper- 
ing with its tires results in the immediate 
discjrnfort of its owner and overseer 



When yon deluge it with ii.'ed drinks vou 
put out the lires, and irrested digestion 
ine.iiis -Ai-nXv ciiin Miifl much discinifurt. 
I'lm't ask it to do so fnuch work wht-u the 
thfniDiiieter gilt's aho\e 80°; then the tiies 
will not liiiAM-! to he so hot, aii<l yon will uc^t 
sufli.-'r fiMin what you I'eel is a criiisuuiiiig 
tiiirsi —-From " Sviiniier Hv/ittie." in Dan- 



The Kamaoulie Koloko, or bell, is 
one of the most curious sights iu To- 
bolsk. This bell is called by the Rus- 
sians "the bell with tbe ear torn off" 
and is kept iu a kind of shed near the 
archbishop's palace, where its romantic 
history is always to be heard. Iu the 
sixteenth century Prince Dimitri, the 
rightful heir to the Russian throne, was 
deposed by a revolt headed by Boris 
Goduuctl, who was then proclaimed 
czar. The seat of the Russian govern- 
ment was at Uglich, and there Dimitri 
was sent to be under the immediate con- 
trol of the unlawful ruler. 

Tbe usurper, fearing that the popu- 
lace ruighi' awake to the claims of the 
young prince, planned his assassination, 
and he was cue day stabbed iu the yard, 
none of the bystanders showing the 
slightest disposition to help him. 

A priest, however, who saw the crime 
fron^ the cathedral belfry, immediately 
commenced to toll the great bell, which 
was only rung on such occasions as the 
coronation of the czar. 

The czar, furious at this expression 
of reproach, commanded that the priest 
should be tortured and executed, and 
that tbe bell should be pulled down and 
placed beside the body of its ringer. 
The order was fulfilled, and the bell 
was beaten by the whole populace head- 
ed by the c?;:ir l;i-,:.;«]f 

in tno:-( rJan exiles were 

tortured be, out on their .jour- 

ney by having u.i-ir nostrils torn off 
with redbot piucLois. It was decreed 
that the beil should be exiled to Tobolsk, 
but as it had no nostrils the ruler of all 
the RussJas commanded, with grim 
humor, that one of its clappers should 
be removed in order to indicate its dis- 
grace. — London Tit-Bits. 

The first hint of paper making in Eu- 
rope was in Const ajJtiiicple. The proc- 
ess was brought from China by way of 
Siinitu'kaud in A. D. iibl. 



194 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



f^ONNET. 

Ere bafhccl wiuter, at fair spring's first nod, 
His %vea,kened forces northward home hatb 

led, 
Wliile remnant drifts about our path are 
spread, 

The crocus bursts the bondage of the sod. 

And, lo, where late among the snow we trod. 
The blossom sunward lifts its dainty head. 
White, purple, gold, along the garden bed. 

To catch the first warm glances of its god. 

Thus, in some gloomy season of the heart. 
When sorrow all our joy hath overspread 
And ev'ry voice seems but to make us sad, 
New hopes arise ere pain can all depart; 
We fling aside the discontent and dread 

And go our way with faces bright and glad. 
—Mortimer Mansell in Chambers' Journal. 



U 



MY COUSIN AMY 



Here is a story that Mr. Vau Rensse- 
laer Crossgraiu told to a few of hig 
tronies at the chib the other evening 
after the final brandy and soda. They 
never before suspected him of any senti- 
mental weakuesiS, but now they have 
dieir doubts about it. He did soften in 
the telling of it, even If when he had 
finished he resumed his natural manner 
and swore at the waiter for showing a 
natural desire to clean up for the evrn- 
^ig and gOj p'?rhaps, to his sweetheart. 
Here's Lis .s{ory: 

"I have known my cousin Amy since 
the diiys when she was 5 and I was 15, 
and that was many years ago. Still i 
never during all that time suspected the 
truth, and I never knew it till it was 
too late. Then I learned what might 
have been, and as I thought the simple 
story over, it occurred to me it might 
in its moral prove useful to other young- 
sters as blind as 1 was and have been. 
Fortune never knocks twice at a man's 
door. Few of us knov/ our caller vchen 
she visits us and are generally di!?p.^ped 
to ignore hfr summons, taking her for 
a creditor or a bore. The only vv ay is to 
learn from the experience of our elders. 

"Young folks think that old folks are 
fools, old folks know that young folks 
are. Thus goes the old proverb the san- 
ity of which never impresses one till he 
has crossed 30. But let me tell you the 
story of my cousin Amy. 

"To begin with, she was the sweetest 
girl that ever was or will be. And she 
is so now. But tluit is only the comple- 



ment of this story. Well, Amy was, is 
and will be the sweetest girl in the 
world. Still I never loved her — except 
as a cousin and as a sweet girl, the 
svreetest I ever have seen or shall see. 
From now on — I don't know, I can't 
tell — but you are not interested in my 
future or Amy's, so let's get back to the 
story Well, then, I have known my 
cousin Amy since she was 5 years old. 
Even then she had an infinite sweetnesi? 
about her w; ' 'i was not overshadowed 
even by the iallness of life and .spirits 
which was her second best charm> 

"Even at the age when young maids 
of do net live long in the thoughts of 
youths I vvas fond of Amy. She was 
com-panionable even then, and though 
at times noisy and persistent, she in* 
fused her grace even into those dis- 
agreeable qur.lities and made them hali 
lovable This was Amy at the age of 5. 
Well you know how a youth changes 
after 17. How he becomes then one 
thing or the other. Good or bad, studi- 
ous or careless, serious or trifling. Dur- 
ing the next ten years I saw Amy only 
now and then. She was changing and 
^veloping also, ])ut I paid little atten- 
tion lo he? grov.'th, I was chasing aftei 
the false gods Whose worship is so at- 
tractive to the young man. Amy was- 
only A child to me at my advanced 
yeai\s, and while family connections 
kept mo in frequent contact with her, 
I thought of my old young friend only- 
as a rather awkward, shy girl of 15, 
wliile I wa.s rejoicing in the full man- 
hood and tmlimited experience and wis- 
dom of 25, 

"When I saw her in those days I 
paid little attention to her. There was 
still the old sweetness there, the power' 
of loving, the simple but strong attrac- 
tiveness, but I was busy with my false- 
gods and tinsel goddesses. You men of 
30, you know where you worshiped 
then, and you know how devout you 
were in your worship and how the fal- 
lacy and hollowness of your creed never 
strike you till you have had five or ten 
years of it, and how then you learn your 
god is stuffed with the dirtiest kind of 
sawdust and the worship stinks in your 
nostrils. Well, I passed through that 
stage. I went the rounds and rejoiced 
in the designation of a rounder. No 
hog wallowed in his filth more luxuri- 
ously than I, and it took me ten long 



ismi 



THE AMKlifOAN BEE-KEEPER. 



195 



years to learn that there was not and 
never can be anything in dissipation, 
that alcoholieallv- stimularcd spirits and 
the purchased aifections of women are 
the bitterest mockeries on God's earth. 
They are hell's best counterfeits, but 
rank counteri'eits they are, and only the 
so called keen eyes of youth are de- 
cei^^ed by tlieni. 

"All this has a bearing on my story 
of Amy, because, thank Gcd. after a 
while my eyes were opened and I saw 
the folly of my life. And, as when a 
man has thrown the bloom and flower 
of his youtii in the gutters of dissipation 
he takes the faded remnants back to the 
highway, so I, seeing I had beeu giving 
much for nothing, bethoiight myself that 
perhaps the ways of decent people were 
wiser and I sought to tread them. So- 
ciety does not condemn the male sinner, 
tiis social position is thrown like a cloak 
over his life and virtuous mothers who 
know from worldly husbands the story 
of his escapades are glad to show him 
their jewels in the way of marriageable 
daughters — that is, if he may be eligible. 

"Well, I was rich and eligible. I eas- 
ily worked my ^Yay back into the society 
,1 had quit for what is styled Bohemia. 
I saw young women far more sweet and 
attractive than tho.se who shine at pub- 
lic balls, late suppers and fancy resorts. 
And among them shone conspicuous my 
cousin Amy. 1 had never entirely given 
up her society, but of late years I had 
seen less and less of her. It seemed to 
me her manner had changed. She was 
now a woman of the world, with her 
three crowded seasons behind l^?r. New 
York, Newport, London and the Riviera 
had beeu her stamping grounds, and 
even her infinite sweetness — pai'dou the 
repetition of the word, but it fitted her 
— was partially covered though not ef- 
faced by the manner of the womaii of 
22 years. I had not noticed this, or at 
any rate dwelt upon it, in our few 
meetings in the meantime. 

"Amy was .still and had never ceased 
to bo tend of me as an old friend and 
playmate, for in the far away old days 
we had even plas'ed together as children 
will. But I could never regain my exact 
old lootiu.?:. After a while she did let 
me get a little clo.ser, and then later I 
thought I noticed sometimes a return of 
someihins like the old camaradarie 
Was I tulling.iu love with Amy? I did 



aot say so. Then one day I heard some- 
thing and the next day she told me 
something herself. 

"I knew the fellow and liked him. 
He was all that a man should be, and if 
any man could claim such a standing 
he was worthy of Amy. Still, for a mo- 
ment I hated him, and could I have 
heard of his disgrace I would have re- 
joiced ; I hardly knew why, but I felt 
why. But Amy was very happy, so 
happy that I forgave him, and she soft- 
ened more toward me. 

"This is all of my story. Its enough 
for it's a story of what wafi missed and 
of fortune turned away from the door 
at the first and last call. How do I 
know? I will tell you. Amy was to be 
married after Easter. During Lent I 
passed a few days at her father's place 
on the Hudson. She was so happy and 
grateful to this old world for her happi- 
ness that she opened all her heart to me 
and told me her hopes and plans. So 
selfish is entire happiness. If she had 
confined herself to her future I might 
still have been' fairly happy even in her 
and his happiness. But in the fullness of 
her spirits Amy lapsed into reminis 
cence. 

"During one of our close and cordial 
conversations I noticed a look on her 
expressive face, a look half quizzical, 
half amused, and then she turned to me 
and smiled. Blushed? No. But when 
she told me this story I left her for a 
moment saying I tliought I would smoke 
a cigar, tliough I fprgot to light it when 
I gol oil the veranda i 

"I had spoken of her happiness, and 
without thinking what I was saying I 
asked her familiarly : 

" 'Amy, is that lucky fellow the first 
or are you giving him only the rem- 
nants of afiection a pretty girl has left 
after three years of society?' She 
laughed gayly and without embarrass- 
ment. 'Yes and no,' she answered. 'I 
have met no man in society I consider 
his equal in any way, and he has all 
the atfection I possess, but I must make 
a coufessiou to you, and I can do so 
safely now. I was in love once before, 
and oh, Jiow in love I was. It was a 
fooli.sh afrair, ' she said smiling, 'but at 
the time I was terribly in earnest. I 
have quite recovered, so I can tell you 
all about it. Do you remember some 
years ago vvheu you were still quite re- 



19G 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 



July 



cnew I was in 

certainly not, i never 

■ ■- "■■ ■• child,' I re- 



spectable anrt nscci ro come ara caKe 
with us every h-'anaay evening?' 

" 'Of courso; 1 do,' I answered r;.t 
testily. 

'"Well 
love then, i1j.< 

" 'Why no, 
thought ff ■' 
plied. 

"'I was ij, r.u: ^.cj.;w, and I was 
very muck in Icve, and with you, you 
silly goose. You never knew it, you 
paid no attention to me, but would talk 
to father or some of the guests, and I 
would sit up and drink in your words 
and think thtm wisdom. Why, I re- 
member one evening when I was sent 
up to bed ai i) o'clcck I came back after 
the maid wr:.s gene and sat at the head 
of the stairs vvhere I could hear you 
speaking. Then my feelings got the bet- 
ter of me and I began to cry. Mamma 
heard me, but you didn't, and she came 
after me and sent me back to bed, be- 
sides giving n.e a good lecturing. ' 

"And Amy laughed heartily and I 
thought with unnecessary gayety. And 
so I made a fool of myself. In a mo- 
ment I felt that my cousin Amy was the 
one woman in the world for me and that 
she had really always been. (And she 
will always be. ) 

"And I said to her, 'Amy, you are 
telling me cf years ago, may I tell you 
something of the present time?' But she 
understood me, and Amy was loyal. 
For a moment only she seemed startled 
and drew a long breath. Then she 
smiled again. 

" 'No, no!' she said M'ith her old gay- 
ety, 'when your story is as old as mine, 
you may tell it to me if you like, but 
the exchange is not fair now. ' Which 1 
thought was a jioor way out of it, and 
I told her so. 

"Still, when I left her and went out 
ujiou the ver;inda to smoke, I forgot to 
light my cigar. " — New York Sun. 



Nervess and Skyscrapers. 

A nervous condition bordering on 
prostration, to which the doctors have 
not as yet given a name, has lately 
been observed to affect persons who 
work many hours a day high up in the 
modern skyscrapers. The ailment re- 
sembles nervous prostration, except in 
the principal symptom, which is a con- 
'iitidn of intense restlessness and, as one 



or rn. ;^ x- 

pressea w, " "li si;:g;:i,:r r;;..:!''' lo scream 
or to get down to the earth quickly." 

A sensation of relief is noticeable 
when the patient is taken to grass, so 
to speak, which leads some physicians 
to the Vielief that the change in the 
rarity of the air, slight as it is, has a 
peculiar etrect upon certain very seiisi- 
rive organ izatio!;^. Others think chat 
the constant trips in the elevators cause 
a slight disarrangement of the nerve 
centers, which brings on the condition 
referred to. In any case, there is no 
doubt that a new ailment has come 
among us with the advent of the sky- 
scraper. — -New York Journal. 



FEEAiasH 8TREAMS. 



REMARKABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF 
SOME .ARGE RIVERS. 



The Mispissippj No JLonijer Holds First 
Place In No7th America — A River of 
Writing Fluirl — Wonderfnl Channel of 
•■China's Sorrow." 

It is a recognized fact in science that 
very few great rivers have been thor- 
■cughly txplorcd by going up stream. 
For nearly 2, 000 years travelers and ex- 
plorers endeavored to discover the 
sources cf \\vo Nile by ascending that 
wondei'fTil river. But by the time they 
had reachf^d the difficult pai-t of the 
stream i heir supplies and energy were 
exhausted, and they could gone farther. 
It is only b-y seeking tlie sources of 
rivers by overland routes that explorers 
meet with success. It was in this man- 
ner that Kenry M. Stanley traced the 
i-oute CI the Kcngo in Africa. In this 
way of procediire Frederick Schwatka 
was enabled to float down to Yukon 
and Speke f :und the secret of the river 
Nile. 

One of the most curious rivers that 
has ccme to the knowledge of men is 
the Webbe Lliebeyli, of eastern Africa, 
a deep and rapid stream, abounding in 
strange fr-h and ferocious crocodiles. 
Although it flows for hundreds of miles 
through fertile lands the immense vol- 
ume of water never reaches the sea. A 
.short distance north of the equator the 
river is lost in a desert region a few 
miles freni the Indian ocean. 



1896 



7 'HE A MKR I CA N BEE- KEEPER . 



li)7 



Seme cif the more recent explorers of 
Alaska and British America claim that 
the Mississippi can iio longer be regard- 
ed as tJic lia-gest river nu the North 
Ami^ricai) coutineut. This distiuction 
is claimed for tlie great Yukon river. 
According to Ivan Petroft", who spent 
over two yetu's in Alaska, collecting 
ruati-rials for the last census, the Yiikon 
empties into Norton sound about one- 
third mere water than the Mississippi 
pours into the gulf of Mexico. The Yu- 
kon basin Cv;mi)rises the larger part of 
northei-u Alaska, and GOO miles from 
its mouth the river is a mile in width. 
Many centuries before it was discovered 
by white men it very likely served as 
the water highway into the interior, 
for tribes that we believe to have crossed 
from Asia to the x\merican continent. 
The Yukon river is over 3,000 miles in 
length. 

Travelers report that in Algeria there 
exists a small stream which the chem- 
istry of natui'e has turned into ink. It 
is formed by the union of two rivulets, 
one of which is very strongly impreg- 
nated with iron, while the other, 
meauderiijg through a peat marsh, im- 
bibes lai'go (juantities of gallic acid. 
Letters have been written with the nat- 
ural compound of iron and gallic acid 
which forms this small, yet wonderful, 
stream. 

The Rio de Viuagre, in Colombia, is 
a stream the waters of which, by ad- 
mixture with sulphui'ic acid, become so 
sour that the river has been appropri- 
ately named the Rio de Viuagre, or 
Vinegar river. 

The Orange or Garieh river, in south- 
em Africa, ri.ses in the mountains which 
separate Natal from the Orange River 
Free State. The length of this stream is 
1,000 miles. Its banks abound in vai'i- 
ous valuable woods, and. lU'ound it are 
found rich copper ores. In this stream 
are many varieties of fish, which are 
found until the river passes through a 
rocky region containing copper, below 
which the water is said to be poi.sonous, 
almost instantly killing the fish that 
ventiu-e neai- it. 

"China's Sorrow," a ctirious namo 
for a river, is the title bestowed upon 
the gi'eat Hoaug Ho, which rises in the 
mountains of Tibet and follows a won- 
derfully circuitous channel for 2,o00 
miles to the Velhjw sea. The wayward- 



ne.ss of this mighty volume (f watvr 
makes the river a constant source cf anx- 
iety and danger to the 170,000,000 of 
people inhabiting the central pli..:n 
Asia. It is known to have suddenly 
changed its course nine times. It has 
movtd its mouth four degi-ees cf lati- 
tude each time, emptying its va-^^t fiord-; 
in ditfcirent directions, and findiiig a 
new chauni-1 for itself where scons, i f 
towns and villages have stocd. The 
rivw has greatly chai:ged the physical 
character cf a wide area, converting fer- 
tile regions into a sandy desert or mak- 
ing shalknvs of them. Whether it is 
within the power of modern science to 
save this gi'cat plain from disaBtr;i:< 
overflow and clmnges of the river's bed 
is a question which diiring late years 
has been widely discusstd, espcciaily in 
the scientific circles of Paris and Lon- 
don. 

Another remarkable river is the In 
dus. a rreat stream in Hindustan. I: 
rises in Tibet, and its course is a won- 
derful one. On reaching Sussi, its mrsf 
northern point, it turns southward, Icsest 
itself in the hills and reappears at Talict 
in Kohistan. The Indus is 1,700 miles 
in length. Afler receiving the waters cf 
many tributaries its channel grows nar- 
row, and here it is divided into many 
channels, sor.ie (^f which never return (o 
rhe parent .stream. It abounds in fish 
and crocociii^s. 

That classical river, the G;:nge.s, is 
erratic in its course, like the Hoang Ko. 
It IS proininc ut both in the religion and 
the geography of India. It varies not 
'. nly from sca.scu to st ason, bat fmrn 
year to jein, and frequently excl) 
old passage 'J for new (.'i:. s. It ha.- 
said that the Ganges (u livers ii::>i 
sea every year 534,000,000 tons < f :...•'. 
sand and other solid matter. — Philaae.1- 
uhiu Press. 

Tlie Burglar's Bug-bears. 

A reformed burglar, who has no fur- 
ther use for the knowledge himself, says 
there are three things a night thief 
dread.s. One is a baby, the second is a 
little whiffet dog that can sleep with 
both eyes open aud'barks when a needle 
falls, and the third is a newspaper. Al- 
most always the paper rattles or crackles 
when u foottejuches it. Unless a bmgJar 
is 60 desperate that he will risk his own 
life, he will leave the moment he strikes 
a house} strewn with uewsRapers. 



198 



)rHE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



SKY FLOWERS. 



The sower is sowing the seed of the cloud, 
Mantling the eartli with its drifting shroud, 
Enshrining the lowlj- and humbling the proud. 

Gently and softly descend the sky flowers, 
Sprinkling white petals in dazzling showers, 
Garnered and wind borne from arctic bowers. 

Lost seems the earth 'neath its raiment oj 

white, 
Sprectral and ghostlike, seen in the light 
Of the wide moon this midwinter night. 

— James Sheridan Hall. 



LOVE IS BLIXD. 



Feathery palm trees, banks of flow- 
ers, softly hued fairy lamps, and de- 
licious strains of ever changing music, 
all these go to make up enchantment! 

So, at least, thought Lord Ronald 
d'Esterre. 

He had but just returned from a t\vc 
years' sojourn in 'the heart of Africa, g 
sojourn filled with dangers and priva- 
tions ; his years numbered biit five and 
twenty, he was possessed of a well 
knit, springy frame and a keen, cleai 
eye, and he had come back from hi? 
travels with fame, courage and endur- 
ance, but without a penny that he could 
call his own. 

What was next to be done? This wa« 
the problem that filled all his spare 
thoughts. His elder brother had fitted 
him out for his expedition with the po- 
lite intimation that the act was a vir- 
tual washing of his hands of the super- 
fluous cadet ; iiis aunts had kissed him 
so warmly at parting that he was amaz- 
ed to find the in "not at home" when h€ 
retiirned to London ; his godfather haci 
given him a i;20 Uote aud such a heartv 
farewell that it was bewildering to be 
cut by hira when they met once more 
in the club lacking room. "It really 
seems as sh I had never come 

back!" .'^, ^ ung man to himself, 

with a siiiJ ;;t tae incredible idea, but 
as time ijus.-^i .1 on his smiles died away, 
and he ground his teeth savagely as he 
realized that his relations had thoughl 
it a good iiri-.sr]nrnt to lay out £50C 
and an infii,/; v cf farewell in the hope 
of getting quiC of a troublesome incum- 
brance. 

The thought was a bitter one and in 



his iiisc iury he vowed to leave his na- 
tive shores by the nest sliip, and nevei 
return to them again. But upon the 
heat of his passion there fell a cooling 
breath, as if from heaven itself, and the 
lion was straightway changed into a 
lamb. Lord Ronald d'Esterre had been 
accustomed so long to be looked upon 
as a "detrimental" that at first he 
scarcely dared to show the attraction 
that lay for him in Violet Harvey's ap- 
pealing gray eyes and soft, shining 
hair. To his amazement, however, he 
found that obstacles melted away mirac- 
ulously at his approach. Violet herself 
was shy and retiring, it is true, but her 
mother smiled sweetly upon him and 
her father shook him warmly by th{ 
hand. 

Was ever man so blessed before? 

"True love does run smooth some- 
times, after all!" he said to himself on 
this bright June evening, as he walked 
homeward after a meeting with Mrs. 
Harvey in the park. 

"Shall you be at Lady Chesterford's 
party tonight?" she had said. "Violet 
and I are going, and we shall be so dis- 
appointed if we do not see you. ' ' 

His honest face had glowed with de- 
light as she spoke, and he seemed to be 
treading on air as he walked away. 

"Even Aunt Maria has taken me 
back into favor again, ' ' he thought. 
"She was horribly cross when I first 
came home, but now she is sugared 
satin whenever I come near her. I dare 
say it was all my fault, though. 1 
know that I was an ill conditioned 
brute until Violet came to soften me!" 

Lady Maria's flowered headdress was 
the first object that met Lord Ronald's 
eyes when he entered his hostess' crowd- 
ed drawing rooms that evening, and 
somewhat to his surprise it was in close 
proximitj- to Mrs. Harvey's frizzled 
gray head. 

"I shciuld not have thought that 
Atmt Maria would have anything to do 
with her!" he reflected. "She always 
says that she can detect the faintest 
tincture of trade and she must know 
perfectly well that Mr. Harvey made 
his money in malt. " 

At this moment, however, he caught 
sight of Violet aud forgetting all else, 
he elbowed his way eagerly through the 
crowd until he reached her side. It 
might have been only fancy, but at any 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



199 



rate it seemed to him that her welcome 
was a warmer oue thau she had ever 
giveu liim before, and his heart beat 
faster as he bent over lier. 

"Will yoii not come into the conserva- 
tory?" he said pleadingly. "It is so hot 
here." She rose without a word, and 
they walked away together. 

"Do you know that it is only six 
weeks since I first saw you?" he said. 
"I can hardly believe it myself, for it 
seems as if I had known you all my 
life." 

He had an idea even as he spoke that 
he had seen the remark in almost every 
love story that he had ever read, but he 
could not refrain from uttering it, for it 
seemed so exact an expression of his 
feelings. Violet, too, had probably 
heard it before, but from Ronald's lips 
it sounded ab!?olutely new, and her long 
eyelashes drooped lower upon her cheek 
as she listened. 

They were walking between banks of 
flower and fern and the silence bet^vcen 
them v.ais too sweet to be broken at 
once, but Ronald knew that their s* li- 
tude might be disturbed at any moment, 
and rousing himself from his dream he 
had just opened his lips to speak when 
a voice from some hidden speaker came 
plainly to their ears. 

"It is almost certain to come off to- 
night, I think. I got him an invitation 
on purpose. ' ' 

Ronald started. It was Lady Maria's 
voice, but he had not the remotest idea 
to what she was alluding. In another 
moment, however, she received her an- 
swer and it was Violet's turn to start, 
for it came in her mother's accents: 

"We shall be only too grateful to 
you if it doFs come oti', for her papa ana 
I have always set our hearts on her 
marrying a lord. The very minute tliut 
Violet tells me he has proposed the 
check shall be sent to you. " 

Ronald drew back a step, his check 
growing white beneath its bronze. His 
hands clenched involuntarily, and for a 
moment V'iclet expected to see him dash 
out upon the conspirators; but their 
voices were already receding in the dis- 
tance, and as he looked round he saw 
the anguisli in her face. 

"Violet! Violet!" he cried, seizing 
her hands in his. "You knew nothing 
of this! I swear it with my dyiu;; 
breath!" 



She drew her hands away and turned 
to escape, but he followed her. 

"I have not much to otf er, " he said, 
"but all 1 have is at your feet. " 

She quicklj- looked up, and a light of 
gratitude came into her eyes. 

"How good you are," she said. 

Ronald looKed at her in bewilderment. 
The words were not what he had ex- 
pected. 

"You do not understand," he said. 
"I want you to be my wife. " 

"I do understand," she answered 
gently, "and I honor you for asking me 
after what lias happened, but I will not 
take advantage of your generosity. " 

"It is not genero.sity, " cried Ronald. 
"It is sheer selfishness I" 

But Violet showed no signs of yield- 
ing. 

"I will not leave you unless you tell 
me one thing," said Ronald. "If your 
heart is. free, I claim it; but if not, I 
will never trouble you again. Violet, 
tell me, do you love any one?" 

She looked at him with a face that 
grew pale under his gaze. 

"Yes," she said, "I da" 

"That is enough," said Ronald 
hoarsely, and dropping her hand he 
turned and went. 

' 'It is strange how ungrateful young 
people are!" remarked Lady Maria, a 
few days later, to the friends gathered 
around her tea table. "I had arranged 
a most suitable match for my nephew, 
really done everything in my power to 
promote it; and yet he actually came 
here the otlier day and used the most 
terrible language — said that I had spoil- 
ed his lit( , and aJl kinds of dreadful 
things; and now he has gone off abroad, 
nobody knows where. I am sure I only 
hope that I shall never see him again. " 

Lady Maria's wish seemed likely to 
be fulfilled, for five long years came and 
went, bringing no news of Ronald; and 
though five years could not take the 
bloom from her cheek, nor the gold from 
her hair, t'-.ev could, and did add very 
materially to the infirmities of her 
frame. But when at last he did reap- 
pear she was willing to overlook the 
past in spite of her resentment, for Ron- 
ald had found his way into a profitable 
foreign partnership, and instead of fame 
he brought buck money. 

"One of the best things I ever did for 



2UU 



THE AMEBIC AN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



you was' get ting you out of tliat eiitu;- 
glement!" she exclaimed .ferveutly wiitu 
they met, for Lucly M-Liria came of mili- 
tary stock, and she knew that one of the 
most succc'-'stul maneuvers is to carry 
the war into your enemy's quarters. 

Ronald !-hot a glance at her from un- 
der his dark eyo^brows, but said nothing, 
and she continued gayly : 

"Mr. Harvey went bankrupt a year 
or two after you went away, and th^'y 
are quite in poor circumstances now. 
That upstart girl waits upon the lodgers, 
I believe. ' ' 

"You don't pay so!" remarked Ron- 
ald. "Wht're are they living?" 

' 'In Worthing. " said Lady Maria, de- 
ceived by his coolness. "Lady Henning- 
tou was there last mouth, and she told 
me thq,t she saw Mrs. Harvey on the) 
Parade, and that the woman actually 
had the audacity to speak to her! Can 
you believe it?" 

"I don't know," said Ronald; "but 3 
am going to Worthing this afternoon, 
and I shall see whether she will speak 
to me!" 

"Oh, my dear boy!" cried Lady Maria 
in genuine distress. "Pray, pray don't 
do anything so foolish! You have no 
idea how deeigi ing poor people are" — 
but she ceased, for the sound of the 
loudlj' closing door informed her that 
she was alone. 

"But wh.y did you send me away?" 
said Ronald a few hours later as he and 
Violet st<x:d together under the stars 
and heard the waves beating upon the 
beach. 

"Becausi! 1 thought after what we 
overheard you felt your.self bound to say 
what you did out of consideration for 
me. " 

"So your pride came in the way, my 
little one! Don't you know that pride is 
one of the deadly sins? However, I 
can't preach to you now because I want 
to ask y(.u anoth(U' question. If you 
really have l<iv ■(! me all along, why did 
you tell .su^h .i dreadful lie?" 

"A lie!' exclaimed Violet. 

"Yes. A lie. A regular big, black 
one! When I asked you if you had lovi d 
any one, you said yes. Now then, con- 
fess at once, liecause I'm not going to 
let you otr ! ' ' 

He iield lur away from him so that 
he could look into her face and waited 
inexorably ver Ik r answer. 



"I saw that you would not listen to 
any other objection, " she said, "and I 
thought that you were sacrificing your- 
self, and so" — 

"Yes, I know all that, "he interrupt- 
ed, "but you had no business to say 
.what you did ! Unless, of course, there 
really was some one. Come now, tell 
me. " 

A flush came over her facp, and as 
she raised her eyes he could see her tears 
shining in the starlight. He grasped 
her hands more firmly in his now and 
looked down at her from the height of 
his 6 feet. 

She tried to speak, but her quivering 
voice would not be controlled, and with 
a great wave of love surging up in his 
heart hi; drew her close to him. 

"Who was it?" he whispered. 

She turned to hide her face upon his 
shoulder and breathed her answer into 
his ear bent down to catch it. 

"You dear, blind boy, it was you!" 
— Hou.sehol<l Words. 



On« Correct Ansiver. 

An amusing little story was told a 
good many years ago in connection with 
Governor Mattox of Vermont. At one 
time he was chairman of the committee 
appointed to t^amiue candidates for ad- 
mission to the bar of Caledonia county. 

He reported that one of the candidates 
was, in his opinion, unqualified, having 
answer(^d correctly but one of the ques- 
tions put to him. 

"Only one? Well, what was that?" 
asked the presiding judge. 

"I a-sked him what a freehold estate 
is, ' ' replied Mattox. 

"Important question, ' ' said the judge. 
"And what was his reply?" 

"He made it without the least hesita- 
tion, ' ' said the chairman, with a twin- 
kle in his (ve. "Of course that fact is 
in his favor. ' ' 

. "Well, w^iat did he say?" asked the 
judge, with some impatience. 

"He .said," returned the chairman, 
"that lie didn't know. " — Y'outh's Com- 



Chauged. 

"So Mr. Simpkins did not propose to 
fou, Madge?" 

"No. He found out that I wanted to 
marry him, and ir seemed to put him 
out of the notion. " — Chicago Record. 



181)0. 



TlIK AMKIilCAN I! K H- K H H I'H li 



•-'01 



BOXING AT OLVMPIA. 

■Who*! the Fierce Combats Were Foiia;!n> 
AliuuHt tu tlif Deutli. 

They -wore cauti(.us, thi so two, as if 
Xonokles fully realized the power iv.vl 
achieveiiK uts cf his ( pponout ai.d 
(41auku>« wishi'd to test the K'^'^'1^ '"-^^ 
attacks < f uu unknown rival bffcre pro- 
coodin^ t;) fight in ean;ewt. The snn was 
alrt^ady dcelining toward the western 
sea. An horn' had passed. The spt cta- 
tcrs grew impatient. Were the Ijdxc rs 
contending only to weary each c.thi r in 
held' ng lip the weight (f their armed 
hands? bui h fights hud been, but dif- 
ferent tactics v>ere locked for from 
Glaukus. They knew him for no eow- 
ai'diy trifler. Xenckles, too, must be of 
good heart to face so famous a fiphlcr. 

"See! Did I not say it?" cried a 
Krotonian. 

Witliont warning fi-om eye or muscle 
Glauk..s had sudd* niy closed with his 
cpp'.-ncut ; but, to his evident astonish- 
ment, Ihe other, without trying to evade 
the rush, met it wiih a blow full on the 
chest which resounded tl]rough the sta- 
dion. Glaukus' career was chfcked, but 
Xenckles, not satisfied with this, now 
sprang forward and stnick again and 
again with all his streiigih, until Glau- 
kus rallied from his surprise and, tak- 
ing advantage of an open guard, brought 
his rival to earth. 

The Ml .sseniau was on hisfert almost 
as soon as ho touched the ground. The 
combat was uo Ir.nger tame. Both men 
Wire wounded and bleeding, bur thry 
came together like raging bulls. Their 
great arms swung throiigh the air, 
raining d. wn blow after blow, while 
the ela.shi3;g( f brass upon brass, as tliey 
guardfd tlic strokes, laiig like the forge 
of Hephaestus. 

"Will not your AlytoR int(i*pose?" 
exclaim* d tlic Mede. 

"The niles forbid it," said E\ 
"but whoever kills an advers;.. 
his crown. Ha! That was too i; 
th(^ Messi niau. See how he s\\;.;, s ;. i 
drepH his hands!" 

"Now, Glaukus, row!'' screamed the 
crowd. "Strilre ere ];e reec.ver!" 

But the wary Krotonian ])auRrd to 
watch the < ffect of his la'<t blow. lie 
kni w that the limit cf hr.rmai endur- 
ance had bMnaim(st reacl.'d, aid l;e 
Trislud to cr.nquer with :.r^ little danger 



to his fcje as possible. 

"He has jvidged well, " said ?"vander 
as (he Misseniau sank down. "Glaukus 
is too ]:)racticed a boxer to risk losing a 
won victi;ry. " — "A Day at 0!ymi)ia, " 
by Dufik Id Osborne, in Scribner's. 



A WINDOW IN BERN. 

Hovr the SwiMK MaifltT.K l'f»Rn Ma-nj- a 5*Jpaa- 
aat Afternoon. 

Till! wide window s-ils ( ii the third 
floor are laid out, nr t for flowers, but, 
in no less characteristic B( rn fashion, 
for human occupation. Ast.;ut iron rail 
runs, at a comfortable lieight for n sting 
shoulders, round the 1< dge, on which lie 
reel cushions. Settled in a C' rner of this 
high p'^rch sits a yoimg vee num, like 
hundreds of lier felhjw townsfolk, look- 
ing down upon the world, knitting, 
siiigiiig and gossiping by turns in the 
leisure hcaiv e>f afternoon and through 
the 1< ng tvv-ilight ti the summer even- 
in^,s. 

Somehow there is a fascination in this 
Bern habit of perching on the windi^w 
sill, it grows on the sitter with use. 
Tliat brown haired j'oung woman, for 
instance, weiuld be hard put to it to live 
at all without her window cushions. 
She is an inveterate chatterbox, but it is 
difficult to be hard on her when one 
overheiu'S her rapid l<'"rench, her laugh- 
ter an<l her sallies on her neighbors be- 
low. She is a Neafchateloiseer a Gene- 
voi.se, and the W( rds run off lu r tongue 
i-ight pre'itJy, in contrast to the brusque 
sound ef the quaint Bem-Deutsch. She 
is blessed with a ringing laugh, too, and 
carcds French songs, partly to herself 
and partly, five parts out of six, at a 
young niiin < ii<:'>-f o \->\ a .srcrond floor 
bureau. Ho; i]:e wiuduv,' usu- 

ally wlu i. f i/'j'.is. She has 

bt'U SI I '.s from the 

:-C\v,:\:.< !i ■• iptunied 

1 1 ucei- 
V. The 
sej3g g • .1 loud 

thror.;:)) ■!•■ stu- 

dent k.. hidow 

next 1<. .osity — 

UO' ' vii — but some famil- 

iar - - to hje.k at every day. 

There i:-. 1 .f tie tnough io y> v, t;)0, even 
if lit V, :• :' rrv^lfy— -r brx irre-ru with 
ga: i':t" and 

m;;; I !i com- 



202 



THE AMinUGAN DKK-KEEPER. 



July 



mon forest ferns and some chrysanthe- 
mum CTittings. — Speaker. 

TWO MEETINGS vViTH MILES. 



SUGAR MAKING IN CUBA. 



One lai J*as»d«na, CbI., and the Other 5r\ 

Los Aiij^eles. 

"0}>r' night in the cfrice cf thr IT^tpi 
Rayra r:d in P;;sadena, Cal i 

travtitr. "I met General 
Miles. . I was introduced to Irl.a by r,Ia- 
jor Ben C Tinimau. The olilce was a 
big apartment. with a great fireplace on 
one side of it. Th^re were large rocking 
ut for the comfort cf 
: ) .sit thrre, and it 
which ladie.s did not hes- 
if they l^ui occasion (o 



shairs sea: 
guests Yvl. 
\7as a^ rocm t 
ikitp 

visit 



rffip 



"C ;i fire in th'^ 

gi'eat L; ■ u.s much fcr 

cheerfn.iL .thing else, and 

the hig^ rctiu \'.-u:-: dcu.d; uly a pleasant 
place. General Miles, Major Truman 
and myself sat there until 11 o'clock. 
The general tall:ed freely and most in- 
terestingly, and to me it was a most 
enjoyable evening. I hati always had 
the heartif'St adniiration for General 
Milp.s — I .had been a soldier myself — 
and I tihought I should always remem- 
ber that evening with gnitificaticn. 

' 'The next miming, v.'hile going out 
of the Hotc 1 Nadeau in Lr;.=? Angeles, I 
met a gentliiian Vviio said 'Gcod morn- 
ing. ' I .stc pped and talked, but I could 
not possi]>ly recall him. Presently he 
said: 

" 'You don't remember me.' 

' 'I r:nd I did not. 

" 'My name is Miles, ' he said. 

"Well, I wished that the Hotel Na- 
deau had bcr-n getting in coal and that 
there had been a ccnvenient coal hole 
open for nif to slide into, but there 
wasn't, and I did the lest I could under 
the circumstances, \vhich I guess was 
poor encugii. but the general was per- 
fectly good humored ab( 'at it, for which 
I was profoundly thankful. 

"Seeing tiie general in a different 
light, cr amid totrJIy different surround- 
ings and when I had least expected to 
meet him, f- upled perhaps with seme 
degree of natural absentmindnPS3 on my 
part, h.ad brought this disccmiiture upon 
me, and cha:;rin over this second en- 
counter will: General Miles has alwi.y.<^ 
materially lessened my enjoyment of 
thp fir.qt " — T\"p\v Vc.rk S-an 



The Cru<le methods That W^ere In Use 
Twenty Years Ago. 

Twenty years ago, in those times of 
slavery and high prices, hui Ifttle atten- 
tion was given to machinery or engi- 
;:■ n:: . Planters were content to get 
vs''.: ::nage of. cane they could fi'om 
an acre of land. 

The cane was brought to the sugar 
house, Vv"here the laborers slowly put it 
on the can-ier, passing it to the mill, 
where it was rolled or ground between 
the rolls cf a three roller mill to extract 
the juice, getting an extraction cf 55 
per cent out of a pcs.sible 85 e:ir 88 per 
cent cf the whole weight in the cane. 

The cane v\-as brought to the sugar 
house ' 'train', " which v/as a set of four 
or five krttli s set in brickwork, having 
a strong fire under the smallest or 
"strike' kettle. The flames pjLssed un- 
der antl around all the kettles, the un- 
consumed gases escrcping through a 
chimney. The combustion was so imper- 
fect that at night flames could be seen 
many feet high, coming from the top of 
the^. e-himney. 

The largest of these kettles received 
the raw juice, and there it was limed 
anel sk'>nimed as the impurities rose. It 
vvas then ladleel to the next kettle in 
f.uccession, each time being thickened in 
density and reduced in bulk by evapora- 
tion until it arrived at the "strike" 
kettle, v,her(^ a skilled attendant knew 
the ex;ict point at which to stop the fire 
anel ladle out the mass into the crystal- 
lizing lYdiis, in which it was allowed to 
cool. 

In a few d;iys it was firm enough to 
be taken out, placed in hogsheads and 
allowcel to elrain in the storehouses, 
losing at h ast one-sixth inelripptng mo- 
lasse.*;. The he>gsheads were then repack- 
ed tmd placed on carts and ciravvn many 
miles to the railroad for shipment to 
the merchants' stores at the scacoast, 
where' they wore again allowed to drain, 
W( re repacked, reweighed and sold, thus 
piling up an expense account that made 
the profits lock slim; but, as sugar was 
selling at a high rate, these expenses 
could be bo'^"'~. 

Over one-third of the entire popula- 
tion cf the globe, or about 400,000.000 
people, speiik nothing but the Chinese 



IS! 



i:r A\n:i;iCAN iiee-kkei'i.i: 



203 



iVlAKJNG A S3NNE7. 

I've ainpi^ied me or.t a form : 1 would indite 

A vninet to be r'/!;i;l:ir us a buw 

Or iii-'jmise in tlu^ hi-avi'iis, tliat we do know 
Sho»rs always stjvc^ri coiorti to the sight; 
And twice Sfvi i; Ium's aro in a sonnet, quite. 

The octave noAV is Diakinj,' a yood .show. 
And will bo ond;'d soon, to n\y delight. 

I've hr.ii'd of f.onn"t writers that, in woe, 
Sat up all hours so as to get It right. 

The sestet's not so hard as the octave, 
But hard enoufrh for liie. Why should I sigh? 

'Tis trr.e the task's not comjcal, nor grave, 
Nor liupeU'Ss is it, or I should not try 

'Vo sin;,' a litilo running music stave. 
Which ought the Petrarch cult to satisfy. 
—Edward S. Creamer in New York Sun. 



HIS IDEAL WOMAN. 



The first thing I did on getting back 
from India was to spend a week with 
my people in the cotiutry. A good deal 
can happen in five years, and we natural- 
ly had plenty to talk about. But I tore 
myself away at last with a promise to 
return for August and settled myself in 
town in my old lodgings off St. James 
street 

Apart from the various business mat- 
ters recjuiring my attention — my invest- 
ments had i:f^t impi-ovetl during my ab- 
sence, and it was necessary to cast my 
eye about for other securities — London, 
at the moment, appealed to me irresisti- 
bly. 

There, within the four mile radius, 
was ma>'sed the whole of what I had 
missed diu-ing my five years in a remote 
station in Burma — the life, the mo- 
tion, the perpetual sense of something 
going on, of being in close proximity, 
if not in absolute contact with, the 
source of cun\-nt modc^ of thought, of 
hearing the ceaseles.'-: hum of the wheals 
of civliz:itiou, the throb of actuality, of 
which not cn-eu the echoes had penetrat- 
ed to the squat white bungalow on the 
banks of the Irawadi, where the mon- 
otony had not b«*n vai'ied by even so 
much as a moment's fighting, and one 
made up for saving one's intellectual by 
overfeeding one s physiciil instincts. 

Once in town, I fomid myself plunged 
into a vcitcs of amu.sement. There 
were eld tnends to be "looked up." 
When "Iciktd up, " they in.sisted on 
dinner, to Le followed by a theater or 
music hall. Some of the men I had 



"done the town" with five years before 
had got married. I had to make the ac- 
quaintance of their wives. Others who 
had been married had been divorced. I 
had to forget that they had ever been 
married. 

One way and another I was bo busy 
that it was not till the end of a mouth 
that I remembered that 1 had not seen 
Wetherby. He had always been "one of 
us" in the old days at Oxford and 
elsewhere, prepared , for anything and 
everything, and 1 could not make out 
hovv' it was that I had nut already come 
acro.s:s him. 

"Oh, Wetherby, " said Ben.son, the 
stockbroker, when I asked him what 
had happeiitxl to our old friend, "we 
never see Wetherby now. He is supposed 
to be in love. For myself, I believe he 
\vas just &oing to mun-y a girl, and she 
died, with the result that he has been 
brooding over her death ever since. 

Anyway, no one ever seems to see 
him anywhere, though he's still got 
the same old rooms in the temple. Go 
and look him up by all means, but I 
don't supi)oge you'll be able to see him, 
or, if you do, to get anything out of 
him. As 1 say, he never seems to go 
out anywhere, though, as you kno%v he 
used to be such a great ladies' man. " 

"With strong views as to the ideal 
woman," Iijut in, remembering various 
conver.sutioiLS we had had on tlie subject. 

"Yes, " assented Benson, "he was al- 
ways grt^at on the woman question, 
talking about 'the perfect type, ' and all 
that sort of bosh. He always was a bit 
of a dreamer. ' ' 

"Perhaps," 1 said maliciously, "that 
may ac-count for his never being seen 
now. He may have found this type and 
be keeping her to himself. ' ' 

"Perhaps," said Benson. "Howevej:, 
you go and see him. You and he used 
to be such terrific pals you may be able 
t-o get nvore out of him thim we other 
fellows have been able to do. " 

"Well, I'll go anyway." I said. 

1 went dov,-Ti to the temple that very 
night. My loud knock on the outer dcxjr 
of his cliambers brought Wetlierby him- 
self to ojx^n it. It struck me that he 
looked half confu.sed, half annoyed, as 
if I hiwl sur|3rised him at a moment 
when he vvas occupied with other niat- 
tei-s and resented intrusion. I wondered 
whether, after all, the "perfect tviio" 



21)4 



77/ A' AMERICAN l) EK- K t.KPKU. 



JaJy 



theory was right. 

I put my suspicion aside, however, 
when, recognizing me at last in the semi- 
obscurity of the staircase, he seized my 
hand and shook it warmly. ' 'My dear 
fellow," he said, "I am delighted to 
see you. Vvheu did you get back?" He 
overwhelmed me with questions as I 
followed inside and pulled a chair up 
to the open window facing his own. 
For an hour we sat talking over old 
times and smoking. The conversation, 
reminiscent, as for the most part it was, 
enabled me to see that in some respects 
he vras changed from the man I had 
seen five years befoi-e. He spoke more 
■deliberately — slower. As Benson had 
remarked, he had always had a tenden- 
cy to dream. The tendency seemed ac- 
centuated. At times he wlus silent for r« 
minute together, puffing meditatively 
at his pipe. A last I could not help 
questioning him even at the risk of 
giving offense. "Benson says, " I re- 
marked, "that you are quite different 
from Vi'hat you used to be. You never 
go out anywhere. What is it? You re- 
member our talking about the 'perfect 
type. ' You have not found her? You 
are not in love?" 

He was silent a moment, puffing out 
huge clouds of smoke. Then "Look 
here, old fellow," he said. "I don't 
know why I should not tell you. These 
other fellows could not understand if I 
did tell them. ' ' 

"I am afraid you are crediting me 
with more intelligence than I pos.sess, " 
I said. "If what you propose to tell me 
■^^ould pass Benson's understanding, I 
am afraid it would also pass mine. " 

"You underrate yourself. Besides, 
after ail, it is quite i^pie, only Bi'u- 
sou \\' such a material person. The 
Stock Exchan;:;^ bus nuide him worse. 
Anyway, i am pov;'^ lo tell you. " 

"Ye;;?" I said invitingly. 

"You reraciubcr, " he .said, settling 
himsi'If I ;;ck in his chair. "I had al- 
vvay.s !;.y own views aboat women." 

" Y< u espfvlcd a gi'eat deal, " I said 

"Well," he went on. not heeding the 
interrnptio:! ' 'you know I can well 
afford to ni. v If I had found the 
woman I waul(xl, 1 should have maiTied 
long ago. I could not find her, much as 
I sought The clever woman had. no 
beauty, the beautiful no brains, or, 
where the cou.bination did exist, the 



woman was already married, or had 
some equally prohibitive defect. " 

"Y^ou .sought for what did not exist, " 
I said. "There is no ideal woman, as 
there is no ideal man. " 

"Not in your sense, " he said. "Cer- 
tainly not in the sense of a man like 
Ben.son, if he can conceive the pos.sibili- 
ty of an ideal woman at all. or an ideal 
anything. " 

"And in yours?" l said. 

He rose from his chair and going to 
a long drawer in a cabinet took out 
from it an armful of photographs — there 
must, I should think, have been .some 
50 there in all "Just look through 
the.se, " he sa^d 

I did so, wondering. Every type of 
female face and female beauty was 
there represented, from the English and 
American woman to the French and 
Austrian, from the Creole to the Cau- 
casian, from the daughter of the people 
to the daughter of thepewr. Some of the 
faces might v.^ell have been those of 
saints; others were indubitably those 
of sinners. Barmaids jostled against 
Sisters of Mercy ; acitresses followed on 
the princesses of the blood royal. Some 
of the faces were too utilitarianly clever 
to approach physical beauty; others, 
again, proclaimed the triumph of body 
over soul. 

"Well?" I said at length, still more 
astonished. 

He spread out the photos on the table 
before him, eying them lovingly, fon- 
dling them as a man fondles the woman 
who is to be his wife. "There," he 
said, pointing to the rows of faces be- 
fore him, 'you have a perfect type I 
tried to find it existing in one v;oman. 
You were right. It was impossible, but 
I have got it there. " 

"Yes," I said, smiling at his iutemsi- 
ty, "but these are only mere photo- 
gi'aphs. The essence of them constitutes 
the perfect ty^ie cf womanhood, no 
doubt, but these things are not alive. 
They are mere counterfeit j)resentments. 
You are net a nineteenth century Pyg- 
malion. Yoa cannot make mere photo- 
graphs live. " 

"Perhaps not, " he said. "At least, 
who can tell? I know that when I gaze 
long en tnese faces I coujujre up from 
their various characteristics the perfect 
type of woman and can never care for 



IS! Hi 



rill-: A.)f/-/,'i(:,\x />'A7-.-A"/.7 '/./.' 



•J()5 



any ouo else — I menu any woman. This 
face I have erected represents to me 
the supnuie essence of ftiminine loveli- 
ness, the one woman for whom a man 
should be glad to die, for whom I would 
die, did she require me, this very min- 
ute. Peojjle t<dl you I never go out any 
where. How can I when this splendid 
beauty smiles befoi-e me at home? I tell 
you I never lived till I knew her, and 
now I cannot live with her. To me she 
is the one woman in thi.s world or the 
next. Indeed, not the one woman, but 
woman herself. " 

« * « if » * 

I left Wetherby's chambers half an 
hour later wondering if my old friend 
was going mad. As I turned to close 
the door behind me I saw him suddenly 
bend down over the table and sweeping 
the photographs together into his arms 
cover them with a rain of passionate 
kisses. — Exchange. 



Kindly John Oxenford's Cough. 

Clement Scott recalls a pathetic story 
of the declining days of John Oxeuford, 
for years the leading theatrical critic of 
London. Mr. Oxeuford was troubled 
with a serious bronchial affection, wliich 
occa'iionally disturbed the audience, for 
he refused to give up his beloved thea- 
ter, although desperately ill. A certain 
rising young actor, who shall be name- 
less, though he has recently been in 
Engliuid after a brilliant career, was 
very anxious to obtain Oxejifoi-d's vajiv 
able opinion on kis \\X)rk, and the tender 
hearted old gentlejuan literally left his 
bed and came down to tlie theater on a 
bitter cold night to do a good action to 
a clever youngster, in the middle of one 
of the actxjr's finest «ce?j(is on came the 
ccugh from the Oxi'iilcrd box. It con- 
tiiiTifc4 SIT lojig thut it niinerved the ac- 
tor,. aj;d }iivdi.u-eto H tli.ad step. To tiie 
6urp^j«' id' wiip>\:y. \o.' iy*tCinw^id to 
.'. ' '. • aiui (^i;3trl«- 
i-y.';j.;9^,s (h<$ 
r .■..>■■■...■:>. ,.-, i.-,.'-;^v^vg,ii^^O^ 

.,!/'■ J? e.<-< \'... I 










';f^-ifr.l}'- .y f-'ijJ^^ 



t"h^ V i \ .. » * nit y ^hv ii xhi cuVtoiji 
teik, a friv ad rasheu rfiuud- and. tteatlx' 



'?> 



less, said to the distressed actor: "Do 
you know what you have done? Do you 
know who it vvas that you turned out of 
the box?" "I neither know nor care, " 
was the reply "Why, it w;i.s .John Ox- 
euford!" The actor was paralyzed, but 
he got his good notice all the same. The 
veteran critic went home coughing to 
praise the young actor who had turned 
him out. 



Shelley and Fire and Placae. 

Unlike most poets, and in this re.sem- 
bling his coutempcrary Turner in 
painting, Shelley began with no special 
love of color, but developed it v/ith his 
general development. The chief char- 
acter of Shelley's color is that it is al- 
ways mingled with light and move- 
ment. His is "a green and glowir.g 
light like that which drops from folded 
lilies in which glovvworms dwell." It 
is translucent color, proceeding from, 
some "inmost purple spirit of light," 
and he seems to be always looking 
through a rainbow hued cascade. A 
curious feature in his use of color is the 
evidently unconscious repetition of the 
same word v- :thin a few lines. The col- 
or seems to fl;;sh before him and di.^ap- 
pear. His colors are fluid, opaline, ir- 
idescent In this, again, as iu tiie 
"Witch of Altas, " strongly resembling 
Turner's later use of color, they roiike 
"a tapestry of fleecelike mist," or 
"v\'Oven exlialution underlaid with lam- 
bent lightiung fire. " 

No potit has ever used fire so exten- 
sively. "Men scarcely know how beau- 
tiful fir« is," he says. "Each flame of 
it is as a precious stone dissolved in 
ever moving light." He finds the sem- 
blance of fiamo in the tuilikelicst i)laces, 
even in wat<'r, for the dew iii a flower 
is like f-re., even in the st.-lid marble, " 
for tho pyT;nni<1 of Or"?tT'.s h a flmno. 
EvPTyvVrlit'n' ' ■ ■ :l with 

lig'jrt ni/1 i' ,.f. The 

\\:Iiole'.>- ■ Ii 'ii .kaa^ of 

M 

;r,i.| {;. .;•:.. l\^( if. i^-.iiff whosoftt 
t wlJ/J,* .is , l.;Vil-H,-'-^> 'i-e funeral pj-m" 
-H^OBit u. ; { ; iii^ r»c . ic w. 






2(M 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



July 



Honey and Beeswax Market Report. 

Below we give the latest ;ind most authen- 
tic report of the Honey and Beeswax mai ket 
in diiSt'erent trade centers : 

Kans,*S City. Mo., June 27. 1S9(3.— The demand 
for honey is light. Supply light. Price of comb 
10 to 14c per lb. Extracted 4 to 6V('C per lb. De- 
mand for beeswax light. Supply light. Priiies 20 
to 24o per lb. New comb honey will be on ths 
market in ten days. Crop iisihl in Western Miss- 
ouri. Hambi.ix k Brarss 514 Walnut St. 

CixciNXATt. 0.. June 25. ISCG.— Slow demand for 
honey. Good supply. Price of comb S to 14 cents 
per lb. Extracted 3^4 to Tc per pound. Good de- 
mand for bee.swax. Good ?uiiply. Prices 20to25e 
per lb. for good to choice yellow on arrival. 

Chas. F. xMutii & Sox, 
Cor. Freeman and Centnal Aves. 

Detroit. Mich., .June 21. l.S9o.— The demand for 
honey is 'lull. H.ive ab'Ui cleared out the old 
stock. Prii^o of new comb li' to I'-^c per lb. Ex- 
tracted 5 to 7c per lo. Fair demand for beeswax. 
Good supply- Prices 24 to 25o per lb. The new 
honey will find our market about bare of anytVing 
desirable. .M. H. Hunt. Bel! Branch. Alich. 

Boston-, Mass., .June 24, ISOiJ.— The demand for 
honey is. Supply fnir. t'rico of comb 14 to 15c 
per lb. Extracted 5 to fie per lb. Fair demand 
for beeswax Light suppb. I'vice 25c per lb. 
Fancy white comb hi'TH k No. 1 white 



com'j honey 12 to Icic. No. 2 white comb honey !• 
to !■ c per lb. Extracted 6 to 7c per lb. for uhite. 
Extracted, amber 5 to (ic PT lb. We look tor a 
goiiii fall trade in fancy 1 lb, comb bnney. 

K. E. Bi.AKE k Co., 75 Chatham St. 



loe Cream Now Made in a Minut*^ 



I have an Ice '~ream Freezer that will tr<i'ze 
cretim pert ctly in olb minute; as it is^ such a won 
der a crowd u'jil alw.sy^ be around, s-o auy-iif can 
make fro ■.. five to ■ ix dollars ii- d.-i.v selling creiun, 
and fri:m t^n to twenty dollars a day selling 
Freeze, s as people will .- hvays buy lui article "l.e:i 
it is demons' rau-d that they can make money i>y 
so doing. The cream is frozen instantly tind is 
smooth and free from lumps. I have (b; e so well 
myself jtni have friends succei-di'g so well that 
I fel, it my duty 'O er oih"r< k' ow i.f this oppor- 
tunity, as r foe! confident that any person in any 
looility e:m muve money, as any person can slI! 
cre.im and thd Freezer ?ells itsel* J. F. ' asev k 
Co. l!43.-i. hiules .-t.. St. L..uis. Mo., will nvn\ 
you c'.inpiete itistrn ticms .and \'-in employ you on 
^ alary if you can give thtm your whole time. 



■ m mm Wm B^ ERS OF BEES and those in- 
mJW B J H^B tending to keep bees should 
WK Ug^ ■■ Hm write us for large il lust' dcat- 
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i-it 




VOL. VI, 



f\UGUST, 1896. 



NO. 8. 



Introducing Queens. 

HY CHAS. H. THTES. 

A reader of the Bee Keeper desires 
to know how to introduce a queen to 
a colony having a laying workei', or, 
in other words, how to dispose of lay- 
ing workers. There are several meth- 
ods that have been successsully tried, 
and W'here there is raore than one 
method to accomplish a certain end, I 
usually choose the most simple, but 
this will not work every time, as 
lifferent colonies are very different, 
also the season has something to do 
with this matter. 

First I try to prevent having laying 
workers, therefore have not had much 
experience in this line for some time, 
however, when I commenced bee keep- 
ing, I had quite a lot of experience 
along this line, at least as much and 
more than I then desired. My first 
method now would be to give to such 
a colony a queen cell just ready to 
hatch, one in which you can see the 
queen moving. This cell I would 
protect with wire cloth, leaving only 
the very end of cell exposed. Usu- 
ally I have no trouble iu having the 
bees accept a queen of this sort, yet 
this will not always work. Some col- 
onies seem determined not to accept a 



queen of any kind. Where the above 
method failed I would proceed to in- 
troduce a laying queen the same as I 
introduce a very valuable queen, 
which method I have described be- 
fore, and in which I have never met 
with a failure. 

I will again give it here : Take a 
piece of wire cloth 6 or 8 ins. square, 
or about that size, turn over the edges 
about J to f inch, then go to some 
good populous colony and get a frame 
of brood which is just hatching in 
large patches, over this place your 
wire cage, put in your queen, i. e. put 
your queen under this cage, and hold 
the wire in place with a few wires 
wrapped clear around cage, frame and 
all. You should, however, brush off 
all bees from the frame before pro- 
ceeding with the above work. This 
cage should be so placed that it will 
take in some honey as well as hatch- 
ing brood, but should contain no un- 
sealed larva or brood. Soon after a 
number of bees have hatched you will 
see eggs in some of the cells. Now 
you may make a small opening in one 
corner of this cage large enough so 
the queen may get out, put the frame 
back into the hive and leave alone for 
three or four days, and your queen 



210 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



A iigjist 



will be out among the bees all safe. 
You should not at any time force the 
queen out of the cage, as she will 
know best when it is safe for her to 
go out. A queen is usually killed by 
the bees balling her, but if this cage 
is properly placed they cannot ball 
her even if some of the outside bees 
do get in at the opening made for her 
escape. I have never known them to 
harm her after she has commenced 
laying under this cage, but you 
should never attempt to allow her to 
escape until you see eggs laid by her. 
The above method I think you will 
find will succeed every time. 
Steeleville, 111. 

How Swarming is Conducted. 

BY G. jM. DOOLITTLE. 

A correspondent writes me thus : 
" A friend of mine and myself have 
just started in bee-keeping and we 
have been having a dispute over the 
matter of swarming, he claiming that 
it is the old bees that go out with the 
young queen to make the swarm, 
while I claim that the old queen goes 
out with the young bees when a colony 
swarms. Which is right? or is neith- 
er of us right ? Please give us some- 
thing on how swarming is conducted 
in the American Bee Keeper, as we 
read it." 

It is not to be wondered at that 
beginners are puzzled about how 
swarming is conducted when we find 
such statements as these in different 
papers : " Only old bees go out with 
the swarm," and "the first young 
queen hatches in the old colony 
twenty-four hours after the swarm 
leaves," such statements often finding 
way into papers outside of the bee 
journals. If such things are allowed 



to go into our newspapers, it might 
be well to look into these matters a 
little, so I will say a few words to the 
resders of the American Bee Keep- 
er regarding this matter of swarming. 
I always used natural swarming as 
a means of increase, and experiment- 
ed largely to know under what con- 
ditions swarms issued, as a rule, and 
have found (as regard to age of bees) 
that bees of all ages, in about equal 
proportion, leave the parent hive, 
from the old forager to the bee that 
has not been out of its cell but a few 
hours. Hundreds of times have I seen 
the ground in front of the hive nearly 
covered with bees so young as to be 
unable to fly, and as often have I 
seen the vetrans Avith their jagged 
wings hanging with the clustered 
swarm ; as well as those having their 
pollen baskets filled with pollen. 
Thus we have the field bees, the wax- 
workers, and the nurse bees in about 
equal proportions, ready to preform 
every kind of work necessary in any 
well regulated colony, this showing 
that the AUwise Greater knew how 
things should be when he pronounced 
all which he had made, good. If it 
were not for young bees going with 
the swarm the hive would be nearly 
depopulated by the bees dying of old 
age, before the brood could hatch to 
take their places ; as it is about 
twenty-three days before any young 
bees hatch where a swarm has to build 
its own comb, and bees die of old age 
in the working season in less than 
thirty day after they become laborers 
in the fields. Again, if all were old 
bees, where Avould the comb come 
from to fill the hive, for when in a 
normal condition the bees between 
the ages of eight and twenty-four days 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



211 



old are the ones which do this work. 
Then the youngest are the bees which 
produce the chyme to feed the larva', 
and so we liud that this division of 
bees in a swarai is just as it should be, 
and because it is thus, is the reason 
why I prefer natural swarming to any 
division of bees by mankind, or to 
what is known as artificial swarming. 
But let us look inside of tlie hive when 
preparations are for swarming are be- 
ing made, and see if we cannot arrive 
at the truth in the matter, as regards 
the conditions under which the swarm 
issues, when the first queen hatches, 
etc. The first indication of swarming 
is the laying of eggs in the drone 
comb. While eggs in the drone cells 
are not a sure sign that the swarms 
will issue, yet, as far as I have ob- 
served, swarms never do issue with- 
out eggs laid therein. If the weather 
is propitious the next step is the 
building of queencells, soon after 
which the queen deposits eggs in 
them. In three days these eggs hatch 
into larviv, and said larvre is fed an 
abundance of food by the nurse bees 
for six days, when the cells contain- 
ing the embryo queens are sealed over. 
If no bad weather has intervened, the 
swarra issues the next day, the old 
queen going with the swarm.; Now, 
bear in mind that this it the rule with 
the black or Gerraan bee and general- 
ly with the Italians; still, the Italians 
often swarm when the eggs are first 
laid in the queen-cell and sometimes 
without the least preparations at all 
except drones. All good authority 
allows that the queen larva? remains 
seven days in the cell after the cell is 
sealed over, as my experience also 
proves, and I cannot see how any one 
could make the mistake in thinking 



that it would be all right to go into 
])rint, saying the first young queen 
emerges from her cell in less than 
twenty-four hours after the swarm 
leaves the parent hive. When a week 
of bad weather occurs, should such a 
thing ever happen, the thing is possi- 
ble for the swarm to be kept back so 
as to issue six days after the sealing 
of the first queen-cell, in which case 
the first young queen would hatch in 
twenty-four hours after the swarm 
left. But this is something I never 
knew to happen, for in cases where 
the weather is so bad that bees cannot 
swarm for six consecutive days, there 
is no honey coming in from the fields, 
and from the scarcity of honey the 
bees conclude they must retrench, so 
destroy the cells and postpone swarm- 
ing for an indefinite period. A week 
of entire honey dearth during the 
swarming season is generally enough 
to upset all swarming calculations 
with the bees and very often results 
in the killing off of the drones and no 
swarms issuing that season, unless it 
is in time of a yield from buckwheat 
and of fall flowers. So I find, as a 
rule, that the first queen emerges from 
her cell about seven days after the 
first swarra leaves. If more swarms 
issue they usually come out two days 
after, or from the ninth to the tenth 
dav after the first, and never later 
than the sixteenth day. The old 
queen goes with the first or prime 
swarm, and a young queen with all 
after-swarms, while bees of all ages 
accompany all swarms, whether hav- 
ing a young or an old queen. 

Borodino, N. Y. 

— ■ I ■ ^1 

"How to Manage Bees '" is a 50c 
book for beginners in bee keeping. 
We will send it postpaid for 25c. 



212 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August 



Bees Moving Eggs. 

BY ED. JOLLEY. 

It is often asserted that bees do not 
move the eggs, and is even claimed by 
some that they cannot do so. This, 
too, in the face of very convincing 
evidence to the contrary. If I remem- 
cer correctly it was editor E. R. Root 
who said that he actually saw a bee 
carrying an egg, but not being partic- 
ularly interested did not stay to see 
the final disposition of it. Now I have 
never seen a bee carry an egg, but I 
have had just as convincing evidence 
that they do. I will relate two in- 
stances that came under my observa- 
tion, where bees did move eggs beyond 
a doubt. Last season 1 was in need of 
some young queens. I selected one 
of my best colonies, removed the 
queen, and in due time had a number 
of fine cells, which were removed and 
given to the colonies I wanted to re- 
queen, all but one cell, and that was 
kept for the bees to rear a queen for 
themselves. I looked over this colony 
the day after I expected the cell to 
hatch, and found the young queen. 
Having satisfied myself as to her pres- 
ence I closed the hive. I did not 
have time to look at it again for about 
two weeks. I then looked to see if 
the young queen was laying but I 
found neither eggs nor queen, the 
queen having apparently been lost 
when out to meet the drones. I look- 
ed over the frames several times and 
was fully satisfied that there were 
neither queen nor eggs — that the 
swarm was hopelessly queenless. I then 
went to a colony that I had given some 
full sheets of foundation a week or 
more before, and selected a frame 
that was partially drawn and pretty 



well filled with eggs and young brood. 
I drew the center frame from the 
queenless colony, and inserted the 
frame of foundation instead. I look- 
ed over the frames again in due time, 
and on the frame adjoining the foun- 
dation, on the side of the frame next 
to the foundation I found two queen 
cells and on the other side of the same 
frame one queen cell. On the other 
frame adjoining the foundation was 
one queen cell, while on the founda- 
tion itself was but two queen cells. 
The starting and completion of the 
cell and the coming of the queens all 
corresponded with the time the foun- 
dation was given. 

I was very much interested in this 
case, therefore careful, and am very 
sure that there could be no mistake 
about those eggs being moved. 

The other case was that of a strong 
colony that I divided. I took the 
queen and about half the bees and 
brood to a new stand, and filled their 
place with empty combs that I had 
saved from the year before. These 
empty combs were in frames having 
a thin top bar, while the frames be- 
longing to the hive had thick ones. 
On one of these empty combs a queen 
cell was built, and a queen was reared 
therein. The frame was otherwise 
devoid of brood. There is no two ways 
about it. The bees had to carry the 
egg from another frame in order to 
raise a queen in this frame. It has 
been said that queenless bees will even 
steal and carry egg from another 
colony. As to this 1 cannot say, but 
1 am very sure that they can and do 
move egg from one part of the hive 
to another. 

Franklin, Fa. 



1890. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



213 



Introducing Queens. 

BY EMERSON T. ABBOTT. 

I have been led to wonder many 
times why it is that most of the writers 
on apiculture continue to urge the 
importance of having a colony queen- 
less for forty-eight hours before at- 
tempting to introduce a queen. Dur- 
ing the honey flow when the queen is 
laying a large number of eggs every 
day, to make the colony queenless for 
forty-eight hours means the loss of a 
good many bees. Besides this method 
greatly increases the probabilities of 
loss, in ray opinion. This is especi- 
ally true when the operator is a novice, 
as a big strong colony is very apt to 
start queen-cells, and should any of 
these be overlooked, the chances are 
the queen would not be accepted 
when released. 

For years 1 have paid no attention 
to the old queen when I wanted to in- 
troduce another, until I was ready to 
release the new queen, and I very- 
seldom have a queen rejected. In my 
experience I have found it much 
easier to introduce a queen to a strong 
colony in which the old queen re- 
mained until I was ready to release 
the new one than to a colony which 
had been queenless for a day or two. 

When I wish to introduce a new 
queen, I simply place her in an or- 
dinary cage, on top of the frames, or 
down between them, so the bees can 
have access to her *through the wire. 
If she has not come a long journey 
and been out of the hive for several 
days, I leave her here for three or 
four days. If she has been caged for 
sometime, I wait only two days. I 
then hunt out the old queen as quiet- 
ly as possible. An experienced bee- 
keeper can generally find her by tak- 



ing out two or three combs in the 
center of the brood nest. When I 
find her, I either kill or cage her and 
remove her from the hive. I then 
put back the frames as quickly and 
quietly as I can, and return the cage 
containing the new queen to its form- 
er position, but first I turn back the 
wire over the candy so the bees can 
have access to it ; or, if the cage has 
a plug in the end which contains the 
candy, I remove this and close up the 
hive at once, letting them alone for 
four or five hours. I then, contrary 
to the usual instructions, open the 
hive and examine the cage. If I find 
that the queen is out, I quietly lift 
out the frames and look for the queen. 
The moment I see her I shut up the 
hive and let them alone, and I seldom 
have any trouble. Surely not as 
much as I did when I followed the 
instructions found in the bee books, 
or on mailing cages, and made the 
colony queenless two or three days 
before placing the queen upon the 
hive. 

I often have four or five queens on 
one hive in the summer, waiting to be 
mailed, and I could introduce any one 
of them by this method and have no 
trouble. I never remove a queen from 
the hive until I have another ready to re- 
lease, and so loose no time. 

The novice should understand that 
the best time to introduce queens is 
when the bees are busy carrying in 
honey and pollen. Never attempt to 
release a queen. If there has been any 
robliag in the apiary within two or 
three days. Those who have not fol- 
lowed ttiis plan of keeping the old 
queen in the hive until ready to re- 
lease the new one will be pleased with 
the results, I think, if they will try it. 

St. Joseph, Mo. 



214 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



A ugust 




Des Moines, Wash, July 13, 1896. 
Editor American Bee Keeper — 
Will you please let me kuow through 
the " Bee Keeper " what I shall do 
about my bees. Last January I pur- 
chased a stand o£ Italians ; The col- 
ony was a strong one and wintered 
well ; In February they began gath- 
ering pollen ; They have not swarmed 
yet this summer, and they seem much 
decreased in number an a bee will not 
be seen going in or out of the hive 
oftener than once in five minutes. 
In the afternoons of the bright sunny 
days, quite a number of bees fly out 
and play around the hive, those I am 
quite sure are young bees. They are 
not hatching any more now than they 
were a month ago and that was, just 
in one of the middle Brood Frames. 
It is at the height of the honey season 
here now and it is a good honey year. 
Beekeepers here report much surplus 
honey, and much swarming, while my 
bees haven't filled over a dozen cells 
with honey this year, and they had 
those filled a month ago. They have 
a queen so that is not the trouble. 
Yours truly, 

(Miss) Anita Byers. 

[We think what is needed is a new 
queen. Either your queen is an old 
one or is not prolific, try requeening. 
Possibly, however, there is some other 
cause for' non-swarming and perhaps 
some of our readers can name the . 
cause and suggest a remedy, if so, let 
us hear from them, Ed.] 



W. T. Falconer Man'f'g Co., — 
Gentlemen : Inclosed find 50c for 
which date my subscription to the 
'' American Bee Keeper " one year in 
advance. Although times are hard 
for farmers and beekeepers yet they 
cannot afford to be without good pap- 
ers. Bees seem to be doing finely this 
year and have been working on bass- 
wood for the past two weeks consider- 
ably. As you have not heard from 
me lately do not think that the bee 
business is dead, for I never had more 
bees than I have to day. I got a sup- 
ply of sections and hives last year and 
failed to get any honey, so this year 
we have them both. 

Thanking you for past favors, I 
remain, Yours respectfully, 

A. G. Amos- 

Delhi, K Y., Julv 25, 1896. 



W. T. Falconer Man'f'g Co.,— 
Gentlemen : Yours of June 2ord at 
hand stating that goods had been 
shipped, and the goods came to hand 
last evening in good order, and every- 
thing satisfactory. Many thanks to 
you for the reduction in prices. The 
sections are all you claim for them in 
every respect and surpass anything 
of the kind we ever handled. The 
foundation is also very nice. * ^t' * 
Yours very sincerely, 

H. & W. J. Adams. 

Clarenceville, Pi Q., July 3.rd, '96. 

We will send the American Bee- 
Keeper one year with the Cosmopol- 
itan for $1.25. The Cosmopolitan is 
a monthly magazine containing an 
average of over 100 pages and 80 il- 
lustrations each month. 



1S9G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



■Jlo 




' Prom Progressive Bee-Keeper). 

QUEENS. 



BY J. W. ROU.SE. 



I woiuier if eveu one- half of the bee 
keepers realize the importance of good 
queens? as upon the queen more than 
any one other thing depends for a suc- 
cessful crop of honey. I have never 
seen a season in my bee keeping ex- 
perience but what some colonies could 
at least make a living, but have seen 
some colonies that made a poor living 
even in a fair season. As bees do not 
make honey, but gather it, of course 
they can do nothing when there is 
nothing to do on or with. If the 
queen is a good breeder that does her 
work at the right time, in the right 
way, her bees are most sure to get 
something. 

It is bard to convince some that 
there is as much difference in queen 
bees as there is in milch cows, or any 
other kind of stock. While some cow'S 
are good milkers, others are not worth 
keeping. So it is w'ith queen bees. 
Some C)lonies are kept from year to 
year, and nothing is ever obtained 
from them. When the old queen 
gives out, another is reared by the 
bees from her stock, and so this worth- 
less breed is continued. 

Remedy. — Replace these worthless 
queens with good ones that will pro- 
duce bees in quantities sufficient and 
with energy enough to get a hustle on 
themselves. 

If queens are to be bought, this is 



often neglected on account of the ex- 
pense, but as has been said before, " if 
one does not wish to go to any ex- 
pense they had better let bees alone." 
I do not know of any business that 
will bring in as good returns for the 
time and money expended as do bees 
if given the right attention. I have 
never failed to get some honey since 
keeping bees, except one season — that 
of 1894. That year, by drawing on my 
best colonies, 1 kept some others from 
starving, which proved to me that it 
does not pay to keep a poor queen. 
Better let them starve rather than to 
keep them on that way. But by 
weeding out poor queens the bee keep- 
er can very materially help his honey 
crop. 

Again, many let their bees rear a 
large lot of useless drones that con- 
sume the stores the workers <lo get. 
This can be avoided by taking out 
all drone comb from the brood nest 
and replacing it with foundation or 
other worker comb. This is another 
expense, but one that pays well for 
the investment. 

By careful watching and proper 
manipulation one can have the bees 
build extra combs, by building a few 
at a time, but if one can stand the ex- 
pense at the time, it is cheapest to 
have combs drawn from full sheets of 
foundation. This insures straight 
combs and all worker cells, besides sav- 
ing much honey in building the combs, 

^Mexico, Mo. 

From Auierican Bee Journal. 

HUNTING WILD BEES-AN EXPER- 
IENCE. 



BY C. F. ZKtI.ER. 



I have been hituting wild bees since 
I was a boy 12 years old, and will tell 



31G 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August 



somewhat of my experience last year. 

Myself and a friend located and cut 
16 wild bee-trees last fall. I use a 
box with a sliding lid to keep the bees 
in Avhile carrying them from one point 
to another. I then find bees working 
on flowers, or bloom, of some kind 
(sumac and buckwheat being my 
favorites). I have a bottle of extract- 
ed honey, also another small bottle 
about one-half full of water, which I 
fill with honey, and shake well, with 
just a scent of oil of anise. I then 
take a mouthfull of this mixture and 
blow it over a few bunches of flowers, 
that I see the bees are working the 
most on, then I sit down and watch 
the bees working till I have a direct 
course, or line, which won't take long 
if done in the way above mentioned. 

After watching them carefully, and 
having obtained a straight line, I cut 
off these few bunches of flowers and 
carry them to some point where I can 
hide, or destroy them from the notice 
of the bees ; and in a few minutes I 
am ready to start after the line, for as 
soon as the bees can find no more of 
this mixture on the flowers, they will 
go into the box ; so in this way yuu 
will have no trouble at all to get the 
bees to work in the box from the start, 
for all experienced bee-hunters know 
that it is a very hard matter at times 
to get bees off flowers and get them to 
work in a box on comb containing 
pure honey, or sugar syrup, as the 
strange smell of the combs, etc., make 
the bees very shy, but experience has 
taught me that to take pure honev 
and make it half water it comes near- 
er being the same as the bees are 
gathering from the flowers, and they 
will load up much quicker than from 
pure honey, and it is not nearly so 



sticky — they never get daubed as 
much as they do from pure honey or 
sugar syrup. 

Now, all you have to do is to follow 
tip this line until you find where the 
colony is ; but some times this be- 
comes a very trying piece of business, 
and gets very interesting before one 
gets through with it, as it did in one 
case with me last summer, which I 
wish to relate ; 

It was a beautiful morning June 24, 
that myself and friend started out to 
see if we could locate a colony of 
wild bees. We went out 3i or 4 
miles away to some old fields, and 
found bees working on sumac blos- 
som ; it didn't take long to start the 
bees, and get a straight line, which 
without a doubt, would prove to be a 
colony of wild bees. We had a 
mountain to cross, and therefore we 
tried to get as many bees as possible 
before starting, as it generally is a 
pretty hard matter to get bees to come 
down as you go up a mountain, but 
in this case it didn't prove very hard, 
and we followed them until sundown, 
taking them over two miles from 
where we started them the first day. 

The next morning we started early, 
taking everything we needed to cut a 
bee-tree, and hive a colony of bees 
with, for we expected to find it in a 
short time, for we thought we were 
close to the colony when we left off' 
the evening before. 

But to our surprise we took it over 
two miles farther — in all over four 
miles from where we started it ; but 
we failed to find it until 6 o'clock 
that evening, and after looluug at all 
the trees for a circle of three-fourths 
of a mile around, and even looking in 
the rocks and at the old logs, I found 



1890. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



317 



the colony hanging on a limb in the 
top of a large tree, and if it had not 
been for the noise of the bees, we 
would not have found them that day. 

We then came to the conclusion 
that some one had found the colony, 
and not caring for anything but the 
honey, they left the swarm in the 
Avoods, and it had settled on this tree; 
but after looking closely we were still 
more surprised to see the beautiful 
white comb they had built, shining 
through the bees. We then cut the 
tree down, and secured between 30 
and 35 pounds of fine honey, being 
gathered chiefly from wild raspberry, 
and it having built comb 2 feet long 
and from 10 to 12 inches deep ; I 
hived the swarm, brought it home 
and transferred it to :i hive filled with 
comb, and so far have it living yet. 

Hunting wild bees is a trade in it- 
self, and it matters not how much 
knowledge one has of bees, if he 
never makes much headway at the 
business. 

I find great sport and enjoyment in 
looking thi'ough the woods in the 
summer and fall, in hunting for wild 
bees, and I am never so happy as 
when working wdth these busy little 
creatures. 

Waterside, Pa. 



From Progressive Bee-Keeperi. 

BEES NOT WOSKING IN SECTIONS. 



BY G. M. DOOLITTLE. 



A correspondent writes that he has 
kept bees for three years, but they 
have made no surplus honey. Says he 
"has put the sections on each year, 
and they would not work in them, but 
would lie about the hives in clusters," 
and as it will soon be time to put sec- 



tions on again , he wishes to know how 
to make the bees work in the sections. 

If I knew just what his seasons had 
been, I could answer him better, for, 
if little or no honey was secreted by 
the flowers during these three years, 
no amount of coaxing could make the 
bees do any work in the sections. 
Then, again, I mistrust from his say- 
ing, '•' that it will soon be time to put 
on sections again," that it may be pos- 
sible that he has waited about putting 
on the sections till his honey harvest 
was mainly past, in which case his bees 
would not work in sections to any 
amount, no matter how good the honey 
harvest was during its season. It is 
the duty of everyone who has a single 
colony of bees to inform himself or 
herself just where the flowers are that 
yield honey, and then put sections on 
when that bloom arrives, or a few days 
before, and thus work the bees under- 
standingly, the same as they would do 
other work. But bees will sometimes 
persist in not w^orking in the surplus 
department, no matter how good the 
season is for honey, nor when the sec- 
tions are put on, and as it is to 
be supposed that the reader will 
want to know what to do in a 
case where bees refuse to work in 
the sections during a good honey 
yield, I will answer from this latter 
standpoint. 

One important part in the construc- 
tion of a hive to be used for comb 
honey should not be overlooked, and 
that is, the brood chamber should not 
be too large. If our friend has a 
brood chamber of from 2500 to 3000 
cubic inches, I should not wonder that 
his bees failed to do work in the sec- 
tions, especially if his bees were of 
the Italian variety, as they are prone 



21S 



THE AMERICAN' BEE-KEEPER. 



A v.gu><t 



to store liouey in the broed chain her 
\\\ preference to the sections, if the 
queen does not have it occupied with 
brood when the honey sea-on com- 
mences, and if any colony of bees has 
room to store from forty to sixty lbs. 
of honey in the brood chamber, they 
will very likely not go into the sec- 
tions at all, but keep crowding the 
queen until the bees get few in num- 
bers, and at the close of the honey 
season we shall find that there is little 
brood and but few bees with a hive 
full of honey, while if we had remov- 
ed all the combs which the queen 
would not occupy with brood at the 
commencement of the honey season, 
putting sections in their places, we 
should have had a fair return in sur- 
plus. Large brood chambers have 
more to do with bees not working in 
sections than all other causes combin- 
ed, except a poor honey flow, accord- 
ing to my experience along this line. 
If bees refuse to work in sections 
when the brood chamber is of the 
proper size, they can generally be 
coaxed into them by adopting one or 
more of the following plans : 

Take a section, or wide frame full 
of sections, from a hive where the 
bees are nicely at work above, and set 
them on the hive (in the center of 
those already there) where the bees 
are loth to enter the sections, and it 
will usually incite the sluggish colony 
into active work in those sections 
which have hitherto been left unoccu- 
pied. In doing this, take all of the 
bees which adhere to the sections car- 
ried to the slothful colony along with 
them, for the mixing of bees often in- 
cites to activity, even where no newly 
worked out combs are used as an addi- 
tional incentive. 



If this does not work, fit a ])iece of 
drone comb, having brood in it, into 
one or two sections, and the bees will 
genei'ally commence work in the rest 
right away. If this does not answer, 
drum or shake from the frames the 
larger pait of the bees and the queen, 
and put them in a box or hive, and 
when they goto building comb finely, 
put them back again where they came 
from. Where this plan has been used 
I have never known them to fail to 
work, going right to the sections and 
building comb in short order. In 
drumming out the bees do not drive 
too clo.se, as bees enough must be left 
to protect the brood. .The nice white 
comb which the drummed out colony 
builds while in the box should be 
placed in the sections for starters, for 
there is no greater incentive to com- 
mence work than new white comb. Of 
course all of this is given on the sup- 
position that the bees are strong 
enough as to numbers to work in the 
sections, and still refuse to do so. If 
the hive is not filled with bees to over- 
flowing it is useless to attempt to make 
them work in sections, for it needs all 
the bees that are in the hive at the 
commencement of the season to care 
for the brood properly. Many are de- 
ceived in this way during the first part 
of the season, and quite probably the 
trouble with our correspondent lies in 
the fact that he has few bees in his 
hives when the honey harvest is at its 
height, and many after it is over, so 
that their lying "about the hive in 
clusters " comes at a time when there 
is no honey to be had, rather than at 
a time when there is plenty of honey 
producing flowers in bloom ! To be 
successful the bees most be on the stage 
of action ready for the honey when it 



189G. 



TUE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



210 



comes, just the same as we hire men 
to go into our harvest field to cut the 
grain when it is ripe. The hiring of 
men to go into the fields to reap the 
harvest after the grain had ripened, 
fallen to the ground, an.d rotted or 
grown, is often a fair sample of what 
our would-be apiarists are doing year 
after year. Secure the bees in time 
for the harvest, see that the hive or 
brood chamber is of the right size ac- 
cording to the capacity of the queen, 
put the sections on as soon as there is 
any honey coming in at the com- 
mencement of the harvest, and have a 
few sections of comb left over from 
the previous season for each hive, as 
"bait" sections, ^nd I think no one 
will have any reason to complain be- 
cause the bees will not give a good 
surplus to fully repay for all trouble, 
unless the flowers fail to secrete honey. 
Borodino, X. Y. 



From Glciiningji. 

HONEY AS FOOD AND MEDIOINB. 

A Remarkable Cure of Dyspepsia by 

the use of Honey. 

~¥ — 

BV ELTAS FOX. 

At the age of 13, in 1867, I con- 
tracted that terrible disease krfkwu as 
dyspepsia, in apparently its worst 
form, and my appetite seemed to crave 
nothing but sweet. I often ate a pound 
of stick candy at a time, or more of 
maple sugar in the spring. Not being 
able to do very much heavy work it 
fell to my lot to boil the maple sap ; 
and when " sugaring-off day " came I 
had a feast of which I repented later 
on. But that made no difference. My 
appetite craved it, and eat it I would, 
as I always felt temporary relief after 
satisfying ray appetite with sugar. 



candy, sweetcake, or preserves ; and 
thus it ran on for years, growing 
gradually worse all the time, notwith- 
standing I was taking medicine of 
some kind all the time. 

After a few years my father bought 
a colony of bees in a box hive, and of 
course they swarmed as often as they 
liked. Sometimes he would have from 
ten to twenty hives, and on the strong- 
est ones he would put a small box ; 
and if the season was favorable he 
would get a few caps filled, and while 
this lasted I would eat as much as I 
could get, although it was only about 
half what I wanted ; but no matter 
how much or how little I ate, it did 
not seem to have the bad effect that 
other sweets did. Then when fall 
came, all light swarms had to be set 
over the sulphur-pit and smothered, 
and this, being a sort of puttering job, 
also fell to the " dyspeptic." Well, I 
would kill from two to six or eight 
colonies, and, of course, after the sul- 
phuring was done, it was necessary to 
remove the honey from the box hives, 
and I did not wait for this job to. fall 
to me, but I fell to it; and then if any 
mortal ever feasted on honey it was I. 
I never weighed what 1 ate, but I 
Avould eat about all the time and know 
from the bulk that there were times 
when I ate three pounds. Many will 
ask, " AVere you not ashamed ? " so I 
Avill answer it now. I was not at that 
time, but have been since, and am ac- 
tually ashamed now to submit it to 
print ; but it is a fact just the same, 
and the beauty of it was that no mat- 
ter how much or hoAv often I ate of it, 
it never once in my life left a bad ef- 
fect. I always felt well after eating 
it, and it seemed that the more and 
oftener I ate it the better I felt. But, 



220 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August 



of course, this was only once a year, 
and generally the supply was exhaust- 
ed ere the winter was half gone. But 
I remember once ray mother strained 
a six-gallon jar full, and secreted it 
for company. It was some months 
ere she thaught it necessary to resort 
to her sweet treasure, and when she 
did she found it " evaporated" to with- 
in an inch of the bottom, and the evap- 
oration was a small wooden paddle. 

The bees were left on the summer 
stands, and straw packed around them, 
and there would usually be from one to 
six to survive the winter, until finally 
the survivor perished with the rest ; 
then, of course my feasts were at an 
end, and it is a fact that I grew stead- 
ily worse until the spring of 1882, 
when I Avas compelled to leave the 
farm, and when I settled in this vil- 
lage at that time I weighed 132 lbs., 
and hadn't closed my eyes for ten 
months without laudanum or mor- 
phine. I could eat nothing that did 
not hurt me. As for beans, onions, 
or pork, I might as well have eaten 
strychnine, and even food as light as 
corn starch, hulled barley, oat meal, or, 
in fact, anything, seemed only to ag- 
gravate the disease. Well, I traded 
an old harness for two colonies of black 
bees in box hives. I put some boxes 
on top, and the season was good. I got 
quite a little honey, and in the middle 
of the summer I commenced to gain 
in strength and flesh, and soon could 
sleep without narcotics. The next 
spring I transferred my bees and their 
increase to frame hives, and Italanized 
them, and since that time I have never 
been without honey on my table, (al- 
though I eat much less that three lbs. 
at a meal). I have never taken a drop 
of laudanum or morphine since, and 



can eat beans, pork, onions, or honey,, 
with impunity. My average weight 
is now 175 pounds. 

We have a young man here in this 
village who was troubled with dyspep- 
sia, and the more medicine he took 
the worse he became. I advised him 
to try honey and graham gems for 
breakfast, telling him of my experi- 
ence. He said, " Bring me up some 
and I will try it." I did so and he 
commenced to gain, and now enjoys 
as good health as the average man, and 
he does not take medicine either. 

I attended the bee-keepers' conven- 
tion at Madison, Wisconsin, several 
years ago, and Dr. Vance, of that 
city, read an essay on honey as food 
and medicine, and in his remai'ks he 
said that honey is the only food taken 
into the stomach that leaves no residue. 
He claimed that it requires no action 
of the stomach whatever to digest it, 
as it is merely absorbed and taken up 
into the system by the action of the 
blood. I sincerely believe that honey 
is the natural foe to dyspepsia and in- 
digestion, as well as a food for the 
human system. ^ 

Hillsborough, Wis. 



(From Bee-Keepers' Record. — British). 

ABOUf BEES AND BEE-KEEPING. 
THE HONEY OKOP— AND THEN? 



BY HENRY W. BRICE. 



With a season of such excellence 
as the present promises to be, it is a 
weakness inherent in our genus to be 
making approximate calculations of 
what our "take" is likely to be. Now, 
on this point 1 would say, don't be in 
to great a hurry about it. Here, in 
the South, another week or ten days 
will give us our sum total ; but in the 
North there is the heather honey still 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



2-21 



to be gathered before we can finally 
" tot " up our figures as to the results 
of 1896, For those who have honey- 
ready to take, ray advice is, do not 
remove it from the hive till wanted. 
Honey keeps better on the hive than 
indoors. In fact, I think it improves 
by exposure to the warmth of the 
bees, and will ripen in such a position 
far better than it will olf . In most 
districts there is something still to be 
had, and until honey begins to fail 
bees will not carry the contents of 
supers below. Be careful, too, that 
the bees have not too much room at 
this season. Excepting in late dis- 
tricts, all supers not yet taken off 
should be removed, allowing the bees 
only room enough to complete their 
unfinished work. If the honey flow 
holds out longer than expected, and 
more storage-room is really needed, 
drawn out combs should onh'' be given 
at thisseason. The end may come 
any day, and half-finished combs are 
not desirable, in so far as it takes hon- 
ey to build them, and so lessons our 
present harvest. The great aim now 
should be to get our supers, whether 
sections or small frames, as sealed over 
and as ripe as possible. When this 
condition is reached the combs may be 
removed in order to crowd the bees on 
the imperfectly finished ones, and so 
be induced to finish them. If, howev- 
er, the bees are very strong, surplus 
chambers may be left until finished. 
Bear in mind that stocks will not now 
grow stronger, but rather in the other 
direction. Swarming is practically 
over with the end of June, and so the 
anxiety about loss of swarms has now 
passed away. The removal of honey 
in bulk is a much more pleasurable 
operation now than formerly. With a 



good " Porter " bee escape to slip on 
between the racks and body-box, and 
the thing is done. 

I now come to the " Then " which 
appears at the head of this chapter, 
for it involves the (question of the fu- 
ture of our stocks. Thus, no sooner 
has one season ended than another 
practically begins. We must be cer- 
tain (1) that our bees shall have suffi- 
cient stores to last them well into the 
following year, or we must feed liber- 
ally. (2) As to the " mother-bee," the 
beee keeper must ask himself — Is she 
qualified to run the colony successful- 
ly another year ? (3) Have our bees 
been entirely satisfactory, and given 
us the best results attainable ? If not, 
" why not " must be disposed of ; these 
and many other minor points should 
now have attention. 

Increasing Stocks. — There are 
some who, having secured their honey 
crop, are still unsatisfied, and find 
themselves possessed of a great anxie- 
ty to increase their stocks, but we must 
be steady on this point. July is here, 
and operations on this line possible in 
]\Iay, would mean utter failure in the 
present mouth. If increase of stocks, 
then, is desired, it can only be done 
by division, and for this there is not a 
day to lose, especially if young queens 
are to be reared, mated, and laying, 
so as to produce a stock able to stand 
the coming winter, the following 
spring, and to give a profitable account 
of themselves next summer. Do not, 
under any circumstances, divide the 
strongest stocks into more than two 
colonies. Rather make two strong lots 
into three ; it is far safer now. 

Re-QUEENING. — The re-queening of 
hives should also have attention where 
it is known that the queeu is past her 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



August 



best. In raising queens to replace 
worn-out ones, or for the purpose of 
providing vigorous mothers for new 
colonies, the greatest care should be 
exercised to ensure they are good 
queens and not half- workers. Bees, 
when made queenless, will raise from 
five to twelve and even more queen- 
cells ; but only about three of these 
cells produce queens of high quality. 
Therefore, no compunction should be 
shown in removing and destroying all 
undersized cells. The finest queens are 
invariably from cells which hatch out 
last ; this delay is caused by the larvte 
from which they are raised being 
younger and hence taking a longer 
time to arrive at maturity. 

Where a number of queens have to 
be provided, time is saved by getting 
cells raised in a single stock eight or 
ten days before a general division of 
the remaining colonies takes place. 
So that in twenty-four hours after 
such division a ripe queen-cell may be 
given to each queenless part through 
out the apiary. Another point also 
requiring consideration is the massa- 
cre of the innocents which will short- 
ly take place in all normal colonies. I 
mean the turning out of the much- 
abused drones. Therefore, when pos- 
sible, §teps should be taken to preserve 
the life of some drones in a queenless 
stock, or in one having only a virgin 
queen. If this matter be not attended 
to, and the season takes an unfavorable 
turn, we may have the mortification 
of finding our young queens — which 
cost us so much trouble to get as near- 
ly perfect as possible — become useless 
or worse, and, owiug to an unforseen 
set of circumstances not expected or 
provided far, we shall discover too 
late that we have inadvertently made 
a retrograde movement past remedy, 
so far as achieving success next season, 



BEE KEEPERS. 

The natural home of the bee — and so or 
the bee keeper — is in a temperate cli- 
mate, where the flowers bloom all the year. 
Thus we find that our greatest honey-pro- 
duction comes from that State whose 
synonym is "the land of flowers.'" In Cal- 
ifornia bee-keeping is regarded as an indus- 
try worthy the fostering care of the State, 
and the yield of honey is no mean factor in 
contributing to the individual and general 
wealth. A single bee-keeper there has as 
many as six thousand colonies, which pro- 
duce a total yield of two hundred thousand 
pounds of lioney in a year. So far as statis- 
tics are availaljle, this is the is the largest 
apiaries in the world. But even in Cali- 
fornia prejudice is still rife, and, because of 
the mistaken idea that the interests of the 
bee-keeper and those of the fruit-grower are 
inimical, the bee ranches are usually releg- 
ated to remote nooks among the foot-hills 
and in the mountain canons. The Califor- 
nia bee-keeeper is a man who deserves more 
than passing notice. " Remote, unfriended, 
solitary," are the words that come to my 
mind instinctively as I think of the insolat- 
ed huts upon the mountain side or in some 
narrow cleft between the hills, where ] have 
so often found him. He is always peculiar, 
and a type that would do credit to Philiscus 
himself. But if you can once penetrate 
through the crust of the man, pity for his 
solitary condition will soon vanish. The 
bees are his friends, and with them he has 
little need of mortal companionship. Often 
lie is a man who has known the world and 
who has tired of it, and now, like quaint 
old Zimmermann, who had known schools 
and courts, finds his most keen delight in 
the solitude that nature affords. He is no 
mercenary ; yet the bees toil for him as 
they would not for any other, and his hives 
flow over with honey. — James Knapp ReevCy 
in AufjuU Lippixcott's. 

m'kinley's grand march. 
We have just received a copy of 
" McKinley's (irand March," composed by 
M. R. Rishell. This celebrated March is 
now being played by all prominent Bands 
in all parts of the country. The title page 
contains a correct picture of McKinley. 
Price forty cents per copy. All readers of 
our paper will receive a copy at half price 
by sending 20 cents in silver or postage 
stamps to The Union Mutual Music Co., 
265 Sixth Avenue, New York. 



1800. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER 



OOQ 



The jlmepjcan BsB-Keeper, 

rlBI.lSHKU MONTHLY UY 

• THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG CO. 

TERMS : 

"iO ceiit^ a year in advtince : 2 copies, 85 cents ; 3 
copies, 81. i;o ; all to be sent toone postoffiee. 

Postage prepaid in the U.S. and Canada; 10 cents 
extra to all countries in the pn.-tal union and 20 
cents extra to all nther countries. 

ADVERTISING HATES: 

15 cents per line, 9 words; S2.00 per inch. 5 per 
cent, discount for 2 insertions; 7 per cent, for 3 in- 
sertions; 10 per cent, for 6 insertions; 20 per cent, 
for 12 insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or before 
the 20th of each month to insure insertion in month 
following. Address, 

TIIK A.MEKICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
F.^i.coxER, N. Y. 

i^"Subjcribers finding this paragraph marked 
with a blue cross will know that their subscriiuton 
expires with this number. We hope that you will 
not delay in sending a renewal. 

tS'\ Red Cross on this paragraph indicates that 
you owe for your subscriprion. Please give the 
matter your attention. 

EDITORIAL. 



We regret to find that Editor Hutch- 
inson in .July Review places himself 
squarely against the importation of 
A'pis Dorsata by the government. We 
are surprised for we have always re- 
garded him as one of the most pro- 
gressive and unbiased bee men in the 
country and believed he would be 
heartily in favor of giving Apk Dorsata 
a trial. We do not mean to say that 
all who object to the agitation of the 
subject are not progressive, many are, 
but unfortunately for the bee keepers 
of the country, many of the best 
writers and the most influential pub- 
lishers are, without doubt, biased by 
reason of their queen business, preju- 
dices, etc. 

We wish to call our readers atten 
tion to the fact that in petitioning the 
government to introduce Apis Dorsata, 
we are onlv doing what the Secretarv 



of Agriculture has intimated we 
should do, and the undertaking is too 
expensive for any individuals and 
properly belongs to the government. 
Mr. Hutchinson stfites that in his lo- 
cality there are no blossoms that can- 
not be visited by the common bee. 
Tills uu\y be true, Ymi almost every- 
where is found red clover and other 
blossoms having deep nectaries which 
the common bees cannot reneli. He 
also is skeptical about Apis Dorsata se- 
creting more wax and honey than the 
common bee and their al)ility to con- 
tend with wasps, etc. He however 
offers no arguments or facts to prove 
the contrary and skepticism does not 
o'o for much, and we cannot know how 
they will act in this climate until we 
import some of them. Every bee 
keeper should send for copies of 
the petition that is ^now being circu- 
lated, and which is to be presented to 
the government with the object in 
view of inducing it to import some of 
these bees for experimental purposes. 
Petitions can be had of W. F. Marks, 
Secretary Ontario Co. Bee Keepers' 
Association. Chapinville, N. Y. 



The annual meeting of the North 
American Bee Keepers' Association 
will be held at Lincoln, Neb. , some- 
time in the near future, but as the 
date was left depending on arrange- 
ments of cheap railroad rates, etc. , no 
one knows yet when it will occur. It 
makes it somewhat inconvenient for 
many not to know considerably in ad- 
vance just when the convention will 
take place so that arrangements can 
be made for leaving home. The pro- 
gram as prepared will doubtless be 
very interesting, and includes articles 



224 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Angust 



by many of the best known bee keep- 
ers of the country. No doubt most 
of those who usuall}' attend and 
many others will be present and enjoy 
the addresses and Renewing of old ac- 
quaintances as well as making new 
ones. We wish all who attend a 
" good time " and a successful meet- 
ing. 

Wm G-errish, East Nottingham, N 
H. , keeps a complete supply of our 
goods and Eastern customers will 
save freight by ordering from him. 

The weather around here has been 
unusually wet for the past two weeks 
so that bees could do but little work. 
But as it is between seasons not much 
honey could be gathered had the 
weather been favorable. 



We will duplicate the prices on 
hives and supplfes offered b}' any 
first class manufacturers — and in 
many cases can do even better by you 
than anyone else. 



The supply trade still keeps up a 
considerable volume although it is 
getting well past the season when sup- 
plies are usually purchased. 



" HoAv TO Manage Bees,'" a 50c 
book, and the American Bee-Keep- 
ER a year for only (30c. 



We are just in receipt of advice 
from the Secretary of The N. A. Bee 
Keepers' Ass'n that satisfactory ar- 
rangements have been made b}' which 
tickets can be secured by those desir- 
ing to attend the convention at one 
fare for the round trip, plus $2.00. 
The conA'ention will be held in Lin- 
coln, Neb. , October 7th and 8th^ 



Reduction of Prices. 

Foundation has been reduced 3c a 
pound from prices in our 1896 cata- t | 
log. This is owing to the lower price ' 

of wax. 

Our No. 1 Falcon Polished Sec- 
tions we now offer at $2.50 for 1000, 
$4.50 for 2000, $6.40 for 3000, $10 
for 5000. Less than 1000 same pric- 
es as formerl}-. 

Beeswax is lower. We are now 
paying 23c cash or 25c in trade, per 
pound, delivered at our railroad sta- 
tion, (Falconer, N. Y). This price is 
not guaranteed. We will pay highest 
market price when wax is received. 
Prices are liable to be reduced again 
within a short time. If you ha^-e any 
wax to sell it is advisable to send it 
now. 

A workixg-girl's club-home. 
The Jane Club is one of the important 
branches of Hull House, though not speci- 
ally connected with it except as it is foster- 
ed and advised by Miss Addams, whose 
name it bears. It is a co-operative board- 
ing-club f(ir young working-women, origin- 
ally numbering seven girls accustomed to 
organized action, and it has been from the 
start self-governing, the officers being elect- 
ed from their own ranks and serving six 
months gratuitously. The club has now 
about fifty members, and the weekly dues 
of three dollars each meet the expenses of 
rent, food, service, heat, and light in the 
substantial house whose delightful air of 
comradeship greets one at the very entrance. 
The pleasant parlors and dining-rooms have 
been furnished in a very home-like way by 
Hull House assistai.ce, and the club his iu 
itself resources of a social and intellectual 
character which go far to mitigate the 
usually desolate lot of the homeless work- 
inggirl. Jliis club now occupies five flats, 
and the members share the housework as 
their occupations permits. — From "Hull 
House,'' in Demoresfs Mac/azine for August. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



THE HEART O' A MAN. 



•Jt's a' very guid to hac millions, 

An rank's no' a thin^ to dispise, 
But siller's ayo hard to tak' care o', 

An teftles no'c'r niak' a man wise. 
It is na wliat newspajJiTs ca' ye, 

Or what is tho badfro o' yer clan, 
But what hat' ye dune for yer brithers, 

An hae yo the heart o' a man? 

Aiblins yc'll marry wi' a duchess, 

An she may be guid as the lave— 
There's nacthins in r.mk or in riches 

To niak' a true freeman a slave. 
But, mind ye, there's muckle expected 

Frae one wha wad keep in the van; 
Sae never let pride rin awa' wi' 

The leal honest heart o' a man. 

Ye may ganj? to kirk, like yer neebors. 

An put a big dole in the plate, 
Yo may write oiit a check for hundreds, 

When "charity" raps at yer gate, 
But there's One wha looks at the inside — 

Wha kens a' the bents o' yer plan. 
He cares no a boddle for riches — 

His gauge is the heart o' the man. 

—Detroit Free Press. 



HE rorOIIT INDIAN'S. 



"Did I ever tell you the story of how 
Buffalo Bill saved my life and the lives 
of my companious back in 1869?" asked 
Sergeant Jim McDonnell in the central 
police station one day last week. 

It was raining outside like a cloud- 
burst, and consequently there was a 
goodly crowd of listeners when Ser- 
geant Jim asked the opening query. 
Contrary to his usual custom Jim re- 
mained standing while telling the story, 
but. he did not begin until everyone 
present had several times expressed a 
desire to hear his experience. After 
puffing industriously on his cigar for a 
few moments, during which time his 
memory began to react, he began: 

"It was back in thefall of 1869 when 
I was a corporal in the Fifth United 
States cavalry stationed out in Wyoming 
territory. The Indians were on the war- 
path and were giving the government 
no end of trouble, and it was safe only 
where large scjuads of armed men were 
at call. Skirmishes with the wander- 
ing bands of Sioux and Cheyennes were 
frequent, and we had smelt powder a 
dozen times at the period of which I 
am telling. • 

"One day Colonel Crittenton, our 
commander, received orders to make a 



foray down around the Republican river 
in Colorado, and I was picked out as 
one of the squad of 20 troopers who 
were to go as tJie advance guard with 
the sappers and miners. Attaclied to our 
command as scouts were Buffalo Bill, 
otherwise Colonel Cody, and Major 
Prank North, another famous Indian 
scout, who still sticks to the old calling 
and localities. Bill and North were sent 
out with our squad as scouts, and they 
did sterling service, too, and but for 
Buffalo Bill's thoughtfulness and 
knowledge of the red man's methods I 
might have been six feet under the sod 
instead of telling this story today. 

"A lieutenant was in command of 
the squad, a young fellow, fresh from 
West Point, who knew less about Indian 
fighting than he did about bicycle rid- 
ing, and there were no bicycles at that 
time. His name was Valkman, but for 
all his lack of experience he was a bright 
fellow, witli plenty of grit and well 
liked. There was a sergeant, and I was 
the corporal. 

"We started with the sun one morn- 
ing, and everything went easy until we 
began to reach that part of the country 
where we knew the Sioux and Cheyennes 
were. Then we became cautious. Buf- 
falo Bill and Major North rode away at 
daylight on the scout, and we saw them 
no more until the hour of danger had 
arrived. It was the next day about sun- 
down. We were just approaching a 
stream and loafing along as only old 
cavalrymen can. The object was to go 
into camp at the stream where we could 
get fresh water for our horses and for 
cooking. Before we reached the water, 
which was a glad sight to the almost 
parched horses, some of the men spied 
some moving objects way off in the 
deep hollow of the wavy hills. It was 
first believed that the objects were buf- 
falo running, but some one called at- 
tention to the fact that the objects were 
moving too fast for buffalo, and it was 
suggested that they were antelope. 

"While we were looking and specu- 
lating, straining our eyes to discern the 
objects, a pair of rapidly riding horse- 
men, over a mile off, suddenly came 
into view from the mound of a gently 
sloping hill, and after getting fitff'ly into 
view began riding in circles at a furious 
gallop. Then we knew that the moving 
objects that we had been studying wei- 



2-26 



THE AMElliUAN BEE-KEEPEAl 



ntSny 



ludiaiis. The two horsemen were Buf- 
falo Bill and Major North, and the sig- 
nal directed by riding in a circle is only 
too well known to any one who has 
spent any part of his life on the plains. 
By this time we could make out the ob- 
jects, as the Gun beat down on them. 
They were redskins sure enough, and at 
least 50 of them, while our command 
numbered less than 25. They were com- 
ing at a furious gait, and each one was 
bending under his pony to keep out of 
sight as much as possible. 

" 'Ready,' ordered the lieutenant. 
'March, trot, ' and then 'March, gallop, ' 
and we were off in the direction of the 
two scouts, who had ridden to the top of 
the hill again and were watching the 
reds. When we arrived near enough, 
Cody told us that he and his partner 
had been watching the Indians all day 
and keeping them in sight, while they 
remained under cover. After consulta- 
tion between the leaders, it was decided 
to let every man go it for himself and 
give the Indians all they bargained for. 
This meant that every man was to get 
his arms in shape and then go at them 
for all he was worth, and never stop 
fighting until the reds were licked or 
had runaway. Arms rattled as the men 
adjusted them and knives were jerked 
jO the front of the belts and with a de- 
termined look on every man's face the 
3ommand to trot was received. 

"The stream in front of us, that di- 
vided us from the redskins, was ford- 
able at several points, wlierever we 
could find a buffalo path. I struck out 
for myself at once and soon found my- 
self separated from the others, who 
vere s(;atteriug. In front of rae was ■■% 
oeaten ford, and I made for it. I was 
the only one of the party to cross this 
particular ford, and I didn't ^^■iut to al- 
low my thirsty animal to driuk, but 
hurried him over and almost before 7 
knew it was on the land again and go- 
ing along at a gallop. Under ordinary 
circumstances, when my horse was not 
tired out, he was as sure footed as a 
cat, but just then he was very uncertain 
and I felt a little lump rise in my throat 
as I saw directly in front of me, lesn 
than a mile off, a little biinch of braves 
coming for me. I never halted, but 
pushed along until the reds began tc 
circle about. By this time firing was 
eoinG' on about me. and in antsther sec- 



ond four of the Indians in front of me 
left the circle and v^'ithout firing a shot 
came directly at me, their ponies cu a 
dead run. 

"I have never felt just that way be- 
fore or since. I can't describe my feel- 
ings for a minute, but there was nc 
time to hesitate, and I slowed up and 
finally dropped to the ground, with my 
carbine unslung. The Indians did not 
offer to open fire, so I dropped on one 
knee, and when they were near enough 
I opened fire and shot as careful as I 
might. JSIy first shot took effect, and 1 
knew I had made a hit when one of the 
braves let out a yelp. I had not fired 
more than the third shot, when the reds 
turned and made off again and joined a 
larger force which was coming up from 
the west. 

' 'I reloaded, mounted and took af tei 
them again. They were running freely 
in front of us, and, as their ponies were 
fresh, they had little trouble in keeping 
oufof the reach of our shots. Our men 
were pretty well scattered, but finally 
to the east I saw a little knot appear on 
the brow of a slope, and among them 
was Cody. They galloped down aftei 
the reds, and the direction taken by 
them soon brought me in their midst. 
Then it became a steady trot. The reds 
loafed and did not seem particularly 
anxious to get away or to stoji and give 
battle. This seemed to bother Buffalc 
Bill considerably, and after we had been 
on the chase for over an hour he called 
a halt. He had tumbled to the little 
game planned by the Indians. He ex- 
plained that by their manner he knew 
they were leading us i)ito a trap, and 
that it was more than likely that some 
distance on, hidden from view, there 
Was a big village encamiD^d, and if we 
kept on we were liable to find ourselves 
in a trap, and no one in the party would 
live to tell the tale. I don't exactly 
know whether Bill was right or wrong. 
He was not riding his own horse at the 
time, and had tried to exchange the 
animal he had for one of ours, but nc 
one would change, and I kind of thought 
he was fearful of risking a fight on the 
horse he rode, because he would stand 
no chance in getting away in case it 
was necessary to retreat. Subsequent 
de\-^lopmeuts demonstrated that he was 
I'ight when he said we were being led 
into a t ran. and it was luckv for us that 



1 y. G 



THE AMHUICAN BEE-KEEPEU. 



227 



we followed his advice. 

"We ubiindoiKcl the chase aud rode 
buck to the stream, which we reached 
by uif-'litfall. Here we found the eutirt 
couuikuhI encamped. Colonel Critteutoii 
had come up with the main body oi 
troopers, biit instead of sending cait a 
detachment to aid us he had quietly 
gone into camp and sat down and waited 
for us to return or to re^-eive word t.lj?,i 
we hud gone to that land from which 
there is no return. 

' 'The next day we moved ou to the 
point where we had turned back, and 
less than a mile farther found the re- 
mains of a big Indian camp containing 
no less than 500 braves. The camp wai? 
hidden in a canyon, and the fires were 
still v\-arm, and it is certain that w€ 
would have met our fate the day be 
fore bat for the timely advice of Buffalc 
Bill Cody. ' ' — Detroit News-Tribune. 



A Picture of Naplea. 

Dr. W. O. Terry of Sacramento, whc 
has visited Naples, says: "Naples is 
one of the toughest places in Christen- 
dom. It is a rare thing in that town tc 
meet with any one who seems to recog- 
nize the bath as an institution of civi- 
lization. Mi.^u, women and children revel 
in dirt, particularly the latter. Boys 
and jrirls cf ten years are often seen in 
public without a single garment to hide 
their niidity. The ordinary refreshment? 
of life, as practiced in America, are un- 
known there. The public conve ranees 
are crowded with passengers so redolent 
of garlic that it is often prefei'able tc 
get out and walk. Doubtless everybody 
eats garlic in order to keep from being 
overceuue with its odoriferous scent, as 
a matter of protection. 

"But worst of all in Italy are the ter- 
rible drain of taxatie-n and the corruj-)- 
tion on the jiart of men in high ofiicia] 
position. The railroads, for instance, 
which ought to bring in large revenues 
to the gcvcrumeut, are a source of ex- 
pense. The explanation is that every- 
body connected with their operation is 
engaged in stealing. The charge is 
made openly, and I never once heard it 
disputed. " — Washington Post. 



The Japanese "Tadaima." 

My own experience of Japanese rail- 
ways certainly did not give the ide;i 
'that they v,'ere a businesslike neonle. 



A few regiments of guards, return- 
ing in triunipli from Formosa last No- 
vember, upset the whole service on the 
Tokaido, the main line in Japan, for a 
week, and the general management, 
even in normal times, would bring dis- 
credit on, say, the Southeastern at its 
worst. 

In their general mode of life, too, ] 
cannot say tiuit I observed any equalities 
which I should describe as businesslike 
— ^.if you want a thing done in a hurry, 
they answer "tadaima, " "all in a good 
time," which means any time between 
now and the new year. When sightsee- 
ing — e. g., visiting a factory — after hav- 
ing seen one tiling a pause invariably 
follows, during which one is entertained 
to a smoke and a cup of tea, which, 
though hospitable and pleasant, does 
not conduce to getting through the 
sightseeing that day. — National Re- 
view. 



A Dog's Accomplishineiit. 

There is a dog in Albany, this state, 
that can play the trumpet — that is to 
say, he can blow two or three harmo- 
nious notes from a small brass horn — and 
wonderfully funny he looks when he 
sits on his haunches blowing away for 
dear life. The dog's name is Mascot, 
and he is the queerest genius alive. — 
Watertowu (N. Y. ) Gazette. 



Naturalization In Belsium. 

In Belgiiim you can obtain civil 
rights by five years' residence, but yon 
cannot become a Belgian, with full 
electoral powers, unless you have ren- 
dered distingaisheel services to the coun- 
try. The naturalization accorded is per- 
sonal, but your sou, on attaining his 
majority, may claim to be a Belaiau. 



Artist French. 

Daniel Chester French has attained 
the honor of being the first American 
artist to whom permission has been 
granted to erect an outdoor statue in 
Europe. The statue will be of George 
Washington and will cost $20,000. A 
group of American women in Paris 
formed themselves into a Washington 
memorial association, and, after rais- 
ing the necessary funds, have secured 
the consent of the municipal authorities 
of Paris to erect the statue in the French 
capital on Hue Vvashington. 



228 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Auyiist 



THROUGH THE WOOD. 



through tlie wood, the green wood, the wet 
wood, the light wood, 
Love and I went Maying a thousand lives 
ago. 
Shafts of golden sunlight had made a golden 
bright wood 
In my heart reflected, because I loved you so. 

Through the wood, the chill wood, the brown 
wood, the bare wood, 
I alone went lonelj' no later than last j'ear. 
What had thinned the branches and wrecked 
n>y dear and fair wood, 
Killed the pale wild roses and left the rose 
thorns sear? 

Through the wood, the dead wood, the sad 
wood, the lone wood, 
Winds of winter shiver lichens old and gray. 
Fou ride past, forgetting the wood that waa 
our own wood. 
All our own, and withered as ever a flower 
of May. 

—New York Tribune. 



TEAIX CAN'T WAIT. 



She is just 18, with, golden hair aud 
gray eyes — large gray eyes that laugh 
just as well as her red lips. Her figure, 
though a little frail, makes one thiuk 
what a pretty woman she will be soon. 
Her hands aud arms are those of a 
child. Is she not still a child? Clara 
left school but a fortnight ago. She is 
the beloved aud only daughter of a rich 
miller in the neighborhood of Avesues. 

Nothing is more poetical than a mill 
in the country. It does not disturb the 
silence of the air with its monotonous 
tick tack. On the contrary, its noise, 
strong and regular, is like an accom- 
paniment to the many other noises of 
the wind, and of the trees, and of the 
birds. Clara was charmed with it all. 

During a few days after her arrival 
the whole house was upset, making and 
receiving calls, dinner parties, dancing 
parties, lawn tennis — the days were not 
long enough to hold their pleasures. 
Then all was quiet at the mill. 

In the orchard, which was large, the 
walks were spread over with sand, aud 
the trees, loaded with fruit, afforded a 
beautiful, shady grove. This was Clara's 
favorite nook. Here she would go and 
read poetry. She had been given the 
works of Laraartine, beautifully bound. 



Now, Lamar tine is a very tender poet, 
aud Clara was still in her teens, and 
this was summer, and the fragrance of 
the flowers aud the murmur of the 
breeze acted on her young mind, and 
through this book she would dream of 
things that she hart neve* dreamed of 
before. 

One day her mother asked her if she 
remembered her cousin Albert. 

"Oh, yes, indeed!" said she. This 
answer came from her heart. She 
blushed, aud from her neck to her brow 
she felt that sort of electricity that is 
produced by a little shame and a great 
pleasure. 

"Well," said her mother, "you will 
see him very soon. ' ' 

Clara was about to say, "Oh I how 
glad I am, ' ' but she thought it more 
proper to say nothing. 

Aud why was she silent? I will tell 
you — it was because she had read Lamar- 
tine. Why does pretty poetry make one 
false? Well, I don't know, but it speaks 
of love — aud what is love? 

"Well, " said Clara, "I have not seen 
him for two years. I suppose he is 
changed. " 

"Not more than you, " said her moth- 
er, casting a loving glance of admiration 
at her daughter. "You were a little girl 
when you went away. You are a young 
lady now. ' ' 

Clara ran off to her beloved grove to 
hide tlie blushes on her cheeks and the 
beatings of her heart. She sat down, 
drew from her pocket her volume of 
poetry, but read not a line. 

****** 

Albert arrived a few days before he 
was expected, but she was thinking of 
him. She always had roses on her 
cheeks, but these roses changed into 
peonies when she saw him, and her 
hands trembled. He took hold of those 
hands aud kissed her on both cheeks. 

He was a medical student who had 
not yet in his brain the least thought ol 
anything serious. He had suddenly dis- 
covered in himself a vocation for the 
beautiful science of ^sculapius, that he 
might go to Paris to spend a few years 
of his life and waste a few thousands of 
his father's francs. 

"Ah, little cousin," said he, "you 
are pretty now. Why, I am afraid I 
shall fall in love with you. " 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



0Of( 



She looked at bim, not knowing what 
to say. 

"Have you forgotten the good times 
we hud in this garden and over there 
in the woods?" 

"Oh, no," said she. 

' 'And when we would go rowing and 
I would scare you by swinging to and 
fro in the boat to capsize you?" 

"Oh, no. I remember it all." 

"Then why don't you put your arms 
around my ueck and say pleasant things 
to me as you did then?" 

"1 don't know," she faltered. 

Then he said to himself, "This cousin 
of mine must be a little simpleton." 

"Well," said he, aloud, "and what 
is this book?" 

"Lamartine. It is beautiful. " 

"I don't think so. I think it stupid. " 
Then, seeing that she was somewhat 
abashed, he added, "Why does it dis- 
please you that I should not care for 
Lamartine?" 

"Because I love his poems. " 

"Well, if I read poetry I want Alfred 
de Musset. I shall send you his works 
when I get to Paris. ' ' 

At this moment they heard a quick 
and fii'm step on the sandy walk, and a 
young man came upon them. 

"Excuse me, mademoiselle," said he. 
••'I have just learned that Albert is here 
and I have come to shake hands," 

An old saying came to Clara's mind : 
"Two is company; three is a crowd. " 
She was too well behaved to say it, so 
she left the two young men together. 
When alone, she reflected that Albert 
was a very nice cousin, and might make 
a very good husband. As for his friend — 
well, he was a very good looking man 
and might be a very nice fellow — but 
what a difference between the twol 

"Your cousin is a charming girl," 
Bald Jack. 

"Oh, yes, but she is only a school- 
girl." 

"Well, what else can she be? She is 
just out of school and not a woman 
yet. Do you know what were my 
thoughts as I looked at you both?" 

"How can I know?" 

"I was thinking that you wotild make 
a pretty couple." 

"Now, Jack, what harm have I ever 
done you that you should want to chain 

UA rin-xcn?" 



"Are you not 25?" 

"Is tJia.t old age?" 

"Would you give an old man to your 
cousin, who will lie only 19 next your?" 

' ' In two years slie will be 20 — that 
»vill be better still. Then I will be a 
serious man and an M. D. 

"Clara is a good match; our fortunes 
are about equal. I think I miglit make 
a living in this country. Well, who 
knows what may happen one day? I 
have plenty of time to think of it. " 

"I think your cousin deserves better 
than that, and you ought to be in love 
with htr. " 

"What! Love at first sight ! I do think 
Clara is pretty, but — plenty of time — 
plenty of time!" 

Everybody seemed happy at the mill 
— even Clara, who listened with pleasure 
to the compliments of her cousin when- 
ever he chanced to be with her, and she 
thought him so witty that she quite for- 
got to show her own wit before him. 

In the meantime she was hoping that 
he would propose before going back to 
Paris ; but tiie last day dawned, and he 
had not siwd the least word about mar- 
riage. She hoped till the last hour; 
then, till the lust minute. 

Albert gave kisses all around and said 
to her: "I will come back next year. I 
will write to you and send De Musset's 
works, as I promised. ' ' 

She plucked up courage and said to 
him, "Is that all you want to promise, 
Albert?" 

He understood what she meant, but 
would not promise more, and as his eyes 
rested on the clock he said: "Good by, 
cousin ; the train is here — it cannot 
wait. " 

****** 

The life of a student, especially that 
of a student who does not study, is just 
as tiresome as any other. 

There comes a time when he gets tired 
of beer, wine and cigars. 

Albert was in one of his dark days. 
Since morning he had felt cross, and 
would not even smoke ; his pipe lay on 
his table with a pile of books and dusty 
papers. His tobacco pouch reminded 
him of Clara — slie had embroidered it 
for him during the week he had spent 
with her. Then he was also reminded 
that he had promised to write and send 
De Musset's works. He felt unhappy 
at these thousdits. and remorse made 



230 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Aurjnst 



him go out to repair his forgetfulness. 

There is a knock at the door. The 
servant brings up a letter to him. It is 
from his mother. 

His drowsiness gives way as he reads 
the lines ; he gets up in a passion, upset- ^ 
ting the table and everything upon it. 

Clara is to be married, and in a 
week too! And he is expected to attend 
the wedding ! 

"And whom does she marry, I won- 
der?' ' exclaims he ; " some common coun- 
try lad, I suppose. No, it cannot be! I 
must go there and stop it ; she cannot 
be sacrificed in this way. ' ' 

Two hours later be started with a 
valise in one hand and a bundle under 
one arm ; it was Musset's works. 

Clara met him at the garden gate; 
she was looking as fresh as the flowers, 
and he, beiiig conceited, thought that 
the happiness expressed on her face was- 
due to his presence. She was less timid 
than last year and a little stouter ; one 
could read her heart through her gray 
eyes and her smiles. 

"Is what I hear true, Clara?" 

' 'Certainly ; I was about to write to 
you. I want you here for the wedding. ' ' 

"It is impossible!" 

"Quite possible and true." 

"With whom?" 

"With Jack, of course." 

"Ahj the scoundrel! There is nothing 
like a friend to betray one. ' ' 

"Why, Albert, what a short memory 
you have! Poor Jack would not speak 
of love before he was quite sure of your 
feelings toward me. I am very thankful 
that you set him at liberty to speak. I 
am so proud and happy at being loved 
by such a noble heart. ' ' 

Albert threw his bundle on the table. 
"What is that?" asked Clara. 

"Musset's v\'orks. I had promised 
them to you. ' ' 

' ' You are too late, cousin. Jack gave 
them to me long ago, as I was com- 
plaining of your forgetfulness. ' ' 

"Tell me, Clara — this is alia dream, 
is it not? You are not going to marry 
Jack?" 

She laughed. "And why not?" said 
she. 

"Because I love you; because, if you 
mean to many Jack, I start by the first 
train, and you shall never see me again. 

She looked at the clock, as he had 
done the year before, and said archly, 



'"ilicn huriy up, cousin, ror the train is 
here, and it cunnot v\ ait, " — From the 
French. 



Mountain Kailways. 

The oldest mountain railway in Eu- 
rope is the Rigi, opened in 1871, but 
the Mount Washington railway i?a 
America was established in 1S68. This 
is also one of the steepest. And another 
is the Green mountain line, also in the 
United States. The Petersburg in Ger- 
many is very steep, but the steepest of 
all is the Mount Pilatus in Switzerland. 



Potatoes. 

Have you ever tried cooking potatoes 
in lard like doughnuts? Select the 
smaller potatoes and peel and drop them 
into boiling fat. They will come to the 
surface when they are cooked and 
should be drained on brown paper. The 
potatoes may be rolled in beaten eggs 
and bread crumbs before cooking them 
Lf desired. 

Papa May*iii*6 Ijondon Defeaft, 

On Haydn's arrival he first took up 
his abode at Bland's, the music pub- 
lisher, at 45 Hoiborn, but soon after- 
ward jemoved to rooms prejjared for 
him at 18 Great Pulteney street, the 
residence of Salomon. Near here, at 
Messrs. Broadwood's, is shown a room 
in which Haydn used to retire to com- 
pose. At Salomon's he would appear to 
have appreciated the arrangements made 
for his comfort, especially with regard 
to the cuisine, which was under the di- 
rection of a foreign chef. We find him, 
however, complaining of the late hour 
at which Londoners dined, though to us 
6 o'clock might seem uncomfortably 
early. In March, 1791, he conducted the 
first of Salomon's concerts at the rooms 
in Hanover square, and in this and the 
following year he brought out the first 
eix of his grand symphonies. For many 
years Salomon was among the foremost 
musicians in the metropolis. During 
Mara's first season in London he con 
ducted and played solos at all her con- 
certs. The Morning Chronicle called 
him a genius and asked whose violin 
playing approached nearer the human 
voice. When an old man, he was still 
full of enterprise, and took great inter- 
est in the foundation of the Philhar- 
monic society. 

Great enthusiasm urevailed oji tha 



180U. 



77//. AMI-.llJCAN BKE-KEEPKR. 



231 



occasion of the first of the Salonicu- 
Haydn scries cf ccncirts. Mme- Srnraco 
sang, while Salomon lorl the orchestra 
as th'st violin, and Haydn presided at the 
piauoforta — Gtiitlemau's Magazine. 

A Story of Ilirsch. 

One of the late Baron Hirsch's idio- 
syncrasies, suys the London Daily C3oti- 
rier, was somewhat of an embarrassment 
to the ladies v.'ith wliom he was ac- 
quainted, though some people might 
not have objected to it. 

The baron hud a fonduei59 for playing 
cai'ds with the ladies he met at couutrj- 
houses and losing money to them. Net 
a few sixpences either, but £iO, £20, 
£50 at a sitting. 

At first sight there may not seem any- 
thing very embarrassing in this. But 
the fact is tiiat the baron would take 
pains to lose, and it was a common 
thing for onlookers to say that such and 
such a lady with v.hom he was playing 
bezique, or whatever the game might 
be, would be richer that evening by £.50 
or so. 

Fairly v^'ou, uo lady would object 
perhaps. 

But the baron would carefully stop, 
or play badly, just so as to leave his 
opponent the victor, and then what he 
really enjoyed was pulling out a few 
bank notes and passing tliem over. 

Not a very vicious taste in a multi- 
millionaire. Still, it is not every lady 
in society who can take what is prac- 
tically a present of money without feel- 
ing uncomfortable. 

The worst of it was that the baron 
was such a bad hand at deception. 
Everybody knew his little game. 



A Curiosity of Central Africa. 

Professor Garner, during his travels 
in central xVfrica, has discovered many 
queer things, not in the least remark- 
able of which is a curious little animal 
belonging to the simian family. 

This queer little beast, measuring 
about a foot in length, precisely resem- 
bles a bear in miniature. It seems to 
confine itself almost entirely to a nar- 
row tract of country running along by 
the equator. The natives, who have 
given it the name of "ikauda, " relate 
many remarkable stories about it. 

Its hands and feet are its greatest pe- 
CTjliarities. The foi'mer preciselv resexa- 



ble those of a human being, with the 
exception that they lack an index fin- 
ger. The fjtump ( f this forefinger looks 
exactly as though it had been amputat- 
ed. The feet are also not unlike our 
own if it were not for two remarkable 
peculiarities. In the first place the 
great toe protrudes at right angles to 
its fellows, while number two differs in 
that it possesses a claw. 

The Kibs. 

Two ladies were being shown the 
wonders of the X ray recently by Pro- 
fessor Robinson, and one was looking 
through the ether with the fiuoroscope, 
as it was my privilege to do in the case 
of the Bow^oin senior. 

"Can you see the ribs?" asked the 
polite professor. 

"Oh, yes, very plainly," was the an- 
swer, "but I never knew before that 
they extended up and down. " 

And then it was the duty of the scien- 
tist to expire in that steel corset ribs as 
well as human bone ribs are disclosed 
by the merciless X rays. — Lewistou 
Journal. 



His Criticism. 



Spike B-'-ady, who was a well 
known baseball player in the Mississippi 
valley a few years ago, once attended 
church in Dubuque, la. , with his club, 
which went on special invitation. The 
preacher made a special effort that con- 
sumed some time. Spike was asked 
what he thought of the preacher. "He 
got round to third all right ; but, say, he 
was an ice wagon in getting home," 
the ball player answered. 



Applied at the Wrong Place. 

Miss Kii-sam — You seem depressed 
tonight, Mr, Dexter. 

Mr. Dexter — Yes, I am. I went to a 
fortune teller today to find out my fate 
and was told that the girl I loved would 
not marry rce. 

Miss Kissam — 'But, Mr. Dexter, no 
fortune teller is authorized to speak for 
sae. — Detroit Free Press. 

The Fish Story That Was Trae. 

The Rev. Myron W. Reed says: 
"There never was but one man who 
could tell a tme fish story. He was the 
disciple Peter, and Peter said, ' We toiled 
all night and caught nothing. ' ' ' — Chi- 
caeo Times-Herald. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August 



THE PAWNBROKER, 



Hts Lrife Not a Happy One From His O-wn 
Point of VieTf. 

"Yes," said the pawnbroker, "the 
public has au idea that we are a harci 
aearted lot, but that is only one side of 
the story. A man in this business who 
Qad tears to shed wouldn't have a roof 
over his head inside of a year. ' ' 

"You mean you can't afford to pity 
the misfortunes of others on a cash 
basis?" I queried. 

"Very few people come here on ac- 
foiint of misfortune. You saw the young 
man who went out as you came in?" 

"Yes — an actor, eh?" 

"Very likely. Here's a watch he 
brought. The works are second class 
and the cases filled. I can buy a carload 
at $15 apiece. He was hard up and 
came here to make a raise. He said his 
wife was dying, and he wanted $25 on 
the watch. When I offered him $5, he 
wept, but if you'll follow him two 
blocks you'll find him in a saloon, 
spendin:g part of the money. Nine out 
of ten customers don't hesitate to lie, 
and ten out of ten would beat your Un- 
cle Isaac if they could. ' ' 

"But people pawn their clothes to 
get food, ' ' I said. 

"Perhaps so. Here's a dress a woman 
brought in an hour ago. She also wept. 
She had a story about sickness and hun- 
ger, and she declared this was her wed- 
ding dress. From certain earmarks I 
know she bought this dress secondhand. 
I know she paid $4 for it. I strained a 
point when I offered her $2, but she'll 
go out and call me a highway robber. " 

' ' But you never get taken in and done 
for?" 

"Don't I? Well, I'd like to seethe 
pawnbroker who hasn't been done up! 
It's a cold mouth when I don't get beat, 
and by the very people whom you would 
sympathize with most. See these shin- 
ers?" 

"Yes — fine diamonds.'* 

"Want 'em for a dollar apiece?" 

"You don't mean it!" 

"Glad to get it, sir. They were left 
by a woman who wanted to raise money 
to bury her husband. I was half sick 
and very busy and gave her $60 on 
them. They are paste — only paste. She 
came in here to beat me of course, and 
no doubt had a good laugh over. it. 



Here's a locket set with pearls, which 
my clerk advanced $30 on. The weeping 
man who brought it wanted to bury his 
dead wife with the money. I can buy 
'em at wholesale for $3 apiece. Don't 
you believe all you hear about your un- 
cle having a heart of stone. There are 
plenty of people who wouldn't beat a 
street car, but we are considered fair 
game for them, and they'll lie like 
smoke to take us in. It's a great place 
for tears, sighs and tales of sorrow, but 
the main idea is to give your Uncle 
Isaac the cold drop, and it's done often- 
er than I care to acknowledge. ' ' — De- 
troit Free Press. 



luternational Arbitration. 

The re-al obstacle in the way of inter- 
national arbitration is not so much a 
lack of efficacy in the method as the 
lack of a disposition to try it. The sys- 
tem of arbitration necessarily presup- 
poses that nations desire an amicable 
adjustment of their differences. Such 
au adjustment may be prevented either 
by a willful opposition to it or by the 
adoption of a style of controversy that 
will render argument impracticable. 
Against such obstacles it is difficult to 
contend, since their direct tendency and 
effect is to bring about a collision be- 
fore an arbitrator can intervene. It is 
obvious that arbitration can no more 
afford an absolute safeguai-d against 
such contingencies than can a system of 
municipal law absolutely prevent men 
from attempting to settle their differ- 
ences by fighting in the street, if they 
desire thus to revert to primal condi- 
tions. Yet severe penalties, strictly en- 
forced, may reduce such chances to a 
minimum, and it is conceivable that a 
scheme of international action might be 
devised so comprehensive as to render a 
resort to war exceedingly difficult and 
hazardous. — "The Possibilities of Per- 
manent Arbitration" in Century. 



Self Defense. 

"So you accompanied your wife to 
the play, after all?" 

"Yes. I happened to think that if I 
didn't she would tell me all about it 
when she came home." — Chicago Rec- 
ord. 

Stern duties need not speak sternly. 
He who stood firm before the thunder 
worshined the "still small voice. "^- 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



233 



Tht SOUi.'o SONG. 



A captive in restricted cell confined, 
My spirit soars despite prim walls and bare 
And sin>;eth when it sees the mystic stars, 
Aud when soft moonbeams, kind, aslant have 

shinod, 
As though my cloistered soul they had divined, 

When cooling zephyrs herald day in east, 
And bird throats answer uial:e from tree and 

vine 
To deeper song my soul doth e'er incline 
And longs at j:;atins to assist as priest, 
Alas, I may not join the vocal feast 1 

Rich clustered jev/els pass my thought in train, 
Which lose their order ere they reach my 

tongue ; 
Only tlutr shadowed form by me is sung. 
Conceived in pleasure, told, alas, in pain. 
As some wild bird is captured, but when slain' 

Not alway in a prison vrall of clay 
Shall I my poor restricted song Ueplore; 
Beyond the paths ethereal clouds explore. 
When sunset leaves ajar its opal door, 
I'll sing, unfettered, at the dawn of day. 

—Arthur Howard Hall. 



WINNING THE WIDDEE 



"It grieves me all fired copious, " ob- 
served Uncle Cy Clay, gravely contem- 
plating the quarter section of pancake 
poised on the end of his fork, "f see 
th' flirtatious carryin's on o' this yere 
yaller hieaded schoolmarm an Doc Ev- 
erett, more especial as she is al- 
ready spoke for by Jimmy Duval, an 
doc is kuowed t' be th' only husban an 
father of a' interestin leetle fambly of 
's own, back in loway. But, then — 
well, well, they's no 'couutin f 'r th' ac- 
tions of th' female sect, more like ef 
they happ'ns t' be o' th' flirtatious v'ri- 
ety, an they most all be. 

"Ir'member one female inp'ticl'ar, " 
he continued after sending a large swal- 
low of hot coflee in the wake of the de- 
parted piece of pancake — "I r'member 
one th't Vvos sho' 'nough scand'lous 
'sample o' v>hat cur'us notions th' sect 
will take an th' ouaccountable things 
they all 'II do. 

" 'Twas back in Wyoming, in '67 — 
time o' th' Sweetwater 'xcitem'nt, ye 
know. Will, me im my t\vo pardners 
'd be'n miniu out yere in Califomy 
awhile, an was doiu well 'nough, but 
jest's soon's th' rush come along it was 
'np stakes' with us, same's a lot o' oth- 
er fnni niinprs. a.n oft' we cops t' r.h' 



Sweetwater country, ole Bill Heatwole 
an me an Ben — Ben Haskins, he was 
th' youngest o' us, an chockful o' th' 
ole Harry's ever any boy you ever seen. 
But white? That boy was white, he 
sho' was, ef ever a white man lived. Ef 
'e hadn't 'e 'a' be'n yere now, more'n 
likely. 

"At Sweetwater, th' Widder Buck 
kep' a boardin house, an we all boards 
with'er, an we fed high too. But, say, 
that widder was th' purtiest leetle crea- 
ture ye ever seen. Wa'n't more'n 24 'r 
25, an had rosy cheeks an eyes th't 'd just 
set y'r heart a-thunipiu — black's any 
coal an brights di'm'uds. Well, she 
did sho' drive th' boys crazy, an they 
wa'n't hardly one o' 'em th't wa'n't 
wild t' be th' landlord o' th't there 
bean joint. Th' wust o' it all was th't 
they wa'n't none o' 'em but what, one 
time 'r 'uother, was dead sure he was 
goin t' s'ceed th 'lamented Buck, which 
was gone b'fore 'bout three years back 
— f 'r ef they ever was a sho' 'nough 
flirt, 'twas th't same Widder Buck. 
She'd take up an smile sweet 't ev'ry 
new man th't showed up, outell she had 
'im on th' string good an hard. Then 
f'r th' next. 

"But w'en our Ben jumps in an be- 
gins makin lo\-e in real ser'us shape, we 
all begins to calculate th't th' blocmin 
widder is sho' ketched a lot, an reckons 
they's goin t' be some splicin did in 
that there camp b'fore Chris'mas — w'en 
all of a suddint, along comes a lawyer 
chap hailin from Salt Lake an puts up 
't th' Hotel de Widder Buck, thereby 
cau.siu H hull loto' gi'ief in camp, 'cause 
he hops in immediate an begins makin 
love t' th' landlady, her makin no 
'bjections as anybody knowed of. 

■"Yere's where Ben makes a dead 
wrong ijlay ; f'r, 'nsteud of stickin to 'is 
guns, 'e right off makes a jeidous break 
'r two, caufiin a row wi' th' widder, 
quite natural. Then off gees Ben an 
hires out t' th' gove'mn'ntf'r a scout — 
'bout that time th' U. P. road was bein 
built, an th' Ogalalla Sioux was makin 
'emselves real onpleasant, chargiu round 
an liftin section ban's' h!\ir an sech 
like playful leetle tricks. So, 's I says, 
Ben gees off in a huff' an leaves th' run- 
nin t' this yere Salt Lake maverick as 
calls 'isself 'Jedge' Sherman an pnts 
an a hull lot o' boggns airs an talks 
book Euclish. Sav. it icst made us sick 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Augf't 



— it sho''dicl — th' way that there couple 
spooned round. They was sev'ral o' th' 
boys th't jest ached t' git Sherman iutuh 
a argymint an kill 'im up a lot, but 
they never got no chance — th' Jedge 
was too foxy, he was, an too smooth t' 
get intuh open trouble. 

' 'Jest about Chris 'mas time th' In- 
juns let up a few an lays low, th' 
weather bein soitie cold an too many 
sojers found them parts, an one moruiu 
th' widder gives it out th't she lays t' 
go over t' Green River an enjoy 'erself 
a lot — she was fever beefiu 'bout 'all 
work an no play. ' So, next day, off she 
an th' Jedge goes, with a greaser named 
Manuel drivin th' muel team. They'd 
jest got acrost th' South Fork an was, 
persoomable, quite ccmf table an happy, 
w'en, all of a suddint, Manuel lets out 
a screech an jumps out of th' wagon, 
hollerin th't Injuns was comin. Sher- 
man looks out an sees a cloud o' dust 
'bout two mile away (they wa'n't no 
snow on th' grcn.nid), an he jumps out, 
too, an in a holy second him an that 
greaser had them niuels cut loose an 
was aboard 'em hittin the trail real 
swift f 'r Green River. 'Course th' wid- 
der screeched after 'em, but, turn 
round? — none whatever. VV'y, that tar- 
nal skunk didn't even wave 'is hand! 

"Well, th' widder sits an weeps 
quite copious f 'r awhile, an then makes 
up 'er mind th't she don't perpose t' 
stay there an get scalped — none what- 
ever. So she piles out o' th' wagon an 
makes a sneak t' git under th' bank an 
then travels up toward th' dus' cloud, 
figgerin th' Injuns 'd be most likely t' 
look down stream instead of up, but 
w'en th' Injuns comes clost, high, low 
andb'hold! They hain't no Injuns at 
all, but some o' Geu'ril Augur's troops 
a-drivin in strap stocK, an Ben vras 
with 'em. 

"Well, o' course they tackles on t' 
th' widder's wagon an heads f 'r Green 
River, mad a hull lot t' think a male 
critter callin 'isself a man 'd run away 
an leave a woman t' be scalped by Oga- 
lallas — an they all agrees t' make it dam 
hot f'r Sherman ef he'sketchable. Ben, 
he didn't say much, but purty quick 'e 
rides alongside th' sergeant an speaks t' 
'im, real quiet, an 'fore long he's a 
chasin off on a side trail t' git intuh 
Green River first, 'fore th' trooper.'- 



"Sherman was in th' barroom o' th' 
hotel, tellin how the'd be'n ambushed 
an th' widder killed at th' first shot 
an how him an th' gseaser'dfit an tried 
t' save 'er body, w'en in walks Ben, 'is 
face's white's Sherman's an 'is eyes 
a-blazin. Sherman knowed in a minute 
th't Ben was after him, an he reached 
f'r 'is gun, but Ben was too quick, an 
covered 'im. 

" 'Hoi' on, ' says he. 'You dam scoun- 
drel, I ought t' kill ye where ye set, but 
I hain't no coward, an I fights fair 
whoever with — even a cur th't runs 
away an leaves a woman t' be scalped 
an murdered by Indians. ' And he goes 
on an tells th' crowd about wh't Sher- 
man had did. O' course ev'rybody want- 
ed t' hop in an do s'm' ropework, wi' 
th' jedge figgerin as 'It,' but Ben 
wouldn't have it, none at alL 

" 'No, gents,' says he, 'it don't go. I 
b'lieves in givin all kinds a fair shake. 
I gives it out th't I perpose t' git th' 
gent, but I does it fair, an gives him 
th' same show as me. Step outside yere, 
dam ye, an fight!' 

"Sherman begged an pleaded a hull 
lot, but it didn't go, an after gittin a 
few Bwift kicks fr'm some o' th' gang, 
out he walks, wobblin lots in th' knees 
and shakin all over, an lines up in th' 
street. Cheyenne Pike was master o' 
ceremonies. 'Twenty paces, gents, ' says 
he. 'Shoot an advance a shootin. Air 
ye ready? One, two, three — fire!' 

"How 'tvras did, nobody ever even 
guessed. Ben was 's good a shot as they 
was in Wyoming. Maybe th' Jedge 
was, too ; but he was so shaky they say 
he c'd hardly hold his gun. Anyways, 
they was only four 'r five shots took — 
then pore ole Ben throws up 'is ban's 
an drops — Sherman'd got 'im in th' 
forehead, slick an clean. 

"While they was pickin Ben up an 
carryin 'im inside, Sherman got lost in 
th' shuffle. Ef he hadn't, he'd 'a' sho' 
be'n killed. But he sneaks off an lays 
low som'eres an nobody sees 'im ontell 
late that day. 

'"Bout supper time one o' th' boys 
comes rushin intuh th' Eagle Bird c'n- 
sid'ble flustrated. 'Wha' d'ye think, 
boys?' says he, w'en he ketched 'is 
breath. 'Th' Widder Buck and that 
skunk Sherman is spliced!' 

"O' course th' gang thinks he's jo.shin 



1S9G. 



rilE AMEItrCAN BKE-KEEPKIL 



235 



ail snorts at 'im quite a lot, but ho 
sticks t' th' story. 'Yessir, ' he says, 
'they was tied up an hour ago b' Jedge 
Billings. It's straight. ' 

"Ad so it was. Pore Beii wa'u't even 
stiff, u'r they hadn't got 'im laid out, 
b'l'ore that .son of a gun an th' widder 
was hitched duly 'cordiu t' law. O' 
course th' boys .shivereed 'em, and then 
give 'em three hours t' leave town, but 
that didn't do no good. Jedge Sherman 
had the widder an 'er wad, an pore ole 
Ben gits uothin but a bang up funeral 
an six feet o' dirt t' lay in. 

"All th' ole gang th't went in tub th' 
Sweetwater rush r'members all about 
this yarn ; an. say, I'll bet they wa'n't 
one o' 'em but what's b'en more 'r less 
leary o' widders sence then. They're 
mighty queer sort o' cattle, these women 
folks, an I gives 'em up. " — Exchauga 



Fashions For Men. 

It will not be long now before fashion 
journals and plates for men are as firmly 
established as those for women. This, 
at all events, is the conclusion at which 
one arrives on reading the long articles 
which are being introduced into fashion 
papers under the heading, "For Men," 
or .something similar. The rapidity with 
w^hich "this sort of man" evolves a spe- 
cial etiquette de toilette for various oc- 
casions is truly astounding. For in- 
stance: "Patent leaif?^er shoes may be 
correctly worn while in mourning. Men 
in mourning, when in evening dress, 
wear ties of black silk, not black satin 
ones." Again, "Ushers at a wedding 
should wear gloves of either pearl or 
white kid, which match exactly those 
worn by the groom, but it is not neces- 
sary that his should be the same as those 
worn by the bride. ' ' And once more : 
"Men who have grooms should see to it 
that they do not wear jewelry. It is bad 
form. ' ' One wonders what manner of 
men they are who must be told this lat- 
ter item! — Westminster Gazette. 



The People of Aladeira. 

They are as harmless as their coun- 
try. The stranger meets with no snakes, 
and need not fear mosquitoes, neither 
has he to take any precautions against 
being molested in the most out of the 
way parts. Everywhere civility, polite- 
ness and pleasant faces will greet him. 
The nrices [Lsked are erotesaue — often 



five times what w'ill be finally accepted. 
Some find the absence of fixed price.9 
abroad a great nuisance, but the bar- 
gaining in Madeira is so good humored 
and can be made so amusing that the 
change of custom in this respect is rath- 
er refreshing. 

There is one reason that may account 
for the comiDaratively few visitors to 
the island — there are neither golf links 
nor cycling roads. All Madeira can do 
is to provide a very limited cricket 
ground and five miles of fairly level 
road. Most of -the ways near the city 
are paved with "nubbly" stones and 
are trying to the feet, but in the country 
this paving ceases. — Good Words. 



Surprised. 

"Weren't you surprised when he pro- 
posed':"' 

"No. Why should I be?" 
"Everybody else was." 

Time to Change. 

The late Lord Granville was fond of 
telling a story at his own expense. 
When the late shah of Persia visited 
Loudon a few years ago. Lord Granville 
was the British foreign minister, and 
at the suggestion of the queen spoke to 
the Persian monarch about the advisa- 
bility of having fewer executions in 
Persia. The shah replied that so long 
as capital crimes were committed capi- 
tal punishment must exist, but that 
there were really not many executions 
in Persia. In fact, he added, the last 
execution that had taken place before 
his departure was at the personal re- 
quest of the British minister at Teheran. 
Lord Granville said he dropped the sub- 
ject and began to talk about the weather.^ 



Slaking Cigarette Papers. 

Barcelona is the center of the manu- 
facture of cigarette paper. Two houses 
alone produce 180,000 rejuns a year, 
valued at $60,000. 



The younger sons of a marquis take 
precedence of all bishops of the Church 
of England, save those of Canterbury, 
York, Armagh and Dublin. 



An application for a Canadian patent 
costs |40, this sum including govern- 
ment tax and all charges for the period 
of six years. 



230 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August 



DON'T LEAN our 



PLUMB. 



Did yon ever observe in yonr I'ambles aboiat 

The political scenes of the day 
How often reforniers engender a doubt 

By their overpunctilious way? 
Their censorship always reminds me of those 

Who beneath, my inspection have come, 
Attempting to strike a magnificent pose, 

Have o'erdone it to lean out of plumb. 

They lean too far back, and, in fact, become 
bent- 
Most fool'sh the posture they take— 
And instead of ej^prtssing their upright intent 

They lead you to fear they may break. 
They wish you to feel that they're honest and 
wise • 

And not at all crooked or dumb, 
STet there they will stand with their eyes tc 
the skies 
And unconsciously lean out of plumb. 

In trade or religion, in politics, too. 

If our rectitude we would disclose, 
Stand modestiy forth to the popular view 

And don't trj' to strut or to pose. 
For ofttimes our eagerness may be too great— 

At least it has happened to some — 
And our efforts to tower in matters of state 

Dwarf all chance as we lean out of plumb 
—Harry O. Dowd in New York Sun 



A FLOOD REMINISCENCE. 



How a Young English Engineer Saved 
Lowell From Destruction. 

The city cf Lowell was saved, from 
destruction iu 1852 by the foresight of 
one young man. About 1835 a Lowell 
antiquarian named Uriah A. Boyden 
devoted much attention to investigating 
a tradition of a great flood in the Men-i- 
mac in 1785 and found an old man who 
remembered that his father marked the 
height of the water by driving a spike 
in an apple tree. Mr. Bcydeu persevered 
in his search until he found the tree in 
Tyngsboro, several miles above Lowell. 
Its trunk was hollow, and entering it 
from below he discovered the spike, its 
head wholly concealed by the bark, at a 
considerable distance above the ground. 
It showed that in 1785 the water had 
risen to a point l^% feet higher than 
the top of the dam at the mouth of the 
canal, which furnished the Lowell wa- 
ter power in 1835. 

The engineer in charge of this power 
was James B. Francis, a young English- 
man, who urged the directors of the 
coriDoration to provide against the recur- 
rence of such a rise cf water. His argu- 
ments prevailed, and he was allowed to 
construct trwo immense wing walls of 
masonry, diverging from the canal lock 



ana inclosing the entn'c country between 
the canal and the river. Over the water- 
way he hung an immensely strong gate, 
weighing 20 tons, which was suspended 
by a wrought iron chain. A sledge and 
a cold chisel were placed in the care of 
the watchman f cr use when needed. The 
woi'k was finished in 1850, and for two 
years was laughed at as "Francis' 
folly." 

On the morning cf April 22, 1852, the 
waters rose so high that the city of 
Lowell was tln-eatened with destruction, 
and the young engineer was sent for. 
He rode to the dam without a saddle 
and huiTiedly cut the chain, releasing 
the great gate. His work stood bravely, 
and the Boston Advertiser, five days 
later, said that if it had not been con- 
structed "every vestige of the old guard 
gates would have been carried away and 
a mighty and uncontrollable river would 
have swept through the heart of Low- 
ell, destroying everything in its course. ' ' 
A service cf plate was presented to Mr. 
Francis, and during the remainder of 
his life, v\'hich ended only recently, he 
was one of Lowell's most honored citi- 
zens. For mere than 40 years he was 
agent of the corporation controlling the 
water power. — Chicago Inter Ocean. 



Chrysantliemum Salad. 
In Jajjan the flowers of the chrysan- 
themum constitute a popular dish. 
Dui-icg the months of November and 
December bunches of them, washed and 
carefully displayed, may be seen in the 
stores of all the dealers in vegetables. 
Almost all the varieties are edible, 
strictly spfuiking, but those to w^hich 
preference is usually given have deep 
yellow flower heads. 

On Another Lay Now. 

"I remember," said Mrs. Wickwire 
impressively, "you once said that if you 
had the world you would gladly lay it 
at my feet. " 

"Oh, did I?" asked Mr. Wickwire. 

"Yes, Jim did. And now I have to 
nag at you for three days to get you to 
lay a carpet." — Washington Star. 



The nemertes, a marine animal, is 
an augler and a net combined. This sin- 
gular creature has a ribbonlike structure, 
only an eighth of an inch thick, but from 
20 to 90 feet in length. 



1890. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



237 



£ast and West Meet In Mosco'w. 

The seiiiioricutal city of Moscow 
makes iv more etfective background for 
the crowning of u sovereign than any 
otlier town in Christendom. It is a 
spectacle in itself — a strange jumble of 
Samarkand and the most progressive of 
western American cities. It possesses 
more telepJiones and general electrical 
_ plant than does London, probably, but it 
has no sewerage system whatever. In 
some respects it could give lessons in 
modernity to Birmingham or Glasgow. 
In others it could learn them from the 
dervishes of the remotest Sudan. 

The east and west tread on each other 
at every corner of th-e holy city. It 
makes a fitting stage for the dramatic 
series of tableaus which Russia has been 
preparing for months past. The royal 
and official guests from abroad, who 
are to be numbered by thousands, and 
for that matter, the young imperial cou- 
ple, who are nominally their hosts, 
liave as little in common with the real 
Russia, which pays the bills for the 
festivities, as the bishop of Peterborough 
has with the unwashed and unlettered 
monks who beg at the doors of the Sla- 
vanski bazaar. — Saturday Review. 

Unexpected Retort. 

A lawyer tells the following story in 
The Green Bag : ' ' Some time ago we 
had under cross examination a youth 
from the country who rejoiced in the 
name of Samson and whose replies 
were provocative of much laughter in 
the court. 'And so,' questioned the 
barrister, 'you wish the court to believe 
that you are a peaceably disposed and 
inoffensive kind of person?' 'Yes.' 'And 
that you have no desire to follow in the 
steps of your illustrious namesake and 
smite the Philistines?' 'No; I've not,' 
answered the witness, 'and if I had the 
desire I ain't got the power at present. ' 
'Then you think you would be unable 
to cope successfully with 1,000 enemies 
and utterly rout them with the jawbone 
of an ass?' ' Well, ' answered the raffled 
Samson, 'I might have a try when you 
have done with the weapon.' " 



liaysced waiuicrc d yesterday and stooa 
near theentranc", gazing up at the show 
bills, reading them aloud and spelling 
them aloud us Jie read. He attracted the 
attention ct' the passersby, who gathered 
around him and commenced guying him. 
He stood it pretty v^-ell for awhile, and 
suddenly faced about in reply to a query 
as to what be was doing and said to his 
questioner, "I've jist bin waitin to see 
how long a gentleman could stand here 
and mind liis own business before some 
durned fool v^'ould ask him what he was 
a-doin. ' ' Pie then quietly walked up the 
street. —Louisville Commercial. 



Well Said by Royalty. 

The queen regent of Holland, mothei 
of little Queen Wilhelmina, who is a 
beautiful woman, of royal distinction, 
is very simple in all her habits. On one 
occasion, when she visited the Empress 
Eugenie, the latter V\-as surprised at her 
quiet, imobtrusive way of traveling, her 
entire suit consisting of an aged cham- 
berlain and a lady of honor. ' 'We al- 
ways travel second class, ' ' she explained, 
"because the people one meets there are 
so much more interesting than the more 
elegant, more selfish' and often less po- 
lite travelers who go first class." 

Social Life Xiong Ago. 

The stately dames cf the court of Ed- 
wai'd IV rose with the lark, dined at 
1 1 a. m. and retired to rest at 8 in the 
evening. Heniy VIII went back to 10 
in the morning for dinner and had 
supper at 4. In Queen Bess' days her 
maids of honor began the day with a 
f'ound of beef or red herring and a flagon 
of ale for breakfast at about 6 :30 and 
dined at 11, and then went to the play- 
house in the afternoon, not later than 
M, sometimes as early as 12:30, accord- 
ing to the order of the play and the day. 



What He Was Doing. 

Into an alley on Fifth street, between 
Jefferson and Market, a young fellow 
who had the appearance of a country 



ThoB* Mouotouous Sonnets. 

She (gushingly to the literary lion) — 
Oh, Mr. De Reitre, I did so enjoy that 
last volume of yours — that ' 'Little Book 
of Sonnets, ' ' you know. 

He — Thank you. I am glad that you 
enjoyed them. But haven't you any 
helpfiil criticism for me? 

She — Well, don't you think if you 
had made them different lengths tkey 
wouldn't hove looked so monotonous? — 
New York Journal. 



238 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



A 1/>/!/st 



Pleased at the Outlook. 

The higher education is always to be 
desired, but people sometimes have 
strange reasons for taking it. For in- 
stance, the baunterer hailed a nephew 
the other day, and said: 

"I hear, Tom, you are going to the 
Institute of Technology next year?" 

"Yes," was the prompt reply, and 
the boy's face fairly beamed. 

"And why are you going there?" was 
the not unnatural question. 

"Oh, so I can have four more long 
summer vacations," was the unexpected 
answer. — Boston Budget. 



At a French Wedding. 

A wedding feast is an important cere- 
mony in France among all classes of 
society. Even among the very poorest 
of the Parisians a wedding banquet is 
the occasion for a reckless expenditure 
of money in the purchase of wine and 
viands. In Brittany a wedding is even a 
more gorgeous affair than in Paris. At 
a recent wedding ceremony in Brittany 
the guests numbered 1,200, and three 
bullocks were slaughtered to provide 
them with meat. Wine was consumed 
in large quantities, and in addition 40 
barrels of cider was consumed. 



An Enterprising Barrister. 

Lord Chelmsford relates that a friend 
of his at the bar was once engaged in a 
nautical case, in which it appeared that 
a vessel had been exposed to a very se- 
vere gale of wind and had been thrown 
upon her beam ends. The barrister, ig- 
norant of nautical matters, asked a sea- 
man who was in tie witness box how it 
was they did not lower the topmast, 
upon which the witness said with a 
sneer, ' 'If you knew as much of the sea 
as I do, you would know that this ie not 
a very easy matter. ' ' This incident led 
the counsel to turn his attention to the 
subject, and he invented an. apparatus 
for loweriur topmasts, for which he ob- 
tained a pr.tent and realized thereby up- 
ward of !^ 100, 000 by this invention. — 
Pittsburg Dispatch. 



Honey and Beeswax Market Report. 

Below we give tlie latest and must authen- 
tic report of llie Honey and Beeswax market 
in different trade centers 

Chicago, III., July 7, 1896 —Fancy white clover 
loe. No. 1 white 12 to 13e. Fancy amber lU to lie. 
No. 1 amber 7 to I'c. Fancy dark !l to 10c. .Vo. 1 
dark 7c. Extracted white 5 to 7c. Amber '' to oj/o 
cents. Dark 4'.; to .)c. Beeswax 25 to 27c per lb. 
S. T. Fish A- Co. 

Cincinnati. 0.. July 10. I«f6.— No. 1 white 13 to 
14c. Fancy amber 12 to 13c. No. 1 amber 10 to 
13.- White extracted 5 to 7c. Amber 5 to f5e. 
Dark 3)/2 to 5c. Bieswax 20 lo 2.5c. 

Chas. F. Muth & Son. 

St. Louis, Mo., July 9, 1S96.— We quote : Fancy 
white 11>^ to r2c. No. 1 white lOVi to lie. Fancy 
amber 10 to lO^c- No. 1 amber 9 to 10c. Fancy 
dark S]4 to 9c. No. 1 dark 7 to .^c. Extracted 
white in cans 5c, in barrels -J-o. Amber 3}4 to Ic. 
D^irk 3 to 3I4C. Beeswax 25 to 25i^c. 

D. G. TuTT Gro. Co. 

Albany, N. Y., July 10, 1S9(5,— Fancy white 13 to 
lie. Fancy dark S to 9c. No. 1 dark (5 to 7c. Es- 
ti acted dark 4 to 5c. H. R, Weight. 

Kansas City. Mo., July 20. 1896.— Fancy white 
comb 15c. No. 1 white 13 to 14c. Fancy auiber 12 
to 13c. No. 1 amber 11 to 12c. Fancy daik 10 to 
lie. No. IS to 10c. Extracted white 6 to 6>^c. 
Amber 5 to 5',{c. Dark 4 to 4;^c. Beeswax 22 to 
25c. C. C. Clemons & Co. 

Detroit, Mich.. July 13, ls96.— No. 1 white 11 to 
12}4c. Fancy amber 10 to lie. No. 1 amber 9 to 10c. 
Fancy dark 8 to 9c. No. 1 dark 7 to 8c. Extracted 
white (i to 7e, Amber 5 to 6c, Dark 5c. Beei'wax 
24 to 2.5e. M. H. Hunt, Bell Branch. Mich. 

Boston. Mass., July 15, 1896.— Fancy white 14 
to loe. No. 1 white 12 to 13c. Fancy amber 9 to 
lOe. Extracted white 6 to 7c. Amber 5 to 6c. 
Beeswax 25 to 26c. 

E. E, Blake <fc Co., 75 Chatham St. 

A Great Chance to Make Money. 

I want to tell of iny wonderful success. Being 
a poor girl and needing money badly, I tried the 
Dith \\ asher business and hiive cleared S200 every 
month. It is mure money than 1 ever had before 
and I can't help telling you about, for I believe 
aty person can do as well as I have if they only try. 
Dish Washers sell on sight : every lady wants one. 
The Mound City Dish M'asher < o.. St. Loui?, Mo.. 
will give you all necessary instructions, so you can 
begin work at once. The Dish Washer does splen- 
did work; you can wash and dry the dishes in two 
or three minutes w;ithout putting your hands in 
the water at all. Try this business' and let us know 
how y«u succted. Elizabeth C. 



Clubbing List. 



The muscltrs of the mocking bird's 
larynx are larger in proportion to the 
size of the bird than those of any other 
creature. 



AVe will send the American Bee-Keeper with 

the— PUB. PRCE. BOTH. 

American Bee Journal, (SI 00) 8135 

American Apiculturist, ( 75) 1 15 

Bee-Keeper's Review, (100) 135 

Canadian Bee Journal, (1 00) 1 25 

' Gleanings in Bee Culture, (1 00) 1 35 



189C. 



TIIK AMERICAN BEE-KEKl'KR. 



239 








#1 



IPl%ijp^^M 




^*t 




STi 



ys^^ 



Goixibiiied 'c^itli 



PRf\CTICf\L 



IDEf\S, 



Make 

FAMOUS FOX FLYERS 

The Acme of Bicycle Construction. 

WE BUILD THE MACHINEKY FOR BICYCLE MAKERS, 
AND ARE THEREFORE ACQUAINTED WITH THE VERY 
FOUNDATION OF CYCLE CONSTRUCTION. 

Famous Fox Flyers are guaranteed. 
OUR guarantee means something, look up our 

RESPONSIBILITY. 

A BEAUTIFUL COLORED LITHOGRAPH SENT TO ANY 
ADDRESS ON APPLICATION. 

FOX Mf\GHINE CO., 



214 North Front St., 



•RAND RAPIDS, Mich. 



240 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



August 



Gverythic^ the farmer aells is low. Who 

gells low to him ? We have repeatedly refused 
to join, and, therefore, defeated windmill combi- 
Q3.uons, and have, since '89, reduced the cost cf 
wind power to one-sixth what it was. 
We believe in low prices, high grades 
and large sales. No o«e knows the 
b«»t pump or prices until he knows 
^ oars. Vv's make short hand and long 
power stroke pumps, with best seam- 
- ^^ less brass tube cylinder, lower than 
'■ -^0 iron ones — a 2^< s 16 inch at JI2.12. Tell 
youTdep.ler. Buy r:one other. Aersfflotcr prices and 
jfoods ars a!ways best. Through gratitude, and 
b8cau=;e "".-e arc price makers, and are safest tc 
iea! v/iih, the vt.'or'.d has given us more than half 
its windmiil business. We have 20 branch houses 
,cne liear you. T<^r;3 for bBau-tifuliy illuffvated circula 




Material ^ 

Constf action V Unexcelled 

Finish ) 

...SEND FOR CATALOGUE... 

QUEEN CITY CYCLE CO. 
BuHalo, N. Y. 



be: KsiTir ax 

VVTANTESD. 



"We will pay 
23 cts easily or 
26 cts in goods^ 
for good quali- 
ty of Beeswax^ 
freiglit paid to 
FALGONSR^ 
n. IT. If you 
have any sliip 
it to us at once. 

(Prices subject to change without 
n: tice). 

THE W. T. FALCONER M'F'G CO. 



Ice Cream Made by a New Process. 

I have an Ice Cream Freezer that will freeze 
cream instantly. The cream is put into the freezer 
and comes out instantly, smooth and perfectly 
frozen. This astonishes people and a crowd will 
gather to see the freezer in operation and they will 
all want to try the cream. You can sell cream as 
fast as it can be made and sell freezers to many of 



them who would not buy an old style freezer. It 
is really a curiosity and you can sell from S5 to S8 
worth of cream and six to twelve freezers every 
day This makes a good profit these hard times 
JiTiri is a nieasant employment. J. F. Cassey k, Co., 
1143 St. Charles St.. St. Louis, Mo., will send full 
particulars and information in regard to this new 
invention on application and will employ good 
salesmen on salary. 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE W. T FALCONER MANFG CO 



VOL. VI, 



SEPTEMBER, 1896. 



NO. 9. 



At What Age do Bees Gather 
Honey ? 



BY G. M. DOOLITTLE. 



A correspondent writes thus : " 1 
see it asserted in one of my papers the 
other day, that bees go to the fields to 
get honey when from two to five days 
old. Is this a fact? I had not sup- 
posed that bees so young entered the 
field as honey-gatherers." 

To the ordinary observer this ques- 
tion, asked by our correspondent, 
seems to be of little consequence, but 
such is not the case, as it has much to 
do with the surplus honey we obtain. 
Many seem to think that the bee is 
capable of going to the fields to gather 
honey when but two or three days old, 
as our correspoudent says he read, but 
some facts prove that they do not do 
so. Bees may he forced to go into the 
fields for pollen and honey at the age 
of five or six days, the truth of which 
all will admit who have taken very 
young bees and placed them by them- 
selves, but when the colony is in a 
normal condition, as it always should 
be to store honey to the best advant- 
age, and as all colonies are when not 
molested by man, the bee is sixteen 
days old before it gathers honey. If 



we take combs of bees just hatched 
and place them in a hive without any 
hatched bees, as is frequently done to 
introduce a valuable queen, we will 
see young bees not over five or six 
days old go to the fields, being com- 
pelled to do so for water, pollen, etc., 
because there are none older to go ; 
but this does not prove that bees of 
that age usually do so any more than 
the experiment of feeding twenty 
pounds of honey to bees confined to 
the hive before one pound of wax is 
produced, proves that it always takes 
twenty pounds of honey to produce 
one pound of comb. In our talk along 
these lines we should always dwell on 
the practical side of honey production, 
by way of practically preparing the 
colony therefor, and not about colonies 
which are not suitable to give a sur- 
plus of honey in any event. I have 
conducted several experiments in the 
27 years I have kept bees to ascertain 
the age at which bees gather the first 
honey, and as each proved the same 
I believe sixteen days to be the time 
when the bee brings her first load of 
honey, if the colony is not seriously in- 
terfered with. One of the experiments 
was as follows : A black queen was 
removed from a colony and an Italian 



242 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September 



queen introduced in her place, about 
the middle ol' June. The date was 
marked on the hive, and as the twenty- 
first day thereafter arrived a careful 
watch was kept to see when the first 
Italian bee hatched. When this was 
ascertained a careful watch was again 
kept of the hive to see when the first 
Italian bee took its flight. This hap- 
pened about two p. m. on the eighth 
day after the first Italian was hatched, 
when a few came out for a "play spell," 
but in an hour all had returned, and 
none but black bees were seen going 
to and from the hive. As the days 
passed on the numbers increased at 
each play spell (about two o'clock), 
but none having the Italian markings 
were seen, except at these play spells, 
till the sixteenth day after the first 
Italian hatched. At this time a few 
came in with pollen and honey, com- 
mencing work at about 10 a. m. After 
this the number of Italian honey 
gatherers increased, while the number 
of blacks decreased, until on the forty- 
fifth day after the last black bee was 
hatched, when not a black bee was to 
be found in or about the hive. If the 
above is correct, and I believe it is, it 
will be seen that the eggs for our 
honey gatherers must be laid by the 
queen at least thirty-seven days before 
the main honey harvest, if we would 
reap the best results from our bees. 
It takes twenty-one days from the 
time the egg is laid till the bee from 
this egg emerges from the cell, and 
this, added to the sixteen days before 
this emerging bee becomes a field 
laborer, makes thirty-seven days in 
all from the laying of the egg to the 
field laborer. 

From this we see how important it 
is that we understand about all these 



little things in our pursuit and work 
for the bees in the right time for the 
honey harvest. 

The prospect for a large yield of 
honey in this locality, this year, is not 
very good, for, during the past two 
weeks we have been having cold 
cloudy, windy weather, which has 
caused the queens to lay sparingly, do 
the best I could at coaxing them to do 
otherwise; and as these two weeks are 
about a month in advance of our bass- 
wood bloom, which is our main honey 
producing flora, it is easy to see that 
there will not be an abundance of 
bees in the field at just the right time 
to secure the crop, should the flowers 
yield ever so abundantly. 

Now just a word about bees dying 
of old age in 45 days from time of 
hatching, as I am met with the fact 
that many bees live over the winter. 
The bees' life is longer or shorter just 
in proportion to the labor it performs, 
said labor bringing on old age just as 
surely in 45 days when the bee is in 
constant activity as if it dies of old 
age in 200 days, when all this time is 
spent in quiet repose. In this we see 
the wisdom of the Creator, for were it 
otherwise no colony could ever go 
through the winter in any northern 
climate. So long as a colony remains 
quiet during the winter the life of all 
but the very oldest bees is prolonged, 
but let this same colony become uneasy 
and go to running about the hive, 
rearing large quantities of brood, etc., 
as they sometimes do, and we find the 
bees dying in mid-winter in 45 days, 
the same as they do in the summer. 
The better we understand all of these 
items regarding our pets, which are 
quite commonly over-looked by many, 
the better shall we be prepared for 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



243 



the best results from our apiary, work- 
ing with the one object in view, that 
of securing the greatest force of labor- 
ers just when the honey harvest is on 
hand, and just as few at all other 
times as is consistent with accomplish- 
ing this object. 
Borodino, N. Y. 

Numbering Hives 

BY W. .1. DAVIS, '2nd. 

A good deal is being said of late, in 
some of the bee papers, on the subject 
of numbering hives, and whether such 
numbers should be movable or station- 
ary. Where a considerable number 
of colonies are kept, I think the num- 
bering of hives is indispensible for 
the proper raauageraeut of the apiary. 
I will give my plans which may prove 
of some benefit to anyone starting in 
the pursuit of bee-keeping. Some 
may prefer other plans, but this an- 
swers ray purpose. All ray hives not 
used in house apiaries are 1^ stories. 
That is the h story is a cap high 
enough to receive and cover a section 
case. The brood frames are covered 
with a honey board of f inch stuff. 
An equal number of hives are painted 
white and red, and the cap and brood 
chamber bear the sarae number paint- 
ed on with black paint, the figures 
being li inches high put on with 
stencil plates, being plain enough to 
be seen some distance. In wintering 
the caps are left on the summer stands, 
and the brood chambers only carried 
to winter quarters and the number of 
the cap shows where each colony is to 
be placed when again returned 
to their summer stands. On the honey 
board of each hive is placed one or 
more pieces of white section, on which 
is kept in pencil all the record I find 



necessary, without the use of an apiary 
registry book, and this record could 
not be kept unless the hives were 
numbered. 

I also find it more convenient to 
have one color with the even numbers 
and the other with the odd numbers. 
Swarms from white hives are usually 
hived in white hives and swarms from 
red hives in red hives. If the queen 
has a clipped wing, and the bees made 
to hive themselves by returning to 
the old stands, they enter a hive of 
the same color more readily. Or if I 
wish to place the young swarm that 
has clustered and been hived on the 
old stand, I prefer the new hive 
should be the sarae color of the hive 
removed. In placing hives I usually 
alternate the colors, as the bees recog- 
nize color and the hives look better 
according to ray taste. 

If I have raade the conditions suffi- 
ciently plain, I will give a sample of 
the record kept on each hive. Suppose 
a prime swarm issues from white hive 
No. 50, June 10, 1895, and they are 
hived in white hive No. 58. I write 
on the piece of section Sw. 50, W., June 
10, 1895, q, (or queen,) 1894. This 
is placed on the honey board of No. 58 
W. This will tell me when to look 
for queen cells in No. 50 white. If a 
desirable stock to breed from I save 
as many cells as I require at the time. 

In looking through No. 50 at the 
proper time I find the young queen 
hatched. I write on section on No. 
50, June 25, y. q. h., (that is young 
queen hatched). In about a week 1 
look again in No. 50 and find the 
young queen laying, and I write, q. 
1895, F., the F. meaning fertilized. 

If the queen is large and yellow to 



244 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September 



the tip I add " fine." If much off in 
color I mark " dark," etc. 

In changing queens from one hive 
to another I write, "q. 49, R. 1893," 
showing the age of the queen and the 
hive from whence taken, 'Jlie refer- 
ence to 49 R. shows that that hive is 
either to raise queens or be supplied 
with a queen cell. Suppose again 
queen from No , 40 white is sold, write 
June 10, q. s., (queen sold), A. F, B., 
(initials of purchaser). June 10, '95, 
q. c, (queen cell), No. 37, R. 

By this means we may know the age 
of every queen in the apiary, and also 
keep a record of the number of full 
sections taken from any colony, and 
any one entry on the piece of section, 
or any suitable piece of wood to write 
on, is the work of a moment. Paper 
will not do for the purpose, as light 
gusts of wind would be likely to blow 
it away when the cap of hive is rais- 
ed off. 

Youngsville, Pa. 

The Season in Florida. 

BY H. E. HILL. 

Reports from quite a number of 
producers in Valusia, Brevard and 
Dade counties, indicate that the aver- 
age per colony will not exceed 30 
pounds on the east coast of Florida 
for 1896. As usual the greater part 
of the crop came from Saw Palmetto 
in May. Nearly the entire country 
is thickly covered with this "scrub," 
and in many parts its dense growth 
forms a veritable jungle, almost im- 
penetrable. It is a bountiful yielder 
in favorable seasons and the forage is 
practically unlimited, though in local- 
ities remote from the sea, the flow is 
uncertain, and, I believe, never so 



heavy as on the beach, doubtless ow- 
ing to the saline atmosphere which 
seems to favorably influence nectar 
secretion. The honey is a light am- 
ber, of delicious flavor and very heavy 
body. It was this source which in 
1894, gave the bee-keepers of the east 
coast, the bulk of their large crop, av- 
erages in many apiaries^rauging from 
250 to 350 pounds per colony, and 
several apiaries averaging from 380 
to 420 pounds per colony, though the 
numerous other sources of minor im- 
portance all helped to swell the yield. 

Cabbage Palm and black Mangrove 
may also be classed with the first-class 
honey yielders of the state. In fact. 
Mangrove, prior to the great freezes 
of 1894-95, in localities where it was 
abundant, stood eminently at the head 
of the list. Both bloom in July, and 
yield a very light honey, both in col- 
or and body. The Mangrove is found 
only in " salt marshes" where its roots 
are bathed in the tide waters which 
flow and ebb from the ocean and as it 
was the chief source of those located 
on the Halifax and Hillsborough riv- 
ers, where it was killed to the ground, 
prospects for the next few years are 
far from being encouraging. 

At Indian river narrows, about 85 
miles south of this heretofore favored 
locality, I found quite an extensive 
area of Mangrove which had escaped 
the freeze, and as an experiment, I 
moved 60 colonies to that field about 
July 1st. This proved to be one of 
the seasons, when, as it sometimes does, 
Mangrove fails to yield, and conse- 
quently my experiment "failed " also. 

Dui'ing January and February, 
Pennyroyal affords a good flow in our 
present locality, which puts the bees 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



245 



in good condition for later flora. In 
my opinion this honey is nnsurpassed 
by any goods produced in any part of 
the country, not excepting white clo- 
ver. The bloom is perfection, bears 
a strong resemblance to red clover 
bloom, and in some localities on the 
St. Lucie river, (where we have two 
apiaries), during the season of bloom 
the scene at once suggests a northern 
meadow, while it sheds its sweet aroma 
upon the balmy winter air. 

I may have more to say regarding 
bee-keeping in the South, in a future 
issue when time will better permit ; 
but in compliance with the editor's 
request for a few' notes on the season 
in Florida, I am writing this aboard 
of a boat loaded with bees and my 
camping outfit, on my return to the 
St. Lucie river, 50 miles south, after 
having spent seven weeks camped with 
our bees on an old bulk-head in the 
narrows. Though the move has not 
been a financial success, only getting 
about 1,800 pounds of honey, we do 
not dispair, and as 1 hear the low, con- 
tented hum of the bees, well contented 
and supplied with water, and the 
creaking of the heavy boom against 
the mast, as breezes fair and fresh 
against a " free sheet," carries us 
speedily southward, passing the beau- 
tiful villas and semi-tropical scenery 
for which the Indian river is famed, 
and the inlets which give us a view of 
the ocean's breaking surf, I do not 
find my task unpleasant, reclining 
upon the fore-castle deck, with pencil 
and tablet, especially when writing 
under the ispiraiton always imparted 
by the thought of being "homeward 
bound." 



Amount of Honey Required to 
Winter a Colony of Bees. 



BV CHAS. H. THIES. 



In the July number of the Bee- 
Keepers' Review, C. P, Dadant amongst 
other things, says : "If I remember 
rightly, the quantity of honey needed 
to carry a colony of bees safely through 
the winter, has been estimated at dif- 
ferent times by different writers, at 
amounts ranging from 5 to 40 lbs." 
This is my recollection also of the va- 
rious estimates given, but there surely 
and undoubtedly is something wrong 
somewhere. I must admit that the 
amount of stores consumed by differ- 
ent colonies, vary greatly ; some colo- 
nies consume a great deal more than 
others. Often, if not usually, the col- 
onies that consume the most honey, 
later prove to be amongst the poorest 
colonies, i. e., in regard to strength of 
colony, and usually, if not always, the 
colonies consuming the least stores are 
amongst our best colonies when the 
honey harvest arrives. Now I think, 
that while I admit that there is a great 
difference in the quantity consumed 
by different colonies, from 5 to 40 lbs, 
is too great a difference. When I 
speak of the amount of stores required 
to winter a colony of bees, I mean the 
amount of honey they will consume 
from the time honey ceases coming in^ 
i. e , enough to supply their daily 
wants until more can be had in the 
Spring, in sufficient quantities for their 
daily use, aud not the amount of hon- 
ey required to keep them from starv- 
ing from cold until warm weather. 
As bees are not really wintered until 
they are again able to gather at least 
as much as they consume. Therefore^ 
the most honey required to winter a 



24 G 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



September 



colony of bees, will be consumed after 
the severest weather has past, when 
brood- rearing has coniiuenced in earn- 
est, and when tiiey should hove a good 
supply. Probably one reason for this 
great difference is on account of the 
time when we call it winter. There- 
fore. I would particulai-ly warn the 
beginner never to attempt to winter a 
colony on anything near like 5 lbs., 
even if it should take them through 
cold weather, it will never take them 
to where they can take care of them- 
selves ; better have o to 10 lbs. too 
much than 5 to 10 ounces too little. 
Steeleville, 111. 






The W. T. Falconer M'f'g Co., 
Gentlemen : Please send tne cartoons. 
* >1< * * It has been a great honey sea- 
sou here. My bees gathered on the 
6th day oi July, 3,000 lbs. of honey in 
ten hours. I think they beat the rec- 
ord of the world, and on the 15th day 
of August, they gathered 1,500 lbs. of 
basswood and 7,000 lbs. of buckwheat 
honey. I have 188 working colonies. 
Yours truly, 

Sidney Sleeper. 

Holland, N. Y., Aug. 30th. 



Clubbing 


List. 


We will send the American Bke-Keepkr with 


the— 


PUR. PRCE. BOTH. 


American Bee Journal, 


(11 00) SI 35 


AmericTO Apiculturist, 


( 75; 1 15 


Bee-Keeper's Eoview, 


(1 00) ] 35 


Canadian Bee Journal, 


(1 00) 1 25 


Gleaning's in Bee Culture, 


(1 00) 1 35 




I From Paeitic Bee Journal.) 

SaiPPING OOMB HONEY SAIELY 

BY FREIGHT, IF YOU 

HAVE ANY. 



BY B S. K. BENNETT 



The loss of our beautiful comb 
honey by breakage in shipment and 
the ruined condition of the home mar- 
ket caused by the damaged condition 
of our honey packages has led me to 
try to better the method of handling 
this tender article — comb honey. I 
have often witnessed the forced sale 
of damaged honey, and in almost 
every store that I visited last summer 
I found a quantity of this leaky case- 
dobbed comb honey. 

Brother bee keepers, arouse your- 
selves and put up your honey right. 
The first step is to produce the article 
in correct shape by having the combs 
built solid to all four sides of the sec- 
tions, and to do this to a certainty, 
two sets of starters must be used. One 
large strip at the top of the section 
and a small one at the bottom, per- 
fectly fastened to the section, and 
they will stay. The Daisy Foundation 
Fastener is the best machine for start- 
ing foundation in sections that has 
yet come to ray notice. 

Secondly, to get evenly built combs, 
we should use the slotted wood sawed 
separators, and then the capping of 
the honey will not scrape off in ship- 
ping. I hope that there is no such 
thing as the packing of broken honey, 
but I am ofttimes tempted to think 



1890 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



247 



there is, for the reason tliat there is 
so much daiuaged honey on the mar- 
ket. 

Extreme care should he exercised in 
packing, to see that the honey is all 
of a thick, ripe grade, in perfect con- 
dition, and strongly built. If there 
is any unfit to ship long distances, use 
it at home, put it back in the hive, or 
dispose of it at the home market. 
Don't allow it to get mixed with the 
long distance honey, for this damaged 
honey means low prices for ail and 
the ultimate refusal of the dealers to 
handle it. 

To gain the best results in shipping 
comb honey, it should be well cured, 
and 10 gain this end it may be kept in 
a very warm, dry, well ventilated 
room foi' at least four weeks. The 
temperature nearest lUO degrees will 
do the best curing. 

Shipping-crates should be made to 
hold four or five twenty- pound cases 
to insure the most care in handling by 
freight men. The practice of shipping 
comb honey in single twenty-four 
pound cases, that can be easily thrown 
about, is a mistake, especially in small 
or less than car load shipments. The 
crate is made much the style of a one- 
piece section crate, of light lumber, 
but in such a way as to be strongly 
nailed and large enough to alhnv of 
packing of straw or shavings, which 
will surely give a spring jar instead of 
a thump when the ca.<e is handled. 
The head of the crate is made of two 
thick boarrls just the size of the lid of 
the honey ca.-ie. If you use a twenty- 
f(jur pound case, whiih shows four 
sections through the glass the size of 
these head boards are 12 by 18 inches 
and one inch thick. One of these 



boards is laid on the floor and on it is 
placed a layer of straw, then five 
twenty-four pound cases of comb 
honey are .set on it and the other 
head board goes on top of all, with a 
little packing underneath. Now the 
thin crate strips are nailed to the 
head boards at each of the four corn- 
ers, making your crate complete. 

The crate is then marked with a re- 
(|uest to place it lengthwise in the car. 
Now this crate gets better handling on 
acc(junt of its size and weight, because 
it is too heavy for one man to lift and 
is either handled by two men or by 
hand truck, 

California. 



iFiorn American Bee- Journal I. 

NOTES Ffit'M VIEG'L-SOMETflING 
HISTORIUAL, 



BY KMIiKSOX T. ABBOTT. 

Some years ago there came into my 
hands a copy of a translation, with 
notes, of Virgil's works, made in ltj53, 
by one John Ogilhy. His notes on 
the Fourth Georgic cannot fail to be 
of interest to bee keepers, as showing 
what was known about this industry 
over 200 years ago. I give the notes 
as they appear, spelling and all, with 
some few remarks. 

The annotation on the Argument is 
suggestive. It reads as follows: 

"The fourth Book comprehends the 
choicest rules of the ancients concern- 
ing Qi.'(^ii, which suits so well witii ours 
that ] have heard an Honoiable Lady 
of Great Judgment (the late Countess 
of Kent) pnjfess that she made an in- 
credible increase of Bees, confining 
her .'■ervants who attended them pre- 
cisely to observance of this Book." 

On the line, 



248 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September 



" Next to Aetherial Honey I'll proceed," 
the translator remarks : 

"The poet (saith La Creda) excel- 
lent in Natural Philosophy, subverts 
the common opinion implying that 
the bees do not make Honey, but only 
gather it together and compact it, and 
therefore calls it Aerial and Celestial. 
To this assents Aristotle. That Bees 
make not Honey, but carry only away 
the falling Dew, may be argued from 
hence, that in one or two days a Hive 
may be found full ; Besides if you 
take away their Honey in Autumn, 
they cannot recruit it, notwithstand- 
ing there are flowers at that time of 
year. And Pliny, 'Whether it be the 
Sweat of Heaven, or Spittle of the 
Stars, or Moisture of the Air purging 
itself, I wish it were as pure and nat- 
ural as it first descends ; Whereas now 
falliug from so great a height, it con- 
tracts much of impurity by the way, 
yet retains much of the pleasantness 
of its Celestial nature.' " 

This was before the days of glucose. 
Pliny seems to have had some idea of 
the adulteration craze, even in his 
time; but he does not tell us whether 
he thought it done by men or the gods. 

"Wars, Labors, Manners, Nations, I'll re- 
cite." 

"Aristotle," says the translator, 
"numbers bees amongst civil people, 
'For the uses of life (says Pliny) they 
labor, work, ordain a commonwealth, 
have their private Councils, their pub- 
lic Warlike Actions, and, which is 
strangest of all, they have Morality.' " 

This looks as though they had rath- 
er a high idea of the little workers in 
early times. 
" For jour Bee-liives fitting 8t itions find." 

" jf /)e Station of Bees must be, accord- 



ing to Varro and Columella, in an 
open. Sunshiny place, little subject to 
the injuries of th6 Weather, far from 
noise of Men or Cattle, particularly of 
sheep, because (says Pliny) they can- 
not easily disen-tangle themselves out 
of their Wool ; He adds that the Hive 
should open towards the East, if it 
may be, but by no means to the North. 
Mr. Butler's rules for a Bee-garden are 
these: It should be near home ; fenc- 
ed from Cattle and Winds ; the East 
and North fences high, the South (on 
which side of the house they should 
set) and West fences good, but not so 
high, by no means to shadow the South 
Sun, nor from Sun-Setting ; The place 
Sweet; not very cold in Winter, nor 
hot in Summer ; grassy, but not suf- 
fered to grow up too high ; beset with 
Trees and Bushes." 

This man has made some progress 
in solving the " winter problem." 

" But their abodes near Crystal Fountains 
place 
Where purling Streams glide gently 
through the grass." 

"Varro and Columella advise the 
same as most necessary, that there be 
Water near the Hives, and, if possible, 
to run by them, clear for them to 
drink. So they order Stone and Wood 
to be thrown into the Water, so as 
some part may appear out of it for the 
Bees to sit upon and drink with more 
ease." 

It seems, too, that they began to 
discuss the question of hives as a very 
early period. In proof of wnich note 
the following : 

"Whether of hollow Bark thou dost contrive 
Or else with limber Twigs compose the 

Hive. 
M;ike straight the Gate." 

"Colliimella gives a reason why 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN DEE-KEEPER. 



249 



Hives of Bark are best, ' Hives,' saith 
he, 'are to be made according to the 
condition of the Country, whether it 
abound with Bark (doubtless we make 
most beneficial Hives of Bark, for 
they are not cold in Winter nor hot 
in Summer) or whether there be store 
of Reeds, which being near the nature 
of Bark, are very proper for this use; 
if neither of these may be had, thev 
may be woven of Willow ; and for 
want of all a piece of hollow Tree." 

The translator says, "With us there 
are but two sorts in use, made of 
straw and wicker, the first preferred 
by Mr. Butler." 

It is probably needless for me to say 
again that I have followed the trans- 
lator in the use of capitals, punctua- 
tion, etc. 

" Next, when bright vSol makes Winter's 

cold retreat 
Behind the Earth, and opens Heaven 

with Heat, 
Straight they draw out and wander Groves 

and Woods." 

"They go forth to work in the be- 
ginning of the Spring, but in the 
midst, or rather, as Pliny observes, in 
the latter end thereof." 

It is of interest to note the idea 
these people had of the influence of 
sound upon bees, and also how old is 
the custom of making a noise to pre- 
vent the bees from decamping when 
they swarm. 

" Make a brazen sound, 
And beat the Cymbals of the Goddess round: 
They on charmed Boughs will stay, or else 

retreat, 
As is their Custom, to their Parents' Seat." 

"Bees at the sound of Brass, or oth- 
er Metals, are so afraid that they 
light upon the next place. Aristotle 
ascribes this to the delight they take 



in the Sound: La Cerda j)roves the 
contrary from the same effect at the 
noise of Thunder. 

"The Cymbals of Rhea u.i'd by the 
Caryhantes at her bringing forth Jup- 
iter, to conceal the cries of the child 
from Saturn ; though German us ob- 
serves that Cymbals were likewise us'd 
in the Orgies of Bacchus. Pliny saith, 
That bees delight in the tinkling of 
Brass, and by that means are called 
together : whereby it is manifest that 
they have the sense of Hearing. But 
Aristotle makes a doubt of it whether 
they stop through delight or fear." 

There was no doubt in the minds of 
these early writers as to bees being 
able to hear. 

" Oft between Two Kings great discord and 
sad wars have been.' 

The annotator remarks: The occa- 
sions whereof, according to Aristotle 
and Pliny, are four, Want of susten- 
ance. Love of the Flowers, Hate of 
their Neighbors, Pride of their Kings." 

Virgil had not gotten away from 
the idea of a "King Bee.'' 

" The Kings amidst the Train in Armor 
shine, 
And mighty souls in narrow breasts con- 
fine.' 

"That the Kings are eminently dis- 
tinguished from the rest, is confessed 
by all that write upon this subject. 
Pliny saith, 'By their more exact 
form, as big again as the rest, their 
Wings shorter, their Thighs straight- 
er, their Walk more erect, amidst 
their forehead a white spot like a 
Diadem ; Much likewise differ they 
from the ordinary sort by their 
Whiteness." 

St. Joseph, Mo. 



250 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Septenibe,i 



(From The Southliind Queen. 

POISON HONEY. 



BY DR. W. M. STBLL. 

Aftef reading the articles in the 
American Bee Journal about Moun- 
tain Laurel, I deciHed to make an ex- 
periment for ni}' own sati.«factiou, and 
seeing a great many goats here, eating 
the leaves of this plant, a thought 
struck me about its poisonous effects 
on goat's milk, for this is the recourse 
that we have for obtaining milk here, 
as the mountains are so high dnd bro- 
ken that it is impossible to have cows. 

Now, the great question ; is the 
honey poison that the bees gather 
from Laurel? and is the milk poison 
from goats that feed on Laurel? After 
watching the goats nibling so raven- 
ously on this bush, I asked the herder 
if he did not know that this plant was 
poison. He said no, to the contrar}^ 
that they often drove the goats to 
them, and besides that it was a great 
medical plant — for nervous headache 
they would bruise a leaf and bind it 
to the temples ; for all kinds of ulcer- 
ating sores would treat likewise. I 
asked him if he ever took any inward- 
ly, and he said that he had, but it 
produced pain and vomiting, also 
stated that burros and mules would 
not eat it. I, at once, gathered some 
flowers and leaves to perform an ex- 
periment upon the honey bee, as the 
opinion seemed to differ very much in 
regard to the poison honey. In read- 
ing these articles, 1 failed to see any 
direct experiment performed by these 
parties, to prove that honey is or is 
not poison when gathered from Moun 
tain Laurel, though some stated that 
the hills were covered with this plant, 
and they never knew of any bad ef- 



fects produced by eating honey when 
it was in full blossom, while others 
made the contrary statement. 

The following is the result of my 
experiment: I bruised, iu a wedge- 
wood m(M-tar, eight ounces each, leaves 
and fresh flowers, adding twenty 
ounces of water and twelve ounces of 
dilute alcohol to extract its virtue. 
This was gently boiled down to about 
sixteen ounces, which had a strong, 
sweetish, repugnant taste. I then 
mixed one ounce of this decoction 
with eight of dilute honey ; this was 
given to the bees at 6 o'clock, p. m., 
iu a simplicity feeder, which was 
placed between the frames in the brood 
chamber. Will state that this colony 
was especially prepared for the exper- 
inaent, having one frame only with 
brood (no honey), and four perfectly 
empty ones; the hive was closed and 
bees confined for two days before the 
experiment, to allow sufficient time 
for them to digest all honey in their 
stomachs. The next morning I pro- 
vided myself with a glass graduate 
and a small suction dropper. I felt 
certain when opening the cover that I 
would find my little workers all dead 
in a pile,- but to my great surprise, on 
lifting the enamel cloth to one side, 
they had their little heads sticking 
straight up, and eyes as bright as dia- 
monds. On examining further, found 
the feeder empty and almost dry — 
they had deposited this poison honey in 
the combs — with the dropper, I sucked 
out two ounces of this honey (from 
the cells in the comb), which was 
taken in their honey sacs, from the 
feeder, just the same way as they do 
from the natural flowers ; of course 
the distance was very short, but the 
honey, without a doubt, underwent 



1896. 



TUB AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



251 



tlie same slight physiological change 
while there, and we do not know how 
rapid this change may he. Now, this 
was the first honey that they had for 
three days, and I tell yon they enjoyed 
it hugely. Now, after seeing no had 
effects on the hees, my next, to com- 
plete this experiment was on the hu- 
man, so I told my assistant, who is a 
Mexican boy of fourteen Summers, 
that we would swallow this newly 
gathered honey between us ; I was 
obliged to swallow first, taking only 
one half of an ounce, the boy swal- 
lowed the remaining one and a half 
ounces. This honey had a splendid 
flavor, only leaving a slight astringent- 
like taste in the palate. Now for the 
direct physiological effect on man and 
boy. About one half hour after swal- 
lowing this honey I suddenly became 
giddy, and a slight loss of sight ; felt 
as if being- whirled around. I imme- 
diately introduced my finger as far 
down the throat as possible, and vom- 
ited sweet laurels up, which relieved 
me instantly. The dose with the boy 
stayed with him all 0. K. for one 
hour. Will state right here, dear 
reader, the Almighty being my helper, 
1 will never try another experiment 
on any human again, and advise you 
all to do likewise. Just listen to these 
honey symptons ; the boy fell with a 
violent ^convulsion, hard contracted 
stomach, cold hands and feet, profuse 
perspiration, mouth tightly closed, 
eyes opened and rolled back, pupils 
dilated, face flushed, twitching of low- 
er limbs, and great difficulty of breath- 
ing, pulse full, only fifty per minute, 
but strong. Being more than satis- 
fied, and greatly alarmed with these 
symptons, 2 one-tenth grains of Apo- 
morphia was administered hypoder- 



mically, in the left biceps, which 
promptly produced an emetic effect 
that relaxed all muscular contraction; 
after a good vomit, he sat up com- 
plaining of pain in the stomach and 
back of the neck. Two ounces of cas- 
tor oil was administered, which opera- 
ted in about two hours, bringing 
away a great deal of bile and undi- 
gested honey ; there was a great deal 
of honey in the vomits also. The boy 
was quite broken up and unwell for a 
week, but is now bright as a dollar, as 
though nothing ever happened. I 
hope, after this little experiment, those 
who are sceptic ou Laurel honey' be- 
ing poison, will only try a small bit 
on themselves, and know, personally, 
how it feels. I will assure you that 
■a little of the above symptons will 
convince and put you straight. Some 
may say, why does it not produce such 
effects on the bee? Well, tliis I do 
not know, nor does any one else. It 
is true that when the nectar is gath- 
ered from flowers, it undergoes a 
slight, peculiar physiological change, 
that strains, refines and reduces the 
amount of acid, to prevent fermenta- 
tion, but does not alter its natural 
constituents ; if it did, all honey 
would look and taste alike ; there 
would be no necessity of grading our 
honey for the market. By this pecu- 
liarity of over deposit of alkaloid in 
each flower enables us to distinguish 
its class when eating, and when this 
process is taking place it is just as 
natural for the bee as for the nurse 
girl to let a good bit slip down when 
chewing for the baby ; it is the same 
honey, only prepared and purified for 
us. Bees cannot carry honey from 
the field in buckets or bottles ; Nature 
has provided each one wiih a little 



252 



TEE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September 



sac for this purpose I do not believa 
that Nature intended that any mater- 
ial changes should take place while 
there ; most assuredly the honey is 
slightly acted on by the secretions of 
the compound racemose glands of head 
and throax, to aid digestion and re- 
gui'gitation. 

The milk from goats feeding on 
Laurel bushes contains -no poison 
whatever, as I could discover ; it may 
be because they only eat very little, 
and far apart. 

My bees never visit the Laurel blos- 
soms ; they crown themselves with 
something better. 

There are two kinds of Laurel, one 
being considered more poison than the 
other. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia 
latifolia) and Cherry Laurel (Lauro 
cerasifolia) ; the two are similar in 
size of growth, shape and color of 
leaves, also are evergreen. Mountain 
Laurel has a cluster of bright pink 
flowers, while the flowers of Cherry 
Laurel are white ; the both are wild, 
Spanish plants, and contain great 
abundance of Hydrocyanic Acid 
(Prussie Acid), which is deadly poison^ 
but often used in pharmacy, diluted. 
The leaves of Cherry Laurel are ex- 
tensively used in Mexican cooking, 
and commonly sold on the streets with 
other aromatic herbs. 

I believe it is the honest duty of all 
bee-keepers to be more studious about 
the poison plants, and ascertain from 
which source the bees gather the hon- 
ey. Jasmine, Digitalis, Oleander, 
Nightshade, etc., are all dangerous 
and poison garden plants, Avhich 
should be substituted by others more 
profitable and as beautiful. I hardly 
think bees wull visit such poisonous 
plants unless compelled to do so by 
absence of all others, and during a 
sudden check in the honey flow. 

Jesus Maria, Mexico. 



(From Gleaningsi. 

SUPPLYING THE HOME HONEY 
MARKET. 



BY F. A. SNELL. 



In about five weeks after my first 
visit is made to town No. 1, 1 again 
take a trip to the same place with a 
supply of honey. On arrival I first 
call at the grocery where I left my 
honey to be sold on commission. The 
grocer informs me that he has sold 
quite a large part of my honey, and 
would like to have a new supply. 
This time he is ready to buy, and I 
sell him quite a lot of the comb, and 
also some of the extracted. After this 
time I sold him hundreds of pounds 
each year so long as he remained in 
business, and, later, to his successor. 

The others with whom I dealt on 
my first trip were next seen, and found 
ready for a new supply. When room 
would permit, and a number of cases 
of honey were taken, I would place 
the cases three or four deep, the small 
at the top, which we all know presents 
a very neat view of the honey combs 
through the glass in the side of the 
case. One case was set to one side, 
from which to retail. 

The grocers have, without excep- 
tion, been pleased with my arrange- 
ment of the honey when so placed. 
Pails or cans are also placed where 
they may attract attention, the label 
being always placed in full view of 
those entering the store. 

I have found it yery useful to give 
each grocer some hints as to where 
the honey snould be kept during cool 
weather in fall and winter, so that it 
may not deteriorate, I have found 
that, nine times out of ten, if I say 
nothing about the matter, the honey 



189(5. 



TUE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



253 



will be put in the coldest part of the 
store, or in a back room, except the 
one case from which to retail ; and in 
one instance the larger part of the 
purchase was put into a damp cellar, 
and nearly ruined. The same 1 have 
found to be true in selling private 
parties. 

The bee keeper must do a great 
deal of talking along this line of in- 
struction . To old customers I do not 
know how much of this to do ; but to 
new ones it seems as necessary as ever. 

Right here is a very important point 
for all bee keepers to consider. As 
good honey as can be produced may 
be nearly ruined by unwise handling; 
and when such deteriorated honey is 
consumed, it disgusts the consumer, 
nearly ruins future sales, and, where 
hundreds of pounds could have been 
sold, only tens are disposed of. 

After supplying with the honey all 
the dealers natned, and a few minutes 
spent in pleasant conversation, I take 
leave, with the understanding that I 
will supply them so long as ray stock 
of honey lasts; or, if no more is on 
hand, to call on them next season if a 
crop is secured. And so I have aim- 
ed to keep my trade in all these towns 
by keeping them supplied when I have 
had any. honey to sell, always aiming 
to make our deal as pleasant for ray 
patrons as for myself. The honey 
should be well ripened, kept later in a 
hot, dry honey room, put up for sale 
in the neatest way possible, and each 
package labeled with the name of the 
producer, etc., and sold for just what 
it is. If the honey is No. 1, sell it as 
such; if not, or only No. 2, use no de- 
ception, but deal honestly. In com- 
plying with the above, trade once 



gained will be held, and a clear con- 
science also. 

Town designated as No. 3 is distant 
from my apiary 13 miles, and had at 
one time within its borders and near 
by, fully 500 colonics of bees. Owing 
to the large number of bees kept, and 
over-supplying this market, the price 
of honey ruled low. If some of the 
honey produced there had been mar- 
keted in adjoining towns, paying prices 
might have been maintained; for the 
amount of honey produced in or near 
the other towns was slight. Many 
times the low prices realized for honey 
are our own fault, and are caused by 
the unwise or foolish distribution of 
our honey in marketing, as indicated 
above. Bee keepers should consider 
this matter thoroughly frOm the At- 
lantic to the Pacihc, We see some of 
our large cities overstocked with honey 
every year, while" other good markets 
are hardly considered. At present the 
town mentioned above has within its 
borders but few bees ; but the people 
have come to think that they should 
not pay over 10 or 12 cents for the 
finest comb honey in section-boxes ; or 
a large portion seem to at least. I 
never sold or attempted to sell any 
honey in that town until recent years 
for two reasons, viz : First, the mar- 
ket belonged to my bee keeping 
friends living there ; and second the 
price did not suit me. Having a lit- 
tle other business 1 thought to supple- 
ment it by taking along a few cases of 
comb honey and a few cans of extract- 
ed on this my first visit as a honey 
seller. 

On ray arrival I drove up to a gro- 
cery and tied ray horse. The grocer 
was just placing some newly-arrived 
peaches out in front of his store. 



254 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



September 



After a little conversation as to the 
fruit, I told him I had brought some 
honey to town and would like to 
have him look at it. I took a case of 
comb honey from the buggy and plac- 
ed it near him where it could be in- 
spected. The honey through the glass 
looked tempting. I removed the cov- 
er and took out a few boxes for his 
inspection. He said he had never seen 
any neater honey than that and it 
was well put up. Three or four towns- 
men came up and looked at the honey. 
He asked me what I was selling it at. 
I told him 15c per puund. He said 
he had no fault to find with the honey 
but when honey had to be retailed at 
over 12 or 15c it was slow selling in 
their town. 

I informed him that in other towns 
I was selling at 15c and no complaint. 
He declined to take any. I then had 
him sample the extracted. He thought 
it fine. I gave him the price saying 
that no one should find fault with the 
price he could sell this at, but ray ef- 
forts with him were apparently in vain. 
Right here I wish to say that, in 
this town, those new in the extracting 
business had, years before, taken un- 
ripe honey from their bees and sold 
it, which had nearly ruined the sale 
of honey in this form, as it fermented, 
and was not fit to sell as honey. 

I next called at grocery No. 2. 
Finding them busy, I waited until 
they had a little leisure. 1 noticed an 
old case containing perhaps 25 one- 
pound sections, all daubed with pro- 
polis, sections and combs dark, look- 
ing as if they had been in use many 
years. The combs were only partially 
filled with honey and of course not 
capped. At a leisure moment I made 
my business known, and I secured 



their permission to bring in a case of 
my hoT>cy, It was viewed through 
the glass readily. I removed the cov- 
er and took out some of the boxes for 
their inspection. The honey suited 
them. My price was asked and given. 
" We have some comb honey over 
here," showing that first noticed by 
me on entering their store. I asked 
who produced it and learned that he 
was an old friend, and a man of intel- 
ligence quite above the average. I 
knew him to be, as the reader knows 
well, not made for a bee keeper. At 
first I sold them one case of the honey. 
I stated that I should not be in with 
honey that season again, and would 
think they could readily sell more, 
but that they were to be the judges in 
that matter. They took one more 
case, thinking also that they could do 
so. As they had a supply of extract- 
ed, I made no sale, but let them sam- 
ple my own. The price was 15 cents 
per pound for the two cases. I left 
with the encouragement of probable 
future sales. 

The next grocery was visited, and 
1 found it unsupplied with honey ; 
so I effected a small sale of comb and 
extracted, and shall try to supply that 
store with honey in the future, if I 
am so fortunate as to get a crop of 
honey. 

A few cans of the extracted were 
sold before leaving town, to private 
parties, for home use. 

Where I have made sales of any 
consequence of extracted honey at 
the stores, I have not retailed ; but if 
no honey could be sold at the stores, 
I have felt free to retail it in any 
such town either in or out of the 
comb. The results of the day in sell- 
ing honey were limited but the start 
had been made in opening up what 
may prove to be a fair market for 
honey near home at fair prices. 
Milledgeville, 111. 



ISilC). 



THE AMERICAN BEK-KEKPKR. 



The flmepican Bee-Reeper, 

PUKI.ISIIKI) .MONTHLY BY 

THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG CO. 



TERMS : 

50 cents a your in mlviinco ; 2 copies, 85 cents ; 3 
copies, SI. 20 ; all to be sent to one postoffice. 

Postage prepaid in the U.S. and Canada; 10 cents 
extra to all countries in the postal union and 20 
cents extra to all other countries. 

ADVERTISING RATES: 

15 cents per line, 9 words; S2.00 per inch. 5 per 
cent, discount for 2 insertions; 7 per cent, for 3 in- 
sertions; 10 per cent, for 6 insertions; 20 per cent. 
for 12 insertions. 

Advertisements must be received on or before 
the 20th of each month to insure insertion in month 
following. Address, 

THK AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER, 
Falconer, N. Y. 

^^Subscribers finding this paragraph marked 
with a blue cross will know that their subscripiton 
expires with this number. We hope that you will 
not delay in sending a renewal. 

J^'A Red Cross on this paragraph indicates that 
you owe for your subscriprion. Please give the 
matter your attention. 

EDITORIAL. 



A large honey crop has been gath- 
ered throughout this section. 



Our sales have been unusually 
large during^the past three months, 
and while the early part of the season 
did not promise even fairly well, the 
aggregate has exceeded the amount of 
business last year by several hundred 
orders. 



We will send the American Bee- 
Keeper one year with the Cosmopol- 
itan for $1.25. The Cosmopolitan is 
a monthly magazine containing an 
average of over 100 pages and 80 il- 
lustrations each month. 



The annual convention of the North 
American Bee Keepers" Association 



will t.ake place Oct. 7th and 8th at 
Lincoln, Neb, A good pro_uriun has 
been arranged and no doubt an enjoy- 
able time will be had by those attend- 
ing. The subject of amalgamation 
with the Bee Keepers Union will be 
brought up, and will no doubt be 
voted down. 



"How to Manage Bees " is a 50c 
book for beginners in bee keeping. 
We will send it postpaid for 25c. 



The Southland Queen, with its Aug- 
ust number, sent out as a supplement^ 
the program of the Southwest Texas 
Bee Keepers' Association, whose con- 
vention is to be held at Beeville Sept. 
16th and 17th. It is neatly gotten 
up in pamphlet form, and reflects 
credit upon the printers. 



Wm Gerrish, East Nottingham, N 
H., keeps a complete supply of our 
goods and Eastern customers will 
save freight by ordering from him. 



It is told thst recently a son of the 
Marquis of Salisbury sent to a near- 
bj'town for a queen bee, and received 
a telegram which read, " The queen 
will arrive at 3:40 this afternoon." 
The telegraph operator, supposing it 
to refer to the Queen of England, 
could not keep such good news to 
himself, and the result was an im- 
mense crowd of people at the station 
when the bee arrived. 



We will duplicate the prices on 
hives and supplies offered b}' any 
first class manufacturers — and in 
many cases can do even better by you 
than anyone else. 



256 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September 



In another column we publish a 
short report from one of our subscrib- 
ers, Mr. S. S. Sleeper, which shows 
that his bees have certainly ' ' broken 
the record " in honey gathering in 
this part of the country at least. 



" How TO Manage Bees," a 50c 
book, and the American Bee-Keep- 
er- a year for only 60c. 



The crop of buckwheat honey in 
this locality will be very large this 
season. 



"We are in need of articles for pub- 
lication at all times, especially cor- 
respondence. Write us a letter de- 
scribing your experience the past 
season. 

Reduction of Prices. 

Foundation has been reduced 3c a 
pound from prices in our 1896 cata- 
16g. This is owing to the lower price 
of wax. 

Our No. 1 Falcon Polished Sec- 
tions we now offer at $2.50 for 1000, 
$4.50 for 2000, $6.40 for 3000, $10 
for 5000. Less than 1000 same pric- 
es as formerly. 

Beeswax is lower. We are now 
paying 23c cash or 25c in trade, per 
pound, delivered at our railroad sta- 
tion, (Falconer, N. Y). This price is 
not guaranteed. We will pay highest 
market price when wax is received. 
Prices are liable to be reduced again 
within a short time. If you have anj^ 
wax to sell it is advisable to send it 
now. 



THE MORMON TEMPLE. 

It was only four days after the arrival of 
the Mormon emigrants in the basin of the 
Salt Lake that Brigham Young marked out 
the site for the great Mormon temple. The 
people of the colony labored on the edifice 
for many years, hauling the granite of which 
it is constructed from a quarry twenty miles 
distant. At last, after the expenditure of 
several million dollars, it has been com- 
pleted, and is one the most solid and im- 
pressive buildings in America. Its walls 
are sixteen feet thick, and will probably 
stand without a crack for a thousand years. 
The temple and the Mormon tabernacle are 
architectural buildings of which any city 
might be proud. — From " Wonderlands of 
the West," in Demorest's Magazine for Sep- 
tember. 



Apropos sf Cornelius Vanderbilt's disa- 
greement with his son, the latter's marriage 
to a woman very much older than himself, 
the editor of 'J'he Cosmopolitan, in the 
September issue, seriously discusses the ed- 
ucation most useful to modern life, and sub- 
stantially, if not in words, asks : " Does 
modern college education educate?" The 
September Cosmopolitan, as if to show 
what a magazine can do, gives four com- 
plete stories in this single nnmber, by such 
noted authors as Frances Courtenay Baylor, 
Maurice Thompson, Gertrude Hall, and 
John J. a'Becket. Louise Chandler Moul- 
ton, Mrs. Lew Wallace, Francisque Sarcey, 
,1. Zangwill, Agnes Repplier, Norman Kerr, 
M. D., H. C.-Chatfield Taylor, Wm. Eleroy 
Curtis, Robert E. Strahorn, Colonel Tillman, 
and Ruth McEnery Stuart are also among 
the contributors to this one issue of a mag- 
azine that is sold for ten cents. Nor is this 
all. Among other writers not already men- 
tioned is Camille Flamaiion, who has an ar- 
ticle on " The Wonderful New Eye of Sci- 
ence." which alone is worth the entire price 
of the magazine. The Cosmopolitan has 
been gradually perfecting its engraving and 
mechanical dep:irtments, uulil the publish- 
ers believe that, in the September issue, they 
present a nutuber unrivaled. in artistic and 
mech;inical excellence. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



A ROYAL PROGRESS. 

When spring, liko Raleigh, flung his cloak 
For hor small fool's litiht treading. 

The Htriiiling lurches fresh buds broke. 
And pennon leaves 'gan spreading. 

The vassal sun, hia glory shedding, 
In (doth of gold drest humblest folk 
When spring, like Ualeigh, flung his cloak 

For her small foot's light treading. 

The loyal birds shrill homage woko. 
And daisies, luiniblo liild flcAvers heading. 

Curtsied and bobbc^d beneath an oak 
Decked out as for a royjil wedding 

When spring, liko R;:ki!;:h, flung his cloak 
For her small foot's light treading. 

L. Hereward in New Bohemian Monthly. 



A 31 AN FROM OHIO. 



Mr. LoTigJey's mi.stake, the mistake 
of liis life, grew out of liisfir.st mistake, 
wiiicji was in evorcomiiifi; to Califoniiji. 
He was agent for the Pacific Steamship 
company prior to his occupyiug a simi- 
lar position in a groat Likes company. 
He had never seen tho ocean until he 
came to Monterey. Bnt ho didn't think 
much of it — not after <bo lako.s. Of thw 
people he thought even less. 

Ee us^^d to go over to the telegraph 
oflice where Carpetiter was, and there, 
on a pile of blae butter boxes, air his 
mind pretty freely concerning "these 
infernal greasers. " Longley wasn't a 
bad fellow back in Ohio, but out here 
he could not or would Jiot shake into 
place. He was going back, when he had 
a stipulated sum saved, to marry the 
prettiest girl in Ohio. Meantime he 
chafed and fretted at his chain. 

One of the first things he did had 
gained him the ill will of all the loung- 
ers in the crooked little sti'eet. Benito, 
4 years old, came running to him. Ev- 
ery one adored Benito, for the [Spanish 
are baby lovers and not in the least 
ashamed to show it — Benito, witli lovely 
crimson cheeks and great, velvety black 
eyes. Dirty? Oh, so dirty, but also so 
charming. Just as he reached the hom- 
bre grande, he tumbled flat, and the 
"great man" calmly put out his foot 
and lifted Benito out of the way on the 
toe of his boot. They all saw that — 
Manuel, Francisco, the Moreno boy.s, 
Jose Errou, all — for they were sitting in 
front of Charley Rodriguez's saloon, 
keeping a wary eye out for possible 
whales in the l:av. Benito ran howling 



to them, and the wound his vanity had 
received was healed with candy and soft 
words. But it would have been well for 
Mr. Longley if that had never happened. 

The Spanish mamma is an excellent 
matchmaker, and very seldom has any 
old maids on her hands. She takes ad- 
vantage of tliat contrary little twist in 
a man's nature which makes him want 
what is just out of his reach. So Isabel, 
or Carmelita, or Dolores, as the case 
may be, is sedulously guarded by the 
mother, who makes certain that her 
daughter is never alone with any young 
man a moment. Mr. Longley said often 
he did not care a pin for their customs. 
He was from Ohio and brought his own 
code of ethics and etiquette, wliich these 
greasers were obliged to trim to — not he 
to fit to theirs. No, sir! So, inline with 
these sentiments, he told Carpenter one 
day that he was going to take Julia Es- 
tudillo to the Thanksgiving ball. 

"Have you asked her mother?" in- 
quired the cautious Carpenter. 

"I don't intend to, ' ' replied Mr. Long- 
ley. "I haven't aiked the girl yet, but 
she'll jump at the chance to go with a 
white man. Say, she isn't a bad looking 
girl for a g . " 

"Look out!" interrupted Carpenter, 
"you are a little too handy with that 
epithet. And you intend taking the 
girl alone?" 

"Alone!" said Longley firmly. "No 
old duenna tags me around. " 

"You'll get yourself in trouble sure," 
Carpenter warned. "If you're not sand- 
bagged at the baile or assassinated be- 
fore the baile — mark my words — they'll 
rope you into marrying the girl. " 

Mr. Longley slapped himself on his 
chest and gave his friend to understand 
that he had not journeyed all the way 
from Ohio to have his life cut off in its 
flower and prime by Ihe hand of an as- 
sassin, nor did he leave the prettiest 
girl in "the states" to come out here to 
marry one of these "Spanish beauties" 
and for the rest of a fevered existence 
strive to keep enough frijoles and tortil- 
las in the larder to feed her and her 
4,000 relatives. "Don't you worry over 
Longley. He can take care of himself. " 
wag Ins parting adjuration. 

Lured by the sound of viol, flute and 
bassoon, or, to b? GS-:ict, accordion, two 
guitars and a fi.idle, Carpenter stole 



:;58 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



tieptember 



away "from the office to peep in at the 
Thauksgivius; ball. The long hall was 
brilliaut wiib keroseue lamps and gay 
with i3alms and flowers. Longley was 
there with his Julia. A quadrille had 
just ended, and the men were rushing 
about for new partners. When not 
dancing, the girls all sat at one end of 
the room, looking demure and pretty in 
their white trocks, with roses in their 
black braids. Facing them on a long 
bench sat the duennas gossiping and 
smoking, but each keeping an un- 
wearied eye upon her particular charge. 

Longley caught sight of Carpenter 
and came hurrying out. "You see I 
brought her," he said. 

"And her mother?" asked Carpenter. 

"Mother nothing! You want to hear 
how I did it?"' and Longley unfolded a 
tale that made Carpenter gasp. 

"Well, my son, if you really did this 
— persuaded that foolish girl to climb 
out of the window and go with you un- 
known to her mother — I don't know but 
what you deserve your fate. You know 
too much ever to take advice, but I'll 
give you this piece, so I won't have you 
on my cousciyuce as not having done 
all I could. Don't go home the same 
way you came, and, if it was me, I'd 
walk backward every step of the way. " 

Longley waved the advice lightly 
from him and hurried back to Julia. 

****** 

Th^ next time the friends met was at 
Longley's wedding, four weeks after 
the Thanksgiving ball. Longley looked 
weak and pale. Carpenter judged he 
had hfwdly recovered from the garrot^zo 
that had laid him low as he was boost- 
IDg Julia in her window, one of the iron 
bars of which Longley had managed to 
remove. Longley suspected Julia's 
cousin, Jose Erron, who had shown un- 
utterable hatred for the young eastern 
man. 

For three weeks Longley lay in the 
Estudillos' adobe suffering from con- 
cussion of the brain. Part of the time 
he was unconscious. He had strange 
dreams. The bare little chamber was a 
prison cell, and Julia was his jailer. He 
dreamed he clamored for Kitty — Kitty 
back in Ohio — that is, he thought "Kit- 
ty" and struggled to say it, to scream 
it, but the spoken word turned to 
"Julia." He strove, he fought, strug- 
eline'.as a-drownine man struacles for 



breath in the water, to call for Kitty. 
Ho was not Julia's, he was Kitty's. 
That kept fioatiug back and forth in 
his brain like a piece of kelp sloshing 
to and fro in tiie tide. 

Wlien he got the kinks straightened 
u:it in his head, he found that they had 
tinishcd calling the banns for him and 
Julia, aijd that the^' were preparing for 
the wedding lo take place as soon as he 
could staud. 

The thing was monstrous, without 
doubt, but what could be done? Carpen- 
ter was the only one who would even 
try fo interfere, and he could do nothing. 
Julia clothed herself in stupidity, and 
against that impenetrable armor Car- 
penter battered in vain. The mother, of 
course, understood no word of English ; 
so it was useless to appeal to her. And 
there they had poor, conceited, rattled 
Longley fast. 

The marriage could not take place in 
the church, as Longley was not a Cath- 
olic. The priest did not approve and re- 
monstrated with Senora Estudillo in re- 
gard to this impious alliance with a 
heretic. "Valgame Dios!" she said, 
with a despairing shrug. "What would 
you? Those of the true faith will not 
work, and there are seven of us and 
nine of the family of my sister. Would 
you have us starve?" It is a sad thing 
that religion must give way to matters 
of expediency. The dollar dominates 
even in slumberous old Monterey. 

Carpenter, with a grim line round his 
mouth, wondered us he stood watching 
the priest's genuflections if Longley 
was recalling any of his somewhat in- 
temperate remarks about priests and 
greasers. He looked white enough, as 
he stood limply by bridal robed Julia, 
to be recalling the sins and misadven- 
tures of a bad life a century long. 

Longley never did get to looking 
"right ppart" — he began work too soon. 
He worked early and he worked late, 
for were there not 19 blood relatives and 
28 collaterals, also the blood relatives 
of the collaterals, and all big eaters? 
But it is an unwritten law that you are 
not expected to clothe the collaterals or 
their relatives. 

A dozen or so would comedown from 
Tassajara, another dozen from Tres 
Pinos, and there "visit" three or four 
weeks at Longley 's in the most perfect 
amitv. Beine but human, Longley 



1S!)() 



THE A MEli I CA N J J M H- 1< EKl'lJl . 



'J5!) 



would occasioually raise Cain and the 
roof, but as most of his swarthy rchi- 
tives were. rturprisiii}:;]y destitute of a 
knowh^lgo of English his revolts were 
ineffectual. 

They had parties every Sunday nifiht, 
and to the strains of an accordion and 
three or four guitars they would fuirlv 
dance the li'it out of the floor and walls. 

In the old unlettered da.ys that which 
had met with Longley's most unquali- 
fied scorn wer(^ these very Sunday nit:;:! 
dances. — Edith Wagner in Aryo^aut, 

Funerals lu Yorkshire. 

A funeral is still regarded as a very 
high fe.stival in rural Yorkshire. A poor 
woman was lately heard complaining of 
the fare provided at one she had at- 
tended. "A paltry concern," she said, 
scornfully, "Nobbut cakes and such 
like. Now I've hurled five, but I sided 
'em all off with 'am!" And this: A 
farmer was assisting his daughter in the 
choice of a dress, and, seeing her fancy 
incline to a blue one, said remoustrating- 
ly, "Nay, lass, tak the black one, hap- 
pen tha might have the luck to be axed 
to a funeral, " and bis counsel prevailed. 

What He Could Do. 

James Payn tells a story of a certain 
rflBcer of a transatlantic steamship who, 
In the absence of any clerical passenger, 
(vas asked, during a storm, to undertake 
^he duties of chaplain. He was anxious 
to oblige, but felt that he was altogether 
unequal to ecclesiastical operations — to 
preaching or even reading. "I can, 
however, ' ' he said, ' ' take up a collec- 
tion. " ^ 

Electric Fencln|C< 

Lovers of fencing will be interested 
in an invention which has just been 
tried in Loudon, and which is said tc 
do away altogether with the difficulty 
constantly experienced by an umpire in 
judging hits between two equally 
matched competitors. This end, it is de- 
clared, has been achieved by covering 
the front of each jacket with fine copper 
or brass wire gauze, and connecting this 
with the adversary's foil and an electric 
bell (of rhe Imrglar alarm pattern) and 
battery in the same circuit. It follows 
that when a hit is made the circuit is 
closed, aud the bell rings and continues 
to ring until stopped by the person in 
charee. A .suecial arrangement in each 



foil )i \> .iJcstliat only a direct 

poi*).! )..H.U'is a ring. Two entirely 
elc-ctric.liv distinct circuits are used, 
each including a bell, foil and jacket; 
flicks or blows or grazes produce^ no re- 
sult. The bells being of different tones, 
and, moreover, placed on opposite sides 
of the room, there is no difficulty in de- 
ciding who has scored a hit, or, in cases 
of almost simultaneous hits, who deliv- 
ered the point first. By a simple ar- 
rangement the wires passing from the 
batteries to the combatants' collars are 
kept well out of the way, however sud- 
den may be their movements of advance 
or retreat. In the London trial six se- 
lected amateurs competed for a pair of 
foils, and five bouts were fought. The 
experiments were completely successful. 
A military expert, Captain Hutton, 
who was present, said that the device 
would be of great value at such compe- 
titions as th*e royal military tournament. 

Juvenile Logic. 

Mother — Now, Willie, you've been 
eating sweets till you've made yourself 
ill. I shall have to send for the doctor. 

Willie — I say, if you are sending for 
the doctor, may I have another sweet? 
It won't make any difference, you 
know." — Pcnrson's Weekly. 

Uses of Wild Rice. 

Few know more of the reed of our 
river mud flats than that it furnishes 
the food on which fattens for the epi- 
cure the reedbird of autumn dinner 
tables, the bobolink of other seasons. 
But as wild rice, Zizania aquatica of 
science, it has played no tnean part in 
the service of man. It was the staple 
food of the Indians tha,t_ formerly in- 
habited northern Wisconsin and Min- 
nesota, where the plant abounds on the 
margin of lakes. Dr. Elliott Cone says 
that it is still the chief i-ecourse of the 
Objibway Indians on the reservations of 
Minnesota. They not only gather it for 
their own use, but for the purposes of 
trade, A common name is Indian rice, 
and the lakes along which the plants 
abound are known as rice lakes. Whole 
Indian villages will be tenantless in au- 
tumn, the inhabitants having gone 
"riciug, " as the harvesting is termed. 
The Indians push their canoes into 
masses of rice, bend the heads of rice 
over a crotched stick and thrash the 
grain into the bottom of the boat.- " - 



260 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



iSeptember 



FIRST LOVE. 



First love is best, the poet said— 

Ah, poet, wise and true I 
In youth it fanned my heart to Same, 
In manliood burns— about the same — 

And will my whole life through. 

That first love I Can I e'er forget 

The dawn of that fair time 
When dinipk'd cheeks and soulful eyes 
Revealed a glimpse of paradise, 

And I bowed at the shrine? 

'Twas then I swore my heart was true; 

That she was wondrous fair. 
But here today I've tried in vain 
Just to recall her Christian name 

And gave up in despair. 
****** 

Many a maid I've loved since then- 
Hope to love many yet — 

An Alice or.ee, a winsome Ray, 

A Beatrice and twice a May, 
And then a Margaret. 

But then I know the poet said 
The first love stirs tlie flame. 
Though maids galore you love and woo, 
That first love lasts your whole life 
through. 
Naught changes but the name. 

—Albert Lang in Boston Globe. 



SHROUDED IN SNOW. 



There is, perhr.ps, no finer view of 
Mont Blanc in or around Geneva than 
that to be obtained from Colonel Tron- 
chin's tower on the hill above Coligny. 
There you get a sunset effect that must 
have made many a painter despair, and, 
in the estimation of some, is superior to 
the grandeur of the sunrise seen from 
the Rigi. It is astonishing how the light 
lingers and the snow reddens in the suu 
after the orb has vanished beyond the 
green range of the Jura. The changing 
hues of tlie twiliglit — from the alabaster, 
to the crimson, from the crimson to the 
steely gray, from the gray to the vivid 
pink, and then to dimness of the veil of 
mist arising from the valleys — are alone 
worth the trouble and expense of a spe- 
cial journey. 

Geneva, indeed, is a delightful place 
at all times. The lovely lake, the stately 
Rhone, the turbulent Arve, the snowy 
mountain ranges cut in dazzling white- 
ness on the azure sky are attractions' 
the like of which are not found together 
elsewhere, 'but with Mont Blanc in- 
cluded there is a combination of pleas- 
ing scpnerv Derfectlv irresistible. The 



many peaks that circle the Val d'Aoste 
are beautiful undoubtedly, but lacking 
the monarch of the mountains the view 
would seem shorn of half its glory. 
With him the panorama is perfect, the 
picture is complete. 

From this point of vantage a couple 
of tourists, with a peasant girl, are ad- 
miring the inimitable tinting of the 
sunset sky. "You are right, Gisela, by 
Jove! This is the best I have seen since 
we entered your wonderful country. If 
this golden glow would only lastl 1 be- 
lieve I could look at it almost as long as 
I could at your pretty face, ma chere. ' ' 

It is Sydney Athelstan, a tall, dark 
haired, well set up young Englishman, 
who speaks. He is touring Switzerland 
for the first time. Gisela's face flushes 
as rosy red as the fragrant rhododendron 
that flames the snow and ice 5,000 feet 
above them as she answers: 

"You flatter me, m'sieur, but it is 
beautiful, for the night is clear. Let go 
my hand, please. 1 am only a peasant's 
child." 

"But with the grace of a lady and the 
beauty of an artist's ideal!" fervently 
exclaims the young man. "M'Dieu, but 
you were made for something better 
than a mere cottager's daughter." 

Tte girl wrenches her hand from his. 
The rose flush on her cheek fires into 
vivid scarlet. She points down the rug- 
ged path. 

"If you will not have prudence, 
m'sieur, I must return alone to my fa- 
ther's roof, where Giotto, my betrothed, 
awaits me. I came to show you and 
your friend the place where the great 
English poet lived, and then the view 
of the mountain from here. Let us re- 
turn together. " 

Athelstan listens with his soul in his 
eyes. Blue, uncertain, distrustful eyes 
they are, but fascinating to women. 

As for Gisela, her wild rose beauty 
grows in fairness every day under the 
influence of maturing womanhood and 
the glow of a deep passion, for, despite 
her betrothal to Giotto and despite her 
shyness, sh"- loves her stalwart young 
Euglishmai"^ iier heart, and her bright 
eyes fl;ish with pleasure at his coming. 
And his coming is frequent, is habitual. 
Together they climb the mossy banks of 
the valleys or the rugged ridges of the 
lower range, and when Giotto, ill at 
ease and revolving vengeance in his 



1890. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



201 



dull mind, goes with the shoep across 
the glacier to spend the summer months 
iu solitiiry tending of the browsing herds 
the girl and her m-w lover take longer 
journeys and are altogetlier inseparable. 

A montli passes all too swiftly for the 
lovers. Then one evening, when the two 
have been away longer than usual, a 
telegram is left at the hotel for Athei- 
st an. ayduey reads the message hur- 
riedly aud crumples it into his pocket 
with a muttered ejaculation. 

"Mother i.s dead!" he says in a strain- 
ed voice. "I must go home at once — to- 
morrow morning. I will go aud pack 
up a few things now. 

"It will be fine today," says Gisola, 
the guide. And the others nod and ac- 
quiesce, for is she not as weatherwise 
as any man of them, as familiar with 
every nook and cranny of the mountains, 
with the paths of the avalanches, the 
portent of the south wind singing in the 
glaciers, the meaning of the flush and 
the fall of the rivers? Yes, it will be 
fine today if Gisela says so. 

And the tourists hope it will be fine, 
for they are going to the Mer de Glace, 
which is a day's excursion from Cha- 
mouui, where they are staying. Mrs. 
Athelstan has not been to Switzerland 
before aud is delighted with all she 
sees. Her husband has memories of a 
visit in the bygone years and hopes the 
sunbrowned woman with the flashing 
eyes — who insists on guiding them — 
does not remember him. She does not 
appear to recognize his features at first, 
though she starts at the sound of his 
voice, and a passing paleness crosses her 
handsome face. S.he goes on before 
them, chatting indefatigably all the 
way. 

It is so much better for two people to 
go thus, with one trusty guide, than to 
loiter in parties, she says, as they are 
crossing the meadows in the valley. 
There is less danger of accident with 
fewer travelers together, except on the 
high peaks, where the rope is useful. 

And so she leads them on, stepping 
over the furious river and climbing the 
precipices by a rugged path, now wind- 
ing amid the firs- and now throngh the 
verdant grass until they reach Montau- 
vert, where you can stand on the edge 
of the plateau and look down on one 
side into the frozen sea and on the other 



Into the val(^ of Chamouni. 

From the surface of the sea of frozen 
billows the granite needles rise toward 
the sky, void of snow or ice, bidding de- 
fiance alike to the lightning aud the 
tempests and the glacier sweeping past 
their base. They are grand, impressive, 
sublime, says Gisela, leading her com- 
panions by the side of the ice, where 
the rock and gravel are raised in a gigan- 
tic furrow by the frost and the av- 
alanches and the crystal ocean grinding 
down its mountain bed; then, taking 
them out a little upon the bosom of the 
frozen sea and showing them the fissures 
and crevasses where the ice glitters 
clearer and up from the depths rolls the 
thunder of the ice masses falling from 
the roof of the crystal cavern at the foot 
of the glacier, where at intervals, bend- 
ing low, you may hear the ripple of the 
rills that are hastening down to join 
and issue in the cold and muddy torrent 
of the ice born Arve. 

Then upward again, past the violet 
and gentian sprinkled verdure of the 
lateral moraines and the gorgeous beds 
of rhododendrons, to which the bees of 
Chamouni resort for honey, past the 
grassy slopes where the shepherds drive 
their herds across from Moutauvert 
every year, Gisela leads them, talking 
fast but thinking faster, until they 
stand cnx a narrow ledge of rock at the 
foot of a glittering snow slope that 
overlooks the Glacier des Pelerhines 
and the cascade of that name. 

"Speak softly here," she says, lower- 
ing her voice to a whisper. "The snow 
is insecure, aud a sudden jarring of the 
air will surely bring an avalanche upon 
ns. I have lieard the shepherds and the 
guides caution each other against this 
place, for once before a snowslide swept 
down here. It was the wind made by 
its swift descent that snapped and felled 
the trees yonder. " 

Athelstan gazed down at the twisted, 
broken aud prostrated trunks with a 
suddenly awakened fear. They are 
mutely, fiercely, eloquent of what fate 
awaits him aud his wife should a word 
be spoken heedlessly or a foot ring in- 
cautiously against a stone. 

"Why have you brought us here, 
then?" he asks in a whisper. "There is 
no special view." 

"No, m'sicur, but there is special 
danger. I have waited for your return 



202 



Tllh: AMKnrCAN niCE-KEHPICIt. 



S -/' ' 



her 



these mauy years. I have ■wished that 
we might meet here, with a certain 
death quiveriug above us. Can you not 
guess why?" 

Her voice rises recklessly an inflexion 
higher. There is a flush of color upon 
her brow. Her attitude is one of grati- 
fied revenge. 

"How can I guess, Gisela?" he stam- 
mers. 

His face is blanched ; his eyes dilate 
with dread. Ethel, his wife, glances 
from her husband to the girl with terror 
stricken amazement. 

"What does she mean, Sydney? Ex- 
plain it to me." 

"She is mad, Ethel!" he returns, col- 
lecting himself a little. "Come, we 
will go back. It is time. " 

"You will not," cries Gisela, raising 
her voice until it becomes a shriek. 
"You will not. You will not escape my 
vengeance so easily." Long smolder- 
ing resentment at her base desertion has 
burst forth into the quenchless flame of 
hopeless jealousy, and she is careless 
what she does — careless of her own life. 

"You m2de me love you, " she goes 
on fiejrcely, "that summer so long past 
now; made me give up Giotto and grieve 
my parents and estrange my friends for 
your sake, and now you think to liv-^ 
happily wiih your English wife. 

"You do not know that Giotto killed 
hims«lf in his jealous anger, that; my 
mother died of a broken heart, that my 
father died poor because I left them to 
go after you — though my search was 
vain. You do not hear the cry for retri- 
bution that rises from the ground where 
they sleep. You do not, but I do. Ha! 
ha!" 

The sound of her laughter rings 
among tlie recks and down the steeping 
vales and in and out among the vast 
snow masses piled around the crags. 
Thsre is a trembling movement on the 
face of the slope of dazzling white above 
— an ominous, slipping, sliding sound. 

"Quick! Haslen!" cried Athelstan, 
seizing his wife's arm. "The balance is 
disturbed; the avalanche is upon us. 
There is not a moment to be lost. 
Hasten!" 

They hurry to the left, where the 
ledge broadens out upon the plateau — to 
the right it narrows more and more — 
leaving Gisela standing motionless, 
hurling her derisive mirth at them. 



Surely they will escape, xne ajsiance 
is not far. 

But the great snow sheet, flinging 
etones and trees and frost spray far be- 
fore its thunderous advance, is gaining 
£kst upon them. It rushes headlong, a 
raass of overpowering majesty, terrible 
in its might, adown that awful slope, 
and ere the roar of it in their ears can 
drown the Found of that mocking mirth 
the snow foam billow that curls upon 
its lower edge sweeps them out into the 
gulf below. 

There is a woman's cry, a man's 
curse, a mocking laugh cut swiftly 
short, and the avalanche passes on. 

It roars along, its breath going before 
it like a def'troying storm, and the gulf 
in which the three bruised bodies lie is 
tilled with its snowy whiteness. 

They sleep soundly there, beneath 
that chilly counterpane — sheltered in 
Bilence, sh rouded in snow.- — Exchange. 

Wanted, a Ne^w Kind of Eumorist. 

So far from its being possible to "in- 
ternationalize" humor, we may think 
ourselves lucky if we can manage to 
preserve even a national type. The 
Dickensian humor, it would seem, is 
"off;" the American droll, after a 
vof:,uo of a good many years, is appar- 
ently ceasing to amuse; the "inverted 
aphorism" had but a short popularity 
and ultimately perished in calamitous 
and indeed unmentionable circum- 
sta)ices, and nothing seems growing up 
to take its jolace. The new generation 
"knocking at the doo?" rat tats with 
quite portentous gravity. This is, no 
doubt, an improvement on the older 
generations, who thought it a first rate 
stroke of wit to wrench off the knocker, 
but their successors are surely carrying 
a virtue to excess. 

It seems a pity that they should be 
unable to laugh, but the most respected 
and "intellectual" among them can- 
not. It was the way of certain frivolous 
old fogies a few years ago to twit them 
with their supposed taste for what was 
then called the new humor, but there 
was really no foundation for the taunt. 
The new humor turned out to be simply 
the old buffoonery "writ small, " and 
whoever its patrons are or were they 
are not to be found among the thought- 
ful young men who represent the gen- 
eration with its hand on the door 
knocker. — Fortnightly Review. 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



2()3 



^1 r.'cii r':::r:: vaMsn. 

A rx-la:; ' !'.c^:i he jp^r v/ho keeps an 
UL in. :e:it-( ViH ct',. ]. :i. hmciit in Algiers 
not t'X ixoiix thepL;i::::njcrBta(iou cf the 
SoiiiLtiU Tc.:-— rt.il *v ay sajs that in 
fuiur.) Lo v,"ill Lct tuko baggage in se- 
curifv frr bci.iu ".vithout havii.'g it pho- 
togrn.phed Tiiickr the X rtiys. "Ouo 
tiouili Loio, " Baid be, "a well dressed 
fellow who owed me for two weeks' 
board carue to me a:.d told n^e that as 
he was iu fiuaiiciul difficulties of a 
purely teiiipcrary ciiaractcr he would 
like to leave Liy valise ii) security for 
the bill. He said he vv-ould redeem it iu 
► .vovcoks, or if lie tailed to do so I 
nnf ht ?ell the valise jiud its ccutents. 
Ihe bag was net worth 50 cents, but as 
be was well dressed I concluded that a 
roomy vaiise stuffed almcst to bursting 
v.'ith the wardrobe of such a swell would 
much more than pay the $14 he owed 
rue. I allowed him to take away the 
rest of hi:; stuii' v» ithcut any hesitation. 

"Well, the two weeks passed, and I 
did iic't liave any message from the 
swell, but the valice remained undis- 
turbed. A week later my housekeeper 
came to me and said that two of my 
best pillows were missing. They were 
big ones, v>'orth about $4 apiece, and I 
did not like the notion of losing them, 
you may be sure. I felt sore, and iu an 
aimless sort of way began looking 
around behind the office counter, not 
because 1 had any notion of finding them 
there, but just because I had nowhere 
else to look without leaving the desk to 
take care cf itself. Suddenly my eye 
rested on thr.t big valise that o'ft'ed m(> 
$14, and then a kind of sick feeling 
came over me. I opened it iu a hurry — 
it contained nothing but my two big 
pillow.s. " — New Orleans Times-Demo- 
crat. 



I7ot an Anthem. 

Mr. W. S. G^ilbert told a good story 
against !Sir Arthur Sullivan and himself 
at the Savi^i,^e club. While "The Mi- 
kado" was lu process of incubation tlu' 
collaborators decided that it would be 
an excellent thing to herald the entry of 
the Japanese monarch by a suitable Jap- 
anese tune s(>t to real Japanese words, 
and they appealed to a gentleman learn- 
ed iu matters concerning the far east to 
help them in their difficulty. The result 
■was the chcrus in the second act. "Mivii 



sama, ini7.->. s:.rja, " the strains cf whicii 
are also heard with such singular effect 
in the cvci'ture. Until quile recently 
Mr. Gilbert and Sir Arthur Sallivt.u 
were under the imprci^oion that this air 
bclr::-cd to something in the uaticual 
antl:em; but it now esems that they 
have been Ludly sold. A friend cf Mr. 
Gilbert, who savN? "The Mikado" the 
other day fcr the fir-^t time, has written 
a letter complimenting Ihe author aid 
composer uiDon the general scheme of 
their local color, but espre.sRing astoi - 
i.vhii.C2ifc at the intrcducticn cf the 
"Miya sama" chorus, the tune of which 
he declares to be that of a song sur.g 
only iu the ic^vest tec:hc'^.';cs cf Yckc*- 
hama and calculated to make the loid 
chumberlains hair stand on end. — Pul - 
lie Opinioji. 



■Valuable Pennies. 

A striking insta-uceof the desirability 
of taking care of pennies was aeen i.i 
the sale at Sotheby's of the second 
portion of the Montagu collection cf 
English coins, whicli was particular] f 
rich iu An::io-Saxon and other old pen- 
nies, chiefly iu silver. The following 
are Kome ot the prices obtained : Canute 
penny of Louaou mint, £13 10s. ; Harcli- 
canute penny of Aylesbury, £11 5s. ; 
Harold II Chelsea penny (unique), the 
only coin known from this mint, from 
the Brice collection, £13 lo.s. ; Harold 
Bristol penny, £10 iOs. ; William the" 
Conqueror Stamford penny (unique), 
£13 15s. ; William Rufus Leicester pen- 
ny, £10; Henry I Canterbury penny, £11 
15s. ; St. Edmundsbury penny (unpub- 
lished), £14 15s. ; Carlisle penny 
(unique), £10 10s. ; vfallingford peniiy, 
£11 16s., and Wareham penny (rart), 
£13 15s. The day's sale realized about 
£600.— London Telegraph. 



What Produces Perfaaae. 

According to M. Eugene Mesnard, it 
is not oxygen but light which is the 
main cause cf the transformation and 
destruction cf the odorous principle:., 
although in many cases the two agents 
act in concert. In producing the perfume 
of plants light acts both as a chemical 
and mechanical power. The intensity of 
the perfume of flowers depends upon the 
balance estiiblished'at every hour of ti;e 
day between the pressure of water in 
their cellules, which tends to drive tl e 



264 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Septemher 



perfumes outward,'arid tte drying action 
of light. Where there is too much heat 
there is too little scent. This is due to 
the excess of light and the dearth of 
•water. — Cincinnati Enquirer. 



How Fine Wire Is Made. 

The finest wire in the country is 
made at Taunton, Mass. This metal 
cobweb of minute diameter is exactly 
the oue-fivc-hundredth part of an inch 
in thickness — much finer than human 
hair. Ordinary wire, even though of 
small diameter, is drawn through holes 
in steel plates, but, on account of the 
wear, such plates cannot be used in 
making the hair wire. The Taunton 
factory meutioned uses drilled diamond:i 
for that purpose. 



His Tip. 

"Don't I get a tip?" asked the barbel 
after he had finished cutting the tail 
man's hair. 

"What for?" asked the tall man. 

' ' Why, for taking such good care of 
you. Gentlemen generally give me 
something. " 

"Well, so will I," said the tall man 
as he took his tally. ' 'You may keep 
the hair. ' ' — Pick Me Up. 



Celebrated Playing Cards. 

The most celebrated pack of playing 
cards in the world, "Turocci di Man- 
tegna, ' ' was sold by auction in London 
for $560, and incomplete at that, for 
five cards are wanting, their places be- 
ing taken by facsimiles of the originals. 
The pack is interesting as a -series of 
Italian engravings of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. 

The Most Absentminded of Men. 

The most absentminded man is a 
Brewer man, and he is convicted by his 
own story, which is as follows: The 
other night he went shopping and took 
his wife along. He visited four stores. 
He is a pleasant man and a happy con- 
versationalist. At each store some inter- 
esting story was stai-ted, and nobody 
seemed to notice that thotigh he bought 
a bundle at each place he never carried 
away more than one. He visited the 
laundry, laid his bundle from the last 
store on the counter, chatted with the 
cashier while he piaid his bill and went 
out with only his laundry bundle. Then 
with his wife he went to his own placo 



of business to bring home a halter strap 
for his colt. His wife stopped next door 
below the store chatting while he went 
in. When he came out, he went whis- 
tling softly homeward with the halter 
strap and witiiout his other bundles or 
his wife. Ho only awoke to a series of 
mistakes when he reached home and 
failed to find his wife. He found her, a 
little scared, however, in a few minutes, 
but he did not get his other property 
till next day. The shops had closed. — 
Augusta (Me. ) Journal. 



Two Oblising Princes. 

Not long ago two Englishmen travel- 
ing in Sweden lost their luggage, and 
as they did not speak Swedish they 
were at their wits' end to explain the 
matter. Two young men finally came 
to their rescue and politely asked in 
English if they could be of any assist- 
ance. On explaining their situation, the 
young men promised to telegraph for 
the lost goods and made an appointment 
to meet at the same place the following 
day. The appointment was duly kept, 
the luggage duly delivered — the Eng- 
lishmen, full of gratitude, pouring out 
their honest thanks to their unknown 
friends. ' 'Do you know whom you are 
thanking?" said one of them with a 
smile. "No, sir. We wish we did." 
"Well, then, perhaps you will like to 
know. I am Prince Oscar of Sweden 
and this is my brother Eugene. ' ' 

A Good ^Excuse. 

After tKe Duke of Wellington's vic- 
torious campaigns the University of 
Oxford coniplimented the duke himself 
and his principal officers by conferring 
upon them the honorary and not very 
appropriate degree of doctor of civil 
laws. At that time the fees were 
heavy, and one of the distinguished sol- 
diers, who had gathered more honor 
than profit in the wars, declined the 
proffered degree in the following verse : 

Oxford, I know you wish me well, 
But prithee let me be. 

I can't, alas, be D. C. L. 
For want of £ e. d. 

Times of general calamity and con- 
fusion have ever been productive of the 
greatest minds. The purest ore is pro- 
duced from the hottest fm-nace and the 
brightest thunderbolt is elicited from 
the dai'kest storm. — Colton. 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



2<ia 



MAKING PANSIES. 



•*Threo faces in a hood." 

Folk called tbo jiaiisy so 

Thrco hundred years ago. 
Of course kIio understood. 

Then, perching on my knee, 
She drew licr mother's head 
To her own and mine and said, 

"That's mother, you and mol" 

And so it comes about 
We three, for gladness' sake, 
Sometimes a pansy make 

Before the gas goes out. 

—William Canton in Sunday Magazine. 



HIS TELEPATHIC TIP. 



"Telegram for you, .sir." 

It was the morning of tlie Derby day, 
and I liad just loolied into the office be- 
fore starting for Epsom. I was at the 
time ou the staff of The Sporting Cou- 
rier, and, besides giving wliat is known 
in the sportir.g world as "midday 
finaLs, " I usually "did" the home meet- 
ings. 

The message surprised me, for it ran : 

' ' Don Pero is bound to win. — Disey. ' ' 

I read it again and again. Don Pero 
was a rank outsider and had been look- 
ed upon by everybody as not having the 
slightest chance of a place. For con- 
firmation one had only to look at the 
"latest London betting" to find that the 
hor.se stood at 50 to 1. 

Yet Dixey, the trainer, had never be- 
fore misled me, and I could not help 
feeling that there must be something 
in it. 

I had i)revious]y decided that I would 
give as my tinal selections the first and 
second favorites and a good outsider for 
third place. But this telegram upset all 
my calculations, and yet I felt that I 
could not altogether ignore it. 

I sat down at my desk and wrote out 
my copy. It ran as follows : 

"There is no denying the fact that 
the favorite is in excellent condition, 
but I think that he will be beaten by a 
hor.se whose qualifications have hitherto 
been completely overlooked. I have no 
he.sitation in placing the first three 
hor.ses in this order: (1) Don Pero, (2) 
Windcmere, (3) Nervine." 

I was just thinking about starting 
when the chief sent for me. 

"What does this mean, Mr. Good- 
TTian?" hp snitl. sis I entered the room. 



"This" evidently referred to my MS., 
which hi; held in his hand. 

"Are you referring to my Derby tip, 
sir?" I asked. 

"But it's a 50 to 1 chance!" 

"I can't help that," I replied, rather 
hauglitily p(!rhap.s, "but I am assured 
that ho is bound to win. " 

"Assured' By whom, pray?" 

"Pardon me," I answered, "but my 
information is obtained from a strictly 
private source. I'll alter the wording of 
the i)aragraph, if you like, but I should 
prefer that it go(>s in as it is. " 

"I have no wish to interfere in your 
d'^partmeut, " replied the chief. "Let it 
stand, if you are swpet upon it. If it 
comes off, it will be all right. If not, 
well, we shall be the laughing stock of 
everybody, from the Jockey club down 
to the youngest Newmarket tout." 

I did not think that it was worth 
while having an argument about the 
matter, so took an opportunity of clos- 
ing the interview and took a cab to 
Waterloo. When I reached the course, 
I made the best of juy way to the pad- 
dock in the hope of seeing Dixey and 
having a talk with him before racing 
began, but he was nowhere to be seen. 

I soon found that some of my col- 
leagues wanted to have a chat with me, 
for The Sporting Courier, with my final 
in, had created quite a sensation. 

Jimmy Beruers of The Starter was 
very forcible in his language and said 
some nasty things about my inability to 
provide the racing world with informa- 
tion that was of any value. 

lu my anxiety I endeavored again to 
find Dixey, for I felt that he must know 
something that was not common knowl- 
edge. 

Though I looked everywhere for him, 
I could not see him. He was evidently 
keeping himself out of the way. 

Then the horrible thought rushed 
through my mind that the telegram was 
a hoax, and I felt a cold perspiration 
break out ?U over me. As a matter of 
fact I did ]30t care a brass farthing 
which horse won, for I make a rule 
never to bet, but I knew that my repu- 
tation as a tipster was at stake. 

It was in no particularly happy frame 
of mii-d that I made my way to the 
press box. 

My entrance gave the cue for a burst 
of hilaritv. and '"v recenli-^n was ex- 



im 



Till-: AMKiacAN r.h:b:-Ki':EPER 



Sej)tember 



ceedingly warm. They chaffed me un- 
merciinlly about my unfortunate tip, 
but I took it all in good part, while in- 
wardly vowiirg that I \vould fire off 
some of my suppressed auger upon 
Dixey if his precocious outsider fiuisiied 
where everybody expected him to finish 
—last. 

Th(>re is no need for me to enter into 
any length}' description of the event, 
but it is just necessary to mention one 
or two facts about the most sensational 
Derby on record, and one that will 
never be lorgotten by those who had 
the good fortune to witness it. 

I nervously looked around for Don 
Pero. Yes, he was there all right, Irat 
what an ill lavored looking animal com- 
pared with the others! His jockey, too, 
was merely a stable lad, but I thought 
that I detected a gleam of confidence in 
his eye and a look of fixed determina- 
tion upon his boyish face. 

"Now they're off, " is the cry. No, it 
is a false s*^art. The favorite has broken 
away. His supporters standing around 
me are quivering with excitement, and 
many of them give vent to audible 
groans. 

The horses face the starter once more, 
and in another minute we see the white 
flag fall and know that they have been 
dispatched on their fateful journey. 

In the first part of the race they seem 
to be all together, but as they near Tat- 
tenham corner the favorite begins to 
steel ahead. I look for Don Pero — he is 
nearly last. The corner is turned with 
Windermere well in front. 

"The favorite wins!" "The favorite 
romps home!" is the cry on all hands. 

But what is thai; «teadiiy creeping up 
on the outside? As I live it is Don Pero! 
Don Pero will not be shaken off, and he 
gradually bears the leader down, down, 
as they near home. 

It is doubtful to tell from where we 
are standing which horse has won, but 
it appears to be the favorite, although 
Don Pero was extremely close up. At 
length the numbers appear on the tele- 
graph board: 16 — 24 — 4. 

I could hardly believe my eyes. Six- 
teen is Don Pero's number, 24 Winder- 
mere's and 4 that of another outsider. 

There was a deadly silence all around. 
No enthusiasm, no sliouting, no jubila- 
tion of any kind. Blank despair is 
ulainlv written on the majority of faces 



near ma '.L'hen one of i.;y coileugncs 
tuiLG J to mc-: 

"Wh-^1 does it n^oan. Goody? You 
are ovicienLly in the k:j.:.w. " 

"It means, '■'! s:i:id, deterniiucd to 
have my revcuge upon tl'.- ;■!. "that if 
you want to get a correct tip you must 
come to me," and with tb;:T. parting 
shot I hasteuerj. to the p.tdd.. ... v. hie J 
saw Dixey r^nrrounded bra ci-^ wd of m- 
quirJiig sportsmen. 

"Tiianks very much for tl)e wire, old 
man," I said in the conric < f the con- 
versa tic u. 

"Wire?" he replied, with a look of 
surprice on his face. "What wire?" 

"Why, yen wired Jiio tiiafc year horse 
would win?' 

"What on earth are you talking 
about. Goody? I never v,-ired to you. " 

"Well, I've ,ucit the wire here," I 
said as I felt in my pocket for it. But 
it was not there I seai\hed each pocket, 
but in vai)]. I must have left it at the 
office. Dixey began ro laug!:. 

"How do you think i .-^iMJuici iiave 
tipped such an oatsid or if 1 had not 
heard from you?" I a.sked him, almost 
angrily. 

"xiush! Not so loud," said Dixey, 
looking round inahr.lf friglitened man- 
ner. "You fancy I wired to you. Quite 
a mistake, I assure you. I intended to 
do so, but I. thought that it would be no 
good. That's all. Goody, really." 

I saw it all. Dixey had s^ut the tele- 
gram and didn't want anybody (o know 
that he had done sa Ail light. I would 
keep his secret. 

When I returned to town, I went 
straight to the office. I looked every- 
where, but could find no trace of the 
telegram. 

I rang for Simmoiis. As .he entered I 
said: 

"Simmons, have you seen the tele- 
gram that j'ou brought me this morn- 
ing?" 

"Telegram, sir? I never broaght you 
a telegram. " 

I could hardly believe my ears. There 
was a mistake somewhere Bub I gave 
it up as a bad job and went oif to the 
club. Everybody there was 3iic:-t enthu- 
siastic and coiigratuiatory. Afkir we 
had settled down in the smoking room 
I told the boys the whole story. 

They were rather increduious at fir.^t, 
until Jimmy Berners buisc out, 'I tell 



IS'JO. 



TIII'J A Mh'U/c. 1 N li KK- K i-:h:ri:ii. 



liS-i 



you what it is, Goody, old chap, it's a 
clear case of telepathy." 

"But I had the telegram, " 1 said. 

"You fancied ycu did," was his re- 
ply. "That's part of the busiuess. You 
were thinkiuK of Dixey. Disey was 
thinking of you. Dixey thought he 
would send you a wire. You thought 
you received it. That's all." 

And that is the true story of bow I 
received my "telepathic tip." — Ex- 
change. 

"Auld Robin Gray." 

Lady Anne Barnard wrote "Auld 
Robin Graj'" when she was 21. It was 
published auonyniou.sly iu 1776, and 
various persons claimed tiie authorship. 
Ladj' Anne did not acknowledge it was 
her own until two years before her death, 
when she wrote to Sir Walter Scott and 
confided the history of the ballad to 
him. It appears that the gifted lady was 
induced to write the song by a desire te 
see an old Scottish air, "The Bridegroom 
Grat When the Sun Gaed Doon," fitted 
with words more suitable than the rib- 
aldry which, for Wiiut of better, had 
been sung to it. The name of "Auld 
Robin Gray" was taken from an auciejit 
herd of Balcarres. Lady Anne was a 
daughter of James Lindsay, fifth earl 
of Balcarres. She married Andrew Bar- 
nard, sou of Thomas, bishop of Limer- 
ick, and they went out to the Cape, 
where he died in 1807. Lady Anne re- 
turned to London and lived with her sis- 
ter in Berkeley square until 1812. The 
sister's house was a literary center and 
was frequented by Burke, Sheridan, 
Windham, Douglas and the Prince of 
Wales, who were all habitual visitors. 

Lady Anne won tiie lifelong attach- 
ment of the prince regent. She died in 
1825, in her seventy-fourth year. No 
one has ever questioned Lady Anne 
Barnard's claim to the authorship of 
the words of "Auld Robin Gray," and, 
though I am not going to cast doubt 
upon the word of the writer at this late 
day, it is necessary to menrion that 
prior not only to the appearance but to 
the writing of the world famous song 
there was a French ballad extant co i- 
taiuing the gist of the story and th • 
plot, by Paradis de Moncrif, ertitlod 
"Les Constautes Amuur.s d'/. lix e^ 
d'Alexis. " — S. J. Adair Fitz Ccr.:l.! :. i 
Llovd's. 



IVew Plants Are £xpetiNive. 

Our beds and our borders become 
crowded, and yvt we are always meet- 
ing with plants we should like to pos- 
sess and might (>asilygrow; while, as 
if in despair of keeping pace with the 
times, societies are formed which de- 
vote themselves to the cultivation of 
some particular flower; firms associate 
themselves primarily with roses, lilies, 
chrysanthemums or orchids and are rec- 
ognized as authorities, and costly illus- 
trated books make their appearance at 
such frequf'nt intervals that in some di- 
rections they bid fair to develop into 
libraries, with the varieties of one flow- 
er as their subject. No pains or ingenu- 
ity or money is spared, and unique 
specimens are searched for in the most 
distant parts of the world. The outlay 
iu some cases is enormous. 

Orchids being a very special branch 
of the gardener's art, it is well we 
should refer to the enormous sums that 
are expended in forming a collection of 
these fascinating flowers. Syndicates 
are constituted for their importation 
and a uuuiber of skilled collectors, who 
often carry their lives iu their hands, 
are always at work in the East Indies, 
in Mexico, in the hot, steamy swamps 
of Brazil, in Madagascar, searching 
for new specimens. Twenty thou-sand 
pounds and more, it is said, may be 
easily spent upon acollection; 310 guin- 
eas have been paid for Cypripediuu 
stouei, 300 for Vanda sanderiana, 235 
for ^rida^ laurencise, 220 for Cattle- 
ya mendelli bluntii and the prices of 
a large number of others range from 
100 to 200 guineas a plant. — Saturday 
Rfivip.vp. 



Printing Early In the Century. 

It is said that the first book printed 
in this country from stereotype plates 
v,as a catecuism by a Mr. Watts. This 
work was issued iu New York in the 
year 1813, and was compiled for the 
benefit of the children of several New 

YorJi churches. __^___ 

Pat Was Astonished, 

An Irishman was run over by a troop 
of horse and miraculously escaped un- 
hurt. "Down upon your knees and 
^hank God, you reprobate," said one of 
the ip^ctators. "Thank God for what? 
Is it for letting a troop horse run over 
me?" asked Pat. — London Spectator. 



268 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



September 



N«vith's Social Vagarieoc 

There has been a good deal of gossip 
in the EngJish papers about the social 
vagaries of the late Colonel North, the 
"Nitrate King. " When he returned to 
England with his millions, he bought a 
great estate at Eltham and filled the 
house with r.rticles of luxury and all the 
modern appliances that riches can pro- 
cure. His stables were full of thorough- 
bred horses, he had well stocked dog 
kennels, and his game preserves afford- 
ed grand sport for hundreds of persons 
jivery season. He used to go there on 
Friday and stay until Monday, keeping 
the place as crowded and as busy as a 
summer hotel. Every night he dined at 
the head of an immense table in the 
company of men and women who were 
invited there by such loose commands 
as ' 'Come along and bring your friends, ' ' 
or "Come down and bring some nice 
people with you. " 

People in that part of Kent, or even 
well dressed strangers driving that way 
from London, Y\-ere in the habit of drop- 
ping in to luncheon without an invita- 
tion, and even without previous intro- 
duction. It was only necessary to say, 
"I am a friend of Lord So-and-so. " On 
one occasion a member of that year's 
Oxford crew was eating quietly at about 
the middle of the long table, not daring 
to speak to the pretty girl seated beside 
him, when he was startled by the colo- 
onel crying oiit from his end of the ta- 
ble, "I say, young fellow, if you don't 
kiss that girl next you I'll throw a 
banana at you. " 



Clothes or No Clothes? 

A man who has been living among 
the natives on the west coast of Japan 
is advocating (he abolition of clothes. 
All summer long he "moved in the 
best society the place affords, " clad only 
in a fuudoshi, a garment which it were 
base flattery to call a sash. So garment- 
ed, he was both perpetually dressed and 
undressed, always ready for dinner or 
for a stroll en the beach or for a swim 
or to go to bed or to get up. The amount 
of time saved is remarkable. In a year it 
amounts to over two months. ' 'Think, ' ' 
he exclaims, "how often we in America 
lie abed too long because dressing is 
such a bcrei' If we were already dressed, 
we should arise and go about our busi- 



ness. But t.ressiug deters us — getting 
into clothes and arranging them about 
us in accoid;ince with the unreasoning 
demands of the public until we stand 
concealed in worrying 'tubes of cloth.' 
We disturb ourselves too much also 
when we go to bed. After an evening 
in our restricting garments, we are nat- 
urally much in need of repose, so we 
start off for bed, thinking how sweet 
will be the sleep that is upon us. But 
we are in clothes which must be removed, 
and the removing awakens us so thor- 
oughly that the sleep we might have 
had is banished for an hour longer. ' ' — 
San Francisco Argona.ut. 



An Automatic Ima^e of Satan. 

There are many curiosities in Paris 
which it is not given to everybody to 
see. Thus in the old Cluny museum, on 
the Boulevard Saint Michel, there is a 
most realistic presentment of hissatanio 
majesty inclosed in an artistically carved 
case. The exterior of this article of fur- 
niture, for such it is, is decorated with 
a finely painted head of the Saviour, 
but on touching a spring the picture re- 
calling heaven is replaced by the figure 
of the evil one. Satan is seen inside a 
niche advancing with terrible grimaces, 
while at the same time a sort of musical 
box or small organ inside the case emits 
tempestuous sounds. 

The figure of satan in the Musee 
Cluny is only shown with the greatest 
reluctance, as the conservators ordered 
it to be kept hidden, owing to the fact 
that on one occasion when it was being 
exhibited to the public a lady fainted 
away and nearly died of fright when 
she savv' the devil advancing toward her. 

— Paris L etter. 

Eirds That Stole a Nest, 

Nature tells a tale of a pair of rooks, 
evidently young birds, that strove in 
vain to build a nest. The wind each 
time blew the foundations down while 
the rooks, which fly far for nest ma- 
terials instead of taking those close at 
hand, were away. At last, despairing 
of building a home by legitimate means, 
they fell upon a completed nest of an- 
other pair vvhile the owners were absent, 
tore it to pieces and built a nest founda- 
tion that would stand in the wind. 
Then they made a superstructure iu the 
clumsy and inexperienced way that 
Touns' bii'Us alvv'avs do. 



189G. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KKEPER. 



26J> 



A Judttii Benjaiuiu HanOlcercliiex. 

A r;u-e iiud iiitore.stiiigsouveuir of the 
civil war is uow in tho possession of R. 
S. Merrill, a luudscupc artist. It is uoth- 
ing more tluiu a red bandanna handker- 
chief, but it iias an interesting history. 
Judah P. Benjamin was a Louisianiau 
and a stanch supporter tif the lost cause. 
The Confederate govcu'umeut sent him 
to England on an important mission. 
While in that country lie had manufac- 
tured one dozen red bandanna handker- 
chiefs, and these upon his return ho dis- 
tributed personally, as a memento, to 
12 Confederate officers. These handker- 
chiefs were of the linest india silk, one 
yard square. The body is of red, and 
worked iu black on its surface appeared 
portraits of Davis, Beauregard, Lee, 
Jackson, Morgan, Slidell and .Johnston, 
encircled with wi'eaths of southern lau- 
rel and a border of ferns and cotton 
plants on a white ground. No two 
wreaths are similar, and the workman- 
ship is artistic. 

Mr. Merrill 32 years ago was a pri- 
vate iu Company K, First Wisconsin 
cavalry, and daring Wilson's raid in 
April, 18G5, he picked up this handker- 
chief iu the courthouse at Montgomery, 
Ala. It was incased in a silken bag of 
gray and had evidently been lost by 
some Confederate general iu the hasty 
retreat that day. The handkerchief has 
been recently framed and adorns the 
parlor of Mr. Men-ill's home. — Minne 
apolis Journal. 



Court Etiquette. 

In Baron Rothschild's book of anec- 
dotes he tells some curious tales of the 
extremely stringent rules of etiquette 
which prevailed at the French court iu 
the reign of Louis XVI. Marie An- 
toinette christened the Comtesse de 
Noailles "Mme. Etiquette." Once, 
when she fell from a donkey in her pri- 
vate grounds, she jumped to her feet 
and cried out, laughing, "Go and fetch 
Mme. de Koailles ; she will tell us what 
is prescribed for a queen of France when 
she falls off a donkey. " One cold win- 
ter night, when the queen was undress- 
ing, the maid was handing her the 
chemise de unit when the lady in wait- 
ing came in, to whom, as being of su- 
perior rank, the garment had to be given 
over. She could not touch it, however, 
until she had removed her gloves, and 



before that operation had been perform- 
ed the Duchesse d'Orleans, a princess 
of the blood, turned up, and after her 
the Comtesse de Provence, who was of 
higher rank still, so that the chemise 
had to b(5 handed from one to the other 
while the queen stood waiting and shiv- 
ering. At last, unable to contain herself 
any longer, she exclaimed: "It is odi- 
ous I What a nuisance!" 



"It's a Liee!" 

In The Atlantic Mrs. Lathrop, in 
"Some Memories of Hawthorne," her 
father, tells an anecdote which she heard 
when a child from a Mr. Bennock, a 
frequent visitor of the family during the 
Liverpool consulate of her father. 

A Scotchman, at an inn, was walking 
disconsolately about the parlor while 
dinner was being prepared. A distin- 
guished traveler — Dickens, perhaps — 
was dashing off a letter at the center 
table, describing the weather and some 
of the odd fellows he had observed in 
his travels. 

"And, "he wrote, "there is in the 
room at the present moment a long, 
lank, redheaded, empty brained nin- 
compoop, who looks as if he had not 
eaten a Square meal for a month and is 
stamping about for his dinner. Now he 
approaches me as I sit writing, and I 
hear his step pause behind my chair. 
The fool is actually looking over my 
shoulder and reading these words" — 

A torrent of Scotch burst forth right 
here: "It's a lee, sir — it'saleel I never 
read a worrd that yer wrortl" 

A AVise Fish. 

In Java they have a species of fish 
that carries a very useful gun with him 
wherever he goes. This queer fish is 
called the jaculator and his weapon is a 
combination air and water gun, which 
nature has provided him with. The jacu- 
lator has the power of puckering the 
mouth into a small, round tube and 
squirting water through it. He is sncii 
an expert gunner that when he observes 
a beetle or a fly on a twig above the 
water he invariably knocks the in- 
sect from his perch, even though the 
distance be five or six feet. There are 
seven other varieties of these water gun 
fishes, which are known as "sportsmen" 
and "gunners" on account of their 
queer habits. — St. Louis Republic. 



J70 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Sepii'inber 



AMERICAN LAMPS IN PARIS. 

Tlie terrible use made by the Commu- 
nards of 1871 of petroleum for conflagrative 
purposes produced such an impression on 
the French mind that people recoiled even 
at the mention of kerosene. So the Ameri- 
crn kerosene lamps, which were then just 
beginning to get a foothold in Fi'ance, were 
relegated to the limbo of dangerous innova- 
tions" Then came the Exhibitions of 1878 
and 1889, witii our particularly good show 
of new, improved, artistic lamps. The mem- 
ories of 1871 were (jnickiy forgotten, and 
today the use of candles and the old ' pump 
lamps " — gas has never been a general 
means of domestic lighting in France — lias 
gone down before the American substitute, 
which has not only invaded the Parisian 
bedroom and parlor, but has even found fa- 
vor in the chateaux along the Loire and has 
worked its way into the plain homes of the 
remotest villages. One of the American 
lamp exhibitors received so many orders 
during the Exhibition of 1889 that he estab- 
lished a Branch store in the best pprt of 
commercial Paris, where he has been doing 
a thriving business ever since. — Theodore 
Stanton, inSeptenber Lippincott's. 



Honey and Beeswax Market Report. 

Below we give the latest and most authen- 
tic report of the Honey and Beeswax market 
i'l different trade centers : 

Boston. Mass., Aug 25. ISOli. — Demand for hon- 
ey light. Good supply. I'rice of fancy ivhite comb 
14 to 15c. E.xtracted (5 to 7c. Light supply of bees- 
wax. Fair demand; price 2oc. 

E. E. Blake & Co., 75 Chatham St. 

Detrott, Mich.. Aug. 25, 1896. — Slow demand for 
honey. (Tood supply. Price of white comb 11 to 
ll}4c. E.xtrjicted5 to I3c. The demand for bees- 
wax is dull. Suriply gf^od ; prices 24 tf 25c. 

M. H. Hunt, Bell Branch. Mich. 

Kansas City. Mo., Aug. 25. 1S96.— Fair demand 
for honey. Light supply, ('rice of comb S to 12c. 
and Vi to 15c. Extracted 4>4 to 6!/^c. Fair demand 
for beeswax at 20 to 22c. Supply light. 

C. C. Ci.KMONS k Co. 

Albany, N. Y., Aug. 25. 1S9(5,— Light demand for 
honey; supply light. Price of comb honey not yet 
established. Extracted 4 to 8c. Good deui.nnd for 
beeswax; supply light; prices 28 to 30c. Too ear- 
ly for reliable quotations on comb ho' ey. but good 
demand for white extracted for bottling. 

H. R. Wright. 

Cincinnati. 0.. Aug. 25, 1896. — Slow demand for 
honey; goodsuptdy; price of comb 12 to 15c. Ex- 
tracted 4 t" 7c. Good demand for beeswax; fair 
supply ; prices 20 to 25c. for good choice yellow. 
Chas. F. Muth k Son. 

Cor. Freeman .and Central Aves. 




Bi: issiTir AX 



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/ \^ Worth 

Material ) 
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lATe -uirill pay 
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for good quali- 
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freight paid to 
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it to us at once. 

(Prices suhject to change without 
ni tice). 

THE W. T. FALCONER M'F'G CO. 



18J)G. 



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IC Cll IIED UflBIC and if farm produce, 
ir dILWCn WW llld labor and labor products 
double in price, then metals must also double in price, 
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.same dollars if silver wins, or if people think it will win. 
IT IQ A Tft I in favor of buying now. The 
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advance avoided Ir lUU DUI llUfw 



273 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



Septemher 





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VOL. VI. 



OCTOBER, 1896. 



NO. lO. 



What to do with Weak Colon- 
ies Late in the Season. 

BY REV. STEPHEN BOESE. 

On this question bee keepers have 
had line upon line and precept upon 
precept at least for the last quarter of 
a century, and everybody knows that 
Septeniber is the roonth in which all 
colonies should undergo a thorough 
examination and while the bees are 
flying the weak colonies should be 
united, the poorest queens removed 
and the best queens returned to the 
united colonies. But if for some 
reason the apiarist has neglected this 
duty or has been unable to see to it 
and the cold October days have made 
their appearance and he has a lot of 
weak colonies on hand unfit and un- 
prepared for the long winter's repose, 
and the bee keeper sees when taking 
off the hive cover two-thirds of the 
space between the frames empty, the 
question forces itself upon the apiarist, 
what can be done with them ? To win- 
ter safely is a matter of importance, 
and to have the honey consumed and 
the combs perhaps spoiled and then 
have the bees die ere spring comes 
around the bee keeper cannot well af- 
ford, especially in the present critical 



times and low prices for honey. Bee 
keepers cannot afford to run risks but 
must make every stroke count some- 
thing. 

The writer now for over a year hav- 
ing been in poor health has conse- 
quently not been able to care for his 
bees as in former days, so when a year 
ago October came with its chilling 
winds and nightly frosts about fifteen 
colonies proved to be just in the con- 
dition described above and something 
had to be done. So the first mild 
morning, when the temperature was 
up to 60° or 65°, three or four of the 
weakest colonies were taken to a spot 
sheltered from the wind and one hive 
after another opened, the frames taken 
out and the bees shaken or swept ofE 
the combs on to a wide board on the 
ground on which an empty box was 
placed, just the same as an empty 
hive in the swarming season, and all 
of the bees from the hives that were 
to be united were made to enter into 
the box. After three or four weak 
colonies are united in this manner in- 
to one empty box, there is no chance 
for robbers, there being nothing to 
rob, and no chances of fighting for 
there is nothing to fight for. The 
united colonies having thus become 



374 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



October 



humilitated they are quite willing to 
accept of anything after they are qui- 
etly clustered, and before the temper- 
ature sinks they are shaken out of the 
box in front of a hive where they are 
desired to dwell together in unity dur- 
ing the winter, then full frames of 
corab are given them until the requir- 
ed quantity of honey, i. e. 25 or 30 
lbs., has been given thera. The writer 
treated 20 colonies in this manner a 
year ago. Jhey selected and retained 
one queen for each united colony and 
in early spring came out foremost in 
ambition and strong breeding, and 
not one was lost. 

Maiden Rock, Minn. 

Bees ! Bees ! Bees I 

BY CHAS II. THIES. 

Mr. Editor- — The above is about 
all 1 have time to say, to work with 
or to think of, yet I have lots more to 
do and to think of. My bees are 
booming, just rolling in the honey. 
As you know, or at least I think you 
do, the wool business has been and is 
very discouraging, but the bees are 
wonderful creatures to make one feel 
happy. For some time my days have 
been from 3 o'clock a. m. to 9 o'clock 
p. m. I need long days in order to 
get time enough to give proper care 
to the bees, without which they would 
be of little consequence. 

Well, I have just been out to my 
out apiaries, each apiary containing a 
different sort of bees The home 
apiary consists of the much condemn- 
ed FIVE-BANDED BEES. (Please put 
this ill box cap letters, as they are 
gopd enough for me). I have no 
reason to be partial, and don't want 
to say anything that I have heard, but 
what I, have exj)erienced. All my out 



apiaries have by far the best chance, 
as my home apiary is really overstock- 
ed. My home apiary contains some 
150 colonies, besides the bees of my 
neighbors, which will add largely to 
the number. My ufighbors, though, 
claim that my bees kill theirs. I am 
Sony, but I know they are wrong, but 
I do know that their colonies are get- 
ting less jn numbers, and the only 
reason 1 can give for this is that they 
expect their bees to work for nothing 
and board themselves, while I try to 
give my bees the proper care, keep 
them supplied with youug queens and 
keep the right stock. Now n)y hives 
at home are full of honey, even small, 
weak nuclei have filled their frames, 
three and four in number, chock full, 
and a good many of these nuclei were 
not only queenless, but almost beeless. 
The honey the bees are now storing is 
from Spanish needle, heartsease, gold- 
en rod, etc., and for me it is one of the 
finest honeys in the world, and I don't 
want better honey for winter stores 
than this, when thoroughly ripe and 
well sealed. Later in the mouth and 
during a good part of October we get 
honey from asters, which often 
amounts to quite a little, very nice 
and clear, but usually thin and watery 
and when thoroughly evaporated sim- 
mers down wonderfully, but i consid- 
er it perfectly wholesome for winter 
stores, 

Steeleville, 111. 

We will send the American Bee- 
Keeper one year with the Cosmopol- 
itan for $1.25. The Cosmopolitan is 
a monthly magazine containing an 
average of over 100 pages and 80 il- 
lustrations each month. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



275 



Wide Frames with Separators 

UY a M. POULlTTI.i;. 

For several years hack there has 
been some kiekin^r on the part of bee 
keef)ers ajrainst wide frames with sep- 
arators, some even going so far as to 
pet diet that they wouhi soon be 
"things of the past," but after trying 
most of the various arrangements 
which are used to secure honey in sec- 
tions without thera, I am satisfied that 
there is one who will continue to use 
wide frames with separators, a few 



separators which were hung fiom the 
top of each section in such a way that 
a passage way was left for the bees on 
each side of this separator. This prov- 
ed a success, hut as the size of the sec- 
tions or the boxes was decreasing all 
the while, it soon seemed like an end- 
less job to handle each small box sep- 
arately, together with a separate sepa- 
rator for each. To overcome this dif- 
ficulty we soon had the wide frame 
with a separator tacked to one side so 
that from two to four section boxes 



years longer, at least, for I believe could be placed in each wide frame, 

them to be of real advantage in secur- We now not only had it so that there 

ing a crop of comb honey in the most was no bulging of combs when glass 

marketable shape. While speaking was not u-ed, but so that we could 

regarding this subject perhaps it might handle as much honey at one time as 

be intere^ting to some of the younger we used to with the old six pound 

bee keepers to know something of the boxes. These wide fiames weie so ar- 

past, and how wide fiames and s(>par- ranged that they could be used either 

atois came into general use. Years at the side of the hive or on top, or 



ago, when I first commenced kee})ing 
bees, I knew of no box for surplus 
honey smaller than tlie six [)ound box, 
as then used on the Liing-iroi li hive. 
I next saw tlie Ali> y and Hiurixm 
boxt s, which h-'ld about three pounds. 
Aitliough of (iitferenl .-tyle and shape 
neither of them pieaSiil me. i tlieii 
made a bix to liold two and one half 
pounds, and prepared a hive so these 
could l)e placed all ar-'Und i he liiond 
nest and on lop, Imi as I iini.-l of 
necessity glass them ludnie l he i>ees 
filled them tas separalois wiic on- 
known at that time in older to ket j) 
the l)ees Iroin buluing the co'nili- one 
into another, it was laiher .-low pio^. 
ress which I made. .A Tier liiis lime 
s.iiiie one I'lalz d the m ce.-.-iiy of do- 
ing somel hiiig to kttp ill!' I'ets ir.iMi 
bulging the combs on- i t.> i In oihei , 
so glass boxes Couid oe dispeii.-ed 
with, and as a result we coiii had tin 



both, at pleasure. Abqut this time 
another party thought to go farther 
ah)ng the line of handling many sec- 
tions at a time, and at the same time 
use these wide frames on the tiering up 
plan ; so frames were made to hold 
eight section, to be used in a two-story 
hive, each wide fi-ame of eight sec- 
tions hanging in the upper hive the 
same as the ordinary frames were 
hung ill the hive below, the same 
plan being used by some bee keepers 
of today, riiis u-ing two tiers of sec- 
tmns in one wide frame is what has 
cans, d apiarists to cry out against 
them, while if only one tier had been 
use<l, as was first iuiemled, and these 
tienil up, those liking the tiering up 
plan would not have tried to substitute 
any otiier arrangement for wide 
frames, it ^eem.-> to me, for I find them 
better adapted lor the securing of sur- 
plus honey than anything else, all 



276 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



October 



things considered, especially as they 
can be made for any sized section and 
used on any size of hive. 

Now about making and using wide 
frames : Get all the pieces out true 
and square, after which nail them 
over a true square form. If you wish 
to use them on the tiering plan make 
both top and bottom five-sixteenths of 
an inch narrower than the ends ; if to 
be used only one tier high then have 
the top the thickness of the tin wider 
than the sides or ends. After using, 
several kinds of material for separa- 
tors I prefer tin to anything else. The 
nailing on of this tin has much to do 
with our liking or disliking wide 
frames, for if nailed on loosely so as 
to kink and bulge the operator will 
soon become disgusted with them. 
After trying various plans of nailing 
on the tin I hit on the following, 
which is the best of anything 1 know 
of: I made a form a trifle shorter than 
the wide frame was long, outside 
measure, this form being perfectly 
true and square. Next 1 made a block 
the size of the inside of the frame, 
except a little shorter, and of the same 
thickness as the ends to the frame, 
which was tacked to the form. To use 
it I strung or bent the top and bottom 
bars of the frame a little outward, 
thus shortening it, until it went into 
the forms when I laid on the tin sep- 
arator, placing a straight edge on top 
of the tin and a weight on this. I now 
had the tin just where I wanted it 
with all the bulging taken out, when 
it was nailed fast to the wide frame. 
Upon removing it from the form the 
top and bottom sprung back into place 
again, thus drawing the separator as 
tight as a drum head. They were 
now ready to be filled with sections 



and used in any desired manner. If 
I wish to use them with a hive having 
a hood or cap I use properly made 
thin boards as wide as the wide frames 
are deep and in the ends of these 
boards, which are used to close up the 
sides to the two outside wide frames, 
a nail is driven. The boards are now 
put in place and one end of a coiled 
wire spring, (such as are used to hold 
the shades of hanging lamps), is hook- 
ed over one of the nails. A string of 
suitable length is fastened to the other 
end and wound around the nail in the 
opposite board in such a way that this 
string is held as securely as if tied. 
The other end is fixed with spring and 
string in the same way, wheft by draw- 
ing the string, before winding aroutd 
the nails till a strong tention is made, 
the wide frames are held as in a vice, 
yet they will give all the lateral move- 
ment required and can be taken off as 
one case or separately, tiered up, in- 
verted, etc., as is required. Where 
there is no hood or cap to the hive 
they are used in supers and keyed up 
the same as are sections where T tins 
are used. 

Borodino, N. Y. 



won't you give your love to me ? 

We have just received a copy of the above- 
named beautiful song witli a splendid waltz 
chorus. It is now being sung in all the 
prominent theatres in New York, Boston 
and Philadelphia. The following are the 
words of the chorus : 

Won't you give your love to me and take my heart. 
Ever to abide with yours alone, sweetheart? 
There to dwell through all eternity — 
Darling, won't you g ve your love, your love to me ? 

Price 40 cents per copy. All readers of 
our magazine will receive a copy at half 
price by sending 20 cents in silver or pos- 
tage stamps to The Union Mutual Music 
Co., 2t)5 (Sixth Avenue, New Yoik. 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



277 



How to Avoid Winter Losses. 

BY MRS. OLIVER COLE. 

I will say to those who are yet in- 
quiring and desirous of knowing the 
best way to winter bees, that we are 
never too old to learn and should keep 
reading and learning even if we have 
met wiih heavy losses in the past, for 
we live in an age of iinprovenieiitaud 
progressit)n. To my mind to know 
how to winter bees successfuily is the 
greatest problem in bee keeping and I 
will give my way of putting up bees 
for winter. To do so successfully 
means thorough and careful attention. 
These are too often neglected by farm- 
ers who have much work to do and 
this is the cause of many losses. The 
question of large or small hives does 
not matter so very much if the bees 
are put in the right condition. I pre- 
fer the month of October to pre- 
pare bees for winter, as all honey 
gathering is then over. We should 
ascertain how much stores a colony 
has, and if they need feeding it should 
be done. Every colony should be 
overhauled carefully. First I raise 
the cover and carefully smoke the 
bees down from the top of the frame. 
I lift out the center frames first and 
look for the queen. As soon as she is 
found I place the frame she is on in 
front of the hive, the bees seldom 
leaving the frame. Then I proceed 
to work without fear of killing 
the queen, lifting all the frames out 
and setting them up against the hive. 
Very often worms will be found in 
the bottom of the hive and around the 
frames that would surely destroy the 
colony in a few months, and they can- 
not be seen, nor can we learn the 
amount of honey the bees have in store 
without lifting out the frames. If I 



can not find the queen and see eggs 
and larvai or sealed brood I know she 
is in the hive, but if I do not see eith- 
er I give the colony a young laying 
queen that I always have in my api- 
ary. Before returning the frames to 
the hive I place a half inch strip of 
wood across the fiont and back on 
which to hang the frames so as to keep 
them from the bottom of the hive so 
that dead bees can be easily pulled 
out in the winter and thus preventing 
the hives from becomming clogged 
and the air being shut out destroying 
the ventilation. Then I give nearly 
one inch space between the combs for 
the bees to cluster in cold weather. If 
there is any brood in the combs I 
place it in the centre and put the 
heaviest combs of honey on each side 
the lightest being on the outside. My 
hives admit of nine combs prepared in 
this way. If they are not well filled 
I put on a feeder and feed granulated 
sugar syrup. If there are plenty of 
bees and brood I feed as much every 
evening as they will take in through 
the night, and if I find any queenless 
colonies I give them a queen and feed 
half a pound of sugar syrup every 
evening to stimulate the queen to lay- 
ing for a couple of weeks in order to 
have young bees for the winter, as 
they will be the bees for business in 
the spring. A weak and queenless 
colouv built up in this way will come 
out in better condition in the spring 
than a very large colony of old bees. 
If the queen is old she will stop laying 
early and her bees will go into winter 
quarters in poor condition and are lia- 
ble to dwindle oft" through the spring 
from old age. 

It is very necessary to know the age 
of your queens ami requeen every two 



278 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



October 



years. Next moiUh I will endeavor 
to relate the way 1 keep the age of my 
queens, and will also give a descrip- 
tion of my favorite hive for wintering, 
and also how 1 winter successfully. 

After taking off the feeders I use 
the Hill Device, and if you do not 
happen to have any you can use eight 
half inch sticks laid crosswise the 
frames two ways. Cover these with 
thin burlap so the moisture can escape 
and place on top a burlap cushion fill 
ed with oat chaff ten inches or more 
thick. I innke such cushions to fit 
the inside of the hive. The way is to 
cut the burlap in two pieces size of 
hive inside, then cut a strip ten inch- 
es wide and long enough to sew around 
one of the square pieces. Then sew 
in the other piece leaving one end 
open so that it can be filled with the 
chaff. This makes a square cushion 
that fills all the corners in the hive. 
I never u?e anything but cushions to 
cover hives in winter. 

Sherburne, N. Y. 

Crimson Clover. 

BY L. STAPLKS. 

The value of crimson clover for the 
purpose of a fertilizer crop is the chief 
subject of thought at this time by 
farmers in every state. Reports re- 
ceived from all parts of Michigan 
show that crimson clover passed the 
winter well and a large crop of hay 
and seed was secured. 

Crimson clover is a native of Italy 
and other parts of southern Europe. 
It is not entirely new to this country 
but only recently begun to attract at- 
tention. Crimson clover is an annual 
and must be sown in its proper season 
•which extends from the first of August 
until the last of November. The seed 



germinates very quickly and grows 
very rapidly and makes a good fall 
and winter pasture. It seems to flour- 
ish in all soils and is apparently more 
hardy than the common red clover 
and stands the drouth better. It 
yields two to three tons of hay and six 
to ten bushels of seed to the acre. It 
is also a valuable bee plant. The 
honey is very white and of excellent 
quality, but its greatest value lies in 
its ability to store up plant food and 
at the same time send down its deep 
feeling roots far into the sub-soil to 
gather and bring to the surface ele- 
ments of fertility tt">at would be other- 
wise lost. Early in May the flowers - 
ap[)ear and the field changes from a 
deep green to a brilliant crimson, 
making a sight worthy to behold and 
to lemember. Its great beauty is not 
exceeded by the finest flower that 
adorns yard or garden. 

■ If any of the readers of the Ameri- 
can Bee Keeper would like to testa 
little crimson clover seed I will send a 
trial package for a couple of stamps 
for postage. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. Box 503. 
\^m ■ ■ ■■ ^» 

We will duplicate the prices on 

hives and supplies offered by any 
first class manufacturers — and in 
many cases can do even better by 3^ou 
than anyone else. 



"How to Manage Bees " is a 50c 
book for beginners in bee keeping. 
We will send it postpaid for 25c. 

Clubbing List. 

We will send the American Bee Keeper with 
the— 

American Bee Journal, 
American Apiculturist, 
Bee Keeper's Review, 
Canadian Bee Journal, 
Gleaninps in Bee Culture, 



UB. PRCE. 


BOTH. 


($1 00) 


81 35 


( 75j 


1 15 


(1 00) 


1 35 


(1 00) 


1 25 


(1 00) 


1 35 



189(5. 



THK ASTHmWAN BEE-KEEPER. 



271) 



^^"i^MS^Jit'^^^::^Z^:^.y^^ 




Kd. Am. Bek Ki:kper', Dear Sir: — 
I Would offer the following; suggeblioiis 
to bee keepers as lo the best way to 
get the iijdsl out of extracted honey : 
Put it up in small packages and urge 
sale and consumption in your vicinity 
which you can do il' you begin early 
in the season. You can put your 
honey in small sized jjuckages and dis- 
pose ol' it as well as bottlers in the 
city can. Peoj)le in country tiwus 
appreciate the value of honey better 
than people in the city do, who know 
very little about how honey is produc- 
ed and are suspicious and think all 
extracted honey is adulterated, especi- 
ally so after it becomes granulated. 

If you have a large crop of extract 
ed honey I would not advise putting 
all in small packages, but [)ut it up 
that way as fa<t as you can sell it and 
the balauce in 160 pound kegs and 
send it to the city market to be sold 
to nianufacfureis and Polish Jew 
trade, these two being the largest con- 
sumers of honey outside the bottlers. 

We notice a sniall size glass jar on 
the market that helds a half pound of 
hooey. It is quickly hiied and simply 
sealed so it don't leak as all screw top 
jars do when turheil sideways. These 
jars cost about 2c when filled. They 
can be sold at the popular price of lUc 
to the consumer, which is e(jual to 
about 15c per pound, and sell at whole- 
sale for f 1.00 per dozen. For ship- 
ping tliey come packed two dozen in a 
racked case, and make a very attract- 



ive shipping case. If anyone wishes 
any further details I will be pleased 
to answer any inquiry as to where one 
can procure these packages. 

Yours Respectfully, 

H. R. Wright. 
Albany, N. Y„ Sept. 15, 1896, 

TiiE W. T. Falconer M'f'g Co., 
Gentlenien: — I am about to make an 
exhibit of bees and honey at the ('uya- 
hoga fair to be held in Chagrin Falls, 
O.. on Sept. 22d to the 25th, and as I 
wish to exhibit one of your Chaut. 
hives and have none on hand I enclose 
an order for one. For several years 
I have taken first premiums with the 
Chautauqua hive, and consider it the 
best in the world for all purposes. 
We have wintered on out-door stands 
and have never lost a colony in one. 
Some of them have been in use over 
ten years. * * * J. B. Hains. 

Bedford, O., Sept. 15, 1896. 



The W. T. Falconer M'f'g Co., 
Gentlemen: — The shipping cases and 
everything else ordered arrived all 
right. I am pleased with the way you 
fill orders and also the workmanship 
and the n)anner in which your goods 
are prepared and packed for shipment. 
Yours truly, H. ¥. Newton. 

Whitney's Crossing, Sept. 20, 1896. 



" HoAv TO Manage Bees," a 50c 
book, and the American Bee-Keep- 
er a year for only 60c. 



We are in need of articles for pub- 
lication at all times, especially cor- 
respondence. Write us a letter de- 
scribing your experience the past 
season. 



280 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



October 




(From Bee Keepers' Review). 

THE UNITING OF COLONIES-HU- 
MANE BEE KEEPING. 



BY L. A. ASPINWALL. 



It is questionable as to the advisa- 
bility of uniting colonies, aside from 
the timely preparation for winter. 



causes, have small colonies at the close 
of the season. 

The humane bee keeper will never 
destroy a colony, even if desired. 
Large colonies are, as a rule, more suc- 
cessfully wintered, and are the first, 
other things being equal, to be ready 
for the honey harvest. 

As small or nucleus colonies are 
usually deficient in stores, feeding is 
concomitant to the work of uniting. 
Colonies properly united and fed will 
arrange their food supply so as to be 
accessable during winter. Even if the 



Uniting in the spring is wholly un- combs are well supplied with honey a 
profitable— in fact, with the necessary little feeding will bring about a bet- 
preparation in autumn, all colonies ter arrangement of the stores. 
should winter successfully. The oc- Having decided that certain colon- 
casional loss of a queen, however,dur- ies are to be united, the hives should 
ing the winter will leave some to be "be gradually moved together. In so 
united with those of less than the av- doing, if one is properly located, the 



erage strength 

Doubling colonies as they issue is 
readily accomplished. Where swarm- 
ing is allowed several are liable to is- 
sue simultaneously^nd cluster togeth- 
er. When two so unite it will not pay 
to separate them, taking into consid- 
eration that increase in these times of 
overproduction is not desirable ; and, 
the two if hived tocjether will store 



others may be brought to it. By mov- 
ing them about one foot every three 
or four days the work can be readily 
accomplished with no loss of bees ad- 
hering to the old location. 

In uniting colonies 1 shall differ 
somewhat from the methods set forth 
by some bee keepers and the popular 
works on bee culture, especially in the 
use of smoke. The excessive use of 



rather more in average or poor seasons smoke both in queen introduction and 

than if hived separately. uniting is something to be depreciated 

Of course in uniting it is always ad- and is not humane. I shall here di- 

visable to preserve the best queens. A gvess somewhat from the subject of 

choice of queens cannot be made when uniting and speak of the humanity 

Swarms cluster together. Instead of g.i,ie (jf \^^q keepiiio-. 

swarms issuing haphazzard I prefer to Let those who are indifferent to the 



control them, and unite as th« circum- 
stances require. i 

In treating this subject I shall con- 
fine my remarks to autumn work. 
Many bee keepers raise a few queens, 
and: consequently have nucleus colon- 
ies to dispose of ; others, from various 



injurious eiftcts of too much smoke, 
recall the instances when even a little 
has been j)oured into the eyes and 
nose. Although the eyes of bees are 
doubtless less susceptible than our 
own, still the breathing organs are 
perhaps equally affected. The imme- 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



281 



diate fanning of the wings is undoubt- 
edly an instinctive act to drive the 
suffocating smoke from the spiracles 
or breathing organs. To say nothing 
of the injurious effects resulting from 
the excessive use of smoke, the col- 
ony is completely interrupted in its 
workings. With a proper or moder- 
ate use of smoke the colony is scarce- 
ly interrupted and many bees may be 
seen continually going and coming at 
the entrance. 1 have often been much 
shocked at seeing bee keepers when 
tiering supers carelessly crush many 
bees, also when manipulating frames, 
irritate the bees by rolling them 
against the adjoining combs — also 
crusl\ing them uuder the frame ends 
upon the rabbets. Furthermore the 
rough usage in jarring the hives by 
the careless use of covers and other- 
wise has a great tendency to make 
them irritable. I take this opportunity 
to urge bee keepers to consider the 
importance of being humane, to exer- 
cise this kindly treatment to all the 
creatures entrusted to their care. 

In proof of this argument let me say 
that 1 have never used a bee veil in 
my apiary, and, although occasionally, 
by some accident, I have felt the need 
of one, sttll, taking into account the 
inherent disadvantages in the use of 
them, I prefer the freedom of cool 
currents of air, and unobstructed vis- 
ion, as well as the convenience afford- 
ed by bare hands. However, not 
every bee keeper can do the same un- 
der these circumstances. The peculiar 
odor from some perions would not per- 
mit the non use of the bee veil. Per- 
sonally, its non use is due to humane 
bee keeping. I have had visitors who, 
upon walking through my bee yard 
were surprised at the docility of my 



bees, when really I have two colonies 
of yellow bees as difficult to subdue as 
Cyprians, and always ready to resent 
and remember rough treatment. 

I find that the honey bee becomes 
acquainted and familiar with the bee 
keeper who walks among the hives. 
In ray apiary one locality containing 
a few colonies are not as convenient 
to visit. I notice a ])erceptible differ- 
ence in the disposition of the bees — 
they seem to regard me as an intrud- 
er, and with their characteristic shrill 
note of inquiry dodge rapidly about 
my head. Instead of using a paddle 
upon such or any other occasion , it is 
best to avoid any retaliatory move- 
ments. The destruction of a bee is cer- 
tain to call one or more to its rescue, 
and the result will prove an increase 
of irritable guards. 

To return to the method of uniting. 
Upon bringing the colonies together 
it is best to have them face the same 
direction. I now provide a hive with 
wire cloth division boards, preferably 
a frame one quarter inch wide with 
wire cloth tacked on both side which 
prevents contact of the bees with those 
of the adjoining apartment. As I use 
a closed end frame hive with open 
side, this arrangement is easily made, 
and an entrance to each compartment 
in keeping with the hives containing 
colonies to be united. With all in read- 
iness, open the hives, using a little 
smoke, and transfer the combs and 
bees to an apartment on their respec- 
tive sides, giving an entrance to each. 
The inferior or mismated queen being 
removed will leave one side queenless. 
In a few days the bees, having be- 
come of like scent aad acquainted, 
will gradually leave, finding the en- 
trance of those possessing a queen 



283 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



October 



where they will be received as raein- 
bera of the same family. 

It being rather more difficult to ar- 
range a tight compartment in the 
Langstroth hive, a suitable box with 
rabbits and one or more .movable par- 
titions and entrances as described can 
be cheaply made and kept for this 
special purpose. 

Preferably, the work of uniting col- 
onies should be deferred until all 
breeding is over for the season, other- 
wise queen cells are likely to be con- 
structed in the queenless compart- 
ment. However, should it be desira-^ 
ble to unite during the breeding sea- 
son, the screen partition may be re- 
moved at the end of thirty-six hours 
using a little smoke. Daring a hon- 
ey flow, bees unite readily. 

Preparatory to uniting colonies, it 
is best to ascertain whether any have 
virgin queens, as such, by the ordina- 
ry methods cannot be united with 
those having a laying queen. The 
bees of the latter will kill those of the 
virgin queen colony until the last bee 
is destroyed. Having learned this by 
sad experience I have never attempt- 
ed to unite any by the compartment 
plan, but hope to experiment some- 
what the coming autumn. 

Jackson, Mich, 



(From American Bee Journal). 

BEES AND GRAPES-SOME EXPERT 
TESTIMONY. 

BY C. P. DADANT. 



In the last number of Gleanings in 
Bee Culture I notice an article by the 
editor in which he inquires into the 
damage done by bees to grapes, and 
asks whether we should lay all or part 
of the blame upon the bees. As this 
is one of the rare seasons during which 



bees are seen upon grapes in large 
numbers, I wish to make some re- 
marks upon the subject. 

We have a large apiary upon our 
home farm, but we have also a still 
larger vineyard, covering in all, now, 
13 acres. The season of 1879 was the 
first in which we noticed bees working 
on the grapes to any extent, and in 
that season considerable complaint 
came to our ears from neighbors who 
imagined that we were getting rich at 
their expense. The fact is that the 
bees were then starving, the drouth 
having destroyed all liopes of a honey 
crop. But the latter part of the sum- 
mer was wet, when it was too late for 
the blossoms to come out- This, wet 
weather caused fresh sap to flow in the 
stems of the vines, and the grapes be- 
came so full of juice that many of 
them burst. As a matter of course 
the tenderest berries, those that had 
the thinnest skin, split the worst. In 
addition to this, as there was no other 
fruits, the birds pounced upon the 
grapes with great greed. A near 
neighbor of ours who had a small vine- 
yard near a large timber said to us 
with great wrath ; 

'■J know how it is about our grapes; 
I have examined the matter carefully; 
it is the bees that do the damage, and 
they always make two holes in each 
berry, one just above the other." 

We tried to explain to him that the 
two holes were made by the beak of 
the bird when he was tired of eating, 
and still took pleasure in puncturing 
the fruit. This was plain and evident, 
especially as the berries were all punc- 
tured on the same side of the bunch. 
But nothing would do. He couid not 
see the birds at work, for they always 
came at day break, and are usually off 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



283 



before the vineyardist conies. But 
the poor bees, unaware of the harsh 
reputation they are iDaking for them- 
selves, visit the puuctured berries 
from moriiiug till uight aud the entire 
damage is charged to them ! 

Well, it was of no use to try to ex- 
plain; our man got angry, and would 
not speak to us any more, and we be- 
lieve that to this day he is of the 
opinion that the bees always make 
two holes in each berry. 

But can bees puncture grapes ? We 
have made repeated experiments, 
placing bunches of grapes inside of 
the hive, or attracting bees to bunches 
so placed that we could keep them 
under our eyes aud make sure that no 
other insects aud no birds could ap- 
proach, and we have invariably prov- 
en the assertion of Aristotle, made 
2,000 years ago and quoted by Mr. 
Langstroth as correct, viz ; that " bees 
hurt no kinds of sound fruits, but that 
wasps and hornets are very destruc- 
tive to them." 

This is plain aud easy to understand, 
most especially if one is acquainted 
with the shape of the mandibles or 
jaws, of the bee. " These jaws are 
short, thick, without teeth, aud bevel- 
ed inside so as to form a hollow when 
joined together, as tw^o spoons would 
do Wasps and hornets are fur- 
nished with strong, saw-like jaws, for 
cutting the woody fibre with which 
they build their combs, and can easily 
penetrate the toughest fruits." 

Some four or five years ago the prin- 
cipal of our high school, in a lesson in 
entomology, requested her pupils to 
give her a list of the insects injurious 
to fruits. The bees were placed upon 
this list and a discussion ensued. The 
attention of the president of the school 



board was called to the matter, and in- 
asmuch as tlie principal herself had 
positively declared against the bee, he 
came to me and requested me to come 
before the class and give them my ex- 
perience. 1 did so, but though no one 
tried to contradict my remarks on the 
natural history of the bee, it was evi- 
dent to me that a little actual practi- 
cal experience would go much further 
towards convincing my hearers than 
all the theories in the world. So I 
asked the principal whether she would 
have any objection to a practical test. 
I agreed to furnish the bees, to attract 
them to the school house, if the schol- 
ars would furnish the fruit. 

A day was set, grapes, pears and 
peaches were brought, and a little 
honey served to attract the bees. 
They came in numbers. Then the 
honey was removed and some damag- 
ed fruit given them. On this they 
worked though not so readily as on the 
honey. After they got fairly to work 
the damaged fruits were removed and 
sound fruits brought forward. With- 
in twenty minutes the bees had left in 
disgust. This test effectually put a 
stop to all further complaints of bees 
damaging sound fruit in this vicinity, 
and if there are any who still believe 
that they do puncture grapes they do 
not feel inclined to come forward and 
assert it openly. 

But is there not a real damage done 
by the bees on grapes that have crack- 
ed owing to rains, by an excess of flow 
of juice within the tender skin? 
Could not these grapes be saved by the 
grape grower ? Yes, they may be sav- 
ed if you pick them the same day. 
Otherwise they are worse than useless. 
Most of my readers have probably 
noticed in the fall, around the vines, 



S84 



TEE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



October 



or around the wine press, millions of 
small brown gnats, the same as you 
find around cider or vinegar barrels. 
We call them " vinegar gnats." As 
soon as grapes are punctured or crack- 
ed these gnats appear. They lay eggs 
upon the pulp and within 24 to 48 
hours the berry is full of little grubs 
just large enough to be seen with the 
eye. They hatch and produce so 
pleantifully that within a few days 
they darken the air in the vicinity. 

We are today making wine. The 
beams of our press house above the 
press and the wine vats are literally 
black with these little gnats. Would 
it not be better if the bees could take 
up all this juice when the berries are 
damaged than to have a nuisance like 
these gnats hatched and reared at the 
expense of the grape grower ? 

But suppose neither bees nor gnats 
worked upon the fruit after it is crack- 
ed, what then ? Within 48 hours the 
juice exposed to the air has begun 
fermenting, the fermentation is first 
alcoholic, then acetic, and you have 
sweet grape juice, wine, vinegar all 
upon the same bunch. Tell me, what 
are you going to do wilh that kind of 
mixture ? Had it not been better if 
the bees had taken all that threatened 
to spoil ? 

But here is another trouble and the 
worst of all for the apiarist. Those 
juices — grape juice, apple juice, etc., 
— are not capable of being changed to 
honey. If the bee harvests them in 
any quantity so much the worse for 
her for they will sour on her stomach 
during the loug nights of winter. 
Better, far better for our bees, if we 
could keep them out of the wine grow- 
ers' domain. Happily, there is honey 
to be gathered usually, when the 



grapes ripen, and it is not more than 
one year out of ten that the bees may 
be seen upon the damaged grapes- 
But it ts at least evident that the 
grape grower and the bee keeper are 
brothers, that their interests are iden- 
tical, and it is to be regretted that 
they do not always see it in that light. 
Hamilton, 111. 



(From The Southland Queen.) 

BEE KEEPING INf NEW MEXICO. 



BY W. C. GATHRIGHT. 



As a field for practical apiculture 
New Mexico has many advantages to 
offer. I will endeavor to give, briefly, 
some of the advantages and disad- 
vantages. 

To begin with wintering, I will say 
that it is no trouble to winter bees 
here, having succeeded the past winter 
in carrying through a number of three 
frame nuclei in hives with walls only 
f inch thick, and no other protection; 
our winters here are very dry, mild, 
and even temperature. We are never 
troubled with too early breeding as is 
the case with some of the more south- 
ern localities. 

Here in the Messilla valley there 
are no black bees, consequently apiar- 
ists have no trouble in keeping their 
Italians pure, and I have been told by 
the oldest bee keepers here that there 
has never been any disease known 
among bees since they were first 
brought here some 20 or more years 
ago. The main honey flow is from 
mesquite and alfalfa during spring 
and summer, and from golden rod in 
the fall. As to the honey crop there 
has never been an entire failure, 
though there have been some poor 
seasons, but even during the poorest 



1896. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



285 



seasons the bees have always gathered 
enough for winter from golden rod 
which is here in great abundance, and 
other fall flowers. Alfalfa makes four 
cuttings here so there is bloom almost 
continually throughout the season. 
The sumtper season is very hot, and I 
find it quite an advantage to wire all 
my frames, and hives must be paint- 
ed. I have never had any combs to 
melt down when in painted hives and 
facing east, so that the afternoon sun 
strikes the back end of the hive, but 
when the sun shines directly against 
the side of the hive at 2 p. m., there is 
great danger of the comb on that side 
of the hive breaking down. Bee-eat- 
ing birds are very numerous here in 
early spring; the only remedy is the 
shot gun. This season I have been 
having a great deal of trouble with 
ants; they kill the bees and eat them. 
They have killed several nuclei, and 
they frequently attack strong colonies. 
I have not yet succeeded in getting 
rid of them. Most apiaries here are 
located on a low piece of ground and 
water is turned on from irrigating 
ditches until the ground is thoroughly 
soaked, and in such places ants are 
kept in check, but the disadvantage 
is that if there is any work to be done 
in the yard it will have to be post- 
poned until the ground dries. 

The principal crops here are wheat, 
corn and alfalfa, the latter being the 
best paying crop as it makes four cut- 
tings per year. Apples, peaches, pears 
and grapes grow to perfection and 
immense quantities are shipped from 
this valley. As a winter resort this 
locality is growing in popularity. The 
number of people that come to spend 
the winter is increasing each year. 
Donna Anna, N. M. 



(From Progressive Bee Keeper). 

PREPARING FOR WINTER. 



IJY E. W. MOORE. 

It is now time to prepare our bees 
for winter and our success for another 
season depends on the way our bees 
are managed this fall and winter. In 
the rush of swarming time there are a 
good many hives set on the ground 
and now is the time to prepare suita- 
ble stands for them to set on, and save 
the bottom board from roting and 
to keep the bees dry and comfortable. 
It also makes it more convenient for 
the apiarist to work with if they are 
on a stand eight inches above the 
ground saying nothing about the dif- 
ference in looks. 

After all hives are prepared with 
suitable places or stands we are then 
ready to commence the most import- 
ant work of the season in wintering 
our bees successfully. Feeding bees 
so that all have plenty of stores for 
winter and early spring is no small 
item in a large apiary, provided we 
have to use sugar syrup. 1 always try 
and save enough extracting combs of 
nice sealed honey to do all my feed- 
ing, but then there are a great many 
who do not produce anything but 
comb honey so they must of necessity 
feed sugar syrup or extracted honey, 
and all my experience in feeding has 
been in favor of sugar syrup as it 
comes cheaper and 1 think that the 
bees winter better on it than they do 
on dark or fall honey. 

As for the best way of feeding I 
shall not try to say, but as for me I 
have not been able to find anything 
or way that has given more satisfac- 
tion than the quart can feeders. Each 
colony should have at least 25 pounds 



286 



THE AMERICAN BEE KEEPER. 



October 



of stores. Go to hive No. 1 and find 
the amount of honey it contains. Now 
if you find this colony has 13 pounds 
of honey, fill four quart cans with 
sugar syrup or honey, and tie a thin 
cloth over the top of them, and turn 
them upside down on something to 
catch what may run through the 
cloths. Put a super or cap on the bees 
and lay pieces \ inch square on top of 
brood frames for the cans to rest on. 
Now set your cans on the :^inch pieces 
directly over the cluster, spread quilt 
over cans, and make everything tight. 
In two or three days you can remove 
cans and cap and the job is done with- 
out any daubing or robbing among 
your bees. One man can feed fifty 
colonies of bees a day this way and 
stow them away for future use in 
another day, making two days' work, 
and if there is any other way to feed 
the above number of bees in two days 
I haven't been able to discover it as 
yet, unless I should want all bees in 
the yard to have extra stores. Then I 
should give them their feed out of 
doors away from the hives. Let any 
and all of the bees have free access to 
the syrup. Bees cannot winter suc- 
cessfully if the front of the hive is 
higher than the back of the hive. Al- 
ways have your hives so they will 
slope from the rear to the front, and 
they will always be dry inside. Ar- 
range some kind of wind break to pro- 
tect your hives from the cold winds, 
as bees cannot winter successfully and 
be allowed to stand where all the cold 
winds of winter have a fair sweep at 
thera. 

What shall we do this winter when 
it is too cold to work out of doors ? 
Shall we do as our bees are doing, or 
shall we try and use our time ? If I 
am able to judge of the future by the 
past, there is plenty to do for all wide- 
awake bee keepers. 

Griffin, Ind. 



FASHIONS IN NAMES. 

A young woman whose motlier was com- 
raonly called Bessie, her grandmother Liz- 
zie, and her great-grandmother Betsey, will 
now be apt to look on such playful diminu- 
tives with scorn, and her visiting cards will 
probably contain something like Elizabeth 
Tompkinson vSmith. What method her 
daughter will adopt there is not much to in- 
dicate ; but, whatever it may be, it can hard- 
ly differ more from the Elizabeth Tompkin- 
son style than that does from the earlier 
Lucie form or the still earlier Dolly fashion. 
Even Daisy, after its evolution from Maggie 
and Peggy and its vast popularity, has given 
way, to a grcHt extent, to Margaret or the 
yet more dignified Margaretta. 

The parted-in-the-middle style was once 
loved by many men for its supposed inher- 
ent elegance, and of not a few because it al- 
lowed them to hide an impossible first name 
by using only its first letter. As the pre- 
vailing fasliion would now demand of the 
latter class something like Abimelech Wal- 
worth Jones, they no longer have such a 
convenient means of avoiding the difficulty, 
unless they are willing to be behind the 
times.-^ William Ward Crane, in October 
Lippincott's. 

READER. 

A wonderful opportunity to have yonr 
home made cheerful and fragrant with the 
perfume of beautiful flowers throughout the 
coming winter, is offered by Wm. Elliott & 
Sons, seedsmen, 64 Dey St., N. Y. Estab- 
lished 1845. This firm, whom we know to 
be perfectly reliable, offer a collection of 50 
choice winter-flowering bulbs, in teii varie- 
ties, including the celebrated Easter Lilly, 
Hyacinths, Tulips, &c., alone valued at 
$1.50, in connection with a subscription to 
American Gardening, standard journal for 
flower growers. Send the above firm a pos- 
tal card and they will give you full particu- 
lars by return of mail. This offer will not 
be repeated. 

Wm Gerrish, East Nottingham, N 
H., keeps a complete supply of our 
goods and Eastern customers will 
save freight by ordering from him. 



1890. 



THE AMERICAN BEE-KEEPER. 



287 



The flmeriean gee-Keeper, 

I'lnU.ISHKI) .MONTlll.V HY 

THE W. T. FALCONER MANFG CO. 



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