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Full text of "The American book of the dog. The origin, development, special characteristics, utility, breeding, training, points of judging, diseases, and kennel management of all breeds of dogs"

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THE -AMERICAN 



BOOK OF THE DOG. 



THE ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT, SPECIAL 

CHARACTERISTICS, UTILITY, BREEDING, TRAINING, 

POINTS OF JUDGING, DISEASES, AND KENNEL 

MANAGEMENT OF ALL BREEDS OF DOGS. 



HON. JOHN S. WISE, BERNARD WATERS, MAX WENZEL, B. F. SEITNER, HARRY MALCOLM, CHARLES 
K. WESTBROOK, COL. ROGER D. WILLIAMS, DR. Q. VAN HUMMELL, DR. M. G. ELLZEY, LAW- 
RENCE TIMPSON, WILLIAM LOEFFLER, J. L. WINCHELL, WM. WADE, H. F. SCHELLHASS, 
P. T. MADISON, WM. A. BRUETTE, F. H. F. MERCER, A. CLINTON WILMERDING, 
J. F. KIRK, J. OTIS FELLOWS, GEO. W. KIERSTEAD, AUGUST BELMONT, JR.,~VV. H. 
RUSSELL, DR. J S. NIVEN, FRANK F. DOLE, E. F. BURNS, P. H. COOMBS, 
J. H. NAYLOR, DR. H. T. FOOTE, Miss A. H. WHITNEY, HENRY JARRETT, 
J. E. DOUGHERTY, PROF. J. H. H. MAENNER, F. F.. LA.MB, L. F. WHIT- 
MAN, JOHN E. THAYER, MAJ. T. J. WOODCOCK, W. R. FURNESS, 
DR. G. IRWIN ROYCE, G. W. FISHER, MRS. ELROY FOOTE, 
Miss MARION E. BANNISTER, E. R. SPALDING, AND 
DR. J. FRANK: PERRY 



EDITED BY G. O. SHIELDS ("COQUINA"), 

AUTHOR OF "CRUISINGS IN THE CASCADES," "RUSTLINGS IN THE ROCKIES," "HUNTING IN THE 

GREAT WEST," "THE BATTLE OF THE BIG HOLE," "THE BIG GAME OF 

NORTH AMERICA," "CAMPING AND CAMP OUTFITS," ETC. 



CHICAGO AND NEW YORK: 
RAND, MCNALLY & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS. 

1891. 



a, 









COPYRIGHT, 1891, BY G. O. SHIELDS. 
All rights reserved. 



TlIE MORE I SEE OF MEN, 

THE BETTER I LIKE DOGS." 

Anonymous. 



(3) 

220G44 



PREFACE. 



To the ladies and gentlemen who have responded so 
generously to my requests for contributions to this book, 
I am profoundly grateful. To their efforts alone is due the 
production of this the grandest work on the dog ever pub- 
lished, in this or any other country. Without the co-opera- 
tion of such able and enthusiastic dog-fanciers, such a book 
would have been impossible. 

I arn also indebted to these and to other kind friends for 
the use of drawings and photographs, many of which were 
made especially for this purpose, and from which many of 
the illustrations have been produced. I am grateful to 
Dr. N t Howe, editor of the American Field, for the use of 
several electrotypes, and to many others who have contrib- 
uted to the success of the work in various ways. 

THE EDITOR. 



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CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION. .... Hon. John 8, Wise, 13 

THE ENGLISH SETTER. . Bernard Waters, 17 

Kennel Editor The American Field, and author 
of "Modern Training, Handling, and Ken- 
nel Management." 

THE IRISH SETTER. Max Wenzel, 45 

Secretary The Irish Setter Club of America, and 

B. F. Seitner, 
Vice-President The Pointer Club of America. 

THE AMERICAN GORDON SETTER Harry Malcolm, 75 

President The American Gordon Setter Club. 

THE POINTER Charles K. Westbrook, A.M. 97 

THE GREYHOUND. . Col. Roger D. Williams, 145 

President The Iroquois Hunting and Riding 

Club. 

THE DEERHOUND. . Dr. Q. Van Hummell, 171 

THE FOXHOUND. . . . _ . _ Dr. M. G. Ellzey, 189 

Associate Editor The National Economist. 

THE BASSET HOUND. _____ Lawrence Timpson. 209 

THE DACHSHUND. ______ William Loeffler. 217 

THE BLOODHOUND. _ J. L. Winchell. 241 

THE RUSSIAN WOLFHOUND _ William Wade. 261 

THE BEAGLE HOUND. ______ H. F. Sctiellhass, 269 

President The American-English Beagle Club. 

THE IRISH WATER SPANIEL. _ P. T. Madison, 291 

Secretary The Indiana Kennel Club. 
THE ENGLISH WATER SPANIEL. _ _ _ William A. Bruette. 301 

THE CLUMBER SPANIEL. _ _ _ _ _ F.H.F. Mercer, 305 

Kennel Editor Sports Afield. 

THE SUSSEX SPANIEL. _ _ _ _ A. Clinton Wilmerding. 323 

THE FIELD SPANIEL J. F. Kirk. 327 

THE COCKER SPANIEL. _ _ J. Otis Fellows. 337 

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8 CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG. . . _ _ George W. Kierstead. 357 

THE Fox TERRIER. . .' . _ . August Belmont, Jr., 373 

President The American Kennel Club, and The 

American Fox Terrier Club. 

THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER. _ . . _ . W. H. Russell. 395 

THE IRISH TERRIER. . _':'. _ . . Dr. J. 8. Niven. 413 

THE BULL TERRIER. ... . _ . Frank F. Dole. 425 

THE WHITE ENGLISH TERRIER. . E. F. Burns. 433 

THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. . . . ," P. H. Coombs. 437 

THE AIREDALE TERRIER. . _ . . . - F. H. F. Mercer. 457 

THE SCOTTISH TERRIER. . . . . . John H. Naylor. 465 

THE DANDIE DINMONT TERRIER. _ . . John H. Naylor. 471 

THE SKYE TERRIER. _____ Lawrence Timpson. 479 

THE BLACK AND TAN TERRIER. _ . . _ Dr. H. T. Foote. 489 

THE MALTESE TERRIER. - - . . Miss A. H. Whitney. 497 

THE COLLIE. _ _ _ . Henry Jarrett and J. E. Dougherty. 505 

THE OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG. . . , - - William Wade. 515 

THE GREAT DANE (German Dogge). . Prof. J. H. H. Maenner. 529 

THE ST. BERNARD. _ _ . . i" . . F. E. Lamb. 549 

THE MASTIFF. _ _ _ _"_ _. '..'_ William Wade. 571 

THE NEWFOUNDLAND. _ _ . , , , _ _, L. F. Whitman. 589 

THE BULLDOG. _ _ John E. Thayer. 599 

THE DALMATIAN COACH DOG. . . . Maj. T. J. Woodcock. 607 

THE POODLE . W. H. Furness. 615 

THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND. . _ . _ Dr. G. Irwin Royce. 629 

THE PUG. _ . * G. W. Fisher. 639 

THE MEXICAN HAIRLESS DOG. _ _ _ Mrs. Elroy Foote. 647 

THE TOY SPANIELS. _ ' .. _ _ Miss Marion E. Bannister, 655 

Secretary The American Pet Dog Club. 

THE SCHIPPERKE. _ . _ _ . E. R. Spalding. 665 

DISEASES OF THE DOG, AND THEIR REMEDIES. . Dr. J.Frank Perry, 671 

("Ashmont") Author of "Dogs, their Manage- 
ment and Treatment in Diseases." 

SPANIEL TRAINING. F. H. F. Mercer. 697 



FULL PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE. 

Chesapeake Bay Dog, Barnum, Retrieving: a, Wounded Goose, . Frontispiece. 
Flushed, ...... ... 17 

English Setter, Toledo Blade, .... 21 

English Setter, Cincinnatus, . ... 21 

English Setter, Gloster, _ _ . 34 

English Setter, Rowdy Rod, .... . 40 

Irish Setter, Ruby Glenmore, .... 46 

Irish Setter, Sarsfleld, ___.-_.... 49 

Gordon Setters, Malcolm and Gypsey, _ 76 

Pointers, Duke of Vernon and Miss Freedom, . 100 

Smooth-Coated German Pointer, Walden, 109 

Rough-Coated German Pointer, Ratiz, _ . . . . .111 

Pointer, Lady Dufferin, . 116 

Pointer, Robert le Diable, . ... 122 

Dead Bird, .'...--: . 126 

Pointer Puppies, ...._...-- 134 

Deerhounds, Phyllis, Robin Adair, Lady Dare, and Fergus, . . 180 
Irish Water Spaniel, King Slash ___..--- 294 
Millie and Jock, .__... 342 

Bedlington Terrier, Christmas Carol, - .398 

Bulldog, Bellisima, - 601 

Bulldog Puppies, . .604 



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SMALLER ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE. 

English Setter, Daisy Foreman, ._._._._ 32 

English Setter, Roderigo, ...... 38 

English Setter, Plantagenet, 42 

Irish Setter, Tim, . 52 

Irish Setter, Elcho, .... .... 66 

Irish Setter, Elcho, Junior, . 68 

Gordon Setter, Bob, . .... 81 

Gordon Setter, Little Boy, _ 86 

Gordon Setter, Pilot, _ 91 

Pointer, Croxteth, _ 129 
Pointer, Patti M., .137 

Greyhound, Master Rich, _ _ . 149 

Greyhound, Balkis, _ _ 160 

Foxhound, Joe Forester, _________ 190 

Basset Hound, Nemours, ......... 211 

Dachshund, Waldemann II., _ 218 

English Bloodhound, Bono, .... .242 

English Bloodhounds, Rosemary and Ripple, . 249 

English Bloodhound Puppies, _ _ 253 

English Bloodhound, Barnaby, . . 256 

Russian Wolfhound, Czar, . 262 

Russian Wolfhound, Elsie, .... 265 

Beagle Hound, Trailer, _ _ 271 

Irish Water Spaniel, Dennis O'Donoghuc, 292 
Irish Water Spaniel Puppies, . . .297 

Clumber Spaniel, Johnny, _ - 307 

Clumber Spaniel, Quester, ...... - 310 

Field Spaniel, Black Prince, ..... 329 

Cocker Spaniel, Doc, 338 

Cocker Spaniel, Brant, .......... 341 

Cocker Spaniel, Neptune, 346 

Cocker Spaniel, Mike, 349 

Cocker Spaniel, Jersey, .....--.- 353 

Chesapeake Bay Dog, Polly, 359 

Fox Terrier, Lucifer, . . . . . . . . .375 

Fox Terrier Puppies, 377 

Bedlington Terrier, Syrup H. , .404 

Bedlington Terrier Puppies, - 408 

(ID 



12 SMALLER ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE. 

Irish Terrier, Nora, . . . . -. ..... .415 

Irish Terrier, Mars, . .... . . - . . . . . 420 

Bull Terrier, Starlight, _ - , - ... . . .427 

Yorkshire Terrier, Lancashire Ben, . . ^ . . _ _ 438 
Yorkshire Terrier, Bradford Harry, . . y; .... 447 

White English Terrier, White Prince, . . ... _ 434 

Airedale Terrier, Weaver, _ _ . . . _ . . _ 458 

Scottish Terrier, Meadowthorpe Donald, . . . _ . . . ' 466 

Skye Terrier, Lovat, . _ . . . _ . ... .481 

Black and Tan Terrier Puppies, _ . . . . .' . 490 

Black and Tan Terrier, Meersbrook Maiden, - V . . . 493 

Maltese Terriers, Brendoline, etc., . _ . . . . ' . / 499 

Collie, Scotilla, . . ... ....'. . 507 

Collie, Boss, ___.._.___. 511 

Old English Sheep Dog, Sir Cavendish, . .... .517 

Great Dane, Minca Mia, . .'.-.. _ . . 531 

Great Dane, Don Caesar, ' ' . ...... . _ v . . 535 

Great Dane, Major, . . s , , . . . - . 540 

Great Dane, Juno, _ . .... . . . . 544 

St. Bernard, Sir Bedivere, . . . . . . ' . . 551 

St. Bernard, Prince Regent, . . - - - - ... .557 

St. Bernard, Otho, . . . ^ ...... 563 

St. Bernard Puppies, _ . 568 

Mastiff, Beaufort, .'.-.... . . . . 573 

Mastiff, Edwy, . ... ... . . . . .579 

Mastiff Puppies, _ 585 

Dalmatian Coach Dog, . 609 

Poodle, Pierrot, . . . u 617 

Diagram for Clipping Poodle, ... . . - . - 620 

Pug, Dude, . _ . . - . . . .... 641 

Mexican Hairless, Me Too, . . '. . .... . - .649 

King Charles Spaniel,. Romeo, . . . . ' . . . . 657 

Blenheim Spaniel, King Vic 1 tor, . . . . .' . - v - - 66 

Schipperkes, Midnight and Darkness, J. ... ,. . . ;. . 667 



INTRODUCTION. 

BY THE HONORABLE JOHN S. WISE. 



jj] T gives me great pleasure, at the request of the editor, to 
write an introduction to THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE 
/il DOG. Mr. Shields asked me, some months ago, to write 
an article on the Pointer for this work, and I deeply 
regretted that I was too much engaged at the time to 
comply with his request, for I felt then, as I do now, a 
deep interest in the success of his enterprise. However, 
my inability to join his staff did not prevent him from 
having that noble breed ably treated, for the gentleman 
whom he secured to write of it has prepared a most able, 
exhaustive, and instructive paper, as have nearly all the 
other contributors on the various breeds of dogs. 

Mr. Shields is too well known to the readers of sports- 
men' s literature to require any introduction, and in select- 
ing contributors to this work he has displayed rare good 
judgment. His list of writers embraces the names of a 
great many gentlemen who are recognized as leading 
authorities on the subjects of which they write. While 
these articles may, in some cases, be more or less tinged by the 
peculiar views of their authors, the book, thus drawn from 
many different minds, is not only very eclectic in character, 
but, in my judgment, much more correct and valuable, as a 
whole, than it could be were it the production of an indi- 
vidual. 

I have been particularly glad to notice that many of the 
writers have framed their articles on these lines, and have 
quoted largely from the writings of others, not contenting 
themselves with merely expressing their individual views. 

The book is exceedingly interesting. It is free, too, from 
the sameness of expression and treatment so often found in 

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14 INTRODUCTION. 

books of this character written by one man. It is, more- 
over, a very instructive book, and of practical value, in 
many features, to the owners and breeders of dogs. 

This is an American book, describing the American 
standard of dogs, the appearance of American dogs, and the 
American diseases of dogs, as well as the American reme- 
dies which will cure those diseases. By this I do not 
mean to belittle foreign animals or foreign literature on 
these subjects. On the contrary, the foreign literature, up 
to the present time, is far superior to ours, and all our dogs 
are descended from foreign importations. The idea I in- 
tend to convey by the above remark is that certain con- 
ditions and peculiarities of our climate vary not only the 
appearance of our dogs and the standards applicable to 
them, from the appearance and standards of other coun- 
tries, but the diseases to which they are subject and the 
treatment which should be applied to them. All these 
things are considered and dealt with in Mr. Shields' book 
in a way not, in the nature of the case, to be found in for- 
eign authorities, however excellent, and that is why I com- 
mend this as an American work. 

Another valuable feature of this book is the illustra- 
tions. Many of these are artistic and beautiful in a high 
degree. The portraits of several dogs of world- wide repu- 
tation are shown, and those of many other typical speci- 
mens, less widely known, add to the interest and attractive- 
ness of the work. Nearly every breed is illustrated, and of 
some breeds several good specimens are pictured. 

A statement of the value of American dogs would startle 
a stranger to the subject. It is no exaggeration to say 
that the aggregate salable value of sporting and pet dogs 
in this country amounts to several million dollars. Our 
bench shows and field trials are in every way equal, if not 
superior, to those of Europe. Canine interests in this coun- 
try have for years past engaged the careful attention of 
many of the most successful business men in this country. 
Excellent talent is employed in the larger American cities 
for the exclusive purpose of writing upon canine subjects; 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

and their journals are extensively and profitably circu- 
lated. 

Knowing all this, I am sure that a great demand will 
be found for so excellent and comprehensive a book as 
this. The topics treated in this work, to wit : The origin 
of breeds; their early history; development up to the pres- 
ent standard; special characteristics; utility, excellences 
and deficiencies; directions for training, for breeding, and 
for kennel management; notes on diseases, with directions 
and prescriptions for treatment of same; preparation for 
bench show or field trial; the future of the breeds all 
these are well selected and well treated. 

The special article on diseases and their treatment, by 
one of the most eminent living authorities, is of itself a val- 
uable addition to the library of the sportsman. 

I sincerely hope the book will meet with the cordial 
reception it deserves. 

NEW YORK, June 26, 1890. 





FLUSHED. 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 



BY BERNARD WATERS, 

Kennel Editor of the American Field, and Author of " Modern Training, 
Handling, and Kennel Management/ 1 



the origin of the English Setter, nothing 
is known to a certainty; but, in this particular, the 
tfe u\ absence of knowledge does not differ from that con- 

\P cerning all other old breeds of dogs. That the Eng- 
lish Setter is a very old breed is beyond question, as will be 
shown more fully hereinafter, by reference to some ancient 
literature on the subject; but that the ipse dixit of one or 
two ancient writers should be given so much credence is 
unaccountable. However, the obscurity, which envelops 
the past, quite as effectually prevents disproving any errors 
in the statements of the old writers as it does the proving 
of their statements to be correct. This is more particularly 
noticeable as, in the present day, captious critics are ever 
ready to differ from those who are more or less recognized 
as authorities, while accepting without question the say- 
ings of writers of two or three hundred years ago. Accord- 
ing to the popular belief, one which is supported by nearly 
every author of modern sporting literature, the English 
Setter is supposed to have originated in a Spaniel ancestry. 
To show on what this belief is founded, a few excerpts from 
recognized authorities will be presented. 

Stonehenge, in his work, "The Dogs of the British 
Islands" (edition of 1867), treats of the Setter as follows: 

As some difference of opinion appears to exist with regard to Setters, we 
have determined thoroughly to satisfy ourselves as to their origin and best 
form, and we have called all the best authorities to our assistance. We pro- 

2 (IT) 



18 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

pose to place the result of our labors before the public, and to add our own 
conclusions. 

There is no doubt that the sport of hawking was known and practiced by 
the ancient Britons, and that the Roman was totally ignorant of the science; 
but the invader at once came to the conclusion that the system might be 
improved, and introduced the Land Spaniel, if not the Water Dog also, into 
this country. 

These dogs roused the game, and this was all that the hawker required of 
them in those early days; but in after years, as we shall see, dogs were required 
to point, or, in the language of the quaint old WTiter, " sodainely stop and fall 
down upon their bellies," and having so done, when within two or three yards, 
"then shall your Setter stick, and by no persuasion go further till yourself 
come in and use your pleasure." 

At first, then, without doubt, the Spaniel was merely used as a springer 
for the hawk, which was subsequently neglected for the net; and the pro- 
pensity of the dog to pause before making his dash at game was cultivated 
and cherished, by breeding and selection, until, at last, gratified by observing 
the action of the net, he yielded his natural impulse of springing at all, and 
set, or lay down, to permit the net to be drawn over him. After this, the 
hawker trained his Spaniel to set; then he cast off his hawks, which ascended 
in circles, and "waited on" until his master roused the quarry from its con- 
cealment, when she pounced upon it like a pistol-shot. 

When used either with hawks or for the net (especially in the latter case), 
a far heavier dog answered the purpose than what we call a ' k High-ranging 
Setter." The net enveloped a whole covey in its meshes, and few manors 
w r ould allow of many coveys being taken in a day; whilst the disentangling 
the birds, and securing them, allowed time for the heavy dog to rest and regain 
his wind. 

Richard Surflet, who wrote in 1600, gives us the following information. 
Writing of the Field or Land Spaniel, "of which sith before no author hath 
fully intreated," he describes him as "gentle, loving, and courteous to man, more 
than any other sort of dog whatsoever;" and as " loving to hunt the wing of any 
bird, especially partridge, pheasant, quails, rails, poots, and such like." He 
tells us we are " to choose him by his shape, beauty, metal, and cunning hunt- 
ing; his shape being discerned in the good composition of his body, as when 
he hath a round, thick head, a short nose, a long, well-compast, and hairie 
eare, broad and syde lips, a cleere red eie, a thick neck, broad breast, short 
and well-knit joints, round feete, strong cleys (high dew-cley'd), good round 
ribs, a gaunt bellie, a short, broad backe, a thicke, bushie, and long-haired 
taile, and all his bodie generally long and well-haired. 

" His beautie is discerned in his colour, of which the motleys or piede are 
the best; whether they be black-and-white, red-and-white, or liver-hued-aud- 
white; for, to be all of one colour, as all white, or all blacke, or all red, or all 
liver-hued, without any other spot, is not so comely in the field, although the 
dogs, notwithstanding, may be of excellent cunning. 

"His mettall is discerned in his free and untired laboursome ranging, 
beating a field over and over, and not leaving a furrow untrodden, or one 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 19 

unsearehed, where any haunt is likely to be hidden; and when he doth it, most 
coragiously and swiftly, with a wanton playing taile, and a busie labouring 
nose, neither desisting nor showing less delight in his labour at night than he 
did in the morning. 

"And his cunning hunting is discerned by his casting about heedfully, 
and running into the wind of the prey he seeketh; by his stillnesse and quiet- 
nesse in hunting, without babbling or barking; but when he is upon an assured 
and certain haunt, by the manner of his ranging, and when he compasseth a 
whole field about at the first, and after lesneth and lesneth the circumference, 
till he have trodden every path, and brought the whole circuit to one point; 
and by his more temperate and leisurely hunting, when he comes to the first 
scent of the game, sticking upon it, and pricking it out by degrees; not open- 
ing or questing by any means, but whimpering and whining to give his 
master a warning of what he scenteth, and to prepare himself and his hawke for 
the pleasure he seeketh; and when he is assured of his game, then to quest out 
loudly and freely." 

After describing Spaniels which "delight in plains or the open fields," and 
others more adapted for covert, he goes on to say: "There is another sort of 
Land Spannyels which are called Setters, and they differ nothing from the former, 
but in instruction and obedience, for these must neither hunt, range, nor 
retaine, more or less, than as the master appointeth, taking the whole limit of 
whatsoever they do from the eie or hand of their instructor. They must never 
quest at any time, what occasion soever may happen, but as being dogs with- 
out voices, so they must hunt close and mute. And when they come upon the 
haunt of that they hunt, they shall sodainely stop and fall down upon their bellies, 
and so leisurely creep by degrees to the game till they come within two or three 
yards thereof, or so neare that they can not press nearer without danger of 
retrieving. Then shall your Setter stick, and by no persuasion go further 
till yourself come in and use your pleasure. Now the dogs which are to be 
made for this pleasure should be the most principall, best, and lustiest Spann- 
yel you can get, both of good scent and good courage, yet young, and as little 
as may be made acquainted with much hunting." 

There is no doubt that the Setter is a Spaniel, brought by a variety of 
crosses (or rather, let us say, of careful selections) to the size and form in 
which we now find him. He is the most national of all our shooting dogs, and 
certainly has existed for four centuries. His form probably has improved. 

The net used in different countries required the same character of dog. 
He might be slow, heavy, or slack, and soon fatigued, but he would answer 
the purpose. But when shooting flying superseded the use of the net, the 
moors, the Grampians, the Norfolk turnips (before they were sown in drills), 
the Irish potato-fields, the low Scottish wolds, or the fens of Lincoln, all 
required dogs of different types, accommodated to their several hunting- 
grounds. 

The description of the Setter's manner of hunting is 
both quaint and spirited; yet there is nothing whatever in 
the writings quoted which implies that the Setter had a 



20 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Spaniel origin. Palpably the Setter was then an established 
breed, as shown by the assertion that "there is another 
sort of Land Spannyels which are called Setters" That 
Setters and Spaniels should be classed as being of the same 
family, several centuries ago, is not remarkable; nor is it 
remarkable that a sporting writer' s dicta at that time should 
be unquestioned, since there were but few of them, and 
people at large were uneducated in such matters. With 
all the advantages of a sporting press, a multitude of 
writers, an extensive sporting literature, and numerous an- 
nual bench shows and field trials as educational institutions, 
there have grown up a wonderful diversity of opinion and 
misinformation in respect to the different breeds at the 
present day. It is not strange, therefore, that, in the year 
1600, Richard Surflet classed the Setter as a Spaniel, 
although, as mentioned hereinbefore, he refers to this breed 
as "another sort of Land Spannyel." 

In the chapter on the Sussex Spaniel, in the same work, 
Stonehenge says: "About the year 1555, a duke of 
Northumberland trained one 'to set birds for the net;' 
and soon afterward the Setter was produced, either by 
selection or by crossing the Talbot Hound and Spaniel." 
The utter absurdity and thoughtlessness of such an illog- 
ical statement is self-evident to anyone. 

A duke trained a Sussex Spaniel to point, and soon after- 
ward the breed of Setters was produced. Why could not 
all breeds be thus taught to point ? This is rendered still 
more absurd by the fact, well known to all students of 
natural history, that an educational act is not transmitted 
to the progeny. That Stonehenge was not quite positive 
in his inferences is shown by his remarks in the revised 
edition of the same work, published in 1878, wherein he 
treats the subject as follows: "The Setter is, without doubt, 
either descended from the Spaniel, or both are offshoots of 
the same parent stock, originally that is, before the 
improvements in the gum introduced the practice of shoot- 
ing flying, it is believed that he was merely a Spaniel 
taught to ' stop ' or ' set ' as soon as he came upon the 



22 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

scent of the partridge, when a net was drawn over the 
covey by two men; hence he was made to drop close to 
the ground, an attitude which is now unnecessary." There 
is thus an absence of positiveness in his later opinions on 
the subject; in fact, there is no proof adduced whatever to 
support the speculation. 

Gordon Stables briefly disposes of the subject, in " The 
Practical Kennel Guide," as follows: ''The Setter used to 
be called a ' Setting Spaniel,' and was known in England 
long before the Pointer, and was probably first introduced 
by the Romans." 

Laverack, in his work, "The Setter," says: 

\ I am of the opinion that all Setters have more or less originally sprung 
from our various strains of Spaniels, and I believe most breeders of any 
note agree that the Setter is nothing more than a Setting Spaniel. How the 
Setter attained his sufficiency of point is difficult to account for, and I leave 
that question to wiser heads than mine to determine. The Setter is said and 
acknowledged, by authorities of long standing, to be of greater antiquity than 
the Pointer. If this be true, and I believe it is, the Setter can not at first have 
been crossed with the Pointer to render him what he is. 

A more modern writer, one who is generally very sound, 
and always instructive, Mr. Hugh Dalziel, treats the subject 
at some length. The following quotations give the main 
points of his position: 

Difficult as it admittedly is to trace the history of any of our modern 
breeds of dogs, although in so many instances their manufacture, if I may use 
the term, into their present form is of comparatively recent date, there is, in 
respect to the Setter, a general agreement among writers and breeders that our 
present dog is largely derived from the Spaniel; indeed, the proofs of this are 
conclusive. The family likeness is, in many respects, yet strongly preserved; 
and in some kennels where they have kept pretty much to their own blood, 
following different lines from our show and field-trial breeders, this is markedly 
so. The writer on Setters in the Sportsman's Cabinet, 1802, tells us that in 
his day, in the northern counties, the Pointer was called the Smooth Spaniel, 
the Setter the Rough Spaniel; and although he speaks of this localism with 
surprise, as a misnomer, it was really the preservation of an old distinction 
the Setters, or Setting Spaniels, being so named to divide them from their 
congeners, used for different work, and named Cockers and Springers. 

Somewhat inconsistently with the conclusion that "the 
proofs are conclusive," Mr. Dalziel continues: 



THE ENGLISH SETTEE. 23 

Whether the modern Setter has been produced from the Spaniel by care- 
ful selection, or by a cross with the Pointer or some other breed, it is difficult 
to decide. 

In the American Kennel and Sporting Field, the late 
Arnold Barges voiced the common belief in the following : 

The best of modern writers, among whom I may mention Stonehenge, 
Laverack, Idstone, all say that the Setter is a- direct descendant of the Land 
Spaniel, and speak of a Setting Spaniel as the first Setter. There is no doubt 
that this is the correct theory, and that our Setter is a pure, unadulterated, but 
improved Spaniel. 

Briefly, nearly all modern writers, owners, and breeders 
hold these opinions in the main, there being some variation 
here and there; but however much these beliefs may vary 
one from another, they all have their inspiration in the facts 
that the Setter was in ancient times called a "Setting 
Spaniel," and that he has some analogies in common with 
the Spaniel. 

A few of the objections against the theory that the 
aboriginal ancestry of the Setter was in the Spaniel may 
be mentioned: 

First. The arguments and proofs adduced are founded 
on such imperfect data, with no contemporaneous support, 
that they could be applied with equal force in proving that 
the Spaniel is a variation of the Setter. "Setting Span- 
iel" might be a localism, as was calling the Pointer a 
"Smooth Spaniel." 

Second. Those who assert that the Setter is an improved 
Spaniel are not positive or consistent in the assertion, and 
depend more upon the numerous repetitions of matters of 
hearsay, all of which center more to the inconclusive fact 
that some centuries ago the Setter was called a "Setting 
Spaniel," than upon any absolute knowledge. 

Third. If the Land Spaniel had such an inherent tend- 
ency to variation, it would undoubtedly have multiplied 
the variations, thus forming numerous sub- varieties, or dis- 
tinct breeds. It is well known, however, that the Setter 
breeds true to race-forms, as does also the Spaniel. 

Fourth. If the Spaniel did throw off a variety for 
"without some variation there could not have been any 



24 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

change of form it would probably have been lost by inter- 
crossing with the parent type, by the natural tendency of 
animal organizations to revert to parental forms, or by the 
destruction of the variation as being mongrel. This con- 
jecture is not improbable, since no breeder at the present 
day would consider his stock pure if the progeny were not 
true to type, nor would he allow such progeny to exist; 
therefore there is no probability that such variation would 
be cultivated and preserved, even if it existed. 

Fifth. There would, in all probability, be in existence 
numerous intermediate gradations of forms from the Setter 
to the Springer, showing more or less perfectly the different 
stages of transition; for it is hardly tenable to suppose 
their total destruction, leaving the two breeds distinctly 
established, without any connecting link between them. 

Sixth. There is an absurdity in the statement that a 
Spaniel was taught to point, and that soon thereafter the 
instinct became general; for if one educational matter- 
became hereditary, why did not all others become heredi- 
tary at the same time and in the same manner ? 

Seventh. The pointing instinct, t as exhibited by the 
Pointer and Setter, is applied for their own profit in hunt- 
ing, and has no reference whatever to the purposes of the 
gun. 

In advancing on their prey, of which game birds are but 
a part, Setters (and, for that matter, Pointers also) must 
approach cautiously on the birds which are lying close and 
concealed from view. The dog must rely solely on his pow- 
ers of scent in his approach to the place of concealment, and 
must locate the birds with precision to make a success of 
his effort. As he approaches the birds, his muscles become 
tense, preparatory to the spring to kill, and he stops for a 
few moments to gauge the distance and location of the birds, 
then springs with astonishing quickness and precision, and 
not infrequently effects a capture. If he has the birds accu- 
rately located as he draws to them, the preparatory pause, 
technically called the point, will be very short, or perhaps 
there will be none. This phenomenon is such as is exhibited 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 25 

by dogs in training, and not such as is exhibited by broken 
dogs. It requires a long course of training to bring the dog 
to steadiness on his points to subserve the purposes of the 
sportsman; but this only shows that, by training, the sports- 
man has diverted to his own use a quality which is an aid 
to the dog in gaining a food-supply in a state of nature, the 
dog being a carnivorous animal. That the act of pointing, 
so far as its practical application is concerned, is but par- 
tially instinctive is demonstrated by the various methods 
which the Setter has in pursuing his prey; for instance, 
when drawing on the trail of birds, he is mute, and shows 
the greatest caution in avoiding making any noise, knowing 
that noise would alarm the prey and destroy all chances, as 
a chase after birds would be hopeless. In chasing rabbits, 
which are a part of his prey, and which he hunts with 
greater zest than birds, he gives tongue merrily and makes 
no attempt at caution. That this trait of pointing may also 
be acquired is a well-attested fact. The writer had a Bull 
Terrier which was an excellent squirrel-dog. From seeing 
an occasional ruffed grouse shot, he learned that they were 
objects of pursuit. When he struck the trail, he would 
road cautiously and silently, making a point at the proper 
place with excellent judgment, and in this manner, by his 
intelligence, giving many good shots. On squirrels, he was 
noisy and rapid in his work. There are a number of such 
instances mentioned by authors. 

Yet the popular belief, in respect to the purposes of the 
pointing instinct, is opposed to these views. 

The following, from " British Dogs," contains the gist of 
the popular teachings and belief on the subject: "I look 
upon the form exhibited by Pointers, and some Setters, 
when standing to game as an inherited habit, the result 
of education. The stop, or point, voluntarily made by our 
dogs now, is the inherited result of training the breed, gen- 
eration after generation, to forego the spring onto the game 
natural to a carnivorous animal, in order to serve the gun." 
This is quoted as being an accurate expression of how the 
pointing instinct was developed; therefore it will serve as 



26 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

an expression of the general belief and not as that of a 
single individual. 

It does not explain in the least how the instinct origi- 
nated, for at the beginning it could not be "an inherited 
habit, the result of education." It is still more inexplica- 
ble when we remember that so few individuals were taught 
to point. Moreover, educational properties are not trans- 
mitted; if so, the constant training which dogs have received 
in domestic life, for innumerable generations, would be 
inherited; that they are not can readily be seen when com- 
paring the behavior of a dog which has been reared in and 
about the house, from puppyhood, with that of one which 
has been reared exclusively in a kennel. Other educational 
acts which are constantly taught to all dogs are not inher- 
ited; therefore, why should an act taught to a few dogs 
become instinctive in a breed of dogs ? It is against all 
experience that an educational act taught to one genera- 
tion should be transmitted to succeeding generations. The 
horse, through many centuries, has been given a thorough 
education, one which included a much larger percentage of 
the breed than does the education of Setters; yet the colts 
of to-day have to be educated precisely in the same manner 
as their parents were. Thus if one educational quality 
became instinctive by education, why did not all other edu- 
cational qualities, which were equally or more uniformly 
taught, also become instinctive ? This merely shows an 
inconsistency in the position; but even without this, it is 
untenable, otherwise the teachings of naturalists must give 
way to the speculations of those who have given the matter 
superficial consideration. 

Darwin, in "The Origin of Species," when speaking of 
instinct, says : 

Domestic instincts are sometimes spoken of as actions which have become 
inherited solely from long-continued and compulsory habit; but this is not 
true. Again, as in the case of corporeal structure, and conformably to my 
theory, the instinct of each species is good for itself, but has never, as far as 
we can judge, been produced for the exclusive good of others. 

In other words, an animal never has an instinct for the 
benefit of some other animal; instincts being directly for 



28 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG'. 

the benefit of the individual having them, or the preserva- 
tion of the species. This subject admits of much greater 
scope in treating it, but sufficient has been advanced already 
to give the reader a fair general knowledge of all that is 
known of the origin of the Setter. He may have had a 
Spaniel ancestry; but whatever his origin, it is now in the 
realms of speculation. At best, there is no relation what- 
ever between such a trifiing cause and such a great and 
unrelated effect; however, the main proofs to sustain the 
belief that the Setter had a Spaniel ancestry are fully set 
forth, so that the reader can form his own conclusions. 
When carefully analyzed, there is but one conclusion; i. e., 
that the origin of the Setter is not known. 

The development of the English Setter, and his rise to 
his present high place in the appreciation of sportsmen, are 
matters of a comparatively recent period. Numerous 
strains existed in England, each of which had its admirers 
and supporters, and for each special claims of excellence 
were made. 

In this country, the stages of transition in the develop- 
ment of the English Setter have been somewhat irregular 
in respect to progress; but, at the present time, it is gener- 
ally conceded that the high-class English Setter, as he 
exists in this country, has no superiors. The first impetus 
given to the general improvement of the English Setter in 
America was due to the importation of some of the best 
blood from England, and the coincident growth of field 
trials. The Laveracks, a strain so called from having been 
bred and preserved by the late Mr. Laverack, through his 
life-time, had a great deal of prominence in the sporting 
world, although the purity of his breeding, and, conse- 
quently, the pedigrees which he presented to the public, 
were questioned as to their correctness by prominent 
breeders, and, it would seem, with a great deal of justness; 
for there are many matters incidental to them which it is 
difficult to explain consistently with Mr. Laverack' s pre- 
tensions. 

The first field trials the inception of general progress 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 29 

in field sports in America were run near Memphis, Tenn., 
in 1874, under "the auspices of the Tennessee Sportsmen's 
Association. For four or five years thereafter, general 
progress was slow; breeders having so many conflicting 
interests and theories in regard to breeding, as to which 
were the best strains, that it required a certain length of 
time to determine which were the best dogs, and which 
the best methods of training thus approximating to at 
least a general agreement on sporting matters. Although 
there are still many which are unsettled, because of the 
whims, preferences, prejudices, beliefs, different needs and 
training of sportsmen, it is a matter for congratulation 
that they are educated to a point where differences of 
opinion are now confined to large classes of sportsmen- 
one class against the other where, a few years ago, it was 
each individual's opinion arrayed against those of all 
others. 

The field trials furnished an available public test to 
determine the claims of the different breeds and strains to 
superiority. The importation of the blue-bloods, so-called, 
led to the keenest of competitions in the field trials with 
the native stock; the result demonstrating the superiority 
of the imported stock to the native. The win of a dog at 
a field trial added largely to his monetary value, as well as 
to the satisfaction of his owner in having the best, or one 
of the best dogs; thus establishing a standard for others to 
strive for. In this manner, the spirit of rivalry or emula- 
tion which the competition engendered, created a wide- 
spread and active demand for better dogs as to field-work, 
and purer blood as to breeding. This, in turn, resulted in 
engaging breeders in efforts to supply the demand; and as 
the blue-bloods added to their victories over the native Set- 
ter, the latter dropped more and more out of the competi- 
tion, until, at the present day, they are seldom represented 
in the field trials, and but little in the pedigrees of the 
favorite lines of breeding in most instances not at all. 
En passant, it may be said that the native Setter had 
many admirable qualities, but was chiefly deficient in the 



30 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE : DOG. 

speed and dash of the imported stock. The Llewellin Set- 
ter a cross of the Duke-Rhsebe blood on the Laverack a 
strain of English Setters bred by Mr. Llewellin (England), 
found greater favor with sportsmen in this country than 
any other strain; and the fine -bred English Setter in this 
country at the present time has more of this blood than 
any other, although it has largely lost its claim to the name 
of Llewellin; that is, a cross of the Duke-Rhsebe blood on 
the Laverack. 

With field trials there came a demand for a higher 
grade of skillful training; and as the occupation became 
fairly remunerative, as well as congenial to men who were 
passionately fond of shooting, it rapidly was monopolized 
by them, and soon reduced to a fine art at least, in so far 
as the complex composition of a dog's nature would permit. 

The special characteristics of the English Setter are his 
beauty of form; his rich, silky, glossy coat; his intelligence; 
his merry, dashing manner of hunting in the field; his keen 
scent; and his remarkable judgment in the application of 
his efforts, and adaptability to the character of the grounds 
and the habits of the game birds which he is hunting. 
Combined with these are great pow r ers of physical endur- 
ance, which he usually retains until the encroachments of 
age impair them. In motion and on point, the English 
Setter is the embodiment of beauty, spirit and grace. The 
high-class English Setter finds and locates his birds with 
great rapidity, when he once catches the scent of them; in 
fact, any habitual hesitancy or pottering are elements of 
certain defeat, in a competition. 

As shown by the records of public competitors, the char- 
acter and extent of ownership, and the preference and 
opinions of the most expert sportsmen, the English Setter 
is the superior of all other breeds for work on game birds.* 

* Among those who are prominent as breeders or owners of good English 
Setters may be mentioned J. Shelley Hudson, Covington, Ky. ; the Memphis 
and Avent Kennels, Memphis, Tenn. ; C. Fred Crawford, Pawtucket, R. I. ; 
A. M. Tucker, Charlestown, Mass. ; Dr. S. Fleet Speir, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; 
Theodore Morford, Newton, N. J.; A. H. Moore, Philadelphia, Penn.; E. W. 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 31 

In breeding Setters, if superior field performances are 
the qualities to be attained, the rules for guidance are 
simple. Breed only to dogs of the highest individual 
merit. Breeding to a poor dog, simply because his brother, 
or other blood relation, is a known good performer, is the 
most fallacious theory in breeding. The poor dog is much 
more predisposed to transmit the poor qualities which he 
has than the good qualities of his related blood which he 
has not. By such course, the best strain can be, in time, 
rendered utterly worthless. Without this care in selection, 
or material of the proper quality to select from, but little 
progress, if any, can be made in improving the stock. The 
Setter, being a working dog, should be bred on as near a 
working type as possible a type which admits of a com- 
bination of speed, strength, and endurance. The elegant 
racing-lines of the Greyhound admit of the exercise of great 
speed, but it can not be sustained for any comparatively 
great length of time. The Setter requires a symmetrical 
but stronger construction, the demands of his work requir- 
ing that he should be able to work all day, or several days 
in succession, at a reasonably fast pace. Gradually, how- 
ever, the breed of English Setters has been diverging into 
two types one encouraged by bench shows, the other by 
the demands of practical field sportsmen. The former is of 
a cobbier type, with a preference for a needless profusion 

Jester, St. George's, Del. ; T. Donoglme, La Salle, 111. ; John Bolus, Wooster, 
Ohio ; Edward Dexter, Buzzard's Bay, Mass. ; P, Henry O'Bannon, Sperry- 
ville, Va.; Thomas Johnson, Winnipeg, Man.; Dr. J. E. Hair, Bridgeport, 
Conn.; Davey & Richards, London, Ont.; N. B. Nesbitt, Chesterville, Miss.; 
P. H. &D. Bryson, Memphis, Tenn.; W. C. Kennerly, White Post, Va.; F. 
Windholz, 528 Sixth avenue, New York City; Dr. N. Rowe, editor American 
Field, Chicago, 111.; George W. Neal, Westville, Conn.; the Item Kennels, 
Bethlehem, Penn. ; H. F. Schellhass, No. 6 Brevoort Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; 
S. Gardner, box 160, Mount Vernon, N. Y ; Dr. H. Clay Glover, 1293 Broad- 
way, New York City; Gen. W. B. Shattuck, Cincinnati, Ohio; Hempstead 
Farm Kennels, Hempstead, L. I. ; Rosecroft Kennels, 102 Chambers street, New 
York City; J. E. Dager, Toledo, Ohio; S. L. Boggs, 91 Fifth avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Penn. ; and Cohannett Kennels, Easton, Mass. There are many others 
that I should like to mention, but it is impossible, for want of space, to give 
anything like a complete list. ED. 



32 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

of feather fashion having, in a measure, taken the Setter 
from his domain as a working dog and transferred him to 
domestic life as a pet and companion; a position to which 
his docility, intelligence, symmetry of form, beautiful 
coat, and affectionate disposition eminently qualify him. 

Bench shows and field trials have become established 
institutions, and gain a stronger and wider support year 
by year. The preparation of a dog for either, entails a great 
deal of skillful labor and diligent attention. For a bench 




DAISY FOREMAN 
Owned by George W. Neal, Westville, Conn. 

show, a dog must be in the highest physical condition; 
therefore in the highest state of health. These can only be 
accomplished by regular feeding, exercise, grooming, and 
cleanliness in his yard and sleeping quarters particulars 
which, by the way, should be observed at all times, whether 
preparing for competition or not. 

A Setter, when mature, should be fed but once a day. 
This is sufficient either at work or rest; but it should be 
good, wholesome food, and all that the dog will consume. 
A liberal proportion of meat may be used; in fact, when at 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 33 

work, the dog may with advantage be fed on a meat diet 
exclusively. During the close season, the dog, if confined, 
should have as large a yard as possible for the purpose of 
exercising, and thereto the owner should give him a run 
night and morning. The dog is a nervous, restless animal, 
generally of unlimited energy and spirits, and plenty of 
exercise is an absolute requirement to keep him in good 
health. In connection with feeding a dog, it may be men- 
tioned that it is a mistake to give a dog a large, hard bone. 
The dog will gnaw it by the hour, but he gets no nourish- 
ment, and wears out his teeth. Young dogs may be fre- 
quently seen with their front teeth worn to the gums, from 
the effect of this kind of misdirected kindness. Soft bones, 
which the dog can crush easily, such as the ribs of sheep, 
etc., keep the teeth white and clean, and gratify the dog's 
craving for bones. 

Good, clean straw makes an excellent bedding. It 
should be changed as often as it gets broken or soiled; 
about twice a week will usually be often enough, unless the 
weather should be very rainy and the ground muddy, 
when it should be changed of tener. Where but one or two 
dogs are kept, any dry, clean out-building will do for a 
kennel; or a small kennel can be made at little expense. 

The field training of a dog is an art on which there is a 
voluminous literature. The modern trainer has improved 
greatly on the methods of his predecessors, and the Ameri- 
can trainer of the present has no peer in his special calling; 
a calling which has its hardships, however, for it is shorn 
of all artificial advantages which are incidental to training 
on a preserve in England. The trainer, when the training 
season begins, locates in some favorable section in the South, 
where he has an abundance of old fields, open and cover, 
and where birds are known to be plentiful; thus training 
his dogs in actual hunting. In this manner, they get their 
education in practical work. The trainer has to reconcile 
himself frequently to the discomforts of poor lodgings, 
worse fare, and isolation from congenial civilization. But 
fondness for the dog and gun overcomes all the hardships 

3 



34 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

of the profession, and the trainer often can not be induced 
to engage in more remunerative and settled occupation. 
The prices for training a dog vary from $] 00 to $150, accord- 
ing to the perfection in training which the owner desires, or 
the reputation of the trainer winning at field trials adding 
to a trainer' s reputation and to the demand for his services. 

An English Setter of good breeding, showing superior 
merit and winning in competition, is worth from $500 to 
$2, 000, taking the sales of the past few years as a standard 
by which to judge. 

The training of a dog requires from five to six months to 
complete, under the tuition of a skillful trainer. When 
the dog is ten months or a year old, he is at the best age 
for training, having then sufficient physical development to 
endure the work, and mental capacity to understand it. 

The methods of training in vogue at the present time 
differ radically from those of a few years ago. Then it was 
assumed that a dog should be trained in every detail, even 
in the manner in which he should perform his work; now 
the dog is taught to direct his efforts in the interest of the 
gun, but the manner, being natural to him, is developed to 
its greatest capacity simply by giving the dog ample 
experience to exercise it; for without ample experience to 
learn methods of hunting, after his own manner, he can not 
make progress in skillful hunting. 

The most essential qualities in hunting are pointing and 
ranging. To become a skillful performer and proficient in 
the first quality, a dog must have delicate scenting powers 
and great judgment in using them; to be a good ranger, he 
must have good speed which is well and uniformly main- 
tained, and great stamina to sustain long- continued periods 
of work. To these he must add great intelligence, to the 
end that his efforts be directed with judgment; the intelli- 
gence displayed in his methods being commonly called 
"bird sense." A dog possessing the latter quality will be 
incomparably superior to one without it, even if the latter 
is equal or superior in other qualities. A dog having 
bird sense " hunts out his ground in the most thorough, 



. . 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 35 

yet intelligent manner. He takes Ms course from one 
likely place to another, makes a circuit about likely fields 
to strike the trail of anything which may be feeding, 
avoids bare, unpromising ground in his casts, and always 
takes advantage of the wind in beating about, in thicket or 
open. The dog which beats about without any plan in his 
work, hunting promising and unpromising ground alike, 
never becomes a skillful finder. The dog having "bird 
sense ' ' always has a good memory, and if hunted on any 
grounds once or twice, will remember the location of every 
bevy found, and hunt them out afterward with remarkable 
quickness. Therein lies the great superiority, in this 
country, of intelligent ranging over the artificial method of 
beating out the ground, called quartering, in which the 
dog is required to beat out the ground at right-angles to 
the course of his handler; thus going constantly in parallel 
lines excepting when turning at the ends, the distance 
between the parallels being theoretically the range of the 
dog's nose. Thus a dog with keen, sensitive functions of 
smell could take wider parallels than one whose nose was 
dull or poor. In this country, no attention is paid to the 
teaching of quartering by the expert handler; and indeed 
it is not required. If a dog in hunting out large tracts of 
country can not do so intelligently, he is imperfect as a 
hunter, and no artificial methods of ranging can supply 
the natural deficiency. In England, quartering is useful, 
for the reason that the grounds and manner of cultivation 
favor it; but what in this respect is advantageous there, is 
not so here. 

The education of a dog should begin when about ten 
months or a year old. It should not be inferred that noth- 
ing whatever should be done before such age; on the con- 
trary, a great deal is taught, but it is done by taking the 
puppy out for exercise runs, and by associating him with 
his master, thus enabling him to learn a great deal from his 
own observational powers. Hence a puppy should never be 
kept chained in a kennel if it is possible to avoid it. At 
ten months or a year old, the puppy has outgrown many of 



36 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

the frivolous habits of puppyhood, besides having more 
physical and mental capabilities. 

The trainer first gives the pupil a thorough course of 
yard-training, teaching him to "Drop" (to lie down to 
order and signal), to "Hold up" (to rise to order and sig- 
nal), to " Go on " or " Hie on," to walk at heel, to "Come 
in," and to retrieve, although the latter accomplishment is 
better left out till his second hunting season. 

To teach the dog to drop, tie a cord, about three or four 
feet long, to his collar; hold the cord in the left hand, a 
whip in the right. Give the order "Drop" and a moderate 
cut of the whip on the shoulder at the same instant; repeat 
this till the dog lies down, being particularly careful to 
avoid hurry and to use the ordinary tone of voice. After a 
few moments, speak to him kindly and give the order 
"Holdup." 

Be careful to guard against such noise or violence as will 
frighten the dog. When done properly, no fears are 
excited. Let the lesson last about fifteen or twenty min- 
utes; then pet the dog a few minutes before giving him his 
liberty, so that his fears, if he have any, will be dissipated. 
Give two lessons each day, regularly, and regular progress 
will soon be apparent. 

"Hie on" or "Go on" is easily taught when exercising 
the dog; the order which frees him from restraint being- 
consonant with his inclinations always, is soon learned. 

More time should be taken to teach obedience to the 
order "Heel" during the yard-breaking, as, if taught thor- 
oughly, the dog may become habituated to walking behind 
his master, and may come in from hunting whenever 
uncomfortably fatigued or warm, and thus acquire a very 
annoying trait, which will be difficult to cure, or may pos- 
sibly be incurable. 

When actual field-work begins, it is the better way to let 
the dog have his own way for several days, and, if he be 
timid or indifferent, several weeks, if necessary to develop 
his courage or interest. Coincidently, he is learning 
methods of pursuit and a general knowledge of details per- 



THE ENGLISH SETTEE. 37 

taming to hunting. The dog is gradually brought into sub- 
jection by regular hunting and skillful use of the check- 
cord and whip, always avoiding such punishment as will 
destroy the dog's ardor or excite violent fear of his master. 
As to the manner of reading and pointing, it should be left 
entirely to the dog; the effort of the trainer being directed 
toward establishing steadiness on the point and ranging to 
the gun. If the trainer be constantly endeavoring to estab- 
lish some ideal manner of working, he will find himself 
engaged in a most profitless, wearisome, and endless task; 
for instance, if the dog roads his birds naturally, it is a loss 
of time to endeavor to make him proficient in hunting for 
the body-scent, with a high nose, etc. The aim should be 
to develop the capabilities which the dog has, rather than the 
capabilities which some other dog has and which he has not. 

Retrieving is taught either by what is called the natural 
method, or by force. In the former, advantage is taken of 
the dog' s fondness for play during puppyhood. An object, 
commonly a ball or glove, is thrown out, and the puppy 
runs after it, takes it in his mouth, and is ready for a frolic. 
By degrees he is brought to fetch it to command. With age 
the playfulness disappears, and with regular lessons the 
obedience, from regular discipline, becomes habitual. 

The majority of trainers and handlers order their dogs 
too much. The fewer orders that can be given, the better; 
and the most artistically trained dog is the one which will 
work steadily to the gun without orders. 

The following standards and points of judging for the 
English Setter are taken from Stonehenge: 

Value. Value. 

Skull.. 10 Feet 8 

Nose 10 Flag 5 

Ears, lips, and eyes 4 Symmetry and quality 5 

Neck 6 Texture of coat and feather 5 

Shoulders and chest 15 Color 5 

Back, quarters, and stifles 15 

Legs, elbows, and hocks 12 Total 100 

The points of the English Setter may be described as 
follows : 

The sJcull (value 10) has a character peculiar to itself, 
somewhat between that of the Pointer and Cocker Spaniel 



38 



THE AMEKICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



not so heavy as the formers, and larger than the latter' s. 
It is without the prominence of the occipital bone so 
remarkable in the Pointer; is also narrower between the 
ears, and there is a decided brow over the eyes. 

The nose (value 5) should be long and wide, without any 
fullness under the eyes. There should be, in the average 
dog Setter, at least four inches from the inner corner of the 
eye to the end of the nose. Between the point and the 
root of the nose there should be a slight depression a,t all 




RODERIGO 
Owned by Memphis and Avent Kennels, Memphis, Tenn. 

events, there should be no fullness and the eyebrows 
should rise sharply from it. The nostrils must be wide apart 
and large in the openings, and the end should be moist and 
cool, though many a dog with exceptionally good scenting 
powers has had a remarkably dry nose, amounting in some 
cases to roughness, like that of shagreen. In all Setters, 
the end of the nose should be black, or dark liver- colored; 
but in the very best bred whites, or lemon-and-whites, pink 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 39 

is often met with, and may in them be pardoned. The 
jaws should be exactly equal in length, a " snipe-nose," or 
" pig- jaw," as the receding lower one is called, being greatly 
against its possessor. 

Ears, lips, and eyes (value 4). With regard to ears, 
they should be shorter than the Pointer's, and rounded, 
but not so much so as those of the Spaniel. The ' ' leather ' ' 
should be thin and soft, carried closely to the cheeks, so 
as not to show the inside, without the slightest tendency to 
prick the ear, which should be clothed with silky hair, little 
more than two inches in length. The lips also are not so 
full and pendulous as those of the Pointer; but at their 
angles there should be a slight fullness, not reaching quite 
to the extent of hanging. The eyes must be full of anima- 
tion, and of medium size, the best color being a rich brown, 
and they should be set with their angles straight across. 

The neck (value 6) has not the full, rounded muscularity 
of the Pointer, being considerably thinner, but still slightly 
arched, and set into the head without that prominence of 
the occipital bone which is so remarkable in that dog. It 
must not be "throaty," though the skin is loose. 

The shoulders and chest Rvalue 15) should display great 
liberty in all directions, with sloping, deep shoulder-blades, 
and elbows well let down. The chest should be deep rather 
than wide; though Mr. Laverack insists on the contrary 
formation, italicizing the word wide in his remarks on page 
22 of his book. Possibly it may be owing to this formation 
that his dogs have not succeeded at any field trial, as above 
remarked; for the bitches of his breed, notably Countess 
and Daisy, which I have seen, were as narrow as any Setter 
breeder could desire. I am quite satisfied that on this point 
Mr. Laverack is altogether wrong. I fully agree with him, 
however, that the "ribs should be well sprung behind the 
shoulder;" and great depth of the back ribs should be 
especially demanded. 

Back, quarters, and stifles (value 15). An arched loin is 
desirable, but not to the extent of being "reached" or 
" wheel-backed " a defect which generally tends to a slow, 



40 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

up-and-down gallop. StiHes well bent and set wide apart, 
to allow the hind legs to be brought forward with liberty in 
the gallop. 

Legs, elbows, and Jiocks (value 12). The elbows and 
toes, which generally go together, should be straight; and 
if not, the "pigeon-toe," or in-turned leg, is less objec- 
tionable than the out-turn, in which the elbow is confined 
by its close attachment to the ribs. The arm should be 
muscular, and the bone fully developed, with strong and 
broad knees; short pasterns, of which the size, in point of 
bone, should be as great as possible (a very important 
point), and their slope not exceeding a very slight deviation 
from the straight line. Many good judges insist upon a 
perfectly upright pastern, like that of the Foxhound; but 
it must not be forgotten that the Setter has to stop himself 
suddenly when at full stretch he catches scent, and to do 
this with an upright and rigid pastern causes a consider- 
able strain on the ligaments, soon ending in "knuckling 
over;" hence a very slight bend is to be preferred. The 
hind legs should be muscular, with plenty of bone, clean, 
strong hocks, and hairy feet. 

The feet (value 8) should be carefully examined, as upon 
their capability of standing wear and tear depends the util- 
ity of the dog. A great difference of opinion exists as to 
the comparative merits of the cat and hare foot for stand- 
ing work. Foxhound masters invariably select that of the 
cat; and as they have better opportunities than any other 
class of instituting the necessary comparison, their selection 
may be accepted as final. But as Setters are especially 
required to stand wet and heather, it is imperatively neces- 
sary that there should be a good growth of hair between, 
the toes; and on this account a hare foot well clothed with 
hair as it generally is must be preferred to a cat foot 
naked, as is often the case, except on the upper surface. 

The flag (value 5) is in appearance very characteristic of 
the breed, although it sometimes happens that one or two 
puppies in a well-bred litter exhibit a curl or other malfor- 
mation, usually considered to be indicative of a stain. It is 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 41 

often compared to a scimiter, but it resembles it only in 
respect of its narrowness; the amount of curl in the blade 
of this Turkish weapon being far too great to make it the 
model of the Setter' s flag. Again, it has been compared to 
a comb; but as combs are usually straight, here again the 
simile fails, as the Setter's flag should have a gentle sweep; 
and the nearest resemblance to any familiar form is to the 
scythe, with its curve reversed. The feather must be com- 
posed of straight, silky hairs; and beyond the root, the less 
short hair on the flag the better, especially toward the 
point, of which the bone should be fine, and the feather 
tapering with it. 

Symmetry and quality (value 5). In character, the Set- 
ter should display a great amount of "quality," a term 
which is difficult of explanation, though fully appreciated 
by all experienced sportsmen. It means a combination of 
symmetry, as understood by the artist, with the peculiar 
attributes of the breed under examination, as interpreted 
by the sportsman. Thus, a Setter possessed of such a frame 
and outline as to charm an artist would be considered by 
the sportsman defective in "quality" if he possessed a 
curly or harsh coat, or if he had a heavy head, with pend- 
ent, Bloodhound-like jowl and throaty neck. The general 
outline is very elegant, and more taking to the eye of the 
artist than that of the Pointer. 

The texture and feather of coat (value 5) are much 
regarded among the Setter breeders; a soft, silky hair, 
without curl, being considered a sine qua non. The feather 
should be considerable, and should fringe the hind as well 
as the fore legs. 

The color of coat (value 5) is not much insisted on among 
English Setters, a great variety being admitted. These 
are now generally classed as follows, in the order given: 

(1) Black and white ticked, with large splashes, and more 
or less marked with black, known as "blue belton;" 

(2) orange and white freckled, known as orange belton; 

(3) plain orange, or lemon and white; (4) liver and white; 
(5) black and white, with slight tan markings; (6) black 



42 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

and white; (7) liver and white; (8) pure white; (9) black; 
(10) liver; (11) red or yellow. 

To show the present high type of the modern English 
Setter, several portraits of well -known prize-winners are pre- 
sented. The exquisite symmetry, combined with strength, 
in the English Setter are thus made apparent to the eye. 

Daisy Foreman (A. K. C. S. B., No. 5711), famous as a 
bench-show winner, was whelped June 14, 1885. She is by 
Champion Foreman, out of Jolly Nell. She is black, 




PLANTAGENET. 
Bred by Mr. J. C. Higgins, Wilmington, Del. 

white, and tan, with a ticked body, and evenly marked. 
Her weight is forty-three pounds. Her winnings are as 
follows: First in puppy class, New York, 1886; second 
and two specials at Waverly, 1886; first and special for 
best English Setter at Danbury, 1886; first at Stafford 
Springs, 1886; fourth and special at Newark, 1887; second 
and special at Providence, 1887; first at Boston, 1887; first 
at Hartford, 1887; first at Hornellsville, 1887; first at Dan- 
bury, 1887; second at New York, 1887; second at New 
York, champion class, 1888; second at New Haven, chain- 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. 43 

pion class, 1888; second in challenge class at Boston, 1889; 
first in challenge class at Boston, 1890 in fact, she is one of 
the best English Setter bitches bred in America, She is 
owned by Mr. George W. Neal, Westville, Conn. 

Cincinnatus and Toledo Blade are both owned by Mr. J. 
E. Dager, Toledo, Ohio, and are renowned as combining 
both bench and field-trial qualities. Cincinnatus is black, 
white, and tan; is by Count Noble, out of Dido II., the 
choicest Setter blood of the world. He divided third, all- 
age stake, Southern Field Trial Club, 1888; divided fourth, 
all-age stake, Eastern Field Trials Club, 1889. On the 
bench, he won first and four specials, Columbus; third, 
open class, and first, novice class, New York, 1889; first 
and silver medal for best English Setter placed in any field 
trial in America, Chicago; first and two specials, Toledo, 
1889. 

Toledo Blade is black, white, and tan; is by Roderigo, 
out of Lillian, famous for the transcendent superiority of 
their qualities afield; and the breeding also is of the very 
choicest. Toledo Blade won second in the all-age stake of 
the Southern Field Trial Club, 1888; second, all-age stake, 
of the Eastern Field Trials Club, 1889; first in the all-age 
Setter stake, Southern Field Trials, 1889. At bench shows, 
he was V. H. C., Columbus; second at Chicago, 1889. 

Roderigo, owned by the Memphis and Avent Kennels, is 
black, white, and tan; is by Count Noble, out of Twin 
Maud, and is recognized as a dog of decided superiority. 
He won first in the all-age stake, National Field Trial 
Club's trials, 1885. He has distinguished himself as a 
wonderful sire, having to his credit a list of remarkable 
field-trial winners in his progeny. 

Plantagenet is a lemon belton, by Dashing Monarch, 
out of Petral, and a celebrated bench-show -dog a few years 
ago, although he was not fine enough in form, being too 
heavy in the shoulders and a bit coarse to suit modern 
ideas of what the Setter's physique should be. 

Rowdy Rod, a phenomenal son of Roderigo, out of 
Juno A., is a young dog which ran in his puppy form last 



44 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

year, and by the very superior character of his perform- 
ance, excited the admiration of the most exacting field-trial 
fancier. He won first in the Eastern Field Trials Club' s 
Derby, first in the Central Field Trial Club's Derby, second 
in the Southern Sportsmen's Association's all-age stake, 
1890. He is black and white in color, and besides being a 
workman, is handsome withal. He is owned by Mr. George 
W. Ewing, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Gloster, owned by Mr. James L. Breese, Tuxedo, New 
York, is black, white, and tan, by Dashing Rover, out of 
Trinket; hence he also has a royal canine parentage. In the 
field trials he has been a most formidable and successful 
competitor, vanquishing the most noted dogs of the day in 
public competition, as the following list of winnings will 
show: First, members' stake, and divided second in all -age 
stake, Eastern Field Trials, 1886; first in all-age stake and 
first in champion stake, same club's trials, 1887; first, mem- 
bers' stake, same club's trials, 1888; second, members' stake, 
same club's trials, 1889. 




THE IRISH SETTER. 



BY MAX WENZEL, 

Secretary the Irish Setter Club of America, and 

B, F. SEITNER, 
Vice-President the Pointer Club of America. 



LD writers have advanced the theory that our Setter, 
as a species, is the product of the mating of a Span- 
iel with the Hound; and this seems to be as plausible 
as any other that has been offered. The bird-chasing 
instinct of the Spaniel, mixed in the offspring with the love 
for fur which is inherent in the Hound, may have had the 
effect, at the earliest age, of an undecidedness in the pres- 
ence of game. Being at first unable to decide whether, 
according to Spaniel instinct, to bark and jump the game, 
or whether to be ruled by his Hound ancestor and follow 
the foot-scent, he may have stopped suddenly; thus estab- 
lishing the first point on game. A genius of a sportsman, 
seeing the usefulness of such a quality, probably encouraged 
and perfected it by further training, giving us the long and 
the short haired pointing bird-dog. This theory may 
appear to some readers as lacking in the matter of authen- 
ticity, and yet to me it appears reasonable. 

All breeds of Hounds and Spaniels have no doubt been 
used in these numerous crosses, accounting for the great 
variety of our pointing dogs; but as regards the Irish 
Setter, I am inclined to believe that the Red Spaniel, 
crossed on the old English Bloodhound, has formed the 
parental stock. I have seen many Red Spaniels; have 
examined them closely as to color and coat; I have com- 
pared the characteristics of the Bloodhound with the Irish 
Setter, also in many individuals, and have plainly met the 
points of either one or the other in nearly every speci- 
men so examined. Not to appearance alone need we con- 
fine ourselves in this investigation, for the Bloodhound 

(45) 



46 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

type is displayed, not only in the over-prominent occiput, 
the pendulous ears, the deep flews, but also in the voice and 
in the carriage of the tail; and above all, in the abominable 
style of so many Irish Reds in the field, who follow scent 
with nose close to the ground, carrying their tails curved 
over their backs without any action at all. 

Many sportsmen of modern ideas condemn the Red 
Setter on account of these defects found in individuals, and 
there is a wide-spread prejudice that he is very head- 
strong, requiring breaking every season, and is unreliable 
on game; yet few that have owned really good ones are 
willing to concede all this. Such assertions have their 
origin, not in practical trial of good specimens of the breed, 
but largely in the rehearsal of superannuated writings. 

If you will compare the oldest works on the dog with 
our modern writings, especially of English origin, you will 
find the same old story, copied by one from another, credit 
seldom being given; and the whole breed suffers to-day 
from the criticisms probably well deserved of some rank 
specimen that may have lived before the flood. 

This is not an uncommon occurrence in books on various 
subjects, more especially those treating of natural history; 
and we may often excuse the author, for he errs through 
ignorance. 

No breeder of any of our best strains of Irish Setters will 
acknowledge that they are less tractable or more forgetful 
than other sporting dogs indeed, I know many that are per- 
fect in disposition, at home or afield; and while they are full 
of fire and are high-strung as a rule, if given the proper train- 
ing, they will prove all right, and even more enduring than 
most other breeds of Pointers or Setters. The fact that many 
professional hunters use and prefer the Red Setter, speaks 
volumes in favor of his high' qualities and endurance. 
For the hardest kind of every-day work, during the whole 
season, we see many market-shooters use the Red dog, as 
the most reliable to work on partridge and woodcock, in 
cold or hot weather alike. Are not these men competent to 
select the dog that suits their purpose best \ They certainly 



THE IRISH SETTER. 47 

are; and many of them select the Red Irish Setter, for the 
reason that it takes the very best dog extant to bag the 
grouse and the woodcock in such numbers as to earn 
living wages for his master. For the English snipe, the 
Red Setter, as a rule, proves the toughest, fastest, and 
keenest-nosed Setter; and he is reliable, in all weather and 
under all conditions, on this as on other game. 

Can any modern Pointer or silk-and- velvet English Setter 
do this work as well as the Irish Red ? Let them try the 
snipe on a raw, windy March day up to their hocks in slush 
and icy water; will they, especially the Pointer, not rather 
go around the ditches than through them ? Have you ever 
seen the English Setter or Pointer shiver from head to foot 
while at such work ? These breeds are good in their places; 
but the Red Irish is good under all conditions. 

In connection with the claims made here for this breed, 
I regret to say that working a Red Irish on game and keep- 
ing the same dog for bench-show purposes is generally out 
of the question, as work in the field unfits this breed, 
almost absolutely, to compete with those specimens that 
are kept and pampered for the bench alone, where a rich, 
dark, glossy coat seems to be valued above any and every 
other quality. So we must either keep one kind or the 
other the dude or the workman. 

Having exhibited Irish Setters every year since 1876, at 
most of our shows, and having been fairly successful as a 
breeder, I should be content with my lot; yet the more I 
see, the more convinced am I that the improvements we 
look for in our favorite breed will not be realized through 
bench shows, because the average fancier will be guided by 
the awards of the bench-show judge; and that which should 
be his object, namely, the raising of good field dogs, will be 
lost sight of, unless he can prove, by indisputable evidence, 
that the prize dog is also backed by a field record for speed, 
style, and above all, nose. 

Through the bench shows, it has also become fashionable 
to suppress the white in this breed; and nowadays many 
sportsmen know little or nothing of this noble breed other 



48 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

than the fact that there must be no white on him; and it 
has gone so far that a dog, be he ever so good, that has a 
white spot would neither be salable, nor would he be ever 
noticed at a show. You may rest assured that those who 
judge a Red Setter in that manner have not gone any further 
than the A, B, C of the matter. I refer all such to the 
English Stud Book, wherein it is shown that the white is 
perfectly legitimate, and that it may be found in every good 
strain for many generations. It is so, has been so always, 
and will be so forever. Indeed, it is, in my judgment, a 
proof of purity of blood rather than anything else; for less 
white is found in strains known to have the Gordon blood 
than in the absolutely pure. Besides, the English and our 
American standards admit the presence of white on chest or 
toes, and a blaze or strip in forehead. The fashion, how- 
ever, overrules in this, as in many other things, good com- 
mon-sense; and I see that some of our enterprising breeders 
are regulating their prices on this basis. Are we progress- 
ing 3 Not unless we make it our first aim, in breeding, to 
reach that degree of perfection which we find in the modern 
English Setter and the high-class Pointer of to-day, in 
their field-work. 

In order to attain these ends, I see no better way than 
the rule followed by old-time sportsmen, to always select 
the best working specimens, those possessed of high speed, 
grand style, and perfect nose, and mate them with others as 
good, or if possible, still better. Pay less attention to breed- 
ing on paper and to the pedigree theory. Never mind the 
show condition and the dark color, unless we find these all 
in the one specimen; but remember what has been said 
before on this subject. 

That one mating of two good specimens will do all you 
desire, can not be expected. I have frequently noticed 
that the sire will transmit his good qualities to the bitch 
puppies, and they again will reproduce them in their male 
offspring, oftener than directly to their own sons. What- 
ever quality is bred for, must be constantly looked to for 
several generations. This is the only sure way to get 




(49, 



50 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

uniform results. Inbreeding, to some extent, is not harm- 
ful; indeed it is the only reliable course, if practiced within 
proper limits, with well-selected individuals, as the breed- 
ing of all domestic animals has abundantly proven. It 
will take but a few years of such breeding to produce 
puppies that will go afield, at almost any age, and instinct- 
ively hunt and chase birds. They will be full of point and 
style, and will require less than half the breaking 6ur dogs 
now require. 

I have always made my youngsters mind me, and am 
assisted by the example of the older dogs. I have them 
come to me when called, teach them to charge anywhere, 
and soon have them under full control. All this can be 
done by kindness; and while some professional handlers 
use and advocate force, I believe the less of it that is used, 
the better the dog will be. An expert handler once told 
me that the first thing he does with an Irish Setter puppy 
when he takes it in hand is to give it a sound thrashing. 
It is needless to say that he will never be intrusted with a 
puppy of mine. 

Most Irish Reds are of a kind, affectionate disposition, 
and are easily trained. Desj)ite their reputation, I have 
found this so, year in and year out, in my own kennel; 
and I have had many that have taken to game as natu- 
rally as to walking. ' A long time ago, I owned a fine young 
bitch, and wanted her trained. She was sent to a market- 
hunter in Sullivan County, New York. Three months later, 
I went there to see my dog on game. She was taken out, 
reluctantly, by the trainer, who must have been the more 
surprised of the two of us, for she pointed both partridges 
and quails in good style, and without command; made use 
of the retrieving she had been taught by me, in spite of as 
I subsequently learned the fact that she had never been 
off her chain since I sent her to him. I was satisfied, of 
course; and to this day I have not had a better-nosed nor 
a stancher dog. I have hunted her for years, to my entire 
satisfaction; she is living now, and is nearly fourteen years 
old. 






THE IRISH SETTER. 51 

Another illustration is my old Champion Chief. He has 
always been the same steady, reliable, every-day dog; first 
or last in the season, he would point his birds stanchly, 
and needed no repeated breakings. The first one has lasted 
him so far very well; and while "old in years, he still looks 
fine and is in perfect health, confirming my experience that 
Setters of this breed, while maturing later, outlast most of 
the dogs of other breeds. A letter recently received from 
South Carolina confirms this still further, as Doctor Jarvis 
writes me that his Champion Elcho, Junior, though nine 
years old, hunts day in and day out, and does most excel- 
lent work for him. 

My experience with this breed dates back nearly twenty 
years, and I feel able to guarantee this disposition of our 
strain of dogs, and to state that in all this time I have never 
owned a vicious one. I have seldom seen one that would 
not make an excellent playmate for a child, yet I have had 
many that were most perfect watch-dogs, and that showed 
more than human intelligence in discriminating between 
proper and improper sounds and doings at night, without 
special training to it. 

The management of my kennel is the most simple. I 
have no kennel buildings except a rough board box for each 
dog, with a wire run in summer and stall and barn for win- 
ter, where I place these kennels. If one becomes infested 
with vermin, it is burned. The dogs are exercised twice a 
day, for half an hour, where they have access to the spring 
brooks; are fed once a day in summer and twice in winter. 
We boil beef and bones, and soak half a loaf of toasted 
stale bread for each dog, varying this now and then with 
corn and oatmeal mush cooked in beef broth; and they 
relish it all. 

When I have a sick dog, I try to find out what his 
trouble is, and then treat him accordingly, and am very par- 
ticular with young dogs showing symptoms of distemper, 
which must be most carefully diagnosed. There is no such 
thing as a distemper cure that will fit all cases. Each case 
requires special treatment; and hundreds of young dogs, I 



52 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

am sure, are killed by distemper cures alone as well as by 
the man who " never lost a dog with distemper." The man 
who prescribes a lump of sulphur to be put into the patient's 
drinking-water is as innocent as his remedy; the man who 
physics your dog when lie has the typhoid form of the 
complaint, as well as he who insists on putting a seton 
through your puppy's neck after he is already too weak 
to stand on his legs, should never be employed in any case. 




CHAMPION TIM.* 
Owned by Mr. Max Wenzel, Hoboken, N. J. 

These heroic remedies are freely recommended by many 
members of the fraternity of '* Vets," especially of the old 
school. 

*Dr. William Jarvis, in an article recently published in the American Stock- 
keeper, says of this dog: " He was sired by Biz, a field-trial and bench-show 
winner, and out of Hazel, a daughter of Elcho and Rose, the latter by the 
famous Palmerston. Tim is a large, upstanding, powerful dog, of the correct 
type, and very fast. His record is as follows: First, New York, Fanciers' 
Club, 1886; third, Newark; third, New York; first and special, Hornellsville ; 
second and special, with Chief as brace, Waverly, 1886; fourth, Newark; first 
and special, Boston; champion, Hartford; second, champion class, New York, 
etc., 1887; first, champion class and special, New York, 1888; second, field 
trials, Fisher's Island Club, 1886. ED. 



THE IRISH SETTER. 53 

To use the proper medicines in the very beginning is the 
most important, no doubt; and when I notice a puppy's 
stools come of a gray clay color, calomel, in five to six grain 
doses, has always the desired effect of regulating the bowels. 
The patient should have special care, warm quarters, should 
be kept quiet, should be fed better than usual, but a less 
quantity; and in case of failing appetite you should use first 
some qiiinine. especially if the patient be feverish, and some- 
times, in very high fever, tincture of aconite, in one or two 
drop doses, as well as five to ten drops of Fowler's solution 
of arsenic for a short time, as an alterative. 

Yet, with all due care and attempts at half-way scientific 
treatment, I' must admit that there is a good dear of "Dutch 
luck" in pulling a puppy through a bad case of distemper, 
and having him prove sound afterward. In cases where 
the puppy is not permanently cured, he would be better 
dead than to suffer for years, or for life, with chorea; it is 
but an act of mercy to chloroform him. I am not so san- 
guine in regard to curing distemper as I was ten years ago. 

For breaking young dogs for the field, I usually engage 
the se vices of a specialist in that line. My youngsters are 
rarely handled before they are a year old, and over dis- 
temper, when they are sent south with a professional 
trainer. 

Below, the standard of the Irish Setter Club of America 
is given. It does not suit us all; but when it was adopted, 
all questions were fully discussed, and the points varying 
from the English standard are those in which our American 
dogs required improvement. , 

STANDARD AND POINTS OF JUDGING THE RED IRISH SETTER. 

ADOPTED BY THE IRISH SETTER CLUB OF THE UNITED STATES, JULY, 1886. 

Head 10 Tail 8 

Eyes 5 Coat and feather 8 

Ears 5 Color 8 

Neck 5 Size, style, and general appearance 14 

Body 15 

Shoulders, fore legs, and feet 12 Total 100 

Hind legs 10 

Head should be long and lean. The skull oval (from ear 



54 THE AMEKICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

to ear), having plenty of brain-room, and with well-defined 
occipital protuberance. Brows raised, showing stop. The 
muzzle moderately deep and fairly square at end. From 
the stop to the point of the nose should be long, the nostrils 
wide, and the jaws of nearly equal length; flews not to 
be pendulous. The color of the nose dark mahogany or 
dark chocolate, and that of the eyes (which ought not to be 
too large) rich hazel or brown. The ears to be of moderate 
size, fine in texture, set on low, well back, and hanging in a 
neat fold close to the head. 

Neck should be moderately long, very muscular, but not 
too thick, slightly arched, free from all tendency to throat- 
iness. 

Body should be proportionately long, shoulders fine at 
the points, deep, and sloping well back. The chest deep, 
rather narrow in front. The ribs well sprung, leaving 
plenty of lung-room. The loins muscular and slightly 
arched. The hind quarters wide and powerful. 

Legs and feet. The hind legs from hip to hock should 
be long and muscular, from hock to heel short and strong. 
The stifle and hock joints well bent, and not inclined either 
in or out. The fore legs should be strong and sinewy, hav- 
ing plenty of bone, with elbows free, well let down, and like 
the hock, not inclined either out or in. ' The feet rather 
small, very firm; toes strong, close together, and arched. 

Tail should be of moderate length, set on rather low, 
strong at root, and tapering to a fine point; to be carried in 
a slight scimiter-like curve or straight, nearly level with 
the back. 

Coat, on the head, front of legs, and tips of ears, should 
be short and fine, but on all other parts of the body it 
should be of moderate length, flat, and as free as possible 
from curl or wave. 

Feathering. The feather on the upper portion of the 
ears should be long and silky, on the back of fore and hind 
legs long and fine, a fair amount of hair on belly, forming 
a nice fringe, which may extend on chest and throat. Feet 
to be well feathered between the toes. Tail to have a nice 



THE IRISH SETTER. 55 

fringe of moderately long hair, decreasing in length as it 
approaches the point. All feathering to be as straight and 
as flat as possible. 

Color and markings. The color should be a rich, golden 
chestnut or mahogany red, with no trace whatever of black; 
white on chest, throat, or toes, or a small star on the fore- 
head, or a narrow streak or blaze on the nose or face, not 
to disqualify. 

NOTES ON OUR DOGS. 

In head we have not enough uniformity, some dogs show- 
ing the long, narrow head, without the proper stop at the 
eyebrow, giving the face an indescribably brainless expres- 
sion; while others have the wide and round skull, entirely 
at variance with the standard. The color of eye seems to be 
a matter of the strain, some specimens having the beautiful 
dark-brown eye, while others are of a hazel, or even near a 
dark-oak shade. These are minor points, and I consider 
none but the gooseberry eye seriously objectionable. The 
ears are often badly set, folding back and outward, and in 
this case generally too short; again, many are Hound- 
like, thick, and too long (relative of the Bloodhound). 
Rarely do we find a perfect neck in our present Red Setter, 
and in most specimens it is too short and thick, the head 
resting almost on the shoulder-blades; we must improve in 
this point. 

In body, legs, and feet, our Setters are, as a class, I 
believe, more perfect than most other breeds of dogs, having 
a deep chest, strong loin, more arched than the English 
Setter, and a good development of muscle in the limbs. 
Demerits in these parts we must carefully weed out in 
breeding; and we have a long way yet to go to reach per- 
fection. The Red Setter is supposed to be higher on the 
leg than either the English or Black and Tan, and I think it 
rather an advantage to leave him so, for the best develop- 
ment of speed; yet I am not favoring a " big dog," for we 
want no lumber, but a good, upstanding Setter, with per- 
fect slope of shoulder, well-bent stifle and the longer the 
bone between stifle and hock, the better for speed. 



56 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

In raising the scale of points for a good tail, we seem to 
have laid the stumbling-block of our present standard; for 
it does not suit the bad ones. This change has been made 
deliberately, and the committee in charge is willing to stand 
or fall thereby. We point to some of our best specimens 
of the breed to illustrate the necessity of it. At most 
of our bench shows we find specimens with tails carried 
either Hound-like over the back, or worse still, hanging New- 
foundland-fashion, with a great, big hook, carried between 
the legs. Is not the stern of any bird-dog the very soul of 
his style ? And it is this very style we need so much more of 
in our red dogs. Is it possible to call the carriage of a calf 
a point ? I have seen Irish Setters that none but their owner 
could tell when they were pointing. We must make sweep- 
ing reforms in this respect through careful breeding; for it 
is this very lack of style that condemns the red dog at our 
field trials, and with perfect justice. A lack of style may do 
for the pot-hunter arid novice, but to the true sportsman 
and breeder it is an abomination. We can only improve 
by knowing where to do it and by acknowledging our 
defects. 

In color we are ahead of any breed of dogs on this globe; 
for the rich, dark-mahogany and golden-chestnut coat of 
our favorites is beauty itself, and it shows the superiority 
and purity of breeding over that of any other sporting dog 
known, because the Irish Red is red plenty of it and every 
time no matter how you breed them. You may get some 
very green ones, but they will look red nevertheless. I have 
had no little fun with a friend, a lover of the English Setter, 
who is a great admirer of the blue-ticked color, arid the 
owner of as grand a field dog as ever lived, of this color. He 
wishes to raise some blue-ticked stock, and to do so, has 
bred his bitch to about all the celebrities of the breed; yet 
his ardent hopes are not yet gratified, and his bitch throws 
any color of pups, from to green white, all black, lemon and 
white, orange, red and white, and what he calls blue, but 
not the blue he is after. I advised him to try the Red cross, 
but he is down on any other color than the one he can't get. 



THE IRISH SETTER. 57 

I am digressing from the subject; yet this incident serves to 
show the difference in the reliability of the two breeds, to 
the advantage of the Irishman. 

We find two shades of red in this breed, the dark and 
the light, the modern fashion favoring the former. The 
presence of white has already been spoken of. It is no 
fault or blemish. 

In coat texture we also find a variety, both, no doubt, 
being all right, and a peculiarity of the strain the one 
short on body, rather harsh, is frequently the darker, while 
the light shade is longer, Spaniel-like, having a sort of 
undercoat; and this seems to me the more useful one for the 
purpose, giving the better protection from wet and cold. 
It is this kind that is so apt to become wavy when exposed 
to the hardships of the field; the very thing that handicaps 
them at the shows, which, in this breed more than in any 
other of the sporting breeds, have actually been detri- 
mental to the breed, in placing before any other quality 
that beauty of color and gloss of coat of the mahogany 
red. 

In speaking in this manner of bench shows, I do not 
mean to condemn these institutions; for they are useful, and 
to the owners and trainers very entertaining, if to the dogs 
a torture. They are a sort of necessary evil. No event of 
the year equals in interest one of our larger shows, where 
all the men interested in dogs seem to gather for a sort of 
love-feast; and extreme good-fellowship usually prevails, 
especially among those who are favored by the blue, while 
the disappointed ones each find some grand, good quality 
in his dog, somewhere, which the judge had overlooked, 
but which they are bound all shall recognize with them. 
Animosity is wiped out, and new friendships are sealed, 
around the corner, if it takes all day and a few hours of the 
next day. East and West, North and South, all are happy 
alike; the St. Bernard man was never known to leave his 
row, while the Bulldog man looks with utter contempt 
on any breed that can't fight. The Pointer man blows 
a bit more than the rest, and the English Setter man feels 



58 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

above them' all. The Irish lad is found at the front some- 
times, and tries to hold his own, while the rest all talk 
together at once. For my part, I would not miss the New 
York show if I had to walk a hundred miles to see it, but 
am as much of a mystery to myself when it is over as if I 
had never seen it; for I, too, never see anything there but 
the Red Setter and the boys, old and young and find 
myself more fascinated there than when I took my first 
premium at the Philadelphia Centennial show with an Irish 
Red. 

What changes in the Irish Setter and their owners since 
then ! I really think I am the oldest exhibitor of these 
dogs, and almost the only one still interested in the breed 
of those who used to show them at that time. I have seen 
all the celebrities of the bench Rufus, Elcho, Rory O'More, 
Rose, Flora, Noreen, Plunket, Berkley, Glencho, Lady 
Clare, Trix, Hazel, etc. besides all the many fine ones that 
never got there, up to the present day. Speaking of the 
champions then and now, I fail to see a very great improve- 
ment in the dogs. In the bitches we are going backward ; 
while in our present open-show classes the average is very 
much improved over those of ten years ago, with prospects 
for improvement still further. 

A few years ago the Irish Setter Club was formed, a 
good start made for a field trial at Salisbury, N. C., 
with twenty-two entries; it snowed on the night before the 
start. It proved a hard blow to the Irish Setter, for nearly 
all of us got discouraged. At the last New York (1890) 
show, some of the old hands rallied, young blood was 
stirred in, and we now hope for a brighter future, and ask 
all lovers of the breed to join that club, whose aim will be 
to make as good a field dog of the Irish Red as he is hand- 
some. And now that you have finished reading this, you 
may as well send your application for membership to the 
secretary of the Irish Setter Club. 

MAX WENZEL. 

HOBOKEN, N. J. 



THE IRISH SETTER. 59 

The origin of the Irish Setter, like that of his cousins, 
the English and the Gordon Setter, is buried in obscurity; 
and no additional light is likely to illuminate the past for 
the inquiring mind. 

Careful research and extensive inquiry among the breed- 
ers and fanciers of the Irish Setter in England and Ireland, 
have failed to elicit any new facts concerning the origin and 
development of this breed. 

It has been suggested that he is a descendant of the 
liver-colored setting dog. "As a matter of fact," says 
Vero Shaw, "the earliest mention that we have been able 
to discover of any Setter, peculiar to Ireland, is in the 
Sportsman's Cabinet, where, in the chapter on English 
Setters, direct allusion is made to this breed of dogs in the 
following words: ' The sporting gentlemen of Ireland are 
more partial to Setters than to Pointers, and they are prob- 
ably better adapted to that country." This seems to indi- 
cate that Setters of some kind were used on the Emerald 
Isle at the beginning of this century. It must always be a 
matter of regret that nothing was said by the writer in 
question, or by other chroniclers of his time, of the appear- 
ance of these dogs. 

However, coming down to the time when the red dog 
first began to attract attention in England, his admirers 
were divided on the color line, some breeders claiming that 
red, without any admixture of white, was the proper color, 
while others, with equal fervor, insisted that the red dog 
with white points was just as proper and pure an Irish Set- 
ter as the all-red dog. 

There can be no doubt that both are descended from the 
same parent stock, and have, in later years, been inter- 
bred, so that it is no uncommon occurrence to see, in a 
litter of Irish Setter puppies, several with white markings 
on face, breast, and feet. 

In the subjoined letter, just received from Rev. Robert 
O'Callaghan, the most successful breeder of Irish Setters in 
England, and probably the best living authority on this 
breed in the world, conclusions similar to my own are 



60 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

accurately and fully set forth as to the origin of the breed 
and the development of the color: 

"BOSTEL HOUSE, ROCHESTER, England. 
" To B. F. SEITOER, Dayton, Ohio, U. S. A. 

"Dear Sir: In reply to your request for some notes as to 
the origin and development of the Irish Setter, I do not 
find anything like reliable information on this subject 
earlier than the present century. I have no hesitation in 
stating my belief that the Irish Setter is the oldest breed 
we possess, as well as the purest; but if, as is generally 
allowed, the history of all Setters be obscure and difficult 
to trace, how much more so the history of the Irish ! The 
reasons are obvious; but I will not enter into this ques- 
tion, and will only say that after careful and diligent study 
of the subject, I feel compelled to give my adhesion to the 
now generally received opinion, that all Setters are descend- 
ants from the Spaniel. We have it recorded in the Sports- 
man's Repository, 1820, that Setters in Ireland used to be 
called ' Setting Spaniels.' Now, it is difficult to explain 
how our modern Setters were produced. I believe, with 
Darwin, in Nature giving us successive variations, and man 
adding up these variations in a certain direction useful to 
himself, and thus making for himself useful breeds. If, 
then, we want a special quality in any animal, we have 
only to watch carefully and breed sufficiently, and the re- 
quired variety is sure to be produced, and can be increased 
to any extent. Wallace says: ' Instinct, speed, form, and 
color have always varied so as to produce the very races 
which the wants or fancies of men led them to desire.' 

" In a word, he looks upon natural or artificial selection 
as the simple basis for indefinite modification of the forms 
of life. With the opinions of two such authorities before 
us, as well as our own experience of what can and what 
has been done in the way of breeding, I do not think there 
need be much doubt as to the origin of the Setter. The 
Irish have always been a sporting race, and no doubt they 
paid great attention to their Setting Spaniels. Being 



THE IKISH SETTER. 61 

required for hard work, they would select the animal best 
suited for that purpose; and the breeding of successive gen- 
erations of animals capable of hunting the wet bogs and 
mountains of Ireland has resulted in building up a race 
which may be equaled, but certainly can not be excelled, by 
any sporting dog in the world; and so carefully and 
jealously were they preserved, and so highly were they 
prized, that we are told by a writer (I. Scott) in the Sports- 
man' s Cabinet of 1823 of the renewal of a lease given for a 
dog and bitch, which lease, if allowed to expire, would 
have cleared for the landlord 250 per annum. 

"As to their color, this same writer tells us that it was 
all red, or deep chestnut and white. No doubt this all red 
was obtained by careful selection, with an evident purpose 
to subserve a useful end, by Irish sportsmen, and that 
long before the days of fire-arms this exquisitely deep 
chestnut, so characteristic of the breed, may have been, and 
no doubt was suggested to our rude forefathers by the color 
of the red deer of their native hills and forests a color 
which harmonized so well with the hues of the decaying 
bracken and the purple heather as to aid in concealing him 
from his enemies. However this may be, the deep dark red 
of the Irish Setter would have the advantage of enabling 
him to approach closer to his game in fact, would make 
him almost invisible, and so all the more capable of serving 
his master's ends; and if this be an advantage in the present 
day, as it undoubtedly is, how much greater must have 
been the advantage in the days of our sturdy sires, whose 
rude weapons necessitated a closer approach to their game. 

" A well-known writer of our day recognizes the advan- 
tage of protective colors in the sportsman's dress, and 
advises him, when he expects the birds to be wild, to adopt 
garments of a somber hue, avoiding conspicuous colors. 
Stonehenge says: ' Because of the wariness of the grouse, 
the color of the clothes should be attended to.' He recom- 
mends the heather pattern, from its resemblance to the 
general covert of the birds. Under all these circumstances, 
I think we can have no difficulty in tracing the origin and 



62 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

distinctive color of the Irish Red Setter. Many Irish fam- 
ilies were celebrated for rare strains of the breed among 
them the 0' Conner, or La Touche, the De Freyne, or French 
Park, the Lord Dillons, Waterford, and Lismore; the latter 
the head of the O 1 Callaghan family. 

" But where are all these kennels now? Echo answers 
where? Owing to the ruinous prodigality and thriftless 
extravagance of the Irish squires of the past century, as 
well as the successive convulsions which have rent unhappy 
Ireland, its noble race of Setters has been scattered to the 
winds neglected and uncared for; and at this moment, I 
know of no kennel of the pure race in the country. Shows 
have done little, if anything, to improve the breed. The 
quantity has increased, but not the quality. The true type 
is lost sight of, because the breed is not kept up by practical 
sportsmen, or even by men who can lay the slightest claim 
to a correct knowledge of the breed, but by those whose 
only aim is to make money. The consequence of this is 
that our shows are full of snipy, weedy mongrels, which, 
save in color, and that only sometimes, are as unlike the 
wiry, racy, blood-like Irishmen as they well can be. 

"It is to this fact, too, that we must attribute the bad 
name given to Irish Setters as being headstrong and 
difficult to train. How can it be otherwise? Show animals 
bred anyhow, and from untrained parents, are foisted on 
the public. If the setting instinct be undeveloped from 
generation to generation, reversion to type will be the con- 
sequence, and in each successive generation it will become 
beautifully less. I notice in America the same state of 
things goes on. While large sums of money are expended 
in purchasing the best types of English Setters, from the 
best breeders, Irish Setters, so-called, are purchased hap- 
hazard, from what I call mushroom breeders, because 
they are cheap. And thus a race of Setters is perpetuated 
which are a libel on the breed, and so widely different from 
the true type as the north is from the south. 

" What else can one expect from promiscuous and inju- 
dicious crossing? How is this state of things to be remedied? 



THE IRISH SETTEE. 63 

Only by careful and scientific breeding; any remnants of 
old families carefully and judiciously bred to would, beyond 
a doubt, bring back the family type and characteristics. I 
claim to speak with authority on this subject, as I have 
bred, broken, and shot over them for a space of forty years; 
in fact, I was born and brought up with them. They have 
been the playmates and companions of my children, and 
are part and parcel of my family. The first of my dogs 
was exhibited in 1868, when Grouse, brother to Plunket, 
was successful on the bench. 

"Plunket's success as a field-trial winner is well known; 
his brother Rover was chosen by Stonehenge to represent 
the true type of an Irish Setter, and my Grouse II., 
winner of the fifteen-guinea Challenge Cup, Dublin, 1879, 
was chosen to represent the breed in the ' Book of the Dog,' 
by Vero Shaw. Absence from England in the service of my 
country prevented me from doing more than carefully pre- 
serving my stock; but since my return home, my success 
on the show bench has been unbroken. As to success in 
the field, I am to a large extent handicapped, as I have 
no trainer of my own, and have to depend entirely upon 
trainers who either have their own interests to serve, to 
which mine are secondary, or else they are quite incom- 
petent. 

"Even under circumstances such as these, however, I 
undoubtedly put the best Setter I may say, indeed, the 
best as well as the handsomest sporting dog in the field 
in 1885 Aveline; and, I say it advisedly, she was not 
allowed to win first in that contest. Aveline met and 
defeated three of the Llewellin Setters, and her final heat 
was decided in three and a half minutes! Aveline, now a 
champion, is a daughter of Frisco and Grouse II.; and 
as you have asked me as to the most successful cross, I 
have no hesitation in saying that I have found the Elcho 
blood, crossed on the Palmerston, to be the most success- 
ful, both in field and on bench. I say pure Palmerston, 
because it has come to my knowledge that Palmerston is 
credited with having served more bitches than he ever 



64 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

did, or in fact could have served. This is why Frisco, 
grandson to Elcho, has not been successful as a sire with 
mongrel bitches, while matched with a pure Palmerston, the 
produce is all that can be desired. I possess at this 
moment two sons of Frisco and Grouse II. Shandon II. 
and Fingal III. and the daughter Aveline. All are bench 
winners at the largest shows, as well as grand in the field; 
and one has but to see them to feel at once that he looks 
on thorough-breds of their species. 

" Desmond II., belonging to Mr. C. T. Thompson, of Phil- 
adelphia, bred by me, and winner of field trials at Philadel- 
phia, is of precisely the same blood. This same cross it is 
that has produced so many bench and field-trial winners for 
'Claremont' (Doctor Jarvis, of New Hampshire). . . . 
I have still living, and quite good f or * stud purposes, my 
Champion Ganymede. He is the sire of Champion Ty- 
rone, Kildare, and Geraldine, besides many others, and 
the best type of Irish Setter now living, to my mind. 
Geraldine II. is granddaughter to Ganymede and Frisco. 

"I fear I have already written too much anent my 
favorites, but I am sure, under the circumstances, you will 
excuse me. < < ROBERT O' CALLAGHAN. ' ' 

Both Stonehenge and Vero Shaw record the following 
as the most noteworthy of the old strains from which the 
present race of Irish Setters is descended: Among val- 
uable strains of the Irish Setter are the O' Conner, better 
known as the La Touche, made famous through Cham- 
pion Palmerston; Lord Dillons, Lord de Freyne's, also 
called the French Park breed; Lord Lismore's, Lord Clan- 
carty's, the Mount Hedges, Lord Rossmore's, and the Mar- 
quis of Waterford's. In modern days, Doctor Stone, Major 
Hutchinson, Captain Cooper, Captain French, H. B. Knox, 
Hon. D. Plunket, Captain Alleway, Mr. Hilliard, Mr. 
Lipscombe, Mr. O'Brien, and Miss Warburton; and I must 
include, last, although by no means least, Rev. Robert 
O'Callaghan. All have won bench-show honors with their 
dogs, but only Mr. Plunket, and later Rev. O'Callaghan, 



THE IEISH SETTEE. 65 

have won field-trial honors with their strains. Mr. Plunket, 
by the way, won with a dog (Plunket) bred by the Rev. 
O'Callaghan. The high quality of the latter gentleman's 
dogs was recognized in the most emphatic manner by the 
highest authorities in the canine world. Stonehenge chose 
as a subject for illustrating his article on the Irish Setter, in 
his book the "Dogs of the British Isles," fourth edition, 
Rover, a prize-winner, and brother to the well-known 
field-trial winner, Plunket; and Vero Shaw chose from the 
same kennel, as an illustration for his "Book of the Dog, 1 ' 
Grouse II.; these being the most typical specimens of 
the breed in their day. 

When the Irish Setter first became popular in England 
and America, rapid progress was made in the improvement 
of the breed; and such grand dogs as Rev. O' Callaghan' s 
Grouse, his great brother, the field-trial winner, Plunket, 
Champion Palmerston, Rufus, the celebrated Elcho, and 
Thornstine delighted the public and became pillars of the 
Stud Book. In the history of the introduction and develop- 
ment of the Irish Setter in America, an interesting study 
is presented to the breeder and sportsman; and to such 
gentlemen as the late Arnold Burges, Mr. E. F. Stoddard, 
of Dayton, Ohio; Dr. William Jarvis, of Claremont, N. H.; 
Charles Turner, of St. Louis, and others, whose liberality 
and wisdom placed the best Irish Setter blood in the world 
within their reach, the American sportsmen are under last- 
ing obligations. 

The place of honor as the foremost American breeder of 
this grand strain of dogs justly belongs to Doctor Jarvis. 
He it was who, by breeding Rose to Elcho, discovered 
the wonderful affinity of the Elcho for the Palmerston 
blood. His career, however, as a breeder began before 
Elcho had been heard of; for in 1873 he brought out a 
dog popularly known as Jarvis' Dick, whose portrait was 
published in the old American Sportsman and Forest 
and Stream. He was of unknown parentage; his sire 
and dam, it is said, were imported, but beyond that noth- 
ing was known of them. He won the silver cup for best 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Irish Setter at the Rod and Gun Club Show at Springfield, 
Mass. 

Doctor Jarvis then imported from the kennels of Mr. 
Llewellin a bitch called Kitty, a daughter of the famous 
field-trial winner Plunket. In the fall of 1875, he imported 




ELCHO. 
Owned by Dr. William Jarvis. 

from Ireland the bitch Kathleen, a granddaughter of 
Hutchinson's well-known Bob. 

About this time, also, Dr. M. Goldsmith, of Rutland, 
Vermont, imported the famous dog Champion Plunket; 
Arnold B urges his Rufus, and Mr. E. F. Stoddard, Friend. 
In August of this year, Friend whelped a litter to Rufus, 
several of which the following year made their mark at the 
Centennial Show. They were Rufus II. and Fire-fiy. The 



THE IRISH SETTEE. 67 

St. Louis Kennel Club, or Mr. Charles Turner, of that 
organization, imported and brought out Champion Lou II., 
Erin, Elcho, Berkley, and others. Mr. Stoddard, in 1876, 
imported Champion Duck and Bob. In the spring of 1877, 
Doctor Jarvis purchased from Mr. Turner, of the St. Louis 
Kennel Club, Elcho, and thereby secured for his kennel the 
best Irish Setter dog in the country. 

In the fall of the same year, he imported from the 
kennels of Mr. Cecil Moore the now famous bitch Rose, the 
beautiful daughter of the great Palmerston out of Flora. 
Rose was the first of the Palmerston blood brought to 
America, and her record stands to-day unrivaled by that of 
any other Setter bitch. Rose bred to Elcho, produced in 
her first litter the well-known Lady Clare, the field -trial 
and show winners Raleigh and Laura. Leigh Doane, Little 
Nell, Yoube, Champion Norwood, and Elcho III. are also 
among the descendants of this famous pair. 

Doctor Jarvis next imported, from the kennels of Mr. 
J. J. Giltrap, Noreen, a daughter of Garryowen, a noted 
prize-winner. She too was bred to Elcho. Great as had 
been the Doctor's success with Rose and her progeny, he 
not only equaled but fairly eclipsed it with ISToreen, for 
she produced four champions in one litter one of the four, 
Bruce, a field-trial winner, Glencho, Noreen II., and Elcho, 
Junior. Here are four dogs that have, individually and 
collectively, won more prizes, and have produced and got a 
larger number of winners, than any other equal number of 
Setters in America. Elcho, Junior, is unquestionably the 
best representative of his race ever seen in this country. 

Next to these justly ranks Stoddard' s Friend. Mr. 
Stoddard' s memory will always be cherished by the lovers 
of the Irish Setter for his intelligent and successful efforts 
in developing the breed, and compelling public admiration 
and recognition of his merits. Friend herself was a grand 
bitch in the field. While not as fast as some others I have 
seen, she yet proved good enough to win first prize at the 
Minnesota field trials of 1878, in a field of thirteen starters. 
The Chicago Field's report of that event states that Friend 



68 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



ran out her score without making a single error. Bred to 
Rufus, she produced the Centennial winner Rufus II., 
Fire-fly, Champion Rory O'More, and others. Mr. Stoddard 
also bred some good ones from Champion Duck, by his 
Bob. He was also the breeder of that grand young, and 
now well-known dog, Mack N., owned by Mr. W. N. 
Kuhns, of Dayton, Ohio. 

There are other breeders that deserve mention. Fore- 
most among these are Mr. Max Wenzel, of Hoboken, N. J., 




ELCHO, JUNIOR. 
Owned by Dr. William Jarvis, Claremont, N. H. 

owner of the noted field-trial and bench-show winner Cham- 
pion Chief, by Berkley, out of Duck, and Tim, also a 
prize-winner, by the field-trial winner Biz, out of Hazel, a 
daughter of Elcho, out of Rose. Mr. W. N. Callender, of 
Albany, N. Y., who exhibited Rory O'More at the New 
York Show, 1877, has bred a number of good ones, and Mr. 
Charles T. Thompson, of Philadelphia, Penn., the present 
owner of Desmond II., blood brother to Rev. O'Callaghan's 
Shandon II. and Fingal III., and the field-trial winner 



THE IRISH SETTER. 69 

Aveline, by Frisco, out of Grouse II., has kept well to the 
front with his dogs. 

Elcho, Junior, is one of the most noted dogs of his race. 
In him almost the extreme limit of refinement has been 
reached, and breeders can scarcely hope to excel him in 
finish; his almost perfect harmony of proportions may 
hardly be surpassed. His service should be sought by those 
having Irish Setter bitches of the large, heavy-boned, or 
short, cobby sort. 

His pedigree is as follows : 

ELCHO, JUNIOR (3881). 



3 Q f O O 

p3 8 3 



r 

w 3 



F* .- 

& 



B 

111 



70 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

His winnings are as follows : 

First, puppy class, Boston, 1882; first, open class, Ot- 
tawa, 1883; first, open class, New Haven, 1885; first, cham- 
pion class, New York, 1884; first, champion class, Montreal, 
1884; first, champion class, New York, 1885; first, champion 
class, Cincinnati, 1885; first, champion class (spring), Phil- 
adelphia, 1885; first, champion class, South Attleboro, 1885; 
first, champion class, Boston, 1886; first, champion class, 
Hartford, 1886; first, champion class, Cleveland, 1886; first, 
champion class, New York, 1886; first, champion class, St. 
Louis, 1886; first, champion class, Boston, 1887; first, cham- 
pion class, Pittsburgh, 1887; first, champion class, New 
York, 1887; first, champion class, Detroit, 1887; first, cham- 
pion class, Syracuse, 1888; first, challenge class, New York, 
1889; first, challenge class, Troy, 1889; champion Irish Set- 
ter, sweepstakes of America and cup, and special for best 
Irish Setter, New York, 1884; special for best Setter dog, 
any breed, Montreal, 1884; special for best Irish Setter, New 
York, 1885; special for best Irish Setter (spring), Philadel- 
phia, 1885; special for best Setter dog, any breed, South 
Attleboro, 1885; special for best Irish Setter dog, Boston, 
1886; special for best Irish Setter dog, and special for best 
Irish Setter dog or bitch, Hartford, 1886; special for best 
Irish Setter, Cleveland, 1886; special for best Irish Setter, 
special for best Irish Setter dog, and special for best Setter 
dog or bitch, any breed, New York, 1886; special for best 
Irish Setter dog, and special for best Irish Setter dog or 
bitch, St. Louis, 1886; special for best Irish Setter, and 
special for best Irish Setter dog or bitch, Boston, 1887; 
special for best Irish Setter, and special for best Irish Set- 
ter dog, Pittsburgh, 1887; special for best champion Irish 
Setter dog, special for best Irish Setter dog, and special for 
best Irish Setter dog or bitch, Detroit, 1887; special for best 
Irish Setter dog, Syracuse, 1888; special for best Irish Set- 
ter dog, Troy, 1889; special, with Lorna, for best pair of 
Irish Setters, New Haven, 1885; special, with Lorna, for 
best pair of Irish Setters, Cleveland, 1886; special, with 
Lorna, for best brace of Irish Setters, St. Louis, 1886; 



THE IRISH SETTER. 71 

special for one of best kermel, Boston, 1886; special for 
one of best kennel, Hartford, 1886. 

The most successful sires of the past and present are, 
about in the order named. Champion Elcho, Plunket, Rufus, 
the great Glencho, Berkley, Erin, Elcho, Junior, Biz, 
Champion Norwood, MaxWenzeFs Chief, Rory O'More, 
and Stoddard's Bob. The list of winnings these dogs and 
their descendants have to their credit would fill a book. It 
might be profitable to some of the breeders, and, would-be 
breeders, of the present day, to carefully study and con- 
sider the breeding of some of these dogs; for in this breed, 
as in all others, there is wisdom in choosing from good 
families, and in the light of the past it should not be diffi- 
cult to pick out the successful dogs. 

We come now to consider the Irish Setter as a field dog. 
The cardinal points on which depend the value of every 
pointing dog are the same in all breeds, and I can not do 
better than to quote from one of England' s highest authori- 
ties, "Idstone," who speaks of the Irish Setter as follows: 

"They have been jealously protected from mongrel out- 
crosses for many years by their native breeders, and they 
owe their popularity, in Ireland and elsewhere, to their 
quality quite as much as their color. They are exceedingly 
fast, and very resolute, hardy, and thoroughly blood-like, 
genuine Setters. A finer, more open-hearted, frank, good- 
tempered race, no man can find. . . ; 

" The thorough Irish dog is a very fast and persevering 
worker and a rapid galloper. . . . An admirable water 
dog, and invaluable in fens and swamps, for snipe. In 
heather, his power and muscle enable him to do a long 
day's work without fatigue, and he has a comparatively 
noiseless and stealthy gallop. He is inclined to be head- 
strong, and is accused of being hard to break. He demands 
patience, severity, and judgment. . . . 

' 4 When, however, he settles down to his work, and dis- 
covers the tactics of his owner, he is exceedingly valuable, 
and is regarded with envy by all who witness his mathe- 
matical precision, his firm style, his stanchness and 



72 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

patience, coupled with his docility, which is not excelled 
by any Pointer or Setter of any breed." 

My own experience and observation justifies me in 
asserting that, in natural adaptability, speed, range, endur- 
ance, pointing instinct, and bird-sense, the red dog is not 
excelled by any race of Setters in the world. Those I have 
seen were not more erratic, headstrong, or difficult to con- 
trol than other dogs of high courage; and when properly 
trained and handled, they are as stanch and true on point 
and back as any Pointer. Stoddard's Friend was equally 
good on quail and snipe, and was fond of hunting prairie- 
chickens; and when retrieving one of those big birds, she 
was as proud of the capture as is the novice when he brings 
down his first bird. 

The assertion that the Irish Setter is harder to break or 
train, and keep in field form, than other breeds of Setters, is 
not true of the Irish Setter of to-day. I know, from per- 
sonal experience, that a well-bred dog of this breed, prop- 
erly brought up and trained, is the peer of any Setter in 
the world. As companions, they are affectionate, gentle, 
and safe with children (I never saw a sour or ill-tempered 
dog of this breed in my life), and true to their masters. In 
the field, they are enthusiastic, fast, and tireless workers. 
One of the best Setters, of any breed, I ever saw in the field 
is Mack ET. This dog is as level-headed as any Pointer; a 
keen hunter, a fast and wide ranger, quick and positive 
when among birds, hunting with great judgment and dis- 
crimination, and heeding the slightest whistle or command. 

I have not seen Elcho, Junior, in the field, but am told by 
those who have that he is an out-and-out good one indeed, 
Doctor Jarvis has for years done his shooting over this dog; 
and to judge from his work at the Eastern field trials, 
where he ran in 1885, although not placed, he is able to 
hold his own, with honor, in any company. I know that 
no better snipe-dog than Stoddard's Bob ever lived. 

That the red dog is lacking in no characteristic or 
faculty that is necessary in the make-up of the perfect field 
dog, the public trials have abundantly demonstrated. As 



THE IRISH SETTER. 



73 



before stated, Friend won first in 1878, defeating, among 
others, the well-known field-trial winner, Sanborn's Nellie. 
Joe, Junior, a half -blooded son of Champion Elcho, defeated 
the great and almost invincible English Setter, Champion 
Gladstone, every time they met, both in public trials and 
in a two-days private match; then Champion Biz defeated 
Count Noble. 

In 1879, Raleigh won second in the Eastern Field Trials 
Club's all-aged stake. An Irish Setter won the members' 
cup of the Eastern Field Trials Club in 1881 and 1884. 
That more Irish Setters are not run in the field trials is 
not because of any inherent fault in the breed, nor has the 
breed deteriorated, as the field trials have demonstrated; 
for wherever an Irish Setter competed in a public trial he 
made it exceedingly interesting for all competitors. Rev. 
O'Callaghan's Aveline is a good illustration of the capabili- 
ties of the red dog of to-day, as is also Drogheda, winner of 
second in the National trials at Shrewsbury. 

B. F. SEITOER. 

DAYTON, OHIO. 




THE AMERICAN GORDON SETTER. 



BY HARRY MALCOLM, 

President The American Gordon Setter Club. 




>HE origin of this famous breed of Setters dates back 
eighty-nine years ago, or more, to the Duke of Gor- 
don's Castle, whence its great fame as a field dog 
has spread far and wide. It was from the Duke of Gordon 
that our favorite derived his name; and but for this noble- 
man we should never have known or been able to perpetu- 
ate this neplus ultra of handsome Setter dogs. 

About the year 1859, the first specimens of this breed 
were introduced in England, and were there called the 
Black and Tan, or Gordon Setter. They were bred and 
shown in England of immense size, and were entirely too 
heavy in make to please the majority of English sportsmen; 
and but for the old stock in Scotland, which were merry 
little workers, and but for the careful breeding of some 
English and American lovers of field sports, which resulted 
in getting him back to his proper size for practical field 
form, we should not to-day have had the handsomest and 
grandest field dog it has ever been the writer' s good fortune 
to follow afield, day in and day out. / 

Writing of the show bench in England, Stonehenge says, 
referring to Kent (E. K. C. S. B., 1600): "His grand head 
and rich color drew general attention to him, taking prize 
after prize at Cremorne, Birmingham (four times), Islington 
(twice), Worcester, and Paris. His extraordinary career 
naturally caused a great amount of jealousy, and he was 
called, by the opposition party, a 'cur,' a 'mongrel,' a 
'half Bloodhound,' and a dozen other hard names. So 
convinced, however, was Mr. Pearce of his purity of breed- 
ing, that he determined to put the matter to the test of 

(75) 



76 THE AMEKICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

experiment, and offered to trust one of his stock, out of 
Regent, to the care of the writer of this article, to be 
brought up where he could not possibly see game, and at 
the proper age, namely, nine or ten months, to be first 
introduced to it. The result was in accordance with Mr. 
Pearce's prophecy, for the puppy not only beat his ground 
in fine style, but at the end of a few hours work began to 
stand his birds as only a well-bred Pointer or Setter will 
do, without any artificial education of any kind. Of course 
the report of this trial added greatly to Kent's reputation; 
and being followed by the successes of Rex (the above 
puppy) at Stafford and Shrewsbury, where he won three 
cups, beating in the final trial Mr. Field's Duke (an English 
Setter), who had gained a high reputation in previous 
years, Kent had so strong a run at the stud for several 
years that it would be difficult at the present day to find a 
Black and Tan Setter without a strain of his blood. Mr. 
Pearce's Regent had several large litters by him, including 
Rex, Young Kent, lowne, La Reine, Dane, Deal, and Silk, 
all winners at shows or field trials." 

I quote the above for the reason that no pure-bred Gor- 
don's pedigree to-day can be found that does not trace to 
Kent and the above-named dogs, and end with such well- 
known Gordon Setters as Lord Bolingbroke' s Argyle and 
Ruby I. (E. K. S. B., No. 1683), or Coward's Sam, Joblin's 
Nell, or Friday and Fan, Duke of Gordon's Grouse, Duke 
of Gordon's Nell, or to Zango, Zara, Major, Nep, Drill, or 
Mopsa. 

Coming down to the present day, we find that the Gor- 
don Setter in America is called, by the opposition, all the 
hard names they can think of because some men who breed 
dogs simply for show, breed them to a size that utterly 
unfits them for field-work. In fact, many of these so- 
called Gordons were not Gordons, but a cross-bred dog. 
Their being black-and-tan in color was sufficient to mislead 
the amateur and the unsophisticated judge. Their owners 
called them Gordons, exhibited and sold them as such, and 
as a field dog they were a failure. The pure-bred Gordon 



THE AMERICAN GORDON SETTER. 77 

had to suffer the odium cast upon him by these impostors, 
whereas if the amateur had purchased of breeders who 
could trace pedigrees to the above-named dogs, he would 
have been a happier and wiser man. 

A dog who is simply a prize-winner, no matter if he is 
not pure bred, or is even gun-shy, or has never seen game, 
is more valued by the average mug-hunter than the finest 
field dog in the country. The bench shows were to blame, 
in a measure, at least, for this state of affairs, in having 
only one class in which this breed could enter, and that for 
Black and Tan Setters; when, in fact, they should have had 
a class for Gordon Setters, and the Black and Tan should 
have been in the cross-bred or English class. 

To remedy this evil, and save the Gordon Setter from the 
odium that was being cast upon him by having to be 
entered in the same class with the Black and Tan (causing 
the best specimens of the Gordon Setter to be kept at home 
for many years), the field sportsmen, and lovers of the pure- 
bred Gordon Setter, met and formed a club, known as the 
American Gordon Setter Club. We went before the Ameri- 
can Kennel Club, requesting them to give us a class in the 
Stud Book for our pure-bred dogs, and to call this strain the 
American Gordon Setter. Our request was granted; and in 
the future, none but a dog with a pure Gordon Setter pedi- 
gree can be registered as an American Gordon Setter. 

The cross-bred dog, who depended upon his black-and- 
tan color to deceive the public, has now to be registered 
in the cross-bred class. The success of the American Gor- 
don Setter Club in this matter has saved one of the best 
strains of field dogs from utter ruin. So the strain of dogs 
that was known at the Duke of Gordon's Castle as the Gor- 
don Setter, and in England as the Black and Tan Setter, are 
now known in America as the American Gordon Setter. 

The Gordon Setter as seen at Gordon Castle was un- 
doubtedly black-and-tan, and black, white, and tan. Many 
of the best-bred Gordon dogs throw, in their litters, pups 
with a toe or two marked with white, or with a white frill 
on same. A litter, a few years back, without some white 



78 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

was rare; but by careful breeding, and by breeding only 
from those with the least possible white, in time we shall 
see Gordons without a white hair on them. 

I never cast aside a puppy that is nicely made, even now, 
if he has white on chest; although I prefer them without it, 
and hope soon to have litters with no other markings than 
black-and-tan. 

Following is the standard adopted by the American 
Gordon Setter Club, and all who wish to advance the increas- 
ing popularity of the Gordon are breeding up to it: 

VALUE OF POINTS. 

Head, including muzzle arid nose. . . 15 Stern and flag 8 

Eyes, ears, and lips 5 Color and markings 8 

Neck 5 Texture of coat and feather 6 

Shoulders and chest .... 15 Symmetry and quality 8 

Back, loins, thighs, and stifles 15 

Legs, feet, elbows, and hocks 15 Total 100 

SJcull. The skull should be lighter than in the old type 
of Gordon Setters, as was usually seen at bench shows, 
must be clean cut, with occiput well denned, and a decided 
stop below the eyes; and from eye to occiput should be 
from five to five and a half inches in length. 

Muzzle. The muzzle must be straight from eyes to end 
of nose, without any inclination to what is termed ' ' Roman 
nose," and without coarseness; it should be from corner of 
eye to end of nose four inches in length. Nostrils must be 
full and wide, and nose black in color. Jaws should be 
exactly even in length; a " snipe-nose" or "pig- jaw" is a 
decided blemish. 

Eyes, ears, and lips. Eyes must be of medium size, and 
a deep brown in color, mild and intellectual in expression. 
Ears should be set low on head, and lie flat to the cheeks, 
without any tendency to prick; should be longer than in 
other breeds of Setters. They must be thin in leather, and 
must be well coated with fine, silky hair, with as little wave 
as possible; the hair should extend an inch or two below 
the leather. The lips should be slightly pendulous; a trifle 
more so than in other breeds of Setters. 

Neck. The neck should be of good length, clean and 



THE AMERICAN GORDON SETTER. 79 

racy, with gradual rise from shoulders to head, and slightly 
inclined to arch; should be almost free of leather, but is not 
expected to be as clean on underside as a Pointer's. 

Shoulders and chest. The shoulders should be deep, 
with moderately sloping blades; should be strong, and posi- 
tively free of lumber, and showing great liberty. The 
chest must be flat between the fore legs, moderately deep 
and narrow, giving the animal a racy appearance in front. 
The ribs must be well sprung behind the shoulders, but not 
sufficient to give the animal the appearance of being too 
round in barrel, and should extend well back toward the 
hips. 

Back, loins, thighs, and stifles. The back should be 
short and straight, with loins strong, and slightly arched; 
any tendency to sway-back being decidedly objectionable. 
Thighs must be strong, with the muscle extending well 
down toward the hocks. The stifles should be moderately 
well bent, and set somewhat wide apart; they should be 
long from point of hip to hock- joint. 

Legs, feet, elbows, and hocks. The fore legs must be 
straight, and sufficiently strong in bone, with elbows stand- 
ing close to the chest, but not under it. Hind legs to con- 
form in bone with the fore legs; they should be moderately 
bent. Hocks must be straight. The feet must be round, 
hard, arched, and well padded, with hair between the toes. 
The " cat-foot" should have the preference. 

Stern and flag. The stern should be set on slightly 
below the line of back, and carried in very nearly a straight 
line from the body the straighter the better; a " tea-pot" 
tail is a decided blemish. When carried down with the 
hand, it should not reach below the hock- joint; should taper 
gradually from the body to a "sting-like" end. The flag 
must be fine and straight, any inclination to curl or ropiness 
being objectionable; it should taper to nothing at the end. 

Color and markings. The color should be a rich, glossy, 
plum black, with deep senna or dark mahogany, tan 
markings, clearly defined, and without admixture of black, 
though a little penciling of black on the toes is admissible. 



80 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The tan should show on lips, cheeks, throat, spot over eyes, 
underside of each ear, on front of chest, on feet and legs, 
also at vent, but must not extend into flag more than three 
inches. The tan should show nearly to elbows on inside of 
fore legs, and to the hocks or above them on inside of hind 
legs. An American Gordon Setter with a white frill must 
not be cast aside; but aim to breed them with as little white 
as possible. A good dog must not be disqualified for hav- 
ing white as above described. Any white on feet or tail is 
a blemish. 

Texture of coat and feather . The coat should be fine 
and flat, any inclination to curl being objectionable, though 
a slight wave is admissible. The feather should be about 
the same in quantity as in the English Setter, running down 
to feet on fore legs, and to hocks on hind legs, but only 
slightly feathered below the hocks. 

Symmetry and quality. The American Gordon Setter 
should display much character; the general outline must 
look the thorough workman all over, and must absolutely 
be without lumber. He should be very blood-like in 
appearance, combining great quality with symmetry. 

The weight of my dogs is from forty-five to fifty pounds; 
height at shoulder, twenty to twenty-four and one-half 
inches. My bitches are less in height and less in weight 
If you increase the above height or weight, you will have 
a dog that is a labor to himself, and forever in your way. 
The weight given above makes a good -sized dog, and you 
can take two of them with you in your light top-buggy, 
for a hunt or a run. My advice to all is not to breed them 
larger than the size above described. You will find them 
just what you desire in looks. 

The following pedigree is of the writer's American 
Gordon Setter Whip, whose service has been largely 
sought after. He has been bred to many of our best Amer- 
ican Gordon Setter bitches, as well as to imported bitches. 
This pedigree will be found a valuable guide in selecting 
pure blood. It traces to the best-bred and best-known 
field Gordon Setters that ever lived, in Scotland, England, 



THE AMERICAN GORDON SETTER. 



81 



and America; and the blood of the dogs mentioned in it is 
distributed from Maine to California. Whip's descendants 
are owned by gentlemen who keep them to shoot over; and 
some who have cared to exhibit them at bench shows have 
won with them. Some in the pedigree have been winners 
at field trials abroad. The Gordon Setter Gordon won 
second at a field trial in America, and was justly entitled to 




GORDON SETTER BOB. 
Owned by Mr. A. H. Moore, Philadelphia, Penn. 

first. Ere long, when their owners make up their minds to 
run them in public field trials, you will see them go to the 
front with ease. I never have shown or run one at a public 
trial, but have hunted them in private, in the best of 
company, with Setters of other strains, and have never 
seen them beaten. Nor do I believe the Setter or Pointer 
lives that can work with them, in all kinds of cover and over 
all kinds of ground, and defeat them in a long hunt. 



PEDIGREE OF THE 
A. K. C. S. B., No. 8120. Black and Tan. Whelped June 8, 1887. 



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(83) 



84 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

I keep my dogs for my own shooting, for pleasure, and 
to enjoy with them, alone or with my personal friends, the 
pleasures of the field in 

" The brilliant autumn-time, 

The most brilliant time of all: 
When the gorgeous woods are gleaming, 

Ere the leaves begin to fall; 
When the maple-boughs are crimson, 

And the hickory shines like gold; 
When the noons are sultry hot, 

And the nights are frosty cold; 
When the country has no green 

But the sword-grass by the rill, 
And the willows in the valley, 

And the pine upon the hill; 
When the pippin leaves the bough, 

And the sumac fruit is red, 
And the quail is piping loud 

From the buckwheat where he's fed." 

Pardon my digression, my friends; but the mention of 
autumn stirs the fire that is within me, and ever turns my 
thoughts afield, and to the above beautiful lines from the 
pen of that gifted sportsman, ' ' Frank Forester. ' ' I live from 
year to year to enjoy the pleasures that I find afield. In the 
early years of my life, I hunted over the old native English 
Setters and Pointers; but I believe that, in view of the scarcity 
of game to-day, and the hard work the dogs of this age have 
to do to find six or eight coveys of quail in a day, the old- 
time Setter would not be of much service to us now. The 
birds are smarter, and harder to find; they scatter, when 
flushed, into the thick cover. The old-time Setter had no 
such work to do as our dogs of this age; so I do not hesi- 
tate to say that the old-time Setter is a dog of the past, 
and alongside of our keen-nosed, nimble-footed Gordon, 
would cut a sorry figure. 

I never have gone afield with a dog that has given me so 
much genuine satisfaction, in every way, as do my Gordons. 
I have hunted them in the best of company for days, but 
have never yet seen any of the others stand up to their 
work for so long a time, day in and day out, as the Gordon 



THE AMERICAN GORDON SETTER. t 85 

Setter. Neither have I ever seen his equal, in nose, obedi- 
ence, stanchness, and speed. When the nature of the 
ground will permit it, he is one of the fleetest dogs of the 
Setter breed. At his work, he is naturally a high-headed 
dog, always seeking for the body-scent of his game. When 
the weather is such as to require it, he is quick to take the 
foot-scent as well. His natural instinct is developed in a 
marked degree, and it leads him to know where to look for 
his game, without that racing over ground that is charac- 
teristic of Setters of other strains. 

I have ever found them easily broken, and they never 
forget, when once taught, what is required of them. You 
can shoot over them the first of the season with as much 
pleasure as at the end. 

The American Gordon Setter has never taken part in public 
trials, except on one or two occasions in America. The rea- 
son is that they have never been owned by those who cared 
for yearly field trials, or for a test of so short a duration. 
Most of those who run dogs at yearly trials own either 
Llewellin Setters x^r Pointers, and select judges from those 
who own the same breeds; and Gordon Setter owners have 
been well aware that in running their dogs under them they 
would have a poor show. 

The field- trial advocates are preparing to organize yearly 
trials, in which each brace of dogs are to be run eight 
hours. They should have, for these trials, judges from all 
the Setter strains, and Pointer men also. This would, I 
think, with their eight-hour heats, bring out more dogs 
than ever have been seen at any of the thirty-five-minute 
heat trials in the past. 

Keep your dogs well exercised, for no dog, unless he is, 
will keep in health. A dog that is properly exercised will 
not, after your first day' s hunt, be running to heel, but on 
the contrary, will do all the work you may require of him, 
no matter whether for a week or a month. My way is to have 
my dogs follow me in my drives for miles. I give them 
but gentle exercise in the summer, not over six miles in the 
round trip, and over a route where they can find plenty of 



86 TE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

water from the streams. After October 1st, I run them 
from fourteen to twenty miles every other day. This puts 
them in fine condition to shoot over. Never have them too 
fat, nor so thin that you can see through them, but in that 
happy medium state, so that they look and feel like they 
could go for months, and with a will and vim of their own. 
I will now take you back to their puppyhood, and give 
you some advice, which, if you will follow, and provided 
you have the kind of dogs that I have described, you will 




CHAMPION LITTLE BOY.* 
Owned by Dr. Charles G. Dixon, 2015 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Penn. 

have a dog as handsome as a picture to look upon, a devoted 
companion, and a dog that can do your work afield as long 
as you care to hunt him, or that will follow your wagon, in 
giving him exercise, as long as you care to drive. 

* Little Boy is by Pilot, out of Fly, and carries in his veins some of the best 
Gordon blood in America. He was whelped November 24, 1882. His winnings 
are as follows: 

First, New York, 1884; second, Philadelphia, 1885; second, Philadelphia, 
1888; first, Boston, 1888; first, Cincinnati, 1888; first, Toledo, 1888; first, Buf- 
falo, 1888; first, Syracuse, 1888; first, Richmond, 1888; first, Pittsburgh, 1889; 



THE AMERICAN GORDON SETTER. 87 

Always make it a rule in breeding a bitch to have her in 
whelp when some of our game birds are in season, so that you 
can shoot over her and let her enjoy the pleasure of finding 
game. Never breed a bitch, no matter how handsome she 
may be, unless she is broken, and has shown all the requi- 
sites of a first-class field dog. The same rule that applies 
to a bitch must apply to the dog. Never, under any cir- 
cumstances, breed to a dog or bitch simply because they 
have won several prizes at bench shows. I have known 
some of the bench-show champions to be the vilest duffers 
afield, and some so gun-shy that the sight of a gun would 
make them run for miles to get to a place of hiding. This 
I know to be a fact, and it is true of some of the winning 
Gordon, English, and Irish Setters, as well as of Pointers; 
so be careful in your selection of sire and dam. 

When your bitch is in whelp, give her gentle exercise 
each day, up to the day she is due to whelp; feed her on soft 
food, a little raw beef -liver each day, up to the time she 
whelps. After whelping, give her boiled rump-beef, soup, 
vegetables, and table-scraps. Feed her well. 

When the puppies are about nine or eleven days old, 
their eyes will open. When they are four weeks old, begin 
to feed them, as it helps to take the strain off the mother, 
and helps them to gain strength. You will almost see them 
grow. 

At this age, if there are symptoms of worms, as there are 
likely to be, give each puppy half a teaspoonful, once a 



first, New York, 1889; first, Troy, 1889; first, Albany, 1889; first, Utica, 1889; 
first, Rochester, 1889; first, Chicago, 1889; second, Philadelphia, 1889; first, 
Toledo, 1889; first, Elmira, 1889; first, Danbury, Conn., 1889; second, New 
York, 1890; first, Chicago, 1890; first, Rochester, 1890; first, Boston, 1890; 
first, Buffalo, 1890. 

Special winnings: Special, New York, 1884; special, Toledo, 1888, for best 
sporting dog or bitch in show; special, Buffalo and Syracuse, 1888; special, 
Syracuse, Troy, Utica, Philadelphia, 1889; Toledo, 1889, for best Gordon Setter 
dog or bitch in show, for best sporting dog in show, for best Setter or Pointer 
in show, for best Gordon, English, or Irish Setter in show; special, Chicago, 
Rochester, Baltimore, and Boston, 1890; Buffalo, 1890, for best Gordon dog in 
show. ED. 



88 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

day for three days, of Fry's Vermifuge. After giving it for 
three days, try them, about two weeks later, to see if the 
worms are cleaned out of them, and you will be surprised 
to see healthy-looking puppies, that you thought had none, 
pass worms in great knots. These worms cause the death of 
over three fourths of all the puppies that die. I have never 
lost a young puppy in my life all owing to care in looking 
well after this worm pest. 

Next, look wellto.lice and fleas. I use Thymo-Cresol, 
called also cold water dip. It is a great disinfectant, and 
is not poisonous. It cures all skin diseases, and I use it in 
mange with universal success. You can get it of your 
druggist. Use it in the following manner: 

When practical, use soft (rain, pond, or river) water. 
Dilute to the required strength. Always pour the water 
quickly upon the Thymo-Cresol, and not the Thymo-Cresol 
upon the water. In winter, protect it from frost; and before 
using, shake the can. If it does not mix well with cold 
water, mix it with warm water first, and then add cold to 
the required proportion. The proportions in which the 
Thymo-Cresol should be diluted with water, for various pur- 
poses, are indicated. A large teaspoonful of Thymo-Cresol 
to a pint of water, or a pint of the Thymo-Cresol to twelve 
gallons of water, makes a strength of about "one to one 
hundred." 

This quantity will do to wash six or eight puppies; then 
mix a new lot for any more puppies you may wish to wash. 
When you have dipped them in and rubbed it well in, take 
them out and dry them. After two applications, you 
will find all the lice and fleas have been destroyed. When 
they are eight weeks old, wean them, take the bitch to new 
quarters, and use the following mixture, rubbing it well 
into her breast: 

Iodide of potassium, two drams; soap, liniment, and oil 
of camphor, each two ounces. 

Examine the bitch's breast each day, and draw off all 
milk with the fingers that you can. In a few days she 
will be in proper shape to work, and will be dried up nicely. 



THE AMERICAN GORDON SETTER. 89 

When you have for several weeks fed your puppies on 
boiled grits, or boiled oatmeal, and a little cooked meat 
twice a week, and they have learned to eat well and take 
care of themselves, send the brace, or braces, you may wish 
to keep to someone you know in the country, to raise for 
you. It may cost you a few dollars each month, but you 
will be well repaid in the hardy growth of your puppies. 
Wherever you send them, have it distinctly understood 
that you wish them to run loose, as your desire is to 
develop every bone and muscle in them. 

When they are about ten months old, bring them home; 
and after the youngsters have learned to know you, and 
show by their actions that they have accustomed them- 
selves to the change and to the whistle, teach them to drop 
and follow well to heel, which you will find a great comfort 
to you when you walk them. Then take them in your 
buggy when you drive, that they may get accustomed to 
the motion of the wagon. Never feed old or young dogs 
just before you go out to exercise. When over their first 
sea-sickness, as it were, make them drop the moment you 
put them in the buggy, and keep them down until you are 
ready to let them out for a run. 

Nothing is more annoying to me, when I bundle into a 
wagon, on a shooting-trip with a friend, than to have him 
say his dog has never ridden, and in a few moments to have 
him vomit all over the floor. Or if he has not ridden before, 
and is not broken to drop in the wagon, but to be all 
over it head on the reins and in your lap, I prefer to 
get out and walk. Hence this advice as to training dogs 
to ride. 

As soon as your puppies have been well broken to ride and 
drop in the wagon, take one of your old stand-by' s out with 
you and your brace of puppies. Let them out on the road 
for a run of a mile on the first trip, being careful to select 
roads but little traveled until your puppies have learned to 
keep away from passing wagons. You must drive slowly, 
being careful that you do not run over them. They soon 
learn to follow well, and in a short time you can give them 



90 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

good long and fast spins with the older dogs. Never run 
a puppy until you tire him; it makes him sluggish. 

Your next move is to take him afield with one of your 
broken dogs, to find game; for of course you are anxious to 
fully determine whether his nose is as fine as you have 
thought from your early observations in watching him find 
his food when thrown in the tall grass, and the several little 
things you have seen him do, such as, when running on 
the road, to suddenly stop, and turn and hunt out a bone, 
or scent a barn-yard hen. All these little things are indic- 
ative of a good nose, and to fully satisfy yourself, before 
making any further move in his education, is the reason 
you wish to see him on game. 

I have put down many a puppy on game that at once 
began to range, and with tail action of the very best style, 
find and point. I love a lively tail action, and the best field 
dogs I ever saw all had it. After your old dog has found 
game, call your puppy to you with a whistle, if he is not 
then on a point with the old dog. He may go in and flush, 
but let him alone. Remember you are not out to break 
him, only to test his nose. When the birds are scattered, 
and the old dog stands, you will probably see him swing 
into his first point, at a distance from his game that will 
convince you he is the dog you wish to break. 

If, however, you go out once or twice before your 
youngster gives you any indication of nose, do not be dis- 
couraged; you may see it later. If not, after a dozen or 
more trials, under favorable circumstances, I should get rid 
of him. It is seldom, in the Gordon family, that you see a 
well-bred, well-raised puppy but what will stand his game 
on the first day' s trial, and most of them show most excel- 
lent noses at a very early age. 

I knew a Llewellin Setter, imported by a personal friend 
of mine, in this city, direct from Mr. Llewellin, that was 
placed in the hands of one of the most successful field-trial 
handlers in Tennessee. He worked his hardest to develop 
the dog, which was then about fifteen months old, but 
returned him as being no good. When this dog was over 



THE AMERICAN GORDON SETTER. 



91 



two years old, lie turned out quite a fine worker; he was one 
of the late-developing kind. I have never seen this in any 
Gordon Setters. 

While you had your puppy out, of course you shot over 
him, to see that he was not gun-shy. While on this sub- 
ject, I will state that of all the dogs I have raised to shoot 
over in my life, I have never yet had one prove gun-shy. My 
success has been owing to my never breeding to anything 
but well -broken dogs, and in not breeding to an unbroken 
bench-show dog simply because he won prizes, was hand- 




CHAMPION PILOT. 
Owned by Dr. Charles G Dixon, 2015 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Penn. 

some, and had a fashionable pedigree. Nor have I ever 
permitted my bitch to whelp under a barn, and I not to 
see her litter until they were running around. From the 
day your puppies are whelped, you should have access to 
them, and accustom them to your presence as soon as they 
can see to all noises you can make in their hearing. Take 
them out with you as soon as large enough to follow,, and 
fire several charges from your gun while they are romping 
about you. After each time you fire, call them to you, 
fondle and romp with them, and you will soon see, when 



92 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

you show the youngsters the gun, how delighted they will 
be to join you in your tramps, and also how pleased they 
are to smell powder. 

As regards breaking, my method is the same as most all 
sportsmen use, and I will not enter into it for fear of tiring 
my readers. I will simply say, if you wish to break your 
own dog, buy "Modern Training, Handling, and Kennel 
Management," by B. Waters. 

My advice to young sportsmen is to get a first-class 
trainer to break their dogs, if they can afford it; and when 
he is nearly finished, request the trainer to give them a 
week's instruction on how to work the dogs after they are 
broken. 

The Gordon Setter I have always found to be one of the 
hardiest, and if well housed arid fed, they seldom require 
medicine. I hardly know what distemper is with them, 
for I have not had a puppy or grown dog afflicted with it 
for over twelve years, and then it was contracted by coming- 
in contact with a road dog, while exercising. My bitch 
June lived until she was thirteen and one-half years old; 
Malcolm died at eleven and one-half, from inflammation of 
the bowels caused by swallowing a bone. A few months 
before he died, I hunted him for several days, and his nose 
was as fine, and his speed and endurance were just as good, 
as when he was five years old. The Gordon Setter is game 
in all his work. He is willing to face the stoutest briers, 
or retrieve his game even if he has to go through a skim of 
ice. Many a bird have they brought me that fell on the 
opposite side of a stout stream, in mid-winter, and they did 
it with as much determination as they showed in retrieving 
woodcock in summer. 

When starting out for a two-weeks trip, take with you 
about seventy-five pounds of corn-meal and twenty pounds 
of beef flour. This will be all you require to feed a 
brace or two on during your stay. Take of the corn-meal 
five pounds, and a tea-cup of the beef flour; mix well before 
you wet the meal; then wet and mix and have baked nicely 
in bread-pans; feed it cold. In the morning, feed lightly; 



THE AMERICAN GORDON SETTER. 93 

but on your return, before you let them go to rest, feed 
them strongly. If you do not feed before they are kenneled, 
they will not eat well, for the reason that when once put 
away they prefer rest to food. 

If you can, in the section where you are shooting, secure 
some raw fresh beef or mutton, give them a good feed twice 
a week. Rest assured, if your dogs are well fed, they will 
do twice the work for you that could possibly be gotten 
out of them if half -starved. At the same time, do not over- 
feed. Never feed them on salt meat while on your shooting- 
trips, for if you do you will have them filling themselves 
to overflowing with water, and this will spoil your day's 
shooting. 

When on your trip, if you ride to your shooting-grounds, 
see that the wagon-floor is well covered with dry hay or 
straw; put your dogs in, both going and returning, thus 
saving them all you can and see how they will tuck them- 
selves away in the straw on your way home. 

When you arrive home and feed them, take them at 
once to your room; spread your dog-blanket, which I pre- 
sume you have taken with you, before the fire; let them 
dry well, or thaw out, as the state of the weather may 
require; take a comb and get off all the burs, especially 
under the shoulders, and look the toes over to see that no 
burs or dried or frozen mud are left there. I prefer to 
always keep my dogs in my room at night, and will not 
stop at any house where I can not do so, unless it be at a 
friend's home. 

By following the above instructions, you will find your 
dogs as fresh as you would wish them the next morning; 
they will be with you until a good old age, and no rheuma- 
tism will you see in them at any time. If you wish your 
dogs to always look well in coat, wash them well all over 
with Spratt's dog soap, rubbing it well in with a stiff root 
brush, such as is used for brushing a horse's mane. This 
makes a lather, and will kill every flea on them. Commence 
this washing in May, and have it done every three weeks 
until about October 15th; then you are rid of fleas on them 



94 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

all winter. When you have finished soaping them, in about 
ten minutes give them a swim or rinse, to get the lather off; 
their coats will then look as sleek as though you had oiled 
them. During the winter, once or twice a week, have them 
brushed well, from head to heel, with the same kind of root 
brush mentioned above; give the exercise as directed, and 
you will see dogs, in coat, muscle, and health, that will 
please the most fastidious sportsman and fancier. 

If these instructions are carried out to the letter, you can 
dispense with your medicine-case. If you can not keep, 
feed, and give your dogs your personal attention, you had 
better not keep any. Never forget to permit your dogs to 
have free access to grass; they use it for any ills they may 
have.* 

In regard to x>reparing your dog for a bench show, each 
exhibitor has his own way. I am aware that much is done 
in the way of doctoring coat, etc. ; but if many exhibitors 
would pay more attention to exercise and developing of the 
muscle, you would not see so many fat, flabby, undevel- 
oped dogs, in bone or muscle, of all breeds of field dogs, at 
shows. I like to see them enter a ring before me in perfect 
race-horse order, as hard in muscle as it is possible to get 
them; not looking like they were too weak to stand, or so 
fat that one would suppose they were for the butcher. 

I will here describe a hunt I participated in one Septem- 
ber, about nine years ago, with several friends. I left Bal- 
timore, Maryland, my home and birth-place, about the 28th 
of August. We started for the prairies of Iowa, five hun- 
dred miles west of Chicago, on the Chicago & North- Western 

* Among the prominent owners, breeders, and importers of Gordon Setters 
in this country, may be mentioned Dr. Samuel G. Dixon, 2015 Chestnut street, 
Philadelphia, Penn ; M. D. Baillie, Arlington, N. J. ; Beaumont Kennels, 159 
West Thirty-fourth street, New York City; W. S. Hammett, Philadelphia, 
Penn.; H. F. Smith, 1954 North Eleventh street, Philadelphia, Penn.; Meadow - 
thorpe Kennels, Lexington, Ky.; J. L. Campbell, Sincoe, Ontario, Canada; J. 
B. Blossom, 938 Prospect avenue, Morrisania, N. Y. ; Fred P. Kirby, 135 South 
Eighth street, Philadelphia, Penn-.; 8. R. Norton, Lemont, Cook County, 111.; 
Playford Kennels, Buffalo, N. Y ; Dr. I. T. Norris, box 764, Baltimore, Md.; 
Dr. Myers, New York City. ED. 



THE AMERICAN GORDON SETTER. 95 

Railway, for a three- weeks absence, which gave us about 
twelve days shooting. We took our tent and a full camp- 
ing outfit. In the way of dogs, we had Irish and English 
Setters, one black Pointer, and one lemon-and-white 
Pointer. I had my brace of Gordons, Malcolm and June. 
We were on the road three days and nights, and arrived at 
our destination at three A. M. 

My friends all retired for a few hours rest, but I remained 
up and made arrangements with a liveryman to be at the 
hotel at peep of day. When he arrived, myself and two dogs 
boarded, and were soon tucked in the straw at the bottom 
of the wagon, my friends preferring to breakfast, and follow 
later. In an hour we reached a nice-looking stubble-field. I 
ordered a halt, and alighted, the dogs following suit. They 
were ordered on. June had been on chickens before, but Mal- 
colm had not. In about ten minutes, I saw them both make 
game, and in a moment draw on and make a fine point. 1 
flushed and killed a brace, and in little over an hour had 
ten chickens, all killed over points to these two dogs; and 
they had not made an error. It is needless to say that after 
such a journey, and such a performance, I was justly proud 
of my pets. This has been my experience with my Gor- 
dons every year. On woodcock, snipe, quail, or ruffed 
grouse, I have found them always reliable, stanch, and 
obedient. 

I have hunted them in several States, over hill and dale, 
through brier-patches and in dense forest in fact, wher- 
ever the birds would seek refuge; and never yet have I seen 
them flurried in the least. They are in appearance and in 
nature the gentleman's dog, both to shoot over and as a 
companion at his home. They are of the most affectionate 
disposition to home folks, but are watchful when a stranger 
is about. 

On one occasion, in Caroline County, Virginia, in 1878, I 
had arrived home and dressed for supper, after a hard day's 
tramp, in the month of December. My room had an open 
wood fire. My dogs were spread out in front of it. I 
closed my door and went down to supper. A gentleman 



96 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

from Richmond, who was stopping at the same house for a 
few days, knowing me, went into my room to warm up 
inside and out. The dogs let him in, but when he started 
to go out, he was halted by them, and not until he had 
called me from the supper- table did he get out; and if I 
had been out of the house, he most certainly would have 
had to await my return. 

I have seen my bitch Gypsy, on several occasions, while 
I have had my birds and traps on the station platform 
awaiting a train, jump into and clean up a passing dog for 
attempting to nose my game. I always place my game in 
the baggage-car under the care of my dogs, on the floor, 
and you can rest assured, none will be appropriated by the 
baggage-smasher. 

Gordons make the best of yard dogs; and why people 
will keep a cur when they can have one of these beautiful 
and faithful animals, is beyond my comprehension. In the 
Gordon Setter, one may have a dog to guard his family, a 
playmate for his children, and a dog that will help to keep 
the larder full. 

I hope all who may read these lines will find something 
in them that will be of service, and assist them in securing 
a perfect American Gordon Setter. I hope that many a 
time, ere this, they have felt that thrill from head to heel- 
when they beheld that brace of Gordon Setters, on that 
beautiful point on yonder hill, or have sat on that moss- 
covered log beside that gurgling brook, and caressed them 
fondly for that masterpiece of work, in having retrieved so 
well that crippied bird, and without the rumple of a feather 
that is the cream of existence to the true sportsman. I 
hope you are all lovers of the charms of woodland scenery, 
for no man can be a true sportsman unless he is in love with 
all Nature, in her rural paradise. 

I hope you have enjoyed the sportsman's sleep. If you 
have not seen and enjoyed these pleasures, I am sorry for 
you, for you do not yet know what pleasure is. The man 
who is troubled with insomnia, will, if he take to the field, 
find health and sleep. 



THE POINTER. 



BY CHARLES K. WESTBROOK, A. M. 




ISTOBIOGRAPHY. The exact origin of this beau- 
tiful and useful branch of the canine family, as 
well as that of many other varieties, can not be defi- 
nitely stated. The great naturalist, Buffon, was of 
the opinion that all the different species of dogs derived 
their origin from the shepherd's dog; and while it is 
perhaps inappropriate to discuss this question here, it 
may be remarked, en passant, that such an assumption may 
possibly be a correct one. It would appear quite natural 
that, in those early pastoral days, that marked the dawning 
era of civilization and human development, as the shepherd 
reclined along the borders of the forests which, like a 
mighty frame-work, inclosed the feeding-grounds of his 
flock, some specimens of the wild dog should find their 
way to his side, and, by kind treatment and gradual domes- 
tication, become subordinated to his purposes. Gradually, 
under the influences operating upon the animal, through 
domestication, climate, variety of food, and other effective 
causes, his form, habits, and inherited instincts may have 
become changed; and by an occasional cross with another 
branch of the family, similarly produced, it is possible to 
conceive that the theory of Buff on ^ may be approximately 
correct. The well-known susceptibility of the dog to varia- 
tions in breeding is also a confirmation of the theory; and 
it is easy to account for the changes in his instincts, as now 
manifested, on the theory that these have become fixed and 
confirmed, in each variety, by the uses to which they have 
been severally devoted. 

However this may be, the history of the world, from 
the very earliest period, informs us of the existence of the 

7 (97) 



\ 



98 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

dog as a companion and associate of man. On ancien^ 
Egyptian monuments is often seen the figure of an animal 
very much resembling the Pointer of to-day; and other 
ancient works of art, both of sculpture and painting, as 
well as family records, justify the belief that the dog, in a 
domesticated state, was contemporaneous with the very 
dawn of civilization itself . 

Regarding the origin of the Pointer, much conjecture 
has been indulged in by various writers on the dog. No 
two of the early authors seem to agree entirely as to the 
precise period when the Pointer came into existence as 
such, with all his wonderful instincts and capabilities fully 
developed. We must probably seek for that period in 
those misty ages of tradition and uncertainty that mark 
the origin of our common law, and which Blackstone des- 
ignates as ' ' the time whereof the memory of man runneth 
not to the contrary." 

The earliest printed work, in the English language, 
describing the various breeds of dogs, was a "Book of 
Field Sports," written by Dame Juliana Berners, prioress 
of Sopwell Nunnery, in Hertfordshire, about the end of 
the fourteenth century. In this work, this lady says: 
"Thyse ben the names of houndes, fyrste there is a Gre- 
houn, a Bastard, a Mengrell, a Mastif, a Lemor, a Spanyel, 
Raches, Kenettys, Teroures, Butchers Houndes, Dunghyll 
dogges, Tryndeltaylles, and Pryckeryd currys, and small 
ladyes poppees that bere awaye the flees." 

The next work, in point of antiquity, referring to the 
same subject, was by Dr. John Caius, physician to Queen 
Elizabeth, published in* Latin in 1576, and subsequently 
translated into English. The classification of dogs in this 
treatise was into three varieties, viz.: "(1) A gentle kind, 
serving the game; (2) a homely kind, apt for sundry nec- 
essary uses; (3) a currish kind, meet for many toyes." The 
first of these classes is divided by Doctor Caius into two 
parts, viz. : Venatici, used for hunting wild beasts, and Au- 
cupatorii, which were employed in the pursuit of fowl. 
The Venatici were further subdivided into eight varieties, 



THE POINTER. ^ 99 

namely: Leverarius, or Harriers; Terrarius, or Terrars; 
Sanguinarius, or Bloodhounds; Agaseus, or Gasehounds; 
Leporarius, or Greliounds; Lorarius, or Lyemmer; Yerti- 
gus, or Tumbler, and Canis furax, or Stealer. The dogs 
used for fowling, or Aucupatorii, were divided into two 
classes, viz.: Index, or Setter, and Aquaticus, or Spaniell 
probably drawing a distinction between the Land and 
Water Spaniel. 

In these ancient treatises, we find no mention made of 
the Pointer by name, and for that reason many writers 
have assumed that he had no distinct existence at that time. 
But this assumption is not necessarily a correct one; for 
the Pointer may have existed in Spain or England under 
another name, even before that period, as a species of 
Hound, Lemor, Lurcher, or even a short-haired Spaniel. In 
this case, the name "Pointer," which was used by the 
Swedish naturalist, Linnaeus [1707-1778], in his classifica- 
tion of animals ("Canis Avicularis " ), does not necessarily 
carry with it a lack of early origin. The names of dogs 
were used interchangeably in early days; the nomenclature 
was far from uniform and fixed, and the writer is by no 
means certain that the word Spaniel might not at that time 
have included the dog subsequently known as the Pointer, 
as well as that afterward called the Setter. 

This view finds further confirmation by reference to a 
work known as "The Gentleman's Recreation," published 
by Nicholas Cox in 1697, in which that author writes of the 
Setter as follows: ' * The dog which you elect for setting must 
have a perfect and good scent, and be naturally addicted 
to the hunting of feathers; and this dog may be either 
Land Spaniel, Water Spaniel, or mongrel of them both; 
either the shallow-flewed Hound, Tumbler, Lurcher, or small 
bastard Mastiff." By this it will be seen that the status of 
the Setter itself was not clearly established as late as the 
year 1700 several of the dogs named above being likewise 
short-haired, like the Pointer of to-day. 

A very ingenious argument has been adduced by certain 
writers, tending to prove that the modern Pointer is a 



100 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

descendant of the dog known in English literature as the 
"Brach," which is supposed to have been introduced into 
England during the Norman invasion, in the eleventh 
century; and such may possibly be the case, but the fact 
has never been sufficiently verified. The Braque is one of 
the varieties of pointing dogs used in France, and was 
formerly known under that name, with varied orthography, 
in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Germany. 

Our American lexicographers deline " brach " as u a bitch 
of the Hound kind," and give Shakespeare [1564-1616] as 
their authority. Worcester also gives the definition of "a 
Pointer, or setting dog," and also uses Shakespeare as 
authority for that. Richardson, in his dictionary, defines 
" brach" to mean u a kind of short-tailed setting dog, 
ordinarily spotted or parti-colored." 

It must also be borne in mind +hat the word "hound," 
which is given as one of the earliest varieties of dogs, by 
different writers, signifies simply "a dog" in Anglo-Saxon, 
or Old English, and also in German; so that one of the 
varieties of Hounds existing so early in England may have 
been the " Brach," or pointing bird-dog; and it is just pos- 
sible that the Spanish Pointer (or Braco) may have been 
crossed with the English varieties of the Brach family to 
produce certain strains of the modern Pointer. Aldrovan- 
dus, a celebrated Italian naturalist of the sixteenth century, 
gives the colors of the Brach as black, white, and fulvous, 
or brownish-yellow, the color similar to that of the spotted 
lynx (ticks), being most sought after as appears in the 
Dalmatian Pointer (or coach-dog), and so often in popular 
strains of the modern Pointer. A French encyclopedia 
also gives the following definition of the Braque : ' ' The 
Braque, or pointing dog, is ordinarily of a white color, 
ticked with liver or black; his ears are long and pendent, 
and his muzzle somewhat large and long." 

Sir Walter Scott [1771-1832], in several of his works, 
makes reference to the Brach in his description of hunting- 
scenes; so that, in view of all the facts, it is not beyond 
the realm of reasonable conjecture that a short-haired 



THE POINTER. 101 

pointing dog, closely resembling the modern Pointer in 
form and color, existed in England prior to the advent of 
the Spanish Pointer, and may have been utilized in the 
breeding development of our present excellent varieties of 
the Pointer family. 

In this connection, it may prove interesting to the 
reader to consider the question of the 

COMPARATIVE ANTIQUITY OF THE SETTER AND POINTER. 

In touching upon this subject, it must be remarked that 
much discussion has taken place among sportsmen regard- 
ing the question of origin and antiquity of these two valu- 
able breeds. Some writers have firmly maintained that the 
Setter is clearly indebted to the Pointer for his existence 
as such; while others have, with equal force of logic and 
skill of rhetoric, maintained the exact opposite to be the 
case. These discussions have usually been carried on by the 
respective friends of each breed, oftentimes with considera- 
ble virulence. The writer, being a firm friend of both of 
these noble varieties of dogs, Avill endeavor to present the 
question in as clear and impartial a manner as possible. 

All recognized authorities on the dog, unite in ascribing 
an early existence to that one known as the Spaniel. They 
also agree in the opinion that the name was conferred upon 
this variety because it originated in Spain, from whence it 
was brought into Great Britain. The exact date of the 
importation of the Spaniel is not known; nor do we know 
what his appearance and character were at the time. He 
may have been a short-haired dog when first introduced into 
England, and the climate may have subsequently induced 
the growth of his protective coat ; or he may have originally 
been a long-haired dog. 

Doctor Caius classifies them into Land and Water 
Spaniels, and says of them, whether used for the hawk, the 
net, the falcon, pheasant, or partridge : 

The common sort of people call them by one generall word, namely. 
SpanielK As though those kiude of dogges came originally and first of all 

out of Spain. 



102 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

However that may be, there is little question that the 
Spaniel is one of the immediate ancestors of the dog now 
known as the Setter. This name was early given to him 
because he had been trained to crawl cautiously upon the 
birds, and when he had gotten near enough to locate them, 
to set or crouch, permitting his owner to draw a net over 
him, and the birds as well. This was done as early as 1576, 
when Dr. John Caius wrote, and is clearly described in his 
book, to which reference has previously been made. 

Gervase Markham, the author of "Hunger's Prevention, 
or the Art of Fowling," which was published in 1655, under 
the heading, "What a Setting Dog is," says : 

You shall then understand that a setting dogge is a certain lusty Land 
Spauiell taught by nature to hunt the partridges before, and. more than any 

other chase whatsoever When he is come even to the very 

place where his prey is, and hath, as it were, his nose over it, so that it seems 
he may take it up at his owne pleasure, yet is his temperance and obedience so 
made and framed by arte that presently, even on a sudden, he either stands 
still or falles downe flatte upon his belly, without daring once to open his 
mouth, or make any noyse or motion at all, till that his master come unto 
him, and then proceedes in all things according to his directions and command- 
ments. 

In further confirmation of the fact that the original 
Setter was a Spaniel, Mr. Daniel, in his "Rural Sports," 
has preserved a document, dated in the year 1685, in which 
one John Harris agrees, for the consideration of ten shillings, 
to "well and sufficiently mayntayne and keepe a Spanile 
Bitch named Quand, . . . and fully and effectually 
traine up and teach the said Bitch to sitt Partridges, Pheas- 
ants, and other game, as well and exactly as the best sitting 
Dogges usually sett the same." 

The first recorded importation of the Spanish Pointer 
(who is fully described in a subsequent chapter) into Great 
Britain was about the year 1600. At that time, the setting 
dog, as we have seen, might have belonged to several differ- 
ent breeds. Shooting with fire-arms came into common 
practice, among the gentry, about the same period, and 
seemed to call the Pointer into use as a dog who would 
indicate the place where the birds lay, while standing erect, 



THE POINTER. 103 

instead of crouching, as the setting dog did. For a long 
time, therefore, the pointing dog was the fashion among 
sportsmen, and the setting dog fell into disuse. After 
awhile, however, sportsmen began to use the setting Spaniel 
to shoot over, notwithstanding his sudden drop and point 
made it difficult to see him in cover, turnips, wheat, 
standing clover, furze, or ling. 

A little later still, we find the Setter dog standing up to 
his work like the Pointer. By what process this result 
was accomplished, whether by the gradual education and 
development of the Setting Spaniel, or by a Pointer cross, 
is a question that has never yet been finally settled. 

Doubtless there may have been early strains of Setters 
that were kept comparatively free from alien blood, in the 
gradual process of development from the Setting Spaniel. 
On the other hand, there is most excellent authority for 
believing that many strains were greatly aided 'and im- 
proved by the introduction of Pointer blood. On this point, 
it will be well, probably, to quote a few authorities, as many 
lovers of the Setter strenuously adhere to the belief that 
that dog is purely an original one, with no Pointer or other 
alien blood in his veins. 

The author of the Sportsman's Cabinet, published in 
1803, makes the following broad assertion: 

The dog passing under this denomination [Setter] is a species of Pointer, 
originally produced by a commixture between the Spanish Pointer and the 
larger breed of English Spaniel. 

Mr. William Lort, one of the prominent breeders of the 
Setter in England, and a man of recognized authority on 
the question under investigation, has written as follows: 

As to the origin of the Setter, I am not so sure of the correctness of my old 
and valued friend, Mr. H. Hubert, when he says: " There is no doubt what- 
ever that a true Setter is a pure strain of unmixed Spaniel blood, the only 
improvement produced in the breed arisiug from its judicious cultivation," etc. 
I am quite sure that years ago, say from forty to fifty, it was no uncommon 
thing to get a dip of Pointer blood into the best kennels of Setters. Some- 
times it answered well, and though for a generation or two it diminished the 
coat not always, though, at the cost of appearance it fined and strengthened 
the stern, giving life and motion to it; and what, whether rightly or wrongly, 
in early times was thought a good deal of it rounded the foot. 



104 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

I know how shocked some of our modern breeders .will be at the idea of 
their favorites having in their veins a drop of Pointer blood. It is well, per- 
haps, that it is not generally known how many fashionable strains have been 
vitiated with much more objectionable blood than that of the Pointer. I have 
seen Droppers, yes, and dogs bred from Droppers, possessing exquisite powers of 
scent, lovely tempers, and great pace. I think there is reason to believe the 
Spaniel to be the foundation of our present Setter. 

As a case showing that it is possible for cross-bred dogs to breed true, I 
know of a black Setter bitch, three crosses from Pointer, belonging to Robert 
Warner, of Leicester Abbey. She was good herself, having all the qualities 
of a pure Setter, and curiously enough, she bred well from either a Setter or 
Pointer. Mr. Warner gave his keeper (who afterward came into my service) 
a brace of black puppies, by a Pointer, of this bitch. They looked all over 
Pointers, they worked like Pointers, they were excellent Pointers, and were 
sold, when broken, at forty guineas a good price in those days. I myself had 
Setters from her, and they were good Setters and showed all Setter character- 
istics. 

The above explicit statement was made in a letter to 
Mr. Vero Shaw; and the latter, in his valuable work, the 
"Book of the Dog," adds: 

A strong confirmation of Mr. Lort's theory is to be found in the subjoined 
engraving from a painting by the famous French artist, Alexander Franyois 
Desportes. This great animal painter born in 1661, and died in 1743 was 
elected a member of the French Royal Academy of Painting in 1699, and of 
its Council in 1704. For many years he occupied the court position of histori- 
ographer of the chase, created expressly for him by Louis XIV. ; and his pict- 
ures, which are very numerous, can har.lly be surpassed for their fidelity to 
Nature. The engraving we reproduce from his pencil is entitled, " Dogs and 
Partridges," and is valuable as distinctly showing that the Pointer had been 
crossed with the Spaniel before and during his time, and that the result was a 
dog very like our modern Setter. 

Mr. Shaw, on another page of his work, also places the 
seal of his indorsement on the reasonableness of a theory 
advanced by the well-known writer, Elaine, in regard to the 
conversion of the ancient Spaniel into the modern Setter. 
Mr. Elaine's suggestion is that a cross with one of the 
celeres, or swift-footed dogs, was resorted to, and that the 
Pointer is probably a cross between the Spaniel and one or 
other of the pugnaces. Mr. Youatt, in his valuable work 
on the dog, also says: "It was long the fashion to cross 
and mix them [Setters] with the Pointer." 

As further evidence that alien blood may have been used 
in establishing some strains of Setters, the following quo- 



THE POINTER. 105 

tation from one of the works of Mr. Tolfrey, author of 
" The Sportsman in France," "The Sportsman in Ireland 
and Scotland," and "The Sportsman in Canada," is given, 
it being his recipe for making a strain of Setters: 

The preliminary step, is to put a fine-bred and unexceptionable Pointer 
bitch to a noted Foxhound ; you will then have laid the foundation of three 
essential qualities speed, nose, and courage. Docility and sagacity are also 
requisites, and to obtain them, cross the offspring with the small and slender 
race of Newfoundland dog. The produce will be as near perfection as 
possible; they will take to the water, retrieve, and for general shooting will 
be found the very best and most useful animal the sportsman can desire. 

The writer does not believe that many breeders were 
induced to follow the absurd process recommended by Mr. 
Tolfrey, but simply presents that gentleman's views as 
showing the tendency of the time to cross and recross in 
order to bring the Setter up to a certain standard. 

In the light of all this authentic history, it is difficult to 
arrive at any other conclusion than that the modern Setter 
and Pointer are both the results of judicious selection, 
breeding, and crossing the Pointer, as will be seen later, 
bearing the same relation to the old Spanish Pointer, here- 
inafter described, as the Setter does to the original Setting 
Spaniel. Without doubt, other dashes of alien blood have 
been infused into certain strains of each variety, and certain 
strains may be stronger in Spaniel and Spanish blood than 
others; but the fact remains the same, that both of these 
valuable varieties of dogs have been built up by scientific 
crossing. This being the case, it is neither necessary nor 
important to inquire into the antiquity of the respective 
ancestors of each. Neither can with certainty be accorded 
precedence in point of age. 

The present dog, of either variety, breeds true to type, 
reproduces himself in form, color, qualities, and intellect- 
ual traits, and is none the less valuable, in the opinion of 
the writer, because certain judicious drafts have been made 
on other families of dogs to improve his natural qualities, 
and the better to adapt him to the uses for which he is 
intended. 



106 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Owing to the constant experimentation in the breeding 
of our canine friends for hundreds of years (and even at the 
present time), it would seem absurd, to the thinking, 
intelligent reader, to claim any breed of dogs as the only 
great and original creation. Education, climate, food, 
infusion of new blood, domestication which corresponds 
to civilization in man have done as much for the canine 
as they have for the human family. And it is perhaps 
well for the whole race of dogs that outside blood has, at 
times, been sought for and obtained, and the deteriorating 
effects of too close inbreeding thereby happily averted. 
Mr. Laverack has himself confessed that at one time he lost 
many of his dogs by too continuously breeding-in his strain; 
and he not only admits that he once infused a valuable dash 
of liver-and- white blood, from the North of England, into 
his kennels, but that he made two separate visits to Ireland 
for the purpose of looking up a suitable Irish dog to use 
for a similar purpose. 

THE OLD SPANISH POINTER. 

Notwithstanding the uncertainty that exists regarding 
the time when the Spanish Pointer was first introduced 
into England, there seems to be a general consensus of 
opinion that the year 1600 is about the period that marks 
his advent under that name. The dog known as the ' ' Old 
Spanish Pointer'' was the representative of the type at 
that time, and has been described by Sydenham Edwards, 
in " Cynographia Britannica" (1805), as follows: 

The Spanish Pointer is a heavy, loose-made dog, about twenty-two 
inches high, bearing no small resemblance to the slow Southern Hound. 
Head large, indented between the eyes; lips large and pendulous; ears thin, 
loose, and hanging down, of a moderate length; coat short and smooth; color, 
dark-brown or liver-color, liver-color-and- white, red-and-white, black, black- 
and-white, sometimes tanned about the face and eyes, often thickly speckled 
with small spots on a white ground; the tail thin, smooth, and wiry; frequently 
dew-claws upon the hind legs; the hind feet often turning a little outward. 

The Spanish Pointer was introduced into this country, by a Portugese 

.merchant, at a very modern period, and was first used by an old reduced baron 

of the name of Bichell, who lived in Norfolk, and could shoot flying; indeed, 

he seems to have lived by his gun, as the game he killed was sold in the London 



THE POINTER. 107 

market. This valuable acquisition from the Continent was wholly unknown 
to our ancestors, together with the art of shooting flying; but so fond are we 
become of this most elegant of field sports, that we now excel all others in the 
use of the gun, and in the breeding and training of the dog. 

The Spanish Pointer possesses, in a high degree, the sense of scenting, 
so that he very rarely or never goes by his game when in pursuit of it ; requires 
very little training to make him stanch most of them standing the first time 
they meet with game; and it is no uncommon occurrence for puppies of three 
months old to stand at poultry, rabbits, and even cats. But as they grow old 
they are apt to get idle, and often go over their ground on a trot, instead of 
galloping; and from their loose make and slowness of foot, w T hen hunted a 
few seasons, soon tire, have recourse to cunning, and in company let the 
younger and fleeter dogs beat wide the fields, whilst they do little more than 
back them, or else make false points. They then become useless but for hunt- 
ing, singly, with a sportsman who is not able or not inclined to follow the 
faster dogs. 

There are other varieties of the Pointer, as the Russian, in size and form 
like the Spanish; coat not unlike a drover's dog, rough and shaggy, rough 
about the eyes, and bearded; color like the Spanish, but often grizzle-and- 
white; they differ in coat, some being more rough than others. This is probably 
a cross between the Spanish Pointer and the Barbet, or rough water dog. He has 
an excellent nose, is sagacious, tractable, and easily made stanch; endures 
fatigue tolerably well, takes water readily, and is' not incommoded by the most 
cold and wet weather. 

To this description of the Spanish Pointer, by an early 
authority, may be added that of Mr. Taplin, at the opening 
of the present century : 

Every fact upon record respecting their appearance in England is that 
they were, in very early ages, introduced from Spain, and that they were 
natives of that country from which their name was derived. . . . The 
Pointer of this description is short in the head, broad in the forehead, 
wide in the nose, expansive in the nostrils, simply solicitous in aspect, heavy 
in the shoulders, short in the legs, almost circular in the form of the car- 
cass, square upon the back, strong across the loins, and remarkably so in the 
hind quarters. Although this breed, like the English Pointer (by the many 
collateral aids so much improved), are produced of various colors, yet the 

bold brown, liver-and-white, are the most predominant The 

Pointer we are now treating of, though exceedingly slow, must be generally 
admitted to be sure; indefatigable and minute in his researches, he is rarely 
seen to miss his game when game is to be found. When a covey of birds is 
separated, by repeated shots, and are afterward found singly, the Pointer 
under description has opportunity to display his best ability in most indus- 
triously recovering these scattered birds, the major part of which (if accom- 
panied by a good shot) are generally picked up to a certainty. To the 
recovery of winged birds, the patient perseverance of this dog is peculiarly 



108 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

adapted; and for the sport of snipe-shooting alone they are entitled to the 
preference of every other. 

The Russian branch of this family of dogs is said to 
strongly resemble the later Russian Setter, and many good 
authorities consider them almost identical. It is not appro- 
priate here to enter into any extended description of the 
Russian Setter, further than to say that he is considered a 
very superior dog on game, and that several dashes of his 
blood have been infused, with benefit, into some strains 
of our modern Setters. 

The German Pointer is a heavy-set, large-boned dog, with 
prominent news, and considerable throatiness; generally 
liver or liver-and-white in color, though not always. He is 
believed to be particularly strong in the blood of the Span- 
ish Pointer, and his slow but sure methods of hunting con- 
firm the belief. He is extensively used in Germany, and as 
an all-around game dog has few superiors. There are two 
varieties of this useful dog, the Smooth-coated and the 
Rough-coated the latter probably being akin to the Rus- 
sian Pointer, above referred to. With reference to these 
dogs, we quote the following letter, recently published in 
the American Field, and written by a prominent German 
sportsman: 

Our dogs must have a different training from the dog used by sportsmen 
in England or America. We can not successfully hunt here with the Pointer 
or Setter. We need dogs Oebrauchshunde adapted to all purposes, a sort of 
an all-round dog. This rule especially applies to the Government forester, who 
is compelled to be out in the forest every day in the year, and whose dog must 
not only be insensible, in a high degree, to all temperatures, but must also, in case 
of need, render assistance to his master against game-sneakers, who frequently 
are a dangerous class of men, and often make a murderous attack on the officer 
w r hen he interferes with their unlawful pursuits. 

English Pointers and Setters are the acknowledged champion bird dogs, 
but very few of them can be trained to retrieve a hare or fox at a great dis- 
tance, or to bring a duck out of the cold water and through thick weeds, or to 
follow the trail of a wounded stag or roebuck. 

Yet a hunting dog in this country must combine all these qualities. He is 
expected to have a good nose, to search the field all day, in the hot month of 
August, for partridges, and make a firm stand when he finds them; lie must 
work in water for ducks, in warm or cold weather; he must follow a wounded 
hare or fox, when brought on the trail, for miles, and retrieve the game the 




C109) 



110 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

same* distance. He must never hesitate to attack and kill a wounded fox, otter, 
marten, etc.; must pull down a wounded roebuck, or, if he finds the roebuck 
or stag dead, commence to bark, and continue to do so until his master is at his 
side. 

If he follows his master stalking, he must never advance a foot ahead of 
him, must "drop" when winked to do so, and remain "down" until com- 
manded to come, even if his master remains away for hours, and meanwhile 
has repeatedly fired at game. 

We have several breeds of dogs: The German Pointer, German Setter, 
and the Rough-coated German Pointer, which, if properly trained, will acquire 
the perfection in question. 

Of late, the Rough-coated Pointer of one of which, Ratiz (No. 3201 Ger- 
man Dog Register), I herewith furnish you an illustration is one of the most 
favorite sporting dogs in this country. Ratiz is owned by Korthals, stands 
twenty-six inches at the shoulder, and is bluish-gray mixed with brown. The 
structure of his body resembles closely the German Pointer; his coat of hair 
resembles that of the griffon. He is the connecting link between these two 
breeds of dogs, and may have originated from one or the other, or perhaps may 
be considered a cross-breed of the two. 

The Rough-coated Pointer is not equaled by any dog in endurance and 
his insensibility to changes of temperature. His nose is almost as good as 
that of the finest English Pointer; and his retrieving qualities, his courage, 
are simply marvelous. Frequently, one of these dogs, when on the trail of a 
slightly wounded fox, svill follow Reynard for miles, kill him, and return 
with him to his master. He will battle with a wounded otter in the water, 
and either go down with the latter or bring it on land. He will bay a wounded 
stag and pull him down if he get the favorable opportunity. He will quietly, 
and with no sign of discomfort, lie down in front or at the side of his master, 
in snow, and await developments. 

We have two celebrated kennels of Rough-coated Pointers in this country, 
the Korthals and the Bontant. 

The most popular color of the Rough-coated Pointer is a bluish-gray or 
faint brown. Light colors are at u discount, since a white dog in this country 
is too good an object to notice for the larger game, and the weeds in the open 
field are never too high for the gunner to keep his dog constantly in sight. 

I also inclose a portrait of one of the finest and best short-haired German 
Pointers, and the favorite dog of the German Emperor. Waldin is of the purest 
blood, with a good pedigree, is brown in color, and was whelped July 26, 1884. 
His nose is claimed to be equal to that of the best of English thorough-breds. 
His figure is almost faultless, and his qualities fir'st-class. He, like most German 
Pointers, is less nervous and restless than the English Pointers. He is not a 
one-sided field-trial dog, but a dog for all purposes a " Gebmuchshund." 
Waldin received his training from one of the best German dog-trainers, and is 
exercised continuously in the field or forest, and thus is in a uniform good 
hunting condition. 

When the partridge season opens, and the Emperor enters the field near Ber- 
lin to enjoy the sport of partridge-shooting, Waldin is always present, and the 
Emperor follows with delight the fine work of this dog. 




(Ill) 



112 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Waldin has won twice the first, and once the second prize, at the German 
field trials. He has been painted in oil by Sperling, the celebrated German 
artist, eminent for animal painting, of whose skill the accompanying illustration 
is only a faint sample. 

. 

THE ENGLISH POINTER, 

Following close upon the Spanish Pointer appeared the 
English Pointer, which is generally acknowledged to be the 
result of a cross, either of the Spanish Pointer and the 
Southern Hound, or Brach, or of the former and the Fox- 
hound. The burden of authority seems to favor the latter 
hypothesis. As field sports gradually became popular, and 
the art of shooting on the wing more generally known, game 
became somewhat scarcer and more wary, and the old 
Spanish Pointer, with his slow, methodical ways and potter- 
ing style, came into disfavor. More dash, speed, and range 
were required, even at the sacrifice of a certain degree of 
stability and stanchness, and sportsmen began to look 
around for an infusion of blood that would add the desira- 
ble qualities, with the least sacrifice of the old and valued 
traits of character. 

Sydenham Edwards, speaking of the improved Pointer, 
in 1800, thus writes : 

The sportsman has improved the breed by selecting the lightest and gayest 
individuals, and by judicious crosses with the Foxhound, to procure courage 
and fleetness. From the great attention thus paid, has resulted the present 
elegant dog, of valuable and extensive properties, differing much from the 
original parent, but with some diminution of his instinctive powers. He may 
thus be described : Light, strong, well-formed, and very active; about twenty- 
two inches high; head small and straight; lips and ears small, short, and thin; 
coat short and smooth, commonly spotted or flecked upon a white ground, 
sometimes wholly white; tail thin and wiry, except when crossed with the 
Setter or Foxhound, then a little brushed. 

This dog possesses great gayety and courage, travels in a grand manner, 
quarters his ground with rapidity, and scents with acuteness; gallops with his 
haunches rather under him, his head and tail up; of strength to endure any 
fatigue, and an invincible spirit. But with these qualifications he has concomi- 
tant disadvantages. His high spirit and eagerness for the sport render him 
intractable, and extremely difficult of education; his impatience in company 
subjects him to a desire to be foremost in the points, and not give time for the 
sportsman to come up to run in upon che game, particularly down wind; but 



THE POINTEK. 113 

if these faults can be overcome in training, if he can be made stanch in 
standing, drawing, and backing, and to stop at the voice, or token of the hand, 
he is highly esteemed; and those who arrive at such perfection in this country 
bring amazing prices. . . . 

The most judicious cross appears to have been with the Foxhound, and 
by this has been acquired speed and courage, power and perseverance; and its 
disadvantage, difficulty of training them to be stanch. I believe the cele- 
brated Colonel Thornton first made this cross; and from his producing excellent 
dogs, it has been very generally followed. 

The foregoing description of the origin of the modern 
English Pointer is confirmed by other early writers, and is 
generally believed to be accurate. Among the early products 
of this cross were many dogs possessed of double noses a 
deep fissure in the center of the nose completely dividing 
the nostrils; but the superstition that such animals were 
possessed of keener scenting powers than others, has long 
since passed away, and such a manifestation is now con- 
sidered a great defect. 

That a cross between the Spanish Pointer and the Fox- 
hound was made in France as early as the year 1700, is 
explicitly proven by another painting by Desportes, also 
published in Vero Shaw's book, and made about that period, 
wherein are shown two dogs clearly illustrating the cross 
of the Pointer with the Hound. 

Besides the Foxhound, other families of dogs are said 
to have been drawn upon by early breeders, to introduce 
certain qualities that were esteemed desirable. For the 
purpose of obtaining more speed and lightness of movement, 
the Greyhound cross is said to have been resorted to by 
some breeders, although it is difficult to conceive how a dog 
that hunts by sight instead of scent could greatly improve 
the breed. 

The Bulldog cross is also said to have been employed to 
give stamina and courage to the product of the Greyhound 
cross; but neither of them are believed to have been fol- 
lowed up to any great extent. The cross with the Fox- 
hound was probably the most effectual and beneficial in its 
results, and such may be considered to have been the foun- 
dation of our modern strains of Pointers. 



114 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH POINTER, 

When the improved Pointer first began to be the fashion 
in England among sportsmen, the Duke of Kingston had 
the reputation of possessing one of the finest strains; and 
after his death, his dogs were sold for what were considered 
enormous prices in those days. Subsequently, the breed 
deteriorated somewhat, because of a too rash use of Grey- 
hound blood to secure speed, and ghastly -looking dogs bore 
the name of Pointers, possessing but few of the natural 
qualities of that noble dog, and being defective in pluck, 
vigor, and constitution. 

In the early part of the present century, Mr. Mattingley, 
in the North of England, and Mr. Webb Edge, as late as 
1845, did a great deal for the proper development of the 
breed. Mr. Meynell and Mr. Osbaldiston, together with 
Lord Derby, Lord Lichfield, Lord Sefton, Lord Stamford, 
Sir E. Antrobus, Mr. Whitehouse, Mr. Comber bache, Mr. 
Darbyshire, Lord Kennedy, Sir R. Sutton, Sir R. Musgrave, 
Mr. Greene, R. J. Lloyd Price, Lord Berwick, and Messrs. 
Pilkington, Garth, Brockton, and Brierley, were also among 
those to whom the modern lovers of the Pointer owe the 
deepest obligations for their intelligent and judicious efforts 
in his behalf. Upon this point, the Rev. Thomas Pearce, 
who, under the pseudonym of " Idstone," has published one 
of the most lucid, comprehensive, and valuable of our smaller 
works on the dog, remarks as follows : 

As soon as dog-shows became general, several eminent dogs came to 
the front, the first celebrity being Mr. Newton's Ranger, a grand liver-and- 
white dog of the Edge kennel stamp and color. When the first trial of dogs 
in the field took place, Ranger had lost his pace, and the chief distinctions 
were gained by Mr. Brockton's Bounce, liver-and-white, for large dogs, and 
by Mr. Garth's Jill, and Mr. Whitehouse's orange-and-white Hamlet, for dogs 
of less size. Amongst other dogs which acquitted themselves well, were Mr. 
Swan's Peter, a white dog of exquisite form, with liver head and liver-and- 
white ears, and Mr. Peter Jones' Brag. 

Hamlet subsequently gained great and deserved popularity by winning 
the Bala sweepstakes, of twenty-five guineas each, against any dog that could be 
brought against him; although, from a mistake of the judge in counting his 
marks, much unpleasantness ensued the real winner being the Marquis of 
Huntley's Young Kent, according to the rules laid down. 



THE POINTER. 115 

This celebrated dog, Hamlet, has been one of the most successful dogs 
of the day, numbers of his offspring combining first-class form with excellent 
stamina and nose. Mr. Whitehouse's Hap, a dog of the same color, excels 
the old dog in general outline, though in style of working Hamlet never 
will be surpassed. 

These orange-and- whites are closely connected with Mr. Lang's breed; 
Bob, the father of Hamlet, having been the property of a Mr. Gilbert, who 
had the mother from Mr. Lang. 

The following are the best specimens which have been exhibited of late 
years : Bounce, the property of Mr. W. R. Brockton, Farndon, near Newark; 
Peter, Mr. S. Swan, of Lincoln; Don, the property of Mr. Darbyshire, Pen- 
dyffryn, Conway; Silk, the property of R. Garth, Esq., Q. C., Wimbledon; 
Hamlet, Rap, and Nina, the property of Mr. Whitehouse, Ipsley Court, War- 
wickshire; Sancho and Chang, Mr. Francis, of Exeter; Mr. Richard Hem- 
ming's Flake; and Mr. Lloyd Price, of Bala, possesses Lady Alice, the General, 
and many more; while Mr. Antrobus, Mr. Comberbache, Mr. H. Meir, of Tun- 
stall, Mr. Holford, and many others, are celebrated for their breed of Pointers. 

For m any years, Devonshire has been the great home of 
the Pointer in England Mr. Francis, of Exeter, and Mr. 
Sam Price, of Devon, being especially successful in produc- 
ing some fine representatives of the breed. One of the 
best dogs bred by the latter gentleman (afterward owned 
by R. J. Lloyd Price) was Champion Wagg, by Champion 
Sancho, out of Sappho, whelped in March, 1871. He was 
liver-and-white in color, weighed sixty-five pounds, and 
made a great record, both at the field trials and on the 
bench. Many of our best American dogs were also bred by 
Mr. Price, and deservedly assumed a high place in this 
country. Another great dog in England was Sir R. Garth's 
Drake, who was purchased, after the death of that gentle- 
man, for one hundred and fifty guineas, and died April 22, 
1877. He was by Rap, out of Doll; Rap by Mr. Comber- 
bache' s Don and Lord Lichfield's Jilt, and Doll by Mr. 
Newton's Champion Ranger, and Mite, representing Lord 
Derby' s kennels. 

Drake was a fine, upstanding liver-and-white dog, two 
feet and one inch at the shoulder, three feet from nose to 
root of tail, and weighing about sixty -five pounds. His 
winnings on the bench, and especially at the field trials, 
have seldom if ever been equaled; and his record as a pro- 
ducer of winners stands almost unrivaled. He was the 



116 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

sire of Dandy Drake, Beau, Mallard, Romp, Lucky Six- 
pence, Gipsy, Yellow Drake, Luck of Edenhall, Tick, 
Lord Downe's Bang, Drake II., Mars, Grace, Jill, Bounce, 
Lord Derby's Drake and Duchess, Lord Lichfield' s Daisy, 
Barclay Field's Riot, Mr. Price's Rose, Garth's Mite II., 
and many other field- trial and bench-show winners. He was 
also the grandsire of Mr. Field' s Drake and Pride, and of 
Mr. Pilkington's Garnet and Faust, the latter being im- 
ported to this country at a cost of $2,250, and becoming 
one of our most valuable dogs, and a most excellent and 
prepotent sire. 

Another prominent Pointer in England was R. J. Lloyd 
Price's Belle, a handsome liver-and- white bitch, bred in 
1870 by Lord Henry Bentinck, out of Grouse, by his 
Ranger. This bitch weighed fifty-five pounds, stood 
twenty-four inches at the shoulder, and measured three 
feet two and three-quarters inches from nose to root of tail. 
Her reputation is based chiefly on her field-trial perform- 
ances, which is very much to her credit; and having been 
very successful in competition with the Setters, it may 
prove interesting to give a portion of her record, which is 
as follows: 

County stakes for all -aged bitches at Yaynol Field 
Trials, 1872, and with Judy, the Bangor stakes for Pointer 
braces, at the same meeting; county stakes for all-aged 
Pointer bitches at the National Pointer and Setter Field 
Trials, held at Combermere, Shrewsbury, April 29, 1873; 
and with her daughter, Grecian Bend, the Acton Reynald 
stakes for Pointer braces at the same meeting; also at 
the Grouse Field Trials, 1873, she won second, with Roman 
Fall, her son, in the Penllyn stakes for braces, August 
13th, and first in the Rhiwlas stakes for all-aged Pointers 
and Setters, August 16th, beating Mr. Macdona's Ranger, 
Mr. Llewellin's Countess and Flax, Mr. Statter's Rob Roy, 
and other celebrated animals; after which performance she 
was withdrawn from public competition, and' used for 
breeding purposes only. 

At the Yaynol Trials in 1872, this wonderful bitch made 



THE POINTER. 117 

a perfect score of 100 points, on the following basis of work: 
Nose, 30; pace and style of hunting, 20; breaking, 20; 
pointing (style and steadiness in), 15; backing, 10; draw- 
ing on game, or reading, 5; total, 100. 

Belle was rather too light in muzzle and head to suit 
many of our modern critics, and lacked heaviness of bone 
and a certain coarseness which many later favorites have 
possessed; but she represented a very successful type and 
weight of dog, of which we have ourselves owned and shot 
over many grand specimens. It is a question whether a 
resort to her type might not do away with much of the 
pottering and " heel- work" in which many of the present 
field-trial dogs are so expert. 

What the Pointer needs is more dash, vim, energy, love 
of his work, and less lumber to carry with him. He needs 
lengthening out and narrowing, and less stockiness and 
bulkiness of form. The fact has long ago been demonstrated 
that the long, narrow, deep-chested dog, well ribbed behind, 
and properly set on his legs, with a correspondingly rakish 
head, is the proper type of dog to breed, for speed and 
endurance combined. 

FIELD QUALITIES. 

Much has been written concerning the field qualities of 
the Pointer, especially when compared with the Setter; but 
general public sentiment seems to have accorded to him a 
place by no means inferior to that of any breed of sporting 
dogs. 

There is no question that for all the purposes to which a 
dog hunting to the gun can be employed, the Pointer has 
no superior. His excellent nose, his great stanchness, his 
power of endurance, and his ability to go without water 
for a long time, strongly recommend his use for general 
shooting. While it may be true that his coat does not so 
well adapt him for constant use in briery thickets, and 
rough, mountainous countries, ' yet, per contra, this 'very 
shortness of coat constitutes his strongest recommendation 
in warm climates, for summer shooting, or in open sections 



118 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

of country, where cockle-burs, sand-fleas, nettles, and other 
pests which annoy the long-haired dog, most abound. 
On this point, Forester, in his " Field Sports," says: 

The Pointer's skin becomes infinitely tender, and his whole frame more 
delicate and fine-drawn, by high breeding, but so much does he gain thereby 
in pluck and courage, that I have seen pure-blooded dogs of this strain 
tearing away through cat-brier brakes, literally bleeding at every pore, and 
whimpering with pain; while great, coarse-bred, hairy brutes, of six times their 
apparent power of frame and capacities of endurance, slunk away like curs, 
as they were unable to face the thorns. 

It is also true that the Pointer's feet are not so well 
padded as the Setter's; but Nature seems to have provided 
for that by increasing the thickness and toughness of the 
flesh and skin of the foot, enabling it to stand a great 
amount of work before becoming tender. It must also be 
remembered that the round, compact foot of the well-bred 
Pointer is inherently stronger and more enduring than the 
weak and loosely constructed hare-foot of many strains of 
Setters. Besides, the Pointer has inherited the foot of the 
Foxhound, which for a hundred years or more has been 
cultivated and developed to withstand hard usage and 
constant wear. 

In the field trials of 1889, held in Ireland, under the 
auspices of the Irish Setter Club, and on the roughest of 
moors and heathery mountain-sides, the Pointer bitches 
Perdita and Mopsa, and Devonshire Lady and Sail, carried 
off first and second prizes in the Brace stakes, and Mopsa 
the Champion Cup, valued at twenty guineas, over some 
of the best Irish and English Setters in Ireland this, 
also, during stormy, raw, and most disagreeable weather. 
Devonshire Sail also won the final stake in the Derby, for 
both Pointers and Setters. 

So far as the field trials are concerned, the Pointer has 
not, as a general rule, been as successful as the English 
Setter, because (1) he has not been entered in equal num- 
bers; (2) so much time and money have not been expended 
in his development; and (3) because, as a rule, he does not 
start off to his work with the snap and dash of the Setter, 
is not at first so wide, and extensive in his range, and is 



THE POINTER. 119 

often beaten before he lias really gotten to work, by his 
more showy and dashing competitor. 

So long as field trials are conducted under artificial 
rules, thoroughly at variance with practical and continued 
work, and so long as the tendency to run fast from the 
word "go" is considered the point of highest excellence, 
the Pointer may preferably be kept in the background^ for 
the use of those gentlemen who were not born with wings, 
who do not hunt j on horseback, and who require a careful, 
moderately fast dog, possessed of excellent nose, thoroughly 
stanch, and capable of doing a whole day's work, or more, 
without tiring. 

It is generally admitted that the Pointer is more natu- 
rally inclined to point, and at an earlier age, than the Setter; 
that he is more easily broken, more obedient, retains his 
training longer, and endures punishment with greater forti- 
tude than the Setter. It is also our observation and expe- 
rience, that the Pointer is fully as fond of the water as the 
Setter, and can be as easily trained to enter it for retriev- 
ing purposes. 

Many instances have been related illustrating the re- 
markable stanchness of the Pointer. Pluto and Juno, 
Pointers owned by Colonel Thornton, an early sportsman 
of England, are said to have held a point for one hour 
and a quarter, while being sketched by Mr. Gilpin, by 
whom they were afterward painted for their owner. 

" Idstone" tells us of other Pointers that did not break 
their point for five and twelve hours, respectively; and 
also relates the case of another Pointer, who, in 1814, was 
frozen to death while on point, quoting as authority a rela- 
tive of his own, who claims to have witnessed the fact, 
while journeying from Leicester to Oxford, during the 
memorable frost of that year. 

With regard to the field qualities of the modern Pointer, 
a great deal of nonsense has been written by men who 
ought to have known better. "Frank Forester" has been 
the means of handing down a great many fallacies promul- 
gated by early writers, an^. has himself given utterance to 



120 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

views regarding the Pointer which are as absurd as they are 
fanciful and unreal. The fact is, that a great deal that 
is written nowadays concerning both the Setter and the 
Pointer is but the echo of ancient fallacies, espoused by 
early writers, who" knew nothing of the modern dog, and 
whose opinions are unsubstantiated by practical experience. 

For instance, Dr. E. J. Lewis, who edited an American 
edition of "Youatt on the Dog," in 1863, says: "The 
Pointer displays but little fondness for those by whom he 
is surrounded, and hunts equally as well for a stranger as 
for his master." When the fact is, that the exact contrary 
is true, in both instances, as to average specimens of the 
breed. The writer has never owned more affectionate and 
faithful canine friends than his Pointers, and none that 
were more loyal to him, more averse to making new 
acquaintances, or to working for strangers. 

He is further constrained to say, that some of the best 
dogs he ever owned, or saw in the field, were Pointers; and 
he has never been called upon to admit the inferiority of 
the Pointer in any kind of shooting in which it gives a 
gentleman pleasure to indulge, whether in winter or sum- 
mer. 

The dog has been bred for many generations in the 
South, and in ante-bellum days was recognized as the gen- 
uine canine aristocrat of that section. "Frank Forester" 
admits that more of the blood of the old Spanish Pointer 
is to be found in the dog commonly used in this country 
than in the English breed; and it is largely to that fact that 
the special excellencies of many of our native strains are to 
be ascribed. 

The fine field qualities of the Pointer can not be better 
or more fittingly described than in the following eloquent 
language of "Idstone : " 

He is a model of beauty, worthy of the capital material from which he 
has descended. He is to be found now in every kennel of mark, with all the 
attributes and properties of the highest class, and with intelligence and obser- 
vation deserving the name of reason. His airy gallop, his lashing stern, his 
fine range, his magnificent dead-stop on game, his rapid turn to catch the wind 
of the body-scent, his perseverance, under a trying sun, to reach a faint and 



THE POINTER. 121 

hardly perceptible stain of game borne to him on the breeze; his glorious 
attitude as he becomes (directly his wide-spread nostrils assure him he is right) 
stiff and motionless, with limbs wide-spread, head aloft, stern high-held, and 
his implicit obedience to the lessons he learnt perhaps two or three seasons past 
all these wonderful gifts put him on a level with that paragon of Hounds 
with which he claims relationship. 

And such is the Pointer of the present day, as he is to be found in the 
kennels of Mr. Whitehouse, of Ipsley Court, in Warwickshire; of Lord Lich- 
field, Mr. Garth, Mr. Vernon Derbyshire, or Mr. Brockton, of Ferndon, a bet- 
ter dog than whose Bounce I never saw on game. 

THE POINTER IN AMERICA. 

The Pointer has always occupied a high place in the 
esteem of American sportsmen. This is not only owing to 
his attractive form and fine field qualities, but also to the 
fact that in southern sections of the country, where field 
sports were most indulged in during the earlier years of our 
national existence, his short coat, his ability to go without 
water for a longer time than the Setter, and his superior 
nose in a warm, dry climate, entitled him to preference. 

Many dogs of fine quality were imported from abroad by 
our Southern friends long prior to the war, and by judicious 
interbreeding with our excellent native strains, families of 
Pointers were established there which were not inferior, in 
any respect, to the best imported strains. By degrees these 
became generally disseminated throughout the country, 
where other fine strains had also been established, so that 
the American Pointer became noted for his superiority and 
general excellence as a sporting dog. 

Among the earlier importations of Pointers, of which we 
have any record, was Sefton, by Star, out of Lord Sef- 
ton's Sam; Star by Cotter, out of Macdona's Miranda. 
This dog was white, with liver-colored ears, and was im- 
ported by Dr. N". Rowe, now editor of the American Field. 
In 1867, Sir Frederick Bruce, the English Minister, imported 
the liver-and-white dog George, from the Duke of Beau- 
fort's kennels, which, together with Captain Graf ton's 
imported black-and-white dog Peg, subsequently became 
the property of Dr. A. R. Strachan, of New York. In the 
same year, Mr. S. G. Phelps, of East Hartford, Conn., 



122 THE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

imported Bruno, a lemon-and- white dog, and Mr. Charles 
Porter, of Roslyn, L. I., the liver-and- white bitch Fanny. 

In 1874, Mr. B. W. Jenkins, of Baltimore, imported a 
liver-and- white dog, Sancho, by Walker's Dan, out of Fair- 
head's Juno (Hamlet-Belle), who won the Tolly gold medal, 
at Watertown, in 1875. In the latter year, Messrs. Seeley 
and Stevens, of New York, imported the liver, gray, and 
white dog Rap, by Lord Carlisle's Rap, out of Bess, by 
Hon. Nore Hill's Blunder, out of Shaw's Helen; Rap by 
Lord Downe's Shot, out of Wilson's Staffa. 

Besides these imported dogs, excellent strains were bred 
about the same time by Mr. Wisner Murray, of Gfoshen, 
N. Y.; A. C. Wardell, of Newton, N. J. (now of Kansas); 
James Cassady and Charles H. Winfield, of New Jersey; 
Mr. Colt, of Hartford; Dwight L. Roberts and Capt. J. P. 
White, of Savannah; Edward H. Lathrop, of Springfield, 
Mass. ; and Gr. A. Strong and E. A. Kelsey, of West Meri- 
den, Conn. 

The first effort at a bench show in this country was made 
at the meeting of the Illinois State Sportsmen' s Associa- 
tion in Chicago, June 2, 1874. The second was held at 
Oswego, N. Y., June 22, 1874, by the New York State 
Sportsmen's Association. The first real success in that 
direction was achieved at Mineola, L. L, October 7, 1874. 
Other exhibitions soon followed, at Memphis, Detroit, 
Springfield, Watertown, Paris, Ky., and at Manchester, 
N. H. 

The first bench show in New York was held in 1877, at 
which R. J. Lloyd Price, of England, exhibited Snapshot 
in the champion class, and won with him, the Columbus, 
Ohio, Kennel dub winning in the same class for bitches 
with Belle. The exhibition of 1878, in the same city, 
brought out the St. Louis Kennel Club's champion Slea- 
ford, and in bitches, E. Orgill's Romp and Rose. Many 
fine dogs appeared subsequently at this series of exhibi- 
tions, among them being Faust, Croxteth, Tramp, Lord 
Dufferin, Rush, Rapp (W. R. Hobart's), Tom (John S. 
Wise), Donald (A. H. Moore's), King Bow, Water Lily, 




ROBERT LE DIABLE. 
Owned by Hempstead Farm Company, Hempstead, Long Island, N. Y. 



THE POINTER. 123 

Lalla Rookh, Meteor, Drake, Pilot, Munson's Bang, Bravo, 
Bow, Beaufort, Robert le Diable, Fritz, Rue, Robin Adair, 
Jilt, Rhona, Modesty, Rosa, Bracket, Meally, Revel III., 
Tammany, Duke of Bergen, Consolation, Nick of Naso, 
Bang-Grace, Seph G., Bloomo, Young Beulah, Neversink, 
Tuck, Patti M., Duke of Hessen, Yanderbilt, Puck, Hamlet- 
Sleaford, Naso of Devonshire, Penelope, Wanda, Stella, 
Sensation, Jimmie, Shirley, Amine, Clover, Springbok, 
Bangso, Malite, Jersey Bang-Bang, Roger Williams, May- 
flower, Naso of Kippen, Lad of Bow, Lass of Bow, Lucky- 
stone, Madstone, Glauca, Gladys, Kate VIII., Golden Rod, 
Duke of Vernon, Graphite, Lord Graphic, Brake, Leba- 
non, Tory White, Transit, Belle Randolph, Cicely, Lap ford- 
Pearl, Woolton Game, Queen Fan, Pommery Sec, Ossining, 
Tribulation, Miss Freedom, Merry Legs, Stella B., Sally 
Brass II., Meally' s Baby, Glamorgan, Lady Tammany, and 
numbers of others whom space will not permit us to men- 
tion. 

Among the organizations that are entitled to great credit 
for the efforts that they put forth, about 1877, for the im- 
provement of the Pointer in America, are the St. Louis 
Kennel Club in the West, and the Westminster Kennel 
Club in the East, each composed of wealthy, representative 
sportsmen, having the true interests of the breed at heart. 
These gentlemen imported, at heavy expense, some of the 
choicest English blood, and by its injection into the veins 
of our already excellent strains of dogs, vastly raised the 
standard of the American Pointer. 

The St. Louis Kennel Club's stud dogs, Champion Faust 
and Champion Bow, were two of the best Pointers of their 
day, and have further established their claims to distinction 
by proving their prepotency through a long line of worthy 
descendants. Champion Sleaford also added greatly to the 
reputation which the club had achieved as the importers 
and breeders of some of the best Pointers that America has 
seen, adding to their bench qualifications that still more 
desirable characteristic, superior excellence in the field. 

The Westminster Kennel Club was among the first to 



124 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

establish bench shows in this country, and through that 
medium has done much to improve the form and appearance 
of the Pointer, importing such excellent dogs as Bang- 
Bang and Naso of Kippen, and by their energy and influ- 
ence inducing a wider distribution of the Pointer, and a 
higher recognition of his claims as a useful and valuable 
sporting dog. 

The annual bench show held by this club, in the city of 
New York, is recognized as the leading one in the United 
States, and the prizes there bestowed are most highly 
cherished by breeders. The long line of important shows 
now held in this country, at Boston, Providence, Spring- 
field, Rochester, Elmira, Buffalo, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Pittsburgh, Chicago, St. Louis, Denver, St. Paul, Cincin- 
nati, and other large cities, owe their origin and inspiration 
to the influence and example of the Westminster Kennel 
Club. The Graphic Kennels, at Netherwood, N. J., the 
Neversink Lodge Kennels, of Orange County, IN". Y., and 
the Hempstead Farm Kennels, of Long Island, are also 
prominent Eastern breeders of Pointers; while Messrs. John 
S. Wise, F. R. Hitchcock, A. E. Godeffroy, Fred S. Under- 
bill, A. D. Lewis, J. H. Phelan, J. H. Winslow, Charles 
J. Peshall, L. Gardner, Charles Heath, James L. Anthony, 
E. R. Bellman, John White, Luke W. White, J. R. 
Purcell, P. T. Madison, Robert C. Cornell, Thomas H. 
Terry, B. F. Seitner, A. 'C. Collins, C. M. Munhall, C. G. 
Stoddard, C. H. Odell, O. W. Donner, Edward Dexter, 
Amory R. Starr, John M. Tracy, C. W. Littlejohn, George 
DeF. Grant, Ed. S. Shultz, E. C. Sterling, Bayard Thayer, 
Samuel T. Colt, W. E. Hughes, J. B. Turner, A. A. 
Whipple, A. C. Waddell, and C. C. Pettit, are among those 
gentlemen to whom breeders are indebted for intelligent 
and successful efforts in the development of the Pointer. 

A large number of champion Pointers had been evolved, 
and had won well -merited honors at the various exhibitions, 
before the organization of the present American Kennel 
Club. Among these were Faust, Sleaford, Bow, Water 
Lily, Meteor, Bravo, and Patti M. As kennel interests 



THE POINTER. 125 

began to assume a more prominent place in America, the 
necessity for the organization of a national association, with 
a view to directing and fostering such interests, and adopt- 
ing uniform rules for the government of shows and the 
distribution of awards, became apparent, and resulted in the 
organization of the American Kennel Club, at Philadelphia, 
on September 17, 1884. 

This club has present control of American kennel affairs, 
publishing the only official stud-book for the registration 
of pedigrees, as well as the Kennel Gazette, and promulgat- 
ing uniform rules for the government of shows and distri- 
bution of awards. It also publishes in the Gazette, as 
''Champions of Record," the names of all those dogs, still 
living, who have attained the title of "Champion," the 
qualifications being that a dog shall have won four first 
prizes in the ' ' open class " to be eligible to the ' ' challenge 
class," and three first prizes in the latter class to be entitled 
"champion" the exhibitions at which such awards are 
given to be such as are duly recognized by the club, and the 
contest to be under rules promulgated by themselves. The 
club is composed of a membership comprising the different 
bench-show and field-trial clubs of America, represented 
by delegates, and a large body of associated individual 
members, also represented by delegates. 

Those living Pointers recognized as champions by the 
American Kennel Club, down to 1890, are: Bracket (7835); 
Clover (2867); Donald (2879); Graphic (4067); Juno S. (8010); 
King Bow (4076); Lad of Bow (7880); Lass of Bow (8020);. 
Meally (4201); Naso of Kippen (5552); Nick of JNaso (5553); 
Queen Bow (8057); Queen Fan (5607); Revel III. (8062); 
Robert le Diable (5556); and Rosa (11206). 

Contemporaneously with the establishment of bench 
shows in the United States, appeared the public field trials, 
which were designed to develop and demonstrate the useful 
and practical qualities of the Pointer and Setter. The first 
field trial in America was held October 8, 1874, under the 
auspices of the Tennessee Sportsmen's Association, in which 
the judging was under English rules, by points. On Octo- 



126 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG 

ber 26, 1875, the same association also held extensive trials 
in the field, at which first prize for Pointers was won by 
Maj. J. M. Taylor's Duke, by Captain Day's Mac, out 
of Ida; second, by Captain Lightburne's Sandy, by Bang, 
out of Queen. In the bitch class, first went to Gr. Muller' s 
Fanny, by Ben, out of Hoffman's imported bitch; second, 
to Doctor Sanders' May, by Sam, out of Gibson's Nelly. 

One of the earliest prominent field-trial organizations, and 
one to which Pointer breeders are chiefly indebted for early 
encouragement, was the Eastern Field Trials Club, organized 
in 1878, and still in active existence. During the first few 
years, the club furnished but one all-aged stake annually to 
which both Setters and Pointers were eligible. While the 
latter won a fair share of the competitive honors, they were 
so heavily handicapped by the greater numbers of the Set- 
ters, affording a larger field for selection, that Pointer 
breeders were dissatisfied; and it was not until the club 
established separate all-aged stakes for the two breeds, that 
the excellent field qualities of the Pointer were clearly 
demonstrated, and his improvement became rapid. The 
two breeds still contend together in the Derby for dogs 
born on or after January 1st of the year of, or year preced- 
ing the contest and also contend together for the champion 
stake, to which winners of a first prize in an all-aged stake 
are eligible. 

The Robin's Island Club, organized in 1881, is still in 
existence; while later organizations that are engaged in the 
commendable work of developing the field qualities of the 
Pointer and Setter are the Central Field Trial Club, Southern 
Field Trial Club, Indiana Kennel Club, Texas Field Trial 
Club, Pacific Coast Field Trial Club, Philadelphia Kennel 
Club, Southern Sportsmen's Association, Canadian Kennel 
Club, and Manitoba Field Trial Club. 

The following is a fairly correct list of the winning 
Pointers at the leading field-trial contests held in America, 
down to 1890: 

Croxteth (Lowe's Young Bang-Macdona' s Jane); Sensa- 
tion (Price's Jim-Nell); Count Fauster (Mainspring-Dolly 



THE POINTER. 1*27 

Fauster); Rue (Snapshot-Ruby ) ; Tammany (Tory-Moon- 
stone); Mainspring (Mike-Romp); Scout (Croxteth-Belle) ; 
Bang-Bang (Champion Bang-Princess Kate); Robert le 
Diable (Croxteth-Spinaway); Prince (Minnesota Prince- 
Countess); Springbok (Mainspring-Curfew); Nick of Naso 
(Naso Il.-Pettigo); Trinket's Bang (Croxteth-Trinket); 
Lalla Rookh (Sensation's Son-Grace); Dexter (Nip-Tuck); 
Roger Williams (Bang-Bang-Lalla Rookh); Sensation, Jr. 
(Sensation- White's Grace); Darkness (Chipps-Nettie); Tick 
(Bob-Dido); Drake (Croxteth-Lass); Drab (Dan- Arrow); 
Bang-Grace (Bang -Bang-Grace); Consolation (Bang-Bang- 
Grace III); Go-Bang (Graphic-Leach's Bloomo); Ossian 
(Croxteth-Amine); Old Black Joe (unknown); Lottie B. 
(Professor-Grace B.); Nestor (Gladsome-Forest Queen II.); 
Onyx (Wat-Flash); King Cotton (Tyler-Dream S.); Phi- 
nette (Lossing-Ress); Lily Talbot; Ress (Bruce Ranger- 
Frank); Wat, Meteor Fred, Juno, Vandevort's Don 
(Price's Bang-Letheridge' s Peg); Cornerstone (Meteor-Ac- 
cident); Jimmie (Start-Maud); Bow, Jr., Spring (Main- 
spring-Curfew); Belle, Bert, Adams' Mack, Dillsey (Me- 
teor-Dee); Tansey (Meteor-Dee); Tennie (Rod-Nell); Rod 
(Meteor-Dell); Rod's Gal (Rod-Juno); Lad of Bow (Graphic 
-Climax); Vandevort's Don (Price's Bang-Peg); Richmond 
(Vandevort's Don-Beulah); Spot Bel ton (Dick B. -Belle 
Belton); Lebanon (Tim-Peg); Rip-Rap (King of Kent- 
Hops); Woolton Game (Gough-Lockspur); Ightfield Bleithe 
(Dancer-Ightfield Bloom); Joy, Jr. (Flockfinder-Ion); Miss 
Meally (Graphic-Meally); Tempest (Beppo III. -Lass of 
Bow); Beau of Portland (Graphic-Zitta); Duke of Hes- 
sen (Luck of Hessen-Blarney); Ladj; Zeal (Croxteth-Am- 
ine); Ben Lanier (Jo Bowers); Cherrystone (Trinket' s Bang- 
Pearlstone); Zetta King Don (King Don-Queen Faust); Ber- 
traldo (Cornerstone-Bessie Beaufort); Tennie (Rod-Nell); 
Rod's Gal (Rod- Juno); Tribulation (Beppo III.-Lass of 
Bow); Galena (Trinket' s Bang-Cremorne) ; Pontiac (Milton 
Bang III. -Climax); Bryn Mawr Mona (Bang-Vandalia); 
Hoosier Harry (unknown); Pearl's Dot (Trinket's Bang- 
Peaiistone); Thomastone (Cornerstone-Firenzi); Fancy Free 



128 THE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

(Donald-Lady Bow); Lord Graphic (Graphic-Daphne); 
Tamarack (Tarn CT Shanter-Croxteth' s Rival Queen); Ban- 
nerman (Osborne Ale-Keswick); Breezo (unknown). 

Too much can not be said in praise of those enterprising 
gentlemen who have devoted time and money without stint 
to the support and encouragement of field contests; and 
while severe criticisms have been made on the methods 
often employed at the trials, the rules under which they are 
run, and the work of the dogs, yet it must be borne in 
mind that the conditions under which these races are run 
are of the most trying character. 

It is a contest for supremacy between owners, handlers, 
and dogs. The latter are thrown among strange competi- 
tors, oftentimes after being carried hundreds of miles by 
rail; must work on strange grounds, followed by a crowd; 
listen to unaccustomed sounds and commands, and work in 
confusion generally. It is only a wonder that the dogs per- 
form as well as they do; and it is generally admitted that it 
takes a good dog to win at these trials in the face of all these 
difficulties. Many of the successful field-trial winners are 
afterward used as stud dogs, and produce some excellent 
descendants for all-around work, which proves their own 
inherent good qualities. 

If less prominence were given to pace and range, and 
more to nose, style, and quality of work, stanclmess in 
pointing, backing, and retrieving, it would redound more to 
the credit of the field trials, and result in giving us better 
dogs for general private use throughout the country. 

The tendency now seems to be to adopt more rational 
and sensible rules in judging the work of the dogs; and a 
wild, half -trained animal, knowing but little else than how 
to run fast for a short time, does not now necessarily win 
the contest. 

Among the most potent sires that have ever been im- 
ported to this country were Sensation and Croxteth. The 
former, by Price's Jim ( Whitehouse' s Hamlet-Judy), out 
of Nell (Old Rap-Miia), was bred by Mr. J. D. Humphries 
in 1874, and during his life-time won seven prizes in Eng- 



THE POINTER. 129 

land and thirteen in the United States, including third 
prize in the Eastern Field Trials, and the cup for the best 
Pointer, in 1880. He was a dog of most excellent quality, 
lemon-and-white in color, and has produced many noted 
descendants. 

He was one of the first dogs of note that was brought to 
America, and his importation marked the beginning of the 
interest in the development of the Pointer that has culmi- 
nated in our present high standard of excellence. He was 
imported in 1876, having been selected and purchased, for 




CROXTETH. 
Owned by Mr. A. E. Godeffroy, Neversink Lodge Kennels, Guymard, N. Y. 

the Westminster Kennel Club, by Mr. George De Forest 
Grant. His field qualities were of a high order, many of 
his fine attitudes on point having been preserved by brush 
and pencil. He died of old age, at Babylon, Long Island, 
in June, 1887. 

Following close upon Sensation was Croxteth. He was 
bred by the well-known English sportsman, E-ev. J. Gum- 
ming Macdona, in January, 1878, from whom he was pur- 
chased by Mr. A. E. Godeffroy, of New York. When first 
imported, he was in very poor condition, and did not show 
up well at the New York Exhibition of 1880, where he was 

9 



130 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

only awarded two letters. In the summer of 1880, lie began 
to improve in condition, and ran in the all-aged stake of 
the Eastern Field Trials, where he won his first heat, but 
failed to get placed. At the New York Show of 1881, he 
won third in the open class, and in the fall of the same year 
again ran at the trials of the Eastern Field Trials Club, 
where he defeated all the Pointers present, winning the 
special Pointer cup. He then ran for first prize over all, 
against the orange-and-white Setter Grousedale, but after a 
close race was declared defeated a decision which caused 
considerable heated discussion in the sporting press, many 
believing that Croxteth had justly won the contest. His 
owner withdrew him after this race, and would not permit 
him to contend for second money. 

In 1882, the New York Exhibition awarded him first in 
the open class for heavy-weight dogs, and the silver medal 
for the best Pointer with a field-trial record. He was 
shown against the well-known dog Faust, and scored nine- 
ty-five and one-fourth points, out of a possible one hun- 
dred, against ninety by Faust. The same year, he ran 
again in the all-aged stake at the Eastern Field Trials, 
beating all Pointers, and again winning the special Pointer 
cup. He won second in the general contest, out of thirty- 
seven entries, being defeated for first place by London. 
His son, Lord Sefton, ran in the Derby at the same time, 
and won the silver cup, over sixty-five dogs, for special 
excellence; he also won second in the puppy class at the 
New York Bench Show, the same year. 

The summarized winnings of Croxteth are as follows: 
Second prize (in puppy class), International Show at 
Hanover, Germany, 1879; fourth in English Field Trial 
Derby, out of one hundred and twenty-seven entries, 1879; 
second in bench show, Rochester, N. Y., 1879; H. C., bench 
show, New York City, 1880; third, bench show, New York 
City, 1881; special cup for best Pointer in Eastern Field 
Trials, 1881; first in open class, New York Bench Show, 
and silver medal for best field- trial Pointer in the show, 
1882; special cup for best Pointer in the Eastern Field 



THE POINTER. 131 

Trials, 1882; second in all-aged stake in Eastern Field 
Trials, 1882; silver medal, best kennel of Pointers, New 
York, 1883; silver medal, best field-trial Pointer, New 
York, 1883; best stud Pointer in the show, appearing with 
four first and second winners, New York, 1884; silver 
medal, best kennel of Pointers, New York, 1885. 

He was never shown except in New York State, and 
after 1885 retired on his laurels, being in extensive demand 
as a stud dog, and becoming the sire of many winners, both 
on the bench and in the field. Among the well-known 
dogs of whom he was the sire were Elliot's Scout, Drake, 
Trinket's Bang, Robert le Diable, Keswick II., Dee, Dell, 
Modesty, Lady Zeal, Romp, Lady Croxteth, Neversink, Jilt, 
Lord Sef ton, Doncaster, Rapp, and Ossian. No dog that we 
have had in America has achieved a more favorable reputa- 
tion as a dog of high character, and a successful stock- 
getter, than Croxteth; and when he died, in March, 1888, 
the result of a cold caught during the great blizzard of that 
month, general regret pervaded Pointer circles at the loss 
of so shining a light among their favorites. 

Croxteth was by Lowe's Young Bang, out of Macdona's 
Jane; he by Price's Bang and Davey's Luna, and she by 
Lord Sef ton's Sam, out of his Flirt. Through his ances- 
tors, Sam, Hamlet, and Drake, he inherited the best blood 
of Lord Sef ton's, Mr. Whitehouse' s, and Sir Richard 
Garth's strains; he was half-brother of Sir Thomas Len- 
nard' s Priam and Scamp, and grandson of Champion Bang, 
the winner of ten field trials in England, and with an 
invincible bench record as well. In bench-show form, 
Croxteth weighed seventy pounds, his measurements being: 
Round chest, two feet, five inches; nose to root of tail, three 
feet, two inches; height of shoulder, two feet, one and one- 
fourth inches; head, skull-bone to nose, ten and one-half 
inches; round face, under eyes, eleven inches; round thigh, 
one foot, four inches; round loin, one foot, ten and one-half 
inches; round skull, one foot, five and one-half inches; 
skull-bone to shoulder, eight inches. 

In color, he was dark liver-and- white ticked; grandly 



132 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

sensational on point, and impressing anyone who saw him 
with the beautiful character and expression of his head, his 
grand frame, and muscular development. His legs and 
feet were excellent, his carriage lofty; never trailing, but 
hunting for the body-scent, going at a steady, long-striding 
gallop over the roughest of ground, and never seeming to 
be tired. He was also a superior all-around dog, being as 
good on ruffed grouse and snipe as he was on quails. A 
sketch, representing him in one of his grand points, at 
High Point, IS". C., in 1882, was published in Forest and 
Stream, December, 1882, and was copied by European sport- 
ing papers. He was also painted by the well-known artist, 
Mr. J. M. Tracy, when on point, handsomely backed by 
Sensation, the picture being now owned by the Westminster 
Kennel Club. 

Another excellent stud dog that has just passed away, 
leaving many noted descendants, was Bang-Bang, by Price's 
Bang, out of Princess Kate. He was bred by Mr. F. C. 
Lowe in January, 1881, and imported to this country in 
July, 1882. Previous to leaving England, he won the puppy 
stakes at Shrewsbury, including the champion puppy stake; 
the 50 prize at the Blandford Trials, the third puppy stake 
and all-aged stake at the St. Hubert Trials, Belgium, and 
first at the Crystal Palace Show, in 1882. In this country, 
his winnings were: Second, Cleveland; first, light-weight 
Pointer sweepstakes, New York, 1884; first, Philadelphia, 
1885; first, Waverly, 1887; first, Syracuse, 1888; field-trials 
Pointer stake, Eastern Field Trials Club, 1885; divided 
second in same stake, 1886. Bang- Bang was an attractive 
lemon-and- white dog, built on wonderful racing lines, of 
grand style, fine nose, and excellent disposition. 

Pointer breeders are also indebted to Champion Graphic 
for the contribution of certain excellent qualities to our 
American kennels. He is by Fursdon' s Juno, out of Leach' s 
Bonus Sancho; was whelped April 15, 1881, and bred by 
Mr. Norrish, of Devonshire, England. His sire, Bonus 
Sancho, is by Price's Champion Bang, out of Leach's Belle, 
a union which produced, in different litters, Bang II., Bow 



THE POINTER. 133 

Bells, Merry Bells, Bona Bell, and other winners. Leach's 
Belle is by Champion Sancho out of Leach's Fan; Sancho 
was the sire of Champion Wagg and brother of Champion 
Chang. 

Graphic was imported in 1886. He is a typical liver-and- 
white dog, and has scored many winnings in England and 
this country, including the champion prize at Crystal Palace 
in 1884 and 1885. His held performances in England and 
America have been good, and he is the sire of many first- 
class dogs, including Go- Bang, Champion Bracket, Cham- 
pion Lad of Bow, Lass of Bow, Romeo, Champion Revel 
III. , Wanda, Stella B. , Graphite, Lord Graphic, Pommery 
Sec., Merry Legs, and Sally Brass II. 

Champion Robert le Diable is one of the most prominent 
and popular dogs that have been bred in this country. He 
is a grand liver-and-white ticked dog, of great symmetry, 
weighing about sixty pounds, and built on correct lines for 
practical work. He was bred by the St. Louis Kennel Club, 
whelped June 12, 1883, subsequently owned by the High- 
land Kennels, Red Bank, N. J., and now by the Hempstead 
Farm Kennels, Hempstead, Long Island. He is by Croxteth 
-Spinaway; she,' a small but symmetrical bitch, by Pilking- 
ton's Garnet, out of Keswick. The latter was imported 
by the St. Louis Kennel Club, and won first prize in Eng- 
land, in the puppy stakes of the Sporting Dog and Field 
Trial Club' s trials, in 1879. Robert le Diable is distinguished 
for his successful bench-show and field-trial record, and 
defeated a large and formidable aggregation of Pointers at 
the Eastern Field Trials Club's meeting in 1886, winning 
the all-aged stake. He also won first and special for best 
Pointer or Setter in the New York Show in 1885; first at 
St. Louis and Cincinnati, the same year; championship and 
special for best Pointer, in 1886, at St. Louis and Pitts- 
burgh, besides other prizes; first and special, for the best 
Pointer with a field-trial record, for the best Pointer in the 
show, and for the best stud dog shown with two of his 
get, at New York, 1890. 

Tammany, by Pilkington's Tory, out of Moonstone, im- 



134 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

ported in utero, and whelped August 24, 1883, is another 
of our noted Pointers who has just passed into the great 
hunting-grounds beyond the setting sun. His death occurred 
on February 16, 1889. His dam, Moonstone, was a full sister 
of the St. Louis Kennel Club's Bow, and of Young Bang, 
the sire of Croxteth and Priam. He was a strong, heavy- 
weight, liver-and-white ticked dog, lacking somewhat in 
symmetry, but built for the manifestation of power in the 
field, where he achieved his greatest successes. He won 
first in the Eastern Field Trials Club's members' stake, and 
first in the all-aged Pointer stake, in 1887, defeating several 
prominent competitors, and has left a number of descendants 
who aid in sustaining his good reputation. His bench win- 
nings were: Third, Philadelphia, 1885; second, Newark, 
1886; second, Hartford, 1886; first, New York, 1886: first, 
New York, and first, Hartford, 1887; second, Boston, in 1887; 
and in champion class in 1888. The immediate ancestors 
of Tammany were such excellent dogs as Garth's Drake, 
Doll, Coham's Bang, Price's Yesta, Lord Cole's Cole, 
Francis' Bell, Brockton's Bounce, Postan's Yenus, Hamlet, 
Mite, Ranger, Jilt, and Don. He was one of the few 
Pointers we have had in this country who displayed the 
same style and courage on game that is manifested by the 
best strains of Setters. 

Champion Nick of Naso, by Naso II. and Pettigo, is a 
handsome liver-and-white dog, imported from England at 
great expense, and has achieved a worthy prominence in 
Pointer circles, being a well-known winner on the bench, 
and in the field trials proving himself a formidable com- 
petitor, where he also won deserved honors. He has also 
proven a useful and valuable sire. 

Another excellent dog is the liver-and-white ticked dog 
Duke of Yernon, owned by Mr. L. Gardner, of Mount 
Yernon, N. Y., and exhibited at the various shows in recent 
years. He manifests strong Pointer character, is admirably 
set on his legs, symmetrical and strong, and with a per- 
fectly carried stern. His winnings are: First and two 
specials, Buffalo, 1888; second, Richmond, 1888, when in 



fi 



P 










THE POINTER. 135 

field-form only; first, New York, 1889; first, Troy, the same 
year, and second, New York, 1890. He is by Glendale, out 
of Spotless, and includes in Ms pedigree such excellent 
dogs as Lort, Lass of Bow, Jaunty, Sleaford, Pride, Dawn, 
Price's Bang, Luna, Belle, Nina, Gen. Prim, Coham's 
Bang, Yesta, Juno, Sancho, Hamlet, Sal, and Nellie. 

Champion Lad of Bow is now owned by the Westmin- 
ster Kennel Club. He was bred by Mr. Sam Price, of Bow, 
North Devon, England, March 19, 1884, and imported to this 
country in May, 1886. He is by Champion Graphic, out of 
Climax; she by Champion Bang, ctut of Juno, by Mike, 
out of Bastin's Belle; Bang by Coham's Bang, out of 
Yesta. Lad of Bow is a large liver, white, and ticked 
Pointer, weighing about sixty -five pounds, and of fine form 
and appearance. He is longer in body than his sire; a racy- 
looking animal, with great depth of chest, and fine dispo- 
sition, measuring four and one-half inches from end of nose 
to corner of eye; across skull, six inches, and standing 
twenty-four inches high at shoulder. His bench winnings 
in England include second at Crystal Palace Show, 1886. 
In America, he won first and special for best large-sized 
stud dog with two of his progeny, awarded with his sire, 
Graphic, and half-brother, Champion Bracket; also special 
as one of the best kennel of Pointers, Boston, 1887; 
also dividing third at American Field Trial Club's trials, 
all-aged stake, Florence, Ala., 1887; second and two spe- 
cials as one of best kennel, and for the best Pointer dog- 
that has been placed in any American field trial, New 
York, 1888. 

Champion Bracket was bred by Mr. R. P. Leach, Devon, 
England; whelped February 8, 1884, and imported to this 
country in January, 1886. He is by Champion Graphic, out 
of Bloomo. His record in England was : Second, Crystal 
Palace, 1885; third, Crystal Palace, same year; H. C., 
British Kennel Association's Show (there being no small 
dog class), Sheffield, 1885; also special for best team of 
Pointers or Setters, won by Bracket, Revel III., and Beau 
Ideal; first and cup, small dog class, Birmingham, 1885. 



136 THE AMEKICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

In this country, his record of winnings- is large, including: 
First, Pittsburgh, 1886; also in sweepstakes, first as best 
Pointer under fifty-five pounds, and special as best light- 
weight Pointer, in open class; first and five specials, 
Newark, 1886; first and three specials, Boston, 1886; first 
and two specials, Hartford, 1886; champion and special, 
New York, 1886; champion, Newark, 1887; special as one 
of best kennel, special for best large stud dog with two of 
his progeny (awarded with his sire, Graphic, and his half- 
brother, Lad of Bow), Boston, 1887; and champion and 
special, New York, 1888. 

Bracket is dark liver, white, and ticked, weighing about 
fifty-four pounds, measuring four and one-fourth inches 
from end of nose to corner of eye, five and one-half inches 
between the ears, and standing twenty-two and three- 
fourths inches at shoulder. He is full of quality, some- 
what heavy in head, with good shoulders, capital loin and 
body, and good disposition. He has been shown a great 
deal in this country, and also given a good deal of work in 
the field, where he is said to manifest a most excellent nose, 
combined with speed, stanchness, and tractability. 

Champion Donald was imported by Mr. A. H. Moore, of 
Philadelphia, in 1880. He was bred by Mr. R. Andrews, 
of Devonshire, being whelped in 1877. His record on the 
bench is a good one, both in England and this country. 
He won first at Exeter, June, 1879; first at Falmouth, in 
July, the same year; first, in October, at Bristol, and first 
at Birmingham, in December. He finished his public 
career in England by capturing first, and cup, at Margate, 
February, 1880. In this country, he won first at St. Louis, 
1880; first champion, and first, with others, as best kennel 
of dogs, New York, 1882; first champion at Boston, 1882; 
and first champion at Cleveland, 1882. 

He is the sire of Patti M., Dress, and Donald II., all 
well known. In color, he is liver, white, and ticked, of 
medium size, rather stocky in build, with capital neck, fair 
shoulders, and good body and legs. He has sired some 
most excellent dogs by Revel III. and other bitches. 



THE POINTER. 



137 



In working condition, he weighs about fifty-two pounds, 
measuring four and one-fourth inches from end of nose to 
corner of eye; between ears, five and one-half inches, and 
in height, twenty-two and one-fourth inches at shoulder. 

A dog of excellent quality, that has recently been devel- 
oped in the West, is Mr. P. T. Madison's Ossian, by Crox- 
teth-Amine. He was bred by Mr. John S. Wise, in May, 
1886, and trained by Capt. D. E. Rose, of Lawrenceburg, 
Tenn. His field winnings are: Divided third in Eastern 




PATTI M. 
Owned by C. M. Munhall, Cleveland, Ohio. 



Field Trials Club's Derby, in 1887; third in same club's all- 
aged stake, in 1888; second in Southern Field Trial Club's 
all -aged Pointer stake, in 1888; and first in Indiana Ken- 
nel Club's all-aged Pointer stake, in 1889. He has been 
shown but twice on the bench, winning second in open class, 
Indianapolis, 1889, and first at Indianapolis, 1890. Ossian 
is a high-headed, stylish, liver, white, and ticked Pointer, 
weighing about sixty pounds, with plenty of bone and mus 
cle, strong and enduring, and obedient and tractable in the 
field. 



138 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

At the terrible canine holocaust at Columbus, Ohio, Jan- 
uary 11, 1888, several excellent Pointers were burned. 
Among them were Bow-Faust (Rapp-Dove) ; Planet (Meteor- 
Accident); Pap Smizer (Meteor-Diana); Business (Don- 
ald-N y mpher) ; Rumpty (Meteor-Diana); Hamlet- Sleaford 
(Young Sleaford-Lillie); Lily Bang (Bang-Bang-Lass); 
Dolly Fauster (Fauster-Ny mpher); Lady Trinket (Young 
Meteor-Zolo Faust); Corsicana Tobe (Tory-Kelley' s Belle), 
besides several fine puppies belonging to the Idstone Ken- 
nels, of Dayton, Ohio; and last, but not least, the two fine 
bitches, Lady Croxteth, combining most excellent field, 
bench, and brood qualities, and the peerless Champion Patti 
M., a bitch of rare quality who was rapidly pushing her 
way to the front. Patti M., by Champion Donald (Bob- 
Sappho), out of Devonshire Lass (Imp. Don-Imp. Lady), was 
whelped August 9, 1882, and was a litter sister of Donald 
II. Her winnings were: First and special, Milwaukee, 
1886; first and two specials, Latonia, Ky., 1886; first and 
special, Waverly, N. J., 1886; champion prize and two spe- 
cials, Dayton, Ohio, 1886; first, Boston, 1887; first and two 
specials, Pittsburgh, 1887; champion prize, New York, 
1887; champion prize and special, Detroit, 1887; champion 
prize and three specials, Columbus, Ohio, 1888. Patti M. 
was only bred twice, to Croxteth and Nick of Naso, all of 
her progeny proving good. 

Other dogs that have proven decidedly prepotent in 
impressing their own fine qualities on their offspring, in 
America, and whom space will not permit us to describe at 
length, are Naso of Kippen; Mainspring, King Bow, King 
Don, Vandevort's Don, Duke of Hessen, Beaufort, Beppo 
III., Cornerstone, Consolation, Meteor, Pontiac, Moulton 
Baron, Osborne Ale, Freedom, Trinket's Bang, Tarn 
O'Shanter, Dancer, Flockfinder, Sensation's Son, Rod, 
and Bang. 

These dogs, together with many other native and im- 
ported specimens of high character, have done much in 
elevating the standard of Pointer breeding in America. 
Already the latest successful blood in England has been 



THE POINTER. 139 

imported; and with the experience gained in the trials, and 
the exercise of the principles of scientific breeding, there is 
every reason to believe that the Pointer will always hold 
his place in the front rank of our sporting dogs. 

At the same time, as now bred, he needs more enthusi- 
asm in his work, and should carry a higher head than he 
does, feeling more for the body-scent and less for the foot- 
scent of game, and working out his ground with more judg- 
ment. In these respects, the Setter has been wonderfully 
developed and improved by the field trials. The Pointer 
has among his promoters many of our leading sportsmen, 
and all that money can accomplish, united with earnest 
endeavor and intelligent experimentation, will doubtless be 
done to make him the equal of the Setter in every respect. 
The organization of a club, in 1888, devoted to his interests 
and development, is also a move in the right direction; and 
if the counsels of this body are wisely governed, it can 
accomplish much in unifying the interests of the breed in 
America, making the types of breeding more uniform, and 
securing proper recognition for the Pointer. 

The Pointer Club of America is now officered as follows: 
Hon. John S. Wise, president, New York City; George W. 
LaRue, secretary and treasurer, New York City; James L. 
Anthony, first vice-president, New York City; F. R. Hitch- 
cock second vice-president, New York City; B. F. Seitner, 
third vice-president, Dayton, Ohio; A. C. Collins, fourth 
vice-president, Hartford, Conn. Executive Committee: C. 
M. Munhall, Cleveland, Ohio; Dr. J. R. Daniels, Cleveland, 
Ohio; Charles Heath, Newark, N. J.; James P. Swain, New 
York City; J. H. Winslow, Philadelphia, Penn.; J. M. 
Arnolt, New York City; Charles G. Stoddard, Dayton, Ohio; 
M. Y. B. Saunders, Detroit, Mich.; John S. Wise, New 
York City; George W. LaRue, New York City; James L. 
Anthony, New York City; F. R. Hitchcock, New York 
City; B. F. Seitner, Dayton, Ohio; A. C. Collins, Hartford, 
Conn. Its membership includes most of the prominent 
Pointer men in the country, but the limits of our space pre- 
clude the possibility of giving the full list. 



140 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Pointer breeders should not lose sight of the lack of 
uniformity in type with which the friends of the dog have 
always had to contend. Large dogs and small dogs, long 
and short, have been interbred so that it is difficult to 
predict uniformity in type in any litter. Greater care 
should be exercised in this regard, and the two weights of 
dogs should be carefully bred within themselves. An 
occasional graft of the heavy breed onto the light weight 
might, however, be allowed, with a view to counteracting 
excessive fineness of bone and muscle in the latter, and 
heaviness in the former. 

DESCRIPTION VALUE OF POINTS COLOR SIZE. 

The style of dog that is now being bred in the United 
States conforms entirely to the description given by Stone- 
henge in his valuable work on the "Dogs of the British 
Isles" a standard that has also been adopted for judging 
by the Westminster Kennel Club, of New York, for use at 
their annual bench shows, and which is generally used 
throughout the country. For the benefit of the readers of 
this work, the epitomized description compiled by the late 
William M. Tileston is herewith given, as follows: 

The skull (value 10) should be of good size, but not as 
heavy as in the old Spanish Pointer, and, in a lesser degree, 
his half-bred descendants. It should be wider across the 
ear than that of the Setter, with the forehead rising well at 
the brows, showing a decided "stop." A full development 
of the occipital protuberance is indispensable, and the 
upper surface should be in two slightly rounded flats, with 
a furrow between. 

The nose (value 10) should be long (four inches to four 
and three-fourths inches) and broad, with widely-open 
nostrils. The end must be moist, and in health is cold to 
the touch. It should be black, or very dark brown, in all 
but the lemon-and- whites; but in them it may be a deep 
flesh-color. It should be cut oif square, and not pointed- 
known as the " snipe-nose," or "pig- jaw." Teeth meeting 
evenly. 



THE POINTER. 141 

The ears, eyes, and lips (value 4) are as follows: Ears 
soft in coat, moderately long and thin in leather, not fold- 
ing like the Hound's, but lying fiat and close to the cheeks, 
and set on low, without any tendency to prick. Eyes soft 
and of medium size; color brown, varying in shade with that 
of the coat. Lips well developed, and frothing when in 
work, but not pendent or flew-like. 

The neck (value 6) should be arched toward the head, 
long and round, without any approacli to dewlap or throat- 
iness. It should come out with a graceful sweep from 
between the shoulder-blades. 

The shoulders and chest (value 15) are dependent on each 
other for their formation. Thus a wide and hooped chest 
can not have the blades lying flat against its sides; and con- 
sequently, instead of this and their sloping backward, as 
they ought to do in order to give free action, they are 
upright, short, and fixed. Of course, a certain width is 
required to give room for the lungs, but the volume 
required should be obtained by depth rather than width. 
Behind the blades the ribs should, however, be well arched, 
but still deep; this last, depth of back rib, is specially 
important. 

The bacTc, quarters, and stifles (value 15) constitute the 
main propellers of the machine, and on their proper 
development the speed and power of the dog depend. The 
loin should be very slightly arched, and full of muscle, 
which should run well over the back ribs; the hips should 
be wide, with a tendency even to raggedness, and the 
quarters should droop very slightly from them. These last 
must be full of firm muscle, and the stifles should be well 
bent and carried widely apart, so as to allow the hind legs 
to be brought well forward in the gallop, instituting a form 
of action which does not tire. 

Legs, elbows, and liocks (value 12). These chiefly bony 
parts, though merely the levers by which the muscles act, 
must be strong enough to bear the strain given them, and 
this must act in the straight line of progression. Substance 
of bone is therefore demanded, not only in the shanks but 



142 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

in the joints, the knees and hocks being especially required 
to be bony. The elbows should be well let down, giving a 
long upper arm, and should not be turned in or out, the 
latter being, however, the lesser fault of the two, as the 
confined elbow limits the action considerably. The reverse 
is the case with the hocks, which may be turned in rather 
than out, the former being generally accompanied by that 
wideness of stifles which I have already insisted on. Both 
hind and fore pasterns should be short, nearly upright, and 
full of bone. 

The feet (value 8) are all-important; for, however fast 
and strong the action may be, if the feet are not well 
shaped and their horny covering hard, the dog will soon 
become foot-sore when at work, and will then refuse to leave 
his master's heels, however high his courage may be. 
Breeders have long disputed the comparative good quali- 
ties of the round, cat-like foot, and the long one, resem- 
bling that of the hare. In the Pointer, my own opinion is 
in favor of the cat-foot, with the toes well arched and close 
together. This is the desideratum of the M. F. H., and I 
think stands work better than the hare-foot, in which the 
toes are not arched, but still lie close together. In the Set- 
ter, the greater amount of hair to a certain extent condones 
the inherent weakness of the hare-foot; but in the Pointer 
no such superiority can be claimed. The main point, how- 
ever, is the closeness of the pads compared with the thick- 
ness of the horny covering. 

The stern (value 5) must be strong in bone at the root, 
but should at once be reduced in size as it leaves the body, 
and then gradually taper to a point like a bee's sting. It 
should be very slightly curved, carried a little above the 
line of the back, and without the slightest approach to curl 
at the tip. 

Of symmetry and quality (value 7) the Pointer should 
display a goodly proportion, no dog showing more differ- 
ence between the gentleman and his opposite. It is impos- 
sible to analyze the essentials, but every judge carries the 
knowledge with him. 



THE POINTER. 143 

The texture (value 3) of coat in the Pointer should be 
soft and mellow, but not absolutely silky. 

In color (value 5) there is now little choice, in point of 
fashion, between the liver and lemon-and- whites. After 
them come the black-and- whites (witli or without tan), 
then the pure black, and lastly the pure liver. Dark liver- 
ticked is, perhaps, the most beautiful color of all to the 
eye. 

While on this question of color, it may be appropriate to 
remark that fashion and caprice have always been con- 
sulted in awarding the palm of preference to one color over 
another; however, the liver-and- white dogs have been the 
most generally sought after, taking it all through, and are 
the popular dogs of the present day. After them come the 
lemon-and- whites and orange-and-whites. The latter color 
was, at one time, popularized by Mr. Whitehouse, whose 
strain, headed by Hamlet, proved most excellent animals. 
The Duke of Kingston's strain of black Pointers was also 
at one time quite the thing among sportsmen in England, 
and some most excellent dogs of that color are now owned 
in this country, being largely descended from the kennels 
of Mr. Pope. 

With regard to the weight of pointers, it is customary, 
in the shows in this country, to separate them into two 
divisions dogs weighing over and under fifty-five pounds, 
and bitches weighing over and under fifty pounds. On this 
point, Mr. Yero Shaw remarks as follows: 

For old sportsmen, the heavy dogs, partaking, as they do, largely of the 
character of tile old Spanish Pointer, are chiefly to be recommended, as from 
their greater weight they are not so fast or so active in the field. On the other 
hand, there is a far greater development of pace to be found in the light 
weights, and their stanchness in many instances is very slightly, if at all, 
inferior to the heavier animals. ... It may, therefore, we are of opinion, 
be taken that the medium-sized Pointers are, as a rule, by far more valuable as 
sporting dogs than either of the extremes in weight, as they may be reasonably 
expected to combine pace and stanchness to an extent which is likely to com- 
mend itself to every sort of sportsman. It is, we believe, a pretty generally 
admitted fact among sportsmen that modern Pointers are deficient in nose when 
compared with what they used to be; in other words, nose has been sacrificed 
by the almost insane importance which has been attached to pace. Breeders 



144 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



appear to have in many instances only had in view the production of an animal 
that can gallop, and thereby cover more ground than other dogs which might 
be brought against them; and nose has thereby suffered to a great extent. 

With regard to breeding, management, and training, 
nothing further need be added to those departments of 
canine lore than can be found elsewhere in this volume, for 
the observations and instructions given on those points 
with especial reference to other breeds will apply with 
equal force to the Pointer. This dog is easily bred true to 
type, is not difficult to rear and keep in a state of health, 
and is more easily trained than any other sporting dog; 
also remembering his lessons the best. 




THE GREYHOUND. 



BY COL. ROGER D. WILLIAMS. 



jf| T is not my intention to trace the history of the Grey- 
hound from his origin, through his gradual improve- 
/il ment and development, up to the present state of 
perfection. Nor shall I repeat all the arguments that 
have been advanced by other writers as to the origin and 
the derivation of the name of this breed; yet a few lines 
may not be amiss as to his early history. The exact date 
of the origin of the Greyhound is unknown, but represen- 
tations upon Egyptian monuments, tombs, and obelisks 
prove beyond perad venture his existence over three thou- 
sand years ago. According to Holinshed, the breed was 
first introduced into Britain during the third century. 
Other authorities, probably not as reliable, claim as early 
as B. C. 25. 

Arrian, writing in his Cynegetticus, about A. D. 150, 
describes coursing in many of its details. Thus it will 
be seen that this sport is of great antiquity at least seven- 
teen hundred years old. 

The early Egyptians had several breeds of dogs, but the 
Greyhounds were evidently always their favorites. They 
looked upon them with great veneration, and the death of 
one of them was lamented as a misfortune. With them 
they were considered a valuable animal, and occupied a 
conspicuous place in their households and traditions. 

Herodotus has recorded that when a Greyhound died, 
all the members of the family to whom he belonged shaved 
their heads, and the body of the dog was buried in conse- 
crated ground. In olden times, none but the nobility were 
allowed to own Greyhounds; and the killing of one, under 
the then existing game laws, was punishable with death. 

10 (145) 



146 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The Gauls coursed with Greyhounds both the smooth 
and rough coated varieties for the pleasure and excite- 
ment of the chase. The oldest coursing club we have any 
record of was that founded by Lord Orford, at Norfolk, in 
1776. At the present day, there are a large number in 
England alone. The natives of Sahara (Northern Africa) 
have great love and admiration for the Greyhound. No 
matter how useful other breeds may be in watching, hunt- 
ing, etc., they are looked upon as comparatively worth- 
less, troublesome, and deserving of the great amount of 
abuse usually heaped upon them; while the rich regard the 
Greyhounds as fit companions for their pastimes, and to the 
poor they prove bread, or rather meat, winners; therefore, 
neither class begrudge them the best of care and attention. 
Herds of goats are often kept to feed the Hounds, and 
instances are recorded of women themselves having nursed 
the whelps of a particularly promising litter. 

Sir Walter Scott was a great admirer of dogs, and was 
especially fond of the Greyhound. His famous dog, Maida, 
was presented to him by the Chief of Glengarry. It is 
said that this dog could eat from his master's table stand- 
ing flat-footed. He was said to be the finest specimen of the 
breed in Scotland, not only on account of his symmetry of 
form, but also on account of his extraordinary size and 
strength. He had a cross of Staghound in him. Scott's 
poem to Bonny Heck, a celebrated Greyhound, will live as 
long as the memory of Scott itself. Kings, and noblemen 
of all ranks, in all ages, have loved and fostered the Grey- 
hound, and, have honored him with a place in their homes 
and by their firesides. 

By his respect for decency, his cleanliness, and his dig- 
nified aspect, the Greyhound sustains the exalted position 
he occupies; and the daintiness with which he handles 
coarse or unclean food proclaims him the aristocrat of all 
canines. He is full of self-love and vanity, rivaling the 
peacock in these qualities. He is much more affectionate 
than he generally gets credit for being, and there are few 
passions felt by man that he does not share. Nor is he 



THE GREYHOUND. 147 

devoid of imagination, as many suppose. I have often seen 
an old courser, in his dreams, work himself into almost a 
frenzy while pursuing an imaginary jack-rabbit; jump to 
his feet, and then appear to feel very silly when he has 
found that he was merely dreaming. 

There can be no doubt that the English, Scotch, Persian, 
Russian, Grecian, and Italian Greyhound, the Irish and 
Siberian Wolfhound, the Scotch Deerhound, and the 
Whippet, are but varieties of the same breed. Stonehenge 
classifies and divides the English Greyhounds into the 
Newmarket, Lancashire, Yorkshire, and Wiltshire. These, 
however, seem to amount to distinctions without differ- 
ences. 

None of the native American dogs, so far as known, in 
any way resembled the Greyhound. The native wild dog 
of Australia is built on the same lines as the Greyhound, 
but is nearly extinct, being now rarely, if ever, met with. 
In Africa, India, Ceylon, and other tropical countries, the 
ordinary breeds of hunting dogs, especially the Pointer, 
the Foxhound, and Bloodhound, deteriorate rapidly, both 
physically and mentally, losing strength and energy; but 
such climate seems to have but little, if any effect, on the 
Greyhound. These dogs seem equally at home in high 
altitudes, being capable of great and continued exertions, 
even as high as timber line. 

In shape and form, the modern Greyhound is far supe- 
rior to that of olden times, if we may judge by the por- 
traits and engravings handed down to us. In elegance of 
form, the improvement has been very marked, especially in 
the beauty of the head and neck. 

The qualities desired in this, the most elegant, the hand- 
somest of his race, are speed, courage (without which 
he is not worth kennel-room), strength, stanchness, and 
endurance. He must have an affectionate disposition, but 
must also have plenty of vital force, dash, and spirit. 

It is a general supposition that the Greyhound is entirely 
devoid of the power of scent. This is a great mistake, as 
can be attested by anyone who has ever hunted them, gen- 



148 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

erally, in the West, upon large game. Of course, scent is 
not as well developed in the Greyhound as in other breeds, 
because the uses to which he is put do not require scent, 
and, under the law of evolution, it has deteriorated as a 
natural consequence. Unrivaled in speed and endurance, 
these qualities have been developed and bred for, while 
the olfactory organs have been neglected, necessarily, by 
restricting the work of the dog to sight-hunting. 

Size and external form are of the greatest importance. 
Yet the fact that they can and do run in various sizes and 
forms is, nevertheless, generally apparent. These cases, of 
course, are the exception, and in making selection of stud 
dogs, or brood bitches, it should be remembered that those 
formed in the mold most like the greatest number of win- 
ners, will be the speediest. 

For open coursing on rabbits, I prefer a dog of medium 
size, say fifty-five pounds, because, being nimble in turning, 
he is enabled to work close to the game, and to rapidly run 
up a large score of points, when once placed, that a larger, 
more unwieldy, and longer-coupled dog, that necessarily 
runs wide at the turns, can not wipe out, unless placed 
repeatedly. For general use, on the Western plains, the 
larger and stronger the dog the better; for, by his immense 
powers of endurance, hardihood, and strength, he brings 
the larger game to bay, and either holds, kills, or harasses 
it until the arrival of his master. 

My old Snowflight, standing thirty inches at shoulder, 
weighing one hundred pounds, measuring sixty -five inches 
from tip to tip, the hero of many a hard-fought battle on 
the Plains and in the Rockies, also winner of numerous 
coursing matches, and first prizes on the bench, was the 
typical dog for this purpose. The smaller dogs would 
stand but little show against the sharp hoofs and pointed 
antlers of the mule deer and buck antelope, to say noth- 
ing of the glistening ivories of the gray timber- wolf, who 
is a most formidable antagonist when run down to a death 
finish. 

For an inclosed coursing meeting, similar to those held 



TH1J GREYHOUND. 



149 



by the National and Eastern Coursing Clubs, the smaller 
dogs have an undoubted advantage over either of the 
former. Misterton, winner of the Waterloo Cup in 1879, 
the greatest sire of modern times, having taken in over 
$20,000 in stud fees, trained and ran at sixty-three pounds. 
Princess Dagmar, who sold at public auction for $8,000, 
weighed fifty-eight pounds. Coomassie, twice winner of 
the Waterloo Cup, weighed but forty-two pounds when in 




CHAMPION MASTER RICH.* 
Owned by Rockwood-Landseer Greyhound Kennels, Lexington, Ky. 

working condition; while Honey wood raced in great form 
at sixty -four pounds. Mullingar, winner of more money 

* Master Rich (A. K. C. S. B., No. 10976) was whelped May 20, 1887. 
His height at shoulder is twenty-nine inches; weight, sixty-five pounds. His 
winnings are : First in the Derby, American Coursing Club, 1888; first, 
Chicago, 1889; first, Akron, 1889; first, Richmond, Ind., 1889; first, Columbus, 
18S9; first, Knoxville, 1889; second, New York, 1890; second, Chicago, to his 
kennel mate, 1890; first, Baltimore, 1890; first, Boston, 1890; first in challenge 
class, Cincinnati, 1890. ED. 



150 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

than any other courser, is even larger than his sire, Mister- 
ton. Among the winners and runners-up at the meetings of 
the American Coursing Club, Sandy Jim, Master Rich, Lord 
Neversettle, and Trales are large, -Belle P., Midnight, and 
Whitesocks are medium, and Bessie Lee, Meta, and White 
Lips are small. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The head should be long and narrow, slightly widening 
at the back; low between the eyes; however, not cut away, 
or dished, along the nose; jaw lean and full-muscled. 

The eye should be bright, quick, and full, denoting ani- 
mation. 

The ears should be small, and carried close. 

The teeth should be white, strong, and of sufficient length 
to take and retain a firm hold. 

Neck-length and pliability are of the greatest impor- 
tance, and should never be overlooked. A short neck will 
not only impede action, but pace as well. It should be 
well-muscled, but not enough so to affect its flexibility and 
suppleness. 

Chest and loins. The chest should be deep and hatchet- 
shaped, and yet not too wide for the shoulders to play 
smoothly upon. Some authorities, Stonehenge among 
them, claim great depth of chest a fault. This I have 
never found true. A chest must have capacity to hold the 
heart and lungs, and, as width undoubtedly interferes with 
the movement and actions of the fore quarters, in depth 
only can the heart and lungs get free action. 

The back should be broad and square, well arched, with 
a roll of muscle standing clear above each side of the spine. 
Many prefer the flat, straight back so popular in England 
at one time; but for an all-around good dog, at both long 
and short distances, the arched back is far preferable. The 
length of back should be between shoulder and last rib, 
rather than between last rib and hip-bone. If too much 
length to the latter, the power to make a quick turn or 
wrench will be seriously interfered with. The loins should 



THE GREYHOUND. 151 

not only be wide and strong, but deep, with a good meas- 
urement around. Herein lies the power to gather quickly 
and extend. 

The tail should be long, and tapered, and nicely curved, 
though not ringed; not too coarse, though it may be heavy 
at the butt. 

Fore quarters. Elbows straight, neither turned in nor 
out. The distance from the elbow to the knee should not 
be less than double same from knee to ground. Oblique 
shoulder-blades, to allow the legs to be well thrust forward. 
Shoulder muscular, without being over-developed or loaded; 
strong pastern joints, well stood upon; feet compact, rather 
round than long; perfectly straight knuckles, well up. 

Toes close, with long claws; sole thick and tough, and 
indurated by use. 

Hind quarters. The hind quarters are the chief agent 
in propulsion, and should be strong and wide across. The 
stifle should be well bent; legs set straight, with no ten- 
dency to cow- hock; mediumly well apart, and short from 
hock to ground, with plenty of strength below the hock. 
Muscles hard and firm, and unless they are large and pow- 
erful in haunches and thighs, both speed and endurance 
will be lacking. The hind feet should not be too round, 
nor toes too upright; yet this is preferable to the long, flat 
foot that lacks elasticity and springiness. A moderately 
flat hind foot will be found to stand the strain better. 

Color and coat. Color I have never known to cut any 
figure; however, I have never seen a rich, red brindle that 
did not prove a good stayer in a killing race of three to five 
miles. I believe it but a coincidence, however, that Belle 
P., Master Rich, Bessie Lee, Rich and Rare, and Trales, 
winners at American Coursing Club meetings, were all 
brindle. The mouse or blue color seems to be most in 
demand, though the red or fawn color is oftener met 
with. The texture of the coat is a proof of good breed- 
ing. It should be neither coarse nor fine; should be short 
rather than long. Above all, avoid the woolly or fur coat, 
as it is a sure sign of a cross, and generally denotes a 



152 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

delicate constitution, besides being hard to keep clean and 
healthy 

The following are the relative values of points in judg- 
ing for the bench : Head, 10; chest, 15; legs, 15; neck, 10; 
loin, 15; tail, 5; back ribs, 10; feet, 15; color and coa.t, 5. 
Total, 100. 

The improvement of the Greyhound in this country, 
within the past two or three years, has been very marked; 
and nowhere is it better demonstrated than at the meetings 
of the American Coursing Club. I predict that within ten 
years the fabulous prices realized in England will be dupli- 
cated here. R. F. Walsh, of London, in a recent letter to 
the Philadelphia Times, however, gives some startling 
figures in connection with Greyhounds. He states that 
4 'over 1,000,000 is paid at long odds on the 'long odds' 
chances of the Waterloo Cup. Thomas Walsh, of Kin- 
sale, Ireland, refused 1,000 for Willful King when but a 
puppy. Mr. Gladstone was offered 6,500 for a promising 
puppy; and Mr. Crosse, owner of Cui Bono, often paid as 
high as 2,000 for a good Greyhound." 

TRAINING. 

The successful breeding and training of a kennel of 
Greyhounds is a precarious matter, requiring, in unlimited 
quantities, capital and patience, coupled with firmness and 
judgment, and a large fund of love for the dog. Unfortu- 
nately, many men, though possessing many good qualities, 
do not number among them a due consideration for their 
canine friends. They are apt to think that anything is 
good enough for a dog, either in the way of food, shelter, 
or bedding. This is a serious error. Anything that is 
unfit for a human being is unfit for a good dog. 

Exercise is as necessary to a Greyhound's health and 
spirits as sufficient food itself is to other breeds. Almost 
invariably, proper exercise is denied them. They should be 
constantly in the open air, or should have access to same, 
and should not be injured by the restraints of a kennel, or 
enervated by the heat of a close room or fire. 



THE GREYHOUND. 153 

In preparing a dog for a certain meeting, or a special 
event, he should be specially taken in hand not less than 
four weeks in advance; and if he has not had sufficient 
active and regular work previously to keep his muscles 
hard and his flesh down, five weeks will be necessary. The 
first 'point to be ascertained is the general health of the 
dog, and he should be watched carefully and closely for a 
few days. To insure his being free from worms, after a 
twenty-four-hour fast, he should be given a pill of thirty 
grains of areca-nut and four grains of santonine, followed 
two hours later with a dose of castor-oil. 

See that he is entirely free of vermin, eczema, and sores 
of all kinds. Never trust an attendant to feed for you 
see personally every mouthful the dog eats. It is the con- 
stant watchfulness of a dog's every movement, action, and 
mood that denotes the thorough trainer. The result to be 
obtained should come from proper feeding quality, and 
not quantity of food, being the end to be considered. No 
rules as to the quantity of food can be given, as dogs vary 
too much in their demands; the too rapid increase or 
decrease of flesh should regulate this. I do not believe in 
the sloppy food and stirabouts, containing oat and corn 
meal, so highly recommended by many, but prefer slightly 
cooked beef, with table-scraps containing, where possible, 
vegetables and bread. 

The bowels can be kept in proper condition by an occa- 
sional feed of Spratt's Greyhound biscuits, and where 
these can not be had, corn-bread, with cracklings, baked 
hard and brown, will be found a cheap and excellent sub- 
stitute. If very constipated, boiled liver should be given, 
in preference to harsh medicines. If the dog will eat it 
raw, its laxative powers will be found more beneficial in this 
state. The digestive canal of a dog is especially sensitive 
to the action of medicines, and they should only be used as 
a last resort. A couple of raw eggs once or twice a week 
can be given, especially should the coat feel rough, and be 
lacking in gloss. During the first few days of training, the 
dog should be taught obedience; and this I have always 



154 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

found promptly and willingly rendered. He should be 
taught to come to heel and remain, and to range forward 
when ordered. It is absolutely necessary that he be taught 
to fence fearlessly, and to jump in and out of vehicles at 
command. Strict attention to this will save much trouble 
and worry later on. 

Never punish a Greyhound unnecessarily, and never at 
all unless he understands thoroughly what it is for. When 
once thoroughly under command, he will remain so, rarely 
requiring punishment; in this respect being unlike other 
dogs that are credited with more sense. 

The first day, the trainer, mounted on horseback, or in a 
vehicle, should, after feeding a biscuit, have the dog (if 
two, they should be coupled with swivel couples) follow 
him a distance of five miles, taking a moderate gait, avoid- 
ing turnpikes and macadamized roads where possible. 
Upon return to the kennels, the feet and legs should be 
thoroughly washed and dried and minutely inspected; then 
well bathed in listerine; some use tannic acid and glycerine. 
The objection to this is that it hardens the pad of the foot, 
which thereby loses its toughness, and causes it to crack. 
The entire body should then be well rubbed and frictioned 
by the hand never against the grain. The muscles of the 
thighs, shoulders, fore legs, and loins should be well 
kneaded and manipulated for not less than thirty minutes 
each day. 

On the second day, the run may be increased to ten 
miles, followed promptly by the same treatment upon 
return to the kennel. From this on, the distance can be 
increased a mile daily until, at the commencement of the 
third week, he can do his twenty miles a day, with no 
signs of being sore-footed or stiff. This work should get 
his muscles and wind in proper condition, and remove all 
superfluous flesh, inside and outside. At this stage, speed, 
to a certain extent, must be sacrificed to lasting qualities 
and stamina, and training should be conducted so as to 
develop the general muscular powers, especially in the 
heart and lungs. Care should be taken, however, not to 



THE GREYHOUND. 155 

force beyond his capacity or to overwork a young dog, as 
the aim will be attained at a sacrifice of durability, with 
diminished strength of constitution. During the last week, 
the distance can be cut down gradually to a couple of miles 
daily, until the day before the event, a simple gallop across 
the turf should find him in a high state of efficiency as to 
wind and pow r er to sustain fatigue. 

During this training, if the dog has never before been 
slipped upon jack-rabbits, he should have from two to three 
courses a week on these, being slipped with a single good 
worker, willing and capable of doing his share. If you 
want a true and honest worker, do not work him on too 
many jacks, and never in a crowd of dogs, as he will soon 
learn to run cunning, thereby ruining his chance as a stake- 
winner; for the habit once acquired is seldom overcome. 

Never blanket your dog during training, if it can be 
avoided; but have blankets at hand, in case of cold or wet 
weather during the meeting. Working a dog under blank- 
ets to reduce flesh is more injurious than beneficial. The 
better plan is to increase his work, and change the quality, 
not the quantity, of his food. The day of the running, the 
dog should be kept muzzled. Two or three hours before 
going to the slips, feed one-quarter pound of raw meat, 
chopped fine, with an egg broken over it. Feed nothing 
more till night. See that the dog has an opportunity to 
relieve his bowels. 

While in the slips, stay close to him, and watch carefully 
for any signs of his having picked up a sand-bur, prickly- 
pear, or cactus; and in case he does so, it should be 
promptly removed. If he shows any indication of a desire 
to relieve himself, see that the slipper indulges him. This 
is important. 

Encourage him with your presence, and do all you legiti- 
mately can to see that he is sighted promptly. Spare no 
pains or expense in getting a good mount, and keep as close 
as possible to him during the course. After the kill, take 
him up at once, sponge out his mouth, give him a few swal- 
lows of water from a bottle, and rub gently, yet firmly, 



156 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

until natural breathing returns. If very much exhausted, 
a . little cold coffee may be given him from a bottle. 
Blanket close, and keep moving briskly, out of draft. 
After a course, wash and examine the stoppers, dew-claws, 
nails, and feet thoroughly. When a nail or claw is partly 
detached, trim it neatly with sharp scissors, bathe thor- 
oughly in listerine, and before going to the slips for 
another course, rub with caustic, which will deaden the 
pain. 

Should the stoppers be injured, make a light cap or 
patch, with soft kid, and apply with warm shoemaker's 
wax. This is far preferable to the boot, as not interfering 
with the movement and action of the legs. Should the dog 
go lame in the fore-arms, through a wrench, twist, or over- 
exertion, do not let anyone persuade you to "fire 1 ' him. 
While it undoubtedly stiffens and strengthens the muscles 
temporarily, the custom is a barbarous one, seldom effect- 
ive, and the after-results disastrous. Try the effect of 
complete rest, rubbing and bathing freely in Pond's 
Extract. 

Never, under any circumstances, dispute the decision of 
a judge. It is time wasted. If you are satisfied you are 
not getting justice, draw your dog. 

If the dog is to be trained for track or flat racing, the 
same treatment should be given, with the following excep- 
tions : Limit the maximum distances to fifteen miles a day, 
and at the commencement of the second week, take a pair 
of well-mated dogs to a level stretch of country, or, better 
still, a race or trotting track. Place them at the head of 
the quarter or home stretch, in independent slips, handled 
by an attendant with whom they are not familiar. Engage 
and retain their attention as you walk off, say a furlong; 
flourish a red flag, call them sharply, and as soon as both 
are well sighted, have the attendant slip them. When they 
reach you, show your appreciation of their smartness; 
encourage them, pet and fondle them, giving each a small 
bit of biscuit. This should be repeated several times, night 
and morning, taking care to stop as soon as they show the 



THE GREYHOUND. 157 

first signs of flagging interest. The distance can be gradu- 
ally increased daily, as desired. Should one of the pair 
show a disposition to bite, play with, or jostle his mate, 
slip the faster dog a second or two sooner. Should the 
faster dog be the offender, a spiked collar on the other will 
soon teach him better manners. You will be astonished to 
find how rapidly they learn, and what genuine interest they 
take in this sport. 

In preparing for the bench, the foregoing instructions 
for training should be followed as nearly as possible; but as 
there are many who probably have not such facilities, to 
them I say: Give all the exercise you possibly can; teach 
your dog to retrieve a swiftly thrown ball; have him follow 
you as much as possible, and train him to jump a cane, 
stick, or umbrella; and indulge him in it to the fullest 
extent, for he will soon become fond of it. Rub, knead, 
and roll all his muscles a half -hour at a time, and not less 
than three times a day. Brush briskly with a stiff hair- 
brush, and finish off with soft chamois-skin. Clean his 
teeth thoroughly, removing all discolorations. Give sev- 
erai good dressings to his coat with oil of tar and sulphur, 
followed by bath in tepid water, using the yelks of eggs 
instead of soap. Keep blanketed when not exercising. 
Feed as many eggs as his stomach will stand without 
becoming bilious, and let him lap a pint of milk daily. 

Teach him to lead kindly with the chain, and to stand 
perfectly still, with head and neck extended, feet and legs 
straight, and well under him. Do not feed for twenty -four 
hours previous to judging. A few minutes before taking 
into the judge's ring, however, give a small piece of raw 
beef, say the size of two fingers. While in the ring, do not 
crowd your dog up close to the judge, but get as far away 
as the ring will permit. If he is a good one, the judge will 
never overlook him. If the sawdust in the ring is deep, 
clear a space, that his feet and toes may be seen. 

If you do not succeed in getting his muscles hard and 
firm, stomach off, and body devoid of surplus flesh, forfeit 
your entrance money and keep him at home. When show- 



158 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

ing on the bench, ascertain the location of the nearest 
vacant lot or park to the exhibition building, and give him 
a good long romp of not less than an hour daily. If unac- 
customed to the "patent biscuits" usually fed at bench 
shows, feed on lean beef or mutton. 

If these instructions are carried out faithfully, the con- 
dition of your dog will remain good for several weeks; 
otherwise the close of the first show on the circuit will find 
him a physical wreck. When at home, between, dates of 
shows, keep up his work, even if it be only for a few days. 

CARE AND WASHING. 

Greyhounds are naturally cleanly, and require but little 
washing. When necessary (never before), make a solution 
of one part Carbolic Sheep Dip to fifteen parts lukewarm 
water; never ^use hot water on a dog under any circum- 
stances; soak thoroughly, rubbing well in with the hand, 
being careful of the eyes. Follow this immediately with 
a mild soap. Bathe, and finish up by lathering freely with 
the yelks of several eggs. Drench with cold water, and 
rub thoroughly dry. No dog subjected to this treatment, 
regularly, will ever be troubled with vermin, eczema, or 
mange in any of its forms. If persisted in, it will cure 
the worst case of chronic mange that can be found. 

As before stated, the digestive canal of the dog is par- 
ticularly irritable, and very sensitive to the action of medi- 
cines; therefore, give as little medicine as possible. When 
medicine must be given, it should be administered with 
caution, in homeopathic doses. Rather give him access to 
a woodland or garden once or twice a day, and he will find 
Nature's remedies for his ailments. 

FOOD. 

The Greyhound is seldom a glutton, and naturally 
requires but little food, except when in training. Once 
in twenty-four hours is as often as he should be fed, and 
a fast of forty -eight hours causes no inconvenience. Avoid 
grease and fatty substances. While boiled corn-meal is a 



THE GREYHOUND. 159 

most excellent food for the average dog especially the 
Foxhound it should rarely, if ever, be given to a Grey- 
hound, it is very heating in its nature. Greyhounds are 
especially susceptible to skin diseases, and if they do not 
get an abundance of exercise while fed upon mush, will 
break out in troublesome sores and eczema. For a steady 
diet, table-scraps containing bone, with an occasional meal 
of vegetables, will keep them in excellent condition. Never 
give them any food until it is perfectly cold; and, where 
possible, have a regular hour for feeding late in the after- 
noon being the best time. 

The kennels should be dry and well ventilated, with an 
elevated sleeping-bench, .with circulation of air under it. 
No bedding at all in summer, and hemp hurds in winter. 
These remain free of vermin and moisture, and preserve 
the gloss of the dog's coat. 

I have here advocated the simpler, cheaper, and more 
practical methods of training, showing, and rearing Grey- 
hounds. I am fully aware that many of the swell own- 
ers, who dress their imported Greyhound pets in costly 
blankets, feed them high-priced patent foods, wash them 
with scented soaps, and have a valet walk them through 
the parks, will turn up their noses at these instructions; 
but whenever their pets meet dogs that have been treated 
as I have directed, either on the bench or in the field, the 
difference will be as glaringly apparent to their owners as 
to others. 

BREEDING AND REARING. 

In the breeding of bitches and rearing of whelps, the 
same rules apply to Greyhounds as to other breeds. I have 
often had Greyhound bitches, especially the younger ones, 
refuse to allow the dog to serve them, although fully in 
heat. It is common to use force upon such occasions: 
This should never be allowed; but repeated trials should be 
made. Nature will regulate the matter finally. 

While in whelp, the bitch should have plenty of exer- 
cise, and, until too heavy, an occasional hunt. She should 



160 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



not be allowed to get too heavy in flesh, nor yet kept too 
thin; a medium between the two should be maintained. 
Remove the dew-claws on puppies when one week old, pull- 
ing them off with pincers; it will be unattended with pain. 
Allow the puppies to remain with the bitch as long as 
her condition warrants it. Should you desire to train or 
show the bitch after whelping, provide a foster-mother 




CHAMPION BALKIS. 
Owned by Mr. H. W. Huntington, 148 South Eighth street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



are 



for the puppies, and gradually relieve her until all 
transferred. 

After weaning, the puppies should be fed three or four 
times a day (not less), and should be given bones to gnaw. 
If there be not plenty of limestone in the water used, a 
little phosphate of lime sprinkled on their food once a day 
will strengthen and enlarge their bones, thereby preventing 
standing over, or springing of the knees, so common in 
young Greyhounds. 



THE GREYHOUND. 161 

The inclosed coursing meetings, recently introduced into 
this country, and rapidly becoming popular, will do much 
to increase the popularity of the Greyhound, and awaken 
interest in coursing in the Middle and Eastern States. At 
the same time, they will have a tendency to destroy some of 
the best and strongest qualities of this breed, such as stam- 
ina and staying qualities. I predict that it will be but a 
short time, comparatively, until a weak, light specimen, of 
the Whippet order capable of a fast short spurt will be 
much sought after; while the great, game animal, with the 
heart and courage of a lion, capable of keeping up his 
speed to the end of a bruising four or five mile course, will 
be confined to the open meetings of the Far West. 

Great credit is due the following gentlemen, among 
others, for their untiring efforts in advancing the Grey- 
hound interests in America : Mr. H. W. Huntington, New 
York; Dr. Q. Van Hummell, Kansas City; Montgomery 
Phister, Cincinnati; Dr. N. Howe, Chicago; Dr. G. Irwin 
Royce, D. IN". Heizer, M. E. Allison, H. C. Lowe, Kansas; 
A. C. Lighthall, Denver, and C. G. Page, Nebraska. 

Among other prominent breeders or owners of Grey- 
hounds may be mentioned the Devon Kennels, 82 Front 
street, New York City; Alpine Kennels, Thirty-eighth 
street and First avenue, New York City; J. Herbert Wat- 
son, 79 Downing street, Brooklyn, N. Y.; John E. Thayer, 
Lancaster, Mass.; J. Yan Schaick, 32 Broad street, New 
York City; Woodhaven Kennels, Woodhaven, Long Island, 
N. Y. ; Mrs. Sarah Leggett Emory, 253 Fifth avenue, New 
York City; F. G. Stuart, box 83, Hoosick Falls, N. Y.; 
W. E. Stevens, Riverside, 111.; Frank Welch, box 172, 
Lemont, 111.; A. M. Young, 93 Park street, Albany, Ind.; 
Ed. G. Howell, Denver, Colo.; D. H. Stine, Newport, Ky., 
and Middleton Kennels, Cassopolis, Mich. 

Among the many good dogs which Mr. Huntington has 
imported or bred may be mentioned Champion Balkis, a 
large, up-standing, well-built dog, and a famous bench-show 
winner, both in this country and in England. His winnings 

in America are : 
11 



162 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

First and special, Hartford, 1887; first and special, Bos- 
ton, 1887; first and special, Troy, 1888; champion and 
special, New York, 1888; champion, New Haven, 1888; 
champion, Boston, 1888; champion and special, Buffalo, 
1888; champion and special, Syracuse, 1888; champion, 
New Bedford, 1889; champion and special, New York, 1889; 
challenge, Troy, 1889; challenge, Albany, 1889; challenge, 
Utica, 1889; challenge, Worcester, 1889; second challenge, 
Boston, 1889; challenge, Toronto, 1889; first, Danbury, 
1889; one special, Danbury, and two specials, Toronto, 
1889; challenge, New York, 1890; challenge, Boston, 1890; 
challenge, Buffalo, 1890. 

Mr. Huntington's Highland Chief is a handsome white 
and black dog, and though only three years old, has the 
following winnings to his credit : 

First, special, and second special, Syracuse, 1888; first, 
Richmond, 1888; first and special, New Bedford, 1889; 
special, New York, 1889; first, Troy, 1889; first, Albany, 
1889; first and special, Utica, 1889; first challenge, Chicago, 
1890; second challenge, New York, 1890; third and special, 
Buffalo, 1888; third, New York, 1889. 

Among Mr. Allison's best dogs are: 

Champion Sandy Jim (5337), who won first at Great 
Bend in 1886, and first in all-age stakes at same meet- 
ing. 

Reno Belle (5342), runner-up in championship stake at 
same meeting, is the mother of Sandy Jim. 

Terry, litter brother of Sandy Jim, was runner-up in the 
all- age stake at the same meeting. 

Mr. H. C. Lowe's White Lips is a remarkably clever 
bitch. She has seldom been exhibited at bench shows in 
this country, but has done some good work at coursing 
meets, and has an excellent record for field-work on ante- 
lopes, wolves, and jack-rabbits. I consider her one of the 
quickest and closest workers on jack-rabbits I have ever 
seen, and nothing but force of circumstances held her down 
to the position of runner-up in the American cup race in 
both 1888 and 1889. 



THE GREYHOUND. 163 

A general impression prevails that the Greyhound is a 
timid animal, lacking heart and courage. This may be true 
of some strains of the breed; but could the reader have 
ridden several courses with me at meetings of the American 
Coursing Club which I have judged, and have seen Grey- 
hounds, as I have seen them, run until their hind legs 
refused to propel them farther, and then crawl on their 
breasts after a thoroughly used-up jack-rabbit but a few 
feet in advance, the singing and whistling in their 
throats audible at fifty yards literally in the last gasp 
of death, trying to reach their prey he or she would agree 
with me in crediting them with both the qualities men- 
tioned. 

In hunting the antelope it is not an uncommon thing to 
see a Greyhound, especially in hot weather, continue the 
chase until he drops and dies before his master reaches him. 
An uninjured antelope is capable of giving any Greyhound 
all the work he can stand, and unless the latter is in prime 
condition, his chances are poor indeed to throttle. A pecul- 
iar feature of the Greyhound is that he -always attacks 
large game in the throat, head, or fore part of the body. 
I have even seen them leave the line of the jack-rabbit to 
get at his throat. 

Old " California Joe," at onetime chief of scouts with 
General Custer, in 1875 owned a grand specimen of the 
Greyhound, called Kentuck, presented to him by General 
Custer. I saw this dog seize and throw a yearling bull 
buffalo, and the former was then dragged on his back over 
rough stones, trampled and pawed until his ears were split, 
two ribs broken, and neck and fore shoulders frightfully cut 
and lacerated, yet he never released his hold until a Sharps 
rifle bullet through the heart of the buffalo ended the 
unequal struggle. Talk about a lack of courage ! What 
Mastiff, Bulldog, or Great Dane could excel in courage 
Old Kentuck ? 

I have seen many a Greyhound, single-handed and alone, 
overhaul and tackle a coyote, and, in a pack, have seen 
them close in and take hold of a timber wolf or a mountain 



164 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

lion, and stay through the fight, coming out bleeding and 
quivering, with hardly a whole skin among them. 

Sir Samuel Baker, in his explorations in Africa and his 
jungle-hunting in Ceylon, was always accompanied by a 
pack of Greyhounds, and the deeds of valor performed by 
them on wild game, as recounted by him, prove their cour- 
age beyond doubt. 

In point of speed, courage, fortitude, endurance, sagacity, 
and fine, almost human, judgment, no grander animal lives 
than the Greyhound. He knows no fear, he turns from no 
game animal on which he is sighted, no matter how large 
or how ferocious. He pursues with the speed of the wind, 
seizes the instant he comes up with the game, and stays in 
the fight until either he or the quarry is dead. 

The following revised rules have been adopted as the 
standard for American coursing, and anyone training Grey- 
hounds should be perfectly familiar with them in all their 
details : 

1. THE JUDGE shall be appointed the night the drawing takes place. 
The slipper and other field officers shall also be appointed on the night of the 
draw. 

2. Two WEEKS' NOTICE shall be given of the day of the drawing, 
through the public press. 

3. THE DRAWING shall take place at least three days previous to the run- 
ning, when the time and place of putting the first brace of dogs into the slips 
shall be declared. A card or counter, bearing a corresponding number, shall 
be assigned to each entry. These numbered cards or counters shall then be 
placed together and drawn indiscriminately. This classification, once made, 
shall not be disturbed throughout the meeting, except for the purpose of 
guarding, or on account of byes. Dogs whose position on the cards has been 
altered in consequence of guarding, or of byes, must return to their original 
position in the next round, if guarding does not prevent it. 

4. GUARDING. When more than one nomination in a stake is taken in 
one name, the Greyhounds, if bona fide the property of the same owner, shall 
be gua'rded throughout. This is always to be arranged, as far as possible, by 
bringing up the dogs from below to meet those which are to be guarded. This 
guarding is not, however, to deprive any dog of a natural bye to which he 
may be entitled, either in the draw or in running through the stake. 

5. BYES. A natural bye shall be given to the lowest available dog in 
each round. No dog shall run a second such bye in any stake, unless it is 
unavoidable. When a dog is entitled to a bye, either natural or accidental, 



THE GREYHOUND. 165 

his owner or nominator may run any Greyhound he pleases, to assist in the 
course; provided, always, that in sapling stakes, only a sapling may be used, 
and in puppy stakes, none older than a puppy. But if it be proven to the sat- 
isfaction of the stewards that no puppy can be found to run an accidental bye, 
the owner shall have the power of substituting an old dog. No dog shall run 
any bye earlier than his position on the card entitles him to do so. The judge 
shall decide whether enough has been done to constitute a course, or whether 
it must be run again. If at the commencement of any round in a stake one 
dog in each course has a bye, those byes shall not be run, but the dogs shall 
take their places for the next round as if the byes had been run. 

6. POSTPONEMENT OP A MEETING. A meeting appointed to take place 
on a certain day may, if a majority of the committee (and the stewards, if 
appointed) consider the weather unfavorable for coursing, be postponed from 
day to day; but if the running does not commence within the current week, 
all nominations shall be void, and the expenses shall be paid by the subscribers 
in proportion to the number of nominations taken by each. In the case of 
produce stakes, however, the original entries shall continue binding, if the 
meeting is held at a later period of the season. 

7. TAKING DOGS TO THE SLIPS. Every dog must be brought to the 
slips in proper turn, without delay, under a penalty of five dollars ($5). If 
absent for more than ten minutes (according to the report of any one of the 
stewards), its opponent shall be entitled to claim the course, and shall in that 
case run a bye. If both dogs be absent at the expiration of ten minutes, the 
steward shall have power to disqualify both dogs, or to fine their owners any 
sum not exceeding twenty-five dollars ($25) each. No dogs shall be put into 
the slips for a deciding course until thirty minutes after the decision of the 
course in the previous round, without the consent of its owners. 

8. CONTROL OP DOGS IN SLIPS. The control of all matters connected 
with slipping the Greyhounds shall rest with the stewards of a meeting. 
Owners or servants, after delivering their dogs into the hands of the slipper, 
may follow close after them, but not so as to inconvenience the slipper or in 
any way interfere with the dogs; nor must they halloo them on while running, 
under a penalty of five dollars ($5). Any Greyhound found to be beyond con- 
trol may be loosed out of the slips, and the course decided by the rules of 
the club. 

9. GREYHOUNDS OF SAME COLOR TO WEAR COLLARS. When two 
Greyhounds, drawn together, are of the same color, they shall each wear a 
collar, and the owners shall be subject to a penalty of one dollar ($1) for non- 
observance of this rule; the collar to be red for the left-hand side and white 
for the right-hand side of the slips. After the first round, the upper dog on 
the card for the day will be placed on the left hand, and the lower dog on the 
right of the slips 

10. THE ORDER TO SLIP may be given by the judge or by a slip steward, 
or the stewards of a meeting may leave the slip to the sole discretion of. the slip- 
per. The length of slip must necessarily vary with the nature of the ground, 
but should never be less than eighty yards, and must be maintained of one 
uniform length, as far as possible, through each stake. 



166 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

11. THE SLIPPER. If one Greyhound gets out of the slips, the slipper 
shall not let the other go. In the case of slips breaking, and either or both 
dogs getting away in consequence, the slipper may call both dogs back and 
put them again in the slips, at the discretion of the stewards. 

12. THE JUDGE shall be subject to the general rules which may be estab- 
lished by the American Coursing Club for his guidance. He shall, on the ter- 
mination of each course, immediately deliver his decision aloud, and shall not 
recall or reverse his decision, on any pretext whatever, after it has been 
declared; but no decision shall be delivered until the judge is perfectly satis- 
fied that the course is absolutely terminated. 

13. THE JUDGE shall decide all courses upon the one uniform principle that 
the Greyhound which does the most toward killing the hare, during the con- 
tinuance of the course, is to be declared the winner. The principle is to be 
carried out by estimating the value of the work done by each Greyhound, as 
seen by him, upon a balance of points, according to the scale hereafter laid 
down, from, which also are to be deducted certain specified allowances and 
penalties all races to be run by courses. 

14. THE POINTS of the courses are : 

(a). Speed. Which shall be estimated as one, two, or three points, accord- 
ing to the degree of superiority shown. (See definition a below.) 

(b). The Go-by. Two points, or if gained on the outer circle, three points. 

(c). The Turn. One point. 

(d). The Wrench. Half a point. 

(e). The Kill. Two points, or in a descending scale in proportion to the 
degree of merit displayed in that kill, which may be of no value. 

(/). The Trip. One point. 

DEFINITION OF POINTS. 

(a). In estimating the value of speed to the hare, the judge must take into 
account the several forms in which it may be displayed, viz. 

I. Where, in the run-up, a clear lead is gained by one of the dogs; in 
which case one, two, or three points may be given, according to the length of 
the lead, apart from the score for a turn or wrench. In awarding these points, 
the judge shall take into consideration the merit of a lead obtained by a dog 
which has lost ground at the start, either from being unsighted or from a bad 
slip, or which has had to run the outer circle. 

II. When one Greyhound leads the other so long as the hare runs 
straight, but loses the lead from her bending round decidedly in favor of the 
slower dog, of her own accord; in which case the one Greyhound shall score 
one point for speed shown, and the other dog shall score one for first turn. 

III. Under no circumstances is speed without subsequent work to be 
allowed to decide a course, except where great superiority is shown by one 
Greyhound over another in a long lead to covert. 

If a dog, after gaining the first six. points, still keeps possession of the 
hare by superior speed, he shall have double the prescribed allowance for the 
subsequent points made before his opponent begins to score. 

(b). The Go-by is where one Greyhound starts a clear length behind his 



THE GREYHOUND. 167 

opponent, and yet passes him in a straight run, and gets a clear length before 
him. 

(c). The Turn is where the hare is brought round at not less than a right- 
angle from her previous line. 

(d). The Wrench is where the hare is bent from her line at less than a 
right-angle; but where she only leaves her line to suit herself, and not from 
the Greyhound pressing her, nothing is to be allowed. 

(e). The merit of a Kill must be estimated according to whether a Grey- 
hound, by his own superior dash and skill, bears the hare; whether he picks 
her up through any little accidental circumstances favoring him, or whether 
she is turned into his mouth, as it were, by the other Greyhound. 

(/). The Trip, or an unsuccessful effort to kill, is where the hare is thrown 
off her legs, or where a Greyhound catches her, but can not hold her. 

15. THE following allowances shall be made for accidents to a Greyhound 
during a course; but in every case they shall only be deducted from the other 
dog's score: 

(a). For losing ground at the start, either from being unsighted or from a 
bad slip, the judge is to decide what amount of allowance is to be made, on 
the principle that the score of the foremost dog is not to begin until the second 
has had an opportunity of joining in the course. 

(&). Where a hare bears very decidedly in disfavor of one of the dogs 
after the first or subsequent turns, the next point shall not be scored by the 
dog which may be unduly favored, or only half his point allowed, according 
to circumstances. No Greyhound shall receive any allowance for a fall, or any 
accident of any description whatever, with the exception of being ridden over 
by the owner of the competing Greyhound or his servant (provided for by Rule 
25), or when pressing the hare, in which case his opponent shall not count the 
next point made. 

16. PENALTIES are as follows: 

(a). Where a Greyhound, from his own defect, refuses to follow the hare 
at which he is slipped, he shall lose the course. 

(b). Where a Greyhound willfully stands still in a course, or departs from 
directly pursuing the hare, no points subsequently made by him shall be scored; 
and if the points made by him up to that time be just equal to those made by 
his antagonist in the whole course, he shall thereby lose the course; but where 
one or both dogs stop with the hare in view, through inability to continue the 
course, it shall be decided according to the number of points gained by each 
dog during the whole course. 

(c). If a dog refuses to fence where the other fences, any points subse- 
quently made by him are not scored; but if he does his best to fence, and is 
foiled by sticking in a hedge, the course shall end there. When the points are 
equal, the superior fencer shall win the course. 

17. IP A SECOND HARE be started during course, and one of the dogs 
follows her, the course shall end there. 

18. A "No COURSE" is when, by accident or by the shortness of the 
course, the dogs are not tried together; and if one be then drawn, the other 
must run a bye, unless the judge, on being appealed to, shall decide that he 



168 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

has done work enough to be exempted from it. An undecided course is where 
the judge considers the merits of the dogs equal; and if either is then drawn, 
the other can not be required to run a bye, but the owners must at the time 
declare which dog remains in. (See Eule 21.) The judge shall signify the 
distinction between a " no course " and an " undecided " by taking off his hat 
in the latter case only. After an "undecided" or "no course," if the dogs, 
before being taken up, get on another or the same hare, the judge must follow, 
and shall decide in favor of one, if he considers that there has been a sufficient 
trial to justify his doing so. A "no course" or "undecided" may be run 
again immediately; or, if claimed on behalf of both dogs, before the next 
brace arc put into the slips; or, in case of "no course," if so ordered by the 
judge; otherwise it shall be run again after the two next courses, unless it 
stand over to the next morning, when it shall be the first course run. If it is the 
last course of the day, fifteen minutes shall be allowed after both dogs are 
taken up. 

19. IMPUGNING JUDGE. If any person openly impugns the decision of 
the judge on the ground, he shall forfeit not more than $25, nor less than $10. 

20. OBJECTIONS. An objection to a Greyhound may be made to any one 
of the stewards of a meeting at any time before the stakes are paid over, upon 
the objector lodging in the hand of such steward, or the secretary, the sum of 
$25, which shall be forfeited if the objection proves frivolous, or if he shall not 
bring the case before the next meeting of the club, or give notice to the stew- 
ards previous thereto of his intention to withdraw his objection. The owner 
of the Greyhound objected to must also deposit $25, and prove the correct- 
ness of his entry. All expenses in consequence of the objection shall be borne 
by the party against whom the decision may be given. Should an objection be 
made which can not at the time be substantiated or disproved, the Greyhound 
may be allowed to run under protest, the stewards retaining his winnings until 
the objection has been withdrawn, or heard, and decided. If the Greyhound 
objected to be disqualified, the amount to which he would otherwise have been 
entitled shall be divided equally among the dogs beaten by him; and if a piece 
of plate or prize has been added, and won by him, only the dogs which he beat 
in the several rounds shall have a right to contend for it. 

21. WITHDRAWAL OF A DOG. If a dog be withdrawn from any stake 
on the field, its owner, or someone having his authority, must at once give 
notice to the secretary or flag steward. If the dog belongs to either of these 
officials, the notice must be given to the other. 

22. STAKES NOT RUN OUT. When two Greyhounds remain in for the 
deciding course, the stakes shall be considered divided if they belong to the 
same owner, or to confederates, and also if the owner of one of the two dogs 
induces the owner of the other to draw him for any payment or consideration; 
but if one of the two be drawn without payment or consideration, from lame- 
ness, or from any cause clearly affecting his chance of winning, the other may 
be declared the winner, the facts of the case being clearly proved to the satis- 
faction of the stewards. The same rule shall apply when more than two dogs 
remain in at the end of a stake which is not run out; and in case of a division 
between three or more dogs, of which two or more belong to the same owner, 



THE GREYHOUND. 169 

these latter shall be held to take equal shares of the total amount received by 
their owners in the division. The terms of any arrangements to divide the 
winnings, and the amount of any money given to induce the owner of a dog to 
draw him, must be declared by the secretary. 

23. WINNERS OF STAKES RUNNING TOGETHER. If two Greyhounds 
shall each win a stake, and have to run together for a final prize or challenge 
cup, should they not have run an equal number of ties in their respective 
stakes, the Greyhound which has run the smaller number of courses must 
run a bye, or byes, to put itself upon an equality in this respect with its oppo- 
nent. 

24. GREYHOUND GETTING LOOSE. Any person allowing a Greyhound to 
get loose, and to join in a course which is being run, shall be fined $5. If the 
loose Greyhound belong to either of the owners of the dogs engaged in the 
particular course, such owner shall forfeit his chance of the stake with the 
dog then running, unless he can prove to the satisfaction of the stewards that 
he had not been able to get the loose Greyhound taken up after running its 
own course. The course is not to be considered as necessarily ended when a 
third dog joins in. 

25. RIDING OVER A GREYHOUND. If any subscriber, or his servant, 
shall ride over his opponent's Greyhound while running in a course, the owners 
of the dog so ridden over shall (although the course be given against him) be 
deemed the winner of it, or shall have the option of allowing the other dog to 
remain and to run out the stake, and in such case shall be entitled to half the 
winnings, if any. 

26. DESCRIPTION OF ENTRY. Every subscriber to a stake must name 
his dog at or before the entry, giving the names (the running names, if they had 
any) of the sire and dam of the dog entered, if possible, with the color of the 
dog entered. For puppy stakes, the names, pedigrees, ages, and colors shall be 
detailed in writing to the secretary of a meeting at the time of entry. No 
Greyhound is to be considered a puppy which was whelped before the 1st of 
January of the same year preceding the commencement of the season of run- 
ning. A sapling is a Greyhound whelped on or after the 1st of January of the 
same year in which the season of running commenced, and any Greyhound 
whose marks and pedigrees shall be proved not to correspond with the entrj* 
given, shall be disqualified, and the whole of its stakes or winnings forfeited. 

27. BREEDING PUPPIES. Every member of the club breeding puppies 
shall notify the secretary, in writing, within ten days after the birlh of any 
puppies, of the number of dogs and bitches, colors and other distinguishing 
marks, date of birth, and the name of sire and dam. Any member violating 
this rule will not be allowed to enter or run any of such puppies in a puppy or 
sapling stake. 

28. ALTERATION OF NAME. If any subscriber should enter a Grey- 
hound by a different name from that in which it shall have last run in public, 
he shall give notice of the alteration to the secretary at the time of entry, and 
the secretary shall place on the card both the late and present name of the 
dog. If notice of the alteration be not given, the dog shall be disqualified. 

29. PREFIX OF "Ns." Any subscriber taking an entry in a stake, and 



170 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

not prefixing the word "names" (Ns) to a Greyhound which is not his own 
property, shall forfeit that Greyhound's chance of the stake. He shall like- 
wise, if requested, deliver in writing to the secretary of the meeting the name 
of the bonafide owner of the Greyhound named by him; and this communica- 
tion is to be produced should any dispute arise in the matter. 

30. PAYMENT OF STAKES. All moneys due for nominations taken must 
be paid at or before the entry, whether the stakes fill or not, and although, 
from insufficient description or any other cause, the dogs named may be dis- 
qualified. No entry shall be valid unless the amount due for it has been paid 
in full. For all produce and other stakes where a forfeit is payable, no decla- 
ration is necessary; the non-payment of the remainder of the entry money at 
the time fixed for that purpose is to be considered a declaration of forfeit. 
The secretary is to be responsible for the entrance money of all dogs whose 
names appear upon the card 

31. DEFAULTERS. No one shall be allowed to enter or run a Greyhound 
in his own or any other person's name who is a defaulter for either stakes, bets, 
dues, or fines. 

32. JUDGE OR SLIPPER INTERESTED. If a judge or slipper be in any way 
interested in a Greyhound running, the stewards shall appoint others to judge 
or slip any course which that Greyhound may run. 




THE DEERHOUND. 



BY Q. VAN HUMMELL, M. D. 



jj] 1ST this animal we have the aristocrat of all the canine 
I race. He is the best guard, the best companion, and 
/ll is capable of giving us more royal sport than any other 
breed of sporting dogs. I say this without fear of suc- 
cessful contradiction. A high-bred and properly trained 
Deerhound has more courage and can stand more punish- 
ment than any other dog. He has stronger attachment for 
his master or mistress, will fight for him or her quicker and 
more desperately, will never forget them, and when taken 
to the field he can run fast enough to catch an antelope, a 
jack-rabbit, coyote, wolf, deer, or elk, and can kill either of 
them alone and unaided. He will tree a mountain lion or 
a black bear, and will even fight a grizzly bear long enough 
for you to climb a tree or get off a good distance, so that 
you may kill him without danger to yourself. 

These dogs combine more rare good qualities as a gentle- 
man' s companion than any other breed in the known 
world. 

Idstone says of them: 

Pet dogs, of course, are a matter of taste and locality, and space must 
have much to do with the selection of a companionable dog. If, however, size 
is no objection, it would be impossible to name any dog superior to the true 
Deerhound, whether employed in his proper vocation or not, He is gentle in 
manners, unless roused by the sight of his game and excited to pursue it; he is 
no sheep-biter; he is a good guard; he "follows" well; he can keep up with 
hack or carriage; he is not a self -hunter that is, he does not skulk off poach- 
ing; he is faithful to his master; he is gentle with children, like the far-famed 
Gelert, his prototype; and he is majestic in appearance. Witness the pict- 
ures of him by Sir Edwin Landseer, in every variety of attitude, and sharing 
in all the pleasures ay, even the sorrows of his master. With the hawk or 
falcon he made up the equipment of the old baron, and slumbered in front of 
his yule-log, shared in his wassail and revelry, and formed a feature in his 



172 THE AMEKICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

pageant and procession. He has been the companion of kings and emperors, 
and pulled down his game in the open by dexterity, force, and speed, without 
the aid of toils or cross-bow immaterial to him in old days whether it were 
boar, wolf, or hart no day too long, no game too strong or dangerous, until 
his eye became dull, his limbs stiff, and his teeth worn down, not so much 
with years as the hard work, exposure, and wounds inseparable from his 
occupation, and he was retained at the hall or grange as a pensioner or a com- 
panion for the rest of his life. 

He has the grand form, the elegant outline, the graceful 
attitudes and amiable disposition of the Greyhound, but 
far surpasses him in harmonious color and in texture and 
quality of coat. The writer has had as many as forty 
Deerhounds in his kennels at one time, and all have har- 
monized in color so perfectly as to please the eye of the art 
connoisseur. A number of them may not be all of exactly 
the same color, but they will breed true to a color. 
They may be steel-gray, lemon, or tawny. 

One family that came from Imported Forum was canary- 
colored, and every one proved true to that color. Not so 
with any other known breed. There is always a strong 
family resemblance in a strain of Deerhounds. 

A dog of good proportions should stand thirty-one inches 
at the shoulder; should measure thirty-five inches around the 
chest; his fore-arm should measure from eight and one-half 
to nine and one-half inches; his weight should be from ninety 
to one hundred and five pounds. He should be compactly 
built not too long in the loin; this is one of the faults in 
, many Deerhounds of the present day. When we remember 
that this dog must have great speed, must often make im- 
mense leaps after his game, and when he catches it must 
have sufficient power to kill it which is often a difficult 
task we see the necessity of a powerful muscular con- 
formation. 

He must be quick at a turn, to avoid the sharp hoof of 
the stag. This requires a short, powerful loin and strong 
quarters. The ooat should be harsh, not wiry, about three 
inches long; and there should be a good thick under-coat, 
bristly at the muzzle. On shoulders, neck, and back the 
outer coat should be coarser than elsewhere. The head 



THE SCOTCH DEERHOUND. 173 

should be of the Greyhound type, only stronger, somewhat 
thicker, and more powerful. 

The eye should be full, intelligent, and of dark color. 
The ear should be small, coated with fine, short, silky 
Lair of close texture. It should be carried close to the 
head until the dog is excited, when it should stand semi- 
erect. 

The neck should be strong and not too long. The Grey- 
hound neck can not be too long, because he must reach to 
the ground to pick up his game; but the Deerhound, if a 
good killer, jumps on his game's neck, and hence needs no 
extra length in his neck, but does need extra strength there, 
as elsewhere, in order to hold on. His shoulders should be 
oblique and well muscled, his back strong and well arched, 
his hind quarters strong and powerfully muscled. His 
stifles should be well bent and his hocks well let dow r n. 

The stem should be large at the wat. This denotes a 
strong spinal column. It should taper down gradually to 
the tip, where the bone should be fine. It should be well 
covered with coat, and curved upward and sidewise. It 
should be of good length. 

In fact, his general build must be on speed lines. His 
feet must be close and high -knuckled, of the cat-like order. 
Here is where the Deerhound will first weaken if not prop- 
erly knit and closely muscled. His work in following his 
game over the rocky cliffs and over fallen timber, at full 
speed, is of the most trying kind. The writer has often 
seen the flat or hare-footed Deerhound get foot-sore in a 
few hours' work, while the strong-footed dog will work 
day after day for an entire week, and never show distress. 

STANDARD AND POINTS OF JUDGING. 

In skull (value 10), the Deerhound resembles the large, 
coarse Greyhound, it being long and moderately wide, 
especially between the ears. There is a very slight rise at 
the eyebrows, so as to take off what would otherwise be a 
straight line from tip of nose to occiput. The upper sur- 
face is level in both directions. 



174 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Nose and jaws (value 5). The jaws should be long, and 
the teeth level and strong. Nostrils open, but not very 
wide, and the end pointed and black; cheeks well clothed 
with muscle, but the bone under the eye neither prominent 
nor hollow. 

Ears and eyes (value 5). The ears should be small and 
thin,-, and carried a trifle higher than those of the smooth 
Greyhound, but should turn over at the tips. Pricked ears 
are sometimes met with, as in the rough Greyhound, but 
they are not correct. They should be thinly fringed with 
hair at the edges only; that on their surface should be soft 
and smooth. Eyes full and dark-hazel; sometimes, by 
preference, blue. 

The neck (value 10) should be long enough to allow the 
dog to stoop to the scent at a fast pace, but not so long and 
tapering as the Greyhound's. It is usually a little thinner 
than the corresponding part in that dog. 

Chest and shoulders (value 10). The chest is deep 
rather than wide, and in its general formation it resembles 
that of the Greyhound, being shaped with great elegance, 
and at the same time so that the shoulders can play freely 
on its sides. The girth of a full-sized dog Deerhound 
should be at least two inches greater than his height, often 
an inch or two more; but a round, unwieldy chest is not to 
be desired, even if girthing well. Shoulders long, oblique, 
and muscular. 

Back and back ribs (value 10). Without a powerful 
loin, a large dog like this can not sustain the sweeping 
stride which he possesses, and therefore a deep and wide 
development of muscle, filling up the space between wide 
back ribs and somewhat rugged hips, is a desideratum. 
A good loin should measure twenty-five or twenty-six 
inches in show condition. The back ribs are often rather 
shallow, but they must be wide, or what is called " well 
sprung," and the loin should be arched, drooping to the 
root of the tail. 

Elbows and stifles (value 10), if well placed, give great 
liberty of action, and the contrary if they are confined by 



THE SCOTCH DEERHOUKD. 175 

being too close together. These points, therefore, should 
be carefully examined. The elbows must be well let down, 
to give length to the true arm, and should be quite straight; 
that is, neither turned in nor out. The stifles should be 
wide apart, and set well forward, to give length to the 
upper thigh. Many otherwise well-made Deerhounds are 
very straight in their stifles. 

The high symmetry (value 10) of this dog is essential to 
his position as a companionable dog, and it is therefore 
estimated accordingly. Quality is also to be regarded as 
of great importance. 

Legs and quarters (value 7|). Great bone and muscle 
must go to the formation of these parts, and the bones must 
be well put together at the knees and hocks, which should 
be long and well developed. The quarters are deep, but 
seldom wide, and there is often a considerable slope to the 
tail. Some of the most successful dogs lately exhibited 
have been nearly straight-backed, but this shape is not 
approved of by deer-stalkers. 

The feet (value 7J) should be well arched in the toes, 
and cat-like; a wide-spreading foot is often met with, but 
they should be specially condemned. 

Color and coat (value 10). The colors most in request 
are dark-blue, fawn, grizzle, and brindle, the latter with 
more or less tint of blue. The fawn should have the tips 
of the ears dark, but some otherwise good fawns are pale 
throughout. The grizzle generally has a decided tint of 
blue in it. White is to be avoided either on breast or toes, 
but it should not disqualify a dog. The coat (value 5) is 
coarser on the back than elsewhere, and by many good 
judges it is thought that even on the back it should be 
intermediate between silk and wool, and not the coarse hair 
often met with; and there is no doubt that both kinds of 
coat are found in some of the best strains. The whole body 
is clothed with a rough coat, sometimes amounting to shag- 
giness; that of the muzzle is longer in proportion than else- 
where; but the mustache should not be wiry, and should 
stand out in regular tufts. There should be no approach 



176 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

to feather on the legs, as in the Setter, but their inside 
should be hairy. 

The tail (value 5) should be long and gently curved, 
without any twist. It should be thinly clothed with hair 
only. 

Value. Value. 

Skull 10 Symmetry and quality 10 

Nose and jaws 5 Legs and quarters 7i 

Ears and eyes 5 Feet. . . 7i 

Neck 10 Color and coat 10 

Chest and shoulders 10 Tail 5 

Back and back ribs 10 

Elbows and stifles 10 Total 100 

The origin of the Deerhound seems to be shrouded in 
mystery. The writer has owned and bred Deerhounds for 
over thirty years, and has during that time read everything 
relating to them that he could obtain. He has closely 
questioned every Scotchman whom he has met concerning 
this breed of dogs, The history given in books has always 
proved contradictory and of no avail; while every well- 
informed Scotchman has argued that the Deerhound was 
the native dog of the Scottish Highlands, and that all other 
Scotch dogs were merely the result of crosses of the Deer- 
hound on some alien. They always point to the rough 
coats of the Collie; the Terrier, and the Scotch Greyhound, 
and say, ' ' Don' t it show for itself that the remote cross is 
there." Yet the question as to the real origin of tiie breed 
is still a mystery, and will probably always remain so. 

. Up to 1860, Deerhounds were not plentiful in England, 
and but few were exhibited at English shows for some years 
after that date. America at that time had but few. Scotch- 
men inform me, however, that in the Highlands of Scot- 
land they were always plentiful, but owners of kennels 
cherished them, sold none, and gave away but few. It was 
some years after the above date that inquiries for them 
began to be frequent, and since then they have become 
immensely popular with lovers of the chase, and are 
rapidly advancing to a high place as companions for both 
gentlemen and ladies. Of late years, certain sportsmen in 
the Great West have secured many fine specimens. 



THE SCOTCH DEERHOU1O). 177 

BREEDING. 

It is presumed that the breeder owns his stud dog and 
brood bitches, and hence my directions will be applied to 
both. 

All dogs of the high nervous organization of the Hound 
require a large amount of exercise to keep them in proper 
muscular development. Therefore I would advise only per- 
sons who live in the .open country to try the breeding of 
the Scotch Deerhound. 

This breed can not bear confinement in close quarters. 
It is safe to say that the two prominent breeders in Amer- 
ica do not raise one out of ten puppies whelped in their 
kennels. This is largely owing to lack of proper condition- 
ing of sire and dam. In selecting a brood bitch, take one 
with strong loin and roomy chest, not under two years old. 

For two months before she is due in season, give her 
from ten to fifteen miles of regular, slow exercise behind a 
horse. To properly muscle a Deerhound it is not necessary 
to give her much fast work. Let her follow a carriage 
through the country, or if you live on a farm, let her fol- 
low the farm team around every day. Feed well at night, so 
that she will have all the night in which to digest her food. 

If your work is slow, she will take it every day, and 
gradually develop muscle and vigorous health. The eye 
will become clear and large, the muscle hard and firm, the 
constitution vigorous, the step elastic, and the courage 
great. If you can now give her a race or two, to fully open 
her bronchial tubes, and thus develop full chest-power, it 
will be well. If she is now coming in season, exercise her 
until she is ready for service, and then let her have com- 
plete rest for two or three days before the dog is allowed to 
serve her. 

The stud dog, of course, should have had the same treat- 
ment, and hence be in perfect condition. If so, one .service 
will be better than more; and if either are out of condition, 
you had better not breed them. After service, the dog can 
take his rest, but the brood bitch should be left alone for a 
12 



178 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

week, and then put back at the same work and worked 
slowly, but daily, until the seventh week; then stop her 
work and let her rest, feeding well. 

This brings us up to her whelping-time. If on a farm, 
let her hunt her own place to whelp in. She will generally 
find a good location, and bring forth a large litter of strong, 
healthful puppies. Allow no stranger to disturb her dur- 
ing the first week. Some brood bitches are exceedingly 
nervous, and if disturbed will become restless, get up 
and turn over frequently, trying to cover up their whelps. 
Thus they are liable to lie on them and kill them. 

If you have such a bitch, it is best to prepare a kennel 
for her to whelp in. This should be made roomy, and along 
the sides a strip should be nailed, four inches wide, and 
four inches from the floor. For bedding, tack carpet on the 
floor, so she can not cover up her puppies and then lie on 
them. This board along the side of the kennel will give the 
puppies a chance to crawl under; also behind the dam, 
while she can not get on them. 

If the weather be warm, it will be well to have nothing 
but the board floor for them to lie on. If it be cold, it 
will be well to remove the carpet in four or five days and 
give a bed of clean straw, which should be changed twice a 
week. The writer prefers to have a bitch whelp on nice 
clean, dry earth; it acts as a disinfectant, and puppies 
always have done better and have been less liable to dis- 
ease when whelped and raised on an earthen bed. 

I have, during my experience of over thirty years in 
breeding and rearing Deerhounds, made it a rule never to 
feed the dam until she comes out of her kennel after food, 
and then to give her some nice soup and scraps of cooked 
meat, beef or mutton being preferable. She is now re- 
quired to supply milk freely, and her diet must be strong, 
and of good quality and quantity. Give her different kinds 
of food oatmeal, cooked meats, bread, vegetables of dif- 
ferent kinds, Spratt's codliver-oil biscuit, raw meat, and 
plenty of bones to griaw at. 

Many writers and breeders say never to let a dam raise 



THE SCOTCH DEERHOUND. 179 

more than six or seven whelps. My experience is that if 
you help a good mother she will raise eight or ten just as 
well as five or six, and much better than if she has no help 
with the smaller number. Puppies at three weeks old will 
begin to eat soup, and should have it four or five times 
daily. At four weeks old they will eat codliver-oil cake, 
softened in strong beef or mutton soup, and should have it 
three times daily all they will eat. Always keep your 
feeding-pans sweet and clean. When you feed the puppies, 
remain with them until they are done eating; then take 
away what they leave, give it to the dam, and wash your 
feeding-pan, so it will be clean when next wanted. Under 
such treatment you will notice that the dam has very little 
trouble with her litter, and she will not begin to grow fat. 
At six or seven weeks of age her puppies will be weaned. 
She will have raised ten just as easily as she would have 
raised five, and if they are bred for sale it makes a vast dif- 
ference in the income. 

Many people say that Deerhound puppies are exceed- 
ingly hard to raise. I have never found it so. Give them 
plenty of exercise and good food and they will raise them- 
selves, anywhere and in any climate. 

It is well to give puppies, once a month, a dose of san- 
tonine, to clean out any worms they may have. 

I have never lost a puppy with distemper, and have 
always made it a rule to have them in good condition at all 
times; then when distemper has taken hold of them, they 
have usually had but a slight attack, and have gone 
through it in good shape. I have never yet seen a Deer- 
hound that was afflicted with chorea. 

TRAINING. 

I do not believe in early training, and hence have never 
worked or prepared a Deerhound under twelve to fifteen 
months old. My experience is that the breed develops 
slowly, and for this reason a puppy at nine months old is 
not strong enough to follow a deer in any of our American 
forests. A carefully reared puppy can, at nine or ten 



180 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

months old, be given slow work behind the saddle-horse 
or carriage. This should continue for at least two months; 
and if three months can be given to this conditioning work, 
it will prove all the better. While a puppy is growing 
rapidly and filling out, he takes on muscle slowly, and for 
this reason his exercise should be continued for a longer 
period than is necessary for old dogs. 

The Deerhound is used for hunting the deer, in the 
Western country, in two entirely diiferent ways, and for 
each the training must be distinct and precise, according to 
the way he is to hunt his game. One is still- hunting, the 
other is coursing the deer. For still-hunting, the Deerhound 
is the dog par excellence. In training a puppy to still- 
hunt, take him on a leash, and with a snap so arranged that 
he can be loosened instantly. It is well to show him the 
game before firing, and at the first move of the puppy let 
him go. 

If the deer be only wounded, he will follow it, and if from 
the right kind of sire and dam, he will catch and kill the 
deer. If his family connections have been of the timid 
kind, he will bay the wounded deer, and you can follow and 
kill it; but if his ancestors have been used on game, and 
your puppy is strong and of good age, he will kill the first 
deer he sees just as a well-bred Setter will point the first 
quail he scents. After a few lessons, your puppy will stay 
to heel until you shoot, without a leash; and as he grows 
older, he will frequently lead you to the game by his keen 
scent, merely sniffing the air as he cautiously proceeds by 
your side or just in front of you. 

Of course it is necessary to teach him obedience and not 
to allow him to break away. Should this occur, he will 
soon be coursing the deer, and leave you many miles be- 
hind; then his lessons must begin again at the leash. If 
carefully done, his teaching will be easy, and he will soon 
stand with the game in full view and not move a muscle; 
but will quiver with excitement, every muscle and nerve on 
extreme tension waiting for his master to fire, when he is 
away with the speed of the falcon. 



THE SCOTCH DEERHOUND. 181 

For coursing the deer, antelope, wolf, and coyote, the 
Deerhound is much used throughout the Far West. For 
this purpose they are generally used in packs of from three 
to ten. A good courser will begin the preparation of his 
dogs by the 1st of August, so that when the weather gets 
cool enough for them to bear hard and fast running, say in 
October, they will be in prime condition hard in muscle, 
in strong good health, and eager for the sport. 

It is not necessary to train a Deerhound for coursing. 
All that is needed here is to show him the game and turn 
him loose. It is always best to take a puppy out with 
one or more older dogs, who will take hold oi any kind of 
.game, and thus educate the puppy to seize and kill the game 
he is running. The only proper way to course deer, ante- 
lopes, wolves, or coyotes is to have a cage on a light vehicle, 
for the purpose of confining the dogs and keeping them at 
rest until you sight your game. Then drive as close to it 
as possible, so that your dogs will be fresh when the game 
starts. If this is not done, you will soon find that a jaded, 
tired dog can not catch a fresh deer, antelope, wolf, or 
coyote. 

I have frequently coursed deer and antelopes on the 
Western plains by taking out six good dogs in a cage, on 
a light wagon, and several friends following on good run- 
ning-horses. The cage was so arranged that the driver 
could pull a spring, open the door, and let out the three 
loose dogs for a run, while the three to be retained in the 
cage were chained to the lioor or sides. By driving in such 
a direction that it would appear to the game as though the 
wagon would pass by about two hundred yards away, and 
then angling toward the game, I could often approach 
within one hundred and fifty yards before they would start; 
and the moment the game would throw up their heads, the 
driver would pull the spring-door, out would come the 
loose dogs, and away would go game, dogs, and horsemen, 
the wagon coming along to pick up the game and tired 
dogs. The latter would then be given water, put back in 
the cage and chained, and the three fresh dogs would next 



182 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

be slipped. One day of such work, where the game is 
plentiful, will educate any well-bred young Deerhound. 

Preparing for the bench requires an entirely diiferent 
course of treatment after your dog is in good condition. 
Up to that point the work may be of a similar nature. He 
should be brushed and combed daily, and well hand- 
rubbed, so that his muscular development will be promi 
nent to the touch. Teach him to romp and play with you 
while you have a collar and leash on him. This will insure 
gay carriage in the judge's ring; and when you have a Deer 
hound with his eye bright, head up, and tail properly car- 
ried, if otherwise equal, he will always win over a sulky, 
drooping, cheerless dog. 

I have always had better success, in the ring and in the 
field, with dogs of my own rearing, than with those reared 
by others. They are always more tractable, more ready to 
obey my wishes, and much more cheerful than those pur- 
chased after they are grown. The latter always act for 
me as though they were looking for a lost friend. My 
advice is to rear your own dogs, so that they may know no 
other master than yourself. 

The memory of the Deerhound seems to surpass that of 
any other breed except the Greyhound. I have sold old 
dogs and have not seen them for two years, and without 
seeing me they would at once recognize my whistle when 
t*hey heard it, and would come bounding to me in a perfect 
ecstasy of delight. How much longer they would have 
remembered me I can not say, but doubtless for many 
years. 

COURSING THE DEERHOUND. 

Thirty-four years ago, in the Blue Mountain Range of 
Pennsylvania, I began this sport. In the spring of 1856, a 
Scotchman, a watch-maker by trade, located in the little 
village of Lehigh Gap. He brought with him two Deer- 
hounds, a dog and a bitch. After a short residence at the 
Gap he had to go back to Scotland, and left his horse and 



THE SCOTCH DEERHOUND. 183 

two dogs with me until he should return the next spring. 
He never returned, and I became the owner of a line horse 
and two excellent Deerhounds. I hunted those dogs after- 
foxes, lynx, wildcats, and deer until worn out by old age 
and hard work. They would run with a pack of Foxhounds 
that were kept in the vicinity as though trained with them 
from birth. They would trail with them, and whenever the 
fox appeared in a field, they would at once leave the pack, 
run by sight, and catch the fox. There was no sport that 
they enjoyed more. 

The ease with which a Deerhound may be educated to 
do a certain part of any sport is remarkable. In a portion 
of the Pocoivo Mountains, north of the Blue Range, deer 
were at that time plentiful. Much of the country is very 
rough, and it was impossible for the Deerhounds to catch a 
deer that was not wounded; so we used to take a pair of 
slow trail-hounds to drive the deer into and across the 
valleys, and would then take the Deerhounds into the val- 
leys to sight the deer as they came out. The second time 
we went there with our dogs was in November, 1856. We 
arrived about daylight, and our trail-dogs struck a track 
and gave tongue before we had our team unhitched from 
the wagon. 

While we were putting out the team, the Deerhounds 
got away from us, and we supposed they had followed the 
yelping trail-hounds. We ran to the valley below, some 
half-mile away, as fast as we could, knowing that the game 
would cross there. When we got within sight of the runway, 
to our great astonishment we found Bevis and Leda at their 
posts, eager for a sight of the game. When I say that on 
our previous hunt, one month earlier, we had always kept 
collar and leash on these dogs, and that they caught on 
that hunt but two deer at this point, the remarkable 
sagacity ^of the Deerhound may be realized. Had the Fox- 
hounds started on a trail in the Blue Mountains, the Deer- 
hounds would have gone with them to catch the fox; but 
not so here. They had been here once on entirely different 
business, and so well did they remember it that they imme- 



184 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

diately sped to their posts of duty. And well did they 
perform their work. The deer came out close to them, 
and they caught and killed it before it ran two hundred 
yards. 

This dog Bevis was the only Deerhound I ever saw 
that was trained to do tricks of various kinds. He would 
fetch, carry, go to the post-office or butcher- shop, carry 
notes to neighbors and take back anything that was given 
him in return for the letter. I remember distinctly that he 
once did a trick never before required of him. I was 
driving a fractious horse, in a sulky, and dropped my 
whip. I was afraid to get out to regain it, and called to 
Bevis to pick it up, which he did immediately; then I 
called to him to bring it, which he also did, and placed it 
in my hand. 

I was then a school-boy, and took great pains to teach 
this dog; something I never had the time nor patience, in 
after life, to repeat with any of my other dogs. I now 
remember many fine specimens that have often displayed 
intelligence of a superior order, which needed nothing but 
training and teaching to make them trick-dogs. I fully 
believe that a properly shaped Deerhound could be edu- 
cated for high leaping so as to surpass all dogs in that 
work. A strong, short-backed, powerfully muscled Deer- 
hound leaps easier and higher than any other dog that I 
have ever seen in the field. No doubt it is only the high 
price that keeps them from getting into the hands of 
training showmen, who would otherwise bring them for- 
ward in this amusing novelty. 

To illustrate their jumping power, I will relate an 
amusing incident which happened several years ago in 
a Western village. My dog* Imported Champion Mac 
delighted in killing all the cats he could find. While on 
a wolf -hunt we were just starting out in the early morn- 
ing, and the dogs feeling extra fresh, Mac came up a cross^ 
street after a cat; the cat went under our horses, and Mac, 
in a tremendous leap, went over both horses. This dog 
never had any special training in leaping, but when after 



THE SCOTCH DEERHOUND. 185 

game he was never known to stop at any obstruction that 
could be scaled. 

The courage and game qualities of the high-bred Deer- 
hound can not be better illustrated than by describing a 
wolf -hunt which took place in Montana. Some years since, 
I sold a trained pack of six Deerhounds to the Sun River 
Hound Club of Montana. This club was composed of 
wealthy cattlemen, who were losing thousands of dollars' 
worth of cattle annually through the ravages of the large 
gray timber wolf. They hired Mr. I. N. Porter, an expe- 
rienced wolf -hunter, to handle this pack of Deerhounds on 
their cattle-range for one year. I had guaranteed the dogs 
to kill any wolf in the territory. Mr. Porter took the 
dogs with him to deliver them to the club. He and the 
writer had killed many prairie wolves in Colorado with 
these dogs, but had never tackled the large gray timber 
wolves of the Rocky Mountains. It seems that one 
of the members of this club had a large flock of sheep, 
and one certain wolf had been preying on them for four 
years past. It was to this ranch that Mr. Porter and the 
dogs were first taken, and this tremendous wolf was to be the 
first one that the pack was to tackle. If they could catch 
and kill him, my guarantee was to be considered fulfilled, 
I had carefully instructed Mr. Porter how to work the 
dogs, and above all to have them in prime condition when 
they saw the first wolf. This ranch was located some 
seventy-five miles from railroad communication, and the 
dogs had to travel this distance on foot; so that when they 
arrived at their future home their feet were worn to the 
quick, and they had to be rested. The second night after 
their arrival this wolf, with two smaller ones, came and 
killed four sheep, and naturally Mr. Porter's curiosity was 
aroused to see whatkind of an imimal these dogs were to 
kill; so after daylight he mounted his horse and followed the 
wolves, merely to get sight of them and learn their habits. 
The following is quoted from a letter which was written 
on his return to the house after seeing this large wolf : 



186 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

"Dear Doctor: The dogs and I arrived safe, only very 
sore from long travel. These men are very anxious to see 
what kind of work these high-priced dogs will do. Last 
night, that big wolf they wrote you about killed four sheep 
near the house, and I followed him five or six miles merely 
to see what he looked like. I saw him. and I want to tell 
you now that I think my job and your dog-money will be 
gone whenever I allow the dogs to go near that wolf. But 
I can't hold these men much longer, so I promised to go 
after him day after to-morrow." 

Two days later I received the following letter: 
"Dear Doctor: Last night, or rather just before day- 
light, we heard the wolf in the sheep-corral, and went out 
to scare him away. He had already killed one sheep and 
eaten of it freely. At daylight, myself and three club 
members took four of ttie dogs (Oscar and Meta being still 
too sore to work) and started after the big fellow. We fol- 
lowed him for at least ten miles before we could show him 
to the dogs. They went to him very quickly, he depending 
more on his fighting than running qualities. Colonel and 
Dan reached him first, and struck him with such force that 
he went down never to get up again. They killed him in a 
short time, and neither of the dogs got a scratch. The Col- 
onel took his old hold at the throat, and never let go until 
I choked him off. Colonel, you know, is just thirty inches 
high at the shoulder. We stood this wolf up beside Col- 
onel, and he was one inch taller than the dog. 

"We brought the wolf home, to see what he would weigh, 
and he tipped the beam at one hundred and seven pounds. 
To say that the club members were delighted with the dogs 
is putting it too mild. They were simply crazed. Dan was 
still sore in his feet, and they carried him home on horse- 
back. I will now rest the dogs up, and get them in perfect 
form before I work them again. This country is alive with 
wolves and other game." 

During the season of 1886, Mr. Porter killed with these 
dogs one hundred and forty-eight gray wolves and over 



THE SCOTCH DEERHOUND. 187 

three hundred coyotes. Among many letters from him 
extolling the wonderful courage of these grand dogs, the 
following shows what six dogs well trained to their work 
can do: 

"Dear Doctor: To-day I suddenly came upon a pack 
of iifteen full-grown wolves. I had all six dogs with me, 
and they were in good form. I was satisfied that unless we 
did good work, and that quickly, the wolves would kill the 
dogs; so I jumped among them, and as fast as the dogs 
got one down I stuck my knife into his heart. In this way 
we killed twelve out of the fifteen; but I am sorry to say 
that poor old, faithful, courageous Dick was killed." 

If there is a breed of dogs on earth that combines so 
many sterling qualities as the Scotch Deerhound, I am not 
acquainted with that breed. 







THE FOXHOUND. 




BY DR. M. G. ELLZEY. 

>HE article here proposed to be written on the Fox- 
hound will have special reference to the American 
Hound, with which the writer has had a life-long 
familiarity. Never having been in England, he has no 
personal familiarity with English packs, nor with English 
methods of training and hunting. He has seen many 
Hounds imported from English packs run in this country, 
and has had the pleasure of hunting with gentlemen who 
have owned and hunted packs in England. His judgment 
of English Hounds of modern packs is based on specimens 
he has seen run here. As to the ancient Hounds of Eng- 
land, he knows the current statements of authors, which 
need scarcely be copiously extracted in this place. 

It may as well now be stated that the writer is not an 
Anglo-maniac on the one hand, nor inspired by extrava- 
gant or irrational prejudice against that which is English 
on the other. There is much in the history of the English 
people so great and grand as to be beyond the reach of 
envy. There is much also which no one should be so great 
a fool as to besmatter with silly panegyric. There are many 
things admirable in England which are totally absurd and 
ridiculous in America. Out of England undoubtedly origi- 
nally came all that is greatest and best in America, both 
men and things less than men. 

The old English Hound seems to have been a large- 
boned, coarse, heavy animal; and the packs of those days 
must have caught very few foxes on fair terms. The 
earlier importations into America, far back in colonial 
days, were probably similar to the early English Hounds; 
but in this country their character was soon changed, as it 

(189) 



190 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

was also in England. In that country, changes were 
attempted, in the way of better adaptation to the modern 
chase, by crossing with the Greyhound, and, to a small 
extent, with the Pointer. In this country, the change 
adaptive to the environment came about rather by uncon- 
scious selection, and breeding from the best red fox Hounds 
only. 

It soon came to be realized that in running down and 




JOE FORESTER. 
Owned by Brunswick Fur Club. 



killing an American red fox main strength and awkward- 
ness had no place it was a matter of speed and bottom. 
The English mode of selecting the Hound was based upon 
his suitability to a particular pack in size, color, tongue, 
and speed. A Hound too fast for them was much out of 
place in the pack, and was a spoiler of their somewhat cut- 
and-dried notions of sport. The American method was 
based on the ability of the Hound, as an individual, to kill 
a red fox on such ground as must be run over in this coun- 



THE FOXHOUND. 191 

try; and the American pack was made up from such as 
could keep company with the leader. 

To breed a red fox pack, it was necessary to mate the 
best dog with the best bitch; and this method led to the 
creation of a type peculiar to America not modeled on size, 
and tongue, and color, and questions of packing well, but 
a type modeled on speed, courage, and endurance. And 
the architect of the model was the American red fox; for, 
in the language of a famous turfman, he it was who cut 
out the running and set the pace, and to beat him, the race 
had to be run from " eend to eend." For a pack bred and 
put together on any other plan, the red fox chase resulted 
always in one and the same finale, viz. : Reynard first, the 
rest nowhere. 

Precisely the principle of selection, breeding, and train- 
ing which produced our great four-milers on the turf, pro- 
duced our red fox Hounds. The formula is simple, viz. : 
Breed to the winners. Upon this principle the American 
Foxhound shaped itself to the model most lit to do the 
work of killing the red fox, becoming lighter and more 
rangy in form, and shriller in tongue than its English 
ancestor. The bones, like those of the race-horse, became 
notably smaller and lighter, and at the same time more 
solid and stronger. The lungs also became more capacious, 
and less encumbered with coarse, inelastic tissue and fat. 
The muscular fiber finer, and more effectively endowed with 
contractile power. The heart the great central motor 
power of the circulation and the contractile muscular 
coats of the vessels themselves participating in the organic 
evolution along the same lines of development. 

Thus, in process of time, there came to be American 
packs capable of dealing with American red foxes on fair 
terms. The main architect and master builder of those packs 
was the American red fox. Like that ill-fated eagle which 
furnished the feather that winged the arrow which pierced 
his own heart, the American red fox trained those packs 
which were, eventually, able to kill American red foxes. 
Without the fox, the packs could not have been produced. 



192 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

In England, doubtless their hard and fast notions of the 
right make-up of a pack, and the stiff and rigid technical- 
ities of the meet and hunt, have prevented in some 
degree that complete adaptation of means to ends which 
has been perfected with us, who have never been in love 
with pomp and vanities and stilted torn-fooleries. Never- 
theless, in England, it began after a time to be seen 
that faster Hounds must be had if any foxes were to be 
caught, and hence crosses were made to the Greyhound, 
he having already been crossed to the Bulldog, and the 
result has been more rangy, speedier, smaller, and fiercer 
Hounds. 

To keep within sound of such packs, moreover, the 
hunting-horse of our great-grandfathers had to be replaced 
by one of more blood, more speed, more courage, more 
endurance at the .highest rate of speed all of which 
points were covered at a stroke by more blood. Following 
this development, a new style of horsemanship was de- 
manded; and the English country gentleman is no dude 
on horseback. The style of the pert Newmarket jockey, 
imported, aped, and loved by American fashionable dudism 
rampant, is by no means the style of the English gentle- 
man on horseback. 

The man capable of making a creditable exhibition on 
an English hunting-field to day must be a great horseman, 
riding a great horse. Now the central force which gave 
to this evolution its initial impulse, and has carried it for- 
ward to its acme of development, is the speed and bottom 
of the English fox. 

It is not to be disputed that the thing hunted determines 
all the details of the hunt. If a man attack a grizzly, 
away back in some lonely canon, he will soon perceive that 
a Winchester Express is one of the modern details of the 
combat, nicely adjusted to the fighting- weight of Ursus 
Tiorribilis. In this view of the case, the red fox can claim 
a dignity which has not been accorded to him hitherto 
the dignity of statesmanship as the producer of important 
national and international results. British horsemanship 



THE FOXHOUND. 193 

has played an important part on more than one great mod- 
ern battle-field. 

Mainly contributory to the highest type of British 
horsemanship has been the school of the hunting-field. 
The best cavalry-horses have been bred for and fallen some- 
what short of the requirements of the hunting-field. 

In America we have never had horses especially bred 
for hunting, and mainly for the reason that in those parts 
of the country where hunting was practicable the saddle- 
horses in common use by the country gentleman were suf- 
ficiently well-bred for hunters, and were in fact commonly 
used in the chase. There was, indeed, that degree of 
attachment for his "riding-horse" on the part of our 
country gentleman which disqualified every other horse, in 
his eye. No person other than himself was ever permitted 
to mount his favorite, and he would not himself mount 
any other horse except under the stress of necessity. Thus 
it came to be that a more splendid horsemanship never 
characterized any people than that of the Southern country 
gentry of the United States. 

The place of the Foxhound in that civilization was not 
a low nor unimportant one. In the school which devel- 
oped the manly prowess and the " saving common-sense " 
of such men as George Washington and his great lieu- 
tenant, the dashing ' ' Light-horse Harry, ' ' the red fox 
and red fox Hound were not insignificant educational 
factors. 

The hero-sage of Mount Yernon maintained, to the last 
of his life, an unexcelled pack; and he loved no diversion 
as he did fox-hunting, in which he never lost a chance to 
participate with his friends and neighbors, the Fairfaxes, 
the Lees, the Chichesters, the McCartys, the Masons, and 
others. No sport so well merits the position of a recog- 
nized national sport, and none can ever be so greatly trib- 
utary to manly prowess and hardihood. Superior horse- 
manship is the most elegant and useful accomplishment 
ever possessed by a lady or gentleman. One of the con- 
siderations favorable to fox-hunting as the national sport 

13 



194 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

is, that it can be kept out of the hands of "professionals" 
and within reach of people of moderate means. 

If the view be correct that the English and American 
red foxes, respectively, have developed the modes of the 
hunt and the characters of the packs in the two countries, 
we must look for any material differences between the 
English and American hunt to the difference between the 
foxes of the two countries. That in speed, endurance, and 
stratagem, in front of a dangerous pack, the American fox 
is greatest, there is little doubt. It follows that in speed, 
bottom, a/id trailing the American Hound is superior to 
the English. Of this I have, personally, not the smallest 
doubt. I have seen many imported Hounds run in this 
country, and they have been of undoubted excellence, but 
never equal, over our country, to our best American 
strains. This is in accordance with plain and simple com- 
mon-sense. No doubt the English packs would excel ours 
on their own ground, on all except speed. 

I do not believe, and I can not be made to believe, until 
it is done, that the best pack in England can do anything 
at all whatever with an Old Virginia red fox. It is not 
believed by many of the fox- hunters of the Northern States 
that any pack of Hounds can catch their foxes. I am 
too strongly impressed by what I know of the difference in 
the habits of the same species of wild animals in different 
localities, to be willing to adopt an opinion adverse to the 
prevailing opinions of competent observers in localities with 
which I am not familiar. Nevertheless, I suggest to our 
Northern friends that they are not familiar with the speed 
of the packs in our best hunting country, and that their 
mode of hunting by standing, after the manner of deer- 
driving, and shooting the fox in front of the dog, would 
soon utterly ruin our best packs. 

I do not take part in the harsh criticisms of the North- 
ern method of hunting. I have no doubt Northern sports- 
men enjoy their sport; and enjoyment is the object of all 
sport. I have no doubt that it is the only way to kill their 
foxes, as they protest. I do not think I could enjoy it myself. 



THE FOXHOUND. 195 

I take it to be inferior to deer-driving, and I think that infe- 
rior to any field sport I ever participated in. De gustibus 
non "Every man to his liking." Until the matter is 
tested and the contrary established, I shall believe that 
such a pack as the Wild Goose pack is reputed to be can 
kill red foxes anywhere, on any ground fit to be run over 
by Hounds. 

The speed of the Foxhound appears to be rather greater 
than the speed of the best race-horse. There is, however, 
very little authentic information on this point. I can state, 
as a matter of experience in riding to Hounds, that I have 
never seen a horse that could keep pace with a good pack 
of Hounds for a single mile across country. I have seen 
only a few Hounds which seemed nearly equal to a red fox in 
speed, if the fox was at his best. I have never seen a pack 
kill a red fox unless they could keep him hard-pressed 
from start to finish; and in general, when I have seen kills, 
I have thought the Hounds had the advantage in bottom 
rather than in speed. The fox is a gluttonous feeder, and 
if full-fed he is taken at great disadvantage. I doubt if 
any pack can kill a good specimen of the red fox if in the 
pink of condition, running on favorable ground. As a gen- 
eral principle, I think the fox has rather greater speed, the 
Hound rather greater endurance; and they are so nearly 
matched in both respects that the issue of the chase is in a 
great degree a question of condition. 

Rough, uneven ground is favorable to the fox, and sel- 
dom indeed is one in good condition killed by a pack when 
the chase is over rough, uneven country for a greater part 
of the distance. If the premises here stated are accurate, 
the conclusion follows that only a skilled huntsman, who 
knows how to make the conditions favorable to the pack, 
and to put the Hounds in the very best condition for the 
race, has any chance to make kills, unless the fox has the 
misfortune to be gorged with carrion when the start is 
made, or is in some other way sick or out of condition. It 
appears to me, therefore, that some Northern fox-hunters 
have fallen into error as to the superiority of Northern 



196 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

to Southern foxes. They have purchased dogs of well- 
known Southern strains, and upon their failure to kill the 
foxes of the North as handled by those who hunt on foot, 
and very probably shoot the fox before the Hounds, 
conclude that these Hounds are not able to catch their 
foxes. The conclusion does not necessarily follow. If a 
fox from Maine were taken to Virginia, and put down be- 
fore a red fox pack handled by skilled huntsmen, would 
that be considered fair to the fox ? No more is it fair to 
the Southern Hound to take him to Maine' to be run by 
huntsmen who never saw a kill, who deny that any Hound 
can kill their foxes, and that therefore the legitimate and 
only way to kill Maine foxes is by standing on the run- 
ways and shooting them before slow Hounds. 

A great deal of acrimonious dispute has arisen over this 
question, between the fox-hunters of the two sections, 
which it has seemed to me that a little good-temper and a 
little good-sense might have prevented. That some packs 
can and do make frequent kills in Virginia and Maryland 
of what seem perfect specimens of the red fox, in seemingly 
good condition, is a matter that is known to be true by all 
fox-hunters of those States. I am of opinion that south of 
Virginia more kills are made because the ground is likely 
to be more favorable to the pack and less favorable to the 
fox, and for no other reason. 

It seems likely that in Maine the ground may be so 
favorable to the fox and unfavorable to the Hound, that 
even if the chase were made to kill with Hounds instead of 
shooting, kills would be rare. 

In the matter of breeding for a pack of red fox Hounds, 
the principles which govern the science of successfully 
breeding for any other purpose apply. The inheritance 
must be through ancestors of known ability to kill red 
foxes, and they must have gone through the training and 
practice which enable them to show by actual kills that 
they can kill. 

No turfman would expect to breed a winner from a 



THE FOXHOUND. 197 

stallion and mare neither of which had ever been trained 
or raced. No sportsman would expect to breed a Setter or 
Pointer from untrained parents which would win a place 
at a field trial. No cocker would expect to win a main 
with cocks bred from birds which never fought. Why, 
then, should a huntsman expect to breed a killing pack of 
red fox Hounds from stock that had never run or never killed 
a fox? The thing can not be done. Therefore it goes 
without saying, that a Hound should not be bred from 
until fully matured, trained, and experienced in killing 
foxes. 

Something else is wanted besides a pedigree. True 
enough, a knowledge of not merely the names, but the 
performances of the ancestors is essentially necessary, and 
this is doubly and trebly true of the immediate progenitors. 
If a bitch which has killed red foxes be bred to a Hound 
that has killed red foxes, the progeny will be born, most 
likely, capable of being developed into Hounds capable of 
killing red foxes. But be it remembered, that though 
orators and poets may be born, not made, a red-fox-killing 
pack has to be made; they are not born able to do it. They 
must be made able by judicious and skilled practice and 
training after being bred right. 

Nor can they be trained by a man who never rode to a 
killing pack. If a man does not know how the thing is 
done, how shall he teach the Hounds ? By sheer force of 
hereditary instinct, it would be more likely the Hounds 
would kill in spite of the huntsman, and show him the 
way to do it. 

In this place we may profitably review the question of 
the best form and size of Hound to be selected from 
which to breed a pack capable of dealing with a red fox. 
The question, to kill or not to kill a red fox, is not, as 
already hinted, a question of main strength and awk- 
wardness, but of speed and endurance. Remember that 
the fox leads the chase, and in a great number of cases 
outruns and outlasts Hounds, horses, and men, and simply 
runs away and leaves them. This animal is but little more 



198 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

than a foot high, and weighs not above twelve pounds in 
good running order. The largest bone in his skeleton does 
not exceed the diameter of a goose-quill. The whole 
osseous frame weighs scarcely a pound. It is quality, not 
" substance," which lands Reynard a winner. 

It is the firm opinion of the writer that the best red 
fox dogs are not above medium in size and weight. The 
dog should not exceed twenty-three inches in height nor 
fifty -five pounds in weight; the bitch less by about ten 
per cent. 

Hounds of this size will be fleeter and more enduring, 
as a rule, than larger and heavier animals, and their shoul- 
ders and feet will suffer less from the tremendous concus- 
sion which they must bear in a protracted chase at such a 
pitch of speed as will be necessary; for to kill a fox he 
must be put to his best from start to finish. 

The head of the Hound is rather small in proportion to 
his weight, and the muzzle rather finer in the modern Hound 
than in the older type; the nose is large and the nostril 
thin; the eyes large, bright, and expressive, placed rather 
close together and directed forward; the stop is not as 
sharply defined as in some breeds. A very important 
point, and one much overlooked, is that the jaws should 
be well spread at the angle, so as to give ample room for 
the thrapple, and to secure that easy amplitude of motion 
between the head and neck so essential to carrying the 
scent at the tremendous speed of the chase. 

The ears are longish, but shorter and narrower than in 
old-time packs; they are placed on the skull low down, and 
are decidedly pendulous; the leather is neither fine and 
papery to the feel nor by any means coarse, harsh, and 
inelastic. The neck must be long, and wholly free from 
any coarse, loose flaps of thick skin or useless cellular tissue 
and fat. 

The shoulders ought to be not only sloping, but pos- 
sessed of very free motion, and yet powerfully mus- 
cled and strong. The elbow ought to be well developed, 
and well away from the body, but placed perfectly true 



THE FOXHOUND. 199 

. . 

neither out nor in. A Hound with weak or badly formed 
shoulders is a deformed and crippled beast, and can never 
be expected to amount to anything. 

The fore-arm should be not too long, but powerfully 
muscled, and having sufficient clean, fine bone to bear the 
weight thrown upon it by fifty-five pounds bounding at 
terrific speed. The foot must be of firm texture, and well 
padded; the shape is a matter of less moment, bench-show 
men to the contrary notwithstanding. I have seen Hounds 
that were great performers Hounds that I have seen lead 
a great pack, and pull down and kill numerous red foxes 
that would have been pronounced by these authorities 
defective in the feet; perhaps ridiculed as " splay-footed. " 
I have seen Hounds with feet the form of which would 
have been pronounced perfect, but which nevertheless were 
tender-footed, and could by no means stand a desperate 
chase over rough ground. I am not sure that the despised 
hare-foot is not the best form for the Hound; giving him a 
better hold and purchase upon the ground, and being in no 
way correlated with lack of hardness of the foot. 

The Hound should be deep in the heart-place, and 
the breast-bone keel-shaped; but the breast must not be 
weak and contracted. The back ribs should spring off 
well from the backbone, and barrel out well, so as to give 
ample room for the heart, lungs, and great vascular trunks; 
for here is the ultimate source of power, speed, and 
endurance. 

The loin should be high, well arched, broad, and power- 
fully muscled: for here is the origin of a group of muscles 
of tremendous power, which are, with those of the hip and 
thigh, the main propellers which carry the body forward 
at so great a rate of speed. The tail should be placed 
nearly on a level with the sway of the back, though the 
arching of the loin and the slope of the quarters somewhat 
deceives the eye, so as to make it appear to be set lower 
than is actually the case. The tail of the Hound curves 
well upward; recent importations, I think, too much so. 
It is stout, of moderate length, well haired, and even with 



200 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

something like a brush, in many superior specimens. I 
think it might be bred finer with advantage. 

The stifle is well bent, and the hock placed near the 
ground; but the leg, as compared with some breeds, rather 
straight I think, in some cases, a little too straight. 

It is upon the outlines suggested by these remarks that 
I would advise selections for the breeding-stud. In the 
matter of color, we are fancy free. The best Hounds I 
ever knew were black-and-tan, and that is a beautiful 
color. The best Hound I know of at present is a lemon- 
and- white. The old so-called "blue-mottled" Hounds 
were beautiful. On a clear blue (not a black and white 
mixture) ground-color were fancifully arranged spots of 
black,, yellow, and white. If the spot around either eye 
was blue or white, that eye was blue; the other eye being 
in a dark spot, was dark, or in a yellow spot, yellow. I 
have seen good Hounds of a solid yellow, or yellow with 
white feet and a white streak in the face. Color may be 
to suit taste. 

The standard by which Foxhounds are judged at our 
bench shows is as follows: 

Value. Value. 

Head 15 Elbows r> 

Neck 5 Legs and feet 20 

Shoulders 10 Color and coat 5 

Chest and back ribs 10 Stern 5 

Back and loin 10 Symmetry 5 

Hind quarters 10 

Total 100 

The head (value 15) should be of full size, but by no 
means heavy. Brow pronounced, but not high or sharp. 
There must be good length and breadth, sufficient to give in 
the dog Hound a girth in front of the ears of fully sixteen 
inches. The nose should be long (four and one-half inches) 
and wide, with open nostrils. Ears set on low and lying 
close to the cheeks. 

The neck (value 5) must be long and clean, without the 
slightest throatiness. It should taper nicely from the 
shoulders to the head, and the upper outline should be 
slightly convex. 



THE FOXHOUND. 201 

The shoulders (value 10) should be long and well clothed 
with muscle, without being heavy, especially at the points. 
They must be well sloped, and the true arm between the 
front and the elbow must be long and muscular, but free 
from fat or lumber. 

Chest and ~back ribs (value 10). The chest should girth 
over thirty inches in a twenty-four-inch Hound, and the 
back ribs must be very deep. 

The back and loin (value 10) must both be very muscu- 
lar, running into each other without any contraction or 
"nipping" between them. The couples must be wide even 
to raggedness, and there should be the very slightest arch 
in the loin, so as to be scarcely perceptible. 

The hind quarters (value 10) or propellers are required to 
be very strong, and as endurance is of even more conse- 
quence than speed, straight stines are preferred to those 
much bent, as in the Greyhound. 

Elbows (value 5) set quite straight, and neither turned 
in nor out, are a sine qua non. They must be well let down 
by means of the long true arm above mentioned. 

Legs and feet (value 20). Every master of Foxhounds 
insists on legs as straight as a post, and as strong size of 
bone at the ankle being specially regarded as all-important. 
The desire for straightness is, I think, carried to excess, as 
the very straight leg soon knuckles over; and this defect 
may almost always be seen more or less in old stallion 
Hounds. The bone can not, in my opinion, be too large, but 
I prefer a slight ankle at the knee to a perfectly straight 
line. The feet in all cases should be round and cat-like, 
with well-developed knuckles and strong horn, which last 
is of the utmost importance. 

The color and coat (value 5) are not regarded as very 
important, so long as the former is a l ' Hound color " and 
the latter is short, dense, hard, and glossy. Hound colors 
are black, tan and white, black and white, and the various 
"pies" compounded of white and the color of the hare and 
badger, or yellow, or tan. 

The stern (value 5) is gently arched, carried gaily over 



202 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

the back, and slightly fringed with hair below. The end 
should taper to a point. 

The symmetry (value 5) of the Foxhound is considerable, 
and what is called "quality" is highly regarded by all 
good judges. 

The music of the pack is one of the greatest charms of 
the chase. Even the fox himself undoubtedly enjoys this 
glorious melody when running in front of a pack which is 
not dangerous, and which, with marvelous intuition, he 
almost immediately realizes. It always appeared to me 
that my father, the keenest and most ardent fox-hunter 
of his time in Virginia, enjoyed the music more than any- 
thing else about it. He would put a good Hound out of his 
kennel and give it away, because, as he said, it did not 
chime with his pack. He had a splendid ear, a magnificent 
voice, and a natural talent for music. A discord was an 
agony to him, and his pack was, I believe, the most melo- 
dious in tongue ever heard in Virginia, The qualities of 
the voice in the Hound are strongly hereditary, and may 
easily be bred for with success. 

It is of the greatest importance that the dog should not 
be bred from until fully matured. No animal is so easily in- 
jured by excessive or premature taxation of the procreative 
powers. A dog of great value should be strictly limited to 
the best and most promising females, for nothing is more 
certain than that the character of his progeny will begin to 
be disappointing as soon as he begins to be overtaxed. 

The Foxhound bitch is a very prolific animal. On sev- 
eral occasions I have known them litter as many as twenty 
whelps. Thirteen whelps to a litter are nothing unusual. 
I do not believe any bitch can properly care for more than 
six whelps. If a foster-mother can not be had, all above 
that number should be drowned not later than the day 
after they are born; saving, of course, the most vigorous and 
prettily marked. In all cases, any appearing decidedly 
defective should be immediately drowned. As has been 
already suggested, the best dog should be mated with the 



THE FOXHOUND. 203 

best bitch, without much regard to the question of kinship; 
for Hounds bear close inbreeding well if they are rationally 
managed in other respects, as they are naturally preemi- 
nently hardy and free from constitutional diseases of a her- 
editary nature. 

A strong prejudice against what is called incestuous 
matings is deeply implanted in the human mind, but it is 
due rather to social considerations than to physiological 
data notwithstanding that persons most ignorant of 
physiology clinch their arguments by the pet phrase 
''physiology teaches" so and so. It is safe to say physi- 
ology teaches nothing of the kind; nor do such writers 
know anything whatever about what physiology teaches. 
The natural laws of hereditary transmission act upon the 
offspring in one and the same way whether the parents be 
near of kin or strangers in blood. . The kinship or non- 
kinship of parents, near or remote, does not in any respect 
or in any degree modify the laws of heredity affecting their 
progeny. 

It is curious how hard people find it to get over precon- 
ceived notions. My father repeatedly bred daughter to 
sire, and produced in that way some of the finest Hounds he 
ever had in his kennel. I remember very well when, on 
one occasion, a friend of his, who had repeatedly bred from 
full brother and sister, said to him that he could not help 
thinking that to breed from daughter and sire was a little 
too close. My father said : 

" Why, man', you breed closer than that." 

"Oh, no," said he; "I never bred closer than brother and 
sister, and that don't hurt a bit." 

"Well," said my father, "the blood of brother and 
sister is, as I understand the matter, identical, whereas the 
daughter has only half the blood of the sire and half of the 
dam; and I think you breed twice as close as I do." This 
little analysis seemed to strike the man dumb. 

" It certainly does seem that way," said he, "when you 
come to look at it; but it always seemed to me it was a heap 
closer to breed a daughter to her own father." 



204 THE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

" Than a brother to his own sister," said my father with 
a laugh. 

Breed the best to the best is the best rule I know by 
which to breed red fox Hounds. 

A Hound not capable o,f catching a red fox is of no value 
to a fox-hunter. Ninety -nine out of one hundred of the 
Hounds of the country can not do it. And if the American 
Hound is to be made what he should be, it is time to begin 
at once to find out where any such Hounds are as have 
demonstrated, by actual kills, their fitness to be bred from. 
It is of no use to bring English Hounds here expecting 
them to be able to do anything with our foxes; nor to 
expect to produce a killing pack by breeding from im- 
ported Hounds. I know at present one Hound only, bred 
even on one side (the dam's) from an imported Hound, that 
is able to kill a red fox. I have never seen an imported 
Hound able to do it. If killing packs are located by those 
ambitious to become owners of such Hounds, they must 
not expect to get them fora low price; one hundred dollars 
would be only a moderate figure for a good Hound. I know 
many dear at a dollar per hundred. No animal that lives 
is more worthless than a worthless Hound. 

A few thoughts and suggestions as to kennel manage- 
ment are now in order. Let everything in this line be 
simple, natural as possible, and inexpensive. Expensive- 
ness means artificiality, and that means a worthless pack. 
A pack of Hounds should associate together as much as is 
allowable with a minimum of restraint. One good-sized 
building in the center of a yard inclosed by a picket-fence 
is the best arrangement. There should be no floor except 
the ground, and there should be an ordinary door to admit 
a man of full height without stooping; also a good and 
well-hung and latched gate to the yard, and a lock on door 
and gate. 

Ordinarily the door should stand open, and should be 
hooked to the side of the building to keep it open. The 
floor must be kept littered with clean straw or shavings, or 



THE FOXHOUND. 205 

in summer with green pine-tags; no trees near by. When 
the Hounds are kenneled at night, or for any purpose in 
the day-time, take the couples off, put the Hounds in the 
yard, lock the gate, and allow them to go in and out of 
the house at pleasure. 

After feeding in the morning, put the couples on, and 
let the Hounds out to go as they please. Do not couple 
puppies at all, nor kennel them, except at night. At all 
seasons of the year, let the pack out to follow the owner 
about as often as possible, always uncoupled. Give pup- 
pies and young Hounds the utmost liberty possible, but 
never let them be out of the kennel at night. Whenever 
the Hounds are wanted, blow them up with a horn, ^fever 
punish them except it be necessary, and then whale them 
soundly with a good whip. JSTo dog becomes more attached 
to his owner, nor is more easily controlled by one who 
understands it. Some men do, some men don't; some men 
can, some men can't. The last three Hounds I owned, of 
the old blue-mottled breed two dogs and a spayed bitch- 
were so attached to me that it was actually dangerous for 
anyone to suddenly approach me if they were near by. 
They were never coupled, and only kenneled at night to 
prevent them from being suspected of mischief. 

When the young Hounds are about a year old, they 
should be taken, one or two at a time, with one or two old 
Hounds and taught to run. If you take young ducks to the 
water, they will swim; and if you take young hounds, well 
bred, to the field, they will run. Experience is all they want; 
and this a man who knows how to hunt knows how to give 
them. At first, the old Hounds will show the way and the 
inexperienced will follow at their heels; but in no long 
time, a youngster, grown ambitious, will push for the lead. 

It is worth while to suggest that a very necessary adjunct 
to a breeding kennel is a dog-proof apartment, with room 
enough for two, for bitches in season. This apartment 
must be such that no dog can, by any possibility, get in or 
out except through the door. It must have a light floor, or 
some dog is sure to dig under and get in. 



206 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

In the matter of feeding, variety is necessary. No 
animal thrives well confined to one sort of food. The 
Hound is a large and most energetic animal, and must be 
liberally fed. It is the potential energy of the food which 
develops into the dynamical energy of speed and endur- 
ance. It is the protoplasmic substance of food which is 
converted into muscle and nerve, and the minerals of the 
ash of the food which are converted into bone, by the marvel- 
ous workings of the animal economy. The Hound itself, 
in its perfection, the music of its tongue, and the arrowy 
swiftness of its pace, are neither less nor more than the 
varied products of the vital metamorphoses of its food. 
Give it plenty; it is greedy not without a cause; give it 
variety, for it has the same disgust for eternal sameness 
that you and I have. Give scraps from the table bread, 
meat, bones, vegetables; from the kitchen, hot liquor and 
the varied offal which accumulates there. Meal, ground 
of equal parts of rye, oats, and corn, and baked in thick 
pones, is a good working diet. The dairy will furnish skim- 
milk, curds, whey, buttermilk, bonny-clabber. When you 
butcher a beef or kill hogs, unkennel the pack and let them 
gorge; it delights and does them good. Bear in mind that 
we are trying to follow nature, rather than a cut-and-dried 
artificial system. 

This article is written from the stand-point of the coun- 
try gentleman helping to make helpful suggestions to those 
who desire to adopt the fox-hunt as the manliest and most 
invigorating, the most delightful, of the sports of the field, 
and to help to make it the national sport of America. 
Therefore, those to whom the hunt is a mere fashionable fad, 
will probably not find much to amuse and less to instruct 
them, seeing that they know everything which is "really 
so English, don't you know," It is hoped that gentle- 
men of moderate means, lovers of horse and hound, will 
be encouraged to take up the sport and to maintain a 
pack, which can be done at a very moderate expense. If a 
gentleman be so situated that he can breed and train his 
own hunting-horse, I am sure he will take more pleasure in 



THE FOXHOUND. 207 

him than he could otherwise do. All that is here recom- 
mended is the result of the writer's personal experience, 
which has been a ID pie. 

Shooting and fishing have been so overdone that it is 
evident that what remains of them, worth attention, will 
be rapidly taken up and preserved by the exclusive and 
the wealthy. The noble sport of fox-hunting remains, 
and will ever remain, within reach of the people. It can 
never be preserved. It can neither be monopolized by pro- 
fessionalism nor ruined by "records." It is a sport in 
which ladies may and should freely participate, and hence 
it can scarcely be vulgarized. 

From an experience of thirty years in the medical pro- 
fession, the writer is of opinion that there are fifty delicate 
women who would be physically regenerated by horseback 
exercise to one who would be in the ]east degree injured 
by it. Unless we become a nation of fox-hunters, we 
shall very surely become a nation of dog-carters. A mul- 
titude of arguments in favor of hunting suggest them- 
selves; it is difficult to find one valid argument of a contrary 
effect. 

It remains to glance at the subject of the diseases of 
Foxhounds. If the rational system of kennel management 
be adopted, and the hygiene of the kennel be attended to, 
there will seldom be a sick Hound. They are a race of 
animals naturally preeminently hardy. The hygiene of 
the kennel consists in a few simple things. Let the ken- 
nel be clean, dry, light, and warm. Let the Hounds be out 
as much as possible, but always kennel them at night. If 
a neighbor has sheep killed by curs, he can not lay it to the 
Hounds if they were locked up in the kennel. When the 
Hounds are let out, they may be coupled; and they should 
always be broken to the couple, but should not be kept 
coupled merely from habit. If they are not likely to 
get into mischief, let them run loose. The couple should 
be a stiff iron rod, not over six inches long, with an inch ring 
for the collar at each end. If longer, they are always liable 



208 THE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

to get hung by all sorts of obstructions, and are bent and 
twisted out of shape. 

In the make-up of a pack I have found spayed bitches 
to be desirable. They are in no respect inferior to dogs, 
and they are in every way more pleasant to handle, being 
far less disposed to wander out of bounds or get into any 
kind of mischief. The greatest couj)le of Foxhounds I ever 
have known were litter sisters, spayed when about two 
months old, which is the best time to spay. The operation 
is simple and safe, and if performed prior to sexual devel- 
opment is not productive of the least tendency to obesity, 
even in old age. I have always believed that the instincts 
of spayed bitches, if the operation precedes sexual devel- 
opment, were, like those of worker bees, superior to the 
sexually developed individuals. The most remarkable 
exhibitions of nose I have ever seen, both in the Hound and 
the Setter or Pointer, as well as the Field Spaniel, were by 
spayed bitches. And the thing much in their favor is, 
that they are much more patient than dogs or open bitches 
of kennel discipline, and in my opinion, at least, less sub- 
ject to disease. 

This article must now be brought to a close. If it shall 
aid in inducing lovers of the Hound to act in concert to push 
this sport to the front as the recognized national sport of 
the American country gentleman, the object of the writer 
will have been accomplished. If wealthy clubs of city 
gentlemen are disposed to join in the movement to Ameri- 
canize and nationalize this great sport, they will find the 
country gentlemen ready to cooperate in every way. That it 
is a matter of national importance, in connection with the 
development of the American saddle-horse and the Amer- 
ican horsemanship of the future, the writer does not doubt. 
He pleads guilty to a rank enthusiasm for horse and 
hound and horn, but he believes that he is not mistaken 
in supposing that unless fox-hunting becomes our national 
sport, our national horsemanship will dwindle until it 
amounts to nothing, and all our people will take to dog- 
carts. Whether this will be a national calamity there 
ought not to be two opinions. 



THE BASSET HOUND. 




BY LAWRENCE TIMPSON. 

Basset Frangais, or the Basset Hound, as lie is 
known to us, is undoubtedly one of the oldest 
breeds of dogs, and has existed in France in exactly 
the same type that he does to-day for many centuries. 
The French, however, have kept no systematic records of 
sports and sporting dogs, and it is only within the last few 
years, since the English have taken up the breed, that the 
history of the Basset Hound has been collected and written. 

They were down to the seventeenth century known in 
France as Chiens d'Artois, but since then this name has 
been transferred to and used only to designate the large 
Picardy Hounds, and the breed under discussion has been 
given the name of Basset. 

The Basset Frangais and the Basset Allemand, or, as he 
is better known, the Dachshund, had undoubtedly a com- 
mon origin; but the Basset Hound of to-day has main- 
tained all the characteristics of a true Hound, whereas the 
Dachshund has some of the attributes of a Terrier. 

The Basset Frangais is divided into two strains, the 
smooth-coated and the rough-coated; the former coming 
originally from the province of Artois and the latter from 
Flanders. Both these strains are divided again into three 
classes: (1) the crooked-legged (Basset d janibes tortues), 
(2) the half crooked -legged (Basset d jambes demi-tortues\ 
and (3) the straight-legged (Basset d jambes droites). 

In France, all crooked-legged dogs are spoken of by 
the people generally as Bassets, the same as in Germany 
such a dog would be called a Dachs; so the term sometimes 
conveys as little (or still less) significance as the word 
Terrier does with us. 

14 (209) 



210 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The six classes of the Basset Francais that I have 
named all have their respective admirers; but for the pur- 
poses of this article I shall only take and describe as the 
Basset Hound the smooth-coated Artois strain, with crooked 
legs, as it is the type generally preferred and recognized. 

All the six classes have a general similarity to one 
another. The rough-coated strain, or Basset Grifon, as 
they are called, correspond more closely to the English 
Otter-hound in coat and coloring, have more courage 
and worse tempers, and are much less desirable as pets than 
the smooth-coated strain. The half crooked-legged variety 
are lighter in build than the crooked-legged; and the 
straight-legged ones are much lighter and faster still, 
approaching, in the smooth-coated strain, more nearly to 
the English Beagle. 

All friends of the Basset Hound owe a great debt of 
gratitude to the Count le Couteult de Canteleu. He has 
for some years gone to great trouble and expense collect- 
ing all the information possible about the history of this 
ancient breed, in which he justly takes such a patriotic 
pride, and in obtaining the best specimens in existence in 
France, breeding them, and establishing the breed again 
in public favor. It is directly from him, or through him, 
that most of the English breeders have obtained their dogs. 
He is one of the few French noblemen of to-day who 
love and devote themselves to sport for sport's sake, living 
the life of a grand-seigneur on his magniricent estate. 

The history of the Basset Hound in England begins in 
1874, when Mr. Everett Millais first saw one in the collec- 
tion at the Jardin d' Acclimation . at Paris. He was so 
taken with the looks of the breed that he purchased and 
imported Model, whom he showed that year at Wolver- 
hampton. Lord Onslow was, I believe, the next one across 
the channel to take this breed up, commencing in 1875 to 
form his little pack, which had so many merry little runs in 
the neighborhood of Guilford. Mr. Millais was forced, a 
few years later, to give up breeding and go abroad, on 
account of ill-health, and Lord Onslow, for some reason, 



THE BASSET HOUND. 



211 



broke up his pack at the same time. About this time Mr. ;,- 
Krehl joined the ranks of the Basset Hound men, and the 
subsequent popularity and success of the breed in England 
is owing in a great part to his energy. 

In February, 1883, at a meeting of the principal English 
breeders at 25 Downing street, London, the Basset Hound 
Club was formed, for the purpose of encouraging the breed- 
ing of Basset Hounds for exhibition and for hunting pur- 
poses. The following members were enrolled : 

Messrs. Blaine, Munro, D. C. Crake, G. R. Krehl, W. P. 




CHAMPION NEMOURS. 
Owned by the Maizeland Kennels, Red Hook, N. J. 

Alleyne, H. B. Watson, H. Wyndham Carter, G. Barton, H. 
Blackett, C. Collett, A. Masson, E. Durant, C. Blackburne, 
and A. Krehl. Count le Couteult de Canteleu was elected 
president, and Lord Onslow and Mr. G. R. Krehl, vice- 
presidents; Mr. G. R. Krehl, honorary treasurer; Mr. 
H. Wyndham Carter, honorary secretary; and Messrs. W. 
P. Alleyne, E. Durant, H. B. Watson, G. R. Krehl, and 
H. Wyndham Carter, a committee. 

It was proposed to form a pack for hunting, with its 
headquarters at Maidenhead Mr. Alleyne, who was elected 



212 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

huntsman, kindly consenting to allow the club the use of 
his kennels there. 

About this time, too, Basset Hounds came into royal 
favor, as Mr. Krehl presented a brace of puppies by 
Jupiter to H. R. H. the Prince of Wales for his use in 
Scotland for rabbit-shooting, which gift His Royal High- 
ness was graciously pleased to accept, sending Mr. Krehl, 
as a mark of his appreciation, a scarf-pin in the design of 
the Prince's Plumes, and the initials "A. E." set in brill- 
iants. In 1883, Mr. Chamberlain purchased -Nemours from 
Mr. Krehl, and brought him out to America for the Maize- 
land Kennels. To Nemours belongs the honor of being the 
first Basset Hound brought to America, except, perhaps, 
the brace by Jupiter that the late Lord Aylesford brought 
out about the same time to use for rabbit-shooting on his 
ranch near Big Springs, Texas. 

In the following spring, 1884, the Westminster Kennel 
Club kindly made a class for Basset Hounds at the New 
York Show, and Nemours made his bow to the American 
public. " 

The first to follow Lord Aylesford' s and Mr. Chamber- 
lain' s lead and import Basset Hounds to America, was Mr. 
C. B. Gilbert, of New Haven, who. in 1885, brought out Ber- 
trand, by Bourbon, and Canace, by Jupiter. He has since 
bred a brace of good puppies out of them Jose and Juan. 
The only others that have been imported and exhibited here, 
as yet, are Babette, by Merlin, who made her debut at 
New York in 1889, being shown by Mr. Charles Porter, of 
Philadelphia, and Mr. Cornelius Stevenson's Chasseur, by 
Farmer, who appeared at New York this year. I trust that 
soon these beautiful little Hounds will receive the attention 
they deserve from American fanciers and sportsmen. 

Basset Hounds are by all odds superior to Beagles for 
rabbit-shooting, beating them in nose, tongue, and staying 
powers. Their powers of scent are marvelous; and so well 
do they indicate their excitement by their waving sterns, 
that as the scent becomes warmer and warmer one can tell 
almost exactly the moment when they are about to open 



THE BASSET HOUND. 213 

on it. Their clear, deep, bell-like notes are far sweeter than 
those of any other Hound, and when they are hidden in 
cover, tell exactly what they are doing. When once heard, 
the clear ring of their notes is never forgotten. Their short, 
crooked legs seem almost incapable of being tired, and their 
natural pace is about seven miles an hour. For hunting 
on foot they are as superior to Beagles as for being shot 
over on rabbits, but their value renders a pack of any size 
out of the question. The scratch pack that the members of 
the Basset Hound Club kept, showed very good sport. 

Basset Hounds have the best of tempers. I have never 
known of one to attempt to bite, except in the case of pup- 
pies when being punished for some misdemeanor or other, 
and then they did it from fright more than from ill nature. 
In fact, their disposition is a trifle too mild and inoffensive 
for a sporting dog; although they run game with the utmost 
keenness, and when their quarry is standing "at bay" 
they will give tongue with the utmost fierceness, usually 
showing no desire to go in for blood, even in the case of a 
rabbit. In the latter case they would usually play with it 
as though it were a puppy, if left to themselves: Against 
other dogs, too, they seldom try to defend themselves. 

Puppies are rather hard to rear, especially in a cold 
climate, but the old dogs are very hardy. Even among the 
best-bred specimens, the teeth are sometimes very small, 
unusually many in number, and the lower jaw shorter than 
the upper. Basset Hound puppies are most whimsical- 
looking little beggars, and their big bright eyes have the 
softest, dreamiest expression imaginable. 

There is something of an Old World air about a Basset 
Hound; his appearance has something quaint and mediaeval 
in it. It makes one think insensibly of old tapestries rep- 
resenting a grand cTiasse at the forest court of one of the 
old Valois kings at Fontainbleau, where the Basset Hound 
undoubtedly "posed," not only in his sporting capacity, 
but as the pet of the great ladies, who probably held him in 
as high favor as the ladies of Elizabeth's court did Basket 
Beagles. 



214 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Below is given the standard and scale of points of the 
Basset Hound : 

Value. Value 

Head 25 Coat 10 

Neck and chest 10 Color 10 

Fore legs and feet r . 15 Size and symmetry 10 

Ribs and loin 10 

Hind quarters and stern 10 Total TOO 

Head, resembling that of the Bloodhound in shape and 
dignity of expression, long, rather narrow, and well peaked, 
with little or no stop. Jaws long, strong, and level; teeth 
rather small. Nose usually black; but some good ones 
have had considerable white about theirs. Mouth well 
flewed. Ears long, large, and soft, hanging like the softest 
velvet drapery. Eyes are a deep brown, very expressive, 
rather deeply set, and showing a good deal of haw; expres- 
sion affectionate, intelligent, and good-humored, though 
occasionally reflective and melancholy. 

Neck and chest. The neck is long, but very powerful, 
with flews extending nearly to the chest. The chest is well 
developed, overhanging, and extending to within nearly two 
inches of the ground 

Forelegs and feet. The shoulders are of great power. 
Legs very short, and turning inward at the knees; and the 
feet, which appear to be a mass of joints, considerably bent 
out. 

Ribs and loin. The back and ribs are strongly put 
together, and the former is of great length. 

Hind quarters and stern. The hind quarters are very 
strong and muscular, the muscles standing out, and clearly 
defined down to the hocks. 

Coat. The skin is soft, and the coat smooth and close, 
though moderately hard and very weather-resisting in qual- 
ity, and when the dog is in condition, showing a beautiful 
natural gloss. 

Color. The tri-color, which has a tan head and a black 
and white body, is much preferred; but they come in all 
the varieties of white and black-and-tan. 

Size and symmetry. Bassets come in all sizes, from nine 



THE BASSET HOUND. 



215 



to twelve inches at shoulder and at from twenty-six to 
forty-eight pounds in weight and over. The best size is say 
about eleven or twelve inches at the shoulder and about 
forty to forty-five pounds in weight. The Basset has more 
bone in proportion to his size than any other breed, and his 
symmetry is an important point in his make-up. 

No especial care is necessary in preparing Basset Hounds 
for the show bench, further than ordinary attention to 
health, condition, and coat. These dogs usually c ' show 
up" well on the bench, and rather appear to enjoy their 
outings at shows. 

The subject of our illustration, Champion Nemours (E. 
K. C. S. B., 14068), owned by the Maizeland Kennels, was got 
by Champion Jupiter (12152), out of Vivien (13340). He was 
whelped March 21, 1883, and was bred by Mr. George R. 
Krehl, Hanover Square, London. His winnings are: First, 
New York; first, Philadelphia; first, National Breeders' 
Show, 1884; first and two specials, New Haven; first, Bos- 
ton; first, New York, 1885; second, New York; champion, 
Boston, 1886; first, New York, 1888. 




THE DACHSHUND. 




BY WILLIAM LOEFFLEK. 

origin of the Dachshund is in doubt, our best 
authorities disagreeing as to the beginning of the 
breed. Some writers claim that he came from 
Spain, while the fact that no Dachshunds exist there, which 
can be traced back to Spanish origin, places this statement 
in doubt. Other authorities claim the Dachshund to be 
the oldest breed known, as carvings have been discovered 
on Egyptian monuments resembling the Dachshund of the 
present day. I lean more to the theory that the Dachs- 
hund originated in France, as the Basset Hound is known 
to be of French origin, and the two breeds have many 
characteristics in common. There undoubtedly exists a 
close relationship between the two breeds, as the contour 
of the fore legs and paws in both breeds is identical. 

It has been proven that during the invasion by the 
French armies, in the seventeenth century, the Basset 
Hound was first seen in Germany, while previous to that 
time we have no positive proof that the Dachshund 
existed there. We may therefore reasonably suppose 
that by inbreeding of the Basset Hound in Germany, 
since that period, the size of the breed has been reduced, 
thereby better adapting the dog for the purposes required 
of him in that country, but that by judicious breeding, cer- 
tain traits and qualities have since been developed which 
have established the Dachshund in his present form. 

Suppose a Hound set upon short legs, say from four to 
six inches high, with a long-stretched body, and you have 
the outlines of the Dachshund's appearance in brief. At 
the first glance you see that he is intended for underground 
work, nearly all his muscular power being developed in 

(217) 



218 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



the forepart of his body. The appearance of the Dachs- 
hund is striking, and to those unacquainted with the 




DACHSHUND WALDEMANN II. 
Owned by Mr. William Loeffler, 168 Sherman street, Milwaukee, Wis. 

breed is such as to attract great attention. It has taken a 
long time for American observers to become accustomed to 
him, and to learn to like him. 



THE DACHSHUND. 219 

There are two types of the Dachshund, the Hound and 
the Terrier type. Both are of equal value, and are most 
carefully bred. In the southern parts of Germany, and in 
all England, the Hound type is more generally found, and is 
more popular, while in the northern part of the Empire 
the Terrier type appears to be the favorite. Both types 
are used for one and the same purpose, both have the same 
characteristics, and it is only a matter of fancy as to which 
is the better. 

As soon as bench shows were introduced in Germany, 
the question of course sprung up as to which is the most 
correct type; but this question, up to the present day, is 
not decided, and probably never will be. Of late, the 
Hound type seems to be in general favor at all shows on 
the Continent, in England, and in America. I have always 
preferred the Hound-like dog, as I consider him the best- 
looking one of the two species. I shall now give a detailed 
description of the Hound type. 

STANDAKD AND VALUE OF POINTS. 

Value. Value. 

Head and skull 12 Loin 8 

Ears 6i Stern 5 

Jaw 5 Body 8i 

Chest 7 Color 4 

Legs and feet 20 Symmetry and quality 11 

Skin and coat 13 

Total 100 

Head. Large; resembles that of a Hound, with the 
exception that it is more wedge-shaped. 

Nose. Large and well developed; black in dark-colored 
dogs, and flesh-colored in reds, mostly. 

Teeth. Very large, showing two large fangs on lower 
and two on upper jaw. 

Ears. Long, high set, and so thin as to show the veins; 
covered with short, silky hair. 

Eyes. The Dachshund has beautiful large eyes, full of 
expression; in dark-colored dogs, mostly jet-black; in reds 
a brown color prevails. Some red strains show black noses 
and jet-black eyes, and this is no fault. 

The head rests on a very strongly developed neck. 



220 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Chest. No other breed of dogs shows such depth and 
breadth of chest as does the Dachshund, the chest-bone 
standing out of the body, and on a good specimen the 
chest fills out nearly the entire space to or within an inch 
or inch and a half of the knees. The chest hangs so low 
as to be only from three to four inches from the ground. 

Legs and feet. The fore-arms, strong-boned and well- 
muscled, run inward so that they almost form a right-angle 
with the lower extremities. At the knees, the legs come 
together, then are vertical for about an inch, and from here 
the feet take a side and outward course and form the long 
and flat paws. 

Toes. Long and flat; have very long claws, which in 
black-and-tan dogs should be black, and in reds a dark 
brown or black. A white claw is a defect. It is a question 
of great interest as to how the formation of such shaped 
legs originated, or was developed. It may have come from 
some freak of nature; but if so, it has been by careful 
breeding kept up, and is now one of the most marked 
features of the breed. 

The hind legs are longer than the fore legs, thus giving 
the long body an inward curve, commonly called saddle- 
back. In nearly all good specimens, well-developed dew- 
claws can be found; but these are often removed, as they 
are liable to annoy the dog a good deal when wading 
through crusty snow. The claws on these extra toes grow 
long and in a perfect circle, and should at least be trimmed, 
or else they grow into the flesh and cause the dog a great 
deal of pain. 

Body. Round, long, and lithe. 

Tail. Heavy at root, and tapering; should be carried 
high, as in the Foxhound; but under no circumstances 
should the tail be carried in a curve over the back, which is 
a great fault. 

Color. The most prevailing and most familiar colors 
are black-and-tans, chestnut and tans, and solid reds 
from a fawn -color to a beautiful deep red. Besides these 
colors, specimens are occasionally found of black, white, 



THE DACHSHUND. 221 

and tan color, called in Germany Tiger-dachs; or steel- 
blue and tan, a magnificent color, but rarely seen. 

Skin. Exceedingly loose. You may take hold of the 
skin on neck or back and raise it four to six inches; it 
seems as if the skin were intended for a body twice the size 
of the one it covers. The loose skin is a great advantage to 
the dog, as a badger or other animal when attacking the 
Dachshund will get hold of a mouthful of skin instead of 
solid flesh, and the dog suffers no serious damage. No 
other breed of dogs shows this characteristic in such a 
marked degree. 

Coat. Short and thick. 

Here is the measurement of a Dachshund that I consider 
as near perfection as has yet been obtained : Head, eight 
inches long; length, from nose to root of tail, thirty-three 
inches; tail, eleven inches; tip to tip, forty-four inches; 
height at shoulder, ten to ten and one-half inches; girth of 
body, behind fore-arms, nineteen and one-half inches; girth 
of neck, fourteen and one-half inches; spread of ears, 
fifteen inches; around main muscle of fore-arm, five and 
one-half inches; chest, from ground, four inches; weight, 
twenty to twenty-two pounds. 

Specimens of the Terrier type are, as a general rule, 
much smaller and of lighter build than those of the Hound 
type. The difference in shape lies mainly in the head, 
which in the former is shorter and more pointed, or 
sharper toward the nose; the ears are not so long; the legs 
are slightly straighter. In weight, specimens of the Terrier 
type vary from ten to sixteen pounds. 

It makes no difference, however, whether you send a 
large or a small Dachshund after a fox; both varieties are 
equally savage and ferocious in their attacks, and the pluck 
and grit they exhibit deserve our greatest praise and 
admiration. 

Much has been written of the Spiel-dachs, or Toy 
variety of the Dachshund. In former years he was valued 
by the ladies in Germany as the Pug is at the present day 
in this country. The Spiel-dachs was nothing else than a 



222 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Terrier Dachshund that by inbreeding was reduced in 
size. He is now rarely met with, but could at any time be 
reproduced. 

The long-haired Dachshund is a variety which has 
become popular of late. Occasionally a puppy is whelped 
by a smooth-coated mother which shows longer hair than 
the rest of the litter. By mating such specimens with 
others of their kind, the long-haired variety was estab- 
lished. 

The wire-haired Dachshund, also a fashion of later 
years, undoubtedly originated by introducing the blood of 
the Scotch Terrier. 

The disposition of the Dachshund is peculiar. He will 
seek a quarrel with any dog he may meet; the larger in 
size, the more he seems to enjoy it. He will go up to the 
largest Mastiff, with tail erect, and snap at him. Does the 
Mastiff show a desire to fight, the trouble begins at once, 
and will not end until one or the other has had enough and 
seeks safety by flight. The Dachshund seldom runs, and 
in case he finds his opponent's strength superior to his 
own, he will lay on his back and snap at the larger animal 
from below, thus often doing great injury. 

In addition to his quarrelsomeness, he is the most inde- 
pendent dog in existence; and he generally does what he 
pleases. He will not obey even his own master, and all the 
punishment you may give him will not make him obedi- 
ent. Could this great fault be overcome, he would make 
the hunting dog par excellence, for he is untiring, possessed 
of the greatest endurance, has scenting powers and good- 
will for hunting. He will do no training, and has all the 
good qualities a sportsman could reasonably ask a dog to 
possess, except that of obedience. This trait of following 
his own instinct when hunting, and not minding his mas- 
ter' s commands, allows us only to use him on game living 
underground, as fox or badger, or on such game as, 
when pursued, can be brought to bay or be " treed." Then 
the Dachshund will stay, and by giving tongue will in this 
way guide his master to the game. 



THE DACHSHUND. 223 

The Dachshund is full of faults, but his great excel- 
lences, his unparalleled courage and endurance, stand so 
high to his credit that all deficiencies are overlooked, and 
the breed kept up by the most judicious breeding. It is 
the pride of European sportsmen to own courageous speci- 
mens of the Dachshund, and as long as the fox follows his 
instinct to destroy game the Dachshund will be bred and 
used to check his ravages. 

Never leave any furs within reach of the Dachshund, 
for he will tear them to pieces, or at least damage them to 
a great extent. The tiger-robe in your parlors, or the fine 
seal-jackets of the ladies of the house, are in as great 
danger from being torn up as the raw coon-skin which is 
nailed to a tree to dry. 

In Europe, especially in Germany, the Dachshund is 
principally used in assisting to destroy the natural enemy 
of all game, the fox. Being about the same height as the 
fox, he can follow him into his haunts; and possessing the 
strongest muscular development and unparalleled courage, 
he will fight his foe underground and chase him out of his 
burrow, where he becomes an easy victim for the hunter, 
who is stationed near the entrances. A fox generally 
has more than one outlet to his burrow, and a practical 
hunter uses a dog for each outlet. The brave little dogs 
enter at once, and give tongue when assured that Rey- 
nard is at home. The fox thus attacked can not escape 
their sharp teeth, and no matter how bravely he defends 
his life, he can not resist such a fierce attack, and is bound 
to run for his life or be exterminated, and often pulled 
above ground. 

When a single dog undertakes the difficult task of driv- 
ing out the fox, he will certainly find an equally brave foe; 
and many dogs lose their lives in this way. A hunter 
who loves his dog will not send him alone against a fox. 

Equally as much as for driving foxes out of their burrows, 
the Dachshund is used for hunting the badger. This ani- 
mal does not try to save his life by flight, as the fox does, 
.but will stand his ground, and will fight the battle with 



224 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

his enemies underground. When attacked, he retires to 
the "kettle," or his lair, into which all gangs center; and 
here he receives his antagonists, the Dachshunds, and 
defends his life with the greatest bravery. 

The fight may last for hours; in most cases the dogs are 
victorious, but often the fight will not come to an end, and 
to finish the work, the hunters are obliged to use pick and 
shovel to dig down and fork the badger. By laying the 
ear close to the ground to listen to their dogs barking, the 
badgers whereabouts are easily located, and the work of 
unearthing with the shovel begins. The nearer the hunters 
get to the badger, the clearer they can hear their dogs. 
Now one man watches with the "fork," which is a spear- 
like instrument, and- the minute the badger is seen, the 
4 ' fork ' ' is put over his neck and he is caught. You can 
not hold the dogs back from finishing their foe. 

The dogs now present a very different aspect from that 
shown when they entered. Eyes and ears red and full of 
dirt, the tongue dry and hanging near the ground, their 
breath short and quick, and bleeding from the wounds made 
by their enemy, make the dogs appear more like demons 
than dogs. It is not seldom that, when the badger is lifted 
up, a dog whose teeth are set deep into his body hangs to 
him and can not open his jaws, and it takes hours before 
the excitement is over and he has control of the muscles of 
his jaws again. A great many have thus died of lock-jaw. 

One of the best dogs I knew lost his life in a singular 
way. The badger managed to get hold of the lower jaw 
of the Dachshund, and literally bit it off. Lock-jaw set in, 
and the dog that had been victor in nearly fifty battles; 
whose ears were nothing but fringes; whose chest, neck, 
and whole body showed one scar near the other had to die. 
Every hunter within many miles felt this loss deeply; for 
all these men looked upon this dog as upon a dead hero. 

No matter how many wounds a Dachshund has received, 
as soon as he is in such shape as to be able to walk and 
bite again, he is ready for another chase; and he will fight 
fiercer than ever. 



THE DACHSHUND. 225 

In Europe, it is the game-keeper' s duty to take care of 
the game intrusted to him; and a fox destroys more game 
in a season than the average hunter kills. Having found 
the proofs that such a robber has made his home on his 
intrusted domain, the forester has no rest until the 
intruder is exterminated. Has the fox made his home 
among the bluffs and rocks, the hunter lays in wait until 
a chance offers to shoot Reynard. To simply shoot the fox, 
in this case, is more advisable than to risk the lives of val- 
uable dogs, who would certainly be in great danger, as the 
nature of the bluffs and rocks, filled with caves and crev- 
ices, is such that the dogs, in their endeavor to get at the 
game, would be likely to fall into them. 

In many cases the fox takes possession of an old badger- 
hole. The saying is, that a badger, who is a clean animal, 
will leave his lair after a fox has deposited his manure 
there. The badger mostly digs his hole in loose earth, and 
if the fox is found on such ground, the Dachshund will be 
brought to act; and this is the work nature has specially 
fitted him for. The dogs are relieved of their collars, that 
they may be able to use their body to the best advantage. 
It is a grand sight to see a couple of Dachshunds enter a 
fox-hole, chase the mother-fox out of the ground, and then 
go for the kittens, which are brought out one by one, dead, 
of course, every time. This is a grand opportunity to teach 
a puppy a good lesson. 

The German game-keepers value these dogs about the 
same way as the Arab does his horse; they belong to the 
family, and it is difficult to procure a serviceable Dachs- 
hund from them. When I was in Germany selecting 
Dachshunds for my kennels, I looked for them among 
practical hunters, to obtain the right stock. I went along 
to see their work and ways of hunting; found beautiful 
dogs, but as soon as I offered their owners a price for them, 
our friendship was nearly ended. 

One incident I must here mention, which happened in 
the woods of Thueringen, away from all traveled roads, 
and deep in God's nature. I ran onto a black-and-tan of 

15 



226 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

such beauty, and of such excellence for practical work, as 
I had never before seen, and I made up my mind to procure 
this specimen under any circumstances. After we returned 
from a hunt, and were sitting in the game-keeper' s cabin, 
talking of nothing but Dachshunds, of course, I mentioned 
that I would like to buy Peter from him. The good- 
hearted man looked at me and said : 

" That dog you can not buy at any price. I am a poor 
man, as everybody knows, but as long as I have ti bite of 
bread left, Peter stays with me. ' ' 

Well, I never put the question to him again, and I was 
assured that I could not offer Peter a better home than the 
one he had. The price offered for the dog was nearly equal 
to the game-keeper's annual salary. 

Besides hunting foxes and badgers, the Dachshund is 
used extensively for tracking wounded deer and roebuck, 
and no surer trailer lives. The dog is taken by the line, 
and he follows a track slowly, but as infallibly as can 
be, and it seldom happens that he fails to succeed. When 
running loose, he will give a few short barks when the 
game is found, and then start at once to lick the wound; 
then commence to eat, and will eat until he can not eat 
any more. 

This is a bad habit, but all Dachshunds possess it. But 
you must take these dogs as they are, with all their good 
qualities, and with all their many faults. I therefore 
recommend the use of the line when tracking wounded 
game. Besides the above mentioned, the Dachshund can 
be used successfully to hunt minks and other vermin. 
When allowed to run at will, he will hunt anything, from a 
mouse up. 

Now that I have illustrated the value of the Dachs- 
hund for Europe, let us see what success we can have with 
him here in America, for he is no more a stranger among 
us. We have imported as fine stock as Europe could pro- 
duce though, as stated, we have had great difficulty in 
buying them and hundreds of them are now in the hands 
of practical American sportsmen. Many are dissatisfied 



THE DACHSHUND. 227 

with them; others, who know how to handle them, praise 
their good qualities. 

I have used them with great success in thick under- 
brush and briers, where larger dogs could not work, on 
rabbits; and a few sportsmen, stationed in the right way, 
have found their chances for good sport excellent. 

In deep snow, when even the Foxhound could not be of 
service, I have brought my Dachshund (as a general rule 
only one, and never more than a couple) to new breakings, 
where there were plenty of brush -piles, the favorite resort 
for rabbits. Don't let your dog follow you in deep snow, 
and get him tired out before his work begins. Carry your 
little dog in your arms, or in the game-sack. He will enter 
a brush-pile at once, and in a minute 1 s time you will know 
whether you may expect a rabbit here or not. If he gives 
tongue, you may with certainty expect a shot; for he 
never barks before he is dead-sure of the presence of game. 
His scenting powers are the keenest, and he does not make 
a mistake. As I said before, as soon as the dog barks, be 
ready to shoot, for the rabbit will be obliged to run when a 
Dachshund is after him. The dog works his way through 
the brush almost like a snake, and will get to the rabbit 
sooner or later. As soon as a shot is fired, he will come 
out and follow the trail, and in case the rabbit is missed, 
will bring him to shot again. 

Should the snow be too deep, don't allow him to follow, 
for he is too small to work against deep snow. Take to 
the next brush-pile, and try your luck again. In this way 
I have often shot from ten to twenty-five rabbits in half a 
day, and on a comparatively small field. 

When hunting with a pack of Dachshunds, you will 
notice the following : As soon as unchecked, all dogs will 
at once scatter, and each will hunt for a trail by himself. 
For awhile you will not hear a sound from your dogs, but 
as soon as one of them has scared up game, he will utter a 
shrill, sharp bark, something like ' ' kiff, kiff -kiff ! " As soon 
as the rest of the pack hear this signal, they will meet at 
once, and chase the rabbit in a body, under full cry. They 



228 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

now act in the same way as a pack of Beagles or Fox- 
hounds, and surely bring the game around. But should 
the rabbit go to earth, your hunt, for an hour, or may be 
for all day, is over; for the dogs will now follow their 
instinct, and commence to dig fpr their game. 

If the ground is not frozen, or if no rocks interfere, 
they will always succeed in pulling out the rabbit, no mat- 
ter how long it takes them to do it. It is impossible to 
call the dogs away from this work. Often they stay under- 
ground for an hour at a time before they show themselves 
at the entrance. The smallest dog goes to dig first, a larger 
one is near to clear the loose earth out of the hole; and you 
can not see a more interesting sight than such a one. The 
earth flies in all directions, and in a very short time the 
dogs have dug their way in so far that you can hardly hear 
them bark. Small roots which come in their way will be 
gnawed in two; soon you will notice a dog back out, hold- 
ing the rabbit, and every dog that is near will want his 
reward by helping to kill it, and if the hunter is not at 
hand to stop this performance, the rabbit will be torn to 
pieces in less than ten seconds. 

This is the great disadvantage in hunting rabbits with a 
pack of Dachshunds. If you see them at work in this 
way for the first time, it will certainly interest you greatly; 
but when accustomed to it, you will pronounce it a bad 
interruption of your sport. For this reason I say, when 
you want to hunt rabbits with a pack of dogs, use the 
Beagle, for he does not possess the desire for digging, as 
does the Dachshund. 

When at work underground, should you have an oppor- 
tunity of preventing one or two dogs from entering, you 
may chain them and take them miles away, but the minute 
they are at liberty they will run back and finish their 
work. You may wish to call them back, but will not suc- 
ceed, and you will find that your control over your dogs 
ends right here. 

Three of my dogs once worked two days and a night at 
the same hole before they returned home. There is one 



THE DACHSHUND. 229 

good thing about it, and that is, you need not be afraid of 
their getting lost; they will find their way home under all 
circumstances. I have had them on grounds ten to fifteen 
miles from my home, in places where they had never 
been before, but I could leave them there to finish a job of 
digging without fear of losing them. They always return 
when ready. How they manage it is a mystery to me, 
unless by the use of their superior scenting powers they trace 
their return. I have had hundreds of them, but never lost 
a single one. 

As to their value for tracking wounded deer, I can not 
do better than to repeat the words of Mr. N. A. Osgood, 
of Battle Creek, Mich., who owns the beautiful bitch 
Gertie. He says that while hunting deer in Northern 
Michigan, it happened that several were wounded and 
could not be found; among them the largest buck they 
had seen during their stay. He was tracked by all the 
dogs they had with them, but all gave up the hunt when 
the tracks run to a stream. After all the other dogs were 
chained up, Gertie trailed the buck alone, and on reaching 
the stream plunged in, swam across, hunted up the lost 
trail on the other side, and soon the well-known "kiff- 
kiff" assured Mr. Osgood of Gertie's success; and he states 
that no more wounded deer were lost after that time. 
Gertie, of course, became the pet of the camp. 

Another gentleman, after returning from a northern 
hunt, wrote me that his eight-months-old Dachshund 
exhibited a great deal of pluck by holding his ground 
near a bear after several other dogs left the field. By 
steadily barking and circling around the bear, he held its 
attention until the hunter approached and killed it. 

If you wish to hunt foxes or badgers, the Dachshund 
will perform the same work for you here as he does for 
your brother sportsman in Europe. 

The Dachshund can also be used for "treeing" par- 
tridges (ruffed grouse) or squirrels; and as rat-killers they 
can not be excelled. He is a capital companion for the 
man who enjoys hunting alone. If you once gain his 



230 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

friendship, he will do almost anything for you. I can 
always tell what game my dogs are pursuing by their dif- 
ferent ways of giving tongue, and have become so accus- 
tomed to their ways and methods of hunting that I have 
never been misled by them but once. In that instance they 
gave the bark I generally* heard when a squirrel was treed, 
only fiercer. On walking up to them I saw, lying fiat on 
the limb of an oak-tree, a large wildcat. I fired at her, and 
had the satisfaction of seeing her fall among my dogs, who 
covered her at once. I soon discovered that she was far 
from dead, and she proved as lively a corpse as could be 
imagined. She defended what life was left in her valiantly. 
My dogs were bleeding, and the cat kept on dealing terrible 
blows upon them. I could not shoot, for I would have 
killed my dogs also. When the battle was at its height, I 
noticed one dog, which weighed only eighteen pounds, 
retire slowly, while the two remaining ones were attacking 
the cat as furiously as ever. All at once the little dog who 
had retired a minute before, returned, leaped suddenly 
from behind on the cat's back, landing his teeth in the 
back of her neck. The surprise was complete, and in a 
second's time one of the other dogs caught hold at her 
throat, and the fight was over the cat killed. The little 
dogs that showed so much courage a few minutes before 
were all in terrible condition, and as weak as could be from 
loss of blood. 

As a watch or house dog, the Dachshund ranks high, 
and I can almost pronounce him superior to any other 
variety; he will notice the slightest noise the faintest 
footstep about the house and will give alarm. He is kind 
to the members and friends of the family, but as savage as 
a dog can be to the intruder. He is an invaluable assistant 
to the farmer, who can sleep safely when knowing that a 
Dachshund watches over his property especially his poul- 
try at night. No mink, 'coon, skunk, or other vermin will 
live long in his neighborhood; this little dog will work day 
and night to kill these pests that nearly always infest 
farms where poultry is kept, and which do so much dam- 
age if not checked by a good dog. 



THE DACHSHUND. 231 

. Before closing this chapter, allow me to mention the fol- 
lowing: It has been tried to allow a Dachshund to run 
with a pack of Foxhounds, but was always given up as 
unsuccessful, for the simple reason that the Dachshund 
will not stand it to have a superior over him; the leader of 
the pack and the Dachshund will soon begin to quarrel, 
and in the end the chances are that the small dog will kill 
the large one. 

One of the most important rules for keeping a lot of 
Dachshunds is to have plenty of ground for them, as they 
do not thrive well in too close confinement. Have the yard 
divided in, say three or four apartments; but it will not do 
to have the fences go simply down close to the ground, for 
you would not leave them ten minutes when you would 
find that the dogs had dug out, and were enjoying a walk 
outside. Lay out the plan for your building and yards, 
set the fence-posts three feet into the ground, dig trenches 
for a foundation (as for a building) two feet deep, fill this 
full of large rocks, cover all with earth, then nail your 
boards on the posts. Don't use any boards with knot- 
holes, as the dogs will begin to gnaw at them, and in time 
enlarge them so that they can go through them. In this 
way I succeeded in managing my dogs all right, with the 
exception of one, who beat all my plans. He dug a hole 
down under the rocks and up on the other side in about an 
hour, and I thought it advisable to take him to my house; 
for when the rest would have such an able teacher in their 
midst, I could see no end of trouble. When outside he 
behaved well for awhile, but soon he got a desire for a 
hunt in good company; so he commenced to dig a hole 
from the outside, and soon liberated all the dogs kept in 
that yard. 

Before I was obliged to build a stone foundation, I drove 
sticks into the ground, which were set as close together as 
I could set them. This plan is no success, as the dogs will 
dig all the earth away until the sticks stand free, when they 
are easily removed by them. The fence must be at least five 
feet high. I here give the plan of what I consider a prac- 
tical kennel for the breed : 



232 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Ground required, 60x45 feet; kennel building to be 
15x60 feet. Have a hallway in the same, say 4x60 feet; 
the balance, 11 x 60 feet, divide into four apartments, 
which will give each apartment the size of 11 x 15 feet. 
Separate hall from rooms by wire netting. Lay the floors 
one foot from ground, so as not to take too much dampness 
in wet weather; and the floor must be laid slanting, to allow 
the water to run oif when scrubbing the floor. Benches to 
be one. and one-half feet from floor, but not under the win- 
dow, as the dogs would stand up and gnaw through the 
sash. 

The balance of your ground should be divided into four 
yards, so that each room of the building is connected with 
a yard 15 x 30 feet. The rooms, as well as the yards, must 
be so arranged that the dogs in one can not see those in the 
other, which is done by erecting tight board partitions or 
fences between them. The outside fence may be of wire 
netting; this will improve the appearance of your kennels. 
The building must be light and well ventilated; doors to be 
so arranged that you may enter your grounds from all 
sides, from one yard to the other, and from the yards to 
the rooms. If wire netting be too expensive, you can, of 
course, build board fences instead. A kennel of this 
description affords room for twelve to fifteen dogs. 

It is not advisable to keep such a number in one yard, 
for they will not agree, and you must separate them in 
order to keep them from fighting; if you don't, you will 
find some of your dogs killed before long. As a general 
rule, two stud dogs are enemies, and their hatred knows no 
bounds; all tricks imaginable are brought to play to find 
some means of coming together, and if successful, one dog 
will be destroyed. 

Bitches, when fighting, seem to be even more savage 
than dogs. When two of these are fighting, you may lift 
one up, and are sure to raise the other, for when their jaws 
close on each other they hold fast, and you can swing both 
around your head a dozen times, still they will hold on to 
each other firmly. Separate them by taking a firm hold at 




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DACHSUND KENNEL. 



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(233) 



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234 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

their necks and choking them, and as soon as loosened 
throw one over the fence. These two will never after be 
friends. Often you may keep from six to eight dogs in one 
yard, and have no trouble. When admitting a strange dog 
to your kennels, you must first find out in what yard you 
can locate him, and be careful about this matter. 

It would be cruelty to keep these dogs closely confined, 
for their instinct drives them to hunt, and you should give 
them, as frequently as possible, a chance to hunt, or to run, 
at least. 

Bitches in whelp ought to be at liberty to go where they 
please. My kennels were located in the heart of a good 
game country, and as soon as I opened the door of their 
yards, my dogs had the chance to begin hunting at once. 
Dachshund kennels should be only in such localities. 
Rather let the dogs hunt once in awhile on their own 
account than deprive them of their liberty for too long a 
time. 

To take care of a dozen or fiiteen Dachshunds, in the 
proper way, is all a man is able to do. Half of the day 
should be spent in working them; the balance is necessary 
to keep the kennels in good order, etc. 

My bitch Gretchen, well known to all Dachshund 
breeders in the country, when in whelp, would hunt until 
the last day of her confinement. Once she was gone two 
days, and I had no idea where she was; her time to whelp 
was at hand. Half an hour after her return she gave birth 
to the first puppy, and by morning a family of six had 
arrived. She was an excellent mother; but on the second 
day after whelping went on a trip again, not returning 
until night. All her puppies were brought up by their 
mother, and all proved excellent dogs. 

Nearly all Dachshunds enjoy robust constitutions, and 
you will not be troubled much by diseases among them. 
You must, however, keep your kennels and yards scrupu- 
lously clean, or mange the terror of all breeders will be 
admitted. 

To keep a lot of dogs in good health depends mainly on 



THE DACHSHUND. 235 

clean kennels, plenty of exercise, and on their being prop- 
erly fed. After trying different methods of feeding, I pro- 
nounce the following the best: Raw meat is excluded. 
Mutton and beef scraps, onions and beets, and seasoning 
of salt, are boiled until the meat falls off the bones; this is 
mixed with oatmeal, corn-meal, or rice-mush, bread, or 
mashed potatoes. When fed warm to the dogs it makes 
the best meal, and is very much relished by them; but do 
not give the same thing day after day. One day mix the 
broth and meat with bread; the next day with oatmeal, 
and so on. By so doing you will not see your dogs' appe- 
tites fail, and they will always be in first-class condition- 
ready for the bench show at any day of the year. Boiled 
liver will do about once a week, as it acts as a laxative. 
Pork, given occasionally, is all right; if given too often it 
will produce mange. Feed your dogs twice a day; once in 
the morning, and the second meal just before dark, as they 
will then be much quieter during the night. 

Don't allow any dishes with remnants of a meal to stand 
around your kennel-yards; wash the dishes as soon as the 
meal is over. Your kennels and kitchen must be in such 
condition at all hours of the day that you need not be 
embarrassed to show a lady through them. Give from 
three to four times a day a good supply of fresh water. 
Buttermilk once or twice a week is recommended. 

I am opposed to chaining dogs, especially Dachshunds, 
which, thus kept, will be too savage and musical. 

When a bitch is due to whelp, you will notice, as a gen- 
eral rule, that she favors a certain place; and I always let 
her use her own judgment in selecting her bed, for she will 
then feel more contented. She will most always prefer to 
whelp on the bare ground; and let it be your care that she 
is not molested by other dogs. Of course this does not 
apply to winter, when she must be kept in a heated room. 

A litter of puppies will afford you much pleasure as 
lively as crickets, chasing and frolicking all day long; their 
odd shape and intelligent ways will make them favorites 
with all. When six weeks old, I begin to feed them milk 



236 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

and bread, and continue this diet for about a month; then 
give them same food as the old dogs eat. 

The remedies that I found to be of value in the treat- 
ment of a few diseases, I learned by years of practical 
experience in handling dogs. I will simply tell you in 
what ways I conquered the many troubles that every ken- 
nel-man is subject to. 

The mange will appear in the best-managed kennels, 
and, if not rooted out, will be the cause of endless trouble. 
Many kennels have been broken up because the disease 
could not be eradicated. When a dog shows the disease, I 
separate him from the rest, and he has to make his home 
in a small building put up for this purpose, which I call 
the " ash-box." The floor is covered with dry wood ashes. 
The dog is now bound to walk on ashes; will he lay down 
to sleep, he will sleep on ashes. Kept for one or two weeks 
in this place, you will find your dog well, and the mange 
cured. You must let the patient have exercise every day, 
and it will be good to wash him once a day; but be sure 
that he does not come too close to your healthy dogs. 

I will tell you how I came to introduce the "ash-box." 
I received a dog from Europe that was covered with the 
disease. All remedies that I tried failed to cure him he 
was in a horrible condition; and after all remedies had 
failed, I decided to shoot him. When going to the woods, 
intending to kill the poor animal, I met a farmer, whom I 
told of my intention, and who requested me to let him 
have the dog, to which I consented. I had not heard from 
the man or the dog for several months, when, while hunt- 
ing, I came near his home, and being anxious to find out 
how the dog was getting along, started to his house. I 
soon saw the Dachshund coming toward me, and was sur- 
prised to see him in the finest possible condition. 

On inquiring how it was possible to have cured him, the 
farmer said he had done nothing to him whatever but let 
him run wherever he wanted to; and the first day he dug a 
hole in a pile of wood ashes, and had slept there ever 



THE DACHSHUND. 237 

since. It was at once plain to me that the ashes had acted 
as a remedy for the disease, and I thereupon built an ash- 
box. With it I have cured every case of mange that has 
occurred in my kennels since, and friends whom I have 
advised to use it on their dogs report the same results. In 
severe cases, you may take a sponge saturated with ben- 
zine and apply it to the sores before placing the dog on his 
ash-bed. 

Worms. Ask your druggist for the common brown 
worm -powder which is given to children (Semen Cynce, pul- 
ver.)', mix half a tea-spoonful of this powder in your pup- 
py' s food, and you will be surprised what an amount of 
worms he will pass the next day. Repeat this once a day 
for three succeeding days, and give a tea-spoonful of cas- 
tor-oil about four hours after each dose was taken. I 
know of no better remedy. 

For distemper, I give one of the distemper-pills adver- 
tised in the sporting papers to such dogs as are over seven 
or eight months old. I find it to be of good service, and 
have cured many dogs troubled with the disease. But 
when a litter of puppies, say from two to three months 
old, are attacked with distemper, I have so far failed to 
find a successful remedy. A good dry bed and a warm 
place to sleep is all I can offer them, and I have to take 
my chances for their recovery. 

Fleas. Take a piece of linen, saturate it with kerosene, 
rub this backward against the dog's hair, and you will see 
the fleas crawl to the tip of the hair at once and die. Now 
wash your dog with soap and water, and when dry you 
will not find a single flea left to bother him. Sprinkle the 
floor of your kennels about once a week with kerosene. 

Lice. Common Persian insect-powder, rubbed into the 
hair, and the use of comb, brush, soap, and water is what I 
have used to get rid of these pests. 

The Dachshund, if well bred, will not need any train- 
ing, and will follow his natural instinct in hunting. Teach 
him obedience when young, and give him enough oppor- 



238 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

tunities to hunt and develop. The best method I have 
found, is in building an artificial fox-burrow in the yard 
for puppies, made of rocks, with three outlets from a 
larger place (kettle) in the center. Cover this with earth 
and brush. Catch a rabbit in a trap, and liberate it in the 
presence of your puppies. A puppy three or four months 
old will at once begin to chase the rabbit, follow it through 
the holes or brush, and, rest assured, will never forget this 
lesson. 

Do all in your power to develop courage, the main char- 
acteristic of the breed. Don't punish the puppy when he 
has done an act you dislike; many good dogs have been 
spoiled by misapplied punishment. When the age arrives 
at which he should be used on game, take a dog whose 
work satisfies you, and the puppy you wish to introduce in 
field work, and in a few weeks' practice the puppy will do 
his work satisfactorily. 

When you wish to buy a Dachshund, be sure to procure 
a puppy. Do not allow everybody to take care of him and 
to feed him; let him know that you are his friend and mas- 
ter. Let him accompany you as often as practicable. As 
soon as you notice the development of his hunting in- 
stincts, try to give him a chance to catch and kill a rabbit; 
you will then discover that your dog is on a steady lookout 
for them, and in a short time will master all the tricks of 
the rabbit. Before he is fully developed, do not allow him 
to fight a fox alone, for he may receive a severe punishment 
at the beginning of his career, which may produce bad 
effects for the future. If, by ill management, you lose the 
dog's good-will toward you, you may be a first-class 
breaker of other breeds, but the Dachshund's stronghead- 
edness you will never be able to s-ubdue; while, on the other 
hand, by kind treatment, you may bring up a dog which is 
devoted to you, and may make a useful companion of him, 
without any trouble. 

The same rules that apply to the breeding of other 
breeds will apply to the Dachshund, except in the matter 
of color. In this breed you have black and tans, chestnut 



THE DACHSHUND. 239 

and tans, fallow-red, and deep red, all distinct and eligible 
colors; and you may cross, for instance, a black-and-tan 
bitch, with a red dog, or a chestnut and tan with a red one; 
the result will always be a litter of puppies showing the 
above-mentioned colors distinct and true to type never a 
mixed color, such as a black-and-tan dog showing a red 
spot on his back, etc. I have bred over six hundred pup- 
pies, but never yet saw one which was not correctly marked. 
I have bred reds to reds for generations; have often received 
a litter of pure reds; but you can not depend on this as a 
rule, for in the fourth or fifth generation a black-and-tan, 
or a chestnut-and-tan puppy, of perfect color and mark- 
ings, may make his appearance. 

My advice is, pay no attention to color, but attend 
strictly to the other and more important qualities. Don't 
cross a Hound type Dachshund with one of a Terrier type, 
as you can not expect a well-shaped puppy from such a 
cross. The broad, deep chest, strong limbs and crook, good 
head and ears, well rounded ribs, and long-stretched body 
are the points you should breed for. 

As the paws are used by these dogs as shovels, I may 
say that, in order to get the correct stock, you should breed 
as big shovels on their legs as possible. Another impor- 
tant point to look to is the size. A Dachshund should not 
stand higher at shoulder than ten and one-half or eleven 
inches; when larger they are too large to enter a fox-hole, 
and consequently are disqualified for the purpose nature 
has intended them for. 

Many specimens are overshot; that is, the teeth on the 
upper jaw stand out one-fourth or one-half inch farther 
than those of the lower jaw. Although an animal with 
such teeth may appear to have the most beautiful head 
imaginable, he should be disqualified for breeding pur- 
poses. A Dachshund without any white markings is pre- 
ferred to one which has such; but should the dog otherwise 
be perfect, I would not object to a little white on his paws, 
chest, or under throat. 



THE BLOODHOUND. 



BY J. L. WlNCHELL. 




Two dogs of black St. Hubert breed, 
Unmatched for courage, breath, and speed, 
Fast on his flying traces came, 
And all but Avon that desperate game. 

For scarce a spear's length from his haunch, 

Vindictive toiled the Bloodhound staunch; 

Nor nearer might the dogs attain, 

Nor farther might the quarry strain. 

Thus up the margin of the lake, 

Between the precipice and brake, 

O'er stock and rock, their race they take. 

Scott, in "The Lady of the Lake." 

And hark! and hark! the deep-mouthed bark 

Comes nigher still, and nigher! 
Bursts on the path a dark Bloodhound; 
His tawny muzzle tracked the ground, 

And his red eye shot fire. 

"Lay of the Last Minstrel ' 

., DDISON, in the Spectator, contends that the English 
Bloodhound is a descendant from Vulcan's dogs. 



In proof of his statement he adds this bit of his- 
tory: "It is well known by the learned that there 
was a temple on Mount ^Etna dedicated to Yulcan, which 
was guarded by dogs of so exquisite a smell," says the his- 
torian, "that they could discern whether the person that 
came thither was chaste or otherwise. They used to meet 
and fawn upon such as were chaste, caressing them as 
friends of their master, Yulcan, but flew at those that were 
polluted, and never ceased barking at them till they were 
driven from the temple. After they had lived there in 
great repute for several years, it so happened that one of 
the priests, who had been making a charitable visit to a 

16 (241) 



242 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



widow who lived on a promontory of Lilybeum, returned 
home late in the evening. The dogs flew at him with so 
much fury that they would have killed him if his breth- 
ren had not come to his assistance, upon which the dogs 
were all of them hanged, as having lost their original 
instinct." If this had taken place in the nineteenth cent- 
ury, the priest would have been hanged and the dogs would 




ENGLISH BLOODHOUND BONO. 
Owned by Edwin Brough. 

have won collars inscribed with words of commendation 
and glory. 

Until comparatively recent times these Hounds were only to be found in 
the kennels of the nobility, and even now well-bred Bloodhounds are in the 
hands of very few breeders, and are all closely related. 

Jesse says the earliest mention of Bloodhounds was in the reign of Henry 
III. The breed originated from the Talbot, which was brought over by 
William the Conqueror, and seems to have been very similar to the St. Hubert, 



THE ENGLISH BLOODHOUND. 243 

a breed from St. Hubert's Abbey, in Ardennes, which, according to the old 
legends, was imported by St. Hubert from the south of Gaul about the sixth 
century. The Talbot was the popular Hound from the twelfth to the sixteenth 
century, but became extinct about the end of the last century. The Southern 
Hound, another very old breed showing many characteristics of the Blood- 
hound, is difficult to find now in his pure state, although many of our old 
packs of Harriers are descended chiefly from him. The best authorities agree 
that the St. Hubert, Talbot, and Bloodhound are all closely allied. Edwin 
Brough in "The Century" 

In the twelfth century, Henry III. gave the following 
instruction: 

Whereas Eduard, the king's son, has intrusted to Robert DeChenney, his 
valet, his dogs to be accustomed to blood, it is commanded to all foresters, 
woodmen, and other bailiffs and servants of the king's forests, and keepers of 
the king's warrens, that they allow the said Robert to enter with them the 
king's forests and warrens, and to hunt with them, and to take the king's 
game, in order to train the said dogs. This to hold good till the Feast of St. 
Michael next ensuing. 

Witness the king, at Woodstock, 20 Feb., 40, Henry III., 

which would mean February 20th, A.D. 1256. 

We can have no better authority of the period than that 
of the statements of Doctor Caius, written between 1555 
and 1572: 

The greater sort, which serve to hunt, having lippes of a large syze, and 
eares of no small length, doo not onely chase the beast while it liveth, but being 
dead by any maner of casualtie, make recourse to the place where it lyeth, 
havyng in this poynt an assured and infallible guyde, namely, the sent and 
savour of the blood sprinckled heere and there upon the ground. Thes ; kinde 
of dogges pursue the deede dooers through long lanes, crooked reaches, and 
weary wayes, without wandring away out of the limits of the land whereon 
these desperate purloyners prepared their speedy passage. 

Yea, the natures of these dogges is such, and so effectual is their foresight, 
that they can bewray, separate, and pycke them out from among an infinite 
multitude and an innumerable company, creep they never so far into the thickest 
thronge; they will find him out notwithstanding he lye hidden in wylde woods, 
in close and overgrowen groves, and lurke in hollow holes apte to harbour 
such ungracious guestes. Moreover, although they should pass over the water, 
thinking thereby to avoyde the pursuite of the Hounds, yet will not these dogges 
give over their attempt, but presuming to swim through the streame, persevere 
in their pursuite; and when they be arrived and gotten the further bancke, 
they hunt up and downe, to and fro run they, from place to place shift they, 
until they have attained to that plot of grounde where they passed over. And 
this is their practise, if perdie they can not at ye first time smelling finde out 
that way which the deede dooers tooke to escape . For they will not pause or 



244 THE AMEKICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

breath from their pursuite until such tyme as they bee apprehended and taken 
which committed the f acte. 

These Houndes, when they are to follow such fellowes as we have before 
rehersed, use not that liberty to raunge at will which they have otherwise when 
they are in game (except upon necessary occasion whereon dependeth an urgent 
and effectual perswasion when such purloyners make speedy way in flight), but 
beyng restrained and drawn backe from running at random with the leasse, 
the end whereof the owner holding in his hand is led, guyded, and directed with 
such swiftnesse and slownesse (whether he go on foote or whether he ryde on 
horseback) as he himselfe in haste woulde wishe for the more easie apprehen- 
sion of these venturous varlots. In the borders of England and Scotland (the 
often and accustomed stealing of cattell so procuring), these kinde of dogges 
are very much used, and they are taught and trained up first of all to hunt 
cattell, as well of the smaller as of the greater growth, and after wardes (that 
qualitie relinquished and left) they are learned to pursue such pestilent persons 
as plant theyre pleasure in such practises of purloyning as we have already 
declared. 

Two or three centuries ago the Bloodhound was much used in England 
and Scotland, not only to track felons, but to pursue political offenders. They 
were kept at one time in great numbers on the border of Scotland, and not 
only set upon the trail of moss-troopers, but upon fugitive royalty. Bruce was 
repeatedly tracked by these dogs, and on one occasion only escaped death from 
their jaws by wading a considerable distance up a brook, and thus baffling their 
scent. A sure way of stopping a dog was to spill blood, and thus destroy its 
discriminating powers. A captive was sometimes sacrificed on such occasions. 
A story of William Wallace is related, as follows: 

The hero's little band had been joined by an ally, a dark, savage, suspi- 
cious character. After a sharp skirmish at Black Erncside, Wallace was forced 
to retreat with only a section of his followers. The English pursued with bor- 
der Bloodhounds. In the retreat the ally tired, or appeared to do so, and would 
go no farther. Wallace having in vain argued with him, in hasty anger struck 
off his head, and continued his retreat. The English came up, but the Hounds 
refused to leave the dead body, and the fugitive escaped. 

The Bloodhound has, for many centuries, been a favorite 
in England. He came with the conquerors, and was their 
faithful follower then as he is their companion now, and 
some of the old English lords point with pride to their 
favorite Hounds, and say: " This same strain has been with 
our family since the Conquest." Who can doubt the 
ancient ancestry of the Bloodhound when we note his 
sedate and stately bearing, his thoughtful, dignified man- 
ner. These bespeak at once his ancient lineage and his 
long-extended pedigree, which is written on his wrinkled 
face and in his deep-set eye. 



THE ENGLISH BLOODHOUND. 245 

They were used by Henry VIII. in the wars in France, 
by Queen Elizabeth against the Irish, and by the Spaniards 
in Mexico and Peru. 

At a still later time, Bloodhounds were used for the capture of sheep- 
stealers and others, and a tax was often levied for their maintenance for this 
purpose. 

It is only in very old writings that we find Talbots, or white Bloodhounds, 
mentioned. The "thick, round head" Somerville describes would certainly 
not be admired now, and I believe was never an accurate description of the 
Bloodhound. A long, narrow, peaked head is indicative of great scenting 
powers, and large flews and dewlap of a deep, mellow voice. 

The Bloodhound has a much more delicate nose than any other known 
breed of Hound, and can puzzle out a cold scent under the most adverse condi- 
tions. He is remarkable for adhering to the scent of the animal on which he 
is laid. Some years since a pack of Staghounds was kept in Derbyshire, and 
it was no infrequent occurrence for the hunted deer to take refuge among a 
herd in some park. In this case the pack was whipped off and a couple of 
Bloodhounds laid on, who stuck to the hunted deer until they got him clear of 
the herd, when the pack was again laid on. 

The Bloodhound is easily entered to hunt anything, and with a strong scent 
will sometimes absolutely sit down on his haunches for a few seconds and 
throw tongue in sheer delight. The note is deep, mellow, and prolonged, and 
may be heard for miles. The bay, or " singing," of a kennel of Bloodhounds 
just before feeding or exercising is most melodious. Edwin Brough in "The 
Century." 

We make use of the delicate faculty of sense possessed by animals to aid 
us in the chase, and are so accustomed to rely upon it that its marvelousness 
escapes attention; but we have no pli3 7 sical faculty so exquisite as this. . . 
Everyone who has gathered wild plants knows what an immense variety of 
odors arise from the scents upon the ground; this is the first complication. 
Next upon that (though we can not detect it) are traced in all directions differ- 
ent lines of scent laid down by the passage of animals and men; this is the 
second complication. "Well, across these labyrinths of misleading and disturb- 
ing odors the dog follows the one scent that he cares for at the time (notwith- 
standing its incessant adulteration by mixtures) as easily as we could follow a 
scarlet thread on a green field. If he were only sensible to the one scent he 
followed, the marvel would be much reduced; but he knows many different 
odors, and selects among them the one that attracts him at the time. Hamer- 
ton on Animals. 

There is a dog in the Southern States called the Blood- 
hound, used to find escaped prisoners and desperadoes, 
which is somewhat related, probably, to the English Blood- 
hounds, and there are well-trained packs of them; but, as 
a general rule, the cross-bred dog is a treacherous one. 



246 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

They are so well trained that they hardly ever attack the 
man pursued if he remains quiet and does not resist. Not 
long since a desperado was brought to a stand by three of 
these dogs. They smelled him over, but were perfectly 
friendly, with no intention of harming him, until he, hear- 
ing his pursuers near him, turned to run. In an instant the 
Hounds were upon him. When the sheriff arrived with his 
men, they found two dead Hounds covered with knife- 
wounds, and the third uninjured, with his terrible fangs 
fastened on the throat of the dying criminal. The remarks 
of the sheriff at the time were worth pages of explanation: 
" That fool just flung his life away fighting three dogs 
with a knife. Why didn't he keep still ? " 

Following is the description and value of points of the 
Bloodhound as adopted by the American Kennel Club: 

Value. Value. 

Head 20 Legs and feet 15 

Ears and eyes 10 Color and coat 10 

Flews 5 Stern 5 

Neck 5 Symmetry 10 

Shoulder and chest 10 

Back and back ribs 10 Total 100 

The head (value 20) is the peculiar feature of this breed, 
and I have accordingly estimated it at a very high rate. In 
the male it is large in all its dimensions but width, in which 
there is a remarkable deficiency. The upper surface is 
domed, ending in a blunt point at the occiput; but the brain 
case is not developed to the same extent as the jaws, which 
are very long and wide at the nostrils, hollow and very lean 
in the cheek, and notably under the eyes. The brows are 
moderately prominent, and the general expression of the 
whole head is very grand and majestic. The skin covering 
the forehead and cheeks is wrinkled in a remarkable man- 
ner, wholly unlike any other dog. These points are not 
nearly so developed in the bitch; but still they are to be 
demanded in the same proportionate degree. 

Ears and eyes (value 10). The ears are long enough to 
overlap one another considerably when drawn together in 
front of the nose; the ''leather" should be very thin, and 



THE ENGLISH BLOODHOUND. 247 

should hang very forward arid close to the cheeks, never 
showing the slightest tendency to "prick;" they should 
be covered with very short, soft, silky hair. The eyes are 
generally hazel, rather small, and deeply sunk, showing the 
third eyelid, or "haw," which is frequently, but not always, 
of a deep red color; this redness of the haw is, as a rule, an 
indication of Bloodhound cross whenever it is met with, 
whether in the Mastiff, Gordon Setter, or St. Bernard, 
though occasionally I have met with it in breeds in which 
no trace of the Bloodhound could be detected. 

The flews (value 5) are remarkably long and pendent, 
sometimes falling fully two inches below the angle of the 
mouth. 

The neck (value 5) is long, so as to enable this Hound to 
drop his nose to the ground without altering his pace. In 
the front of the throat there is a considerable dewlap. 

Chest and shoulders (value 10). The chest is rather 
wide than deep, but in all cases there should be a good 
girth; shoulders sloping and muscular. 

The back and back ribs (value 10) should be wide and 
deep, the size of the dog necessitating great power in this 
department. The hips, or "couples," should be especially 
attended to, and they should be wide, or almost ragged. 

Legs and feet (value 15). Many Bloodhounds are very 
deficient in these important parts, owing to confinement. 
The legs must be straight and muscular, and the ankles of 
full size. The feet also are often flat, but they should be, if 
possible, round and cat-like. 

Color and coat (value 10). In color the Bloodhound is 
either black-and-tan or tan only, as is the case with all 
black-and-tan breeds. The black should extend to the 
back, the sides, top of the neck, and top of the head. It is 
seldom a pure black, but more or less mixed with the tan, 
which should be a deep, ricli red. There should be little or 
no white. A deep tawny, or lion color, is also coveted, but 
seldom found. The coat should be short and hard on the 
body, but silky on the ears and top of the head. 

The stern (value 5) is, like that of all Hounds, carried 



248 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

gaily in a gentle curve, but should not be raised beyond a 
right-angle with the back. 

The symmetry (value 10) of the Bloodhound, as regarded 
from an artistic point of view, should be examined care- 
fully, and valued in proportion to the degree in which it is 
developed. 

People generally have a mistaken idea about the Blood- 
hound. They look upon him as a vicious animal one that 
will tear you to pieces the moment he gets to you. This is 
not the case. A pure English Bloodhound is the most gen- 
tle dog in the world. If he is laid on the trail of a man, 
and overtakes him, all the man has to do is to stop and he 
will not be harmed. When you have once won the esteem 
of a Bloodhound, he is your friend forever. To illustrate 
their gentleness, I will relate an incident: A short time 
ago the Duchess of Ripple was lying by the grate in my 
house. My little boy became convinced that her ears were 
too long, and getting a pair of shears, he got astride of her 
and began trimming them. All the Duchess did was to 
howl. She offered the lad no violence, and did not even try 
to run away. When I got there, I found the boy with the 
shears in one hand and the bleeding ear in the other. 
Nothing could have induced her to injure him. 

The most striking characteristic of the Bloodhound is 
his wonderful scenting power. The Duchess will follow a 
trail and be several rods away from it. She will run par- 
allel with it at great speed. If she loses a trail, she will 
make a circuit until she strikes it again, and away she will 
go. Bloodhounds could be trained to do great police duty. 
Put one of them on the trail of a thief, and he would not be 
long in locating the culprit. I sold one to a man in Detroit. 
One night the man' s horse got out of the barn and disap- 
peared. Hours afterwaxd the dog was put on the trail, fol- 
lowed it for eight miles, finally found the horse in a pasture 
and picked it out from among many other horses. 

The Bloodhound is in every sense a gentleman's dog. 
When you have once won his esteem, you may depend upon 



THE ENGLISH BLOODHOUND. 249 

him as your life-long friend. He has a stately bearing, a 
thoughtful and dignified air, to which his long pedigree 
and princely birth justly entitle him. If you are fond of 
outdoor exercise, what more exciting sport can be had than 
a run, or witnessing one, with these dogs. If you want a 
new sensation, or are overworked, try it. Come out into the 
country, start away some early morning, a couple of hours 




ENGLISH BLOODHOUNDS ROSEMARY AND DUCHESS OF RIPPLE. 
Owned by Mr. J. L. Winchell, Fairhaven, Vermont. 

ahead of the Hounds, with your stopping-place in your 
mind; then choose your course, so you may enjoy the trail- 
ing of the Hounds and hear their deep voices resounding in 
the chase as you sit in your chosen position watching them 
as they near you, see them carefully casting for your trail 
under difficult circumstances, hear their deep, bell-like 
notes resounding in the dark forest and on the mountains, 
with a cry unbroken. The music, the poetry of it, as it 



250 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

rings through the clear air, is a grand, wild concert; now 
faintly heard in low, distant murmurs as it comes floating 
over the low hills, then louder, swelling, and finally burst- 
ing in a grand chorus as they near you. Once heard, it 
can never be forgotten. 

"Why is this dog called the Bloodhound?" many ask. 
The name is a misnomer. He is not blood-thirsty, more than 
any other dog; but it is owing to the peculiar instinct which 
he probably acquired in tracking wounded game. 

Could a pack of Bloodhounds be trained so as to enter 
into the spirit of the chase on the stage, could they be seen 
in their excitement, heard in their full cry, what a madden- 
ing encore they would receive. 

When we consider the marvelous attributes of the Bloodhound, it is diffi- 
cult to understand how it could possibly have gone almost out of use, as it 
evidently did. Probably this decadence began when he was no longer required 
in border warfare. As a matter of course, the breed became scarce, and 
was only kept up by old families who were loath to part from their ancient tra- 
ditions, or who had deer parks and used Bloodhounds for tracking wounded 
deer. Fortunately, dog shows came to the rescue, or the breed would probably 
have, by this time, become extinct. 

I fear that dog shows, and their attendant changes of fashion, have done an 
immense amount of harm to some of our most useful breeds; but luckily the 
Bloodhound has been estimated most highly for his best and most character- 
istic qualities, and the long, narrow, peaked head, always associated with 
special scenting powers, and the long ears and immense dewlap, indicative of 
voice, are much more common now than ever before. The chief alteration has 
been in the lines denoting speed, and we now have a much faster Hound than 
in the moss-trooping days; in fact, many Bloodhounds are quite as fast as 
average Foxhounds. 

We have, however, been intensifying the type and formation indicative of 
the special properties inherent in him, and I am satisfied that with a reasonable 
amount of careful training we may obtain much more wonderful results in the 
tracking of criminals than have ever been attained before. We have now few 
Hounds trained to hunt the "clean boot ' i. e., merely the natural sctmt of a 
man throuiih his boots and the very few Bloodhound owners who attempt 
anything of this kind do not devote sufficient time to the pursuit to bring 
their Hounds to even a moderate degree of excellence. 

I am convinced that the time has now come when we may hope to see this 
matter taken up in a thoroughly intelligent manner; and if this is done, we 
shall, in a few years, be quite unable to understand why the Bloodhound was 
ever allowed to fall into disuse for this purpose. Each succeeding generation of 
trained Hounds must become much more proficient than the last one; and when 
they have come into general use, the deterrent effect on crime will be incalcula- 



THE ENGLISH BLOODHOUND. 251 

ble. Such detectives would be incapable of accepting a bribe, and would often 
discover criminals when other means could only end in failure. Edwin 

Brough in ' ' The Century. " 

The Bloodhound stands alone among all the canine race 
in his fondness for hunting the footsteps of entire stran- 
gers. Almost any dog will follow the footsteps of his master 
or of one whom he knows, but a Bloodhound will follow 
those of a stranger with all the eagerness of an old, trained 
Foxhound in close pursuit. If he is first trained on man, 
he will follow the trail of any animal, for the trail left by 
man is less than that of any other. Bloodhounds kept for 
trailing man should be kept by themselves, and great care 
should be exercised in keeping their quarters clean. They 
should have their daily runs; their feed should be always 
sweet and fresh. A small piece of decayed meat will render 
a Hound almost useless for hours; and in training puppies 
it is best that the attendant should be a stranger to them. 
Mr. Edwin Brough describes the method by which he has 
trained his so successfully, for the last twenty years, in 
the following words. Nothing more could be added, only 
that if you wish them to show great proficiency you must 
give them abundant practice: 

One method of training advocated is to rub the boots of the man who runs 
for the Hounds with blood, and to discontinue this gradually as the Hounds 
become more expert. This is a bad plan. It is quite easy to enter Blood- 
hounds without any artificial aid of this kind, and it is much more difficult to 
get them to run man after they have become accustomed to a stronger scent. I 
consider that Hounds work better when entered to one particular scent, and 
kept to that only; and I never allow my Hounds to hunt anything but the 
clean boot. You can scarcely commence too early to teach puppies to hunt 
the clean boot. I often give mine their first lessons when three or four months 
old. For the first few times I find it best to let them run someone they know; 
afterward it does not matter how often the runner is changed. He should 
caress and make much of the puppies, and then let them see him start away, 
but should get out of their sight as quickly as possible, and run say two hun- 
dred yards up-wind, on grass land, in a straight line, and then hide himself. 

The man who hunts the puppies should know the exact line taken, and 
take the puppies over it, trying to encourage them to hunt until they get to 
their man, who should always reward them with a bit of meat. This may 
have to be repeated several times before they really get their heads down; but 
when they have once begun to hunt, they improve rapidly, and take great 
delight in the quest. Everything should be made as easy as possible at first, 



252 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

and the difficulties increased gradually. This may be done by having the line 
crossed by others, by increasing the time before the puppies are laid on, or by 
crossing roads, etc. When the puppies get old enough, they should be taught 
to jump boldly, and to swim brooks where necessary. When the young Hounds 
have begun to run fairly well, it will be found useful to let the runner carry a 
bundle of sticks, two feet or two feet six inches long, pointed at one end, and 
with a piece of white paper stuck in a cleft at the other end. When he makes 
a turn or crosses a fence, he should put one of these sticks down, and incline it 
in the direction he is going to take next. This will give the person hunting 
the Hounds some idea of the correctness of their work, though the best Hounds 
do not always run the nearest to the line. On a good scenting day I have seen 
Hounds running hard fifty yards or more to the leeward of the line taken. 
These sticks should be taken up when done with, or they may be found mis- 
leading on some other occasion. 

The Hounds will soon learn to cast themselves, or try back, if they over- 
run the line, and should never receive any assistance as long as they continue 
working on their own account. It is most important that they should become 
quite self-reliant. The line should be varied as much as possible. It is not 
well to run Hounds over exactly the same course they have been hunted over 
on some previous occasion. If some Hounds are much slower than the rest, it 
is best to hunt them by themselves, or they may get to " score to cry," as the 
old writers say, instead of patiently working out the line each for himself. 

It is a great advantage to get Hounds accustomed to strange sights and 
noises. If a Hound is intended to be brought to such a pitch of excellence as 
will enable him to be used in thoroughfares, he should be brought up in a town 
and see as much bustle as possible. If he is only intended to be used in open 
country, with occasional bits of road work, this is not necessary. 

Bloodhounds give tongue freely when hunting any wild animal, but many 
Hounds run perfectly mute when hunting man. This is, however, very much 
a matter of breeding. Some strains run man without giving tongue at all, 
others are very musical. 

Anyone who is fond of seeing Hounds work, but who has only a limited 
amount of country to hunt over, will find an immense amount of pleasure in 
hunting man with one or two couples of Bloodhounds. In such circumstances 
it is a great convenience to be able to select the exact course, which could not 
be done if hunting some animal; and a great variety of different runs can be 
contrived over limited ground. I know nothing more delightful than to see 
Bloodhounds working out a scent carefully under varying circumstances, and 
to hear their sonorous, deep, bell-like note. There is not, of course, the slight- 
est danger to the runner, even if the Hounds have never seen him before. 
When they have come up and sniffed him over, they manifest no further inter- 
est in him. 

The head is the chief characteristic of the breed, and should be estimated 
highly; the skull is long (in good dogs it generally exceeds eleven inches in 
length), narrow, and very much peaked; muzzle deep and square; ears thin, 
long, and pendulous, set on low, hanging close to the face, and curled upon 
themselves; eyes hazel-colored, deep set, with triangular-shaped lids, showing 



THE ENGLISH BLOODHOUND. 



253 



the haw. Flews long, thin, and pendulous, the upper lip overhanging the 
lower one. Neck long, with great quantity of loose skin, or dewlap. The 
skin of the face should be loose and wrinkled, and when the nose is depressed 
a roll of loose skin should be seen on the forehead. The coat should be close, 
but rather silky in texture, and the skin thin. Height, dogs from twenty-five 
to twenty-seven inches at shoulder, bitches rather less. Shoulders deep and 
sloping, brisket particularly well let down, forming a sort of keel between the 
fore legs; loins broad and muscular; powerful, muscular" thighs and second 
thighs; good legs and round feet, hocks well bent; tapering, lashing stern. 

The color most generally admired now is black and tan, the legs, feet, and 
all or part of the face being a tan-color, and the back and sides and the upper 




ENGLISH BLOODHOUND PUPPIES. 
Owned by Mr. J. L. Winchell, Fairhaven, Vermont. 

part of neck and stern black. There is generally a white star on the chest, and 
a little white on the feet is admissible. Some fifteen years since, it was not at 
all uncommon to see white flecks on the back making the Hound look as if he 
had been out in a snow-storm and a white tip to stern. The former pecul- 
iarity seems, unfortunately, to be quite lost, but the white tip to stern is still 
sometimes met with. A deep red with tan markings is common; but to my 
mind, the most beautiful color of all is a tawny, more or less mixed with black 
on the back. It is, however, rare, and I only know one or two Hounds of this 
color. The bitch is somewhat smaller than the dog, and in her the head prop- 
erties are not so fully developed. 



254 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The illustrations are from well-known show dogs, and 
are the best type of the Bloodhound of to-day. That of 
the three puppies is from a photograph taken on the 
day they were two months old. They are the average ones 
of a litter of eleven which the dam raised without any 
assistance. The sire was Burgho, dam Rosemary. They 
are of the St. Hubert type, spoken of by Sir Walter Scott. 
They are darker in color and generally larger and more 
powerful than most of the breed. One of this litter, at six 
months old, weighed over eighty pounds, had ears measur- 
ing twenty-six inches, and his head was twelve inches long. 
Champion Barnaby is one of the best all-round Blood- 
hounds of England; his sire is Champion Nobleman, dam 
Brevity. The red and tan Duchess of Ripple, and the 
black and tan Rosemary, are proving themselves two of the 
best breeding bitches of England. Duchess is a great 
prize-winner, besides being the dam (6f more and greater 
show dogs than any Bloodhound living. Her sire was Tim- 
bush II. , dam Patti. Rosemary, her companion, has prob- 
ably more of the Southern or St. Hubert blood than any 
Bloodhound known. The illustration of Bono is from a 
photograph taken when he was twelve months old. He is 
strong in all Bloodhound points, but is particularly grand 
in his head. He has been shown at all the principal bench 
shows in the last year, and never beaten; besides winning 
the principal prize at the greatest show at Manchester, 
England, the challenge cup for the best sporting dog, 
unanimously awarded by all the judges of the different 
classes. A wonderful record for a dog of his age. I doubt 
if there is a dog in England that can score as many points. 
His dam was the Duchess of Ripple. The first kennel was 
exhibited here by Mr. Edwin Brough at the Westminster 
Kennel Club's Show, in New York, in February, 1888. 
In it were Champion Barnaby and Duchess of Ripple. 
Previous to this time, I can safely say there was not a fair 
specimen ever exhibited at any of our shows. Probably 
the reason of their not being introduced here before was 
their scarcity and the price they commanded in England. 



THE ENGLISH BLOODHOUND. 255 

Within the last two years, we have imported, bred, and 
sold over seventy Bloodhounds in America, and have ex- 
hibited a kennel of them at our principal shows during 
that time. They have gone to California, Mexico, and 
Texas, and in the East have been taken principally by 
ladies as companions, and have become a fashionable house- 
hold dog. 

To be a successful breeder means more than the rearing 
of many dogs. There would have been no Maud S. , Sunol, 
or Axtell had their breeders followed the hap -hazard style 
of mating practiced by many dog fanciers. There is as 
much science in the production of a high-class dog as in the 
breeding of a great trotter. Strains properly united pro- 
duce champions as well as great trotters. The rearing of 
healthy puppies depends largely upon the sire and dam, 
both before and after breeding. Their age, hereditary con- 
stitutions, and the frequency of breeding of the dam must 
all be looked to in order to obtain the best results. Once a 
year is as often as any bitch should be bred. 

My aim is to keep my dogs in the most perfect show 
condition at all times more particularly my stud dogs and 
breeding bitches. They have their morning lesson on the 
trail, for an hour or so, besides a large yard connected with 
their kennels supplied with running water. They are well 
groomed every day, and the kennels are kept clean at all 
times. 

After the bitch has been bred, I make no change in her 
treatment for a month or so; then I begin gradually to 
reduce the amount of her exercise, and to feed more liber- 
ally, with a greater variety of food. I probably feed more 
meat at all times than most breeders. The bitch is trans- 
ferred to her temporary whelping quarters long enough 
before the time she is to whelp to have her feel at home 
there. I have ^her keeper, or someone whom she is famil- 
iar with, remain with her while whelping, in order that he 
may render her or her puppies any assistance necessary. 

Most bitches are very sensitive at this period, and must 



256 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



be treated with great gentleness. None but those she is 
familiar with should be allowed near her during the first 
week or so after whelping. When the puppies are about 
two days old, she may be transferred to her permanent 
kennels, after she has been cleaned and groomed. She 
will probably not take exercise enough for her health, 




ENGLISH BLOODHOUND CHAMPION BARNABV. 
Owned by Edwin Brough. 

unless taken out for a walk two or three times a day. 
Keep her warm; do not let her become chilled. Feed her 
often, anything she craves boiled mutton, beef broth, 
with bread and rice, buttermilk, etc. Keep fresh water 
always by her. Remove any remnant of her food when 
she is through eating. I have raised eleven and twelve 
puppies, respectively, in two different litters, from Rose- 
mary by this method of treatment. At five weeks old, so 



THE ENGLISH BLOODHOUND. 257 

even a lot were they that one could scarcely be told from 
another. 

When I commenced feeding the puppies, which was 
when they were between four and live weeks old, they were 
fed on nearly the same food I had been giving the dam; 
but they were fed four or five times a day, the keeper 
always remaining with them until they were through eat- 
ing, so as to encourage the weaker ones and restrain the 
stronger ones from imposing on the others. Their dishes 
were always removed and cleaned as soon as they were 
through eating. The smaller and weaker puppies should 
be given codliver-oil twice a day. 

It is a well-known fact that more puppies die from 
worms than from any other cause. My remedy for this is 
the juice of pumpkin-seeds given with their food, and as 
a preventative, charcoal or buttermilk. 

Exercise is most important for puppies. They should always be either 
sleeping or running about, except when eating. If the weather is wet or cold, 
they should have a roomy place, under cover, to run about in, with large bones 
to pick, or some other amusement. The bone-picking is necessary to keep the 
teeth in good order. 

When two or three months old, I take my puppies out to exercise in a field, 
and as soon as they have become pretty handy, on the road for a few times, 
with a lad to whip in; and then they go out for an hour's exercise daily with 
the other Hounds. When five or six months old, they should be under nearly 
as good command as the old Hounds. If taught to lead at this age it is much 
less troublesome than when it has been left till they are nearly full grown. 
With some puppies this is easy to accomplish; others throw themselves about 
and are obstinate, but soon resign themselves to their fate if handled quietly. 

If a puppy declines to budge, it is a mistake to pull him about forcibly. 
Wait until he decides to move, and then let him go in the direction he prefers. 
He will soon get accustomed to restraint, and in a few days will allow you to 
choose the road. If he then pulls unpleasantly, he should be taught, by a few 
taps on the nose with a switch, to walk soberly at your side without straining 
at the chain. 

PREPARATION FOR THE SHOW BENCH. 

In a properly kept kennel the dogs will always be in 
good show condition. But if they are covered with skin 
diseases, if alive with vermin, or if they have been kept in 
dirty quarters, they will need a great deal of preparation to 
fit them for the show bench. Your kennel can not be a 

17 



258 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

success unless you breed with an object in view. If you 
breed good dogs, the next consideration is that they shall 
be well kept. A good kennel-man is as rare as a good 
breeder. 

In preparing dogs for the show bench, one of the most 
important considerations is that they shall be well broken 
to the chain and shall not be afraid of strangers. Much 
depends on the way a dog appears in the ring, before the 
judge. The number of extra pounds of flesh which you 
may crowd on the dog will not win the prize with a good 
judge. 

He should be given a gentle run or walk twice a day, 
much as has been his habit, and on his return he should be 
groomed and given dry sleeping quarters. We often hear 
this old adage, " A good grooming is better for a horse than 
a feeding," and it is equally applicable to a dog. His gen- 
eral appearance will depend very much on the grooming he 
gets. Use nothing that will irritate the skin. N ever exhibit 
puppies unless you are going out of the business. You may 
escape distemper once, but the people who may possibly buy 
your puppies may not be so fortunate. In shipping to the 
show, it is better to go with your dogs yourself, or send a 
man, to see that they get there safely, and also to take them 
into the ring. Do not consider your kennels well kept 
unless your dogs are always in condition for the show 
bench. 

Nature has evidently intended the Bloodhound as a com- 
panion, a guardian, a household pet. The difficulty that 
has been experienced in England in rearing them does not 
exist here. The change in climate, food, and surroundings 
seems to have infused new life into the breed; and a Blood- 
hound bitch that I received from England in whelp, and 
from whom I was unable to raise more than three or four 
puppies without foster-mothers, after the second or third 
litter here raised eight to twelve. I have no difficulty now 
in rearing as many puppies from my Bloodhounds as from 
my Mastiffs. 



THE ENGLISH BLOODHOUND. 



259 



The breeders and trainers of the Bloodhound, both here 
and in England, have always had one object in view, 
namely, the improvement of his natural scenting powers; 
and most admirably have they succeeded. Americans have 
the credit of knowing a good thing when they see it, and I 
have no doubt, therefore, that the Bloodhound will become 
as great a favorite here as he is in England. 





THE RUSSIAN WOLFHOUND, OR BARZOI. 



BY WILLIAM WADE. 



IN beginning an article on this breed, the question of a 
by-stander, "Why, what do you know about that 
breed T' is most pertinent. I really do not know 
anything about them in the sense that a writer on 
other breeds is supposed to know of the breed he has under 
consideration; but the consolation in this case is that, little 
as I know, nobody else knows much more. The breed has 
never been, in this country or in England, a regularly rec- 
ognized one, with points and characteristics well defined 
and authoritatively established. It may be aptly said that 
the Russian Wolfhound, or Barzoi, is an immense Grey- 
hound in conformation, with all the elegance of contour 
of that grand animal, but much larger. The chief distin- 
guishing feature of this breed is the coat, which is long, 
fine, dense, and should be flat, although many specimens 
have a roughness or waviness of coat suggestive of a Deer- 
hound cross. 

That it is true that there is no definite, fixed type of the 
breed, even in Russia, is incidentally shown by Mr. A. J. 
Rosseau, of St. Petersburg, in the London Fancier's Gazette 
of February 7, 1890. He says that Russian breeders have 
been trying for seventy-five years to divide the two types, 
the long and short haired dogs, and that, in spite of their 
endeavors, puppies of either type will come in one litter. 
This is simply confessing the most lamentable incapacity 
of the Russian breeders, for English breeders have revolu- 
tionized Pointers, Setters, Spaniels, and Terriers in much 
less time than this, and have actually created the race of 
Bull Terriers from the incongruous elements of the waspish 
old English Terrier and the Bulldog. As there is every 

(261) 



262 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

probability of the Russian Wolfhound being taken up 
in real earnest in England, a few years will doubtless see 
the development of a recognized, fixed type; and until this 
is done, the only type to be considered is the dog of power, 
elegance, and beauty, viewed in the light of the commonly 
accepted requirements, which are found, in some degree, in 
all good breeds of dogs. 



if 






RUSSIAN WOLFHOUND-CZAR. 
Owned by J. Sperber, 23 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Penn. 

General features, such as size, build, coat, and color, 
seem to be about the extent of the requirements of a " spec- 
imen." In Russian Wolfhounds, therefore, only charac- 
teristics applicable to all breeds of dogs are of weight in 
forming an opinion of any particular specimen. Thus for 
a long coat, on a dog that is at all of Greyhound type, it is 



THE RUSSIAN WOLFHOUND, OR BARZOI. 263 

plainly requisite that it be flat. A rough or shaggy coat is 
evidently incongruous. The same as to head. The dog 
belongs to the Greyhound family, and must have a long, 
clean, narrow head; great strength and arch of loin; depth 
and capacity of chest; firmness of feet; muscle in the fore- 
arm and hind quarters; length and carriage of tail. Well- 
bent hocks and an absence of all useless lumber are plainly 
requirements of the breed. 

As to the history of this breed, there seems to be no 
authentic records. "The Book of the Dog," by Yero 
Shaw, is the first work in English that mentions them. 
Their uses seem to be in general those of the Greyhound. 
Mr. Rosseau was disposed to resent the application of the 
name of "Wolfhound" to them, saying that they were used 
for coursing hares and chasing foxes, and were in no sense 
wolf -hounds. However, the industry of Mr. F. Freeman 
Lloyd disinterred pictures of the breed showing them in 
combat with a wolf, with the wolf at bay, a huntsman 
astride of it, holding it by the ears while an assistant cut 
its throat. 

This acrobatic performance was so hard to swallow that 
it raised a storm of criticism, which resulted in bringing 
out evidence that the feat was actually practiced; It seems 
probable that in the more settled districts of Russia, where 
wolves are extinct, the dog is used for coursing hares only; 
while in the wilder districts, where wolves are still to be 
found, these dogs are used for hunting them. Certainly it 
would indicate a lack of judgment on the part of the Rus- 
sians if they did not use a breed so peculiarly fitted for 
wolf -hunting in that sport; this dog having the speed, 
power, and courage for the task. As confirmatory of the 
opinion that they are so used, I note the report of a cours- 
ing-match near St. Petersburg, given in the Fancier's 
Gazette, of London, in December, 1889, wherein it is stated 
that after coursing hares for some time, the gameness of 
the dogs was tried on wolves, with the result that a single 
bitch chased, caught, and threw a dog wolf; and, with all 
due respect for the cracks among Greyhounds and Deer- 



264 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

hounds, I do not believe that one of them can be produced 
capable of duplicating the last part of this performance, 
unless Russian wolves have degenerated from the standard 
of power and ferocity with which they were credited in our 
early days. 

The correspondent of the Fancier' s Gazette arrived at 
the conclusion, however, that the Russian dogs would stand 
no chance whatever with an English Greyhound in cours- 
ing; and this has always been the opinion of the most com- 
petent and impartial observers in England. Whether the 
Russian dog be he Greyhound, or Wolfhound is the dog 
wanted in the Far West for hunting wolves, or not, it is 
certain that there is one ' ' use ' ' for which he is preemi- 
nently fitted; i. e., as the "chien de luxe." No other 
breed combines elegance, speed, and power to the same 
degree. The Mastiff has the power and disposition for an 
efficient guard and companion, but lacks the speed and 
elegance; notwithstanding his distinguished dignity, the 
same is true of the St. Bernard, and also of the Newfound- 
land; the Boarhound may have the speed, and doubtless 
has the power, and the finer drawn specimens have a certain 
degree of elegance, but there is an expression of ferocity on 
their faces that unfits them for companions, especially of 
ladies. With all his elegance and speed, the Greyhound 
lacks the appearance of power; and the Deerhound has 
such an air of joughness that elegance seems an impossible 
attribute. In each and every one of these particulars, the 
Russian dog is superexcellent; and there is a peculiarly 
aristocratic, high-bred look about the dog that can be more 
easily realized than described. As the companion of a 
well-dressed woman in her walks in park or country, or as 
the finishing off of a handsome span of horses, I can 
imagine nothing to equal this dog. 

A most important qualification to this statement is, pro- 
vided the temper of the particular animal be trustworthy. 
In this matter there is great diversity; Czar and Ivan, two 
well-known specimens in this country, are perfect demons 
in temper toward other dogs, while Elsie is gentle and 



THE RUSSIAN WOLFHOUND, OR BARZOI. 265 

peaceable to a fault. ' I fancy that Russian breeding tends 
to develop the savagery in the breed, while English breed- 
ing will draw out the gentle, peaceable traits generally 
characteristic of all English breeds of dogs. The pictures 
of Czar and Elsie fairly represent, in a general way, one 
type of the breed, one that might be called the Setter- 
Greyhound type; Czar's being a good likeness of the dog, 
while Elsie's shows much more bone, and less muscle in 




RUSSIAN WOLFHOUND-ELSIE. 
Owned by Mr. J. Otis Fellows, Hornellsville, N. Y. 

quarters than she really has. Neither picture does justice 
to the coats; Czar's being much smoother, with the com- 
monest grooming, and Elsie's being scant on account of 
low condition. Czar is a powerful, well-made dog, about 
twenty-nine or thirty inches at the shoulder, but hardly as 
long in back as other specimens I have seen; in which 
point Elsie shows an extreme development, and an undesir- 
able one. Czar was selected at the Jardin d' Acclimation as 
an unusually fine specimen; and Elsie was selected by Mr. 
F. Freeman Lloyd, in England, as the most promising 



266 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

brood bitch he could find, either in England, Paris, or 
Brussels. 

In Opromiote, who was recently illustrated in the 
American Field, we have a totally different type the 
stilty, chucked-up appearance, the absurdly small head 
and short neck, the shaggy coat and drooping nose being 
most marked; and it is simply a matter of taste as to which 
of these diverse types shall be considered the correct one. 
Opromiote, being the property of a Russian grand duke, 
maybe supposed to be the Russian ideal of the "correct 
thing;" but I fancy that Occidental taste will scarcely 
approve this selection. This, however, is a matter for 
future determination. 

The defects commonly objected to in nearly all specimens 
of the breed are bad carriage of tail, many carrying it 
in sickle fashion away up in the air most un-characteristic 
of the Greyhound family; wavy and even shaggy coats, 
coarseness of coat (it should be the very finest of the fine, 
so that when the dog is in motion it actually waves in the 
wind), and of course the bad hocks, quarters, and feet that 
occasionally occur in any breed. Some Greyhound men in 
England have cited the unusual length of body as an objec- 
tion to some specimens, but from all I can gather, this is a 
tolerably common characteristic of the breed. If not 
accompanied with extra muscular strength of loin, this 
extra length is certainly an objection; but in most of 
the specimens I have seen, this muscular development 
was so marked a feature that no weakness was the result, 
while it certainly adds to the elegant appearance of the 
dog. 

Another decided blemish is the drooping nose; i. e., one 
not parallel with the general line of head in profile. This 
fault is conspicuous in the case of Opromiote, and was 
noticeable in the dog Rival and bitch Zerry, shown at the 
New York show of 1890. It can not be a characteristic of 
the breed in general, as the illustrations of Czar and Elsie 
show fairly level heads, while the dog Ivan Romanoff, the 
winner at New York in 1890, was much like Elsie in this 



THE RUSSIAN WOLFHOUND, OR BARZOI. 



267 



respect. The greater elegance of the level line of profile is 
too obvious to need further remark. 

It is highly probable that the importation and breeding 
of these handsome, stately dogs will increase, and that the 
breed will soon attain the popularity in this country that it 
so richly deserves. 




THE BEAGLE HOUND. 

BY HERMAN F. SCHELLHASS ( " Pious H."). 




Thro' miry swamp and wooded vale, 
The Beagles run the cotton-tail. 
The Hounds give tongue; the welkin rings; 
'Tis music fit for lords or kings. 

>HE Beagle is undoubtedly one of the oldest breeds of 
dogs in existence. As in the case of most of the old 
breeds, its origin is unknown. In examining the 
various prominent works on the Dog, we find frequent 
reference to the Beagle during the times of George IV. and 
Queen Elizabeth, and in once instance, at least, Shakes- 
peare mentions it. This breed is also spoken of in the 
Sportsman's Cabinet, an old English work published in 
1803, and in other old works, and from the descriptions 
there given it seems to have been, in form and character, 
the same as it is to-day. 

While, as remarked, the origin of the breed is lost in 
obscurity, it was unquestionably derived by selection, and 
evolved from the ordinary Foxhound, the latter having been 
bred down until the desired size was obtained. The true 
Beagle is, as designated in the standard, " a miniature 
Foxhound." 

Of all the breeds of field dogs used in this country, the 
Beagle, the most musical of the Hound family, has unques- 
tionably advanced the most in favor and standing with the 
sportsman. This is partly owing to the fact that compara- 
tively few of our sportsmen had seen him at home on the 
trail of a rabbit, as we commonly call our hares and, as 
a result, his good qualities and value as a field companion 
were unknown, and consequently could not be appreciated. 
His having advanced so fast, of late, in favor and apprecia- 

(269) 



270 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

tion is partly due to the natural order of events, in that, as 
certain parts of the country become thickly settled and the 
feathered game exterminated, lovers of field sports, who 
have heretofore devoted their time in the field to bird-shoot- 
ing over Setters, Pointers, and Spaniels, finding the game 
so nearly exterminated as to destroy the pleasure of seek- 
ing it, discard their bird dogs in favor of the Beagle; for so 
prolific is the natural game of this Hound the rabbit and 
hare that even in the immediate vicinity of the largest 
cities one can usually find enough of it to furnish a joyous 
day's sport afield. 

The writer can cite several instances where, as stated 
above, the bird dogs have been discarded and a small pack 
of Beagles taken in their place, for the reasons advanced. 
He also knows of a place, nearly in the heart of the city of 
Brooklyn, where some wild hares have found their way 
and located. He can name several spots within a half- 
hour's walk of the above-mentioned place where hares are 
to be found, and where, by not hunting them with the gun, 
but by merely 

List'ning to the music o' the hounds, 

he has been able to enjoy many an hour's sport, and to 
break in his young puppies, as, "at dewy eve," he has sat, 
watched, and listened to them as, with their musically clear 
and flute-like notes, and 

With ears that sweep away the evening dew, 
And voices matched like bells, 

they trailed the little cotton-tails. 

It is, but a few years since any nondescript mongrel that 
would run a rabbit was called a Beagle; and when we speak 
of "rabbit dogs," we have to admit that, popularly consid- 
ered, that includes all the small mongrel dogs in existence 
whose owners imagine, or have been told, will trail a hare. 

While, as remarked above, the Beagle is an old breed, it 
can not be said that, except in a few instances, we have 
bred this Hound in our country systematically until within 
the last few years. 



THE BEAGLE HOUND. 27, 

The lamented late Gen. Richard Rowett a number of 
years ago developed a strain so well and favorably known, 
both for their field and show qualities, that they came to 
be generally known as the " Rowett Hound." 

The imported Hounds Sam, Dolly, and Warrior were 
to the Rowett Hounds what Ponto, Moll, and Pilot were to 
the famous Laverack Setters the foundation of the strain. 
Mr. N. Elmore, a number of years ago, also imported sev- 
eral good Beagles, including his famous Ringwood, now 




BEAGLE HOUND-TRAILER. 
Owned by Mr. H. F. Schellhass, No. 6 Brevort Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

dead, from which he bred many of our most prominent 
Hounds. These two strains, together with some other 
blood to which Mr. Pottinger Dorsey has bred, form the 
nucleus of the blood we have in our Beagle. 

It remained, however, for the American Beagle Club, 
formerly the American English Beagle Club, organized in 
1884, to create an impetus among the admirers of the breed, 
and bring the merits of the little Hound before such of 
the sportsmen as were not aware of its value. 

Several of our most prominent Beagle breeders met and 
formed the above-named club. A committee was appointed 



272 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

to draft a standard; bench shows were requested to provide 
suitable classes, where previously only one or two and per- 
haps no classes at all had been assigned the breed; special 
prizes were offered by the club to stimulate competition, 
and show managers were requested to appoint as judges 
men who were especially interested in the breed rather than 
men who perhaps had never seen a Beagle at work, and 
consequently could not know, from a practical stand-point, 
what is required of one to make it an ideal working Hound. 
The result is that the different shows have adopted the 
standard of the said club, invite its members to judge, and 
where the entries at the principal shows had previously 
consisted of one or two mediocre specimens, and perhaps as 
many nondescripts, under the plea that they were ' f rabbit 
dogs," the quality of the classes is now on fully as high a 
plane as that of any of the other breeds of field dogs exhib- 
ited, and our breeders are now breeding them as carefully 
and as true to type as any other breed of field dogs is 
bred. 

The entries at the prominent shows now number in the 
thirties and forties, and where, formerly, all types and sizes 
were represented, the classes now exhibit an evenness here- 
tofore unseen. The scene at the Westminster Kennel 
Club, New York show, in 1888, when the open dog class of 
Beagles was being judged, was such that it will not soon 
be forgotten by the writer, nor by many other fanciers of 
the Beagle who witnessed it. The class consisted of some 
fifteen or more Hounds, everyone of them I believe worthy 
a mention, and all of them Hounds which a few years since 
would have been capable of winning first prizes or cham- 
pionship honors at any of our shows. They exhibited such 
a marked similarity of type and size that I remarked to my 
friend Mr. S. T. Hammond, while looking them over, that 
one might well suppose they were representatives of a 
single pack which had been selected by their owner to 
represent his type, whereas the Hounds present repre- 
sented drafts from several different kennels. 

The manner in which they appeared is as vivid in the 



THE BEAGLE HOUND. 273 

mind of the writer as though the scene was occurring at the 
present instant, so fascinating was it. 

It was indeed a beautiful sight, and one long to be re- 
membered. As handsome a pack of Beagles as ever graced 
a show ring; all of working size and all looking as though 
thorough-bred workers and fielders; all showing as beauti- 
ful Hound character as any pack of Foxhounds could; in 
fact, they looked and carried themselves like a pack of min- 
iature Foxhounds. Such is the style of the Beagle one 
meets nowadays at our shows and in kennels of admirers 
of the breed, in contrast to the Beagles of all sizes and types 
found a few years since in our shows and kennels. 

Several of our prominent sportsmen here in the East 
have packs of various sizes, while a large number have one 
or more Hounds. To show how wonderfully the Beagle 
has increased in popular favor with us during the last few 
years, it is only necessary to say that the writer has, dur- 
ing the past four years, collected a list of some nine hun- 
dred names of individuals owning Beagles. 

Among our sportsmen who own packs, as above men- 
tioned, may be named: Pottinger Dorsey, New Market, 
Md. ; Somerset Kennels, F. C. Phoebus, manager, Bernards- 
ville, N. J.; Belmont Purdy, Hempstead, N. Y.; Dr. J. 
W. Downey, New Market, Md. ; N. Elmore, Gfranby, Conn.; 
W. H. Child, Philadelphia, Penn. ; George Laick, Tarry- 
town, N. Y.; Louis Smith, East Saginaw, Mich.; Col. 
F. G. Skinner, Lexington, Ya. ; Dr. C. E. Nichols, Troy, 
N. Y. ; John Davidson, Monroe, Mich.; F. D. Hallett, 
Winsted, Conn.; Maj. J. M. Taylor, R. F. Mayhew, New 
York, N. Y.; H. C. Wolfe, Lewisburg, Penn.; George 
H. Hill, Madeira, Ohio; C. E. Verges, Lowell, Ohio; 
James Gibson, Apollo, Penn.; J. M. Fronefield, Jr., 
Wayne, Penn.; F. J. Darcy, Mt. Vernon, Ohio; A. 
McArthur, Waukegan, 111.; Dr. W. F. Mead, Boston, 
Mass.; H. L. Krueder, Nanuet, N. Y. ; J. W. Appleton, 
New York, N. Y.; Cyrus Field Judson, Dobbs Ferry, N. 
Y.; Charles Thoman, St. Louis, Mo.; W. L. Crittenden, 
Pine View, Va.; A. H. Wakefield, Providence, R. I.; A. 

18 



274 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

C. Krueger, Wrights ville, Penn.; W. H. Ashburner, Phila- 
delphia, Penn. ; W. S. Clark, Linden, Mass. ; W. F. Rutter, 
Lawrence, Mass.; Arthur S. Aborn, Wakefield, Mass.; T. 
M. Aldridge, Manton, R. I.; W. S. Applegate, New 
Albany, Ind.; Joseph W. Appleton, Ipswich, Mass.; John 
Aspinwall, Barrytown, N. Y.; Capt. William Asherton, 
Rock Springs, Va. ; L. K. Avery, Bremen, Ind. ; Winthrop 
B. Atherton-Newton, Lower Falls, Mass.; E. C. Barrett, 
Concord, Mass.; George L. Barnes, Tyringham, Mass.; 
J. M. Berghold, Canal, Fulton, Ohio; Dr. J. J. Board, 
Lynch' s Station, Ya. ; Gen. F. A. Bond, Jessnps, Md.; E. 
Bullard, Medfield, Mass. ; A. Y. Bradrich, College Corner, 
Ohio; C. G. Browning, Worcester, Mass.; Hiram Card, 
Elora, Ontario, Can. ; F. W. Chapman, Melrose, Mass. ; 
B. Y. Covert, Ovid, K Y.; J. S. Cusson, Fredonia, K Y.; 
Charles S. Davol, Barrington, R. L; F. J. D'Arcey, Mt. 
Yernon, Ohio; Morris Darrach, Germantown, Penn.; W. E. 
Deane, Somerset, Mass.; J. B. Dunn, Providence, R. I. ; 
S. T. and C. J. Eyanson, Columbia City, Ind. ; C. W. and 
W. C. Fromm, Cleveland, Ohio; Charles A. Fales, Central 
Falls, R. I. ; A. M. Gerry, South Paris, Me. ; Harry S. Gil- 
bert, Millersburg, Penn. ; H. C. Graff, Cadiz, Ohio; F. J. Hall, 
Jr., Riverside, Cal; T. W. Hemphill, Glen Mills, Penn.; 
H. C. Huidekoper, Dover, Mass.; E. W. Jester, St. George's, 
Del. ; H. G. Jerome, Uncasville, Conn. ; John F. Jolly, Den- 
ner, S. C.; Charles F. Kent, Monticello, K Y.; W. C. 
Kennerly (Old Dominion), White Post, Ya.; C. H. Laing, 
White Cloud, Mich.; F. T. Lane, Glencoe, 111.; Prof. W. 
W. Legare, Demopolis, Ala.; E. E. and H. W. Lord, 
Gildersleeve, Conn.; A. McDonald, Rockland, Me.; Dr. T. 
Clay Maddux, Jessups, Md.; William L. Mann, Elizabeth, 
N. J.; Orin Miles, Barton, Yt.; J. Shaw Margerum, Wash- 
ington, Penn. ; Thomas J. Mastin, Kansas City, Mo. ; Jacob 
Moerlin, Cincinnati, Ohio; Louis Melchoir, Battle Creek, 
Mich.; Richard Merrill, Milwaukee, Wis.; J. G. Messner, 
Pittsburgh, Penn. ; O. H. Mossman, Barton, Yt. ; M. M. Mss- 
ley, Elizabethtown, Penn.; Charles W. Nutting, Lynn, 
Mass. ; W. J. Percival, Stanton, Mich. ; T. T. Phlegar, Pearis- 



THE BEAGLE HOUND. 275 

burg, Va. ; Richard Pancoast, New York, N. Y. ; G-eorge 
W. Pownall, Christiana, Perm.; A. S. Presbry, Cheever, N. 
Y.; George W. Proctor, West Gloucester, Mass.; C. C. Pyfer, 
Foreston, 111.; Charles Richardson, Pittsburgh, Penn.; 
O. W. Rogers ("O. W. R."), Billerica, Mass.; F. C. Roch- 
ester, Logan, Ohio; Dr. F. H. Rehwinkle, Chillicothe, Ohio; 
George P. H. Rector, Yicksburg, Miss. ; Charles C. Ruppel, 
Buffalo, 1NV Y. ; J. Satterthwaite, Jr., Jenkintown, Perm.; 
E. D. Sappinton, Arrow Rock, Mo.; Dr. M. V. B. Saun- 
ders, Detroit, Mich.; M. F. Serves, Washington, D. C.; 
Charles Schweim, Cincinnati, Ohio; E. E. and J. Shauer, 
Pittsburgh, Penn. ; F. A. Simpkins, Youngstown, Ohio; Oscar 
Smith, Wilkesbarre, Penn.; R. A. Smith, Grand Crossing, 
111. ; S. R. Smith, Pompton, N. J. ; M. M. Spellissy, Troy, N. 
Y. ; J. W. Sprachlin, Woodstock, Ontario, Can.; W. A. 
and F. C. Stauf, Baltimore, Md. ; Charles Steiger, Phila- 
delphia, Penn. ; F. G. Stewart, Hoosic Falls, N. Y. ; Edwin 
Still, E. Stine, Philadelphia, Perm. ; W. F. Streeter, Lehigh 
Tannery, Penn. ; C. H. and Daniel Storrs, Lebanon, N. H. ; 
Hy Strecker, Harmar, Ohio; Dr. H. R. Surles, Worcester, 
Ohio; George Taber, Garrettsville, Ohio; E. C. Tarr, Lynn, 
Mass. ; F. McKee Thayer, Colorado Springs, Colo. ; F. 
Thurlo, E. F. Tebbetts, Newburyport, Mass.; W. H. Todd, 
Yermillion, Ohio; Dr. L. H. Twaddell, Philadelphia, Penn.; 
Frank H. Twitchell, Lancaster, 1ST. H.; Fred W. Utting, 
Plattsburgh, N. Y. ; Eberhard Yollmer, Trenton, N. J. ; A. 
Voss, Goshen, N. Y. ; A. C. Waddell, Kansas City, Mo.; 
E. R. Watrous, Dayton, Ohio; J. O. Wedell, Elgin, 111.; 
Dr. E. B. Weston, Highland Park, 111. ; F. W. Wheaton, 
Wilkesbarre, Penn.; C. E. White, Cleveland, Ohio; C. B. 
Willard, Westerly, R. L; Willard Bros., Jonesville, 111.; 
C. S. Wixom, Covert, 'N. Y. ; Andrew Winsor, Providence, 
R. I. ; D. A., J., and J. S. Williams, Lynn, Mass.; Frank 
Woodyatt, Savanna, 111.; W. N". Walling, Auburndale, 
Mass.; E. B. Walbridge, Petersboro, 1ST. H.; D. D. Will- 
iams, Washingtonville, Ohio; R. E. Westlake, Olyphant, 
Penn. ; Dr. M. F. Youngs, Littleton, N. H. ; A. M. York, 
Conway, Ohio; F. B. Zimmer, Gloversville, N. Y., and 



276 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

others whose names are equally familiar, but which slip my 
mind at the present moment. The writer also prides him- 
self in his own kennel, in which he usually has eight or 
ten or more Beagles. 

It is scarcely possible .to bestow too much praise on this 
little Hound, which has advanced more in popularity dur- 
ing the last few years among sportsmen in this country 
than has any other breed of field dogs. .This is the natural 
result of our sportsmen becoming familiar, by degrees, with 
the value of this Hound for field purposes. 

As civilization encroaches upon the haunts of the fox 
and the deer, causing them to decrease in numbers, sports- 
men who have heretofore hunted them with large Hounds, 
discover that as this game grows scarce it is better hunted 
with the Beagle. Col. F. GK Skinner, than whom no more 
ardent sportsman or Hound man is to be found among us, 
always advocates the Beagle in preference to Fox or other 
Hounds for foxes and deer in sections where they are scarce 
or are hunted to the gun, and for foxes when hunted with 
the gun, as in the Northern and New England States. This 
is owing to the fact that, not being so fast as the larger 
Hounds, they give better opportunity for shots, and, par- 
ticularly where the game is scarce, they do not frighten it 
so as to drive it far away, to remain perhaps for days, as 
the larger Hounds do. Doctor Downey, of Maryland, and 
his friends always use their Beagles in preference to larger 
Hounds when they go on their annual deer- hunt to West 
Virginia. 

Thus, it will be seen that the Beagle is not only growing 
in popularity as we become more intimately acquainted 
with his value, but it is also in the natural order of events 
for him to grow in favor with us as game becomes scarcer. 

Although the Beagle is too slow for fox-hunting, in 
some parts of the country, as, for instance, in the South, it 
is also used with success for that sport, and preferred by 
many to a larger Hound in localities where the foxes are 
hunted to the gun, for reasons herein later explained. The 
writer was some time ago informed by an acquaintance 



THE BEAGLE HOUND. 277 

residing in Virginia that, in order to satisfy some friends of 
the ability of his Beagles to kill a red fox, he took his pack 
of Hounds under fifteen inches in height with an old- 
Foxhound to start them on the trail, and soon started a fox. 
Being stationed himself on a hill, he was able to watch the 
entire hunt, and, after a run of several hours, the Beagles 
cai^ght and killed the fox, while the old Foxhound was not 
in at the death. I cite this instance because many claim 
that the Beagle would be entirely useless in a fox-hunt. 

The Beagle is also used for hunting the large white hare 
(Lepus Virginianus) which abounds in some parts of this 
country. A friend of the writer, residing in Rhode Island, 
who has one of the largest and best packs of Beagles in the 
country, hunted these hares with his pack last winter, but 
says that while the sport is exciting, it is not so much so as 
hunting the ordinary cotton-tail (Lepus Americanus). 
This is for the reason that the large hare circles much 
farther off than the latter, running often miles before re- 
turning, and consequently taking the Hounds a greater part 
of the time out of the hearing and sight of the hunters. 

Anyone residing in any of our large cities can, if he have 
a sufficient amount of the instincts of the backwoodsman 
to make him worthy the name of a sportsman, find spots 
by prospecting, as it were, where he can, almost any day, 
take his Beagles and give them a chance to do some trail- 
ing. If such persons will do as the writer does, and not 
shoot these hares, or allow their Hounds to kill them, but 
look upon them in the light of prized jewels, they can have 
many an hour's sport, at dusk or after business hours, with 
their Beagles. The writer recently had marked down a 
small patch of woods, within fifty minutes walk of his 
home, which had a solitary hare in it nearly the entire 
season, and which has afforded many an hours sport for 
him and his Beagles. A few such hares, carefully pro- 
tected, may afford sport for a whole season. 

While the customary way of hunting the hare with Bea- 
gles is for the sportsman to stand at runways or likely 
places where the hare will come when brought around by 



278 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

the Hounds, and shoot it as it passes, others, again, do not 
use the gun at all, but let fhe Hounds run the hare down 
and kill it. 

The Beagle is the superior of the Basset in that it can 
o^et over a rough country much easier, is not so extremely 
slow as the latter, and, being a smaller dog, does not re- 
quire the room or amount of food that the latter does. The 
same amount of room and cooking the latter no small 
item as far as inconvenience, work, and expense are con- 
cerned that will keep a couple of Foxhounds will easily 
keep five or six Beagles. Where one has several Hounds, 
the latter points are of no little importance. It will readily 
be seen that the Beagle is undoubtedly the best general 
utility Hound we have. 

While it is beyond the means of the average American 
sportsman to keep a large kennel of bird dogs and have 
them all broken as they should be, it is but comparatively 
little expense to keep a pack of Beagles all broken for field 
use. In some portions of this country, particularly the 
South, as well as in England, large packs of Beagles are to 
be found, owned and maintained by sportsmen for their 
private enjoyment. 

One of the greatest pleasures of the practical sportsman 
is in showing himself a practical breeder, for to possess the 
knowledge and ability to become such is no small honor. 
To do this, one must have at least several dogs of the 
breed he is interested in, in his kennel, and as remarked 
above, if he have such a kennel he has use for all his 
stock in the field. The amount of pleasure derived from 
his kennel by the writer is in proportion to the number of 
dogs or Hounds in it, and few sportsmen care to have in 
their kennel more dogs than they have use for. This, as I 
say, illustrates the advantage of one's being partial to 
Hounds. 

Outside of his qualities as a field dog, the Beagle is a 
desirable house companion; not over-large, short-coated, 
and affectionate, he is a most desirable and lovable com- 
panion. If educated to it, he is an excellent watch-dog. 



THE BEAGLE HOUND. 279 

In my kennel I have always found them exceptionally 
quiet and peaceable. I have always allowed them to re- 
main loose and sleep as they liked, half a dozen or more 
in one bed, and they were invariably quiet and friendly 
to one another, while my neighbor's Setters, Pointers, and 
other dogs are constantly noisy, and frequently quarrel- 
some. 

It is claimed by some people who are not fully ac- 
quainted with their good qualities that Hounds are lacking 
in affection, and are given to fighting. As regards the 
Beagle, I am pleased to state that such is not the case. 
They are fully as affectionate and companionable as my 
Setters, Spaniels, or Pointers. As I now write, my chair 
is surrounded by several of these little Hounds, com- 
fortably stretched out in repose. Every few moments one 
or another gets up, places its feet on my lap, and gazes at 
me pleadingly, as it mutely seeks a kind word, or slyly 
pokes its nose against my elbow as a more efficacious way 
of attracting attention, as some of the singular-looking 
hieroglyphics on the manuscript will allow the printer to 
attest. At the same time, another one, jealous of the atten- 
tion shown the former, is sure to come forward and en- 
deavor to push the other one away in order to have all the 
attention shown itself; and thus throughout the evening 
they are constantly making their presence known. My 
Melody lies nestled beside me, always insisting on her right 
to a place, while I am constantly compelled to help the 
other Hounds, including Trailer, Eiot, Music, Trinket, and 
others, down time and time again as they claim their right 
to my attention. 

As for fighting, while I have known Setters to kill one 
another in a fight in their kennel, I have never known of a 
single instance where my Beagles have fought among them- 
selves, although they run together all day and sleep to- 
gether in their kennel at night unchained. 

As to breeding, it is generally believed by Beagle fan- 
ciers that the progeny usually have a tendency to grow 
larger than their dam. It is therefore considered advisa- 



280 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

ble to breed to a dam smaller than the sire and smaller than 
the size it is desired to obtain in the progeny. 

Beagles, generally speaking, require but little training 
to make them good workers. They take to their work nat- 
urally, and if given plenty of practice on game while 
young, they will, with experience, become self-trained. If 
kept in the country, where they may run loose and roam 
about by themselves, as they grow up they are liable to 
wander off from their kennel and hunt on their own account. 
They soon become accustomed to the ways and tricks of 
bunny, and learn to follow and circumvent him. 

If you do not so let your puppies run loose, but wish to 
train them yourself, you may take them out with one or 
two steady, well-trained old Hounds, and the youngsters 
will soon learn to follow and imitate them. Go out, if 
possible, about daylight or dusk, when the dew is falling; 
then you are more apt to find the hares moving, and, as a 
result, warmer trails will then be found than at other 
times. 

I lead my puppies to a spot where I think I will be most 
likely to find the hares, and then quietly take as- comfort- 
able a seat as I can find, on a stump or fence-rail, or else- 
where, and leave the puppies to their own resources. 
Being thus assured that you have no intention of moving 
away, and not having their thoughts drawn from what is 
instinctively bred in them, namely, the desire to hunt, they 
will devote their whole attention to the finding of game. 
When thus giving the puppies their first experience, allow 
the older Hounds to catch and kill the hare, as an incentive 
to the youngsters to hunt more ambitiously for the next 
one. 

After taking your puppies out thus with a good-working 
old dog a few times, they will take readily to the work, and 
will soon develop into efficient workers. 

It is believed by some breeders of Beagles that they are 
more subject to worms than most breeds. My experience 
has been that they almost invariably have them. Last year 
I bred and raised what wa,s probably, without exception, 



THE BEAGLE HOUND. 281 

the smallest grown Beagle in this country, it standing in 
height only about seven to eight inches and weighing about 
four pounds. This Beagle was proportionately small before 
weaning. When some eight weeks old, and before weaned, 
it passed several large bunches of worms; and nearly all 
the puppies I have ever raised have been afflicted with 
these pests. 1 have always considered santonine to be the 
most efficacious, and, at the same time, the safest remedy 
for worms in puppies. My mode of administering it is to 
give a dose each morning, a short time before feeding, for 
five days. Dose for a puppy, say ten weeks old, two grains. 
It may be given in about a teaspoonf ul of milk or in a little 
butter; the former is the more convenient, and the puppy 
usually is more sure of swallowing the santonine. After 
the last dose I give a physic, composed of about one tea- 
spoonful of castor-oil, the same amount of syrup (not ex- 
tract) of buckthorn, with two or three drops of turpentine 
added. It must be borne in mind that any treatment for 
worms is useless unless the medicine be administered on an 
empty stomach, the plan being to have the worms feed on 
the drug, which is poisonous to them. 

Regarding preparing Beagles for the bench, it should be 
remembered that as the standard calls for a coarse instead 
of a fine coat, in texture, the novice should not endeavor to 
get the coat, as is done with most breeds, in as fine a condi- 
tion as possible. One of the characteristic faults of Bea- 
gles is their tendency to being too slack in loin; therefore, 
if your Hound is unduly slack in loin, do not have it too 
low in flesh. It would, in such a case, be better to have it 
over-full in flesh. The former condition aggravates in ap- 
pearance the fault mentioned, while the latter tends to cover 
it up. 

I predict that, as the worth of the Beagle becomes better 
and more widely known and appreciated, and as the nat- 
ural order of events causes him to become the field dog best 
adapted to the circumstances that are sure to exist, particu- 
larly in the settled localities of the East and the North, he 



282 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

will grow greater in popular favor than any of the other 
breeds of field dogs. 

As the ruffed grouse, or partridge, the woodcock. ' ' Bob 
White," and the various other game birds become practi- 
cally exterminated, as they do in those parts of the coun- 
try which become thickly settled, our sportsmen find 
themselves compelled to go hundreds, and even thousands, 
of miles to find the amount of good shooting they had pre- 
viously been accustomed to enjoy. This requires a longer 
purse and greater amount of leisure than the great major- 
ity of them possess, and consequently they have to adapt 
themselves to the circumstances, and either forego their 
sport or seek game which has not as great an antipathy to 
civilization, thick settlements, and man, as our game birds 
have. The Eastern sportsman will, therefore, in future, have 
recourse to our little -short-legged, long-eared friend, and 
will enjoy his outing just as well as erstwhile he did when 
his Setter or Pointer led him through the fields. 

In selecting a Beagle for field use, one should of course 
look to those points of the most practical value. Probably 
the first matter to be considered is the question of size; 
this, of course, the buyer must decide for himself, whether 
he be governed by experience, fancy, or the advice of oth- 
ers. Next to the question of size, he should bear in mind 
that quality more important than speed endurance. In 
order to obviate too great speed" in a Beagle, the standard 
limits the size of them in height to fifteen inches, as, in 
hunting the natural game of the Beagle, the hare, only a 
low rate of speed is desired, and when using the Beagle for 
fox and deer hunting the object, partly, is to avoid the 
greater speed of the Foxhound or Deerhound. 

The weak points in the Beagle, and which seem to be 
characteristic of the breed, but which should be overcome 
by judicious mating and breeding, are an inclination to 
snipiness and to being long cast in the loin. The ideal 
Beagle can not be better described than by quoting from 
the standard: "A miniature Foxhound, solid and big for 
his inches, with the wear-and-tear look of the dog that can 



THE BEAGLE HOUND. 283 

last in the chase and follow his quarry to the death." It is 
needless to say that a short, or at least a strong loin, is of 
far more importance in a Hound than in a bird dog, from 
the nature of his calling, as stated above. 

Fully as important a point is the one of selecting a 
Hound having good legs and feet. This is a very important 
point in a bird dog, and much more so in a Hound. A Bea- 
gle should be selected having well-arched toes, and the same 
close together, with good hard pads underneath. A foot 
afte? 1 the model of a cat's foot is to be preferred to what is 
known as a " hare-foot," so called from its similarity to 
the foot of a hare.- In noting a Beagle' s feet and legs, it 
is also very important to get a good short and upright 
pastern, as the same is much stronger and can stand much 
more wear and tear than a long or sloping one; besides, the 
latter is usually indicative of a hare-foot, or, more properly 
speaking, a hare-foot, from its shape, causes the pastern to 
slope and be comparatively long. 

In a Setter or Pointer a sloping pastern is desired, to 
avoid the great strain upon it in suddenly stopping on a 
point, and which strain on a straight pastern would cause 
the same to knuckle over; but in a Hound the short, straight 
pastern is greatly to be preferred, as far stronger and more 
enduring; the Hound, from the nature of his work, not 
needing to subject himself to such a strain as mentioned 
regarding the bird dog. Next in importance I should con- 
sider a good coat, which is coarse and of good length. 

This is a most important factor, as, from the nature of his 
work, the Beagle is compelled to hunt almost entirely in 
the thickest of underbrush, which, unless he be well-coated, 
will tear his skin and flesh in a cruel manner; and though 
he possess the grit and pluck which causes him to appar- 
ently not mind it while keeping to his work, the poor 
faithful servant suffers for days until he recovers, and in the 
meantime is in no condition to hunt if it be desired of him. 

To show how thoroughly and comb -like the briers and 
brush work through a Beagle' s coat in ordinary hunting, 
one needs but to notice any Beagle, with a fair amount of 



284 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

white on him, when he starts out to hunt, and, no matter 
how dirty and soiled his coat maybe, it requires but a short 
hunt to make his coat look as neat and clean as though he 
had had a thorough washing. 

When hunting, I have often practically convinced my 
friends of the same, using* as an illustration a certain 
Hound. This dog, which has a good deal of white on 
him, keeps his coat always dirty. After hunting some lit- 
tle time he will have the appearance of having just been 
washed. 

I recently received a letter from a gentleman, a stranger, 
who had a short time previously become interested in Bea- 
gles. He informed me that he had theories of his own in 
regard to breeding, whereby he thought he could breed a 
Beagle for practical use and at the same time have it show 
more beauty points than the Beagle bred to the standard of 
the American Beagle Club as given herein.. He wanted 
a short, fine, silky coat, and asked for my views in the 
matter. Regarding coat, I gave them practically as above 
stated. A short time afterward I received another letter 
from him, from which I quote verbatim, for the benefit of 
any such as may be inclined as he was: 

DEAR SIR: I thank you very much for your extended reply to my sug- 
gestion about breeding Beagles a little finer. My notion was that they could 
be bred to look more stylish without detracting from their field qualities; but 
I have no more to say. A hunt I had yesterday demonstrated the absolute 
correctness of the present standard. I think I shall have to tell you of it. An 
old hunting friend of mine here (in Maryland) has a strain of Beagles he is 
very proud of, and we had a pair of them, one rough-coated fellow, and a pair 
of year-old youngsters, hardly broken. He says his are Scotch Beagles, what- 
ever that may be. They are very small, say six pounds each, and have fine, 
short hair, and their skin little beauties to look at. In an open country they 
do very well. Yesterday we were on one of my father's farms near the river, 
which is full of brier-patches and briery thickets. The rahbits are plentiful, 
but the little Scotchmen were literally worthless. In an hour they were cut 
up and came to heel, absolutely refusing to work. 

The one with a dense coat and a brush on his tail, followed by the brace 
of puppies, had to do all our hunting the rest of the day. He dodged in and out 
of the briers without getting a mark, while the blood from the rat-tailed brace 
made them look as if their throats had been cut. Hereafter I stand by the 
American Beagle Club's standaid. My friend's faith was shaken, and he 
wants a brush- tailed pedigreed dog to try on his bitches as an experiment. 



THE BEAGLE HOUND. 285 

He lives in a better-cultivated end of the country, and had not tried his much in 
briers before. Since the brier farms are the natural refuge of the rabbits, and 
afford much the best sport, he sees that a tougher Hound is more useful. The 
day's experience was so exactly a corroboration of your letter, I quite enjoy 
giving it to you Very truly, 

Also, to avoid having your Beagle cut up more than can 
be avoided, it is well to select one having a low and well- 
set ear, and as called for by the standard, ' ' closely framing 
and inturned to the cheek." The best-hung ears will 
spread out considerably when the Hound is running, and a 
poorly hung and high-set one will be greatly exposed to 
all briers and thorns within reach. Do not merely have in 
mind an ear of great length. The shape of the nose or 
muzzle is, of course, no positive indication of the scenting 
powers of its possessor, but it is well to always choose the 
Hound having a wide muzzle and good open and moist nos- 
trils, the same usually being indicative of fine scenting 
powers, a more important factor in a Hound for rabbit or 
hare hunting than any other. 

I can not say that I agree with the standard in pref er- 
ring a "lull and prominent " eye, as called for, for the same 
reason that a fine, soft coat and exposed ear is not desired. 
Personally, I prefer an eye somewhat protected and not 
as exposed as the one called for, as my experience has 
taught me that too "full and prominent" an eye is easily 
injured. 

While personally, as far as beauty is concerned, I admire 
a black-and-tan coat, as giving a Beagle decidedly the ap- 
pearance of being ' ' a miniature Foxhound, ' ' I consider it 
desirable, and prefer, for work, a Hound having plenty of 
white on him, as this enables one to readily see him at 
a distance. Beagles, like other Hounds, arejnot specially 
obedient as to coming in when called, particularly when 
there appear any prospects of soon getting started on a 
warm trail; and one can often locate his Hounds if they 
possess a fair amount of white, when otherwise they could 
not be seen, and one can then get them, if desired, when 
otherwise he could not. 



286 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

As I stated above, the question of size is one on which, 
there is a diversity of opinion. I shall not argue the question 
here, or give my views either for or against the large or small 
Beagle, but will say, for the benefit of the novice, or inex- 
perienced who may contemplate purchasing Beagles, that it 
is usually a safe method, when lacking practical knowledge 
or experience, to be governed by the choice of what the 
majority would prefer or select. The great majority of our 
practical Beagle men, who use their Beagles for field pur- 
poses, such as the late General Rowett, Pottinger Dorsey, 
F. C. Phoebus, of the Somerset Kennels, A. H. Wakefield, 
Louis Smith, Dr. C. E. Nichols, W. F. Rutter, W. S. 
Clark, George Laick, and others, prefer what is com- 
paratively speaking the large Beagle; by that is com- 
monly meant a Beagle close in height to the limit allowed 
by the American Beagle Club's standard fifteen inches. 
The writer himself prefers this last-mentioned type of 
Hound, and contends that where a Hound of a certain speed 
is desired it is preferable to obtain it in a comparatively 
large Hound than in a smaller one, as the former, necessa- 
rily, will be built more on the lines of endurance than those 
of speed, while the latter will be built more on the lines of 
speed than endurance, and while the desired speed is ob- 
tained in either, the former will combine it with the greater 
endurance and staying powers a most important requisite 
in a Hound. Thus, if a twelve-inch and fifteen-inch Hound 
are bred to hunt at about a certain pace, the latter must be 
a Hound of more substance and bottom than the former or 
it will be the speedier; and, as a result, while it has the 
desired speed, it also combines the power to hunt longer 
than the former. 

STANDARD AND POINTS OF JUDGING THE BEAGLE. 

Value. Value. 

Skull 5 Ribs 5 

Ears 15 Fore legs and feet 10 

Eyes 10 Hips, thighs, and hind legs 10 

Muzzle, jaws, and lips 5 Tail 5 

Neck : 5 Coat 5 

Shoulders and chest 10 

Back and loins .15 Total . . . 100 



THE BEAGLE HOUND. 287 

Standard and scale of points adopted by the American 
Beagle Club, and indorsed by all the leading shows: 

Head. The skull should be moderately domed at the 
occiput, with the cranium broad and full. The ears set on 
low, long, and fine in texture, the forward or front edge 
closely framing and inturned to the cheek, rather broad and 
rounded at the tips, with an almost entire absence of erect- 
ile power at their origin. 

The eyes full and prominent, rather wide apart, soft and 
lustrous, brown or hazel in color. The orbital processes well 
developed. The expression gentle, subdued, and pleading. 

The muzzle of medium length, squarely cut, the stop 
well defined. The jaws should be level. Lips either free 
from or with moderate flews. Nostrils large, moist, and 
open. 

Defects: A flat skull, narrow across the top of head, 
absence of dome. Ears short, set on too high, or when the 
dog is excited rising above the line of the skull at their 
points of origin, due to an excess of erectile power. Ears 
pointed at tips, thick or boardy in substance, or carried out 
from cheek, showing a space between. Eyes of a light or 
yellow color. Muzzle long and snipy. Pig- jaws or the 
reverse, known as under-shot. Lips showing deep, pendu- 
lous flews. 

Disqualifications: Eyes close together, small, beady, 
and Terrier-like. 

Neck and throat. Neck rising free and light from the 
shoulders, strong in substance, yet not loaded, of medium 
length. The throat clean and free from folds of skin; a 
slight wrinkle below the angle of the jaw, however, may be 
allowable. 

Defects: A thick, short, cloddy neck, carried on a line 
with the top of the shoulder. Throat showing dewlap and 
folds of skin to a degree termed "throatiness." 

Shoulders and chest. Shoulders somewhat declining, 
muscular, but not loaded, conveying the idea of freedom of 
action, with lightness, activity, and strength. Chest mod- 
erately broad and full. 



288 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Defects: Upright shoulders and a disproportionately 
wide chest. 

Back, loin, and ribs. Back short, muscular, and strong. 
Loin broad and slightly arched, and the ribs well sprung, 
giving abundant lung-room. 

Defects: A long or swayed back, a fiat, narrow loin, or 
a flat, constricted rib. 

Fore legs and feet. Fore legs straight, with plenty of 
bone. Feet close, iirm, and either round or hare-like in 
form. 

Defects: Out at elbows. Knees knuckled over or for- 
ward, or bent backward. Feet open and spreading. 

Hips, thighs, hind legs, and feet. Hips strongly mus- 
cled, giving abundant propelling power. Stifles strong and 
well let down. Hocks firm, symmetrical, and moderately 
bent. Feet close and firm. 

Defects: Cow-hocks and open feet. 

Tail. The tail should be carried gaily, well up, and with 
medium curve, rather short as compared with the size of 
the dog, and clothed with a decided brush. 

Defects: A long tail, with a tea-pot curve. 

Disqualifications: A thinly haired, rattish tail, with 
entire absence of brush. 

Coat. Moderately coarse iii texture, and of good length. 

Disqualifications: A short, close, and nappy coat. 

Height. The meaning of the term "Beagle" (a word of 
Celtic origin, and in old English Begele), is small, little. 
The dog was so named from his diminutive size. Your 
committee, therefore, for the sake of consistency, and that 
the Beagle shall be in fact what his name implies, strongly 
recommend that the height line shall be sharply drawn at 
fifteen inches, and that all dogs exceeding that height shall 
be disqualified as overgrown and outside the pale of recog- 
nition. 

Color. All Hound colors are admissible. Perhaps the 
most popular is black, white, and tan. Next in order is 
the lemon and white, the blue and lemon mottles; then fol- 
low the solid colors, such as black- and- tan, tan, lemon, 



THE BEAGLE HOUND. 289 

fawn, etc. This arrangement is of course arbitrary, the 
question being one governed entirely by fancy. The colors 
first named form the most lively contrast and blend better 
in the pack, the solid colors being somber and monotonous 
to the eye. It is not intended to give a point value to color 
in the scale for judging, as before said, all true Hound colors 
being correct. The foregoing remarks on the subject are 
therefore simply suggestive. 

General appearance. A miniature Foxhound, solid and 
big for his inches, with the wear-and-tear look of the dog 
that can last in the chase and follow his quarry to the 
death. 

NOTE. Dogs possessing such serious faults as are enu- 
merated under the heading of "Disqualifications" are 
under the grave suspicion of being of impure blood. 

Under the heading of ' ' Defects ' ' objectionable features 
are indicated, such departures from the standard not, how- 
ever, impugning the purity of the breeding. 

In this standard it will be observed that the head is 
scored thirty-five points, which is the same number allowed 
for the body. In the standards for the various breeds of 
bird dogs it has been deemed proper by all the breeders to 
allow a much less number of points for the head than for 
the body, as certainly a good body is of much greater im- 
portance in assisting a dog to be a good or successful hunter 
than a correspondingly typical head is. 

In a Hound, the difference of importance between the 
head and body should be more marked, as not only from 
the nature of his work does a Hound rely on his natural 
instinct to pursue and kill his game, and not require the 
mental faculties necessary in a bird dog, but it is of more 
importance that his running and staying powers should be 
superior, as his work admits of no rest or let-up until the 
game is captured. 

I do not mean to convey the impression that I do not 
consider a typical head of importance, as in no breed more 
than in a Beagle does the head give character to the dog; 

19 



290 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

and no one can admire Hound character in a Beagle more 
than I do. 

I further claim that in assigning the numerical scale of 
points in the standard, symmetry should be considered and 
allotted a certain number of points. The same is illustrated 
in the fact that were two Hounds to be taken and scored, 
both scoring the same number of points, and one Hound 
should happen to be very nicely and symmetrically built, 
and the other out of proportion, say, for instance, short on 
the fore legs and long in the loin, the former would un- 
doubtedly be selected, even if scoring a point or two less 
than the latter, as it would be evident, as far as appearances 
went, that the former would be able to stand more work. 

While the sentiments expressed in the foregoing article 
are those of the writer, individually, I may add they are 
the same as have appeared in former articles by myself, and 
which I have submitted to several of our most prominent 
practical authorities on the breed, and, they tell me, they 
are, practically, the views held by themselves. 




THE IRISH WATER SPANIEL. 




BY P. T. MADISON. 

of the greatest, if not the greatest, retrievers of 
which we have any knowledge is the Irish Water 
Spaniel. Especially is this true of the species from 
the south of Ireland. 

The breed consists of two distinct varieties, peculiar to 
the north and south of Ireland. The northern dog has 
short ears, with little feather either on them or on the legs, 
but with a considerable curl in his coat. In color he is 
generally liver, but with more or less white, which some- 
times predominates so as to make him decidedly white 
and liver. 

The south country Irish Water Spaniel is, on the con- 
trary, invariably of a pure liver-color. Ears long and well 
feathered, being often twenty-four inches from point to 
point, and the whole coat consisting of short, crisp curls. 
Body long, low, and strong; tail round and carried slightly 
down, but straight, without any feather. Almost all of the 
importations to America are from the latter-named species. 
The importers and breeders of America have endeavored to 
keep the breed pure, and through their efforts this country 
can now boast ,of as fine specimens as can be found any- 
where in the world. 

The writer has in his kennel a dog, now three years old, 
by Count Bendigo, out of Foam, which is pronounced by 
persons well posted on this breed a typical specimen; there- 
fore, in the absence of anything better, I will use the meas- 
urements of this dog in giving* a description of my ideal 
of the breed. 

Height, twenty -four inches at the shoulder; weight, fif- 
ty-five pounds; head capacious, forehead prominent, face 

(291) 



292 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

from eyes and ears down perfectly smooth; ears twenty-one 
inches from point to point of leather, and twenty-five inches 
from point to point of feather. The head is crowned with 
a well-defined top-knot, which stands erect, and is not strag- 
gling across, like that of the common rough water dog, but 
comes down in a peak on the forehead, giving the head and 
face much of the appearance of a merino sheep. His body 
is covered with small crisp curls, which extend along the 




IRISH WATER SPANIEL-DENNIS O'DONOGHUE. 
Owned by Mr. C. B. Rodes, Moberly, Mo. 

tail about three inches. From there to the sting the tail is 
smooth. His color is pure liver. 

The standard as adopted by the English Spaniel Club, 
hereinafter given, meets my approval, except as to the top- 
knot, which in my judgment should not fall over the eyes, 
but should stand erect. 

Mr. J. S. Skidmore, a noted English breeder of Irish 
Water Spaniels, pays this well-deserved tribute to the good 
qualities of the breed: 

To a sportsman of limited means, or one who is not prepared to keep 
a team of dogs, the Irish Water Spaniel is the most useful dog he can have, 



THE IRISH WATER SPANIEL. 293 

inasmuch as he can be made to perform the duties of Pointer, Setter, Retriever, 
and Spaniel; but, as his name implies, he is peculiarly fitted by temperament 
and by a water-resisting coat for the arduous duties required by a sportsman 
whose proclivities lie in the direction of wild fowl shooting. In this branch of 
sport they have no equal, being able to stand any amount of hardship; this, 
combined with an indomitable spirit, leads them into deeds of daring from 
which many dogs would shrink. Many are the feats recorded of their pluck, 
sagacity, and intelligence. For a well bred and trained specimen no sea is too 
rough, no pier too high, and no water too cold; even if he have to break the 
ice at every step, he is not discouraged'; and day after day will repeat the ardu- 
ous task, As a companion for a lady or gentleman the Irish Water Spaniel has 
no equal, while a well-behaved dog of the breed is worth a whole mint of toys 
to the children. He will allow the little ones to pull him about by the ears, 
will roll over and over with them, will fetch their balls as often as thrown for 
him, and will act as their guard in times of danger. 

So good an authority as Mr. J. H. Whitman, of Chicago, 
says: 

I have no hesitation in saying to the sportsman who desires a really first- 
class retriever for wild fowls, there is none superior, if equal, to the Irish Water 
Spaniel for retrieving ducks, brant, geese, etc., from land or water. I never 
saw a dog that seemed to enter into the sport with more zeal, and on whom 
cold water had so little effect. I have seen them retrieve ducks when ice 
would form on their coats on reaching shore; still they were always ready to 
go. I never saw more intelligence in any breed of dogs; they can be taught 
tricks as easily as a Poodle. They soon learn that a duck shot dead and 
falling in the water can be retrieved at any time, and where two are dropped, 
one dead and one wounded, the Irish Water Spaniel invariably goes for the 
wounded one first. There is no dog that is so natural a retriever or so easily 
broken as the pure Irish Water Spaniel. 

I would advise parties owning one of these dogs that 
they expect to use as a retriever on game, not to teach him 
any tricks, as I have always observed that a trick-dog was 
good for nothing else. 

In training the Irish Water Spaniel for shooting pur- 
poses, you should first instill into his mind obedience, and 
when that is fully accomplished your dog is broken, as it is 
as natural for him to retrieve, from land or water, as it is 
for a Pointer or Setter to point. I have my dog broken to 
go as soon as the shot is fired. In this way I lose few, if 
any, wounded birds; while, on the contrary, if the dog is 
broken to drop to shot, your wounded duck or snipe often 
gets away before the dog is ordered on. 



294 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

In quail-shooting, a dog is trained to drop to shot, be- 
cause other birds often remain within shooting distance 
after the gun has been fired, and if the dog were allowed to 
break shot he would likely flush many of them while your 
gun was empty. But as all ducks and snipes take wing as 
soon as. they hear the report of a gun, you run no such 
chances in that class of shooting; hence, in order that you 
may secure all your wounded birds, I advise you to teach 
your Irish Water Spaniel to break shot. 

On the subject of training the Irish Water Spaniel, Mr. 
Whitman says: 

Commence if the puppy is precocious at three months ,old. First throw 
a ball or roll of cloth, or any soft substance, calling his attention to it as it 
passes from }~our hand; if he does not bring it the first time, he may the second 
or third. If he does not, let him go for that time; he is too young to force, 
but will soon begin to understand what is wanted and perform more to your 
wish. Try him twice a day, but not long at a time; teach him to come to you 
when called; at first he may not come; put a cord round his neck, or, if he 
wears a collar, attach cord to that. Now call him; if he does not come, pull 
him to you, pet him, let him go, and call him again; if he refuse to come, 
bring him to you again with the cord. By following this course he will soon 
learn that you are his master, and will obey you. Now mak6 him charge or 
lie down; say " Charge," "Drop," or any word you like, but invariably use the 
same word and raise the hand. As at first he neither understands the mean- 
ing of the word nor the uplifted hand, you should take his fore legs and pull 
them from under him with one hand while you press down his hind quarters 
with the other, using at the same time the word at which you desire he should 
lie down. When he will remain in the position in which you have placed 
him, looking toward you, raise the hand and repeat the word as often 51 s he 
offers to move. In a short time he will do this seemingly well, but as this is a 
very important lesson, continue it for days and weeks until he becomes so per- 
fect that at your whistle or word of command he will look at you and drop 
instantly at uplifted hand. Many dogs want to come to you before they drop, 
but insist on their dropping where they first get the signal to do so. Easy 
enough said, but how shall it be done? My way is to take the dog back to the 
place where he was ordered to charge, walking backward from him, with 
hand raised, returning him to the spot from which he started every time until 
he remains us desired. 

Having taught him to do this well, take a well-trained dog out with him; 
charge both, the older one in the rear of the puppy; walk away from them as 
before; call the older one by name, when he will come, and undoubtedly the 
puppy will come too, but he must be taken back until he is perfect in this. 
The importance of this is, should you be hunting with some friend whose dog 
is not well broken and runs in at the report of the gun, your dog if so trained 



THE IRISH WATER SPANIEL. 295 

will not move, even if he is passed by the other dog. Or you may see game 
to which you desire to creep; you can then leave the dog behind you. 

To teach him to follow at heel, attach the cord to the puppy; say "Heel!" 
Carry your whip in hand, and should he attempt to get in front of you, touch 
him lightly on the nose; say at the same time "Heel!" Another way is to 
couple him to a broken dog, using the same means and word should he try to 
get ahead. Having taught him to retrieve anything you may throw for him 
when he can see it, now throw it in high grass or weeds, or in fact any place 
where he can not see it, and bid him "fetch." He will begin to look for it, and 
unless he should find it at once, you should encourage him to find it by, if 
necessary, going with him, but do not pick it up yourself; have him do that 
and follow you with it in his mouth. It is better to do this with a bird, say a 
pigeon or a duck, as I have seen dogs that would bring a ball, roll of cloth, 
etc., well, that at. first would not touch a bird. I prefer a bird with which to 
teach them to retrieve. 

Having now taught him to charge, retrieve, heel, and come at whistle, you 
should take him to some stream, where the water is not too deep, to start with, 
throwing into the water the object he is in the habit of retrieving on land and 
sending him for it. I have not seen one puppy that would not go for it at 
once, especially if the water were warm. It is better to teach the puppy this 
work in the summer or early fall, before the weather is too cold. 

Your dog is now ready for a lesson in duck-shooting. Get on some point 
of land where birds pass, and shoot one, having it fall as near shore as possi- 
ble; send him for it, and encourage him if he brings it nicely. You should 
endeavor to have him watch birds as they fly past; it will soon teach him to 
watch them as they fall and mark well the spot, so he can go direct to them. I 
would advise you to accustom him to the sound of the gun from his youth, 
until you begin to work him on game, commencing with percussion caps or a 
small charge of powder no shot. When he shows that for him the report of 
a gun has no terror, you are all right; he will not be gun-shy. If he is a little 
timid, don't despair, for he finding he is not hurt by the report if properly 
handled, will come out all right. If you go with him in boat, have him charge, 
and do not allow him to rise until ordered. If he will not mind promptly the 
word " charge," tie a rope across the boat from rowlock to rowlock, and fasten 
him in the center so that he can not get out. Now shoot, if possible, some 
ducks, while he is so confined; when the gun is fired, should he attempt to 
move, say "Charge!" and compel him to go down promptly. Repeat this 
until he is perfect in not attempting to leave the boat until ordered. He must 
be kept in strict obedience; do not allow him to disobey without correcting 
him at once. In your ardor to secure the game, don't forget that you have a 
dog for that purpose. 

I have never seen the weather or water too cold for my 
dog to take great pleasure, apparently, in his work. I have 
worked him from early morning till late at night, in slush 
ice, and he would not suffer in the least. The under-coat 
of this breed is similar to that of the beaver or musk-rat, 



296 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

and is saturated with an oily substance that almost thor- 
oughly protects them from wet and cold. 

To fully appreciate the pleasure of duck and snipe shoot- 
ing, the sportsman should have a well-broken Irish Water 
Spaniel. I would take just as much pleasure in quail- 
shooting without my Setter or Pointer as I would in duck 
or snipe shooting without my Retriever. I predict for the 
Irish Water Spaniel a bright future, as he has only to be 
known to be appreciated, and he is becoming better known 
every year. 

This is a noble dog, and should be developed to the 
greatest possible perfection; and in order to stimulate effort 
in this direction, I believe that a Retriever club should be 
formed in America for the purpose of holding field trials 
on some of our numerous lakes, rivers, or marshes, to which 
all members of the Retriever family should be eligible. 
It would be as easy to formulate rules for the government 
of trials of this character as it was for the originators of 
field trials for Pointers and Setters to evolve their rules. 
While our first efforts in this direction would doubtless be 
crude, experience would soon teach us; and by bringing all 
the different breeds together, we could in a short time 
determine which is best fitted to perform the various 
kinds of work. One breed might be found far superior 
to another in working in open, rough, and large bodies 
of water, while another would excel in the weeds and 
grasses of the marsh. 

These questions can only be settled by actual competi- 
tion, and I am satisfied that great good would result from 
frequent trials, as the breeders would take great pride in 
possessing a field- trial winner, and in the future would 
breed with the sole object of producing the best performers. 
By this means the value of each breed would be greatly 
enhanced. 

I can remember when five dollars was a big price for a 
Pointer or Setter puppy, and twenty-five dollars an enor- 
mous price for a broken dog. Perfection in breeding, 
brought about largely by field trials, has enhanced the value 



THE IEISH WATEE SPANIEL. 



297 



of the Setter and Pointer so much that often we hear of a 
fine performer bringing a thousand dollars or more. 

I hope to see a Retriever club organized, and will gladly 
assist in the good work. I will devote as much of my time 
as I can spare from my business to organizing such a club, 
formulating rules, and conducting trials. 




IRISH WATER SPANIEL PUPPIES. 



The standard and scale of points of the Irish Water 
Spaniel are as follows: 



POSITIVE POINTS. 

Head and jaw . , 10 

Eyes 5 

Top-knot 5 

Ears 10 

Neck 7i Lank, open, or woolly coat 10 

Body c . . . 7i A natural sandy, light coat 15 



NEGATIVE POINTS. 

Cording, or tags of dead or mat- 
ted hair 20 

Mustache or Poodle hair on 
cheek .... .10 



Fore legs , 5 

Hind legs 5 

Feet 5 

Stern 10 

Coat 15 

General appearance 15 

Total.. .100 



Furnishing of tail more than half 

way down to sting 5 

Setter feathering on legs 15 

White patch on chest 15 

Total . . .90 



DISQUALIFICATIONS. 

Total absence of top-knot. 

A fully feathered tail. 

Any white patch on any part of dog, except a small one on chest or toe. 



298 TJJE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Head. Capacious skull, rather raised in dome, and 
fairly wide, showing large brain capacity. The dome ap- 
pears higher than it really is, from its being surmounted by 
the crest or top-knot, which should grow down to a point 
between the eyes, leaving the temple smooth. 

Eyes. Highly intelligent, amber-colored. Dark is gen- 
erally preferred. 

Nose. Dark liver-colored, rather large, and well-devel- 
oped. 

Ears. Set on rather low. In a full-sized specimen the 
leather should be not less than eighteen inches, and with 
feather about twenty -four inches. The feather on the ear 
should be long, abundant, and wavy. 

Neck. Should be " Pointer-like " i. e., muscular, 
slightly arched, and not too long. It should be strongly 
set on the shoulders. 

Body (including size and symmetry). Height at shoul- 
der from twenty to twenty-four inches, according to sex 
and strain; body fair-sized, round, barrel-shaped, well 
ribbed up. When wet would resemble in contour that of 
a sporting-looking Pointer. 

Shoulders and chest. Chest deep, and not too narrow. 
Shoulders strong, rather sloping, and well covered with 
hard muscle. 

Back and loin. Back strong; loins a trifle arched, and 
powerful, so as to fit them for the heavy work of beating 
through sedgy, muddy sides of rivers. 

Hind quarters. Round and muscular, and slightly 
drooping toward the set-on of the stern. 

Stern. A. " whip-tail," thick at base and tapering to a 
u sting." The hair on it should be short, straight, and 
close-lying, except for a few inches from its root, where it 
gradually merges into the body coat in some short curls. 

Feet and legs. Fore legs straight, well-boned. They 
should be well furnished with wavy hair all round and 
down to the feet, which should be large and round. Hind 
legs stifle long; hock set low. They should be well fur- 
nished except from the hock down the front. 



THE IEISH WATER SPANIEL. 299 

Goat. Neither woolly nor lank, but should consist of 
short, crisp curls right up to the stern. Top-knot should 
fall well over the eyes. It and furnishing of ears should be 
abundant and wavy. 

Color. Dark, rich liver, or puce (to be judged by its 
original color). A sandy, light coat is a defect. Total ab- 
sence of white desirable; any except a little on chest or a 
toe should disqualify. 

General appearance. That of a strong, compact, dash- 
ing-looking dog, with a quaint and very intelligent aspect 
(the light rim round the eye, objected to by some, fre- 
quently adds much to their intelligent, knowing expres- 
sion). They should not be leggy, as power and endurance 
are required of them in their work. Noisy and joyous 
when out for a spree, but mute on game. 

The following may be mentioned among the many promi- 
nent owners and breeders of Irish Water Spaniels in this 
country: Charles L. Griffith, 82 Front street, New York 
City; John R. Daniels, 151 Ontario street, Cleveland, Ohio; 
Hornell-Harmony Kennels, Hornellsville, N. Y. ; Joseph 
Lewis, Cannonsburgh, Penn. ; Milwaukee Kennel Club, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. ; Anderson & Kilpatrick, 229 Park avenue, 
Chicago, 111.; C. B. Rodes, Moberly, Mo.; James Dele- 
hewity, 134 Second street, Milwaukee, Wis.; George H. 
Hill, Madeira, Ohio; Dr. James F. W. Ross, Toronto, 
Ontario; J. H. Whitman, Passenger Department Grand 
Trunk Railway, Chicago; Andrew Laidlaw, Woodstock, 
Ontario; Devonshire Kennels, Attica, Ind.; T. Donoghue, 
La Salle, 111.; John D. Olcott, Milwaukee, Wis.; P. Tin- 
dolph, Vincennes, Ind.; C. H. Hampson, Denver, Colo. 





(800) 



THE ENGLISH WATER SPANIEL. 
BY WILLIAM A. BRUETTE. 




Y many the old English Water Spaniel is considered 
extinct, but this claim I can not allow, for scattered 
throughout Great Britain, as well as in a few 
instances in America, are perfect specimens of the 
breed, in the hands of sportsmen who know their true 
worth, and who use them extensively in their private shoot- 
ing. Were the good qualities of this dog better known, they 
would be very popular among our inland duck-shooters. 

The English Water Spaniel is historically older than the 
Irish, and all writers on canine histiology, since the four- 
teenth century, have described him with more or less care. 
Doctor Caius says: "The Water Spaniel is that kind of a 
dog whose service is required in fowling upon the water- 
partially through a natural towardness and partially by 
diligent teaching is endued with that property. The sort is 
somewhat big, and of a measurable greatness, having long, 
rough, and curled hair, not obtained by extraordinary 
trades, but given by nature's appointment." In the Gen- 
tleman" s Recreation a similar description occurs. In the 
Sportsman's Cabinet, written about 1802, this dog is 
described as having the hair long and naturally curled, 
not loose and shaggy; and the engraving by Scott, from a 
drawing by Reinagale, which accompanies the article, repre- 
sents a medium-sized, liver and white, curly-coated Spaniel, 
with the legs feathered, but not curled. Youatt, in his 
"Book of the Dog," has a wood-cut showing a similar type, 
but says: "The Water Spaniel was originally from Spain; 
the pure breed has been lost, and the present dog is prob- 
ably descended from the large water dog and the English 
Setter." 

(301) 



302 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

All authorities agree that the Spaniel came originally 
from Spain, but it is generally admitted that none exist as 
imported, without alteration by mixture with allied varie- 
ties. It is generally agreed that the English Setter sprung 
from the Land Spaniel, and very likely the dogs referred 
to by Youatt were in greater part, if not all, Water Spaniels. 
From the earliest times, the English Water Spaniel is de- 
scribed as differing from the Land Spaniel. Edmond De 
Langley, in the k 'Maister of Game," writes of the Land 
Spaniel, ' ' White and tawny in color, and not rough- coated;' ' 
whereas nearly all other writers describe the Water Spaniel 
as rough and curly coated, but not shaggy. All the earlier 
writers speak of a large and a small Water Spaniel, and I 
can easily conceive that two sizes would naturally result 
from the requirements of sportsmen living in different 
localities. The bay or sea shooter requires a larger and 
more powerful dog than the inland sportsman, whose 
shooting is confined to the smaller lakes and streams, 
where a dog weighing from twenty-five to forty pounds 
can work the willows, reeds, and rice to much better 
advantage than a larger animal, and is more easily carried 
and concealed. 

I have found the English Water Spaniel extremely intelli- 
gent, particularly fond of the water, which he will enter by 
choice in all weathers. His powers of swimming and diving 
are immense; he works through mud, rice, and weeds seem- 
ingly with as much ease as on land, while his keen nose 
enables him to scent the dead or wounded duck at marvel- 
ously long distances. He will work out the hiding-place 
of a wounded bird with a perseverance and intelligence 
that can only be born of a genuine love of the sport. He 
requires little if any training, and seems to have inherent 
a desire to please his master as well as to gratify his own 
love of the sport. He will frequently mark the approach 
of the wild fowl before the hunter sees it; will crouch down 
till he hears the report of the gun, when he is all anima- 
tion to mark the fall of the dead or wounded duck. He is 
of a much handsomer appearance than either the Irish or 



THE ENGLISH WATEK SPANIEL. 303 

Chesapeake Bay dogs, and makes an excellent companion 
at home as well as in the field. 

The points of the English Water Spaniel are : General 
appearance, strong, compact, of medium size, leggy by 
comparison with the Clumber, Sussex, or Black Field 
Spaniel, and showing great activity. The head is rather 
long; the brow apparent, but not very prominent; jaws 
fairly long, and slightly but not too much pointed; the 
whole face and skull to the occiput covered with short, 
smooth hair, and no fore-lock as in the Irish Water Spaniel. 
The eyes fairly full, but not watery; clear, brown-colored, 
with an intelligent, beseeching expression. The ears long, 
rather broad, soft, pendulous, and thickly covered with 
curly hair of greater length than that on the body. The 
neck short, thick, and muscular. The chest capacious. 
The barrel stout, and the shoulders wide and strong. The 
loins strong. The buttocks square, and thighs muscular. 
The legs rather long, straight, strong of bone, well clothed 
with muscle; and the feet a good size, rather spreading, 
without being absolutely splay-footed. The coat over the 
whole upper part of the body and sides thick and closely 
curled, flatter on the belly and under the legs, which 
should, however, be well clad at the back with feathery 
curls; the prevailing color is liver and white, but whole 
liver, black, and black and white, are also described by 
some writers. The tail is usually decked rather thick and 
covered with curls. 

Appended is the standard and points of judging the 
English Water Spaniel as adopted by the English Water 
Spaniel Club : 

Value. Value. 

Head, jaw, and eyes 20 Feet 5 

Ears...* 5 Stern 10 

Neck 5 Coat 15 

Body 10 General appearance 10 

Fore legs 10 

Hind legs 10 Total 100 

NEGATIVE POINTS. 

Feather on stern 10 

Top-knot 10 

Total.. . 20 



304 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Head. Long, somewhat straight, and rather narrow; 
muzzle rather long, and, if anything, rather pointed. 

Eyes. Small for the size of the dog. 

Ears. Set in forward, and thickly clothed with hair 
inside and out. 

Neck. Straight. 

Body (including size and symmetry). Ribs round, the 
back ones not very deep. 

Nose. Large. 

Shoulders and chest. Shoulders low, and chest rather 
narrow^, but deep. 

Back and loin. Strong, but not clumsy. 

Hindquarters. Long and straight; rather rising toward 
the stern than drooping, which, combined with the low 
shoulder, gives him the appearance of standing higher be- 
hind than in front. 

Stern. Docked from seven inches to ten inches, accord- 
ing to the size of the dog; carried a little above the level of 
the back, but by no means high. 

Feet and legs. Feet well spread, large, and strong; well 
clothed with hair, especially between the pads. Legs long 
and strong; the stifles well bent. 

Coat. Covered either with crisp curls or with ringlets; 
no top-knot, but the close curl should cease on the top of 
the head, leaving the face perfectly smooth and lean- 
looking. 

Color. Black and white, liver and white, or self-colored 
black or liver. The pied for choice. 

General appearance. Sober-looking, with rather a 
slouching gait and a general independence of manner, which 
is thrown aside at the sight of a gun. 




THE CLUMBER SPANIEL. 



BY F. H. F. MERCER ("CLUMBER"). 




NOTHER maner of Houndes there is yat byn clepid Houndis for ye 
hauke, and Spaynels for ye nature of him cometh from Spayn, not- 
withstandyng yat ther ben many in other countries; and soche 
Houndes havyn many good custumes and evel. Also a f aire Hounde 
for ye hauke should have a greet heade and greet body, and a faire 
hew, white or tawne, for these ben ye fairest, and of suche heve ther byn corn- 
only best. 

A good Spaynel should not be too jough, but his taile should be rough. 
The good custumes yat soche Houndis havyn byn theese; thei loven wel thyr 
maistris, and folowe hym withe out losyng, thoo thei be in greet press of men, 
and comonly yie goon biff ore hure maister rennyng and playing with hur 
taile, and reyson or stertin foules and wilde beestis, but her ryght craft is of ye 
perterich and of ye quail e. It is a good thing to a man yat hath a good gos- 
hawke or tercelle, or sparhawke for ye perterich, to have soche Houndes, and 
also when thei byn taught to be careful, thei byn good for to take perterich 
and ye quaile with a nette. 

Also thei byn good when yei ben taught to swyme and to be good for ye 
revere, and for fowles when thei byn dyved; but in yat other side yei hav many 
evil condicions aftere ye cqntrere yat yei byn comon of; for a centre draweth 
to two natures of men clepen of beestis and of fowles, and as men clepyn 
Greihoundes in ende of Scotland of Britayn, zizth so ye Alamantez and ye 
Houndes for ye hawke cometh out Spayn and thei dra wen after ye nature of ye 
generation of which thei comen. Houndis for ye hawke byn fighters and grete 
baffers, and if ye lede hem on huntyng among runnyng Houndes, what beest 
that ye hunte to, she shal make hure come out for thei fayllen, as w T hane thei 
goon a right, and leden ye Houndes about and makyn hem overshoot and faile. 
Also if ye lede Greihoundes with two other Hounde for ye hawke, yat is to 
say a Spaynel, yif he se gees, kyn, or hors, oxen or other beestis, he wil runne 
anoon and bygynne to baffe at hem, and bycause of hem ye Greihoundes shal 
runne therto for to take ye' beest thorgh his eggyng, for he wil make al the 
ryot and al ye harme. 

The Houndes for ye hawke have so many other evyl totches, yat but yif I 
had a goshawke or faucon, or hawkes for ye ryvere, or sparhawke for ye nette, 
I wold rievyr have non namely ther as I shuld hunte. Extract from the "Mais- 
ter of Game" by Edmund de Langley, born A. D. 1378. 

The Spaniell is so named from Spaine, whence they came. The most part 
of their skynnes are white, and if they are marcked with any spottes, they are 

2O (305) 



306 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

commonly red. Extract from "Dogges," by Dr. Johannes Gains, written during 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

It has ever been my belief that the dog described in the 
foregoing extracts from the works of these, the two oldest 
writers on the canine species, is identical with that variety 
of the genus Spaniel now known as the Clumber. When 
we consider the crudeness of all writings descriptive of men 
and things in those early days, it must be conceded that De 
Langley's description of the best Hound for hawking and 
for the "rivere" fits the patrician of his family with the 
most remarkable exactitude. The "Spaniell," he writes, 
should have a large head and a large body, with not too 
"jough" (curly or wavy) a coat; that the coloring should 
be "white and tawne" (lemon), and that the tail 
should be "rough." He goes on to enumerate many 
traits of Clumber character, though this old aristocrat has 
during the lapse of four centuries arrived, doubtless, at the 
conclusion that to play with his tail is beneath such dig- 
nity as his, and therefore has given over the practice of so 
frivolous a pastime. 

The "bamng" (barking) propensity with which he 
charges them has certainly not been transmitted to their 
presumed descendants, the Clumbers, as they are the most 
silent of dogs, and in fact are entirely mute when at work. 
Still, nothing can be more probable than that their patrons, 
the Dukes of Newcastle, finding this noisiness to be an 
objectionable feature, as it undoubtedly is, bred out the 
noxious habit by judicious matings of the more silent 
specimens. 

Doctor Caius still further strengthens their claim to great 
antiquity, for though the markings nowadays recognized 
are not c ' red ' ' in hue, the darker shades displayed by some 
individuals might certainly be so denominated. As a mat- 
ter of fact, the writer when accompanied by Clumbers of the 
exactest shades of lemon and orange has overheard passers- 
by remark on their being "white dogs with red ears." 
Then again, does any other variety of the genus answer the 
hereinbefore quoted descriptions of the "Spaniells" given 
by both De Langley and Caius ? 



THE CLUMBER SPANIEL. 



307 



From the former's remarks it would appear that this 
presumed Clumber is not only the original Land Spaniel, 
but also the progenitor of the Setter. 

In Daniel's "Rural Sports" we learn that the immediate 
ancestors of the present race were given by a French noble- 
man, the Due de Nouailles, to a Duke of Newcastle, prob- 
ably about two centuries ago. The name is derived from a 
seat of the Dukes of Newcastle^ situated in Nottingham- 
shire, Clumber, where they were domiciled from the outset. 




CLUMBER SPANIEL CHAMPION JOHNNY. 
Owned by Clumber Kennel ( F. H. F. Mercer), Ottawa, Canada. 

To those who value things for their associations, the 
Clumber is a fit object for appreciation, as from the outset 
his associations have been aristocratic the kennels of 
dukes, marquises, earls, barons, baronets, knights, and the 
leading country gentry of Great Britain and Ireland, not 
to mention those of royalty, having been the cradles of the 
breed. 

Specimens are but rarely met with in America, and until 
of late years were scarce even in England, where they were 



308 THE AMEKICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

almost entirely in the hands of noblemen and country gen- 
tlemen, who kept them on their estates for shooting pur- 
poses. These were chary of disposing of surplus stock to 
any but their immediate friends, who in turn maintained 
them for their private uses. Did an outsider, therefore, 
desire to obtain a specimen, he could procure it clandes- 
tinely from the game-keeper only, who would report a 
puppy as having been destroyed, whereas he had sold it and 
pocketed the proceeds of his dishonesty. It is therefore 
not difficult of comprehension that under conditions such 
as these but few were disseminated among the general 
public. 

But all this is changed now, and pure-bred Clumbers are 
easily to be got in England, though high-class animals are 
few and far between in that country, as elsewhere. 

That they were prized by the highest class of sportsmen 
is borne witness to by Colonel Hamilton in his " Recollec- 
tions,"' which are of shooting incidents in the early days of 
the century. He writes: " A Spaniel known as the Clum- 
ber breed His Grace always shooting over them in his 
woods is much sought after by sportsmen." Then he 
enumerates their many excellences. 

This extract from "The Dog," the work of the late 
lamented "Idstone," will be of interest: 

The best pictures of the dog extant, perhaps, are those of Clumbers, for 
from Bewick to Abraham Cooper we had few, if any, painters, except Mor- 
land, who could make anything better than a map of the dog; and norland's 
dogs are generally Clumbers, an-1 first-rate specimens. 

I have no doubt that some good English Spaniels existed in his day, for I 
have seen a good picture by this artist of snipe-shooting in the snow, where 
English or colored Spaniels are employed; but evidently the Clumber was the 
dog of his time, as it will be of all time. 

Somewhere about 1868-69, a fine picture by F. Wheatley, A. R. A., of the 
Duke of Newcastle, was exhibited in the Portrait Gallery in London, and was at- 
tributed by several persons to Morland, who seldom, if ever, finished so highly 
as the former painter. The Duke is represented on his bay shooting-pony, sur- 
rounded by a group of Clumbers, which a writer in the Sporting Magazine of 
1807, when an engraving of the picture, or a part of it only, appeared in that 
serial, calls Springers, or Cock-flushers. William Mansell at that time had had 
the care of them for thirty years, and made it his study to produce this race 
of dogs unmixed, and they were at this time known as the Duke or Mansell' s 



THE CLUMBER SPANIEL. 309 

breed. ... It is no easy matter to breed Clumbers successfully. They 
will allow of no cross, but they often improve ordinary Field Spaniels, and it is 
difficult to produce thick, short-legged ones without an infusion of the blood. 
It will be evident from my foregoing remarks that all the Clumbers in the 
kingdom sprung from one family and one place, and therefore there can be no 
change of blood; and although an interchange of puppies from the few ken- 
nels scattered up and down the country does good, it can not refresh the 
constitution like a new strain. 

From this lack of infusions of new blood, the Clumber 
has been constitutionally weakened; but only during pup- 
pyhood, to the ills of which he is peculiarly susceptible. 
On the attainment of full growth, however, no more hardy 
dog exists, and no further trouble on this score need be 
apprehended. 

Non-converts to the belief that this breed is the original 
Land Spaniel, and as ' ' pure ' ' a one as any can be, advance 
a number of theories as to how it was evolved. Of these, 
the most credible is that it is derived from a union of the 
French Basset Hound and the nondescript Spaniel of the 
time. Yet another faction hold out that it originated in a 
cross between the Turnspit (a very long, short-legged dog, 
so named from his being used to turn the spit on which the 
meat roasted; the breed, if indeed there ever was a breed, 
is now extinct) and the Land Spaniel. But it seems so 
highly improbable that a sportsman should invoke the aid 
of the kitchen in breeding a sporting dog, that, outside of 
every other consideration, I consider the contention unten- 
able. 

After much research and inquiry, the writer has arrived 
at the conclusion that the first specimens brought to Amer- 
ica were imported by Lieutenant (afterward Major) Vena- 
bles, of Her Majesty's Ninety-seventh Regiment, then in 
garrison at Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, in 1842. He 
obtained his dogs from the kennels of Marwood Yeatman, 
Esq., the Stock House, Dorset, whose ownership of "excel- 
lent" Clumbers is especially mentioned by "Idstone" in 
his book. The writer has three of the direct descendants 
of these dogs in his kennels, and Mr. George Piers also is 
the owner of two bitches of the same breeding; but his old 
dog Smash II. was accidentally poisoned last year. 



310 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



This initial importation into Nova Scotia was supple- 
mented by many others, the breed having at once risen 
to the pinnacle of high favor ; and Halifax now undoubt- 
edly numbers more Clumbers in its canine population 
than any other city on the continent. 

Later, some exceedingly well-bred Clumbers were im- 
ported by a gentleman in Ohio, whose name I, for the 






CLUMBER SPANIEL PUPPY QUESTER. 
Owned by Clumber Kennel ( P. H. F. Mercer), Ottawa, Canada 

moment, do not recollect. Several were bought by parties 
in Baltimore, Md., and Mr. Jonathan Thorne, Jr., of 
Pennsylvania, for some years had things all his own way, 
on the show bench, with his imported dogs, especially 
Trimbush, whose portrait is given in Pope's series of col- 
ored lithographs of dogs. 

Within the past seven years a powerful colony has been 



THE CLUMBER SPANIEL. 311 

founded in Ottawa, Canada, the best Clumbers ever seen in 
America having been bred there. 

As a matter of fact, States-bred specimens have always 
had to succumb to the " Canucks " Champion Johnny, 
Drake, Champion Newcastle, Tyne, John Halifax, etc., all 
being Canadian born and bred. 

The year 1889 will ever be a red-letter one with American 
Clumber lovers, for in it the importation of leading Eng- 
lish prize-winners was inaugurated. In 1887 the writer 
secured the celebrated Champion Psycho and his kennel 
companions, Snow, Clover, Cherie, Cynic, and two others, 
to come to this country, but the negotiation, unfortunately, 
fell through. Since then no notorieties had crossed the 
Atlantic until Mr. Cameron Bate, of Ottawa, pluckily pur- 
chased the English champion, Boss III. (Damper-Lotus), 
the winner of an immense number of prizes on the other 
side. 

This dog, while deficient in several attributes, notably 
in head and coat, is wonderfully low on the leg, and alto- 
gether a decided gain to the Clumber interests of America. 
Shortly after, the same gentleman, on the recommendation 
of the writer, purchased the bitch Bromine (Tower-Leda), 
a winner of three first prizes in England, and who defeated 
several leading winners there, besides being highly eulo- 
gized by the kennel press. 

The writer has now on the seas the beautiful all white 
bitch Snow (Champion John o' Gaunt-Foxley Beauty), a 
winner of many first prizes, including the Kennel Club 
Jubilee Show at Barn Elms and Birmingham twice, that, 
both from her form and splendid breeding, he expects will 
prove an invaluable addition to his kennel. 

Ottawa, however, is not singular in enterprise of this 
description, for Mr. A. L. Weston, of Denver, Colo., having 
laid the foundation of a good kennel of the breed by pur- 
chases in this country, has bought from the Duke of West- 
minster, at a very long price, His Grace's first prize win- 
ning bitch at Birmingham. 

But the show bench, much as he adorns it by his 



312 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

presence, is not the Clumber' s sphere. To appreciate them 
at the full, one must see them silently questing for their 
game. I am of the firm belief that there is no prettier sight 
than a team of good Clumbers stealing ghost-like through 
forest or covert. Not a sound is to be heard save now and 
then the breaking of the omnipresent dry twig. Mark to 
the right ! Drake is feathering. Nell, too, has caught 
the scent. Johnny, who has been questing to the ex- 
treme left, now comes up to them, and by his manner at 
once betrays the proximity of the game. The bodies now 
are sunk until they seem to sweep the ground; they look to 
have no legs. Their heads point toward some matted, 
fallen hemlocks, and with every now and then a backward 
glance, for fear of advancing too quickly for the gun, 
they swiftly steal along. Now they are within a yard 
of the grouse's lair, and their aspects change. With a 
bound and a frantic waving of sterns, they are in. Whir-r ! 
A line old cock is flushed at once. Bang ! One down. 
Whir-r ! Whir-r ! Two more up, and only one barrel 
charged ! A hen this time presents the easier shot, and to 
the report drops, but only wing-tipped. 

No more birds being there to flush, the dogs are on the 
alert to retrieve whatever may fall. If two birds or more 
are down, both Johnny and Drake retrieve, the others not 
being allowed to interfere, though if given an opportunity 
they will retrieve with alacrity. In this instance Drake 
brings in the dead cock, while Johnny pursues the runner. 

Flying and running together, a wing- tipped grouse can 
encompass space with marvelous celerity, and the object of 
Johnny's pursuit is not an exception to the general rule. 
The bird doubles and twists in its efforts to escape, thereby 
causing the heavy dog to lose ground; but its wiles are of 
no avail, and soon he grasps it by the wing, the prisoner 
administering heavy punishment about his head with the 
free one, and brings it to bag. 

From this a conception of the Clumber's manner of land 
work may be had, and surely every sportsman will admit 
that such silence and stealth in the pursuit of game is a 



THE CLUMBER SPANIEL. 313 

desideratum. It is killing, certainly, and in an eminently 
sportsmanlike way. 

Their scent is simply marvelous, and is scarcely subor- 
dinate in excellence to that of the Pointer and Setter; indeed 
one gentleman in particular takes me to task for, in a 
former article, placing them on a par at all, so high is his 
opinion of the Clumber's keenness of scent. 

They are all-around dogs, good alike in water and on 
land. To quote a sixty-year-old sportsman friend, writing 
in our leading sportsman's paper, some two years since: 
' ' For snipe, woodcock, and partridge (ruffed grouse) shoot- 
ing, and for retrieving ducks, I consider them unequaled by 
any breed of dogs, and I believe they would also be excellent 
dogs to shoot quail over. They hunt so close to the gun that 
their flushing the birds without pointing would not be of 
any consequence, and in finding scattered birds after the 
bevies had been flushed and marked down, I believe they 
would not be excelled by the very best Pointers and Set- 
ters." In all of which I fully coincide. 

Keen-scented, obedient, and withal passionately fond of 
his work, he is the beau ideal of the sportsman's compan- 
ion. Among his many good qualities is one that should 
especially recommend him to the average sportsman, who 
has but little time to spend afield, much less in breaking a 
dog he is a natural worker, and needs but little training. 
While on game he is entirely mute, which is, of course, a 
great recommendation, as nothing disturbs game more than 
the yapping of a noisy dog. 

It is quite the fashion among sportsmen to decry the 
Clumber's working capabilities; to say "they're too big" 
or "too clumsy," and frequently to conclude by informing 
you gravely that " they're no good anyway." But happily 
their dictum with the cognoscenti does not carry much 
weight. No one that would speak in such a strain could 
have seen a good Clumber at work. The writer has tried 
them very high, and has never known them to fail. He has 
worked one, Champion Johnny, a seventy-pound dog, for 
seventeen consecutive days without visibly affecting him; 



314 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

also a team on ruffed grouse for sixteen days. They were 
weary at the end and foot- sore, but by no means tired out, 
and probably the insufficiency of strengthening food was 
most to blame. I could fill pages with citations of in- 
stances in which Clumbers have not tired out, but can 
not recollect a single instance of their having done so. 

"Basil," an eminent English authority on shooting, 
wrote in a London publication, two years ago, an article on 
Clumber Spaniels with particular reference to their superi- 
ority over Pointers and Setters at all work save that of 
grouse-shooting on the moors. The following is an extract : 

For any man who does not shoot on moors, and who wants a general dog, I 
say take a Clumber. There is no sort of low country he can not do. I may 
go even further, and say he will do grouse ground too, and I believe he would 
well, especially in those districts, such as Yorkshire and Derbyshire, where 
birds are wild, and where the ordinary sportsman has to go " gruffing," as it is 
called, to get game; i. e., stealing up the " gruffs," or gullies and undulations 
in the ground, and trying all the clumps of long, old, twisted heather and 
broken bogs. Of course my Lord Nabob, who can command an army of men, 
can drive his grouse. I talk of the man who enjoys more sport than he; i. e., 
the man who, as I say, wants a general dog. A good retrieving Clumber, 
taught, as they mostly are, to drop to hand, fur, wing, and shot, and to keep 
at heel when desired, is the most useful dog you can have. On partridge and 
low ground shooting he is any dog's equal (I say his master); and by walking 
across the open places on the moor, and thus driving the birds forward to deep, 
lying bogs and "gruffs" (similar tactics to partridge-shooting), you will find 
him a very satisfactory animal to fill the bag. And in Scotch cover, for wood- 
cock, blackcock, and pheasant shooting in the long old ling, ferns, and juniper, 
which is the undergrowth in Highland woods, he is fully in his element, being 
perfectly mute, sagacious, and killing. For any man who wants a general dog 
and a general gun, I should say take a good cylinder twelve-bore, and a hand- 
some, well-bred, and well-broken retrieving Clumber, and you will not regret 
it; ... In my country the Lord Nabobs keep their Pointers and Setters 
for the moors, and Clumbers for partridge-shooting. Experience has taught 
them that that is the right course, and that is the course pursued when they 
kill from one thousand to three thousand brace of birds in a season. 
The advantage which a Clumber has over a Pointer for partridges is he 
goes much quieter, and when he flushes is within range. . . . Again, 
birds when they scatter in turnips often run very much. With a Pointer 
roading and reading them, they frequently run all over the field, especially 
in windy weather, and thus steal away out of shot or at long distances. A 
Spaniel when he comes across game does not give it leisure to play these 
tricks; he pounces on it, and it must rise at once. Pheasants, also, in turnips, 
often tease a Pointer or Setter terribly, when a good Spaniel would have them 



THE CLUMBER SPANIEL. 315 

up directly. I have explained that his range is close, therefore he rises them 
within shot ; and a Clumber can always be kept to his range. 

"Idstone," in his heretofore-mentioned work on "The 
Dog, " remarks as follows regarding the Clumber: 

Owing to his strong frame and sober disposition, the Clumber lasts longer 
than most dogs . He also gains wisdom by experience, and attains value with 
age. Thus at seven, when your Setter is slow, your Clumber is an adept, and 
you are the envy of all your acquaintances, who, provided they are really fond 
of sport, will feel as much pleasure in the work of your dog as in the variety 
and abundance of sport you offer them. 

During the spring of 1888 I had occasion to search a 
tract of several square miles of land, most of it densely 
covered with timber, in search of a Clumber, belonging to 
me, that had escaped from the train at a neighboring sta- 
tion, and, terror-stricken at the strangeness of the surround- 
ings, had taken to the brush. On the first day's search I 
took with me a Pointer and Setter, and was much struck 
with the apparent scarcity of game. The second day I was 
accompanied by a Clumber, and in the same woods he 
flushed an abundance of game. He "nosed out" what the 
gallopers had passed by. 

For duck-retrieving from the water they are superb, 
being swift and powerful swimmers, and always intent on 
coming up with the game. They will dive after a bird like 
a Chesapeake Bay Dog (this accomplishment, it will be 
observed, is mentioned by De Langley), and catch it under 
water. The color is objectionable for this work; but a light 
cotton cloth, "dead grass" in color, thrown over him, 
will prevent his being seen. No bird can escape them by 
hiding in reeds or rushes. 

Yet the transcendent merits of this grand dog are 
unknown to the vast majority of sportsmen, and those 
who know of him through hearsay, and Stonehenge, are 
strongly prejudiced against him. That writer, by his utterly 
unjust statement that they quickly tire and are but the 
rich man's dog, has done great injury to the breed, for 
Stonehenge' s books are far more widely circulated than any 
other publications treating of the dog. I am often asked: 
4 ' If Clumbers are such wonderful dogs, why are they so 



316 THE AMEKICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

unpopular 3 ' ' My answer is that they are the victims of 
ignorance and prejudice. 

It may be pertinent to remark that I know of no one 
who has taken up Clumbers who is not more than pleased 
and satisfied with them; nay, in nearly every instance they 
are enthusiastic in their praise. 

Clumbers as bred in America are much higher on the 
leg than the general run of English dogs, consequent upon 
their having been bred, until the last few years, for shoot- 
ing only, and without reference to bench-show points of 
excellence. A working Spaniel must have a certain amount 
of leg; but then, again, leg can be overdone, just as low- 
ness can be, and many of our Clumbers are far too abund- 
antly supplied with understandings. But while I dislike 
extreme legginess greatly, I also abhor the exaggerated 
long and low type, whose bellies nearly sweep the ground. 
It is purely a fancy fad that construes "short" in a 
standard to mean shortest and "low" lowest. Why we 
should rush to extremes, instead of following a midway 
course, for the life of me I can not see. 

In breeding Clumbers, this tendency to extreme leggi- 
ness is to be guarded against. Another general fault is the 
un-Clumber-like ear, and few specimens have really well- 
shaped and well-hung ones. The ear is so distinctive a 
mark of the breed that this is to be deplored. Expression 
of the true kind, too, is seldom seen, and heads are far too 
apt to be misshapen. In England, I learn, the breed is fast 
deteriorating from its old-time excellence; but I hope that 
the proverbial American push and intelligence will in time 
succeed in resuscitating the Clumber Spaniel. 

Probably the best Clumber ever seen Avas Mr. Bullock's 
Old Nabob, some time since* dead. I have repeatedly en- 
deavored to secure a portrait of him, but without success; 
indeed, a prominent English Spaniel owner writes to me: 
"I do not think there is a photograph of Nabob in exist- 
ence. I knew the dog, and the gentleman who owned him, 
during nearly the whole of his show time. Mr. Bullock 
was awfully jealous of his dogs, and hardly liked people 



THE CLUMBEE SPANIEL. 317 

looking at them when at exhibitions." The best of late 
years was Champion Psycho, who is sixteen years old. 
Champion John o' Gaunt, too, was a good Clumber. At 
present there is no dog that stands prominently out from 
his fellows. Among the best are Holmes' Tower, Mr. 
Farrow's Faust, Ralph, Friar Boss, and Hotpot. 

In America, the best native-bred dogs have been Cham- 
pion Johnny, Champion Newcastle, Drake, and Tyne, all 
sired by one dog, Mr. Palmer's imported Ben, a dog of 
direct Clumber House descent. 

The leading Clumber owners and exhibitors are Messrs. 
Wilmerding and Kitchel, of New York; Mr. Hill, of Ottawa, 
who is associated with the writer; Mr. H. W. Windram, 
of Boston; and Messrs. Bate and Geddes, of Ottawa. An 
important new-comer is Mr. A. L. Weston, of Denver, Colo. 

The few Clumbers in this country are owned for the most 
part by sportsmen scattered far and wide over the conti- 
nent, who do not care to go to the trouble and expense 
the exhibiting of dogs entails. 

As to preparation for the show bench, little can be said, 
for the lesson can only be learned in the school of experi- 
ence, and even when learned mayhap it will not apply. 
Some dogs can not be properly conditioned. Plenty of 
brushing, and judicious feeding, and exercising are the 
only means by which the desired end may be attained. 

Every sportsman takes pride in the ownership of a hand- 
some dog, and the gift of beauty a Clumber possesses in a 
high degree. They are withal eminently aristocratic in 
appearance. " Handsome is as handsome does" is a time- 
honored adage; but when we can combine beauty and util- 
ity in one body, surely it is as well to have it so. 

"Idstone" goes so far as to characterize the Clumber as 
' ' decidedly the handsomest dog ever bred for the sports- 
man." 

"Dog stories" of late years have been so much over- 
done that I will not weary the reader with oft-told tales of 
the miraculous performances of my pets; but this omission 
must not be construed as being due to a paucity of instances 



318 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

of Clumber sagacity for me to elaborate upon. There is no 
more intelligent dog in existence than he whom I champion 
the noble Clumber. 

To their masters they are the most faithful of friends, 
and no stranger need expect this aristocrat to take the least 
notice of his caresses, if, indeed, he tolerates them at all. 

They are splendid watch-dogs, and no intruder can come 
about their master's residence without notice being given 
of his presence. My Clumbers prevented one burglar that 
I know of from u burgling" (he was seen); and a gentleman 
writes to me of his Clumber that "he is the most vigilant 
watch-dog I have ever known, and I have owned many. He 
does not bite, but will bark persistently. On two occasions 
he prevented the entrance of burglars, many of the houses 
in the neighborhood being entered. But he never barks 
unless there is a noise around the house." 

This describes their methods very well, though my ex- 
perience has been that they will bite at a pinch, and an 
ugly wound they can give. I should certainly not care to 
have a stranger happen in my kennels at night. There 
would be a badly used-up man to comfort, I fancy. 

Of ancient and high lineage, useful, strong, enduring, 
faithful, watchful, and beautiful surely the Clumber Span- 
iel is deserving of popularity. 

It is therefore most gratifying, to those of us who know 
and love this noble dog, to observe that he is becoming 
more and more popular in America every year; that he is 
being sought after to-day by sportsmen who a few years 
ago either knew or cared nothing for him; that good speci- 
mens of the breed now sell readily at prices that a few 
years ago would have been thought by every American 
exorbitant. It is gratifying to know that, notwithstand- 
ing the wide distribution of Clumber owners, already noted, 
each year's entry of this breed at our bench shows shows 
an increase over the preceding year. All these facts indi- 
cate that the Clumber is a coming dog, and it is safe to 
predict that in time he will become almost as numerous and 
as generally popular in this country as is the Setter to-day. 



THE CLUMBER SPANIEL. 



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320 THE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

A representative pedigree, and one tracing back to the 
best strains in Great Britain, is that of the fine young dog 
Johnny II., bred by the writer. He is brother in blood to 
Quester, of whom an illustration is given on page 310. 

Subjoined is the standard for judging Clumber Spaniels 
as drawn up by me and adopted by the American Spaniel 
Club: 

Value. Value. 

General appearance and size 10 Body and quarters 20 

Head 15 Legs and feet 10 

Eyes 5 Coat and feather 10 

Ears 10 Color and markings 5 

Neck and shoulders 15 

Total 100 

General appearance and size. General appearance, a 
long, low, heavy -looking dog, of a very thoughtful expres- 
sion, betokening great intelligence. Should have the ap- 
pearance of great power. Sedate in all movements, but not 
clumsy. Weight of dogs averaging between fifty-five and 
sixty-five pounds ; bitches from thirty-five to fifty pounds. 

Head. Head large and massive in all its dimensions ; 
round above eyes, flat on the top, with a furrow run- 
ning from between the eyes up the center. A marked 
stop and large occipital protuberance. Jaw long, broad, 
and deep. Lips of upper jaw overhung. Muzzle not square, 
but at the same time powerful-looking. Nostrils large, open, 
and flesh-colored, sometimes cherry-colored. 

Eyes. Eyes large, soft, and deep-set, and showing haw. 
Hazel in color, not too pale, with dignified and intelligent 
expression. 

Ears. Ears long and broad at the top, turned over on 
the front edge ; vine-shaped ; close to the head ; set on low, 
and feathered only on the front edge, and there but slightly. 
Hair short and silky, without slightest approach to wave or 
curl. 

Neck and shoulders. Neck long, thick, and powerful, 
free from dewlap, with a large ruff. Shoulders immensely 
strong and muscular, giving a heavy appearance in front. 

Body and quarters. Body very long and low, well 
ribbed-up, and long in the coupling. Chest of great depth 



THE CLUMBER SPANIEL. 321 

and volume. Loin powerful and not too much arched. 
Back long, broad, and straight, free from droop or bow. 
Length an important characteristic; the nearer the dog is 
in length to being two and one-half times his height at 
shoulders the better. Quarters shapely and very muscular, 
neither drooping nor stilty. 

Legs and feet. Fore legs short, straight, and im- 
mensely heavy in bone; well in at elbow. Hind legs 
heavy in bone, but not so heavy as fore legs. No feather 
below hocks, but thick hair on back of leg just above 
foot. Feet large, compact, and plentifully filled with 
hair between toes. 

Coat and feather. Coat silky and straight, not too 
long, extremely dense; feather long and abundant. 

Color and markings. Color, lemon and white and 
orange and white. Fewer markings on body the better. 
Perfection of markings : Solid lemon or orange ears, evenly 
marked head and eyes, muzzle and legs ticked. 

Stern. Set on level and carried low. 




21 



THE SUSSEX SPANIEL. 



BY A. CLINTON WILMERDING. 




>HE Sussex is one of the many varieties of the Land 
Spaniel. In color he is of a golden liver, not over 
symmetrical in appearance, nor always graceful in 
gait and action, but a substantial worker, a valuable com- 
panion in the field, as a rule a good retriever on either land 
or water, and gifted, as are all the sporting Spaniels, with 
a wonderful sense of smell. 

This breed is not so often met with in this country as are 
the Field, or Springer, the Cocker, Clumber, and Irish 
Water Spaniels; in fact it appears as if but a matter of a 
few years when the few pure specimens that we have will 
die off, and the breed become practically extinct so far 
as we are concerned, unless further acquisitions are sought 
from the other side, and more interest taken in this useful 
dog, by our Spaniel fanciers and breeders. 

It is perhaps an unfortunate condition of things that the 
few specimens here have not been kept religiously apart 
from the other breeds, instead of being indiscriminately 
bred with them. This, however, may be overlooked when 
we realize the rarity of the breed, and the difficulty and 
expense entailed in mating them when scattered, as they 
are, throughout the country. Then, too, with but one or 
two exceptions, within our memory, their classification at 
bench shows brings them under the head of l ' Field 
Spaniels," which title frequently embraces all the larger 
Spaniels (over twenty-eight pounds) excepting the Irish 
Water; Clumber, Sussex, and Springers often competing 
together in this class. Hence it is not to be wondered at 
that, with but few of the breed, and the slight inducement 
offered to breeders, the disposition has been to breed to the 

(323) 



324 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

winning blacks among the Springers, to perpetuate strength, 
length, and flatness of coat. 

Among the early breeders (in England) and owners of 
the Sussex, appear such men as S. W. Marchant, who at 
one time claimed to be the only owner of the pure Rose- 
hill strain; J. Fuller, of Rosehill, Sussex; Rev. W. Shields, 
Lord Middleton, Lord Derby, Hon. Captain Arbuthnott, H. 
Saxby, Phineas Bullock, and others. These men were cer- 
tainly pioneers in the breed, and always stanch upholders 
of it. 

Among the pure-bred dogs of early date, we lind several 
well-known names that figure liberally in the pedigrees of 
many of our present prize-winners; especially so with the 
Field Spaniels, or Springers. To this ancestry may be 
attributed much of the strength, bone, and substance of 
our present dogs. 

In tracing out the " family tree" of a majority of the 
leading dogs of to-day (particularly of the Jacobs stock), 
we find the old and familiar names of Burdett's Frank, 
Marchant' s Rover, Burgess' Bebb, Old Bebb, Mousley's 
Venus, Bachelor, Bob, Bess, Bounce, etc., etc.; these were 
all said to be of the pure Sussex breed. 

In the field this dog is a strong and cheerful worker, of 
great pluck and energy. As a rule he is not silent, al- 
though there are frequent exceptions to this. He generally 
gives tongue when approaching game. In many parts of 
our shooting territory they should be particularly useful 
and valuable, in spots where the Setter or Pointer can not 
penetrate; the Sussex being powerful and short of leg, and 
withal well protected by a thick, flat coat, will fearlessly 
press his way through the densest briers and undergrowth, 
and ultimately reach and flush the fur or feather secreted 
therein. 

It seems but fair that this much-neglected breed should 
receive the assistance of the Spaniel Club, and, like the 
Cockers, the Springers, and the Clumbers, be brought into 
public notice and prominence, as the others have been, 
through the efforts of this club. 



THE SUSSEX SPANIEL. 325 

The values of the points and a description of the dog 
will at once make themselves clear, in the following stand- 
ard for the breed, from " The Dogs of the British Isles," 
edited by the late J. H. Walsh ( " Stonehenge " ), and 
adopted by that protector and guardian of the Spaniel 
the oldest specialty club in America the American Spaniel 
Club: 

Value. Value. 

Skull 15 Legs and feet 10 

Eyes 5 Tail 10 

Nose 10 Color 10 

Ears 5 Coat 5 

Neck 5 Symmetry 5 

Shoulders and chest 10 

Back and back ribs 10 Total 100 

The sTcull (value 15) should be long and wide, with a 
deep indentation in the middle, and a full stop, projecting 
well over the eyes; occiput full, but not pointed; the whole 
giving an appearance of heaviness without dullness. 

The eyes (value 5) are full, soft, and languishing, but not 
watering so as to stain the coat. 

The nose (value 10) should be long (three inches to three 
and one-half inches) and broad, the end liver-colored, with 
large open nostrils. 

The ears (value 5) are moderately long and lobe-shaped 
that is to say, narrow at the junction with the head, wider 
in the middle, and rounded below, not pointed. They 
should be well clothed with soft, wavy, and silky hair, but 
not heavily loaded with it. 

The neck (value 5) is rather short, strong, and slightly 
arched, but not carrying the head much above the level of 
the back. There is no throatiness in the skin, but a well- 
marked frill in the coat. 

Shoulders and chest (value 10). The chest is round, 
especially behind the shoulders, and moderately deep, giv- 
ing a good girth. It narrows at the shoulders, which are 
consequently oblique, though strong, with full points, long 
arms, and elbows well let down, and these last should not 
be turned out or in. 

Back and back ribs (value 10). The back or loin is long, 



326 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

and should be very muscular both in width and depth. 
For this latter development, the back ribs must be very 
deep. The whole body is characterized as low, long, and 
strong. 

Legs and feet (value 10). Owing to the width of chest, 
the fore legs of the Sussex Spaniel are often bowed; but it 
is a defect, notwithstanding, though not a serious one. The 
arms and thighs must be bony as well as muscular; knees 
and hocks large, wide, and strong; pasterns very short and 
bony; feet round, and toes well arched and clothed thickly 
with hair. The fore legs should be well feathered all down, 
and the hind ones also, above the hocks, but should not 
have much hair below this point. 

The tail (value 10) is generally cropped, and should be 
thickly clothed with hair, but not with long feather. The 
true Spaniel's low carriage of the tail at work is well 
marked in this breed. 

The color (value 10) of the Sussex Spaniel is a well- 
marked, but not exactly rich, golden liver, on which there 
is often a washed-out look that detracts from its richness. 
This color is often met with in other breeds, however, and 
is no certain sign of purity in the Sussex Spaniel. 

The coat (value 5) is wavy, without any curl; abundant, 
silky, and soft. 

The symmetry (value 5) of the Sussex Spaniel is riot 
very marked; but he should not be devoid of this quality. 




THE FIELD SPANIEL. 




BY J. F. KIIIK. 

>HE Field Spaniel is the modern name given to the 
larger breed of Land Spaniels, or Springers, to dis- 
tinguish them from Water Spaniels and the smaller 
Land Spaniel, or Cocker. The name is not especially 
happy as to choice, inasmuch as his work is principally 
confined to cover-shooting, where he is particularly useful 
in finding and raising, or " springing," the woodcock, par- 
tridge, or pheasant, and his raison d'etre and popularity 
consist in his special excellence and adaptability for such 
work. 

In the English Kennel Club Stud Book, under the head 
of Field Spaniels, are included Springers and Cockers, ex- 
cept such as have special classes assigned to them, viz.: 
Clumbers and Sussex Spaniels. Thus there are many 
varieties, having distinct and separate characteristics, 
admitted and recognized under the comprehensive cogno- 
men of Field Spaniel; but the intention and scope of this 
article is to treat of that most popular and handsome variety 
known as the Black Spaniel. 

Before going particularly into the points and qualities 
of this engaging and beautiful breed, a short glance into 
his history and elements will enable the reader to trace the 
fact that, as he is at present displayed on our show benches, 
to the admiration of all lovers of sporting dogs, he is of 
comparatively modern origin. A stupid prejudice, as it 
seems to the writer, exists in the minds of many worthy 
old sportsmen, that deterioration is the most evident fact to 
them in comparing modern Spaniels with the wonderful 
dogs of their day. This is pure nonsense, and arises from 
a kind of halo of glory with which we are all apt to sur- 

(320 



328 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

round the memories of oar young and enthusiastic days. 
From personal recollection and good opportunities of com- 
parison, extending over nearly forty years, I feel positive 
that the handsomest Setters which old Laverack used to 
bring with him to my native highland moors would not 
receive more than a V. H. C. card at our modern shows. 
And so with Spaniels. The dogs of thirty, or even fif- 
teen, years ago can not be compared with the cracks of the 
present day. In candidly admitting this fact, however, I 
am quite free to confess that there is a strong tendency on 
the part of modern breeders to exaggerate ' ' fancy ' ' points, 
and, as a consequence, an undue appreciation is apt to be 
given, in the cultivation of the different breeds, to abnor- 
mal excess in the admired and difficult-to-be-obtained qual- 
ities that differentiate each class from its kindred and allied 
breeds, sometimes at the expense of more useful character- 
istics. For instance, Spaniel conformation is essentially 
4 'long and low," and this has created a rivalry amongst 
breeders to produce the " longest and lowest." Now there 
is a limit to length and lowness, which is clearly defined as 
a point where an exaggeration in those respects interferes 
with the necessary activity and ability to work with suffi- 
cient ease and vigor in a rough country. 

In England, the Clumber, which is the longest, lowest, 
and heaviest of the Spaniel tribe, is only particularly use- 
ful in pheasant preserves, where rides are cut through the 
cover, and where slow, strong, plodding dogs are required. 
In examining the old authorities, we find that there were 
numerous varieties of sporting Spaniels, and that each 
appears to have been selected and bred for the special 
peculiarities of the game and shooting that prevailed in 
certain districts. In Sussex, the large, handsome, golden- 
liver breed was especially prized; in Wales and Devon, the 
smaller liver and liver-and-white Cockers were especially 
suited, par excellence, for the sport in those counties, while 
farther north, and in the midland counties, the black and 
black-and-tan Spaniels were the favorites. After the intro- 
duction of dog shows in England, about thirty years ago, 



THE FIELD SPANIEL. 



329 



the blacks appear to have monopolized most attention, and 
several breeders of historical renown succeeded in improv- 
ing, by judicious selection and crosses, the very beautiful 
Black Spaniel till he fairly eclipsed all competitors for hon- 
ors. More recently, a highly successful experiment of cross- 
ing him with the highly esteemed Sussex breed has brought 
fame and funds, as the result, to the most intelligent and 
persevering breeders of the present day. Thus we see that 




CHAMPION FIELD SPANIEL-BLACK PRINCE. 
Owned by Mr. A. Clinton Wilmerdmg, 163 Broadway, New York City. 

the popular modern Black Spaniel is a product of judicious 
and skillful crossing of various breeds. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE MODERN FIELD SPANIEL. 

The Rev. W. B. Daniel, whose "Rural Sports, 9 ' pub- 
lished during the first decade of the century, ought to be 
in every sportsman's library, being the work of a thorough 
connoisseur and keen critical observer, says: U A Spaniel 
can not be too strong; a Spaniel can not be too short on 



330 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

the leg; a Spaniel can nofr be too high-couraged." Thus 
we see that extremely short, heavy limbs are no modern 
innovation, as some claim. I am inclined to think, how- 
ever, that if the good and reverend old gentleman lived in 
our day, he would be inclined to cry: ' ' Halt! You have got 
them short enough in the leg, and heavy enough in bone, 
and too many of your prize-winners are too crooked and 
clumsy for any sporting purpose. " And he would be right. 
The modern tendency is to breed them too heavy in bone 
and body, and consequently too heavy and unwieldy for 
use. I refer, of course, to the English prize-winners, 
because, on this side of the Atlantic, few indeed of this 
type have been seen.* Our Spaniels, as seen on the show 
benches, are generally absurdly wrong in the opposite 
direction. A leggy Spaniel is an abomination, but we 
must come to a clear comprehension as to the line to be 
drawn between 4 ' long legs ' ' and ' 4 no legs. ' ' Now, a short- 
legged dog, which every Spaniel should be, does not mean 
of necessity a crawling thing that requires to be helped 
over every obstacle a foot or two high. I have seen a 
Sussex Spaniel bitch, measuring only fifteen inches full 
height at shoulder, and forty inches from tip of nose to 

* The following list includes most of the prominent breeders and owners 
of Field Spaniels in this country: A. C. Wilmerding, 163 Broadway, New 
York City; J. P. Willey, Salmon Falls, N. H. ; George W. Folsom, 826 Con- 
necticut avenue, Farragut Square, Washington, D. C.; R. P. Keasby, 6 
Saybrook place, Newark, N. J.; D. S. Hammond, Murray Hill Hotel, Forty- 
first and Park avenue, New York City; Charles T. Carnell, 190 Washington 
street, New York City; R. H. Eggleston, 36 East Forty-second street, New 
York City; T. L. Jacques, 217 West Fourteenth street, New York City; A. 
Laidlaw, Woodstock, Ontario, Canada; W. T. Payne, 31 West Thirty-eighth 
^treet, New York City; W. M. McBurnie, 307 West Fifty-first street, New 
York City; George H. Bush, 220 Main street, Buffalo, N. Y. ; Nahmke Ken- 
nels, East Patchogue, Long Island, N. Y.; Alexander Pope, 120 Tremont 
street, Boston, Mass.; Hornell-Harmony Kennels, Hornellsville, N. Y.; Joe 
Lewis, Cannonsburgh, Penn. ; Woodland Kennels, Woodstock, Ontario, Canada; 
High Rock Cocker Kennels, Lynn, Mass. ; O. B. Gilman, 40 Boylston street, 
Boston, Mass.; B. F. Lewis, Philadelphia, Penn.; L. F. Whitman, 418 
Wabash avenue, Chicago; Woodstock Spaniel Kennels, Woodstock, Ontario, 
Canada; W. A. Pinkerton, 191 Fifth avenue, Chicago; Dr. J. S. Niven, Lon- 
don, Ontario, Canada. ED. 



THE FIELD SPANIEL. 331 

set-on of tail, able to get over a six-foot fence with ease, 
and work a tubby-built eighteen-inch dog to a stand-still in 
half a day's work. Why? Because she had grand supple 
shoulders, powerful loins and quarters, well-bent stifles and 
hocks, the possession of which gave her what Fox Terrier 
men call ''liberty," while he, though of great muscular 
development and short-coupled, was tied and cloddy in 
action. If with length of body and shortness of limb are 
combined freedom of shoulder action, straight front legs, 
and powerful sickle hocks and stifles, with wide and mus- 
cular loins, you have a dog surprisingly active for his 
inches. "Idstone," than whom no modern writer knew 
better what a Spaniel should be, speaks of the ' ' low, long, 
and strong Spaniel." Now, I insist on it, that if your Field 
Spaniel has not this conformation, he can not be called a 
good one. 

The next distinguishing characteristic of a good speci- 
men is his stamp of head, including muzzle, eyes, ears, and 
"expression." The general contour and profile of the face 
and skull should resemble the shape of a reduced Gordon 
Setter, but with longer, lower-hanging, and more heavily 
feathered ears, darker eyes, and rather clearer-cut muzzle. 
The faults to be avoided are heavy, chumpy, "Newfound- 
land" heads, high set-on ears, full eyes, and throaty necks 
on the one hand, and attenuated, tapering muzzles, with 
shallow lips, and flat, narrow, brainless skulls, fishy eyes 
too light in color, and showing a limited intelligence and 
uncertain temper on the other. Good temper, intelligence, 
docility, and courage must be plainly indicated in the 
expression of the head and face; and a very important 
matter, also, is that the nose should be large, moist, and 
wide-spread, showing the possession of high capacity for 
keen scent. 

Another necessary "mark" of a good Field Spaniel is 
the coat. The flatter and straighter the coat lies to the 
body the better, but it must not be thin and open, and the 
heavily coated ones are often inclined to be wavy, especially 
over the neck and rump. It must be of good soft texture, 



332 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

and very bright and glossy. A harsher texture of coat is 
generally dull in color, but some very excellent Spaniels have 
rather strong hair, and this may be, as is by their owners 
contended, an indication of strength of constitution. It is 
certainly quite becoming when brilliant and straight, but 
the tendency of such coats is to be scant and open. The 
feather should always be long and straight, or slightly 
wavy, very heavy on ears, back of fore legs, under the belly, 
and behind the thighs, as well as between the toes, which 
gives the feet great protection. 

A great deal of interesting contention and discussion 
has periodically been occasioned by the interbreeding of 
Cockers and Springers, and I have been asked to give my 
opinion as to the line of distinction to be drawn between 
the Field and the Cocker Spaniel. Well, the actual 
difference is mainly one of size and proportions, and also 
of temperament. Field Spaniels range from twenty-eight 
to forty-live pounds weight. Some exceed this latter limit, 
but I think this is not desirable. Cocker Spaniels should 
weigh from eighteen to twenty-five pounds, or, as the stand- 
ard defines, even twenty-eight pounds. Field Spaniels 
should be proportionately lower, heavier in bone, and gen- 
erally slower, and longer in body; Cocker Spaniels, pro- 
portionately higher, but strong in muscle, more active, and 
cobbier in build. While both classes should display the 
essential characteristics of the sporting Spaniel, more dash 
and energy, and general eagerness (which their more active 
build and smaller size indicate), are expected from the 
smaller breed; and, on the other hand, a closer range, 
stricter obedience to signs and whistles, and the same dili- 
gence in work should be looked for in the larger and 
heavier breed. The Cocker may be shorter in head and 
body, but should exhibit a well-formed muzzle, showing a 
well-developed nose and flews, with lips well pendent; and 
in both breeds the ears should be long in leather, and with 
good feather, set low on head, especially so with the larger 
breed. It is esteemed a point of beauty in Field Spaniels to 
have the peak of the occiput well marked and rising in a 



THE FIELD SPANIEL. 333 

distinct point above the origin or highest set- on of the ears, 
which must fall close to the head, and hang flat to the 
cheek or side of the head. The height at shoulder of a 
twenty-two-pound Cocker should not exceed twelve inches, 
and eleven inches would be better. A twenty-eight-pound 
dog may go to thirteen and a half inches, but not more. 
A Field Spaniel of forty-five pounds should not exceed 
fifteen inches at shoulder, and a smaller one, say thirty-five 
pounds, should be fourteen inches or less. Straight legs in 
front should be insisted upon, especially in the Cocker 
breed, but not to the extent that obtains in Fox Terriers. 
A narrow front is not desirable, and a good depth of chest 
and well-rounded barrel, with ribs well developed toward 
the loins, which should be muscular and strong, are partic- 
ularly required. The hind quarters should be muscular, and 
the first and second thighs and hocks well bent, and so 
arranged as to give vigorous spring to the movement. Cow- 
hocks, or hocks out-turned, are objectionable. The feet are 
of great importance, and should be strong and well fur- 
nished with heavy, solid, thick pads, horny soles, and 
knuckles well sprung and held close together, not splay -, 
footed or spreading. 

Appended is the standard for the modern Field Spaniel, 
or Springer, adopted by the American Spaniel Club, with 
scale of points for judging: 

Value. Value. 

Head 15 Legs and feet 15 

Ears 10 Body and quarters 20 

Neck 5 Coat and feather 15 

Shoulders and arras 10 Tail 10 

Total 100 

General appearance. Considerably larger, heavier, and 
stronger in build than the Cocker; the modern Springer 
is more active and animated than the Clumber, and 
has little of the sober sedateness characteristic of the 
latter. He should exhibit courage and determination in 
his carriage and action, as well as liveliness of tempera- 
ment, though npt in this respect to the same restless degree 



334 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

generally possessed by the Cocker. His conformation 
should be long and low, more so than the Cocker. 

Intelligence, obedience, and good nature should be 
strongly evident. The colors most preferred are solid black 
or liver, but liver and white, black and white, black and 
tan, orange, and orange and white are all legitimate Spaniel 
colors. 

Head (value 15) long and not too wide, elegant and 
shapely, and carried gracefully; skull showing clearly cut 
brows, but without a very pronounced "stop;" occiput 
distinct and rising considerably above the set-on of the ears; 
muzzle long, with well-developed nose, not too thick immedi- 
ately in front of the eye, and maintaining nearly the same 
breadth to the point; sufficient flew to give a certain square- 
ness to the muzzle and avoid snipiness or wedginess of 
face; teeth sound and regular; eyes intelligent in expres- 
sion, and dark, not showing the haw, nor so large as to be 
prominent or goggle-eyed. 

Ears (value 10) should be long and hung low on the skull, 
lobe-shaped, and covered with straight or slightly wavy 
silky feather. 

Neck (value 5) long, graceful, and free from throatiness, 
tapering toward the head; not too thick, but strongly set 
into shoulders and brisket. 

Shoulders and arms (value 10). The shoulder-blades 
should lie obliquely and with sufficient looseness of attach- 
ment to give freedom to the fore arms, which should be well 
let down. 

Legs and feet (value 15). The fore legs should be 
straight, very strong, and short; hind legs should be well 
bent at the stifle-joint, with plenty of muscular power. 
Feet should be of good size, with thick, well-developed 
pads, not flat or spreading. 

Body and quarters (value 20) long, with well-sprung 
ribs, strong, slightly arching loins, well coupled to the 
quarters, which may droop slightly toward the stern. 

Coat and feather (value 15). The coat should be as 
straight and flat as possible, silky in texture, of sufficient 



THE FIELD SPANIEL. 



335 



denseness to afford good protection to the skin in thorny 
coverts, and moderately long. The feather should be long 
and ample, straight or very slightly wavy, heavily fringing 
the ears, back of fore legs, between the toes, and on back 
quarters. 

Tail (value 10) should be strong, and carried not higher 
than the level of the back. 




THE COCKER SPANIEL. 



BY J ' OTIS FELLOWS. 




>HE Spaniel is one of the oldest breeds of dogs in 
existence, and several other and later breeds owe 
some of their best qualities to crosses on this 
breed. So far as known, the Spaniel is, as the name 
indicates, a native of Spain. From there he was introduced 
into England; and by crossing, interbreeding, and manip- 
ulation, several strains have been thrown off from the 
original parent stock. Dr. John Caius, writing in 1576, 
says: 

There be gentle dogs serving the hawk, and first of the Spaniel, called in 
Latin Hispaniolus. There be two sorts, viz.; the first findeth game on the 
land ; the other findeth game on the water. Such as delight on the land play 
their parts either by swiftness of foot, or by often questing to search out and 
to spring the bird for further hope of advantage, or else by some secret sign 
and privy token bewray the place where they fall. The first kind of such 
serve the hawk, the second the net or train. The first kind have no peculiar 
names assigned unto them, save only that they be denominated after the 
bird which by natural appointment he is allotted to take, for the which consid- 
eration the Cocker is thus named, as spoken of hereafter. Such be called dogs 
for the falcon, the pheasant, the partridge, and such like. The common sort of 
people call them by one general word, namely, Spaniels, as though this kind of 
dogs came originally and first of all out of Spain. The most part of their 
skins is white, and if they be marked with any spots, they are commonly red, 
and somewhat great therewithal, the hairs not growing in such thickness but 
that the mixture of them may easily be perceived. We are to choose him by 
his shape, beauty, mettle, and cunning hunting; his shape being discerned in 
the good composition of his body, as when he hath a round, thick head, a 
short nose, a long, well-compact, and hairie eare, broad eyde lips, a clear, red 
eie, a thick neck, a broad chest, short and well-knit joints, round feete, strong 
cleys, good round ribs, a gaunt bellie, a short, broad back, a thick, bushy, and 
long-haired taile, and all his body generally long and well haired. He is small, 
with a wanton playing taile, and a busie laboring nose, and to give his master 
warning of what he scenteth, he doeth it by whimpering and whinnies, making 
him adapted for covert shooting. They vary in size from fourteen to twenty 
pounds in weight. 

22 C337) 



338 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



The Doctor then describes other varieties of the Span- 
iel family as follows: 

That kind of a dog whose service is required in following upon the water, 
partly through a natural towardness and partly by diligent teaching, is endued 
with that property. This sort is somewhat big and of a measurable greatness, 
having long, rough, and curly hair, not obtained by extraordinary trades, but 
given by nature's appointment; yet, nevertheless, friend Gessner, I have 
described and set him out in this manner; Pulled and knotted from the shoul- 
ders to the hindermost legs and to the end of his taile, which I did for use and. 
custom's cause; that being, as it were, made somewhat bare and naked by 
shearing of such superfluity of hair, they might achieve more lightness and 




COCKER SPANIEL CHAMPION DOC. 
Owned by Mr. A. Clinton Wilmerdmg, 163 Broadway, New York City. 

swiftness and be less hindered in swimming, so troublesome and needless a 
burden being shaken off. This kind of dog is properly called aquaticus, a 
Water Spaniel, because he frequenteth and hath recourse to the water, where all 
his game and exercise lieth, whereupon he is likewise named a dog for the 
duck, because in that quality he is excellent. We use them, also, to bring us 
our bolts and arrows out of the water, missing our mark whereat we directed 
our level, which otherwise we should hardly recover; and oftentimes they 
restore to us our shafts, which we thought never to see, touch, or handle again 
after they were lost, for which circumstances they are called inquisitors, search 
ers, and finders. 

Further on, the good Doctor alludes to "the delicate, 
neat, and pretty kind of dogs called the Spaniel gentle, or 



THE COCKER SPANIEL. 339 

the comforter, in Latin melitocus or totos" of which he 
writes: 

There is besides those which we have already delivered, another sort of 
gentle dogs in this our English soil, but exempted from the order of the resi- 
due. Notwithstanding many make much of those pretty puppies called Span- 
iels gentle, and though some suppose that such dogs are fit for no service, I 
dare say, by their leaves, they be in a wrong box. 

Thus it will be seen that the Cocker is one of the oldest 
and bluest-blooded strains of the Spaniel family. He was 
the friend and companion of nobility in an age when few 
other dogs were thus honored. 

Stonehenge, in "Dogs of the British Isles,'' says: 

The Cocker can scarcely be described, inasmuch as there are so many 
varieties in different parts of Great Britain. He may however be said, in gen- 
eral terms, to be a light, active Spaniel, of about fourteen pounds weight on 
the average, sometimes reaching twenty pounds, with very elegant shape, a 
lively and spirited carriage. In hunting he keeps his tail down, like the rest 
of his kind, works it constantly in a most rapid and merry way; alone he may 
be known from the Springer, who also works his, but solemnly and deliber- 
ately, without the same pleasurable sensations which are displayed by the 
Cocker. The head is round and the forehead raised; muzzle more pointed 
than the Springer, and the ears less heavy, but of good length and well clothed 
with soft, wavy hair, which should not be matted in a heavy mass. The eye is 
of medium size, slightly inclined to w 7 ater, but not to weep like the toy dog's; 
body of medium length, and the shape generally resembling that of a small 
Setter. These dogs are well feathered, and the work for their feet and legs 
requires them to be strong and well formed. The coat should be thick and 
wavy, but not absolutely curled, which last shows the cross with the Water 
Spaniel, and that gives too much obstinacy with it to conduce to success in 
covert shooting. The color varies from plain liver or black to black and tan, 
white and black, white and liver, white and red, or white and lemon. Differ- 
ent breeds are noted as possessing some one of these in particular, but I am 
not aware that any one is remarkable as belonging to a superior race. 

An old work on "The Dog," condensed from Stone- 
henge's "British Rural Sports and the Farmer's Calendar," 
contains the following description of Spaniels: 

Field Spaniels are divided into two principal groups, the Springers, or large 
variety, used for all sorts of covert game ; the Cockers, kept more especially 
for woodcocks, to follow which they must be of smaller size. The Springer 
is again subdivided into the Clumber, Sussex, Norfolk, and other strains, while 
the Cocker includes the Devonshire and Welsh varieties, as well as many other 
strains without special names. The Cocker Spaniel is a much smaller dog 
than the Springer, seldom exceeding eighteen pounds in weight for bitches 



340 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

and twenty-five pounds for dogs. He is much more active than the Springer, 
and of any color, more or less marked with white, and closely resemble each 
other in other respects. They are nearly mute, but whimper slightly on a 
scent, and when well broken they distinguish each kind of game by the note 
they give out, especially the woodcock, of which they are very fond. 

Mr. A. W. Langdale, a prominent English authority, 
quoted by Vero Shaw in his work on "The Dog," says of 
the Cocker: 

Smaller than their brethren the Springers, they work in a totally different 
style, and in a hedgerow or copse, with a thick underwood, are invaluable. 
They, like the Springers, are not noisy, but when they do give tongue it is of 
such a silvery note as to warm the ardent sportsman's blood. . . . Cockers 
run into all sorts of color, from lemon and white, orange and white, and 
orange, most generally seen in Wales; to the liver and white, liver and tan, and 
roan, generally seen South; and the black and tan of the North. 

In undertaking to write an article on the Cocker Spaniel, 
I may say that I am no novice in this field. I have bred 
them for thirty-five years. Spaniels that I bred won prizes 
at the first bench shows in America, and since 1881 we 
have won over 1,200 prizes. It was I that first advocated a 
club to improve the Spaniels of America. I was selected 
by the breeders of America as one of the committee to frame 
a standard for the Cocker Spaniel Club, which is the oldest 
specialty club in America. The club organized in 1881 is 
still alive, with a large number of members ; it is now called 
the American Spaniel Club. 

Before 1881 anything and everything that looked like a 
Spaniel was called a Cocker; they were" generally liver or 
liver and white in color, long-legged, snipy-headed dogs, 
without any fixed type. All that was required of them 
was to hunt, and they certainly could do that. The Cocker 
soon improved under the American Spaniel Club standard; 
but they were not content with a long, low dog, but must 
have the longest and lowest. The standard was made by 
practical men, of wide experience with Cockers in the 
field, and of course they made a standard for a dog fit for 
work; but a lot of dude judges, who never fired a gun or 
saw a Cocker at work, step into the ring and spoil the 
whole thing by giving prizes to dogs that are cripples, 



THE COCKER SPANIEL. 341 

practically unfit foi field-work. The worse the dog is 
deformed the more prizes he can win. I know I am right 
in the stand I have taken against the longest and lowest 
abortion, and others know it prominent breeders, profes- 
sional breakers, practical sportsmen. Editors of sports- 
men's journals, and many others who lov.e a Cocker, often 
write me to indorse the position I have taken, but what 
good I can do is all spoilt by the non- sporting dude 
judges. 

For a general purpose dog there is nothing that can 
compare with the Cocker Spaniel. He can take the place of 




COCKER SPANIEL CHAMPION BRANT.* 
Owned by Mr. Charles M. Nelles, Brant Cocker Kennels, Brantford, Ontario, Canada. 

the Pointer, Setter, Hound, or Retriever; is not too large 
for the house, makes a good watch-dog, and can be taught 
as many tricks as a Poodle; but to secure a concentration 
of power and endurance he must have a short back, with 
immense loin for the weight of the dog; his legs must not 

* Champion Brant (A. K. C. S. B. 5856) was whelped September 1, 
1885, by Champion Obo II., out of Blackie III. His winnings are: First, 
Buffalo, 1887; three specials, Buffalo, 1887; first, Newark, N. J., 1887; first, 
Providence, R. I , 1887; first, Boston, 1887; championship, New York, 1887; 
championship, Philadelphia, 1887; championship, Detroit, 1887; four specials, 
Detroit, 1887; championship, Utica, 1888; special.. Utica, 1888; championship, 



342 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

be too short, but straight and well boned, and the feet must 
be firm and cat-like, not splay-footed, loose, and flabby, as 
we too often see them nowadays. 

Until 1887 we imported or owned about all the good 
Field and Cocker Spaniels that crossed the pond Bob III., 
Benedict, Beatrice, Dash, Hindoo, Creole, Bub, Jenny, 
Dandy, Dinah, Miss Obo II., Newton Abbott Lady, Obo, 
Jr., Young Obo, Burdette Bob, Bonanza, Bobo, etc. 
The Jacobs strain was useless for field-work; the Farrow, 
or Obo, strain not much better, as they had never done 
any work in England. The Burdette, or Boulton-Beverley, 
were the best of all; crossed with native stock, they are 
hard to beat in the field. 

In the early days of dog shows, Mr. F. Burdette, the 
first secretary of the Birmingham Dog Show, had a breed of 
Cockers collected near Latterworth, England, where they 
had been bred for many years by an old family named 
Footman. They were unrivaled in appearance as well as at 
work, taking every prize for which they competed; they 
were black and tmn in color. After Mr. Burdette' s death, most 
of them were sold to Mr. W. W. Boulton, Beverley, York, 
England; and en passant I wish to say that Mr. Boulton is 
the oldest Cocker Spaniel breeder in the world, as well as 
the greatest authority. Mr. O. S. Hubbell, .while visiting 
in England in 1873, purchased a pair of Mr. Boulton for 
which he paid $900. They were Beau and Blanche; 
black, with rich tan markings. Blanche whelped, October, 
1874, eight puppies; one of the litter, Belle, was pre- 
sented to Mr. A. C. Waddell. She died in my kennel in 
1886, but I had several litters from her by Champion Hornell 
Dandy. 

Bullock's Spaniels, as exhibited originally, were very 
beautiful, but by no means typical, for the very good 

New York, 1888, one of best kennel, Philadelphia, 1888; championship, Bos- 
ton, 1888; championship, Buffalo, 1888; championship, Syracuse, 1888; two 
specials, Syracuse, 1888; championship, London, Ontario, 1888; special, "Cham- 
pion of Canada/' London, Ontario, 1888; championship, St. Paul, 1888; special, 
St. Paul, 1888. ED 




MISS MILLIE FELLOWS AND HER PET, CHAMPION HORNELL JOCK. 



THE COCKER SPANIEL. 343 

reason that they were crossed with the Irish Water Spaniel 
to get the immense feather and ear so much admired in 
the early days of dog shows in England, but which so 
deeply impregnated the strain with the fatal top-knot and 
rough coat that it has never been altogether eradicated. 
This strain was also crossed with the Sussex; an own brother 
to the famous Flirt and Nellie (blacks) was the pale liver- 
colored George, who, mated with his sister Nellie, produced 
one of the very best-looking Sussex Spaniels ever exhibited. 
This will surely account for the eccentricities of color crop- 
ping up now and again in the progeny. The tendency 
being to reproduce the original color of their ancestors, the 
color, or odd color, is often intensified by the Obo cross, as 
no one can say how this strain was produced; and when 
papers and letters were sent to Mr. Farrow about the red 
and buff puppies got by Silk and Obo II., he was silent as 
an oyster. I do not object to the reds and buffs myself, for 
Hornell Velda, a buff, was the best Cocker ever seen in 
America; and Brantford Red Jacket, a red, and Hornell 
Dick, a buff, although of different type, are as good as 
any we have.* 

Many of the oldest strains of Cockers were lemon, red, 
and roan, or these colors were more or less intermingled 
with white. In 1861, I bought a buff Cocker from a sailor 



* Prominent among the many breeders of Cocker Spaniels in the United 
States and Canada may be mentioned; J. P. Willey, Salmon Falls, N. H.; L. 
F. Whitman, 418 Wabash avenue, Chicago; American Cocker Kennels, box 
277, Philadelphia, Penn.; Dr. J. S. Niven, London, Ontario, Canada; A. C. 
Wilmerding, 163 Broadway, New York City; Hornell-Harmony Kennels, 
Hornellsville, N. Y. ; O. B. Oilman, 40 Boylston street, Boston, Mass. ; Andrew 
Laidlaw, "Woodstock, Ontario, Canada; Woodland Kennels, Woodstock, 
Ontario, Canada; George H. Bush, 220 Main street, Buffalo, N. Y.; R. P. 
Keasby, 6 Saybrook place, Newark, N. J.; G. Bell, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 
C. A. Hinckley, Lee, Mass.; Charles M. Nelles, Brantford, Ontario, Canada; 
Miss E. W. Lewis, 192 President street, Brooklyn, N Y. ; High Rock Cocker 
Kennels, Lynn, Mass.; William Barnes, 4444 Wood street, Manayneck, Philadel- 
phia, Penn.; George T. Whitehe'ad, 441 Chestnut avenue, Trenton, N. J., 
Alexander Pope, 120 Tremont street, Boston, Mass. ; Frank F. Dole, 115 Blake 
street, New Haven, Conn.; Woodstock Spaniel Kennels, Woodstock, Ontario, 
Canada; R. C. Grignon, Kaukauna, Wis. ED. 



344 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

at Port Colbourne. She had been stolen in England; was 
buff-colored, and the exact image of Velda. 

The real old-fashioned Cocker is not often seen nowa- 
days; the present generation of fanciers never saw them, 
and surely never used them afield. They simply don't 
know what they were, or what they ought to be. As to 
the absurdly long body and low formation, which I hold to 
be not only a deformity, but altogether contrary to the 
true formation and type, it must also be against the very 
utility of the breed. 

Mr. J. E. Hosford, of Washington, D. C., in an article in 
the American Field, speaking of the good qualities of the 
Cocker, says: 

There is something about this breed of dogs that at once appeals to our 
sympathy, and no man can own one and not feel constantly on the alert to 
defend it from abuse, slander, or misrepresentation. There is no other breed 
of dogs that will win one's affection so completely, and hold it so firmly. A 
new Spaniel puppy may never replace, in its owner's heart, some favorite old 
Setter or Pointer, but it will be sure to find a place there, and hold it, too, 
against all comers. When the shooting season closes, the Pointer and Setter 
are laid up in ordinary until the approach of the next season. If owned by 
the right man, they are regularly exercised and carefully groomed every day, 
and their grateful master never tires of relating their wonderful prowess in the 
field. They rest on their laurels contentedly. 

Not so with the little Cocker. He and his game have no close season. He 
seems to know, intuitively, a thousand and one little tricks and ways to please, 
entertain, and surprise his master, in and out of season. He is constantly at 
work in a busy, merry, unobtrusive way. He knows your words better than 
you do yourself, and governs himself accordingly. If you want him, he is 
right here before you, wagging his tail and looking at you intently, as if to 
say, " I am ready for anything." If you don't want him, he is away in some 
corner quietly dozing, or apparently sleeping, but always on the alert. He is 
never troublesome. He is always able to take care of himself, and to do a 
great deal else besides. 

He is a most noble and faithful guardian of your property and person. 
While he is in your possession, chickens do not scratch the flower beds and 
wallow around the front porch; rats do not come into the cellar, nor strange 
cats into the back yard; your peaches and melons ripen before they are stolen, 
and burglars do not tamper with your locks and window-catches. If anything 
goes wrong about the place, the little Cocker is almost always the first one to 
notice it, and the almost human w T ay in which he comes and tells you of it 
touches certain chords in the heart which do not vibrate too often. They are 
the handiest little companions of the whole dog race. They ask for but little 
room, little food, and little care, yet in return they give a value tangible only 



THE COCKER SPANIEL. 345 

to those who know how to love and appreciate a good and faithful dog. Their 
worth can not be told in dollars and cents, nor compared with other stand 
ards. 

I know of no other breed of dogs so generally useful and worthy of man's 
companionship at all times and places, in town or country; although I have not 
had persona] experience on all game, yet from close study of their ways and 
methods, and a knowledge of their great intelligence, I am sure they would not 
be out of place whether one hunts ducks or squirrels, 'coons, rabbits, partridges, 
pheasants, woodcocks, or wild turkeys, and I was not at all surprised to read 
in a recent number of the American Field that one of our best-known sports- 
men had found them very serviceable while hunting deer. I know the Cocker, 
and am not afraid to say that he can make himself more or less useful on any 
game that is hunted; and unless a sportsman confines himself to some game to 
which another breed of dogs is better adapted, there is no more useful dog for 
him to own than a bright, active, intelligent Cocker Spaniel. 

Now let me ask, Why are they not more popular? Why are not thousands 
instead of hundreds sold every year? When they can be utilized at all times, 
and kept in city or country, in the house or outdoors, at an office or a hotel, 
why are they counted by ones and twos to a county here and there, while 
every town has almost as many Setters, Pointers, and Hounds as there are 
men and boys who shoot? 

It is simply because the merits and good qualities of the Cocker are not 
known to the masses. It is because our favorites have not been advertised and 
pushed to the front as the other bre.eds of sporting dogs have; and if Cocker 
breeders and Cocker owners would institute field trials for Cockers, thousands 
of sportsmen would come and see them run who are now ignorant of their use- 
fulness . Then we should see the noble little dog take his place at the front, 
where he belongs. 

And not only as a field dog does the Cocker excel, but as 
a pet, a house dog, a companion for children or adults, he 
is without a rival. When desired for this purpose alone, 
he may be bred down to twenty pounds or under. No dog- 
is more affectionate than the Cocker, and none has so many 
ways of showing his affection. None is more faithful as a 
guardian of persons or property, and none more quiet, un- 
obtrusive, or cleanly in his habits. 

In training for the house or field, be gentle, but firm and 
patient; as soon as the dog knows what you want, he will 
do it himself. Never, under any circumstances, use a whip 
or speak harshly to a. Cocker; you can coax him to do any- 
thing, but he will not stand the whip. 

It is only a matter of patience to teach a Cocker to do 
anything that a dog can do. They can almost talk. I now 



346 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



own two that can sing, and they will accompany any instru- 
ment that is played. The small dogs seem to learn tricks 
quicker than the large ones, and a Cocker never forgets. 
My son taught a little Cocker forty-two distinct tricks in a 
year. This little dog was better and quicker than any two 
messenger-boys in the country; was also a master hand on 
woodcock and ruffed grouse. 

A friend of mine has a handsome black and-tan Cocker, 
Neptune by,uame, who considers himself the chosen friend, 
the guardian, the nurse, the messenger of the family. 

When his master 
comes into the 
house, after an 
absence of a few 
hours, the little 
dog is beside him- 
self with joy. He 
leaps, dances, and 
rubs against the 
man, and in va- 
rious ways shows 
his delight. When 
his master sits 
down, the little 
dog will, if in- 
vited, leap upon 
NEPTUNE, his lap, rub and 

caress him in a perfect ecstasy of joy; then, without 
waiting for a command, he will leap down, run and get the 
man's slippers and bring them to him, as much as to say, 
"Here, my friend, put these on and be comfortable." If 
the master lies down on the sofa, the dog lies beside him, 
either on the sofa or the floor, as directed, and anyone 
who approaches him while asleep is warned by an angry 
growl and a show of ivory that the atmosphere about 
there is unhealthy for intruders. If the master move 
uneasily or moan in his sleep, Nep is up in an instant, 
peering anxiously into his face, whining, and showing the 




THE COCKER SPANIEL. 347 

most intense anxiety for his charge. This same delight is 
shown when any member of the family returns from even 
a temporary absence, and the same solicitude and care are 
bestowed upon any member of the family who lies down 
during the day. At night, Nep seems to think it his duty 
to guard the room of his young mistress. He sleeps just 
outside her door, and anyone who attempts to approach 
it gets into trouble at once. 

There are no small children in this family^ but when 
friends call and bring children the little dog is delighted 
beyond measure. He at once takes charge of the little 
folks, and not even their own mother is allowed to punish 
them in his presence. After caressing and romping with 
them a few minutes, he sails away, gets his ball, brings 
it, and in all but words invites his playmates to a friendly 
game. They throw the ball through the halls, he retrieves 
it, lays it at their feet, and looking up at them, beseeches 
them, with his great dark eyes and eager, excited motions, 
to throw it again. 

He plays hide-and-seek with them as enthusiastically 
and as skillfully as any one of their own number. Some 
member of the party holds him and "blinds" him, by plac- 
ing his long, silky ears over his eyes. When the signal is 
given and he is released, he races through the house with 
the speed of a Greyhound for a few moments, in a kind 
of general search. Then he cools down and goes about his 
work more systematically. He approaches, looks at, and 
smells of each child in the room even if there be a dozen 
of them apparently in order to learn which one is missing. 
Then he starts on a tour of the rooms and halls, searching 
for both foot and body scent, and soon locates the fugitive, 
no matter where he or she may be. The little children 
frequently step into a closet and close the door, but Nep 
finds them all the same, and having smelt at the thresh- 
old until sure he is right, sets up an emphatic barking that 
soon brings the hidden treasure laughing and screaming 
into the light. 

Once when playing this game with him a little girl hid 



348 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

on top of the piano. Nep hunted her through all the 
rooms, and finally decided that she was in the parlor. He 
ran sniffing and yelping, eagerly, from side to side of this 
room, looking in and behind every chair. Finally he 
took up her trail and followed it. He found the chair 
from which she had stepped onto the piano. Leaping into 
this, he stood up, with his feet on the back of it, and this 
enabled him to see the little miss perched on the center of 
the lid. His barking, though most excited and vigorous, was 
well-nigh drowned in the shouts and screams of laughter 
in which all the spectators, old and young, joined. 

Nep carries notes and packages up and down stairs and 
anywhere about the house, thus saving his master and 
mistress many a step. These charges he always delivers 
to the person to whom he is sent, and it is useless for any- 
one else to try to get them from him en route. When 
the postman rings the bell, Nep goes down, gets the mail, 
and delivers it safely to his mistress. 

What is he worth? What do you imagine it would 
take to buy such a friend if you owned him ? He is worth 
his weight in gold, but that wouldn't buy him. His owner 
would as soon sell one of his own children as Nep. And 
yet any well-bred Cocker may be taught all these things, if 
only a reasonable amount of time, effort, patience, and 
horse-sense be devoted to the task. 

In breeding, I do not try to have one dog correct faults 
in the other, but try to have both as perfect as I can get 
them. I do not object to in-and-in breeding, as it fixes the 
type, and I have never yet seen any bad results from it, 
such as deformities or loss of capacity to learn. 

After the bitch has been bred, I give her exercise until 
she is ready to whelp. I always give her a quiet place 
to whelp in, with plenty of room. The bitch always seems 
to do better alone, but care must be taken, in cold weather, 
that the puppies shall not get chilled. 

Cocker Spaniels are always docked. I do it when the 
puppies are from one to two weeks old, before they can 
move around much; then the wound heals quicker. The 



THE COCKER SPANIEL. 



349 



operation is painless. Let one person hold the puppy's tail 
on a block of wood, while another, with a sharp chisel and 
mallet, removes just half of the tail. 

All well-bred Cockers are natural hunters and retriev- 
ers, and their senses of sight and smell are more acute than 
those of either the Setter or Pointer. Captain McMurdo told 
me that when breaking Setters and Pointers he always 
had his little Cocker bitch at heel, and he could tell by her 
actions when near game, although the Setters and Pointers, 
ranging ahead, would give no notice of it. When a Cocker 
is under control, he is trained. He should be taught to 




COCKER SPANIEL CHAMPION MIKE.* 
Owned by Mr. Charles M. Nelles, Brant Cocker Kennels, Brantford, Ontario, Canada. 

stop instantly and to come in promptly. He will always 
work his ground thoroughly, but must not range out of 
gunshot, because he flushes his game, and if this be done 
too far from the gun, you lose your chance for a shot. 

I do not train my dogs to drop to shot or wing, but 

* Champion Mike (A.. r K. C. S. B. 7321) was whelped June, 1884, by 
Champion Frank, out of Nellie. His winnings are: First, St. Paul, Minn., 
1887; first, Milwaukee, Wis., 1887; second, Utica, N. Y., 1888; first, Phila- 
delphia, Penn., 1888; special, Philadelphia, Penn., 1888; first, St. Paul, Minn., 
1888; championship, Baltimore, Md., 1888; championship, Chicago, 111., 1889; 
championship, Toronto, Ontario, 1889. ED. 



350 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

always to stop, and at the word. I think this is important; 
for while you have the dog under better control at a " close 
charge," in such a position he does not have a chance to 
use his eyes. I have often seen them stand on their hind 
feet and jump up to see where the bird has gone. Our best 
woodcock- shooting here is in tall corn. Woodcock dogs I 
do not train to drop to shot or wing, but let them go for 
all they are worth; then the bird will top the corn, and you 
can get a fair shot. 

A writer in Land and Water gives some excellent advice 
regarding the training of Spaniels, and I can not do better 
than to quote a few paragraphs in his own words. He says: 

Most people are contented if a dog will work within gunshot and push out 
the game for him to kill. Almost any mongrel with the necessary practice and 
experience will do this, but I assume that the sportsman takes a pride in his 
dogs, likes to have good-looking and well-bred ones, and if he wishes to shoot 
in comfort and in good form when he uses Spaniels, it is quite as necessary to 
have them well trained as any other breed of sporting dog. I will therefore 
give such directions as experience has taught me are useful. I know no dog 
that more repays the trouble of breaking yourself (that is, if you have the 
requisite knowledge and patience) than the Spaniel, who, from the natural tove 
and affection he has for his master more than any other dog, should be more 
ready to work for him than anyone else. The Spaniel's natural love of and 
ardor in hunting require a firm hand over him until he is matured. There is 
an old saying that " a Spaniel is no good until he is nearly worn out." There 
is a great deal of. truth in this, and the Spaniel's enthusiasm must be largely 
reduced before he can get down to cool, earnest work. I recollect an old bitch 
that belonged to a Devonshire sportsman that was so cunning that she used to 
catch as much game as he shot. When the old man died, I bought the bitch, 
as she had a great reputation; but she was far too much of a pot-hunter for me. 
I could have backed her against a moderate gun any day. Spaniels get very 
knowing in working to the gun after a few months, and it is astonishing what 
efforts they will make to maneuver the game out to the shooter. I have seen 
numberless instances of this, particularly in hedgerow shooting, when I have 
frequently seen a clever old dog, on winding game, not make a rush at it, which 
would have had the effect of sending it out on the other side, but pop through 
the fence and push it out to you. This, as I have said, is only acquired by ex- 
perience; and a young, vigorous Spaniel will sometimes push up the game irre- 
spective of lending any aid to the gun. A really good Spaniel, even when he 
is busy questing and bustling about, should always have an eye to the gun, 
and to work to it instead of for himself and his own gratification and amuse- 
ment. 

You can not well begin too early to train young Spaniels to get their noses 
down and to hunt close; to work thoroughly every bit of ground and every 



THE COCKER SPANIEL. 351 

hole and corner that can possibly shelter a head of game. This is what the 
Spaniel is required to do when he is grown up; and in order to inculcate this 
habit in him, and to discourage him in what he is so prone to do namely, go 
ahead you should begin by flinging small bits of meat or boiled liver into 
small patches of turnips in a garden, or small patches of thick bushes, or any 
kind of covert that will cause him to seek for it with his nose and not with his 
eyes. By no means enter your young Spaniels to rabbits if you can avoid it ; 
they take to them naturally when they get the chance, and there is no fear 
of their not having the opportunity soon enough. Enter them to winged game, 
by all means, and for this purpose get an old cock partridge, cut one wing, 
and put him into a small patch of thick covert. 

Never take young Spaniels into large or thick coverts where they can 
get away from under your eye. Confine your working ground to small bits 
of covert, patches of turnips, bushes, bits of gorse, anything, in fact, where 
you will be likely to have thorough control over them, and where they are in 
reach of an attendant, whom you should always have with you to turn them 
to your whistle. I have found it a first-rate plan to take them out on the 
sides of rivers and ponds, where there are lots of moor- hens, and plenty of 
sedge and rushes; let them hunt in the rushes till they are tired, and a morn- 
ing's work of this kind will do them more good than anything I know of. 
They soon become fond of the work; it teaches them to hunt close, and they 
are perfectly under the control of yourself and assistant. 

Teach them early to drop to hand and shot, and spare no pains about it; 
this is a part of a Spaniel's education which is generally neglected. I know 
many men who, instead of making them drop to shot, make them come to 
heel, using the words "come around," or "heel." It answers every purpose; 
and as it brings every dog to you, and he has to work right away from you 
again when he gets the signal, it has its advantages in keeping them under con- 
trol; but on the whole I prefer the dropping to shot and wing instantly. It is 
difficult to make a Spaniel drop to fur; and if you can keep him from chasing, 
merely putting up hares and rabbits, but not following them after they are 
started, rest satisfied that little more is necessary or desirable. 

I once saw an interesting thing of this kind. I was shooting with a gen- 
tleman near Southampton, in one of his coverts, to a team of small Clumbers; 
we were both standing in a ride, and saw a charming little bitch feathering 
near us toward the ride. Just as she got to it, out popped a rabbit and scuttled 
down the ride, followed out of the covert by the bitch; but as soon as she 
cleared the wood and was in the ride, close on to the rabbit, which she 
had not seen till then, down she dropped, entirely of her own accord. 
She had not seen either of us, neither did we know that we were each observ- 
ing this pretty bit of work until we compared notes a few minutes after, and 
agreed that we had never seen anything better. It is rather difficult to 
describe, but to me it was worth all the afternoon's shooting, and it made an 
impression at the time which is as fresh as ever now. She was, I need 
scarcely say, thoroughly broken. 

If it is desired to make young Spaniels take water, and they show any 
disinclination to it, the best plan is to take them to a stream which you can 



352 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

wade through. Walk through to the other side, and they will probably 
follow you at once ; if they do not, walk straight away from the opposite side 
and go out of sight; they will come after making a little fuss about it. If 
you have not a suitable shallow stream, but are obliged to make use of a deep 
river for your purpose, get an attendant, whom they do not know, to hold 
your puppies while you go round by a bridge out of their sight, and come 
down opposite to them, and follow the instructions I have given above. 
Remember many young dogs have, at first, a great fear of getting out of their 
depth all at once, but will freely dabble into a shallow stream; so that it is best 
to lead them on by degrees. Once having got off their legs, and finding that it 
is an easy matter to swim, there will be no further trouble. Always choose 
warm weather for this teaching. There is, however, no better plan of teach- 
ing them to take to the water than letting them hunt moor-hens. As to whether 
Spaniels should be taught to retrieve or not will depend upon what your 
requirements are, the number you use, and so on. 

If you own but one dog, by all means take all the trouble you can to per- 
fect him in this business; and for this purpose you should choose your whelp 
from a strain that retrieves naturally. 

If you work three or four Spaniels together, unless they are thoroughly 
broken, they all want to retrieve, and it is often the cause of much trouble. 
Nothing looks worse than to see several dogs all tugging at one bird, except, 
perhaps, the bird itself afterward. If your dogs are sufficiently broken and 
under command, and will drop to shot or come to heel, and you can direct 
either one of them to find the wounded game while the others remain down or at 
heel, you can let them take it in turn which shall- be allowed the pleasure and 
honor of recovering the wounded; but how rarely one sees Spaniels so well 
under command as this. In the case of a team of Spaniels, I think it better 
that they should not be allowed to retrieve, and this duty is better confined to 
a regular retriever. 

It is a good plan with young Spaniels to walk round a covert toward even- 
ing, when pheasants are out at feed in the stubbles, having an attendant with 
you to prevent them getting into covert, and walk in a zigzag way about the 
stubbles; you can generally give them plenty of practice in this way, and enter 
them well to the scent of winged game. If your puppies do not readily return 
to your whistle, but show a disposition to go on, turn your back upon them and 
go the other way, which will generally have the desired effect; and a rate or a 
crack of the whip from your attendant will greatly aid it. If a puppy is too 
fast, put up a fore leg in his collar, or tie a strap tightly round one hind leg 
just above the hock; but neither of these must remain long without changing, 
or you will produce swelling and inflammation. Apart from the pleasure and 
satisfaction there is in shooting to dogs of your own breaking, there is this 
advantage, that they learn to understand your ways, and to know thoroughly 
your every look and motion, while you at the same time perfectly understand 
them. 

In selecting young Spaniels to break, if you do not breed your own, be 
most particular in getting them from a good working strain, of a sort that a 
friend of mine designates as " savage for work." To work Spaniels in thick, 



THE COCKER SPANIEL. 



353 



large woods you should always go with them to work them, or send someone 
they are accustomed to work with, or they will become wild or slack. 

A writer in the American Field also gives the following 
good points on this subject : 

I have had an extensive experience in training Cockers, and have always 
found them exceedingly tractable and anxious to learn. I use the same meth- 
ods for yard-breaking that are commonly used for Setters. The Cocker is a 
natural retriever, and readily fetches " to hand." My old dog Gyp I trained 
with great care, and had him completely under my control. He would charge 




COCKER SPANIEL JERSEY* 
Owned by Mr. J. P. Willey, Salmon Falls, N. H. 

at word or sign as far as he could hear or see me, and would obey the motion 
of my hand in sending him in any direction. He was obedient to whistle, so 
that when in motion one whistle would stop him, and when stopped, one 
whistle would start him in whatever direction I motioned. One long whistle 
would call him to my feet. He would follow to heel anywhere. 

* Jersey (A. K. C. S. B. 8519), a solid black Cocker Spaniel, was whelped 
July 16, 1887. Sire, Champion Obo II. ; dam, P. Cullen's Darkie. Winnings: 
Second, open and puppy class, New York, February, 1888; V. H. C., open 
and puppy class, Philadelphia, Penn., March, 1888; first, open and puppy 
class, Boston, Mass., April, 1888; special, best Cocker puppy, Boston, Mass., 
April, 1888; special, best Spaniel puppy, Boston, Mass., April, 1888; first, open 
23 



354 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

When a year old I took him out for woodcock the first time lie was ever 
in cover. I had not been on woodcock ground ten minutes before he gave 
voice. I knew that meant birds, and immediately gave one short, sharp whistle, 
which brought the dog to a stop Taking a good position, I gave one more 
whistle, when he started quickly, giving voice, and flushed a woodcock, which 
my friend shot. Calling to Gyp to " fetch," he obeyed instantly, bringing the 
bird in tenderly. We hunted about four hours, raised nine woodcocks and shot 
seven. Gyp found them all, and retrieved every dead bird, never failing to 
obey me, and never flushed a bird until ordered to go on, always giving me 
warning of the presence of a bird by giving voice. I have been unfortunate in 
not living in a partridge country since I was a boy, and for that reason have 
never trained a Cocker for partridge-hunting; still I believe I can take any one 
of my Cockers and hunt partridges as I have woodcocks; but my friends who 
use Cockers for partridge-hunting usually allow the dog to " tree" the birds. 
All the experience I have had with Cockers on partridges was when a boy, and 
without any trouble I had my little Spaniel trained so he would circle about 
a bird, giving voice as he ran, gradually drawing the circle smaller until he 
flushed the bird, which would seek refuge in the nearest tree. 

For fuller and more complete instructions on this sub- 
ject, I would commend to my readers a little book called 
" The Spaniel and its Training," by D. Boulton Herrold. 
It is an excellent work, and is invaluable to owners of 
Spaniels. 

I would advise anyone about to purchase a Cocker to 
get a puppy, and train it for his own use. The best 
worker I ever owned was trained on the street going to 
and from my shop. Buy a dog that will mature at about 
twenty-six or twenty-eight pounds, a cobby dog, that 
stands about fourteen inches at shoulder, with head of 
medium length, good straight legs, and hard, round feet. 

and puppy class, Albany, N. Y., June, 1888, special, best Cocker, Albany, 
N.Y., June, 1888; V. H. C., open class, Buffalo, N.Y., September, 1888; second, 
open class, Syracuse, N. Y , September, 1888; first, open class, London, Can- 
ada, September, 1888; special, best Cocker dog, London, Canada, September, 
1888; first, open class, New York, February, 1889; first, open class, Troy, 
N. Y., February, 1889; first, open class, Albany, N. Y., March, 1889; first, 
open class, Rochester, N. Y., March, 1889; first,' open class, Boston, Mass., 
April, 1889; second, challenge class, Chicago, 111., April, 1889; second, chal- 
lenge class, Philadelphia, Penn., April, 1889; first, challenge class, New York, 
February, 1890; special, best American-bred Cocker, New York, February, 
1890; second, challenge class, Boston, Mass., April, 1890; first, challenge class, 
Buffalo, N. Y., April, 1890; special, best American-bred Cocker, Buffalo, 
N. Y., April, 1890. 



THE COCKER SPANIEL. 

Avoid the long-headed, long-bodied, and short, crooked- 
legged dog as you would a serpent, for it is a physical 
impossibility for them to do good work; also avoid a dog 
with a light- colored eye. For my part, I always prefer a 
bitch, as they learn easier, are more faithful, and never 
want to roam in quest of sexual pleasures. 

Following is the American Spaniel Club's standard for 
Cocker Spaniels: 

Value. Value. 

General appearance 10 Length 5 

Head 15 Legs and feet 15 

Eyes 5 Coat 10 

Ears 10 Tail 5 

Neck and shoulders 10 

Body 15 Total , 100 

A Cocker Spaniel must not weigh more than twenty - 
eight pounds nor less than eighteen pounds. 

General appearance, symmetry, etc. (value 10). A 
Cocker Spaniel should be eminently a well-built, graceful, 
and active dog, and should show strength without heavi- 
ness or clumsiness. Any of the Spaniel colors is allowable, 
but beauty of color and marking must be taken into con- 
sideration. 

Head (value 15) should be of fair length, muzzle cut off 
square, tapering gradually from the eye, but not snipy. 
Skull rising in a graceful curve from the stop, and with the 
same outline at the occiput, the curve-line being natter, but 
still curving at the middle of the skull. The head should 
be narrowest at the eyes and broadest at the set-on of ears, 
and viewed from the front, the outline between the ears 
should be a nearly perfect segment of a circle. The stop 
is marked, and a groove runs up the skull, gradually be* 
coming less apparent, till lost about half-way to the occiput. 
This prevents the domed King Charles skull, and there 
should not be the heaviness of the large Field Spaniel, but 
a light, graceful, well-balanced head. Jaws level, neither 
undershot nor pig- jawed; teeth strong and regular. 

Eyes (value 5) round and moderately full. They should 
correspond in color with the coat. 

Ears (value 10) lobular, set on low; leather fine and not 



356 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

extending beyond the nose, well clothed with long, silky 
hair, which must be straight or wavy no positive curls 
or ringlets. 

Neck and shoulders (value 10). Neck should be suffi- 
ciently long to allow the nose to reach the ground easily; 
muscular, and running into well-shaped, sloping shoulders. 

Body (value 15). Ribs should be well sprung; chest of 
fair width and depth; body well ribbed back; short in the 
coupling; flank free from any tucked-up appearance; loiif 
strong. 

Length (value 5), from tip of nose to root of tail, should 
be about twice the height at shoulder, rather more than 
less. 

Legs and feet (value 15). The fore legs should be short, 
strong in bone and muscle, straight, neither bent in nor 
out at elbow; pasterns straight, short, and strong; elbows 
well let down; the hind legs should be strong, with well- 
bent stifles; hocks straight, looked at from behind, and near 
the ground. Feet should be of good size, round, turning 
neither in nor out, toes not too spreading; the soles should 
be furnished with hard, homy pads, and there should be 
plenty of hair between the toes. 

Coat (value 10) should be abundant, soft and silky, 
straight or wavy, but without curl; chest, legs, and tail 
well feathered. There should be no top -knot or curly hair 
on top of head. 

Tail (value 5) usually docked, carried nearly level with 
the back. At work it is carried lower, with a quick, nerv- 
ous action which is characteristic of the breed. 




THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG. 




BY GEORGE W. KIERSTEAD. 

'OR the past dozen years, much has been written, pro 
and con, in regard to this truly American dog; 
American at least in name and characteristics, and, 
I am inclined to believe, in origin. Strange to say, of all 
that has been written and said, scarcely any two writers 
agree as to the general make-up and appearance of the 
typical Chesapeake. On this account, it is extremely 
difficult to handle the subject properly, and it is almost 
dangerous to advance ideas and ask that they be accepted 
as authority. Having always stood on the results of my own 
investigations and experiences on this subject, and having 
met, in the press or in the judge' s ring, representatives from 
every kennel of Chesapeakes in the United States, only to 
see them carry off the field of battle or from the show 
bench only such empty honors as were left after all higher 
honors were bestowed upon the strain of Chesapeakes which 
I champion, I fully appreciate the fact that a great deal 
might be quoted that has already been written by men to 
whom I give all due respect, but fear it would be of little 
benefit to the reader, and that it might only confuse the 
uninitiated. 

If you will stop for a moment and recall all you have 
heard and read on the subject of Chesapeakes, I will ask, 
Did not the relater, with two or three exceptions, tell what 
some friend had seen, heard, or experienced in regard to 
them, and tell little or nothing of his own observations and 
experience? 

I know nothing, by experience, in regard to the Chesa- 
peake Bay Dog' s work on the open waters of Chesapeake 
Bay, and do not intend to discuss the subject from that 

(357) 



358 THE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

stand-point, but from the stand-point wherein lies my expe- 
rience the marshes, lakes, sloughs, and rivers west and 
north of the Ohio River. I contend that a dog that does 
good work in this locality can and will do good work on the 
open waters of the bay, or in any other ducking- waters; and 
I further contend that a dog, to do good and satisfactory 
work in this locality, must have marked characteristics 
such as are, so far as I know, not possessed by any other 
dog than the Chesapeake. It was owing to this fact that I 
became interested in the study and breeding of these dogs 
fifteen years ago. 

During all the subsequent years, I have had the best of 
opportunities to study their weak and their strong points, as 
well as their history. In all these years of breeding,* I can 
say I did not breed for profit alone. From the first, I was 
convinced that I was not laboring in vain, but for a noble 
purpose. My motto was: ' ' Breed for the advancement of the 
Chesapeake Bay Duck Dog, and for the benefit of sports- 
men." To this I attribute my success, and success surely 
has been the result of my efforts. There is not to-day a 
Chesapeake Bay Dog in the West, of anything more than 
local note, that does not owe his or her origin to the Sun- 
day-Nellie strain, of which I have the honor of being the 
originator. As duck-retrievers, these dogs have no supe- 
riors. It is a question yet unsettled by public trial as to 
whether their equals have been produced. 

There is no breed of dogs whose history extends back so 
far as that of the Chesapeakes of which so little is known 
by the general public, and the origin of which is so closely 
veiled in mystery. No such breed was known in the United 
States until near the end of the eighteenth century. There 
is no question as to the fact that the breed originated along 
the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, and that it derives 
its name from this fact. 

From the best authorities obtainable, we learn that about 
the year 1807, the ship Canton, of Baltimore, Md., fell in at 



*See frontispiece. ED. 



THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG. 



359 



sea with an English brig, in a sinking condition, bound 
from Newfoundland to England. The crew were taken 
aboard the Canton; also two puppies, a dog and a bitch. 
The English crew were landed on their native soil, and the 
two puppies purchased from the captain for a guinea 
apiece and taken to Baltimore. 




I 



CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG POLLY. 
Owned by Jay F. Towner, Perryman's, Maryland, 



The dog puppy, a dingy red in color, was called Sailor, 
and was given to a Mr. John Mercer, of West River. The 
bitch was black, was called Canton, and was given to Dr. 
James Stewart, of Sparrow Point. These dogs were com- 
pactly built not so large as the Newfoundland; hair 
not long, but thick and wavy. They individually attained 



360 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

great reputations as duck-retrievers, and it is said of them 
that they would follow a cripple for miles through ice and 
a heavy sea, and if successful in a capture would always 
bring it back to their owner. The dog, Sailor, became the 
property of a gentleman of wealth, and was taken to his 
estate on the east shore of Maryland, where his progeny is 
still known as the Sailor breed. 

There is no positive proof that there were ever any dogs 
produced from the union of these two Sailor and Canton; 
neither is there anything to show there was not a produc- 
tion from them. The natural supposition is that there was, 
and it is to these two dogs that we feel we can give credit 
for the now famous breed of Chesapeake Bay Duck Dogs. 

There is now to be met with a great variety of what are 
called Chesapeake Bay Duck Dogs, but my opinion is that 
if the pedigree of some of these were obtainable, you would 
find that a cross or two has been made on either the Setter 
or Spaniel, and it is in this way that I account for the dif- 
ferent types to be seen. The reason this cross-breeding has 
been resorted to is that the Chesapeake Bay Dog, with an 
authenticated pedigree, is not to be met with every day, 
and especially since the close of the late civil war, which 
made such devastation in the Southern States. 

While there are a number of dogs used for breeding pur- 
poses, and their produce sold as Chesapeake Bay Dogs, 
which do not even reproduce themselves, much less trans- 
mit the qualities claimed for the Chesapeake Bay Dogs, yet 
there are, and have been for years, dogs used for breeding, 
the progeny of which can be depended upon to reproduce 
themselves and transmit this with their other good quali- 
ties; and this I consider the best evidence obtainable that 
the Chesapeake Bay Duck Dog does now exist in purity, 
and that it is as distinct a breed as the Setter, Pointer, or any 
other breed, though much fewer in numbers. Many breeds 
of dogs have a tail of mongrels hanging to them, which is 
in some cases larger than the breed itself; and, unhappily, 
the Chesapeake Bay Dog happens to be one of the cases 
where the tail is trying hard to wag the dog. 



THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG. 361 

For years this promiscuous breeding to which we have 
attributed the different types of dogs to be seen which are 
called Chesapeake Bay Dogs was kept up along the shores 
of the Chesapeake Bay, and to obtain specimens that would 
conform to the description of Sailor and Canton was well- 
nigh impossible. Still they did, and do now exist, and the 
sportsmen of to-day can thank O. D. Foulks, J. J. Turner, 
and one or two others in the East, and the writer and one 
other breeder in the West, for the perpetuation and produc- 
tion of the most perfect specimens that are now obtainable. * 

A correspondent of the American Field, who signs 
" Banshee," gives this as his idea of the correct type of 
this breed: 

The genuine and true type of the Chesapeake Bay Ducking Dog Should 
not be taller than a medium-sized Setter, though a good deal heavier in body; 
short legs, long neck, rather a pointed nose, running back into a broad head 
reminding one very much of the other with rather small ears, set up high on 
the head, its face having a very quick, bright, and intelligent expression; with 
short, straight hair, without a wrinkle in it, from one and one-fourth to one 
and one-half inches long in the longest places, and very short about the head 
and legs; and under this short, straight hair, by opening it, you will find a kind 
of fur about half an inch long. 

The characteristics of the Chesapeake Bay Dog that 
especially commend him to wild fowl shooters are, first, 
his good, hard common-sense. There is no retriever so 
cool-headed and quiet as the Chesapeake; and for this rea- 
son he does not use up his strength foolishly, going after 
he knows not what, and many times nothing. You have 
all seen hot-headed dogs do this frequently. 

Your Chesapeake has the strength and power to go where 
he will, and he has the will to go to where your duck falls; 
be it through ice, mud, rice-beds, or what it may, he will get 

* There are other breeders and owners of good Chesapeakes, among whom 
we may mention the following: Chesapeake Kennels, Malvern, Iowa; Edmond 
Brooke, 41 P. O. Square, Boston, Mass.; John N. Lewis, Ramsay, N. J. ; Jay 
F. Towner, Ferryman's, Md.; Robert Milbank, 154 West Forty-eighth street, 
New York City; Osceola Kennels, Osceola Mills, Wis.; Dr. G. G. Hammond, 
Boston, Mass.; John M. Sellers, 514 La Salle avenue, Chicago; George Oliver, 
5604 Wentworth avenue, Chicago; J. D. Boardman, 244 Beacon street, Boston, 
Mass. ED. 



362 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

there. When he does get there, if the duck proves to be a 
cripple, he has the sticktoitiveness to follow the trail until 
he picks up Mr. Cripple. He also has a nose that does not 
require him to go chasing all over the marsh in the hope 
of running onto the duck he goes directly to it and 
retrieves it. Many men are of the opinion that the Chesa- 
peake depends largely on sight to secure his game. It is a 
mistaken idea. His nose is equal to that of either the Set- 
ter or Pointer. 

Dr. James Norris, of Baltimore, Md., writing of the 
intelligence and sagacity of a noted dog of this breed, says: 

There are many wonderful exploits attributed to this famous animal, 
which pass the supposed bounds of animal instinct and enter the domain of 
human reason; and although substantiated by living witnesses, I would hesi- 
tate to repeat them, lest they might be pronounced, at least, apocryphal. 
There is one of his performances, not only well authenticated, but so fre- 
quently imitated by some of his offspring that I will relate it. When retriev- 
ing ducks, after a successful shot over decoys, he would not only pass the 
dead, but those that were severely wounded, and pursue those that were only 
slightly hurt and that human reason alone would teach that unless immediately 
pursued would escape. After securing these, he would collect the remainder, 
deposit them at his master's feet, and quietly resume his position ; his eyes, 
barely above the front of the blind, gazing as eagerly and intently as the 
sportsman at the approaching game. 

The Chesapeake has a coat the like of which is possessed 
by no other known breed; it must be seen to be appreciated. 
In color it is dead grass or sedge, a reddish-brown or 
brownish-red not liver-color. In length the hair is from 
half an inch to an inch and a half; is very dense and 
wavy not curly. In the fall of the year it looks as 
much like an old, faded-out buffalo-robe as anything one 
can imagine. Like all other haired animals, the Chesa- 
peake Dog takes on a fall or winter coat. With this 
new coat each fall comes what we shall call a filling coat, 
that in a great measure protects the skin from coming 
in contact with the water. They will come out of the water, 
give one or two shakes, and I will defy any man to find one 
of them wet down to the skin; or even take them before 
they shake, and you can not. This filling coat can be 
detected best by taking a clip of the coat and looking at the 



THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG. 363 

butt-end of it. There seems to be something about it, say 
what you can, but you can't describe it, for there is no 
other dog's coat that looks like it or that acts like it in 
water. 

They are intelligent and quick to catch your meaning, 
and when they do, they never forget; show them once or 
twice what you want them to do, and they will never forget 
it. As companions they are perfect, for the reason that 
they are fond of one master and will know no other per- 
son. 

There seems to be no limit to the amount of endurance 
they possess. For example, I will cite the dog Monday, 
by Sunday, out of Nellie. This dog went into the hands 
of a market-shooter on the famous Kankakee marshes, in 
Indiana, at the age of about fifteen months; for nine years 
worked on an average four days out of seven, from the 
time ducks came, in September, until they left, when the 
marshes froze up. His work was done for a man that aver- 
aged a thousand ducks every fall. We have an actual record 
of this dog having retrieved over eleven thousand ducks. 
Yet Monday is no exception to the rule as to the matter of 
endurance. One of these dogs will last the most ardent 
duck-shooter, with ordinary care, eight to ten years. 

The general utility of these dogs is a strong point in 
their favor, especially where a man keeps but one dog. 
While I claim they are the best duck-retrievers on earth, 
this is not their only virtue; I consider them the best 
all-around dog a man can keep about his place. I use my 
Chesapeakes for jumping pheasants and quails, treeing 
squirrels, running rabbits, and in fact all sorts of upland 
shooting, and I know others who do likewise. As 'coon dogs, 
they have no equals at the shake-out, as they never turn taiL 
As guardians of property they are equal to the Mastiff, 
and have not the objectionable features of the Bulldog. 

To substantiate these assertions as to the general utility 
of these dogs, I deem it but just to quote from a few auto- 
graph letters I have received from brother sportsmen in 
regard to them: 



364 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

"MTJSCATINE, IOWA, Nov.C, 1886. 



1 1 



Dear Sir: I presume you are always glad to hear of 
the doings of the Chesapeake, so I write you a word or two 
about the puppy Jack. 

4 'He is growing very fast and seems full of life and 
health, and yet is as dignified and watchful as a Mastiff. 

" I took him out hunting, with a fine Setter bitch, a week 
ago, not expecting to ask him to do any work, but only to 
get used to the sound of a gun. He watched Nellie bring 
out one or two ducks, and then we shot three mud-hens, 
to try him. Nellie brought two, and Jack one. Then we 
let one of the boys go down the lake and shoot mud-hens 
at various points out of our sight. Making a circuit, we 
came to the lake a mile below, and shot a mud-hen or 
two to warm him up, and then walked up the bank of 
the lake, which is full of water-lilies, etc. Now we 
couldn't see the mud-hens killed by our companions, 
and didn't know where to look for them, and Nellie made 
no sign to get any of them; but Jack did not miss one, going 
without a word of command sometimes fifty yards out into 
the lake, and in one instance making three trips, and bring- 
ing a bird each time. This may not be new to you, but I 
must confess I have never heard of such work in a young 
dog; and no one here has. 

" He seems to love the water, and will, from choice, break 
the ice along shore to play in the water, his magnificent 
coat being an absolute protection against cold or wet. 

"My children are perfectly delighted with him; my wife 
'never saw so nice a dog,' and I well, I wouldn't look at 
$100 of any man' s money in exchange for him. 

" He is watchful, plucky, and strong; embodies all I 
could ask in a Mastiff or a Newfoundland, and has so many 
other excellent qualities, that if he is a fair sample of the 
breed (and I presume he is), I wonder that anyone would 
prefer the breeds of single virtues to this ' omnibus ' dog. 
When I ordered him I thought I was getting a good 
retriever, but I find that, besides retrieving better than any 



THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG. 365 

dog I have ever seen, he excels also in virtues not claimed 
for him." 

" FERGUS FALLS, MINN., Sept. 23, 1885. 

" Dear Sir : I have been in the field every day since re- 
ceiving the Chesapeake puppy. I received him at Crooks- 
ton September 2d, took him immediately out of the box, 
fed him, and while sitting on the express office steps with a 
number of my friends, the puppy saw a piece of paper blow- 
ing along the road, and, without a word, went and got it, 
laid it down at my feet, and crawled up into my lap. 

" I took him into my wagon- the same day and carried 
him out into the country twenty-five miles; returned in 
two days; took him out with me shooting mallards with 
a number of my friends, who wanted to see more of him; 
and the first mallard I shot was in a small, shallow pond 
of mud and water, not deep enough to allow him to swim. 
The puppy was at heel when the duck fell, and I did not 
intend to send him for it alone; but without a word he 
started out, felt his way timidly at first, reached the duck, 
which was a monster, took hold of its body -first and tried 
hard to lift it out of the mud and water, but could not; 
then took hold of its wing and tried to carry it, but of 
course would step on it. He finally became discouraged, 
laid it down, and commenced to cry. I at once waded out 
and helped him bring it in, and you never saw a prouder 
dog in all your life, or perhaps a prouder man. All this 
was done without a word of command and entirely at his 
own free will. I would not allow him to do or try to 
do much work, as he is too young; but he has never re- 
fused anything that I have asked, and I can only express 
my opinion of him by saying he is a dandy. Very intelli- 
gent, he is easy to control, and I now have only to point my 
finger at- him to make him down; and on my third trial 
he would creep behind me on a ' sneak' on ducks." 

NOTE. This puppy was whelped May 31, 1885, and was 
less than four months old at the writing of the above letter. 



366 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Speaking of the courage of the Chesapeake, Mr. Poy- 
neer says: 

Their pluck and courage is indomitable, and the more incessant the shoot- 
ing the more tierce and determined they are in their work; and woe unto the 
dog that gets too near them when they are after a duck. Upon several occa- 
sions, when shooting late in the season, I have tested their courage when 
everything was frozen up but a few open holes in deep lakes, these holes being 
kept open by the ducks congregating in such large numbers that the water 
could not freeze. The shooting at such a place can be imagined. Three and 
four guns would be kept warm. At such times I have seen one Chesapeake 
Bay Dog do all the retrieving, and every time he brought a duck he had to 
climb on the ice. Other dogs in the party got scared or froze out, and could 
not be induced to go in. 

I never saw a Chesapeake refuse to go, it matters not how cold the weather 
might be. A stiff current, with running ice, or any obstruction, is all the same 
to them. Quitting is not in their vocabulary. Irish Water Spaniels and 
other retrievers have been tried beside them on the Chesapeake Bay, and inva- 
riably have quit. 

From the above quotations, the reader may infer that 
the Chesapeake needs little or no training. While this is 
true to a certain extent, it is just as necessary to subject 
him to your will as if he were a Setter or a Pointer. My 
plan in handling the Chesapeake has been to make him my 
companion as much as possible. He will take naturally 
to retrieving as soon as he can run. Allow him to follow his 
inclination in this matter, and indulge him on every possi- 
ble occasion. Teach him to deliver in hand, and thus avoid 
the possibility of losing winged birds after your dog has 
brought them to the boat or blind. By the time he is four 
or six months old, he will be doing all sorts of retrieving 
for you about the house. 

When four or six months old if this period comes in 
the fall take him to the shooting-grounds. It is to be 
supposed that in his companionship with you he has mean- 
time learned to love the gun. Shoot your duck, and see to 
it that you are on favorable rather than unfavorable ground 
for your puppy to see it fall. Go with him for the first one, 
if he gives you time to do so. If the fall be a favorable 
one, the chances are you will have no occasion to go. From 
this time on, if you use judgment in your shooting, for a 



THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG. 367 

few outings, you will have little or no trouble. It will be 
but a short time until you will find you will only have to 
look for the ducks coming, and your dog will look after 
those you knock down; and when he once goes at his work 
in this way, do not interfere with him by trying to make 
him come into the blind, or get down in the boat out of 
sight; his coat and color provide for this, and he appears 
to be aware of the fact. 

I am a strong believer in natural instincts, and insist 
that to have a dog do his work satisfactorily, he must do it 
for the love of the sport, rather, than because he is forced 
to do it. I have never yet seen a forced retriever that could 
be depended upon at all times. They are liable to become 
sulky at times, and when they do, the owner is liable to get 
in the same mood; then the sport is over, for that day, at 
least. Companionably handled, the chances are this trouble 
will be avoided. I would not be understood as saying that 
all that is necessary is to buy one of these puppies, grow 
him up to six months, take him to the marsh, and you have 
a thorough retriever for ten years to come. Far from it. 
The first six months it may be ten or twelve months of 
his life are to be a continuous period of breaking and training 
not a breaking all jammed into one week, or two, but 
continuous, little by little; and when the six or twelve 
months are past, you will be surprised to see how much 
your puppy will do for you, and how little trouble he has 
been. In my opinion, dog-breaking is a thing in which no 
stated rules can be followed. The most necessary thing is, 
first, fair material on which to work, and then lots of good, 
hard common-sense on the part of the trainer. 

A few words on breeding may be of interest. First of 
all, if you wish to be successful, do not attempt cross-breed- 
ing. By this I mean do not attempt to improve the breed 
of Chesapeakes by an infusion of other blood, such as 
Setter, Spaniel, etc. Those experiments have already been 
made, and with the worst possible results. For instance, 
on the Irish Setter; result, a litter of all black puppies. On 
the English Setter; result, a litter of all colors but the 



368 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

desired one. On the Irish and English Spaniels; result, 
dark liver and black the predominating colors, as a rule. 
Large ears, and so rattle-headed that nothing could be done 
with them. A second cross on the half-breeds; no better 
results than the first. 

For my breeding stock, I always select from the litters 
with a view to producing the color desired. I make it a 
rule to breed a bitch inclined to white to a dog inclined to 
black, and vice versa. By this I mean a bitch that showed 
a lighter shade of color at the end of hairs than close to 
the skin, and a dog whose coat showed as dark or darker 
at ends than at the skin. I do not think it advisable to 
mate an extra light-colored bitch with an extra light-colored 
dog, or an extra dark bitch with an extra dark dog. The 
happy medium is what I always try to strike as to breed- 
ing stock. I have never failed to get good results as to 
color when these rules were observed. 

I have known litters thrown in other kennels that con- 
tained two and three cream- white puppies; I have known 
of dark livers and blacks. In all these cases, it was no 
fault of the breeding of either sire or dam, but simply the 
result of improper blending of colors; and color I consider 
one of the essential points in the Chesapeake. I have 
known the eyes to be decidedly off color, both too light and 
too dark, from the same improper cause. Breeding Chesa- 
peakes is just like breeding any other class of dogs, a deal 
of good, hard common-sense must be used to obtain the 
best results. To overcome a weak or objectionable feature, 
you must counter- balance it with the opposite feature; and 
it may take two or three, or even more generations, to 
eradicate it. 

These dogs are not early developers as to form, seldom 
coming into perfect form and coat under eighteen months 
or two years. On this account I would advise not breeding 
under this age. Another advantage to be gained by late 
breeding is, you have time to have your dog fairly well 
broken, and then if he or she proves a successful sire or 
dam, you are so much the gainer. 



THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG. 369 

The bitch should have entire freedom from the time of 
service until the puppies are weaned. Chesapeake puppies, 
as a rule, are hardy and easily raised, there seldom being a 
frail one among them. At the age of three to five weeks 
they should be separated into yards, with not more than 
two to the yard, as they are savage fighters and are liable to 
ruin one another. I have known nearly the entire litter to 
jump on one of their number and literally tear it to pieces. 
I may say here that if ever you are so fortunate as to 
own a Chesapeake Dog, you will not be likely, under any cir- 
cumstances, to be called upon to take his part in a fight, as 
he will be able to do that himself, unless beset by several 
big dogs at once. He will generally be found capable of 
taking care of himself in the field, the marsh, on the road, 
or in a fight; and woe be to the man that attempts to chas- 
tise you or yours in his presence. 

In the writing of this article I have tried to avoid any- 
thing that might confuse the reader, especially the con- 
troversial points in regard to the different types; and lest 
some may not clearly understand me on this subject, I beg 
to reaffirm that there is but one true type of Chesapeake 
Bay Duck Dog, and he has the thick, heavy, wavy coat. 

The future of the Chesapeake Bay Dog is somewhat 
uncertain, and yet I can see no reason why, with the number 
of good specimens now distributed all over the North and 
West, this breed should not rapidly increase in numbers 
and in popularity; especially so since the willing, rather 
than the forced, retriever is becoming more and more the 
choice of sportsmen every day. 

STANDAKD AND POINTS OF JUDGING THE CHESAPEAKE 

BAY DOG.. 

Value. Value. 

Head, including ears, lips, and eyes . 15 Stern 4 

Neck 6 Symmetry and quality ' . . 6 

Shoulders and chest 15 Coat and texture 16 

Back quarters and stifles 15 Color 8 

Legs, elbows, hocks, and feet 15 

Total 100 

Head. Broad, running to nose only a trifle pointed, but 

24 



370 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

not at all sharp; eyes of yellow color; ears small, placed 
well up on the head; face covered with very short hair. 

Neck. Should be only moderately long and with a firm, 
strong appearance. 

Shoulders and chest. Shoulders should have full lib- 
erty, with plenty of show for power and no tendency to 
restriction of movement; chest strong and deep. 

Back quarters and stifles. Should show fully as much, 
if not more, power than fore quarters, and be capable of 
standing prolonged strains. Any tendency to weakness 
must be avoided. Ducking on the broad waters of the 
Chesapeake Bay involves, at times, facing a heavy tide and 
sea; and in cases of following wounded fowls, a dog is fre- 
quently subjected to a long swim. 

Legs, elbows, liocks, and feet. Legs should be short, 
showing both bone and muscle, and with well-webbed feet 
of good size; fore legs rather straight and symmetrical. It 
is to be understood that short legs do not convey the idea 
of a dumpy formation. Elbows well let down and set 
straight, for development of easy movement. 

Stern. Should be stout, somewhat long the straighter 
the better and showing only moderate feather. 

Symmetry and quality. The Chesapeake Bay Dog 
should show a bright, lively, intelligent expression, with 
general outlines good at all points; in fact, a dog worthy of 
notice in any company. 

Coat and texture. Short and thick, somewhat coarse, 
with tendency to wave over shoulders, back, and loins, 
where it is longest nowhere over one and a quarter to one 
and a half inches long; that on flanks, legs, and belly 
shorter, tapering to quite short near the feet. Under all this 
is a short woolly fur, which should well cover the skin, and 
can readily be observed by pressing aside the outer coat. 
This coat preserves the dog from the effects of the wet and 
cold, and enables him to stand severe exposure; a shake or 
two throws off all water, and it is conducive to speed in 
swimming. 

Color. -- Nearly resembling wet sedge-grass, though 



THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG. 371 

toward spring it becomes lighter by exposure to weather. 
A small white spot or frill on the breast is admissible. Color 
is important, as the dog in most cases is apt to be outside 
the blind, consequently too dark is objectionable; the deep 
liver of the Spaniel making much greater contrast, there- 
fore it is to be avoided. 

The weight of dogs should be sixty to seventy pounds, 
and of bitches, forty-five to fifty-five pounds. The height 
should be about that of a medium-sized Setter, but heavier 
in body and shorter in legs. 

The foregoing descriptive list and scale of points was 
drafted by a committee appointed by the American Ken- 
nel Club, in the winter of 1884-85, for judging these dogs. 
While I do not agree with the committee in some few 
minor points, in general the list and scale are safe ones to 
follow. 




THE SMOOTH-COATED FOX TERRIER 



BY AUGUST BELMONT, JR. 



I HA YE been earnestly and repeatedly requested by the 
Editor of this book to write an article on the Fox Ter- 
rier. I declined at first for want of time, and because I 
felt that someone else might do the work in a more finished 
manner than I; and would gladly have persisted in this 
course, but was led to consider it my duty to undertake the 
task because I represent so important an interest in the 
breed, and because I desire to do everything possible to 
promote its growth in public favor. 

This beautiful species of Terrier is, it must be admitted, 
better and more widely understood and appreciated at nis 
home, in England, than here in America. On this side the 
water his popularity has but just begun, and his early his- 
tory has been more ably treated by English writers than it 
is possible for an American to treat it. It will therefore 
suffice for the purposes of this article to give a general 
sketch of the Fox Terrier's early history which at best is 
somewhat vague a description of his characteristics, as 
condensed a review as possible of the principal strains, and 
a brief survey of what we possess here in America on which 
to found a worthy branch of a now magnificent breed in 
Great Britain. 

Terriers corresponding to the present Fox Terrier, both 
wire-haired and smooth, have undoubtedly existed for sev- 
eral centuries, although they were, as far as any allusion 
to them can be found in the works of early writers on 
sporting matters, classed and spoken of under the general 
term of " terrier," a corrupted word derived from their 
Latin appellation, terrarius, indicating their propensity to 
hunt under-ground. 

(373; 



374 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The characteristics of the Terrier, whether of one species 
or another, were in the main the same as they are to-day, 
viz.: a natural inclination to hunt and destroy vermin of 
any kind, pursuing it to its refuge wherever it be within 
the Terrier's power to reach it; this trait b % eing accompanied 
by a sprightly and tense nervous nature, keen sense of 
hearing, quick vision, a most unerring nose, and an indom- 
itable gameness. The last quality must not be misunder- 
stood, as it often is when applied to this breed. Bull-dog 
tenacity is not wanted in a dog bred and used for the pur- 
poses for which the Fox Terrier is most popular, and there- 
fore should not be an attribute. 

Being intended, to hunt with and for his master, he 
should be ready and eager to attack the object of the hunt, 
entering into its hiding-place and indicating the locality by 
giving tongue or drawing out the game in the open. It is 
not desirable that he should close with and kill the game, 
as a Bull Terrier would do. Of course, the Fox Terrier 
will do this eventually, as he should as a last resort, 
or if urged to it by his master. This style of hunting 
and fighting requires great dash, courage, and dexterity. 
In trying to succeed in this method of helping to secure 
the animal hunted, he is often compelled to receive more 
punishment than if his tactics were purely a light to 
kill. 

His nose is keener for general game than that of any 
other breed of Terrier. He was often used by gamekeep- 
ers in by-gone days, and even by some of them in modern 
times, to do the work of a Spaniel. 

It is clearly established that in accordance with the spe- 
cial preferences of individual sportsmen, in early times, for 
hunting certain animals, so they unquestionably selected, 
bred, and used, in accordance with their size and make-up, 
the Terriers best suited to each animal hunted, from the 
fox and the otter down to the common rat. For the fox, 
therefore, a dog of about the size and general conformation 
of the Fox Terrier of to-day, weighing from sixteen to 
eighteen pounds, was undoubtedly employed; and old 



THE SMOOTH-COATED FOX TERRIER. 875 

prints and paintings now and then met with illustrate Ter- 
riers of this form in a moderately accurate way. 

As fox-hunting came in vogue in England, and grew in 
popularity, we find attached to the kennels Terriers which 




CHAMPION LUCIFER (A. K. C. S. B., 5459). 
Owned by Mr. August Belmorvt, Jr., New York City. 

are the progenitors of the present Fox Terrier. They ap- 
pear to have been bred, however, for use only; and aptitude 
for their work must "have been paramount to beauty, as 
most old paintings and prints illustrating the bolting of 



376 THE AMEKICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

foxes from their earth by dogs represent, as a rule, rather 
dark and not prettily marked Terriers, often with prick 
ears. 

Here and there a clew is given by some author or artist to 
white and pied Terriers, both smooth and rough coated ; but 
there is no such thing as an absolute and exact type trace- 
able in the Fox Terrier, as is the case with Greyhounds 
and different species of Hounds used in the chase for cent- 
uries past. It will have to satisfy the Fox Terrier lover 
who desires to establish the claim of his pet breed to purity 
of blood, to say that the best Foxhound kennels in the 
beginning of the century were possessed of good Terriers, 
and are known to have given their breeding the most care- 
ful attention ; so that when recourse was had to such 
kennels as the Grove, Belvoir, and Quorn to build the pres- 
ent breed of Fox Terriers upon, Terriers were easily found 
in and about those kennels as true in type as the best of 
to-day, although perhaps not so perfect in the special 
points which breeding purely for the bench shows has 
since produced. 

During the early part of the century, the indications are 
that the Terrier which accompanied the earth-stopper or 
the pack was often dark in color. I have myself an old 
print of 1825, which I found at Oxford ten years ago, rep- 
resenting Sir Tatton Sykes' Hounds drawing covert. In 
the lower corner is depicted the earth-stopper, spade in 
hand, watching the workings of the Hounds, with an excel- 
lent pale-colored Black and Tan Terrier by his side ; good 
drop ears, straight legs though apparently standing a 
little higher from the ground than is desirable at the pres- 
ent time. 

The history of the Fox Terrier resolves itself into three 
periods; the first dating from about the sixteenth century 
to the end of the eighteenth, during which time we have 
evidence of his existence, along with the rest of the genus 
Terrier bred in the stable-yard and by gamekeepers, as 
a rule among plebeian masters. Then the Fox Terrier grad- 
uates, and we read careful descriptions of him and records 



THE SMOOTH-COATED FOX TERRIER. 377 

of his having been bred with great care, but for work, pri- 
marily, in connection with well established and conducted 
packs of Foxhounds in England, ranking as a necessary 
adjunct of the hunt, down to the middle of the present 
century. At this time the country was rapidly becoming 
more open, the pace growing very much faster, and the 
chase and preservation of the fox much more artificial. In 
consequence, the little Fox Terrier's vocation seems to be 
on the wane and his future in doubt. 

At the end of this the second period of his history, we 
find him suddenly, about 1863, attracting the attention of 




FOX TERRIER PUPPIES. 

the general public at the then "budding dog shows of Bir- 
mingham, Leeds, Manchester, and other midland and 
northern cities. 

He is immediately taken up by the fancier, and from 
that time begins the third and great period of his history, 
with all its modern adjuncts noble lineage, jealous and 
active competition among his patrons, research and study 
of the past for evidences of his royal blood, prominence in 
the sporting prints of the day, and later, journals and mag- 
azines especially devoted to his interests. An insatiable 
demand springs up for him from every quarter, resulting 
in most princely prices being paid, and, last but not least, 



378 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

associations formed by men of means and prominence to 
intelligently perpetuate and improve his type. 

The fancier's first care was, naturally enough, directed 
to the typical kennel Terrier of the day, keeping in view 
symmetry and the accepted features of his anatomy which 
his vocation and selection in breeding had produced. 

In the hands of breeders, and riders of good hunters, 
and the huntsmen and masters of crack packs of Hounds, 
the Fox Terrier was in no small degree bred to agree in 
general conformation and type with both Hunter and 
Hound; the same hard and continuous work, in all sorts of 
weather, being required of all three. 

The earlier judges at the shows followed this idea, and 
the fanciers, through the Fox Terrier Club, later adopted 
a standard which confirms this, and which has been incor- 
porated in the rules of the American Fox Terrier Club, and 
is to-day the standard according to which the Fox Terrier is 
judged at all shows in the United States and Great Britain. 
Some twelve years ago a cloddy, short-horn pattern of Ter- 
rier found a passing support, but was soon dropped with- 
out greatly damaging the breed. 

STANDARD AND SCALE OF POINTS OF THE AMERICAN FOX 

TERRIER CLUB. 

Value. Value. 

Head and ears 15 Stern 5 

Neck 5 Legs and feet 20 

Shoulders and chest 15 Coat 10 

Back and loin 10 Symmetry and character 15 

Hind quarters 5 

Total 100 

DISQUALIFYING POINTS. 

1. Nose, white, cherry, or spotted to a considerable extent with either of 
these colors. 

2. Ears, prick, tulip, or rose. 

3. Mouth, much undershot or much overshot. 

The skull should be flat and moderately narrow, and 
gradually decreasing in width to the eyes. Not much 
4 i stop ' ' should be apparent, but there should be more dip 
in the profile between the forehead and top jaw than is seen 
in the case of a Greyhound. 

The clieeks must not be full. 



THE SMOOTH-COATED FOX TERRIER. 379 

The ears should be V-shaped and small, of moderate 
thickness, and drooping forward close to the cheek, not 
hanging by the side of the head like a Foxhound's. 

The /aw, upper and under, should be strong and muscu- 
lar; should be of fair punishing strength, but not so in any 
way to resemble the Greyhound or modern English Terrier. 
There should not be much falling away below the eyes. 
This part of the'head should, however, be moderately chis- 
eled out, so as not to go down in a straight slope like a 
wedge. 

The nose, toward which the muzzle must gradually taper, 
should be black. 

The eyes and the rims should be dark in color, small, and 
rather deep-set, full of fire, life, and intelligence; as nearly 
as possible circular in shape. 

The teeth should be as nearly as possible level; i. e. y the 
upper teeth on the outside of the lower teeth. 

Neck should be clean and muscular, without throati- 
ness, of fair length, and gradually widening to the shoul- 
ders. 

Shoulders should be long and sloping, well laid 
fine at the points, and clearly cut at the withers. 

Chest deep and not broad. 

Back should be short, straight, and strong, with no 
appearance of slackness. 

Loin should be powerful and very slightly arched. 
The fore ribs should be moderately arched, the back ribs 
deep; and the dog should be well ribbed up. 

Hind quarters should be strong and muscular, quite 
free from droop or crouch; the thighs long and powerful; 
hocks near the ground, the dog standing well up on them 
like a Foxhound, and not straight in the stifle. 

Stern should be set on rather high, and carried gaily, 
but not over the back or curled. It should be of good 
strength, anything approaching a "pipe-stopper" tail 
being especially objectionable. 

Legs, viewed in any direction, must be straight, show- 
ing little or no appearance of ankle in front. They should 



380 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

be strong in bone throughout, short and straight in pastern. 
Both fore and hind legs should be carried straight forward 
in traveling, the stifles not turning outward. The elbows 
should hang perpendicularly to the body, working free of 
the sides. 

Feet should be round, compact, and not large; the 
soles hard and tough; the toes moderately arched, and 
turned neither in nor out. 

Goat should be smooth, flat, but hard, dense, and 
abundant. The belly and under side of the thighs should 
not be bare. 

Color. White should predominate; brindle, red, or liver 
markings are objectionable. Otherwise this point is of lit- 
tle or no importance. 

Symmetry , size, and character. The dog must present 
a generally gay, lively, and active appearance; bone and 
strength in a small compass are essentials, but this must 
not be taken to mean that a Fox Terrier should be cloggy, 
or in any way coarse speed and endurance must be looked 
to as well as power, and the symmetry of the Foxhound 
taken as a model. The Terrier, like the Hound, must on 
no account be leggy, nor must t he be too short in the leg. 
He should stand like a cleverly made hunter, covering a lot 
of ground, yet with a short back, as before stated. He will 
then attain the highest degree of propelling power together 
with the greatest length of stride that is compatible with 
the length of his body. Weight is not a certain criterion 
of a Terrier' s fitness for his work general shape, size, and 
contour are the main points; and if a dog can gallop and 
stay, and follow his fox up a drain, it matters little what 
his weight is to a pound or so, though, roughly speaking, it 
may be said that he should not scale over twenty pounds in 
show condition. 

WIEE-HAIEED FOX TERRIER. 

This variety of the breed should resemble the smooth 
sort in every respect except the coat, which should be 
broken. The harder and more wiry the texture of the 



THE SMOOTH-COATED FOX TEREIER. 381 

coat is, the better. On no account should the dog look or 
feel woolly; and there should be no silky hair about the 
poll or elsewhere. The coat should not be too long, so as to 
give the dog a shaggy appearance; but at the same time it 
should show a marked and distinct difference all over from 
the smooth species. 

The premier honors in the dog classes of the earliest 
shows were divided, in the main, between four great Terriers 
Jock, Trap, Tartar, and Rattler. The first two became 
celebrated at stud, Jock succeeding principally through 
the female line, while Trap was successful through both 
male and female. Both Trap's and Jock's pedigrees are 
obscure, but their origin as far as deciphered points strongly 
to the Grove Kennels strain of Terriers; and while white, 
with but little markings, it was always claimed that black- 
and-tan blood ran in their veins. 

The combination of these two great dogs gave to the 
fancy a host of Terriers, which made their mark at stud 
and on the bench, and which figure to-day in most of 
the pedigrees of the prize- winning strains. Tyrant, by Old 
Trap, out of Violet, by Old Jock, was the sire of Chance, 
who, bred to a daughter of Old Jock, gave to the Terrier 
world Tricksey, the dam of Brockenhurst Joe and Cham- 
pion Olive, son and daughter of Belgrave Joe, a Belvoir- 
bred Terrier. Brockenhurst Joe, who passed his last days 
in this country, more than any other dog is responsible, 
through his son Brockenhurst Rally, for the celebrated 
strain of the Messrs. Clark, of Nottingham. It includes 
among its enormous list of winners Result, pronounced 
by competent judges the best Terrier of modern times. 
Champion Olive produced Pickle II., who, while not a 
show Terrier, was the sire of more successful brood bitches 
than any dog in the annals of Fox Terrier breeding. Olive 
was also the dam of Champion Spice, of whom more later. 

Jock's only descendants in the male line which command 
our interest to-day was through his grandson Jester II. , 
the sire of many a good one. While the strain has rather 



382 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

poor, woolly coats and indifferent heads, it possesses great 
character, gameness, and excellent bone. 

Champion Bedlamite, the dam of Bacchanal, now the 
property of Mr. John A. Logan, Jr., of Youngstown, Ohio, 
is a daughter of Jester II. 's son Joker. Bacchanal pos- 
sesses probably the truest Terrier character of any dog we 
have on this side of the Atlantic. 

Tartar, while successful in a measure as a sire, can not 
be classed with the first two as a great progenitor of to- 
day's breed. Perhaps his best strain is the one which came 
through his son Trophy, the grandsire of Corinthian, a dog 
who produced so many good ones that his blood became at 
one time a very popular and successful one. They were 
noted for their rapid maturity, but as they advanced in 
years tended to grow coarse and thick in head. Most of 
their bench honors were acquired during their puppyhood 
and early maturity. Mr. Fred Hoey's Champion Valet, 
however, who is directly of this strain, and is now quite 
well along in years, is a marked exception, retaining his 
form wonderfully. His incurable and unaccountable im- 
potence has been a very great loss to American breeders. 

The Tartars are all game as wildcats. Old Trophy, who 
passed his last days with Sir Bache Cunard's Hounds, in 
Leicestershire, sported but half a jaw, having lost the other 
half to a badger. Sir Bache told me that this dog remained 
unconquerably game to his last hour. 

I owned a lovely bitch, Nellie, whom I brought home in 
1876, by Old Tartar, said to have been out of Hon. .T. W. 
Fitz Williams' Nettle. She bred me some extraordinarily 
game Terriers to Bismarck, a son of the Marquis of Hunt- 
ley' s Bounce, he a son of Old Trap and the grandsire of the 
peerless Buffet. She also bred me some good ones to a son 
of Hognaston Joe and Fairy, the dam of Mixture, whom I 
got from Mr. Murchison in 1878. I have no more of this 
strain; and while not quite as good for the bench as my 
present prize-winners, they were true Terriers, and would 
be invaluable to me to-day to infuse great character and 
gameness in my kennels. 



THE SMOOTH-COATED FOX TERRIER. 383 

From a bench-show point of view, Tyke was undoubt- 
edly Tartar's best son. He never did very much at stud, 
and owing to the line coats which appeared in this line of 
blood, there is a strong suspicion of a cross of Bull Terrier 
somewhere. Shovel, a son of Tartar's good son Trumps, 
is now in California, and possessing, as he does, an infusion 
of Belvoir blood, ought to do good service in improving 
the breed on the Pacific Coast. 

Rattler, the fourth of the early great Terriers mentioned 
above, represented nothing but a brilliant personal career. 
He was a failure at stud, his antecedents were cloud'y, and 
yet he for many years was invincible on the bench. 

A strain which every breeder to-day can not fail to wish 
to know about, considering its phenomenal success through 
such dogs as Splinter and all his famous sons, headed by 
Lucifer, and female descendants, headed by the great 
Vesuvienne and including Champion Diana and Diadem, 
the last two having for some years figured as American 
matrons, is the Foiler strain. Its origin is principally 
from the Grove Terriers, Foiler being by Old Grip, a son 
of Grove Willie, out of Judy, one of Rev. Jack Russell's 
strain. The characteristics of the strain are excellent heads, 
legs, and feet. In the latter point these Terriers, as an 
average, excel all others; they are prone, however, to 
drooping quarters, hind dew-claws, and, if bred in closely, 
large ears. The Foilers are the 'most difficult of all to 
handle in breeding, but with care I prefer them to all 
others. They are well represented in this country by a 
number of stud dogs. Lucifer, Dusky Trap, and Splauger 
are direct descendants in the male line from the old dog. 

Perhaps the most important of all are the Belvoir Ter- 
riers. About sixteen years ago, Belgrave Joe began to 
attract attention as a sire, and from Mr. Luke Tanner' s and 
Mr. Murchison's kennels came a host of winners. These 
Terriers were essentially of the Belvoir Kennels strain. 
Every pedigree to-day, whether of one family or another, 
is thoroughly saturated with this blood. Freer from Bull 
cross than any other, it greatly changed the type of the 



384 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

winning Terriers when widely introduced; and with its 
extraordinary ability to stand successful inbreeding, it 
may be said to have done more to disseminate a good 
average Terrier than any other strain. It brought sym- 
metry, character, and good coats, although more profuse 
than before; and it was not until the advent of Champion 
Spice, with his doubtful lineage on his dam's side, that a 
branch of the Belvoir strain, through him, went all to 
pieces as regards their jackets. The tremendous opportu- 
nities given this very good dog at stud resulted in a very 
few good ones. Mixture, Brockenhurst Spice, Earl Leices- 
ter, and Hysop were about the best. His blood, however, 
with careful handling, and tempered with that of strains 
of more fixity of type, helped to produce Rachel, First 
Flight, Syrup, Raffle, Chattox, and a host of others in the 
second, third, and fourth generations. Spice was brought 
to America in 1886, by Mr. Kelly, of New York, at the 
largest price ever paid by an American exhibitor. His 
career was very short. After doing but little service in the 
stud, he lost his life in a fight with one of Mr. Kelly's 
Deerhounds within the year, so that what Spice blood we 
have in this country did not come to us directly from him. 
Earl Leicester, his kennel companion, was disposed of in 
the same way by Mr. Kelly's Grecian Greyhound last 
year. Mixture is in Mr. John E. Thayer's kennels, at 
Lancaster, Mass., where he has done excellent service in 
the stud. 

Just at this moment a strain is becoming of special 
interest; it is the Buffer, through his grandson Buff at one 
time much thought of, but of recent years little used and 
often much abused. The Buffers were always accused of 
possessing a cross of Beagle, which brought them heavy, 
listless ears and a want of true character. I must say my 
own experience with blood akin to it gave me some results 
of that very sort. Buffer was a son of the Marquis of 
Huntley's Bounce, and the dog I used with my Tartar 
bitch Nellie spoken of already in this article was also a 
son of his, called Bismarck. Ten years ago, a friend of 



THE SMOOTH -COATED FOX TERRIEK. 385 

mine and I also tried inbreeding for three generations. 

The marked features above alluded to cropped out now and 

then, although I will acknowledge one dog a real Terrier 

was a game, big brute, and weighed thirty- three pounds. 

Buffer produced Buffet, claimed by competent judges to 
have been the most perfectly built Fox Terrier that has to 
their knowledge existed. He sired little of great value 
outside of his famous son Buff. This white dog, possessing 
wonderful legs and feet, great character and symmetry, 
had a very successful career on the bench, and was exten- 
sively used at stud. His get was only fair, with the excep- 
tion of two beautiful daughters, Bloom and Blossom. 

Buff was cursed with periodical attacks of eczema, and 
this, with the fact that careless use of his blood and 
attempts at inbreeding brought out large ears and bad 
heads, soon caused his blood to be discarded for the more 
successful families that followed his period. Certainly, 
what Buff produced for Mr. Lawrence to Jeopardy and 
some other bitches in this country was not good. I had a 
bitch inbred to him, with which I never succeeded in rear- 
ing a fit puppy to escape the stable-pail. Messrs. Ruther- 
furd had a nice little son of Buff, called Nailer, who got 
some very neat Terriers, such as they were in America at 
the time he figured on our benches. Mr. Gushing, of Bos- 
ton, has, however, to-day a very useful dog by Buff, out of 
Jeopardy. If anyone desires the old dog's blood, I dare 
say his services might be obtained. 

True, Buff enters into the Clark strain, through Rollick, 
but it only appears as a small and useful ingredient. 
Where, however, we to-day see this blood jump suddenly 
to the front, is through Mr. Yicary's kennels. Its cross 
with the Foilers, through Splinter, in his hands, has 
given us Yesuvienne and Yenio. The extent to which 
the latter is being used at stud and I hear with success 
and the fact that I have four young sons of his out of 
Rachel coming on who are likely, bar accidents, to dis- 
seminate the blood in this country, makes the study of 
this fortunate combination interesting. The simplest way 



386 THE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

is to give an extended pedigree of the cross, and by it 
will be seen how, throngh Foiler, on the sire, Yesuvian's 
side (a litter brother of Lucifer's), the blood of Rollick 
predominates. Buff, on the dam, Yenilia's side, appears 
through an inbred cross. 

To conclude the subject of the different strains of blood 
among Fox Terriers, I have selected the Clark, or Brocken- 
hurst Rally strain, because it is the most distinct in type, 
because it has, in a given period, produced more high- class 
bench-winners than any other, and because it furnishes the 
best example of a most carefully worked out instance of 
successful inbreeding known to Fox Terrier history. 

The Messrs. Clark, two brothers living in Nottingham, 
founded the family with practically three Terriers one dog 
and two bitches. The dog was Brockenhurst Rally, an 
excellent son of Brockenhurst Joe and Moss II., a grand- 
daughter of Old White Tyrant. The bitches were Jess, a 
daughter of Hazlehurst's Grip, he a son of Turk, out of 
Patch, a granddaughter of Old Trap, and Rollick, a 
daughter of Buff and Nectar II., by Old Foiler. Brocken- 
hurst Rally was bred to both Jess and Rollick. The off- 
spring of these two unions were bred together for several 
generations, and this crossing and recrossing into precisely 
the same blood is what produced Result and all the Ter- 
riers so closely related to him, including Roysterer, Regent, 
Reckoner, Rachel, Radiance, Reckon, Rational, Raffle, 
etc., which for the past six years have held almost un- 
disputed sway on the English benches. It was but last 
year that they finally succumbed to Mr. Yicary's kennels, 
although Russley Toff, the best puppy of this year, and 
purchased by Mr. F. Redmond from his breeder, Mr. F. 
W. F. Toomer, of Swindon, for 200 guineas, is essentially 
of the Brockenhurst Rally family. 

Now and then an outcross was made, such as that to 
Hysop, the best-fronted son of Spice, from which came 
Heatherbell and Harmony, respectively the dams of Rachel 
and Raffle; and to New Forest, the son of Splinter and Olive 
II., from which cross First Flight was the fruit. Reckoner 



THE SMOOTH-COATED FOX TERRIER. 



387 





s| 


(O'Grady's) 
"Willie. 


("Old Foiler" by "Old Grip." 
( "Young Belvoir Venom" by "Belvoir Joe." 


1 


B* s 


"Needle" 


("Belvoir Jock" by "Belvoir Joe." 
' 1 (O'Grady's) "Nellie" by "White Sam." 


. 


5 


g= 


"Belgrave Joe" 


( "Belvoir Joe'^ by (Cooper's) "Trimmer." 


pj 

w 

H 
Jz; 




: ~ 


'Lady II." 


j "Pickle II." by "Tyrant IV." 




( ' Lady" by (Foreman's) "Tartar." 




a 


Q 


1 


'Tweezers" 


j "Tyrant IV." by "Rambler." 
< "Olive" by "Belgrave Joe." 






> I S^ 1 "Baby" 


( "Old Foiler" by "Old Grip." 
'( "Myrtle" by "White Sam.' r 


- 


1 


gs 


"Pickle II." 


( "Tyrant IV." by "R mbler." 
{ "Olive" by "Belgrave Joe." 


SIRE~ 


5 


? 


"Gaudy" 


( (Slade's) "Willie" by "White Sam." 
1 "Giddy'* by "Old Grip." 




p 


W 


g<i 


"Belvoir Joe"... 


j (Cooper's) "Trimmer." 
(His "Tjinket." 




* 


W 


?gs 


"Old White Vic 


'] 






ai 


i 


o 


i 


"Honest Joe"... 


( (O'Grady's) "Willie" by "Old Foiler " 
\ "Needle" by "Belvoir Jack." 









fi 


Q55 


"Needle" 


j "Brockenhurst Joe'' bv "Belgrave Joe." 
( (Branston's) "Nettle" 'by "Belvoir Joe." 


O 



W 


1 


' 3- 


"Tyrant IV." ... 


( "Rambler" by "Artful." 
( (Branston's) 'Nettle" by "Belvoir Joe." 


1 




- 


E 


"Olive" 


( "Belgrave Joe" by "Belvoir Joe." 
( "Tricksey" by "Chance." 


K* 


fc 1 K . f 




P 


fc "Old Foiler" . 
3 1 


( 'Old Grip" by "Grove Willie." 
( "Judy," Rev'd Jack Russell's strain. 


<J 


3 Q "Old Diamond" . 


( "Young Trap" by "Old Trap." 
i'-Tricksey" by "Tartar." 


w " 




1 


"Bullet" 


( "Buffer" by "Bounce." 
} "Frolic" by "Old Foiler." 


K 

> 


H 
E-i 


? 


"Swan" 


( "Dazzler" by "Grasper." 
("Grace" by "Tyke 11." 


i 

H 
* 




Q 


cc 


i 
"Bolus" 


( "Bitters" by "Old Tyrant." 
i "Lucy." 




C_ 


: w 




("Valiant." 




g 


1 - 


"Testy" 


("Tease." 






>" 


g 


' "o 


"Pickle 11." 


i "Tyrant IV." by "Rambler." 
( "Olive" by "Belgrave Joe." 








n 


O 


"Vashti" 


( "Buffet" by "Buffer." 

V'Nell" by "Sam" by (Mason's) "Jock." 






b " 
H 


H 


"Artful Joe" 


i "Brockenhurst Joe" by "Belgrave Joe." 
("Dainty" by "Old Toiler" ex "Dainty," by "Buffer." 




3 




1 
H 


"Busy" 


( "Bitters" by "Tyrant." 




( "Damsel" by "Buffer." 


DAM. 

| 




& 


"Buffet" 


( "Buffer" by "Bounce." 
} "Frolic" by "Foiler." 




1 


5 


"Swan" 


( "Dazzler" by "Grasper." 
( "Grace" by "Tyke II." 




fo 
JP 


g 


"Bolus" 


I "Bitters" by "Tyrant." 
\ "Lucy." 






S "Testy" 


( "Valiant." 
I'-Tease." 


< 


s 


gl. 


"Belgrave Joe".. 


( "Belvoir Joe" by (Cooper's) "Trimmer." 
1 "Old White Vic.'' 


^ II 


sis' 


"Tricksey" 


("Chance" by "Old Tyrant." 
\ "Ruby" by "Old Jock" 


\M 


- w 






HI 

H 


^ J f 


"Bitters" 


("Tyrant" by "Old Trap." 
( 9 




' 


p 


"Damsel"' 


( "Buffer." 
"( ''Diamond." 



388 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

also is credited with one outcross, in his grandam, Nell, a 
bitch of Foiler and Buff blood. In the main, however, the 
Clark Terriers trace to Brockenhurst Rally and the two 
bitches Jess and Rollick. 

It is undoubtedly Brockenhurst Rally' s Belvoir blood, as 
well as the care and intelligence of Messrs. Clark's hand- 
ling, which has permitted the inbreeding of these Terriers 
to be so remarkably successful. 

The striking features of the Clark Terriers are a tend- 
ency to uniformity in markings, all black, or black with 
very little dark tan markings on the head, predominating; 
white bodies, of course, or white bodies with black patches 
accompanying; a high average of well-carried and excep- 
tionally small ears; a smooth outline, their muscles being 
beautifully distributed and showing no "bossiness;" excel- 
lent coats, legs, and feet; grand ribs and loins; and they 
are, from my own experience, very game and good workers. 
Their peculiarities naturally appear persistently, and are 
domed skulls, shoulders not oblique enough, and con- 
sequently a tendency to stand out at the elbows, thereby 
sometimes in the judging ring throwing away well-deserved 
prizes before a judge fastidious on the question of narrow 
and straight fronts. 

Returning to Russley Toff, a dog I have not seen, but 
which my kennel manager, Mr. German Hopkins, saw 
when abroad last spriftg, and has carefully described to me, 
I should judge to be a dog with all the best features of 
the Clark Terriers, and with neither of their prominent 
faults, viz., domed skull or indifferent shoulders. Toff is a 
beautifully fronted dog; in fact, that would have to be the 
case for Mr. Redmond to own him, he being uncompromis- 
ingly wedded to that most important of all points in a Fox 
Terrier. 

Toff's outcross is, however, right back into the blood the 
Messrs. Clark drew from. He is by Stipendiary, a son of 
Rachel's son Reckon, out of Shindy, a granddaughter on 
both sides of Belgrave Joe. His dam is by Regent, out of 
Rutty. Rutty is by Brockenhnrst Joe, Rally' s sire, out of a 



THE SMOOTH-COATED FOX TERRIER. 389 

granddaughter of Champion Olive, the sister of Brocken- 
hurst Joe. It will thus be seen that there is still reason to 
expect this great strain to hold its own in the front rank, 
although, as it is the world over, the latest champion is 
always the most popular. 

American breeders, while not having as yet produced a 
Result or Vesuvienne, have really a most excellent collec- 
tion of Terriers to breed from, including practically every 
strain of consequence. 

The blood of Jock, Trap, and Tartar first came to us 
through the importation by Mr. Newbold Morris of a very 
fair Terrier, called Gamester, in 1877. He produced quite 
a number of nice puppies at the time, but his blood has 

now quite disappeared 
from our benches. Noth- 
ing very serious was done 
in getting out high-class 
Terriers until the Messrs. 
Lawrence, of Groton, 
Mass., and Messrs. Ruth- 
erf urd, of Allemuchy, 
Warren County, N. J., 
began exhibiting, about the year 1882. 

Mr. Lawrence bought Old Buff and Brockenhurst Joe, and 
some nice bitches, including Jeopardy and Deacon Rosey, 
from Mr. J. C. Tinne. For three or four years these Ter- 
riers and their offspring adorned our benches, but, unfortu- 
nately, Mr. Lawrence's kennels being far away from the 
principal breeders of the time, the old dogs received com- 
paratively few outside bitches. When they died, four years 
ago, Mr. Lawrence, to the great regret of our fanciers, gave 
up active breeding. 

Messrs. Rutherfurd made some very useful importa- 
tions, beginning in 1881, including Old Bowstring, by Turk, 
Swansdown, by Saracen, Old Champion Royal, and a num- 
ber of crosses of Buff, among them Nailer, by Buff, im- 
ported in utero, and later Old Viola, the grandam of their 
famous bitch Diana. The blood of their earlier importa- 




390 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

tions has given way to the modern strains, with which they 
have liberally sprinkled their kennels, Diana, Splauger, 
Raffle and Cornwall Duchess being the most prominent 
of their own, while they have availed themselves unstint- 
ingly of every stud dog accessible to them. 

In Swansdown, by Saracen, a strain came to us which I 
have not mentioned, and which possesses some local interest 
for us, viz., the Turk. This dog, at one time quite popular 
in England, a son of Old Grip, and with probably a predom- 
inance of Grove blood in him, got two sons, litter brothers, 
who were used considerably Moslem and Saracen. The 
strain was noted for gameness. Moslem produced a coarse 
branch, while Saracen's get showed quality. A son of 
Moslem, Moslem II., was brought to this country, and 
received much unmerited puffing He was a fair dog, of 
rather common mould. Fortunately for American breeders, 
his moderate career on our benches was short, and our 
breeders escaped his undesirable blood at stud. Swans- 
down, by Saracen, on the other hand, bred to Brockenhurst 
Joe, produced Warren Lady, the dam of General Grant, a 
very creditable Terrier in his early maturity. She was also 
the dam of a lovely bitch, Lady Warren Mixture, by Mix- 
ture, which Messrs. Rutherfurd lost through distemper. 
Barring a delicate constitution, she was quite the prettiest 
quality bitch bred on this side. Mr. James Mortimer, of the 
Westminster Kennel Club, Babylon, Long Island, one of our 
best judges and a very successful breeder, from Swansdown' s 
blood got his excellent puppy Suffolk Risk, by Raffle. 

Shortly after the importation of Brockenhurst Joe and 
Buff by Mr. Lawrence, Mr. John E. Thayer, of Lancaster, 
Mass., brought out the then famous Richmond Olive and 
Raby Tyrant, at the highest prices at that time paid by 
American breeders, founding with these two Terriers his 
celebrated Hillside Kennels of Fox Terriers. They can 
hardly be said to represent a strain they represent, rather, 
a combination of blood with which Mr. George Raper, a 
very clever breeder in England, had much success; but both 
Olive and Raby Tyrant seem to have failed to reproduce 



THE SMOOTH-COATED FOX TERRIER. 391 

themselves or any very remarkable Terriers on this side of 
the water. Mr. Thayer later added Mixture, Belgrave, 
Primrose, Reckoner, and Richmond Dazzle to his kennels, 
arid a large draft from Mr. Fred Hoey's kennels. With 
this additional blood, Mr. Thayer is bringing out very cred- 
itable youngsters. 

Mr. Fred Hoey, whose kennels are at Hollywood, Long 
Branch, N. J., one of our good judges and a keen and 
intelligent breeder, has been very successful with a smaller 
kennel than those above named. From Lurette, a sister 
of Spice and Olive II., the dam of New Forest, he bred 
a lovely bitch Mace II. to Brockenhurst Joe, which 
unfortunately died of distemper after the Boston show of 
1886. Most of his Terriers have come from Mr. Vicary's 
kennels, including his famous Valet, his sire, Venetian, and 
some recent importations of the strains closely related to 
Vesuvienne's blood. 

Mr. Edward Kelly, of New York, the founder of our 
Fox Terrier Club, and a liberal importer of many good Ter- 
riers of the Belvoir strains, has done much for our Ameri- 
can Fox Terrier family. Of recent years, he has not been 
as active, owing to business cares absorbing his leisure. 
The debt American breeders owe him must nevertheless not 
be forgotten. 

Mr. Clarence Rathbone, of Albany, must be counted as 
one of the faithful of the faithful. His Beverwyck Kennels, 
at Albany, N. Y., contain representatives of every known 
strain; and in the hands of so enthusiastic and tireless a 
breeder a vast amount of good work is being done, which 
should surely one of these days be crowned with the breed- 
ing of some clinkers. 

With my own, the Blemton Kennels, ends the list of our 
kennels of importance up to within two years. Since then, 
enthusiastic breeders have started kennels, of which much 
will be heard in the near future. 

Mr. R. S. Ryan, of Baltimore, has drawn both from our 
best home kennels and also somewhat from abroad, to 
found his Linden Kennels. 



392 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Messrs. Granger & VanderpoeP s Regent Kennels, in Bal- 
timore, also give great promise. Active and keen, their 
kennels are destined to be a creditable support to our lead- 
ing shows. 

A strong and enthusiastic combination has been formed 
by two young breeders of means, Mr. Moses Taylor and Mr. 
James T. Burden, Jr., of New York. Their kennels are 
known as the Wood Dale Kennels, at Wood Dale, near Troy, 
on the Hudson. They spare neither time nor expense, and 
will soon appear on our benches with good strings to com- 
pete with the old kennels, who must now look to their 
laurels, for all these newly organized kennels are on the 
right track as far as the blood they possess is concerned. 

Mr. John A. Logan, Jr. , 
of Youngstown, Ohio, is 
another of our very best 
new breeders. With his 
already wdde experience 
with dogs and horses, be- 
ing an excellent sportsman, 
and fond of the best of 
everything in quadrupeds, 
his Oriole Kennels will certainly become familiar to every 
Fox Terrier lover in the country. 

A very important importation has been made this year by 
Mr. H. E,. Astor Carey, of New York, a new acquisition 
to the fancy. He brought out First Flight, New Forest' s 
best son, a dog combining the Splinter and Spice cross 
with the Clark strain ; also a full sister of Champion Rachel, 
and one or two other excellent brood bitches. Mr. Carey's 
kennels can not fail to meet with success with such blood 
to begin with. 

On the Pacific Coast, the fancy is well represented by 
such breeders as Mr. J. B. Martin, San Francisco, Cal. ; 
Mr. C. A. Sumner, Los Angeles, Cal. ; while throughout 
the country are scattered lovers of the breed, a list of some 
of which I subjoin, and all of which are doing their good 
work: Mr. W. T. McAlees, Philadelphia, Penn. ; Mr. John 




THE SMOOTH-COATED FOX TERRIER. 393 

Wren, Springfield, Ohio; Mr. Lloyd Banks, New York 
City; Mr. W. H. Joeckel, Jr., New York City; Mr. Louis 
A. Biddle, Philadelphia, Penn. ; Mr. Gr. S. Kissel, Morris- 
town, N. J. ; Mr. Warham Whitney, Rochester^ N. Y.; 
Carl Heimerle, Bay Ridge, Long Island, N. Y. 

Our Canadian cousins have for years had an excellent 
list of active and intelligent fanciers, and in their kennels 
can be found the blood of their own valuable importations 
of prominent strains from England and from our best ken- 
nels in the United States. Such well-known breeders and 
exhibitors as Mr. Richard Gibson, of Delaware, Ontario; 
Messrs. Wheeler & Davy, of London, Ontario; Mr. D. S. 
Booth, of Brockville, Ontario, and Mr. J. K. McDonald, of 
Toronto, need no praise from me. 

It has frequently been claimed that show Terriers are 
wanting in courage as compared with Terriers of former 
days. This is a common cant among sportsmen not inter- 
ested in bench shows. It is true that a Terrier not trained 
for his work will frequently disappoint an owner, just as a 
Setter or Pointer of the very best strain would disappoint 
a sportsman in the field if its natural instincts had not been 
cultivated by training. 

In proof of the claim that there has been no deteriora- 
tion in Fox Terriers if properly bred, I received permission of 
Mr. Royal P. Carroll, of New York one of our well-known 
sportsmen, who has just returned from the West to relate 
a little incident told him by Mr. Beck, son of Senator Beck, 
of Kentucky, showing what Fox Terriers are capable of if 
put to the test. Mr. Beck, who has a ranch near Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, some years ago purchased some of. the Blemton, 
Kennels Terriers, from which he has since bred quite a 
pack. Mr. Beck was out with his Terriers one day, and 
ran across a good-sized cinnamon bear, which the Terriers 
promptly attacked. Of course it was out of the question 
that they should come out better than "second best." 
They made a very creditable fight, however, and were 
treated to a violent repulse, which they succumbed to as 
reluctantly as the most exacting critic could wish. 



THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER. 



BY \V r . H. RUSSELL. 




>HIS dog first emerged from prehistoric obscurity in 
the County of Northumberland, in the extreme north 
of England. A distinct breed of Terrier, native 
and peculiar to this district, he was known and appreciated 
there long before the era of dog shows; and since he has 
become more widely known and carefully bred, he has, with 
all his improvements, retained the typical characteristics 
which we find noted in the earliest descriptions of the best 
specimens, and which mark him oif from all other breeds 
of Terriers. 

The earliest records and traditions we have treat -of him 
as the associate of gypsies, rat-catchers, traveling tinkers, 
and such people, to whom he was a friend and guard, or an 
ally and companion. in sport. However humble his patrons 
at that time may have been, they were of a class who, thor- 
oughly understood Terrier sport hunting with these dogs 
every animal in the country that wore fur. 

Mr. W. E. Alcock, the present able secretary of the Bed- 
lington Terrier Club, in an article on this breed, states that a 
famous Northumbrian piper, James Allan by name, who 
was born about 1720. in a gypsy camp in Rothbury Forest, 
near the center of the county, has left testimony, which has 
been published in his biography, to the effect that his 
father and himself kept rough Terriers. The father, 
William Allan, was much famed for his skill as an otter- 
hunter, and was much in request among the gentry as a 
man who could always show them good sport. 

The dogs that Allan use^d were called Rodberry (Roth- 
bury) Terriers, and were the ancestors of the present-day 

(395) 



396 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Bedlingtons. Some old fanciers claim that Rothbury is 
tlie proper name and that it ought to have been retained. 

Two of the elder Allan's favorite dogs were Peachem 
and Pincher, names appearing among later dogs; and we 
find the name of Piper, derived from Piper Allan, borne by 
the first Bedlington Terrier, so called. 

Pedigrees of known dogs of this breed are traced back 
to 1792 and 1782, but we have no good description of 
such dogs until those written in the early part of this 
century. 

We must remember that one hundred years ago Terriers 
were known only as either rough or smooth; and, generally 
speaking, we may say that the rough sorts were found where 
the climate and work were the most trying. They there- 
fore come rightly by a reputation for being a tough, plucky, 
hard-bitten race, their hard, weather-resisting coats en- 
abling them to withstand the greatest amount of wear and 
tear, whether on land or in water. 

Although we do not know so much as we would like to 
know about these early Rodberry Terriers, we do know the 
strain and its geographical situation. We know the char- 
acter and physique of the Northumbrian man. He is stal- 
wart and robust, seldom corpulent; is clean, thrifty and 
plodding, honest and sincere, shrewd and independent.* 
We naturally find similar characteristics in his dogs, and 
we may depend upon his appreciation of such animals from 
the fact that the first of all dog shows was held in the 
Northumbrian city of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. This was in 
1859. Subsequently, more important shows were held in the 
larger centers of Great Britain; but anyone looking about 
Newcastle and its neighborhood can not fail to notice the 
keen interest taken in sport on every hand. 

In 1825 one Thomas Ainsley, a mason, who had bred a 
remarkably good Terrier called Young Piper, and from 
whom many of the best dogs are descended, first gave the 
breed its present name, after a town some thirteen miles 

* Encyclopedia Britannica, ninth edition, Northumberland. 



THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER. 397 

north of Newcastle. Its present population is about 14,000, 
mostly outlying from the original village, which seems to 
retain its old-time simplicity. 

We have brief descriptions, given in several articles on 
this Terrier, of the parents of Young Piper. The sire, 
Anderson's Piper, was a slender-built dog, fifteen inches 
high, and weighing only fifteen pounds; he was liver-col- 
ored, the hair being of a hard, linty texture; ears large, 
hanging close to the cheek, and slightly feathered at the 
tips. The dam, which was brought from the town of Bed- 
lington, in 1820, was black, with brindled legs, and with a 
tuft of light-colored hair on the top of her head; she was 
thirteen inches high, and weighed fourteen pounds. Thus 
we can see that seventy years ago, at least, some of the im- 
portant characteristics of the modern Bedlingtons were met 
with in their progenitors. 

To be a little fanciful, we may imagine that this breed 
evolved itself, or was developed, in adaptation to its circum- 
stances. The coat is less long and heavy than those of the 
rough Terriers farther north, and the build is lighter, with 
more pace for, perhaps, mountainous regions, and longer 
bursts of speed; in fact, we find the miners of the great 
coal-beds in this district using these Terriers to run rabbits, 
and seeking pace, and therefore long legs, in their dogs. 
When the Bedlingtons were first brought before the public, 
they were, in the most part, in the hands of these same 
miners. The demand for speed in coursing had caused the 
Bedlingtons to be given up, in a measure, for the Whippet 
and Greyhound; but he will always be remembered as 
having been the companion and pride . and joy of the 
"Geordie." 

However, our subject has other fanciers as well who are 
more able and ready to show and carefully breed their dogs. 
Ten years ago, to be sure, the Bedlingtons had been seen 
and heard of out of their home county, but were not much 
bred elsewhere. Now there are kennels of them all over 
England, from Devonshire far north into Scotland. The 
Bedlington Terrier Club has a good list of members well 



THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER. 399 

distributed over Great Britain, and with two members on 
this continent. 

The English Kennel Club Stud Book records prizes given 
to Bedlingtons at Manchester, in 1869, and prize-winners 
are named at the succeeding large shows. 

On January 1, 1890, a dog show was held at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, in the same building as the first of all dog 
shows, in 1859. The number of Bedlington entries was 
eighty -three the largest known. 

What crosses helped to produce the Bedlington as we 
now have him, whether the Otter Hound contributed his 
pendent ears and peaked skull, and the Greyhound his ele- 
gant shape, is not known. Exactly when and how the pres- 
ent type became inherent in the breed we can only surmise. 
The underlying quality of the dog, which has in nowise 
been affected by any possible crossing in the remote past, 
is Terrier. Everything that can be said in favor of the 
aboriginal rough Terrier, from which he is descended, may 
be said of the Bedlington. The two names Ainsley and 
Pickett mark eras, overlapping each other, in the history of 
our subject. There were known previous to 1825, and sub- 
sequently, many other fanciers, only less prominent as 
such. 

Following are the points of the Bedlington Terrier as 
defined and adopted by the Bedlington Terrier Club: 

Skull. Narrow, but deep and rounded; high at occiput, 
and covered with a nice silky tuft or top-knot. 

Jaw. Long, tapering, sharp, and muscular; as little 
stop as possible between the eyes, so as to form nearly a 
line from the nose-end along the joint of the skull to the 
occiput. The lips close-fitting, and no flew. 

Eyes. Should be small and well sunk in head. The 
blues should have a dark eye. The blue and tan ditto, with 
amber shade. Livers, sandies, etc. , a light-brown eye. 

Nose. Large, well-angled. Blues and blue and tans 
should have black noses; livers and sandies have flesh-col- 
ored. 

Teeth. Level, or pincer- jawed. 



400 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Ears. Moderately large, well forward, flat to the cheek, 
thinly covered, and tipped with fine, silky hair. They 
should be filbert- shaped. 

Legs. Of moderate length, not wide apart, straight and 
square set, and with good- sized feet, which are rather long. 

Tail. Thick at root, tapering to point, slightly feath- 
ered on lower side, nine inches to eleven inches long, and 
scimiter-shaped. 

Neck and shoulders. Neck long, deep at base, rising 
well from shoulders, which should be flat. 

Body. Long and well-proportioned, flat -ribbed, and 
deep, not wide in chest; slightly arched back, well ribbed 
up, with light quarters. 

Coat. Hard, with close bottom, and not lying flat to 
sides. 

Color. Dark blue, blue and tan, liver, liver and tan, 
sandy, sandy and tan. 

Height. About fifteen to sixteen inches. 

Weight. Dogs, about twenty-four pounds; bitches, 
about twenty-two pounds. 

General appearance. He is a light made-up, lathy dog, 
but not shelly. 

Pickett preferred the silky top-knot to be darker than 
the rest of the coat, but later fanciers prefer the reverse. 
The muzzle should be rather narrow, but very deep. There 
should be no cheekiness, but the strong jaw muscles should 
be there all the same. The ears should hang low, leaving a 
clear outline of the head. The position and size of the 
eyes minimize the chance of damage to those organs. 
When not trimmed for a show, there is no deficiency on the 
neck of the protected hair needed by a real working Ter- 
rier. Of the various genuine Bedlington colors, the blue- 
black has been of late years preferred, the liver-colored dogs 
being but rarely seen at the shows, and the other colors 
hardly at all; but there is at present a movement in Eng- 
land to bring in the livers again, and they, in fact, were in 
the old days of the fancy the favorites. 

Beauty is not usually claimed for Bedlingtons, but if we 



THE BEDLINGTON TEKRIEE. 401 

know how to look for it, I think we may see it on them; 
for if there is beauty in a Scotch Deerhound, why not in 
what is nearly like it, in miniature ? The obstacle to beauty, 
I should say, is the coat. This has been greatly improved 
of late, and now it ought not to be either woolly or long. 
Although hard, the hairs should not be straight, but should 
stand almost on end, each one separate and distinct, with a 
twist of its own, as if inclined to curl. Scattered over the 
body are hairs harder than the rest of the coat, which, as a 
whole, should be crisp to the touch and neither hard nor 
silky. The coat should be about one and one-fourth inches 
long, although it is frequently seen as long as two inches, 
which, however, is too long, as it the more readily carries 
dirt, and also conceals the animal's elegant contour. To 
avoid the latter, the old and long hairs are often removed 
for show purposes by hard combing, and even plucking. 
How far this is justified will be discussed below. 

This coat, from one and one-fourth to one and three- 
fourths inches long, c ' hard, with close bottom, and not lying 
flat to sides," is certainly an outdoor rural workman's 
jacket. Flat coats, over two inches long, on other breeds 
may be made ornamental; but the ideal coat of the Bedling- 
ton is, to my mind, faultless, all things considered. Hard, 
it resists wet, and yet is so short that, coming from the 
water, shaking himself, and rolling on the bank, the dog is 
quickly dry. 

My own dogs, with the run of a farm and neighboring 
stream, never need washing, and never have to be forbidden 
any part of the house because of the coat carrying dirt. 
The feet of any dog on a muddy day will mark a white bed- 
spread, and the tidy American housewife, if there are any 
dogs about, usually shuts the door to the best parlor. 

Good specimens of this breed (I speak from personal 
experience) resemble one another even more mentally than 
they do physically. There is always the same alert interest 
in outdoor matters, with the ever-present penchant for 
hunting and excavating. These energies can, of course, be 
misdirected, 2 and one's chickens or cats may become the 



402 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

unwilling objects of the dog's pursuit; and, if not watchful, 
one may even find the house-walls undermined. Young 
dogs may, however, be easily taught to conduct themselves 
so as to meet with general approbation, even respecting 
their owner's flower-beds. 

These dogs are happiest when taken for an outing with 
their master, searching about at a gallop for anything that 
runs wild. I have seen a Bedlington stop a large snake 
and prevent its escape until, having had his attention 
attracted, the owner came up and relieved the dog of further 
responsibility. 

They readily learn to take to water with delight, and 
do not heed cold or heat or length of road. In repose and 
in-doors they usually seem dull, not being carpet knights 
naturally; and their coats may seem awry, not being shaken 
out as when at liberty. Seen in the snow, of which they 
are very fond, the coat often looks like a beautiful suit of 
velvet. 

They have, in good specimens, something of the appear- 
ance of a thorough-bred race-horse, and when animated 
show a fiery energy that illumines them. It is this over- 
flowing vitality and sporting instinct in the field that has 
such a charm for a man who loves what is all about him in 
nature as she is found in field, wood, and stream, and who 
appreciates a sympathetic canine friend. If the Bedlington 
is ugly, at least he is not so ugly that after his coat has 
been cared for it is considered, by his admirers, necessary 
for him to be mutilated before putting on the show bench. 
The following well- written article, taken from the English 
St. James Gazette, is interesting as being by an apparently 
unbiased witness, and as showing that some of the best 
blood has come to this country. The father alluded to is 
Sentinel, one of the best-headed dogs of his kind. He is 
described by that unerring judge of the breed, Mr. Charles 
H. Mason, in his "Our Prize Dogs," volume 1. Sentinel's 
pluck is testified to in the quotation : 

Two tall and burly men were shown into my study some time ago. Their 
names brought to me memories of wild moorland, of rough sport over bleak 



THE BEDLTNGTON TERRIER. 403 

salt-marshes; but I could not guess their errand. The taller of the pair placed 
a basket on my table, and said with gravity: 

" We wanted a trip to London, so we thought we'd fetch him with us. We 
never trust one of the breed to no railway man." 

I then knew that one of a precious strain of Terriers was to be mine, and I 
received the information with sober joy. Then spoke the broader of my 
visitors: 

"His father's gone to America. We thought you would like a puppy of the 
old dog's (he was as game as they make them), and we brought you the best 
for a little present." 

Here the tall man unrolled a sheet that seemed to be dotted with characters 
that took the shape of a big triangular blotch. 

" There's the pedigree, and nothing better in England." 

The pedigree was indeed imposing. I found myself the proud possessor of 
a "Blue Bedlington. Date of birth, July 18th; marks, none." In the blood of 
this aristocrat mingled strains of Old Topsey, Heron's Bess, Piper, Tip, Shields' 
Meg, and the records of these and other breedings wound from the base of the 
triangle to the apex, where was written the name of that heir of the ages who 
was in the basket. As the big man reverently laid his hands on the lid, he 
looked like a bishop about to perform a confirmation ceremony. And then 
the prize came to view. I am bound to say that a more sorry object never went 
on four legs. He staggered absurdly, and hung his head as if he were under a 
sense of crime. His coat, so far from showing a shade of azure, was a mere 
rugged pelt of dark slate-color, and a comic mustache of stiff bristles gave 
him somewhat of the appearance of a barbel. The two giants gazed on the 
creature, and their look was one of pure rapture. Over two hundred miles the 
brute had been conveyed, and I knew that no higher honor could be offered 
me by my good friends; so I resolved to bestow the utmost care on the scion of 
Topsey. He looked up at me for a moment, and then came to fawn on me 
in a reserved sort of way; then I saw the gleam of his deep set, fiery eye, and 
somehow the impression given by the whole carcass changed. The ladies of 
the house came to see my new friend, and their marked restraint increased my 
misgivings. The poor blue dog crept after them, one after the other, and 
seemed to crave forgiveness for his own ill-favored guise ; but the feminine 
mind did not relent, and polite words of commendation were uttered, I fear, 
as a matter of form. 

Then a rollicking Bull Terrier puppy entered and proceeded to play. He 
rolled the blue over, and enjoyed the fun very much until he took the liberty 
of bestowing a nip. In an instant the ragged youngster was transformed. 
Without making a sound, he fixed his grip and held on. The white puppy 
showed all the gallantry of his race, but he was soon in sore straits, and the tall 
man said: 

"Just like the old dog. They're all the same. Better part them." The 
warriors were lifted up and separated. 

My vanity was sorely tried during my first public appearance with the 
blue puppy. But the ugliness wore off week by week. His limbs grew wiry 
and strong. His tail became so muscular that a tap from it was like the blow 



404 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



of a riding-whip, and his head acquired a strange attractiveness. His early 
youth went pleasantly by, and, as his character developed, I found he was 
quiet and teachable, like all of his breed. His gravity deepened as his beaut}* 
became apparent, and even in his gallop over the fields he pounded along as if 
he were merely running for the good of his constitution and not out of light - 
heartedness. It is odd to see the dog's pride in his feats with vermin; and I 
fear that when we go into the country, with its swarms of rats, his vanity will 
become excessive. 

There is a consensus among writers on the Bedlington 
that he is of the highest courage, and instances are adduced 
to show his desperate gameness. It was said when he first 




BEDLINGTON TERRIER-SYRUP H. 
Owned by W. H. Russell, 55 East Sixty-eighth street, New York City. 

became generally known that he was quarrelsome. This 
has been repeatedly contradicted in print by good authori- 
ties. The idea may have arisen from the fact that he was 
kept by a certain class of men as a fighting dog, and 
because of his undoubted pluck. However, when not 
trained by this species of cannibalism, he has been found 
peaceable when abroad. He has spirit and energy, which 
are most desirable, but they must be properly educated and 
directed. A brave man may be either a hero or a desper- 
ado. Being a dog capable of the strongest attachment to 



THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER. 405 

his master, lie is likely to be blindly jealous, and will "bear 
no rival near the throne." At home he will usually not 
tolerate the intrusion of strange dogs. . This can hardly be 
called a peculiarity of the Bedlington, dogs not being 
inclined, as a rule, to show hospitality to visitors of their 
own species. 

Sometimes in America the proud possessor of a well-bred 
Bedlington may be asked by some earnest inquirer, or per- 
haps curious and utilitarian scoffer, "What is he good 
for?" To a true dog-lover his four-footed friend is some- 
thing like a child in his affections, whether his usefulness 
is great or not; but the Bedlington can be a necessary part 
of an establishment. 

In the first place, he is eminently a man's dog; and 
although when kept in the house from youth as a pet he 
loses his fire and restlessness, if he has had a chance to 
learn the taste of sport, he will always be begging his mas- 
ter for a run. He is able to discharge the duties of a larger 
dog about a country place, except in such instances as 
require bulk. If his size will not permit him to seize and 
hold an intruder, he can at least give the alarm, which 
enables his master to look into the matter for himself, and 
either supplement or restrain his guard, as he may see fit. 
He has pace enough to keep up with the ordinary speed of a 
horse, and is small enough to be taken into a vehicle, and 
even given a place on the seat if desired. 

No rodent, Mephitis Americana, mink, raccoon, or fox 
finds the neighborhood of his home a pleasant visiting- 
place. He searches diligently above and below ground 
for these pests, and when he finds them shows no quar- 
ter. This usefulness in the writer's experience, living on a 
forest farm, by an Adirondack trout-stream. This Terrier 
will also act as an ordinary farm-dog, helping with the cat- 
tle. I do not hear of Terriers being used in shooting in 
this country, but Bedlingtons are seen advertised in English 
papers as " broken to the gun." 

Anyone breeding these dogs should of course be careful 
to have the parents of pure blood. Such are not difficult 



406 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

to procure now in America, and fair specimens may be 
obtained at modest prices. Selection in mating should be 
on the general principle of a sum of excellences in the two 
parents a defect in one counterbalanced by a correspond- 
ing excellence in the other; that is, two animals, both of 
which are bad in head, or body, or legs, or coat, should not 
be bred together. The tendency in such a case is to an 
exaggeration of the fault, whereby symmetry is destroyed 
and failure becomes sure. The more good qualities each 
parent possesses the better, and the descent being from 
equally good ancestors, the greater the chance of successful 
results. This principle being so well known, it will be nec- 
essary to speak of but one point more which is especially to 
be noticed about this breed. The coat should be bred hard. 
It may be fine, but not soft or silky, except the top-knot 
and ear-fringes. Neither should it be coarse or stiff, which 
indicates other than pure Bedlington breeding. When 
there is too great a tendency to softness of coat, a "liver " 
cross is recommended, and this is one reason why that col- 
ored dog should not be neglected. 

The first Bedlington I ever owned was bought by me in 
London, of a man who kept this breed for hunting rabbits, 
and who cared only for working qualities, making no note 
of colors or pedigrees. One day he appeared at my lodg- 
ings on his bicycle, followed by three of these Terriers, one 
of which he had caused to be sent from Yorkshire for me. 
The dog had been taken care of by a gamekeeper, and when 
I took him to Regent's Park he ran to right and to left 
ahead of me, and frequently looking back, would be guided 
by the direction in which I waved my hand. When so 
commanded he came in to heel, which showed me that he 
could have been useful with a gun. He afterward, in New 
York, learned to retrieve; knd if a lady dropped her hand- 
kerchief, would, at a sign from me, pick it up and offer it to 
her. Once I remember a little girl was so surprised by this 
apparent attention on his part that she said "Thank you, 
sir," which made the dog appear very human. 

However, dogs that are sharp at vermin generally do not 



THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER. 407 

retrieve well, and need careful treatment to be taught. They 
will pick up an article, but nip and drop it, and look for 
something else. All Terriers should be trained to run 
ahead and hunt and to come in to heel when required. If 
they do not know at least this much, they are likely to be a 
nuisance. By not punishing a dog when he comes to you, 
he will learn at a cross word to come in to heel, where he 
can be well controlled and directed. When it is necessary 
to correct a small dog, run at him suddenly and fiercely; 
he will usually lie down; then stand over him and scold, 
but not loudly, perhaps pretending to beat him with a 
switch. He will then, if he understands, be glad to do as 
you wish him to do. 

Never give a command you can not enforce. Firmness 
and consistency will train a dog better than to impress him 
by cruelty, besides developing his intelligence and affec- 
tion. This is merely the common-sense of dog-training 
which has been ably set forth by well-known writers. 

These dogs are most hardy. They may be kept where 
any live-stock is kept, provided they have a dry bed, as in 
a barn in winter or out of doors in summer; in fact, they 
are better if not coddled. They should not be fed much 
meat unless they have a great deal of exercise. They are 
usually spare eaters, and ought never to look fat. If a dog 
is active and his nose is moist and cold, he is doing well. 
They will be better if allowed great freedom; much chain- 
ing is of course bad. Males, if kept shut up together, are 
prone to quarrel. 

As a rule, Bedlingtons will have few diseases if given 
plenty of air and exercise, with a sufficiency of good food 
and clean water. It is only when kept confined in num- 
bers that they "fall into the hands of the physicians." 
They may then be treated according to the rules for dogs of 
their size. 

To show a Bedlington to advantage some care is neces- 
sary, for he does not display in the ring such animation 
as he does out of doors at liberty. Therefore he should be 
accustomed to the chain and to pleasant associations with 



408 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

it. If made a preliminary to an outing in the fields, he-will 
learn not to consider it an unpleasant bondage, and will not 
droop as if the chain were used merely for purposes of 
confinement and punishment. After the first requisites, 
health and well -developed and hard muscles, comes the 
coat. The attention which it is customary to give to this 
before showing is one detriment to the dog's popularity. 




. .^^:-.^,^,.^..^.,^^^.: 

BEDLINGTON TERRIER PUPPIES. 

By Tick Tack, out of Polly Markworth Bred and owned by W. H. Russell, -55 East 
Sixty-eighth street, New York City. 

There are times when the natural coat is such that the dog 
needs no trimming to look his best. At other times, as the 
old hairs do not drop simultaneously, and as some remain 
irregularly here and there over the dog, light in color and 
long, they should be removed to give him a neat look. 

This may be done without objection with a fine-tooth 
comb, but many people think it fair to remove some hair 
by plucking. If any mark of such treatment is shown on 



THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER. 409 

the skin, disqualification is liable to follow. Honorable 
handlers will not, of course, cut or alter the color or texture 
of so much as a single hair. Whatever there is on the dog 
must be perfectly natural. Some fanciers, on the other 
hand, consider the least plucking dishonest, and hold that, 
if extensively resorted to, it enables a dog with an excess- 
ively long coat to compete advantageously with a naturally 
good and short-coated dog. This is no doubt true, and pre- 
sents the problem commented on as follows in the English 
Stock-Keeper, October 18, 1889 : 

The disqualifications and severe penalties for trimming that have fallen 
upon certain kennels, again set us thinking of the necessity that exists for lay- 
iug down clearly the limits of legitimate hair-dressing in rough-coated Terriers. 
It is fair to remove old hairs, and nothing more, is the reply received when old 
exhibitors are asked for an opinion; but between you and me, and let us sub- 
stitute our conscience for the lamp-post, who is to decide upon the age of the 
hairs that abound in places which are, in the opinion of the judge, not eligible 
sites for ground game. Of course, gentle reader, the tiny voice of conscience 
will be heard in your sensitive ears, ringing like a town-crier's bell; and when 
it softly tinkles in the presence of the deaf, and somewhat deft as well, who 
will discern the moral slip of the finger and thumb? 

We are open to conviction in any direction, but our opinion just now is 
that the present vague condemnation of the art puts a premium on skilled bar- 
barity. Masters of the art will practice undetected, and parade the ring with 
pride, while the wretched, but no more guilty, initiate, with the clumsy marks 
on his breast, will walk round in the fear of the judge. 

In the present stage of the matter, we are inclined to describe the Kennel 
Club committee's penalties as being rather harsh; but we should be misunder- 
stood if this opinion were construed into an expression of sympathy with the 
professional trimmers. Our sympathy is with the honorable and eminent mem- 
bers of the kennel world who have boldly entered the lists to unseat the knaves 
of the tonsure; while our inexpressible contempt is reserved for the champions 
of trimming, and for those who sneered at the motives of the opponents of trim- 
ming. 

And also, January 3, 1890: 

One of the most trying questions during the year that has just begun 
will be the great trimming puzzle; for it is a puzzle to know how much the 
Kennel Club or the judges will stand. The Kennel Club ought to solve the 
puzzle, of course there is no doubt about that; but the committee fold their 
hands a- d shrug their shoulders, and say: Non possumm; we have tried. We 
did issue a circular asking exhibitors for information. The novices and the 
numskulls replied most copiously, and by return of post; but the rest, who, 
from having been more than five minutes in the fancy, knew something, 
proved very bad correspondents. The committee think they have done their 



410 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

best. They are unable to define trimming in Terriers sufficiently just and com- 
prehensive for the purposes of disqualification; so they say we will ask men to 
judge these hairy breeds who are acquainted with the peculiar customs of the 
fancy, and then we will ask them to tip us the wink if they see how it has been 
done. This is a very comfortable temporary arrangement. Some of the 
judges have taken to it most seriously, and we expect to give our readers 
accounts of several causes celebres of this description in 1890. 

The honesty of motive here shown is beyond cavil; still, 
as certain modifications of the natural animal are allowed 
in the case of some other breeds of dogs, there may be 
another point of view that is not dishonest, either. To win 
with Bedlingtons under the general run of judges, the coat 
must be made to look neat and not disguise the dog' s good 
points of shape. If any trace of his ' ' improvement ' ' is 
found, scrutineers, disregarding the customs of fanciers 
and judges of this breed, think they have grounds for dis- 
gracing both animal and owner, which does not encourage 
the taking up of this otherwise unexceptionable dog. If 
the judges would favor what have been called "honest- 
coated" dogs, and not be much influenced by the neatness 
that comes from excessively careful and skillful manipula- 
tion, it would tend to stimulate the breeding and showing 
of dogs with better natural coats. 

The latest dictum on this subject, by the English Bed- 
lington Terrier Club, is to this effect: 

At a meeting of the above club held in Newcastle, on January 7, 1880, it 
was voted, unanimously, "that trimming Bedlingt^n Terriers, that is, remov- 
ing superfluous hair, be allowable and acknowledged, as it is not done to 
deceive, but to smarten the dog and show his shape and general contour; and 
that the honorable secretary be instructed to send a copy of the minutes of the 
meeting to the Kennel Club committee, and request them to seriously consider 
the matter. 

By this energetic defense of trimming, the specialty club 
openly challenged the highest English tribunal, and the 
result is that we have the Kennel Club's definition of a 
limit to the practice; for at a meeting held February 4, 
1890, it was, after some discussion, voted, unanimously, 
"that the committee of the Kennel Club agree with the 
Bedlington Terrier Club that the removal of ' superfluous 
hair' is allowable, understanding by the words 'superflu- 



THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER. 411. 

ous hair ' the old or dead coat. Any removal of the new 
coat, or trimming of head or ears, they consider improper 
tampering." With this decision it is believed that Bed- 
lington men in general will be satisfied. 

But few Bedlingtons have been shown in the United 
States as yet, and they have been mostly imported speci- 
mens. If they were shown in larger numbers, so that the 
type could be more readily seen and appreciated, it would 
greatly help them in popularity. Now, in the poorly filled 
classes, they look like survivors of a nearly extinct race. 
They are not understood. However, there are opportuni- 
ties afforded each year of showing under excellent judges. 
New faces appear from time to time on the show benches, 
and testify to an appreciation among some few. If these 
dogs ever get a favorable start, I do not see why they may 
not become favorites in certain parts of the United States. 

They are especially adapted to our rigorous northern cli- 
mate. They care so little for the luxuries of life that they 
thrive where some other dogs would not. So far they have 
found the most favor in Canada. One of their best-known 
advocates in that country is Mr. W. S. Jackson, of Toronto; 
and the blue dogs may be proud of their friend, as people 
who have had the pleasure of meeting him will understand. 
There is good Bedlington blood in British America, as far 
west as Victoria, Vancouver's Island, and as far east as 
Halifax, Nova Scotia. In the United States, it is scattered 
about north of Mason and Dixon's line. 




THE IRISH TERRIER. 



BY DR. J. S. NIVEN. 




all things Hibernian, the history of this dog is 
rj somewhat mixed; in fact, very little is known about 
=|> it. From very old men with whom I talked twenty 
years ago, some of whom could recollect back sixty years 
or more, I have learned that Terriers of a red or badger 
color were numerous in the days of their boyhood, and 
were largely used for all kinds of field sports, both on land 
and water. From what I could learn, these dogs were at 
that time of a much larger type than those bred nowadays. 
It is only within the last lew years that any prominence 
has been given to the Irish Terrier by fanciers. Formerly 
they were kept for sport alone, and very little attention was 
paid to breeding for any special type, the object being sim- 
ply to get good hard workers which were able to endure a 
great amount of fatigue and exposure to severe weather. 
The principal uses to which these dogs were put in olden 
days were hunting the water-rat in the rivers, drawing 
badgers in the mountains, and killing rabbits as they were 
bolted by ferrets from the warrens. They were also used 
as watch-dogs about the cotter houses of Ireland. 

About fifteen years ago the breed had become very much 
degenerated by the admixture of Scotch Terriers, which 
were being largely imported into Ireland as ratters. The 
gentlemen who were chiefly interested in bringing this same 
breed of Terriers up again to an established type were 
Messrs. Mortin, Erwin, Ridgway, Montgomery, Jamison, 
Crosby, Smith, and Marks, and later, Messrs. Krehl, Des- 
pard, Graham, Pirn, Carey, Waterhouse, and others. In res- 
cuing the breed from utter destruction, these gentlemen used 
every means within their reach, and have been well rewarded; 

(413) 



414 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

yet their work has not been done without the national 
characteristic of contrariness being strongly exhibited. A 
most bitter and still undecided controversy has been the con- 
sequence. The principal cause of all the trouble has been 
the anomalous decisions of the judges at the various bench 
shows. 

The question of size has been the bitterest one between 
the different factions. There can be no doubt that many of 
the finest and purest specimens of the breed were of large 
size, weighing thirty to forty pounds, and even more; but 
the desire of the most genuine fanciers of this breed has 
been to reduce the weight to twenty -live pounds and under. 
Another vexed question is that of cropiDing, and this sub- 
ject had been coming up from time to time until in 1888, 
when the Irish Terrier Club passed a resolution emphatic- 
ally condemning the custom. Consequently, the croppers 
are in high dudgeon, and it will take years yet of careful 
breeding to get the ears of the Irish Terrier to conform to 
the uniform drop of those of its contemporary, the Fox 
Terrier. At present the anti-croppers have the best of the 
argument as far as usefulnesss and cruelty are concerned, 
but the advocates of cropping have some strong argu- 
ments on their side, also, as only a small percentage of Irish 
Terriers, as now bred, are born with perfect ears; and noth- 
ing is such an eye-sore to a Terrier man as a badly carried 
ear, which judicious cropping does away with in a great 
measure. 

The English Kennel Club has also taken this question 
up, and its latest decree is to the effect that all Irish 
Terriers born after December 31, 1889, must be shown 
uncropped at all shows held under their auspices. To show 
that there are still some of the large specimens, I copy the 
following from the "Whispers" of the Stock-Keeper, which 
may be attributed to the editor, Mr. Krehl: 

It is one of our pet theories* that the Irish Terrier, as he existed in the 
Emerald Isle before the cunning hand of the exhibitor had been run over him, 
was the descendant of the Irish Wolfhound. We still consider "a miniature 
Irish Wolfhound " a good description of what we should like the Irish Terrier 
to be. Look at the picture of that grand old bitch Spuds, in Stoneheng ; 



THE IRISH TERRIER. 



415 



there you have the Wolfhound head and outline. Spuds was a rare type; she 
had her faults, and we all knew them, but her memory is more pleasant to our 
mind than the sight of the modern prize-winners. To call the Irish Terriers of 
to-day miniature Wolfhounds wou'd be sarcastic; the majority of them are 
sour-faced, yellow-eyed, black-muzzled, chumpy-headed, and thickly built, and 
with bone enough for a Clydesdale horse in fact, these overbred creatures are 
utterly unlike anything else so ugly as themselves. Of course this is only our 
own simple and inexperienced opinion, which judges and connoisseurs of the 
breed are at liberty to dismiss with contempt. They may prefer the thick- 
legged clodhoppers; we still linger on the memory of the graceful and sym- 
metrical Terriers, rather light in build, and with only proportionate bone to 
carry their weight. 



mt f 



IRISH TERRIER NORAH. 
Owned by Dr. J. S. Niven, London, Canada. 

Spuds and her kind, though, were already cultivated descendants of the 
big rough and shaggy dogs that the peasants kept for work. These Irish Ter- 
riers were brimful of the splendid character that is attributed to the breed. 
,There was a world of love in their expressive brown eyes, their natures were 
gentle with children and women in fact, so timid even did they appear that 
strangers have been misled into thinking them without courage; but what a 
mistake ! The caress-inviting and quiet creature in a moment, if a blow were 
aimed at its master, was transformed into a fury. We could tell some won- 
derful tales of the tractability, and the prowess, too, of the old sort, but we fear 
to grow garrulous on a favorite and much-loved theme. 

Our thoughts were led back to "the old sort" by the sight of a dog that 



416 THE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Mr. Frank Aspinall, the brother of the Kennel Club secretary, lately brought 
to show us. This was one of them, and a fine Wolfhound he would luive 
made if he had continued to grow. He stood as high as a Collie, and look- d 
to weigh fifty pounds or more; his coat was rough and hard; each hair was 
wheaten from the body to the tip, which was red; the under coat was woolly 
and dense. The head looked all of ten inches long, rather narrow across 
the skull, and the muzzle powerful; and when he opened his mouth and 
showed his "graveyard" well, we felt relieved that we were not an Irish 
landlord. Mr. Aspinall told us his jaw-power was enormous, and that he 
could pull up solid planks and bite through half-inch boards. More joy that 
we are not a half -inch board! 

But to return to our Irishman and, by the way, we should say that this 
dog looked Irish, and we like to see character in a national dog Mr. Aspinall 
told us that he purchased him from a Waterford man, who said he came from 
Connemara. on the West Coast. Mr. Aspinall told us several instances of his 
stanchness. He has seen him swim a mile in a fast and swollen stream which 
was thick with floating logs, and as he swam, turning from one bank to the 
other after the rats that shot in and out. 

The history of i he present Irish Terrier may be said to 
date from 1875, several dogs having that year been exhib- 
ited at Belfast, Ireland, the home of Mr. G. Jamison. The 
first Irish Terriers that were ever exhibited in England were 
at the Brighton Show, in October, 1876 Banshee and 
Spuds, owned by Mr. Jamison, winning first and second. 
Since then the class of Irish Terriers has increased so 
much that they almost equal in numbers the Fox Terrier 
and surpass the Scotch Terrier classes, showing how popu- 
lar the breed has become in a few years. The Irish Terrier 
Club was formed in Ireland about the beginning of 1879, 
and since that date the Irish have been well represented, 
both on the bench and in the public press. 

Vero Shaw has devoted more attention to this breed than 
any other modern writer, and little more can be said of it 
than is found in his works. The information he gives was 
obtained, principally, from Mr. G. H. Krehl, one of the 
most enthusiastic admirers of the breed. 

The Irish Terrier is a true and distinct breed indigenous to Ireland, and 
no man can trace its origin, which is lost in antiquity. Mr. Ridgway, of 
Waterford, whose name is familiar in Irish Terrier circles from having drawn 
up the first code of points, states that they have been known in Ireland "as 
long as that country has been an island, and I ground my faith in their age 
and purity on the fact that there exist old manuscripts in Irish mentioning the 



THE IRISH TERRIER. 417 

existence of the breed at a very remote period." In old pictures representing 
scenes of Irish life, an Irish Terrier or two are often to be descried. Bally - 
mena and County Wicklow may almost claim to be the birthplaces of the 
breed. Most of the best specimens hail from Ballymena and the neighbor- 
hood, where Mr. Thomas Erwin, of Irish Setter fame, boasts an extensive 
experience of this breed,' and has always kept a few of the right old working 
sort for sporting purposes; and "in County Wicklow," Mr. Merry says, " it is 
well known that the pure breed of Irish Terriers has been carefully kept dis- 
tinct and highly prized for more than a century." Mr. E. F. Despard, whose 
name is well known in Irish Terrier circles as a very successful breeder and 
exhibitor, claims an acquaintance of over forty years with the breed. Mr. 
George Jamison, too, has known and kept them many years, and up till a little 
while ago had won more prizes than all the rest of the breeders put together. 
I mention these proofs of the age of the breed to show those who have lately 
come to admire them that it is not a made up, composite, or mushroom breed. 
They are part of Ireland's national economy, and are worthily embodied in the 
sportsman's toast "Irish women, Irish horses, and Irish dogs" (which means 
Irish Terriers, Setters, and Spaniels). 

One's first acquaintance with this "prehistoric Terrier" is apt to be dis- 
appointing, except to a really " doggy" Terrier man. That is because there is 
no meretricious flash about them; but there is that about them which you 
learn to like they grow upon you. They supply the want so often expressed 
for "a smart-looking dog with something in him." There is that about their 
rough-and-ready appearance which can only be described as genuine Terrier, or 
more emphatically, ' ' Terrier character." They are facile princeps the sportsman 's 
Terrier; and having never yet been made fashion's darlings, still retain in all its 
purity their instinctive love of hard work. Their characters do not suit them 
for ladies' pets, but render them the best dogs out for the man that loves his 
gun and quiet sport. 

Amongst those wise old fellows that one comes across in the country, who 
like a dog with something in him, and a " Terrier," of course, the Irishman is 
prime favorite. And they know what they are about, those old fellows, and 
are sportsmen, too, in their own sort of way, when the sun has gone down. 
This reminds me of a discreditable fact in the history of Irish Terriers, that they 
were not always only "the poor man's sentinel," but oftentimes something 
more, when by the aid of their marvelous noses and long legs they, when the 
shades of night had fallen, provided the pot with that which gave forth the 
savory smell and imparted a flavor to the "spuds." This, however, if it 
injured their moral principles, certainly sustained their love and capability for 
rabbiting In olden times, too, the larger sizes were bred and used for right- 
ing, and there is still a dash of the old fighting blood in their descendants. 
They dearly love a mill, and though it would be calumny to say they are quar- 
relsome, yet it must be admitted that the male portion of the breed are perhaps 
a little too ready to resent any attempt at interfering with their coats; but are 
they not Irish, and when did an Irishman shirk a shindy? My dog Sporter is 
very true to character in this respect. Small dogs, or even those of his own 
size, he never deigns to notice; but if some large specimen of the genus Cants 
27 



418 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

approaches him, putting on "side" and airs, Sporter immediately stiffens up 
visibly, his tail assumes a defiant angle above the horizontal, his ears are cocked 
forward alertly, and there is an ominous twitching of his upper lips which says, 
as plain as looks can speak, " Lave me alone, ye spalpeen." Should his warning 
not be accepted, a scrimmage ensues, which I speedily terminate by whipping 
him up under my arm by his tail and marching him off. En passant, I recom- 
mend this as a very effectual and safe manner of putting a stop to a canine 
melee. " Hitting off" Irish Terriers when fighting I have found useless; they 
think the pain comes from their opponent, and this only serves to rouse them 
to fresh efforts. 

This description, although, written several years ago, is 
still held to be correct, and nothing need be added to it. 

All that the Irish Terrier breeders now have to bewail 
(and the Irish always have a grievance of some kind), is 
the want of judges who will adhere to some one type. I 
was told not long since, by one of the most prominent 
exhibitors in England, that all he needed to know before 
exhibiting at a show, in order to take a prize, was the name 
of the judge, and that he could then choose from his ken- 
nel the dog that would be sure to win. This must be very 
nearly correct, as I see his name often, and always among 
the first flight. This is not right; and as the Irish Terrier 
CJub has adopted a standard, which is accepted by all the 
most prominent breeders, it ought to be adhered to. The 
standard being established, all that is necessary is for 
judges to abide by it, and disqualify all dogs that go over 
the recognized weight of twenty-four pounds. If this were 
done, and the cropping question permanently disposed of, 
there would then be a bright future for the Irish Terrier 
and his breeder. The Irish Terrier now stands third or 
fourth in numbers at all shows in England and Ireland, 
being outnumbered only by Fox Terriers, Collies, and St. 
Bernards. This is a good showing, considering how short 
a time the modern Irish Terrier has been before the public. 

The illustrations which accompany this article are for 
the information of breeders and the public. Norah 
represents the old type. She is built on the lines of the 
Irish Wolfhound, and her weight was twenty-two pounds 
when in condition. The same model could have carried 
very well thirty to forty pounds; but her day is past, and 



THE IRISH TERRIER. 419 

the Irish Terrier of to-day is modeled after the second 
illustration, which represents a dog that weighed about 
twenty pounds. From his shape and build it is clearly im- 
possible that a dog of his type would be of any use at much 
over that weight, being lower on legs and shorter ribbed; 
if he were heavy, he could not get over the ground as easily 
as a lighter-built dog. 

Perhaps the best all-round dog that has been before the 
public lately is Playday, whose death we have lately 
seen recorded. He was the lirst uncropped dog that was 
ever awarded a prize, and was successful under almost all 
the judges at the English shows. He is proving himself a 
typical dog, although as an immediate sire he has not 
made a good record; but his grandsons and granddaughters 
are coming well to the front. 

There is one point that can not be passed over in favor 
of the Irish Terrier, and that is his ability to adapt himself 
to any climate or any surroundings. In this respect, he is 
a long way ahead of either the Fox Terrier or the Scotch 
Terrier. He is daily in request for India, China, and the 
antipodes, where the other breeds fail to acclimatize. He 
is just as happy in the closed-up den of the peasant as he 
is in the kennel of the millionaire. He is, par excellence, 
the dog of the people. 

In this connection, the notes of Mr. Ridgway and Mr. 
Jamison, both prominent Irish fanciers of the breed in 
question, are well worthy of study, and are given below, as 
well as the scale of points which has been adopted by the 
Irish Terrier Club, and is now accepted by all breeders. 

Mr. Ridgway says : 

That the Irish Terrier is and has been a pure breed of dogs indigenous to 
Ireland, is a fact undoubted, and undisputed by the oldest fanciers and breeders 
still living, who can well remember the dog fifty or sixty years ago, and at a 
time before the introduction to this country of the Skye, Yorkshire, or English 
Bull Terrier, now so fashionable in many parts. 

No doubt this breed has of late years been allowed to degenerate sadly, 
from want of proper interest having been taken in it; but notwithstanding this, 
we can still bring forward specimens of our Irish Terriers, such as have been 
seen at several of our leading Irish shows, which for usefulness, intelli- 



420 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

gence, and gameness, as well as general appear,: nee, are second to no breed of 
Terriers in the kingdom. 

As a breed, they are peculiarly adapted to the country, being particularly 
hardy, and able to bear any amount of wet, cold, and hardship without show- 
ing the slightest symptoms of fatigue. Their coat also being a hard and wiry 
one, they can hunt the thickest gorse or furze cover without the slightest 
inconvenience. As for the capabilities of these dogs for taking the water, and 
hunting in it as well as on land, I may mention, as one instance, that a gentle- 
man in the adjoining County of Tipperary keeps a pack of these Terriers, and 
has done so for years, with which he will hunt otters as successfully as anyone 
can with any pack of pure Otter Hounds. 

Within the last few years, and since the introduction of dog shows into 
Ireland, a far greater interest than heretofore has been taken in this breed, 




IRISH TERRIER MARS. 
Owned by W. J. Comstock, 216 Canal street, Providence, R. I. 

and consequently a greater amount of care is evinced now in selecting the 
proper specimens to breed from ; so that in a short time we may look forward 
to see the Irish Terrier just as fashionable and as much sought for in England 
as the English Fox Terrier is at present. 

Mr. Jamison says : 

The Irish Terrier, as his name denotes, is the representative of the Emerald 
Isle, and especially suitable for his native damp country, being able to stand 
much more wet, cold, and fatigue than most other Terriers. The coat is so 
hard and flat on the body that water can not penetrate it, and not being too 
long, does not hinder the dog in cover-work. This breed is more used as 
vermin destroyers than for any other purpose, which principally accounts for 
breeding for size being teglected. However, within the last fifteen years the 
breed has been much closer looked after, and at the present time, there are a 



THE IRISH TERRIER. 421 

number of these clogs that in point of show qualities will vie as near perfection 
as most breeds. 

There are certain enthusiasts who have been writing this breed up in 
fancier papers as the only genuine working Terrier. This, of course, is non- 
sense. At the same time it is a recognized fact that from their peculiar hardy, 
active habits they, at least, are deserving of a front rank among working 
Terriers. The Irish Terrier Club has recently been the means of the breed 
being brought something more prominently before the public, but some of the 
prominent members will require to exercise a little more patience and forbear- 
ance, or the object of the club will be frustrated. 

The Irish Terrier Club's scale of points and description 
of the true Irish Terrier are here given: 

POSITIVE POINTS. 

Value. Value. 

Head, jaw, teeth, and eyes 15 Hind quarters and stern . 10 

Ears 5 Coat 15 

Legs and feet 10 Color 10 

Neck 5 Size and symmetry 10 

Shoulders and chest 10 

Back and loin 10 Total 100 

NEGATIVE POINTS. 

Value. Value. 

White nails, toes, and feet. . . .minus 10 Coat shaggy, curly or soft, .minus 10 

Much white on chest " 10 Uneven in color " 5 

Ears cropped 5 

Mouth undershot or cankered'. " 10 Total 50 

Disqualifying Points: Nose, cherry or red; brindle color. 

Head. Long; skull flat, and rather narrow between 
ears, getting slightly narrower toward the eye; free from 
wrinkle; stop hardly visible, except in profile. The jaw 
must be strong and muscular, but not too full in the cheek, 
and of a good punishing length, but not so fine as a White 
English Terriers. There should be a slight falling away 
below the eye, so as not to have a Greyhound appearance. 
Hair on face of same description as on body, but short 
(about a quarter of an inch long), in appearance almost 
smooth and straight; a slight beard is the only longish hair 
(and it is only long in comparison with the rest) that is per- 
missible, and that is characteristic. 

Teetli. Should be strong and level. 

Lips. Not so tight as a Bull Terrier's, but well-fitting, 
showing through the hair their black lining. 

Nose. Must be black. 



422 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Eyes. A dark hazel-color, small, not prominent, and 
full of life, fire, and intelligence. 

Ears. When uncut, small and Y-shaped, of moderate 
thickness, set well up on head and dropping forward 
closely to the cheek. The ear must be free of fringe, and 
the hair thereon shorter and generally darker in color than 
the body. 

Neck. Should be of a fair length, and gradually widen- 
ing toward the shoulders, well carried, and free of throati- 
ness. There is generally a slight sort of frill visible at each 
side of the neck, running nearly to the corner of the ear, 
which is looked on as very characteristic. 

Shoulders and chest. Shoulders must be fine, long, and 
sloping well into the back; the chest deep and muscular, 
but neither full nor wide. 

Back and loin. Body moderately long; back should be 
strong and straight, with no appearance of slackness 
behind the shoulders; the loin broad and powerful, and 
slightly arched; ribs fairly sprung, rather deep than round, 
and well ribbed back. 

Hind quarters. Well under the dog; should be strong 
and muscular, the thighs powerful, hocks near the ground, 
stifles not much bent. 

Stern. Generally docked; should be free of fringe or 
feather, set on pretty high, carried gaily, but not over the 
back or curled . 

Feet and legs. Feet should be strong, tolerably round, 
and moderately small; toes arched, and neither turned out 
nor in; black toe-nails are preferable and most desirable. 
Legs moderately long, well set from the shoulders, perfectly 
straight, with plenty of bone and muscle; the elbows work- 
ing freely clear of the sides, pasterns short and straight, 
hardly noticeable. Both fore and hind legs should be 
moved straight forward when traveling, the stifles not 
turned outward, the legs free of feather, and covered, like 
the head, with as hard a texture of coat as body, but not 
so loni. 

Coat. Hard and wiry, free of softness or silkiness, not 



THE IRISH TERRIER. 423 

so long as to hide the outlines of the body, particularly in 
the hind quarters, straight and flat, no shagginess, and free 
of lock or curl. 

Color. Should be "whole colored," the most preferable 
being bright red; next wheaten, yellow, and gray brindle 
disqualifying. White sometimes appears on chest and 
feet; it is more objectionable on the latter than on the 
chest, as a speck of white on chest is frequently to be seen 
in all self-colored breeds. 

Size and symmetry. Weight in show condition, from 
sixteen pounds to twenty-four pounds say sixteen pounds 
to twenty- two pounds for bitches and eighteen pounds to 
twenty-four pounds for dogs. The most desirable weight is 
twenty-two pounds or under, which is a nice, stylish, and 
useful size. The dog must present an active, lively, lithe, 
and wiry appearance; lots of substance, at the same time 
free of clumsiness, as speed and endurance, as well as 
power, are very essential. They must be neither "cloddy" 
nor "cobby," but should be framed on the "lines of 
speed," showing a graceful "racing outline." 

Temperament. Dogs that are very game are usually 
surly or snappish. The Irish Terrier, as a breed, is an 
exception, being remarkably good-tempered notably so 
with mankind; it being admitted, however, that he is per- 
haps a little too ready to resent interference on the part of 
other dogs. There is a heedless, reckless pluck about the 
Irish Terrier which is characteristic, and coupled with the 
headlong dash, blind to all consequences, with which he 
rushes at his adversary, has earned for the breed the proud 
epithet of "the dare-devils." When "off duty" they 
are characterized by a quiet, caress-inviting appearance; and 
when one sees them endearingly, timidly pushing their 
heads into their master's hands, it is difficult to realize that 
on occasion, at the "set on," they can prove they have the 
courage of a lion, and will fight on to the last breath in 
their bodies. They develop an extraordinary devotion to, 
and have been known to track their masters almost incred- 
ible distances. 



424 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

As a matter of information for those interested, I give 
below the names and addresses of a few of the prominent 
breeders and owners of Irish Terriers in this country: 
Chestnut Hill Kennels, Philadelphia, Penn.; J. F. McFad- 
den, 121 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Penn.; Thomas 
Pulverstaft, 47 Sands street, Brooklyn, N. Y.; F. P. Kirby, 
135 South Eighth street, Philadelphia, Penn. ; E. Wetmore, 
343 Lexington avenue, New York City; Associated Fan- 
ciers, 140 South Eighth street, Philadelphia, Penn. ; Ogden 
Goelet, 608 Fifth avenue, New York City; Somerset Ken- 
nels, Bernardsville, N. J. ; W. J. Comstock, 220 Canal 
street, Providence, R. I.; W. S. Clark, Linden, Mass.; H. 
Denning, 474 Sixth avenue, New York City; P. F. Clancy, 
440 Second street, South Boston, Mass. ; Charles F. Leland, 
7 Beck Hall, Cambridge, Mass.; W. L. and H. A. Harris, 
North Wilmington, Mass.; Edward Lever, 707 Walnut 
street, Philadelphia, Penn.; E. P. Saltonstall, Chestnut 
Hill, Mass.; William A. Dupee, Chestnut Hill, Mass.; 
Lawrence Timpson, Red Hook, N. J.; H. A. Allan, Mon- 
treal, Canada, and Joseph Lindsay, Montreal, Canada. 




THE BULL TERRIER. 



BY FRANK F. DOLE. 




speaking, the Bull Terrier is the result, 
as tne ^ erm indicates, of a cross between a Bulldog 
and a Terrier. The specimens first used in prop- 
agating it are believed to have been of the old type of 
Bulldog and the White Terrier of the middle counties of 
England. Since its origin, however, various side-crosses 
have been resorted to, as with the Mastiff, the Foxhound, 
Greyhound, etc. 

The breed is not believed to be an old one, the earliest 
authentic records we have of it dating back only to about 
1843, though it doubtless originated some years earlier. 

The Bull Terrier is essentially a fighting dog, and was 
not always made up of these two constituent parts, as 
Hound, Pointer, Greyhound, and Mastiff blood have, at 
times, been introduced into his veins, but without materi- 
ally improving the breed. Whether considered from a 
genealogical point of view, or with reference only to his 
bodily formation and general Character, he is as smartly 
built as a Terrier, but with substance inherited from the 
Bulldog. He is quick and clever in his actions, and pos- 
sesses the courage, resolution, and endurance of the Bull- 
dog. 

He is naturally inclined to be good-tempered and ami- 
able with his associates in the kennel; yet fee is possessed of 
a wonderful amount of courage, and when provoked to 
anger will hold his own in the most approved style. 
Always with a bright expression, he never sulks when 
punished, if his training has been of the proper sort. 

Vero Shaw tersely indicates the character of the breed 
in these words: "Treat him kindly, don't knock him 

(4-25) 



426 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

about, and no dog will have greater love for his master 
than the game, handsome, and affectionate Bull Terrier." 

By nature he is especially fitted for a companion for 
either a gentleman, a lady, or children, while as a house- 
dog he has no superior; for, besides being kind and affec- 
tionate to children, he is an excellent watch-dog and an 
expert ratter. 

In breeding the Bull Terrier to the best possible advan- 
tage, care should be taken in selecting the sire, which should 
be a dog of strong Terrier character. In nearly every 
litter there are some puppies that are marked either with 
brown, brindle, or black. Most breeders destroy these, 
which I think is entirely wrong, for often in this way we lose 
some of our best specimens. Although Mark-eyed Victor 
took his name from the brindle patch around his eye, he 
won numerous prizes, and was undoubtedly the best dog of 
his day. 

Champion Trentham Dutch, winner and sire of winners, 
has a marked ear. This dog was bred by Mr. J. R. Pratt,' 
of Stoke-upon-Trent, England, whose name will be handed 
down among the Bull Terrier fanciers the world over as the 
breeder of the greatest litter of Bull Terriers ever known. 
This litter was by Dutch, out of Champion Maggie May. 
In the litter was Champion Queen of the May, Harvester, 
and Champion Trentham Dutch. 

Mr. Pratt retained the two former, which were pure 
white, and sold the marked dog for seven dollars and fifty 
cents. The purchaser sold him again to Mr. Simon Field- 
ing, the well-known Bull Terrier fancier, who kept him, and 
had the satisfaction of beating the other two. While in 
England, I would have bought Trentham Dutch, but I was 
influenced by a disciple of another school not to do so, 
which I have always regretted, as he has proved himself a 
worthy sire. 

The prize-winning strain in the breed of Bull Terriers 
assumes the same regularity as in the case of celebrated 
horses. Maggie May, whom I imported in 1886, supplied 
the show bench in England for several years with winners. 



THE BULL TEERIER. 



427 



Although at the time I bought her she was over eight years 
old, I gave fifty pounds for her. She was supposed to be 
in whelp to Dutch, but did not prove to be. At the Jubilee 
Show, in 1887, I met Mr. J. R. Pratt, from whom I pur- 
chased her; and in speaking of Bull Terriers, he said: "If 




Owned by F. F. Dole, 115 Blake street, New Haven, Conn 

Maggie May will breed, you have the best Bull Terrier in 
the world." 

Before leaving America I had bred her to Grand Duke, 
and his remark made me suspicious of her condition. I 
immediately cabled to America, and found, to my relief, 
that she was in whelp. This litter produced three bitches 
and one dog. Shortly after birth the dog died, but of the 
three bitches I sold one, who has since died. The two I 



428 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

retained are well-known winners Starlight, the subject of 
our illustration, and My Queen. 

Starlight has been bred three times, and is the dam of 
Don Pedro, who has won second in open and first in puppy 
class at Toledo, in 1889, and first in open and first in puppy 
class at Toronto, in the same year. When only nine months 
old, Sensation, the sire of Don Pedro, was a twenty-pound 
dog. Don Pedro weighed fifty -three pounds at one year of 
age. I merely mention this instance to show that one can 
not breed for size with certainty, as small dogs are liable to 
get large ones, and vice versa. I next bred her to Hinks, 
and have two six-month-old puppies, the best I ever saw, 
and if nothing unforeseen happens, they will do themselves 
and their progenitors great credit. 

In the rapid advanc.es of show dogs to popularity, few 
breeds have made the great strides that the Bull Terrier 
has. This advance has undoubtedly been brought about 
largely by the importation into this country of some of the 
finest specimens obtainable in England. Among the most 
prominent dogs of this breed that have been imported to 
this country, I would mention the following: Grand Duke 
and Little Maggie, owned by Messrs. R. and W. Living- 
stone; Dutch, Jr., owned by T. R. Varrick; Champion 
Victoria, owned by E. S. Porter; Champion Cairo, Grab- 
ber, Bonnie Princess, Enterprise, and Spotless Prince, 
owned by W. F. Hobbie; Champion Jubilee, owned by W. 
F. Comstock; Champion Count, Champion Maggie May, 
Lady in White, Lady Tarquin, Little Dorrit, The Earl, 
King Patrick, Queen Bendigo, Hinks, Lady Melville, and 
Bendigo, owned by the writer.* 

Anyone at all familiar with Bull Terriers, in England or 
America, will readily see that this breed of dogs has had 

* Among other breeders and owners of good Bull Terriers, may be men- 
tioned: C. Albert Stevens, Castle Point, Hoboken, N. J.; W. F. Hobbie, 54 
Exchange place, New York City; Retnor Kennels, 4 West Sixty-sixth street, 
New York City; Andrew Gerlach, Rochester, N. Y.; Eugene D. Hays, 13 
East Sixty-first street, New York City; E. D. Morgan, Hempstead, Long Island; 
W. L. and H. A. Harris, North Wilmington, Mass.; Campbell & Blake, 



THE BULL TERRIER. '429 

good backing, as it takes a great amount of time, patience, 
and money to import, breed,. and show them. 

The late Mr. James Hinks, of Birmingham, England, 
will long be remembered as one who did more than any 
other individual to improve the Bull Terrier, and many of 
our best specimens bear testimony to that fact, as they date 
to his strain. Since Mr. Hinks' death, his son Frederick 
has brought out more good Bull Terriers than anyone else. 
Most all of the leading breeders have dipped deeply into 
Hinks' Old Victor strain. 

Of the more modern strains, the Marquis and Dutch are 
the most prominent. The former gets the shorter body and 
better tails, while the latter gets better eyes and longer 
heads, but the dogs have not the Terrier character of the 
Marquis strain. Many who own Bull Terriers, and find the 
name of Dutch in their pedigree, think, no doubt, that he 
was a great winner. Such was not the case, I can assure 
them, as I had the pleasure of seeing Dutch in Birming- 
ham, England, during the summer of 1887. 

When Dutch was a mere puppy he was sent out to keep, 
and the man who had charge of him was fond of telling the 
eld-r Mr. Hinks how well he was getting on, and particu- 
larly of his wonderful chest development. When about 
nine months old he was brought in, and was found to be 
completely ruined for the show bench, as he had been kept 
on a chain for so long a time that he was so far out at 
elbows, in front and behind, as to be declared deformed. 
Having been ruined for the show bench, he was put at stud, 
and made a name greater than any prize-winner. 

While speaking of stud dogs, 1 may say that my stud, 
dog Bendigo would not rank high as a show dog, being too 
much out at elbows, but his record as a sire of prize-win- 
ners bids fair to eclipse Dutch's. From this fact it will be 



48 Woodward avenue, Detroit, Mich.; William J. Bryson, 204 Dearborn street, 
Chicago; William Mariner, 405 Broadway, Milwaukee, Wis. ; J. C. Mahler, 
31 Taggert street, Allegheny, Penn.; E. S. Porter, New Haven, Conn.; A. 
Wilgren, Clarksburg, Ontario, Canada; Dr. T. Plant, 18 Travers street, 
Boston, Mass. ED. 



430' THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

seen that a dog, in order to get winners, need not neces- 
x sarily be himself a winner. 

Many people are prejudiced against Bull Terriers on 
account of their alleged temper; but I have owned in the 
neighborhood of one hundred of these dogs in the past six 
years, and while I acknowledge that there is some founda- 
tion for this prejudice, still I unhesitatingly affirm that it is 
greatly exaggerated, for, if properly brought up, the Bull 
Terrier has more affection for his master than any other 
dog. 

The Bull Terrier is at a greater disadvantage when shown 
out of condition than any other dog, and the following 
points in regard to putting specimens of this breed in 
proper condition, gleaned from my own experience, should 
be of great service to the novice. 

It usually takes at least six weeks to put a dog of this 
breed into good form; and to do it in that time, the dog 
must be physically well at the start. 

The first thing to do is to give him a dose of opening-med - 
icine. Syrup of buckthorn and castor-oil are my prefer- 
ence, and should be given the last thing at night. The 
dog's food, for a day or two, should consist of oatmeal 
gruel and a little meat, and he should be given gentle 
exercise. After that, work begins in earnest. His exercise 
should be gradually increased from a slow walk of from two 
to five miles in the morning; and the same distance should 
be given him in the afternoon. After returning from exer- 
cise he should be thoroughly dried with a coarse towel, then 
well groomed with a hair-glove, which, in my estimation, 
is the best method of grooming. 

After this, the dog should be given a good hand-rubbing. 
All grooming should be done one way, running with the 
hair. The dog should then be put in a kennel supplied 
with clean straw, which should' be changed daily. As the 
exercise is increased, the meat portion of the food should 
also be increased. One Spratt's biscuit, given dry, for 
breakfast, and meat and vegetables for supper, with plenty 
of the former, are, in my opinion, the best diet. The 



THE BULL TERRIER. 431 

washing of a Bull Terrier for exhibition is an important 
matter, and the following is my method: 

First remove the long smellers, eyelashes, and all of the 
hair on the inside of the ear. This will sharpen his appear- 
ance wonderfully. Next, place the dog in a shallow tub, 
with a little lukewarm water, and thoroughly wet him 
with clean water. Beginning at his head, he should be 
well lathered with white castile soap, and then rinsed with 
clean water. Afterward, repeat the operation on all parts 
of his body, leaving the tail till the last. 

After the bath, he should be well dried with plenty of 
clean towels, and then a thorough hand-rubbing should 
be given him. He should then be returned to his kennel 
of clean straw and kept there for several hours. 

The illustration on page 427 is of the well-known Bull 
Terrier bitch Starlight, bred by the writer, without doubt 
the best specimen ever bred in America. In the opinion 
of Mr. Charles H. Mason, she is n't to win at any show. 
She was whelped July 28, 1887, is by Champion Grand 
Duke, out of Champion Maggie May, who was called in 
England the pillar of the Kennel Club Stud Book. 

Starlight is the winner of the following prizes : First, 
puppy class, Boston, 1888 ; first in both open and puppy 
class, New Haven, 1888 ; first, Troy, 1889 ; first, Toledo, 
1889 ; first and special, Toronto, 1889 ; first and special, 
Danbury, 1889. 

Below will be found the points of the Bull Terrier 
adopted by the Bull Terrier Club of England: 

General appearance. The general appearance of the 
Bull Terrier is that of a symmetrical animal, an embodi- 
ment of agility, grace, elegance, and determination. 

Head. The head should be long, flat, and wide between 
the ears, tapering to the nose, without cheek muscles. 
There should be a slight indentation down the face, without 
a "stop" between the eyes. The jaws should be long and 
very powerful, with a large black nose and open nostrils. 
Eyes small and very black. The lips should meet as tightly 
as possible, without a fold. The teeth should be regular 



432 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

in shape, and should meet exactly; any deviation, such as 
a " pig- jaw" or "being underhung," is a great fault. 

Ears. The ears are always cropped for the show bench, 
and should be done scientifically and according to fashion. 

Neck. The neck should be long and slightly arched, 
nicely set into the shoulders, tapering to the head, without 
any loose skin, as found in the Bulldog. 

Shoulders. The shoulders should be strong, muscular, 
and slanting ; the chest wide and deep, with ribs well 
rounded. 

Back. The back short and muscular, but not out of pro- 
portion to the general contour of the animal. 

Legs. The fore legs should be perfectly straight, with 
well-developed muscles ; not " out at shoulder," but set on 
the racing-lines, and very strong at the pastern. The hind 
legs are long, and in proportion to the fore legs, muscular, 
with good, strong, straight hocks, well let down near the 
ground. 

Feet. The feet are not resembling those of a cat or the 
Greyhound, but more after the style of the hare, compact, 
with well- arched toes. 

Color. White. 

Coat. Short, close, and stiff to the touch, with a fine 
gloss. 

Tail. This should be from ten to twelve inches long, 
according to the size of the dog ; set on very low down; 
thick where it joins the body, and tapering to a fine point. 
It should be carried at an angle of about forty-five degrees, 
without curl, and never over the back. 

Weight. From fifteen to fifty pounds. 




THE WHITE ENGLISH TERRIER. 



BY E. F. BURNS. 




>HIS is an old breed, and a very popular one in Eng- 
land, but is as yet little known in this country. It 
is destined to become more widely distributed and 
more popular here, however, for its bright, merry, sprightly, 
affectionate disposition, its elegant and symmetrical shape, 
its undaunted courage, its brilliant white coat, its spark- 
ling black eye, and its generally handsome appearance are 
such as to commend it to everyone who may want a small 
dog for the house or for a companion. It is fond of human 
society, either of children or adults, and is never more 
highly delighted than when petted by master or mistress, 
young or old. 

The White Terrier, while by no means quarrelsome, is 
game from the tip of his nose to the end of his tail. He 
will brook no intrusion on his domain, and will assail a dog 
five times his own size as savagely and as confidently as he 
would a rat, if the stranger but approach his master or 
mistress. 

He has an excellent nose, is the natural enemy of ver- 
min, and no dog is more eager in its pursuit or more suc- 
cessful in exterminating it. It is as utterly impossible for 
a rat to live, on the premises where a White Terrier is kept, 
as for water to run up-stream. This breed differs from the 
Black and Tan Terrier principally in the matter of color; in 
many other respects the two breeds are nearly identical. 

Concerning the status of the White Terrier in England, 
" Idstone" says: 

The English smooth-coated Terrier is a dog seldom seen except in the pos- 
session of dog-traders and "fanciers," as they call themselves, being bred for 
show more than for use. Ten or twelve years ago it was at most of our dog 
28 f433) 



434 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



shows, and the breed commanded considerable attention, especially when the 
dog had plenty of courage and intelligence; but this was the exception. As a 
rule, the show Terrier is not a hardy nor a courageous dog. Most of his life 
has been passed in a highly varnished mahogany kennel, by a bar-parlor fire, 
or in the arms of some opulent or quasi-opulent dog-breeder, whose chief voca- 
tion is to show his ' ' stud " of Terriers for cups and collars. 

Twenty-five years ago the colored or partly colored dog, fallow, or even 
brindled, or with head and body markings, would have had a chance of a prize 
at these public-house meetings; but since the exhibition of dogs has been a 
prominent feature in the fashionable amusements of large cities, the dog has 
been so cultivated that white dogs only are admissible. 




WHITE ENGLISH TERRIER WHITE PRINCE (A. K. C. S. B. 16733). 
Owned by Mr. E. F. Burns, Taunton, Mass. 

I have little doubt that these London and Manchester Terriers were ' ' the 
pick" of what are now commonly received as Fox Terriers, purchased up and 
down the country by those agents who have a roving commission to ' ' snap 
up " anything which they can find which is neat and salable. These smart 
country Terriers were collected in London by the keen-eyed " fancy," and frmn 
these the White Terrier was gradually produced. 

None of these breeders can trace their breed for many years; and all the 
best white dogs were the sons of one known in London as King Dick. He was 
succeeded by his son, known as Young King Dick; but neither of these dogs, 
so far as I remember, were equal to some dogs exhibited in 1863, by Frederick 
White, of Crescent Lane, Clapham Common, named Fly, Laddie, Nettle, and 
Teddy. Twenty dogs were entered in the class, but Mr. White's were the 



THE WHITE ENGLISH TEKKIEE. 435 

only specimens which had any business there. Birmingham alone produces a 
good class in a general way, and the rarity of the best sort may be inferred from 
the fact that the same dogs won year after year without fearing rivalry. This 
is the case with Mr. Walker's Tim, which has won fifty-six first prizes and 
champion cups. 

The weight of the White Terrier may vary from nine to 
twenty pounds. The description and points for judging are 
as follows: 

Value. Value. 

Head 10 Color 10 

Legs . .- 5 General appearance 10 

Feet 5 Action 5 

Body 5 

Total 50 

Head narrow, long, and flat; skull narrow between the 
ears. 

Muzzle must be fine, tapering, sharp, and foxy. Jaw 
muscular. Mouth must not be undershot; better the upper 
jaw slightly over, if there is any deviation from a level 
mouth. The stop or indent between the eyes must be evi- 
dent and pronounced. Eye must be sparkling bright, but 
not large. The ears must be round, flat to the head; in 
repose raised, although falling over when the dog is aroused. 
A tulip or prick ear is a great deformity, and shows 
mongrel blood. It is customary to crop the ears. 

Neck long, tapering, and muscular, and clean where it 
joins the lower jaw. Ribs must be well rounded. Shoul- 
ders deep and well set back, powerful as possible; loins 
strong and back ribs deep. In conformation, the body must 
be neither high nor wide. Fore legs should be straight 
as arrows ; hind legs moderately straight; feet strong and 
muscular; toes slightly arched and well split; form of foot 
round and fox-like; thigh large and muscular; Ttock in a 
straight line. The tail should be fine at the point and 
thick at the root, with a low carriage, but not bare. When 
the dog is excited, it should be carried gaily. 

Color should be white; coat smooth and hard, yet free 
from roughness. Temperament same as in Bull Ter- 
rier. Anything approaching coarseness of coat about the 
muzzle, thighs, eyebrows, or any part of the profile, is 
objectionable. 



436 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Recently some good specimens of the White Terrier 
have been imported from England. Several American 
breeders and fanciers are becoming aware of the good 
qualities of this dog, and are turning their attention to the 
development of the breed in this country, and the White 
Terrier is destined to win his way to popular favor here at 
no distant day. 

White Prince* (A. K. C. S. B. 16733, volume 7), the 
property of the writer, is one of the best representatives of 
his breed in this country. He was imported in 1888 by Mr. 
Routley, of Providence, R. I., and was bred by Mr. Bergon, 
of Birmingham, England ; sire, Turk ; dam, Slendor ; reg- 
istered in English Stud Book. 

*In 1890 White Prince won first at Providence, R. I.; Boston, Lynn, New 
Bedford, and Taunton. Mass.; and at New York City. He won eight special 
prizes in England, before coming to this country. His weight is eighteen 
pounds. ED. 



THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 

BY P. H. COOMBS. 




little knight of the carpet is eminently an English 
production, or manufacture, if we may use the term, 
and occupies a most prominent position in the canine 
world, being consider- d by many the handsomest of all 
long-haired Terriers, and has been appropriately termed by 
one writer "the little Yorkshire swell." 

Standing out in bold relief from most other toy varie- 
ties, by his picturesque arrangement of coat, his color, his 
diminutive size, and his stylish form, and being preemi- 
nently the ladies' pet, he has a reasonable claim to the dis- 
tinction of being the most fashionable toy breed of the day 
in this country, as well as in England, where he originated- 

We are fortunate in being able to quote from various 
writers relating to the origin of the breed, and before com- 
mitting ourselves to any opinion concerning this important 
subject, it is desirable to read what such writers have learned 
from their experience and investigation. Mr. Vero Shaw, 
in his "Illustrated Book of the Dog," says on this point: 

The origin of the breed is most obscure, for its originators Yorkshire- 
like were discreet enough to hold their own pounsel, and kept their secrets to 
themselves. Whether this reticence on their part has had the effect of stifling 
the inquiries of curious persons, or whether the merits of the breed have 
hitherto been sufficiently unappreciated by the public, we can not pretend to 
say; but we are aware of no correspondence or particular interest having been 
taken on the subject of the Yorkshire Terrier's origin. 

In certain works on the dog, however, deductions have been drawn which 
no doubt are more or less worthy of respect. The Black and Tan Terrier, the 
Skye, and the Maltese are all credited with the paternity of the Yorkshire 
Terrier. That the breed in question resembles the Skye in certain details is 
evident, but in many important points the two varieties vary widely. For 
instance, the back of the Yorkshire Terrier must be short and the back of a 
Skye Terrier long; so as regards shape, at least, the Yorkshire man can not be 

(437) 



438 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



accused of a great resemblance to his northern neighbor. In our eyes the 
breed much more closely resembles the Maltese dog, save in color; but there is 
no doubt that some of our more typical breeds of 'Terriers have been also 
drawn upon for his production. Many persons who are ignorant on " doggy " 
subjects persistently confuse the Yorkshire with what they term the "Scotch 
Terrier," thereby meaning the Skye, we presume. There is, however, no 
visible ground or reason ever given for their opinions, which are certainly based 
on error, and ignorance of the subject 







LANCASHIRE BEN (A. K. C. S B. 16278;. 
Owned by P. H. Coombs, Bangor, Maine. 

Before leaving the subject of the Yorkshire Terrier's origin, it may be 
remarked that the puppies are born black in color, as are Dandy Dinmonts, 
and do not obtain their proper shade of coat until they are some months old. 
Searchers after the truth may here discover some connection, which we our- 
selves confess we do not, between the Yorkshire and Dandy Dininont Terriers, 
in consequence of this peculiarity in the young of both varieties. 

Mr. Hugh Dalziel, in his "British Dogs," says of this 
breed : 

This dog long went by the name of Rough or Scotch Terrier, and many 
dog-show committees in issuing their schedules still include them under that 



THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 439 

heading; but to call them Scotch is quite a misnomer, the true Scotch Terrier 
being a much rougher, shorter, and harder coated dog, of greater size and 
hardiness, and altogether a rough-and-tumble vermin dog. . . . That the 
Yorkshire Terrier should have been called Scotch by those who, although they 
may have the credit of producing this dog, probably did not know of the 
existence of the real Scotch Terrier as a breed, suggests that at least a Terrier 
of Scotland has had something to do with his manufacture. Now, among 
Terriers recognized as Scotch, if not now peculiar to the country, we have the 
old hard, short coated Scotch Terrier par excellence ; the short-legged and 
mixed-coated Dandie; the Skyes, with long, weasel-like bodies, and long, hard 
coat ; and the perky little prick-eared, hard and short coated Abeidonian ; 
and, in addition, the Glasgow or Paisley Skye, a more toyisli dog, shorter in 
back, and comparatively soft and silky in coat, which it probably inherits 
from a Maltese Terrier cross. My theory, then, respecting the origin of the 
Yorkshire Terriers (and I admit it is only a theory, for the most diligent and 
repeated inquiries on my part in all likely or promising quarters have failed 
in elucidating reliable facts, and none, certainly, contradictory to my views) is 
that the dog was what gardeners call "a sport " from some lucky combination 
of one of the Scotch Terriers either the genuine Skye or Paisley Toy and one 
of the old soft and longish coated black-and-tan English Terriers, at one time 
common enough, and probably a dash of Maltese blood in it. 

Mr. G. H. Wilkinson says, in his article published in 
the English Stock-Keeper in 1887 and we shall quote from 
this quite extensively throughout this chapter, for the 
reason that it contains some valuable information relating 
to the breed that has not, we believe, appeared in book 
form concerning the history as learned by him : 

In commencing an article on the Yorkshire Terrier, it is necessary to trace 
back its origin as far as possible. With this object in view, I have been at 
some trouble in looking up several old fanciers, one of whom, John Richard- 
son, of Halifax, is now in his sixty-seventh year. And very interesting it 
was to hear this aged man go back to the "good old days" of over half a 
century ago. I regret, however, that, although we can find men who have 
been in the fancy so long, the origin of the Yorkshire Terrier is somewhat 
obscure. Fifty years ago, there was in Halifax, and the immediate neighbor- 
hood, a type of dog called at that time (and even within these last twenty 
years) a " Waterside Terrier; " a little game dog, varying in weight from six to 
twenty pounds, mostly about ten pounds weight a dog resembling very much 
the present Welsh and Airedale Terrier on a small scale. At this period, these 
dogs were bred for the purpose of hunting and killing rats. They would go 
into the river and work with a ferret, and were just in their element when put 
into a rat-pit. An almost daily occurrence, at that time, was to back them to 
kill a given number of rats in a given time. 

It seems almost a pity that such a breed should have become extinct. Mr. 



440 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Richardson himself owned a little bitch called Polly, who weighed six pounds, 
and she was frequently put into a rat-pit with a dozen rats, the whole of which 
she would speedily kill against time. She would also swim the river and hunt 
with the ferret. This little bitch, I am told, had four or five inches of coat on 
each side of her body, with a white or silver head. At that time, however, 
the average specimen was a short r-coated dog, with grizzle-gray, hardish 
coat. It however seems to me, and is also the opinion of many old fanciers 
whom I have consulted, that they were the ancestors for the present breed. 
There is no doubt, also, that the blood of the Skye Terrier was introduced at 
some remote period, which may account for the longer coat and long body 
that existed some ten or fifteen years later. No care or definite object, however, 
seems to have been aimed at in breeding, at this time, beyond getting a dog 
thoroughly game. It seems that it was more by good luck than management 
that, about twenty or thirty years ago, a longer and softer coated dog became 
known. It must also be borne in mind that at this time their coats were not 
cultivated as they were later on. Dog shows were almost unknown in those 
days, and even later were scarce. 

From these and other earlier writers, we would be led to 
infer that the origin of this breed was of the greatest uncer- 
tainty, and of a most mysterious nature. That such 
writers were, however, highly qualified to offer sound and 
most valuable opinions on the subject generally, is proved 
by the admirable manner in which they have treated the 
principal characteristics descriptive of the breed; and all 
specially interested in the breed should read the entire 
subject as treated by such writers as Shaw, Dalziel, Wil- 
kinson, Bootman, Watson, and others. 

No doubt much difficulty has been experienced in 
obtaining information relating to its early history; and one 
opinion, as expressed by Shaw, seems to be that, substan- 
tially, the history was known, but that it was kept a secret. 
It would be manifestly unjust to deprive the Yorkshire 
Terrier of the title to a pedigree running back to the pro- 
genitors of the breed; and the continued correspondence on 
and investigation into the subject by those most deeply 
interested, together with their better acquaintance with old 
breeders and fanciers a condition undoubtedly brought 
about through the agency of the improved quality and 
increased number of dog shows, and the intense desire on 
the part of such people to arrive at an accurate, intelligent 
explanation of the origin of such a popular breed relieves 



THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 441 

us from adding any further testimony relating to the 
"mystery" of the origin of this breed. 

In an interesting article on this breed, published in the 
Century Magazine in 1886, and written by Mr. James Wat- 
son, of Philadelphia, is given about the first public infor- 
mation tending to positively identify its origin to a certain 
extent, at least. The writer says : 

Some of our authorities have attempted to throw a great deal of mystery 
about the origin of the Yorkshire Terrier, where none really exists. If we 
consider that the mill operatives who originated the breed by careful selection 
of the best long-coated small Terriers they could find were nearly all ignorant 
men, unaccustomed to imparting information for public use, we may see some 
reason why reliable facts have not been easily attained. Tin se early writers 
show but little knowledge of the possibilities of selection. Stonehenge, for 
instance, in his early editions, speaks of its being impossible for a dog with a 
three-inch coat and seven-inch beard to be a descendant of the soft-coated 
Scotch Terrier, without a cross of some kind. The absurdity of this is seen 
when we remember that within a few years of the date of his history, York- 
shire Terriers were shown with twelve inches of coat. Then, again, he speaks 
of the King Charles Spaniel as being employed to give the blue and tan, than 
which a more ridiculous statement could not have been penned. To get a blue- 
and-tan, long, straight, silky coat, breeders were not likely to employ a black- 
and-tan dog with a wide chest, tucked-up loin, a round, bullet head, large, 
protruding eyes, and heavy Spaniel ears. The idea is too absurd to be enter- 
tained for a moment. As arrayed against all the conjectures of theorists, I 
have in my possession a letter from Mrs. M. A. Foster, of Bradford, England, 
who in writing of the dog Bradford Hero, the winner of ninety-seven first 
prizes, says: " The pedigree of Bradford Hero includes all the best dogs for 
thirty-five years back, and they were all originally bred from Scotch Terriers, 
and shown as such until a few years back. The name of Yorkshire Terrier 
was given to them on account of their being improved so much in Yorkshire." 

Following this, and about a year later, Mr. Ed. Boot- 
man, of Halifax, England, furnished an article on the 
origin of the breed, for publication in the English Stock- 
Keeper, which that journal, "feeling the importance of all 
facts relating to the origin of the breed," published, as fol- 
lows: 

Swift's Old Crab, a cross-bred Scotch Terrier, Kershaw's Kitty, a Skye, 
and an old English Terrier bitch kept by J. Whittam, then residing in Hatter's 
Fold, Halifax, were the progenitors of the present race of Yorkshire Terriers. 
These dogs were in the zenith of their fame forty years ago. The owner of 
Old Crab was a native of Halifax, and a joiner by trade. He worked at Old- 
ham for some time as a journeyman, and then removed to Manchester, where 



442 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

he kept a public house. Whether he got Crab at Oldham or Manchester I 
have not been able to ascertain. He had him when in Manchester, and from 
there sent him several times to Halifax on a visit to Kitty. The last visit 
would be about 1850. 

Crab was a dog of about eight or nine pounds weight, with a good Terrier 
head and eye, but with a long body, resembling the Scotch Terrier. The 
legs and muzzle only were tanned, and the hair on the body would be about 
three or four inches in length. He has stood for years in a case in a room of 
the Westgate Hotel, a public house which h]s owner kept when he returned 
to his native town, where, I believe, the dog may be seen to-day. 

Kitty was a bitch different in type from Crab. She was a drop-eared Skye, 
with plenty of coat of a blue shade, but destitute of tan on any part of the 
body. Like Crab, she had no pedigree. She was originally stolen from Man- 
chester and sent to a man named Jackson, a saddler in Huddersfield, who, 
when it became known that a five-pound reward was offered in Manchester for 
her recovery, sent her to a person named Harrison, then a waiter at the White 
Swan Hotel, Halifax, to escape detection; and from Harrison she passed into 
the hands of Mr. J. Kershaw, of Beshop Blaise, a public house which once 
stood on the Old North Bridge, Halifax. Prior to 1851 Kitty had six litters, 
all of which, I believe, were by Crab. In these six litters she had thirty-six 
puppies, tw T enty-eight of which were dogs, and served to stock the district 
with rising sires. After 1851, when she passed into the possession of Mr. F. 
Jaggar, she had forty-four puppies, making a total of eighty. 

Mr. Whittam's bitch, whose name I can not get to know, was an old Eng- 
lish Terrier, with tanned head, ears, and legs, and a sort of grizzle back. She 
was built on the lines of speed. Like the others, she had no pedigree. She 
was sent when a puppy to the late Bernard Hartley, of Allen Gate, Halifax, by 
a friend residing in Scotland. When Mr. Hartley had got tired of her, he gave 
her to his coachman, Mason, who in turn gave her to his friend Whittam, and 
Whittam used her years for breeding purposes. Although this bitch came 
from Scotland, it is believed the parents were from this district. 

The last-named writer has so fully identified the three 
dogs first employed to manufacture the breed, together 
with their names, ownership, characteristics, and other facts 
concerning them, that there can be no doubt as to the 
authenticity of the history of the origin of the breed. His 
history, although published in the Stock-Keeper in 1887, 
has never been publicly contradicted, and it is evident that 
there can now be no grounds for following the reasoning of 
writers who claim that the origin is a mystery. 

The development since that time judging from an exam- 
ination of the pedigrees of the most prominent dogs of the 
breed has been the result of judicious selection from and 
breeding with dogs that most nearly approached what fan- 



THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 443 

ciers and breeders thought ought to be the type; and it is 
probable that so long as a dog of this breed was known to 
have some of the blood of the original Old Crab, Kershaw's 
Kitty, and Whittam's bitch the sole progenitors of the 
breed former breeders did not inquire too curiously into 
the pedigree of all the dogs used. This seems to be a rea- 
sonable supposition, and should fully account, in the case 
of some prominent dogs, for the lack of a complete pedi- 
gree running back to the three dogs above named. It is a 
well-established fact that the principal strains have been 
most jealously guarded by the people in the north of Eng- 
land. 

In noting the development of the breed up to its present 
standard, it may be stated, to commence with, that it has 
been principally accomplished by the people mostly oper- 
atives in cotton and woolen mills in the counties of York- 
shire and Lancashire, England, where it originated. Un- 
fortunately, at its first appearance at our shows, almost 
anything in the shape of a Terrier having a long coat, with 
some shade or effect of blue on the body, fawn or silver- 
more frequently the latter colored head and legs, with 
tail docked and ears trimmed, was received and admired 
as a Yorkshire Terrier by most everyone except the few 
competent judges; and the breed, fashionable as it is, is 
still much neglected in this country, for the reason that its 
care is not so well understood as that of many other breeds, 
and a good specimen soon loses its fine show condition by 
reason of lack of that regular and well-directed care 
necessary to cultivate and keep the coat looking right. 

Dog shews have, however, had the same effect on this 
as on other breeds. With the annual improvement, in 
quality, of the dogs exhibited, people have learned more 
about the points required of a well-bred specimen, and the 
worst type of dogs claiming title to the name has almost 
disappeared from our shows. Terrier properties should be, 
and are, considered by competent judges, for although 
toys, they are essentially Terriers, and called Terriers; con- 
sequently there is no valid reason why they should not be 



444 THE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

recognized as such. More competent judges are also now 
to be obtained by the managers of our shows, although it 
must n t be taken for granted that all acting in this 
capacity are thoroughly educated, or united on the stand- 
ard as established for the breed, to recognize one regular 
type. But it is pleasant to note that much impiovement 
has been made within the past few years in this direction, 
and that the rapid increase in number of typical specimens 
has served to educate fanciers to a better idea of what the 
breed ought to be; and the Yorkshire Terrier classes are 
now, in the majority of instances, well represented, in point 
of numbers as well as quality, at most of our important 
shows. 

The Yorkshire, like other Terriers, is naturally remark- 
able for its sagacity, alertness, courage, and eagerness in 
the pursuit of vermin, although many of the small, weak, 
inbred specimens have, undoubtedly, lost much of the 
Terrier instinct. The natural courage of the breed is 
such, however, that it will readily resist attacks from dogs 
much larger than itself, and, as a ratter, would quickly obey 
the natural instinct if allowed to do so; but wisdom on the 
part of the owner usually prevents a small, valuable dog 
from enjoying such recreation. They are essentially toys, 
and, as a rule, are most interesting and cunning as compan- 
ions and house-dogs; and the large number of ladies and 
children attracted to their cages wherever they are shown 
indicates, to some extent, their popularity. 

All previous writers, except Mr. Bootman, state that the 
color of puppies when born is black and tan; but the latter 
states that "mouse-color and tan, and even fawn, are not 
unfrequently seen/' Blue or mouse-colored puppies have 
also been observed to some extent in my experience, and 
they being bred from the best stock obtainable, I can cor- 
roborate the statement made by Mr. Bootman. We also 
learn, through some of the English fanciers, that some of 
the first prize-winners of that country were born blue and 
tan, but it is generally understood that most of the good 
ones are born black and tan. 



THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. . 445 

In managing, breeding, and exhibiting Yorkshire Ter- 
riers, a good and regular amount of exercise is most essen- 
tial to their general health, as to that of any toy dog. The 
means by which the necessary amount of exercise is given 
must be determined by -the owner ; the condition of the 
weather having an important bearing upon the question, 
owing to the length of its coat, and the absolute necessity 
of preserving it if one expects to be successful in the show 
ring. A great deal of a dog's appearance depends upon 
whether or not he be well groomed; and this important 
operation has probably never been practiced with skill and 
regularity by many exhibitors, who, on showing their dogs, 
are surprised to find that they compare unfavorably with 
others as to their coats. Grooming, to be effective, must be 
thorough; but it is hard to convince some people of its 
benefit. Many appliances are more or less used as aids 
to the Yorkshire Terrier's toilet; and perhaps no better 
description of the process necessary to be employed in the 
management and care of these Terriers' coats can be given 
than that by Mr. G. H. Wilkinson, before referred to. 
He says : 

Beyond taking care of them and keeping their beds dry and warm, very 
little notice is taken of them till about three or four months old, when the hair 
has got rough and begins to show signs of altering color on the skull and down 
the center of the back. Then begins a long and tedious preparation of daily 
brushing, to cultivate a parting in the coat. I then slightly grease them all 
over with the following, which I have always used: Six ounces of neat's-foot 
oil; six drachms of tincture of cantharides; six drops of oil of rosemary; put 
into a bottle, and always shake well before applying. This is certain to make 
the hair grow. One of the main causes why we always keep them greased is 
to keep the coat straight, and free from clots or matting together. 

They are usually washed once a week, and greased again the same day. I 
also keep each foot tied up in a small stocking or bag, to prevent them scratch- 
ing or catching their claws in the coat and dragging it out. It is really won- 
derful the great change and improvement that can be seen each week. When 
washing, I use a bit of good plain soap. Dog-soaps, as advertised, are too strong 
for their delicate skins. After washing, they should be well dried wLh a soft 
towel, placed on a stool in front of a good warm fire, and afterward carefully 
combed and brushed. I say carefully combed, because it is easy to pull off 
more hair at one time than can be grown again in many weeks, and they 
should always be combed and brushed till every hair is thoroughly free. If 
any small clots are left, it will only be so much worse to get out next time. 



446 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

This weekly process must be continued through life, if one desires to have the 
dog's coat perfect. Some dogs grow much more coat than others, however, 
and all the care and attention in the world won't make some dogs carry more 
than a moderate amount. 

It is not advisable to give a small dog of this breed much 
meat; but a small quantity, well cooked and cut up, mixed 
with cooked vegetables or bread and gravy, may be fed, to 
advantage, occasionally. Their diet should consist mainly 
of plain food, of a farinaceous and not heating quality; and 
while some feed but once a day, it is believed to be better 
to feed them twice. Care should always be taken not to 
overfeed. The long hair on the head should be carefully 
tied back on top of the head, especially while feeding; for 
if allowed to become dirty, it will rot and break at the ends 
until it is eventually spoiled. For their treatment in sick- 
ness and disease, the general subject, by " Ashmont," con- 
tained in another part of this work, should be carefully 
studied. They require very little medicine, however, and 
proper care and nursing will frequently do more good in case 
of sickness than any other treatment. If a laxative is needed, 
there is nothing safer than a tea-spoonful of castor-oil. 

It is likely that some suffering is endured by puppies in 
shedding their milk, or deciduous teeth; and in the York- 
shire Terrier, like most other toy breeds, this begins about 
the fifth month, and it is several months before the per- 
manent set is established. The complete possession of the 
permanent set should occur before they are nine months 
old, but this is only the rule. 

It is considered necessary by some to extract the milk- 
teeth with instruments as soon as they show signs of loosen- 
ing; but usually it is best to let nature perform its work in 
this respect, and lamb or other soft bones may be given at 
this time. A tooth may be extracted with the finger and 
thumb if loose enough, but, as they are very sensitive about 
an operation of this kind, it is better not to apply the 
instrument, except in a case where a tooth bas remained so 
long as to become re-fixed, and affects the regular and even 
growth of permanent teeth. 



THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 



447 



After the permanent set has been established, it is nec- 
essary that they be kept clean and white by the same 
method employed in cleansing human teeth, and the mouth 
should always be carefully looked after. Also avoid giving 
whole bones if it is desired to keep the permanent set; 
ground or broken bone will do as well, and save the annoy- 
ance of a missing tooth, which some people lacking in 
experience may regard as a blemish. Teeth extracted to 




CHAMPION BRADFORD HARRY f A. K. C. S. B. 13124). 
Owned by Mr. P. H. Coombs, Bangor, Maine. 

destroy the evidence of an uneven, defective mouth should 
not deceive an experienced judge; but the loss of a tooth or 
two from accidental causes, or even age, should not be 
considered as a fault or blemish, when quality otherwise 
really exists. 

The remedies used for preventing and exterminating ver- 
min are numerous; and a Yorkshire must be kept absolutely 
free from such torments, or its coat will soon be ruined. 



448 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Some of the disinfectants in common use are very effective 
and convenient for use in exterminating vermin, and should 
be used for keeping the surroundings clean, as well as on 
the dog. 

The practice of docking the tail and cropping the ears 
of Yorkshire Terriers is almost universal, and while the 
former operation is accompanied with very little pain, being 
usually performed at from four to six weeks after birth, 
there are good grounds for questioning the practice of crop- 
ping the ears an operation which can not be performed 
without pain; for even if anaesthetics are employed, and 
proper astringents applied to the wound as soon as pos- 
sible, there must necessarily be considerable suffering dur- 
ing the process of healing; and while it is generally admitted 
that an uncropped specimen would stand a small chance of 
winning under most judges, yet it is sincerely hoped that the 
sentiment against the practice will prevail, and that the 
fashion of cropped dogs will be ultimately abolished. 

In preparing and keeping a Yorkshire Terrier in condi- 
tion for exhibiting, considerable skill is necessary that it may 
be properly presented in the show ring. No breed of dogs 
owes more to condition for show purposes than the York- 
shire; and a dog of this variety exhibited in bad order, or 
unskillfully brushed, when presented to the judge, has a 
good chance of being beaten by an inferior dog in good 
hands. Where they are kept exclusively for the house, of 
course less care is required, but the coat should be kept free 
and well brushed at all times. 

It is quite an undertaking to breed a Yorkshire combin- 
ing the proper color, texture of coat, and correct Terrier 
type; and no amount of care or attention on the part of the 
owner can turn a badly bred, ill-formed specimen into a 
good one. Owing to the fact that the female, like that of 
other animals, is quite as important an element in breeding 
as the male, it is necessary to be as careful in selecting the 
dam as the sire. A faulty specimen of either sex should 
be avoided for breeding purposes. The theory some people 
hold, that the breeding of a bitch possessing certain faults 



THE YORKSHIEE TERRIER. 449 

to a, dog that is less faulty where the bitch fails, but pos- 
sesses opposite ones, is likely to result in the production of 
a litter of world-beaters, is simply but quite forcibly 
answered by the remark of one of our oldest breeders and 
judges, who, in discussing the point at one of our shows, 
said: "I never yet discovered that two wrongs would 
make one right." In breeding these dogs, experienced 
advice should be sought, for injudicious mating is likely to 
cause the ultimate destruction of type; and it is impossible 
for the breeder to bestow too much attention in this direc- 
tion. 

A good-looking, well-bred dog is more likely to produce 
stock resembling itself than a good-looking one of " un- 
known," or even limited, pedigree; and by patient care and 
attention intelligent breeders have succeeded in eliminating 
faults and developing desired qualities in all breeds. The 
result of the most approved mating will not always prove 
satisfactory to the breeder; for, as Mr. Wilkinson says, 
' ' no matter how well bred, there will always be good, bad, 
and indifferent, and more by far of the last;" but there is 
no doubt that the only foundation for success and for 
obtaining good ones whether it be few or many lies in 
the most careful attention to mating. These remarks are 
not intended for those who, by extended experience, are 
perfectly competent to manage affairs of this kind skill- 
fully; but to those who have not had experience in such 
matters it is important to point out the necessity of inform- 
ing themselves as to the standard type, and of adhering 
rigidly to it. 

It is doubtful if any attempt to establish large breeding 
kennels of Yorkshire Terriers would prove successful; for 
while there is, and always has been, a steady demand for 
first-class specimens, yet, owing to their peculiar and regu- 
lar care, it would be a good day' s work for any person, no 
matter how competent, to keep such a number of specimens 
constantly in show condition as would be required to 
maintain a reputation of the kennel necessary to its ulti- 
mate financial success. It is a matter of quality, not quan- 

29 



430 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

tity, that tells in this respect; and the aggregate amount 
possible to be realized from the business of a large kennel 
would hardly be commensurate to the cost of its mainte- 
nance. The dealer may, and in some cases probably does, 
conduct a profitable business, derived from the efforts of 
small breeders; and there is no doubt that those who engage 
in breeding to a reasonable extent combining business 
with pleasure will be rewarded with success in proportion 
to their efforts. 

The following detailed description and valuation of the 
principal points or characteristics of the breed is from the 
standard prepared and established by the Yorkshire Ter- 
rier Club of England. 

STANDARD AND POINTS OF JUDGING THE YORKSHIRE 
TERRIER. 

Value. Value. 

Quantity and color of hair on back. 25 Ears 5 

Quality of coat 15 Legs and feet 5 

Tan 15 Body and general appearance 10 

Head 10 Tail 5 

Eyes 5 

Mouth 5 Total 100 

General appearance. This should be of a long-coated 
pet dog, the coat hanging quite straight and evenly down 
each side, a parting extending from the nose to the end of 
the tail. The animal should be compact and neat, the car- 
riage being very "sprightly," bearing an important air. 
Although the frame is hidden beneath a mantle of hair, the 
general outline should be such as to suggest the existence 
of a vigorous and well-proportioned body. 

Head. This should be rather small and flat, not too 
prominent or round in skull, rather broad at the muzzle, 
with a perfectly black nose; the hair on the muzzle very 
long, which should be a rich, deep tan, not sooty or gray. 
Under the chin, long hair about the same color as the center 
of the head, which should be a bright golden tan, and not 
on any account intermingled with dark or sooty hairs. 
Hair on the sides of the head should be very long, and a 
few shades deeper than the center of the head, especially 
about the ear-roots. 



THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 451 

The eyes should be of medium size, dark in color, having 
a sharp, intelligent expression, and placed so as to look 
directly forward, but should not be prominent. The edges 
of the eyelids should also be of a darker color. 

Ears cut or uncut. If cut, quite erect; uncut, small, 
Y-shaped, and carried semi-erect. Covered with short hair. 
Color to be a deep, dark tan. 

The mouth should be good and even; teeth as sound as 
possible. A dog having lost a tooth or two through acci- 
dent not the least objectionable, providing the jaws are 
even. 

The body should be very compact, with a good loin, and 
level on top of the back. 

Coat. The hair as long and straight as possible (not 
wavy), which should be flossy, not woolly. It should 
extend from the back of the head to the root of tail. Color 
a bright steel-blue, and on no account intermingled with 
fawn, light, or dark hairs. 

Legs quite straight, of a bright, golden-tan color, and 
well covered with hair, a few shades lighter at the ends than 
at the roots. 

Feet as round as possible; toe-nails black. 

Weight divided into two classes, viz. , under five pounds 
and over five pounds, but not to exceed twelve pounds. 

Referring to this standard, Mr. Wilkinson says : 

Personally, I confess a weakness for color over quantity of coat, as I con- 
tend it is quite possible to produce a vast quantity of coat on a specimen other- 
wise indifferent.* From boyhood, I remember my father (now deceased) being 
a great breeder and fancier of Yorkshire Terriers, and he could not tolerate a 
dog without the rich, golden tan, and I certainly inherit his weakness, and 
think the points most difficult to o'btain should be thought most highly of 
when they are produced. I am rather afraid that, of late years, too much 
thought has been given to length of coat in preference to good color and mod- 
erate coat combined. A lot of hair with dog attached does not constitute a 
perfect Yorkshire Terrier. 

Mr. Bootman also says with relation to this point : 

Richness of tan on head and legs should, to my mind, be more cultivated 
than at present. This property was highly prized by the old breeders. The 
craze for length of coat has in a great measure been the means of reducing the 
quality of tan. 



452 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

In connection with the subject of standard, should be 
mentioned some of the most common faults noticed in speci- 
mens of the breed exhibited at our shows. The most im- 
portant of these are : Too round skull (apple-head), pointed 
muzzle ; silver-colored body instead of blue; fawn-colored 
head and legs instead of tan; mixed-coated body (made of 
two or more colors); curly or wavy coat; lack of anima- 
tion in expression; natural drop instead of semi-erect ears; 
roached back; light or "dudley" nose; uneven mouth; 
long hair on ears; hind legs heavily coated below hocks; 
too prominent eyes, and crocked front legs. All these, and 
some other faults, should be guarded against in breeding or 
selecting Yorkshire Terriers ; but to find a specimen technic- 
ally up to the established standard is a practical impossi- 
bility. 

As most of the future prize and other good dogs of this 
breed, in America, may reasonably be expected to spring 
at least in part from the best-known winners which 
have been exhibited at our shows, a brief summary of the 
principal first-prize winners of late years is here given, as 
far as we are familiar with them, and most of which are 
well known to the fancy. They are as follows : 

Champion Bradford Harry, Bradford Lill, Bradford 
Leah, and Lancashire Ben ; Campbell's Prince, Dolly, 
Spink, Sir Colin, and Dandy; North Fields Kennels' Harry, 
Fishpool Gem, Toon's Royal, Daisy, Little Sister, Jenny, 
and Floss ; Senn's Teddy and Jessie ; Cassidy' s Ben, Prince, 
and Jersey Lily; Clancy's Bill and Ben; Carleton's 
Armande and Bravo ; Silvey's Whiskers and Leo ; Bor- 
rowscale's Dandy ; Daly's Daisy ; Sullivan's Lucy ; Engel- 
hart's Paddy; Dole's Una; Healy's Ebor ; Row's Paddy ; 
Kramer's Midge; Cabot's Lancashire Star; Harrison's 
Mossey; Meadowthorpe. Fairy, Jessie, Damificare, Actor, 
and Spider. 

The following persons also own and exhibit good York- 
shires: 

John F. Campbell, Custom House, Montreal, Canada; 
North Fields Yorkshire Kennels, Salem, Mass.; P. H. 



THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 453 

Coombs, 1 Exchange Block, Bangor, Maine; Mrs. J. S. 
Bubrer, 3263 Groveland avenue, Chicago, 111. ; J. C. Cullen, 
Pittsfield, Mass. ; Dr. George W. Dixon, 406 Main street, 
Worcester, Mass. ; R. P. H. Durkee, 10 Ashland Block, 
Chicago, 111.; E. E. Dodge, Pittsfield, Mass. ; Michael Gough- 
erty, 71 Goffe street, New Haven, Conn. ; John J. Hooley, 
Troy, N. Y. j John Hackett, 23 Barton street, Hamilton, On- 
tario; John L. Lincoln, Jr., 2 and 4 Wabash avenue, Chicago, 
111.; R. S. F. Montgomery, 217 South Fourteenth street, 
Omaha, Neb.; W. R. Mack, Rochester, N. Y.; W. D. 
Reid, Elmira, N. Y.; E. J. Lillie, 53-59 Water street, 
Cleveland, Ohio; Mrs. E. A. Lincoln, 14 Parker street, 
New Bedford, Mass. ; J. H. Staats, 3 and 4 Hodge Opera 
House, Lockport, N. Y.; R. J. McLaughlin, 1762 Euclid 
avenue, Cleveland, Ohio; F. G. Anthony, New Haven, 
Conn.; E. G. Caiieton, 38 Court Square, Boston, Mass.; 
Henry Smith, Buffalo, N. Y. ; John McKee, 323 Marcey 
avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Mrs. L. D. Cutler, 262 West 
Thirty-fourth street, New York City; George Bell, Walker 
House, Toronto, Canada; Fred Senn, 278 West Eleventh 
street, New York City; Peter Cassidy, 135 Varick street, 
New York City; Bernard Cummings, 340 West Twenty- 
fifth street, New York City; Mrs. W. D. Stewart, Maiden, 
Mass.; George McDonnelly, Seventy-seventh street, South 
Boston, Mass.; W. A. Pinkerton, 191 Fifth avenue, Chi- 
cago, 111. ; Meadowthorpe Kennels, Lexington, Ky. ; J. 
Maddox, 4 West Sixty-sixth street, New York City; Will- 
iam A. Bragg, 21 Park street, Bangor, Maine, and Mrs. A. 
H. Manierre, Saranac Lake, N. Y. 

The dogs selected by the Editor for illustration in con- 
nection with this chapter are certainly among the best ever 
seen in this country, and are distinguished as first-prize 
winners at some of the principal shows in the north of 
England, where the breed originated, and where the best 
specimens in the world meet in competition. They are of 
especial interest in connection with this work, as being 
prominent prize-winners at American shows. 

Bradford Harry is at present (1890) the only champion 



454 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

of record of his breed in America. He was first exhibited 
here in 1888, and has appeared in Boston, New York, Troy, 
Lynn, Buffalo, and New Bedford, where he won nine first 
prizes in succession ; and, in addition, he has made the 
remarkable record of which few dogs of any breed can 
boast, viz., that of winning every special prize for which a 
Yorkshire Terrier was eligible to compete at the hows where 
he has appeared. In one show alone he won the specials 
for "best Yorkshire Terrier," "best rough-coated Terrier 
any breed," and " smallest dog in the show." His pedi- 
gree is as follows: Sire, Crawshaw's Bruce, dam, Beal's 
Lady; Bruce by Hodsdon's Sandy-Patterson's Minnie; 
Sandy by Bateman's Sand y- Venus ; Bateman's Sandy by 
Spring; Venus by Music; Spring by Huddersfield Ben; Beal' s 
Lady by Tyler-Lady ; Tyler by Huddersfield Ben-Bol- 
ton's Kitty; Kitty by Bolton's Wonder. 

The Yorkshire Terrier Mozart, bred and owned by 
Mr. James Alderson, of Leeds, England, won for the breed 
the name of Yorkshire Terrier in 1874 or 1875. He lived 
to the age of fourteen years and ten months, and won 
during his show career 164 prizes, including thirty-six 
cups, according to Mr. Bootman's history. Mozart was 
by Huddersfield Ben, out of Alderson' s Frisk, both of 
which run directly back to the original Old Crab, Kitty, 
and Whittam bitch. Huddersfield Ben was the best 
stud dog of his breed during his life-time, and one of the 
most remarkable dogs of any pet breed that ever lived; and 
most of the show specimens of the present day have one or 
more crosses of his blood in their pedigree. 

Before leaving this engaging breed, we would suggest to 
the managers of shows that they hardly do justice to its 
advancement and improvement when, in arranging pre- 
mium lists, only one class is provided for dogs and bitches, 
and frequently without regard to weight. It can hardly 
be expected of breeders and fanciers to bear the necessary ex- 
penses consequent to a four-days show often being obliged 
to ship their dogs long distances for the purpose to make 
full entries, when classes are not as liberal as for other 



THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER. 



455 



prominent breeds; and we do not hesitate to say that it 
would benefit the show, as well as the exhibitor, if man- 
agers would divide the classes by weight (under five 
pounds and over five pounds, as established by standard), 
and also by sex; but we must condemn the practice of 
providing puppy classes, if for no other reason than the 
liability of the puppies contracting distemper, and thus 
serving as agents through which it may be distributed pro- 
miscuously. Furthermore, the Yorkshire Terrier does not 
mature in coat and color until three to four years old, and it 
must be obvious to all that a first-prize puppy may be 
thoroughly unfit for show when matured; and the honor of 
winning such a prize can therefore be of but little practical 
benefit to the owner. 




THE AIREDALE TERRIER. 



BY F. H. F. MERCER. 



IT requires no slight stretching of the term to include this 
giant in the same category with the midgets of his 
genus. It seems unnatural to call a dog standing 
higher at the shoulder than many Foxhounds, and weigh- 
ing fifty to sixty pounds, by the same generic title as the 
three-pound Black and Tan, or the sprightly Fox Terrier. 
Yet, though he cannot "go to earth," the Airedale is an 
inveterate verminer; and if we call him not a Terrier, how 
else can he be known \ 

Hugh Dalziel ( ' ' Corsincon " ) claims the distinction of 
having christened this rough-and-ready tyke with the 
pretty name he bears. In the earlier dog shows of the 
northern counties of England, where specimens first ap- 
peared, they were scheduled as " Broken-haired or Work- 
ing Terriers," or as "Waterside Terriers," by which latter 
name they were known at home. 

"I suggested," writes Mr. Dalziel, "that the name 
Bingley Terrier would be a more distinctive cognomen, and 
applicable, inasmuch as Bingley seemed to me to be the 
center around which this Terrier was to be met with in the 
greatest numbers. Several of my correspondents, who were 
breeders and exhibitors, suggested to me that Airedale 
better represented the home of this Terrier. This I adopted, 
and the name Airedale Terrier has attached to the breed 
ever since." 

My information, it may be well to mention, derived from 
a Yorkshireman who has had to do with these Terriers all 
his life (he is now upward of fifty), fully bears out what 
Mr. Dalziel has written. 

As the Airedale was bred by the Yorkshiremen simply 

(457) 



458 



THE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



with a view to getting a rough-arid-ready dog, useful both 
as a watch-dog and by riverside and moor, naturally little or 
no attention was paid to "scientific" breeding; a useful 
dog was bred to a clever bitch, and for years no records 
were kept of any kind, consequently it is impossible to 
trace the. origin of the variety. 

I am inclined to the belief that there is a strong dash of 
the Otter Hound in their composition, backed, perhaps, 




P 

L 




i 



AIREDALE TERRIER WEAVER. 
Owned by Clumber Kennel ( F. H. F. Mercer), Ottawa, Canada. 



with some Bedlington, Scotch, and Irish Terrier blood. I 
know, too, that a dash of the Bull Terrier is frequently 
introduced to get additional courage. 

From my small experience of the Airedale, I have found 
that they possess the highest courage; and my mentor in 
Airedale matters tells me "they will lick more Bull Ter- 
riers than Bull Terriers lick them." Indeed, only the 
'other day, I received a letter from him saying that the dam 



THE AIREDALE TERRIER. 459 

of Weaver, the subject of the illustration, when suckling a 
litter of two-week-old puppies, fought a Bull and Terrier 
bitch for three-quarters of an hour. The Bull had the 
upper hand for the first thirty minutes, but then Floss, the 
Airedale, set to and killed her. His men told him that 
she wagged her tail all the time, and never made a sound, 
though receiving frightful punishment. The Bull and 
Terrier weighed half as much again as she did. 

Stonehenge gives the breed a very bad name, but I can 
not help thinking that the specimens he had to do with 
were not typical in disposition, at least. 

An Airedale is not a pretty dog no one can accuse him 
of being beautiful; but he is such a rough-and-ready look- 
ing customer, with such a weird head and face,- and such 
human-looking eyes, that one can not help liking him. I 
have heard people insist that the Airedale had monkey 
blood, as he looks more like ' c our ancestor ' ' than a dog, 
and undoubtedly there is a resemblance. 

When my first Airedale arrived by express, the box in 
which he was delivered, during my absence from home, was 
carefully deposited in the kennel-yard. On my return, I 
was met at the door by the friend who "keeps house" 
with me, and was told excitedly that an "awful-looking 
brute had come, and that he had left it in the box, being 
afraid to take it out." I went into the kennel-yard, 
and there saw this terror-inspiring creature, whom I at 
once pronounced to be the champion ugly dog of Can- 
ada. I let him out, and he was as affectionate a little, or 
rather big, fellow as you could find anywhere. My 
friends all ridiculed and laughed at him for the first 
few weeks, but now their feelings have changed, and I 
am fairly besieged with applications for "one of those 
Airedales." 

As I am a devoted Spaniel man, I have not yet tested 
Airedales afield, but I understand that they are a most 
invaluable all-around dog. They can "run" a deer, a fox, 
or a hare ; beat for feathered game, and kill a rat, retrieve 
a duck, and "draw" a 'coon. They are the least quarrel- 



460 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

some of dogs; but when once their wrath is raised, "look 
out for squalls " something is going to suffer. 

They are much used by poachers in England, being an 
improvement on the " lurchers" of olden days, and, more- 
over, less likely to arouse suspicion in the gamekeepers, to 
whom a lurcher is as a red rag to a bull. 

"He's a queer looking 'coon," I overheard a visitor say of 
an Airedale at a show, ' ' but he looks like a dandy for work ;' ' 
and I think this breed exemplifies the adage, "Handsome is 
as handsome does." 

They are grand watch-dogs and excellent house-dogs, 
kind and affectionate with children, and most intelligent. 
I am afraid, however, that they will never be popular, looks 
being so much against them. There are but few of them in 
the country, and very, very few good ones. 

The following extract from a letter lately received from 
an old friend will be of interest in this connection: 

I will try and write you what I know of Airedales. I think the breed 
originated from a cross between the Otter Hound and the Bull Terrier. There 
used to be a pack of Otter Hounds kept always at Bingley, England. I have 
often seen them hunting on the River Aire, which runs through Airedale; 
hence the name of the dog, I suppose. It is good sport to take three or four of 
these Terriers down the banks of a river hunting rats. They will find the cats 
in their holes, and stand back. Then you put in the ferret, the rat will jump 
into the water, and the dogs will watch for nis appearance, swim after and 
catch him, nine times out of ten. I think they and the Irish Terriers know 
more than all the other breeds of Terriers combined. 

I think the breed was first known about Salt Aire and Shipley Glen, Bayl- 
don, Bingley, and around Keighley. When I wished to get one, I never used to 
go to any other place to look for it; and all the really good ones were well known. 
I never cared to own any but the best I could get, and 1 10s. to 2 was 
then considered a high price. You could get the best to be had for that 
amount, if the owner would sell at all. 

I owned three Smuggler, Crack, and Ben and they were all as good dogs 
as I ever saw. Ben was the best and largest of the three. He would prob- 
ably weigh some forty to forty -five pounds when in good condition. They 
breed them now much larger than they did then. When I had them, I was 
about eighteen or twenty years old now thirty years ago and over. . . . 

Crack was first owned by a Leeds gentleman, and weighed not more than 
thirty five pounds when in fair condition. He was matched and fought in the 
pit, in Leeds, with a Bull Terrier, weight thirty-three and one-half pounds. 
Crack was to come any weight; Bull Terrier was to be thirty-two pounds only, 
but they let him in at above weight. I saw the fight, and bought Crack for 



THE AIREDALE TERRIER. 461 

2 10s. as soon as it was over. Crack outfought him, and killed him dead in 
forty-eight minutes, and fought fully as quiet as the Bull Terrier. He was 
better grit, for if the Bull Terrier could, he would have jumped the pit, I 
think; but Crack pinned him and held him until he finished him. Either of the 
other two, Ben or Smuggler, would fight just as keen. The Airedale fights much 
faster than the Bull Terrier, and their thick hair seems to sicken the dogs they 
fight with. They are the best watch-dogs I know of, and will stand by you in 
a tight place. The dog Charlie, that I have now in Maine, sleeps in my bed- 
room on a mat at the door, and no foot can enter the yard but he knows it. No 
one can cross that threshold at night unless he sees fit to allow it. He is three 
years old now, aud I think is a perfect type of the breed. He is surely game, 
and will hunt rabbits and rats every minute he can get. I think if he was 
properly trained that few dogs would beat him. He knows no one but his 
master, and completely ignores everyone else. . . . 

You can teach the Airedale Terrrier anything. When I was in 
Europe the last time, I saw one that I would have brought over if he 
could have been bought; but it was of no use, for his owner said 50 would 
not take him to America. I think he would weigh fully fifty-five to sixty 
pounds, and knew about as much as you would think a dog could be taught. 
His owner told me he would dive after a rat like an otter. He could make him 
stop anywhere, and he said he thought he would stop there until dead, or 
hunger compelled him to leave. He could send him home with a note and tell 
him to bring a reply back, and he would do it; and if he said "No reply," dog 
would take note and come right back; but if he said "Answer back," he 
would bring it, or stop until they gave him a piece of paper. He would bring 
that, or whatever they gave him that he could carry, and he would not lose it. 
He, was a perfect pet with children, and a regular guardian over his three-year- 
old little boy when sent out with the child. He reminded me so much of my 
Old Ben, I would have paid well for him, but the owner said: "No, my dog 
is one of my family, and will stay with us as long as he lives." 

Crack, the Airedale I alluded to before, I have seen point partridges and 
pheasants as stiff as any old Pointer; then he would take a look around for 
me, as much as to say, " I have them here for you;" and if one was wounded 
and run on the ground, he would trail it and bring it to you as sure as it 
dropped, and would not injure it. If I wounded a hare, or rabbit, he would 
surely kill it, then bring it in; but a bird he would bring alive every time. 

He was brought up on the estate of Sir Busfield Ferrand, of Bingley 
a thorough spoitsman, if ever one lived and Crack had to be sent off, as he 
would not make friends with the other dogs; he was jealous. He was nearly 
six years old when he came into my possession. I kept him some three years, 
and my brother-in-law kept him until his death. He was said to be about four- 
teen years old when he died, and up to about six months of his death was quite 
lively. After that he iost the use of his hind quarters, partially, and his sight 
failed him. Smuggler was also a grand dog, but not so game as Ben or 
Crack. 

Now I will tell you a true story about another Airedale that my father 
owned, as long ago as I can recollect anything. His name was Nelson. My 



462 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

father was on horseback, and had to cross Spring Mill Brook some fifteen to 
twenty feet across, usually about a foot deep. Father used to cross it for a 
short cut home. One night his horse stumbled, fell, and threw him, his back 
striking a rock. He was badly hurt, and could not stand. The horse stood 
waiting for him, but he could not get up; said he had lost the use of his lower 
parts. The dog tried all he could to lift him, but could not. Then he went to 
a mill some two hundred yards or more away, brought the night watchman, 
and saved my father's life. He was in the cold water nearly an hour, and had 
all he could do to raise himself on his hands to keep his head above water. 

The following is the standard for judging Airedale Ter- 
riers : 

Value. Value. 

Head 20 Legs and feet 15 

Ears 8 Coat and color 20 

Neck, shoulders, and chest 12 Weight 5 

Back and loin 15 

Hind quarters and stern 5 Total 100 

Head. Skull flat and moderately narrow, tapering 
slightly to the eyes, and free from wrinkle ; no perceptible 
stop or indentation between the skull and the muzzle, ex- 
cept in the profile. Jaw long and powerful, free from flews, 
rather deep, and moderately square at end. Nose black, 
and nostrils large. 

Mouth. Level ; teeth large and sound. 

Eyes. Small, bright, and dark in color, with Terrier 
expression. 

Ears. Y-shaped, moderate in size and thickness; car- 
ried forward, as in the case of the Fox Terrier, and free 
from long, silky hair. 

Neck. Fair length, gradually widening to the shoulders, 
well carried, and free from throatiness. 

Shoulders. Fine, long, and sloping moderately into the 
back. 

Chest. Should be deep and muscular, but neither full 
nor wide. 

Back and loin. The back should be short, straight, 
and strong ; the ribs well sprung and rounded; the loin 
broad and powerful, and well ribbed up. 

Hind quarters. Strong and powerful, thick through 
the hams ; good muscular second thighs, and stifles fairly 
bent. No tendency to " cow-hocks." 



THE AIREDALE TERRIER. 463 

Stern. The tail should be stout, and docked; set on 
rather high, but not raised to a right-angle with .the back. 

Legs and feet. The legs should be straight, and well 
furnished with bone; the feet round and close, with a thick 
sole. 

Coat. Rough, or broken, and dense and wiry in texture ; 
free from lock or curl. 

Color. Dark grizzle back, from occiput to end of tail, 
extending also down the sides of the body, with dark mark- 
ings on the side of the skull ; rest of body a good tan, 
darker on ears than elsewhere. 

Weight. Dogs, forty to forty-five pounds ; bitches, 
thirty-five to forty pounds. 

Disqualifications. A Dudley nose; white on throat, face, 
or feet (white on any other part of the body objectionable); 
a thoroughly bad mouth i. e., minus a number of teeth, and 
others cankered; also undershot; total blindness (partial 
blindness objectionable). I may say, parenthetically, that 
Airedales of the best breeding sometimes weigh as much as 
sixty pounds. 




THE SCOTTISH TEKRIER. 

BY JOHN H. NAYLOR. 

ffiN no other breed of Terriers have so many different 

types been shown as in the one commonly called the 

(11 Scotch Terrier. Everything in the shape of a Terrier 

is called Scotch by persons not versed in the proper types. 

Until about ten years ago, the strain no.w recognized 
as the Scottish Terrier was scarcely known except by 
persons directly in contact with them the breed being in 
the hands of gamekeepers and tod-hunters (fox-hunters) 
who lived in remote parts of the Scottish Highlands, which 
were rarely visited by the outside public, and where bench 
shows were unknown. These Terriers were hunted in 
packs, and used by their owners in destroying foxes, ot- 
ters, badgers, and other vermin which infested the cairns 
or rocks of that part of Scotland. The hunters were paid 
for all vermin destroyed; and as the livelihood of these men 
mainly depended on the amount of vermin destroyed, great 
care was taken in mating to dogs which were noted for 
their hunting qualities and gameness. 

Written pedigrees were unknown at this time, yet great 
care was taken to mate for working qualities. The owners 
were, in many instances, opposed to going outside their, 
own pack for new blood, for fear of introducing some infe- 
rior qualities in their packs. Special strains of these dogs 
have been kept in some families for almost a hundred years 
without a cross. 

Several years ago the correct Scot was very scarce, even 
in their native districts, I myself having had great difficulty 
at one time in finding suitable dogs to import for use as 
breeders in my own kennels. Mine were at that time the 
only specimens of pure Scottish Terriers in America, and 

3O C465) 



466 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

being desirous of keeping up my strains, I had to traverse 
the entire Highlands in my search for good specimens. 

These grand old Scottish; or Highland cairn y Terriers 
are now shown in great numbers at all the principal shows 
in Scotland and England, and many tine specimens may 
often be seen at our American bench shows; but to the 
general public, who do not frequent shows, they are almost 
as yet unknown. 




SCOTTISH TERRIER MEADOWTHORPE DONALD. 
Owned by Meadowthorpe Kennels, Lexington, Ky. 

As above stated, written pedigrees were not kept by the 
tod -hunters; and even at the present a pedigree of one of 
our most celebrated dogs does not run far on paper until it 
finishes with such and such a dog, from such and such a 
pack, well known as workmen in their native country. 

These Terriers are also named Die-hards, a name re- 
ported to have been given them by George, first Earl of 
Dumbarton, who owned a famous pack of them celebrated 
for their gameness. It is said that he afterward named 
his favorite regiment (the First Royal Scots) "Dumbar- 
ton's Die-hards," in compliment to his favorite Terriers, 



THE SCOTTISH TERRIER. 467 

and the regiment was afterward better known by that 
name than by any other. 

A Terrier resembling the Scottish, or Die-hard, has been 
spoken of by some writers, and introduced in some works 
on the dog, as the Aberdeen Terrier, but it is easy for 
anyone acquainted with the proper Scot to see at a glance 
the difference between it and the true Scot. The Aberdeen 
is of very uncertain breeding, and the long feather or fringe 
on his ear and the soft hair on his legs will always dis- 
tinguish him from the correct Scottish Terrier, whose ears 
are covered with a short, velvety coat, free from fringe at 
the top or sides, and whose legs are covered with hard, short 
hair. 

The carriage of ear in the Scottish Terrier is of two 
kinds, the semi-erect and the erect ear, either of which is 
correct; but a drop-ear is not correct in any case. The 
semi-erect ear is now seldom met with, but is considered by 
many competent judges of the breed as the old style. My 
old semi-erect-eared dog Glenlyon is the only one with this 
style of ear I have. He is now gray with years, being over 
ten years old. He was born on the night of the great Tay 
bridge disaster in Scotland. 

Sired by Fosoum, out of Wasp; Fosoum of the Kingussie 
pack, Wasp by Botach, out of Fanny. Botach from Lady 
Mengiess' kennels, and Fanny of the old Chestille-Glen- 
lyon stock, once so famous in the Scottish Highlands, and 
which are now extinct. Glenlyon is said to be the very 
image of Fosoum, who had also semi-erect ears; while 
Wasp, Botach, and Fanny all had erect ears. My Whin- 
stone, half-brother to Glenlyon, had erect ears. He has 
been dead several years. I had him preserved, and keep 
him as a specimen of the correct stock. Many others of my 
Terriers are well known to frequenters of American bench 
shows, having carried off almost all the prizes for many 
years, with Tarn Glen, Bonnie Belle, Heather, Whinstone, 
Lowrie Dunbar, Fanny Fern, Glenlyon, and others; and 
last, but not least, that old favorite, Rosie, who has now 
over twenty first prizes to her credit. 



468 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The Scottish Terriers, I find, make good companions for 
either ladies or gentlemen; are good watch-dogs, under good 
control, and are easily broken to cleanliness in the house. 
They are good on all kinds of game, are easily broken to 
ferret or gun, and some of them have proved the best of 
retrievers, either on fur or feather. They take to water 
readily, and retrieve a duck with any other dog. 

The following description and value of points for judg- 
ing is generally recognized on both sides of the water: 

Value. Value. 

Skull 5 Legsandfeet 10 

Muzzle 5 Tail 2> 

Eyes 5 Coat 20 

Ears 10 Size 10 

Neck 5 Color 2^ 

Chest 5 General appearance 10 

Body 10 

Total 100 

STcull (value 5) proportionately long, slightly domed, 
rather wide at the back and tapering gradually to the eyes. 
The hair on skull should be hard and short, about three - 
fourths of an inch long, or less, without any signs of silki- 
ness or top-knot. There should be a slight stop or drop 
between the eyes. 

Muzzle (value 5) long and powerful, gradually tapering 
from eyes to nose, which should always be black, of good 
size, and well spread; the jaws level, and the teeth fitting 
correctly. An overshot or undershot mouth should dis- 
qualify. The nose projects somewhat over the mouth, giv- 
ing the impression of the upper jaw being slightly longer 
than the under jaw. 

Eyes (value 5) wide apart, medium size, dark brown or 
hazel in color, well sunk in head, piercing, very bright, and 
intelligent looking from under heavy eyebrows. 

Ears (value 10) small, erect, or semi-erect either are 
correct but never dropping. They should be sharp-pointed, 
and the hair should be short, resembling fur; should be free 
from fringe at top and sides, and should not be cropped. 

Neck (value 5) short, thick, and muscular, strongly set on 
sloping shoulders. 



THE SCOTTISH TERRIER. 469 

Chest (value 5) deep; broad, in comparison to size of 
dog, but must not be out of proportion. 

Body (value 10) of moderate length; ribs flat, but well 
ribbed up; loin broad and strong, with no tendency to 
weakness in hind quarters. 

Legs and feet (value 10). Both fore and hind legs should 
be short, and heavy in bone; the fore legs being straight, or 
slightly bent, well set under body out at elbows being a 
serious blemish. The hocks should be well bent; thighs 
muscular, and the feet strong, small, round, and well 
padded the fore feet being larger than the hind feet, 
and well set down on the ground. Both feet and legs 
should be covered with short, hard hair; any tendency to 
silkiness or feather on legs is a serious fault. 

Tail (value 2J) about seven inches in length, covered 
with hard hair, and free from feather; carried with a slight 
bend, and often gaily. 

Coat (value 20) should be rather short (about two or three 
inches), hard and wiry in texture, with dense under-coat. 
The outer- coat should be free from any curl or waviness, 
and very dense an open coat being a serious blemish. 

Size (value 10) about fourteen to eighteen pounds for 
dogs; twelve to seventeen pounds for bitches. 

Color (value 2-J) steel or iron gray, brindle, black, red, 
wheaten yellow, or mustard color (mustard, black, and red 
not as popular). All white specimens have occurred, and 
are greatly prized, but white markings, such as fore feet 
and chest, are objectionable, and, if in large quantities, 
should disqualify. 

General appearance (value 10). The face should have a 
sharp, bright, and active expression; head carried well up. 
The dog, owing to shortness of coat, appears to be higher 
on the legs than he really is. Viewed from all points, he 
should show a nice, compact little Terrier, possessed of 
great strength and muscle, without any weak points or light 
bones, and without any waste or want of material. In fact, 
a Scottish Terrier, though essentially a Terrier, can not be 
put too powerfully together, and should have that happy- 



470 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



go-lucky vermin look about him that gives the impression 
he is ready for anything that comes along. He should be 
from nine to twelve inches in height, and should have the 
appearance of being slightly higher on the hind legs than 
on the fore legs. 

FAULTS. 

Muzzle either undershot or overshot; eyes large, or light- 
colored; ears large, round at the point, or drop. Too 
heavy a coat is a fault. Coat: Any silkiness, wave, or 
tendency to curl is a serious blemish, as is also an open 
coat. Specimens over eighteen pounds should not be 
encouraged. 




THE DANDIE DINMONT TEREIER. 



BY JOHN H. NAYLOR. 




>HE Dandle Dinmont Terrier is but little known in 
America to others than fanciers. It is difficult to 
understand why he is not more popular, for although 
not handsome, he is one of the brightest, most active, and 
vivacious of all the Terrier family. The liking for him inva- 
riably grows as one becomes more acquainted with his good 
qualities, for he embodies all tlmt goes to make up a good, 
workmanlike Terrier, with an admirable disposition for a 
companion for lady or gentleman, or as a playmate for 
children. In Europe, the breed is now one of the most 
fashionable, and the entries at bench shows excel those of 
most other breeds of Terriers. 

Until the year 1814, when the great novelist, Sir Walter 
Scott, wrote " Guy Mannering," the breed was unknown by 
its present name. The general opinion is that Scott drew 
the character of the hero in u Guy Mannering " from <tames 
Davidson, a farmer of Hindlee, in the foot-hills of the 
Teviotdale Mountains; yet it is a question whether at 
the time Scott wrote "Guy Mannering" he really por- 
trayed Davidson, or whether the identity was accidental. 
Be this as it may, the likeness was so perfect that David- 
son was ever afterward known as Dandie Dinmont among 
his neighbors and acquaintances. 

James Davidson certainly fitted the character to perfec- 
tion. He was a great hunter, especially of foxes and badg- 
ers; and his Terriers, which became celebrated for their 
gameness, were generally named Pepper or Mustard (such 
as Old Pepper or Young Pepper, Old Mustard or Young 
Mustard), according as their color was. 

James Davidson died in January, 1820, and his fondness 

(471) 



472 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

for hunting was strong to the end. The Hounds having 
started a fox, which ran near his window, while he lay on 
his death -bed, he insisted on getting out of bed to enjoy 
the fun, as he called it. That Davidson was the originator 
of this now celebrated breed of dogs is not generally 
believed, but they have ever since borne his nickname. 
It is believed that they were in the hands of border gypsies 
and farmers many years before. Doctor Brown, writing of 
one of his dogs, says: "He came of the Piper Allan breed, 
who lived some two hundred years ago, in Coquet Water." 

Allan was a piper, like Homer, traveling from place to 
place, and famous for his dogs, music, and songs. The Earl 
of Northumberland offered the piper a small farm for his 
dog. Allan remarked: " Na, na, mee lord; keep yer ferum. 
What wud a piper do wi' a fernm?" 

It is said by Mr. Robert White that the father of Jamie 
Allan (Piper Allan) was named William, and was born in 
1704. He was a player on the bagpipes, and repaired pots 
and pans and made spoons and baskets. He was an excel- 
lent angler, and among his other pursuits he excelled in 
the hunting of otters, and kept eight or ten Terriers for this 
sport. Peachem was William Allan's favorite, and such 
confidence had he in the animal, that when hunting he would 
at tirhes remark: 

"When my Peachem gi'es mouth, I durst always sell 
the otter's skin." 

Charlie was also an excellent dog. William Allan had 
once been employed by Lord Ravensworth to kill otters on 
the estate, which he soon accomplished. His lordship 
wishing to buy Charlie, .at the piper's own price, Allan 
turned round haughtily, and exclaimed: 

"By the wuns, this hale estate canna buy Charlie." 

William Allan died in 1779, aged seventy-five years. 
His son Jamie was born in 1734. 

Mr. J. Davidson, an old fancier of the breed, published 
a letter in the Field (London) of December 7, 1778, which 
sheds more light on the question as to how James Davidson, 
the original Dandie Dinmont, came into possession of his 



THE DANDIE DIN MONT TERRIER. 473 

first Dandies than we have been able to obtain from any 
other source. He says: 

"The Border Muggers were great breeders of Terriers, 
and in their wanderings the different tribes would meet 
once or twice a year at some of the border villages. If 
they could not get a badger, they would try their dogs on 
a foumart (wildcat) or a hedgehog. 

" Jock Anderson, the head of the tribe, had a red bitch 
that for such work beat all the dogs that came over the 
borders. Geordie Faa had a wire-haired dog that was the 
terror of all the dogs in the district, and that was good at 
badger, fox, or foumart. A badger had been procured, and 
both the bitch and dog drew the badger every time. Geor- 
die Faa said to Jock Anderson, 'Let's have a big drink, 
the man first down to lose his dog.' ' Done,' says 
Jock. Down they sat on the green, and in eighteen hours 
Jock was laid out, and Geordie started off with the dogs. 
They were mated, and produced the first Pepper and Mus- 
tard, which were presented by Geordie to James Davidson, 
Dandie Dinmont." 

Many years ago, E. Bradshaw Smith bought up all the 
good Dandies he could lay his hands on, and even offered 
Mr. Milnes to cover Old Jenny with 5 notes if he could 
have her, but the offer was refused. He, however, bought 
up many of the then famous kennels; and Dandies whose 
pedigrees show them to contain this blood are eagerly 
sought after by breeders of the present day. The Dandie 
Dinmont is a very game dog. Some few specimens that 
have been spoiled in their puppy hood may show the 
white feather, and this may be true of any other breed; 
but this is far from being the rule with the Dandie. He is 
not a quarrelsome dog, but once aroused, he goes in to win, 
and is sure to give a good account of himself. 

Many instances of Dandies worrying each other in their 
kennels have been noted. I have suffered myself from this. 
My Border Clinker killed Bonnie Briton in midday, and 
neither made the least noise. That old breeder, Mr. Som- 
ner, owned the famous Shem, whose father and brother are 



474 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

said to have been found dead in a drain in which the 
Hounds had run a fox. The drain had three entrances; the 
father was put in at one hole, the son at another, and speed- 
ily the fox bolted out at the third, but no appearance of the 
little Terriers, and on digging they were found dead, locked 
in each other's jaws. They had met, and it being dark, 
and there being no time for explanations, they had throttled 
each other. 

In closing, I must say that anyone wishing a hardy 
Terrier, one fit for all kinds of work, a companion for him- 
self or children, can not find anything better than a Dandie 
Dinmont. The more they become known, the more their 
merits will be appreciated. I speak from years of experi- 
ence with this breed, having imported some of the finest 
blood known; and more Dandies have passed through my 
hands, and more prizes have been won by my dogs, than by 
those of all other breeders in America combined. 

Following is the standard of points of the Dandie Din- 
mont Terrier as defined and adopted by the South of Scot- 
land Dandie Dinmont Terrier Society. The relative values 
of several points in the standard are apportioned as follows: 

Value. Value. 

Head 10 Legs and feet 10 

Eyes 10 Coat 15 

Ears 10 Color 5 

Neck 5 Size and weight 5 

Body 20 General appearance 5 

Tail 5 

Total 100 

Head. Strongly made and large, not out of proportion 
to the dog's size, the muscles showing extraordinary de- 
velopment, more especially the maxillary. Skull broad 
between the ears, getting gradually less toward the eyes, 
and measuring about the same from the inner corner of the 
eye to back of skull as it does from ear to ear. The fore- 
head well domed. The head is covered with very soft, silky 
hair, which should not be confined to a mere top-knot, and 
the lighter in color and silkier it is the better. The cheeks, 
starting from the ears proportionately with the skull, have 
a gradual taper toward the muzzle, which is deep and 



THE DANDIE DINMONT TEKRIEK. 475 

strongly made, and measures about three inches in length, 
or in proportion to skull as three is to five. The muzzle is 
covered with hair of a little darker shade than the top-knot, 
and of the same texture as the feather of the fore legs. The 
top of the muzzle is generally bare for about an inch from 
the back part of the nose, the bareness coming to a point 
toward the eye, and being about one inch broad at the 
nose. The nose and inside of mouth black or dark-colored. 
The teeth very strong, especially the canine, which are of 
extraordinary size for such a small dog. The canines fit 
well into each other, so as to give the greatest available 
holding and punishing power, and the teeth are level in 
front, the upper ones very slightly overlapping the under 
ones. (All undershot and overshot specimens will not be 
recognized by the society. ) 

Eyes. Set wide apart, large, full, round, bright, express- 
ive of great determination, intelligence, and dignity; set 
low and prominent in front of the head; color, a rich, 
dark hazel. 

Ears. Large and pendulous, set well back, wide apart, 
and low on the skull, hanging close to the cheek, with a 
very slight projection at the base; broad at the junction of 
the head, and tapering almost to a point, the fore part of 
the ear tapering very little the taper being mostly on the 
back part, the fore part of the ear coming almost straight 
down from its junction with the head to the tip. They are 
covered with a soft, straight, brown hair (in some cases 
almost black), and have a thin feather of light hair starting 
about two inches from the tip, and of nearly the same color 
and texture as the top -knot, which gives the ear the appear- 
ance of a distinct point. The animal is often one or two 
years old before the feather is shown. The cartilage and 
skin of the ear should not be thick, but rather thin. 
Length of ear, from three to four inches. 

Neck. Very muscular, well developed, arid strong, 
showing great power of resistance, being well set into 
the shoulders. 

Body. Long, strong, and flexible; ribs well sprung and 



476 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

round; chest well developed, and let well down between the 
fore legs; the back rather low at the shoulder, having a 
slight downward curve and a corresponding arch over the 
loins, with a very slight gradual drop from top of loins to 
root of tail; both sides of backbone well supplied with 
muscle. 

Tail. Rather short, say from eight to ten inches, and 
covered on the tipper side with wiry hair of darker color 
than that of the body, the hair on the under side being 
lighter in color, and not so wiry, with a nice feather about 
two inches long, getting shorter as it nears the tip; rather 
thick at the root, getting thicker for about four inches, 
then tapering off to a point. It should not be twisted or 
curled in any way, but should come up with a regular curve 
like a scimiter, the tip, when excited, being in a perpendic- 
ular line with the root of the tail. It should neither be set 
on too high nor too low. When not excited it is carried 
gaily, and a little above the level of the body. 

Legs. The fore legs short, with immense muscular 
development and bone, set wide apart, the chest coming 
well down between them. The feet well formed, and not 
flat, with very strong brown or dark-colored claws. Bandy- 
legs and flat feet are objectionable, but may be avoided 
the bandy-legs by the use of splints when first noticed, and 
the flat feet by exercise, and a dry bed and floor to the 
kennel. The hair on the fore legs and feet of a blue dog 
should be tan, varying according to the body-color from a 
rich tan to a pale fawn; of a mustard dog they are of a 
darker shade than its head, which is a creamy white. In 
both colors there is a nice feather, about two inches long, 
rather lighter in color than the hair on the fore part of the 
leg. The hind legs are a little longer than the fore ones, 
and are set rather wide apart, but not spread out in an un- 
natural manner, while the feet are much smaller; the thighs 
are well developed, and the hair of the same color and text- 
ure as the fore ones, but having no feather or dew-claws; 
the whole claws should be dark; but the claws of all vary 
in shade according to the color of the dog's body. 



t 

THE DANDIE DINMONT TEKKIER. 477 

Coat. This is a very important point; the hair should 
be about two inches long, that from skull to root of tail a 
mixture of hardish and soft hair, which gives a sort of crisp 
feel to the hand. The hard should not be wiry; the coat is 
what is termed pily or penciled. The hair on the under 
part of the body is lighter in color and softer than on the 
top. The skin on the belly accords with the color of the 
dog. 

Color. The color is pepper or mustard. The pepper- 
color ranges from a dark bluish-black to a light silvery 
gray, the intermediate shades being preferred; the body- 
color coming well down the shoulder and hips, gradually 
merging into the leg-color. The mustards vary from a red- 
dish-brown to a pale fawn, the head being a creamy white, 
the legs and feet of a shade darker than the head. The 
claws are dark, as in other colors. (Nearly all Dandie Din- 
mont Terriers have some white on the chest, and some have 
also white claws. ) 

Size. The height should be from eight to eleven inches 
at the top of shoulder. Length from top of shoulder to 
root of tail should not be more than twice the dog's height, 
but preferably one or two inches less. 

Weight. From fourteen pounds to twenty-four pounds; 
the best weight as near eighteen pounds as possible. These 
weights are for dogs in good working order. 




THE SKYE TERRIER 



BY LAWRENCE TIMPSON. 



ROBABLY no other subject in relation to doggy 
affairs has been more written about or has given rise 
to more controversies, all more or less rancorous, in 
the past twenty years, than the origin and true type 
of the Skye Terrier. At the same time, these controver- 
sies have left the subject in dispute pretty much as they 
found it, and although more or less light has been thrown 
on the different points at issue, no conclusion has ever yet 
been reached that was satisfactory to all fanciers of this 
breed; the disputants, after airing their theories and attack- 
ing their neighbors', ending as they began, each with his 
own opinion unaltered. 

I shall not attempt to notice and sum up these various 
controversies; even if an article such as this would admit 
of it, which it does not, the matter would be too tedious 
and unprofitable. I shall take the type of Skye Terrier 
that is recognized to-day, and confine myself to a slight- 
sketch of what is known of its origin and history, not 
entering into any speculations on the subject. 

Scattered throughout the whole of Scotland are various 
strains of rough-coated Terriers, the Terriers of one district 
having a certain similarity of type and differing more or 
less from those of other districts. Of these, there appears 
at present to be but two strains that are generally recog- 
nized as distinct breeds the Skye and the Dandie Dinmont. 
Besides these, the hard-haired Scotch and the Airedale have 
lately come in for some notice in England, but have not 
yet attracted much attention in this country. Among 
other strains of more or less local celebrity are the Aber- 
deenshires, Dry nocks, Mogstads, and others whose day on 

(479) 



480 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

the show bench may come sometime when some circum- 
stance or other has brought them to the notice of the 
public, and they will emerge from the obscurity of their 
native dales. 

The Dandie Dinmont would have been as little known, 
perhaps such a breed would not have been in existence at 
all to-day, if their praises and those of old James Davidson, 
of Hindlee, the stout old Liddesdale yeoman, had not been 
sung by Sir Walter Scott in his "Gruy Mannering." The 
Skye, though a native of the island whose name he bears, 
and of the adjacent coast, like his cousin the Dandie Din- 
mont, who originally came from the borders of Liddesdale 
and the Teviot district, has left his native place, and has 
been for so long a time established generally all through 
the Highlands that comparatively few come from or ?ire to 
be found now at the original home of the breed. 

There is a story current to the effect that the strain of 
Terriers on the island of Skye, and the adjacent mainland, 
got that silky texture of coat which distinguishes them 
from the other strains from some mythical white Spanish 
dogs that came ashore from the wreck of some ships of the 
Spanisli armada that were lost among the Hebrides. 
Whether this be true or not, we find the Skye Terrier 
possessed of a longer and comparatively more silky coat 
than the other strains. The breed is pretty generally 
divided into two classes, the drop-eared and the prick-eared, 
about the only difference between them being the carriage 
of the ears and tail, and in the drop -eared variety a smaller 
head, a longer body, and a somewhat longer and softer coat. 

They are practically the same, however, this difference in 
type being brought about merely by selection, owing to the 
preference of some for the longer, silkier coated dog for a 
pet, over his more workmanlike cousin. For the purposes 
of this article I will treat them as one and the same, having 
at the outset pointed out what differences do exist between 
them. 

The Skye Terrier is a long, low, well-built, wiry little 
fellow, with a good hard jacket, an intelligent, alert ex- 



THE SKYE TERRIER. 



481 



pression, and a sound constitution, which enables him to 
go almost anywhere, do almost anything, and rough it with 
his master in any climate. He is a born sportsman, always 
ready for a quiet bit of sport in a barn, or along the hedge- 
rows, displaying the utmost keenness and sagacity in the 
pursuit of all sorts of vermin; and he is death to any 
animal of his own weight. Although always ready to 
defend himself or his master, and never showing the " white 




SKYE TERRIER LOVAT. 
Owned by Lawrence Timpson, 16 Exchange Place, New York City. 

feather," no matter what the odds may be against him, in 
size or numbers, he, unlike the Fox, Dandie, and Irish 
Terrier, is not at all quarrelsome. 

The Skye is a peaceful, well-conducted little citizen, and 
attends strictly to his own affairs, unless those affairs are 
interfered with by others. This quarrelsome characteristic 
tells seriously against the other breeds mentioned, espe- 
cially as ladies' companions. The red Irishman, in particu- 
lar, dearly loves a "mill," and, figuratively speaking, is 
always trailing his coat-tails behind him, and trying to have 

31 



482 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

them walked on. The Skye's temper can always be relied 
on, and he can be implicitly trusted with children. 

No other breed is better adapted to going to earth; their 
long and low conformation, resembling that of weasels 
and other earth-frequenting vermin, giving the greatest 
amount of size and strength possible for the small "caliber" 
required. Their disposition resembles very much that of the 
Highlanders themselves in their love of home, and in 
war by their dash, pluck, and dogged courage and endur- 
ance, and by a loyalty and devotion to their master, through 
fair and foul weather, only equaled by that of the old 
Scotch Jacobites for the head of the House of Stuart. 

The Skye is an exceptionally good house-dog, and his 
coat, though so long, is entirely free from any unpleasant 
odor. In spite of its length, too, it requires very little care 
to keep it in order. After a run in the country, on a 
muddy road, or over plowed land, he requires to be quar- 
antined in the lower regions for awhile before being allowed 
in the house; and in the autumn, whenever he gets his coat 
full of burs, it requires a free use of the scissors and the 
sacrifice of considerable hair to remove them. Under ordi- 
nary conditions, however, in town or country r his coat 
requires no more attention than that of other breeds. 

All this applies to dogs with outer coats of the proper 
texture; straight and comparatively hard, parting down 
the center of the back naturally, without any tendency to 
kink or curl. Skyes, especially drop-eared ones, whose 
coats are too soft, approaching more nearly that of the 
Yorkshire, of course give much more trouble in this respect, 
requiring frequent thorough soakings in tepid water, and 
considerable brushing and combing, to keep their jackets 
straight. 

The Skye is a good water-dog, taking to it without the 
least hesitation, be it ever so cold; and he is the best of 
watch- dogs a vigilant little Skye being the surest burglar- 
alarm one can have. Of course I am speaking now of the 
Skye as he naturally is, and as he should be. His natural 
disposition, his intelligence, and his love of sport, are, in 



THE SKYE TEKKIEK. 483 

many instances, spoiled by his being made, from puppy- 
hood, a pampered house-pet, and his coat and constitution 
likewise suffer from warm quarters, overfeeding, and lack 
of proper exercise. 

He is deservedly popular among gamekeepers through- 
out both England and Scotland, and equally so about the 
stables or in the laborer's cottage. And for work, and on 
country rambles, or by his fireside, the squire can have no 
better companion than this friendly, cheerful, little fellow. 
He is particularly well adapted for a town house, and, on 
the whole, is all around the most companionable of small 
dogs, and especially for ladies. 

It may appear to some, especially to those who admire 
the unquestionable merits of other breeds, that I have been 
showing the Skye through rose-colored glasses; but I am 
speaking from experience. I have owned, at one time or 
another, Terriers of about all the breeds, and none of my 
old friends are forgotten. As I write, I can see, in fancy, 
a row of little wistful faces white ones and red ones, blue, 
tan, and grizzle, stretching away back to my school-boy 
days; and apart from all feelings for particular individuals, 
I can truly say that the Skye has proved himself to be, to 
me, the best, and I am glad to have an opportunity, such 
as this, of paying him the tribute he deserves. 

The history of the Skye Terrier in America commences, as 
does that of the majority of our breeds of dogs, with the 
institution by the Westminster Kennel Club of their first 
annual bench show, in 1877. Previous to that time, almost 
any blue, rough -coated Terrier was called, in this country, a 
Skye, and at the first few shows the exhibits were generally 
pretty much all of the nondescript order; but the winners 
were nearly all of the right stamp, and the dog-loving public 
soon learned, in a general way, what a Skye should really 
look like. 

Among the first exhibitors were Mr. W. P. Sanderson, 
of Philadelphia, who showed Donald, and Mr. Robert 
McLelland, of New York, with Tom. Later, came Mr. 
Robert Sewell, of Tarrytown, with Tatters and others. 



484 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The most successful dog that has yet appeared on the bench, 
over here, is Mr. W. P. Sanderson' s Jim, whose winnings are: 
First, Pittsburgh; champion, New York; champion, Cleve- 
land, 1882; champion, New York; champion, Washington, 
1883; champion, New York; champion, Philadelphia, 1884; 
champion, Philadelphia, 1885; champion, New York, 1886; 
first, Boston, 1887; first, Philadelphia, 1887. Boss, imported 
by Mr. George Peabody Wetmore, of Newport, the best 
Skye that had, up to then, appeared on this side, with the 
exception of Mr. Sanderson's Jim, was shown at New York 
in 1884, and in the same year, Mr. George Sanderson, 
of Moncton, New Brunswick, entered the lists with Watty 
and Fanny. 

Among the principal breeders and exhibitors of the Skye 
in America, besides those already mentioned, are: Mr, A. W. 
Powers, of Lansingburgh, N. Y. ; Dr. M. H. Cryer, of Phil- 
adelphia; Mr. S. S. Howland, of Mount Morris, N. Y. ; Mr. 
Cornelius Stevenson, of Philadelphia; Messrs. Oldham and 
Wiley, of Mamaroneck, N. Y. ; the Meadowthorpe Kennels, 
of Lexington, Ky., and Mr. F. W. Flint, of New York.* 

The following is the standard and scale of points of the 
Skye Terrier : 

Value. Value. 

Head 15 Coat 20 

Ears and eyes 10 Color 5 

Body and neck 15 Size and symmetry 15 

Legs and feet 10 

Tail 10 Total 100 

The head should be long, rather narrow between the 
ears, increasing in width between the eyes, with a flat 
skull, little or no brow, and a pointed nose. The teeth 

* Other breeders and exhibitors of Skye Terriers in this country are: J. 
L. Banks, 120 Broadway, New York City; Lewis H. Spence, 78 Broad street, 
New York City; C. H. Smith, St. Stephen, New Brunswick; W. W. Silvey, 
1428 South Pennsylvania Square, Philadelphia, Penn. ; W. P. Sanderson, 4202 
Baltimore avenue, Philadelphia, Penn.; H. P. McKean, Jr., Pulaski avenue, 
Germ;intown, Penn.; J. S. Garner, 1134 Baltimore street, Philadelphia, Penn.; 
Miss Sarah Stewart, 143 North Eleventh street, Philadelphia, Penn.; C. A. 
Shinn, 1543 Filbert street, Philadelphia, Penn.; A. McGregor, 353 Forty- 
seventh street, West Chicago; M. H. York, 307 North Third street, West 
Camden, N. J. ED. 



THE SKYE TERKIER. 485 

should be perfectly level and evenly set in good, strong 
jaws. Nose and roof of mouth black, or very dark brown. 

Ears and eyes. The ears are set on rather high, not 
large, being less than three inches 'long; but the hair on 
them, mixing with that of the head, neck, and cheeks, 
makes them look much larger. In the drop-eared variety 
they should fall perpendicularly and lie close to the cheek, 
and in the prick-eared variety they should stand well up, 
without any outward inclination. The eyes should be dark- 
brown or hazel, of medium size, and sharp in expression, 
though at the same time bespeaking wisdom and kindli- 
ness. 

Body and neck. The back is long, but strongly coated 
with muscle and perfectly straight, any tendency toward 
the roach -back of the Dandie Dinmont being especially 
objectionable. The ribs are round, the chest barrel-like, 
and the back ribs should extend well toward the hips. 
The neck is long and well clothed with muscle, rising evenly 
out of the chest. Shoulders strong and rather upright. 

Legs and feet. The legs should be straight, and the 
elbows and stifles not turned out. The thighs should be 
well clothed with muscle down to the hocks. Feet round 
and well covered with hair. There should be no dew-claws. 

Tail. This should be carried low by the drop-eared 
variety, and about level with the back by the prick-eared. 
Under excitement, it is sometimes carried gaily. 

Coat. The outer coat should consist of hard, long, 
straight hair, and the under coat should be close, soft, and 
woolly in texture. On the back, the coat should be straight 
and free from curl, and should part naturally down the 
middle. This parting is usually assisted with the comb; 
but it can not be so trained by this alone, if the outer coat is 
naturally curly and of a woolly texture. Although the 
outer coat is hard and straight, the inner woolly coat is so 
thick on the body that when the dog is wet it prevents the 
outer coat from collapsing and adhering to his sides. On 
the head and legs, this is not the case; and when the dog is 
wet, his head presents a very different aspect from that 



486 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

shown when in the natural state it looking so much smaller 
and longer. The length of coat on the body should be con- 
siderable, but should not be so great as to entirely hide the 
animal's shape or to touch the ground. On the head, it 
should be long, overhanging the eyes, often so as to com- 
pletely conceal them. The tail should be well feathered, 
but not so as to make it appear bushy or woolly. The legs 
also should have a certain amount of feather, but without 
any approach to matting. 

The colors should be black and slate, or black with white 
hairs, silver gray, or fawn. Silver gray is certainly the 
handsomest for a lady's pet, especially. This latter 
should be tipped with black, and the fawn with black or 
dark-brown. 

Size and symmetry. The Skye Terrier should stand 
from nine to ten inches high at the shoulder, and his length 
from end of nose to tip of tail should be from thirty -five to 
forty inches; the prick-eared variety a trifle shorter in 
proportion to his height. The weight should be from six- 
teen to twenty pounds. He should display perfect sym- 
metry in his proportions. 

In preparing the Skye for the bench, the all-important 
point to be looked after is the coat. No matter how good a 
dog may be otherwise, if his coat is in bad shape when he 
faces the judge, he has to go to the wall. The principal 
thing to do to get the coat in good shape is to keep the 
skin healthy by means of proper exercise and feeding; this, 
together with protecting the coat for the time from wet and 
dirt, and by proper washing and brushing, which, however, 
must not be overdone, will bring about the desired result. 

The subject of our illustration, Lovat, the property of 
Mr. Cornelius Stevenson, of Philadelphia, was bred by Mr. 
A. Cromby, of Edinburgh, and was whelped April 10, 1887. 
His sire is Sir William Wallace; dam, Daisy. His winnings 
are: Second, Ayr; second, Glasgow; second, Greenock; 
second, Paisley; first and special, Dundee; first and special, 
Dunfermline; first, New York, 1889, and first and special, 
Philadelphia, 1889. 



THE SKYE TEKRIEK. 



487 



I hope that the Skye will continue to advance in popu- 
larity in the future as rapidly as he has in the past, and 
that I may have brought his merits to the notice of new 
friends and been instrumental in establishing him in a 
higher niche among the dogs of America. 




THE BLACK AND TAJST TERRIER. 



BY H. T. FOOTE, M. D., V. S. 




>HIS breed has the distinction, if previous writers are 
correct, of being the source of nearly or quite all 
breeds of Terriers. According to the earliest his- 
tory of the dog, there existed in England a rough-haired 
Black and Tan Terrier thicker in skull, shorter in head, 
and stockier in body. The tan of these dogs was extensive, 
and of a lighter shade than that usually seen on modern 
specimens. They went to earth after game, and had great 
stamina and courage. According to Youatt, smooth-coated 
Terriers came from crossing these dogs with Hounds, and 
long- coated Terriers from crossing with curs. From cross- 
ings with other pure breeds, the various fancy breeds of 
Terriers have been established. 

So far as the Black and Tan is concerned, he has, during 
the past few centuries, evoluted into a more delicately and 
gracefully built animal, with short, fine, smooth, and jet- 
black coat over the greater part of the body, and with a 
small amount of much darker tan. The thumb-marks, 
pencilings, and " kissing- spots " have been developed, the 
head has lengthened, and, like his body, is narrower than 
formerly. With this change in his physical make-up, it is 
not surprising that he has, at the same time, lost some of 
his cornbativehess and courage; yet one now occasionally 
sees a specimen that manifests all the fighting qualities and 
Terrier instincts that the early Terrier was so famous for, 
and, as a whole, no breed can surpass the modern Black and 
Tan for natural rat-killing abilities. He gives a sharp nip, 
and turns from one rat to another without delay. 

Early in 1889, a great rat-baiting contest was held in 
Antwerp. The rats came from the sewers of Paris, and 

(489) 



490 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



were large and ferocious. The Black and Tan won, killing 
the most rats, and in the shortest time. The competition 
was large, pretty much all breeds of Terriers being repre- 
sented. What the best record is for killing rats I do not 
know, but an example of the rapidity of movement of a 
Black and Tan Terrier is shown in the record of Shaw's 
Jacko, who killed one hundred rats in less than seven 
minutes. 




BLACK AND TAN TERRIER PUPPIES. 
By Dick ex Meersbrook Maiden. Owned by Dr. H. T. Foote, 120 Lexington avenue, New York City. 

It is as a clean, alert house-dog and a bright, handsome 
companion that the Black and Tan Terrier has gained a 
reputation equaled by no other breed; and this is one of the 
few points upon which all authorities on doggy matters 
seem to agree. His color and shortness of coat render the 
few hairs he may leave about unnoticeable. He is quickly 
house-broken, and as a burglar-alarm no modern electrical 
contrivance can compare with him. He is not quarrelsome, 
and avoids trouble with other dogs or people so far as possi- 



THE BLACK AND TAN TERRIER. 491 

ble; but once he is aroused, the instinct of his ancestry 
gives him all the necessary courage and cunning to stay in 
the fight to the finish. In the kennel, a number of this breed 
can be kept together regardless of sex, and it is rare that 
any ill-nature crops out. 

On the bench, length and narrowness of head and cor- 
rectness of markings have had great weight, and perhaps 
not enough attention has been given to other points, espe- 
cially to Terrier character in expression, and to good legs 
and feet. The specimen I have selected for illustration, 
Meersbrook Maiden (13744), is strong in these particulars, 
and has not the extreme of length and narrowness of head. 
She has twenty wins to her credit in England, and during 
1887 and 1888 competed successfully with the best speci- 
mens of the breed in that country. Since coming to Amer- 
ica, she has added to her list of wins, and recent criticisms 
in our sporting papers, giving reports of shows, are to the 
effect that she outclasses all other specimens in this country 
at present. This bitch has improved wonderfully since she 
came here, and I do not believe that she was ever shown in 
as good form when in England as she is now in, although 
at the time this photograph was taken she was too fat. 

Kaiser, owned by John F. Campbell, of Montreal, and 
his litter sister, Rochelle Lass, are next in order of merit 
among those in this country. Both have manifested 
excellence in competition on the bench, and are important 
acquisitions to the breed. Edward Lever was one of the 
earliest to introduce the breed here, and the blood of his 
Champion Vortigern flows in the veins of about all the good 
home-bred ones that have been seen. Vortigern was a 
thoroughly game dog, and he held in no fear the drawing 
of a badger or a tussle with a Bull Terrier. Now that 
more perfect specimens are being imported, we may look 
for marked and rapid improvement in this breed, and it is 
to be hoped they will receive the recognition that they so 
much deserve. 

There have been but few successful breeders, and among 
those most prominent in England was Mr. Samuel Handley, 



492 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

of Manchester. He developed the most perfect specimens 
of the breed in his time, and his kennels became so noted 
that the breed has since been known in England as the 
"Manchester Terrier." As, however, it was known as the 
Black and Tan Terrier for a long period before Mr. Handley 
became prominent, it would be better to go on with the 
breed with its original name. Among later breeders and 
exhibitors, Mr. Henry Lacy and Mr. Thomas Ellis have 
been prominent. 

Among noted dogs that can be found in the pedigrees 
of most good specimens of the present day, are Saff, 
Belcher, General, Sir Edward, Burke', Wallis, and General 
III., and the most noticeable of our present specimens are 
Lord George, Prince George, Kenwood Queen, Broomfield 
Turk, Pearl, Vesper, and the subject of my illustration, 
Meersbrook Maiden. 

The idea that cropping is essential to the breed has done 
much to retard its way into popular favor. Breeders have 
given no attention to natural ears, and have rather devel- 
oped coarse ears that would carry well when cropped. 
There is no more reason for cropping the Black and Tan 
than there is for cropping the Fox Terrier, Pug, Bulldog, 
and other breeds that not many years ago were considered 
unsightly with their natural ears. It will take some time to 
breed the natural ears on the Black and Tan, but there will 
be every inducement for breeders to strive in this direction 
if owners will be satisfied to put up with and accustom 
themselves to the uncropped ears, and bench-show judges 
will follow the example set by the judge of this breed at the 
New York show of 1890, in giving the uncropped dogs an 
equal chance, and perhaps showing them more favor than 
he did the cropped dogs. At all events, a Black and Tan 
with good natural dropped ears, similar to those of a Fox 
Terrier, is just as sprightly in appearance as is this Terrier; 
and once the cropped ears go out of fashion, we will wonder 
why cropping was ever tolerated. 

It is not surprising that in a breed that has depended so 
much on marks as has the Black and Tan, it is difficult to 



THE BLACK AND TAN TERRIER. 



493 



approach, the goal of perfection. Few specimens develop 
with anything like perfect marks. The tendency is to one 
or more of the following faults: Too much tan, too little 
tan, indistinctness of outline between the tan and the black, 
tan on the outside of the hind quarters, tan on upper sur- 
face of the ears; and while tan may be too extensive on 
some parts, it may be wanting in others. Another, and 
perhaps worse fault, is white under the breast; and in 








BLACK AND TAN TERRIER MEERSBROOK MAIDEN. 
Owned By Dr. H. T. Foote, 120 Lexington avenue, New York City. 

spite of all efforts to breed them without such markings, it 
will appear on about one puppy in every six or eight. 
Some puppies will show it when first born, and it will dis- 
appear with surprising rapidity within a fortnight, while 
others are thus blemished for life. It is a fault that is con- 
sidered fatal to bench-show form; and although I think too 
much stress is laid upon this point, it is undoubtedly right 
to consider the lack of proper tan markings a serious defect. 
Much has been said and written about the faking prac- 
ticed with the Black and Tan, but so far as I can observe, 



494 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

there is no more of it done in this breed than in most others. 
Of course, where correctness of markings is so essential, the 
closest scrutiny must be exercised by the judge to detect 
fraudulent practices. 

I have referred in this writing to the Black and Tan 
Terrier proper, whose weight ranges from about seven to 
twenty-two pounds. 

The following is the latest standard of points of the Black 
and Tan Terrier, as set forth by the Black and Tan Terrier 
Club of England: 

Head, Should be narrow, almost flat, with a slight 
indentation up the forehead; long and tight - skinned, 
level in mouth, with no visible cheek muscles; it should be 
slightly wedge-shaped, tapering to the nose, and well filled 
up under the eyes with tight-lipped jaws. 

Eyes. Should be small, bright, and sparkling, set mod- 
erately close together, as near black as possible, oblong in 
shape, slanting upward on the outside; they shall neither 
protrude nor sink in the skull. 

Nose. Should be perfectly black. 

Ears. Should be button, small, and thin; small at the 
root, and set as close together as possible at the top of the 
head. 

Neck and shoulders. The neck should be slim and 
graceful, gradually becoming larger as it approaches the 
shoulders, and perfectly free from throatiness, slightly 
arched from the occiput. The shoulders slope off elegantly. 

Chest. Narrow between the legs, deep in the brisket. 

Body. Short, with powerful loin, ribs well sprung out 
behind the shoulders, the back being slightly arched at the 
loin, and falling again to the joining of the tail to the same 
height as the shoulder. 

Legs. Perfectly straight, and well under the body, 
strong, and of proportionate length. 

Feet. Compact, split up between the toes, and well 
arched, with jet-black nails; the two middle toes of the 
front feet rather longer than the others, and the hind feet 
shaped like those of a cat. 



THE BLACK AND TAN TERRIER. 495 

Tail. Should be moderately short, and set on where 
the arch of the back ends, thick where it joins the body, 
and gracefully tapering to a point, and not carried higher 
than the loin. 

Goat. Close, short, and glossy, not soft. 

Color. Black and tan as distinct as possible; the tan 
should be a rich mahogany color; a tan spot over each 
eye, and another on each cheek, the latter as small as pos- 
sible; the lips of the upper and lower jaws should be tanned, 
the tan extending under the jaw to the throat, ending in 
the shape of the letter V; the inside of the ear is partly 
tanned; the fore leg is tanned to the knee, with a black 
patch ("thumb-mark") between the pastern and the knee; 
the toes have a distinct black mark running up each, called 
the " pencil-mark ;" the tan on the hind legs should con- 
tinue from the penciling on the feet up the inside of the 
legs to a little below the stifle-joint, and the outside of the 
legs should be perfectly black. There should be tan under 
the tail and on the vent, but only of such size as to be 
covered by the tail. In every case, the tan should meet the 
black abruptly. 

Weight. A medium-sized dog should not exceed four- 
teen pounds, and a large-sized twenty-two pounds. 







THE MALTESE TERRIER. 

BY Miss A. H. WHITNEY. 




before the existence of other "toy" or 
exquisite little creature was the ad- 
mired companion and faithful friend of the ladies 
highest in rank in Greece. Later, when Rome ruled the 
world, he continued to be first favorite with the fair sex. 
Historians considered him worthy of mention, sculptors 
carved his image, he was the darling of wealth and luxury; 
truly a "gentle dogge," as Doctor Caius describes him. In 
the first century of our era, Strabo extols his beauty, his 
diminutive size, the esteem in which he was held, and adds: 
"Yet are they not small in their intelligence or unstable in 
their love." What a pity that in modern times the dainty, 
quick-witted, affectionate little Canis Melitceus should be 
so nearly extinct, so little known. From sturdy Skye to 
pampered Blenheim, Spaniels owe more than a little of 
their beauty to a cross, more or less remote, with the Mal- 
tese; yet it is now well-nigh impossible to obtain a really 
fine specimen, for love or money. 

Malta is as barren of them as America, at the present 
time; poor ones, indeed average specimens, are to be found 
both in the East and West Indies, but the best are in Eng- 
land, where they have been carefully bred, with more or less 
success, by a few fanciers during the past forty years. Of 
course unscrupulous dealers have always a supply of long- 
haired little mongrels, glossy white, and freshly combed 
and flat-ironed into smoothness of coat, to palm off upon 
the unsuspecting customer in search of a "pure Maltese;" 
but anyone who has seen both Poodles and Maltese need not 
be imposed upon. Reclining upon his cushion by the side 
of his mistress, a pure-bred little Maltese looks more like a 

32 C497) 



498 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

handful of brilliant white spun silk than a living creature; 
but pay him a little attention, and he will spring to his feet, 
lift his fine, short ears, and hasten to show you how keenly 
alive and alert he is, from the black tip of his atom of a 
nose to the waving end of his snowy plume of a tail. As 
an in-door companion of rank and beauty the tiny fellow is 
peerless, and his devotion to his owner is absolute. It is 
said that the faithful pet of hapless Mary, Queen of Scots, 
found at her feet after her execution, was one of this breed. 

Out of doors he is sharp and full of frolic, but his long 
coat sadly interferes with his fun. Then, too, he is not as 
vigorous in constitution as dogs of common clay, and is very 
susceptible to cold and chills; in short, he pays the penalty 
of living in the boudoir. A cMen de luxe emphatically, he 
will always be precious, he can not condescend to become 
popular; and as for his utility, why demand any such com- 
monplace quality of a gem! "Beauty is its own excuse 
for being," and truly a typical Maltese is beautiful when in 
full coat and well groomed. 

Numberless are the stories of the quick-witted devotion 
of these little pets, as excitable as they are affectionate, 
and as sagacious as the wisest philosophers of dogdom. 
One incident worth recounting occurred many years ago. 
A baby boy was asleep in an upstairs bedroom, the serv- 
ants in the kitchen, and the master and mistress at a pub- 
lic assembly. Suddenly the gentleman's attention was 
attracted by the unexpected appearance of his tiny Maltese 
dog, whom he supposed was safe at home. The little 
creature was in a frenzy of excitement, barking, whining, 
and tugging at his coat as if to pull him from the room. 
His master, trusting to the sense of his pet, yielded to his 
frantic entreaties, and allowed himself to be led home, the 
dog jumping up and barking all the way. Upon reaching 
the house, it was found that a candle burning by the bed- 
side of the baby had set the curtain on fire, and the dog, 
after rushing down-stairs and calling the servants to the 
rescue, had made his way out of doors and to the assembly 
rooms in search of his master. We hope that dear dog lived 



THE MALTESE TERRIER. 499 

as long and happily as Lady Clifford's wonderful Bren- 
doline, who at nineteen years of age enjoyed good health. 

One little four-pound Maltese was so fond of her mistress 
that she would make incredible efforts to keep near her, 
and one day the dauntless creature leaped from a second- 
story window in order to share the morning drive. 

These dogs are wonderfully alert watchmen, and not a 
sound escapes their keen ears. Like their relatives the 
Poodles, they are quick to acquire tricks and eager and 
proud to "show off" their accomplishments. 




1 2 345 

MALTESE TERRIERS. 

1. Lord Clyde, prize-winner 2. Queenie, winner of many prizes, weight three pounds. 3. Brendo- 

line, over nineteen years old. 4 Champion Hugh, winner of twenty-three prizes, weight four 

pounds. 5. Sir Roger, prize-winner. 6. Blanche, very fine in head and coat. Lord 

Clyde, Sir Roger, and Champion Hugh are grandsons of Brendoline. 

To Mr. R. Mandeville, of London, Mr. J. Jacobs, of Ox- 
ford, and more recently the late Lady Gifford, of Red Hill, 
and Mrs. Bligh Monk, of Coley Park, are we indebted for 
the patient and persevering breeding which has produced 
the best modern strains of the Maltese dog. Indeed, their 
specimens, or specimens bred by them, or of their stock, 
are tolerably sure to ' ' sweep the board ' ' at all the leading 
English shows. Here in America the breed is practically 
unknown. I doubt whether anyone can be found among 
our impatient fanciers willing to keep a Maltese more than 



500 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

two years, waiting for it to appear in full coat; but four, 
and often five, years elapse before he is quite furnished and 
in full bloom. 

It is said that a pair, Cupid and Psyche, were brought 
from the East Indies at great expense, in 1841, by Captain 
Lukey, of the East India Company' s service. They were 
purchased to present to the Queen of England; but after a 
rough voyage of nine months, and little or no grooming, 
their coats were so matted and soiled that they remained in 
private life, and never knew how great an honor they had 
missed! A dog needs a court costume as much as a man, if 
he is to be presented to royalty. 

I fear the lot of these dainty creatures would hardly be 
a happy one in our Northern States, save in the palace 
homes of millionaires. They are very delicate during pup- 
pyhood, and the litters rarely number more than two or 
three. To make amends, however, when they do live, 
nature grants them a remarkably long lease, and they keep 
their faculties unimpaired many years after the majestic 
Mastiff and the noble St. Bernard have gone to their long 
rest. 

For in-door pets and ladies' companions they will always 
be desirable, and we live in the hope of seeing some good 
specimens at our important shows ere long. Of course such 
precious dogs must have every care. During their first year 
they must be handled like our "best china," kept from all 
risk of cold, fed simple food, and handled but little. The 
less meat the better; bread, and a scant allowance of butter 
or milk; vegetables and gravy make the best diet. Heat- 
ing food spoils the beauty of the coat, and causes many 
internal diseases. Regularity in feeding and in exercise is 
of vital importance. They are hardly mature under two 
years of age, but if they survive the first year and the perils 
of puppyhood, become fairly strong and able to bear ordi- 
nary exposure. 

As the coat of a Maltese is his greatest beauty, and 
exceedingly liable to become matted or soiled, too much 
attention can not be paid to it. It is very long, sometimes 



THE MALTESE TERRIER. 501 

from six to seven inches on a four-pound dog, perfectly 
straight, glistening, and brilliant; even in length, from tip 
of nose to end of tail, and unless parted and brushed aside 
from the forehead it completely hides the bright, intelli- 
gent eyes. Many owners braid the long locks and tie them 
back with ribbons for the comfort of their pets, and it is 
not uncommon for exhibitors to fasten back the ears at 
meal-times, to keep the hair which covers them from being 
soiled by the food. Daily grooming, from puppyhood, is 
desirable, but nothing harsher than a soft hair- brush of 
good quality must be used. The best time for this is 
always just before a meal, and the dog will enjoy his food 
the more for his toilet. If the hair is matted or snarled, it 
may be necessary to disentangle the knotted locks with a 
pin before combing. A fine comb must never be used, as 
it would be sure to do harm, but a coarse-toothed one saves 
time and aids the brush. Some exhibitors are so anxious 
to keep their pets from indulging in the luxury of scratch- 
ing that they make little wash-leather boots for the hind 
legs, so that the nails can not penetrate the skin or take off 
a single hair. We do not recommend the use of these. 
Proper diet and careful daily grooming are far better pre- 
cautions against skin irritation. 

The Maltese is a merry, frolicsome creature, and full of 
vivacity. Some writers accuse him of snappishness; but 
some writers call all dogs snappish, so we will forgive their 
ignorance of the sweet temper, as well as the wonderful 
intelligence, of this breed. 

As an in-door pet, companion, and watchman, few other 
"toy " dogs can compare with the exquisite tiny Maltese. 
The chief objections to him are the dangerous delicacy of 
his constitution and the care required to keep him in pre- 
sentable condition as to his jacket. To prepare him for 
exhibition is not difficult, if he has been dressed regularly. 
Let not the novice think an all-over " tubbing " necessary. 
That would invite a severe cold, unless given by an experi- 
enced assistant. Far better and easier is the egg-bath, pre- 
pared and applied as follows: Break two fresh eggs in a 



502 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

hand-basin; beat them sufficiently to mix yelks and whites 
well, add a gill of warm water, and then apply with a soft, 
small sponge, or the hands, working it thoroughly and gen- 
tly in through the coat to the skin, beginning at the head, 
and carefully avoiding the eyes and the inside of the 
ears. When the dog is well lathered, wash off with tepid 
water and a sponge, but no soap, as you value the brilliancy 
of your future prize-winner's jacket; then wrap up your 
pet in a big bath-towel, wipe him dry gently, give him a 
good meal, and do not think of combing him until after his 
nap. A hand-smoothing makes a good finish; and then 
beware lest the little dandy catches cold, and has to be kept 
at home from the show after all. A quarter-grain pill of 
quinine night and morning before feeding, continued for 
three days, will usually put him in good health and spirits 
and enable him to throw off the threatened illness. Of 
course no one interested in this valuable and delicate 
breed will be so unwise as to exhibit puppies, no matter 
how promising. For them u the paths of glory lead but to 
the grave." 

The points of a Maltese, according to the present stand- 
ard of judging, are as follows: 

Value. Value. 

Skull, muzzle, and nose 5 Coat 10 

Eyes 3 Color 10 

Ears 7 General appearance and size 5 

Body and legs 5 

Tail ... 5 Total 50 

The skull is somewhat broad and slightly rounding, but 
not like that of Toy Spaniels, the muzzle tapering gradually 
to the jet-black little nose. 

The eyes should be of fair size, neither prominent like 
those of the King Charles and Pug, nor very small and deep- 
set. Brilliant and black they must be, and the roof of the 
mouth is of the same color. 

The jaws are level, and the teeth good enough for a 
Terrier. 

The ears are small, thin, and fall close to the head. 
When excited, the dog lifts them a little. 



THE MALTESE TERRIER. 503 

The body is rather long, deep- chested, level in back, mus- 
cular, and well knit. 

The legs are shortish, straight, strong, and barefooted. 

The tail, an exquisite little white plume, is carried grace- 
fully curving over the side and back. 

The coat, the all-important, must be long the longer the 
better from seven to eleven inches on a dog standing no 
more than seven inches high at shoulder, and as soft and 
silky as nature and art can make it; dazzlingly brilliant and 
snowy white. Lemon markings sometimes occur upon the 
ears, but they are a disqualification, even on the best speci- 
mens, and even worse than any tendency to curl in the 
coat. 

The weight should not exceed seven pounds, and many 
prize-winners are under five. 

It may interest our readers to study the accompanying 
group of the creme de la creme of Maltese prize-winners, 
owned by the late Lady Gifford, of England. The illustra- 
tion is taken from a photograph from life. 

Tiny little Brendoline was a wonder, as frisky and strong 
at nineteen years of age as most dogs are at four. She was 
the dam and grandam of many prize-winners. Lord 
Clyde and Sir Roger are exquisite specimens, and well 
known on the show bench. Sir Roger is rather the better 
in head and coat, and strongly resembles the famous Cham- 
pion Hugh. Queenie is a tiny, charming atom of three 
pounds weight, the sister of Hugh, and probably the small- 
est of her breed yet exhibited. Champion Hugh was 
whelped in 1875, and first shown in 1877, at the Royal 
Aquarium, where he won second prize. His career was a 
series of triumphs from that time on until his death. He 
took his twenty-third and last prize at the Crystal Palace, 
July, 1885, and died in that year, after a very brief illness. 
He was devotedly attached to his mistress, and never happy 
in her absence. 

His proportions and measurements are worth knowing. 
We quote them from Cassell' s ' * Book of the Dog: ' ' ' ' From 
nose to stop, one inch; stop to top of skull, two and one- 



504 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



half inches; length of back, eight inches; girth of muzzle, 
four inches; girth of skull, nine inches; girth of neck, seven 
inches; girth of brisket, eleven and one-half inches; girth 
round shoulders, eleven inches; girth of loins, nine inches; 
girth of fore-arm, two and one-half inches; girth of pastern, 
one and three-fourths inches; height at shoulders, seven and 
one-half inches; height at elbows, four inches; height at 
loins, seven and one-fourth inches; length of tail, five inches; 
hair on tail, seven inches; length of coat, eleven inches; 
length of ear, with hair, seven and one-half inches; weight, 
four pounds and ten ounces." 




THE COLLIE. 



BY HENRY JARRETT AND J. E. DOUGHERTY. 




>HE origin of the Collie, like that of most other breeds 
of dogs, is unknown. Many different theories have 
been advanced by various writers on the subject, most 
of them, however, being without any foundation. The 
theory offered by Hugh Dalziel, in his excellent work on 
the Collie, is that the breed is the result of selection 
carried on through a long series of years, and this is no 
doubt as near the truth as we may ever expect to get. The 
name Collie is supposed to have been derived from the 
same root as collar, and to refer to the white collar or band 
around the dog's neck. The Collie is probably the most 
useful of all our non-sporting dogs. Many authentic in- 
stances are recorded showing the almost human intelligence 
of these dogs in the execution of their duties in driving and 
herding sheep and cattle; in fact, it is well-nigh impossi- 
ble to overestimate the intelligence of a well-trained Collie. 

Besides being indispensable to the farmer, they make 
most excellent watch-dogs and companions, and may also 
be trained for retrieving game, both on land and from the 
water. 

Although much has been done in this country to encour- 
age the breeding of show dogs, the working qualities of 
this breed have been sadly neglected, and it is to be regret- 
ted that sheep-dog trials have never been encouraged here. 
There are plenty of well-trained dogs in the United States, 
and if trials were once established they would soon become 
popular. There are numerous trials held in England every 
year for sheep dogs, which are invariably successful, and 
which act as reminders to breeders that Collies are sheep 



dogs. 



C505) 



506 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The importation of so many first-class specimens by the 
Chestnut Hill Kennels, of Philadelphia, has been a great 
assistance to American breeders, and has done much toward 
raising the breed to its present popularity. I know of no 
breed that has advanced so rapidly in public favor in 
America as has the Collie. I am often asked why nothing- 
has yet been bred in America to equal the best of the 
imported dogs. The reason is that there are very few 
really first-class brood bitches in this country. We have 
some of the best stud dogs in the world, and what we need 
now is a large number of good brood bitches. Many people 
seem to attach no importance to the quality or breeding of 
the bitch, so long as they have a good dog to breed to. In 
England you will find at least a hundred first-class bitches 
to one in this country, and this means so many more thor- 
oughly good puppies. 

There is generally one extra-good one in each well-bred 
litter, and that one frequently dies before reaching matur- 
ity. This being the case, it will easily be understood that 
America can not compete successfully with England in breed- 
ing ollies until the number of our brood bitches is largely 
increased by importation. 

The fault to be found with most American -bred Collies 
is a want of character and "Collie expression." 

The best Collie ever bred in this country was probably 
Glenlinat, by Strephon, out of Mavis. He was bred by Mr. 
A. R. Kyle, of Sound Beach, Conn., and was a very fine 
specimen of the breed. He won first prize at Winsted in 
1886, and gave considerable promise of making a great name 
for himself, but was, unfortunately, killed on the railroad by 
a passing locomotive while he was at exercise. Mavis is 
one of our few good brood bitches. She is now owned by 
Mr. James Watson, of Philadelphia, who is one of our best 
Collie judges. Unfortunately, good Collie judges are, like 
good Collie brood bitches, rather scarce. 

The most difficult point to produce is a good coat, and 
in spite of all that has been written to the contrary, there is 
no danger at present of our breeding Collies with coat so 



THE COLLIE. 507 

heavy as to interfere with their movements while working. 
A great many writers seern to think that the Collie when 
working has always to contend with a blizzard, or a mud 
pond, and that if his coat is long the snow or mud will 
cling to him in such quantities as to soon tire him out. 
This, however, is the exception rather than the rule, and 
the texture of the coat is of much more importance than its 
length. The most important point is the under coat. 




CHAMPION SCOTILLA. 

Owned by Chestnut Hill Kennels, Philadelphia, Penn. Winner of forty-two firsts, champions, 

and cups. 

Although color is immaterial, the sable with white points 
is at present the most fashionable. In the early days of 
shows, black and tan was considered the best color, and to 
improve the color of the tan markings' it is said that the 
Gordon Setter blood was introduced, which would account 
for the large saddle-flap ears and soft, open coat frequently 
found in dogs of this color. 

It is probable that we shall soon have a strain of pure 
white Collies, several having recently been bred in England; 
and the Chestnut Hill Kennels have two white puppies by 
Metchley Wonder. These white Collies are pretty, but do 



508 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

not look like workers, and for this reason will probably 
never become popular. 

The dog selected for illustration is Champion Scotilla, 
owned by the Chestnut Hill Kennels, Philadelphia. He was 
whelped" October 28, 1885, and is by Dublin Scot-Flurry II. 
He was imported in 1887, and has won over forty cham- 
pion prizes. He is the sire of a large number of first-prize 
winners, and is considered the best Collie in the country. 

H. J. 

The rough-coated Collie is one of the oldest breeds of 
dogs in existence. He is the true "sheep dog," from which, 
no doubt, all other "shepherd" dogs derived their origin. 

Beauty, intelligence, and usefulness are all to be counted 
in the highest degree to his credit. The marvelous stories 
told of his sagacity and cunning are almost incredible, and 
yet it does not seem so strange when we take into considera- 
tion that he has been in training, and the constant companion 
of the shepherd, for hundreds of years. No other dog is so 
constantly with his master in his proper calling. This nat- 
urally increases the intelligence of each individual, and 
reacts on the whole breed; so that, independent of the con- 
<stant weeding out of puppies which were useless from lack 
of intelligence, the superiority of the whole variety in 
mental attributes is easily accounted for. 

There is no authentic history as to the origin of the Col- 
lie. He was supposed by some authors to have been bred 
from the wild dog, or Dingo, whose form he strongly 
resembles. This theory is a plausible one, as his fine muzzle, 
dense coat, carriage of tail and ear, and his restless habits 
are not unlike those of the wild dog, the wolf, and the fox. 

Following is the Collie standard and scale of points 
adopted by the English Collie Club and the Collie Club of 
America: 

Value. Value. 

Head and expression 15 Back and loin 10 

Ears 10 Brush 5 

Neck and shoulders 10 Coat, with frill 20 

Legs and feet 15 Size 5 

Hind quarters 10 

Total.. .100 



THE COLLIE. 509 

The skull of the Collie should be quite flat and rather 
broad, with fine, tapering muzzle of fair length, and mouth 
slightly overshot. 

The eyes widely apart, almond-shaped, and obliquely set 
in the head; the skin of the head tightly drawn, with no 
folds at the corner of the mouth. 

The ears as small as possible, semi-erect when surprised 
or listening, at other times thrown back and buried in the 
"ruff." 

The neck should be long, arched, and muscular. The 
shoulders also long, sloping, and fine at the withers. The 
chest to be deep and narrow in front, but of fair breadth 
behind the shoulders. 

The back to be short and level, with the loin rather long, 
somewhat arched, and powerful. 

Brushing, "wf upward swirl" at the end, and nor- 
mally carried low. 

The fore legs should be perfectly straight, with a fair 
amount of flat bone; the pasterns rather long, springy, and 
slightly lighter of bone than the rest of the leg; the foot 
with toes well arched and compact, soles very thick. 

The hind quarters, drooping slightly, should be very long 
from the hip-bones to the hocks, which should be neither 
turned inward nor outward, with stifles well bent. The hip- 
bones should be wide and rather ragged. 

The coat, except on legs and head, should be as abundant 
as possible, the outer coat straight, hard, and rather stiff; 
the under coat furry, and so dense that it would be difficult 
to find the skin. The ' ' ruff ' ' and ' ' frill ' ' especially should 
be very full. There should be but little ' ' feather ' ' on the 
fore legs, and none below the hocks on the hind legs. Color 
immaterial. 

Symmetry. The dog should be of fair length on the 
leg, and his movements wiry and graceful. He should not 
be too small; height of dogs from twenty-two to twenty- 
four inches, of bitches from twenty to twenty-two inches. 

The Greyhound type is objectionable, as it gives little 
brain-room in the skull, and with this there is to be found 



510 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

a fatuous expression and a long, powerful jaw. The Setter 
type is also to be avoided, with its pendulous ears and 
straight, short flag. 

The smooth Collie only differs from the rough in the 
coat, which should be hard, dense, and quite smooth. 

Point-judging is not advocated, but figures are only made 
use of to show the comparative value attached to the differ- 
ent properties; no marks are given for "general sym- 
metry," which is, of course, in judging, a point of the 
utmost importance. 

" Color immaterial," as placed in the standard, although 
virtually correct, is somewhat misleading. In these days 
of scientific breeding, nothing seems impossible, and by 
careful selection as to color, almost any color may be pro- 
duced. After a careful study of the subject, and several 
years of breeding, the writer has formed the opinion that 
the following colors are essential, and can not be looked 
upon with any suspicion of a cross: Black, white, and tan, 
sable, sable and white, red foxy colors, and, in fact, all 
the shades of tan, and colors formed by the mingling of 
the above colors. It is a well-known fact that nearly or 
quite all of the greatest prize-winners and most typical 
specimens of the breed are of these colors. 

The Collie is affectionate and obedient, is extremely sen- 
sitive, and will seldom bear punishment without becoming 
sulky. When once you gain his confidence, he will obey 
your commands at all times without restraint or compul- 
sion. A large per cent, of Collies are gun-shy, and afraid 
of thunder. There is a peculiar craf ty and cunning look 
about the Collie possessed by no other species of the canine 
race. 

He is a faithful companion, and a watchful guardian of 
his master's property. He is the ideal farm-dog, and has 
no equal in that capacity. Except for the Collie, much of 
the highlands of Scotland and England would be absolutely 
worthless. The sheep graze where a man can not follow to 
advantage. A trained Collie will take out a flock of sheep 
in the morning, remain with them during the day, and 



THE COLLIE. 



611 



bring them home to the fold at night, alone and unaided. 
The Collie will work on cattle and hogs as well as on sheep, 
and can be taught to herd all kinds of poultry. 

He makes a capital retriever, has a fair nose, and with 
proper training becomes a tolerable hunter. He is quick 
to attack and kill all kinds of vermin. 




BOSS. 
Owned by J. E. Dougherty, Lotus, Ind. 

The training of the Collie for all kinds of farm -work is 
not a difficult matter. As soon as the whelp is old enough 
to leave the nest and follow the dam, it will be " tagging" 
after her to the field to bring up the stock, and in a few 
short weeks the little fellow will go to the field alone. It 
is then necessary to curb him, to teach him to come and go 
at your bidding. The most effectual plan to get complete 
control is to attach a light cord, of sufficient length, to the 
collar, and when the puppy goes too rapidly, pull him up 
sharply, and at the same time give the command "Slow." 



512 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

A few repetitions of this will teach, him to stop at the word. 
A Collie instinctively chases sheep, and although not hurt- 
ing them, will run a flock to death. He must be taught to 
drive, not chase. Teach him to go slow by the use of the 
cord; be patient and painstaking in this work, and you 
will surely be rewarded. 

It is necessary to use gestures when giving commands, 
and in a short time the dog will obey the motion of the 
hand. This is advantageous in case of a strong wind, or of 
the noise made by a herd, or of the dog being too far away 
to hear the word of command. It should be considered the 
work of several weeks or months to properly train a puppy; 
but remember that he is likely to live many years, and 
hence it will pay you to lay the foundation of your teach- 
ings on solid principles to keep him close in hand till your 
precepts are deeply grounded, and not to discharge him 
until you are sure that his education is complete, and of a 
lasting character. 

The rearing of the Collie does not require any different 
treatment from that necessary in the case of other canines, 
except in the care of the coat. In the summer season, he 
should be washed at least once a week. When shedding 
his coat, the dead loose hair should be kept well combed 
out, otherwise it may become " fleece-grown. " Keep the 
skin clean, and the new coat will grow vigorously. The dog 
should have a cool, dark place to lie in, away from the flies, 
during the day. An old piece of carpet or bagging to lie 
on is sufficient for a bed. Straw, shavings, or any kind of 
litter, is a harbor for fleas, and hangs to the coat. 

In winter, the dog requires less care. Cold does not seem 
to affect him in the least, and he delights to roll and bur- 
row in the deepest snow-banks, thus cleansing and adding 
luster to his coat. A Collie that has been kept as above 
directed, and that has been habitually well fed on whole- 
some food, may be considered at any time, after receiving a 
good combing and brushing, as ready for the show bench. 

The Collie is constantly growing in favor, not only with 
stockmen and farmers, but with lovers of the dog every- 



THE COLLIE. 513 

where, and we predict for this noble breed a brilliant 
future. In Europe, he has been transplanted from the hut 
of the Gillie to the palace, and has become (to use the 
words of a well-known English breeder) " the gentleman' s 
dog." The credit is due to England for breeding the Collie 
up to its present high standard, but America is not far 
behind in this matter. The Collie has a strong hold in the 
States, and numbers among his friends men of wealth and 
influence, who strive to obtain the best specimens, regard- 
less of price. It is not an uncommon thing to-day to see 
the Collie on the plains of the Far West, following the 
"bands" of sheep, guarding and protecting them from the 
hungry coyote; and when his qualities are better known, 
every farmer in our country will be the happy possessor of 
one of these faithful animals. 

The following are the names of a few of the Collie 
breeders and exhibitors in America: 

Hempstead Farm Kennels, Hempstead, Long Island, N. 
Y. ; Chestnut Hill Kennels, Philadelphia, Penn. ; J. Van 
Schaick, 32 Broad street, New York; James Watson, 114 
Seymore street, Germantown, Penn.; J. D. Shotwel, Rail- 
way, N. J. ; James Lindsay, Jersey City, N. J. ; J. A. 
Long, St. Louis, Mo. ; Sans Souci Kennels, Station B, Phil- 
adelphia, Penn.; J. L. Lincoln, Jr., Wabash avenue, Chi- 
cago, 111. ; George A. Fletcher, Milton, Mass. ; A. R. Kyle, 
South Norwalk, Conn.; McEwen & Gibson, Byron, Canada; 
Meadowthorpe Kennels, Lexington, Ky. ; Curry & Parks, 
Season, 111.; W. A. Burpee & 'Co., Philadelphia, Penn.; 
Dr. T. A. Cloud, Kennett Square, Penn.; J. P. and W. W. 
Gray, Rochester, N. Y.; L. C. Root, Stamford, Conn.; F. 
D. Proctor, Proctor, Yt. ; Kilmarnock Collie Kennels, Bos- 
ton, Mass. ; D. Q. Curry, Decatur, Mich. ; C. G. Hinkley, 
Lee, Mass.; John D. Dunnin, Montreal, Canada; W. D. 
Hughes, Wayne, Delaware County, Penn. ; Long Island 
Kennels, 354 Fourth street, New York City; F. R. Cars- 
well, 101 West Sixth street, Wilmington, Del.; Orange 
Kennels, 81 Maiden Lane, New York City, John S. Bacon, 
612 East Seventeenth street, New York City; A. R. Kyle, 

33 



514 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

Norwalk, Conn.; Mrs. William Yardly, Newton, Conn.; 
Dr. H. S. Quinn, Utica, N. Y.; J. S. Rogers, Paterson, N. 
J.; Y. S. Kennedy, Auburn Park, 111.; Schoellkopf & Co., 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Boss (A. K. C. S. B. 12656), the subject of illustration, 
is a black-and-tan Collie owned by the writer; was whelped 
August 15, 1886; is a large, upstanding dog, weighing 
seventy pounds; has abundance of coat, the outer coat long 
and hard; has a long, lean head, good expression, ears a 
trifle large, but correctly carried. He is a grand specimen, 
and shows a deal of Collie character; yet, like many other 
good ones, he has his faults. He lacks finish, is a little too 
straight in the stifle, and for the latest craze would be con- 
sidered a little coarse. He was sired by Donald III., by 
Long's Rob Roy, out of Bessie B., by Champion Cocksie, 
out of Belle III.; dam, Zella (A. K. C. S. B. 11696). 

- Boss has never been shown outside of his own State; 
has won three firsts in the pet-stock shows held at Indian- 
apolis and Richmond, and won the two special premiums 
(1889 and 1890) offered by J. Van Schaick for the best 
Collie bred and owned in Indiana. J. E. D. 




THE OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG. 



BY WILLIAM WADE. 




is more promising for the future position of 
dogs of actual usefulness than the recent revival 
of interest in this breed. They are not handsome 
dogs, by any means; and that such uncompromisingly 
ugly customers are becoming fashionable, demonstrates 
that real value for practical purposes is being recognized. 
They are one of the oldest of breeds, and certainly with- 
out a superior in value as farm -working dogs; yet they 
were so neglected for many years that the breed was almost 
lost. 

That they are a very old breed is shown by references 
to them by early English writers. G. R. Jesse quotes from 
the "Passionate Pilgrim : " 

My curtail dog that wont to have play'd, 
Plays not at all, but seems afraid. 

And from " Merry Wives of Windsor: " 

Hope is a curtail dog in some affairs. 

In Drayton, Tenth Eclogue, these exquisite lines occur: 

He called his dog (that sometimes had the praise) 
Whitefoot, well known to all that keep the plain, 

That many a wolf had worried in his days 
A better cur there never followed swain; 

Which, though as he his master's sorrows knew, 

Wagg'd his cut tail his wretched plight to rue. 

Poor cur, quoth he, and him therewith did stroke, 

Go to our cote and there thyself repose; 
Thou with thine age my heart with sorrow broke. 

Begone ere death my restless eyes do close; 
The time is come thou must thy master leave, 
Whom this vile world shall never more deceive. 

(515) 



516 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

These lines were written about the year 1600, and show 
that at that time dogs with short or cut tails were well 
known. 

In Marryat's "Mr. Midshipman Easy," written about 
1835, Bobtails are introduced as a factor in the naming of 
that distinguished hero. Mrs. Easy wishes to call the boy 
after Mr. Easy (Nicodemus), but papa objects. 

"As there will be two Nicks, they will naturally call my 
boy Young Nick, and of course I shall be styled Old Nick, 
which will be diabolical." 

Then when Mrs. Easy selects Robert, Mr. Easy inter- 
poses : 

"I can not bear even the supposition, my dear. 
You forget that in the county in which you are residing 
the downs are covered with sheep. I will appeal to any 
farmer in the country, if ninety-nine shepherd' s dogs out 
of one hundred are not called Bob. Now observe, your 
child is out of doors, somewhere in the fields or plantations; 
you want and you call him. Instead of your child, what 
do you find? Why, a dozen curs, at least, who come run- 
ning up to you, all answering to the name of Bob, and 
wagging their stumps of tails." 

Marryat was a close observer of dogs, mentioning many 
breeds, and always associating them with their own pecul- 
iarities and vocations. 

How the Scotch Collie came to supplant the original 
English Sheep Dog is well described by Mr. F. Freeman 
Lloyd, in his admirable monograph on Bob tails> originally 
published in the columns of Turf, Field, and Farm, and 
by that paper published in very handsome pamphlet form. 
To this I would refer all inquirers for more minute partic- 
ulars as to Bobtails, merely confining myself to general 
statements that Mr. Lloyd seems to have somewhat over- 
looked. 

As to the appearance of Bobtails, it may be said that they 
average about the same as the Collie in size, being gener- 
ally much more cobby in build, with immense power in 
their hind quarters, and not infrequently higher behind 



THE OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG. 



517 



than at the shoulder. The head should be somewhat 
pointed, but nothing like that of the Collie in either length 
or narrowness; the ears should be small, set on fairly high, 
and easily raised. There are two varieties of coats, the 
single and double, which perhaps might be better denned 
as the short and the very heavy ones. Fashion, or the 
weight of authority, undoubtedly has gone for the very 
profuse double coat, although it is admitted that the other 
type is equally characteristic of the old breed. The heav- 




TaiHHb-;- 

OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG SIR CAVENDISH 

ily coated legs, clear down to the feet, and the densely 
coated face, are also the "correct type," but although the 
authorities have so decreed, I must dissent most strongly 
from the desirability of either characteristic. The densely 
coated legs can not but collect mud, snow, and slush, and 
seriously impede the dog in his work. Any shepherd will 
tell you that the same holds good with sheep; that those 
with heavily wooled legs clear down to their feet tire much 
more quickly than the cleaner-legged ones. The useless 
hair of the face can only collect the ice and snow of a 
winter storm to distract the dog's vision. 

The absence of tail is the special characteristic of this 



518 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

breed, and in the best-bred specimens it is not a stump or 
a short tail, but absolutely no tail at all, the extremity of 
the spine being free from any lump or vestige of a tail. 
Half, or even whole tails are not at all uncommon, even in 
well-bred litters, but this is to be attributed to a cross of 
foreign blood at some period; and these long- tailed puppies, 
mated with others naturally long-tailed, will throw short- 
tailed or tailless puppies. I know a dog, the produce of 
litter brother and sister, both naturally long-tailed, who is 
bobtailed naturally, and never got a full-tailed pup, although 
tried with mongrels with full tails, Black and Tan Terriers, 
etc. ..The common supposition is that this short tail is a 
relic of the days when dogs with shortened tails were 
exempt from taxation, but this is clearly inadmissible. 

Cropping the ears of Terriers and Boarhounds, docking 
the tails of Spaniels, Fox Terriers, etc. , and shaving the coats 
of Poodles has been practiced from time immemorial, yet 
no change in the natural conformation of either breed has 
been the result. The cats of the Isle of Man are naturally 
tailless, and so must the bobtailed dog have originally been. 

It is for practical work that the bobtailed dog stands 
unequaled. Apparently his uncompromisingly ugly looks 
have saved him from being a victim to the pranks of 
" fancy," and having no use but use, he has naturally been 
bred for use alone. It would be but natural that the owner 
of a good working bitch should select a good working dog 
as her mate, and thus the instinct of work has been kept 
alive in the breed, and in fact stimulated to the highest 
possible degree. Then the breed has been more used around 
households than the Collie. In Scotland, sheep-farming 
has been carried on on lands remote from habitations, and 
the shepherd and his dog were often separated from human 
associations for a considerable time. Thus the Collie is less 
a household dog, hence his shy and suspicious nature; 
while the Bobtail, being employed to herd, drive, and watch 
stock, to guard his master's premises, drive trespassing 
stock away, and being in general the friend and associate 
of his master's family, has developed that charming dispo- 



THE OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG. 519 

sition that makes him by far the best companion among 
dogs, and has stimulated his wits under the incentive of 
constant praise and affection. 

No dog can have a stronger instinctive disposition for 
work than the Bobtail, and none can do his work with less 
training. Queen Vick at six months old would bring up 
the cows to be milked half a dozen times a day, being too 
impatient to work to wait for the proper time. When the 
mare is plowing, Vick keeps a sharp watch on the colt, and 
will not let it stray a dozen yards from the mare's side. 
Dame Bruin at nine months old, never having been worked 
on sheep, met a bunch of lambs stuck where a small stream 
crossed the road; without an order from her master (the 
lambs did not belong to him), she tried to force them across, 
and failing, grabbed one and tugged it over. Dropping it, 
she served another the same way. Agricola had not seen 
stock for a year (other than horses on the streets of Bos- 
ton), yet the second day he was on a farm near here, he 
took a walk with his master, and on seeing a dozen cows 
turned out of a field half a mile from home, took charge of 
them without a word of instruction, taking them straight 
home without any assistance. Bob stopped fights between 
rams, and drove the hogs away from the corn thrown down 
to the chickens, entirely on his own notion, and so I might 
go on ad infinitum. 

No dog is possessed of higher courage than the Bobtail, 
and none is less quarrelsome. They go their way, molest- 
ing no dog and tolerating meddling from nothing that 
wears hair. Agricola bristled up as quickly at my Mastiff 
Baldur as he would at the merest cur; and when a Bobtail 
fights, it is not for fun; it is serious business, and the busi- 
ness is to kill the other dog in the shortest possible time. 
With their powerful jaws and strong teeth, they must be 
heavily overmatched if they do not come off victorious. 

The picture of Gwen shows the crack specimen of the 
English show benches, and certainly shows a capitally strong, 
cobby, well-made animal, while the one copied from Stone- 
henge is the best illustration of a Bobtail in action that can 



520 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

be imagined, showing the immensely powerful hind quarters, 
the shaggy coat, and the peculiar fashion of running with the 
fore part of the body very low down, or, as it is sometimes 
described, "running on the breast-bone." This picture 
looks as though the dog were an inch or two higher behind 
than at the shoulder, yet, if carefully scaled, it will be 
found that the dog is almost exactly level on the back. 

Although an English breed, the Bobtail is peculiarly 
fitted for the needs of American stockmen. The CoDie is 
rather more of a herder than a driver, and in herding 
speed is a matter of prime necessity; while the Bobtail is 
rather more of a driver, a work in which patience and 
deliberation is a main point. Thus, although as fast a dog 
as any, barring Hounds, the Bobtail is a much slower, 
quieter driver, much less apt to hurry stock, and in general 
more deliberate in his work. 

Any stockman will recognize the value of this trait 
when the dog is intrusted with driving cattle or sheep in 
our intensely hot summers, where so much mischief can be 
done by overheating the stock. One thing which should 
always be borne in mind is constantly overlooked in use of 
Sheep Dogs, i. e., that a dog is but a dog after all. Great 
may be his instinctive knowledge, and wonderful are the 
many manifestations of wisdom in dogs; but, after all, there 
is a point they can not pass. Now apply to Sheep Dogs 
some of the principles of ordinary good judgment. Don't 
expect that a dog can be used for the most diverse purposes 
and yet be perfect in all. You could not expect that a man 
just through with a fight for life with a vicious tramp would 
be in a proper frame of mind to lead a prayer-meeting. St. 
Vincent de Paul himself would be but human in such a 
case; therefore, do not expect the dog you use to chase 
swine out of your yard, where battles royal between the 
dog and vicious old sows are a matter of course, to be 
taken at once and set to drive a bunch of choice sheep; he 
can not dismiss at once from his remembrance the effects of 
his battle with the sow. So if your dog is used to chase 
and kill rabbits, ground-hogs, to play fetch and carry, etc., 



THE OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG. 521 

he will not be fully up to the mark for handling a lot of 
cows heavy with calf. The same dog can and will do both 
classes of work (or play), but you must not expect him to 
go directly from one to the other and to be perfect at both. 

I would not be understood to mean depreciation of the 
Collie as compared with the Bobtail; each has his own char- 
acteristics and each his peculiar merits and demerits, and 
the lovely and useful Collie can well spare his unhandsome 
but invaluable compeer his due meed of praise. 

The rudiments of training Sheep Dogs are simple; the 
fine points need a master's hand, and no instructions can 
fully supply the knack, or really genius, required. First, 
you should breed your worker. See to it that the parents 
of your puppy were workers that is half the battle; then 
make your puppy fond of you secure his entire confidence 
and affection. Never speak a cross word to him; if he 
needs reproof, administer it in kind and warning tones, for 
such are far more effectual than the blustering, savage 
howls some "breakers" think indispensable. Teach the 
dog to lie down at the word, the initial step being to gently 
press him to the ground with the hand, with the word 
"down." Now move away from the dog, and if he rises, 
return and repeat the lesson. After he will keep his posi- 
tion when you have gone some distance from him, take him 
out with sheep and make him lie down; then go around the 
flock with a pan of salt, gathering the sheep until they are 
between you and the dog; then call the latter. If he is the 
"right kind," a few lessons will enable him to comprehend 
what you desire him to do, and by waving either hand he 
will soon understand which side of the flock you wish him 
to pass by. 

This is the foundation of training, and, once acquired, 
the rest of the dog's education is a comparatively simple 
matter. Remember that it is "education" you want your 
dog to have, not the ability to perform certain tricks at the 
command of his master; for it is not what a Sheep Dog does 
at command that gives him great value, it is what he knows 
should be done without urging. 



522 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

The above directions on training are simply a condensa- 
tion of the admirable paper prepared by Mr. S. M. Cleaver, 
of East Bethlehem, Penn. They are, however, sufficient to 
qualify any good dog-handler with the faculty of teaching 
dogs to train a Sheep Dog to any work that can be required 
of him; and without "dog knack" nobody should attempt 
the work. 

Remember that each lesson must be thoroughly learned 
before the next is essayed, and always praise the dog when 
he does anything well; above all things, never punish a dog 
except for doing what he knows is wrong. 

The essentials for rearing puppies, whatever be the 
breed, are exceedingly few and simple. In a general way, 
we may say if one studies nature, profits by her teachings, 
and applies her principles, he will meet all the require- 
ments. But this is scarcely definite enough, and we will 
go a little deeper into the subject. 

When a bitch is about to whelp, the fact is very evident 
in her manner. She busies herself with her bedding, paw- 
ing over her straw, placing and replacing the same. When 
these manifestations appear, it may be assumed that whelp- 
ing is likely to occur within twenty-four hours. It is 
always best that a bitch at such an important time be in 
quarters to which she has been accustomed; she is always 
more or less uneasy for a time if a comparative stranger to 
her surroundings. Yet she should be in a quiet place, safe 
from intrusion from all but her master or mistress. This 
matter of seclusion is so important it should be one of the 
first considerations, and she must be guarded against acci- 
dental blows or crushes. 

In cold weather, the room in which a bitch is whelping 
should always be provided with plenty of soft, dry bedding, 
and should be artificially heated. The temperature therein 
should not fall below 60 Fahrenheit in the first week, 
and it had best be kept up to 70 Fahrenheit during the 
first twenty-four hours at least. The reason for this is 
obvious the puppies are drenched with the amniotic fluid 
when they come into the world, and the darn keeps them 



THE OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG. 523 

for a time more or less wet by frequent licking with her 
tongue. Hence it will be seen that for them to become 
chilled would be easy; and a chill to a young puppy means 
danger. 

Protection against cold is, then, one of the first essen- 
ti^ls. Another, equally important, is that the puppies 
should nurse soon after birth. If strong and hardy, they 
will seek the breast of their own accord, but if weakly they 
will need assistance. Any puppy which does not nurse 
voluntarily must be held to the breast and encouraged to 
suck within two or three hours after birth. This essential 
is very often neglected, and the fault is largely accountable 
for the great mortality among puppies. Once a puppy 
nurses well, it can sal'ely be left to the mother; and the 
' ' let alone treatment ' ' is the best, coddling being most mis- 
chievous. 

A bitch should nurse her puppies just as long as she and 
they do well. Probably between the third and fourth week 
their gain will be less rapid, and the circumstance may be 
held as evidence that the dam needs assistance, and that 
feeding the puppies artificially should be commenced.' The 
first food should be cow's milk, diluted with two parts 
water, and slightly sweetened with a little cane sugar. One 
such feeding a day is enough for the first week; during 
the second, two feedings at least will be needed, and the 
following week three. After weaning, four meals a day up 
to the fifth or sixth month are needed. The milk at first, 
as already stated, should be diluted with two parts water. 
How rapidly to lessen the dilution is a matter of experi- 
ence no fixed rule can be established; all depends upon 
how the food acts. Probably in the early part of the 
second week half milk and half water will be suitable; in 
the latter part, very likely, the milk can be given without 
dilution. The puppies' discharges should be watched, for 
they give evidence as to whether or not the food is too rich. 

As early as the sixth week, puppies should begin to have 
meat broths, given very sparingly at first, however. Grad- 
ually a more generous diet should be allowed. To secure 



524 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

growth and development, the first essential is abundant 
food, and it should be largely of meat. Scarcely less im- 
portant are decent cleanliness and free exercise. After a 
puppy is once accustomed to solid food, the matter of feed- 
ing becomes simple. All the provoking minutiae of exact 
quantities, particular -qualities, and fixed periods in the 
matter of food and feeding are of little moment. If a 
young dog has sufficient exercise, there is no danger of his 
being overfed. It is with dogs as with men, give them 
enough muscular work to do, and no amount of food which 
they can eat will be likely to hurt them. 

Dogs should have bones given them at frequent inter- 
vals, but of course small bones should be kept from pup- 
pies, for they might be swallowed whole and produce 
serious trouble; or, if broken, the sharp points would be 
likely to play the mischief with the internal arrange- 
ments. 

Where puppies must be reared in crowded kennels, with 
the scantiest exercise, I can not suggest any course of pro- 
cedure; the conditions are so unnatural, justice can scarcely 
be done them. 

Worms are the principal cause of puppy mortality; 
"Ashmont," in another part of this book, gives full and com- 
plete directions for treating animals afflicted with them; 
but "a pound of prevention," etc. About a week before 
a bitch is due to whelp, she should be dosed for worms; 
should then be shut uj)inher kennel, on abundant bedding, 
until she has thoroughly evacuated. The bedding should 
then be carefully removed and burned, and the kennel well 
washed and cleansed with some insecticide boiling hot 
water, carbolic acid solution, sulphate of soda solution, etc. 
Then wash the bitch carefully all over, so that every "nit" 
sticking to her coat may be removed or destroyed; even 
taking care that the water used is accounted for. Puppies 
nosing and rooting around in search of the teat are likely 
to get into their mouths any nits that may be attached to 
the dam' s hair, and a full crop of worms may be the result. 
I have thought that the eggs of worms are like the old say- 



THE OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG. 525 

ing as to certain tough cases in weeds, u burn them, and be 
careful what you do with the ashes." 

If a dog is fed onions and turnips pretty regularly, he is 
not likely to be troubled with worms. I do not know 
whether these vegetables are vermifuges, strictly speaking, 
but I have often noted worms being passed by dogs after 
being fed these articles of diet; and I know it is the case 
with mankind, which brings me to the point that a dog is 
so much like a man in disease, that it is a pretty safe rule 
to do about the same for a dog as would be the right thing 
for a man. It is also a safe rule in giving medicine to a 
large dog, Mastiff, St. Bernard, or Newfoundland, to give 
the same amount as would be given to a human subject of 
the same weight. 

Mr. Gr. W. Moore made some very sensible suggestions in 
Forest and Stream some time since as to care of dogs at and 
after dog shows, and advises thorough washing of an animal 
after returning from a show, that no contagium may remain 
attached to its coat and thus infect its kennel companions. 

You should be exceedingly careful about approaching a 
bitch just after whelping. It makes no difference whether 
her usual disposition is amiable or the reverse, a bitch 
peculiarly gentle at other times may be extremely savage 
when she has young puppies; and I have known bad- 
tempered bitches who were very indifferent about their 
puppies. Therefore, until this point is thoroughly deter- 
mined by experience, use particular care to always approach 
the new mother with circumspection. Do not bolt into 
where she is suddenly, but go quietly; speak to her kindly; 
prepare her for your coming before she sees you, and when 
you come to her, first devote your attentions to her, not 
appearing to notice her puppies, and after she allows you 
to fondle her, you may handle her puppies with care; but 
in all cases disturb her as little as possible, and do not visit 
her for mere curiosity. See that she is comfortable, and let 
her alone. Take particular care that other dogs do not 
approach her; she has objects of tender care under her 
charge, and will fight for them to the death. 



526 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

As a matter of prime necessity, every dog-lover should 
provide himself with "Ashmont's" book on dog diseases. 
There are many works on canine disease and management, 
but nothing approaches u Ashmont." It is so peculiarly 
simple and plain in description that by consulting it a 
layman can recognize what is the trouble with his dog in a 
majority of cases, and its directions are so clear that the 
danger of making a mistake is reduced to a minimum. 

But as the layman will sometimes be at a loss to deter- 
mine from the symptoms what the trouble is, he should 
call on his family physician. For instance, the non-profes- 
sional will not be able to determine from the breathing of 
the animal whether it has catarrh, pneumonia, or distemper. 
The physician can determine whether it be either of the 
former, thus reducing the elements in doubt to narrow lim- 
its. If your physician is a snob, he may be affronted by being 
asked to examine a dumb animal, but if he is a man of 
standing, he will do it for you with pleasure. 

One of the most-distinguished surgeons of America once 
operated on a puppy for me, opening a deep-seated abscess 
with as much care and skill as though the President of 
the United States were his patient. The late Dr. E. Dyer, 
one of our most-distinguished oculists, and a most thorough 
surgeon and physician, who would not go out of his 
specialty for a man, would cut his office hours short to 
attend his friend's dog in an urgent case. What such 
men are willing to do ought not to be objectionable to the 
man of lesser fame. As a rule, the veterinarian knows 
little of canine diseases; and as the symptoms and diseases 
of dogs approach much more nearly those of the human 
subject than they do to those of horses, cattle, etc., without 
special training in canine diseases the veterinarian is not 
as well prepared to treat them as is the regular physi- 
cian. 

It must be remembered, however, that when you avail 
yourself of the kind assistance of your physician you 
must not insist on paying for it. That terra incognita to 
the layman, "professional etiquette," has among its mani- 



THE OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG. 



527 



fold unwritten laws one against receiving pay for treatment 
of dumb animals. 

I have jotted down the foregoing as that which experi- 
ence has taught a layman in a somewhat lengthy course of 
"dog-raising;" but, distrusting my expert knowledge, and 
fearing that I might have made some statement that might 
bring down on me the wrath of the faculty, I have sub- 
mitted it to a distinguished physician, who pronounces it 
"OK." 




THE GREAT DANE (GERMAN DOGGE). 



BY PROFESSOR J. H. H. MAENNER. 




>HE noblest of all the canine race is undoubtedly the 
German Dogge, generally called Great Dane in this 
country and England. He possesses all the good 
qualities by which the large breeds are distinguished, and 
surpasses all others in vivacity, gracefulness of movement, 
elegance of form, and imposing size. The symmetry of his 
limbs; his proud carriage; his beautifully shaped head, 
supported proudly by a long, finely arched, perfectly 
molded neck; his bright eye, the eloquent index of intelli- 
gence, fidelity, and courage; his deep, broad chest and 
long, muscular legs, indicating swiftness and fortitude; the 
short, glossy coat, displaying his magnificent, muscular 
frame all parts are so admirably and harmoniously com- 
bined as to render him the most perfect specimen of the 
canine race. Affectionate, strongly attached to his owner, 
and especially fond of children, he is a brave, faithful 
friend, ever ready, if necessary, to risk even his life in 
defense of his master' s person or property. 

This breed has been known by various names in different 
countries and at different times, viz. : Ulmer Dogge, Great 
Dane, Boarhound, Fanghund, Altdeutsche Dogge, etc. 
Such a variety of appellations naturally caused much con- 
fusion and misunderstanding. The German dog-fanciers, 
therefore, met during the bench show at Berlin, in 1880, 
adopted a standard of points, and agreed to drop the dif- 
ference between the heavy and light strains and to call the 
breed Deutsche (German) Dogge. Previously the Germans 
had usually called the breed Ulmer Dogge, after the City 
of Ulm, in Wurtemberg, Germany, because the breeders in 
Wurtemberg had been most successful in their endeavors 

34 (529) 



530 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

to improve the Dogge and raise him to such perfection that 
the fanciers in other parts of Germany soon vied with 
them ; and now the Germans call the German Dogge, with 
just pride, their national dog, while the Great Dane, 
according to the Gartenlaube of April, 1885, has gone to 
the dogs in Denmark. 

On the title-page of the book "Die Deutsche Dogge," 
published in July, 1888, we read as follows: 

We have used in the English translation the term the ' ' German Dogge " 
in preference to that of "Great Dane," the name the breed has in England, 
because we consider that the fatherland of the Dogge, the country in which 
they have been brought to their present state of perfection, has the right to 
choose the name which it considers correct. The ''Great Danish Dog" 
(Danske Hunde) is an entirely different breed, which is found in Denmark, 
and the points of which were fixed at the exhibition in Copenhagen, 1886. 

The niustrirte Zeitung of February 5, 1887, contains a 
picture, "Three Kindred Races of Dogs, the English Mas- 
tiff, the Danish Dog, and the German Dogge," and the 
following remarks: 

The Danish Dog, little known in Germany, is unquestionably closely 
related to the English Mastiff, but has better legs and feet than the thorough- 
bred Mastiff, and is faster, livelier, and not so clumsy. The best specimens 
are said to have been raised thirty or forty years ago on an estate called 
Broholm, and are, therefore, also called Broholmer Dogs. The Danish or 
Broholm Dog does not at all resemble our German Dogge, as may be readily 
seen from our illustration, and it is proof of ignorance if many a fancier still 
classifies our German Dogge as Danish or Ulmer Dogge. The distinction 
appears to have been invented by dealers, for now we find the light, then the 
heavy strain mentioned as Danish or Ulmer Dogge. 

During the great international exhibition of dogs of all races at Ham- 
burg, in the year 1876, it was evident that none of the breeders and connois- 
seurs present were able to classify and distinguish the numerous entries as 
Ulmer or Danish Dogges. During the following shows at Hanover (1879) and 
Berlin, it was resolved to abolish this unwarranted distinction entirely, and to 
designate the breed as German Dogges, which they have been in reality for the 
last three centuries. At the same time, a standard of points was agreed upon 
after the best specimens. According to them, the German Dogge must neither 
be too heavy nor too light, but must keep exactly the medium between the 
Greyhound and Molossus Dog. Later attempts to have a heavier kind 
acknowledged, besides the one recognized by the standard, have always been 
rejected with overwhelming majority by the friends and breeders of this finest 
and largest of all canine races. 



THE GEEAT DANE. 



531 



The origin and descent of the German Dogge are not 
definitely known, but we do know that the breed is of great 
antiquity. In the agricultural, forest, and hunting laws 
of the old Gferman tribes, which were not collected until 
the middle of the tenth century, under the title 4 4 Geopo- 
nica," seven kinds of dogs are enumerated in the " Lex Ale- 
manorum." Of these, the Canis porcaritius (Boarhound), 




MINCA MIA. 
Owned by Prof. J. H. H. Maenner, Baltimore, Md. 

"that catches the swine," or the Canis ursaritius (bear- 
catcher), "that catches the bear, the cow, or the bull," and 
the Veltris leporalis (the Greyhound or Harehound), are 
thought to be the progenitors of the German Dogge, that 
probably owes his origin to the efforts made to raise a breed 
in which the principal qualities of the above-mentioned 
varieties, i. e., strength and fleetness, are combined. 

A savage, strong, and courageous dog, whose origin is a 



532 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

mystery, existed in ancient times. In the book, "The 
Varieties of Dogs, as They Are Found in Old Sculptures, 
Pictures, Engravings, and Books," by Th. Charles Berjeau, 
we find pictures, copied from the British Museum, of this 
dog the Canis molossus, now extinct bearing a striking 
resemblance to the German Dogge. Aristotle mentions the 
Canis moloticus after Molossis or Molossia, the central 
part of Epirus, in ancient Greece 350 years B. C., in his 
"Historia Animalium." The Canis venations (hunting 
dog) mentioned in Marcus Terentius Varro' s work, l ' De re 
Rustica, 1 ' in the last century B. C., is probably the same 
dog as the Canis moloticus, or molossus, as well as the 
Canis venaticus that Junius Moderatus Calnmella writes 
of in the first century of the Christian era. Shortly before 
that time, Gratlus Faliscus, in his "Cynegeticon," treats of 
the manner of using the dogs for hunting, of raising and 
training them, of their qualities, diseases, etc. ; also Oppi- 
anus of Anazarbos, in the second century, in his didactic 
poem, "De Venatione," Marc. Aurelius Olympius Neme- 
sianus of Carthage, in his " Cynegeticon," and Titus Julius 
Calpurnius of Sicily, in his "Cynegeticon sen de re Vene- 
tica Eclogse," describe explicitly the qualities of the dogs, 
and their being employed for hunting. Many other histo- 
rians and poets, among whom Virgil, Horace, Caius Plinius 
Secundus, living shortly before or in the beginning of the 
Christian era, describe and extol the Canis molossus and 
his valorous deeds. 

The Romans are said to have become acquainted with 
these dogs in England, and to have exported many of them 
for the purpose of using them in the circus to light with 
wild beasts. Tlnve of them could overpower a bear, and 
four even a lion. The Romans, finding extreme delight in 
these contests, valued the pugnacious Molossus Dogs, whose 
daring exploits historians and poets extolled so highly that 
they appointed officers in their British provinces whose 
business was the selection and training of the dogs to be 
sent to Rome. Long after the decline of the Roman Em- 
pire these dogs were employed for such bloody contests, 



THE GREAT DANE ( GERMAN DOGGE ). 533 

and when bears and lions became scarce, the bull was sub- 
stituted for them. 

John Stow describes a contest between three of these 
dogs and a lion, in the presence of James I. One of the 
dogs being put into the den, was soon disabled by the lion; 
the second met with a similar fate, but the third immedi- 
ately seized the lion by the lip and held him for a long 
time, till, being considerably torn by the lion's claws, he 
was obliged to quit his hold. The lion, greatly exhausted 
by the conflict, refused to renew the engagement, but, 
taking a sudden leap over the dogs, fled into the interior 
part of his den. Two of the dogs soon died of their 
wounds; the last survived, and was taken care of by the 
king's son, who said: " He that has fought with the king 
of beasts shall never fight with an inferior creature." 

The dogs, however, were not the antagonists of wild 
beasts only; they or their descendants were also trained to 
attack persons. During the conquest of Cuba and San 
Domingo, in 1511, the Spaniards under Diego Velasquez 
employed the dogs in subduing the natives and pursuing 
them into the forests, where they had sought refuge. Hor- 
rible deeds are recorded of the famous dog, Berezillo, that 
was killed by an Indian with a poisoned arrow during the 
conquest of Porto Rico, in 1514. A descendant of Bere- 
zillo, Yasco Nunez de Balboa's dog, Leoncico, was also 
famous for killing and tearing to pieces numbers of Indi- 
ans. In 1519, the Spaniards J under Hernando Cortes em- 
ployed these dogs in the same cruel manner to hunt down 
and kill the natives in Mexico. 

During the reign of Charles the Great, in the eighth 
century, the Canis molossus is mentioned, and in the for- 
est laws of King Henry II. of England, of the twelfth 
century, we read of the Canis mastivus. 

Many varieties are the descendants of the Canis mo- 
lossus, the most popular of which are the Bulldog, his 
diminutive relative the Pug, the English Mastiff, and the 
German Dogge. 

In pictures painted by celebrated artists in the begin- 



534 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

ning of the sixteenth century, notable among which are 
the u Wild Boar Hunt," by Jurgen Jacobsz; the "Bear 
Hunt," by Francis Snyders; the "Wild Boar Hunt," by 
Peter Paul Rubens, we find a species of dogs of the same 
size and shape as the present German Dogge. These dogs 
also enjoyed high favor with the German nobility, and were 
the constant companions of their noble masters. Famous 
dogs of this kind were owned by the Emperor Wenzel, 
Charles V., and the Duke Ulrich of Wurtemberg. The 
latter, when dispossessed of his throne by his enemies, 
in the beginning of the sixteenth century, had to seek 
refuge in the caves, near the Castle of Lichtenstein, for some 
months, where, principally through the sagacity, vigilance, 
and courage of his dog, he escaped several murderous 
assaults made against his life. 

There are at present three varieties of the German Dogge, 
viz., the brindled or tiger-striped, the spotted or Harlequin, 
commonly called Tiger-doggen in Germany, and those of 
one color. While a distinction should be strictly main- 
tained with regard to color, no difference is to be made in 
size, coat, or form. It must be admitted, however, that 
those of one color sometimes have finer hair, lighter forms, 
and a more pointed head, whereby some are induced to 
believe that there is more Greyhound blood in them. 
Others are of the opinion that the fawn, or the red variety, 
descended from the brindled Dogge by a disappearance of 
the dark streaks, and also the'black one by an increase of the 
dark stripes, and that the gray, or blue one, was produced 
by crossing the fawn, or the sandy-red, and the black 
Dogge. 

The origin of neither the spotted nor the brindles being 
known, their color is to be considered original. It is 
supposed that the spotted variety received his wall-eye 
and spotted or flesh-colored nose by a crossing of Albinos 
with black Dogges, which theory is plausible, since a simi- 
lar coloring of the eyes and noses of the progeny from 
spotted and white horses is observed. 

The spotted specimens have white, silver-gray, or bluish 



THE GREAT DANE. 



535 



ground-color, with irregular black, gray, or blue spots or 
patches. Those with white ground-color and black spots 
are the most beautiful; the lighter the ground-color and 




the darker the spots, the better. Some persons entertain 
the mistaken idea that these dogs were used for hunting 
or attacking tigers, because they are generally called 
Tiger-doggen in Germany. 



536 THE AMEEICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

In France, the whole-colored variety, especially the 
blue or black, is preferred, although of late the Tiger as 
well as the brindled Dogge finds admirers there. At the 
exhibition at Paris, in 1889, Charles Goute's Tiger bitch 
Calypso, his Tiger dog Roland II., and his brindled dog 
Fidelio won lirst prizes. These dogs are very large; and their 
receiving the highest honors at an exhibition in France, 
where the smaller, elegantly shaped dog has always been 
valued highest, indicates a modification of taste in that 
country, where specimens over thirty inches high were not 
much thought of. Fidelio, one of the finest specimens 
known, is a powerful dog, of strong bone, about thirty- 
four inches high, weighing 183 pounds. He is much 
admired in France now, though the brindled Dogge is called 
there, by many, a butcher-dog. 

In England it is entirely different. There the Tiger 
and the brindled varieties rank highest; great size is 
highly appreciated there, and Mr. Riego's Cid Campea- 
dor, a dog of about the same height as Fidelio, is much 
admired. The admirers of the large specimens will even 
overlook a little dewlap, which is more frequently found 
on those over thirty-one inches high than on smaller ones. 
Besides, we find many very large Dogges with coarse hair 
and a faulty frame. The yellow-dun Dogge, with black 
mask, is generally considered the result of a cross with 
the Mastiff, in England, while in Germany the black mask 
is a desirable feature, preventing the appearance of red 
or flesh-colored noses in puppies. .Brindles will often 
whelp yellow or dun puppies with black masks, which 
fact proves the erroneousness of the above-mentioned 
supposition. 

Another erroneous opinion, prevailing in England, is 
that dew-claws indicate a cross with the smooth- coated 
St. Bernard. They are not an ornament or a desirable 
appendage, but are found on specimens of the purest 
strains. Sometimes they are cumbersome and hurtful; 
they may grow into the flesh, or the dog may be wounded 
by them in another manner. Therefore it is advisable 



THE GREAT DANE. 587 

% 

to relieve the puppies of them, with a pair of sharp 
scissors, when about two weeks old, or even sooner. The 
operation will cause little pain, and the loss of blood will 
be slight at so early an age. 

In Germany, all varieties have their admirers, but the 
preference is generally given to the brindles. First-class 
specimens of that variety were scarce at the exhibition at 
Oannstadt, in 1889, because they are in such demand that 
few of them remain in Wurtemberg for a long time. 
The German breeders endeavor to raise large specimens; 
but those not possessing a correct frame, or being deficient 
in bone, muscle, or otherwise, are but slightly valued. 

With reference to the size of Dogges, we often find 
exaggerated statements; but it may be safely asserted that 
the German Dogge is superior to all other breeds in height. 
Mr. Riego declares his Champion Cid Campeador, bred in 
Germany, to be the largest dog ever raised in Europe his 
height being thirty-four inches at shoulder and that the 
largest St. Bernard measures about thirty-three and one-half 
inches, but that his owner makes him thirty-six inches. 
According to the Jagd-und ScJiutzen-Zeitung of April 
15, 1889, the height of the German Dogge Victor, then 
exhibited at Chicago, is thirty -eight inches. The Witten- 
berger Kreisblatt stated, some years ago, that Friedrich's 
Csesar was 1.02 meters, or about forty and one-sixth inches, 
high. The latter assertions have to be taken cum grano 
sails. 'Not many dogs will attain a height of thirty-four 
inches, and few of those exceeding it will have a correct 
frame. 

Actual measurements of Boppel's Sandor, one of the 
largest and finest Dogges, taken not long ago, may be of 
interest: 

Length of head, 12-J inches; length of neck, llf inches; 
length from neck to set-on of tail, 32 inches; length of tail, 
25J inches; girth of skull, 23 inches; girth of chest, 38f 
inches; girth of loin, 28-J inches; girth of thigh, 10J inches; 
height, 34-J inches 

The above measurements were taken and guaranteed 



538 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

correct by Mr. Ziebert. Sandor is young and not fully 
developed yet. 

The ears of the German Dogge are generally cropped, 
because it gives the head a bolder and livelier expression 
and appearance. In England, however, a strong opposition 
prevails against the cropping of the ears of any breed, and 
the wish of the Queen of England, as well as the exertions 
made by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Ani- 
mals to put a stop to this so-called cruelty, may be of no 
little consequence. 

The Queen of Wurtemberg, who visited the exhibition 
at Cannstadt, in 1889, expressed also a wish, when admiring 
the class of beautiful German Dogges, that the ears might 
be left to them just as God created them. The French, 
on the contrary, do not want a Dogge with uncropped ears; 
and a German sporting paper, the Hunde- Sport, remarked 
not long ago: 

There is danger that America will follow the example of England. We 
in Germany do not crop the ears of our Hatzriide since the day before yester- 
day; our ancestors did so centuries ago, and if it will be admissible to draw a 
general conclusion from a Greek coin, the cropping of ears was customary two 
thousand years ago, and neither England nor America will alter it. 

The same paper had in its issue of January 22, 1890, 
the following: 

We have been informed that in two cases owners of young Dogges were 
indicted by societies and fined for cropping the ears of dogs. Should any one 
of our readers be fined on that account, he is requested to enter protest against 
ft, and to ask us to name him two experts who are ready to declare under oath 
that the non-cropping of ea's was the cause of continual suffering in the ears, 
so that the cropping had to be performed in advanced age. Not the cropping 
of the ears is tormenting, but their remaining uncropped. We are convinced 
that on such evidence the parties indicted will be acquitted. 

On the other hand, experts spoke and wrote against the 
fashion of cropping ears. Professor Weiss, of the Veter- 
inary College at Stuttgart, says in his book, " The Dog, 
His Qualities, Breeding, and Treatment in Healthy and 
Sick Condition:" 

The operation of cropping ears consists in a tormenting for the sake of 
satisfying a nonsensical taste; besides, according to the opinion of the greatest 
dog-fanciers, the dog looks, in his natural condition, much better than after 



THE GREAT DANE. 539 

squandering any cruel art on him; moreover, the consequences of this useless 
mutilation do not cease when the ear is healed. The irritation caused by it 
often has an injurious effect on the internal ear, and frequently deafness is the 
result. 

Not a few dog-fanciers affirm that the exterior ear of the 
dog, being movable, prevents the free entrance of insects, 
dust, rain, snow, hail, etc., protects against the changes of 
temperature, assists the animal in catching the sound- 
waves, and thereby renders the sense, of hearing more 
acute. 

Thus we see that the opinions of experts, as well as of 
fanciers, differ, and are even diametrically opposite, with 
reference to the cropping of ears. The taste for cropping, 
however, is predominant, and we may predict a continuance 
of the fashion, in spite of arguments and protests.* 

STANDARD OF POINTS. 

The Great Dane Club of England, whose object is the 
breeding and improvement of the German Dogge, has 
adopted the following standard of points, which is, a few 
unessential differences excepted, the same as the one laid 
down by the breeders in Germany: 

General appearance. The Great Dane is not so heavy 
and massive as the Mastiff, nor should he too nearly 
approach the Greyhound type. Remarkable in size and 
very muscular, strongly though elegantly built, move- 
ments easy and graceful; head and neck carried high; the 
tail carried horizontally with the back, or slightly upward, 
with a slight curl at the extremity. The minimum height 
and weight of dogs should be thirty inches and one hun- 
dred and twenty pounds; of bitches, twenty-eight inches 
and one hundred pounds. Anything below this shall be 
debarred from competition. Points: General appearance, 
3; condition, 3; activity, 5; height, 13. 

Head. Long, the frontal-bone of the forehead slightly 

* I wish to record here a most earnest and emphatic protest against crop- 
ping, docking, or otherwise mutilating dogs of any breed. In my judgment, 
these practices are cruel and useless, and the taste or notion that fosters them 
is erroneous. EDITOR. 



540 



THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 



raised, and very little indentation between the eyes. Skull 
not too broad. Muzzle broad and strong, and blunt at the 
point. Cheek muscles well developed. Nose large, bridge 
well arched. Lips in front perpendicularly blunted, not 
hanging too much over the sides, though with well-defined 




MAJOR. 
Owned by Mr. Paul Merker, 78 State street, Chicago. 

folds at the angle of the mouth. The lower jaw slightly 
projecting about a sixteenth of an inch. According to 
German standard, the lower jaw must be neither projecting 
nor receding, so as to make the teeth meet evenly. Eyes 
small, round, with sharp expression and deeply set. Ears 
very small, and Greyhound-like in carriage when un- 
cropped; they are, however, usually cropped. Points, 15. 
Neck. Rather long, very strong and muscular, well 



THE GREAT DANE. 541 

arched, without dewlap or loose skin about the throat. 
The junction of head and neck strongly pronounced. 
Points, 5. 

Chest. Not too broad, and very deep in the brisket. 
Points, 8. 

Back. Not too long or short, loins arched and falling 
in a beautiful line to the insertion of th* tail. Points, 8. 

Tail. Reaching to the hock, strong at the root, and 
ending fine with a slight curve. When excited, it becomes 
more curved, but in no case should curve over the back. 
Points, 4. 

Belly. Well drawn up. Points, 4. 

Fore quarters. Shoulders set sloping; elbows well 
under, neither turned inward nor outward. Leg fore-arm 
muscular and with great development of bone, the whole 
leg strong and quite straight Points, 10. 

Hind quarters. Muscular thighs, and second thigh 
long and strong, as in the Greyhound, and hocks well let 
down, and turning neither in nor out. Points, 10. 

Feet. Large and round, neither turned inward nor out- 
ward. , Toes well arched and closed. Nails very strong 
and curved. Points, 8. 

Hair. Very short, hard, and dense, and not much 
longer on the under part of the tail. Points, 4. 

Color and markings. The recognized colors are the 
various shades of gray (commonly termed "blue"), red, 
black, or pure white, or white with patches of the before- 
mentioned colors. The colors are sometimes accompanied 
with markings of a darker tint about the eyes and muzzle, 
and with a line of the same tint (called a "trace") along 
the course of the spine. The above ground- colors also 
appear in the brindles, and also the ground-colors of the 
mottled specimens. In the whole-colored specimens, the 
china or wall-eye but rarely appears, and the nose more or 
less approaches black, according to the prevailing tint of 
the dog, and the eyes vary in color also. The mottled 
specimens have irregular patches or "clouds" upon the 
above-named ground-colors; in some instances, the clouds 



542 THE AMERICAN BOOK OF THE DOG. 

or markings being of two or more tints. With the mot- 
tled specimens, the wall or china eye is not uncommon, and 
the nose is often parti-colored or wholly flesh-colored. 

Faults. Too heavy a head, too highly arched frontal- 
bone, and deep "stop" or indentation between the eyes; 
large ears and hanging flat to the face; short neck; full 
dewlap; too narrow or too broad a chest; sunken or hollow 
or quite straight back; bent fore legs; overbent fetlocks; 
twisted feet; spreading toes; too heavy or too much bent, 
or too highly carried tail, or with a brush underneath; weak 
hind quarters, and a general want of muscle. .j 

The diseases peculiar to this race are the same as those 
of other large smooth -coated dogs, and are generally the 
consequence of overfeeding and want of exercise, or of not 
being properly protected against dampness or the inclem- 
encies of the weather. The Dogges are very hardy and 
easily acclimated; they can live in a cold climate, and bet- 
ter than rough-coated breeds in warm countries. If prop- 
erly fed and cared for, they will rarely be sick. The best 
food for them is broth, milk, vegetables, corn-meal, boiled 
or baked, meat, cooked or raw, and bones. 

THE FUTUKE OF THE GERMAN DOGGE IN THE UNITED 

STATES. 

An enthusiastic admirer wrote not long since, "Make 
room for the Great Dane, for lie is coming." And it is no 
wonder that he is coming; the more generally his noble 
qualities, his superiority to other breeds, are known, the 
more rapidly will the number of his friends and admirers 
increase.* It is strange that this variety is comparatively 

* Among the many American breeders and owners of Great Danes may by 
mentioned the following: R. P. Alden, 3 East Thirty-eighth street, New York 
City; Miss M. E. Simonson, East Orange, N. J.; Paul Merker, 78 State street, 
Chicago, 111.; Edward Kelly, 55 West Twenty-sixth street, New York City; 
Carl Heimerle, Bay Ridge, Long Island, N. Y.; X John Getz, 220 Fifth avenue, 
New York City; W. A. Armstrong, New Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y.; T. 
Roedler, Milton, Ontario, Canada; Welz & Zerweck, Myrtle and Wyckoif ave- 
nues, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Theo. Honegger, 33 Broad street, New York City; H. A. 
Lawson, 107 Cherry street, New York City; Osceola Kennels, Osceola Mills, 



THE GREAT DANE. 543 

little known here yet, and that not many years ago there 
were not enough in this country to have a class for them in 
the shows. In New York, they were iirst exhibited in 1886, 
when there were eleven of them; in 1887, only six were 
exhibited; in 1888, seven; in 1889, seventeen, and this year 
(1890), twenty-five. In Chicago, there were fifty- three 
exhibited at the Mascoutah Kennel Club Show this year. 
The Great Dane or German Mastiff Club of that city, organ- 
ized last year for the purpose of popularizing this breed, 
has now a large membership, and has already done and 
will doubtless do a great deal to call the attention of dog- 
fanciers to the German Dogge. The efforts of the members 
of that club will certainly be appreciated by those who 
may acquire a specimen of this breed, and thus become 
acquainted with the beauty and admirable disposition of 
the Dogge. 

It is, however, difficult to get the best specimens, and 
they command high prices. For importations we must 
rely principally on Germany, the home of the breed. In a 
review of the remarkable events in the dogdom of Germany 
during the year 1889, a German sporting paper prints the 
following: 

Foreign countries carried off several Dogges. Two went to Mr. Riego, in 
England, Mr. Onderwater, in Holland, got Diana-Essig, and Professor Maen- 
ner, in Baltimore, bought Bravo Pluto and Minca Mia. To the kennel of Mr. 
Goute, in France, went Fidelio, Libussa, Roland, and Rheinperle. 

Thus we see that few specimens worthy of being men- 
tioned left Germany last year, but a greater number will 
surely leave during this year and thereafter. 

As illustrating the noble disposition of the German 

Wis. ; Prof. J. H. H. Maenner, 404 South Paca street, Baltimore, Md. ; G. 
Leihbacher, Myrtle avenue and Grove street, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; M. Martin, 
601 East Fourteenth street, New York City; F. M. Wilder, 2515 Wabash 
avenue, Chicago, 111.; Andrew Schultz, 697 Noble street, Chicago, 111.; F. C. 
Smith, Bloomington, 111. ; H. A. Williams, 1101 Washington boulevard, Chi- 
cago, 111.; E. R. Bacon, 73 Board of Trade, Chicago, 111.; Hawthorn Kennels, 
Elmhurst, 111.; William Pfeifer, 2 Elston avenue, Chicag