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Full text of "The American card player: containing clear and comprehensive directions for playing the games of euchre, whist, bezique, all-fours, pitch, commercial pitch, French fours, all fives, cassino, cribbage, straight and draw poker, and whiskey poker: together with all the laws of those games"

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THE 



AMERICAN CARD-PLAYER: 



CONTAINING 



CLEAR AND COMPREHENSIVE DIRECTIONS 

FOB PLATING THE GAM3ES OF 

EUCHRE, WHIST^ BEZIQUE, ALL-FOURS, PITCH, COMMER- 
CIAL PITCH, FREKCH FOURS, ALL FIVES, CASSINO, 
CRIBBAGE, STRAIGHT Al^D DRAW POKER, 
AND WHISKEY POKER: 

TOGETHER WITH ALL THE LAWS OF THOSE GAMES. 



NEW YORK: 
DICK & FITZGERALD, PUBLISHERS 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, 

By DICK & FITZGERALD, 

In the Clerk^s OflQce of the District Court of the United States for the Southern 

District of New York. 



LovEJOY & Son, 

Electrotypers and Stereotypers. 

15 Yandewatcr street JT. Y. 



CONTENTS. 



PA6K 

Whist T 

Long Whist 8 

Short Whist . . . . • 54 

Dumby, or Three-Handed Whist '^^^'^fff^'^ f 7*' '?'*'**«»8»^ ... 56 

Two-Handed Whist . . ^^*'^^ ^ S * %^^ : ^^ /4Ar^%. . . 56 

Euchre f » . . *, • - * * ' \ * ^'^ 

Two-Handed Euchre . \ . - liU. ]. . . • / /• * '^^ 

Three-Handed Euchre . I V^ .* * . " . .' . ' . / / . 80 

Set Back Euchre . . \ '''^^ y • • 81 

Lap, Slam, Jamhone, and JambSj^e / /pp-^'tQlw'^^.l^*^ ' • ^^ 

Cribbage 85 

Five Card Cribbage . "". 86 

Six Card Cribbage 101 

Three-Handed Cribbage 104 

Four-Handed Cribbage 105 

Beziqtje . 112 

Bezique without a Trump 119 

Bezique Penanche 119 

B6zique Limited to a Fixed Point 119 

Three-Handed Bezique 120 

Four-Handed Bezique 120 

All-Foues 121 

Four-Handed All Fours 124 

Pitch, or Blind All Fours 125 

Commercial Pitch, or Auction All Fours 125 

All-Fives 127 

French Fours 127 

Cassino , : . 128 

Poker 130 

Sti-aight Poker 130 

Draw Poker 182 

Whiskey Poker 140 

Stud Poker . 140 

Pboisions on Disputed Points ^ , . . 141 

Straight and Draw Poker .141 

Euchre . 146 

All-Fours and Pitch 149 

Cassino •...*, 151 



THE AMERICAN CAED PLAYER 



WHIST. 

Of all card games. Whist is perhaps the most interesting ; and 
certainly, if such a term can be used in regard to any thing in 
which mere chance is an element, the most scientific. As to its 
absolute origin, it is not necessary for us to inquire whether the 
game be a simple improvement on the " Ruff and Honors" 
spoken of by Seymour, or the '' Slam," ** Whisk," or ** Swabbers" 
with which our forefathers beguiled their evenings in the pre- 
entertainment ages, which, from the absence of gas, may well be 
considered dark. Nor is it of much consequence to us whether 
this particular game of cards was familiar to the Greeks, Eomans, 
Franks, Saxons, or Danes, or whether it was known in England in 
the days of good Queen Bess. Sufficient for our purpose that it is 
a good game, and that it has vastly improved since the days when 
Swift and Congreve played rubbers, and when the game enjoyed 
the honor of being mentioned in the polished lines of Pope and 
Thomson. *' Whist," says Captain Crawley, **is the king of all 
card games. Unlike most others, it presents great scope for the 
exercise of judgment, memory, skill, and good temper. In variety 
it yields to none, and in scientific calculation it is superior to any. 
It is not a game determinable by chance alone, for a single error or 
miscalculation is sufficient to overthrow the apparently most certain 
triumph. It is an amazing trier of patience, and only he (or she) 
wha can absolutely conquer its difficulties can hope to become a 
good player. It is necessary to have a ' calculating head' in order to 
excel, for reflection and memory are the two great qualities at 



b WHIST. 

Whist. Four good players know, almost to a certainty, where 
every card is placed after the first or second round ; and two ama- 
teurs against two players stand very little more chance than they 
would if their cards were laid face upwards on the table." Whist 
is to be played in silence, for it is not a conversation game. And 
d propos of the name, here is an anecdote which, whether it be true 
or not, is worthy of preservation : — The Lords of the three Kingdoms 
(France, Spain, and Germany), after declaiming all day on affairs 
of State, found it necessary to rest their tongues at night ; so they 
invented a mute game, and called it Whist ! 

Among the chief writers on Whist since Hoyle, we may mention 
the names of Deschappelles, Major A. (whose Short Whist is a 
standard authority), Eidrah Trebor (Sobert Hardie spelled back- 
wards), J. W. Carleton (the editor of Bohn^s Hand-booh of (J-ames)^ 
Mr. Watson, Coelebs, and Captain Crawley. The gentleman who 
writes under this nom de plume has produced the latest, and perhaps 
the best work on the game, and to him we are indebted for many valu- 
able hints and maxims. 

It must be understood that Hoyle, in all his treatises, presumed 
that his readers possessed a certain preliminary knowled^ of the 
several games, and that, therefore, a mere reproduction of his 
Whist v/ould be but of small value to amateurs. In the following 
pages, we assume that our readers have no such previous knowledge, 
and we therefore begin at the beginning. 



THE GAME. 

Long Whist is played by four persons, with a com.plete pack of 
cards, fifty-two in number. The four players divide themselves 
into two parties, each player sitting opposite his partner. This 
division is usually accomplished by what is called cutting the cards^ 
the two highest and the two lowest being partners ; or the partner- 
ship may be settled by each player drawing a card from the pack 
spread out on the table, or in any other way that may be decided 
on. The holder of the lowest card is the dealer. But previous to 
their being dealt, the cards are " made" — that is, shuffled — by the 
elder hand, and " cut" by the younger hand. The undermost card 
in the pack, after it has been shuffled and cut, is the "trump." 
These and other terms used in the game we shall presently explain. 



THE GAME. 9 

The whole pack is now dealt out, card by card, the dealer begin- 
ning with the player on his left, the elder hand. The last card — the 
trump — is then turned face upwards on the table, where it remains till 
the first trick is won, and turned. The deal completed, each player 
takes up his allotted thirteen, and arranges them in his hand accord- 
ing to the several suits — the Hearts, Clubs, Spades, and Diamonds 
by themselves, in their regular order. The eider hand now leads or 
plays a card. His left-hand adversary follows, then his partner, and 
last of all his right-hand adversary. Each player must '* follow 
Buit," if he can, and the highest card of the suit led wins the 
** trick ;" or if either player cannot follow suit, he either passes the 
suit — ^that is, plays some card of another suit — or trumps; that is, 
plays a card of the same suit or denomination as the turned-up 
card. Thus, we will suppose the first player leads a Nine of 
Spades, the second follows with a Ten, the third, wlro perhaps holds 
two high cards, plays a Queen, and the last a Two or Three. The 
trick would then belong to the third player, who won it with his 
Queen. The winner of the trick then leads off a card, and the 
others follow as before, and so on till the thirteen tricks are played. 
A second deal then takes place, as before, and so the game proceeds 
till ono or the other side has obtained ten tricks, which is game. 

The order and value of the Cards in Whut is as follows : — Ace is 
highest in play and lowest in cutting. Then follow King, Queen, 
Knave, Ten, Nine, Eight, Seven, Six, Five, Four, Three, Two, the 
lowest. 

But there are other ways of scoring points besides tricks. The 
four court cards of the trump suit are called honors ; and the hold- 
ers of four, score four towards the game ; the holders of three, score 
two ; but if each player or each set of partners hold tivo^ then honors 
are said to be divided^ and no points are added to the game on 
either side. Thus, A. and C. (partners) have between them the 
Ace, Knave, and Queen. At the end of the deal or round, they say 
and score two dy honors ; or, B. and D. hold Ace and King only, 
while A. and C. have Queen and Knave in their hands ; then the 
honors are divided. 

All tricks above six score to the game. All honors above two 
score in the way explained — two points for three honors, /owr points 
for four honors. 

There being thirteen tricks which must be made in each round or 
deal, it follows that seven points may be gained, which, with the 
1^ 



10 WHIST. 

four honors, would finish the game in a single deal. This stroke 
of good fortune is, however, seldom attained. It is much more 
likely that four or five deals be made before the game is won. As 
already explained, ten points is game in Long Whist. 

In Short Whist, which is the ordinary game cut in half, jive 
points win. But if either side get up to nine points, then the hold- 
ing of honors is of no advantage. In the language of the Whist- 
table, at nine points honors do not count. But at eight points, the 
player who holds two honors in his hand has what is called the 
privilege of the calL That is, he may ask his partner if he has an 
honor — "Can you one?" or **Have you an honor?" If the 
partner asked does hold the requisite Court card, the honors may be 
shown, the points scored, and the game ended. But the inquiry 
must not be made by the player holding the two honors till it is 
his turn to piety, nor must the holder of a single honor inquire of 
his partner if he has two. 

Nor does the holding of four honors entitle the partners to show 
them at any stage of the game except at eight points. To put the 
matter epigrammatically, at six or seven points,, tricks count before 
honors ; at eight points, honors count before tricks. 

At nine points honors do not count. It must be understood, how- 
ever, that in order to count honors at eight points, they must be 
shown before the first trick is turned, or they cannot be claimed till 
the round is completed. Thus it might happen that the partners at 
eight points, holding the honors between them, and neglecting to 
show them, would bo beaten, even though the other side wanted 
three or four tricks for the game. 

A Single Game is won by the side which first obtains the ten 
points by a majority of one, two, three, or four points. 

A Double Game is made when one side obtains ten points before 
the other has scored ^i?^. 

A Lurch or Triplet is won^ by the obtainment of ten points to 
nothing on the other side. 

A Rubber is two games won out of three. 

The Points of a Rubber are reckoned thus wise : — For the single 
game, one point;, for the double, two points; and for the rub, two 
points. Thus it is possible to obtain six points in one rubber — 
namely, two doubles and the rub. 

The above explanations refer, of course, to games that are played 
for money stakes, but the more usual plan now a-days is to play 



TECHNICAL TEBMS. li 

Whist for a small stake on each game, without regard to what are 
called the joints of the game, 

A Lurch or Triplet is in gome companies reckoned for three 
points. Generally, however, a lurch is only counted as a double 
game where triplets are counted ; it is possible, therefore, for the 
winners to obtain eight points. 

A Slam is when the whole thirteen tricks are won in a single 
hand. It is ordinarily reckoned equal to a full rubber of six points. 
All these matters are, of course, subject to the practice of, or pre- 
vious agreement among, the players. If nothing be stated at the 
commencement of the play, then it would be understood that the 
stakes played for were determined by each single game. 

The game is usually marked on the table by coins or counters, or 
by the holes in a "Cribbage-board. Many pretty little contrivances 
have been invented as Whist-markers ; but if coins be used, the fol- 
lowing is the simplest way of arranging them in order to denote 
the score : 

12 3 

o oo ooo 



Or thus — a plan in which the unit above stands for three, or below 
ioxjive : 



4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


O 


OO 


o 


ooo 


OO 


o 





OO 


o 


ooo 


o 


OO 



4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 




9 


oooo 


o 
oo 


o 

OOO 


OO 
O 


OOO 

o 


OOOO 
O 


or 


O 
O 
O 



But we have not yet quite got over the alphabet of the game. 
It is absolutely necessary that the o should make himself fully 
acquainted with the following — 

TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN WHIST. 

Ace, — Highest in play, lowest in cutting. 

Blue Peter, — A signal for trumps, allowable in modern play. This 
term is used when a high card is unnecessarily played in place of 



1 2 . WHIST. 

one of lower denomination, as a ten for a seven, a five for a 
deuce, &:c. 

Bumper, — Two games won in succession before adversaries have 
won one ; that is, a rubber of full points — Five at Long Whist, 
Eight at Short. 

Cut. — Lifting the cards when the uppermost portion (not fewer than 
three) is placed below the rest. The pack is then ready for the 
dealer. 

Cutting-in. — Deciding the deal by each player taking up not fewer 
than three cards, and the two highest and two lowest become 
partners. In case of ties, the cards must be cut again. 

Cutting-out, — In case of other person or persons wishing to play, 
the cut is adopted as before, when the highest (or lowest, as may 
be agreed on) stands out of the game, and does not play. 

CalU the. — The privilege of the player at eight points asking his 
partner if he holds an honor — " Have you one ?" The part- 
ners having eight points are said to Jiave the call. When each 
side stands at eight, the first player has the privilege. As 
explained in a previous page, no player can call till it is his 
turn to play. 

Deal. — The proper distribution of the cards, from left to right, face 
downwards. 

DeaU miss. — A misdeal is made by giving a card too many or too, 
few to either player ; in which case the deal passes to the next 
hand. (See Laws.) 

DeaU fresh. — A fresh or new deal, rendered necessary by any vio- 
lation of the laws, or by any accident to the cards or players. 

Double. — Ten points scored at Long Whist before adversaries have 
obtained five ; or in Short Y/hist. ^yq before three. 

Elder-hand. — The player to the left of the dealer. 

Faced Card. — A card improperly shown in process of dealing. 
It is in the power of adversaries in such cases to demand a new 
deal. 

Finessing. — A term used when a player endeavors to conceal his 
strength, as when, having the best and third best (as Ace and 
Queen), he plays the latter, and risks his adversary holding the 
second best (the King). If he succeed in winning with his 
Queen, he gains a clear trick, because if his adversary throws 
away on the Queen, the Ace is certain of making a trick. The 
term finessing may be literally explained by saying a player 



TECHKICAL U^ERMS. ^ 13 

chances an inferior card to win a trick with while he holds the 

King card in his hand. 
Forcing. — This term is employed when the player obliges his ad- 
versary or partner to play his trump or pass the trick. As, for 

instance, when the player holds the last two cards in a suit, and 

plays one of them. 
Hand, — The thirtfeen cards dealt to each player. 
Honors, — Ace, King, Queen, and Knave of trumps, reckoned in the 

order here given. 
Jack. — The Knave of any suit. 
King Card. — The highest unplayed card in any suit ; the leading 

or winning card. 
Lead, the. — The first player's card, or the card next played by the 

winner of the last trick. 
Long Trumps. — The last trump card in hand, one or more, when 

the rest are all played. It is important to retain a trump in an 

otherwise weak hand. 
Loose Card. — A card of no value, which may be thrown away on 

any trick won by your partner or adversary. 
Longs. — Long Whist, as opposed to short. 
Lurch. — The players who make the double point are said to have 

lurched their adversaries. 
Love. — No points to score. Nothing. 
Marking the Game. — Making Jhe score apj^arent, with coins, &c., 

as before explained. 
No Game. — A gam® at which the players make no score. 
Opposition. — Side against side. 
Points. — The score obtained by tricks and honors. The wagering 

or winning periods of the game. 
Quarte. — Four cards in sequence. 

Quarte Major. — A sequence of Ace, King, Queen, and Knave. 
Quint. — Five successive cards in a suit ; a sequence of ^yq, as 

King, Queen, Knave, Ten and Nine. 
Renounce. — Possessing no card of the suit led, and playing another 

which is not a trump. 
Revoke. — Playing a card different from the suit led, though the 

player can follow suit. The penalty for the error, whether made 

purposely or by accident, is the forfeiture of three tricks. {See 

Laws.) 
Rubber.^— l^he best two of three games. 



1 4 ^ WHIST. 

Ruffing* — Another term for trumping a suit other than trumps. 
Sequence* — Cards following in their natural order, as Ace, King, 

Queen ; Two, Three, Four, &c. There may, therefore, be a 

sequence of Four, Five, Six, and so on. 
Single. — Scoring, at long whist, ten tricks before your adversaries 

have scored ^yq. 
See- saw, — When each partner trumps a suit. For instance, A. 

holds no Diamonds, and B. no Hearts. When A. plays Hearts, 

B. trumps and returns a Diamond, which A. trumps and returns 

a Heart, and so on. 
Sc^re, — The points gained in a game or rubber. 
Slam. — Winning every trick in a round. 
Shorts. — Short whist as opposed to long. 
Tenace. — Holding the best and third best of any suit led when 

last player. Plolding tenace ; as King and Ten of Clubs. When 

your adversary leads that suit, you win two tricks perforce. 

[Tenace minor means the second and fourth best of any suit.] 
Treble. — Scoring five (at Short Whist) before your adversaries 

have marked one. 
Terce. — A sequence of three cards in any suit. 
Terce Major. — Ace, King, and Queen of any suit held in one 

hand. 
Tricks. — The four cards played, including the lead. 
Trump. — The last card in the deal ; ,the turn-up. • - 

Trumps. — Cards of the same suit as the turn-up. 
Ties. — Cards of like denomination, as two Kings, Queens, &;c. 

Cards of the same number of pips. 
Trumping Suit. — Playing a trump to any other suit led. 
Underplay. — Playing to mislead your adversaries ; as by leading a 

small card though you hold the King card of the suit. 
Younger Hand. — The player to the right of the dealer. 

The following are given in mosf of the treatises on Whist as 
standing rules for young players. They are of course liable to 
variation according to the exigencies of the game, as will be seen 
on perusal of the succeeding pages. Mr. Carleton quotes them 
without alteration from Watson, who probably got them from some 
one else. They are known as 

BOB SHORT'S RULES 



BOB short's rules. 15 

BOB SHORT'S EULES. 

FOR FIRST HJlKD OP- LEAD. 

1. Lead from your strong suit, and be cautious how you change 
suits ; and keep a commanding card to bring it in again. 

2. Lead through the strong suit and up to the weak, but not in 
trumps, unless very strong in them. 

3. Lead the highest of a sequence ; but if you have a quart or 
quint to a King, lead the lowest. 

4. Lead through an honor, particularly if the game be much 
against you. 

5. Lead your best trump, if the adversaries be eight, and you 
have no honor ; but not if you have four trumps, unless you have a 
sequence. 

6. Lead a trump if you have four or five, or a strong hand ; but 
not if weak. 

7. Having Ace, King, and two or three small cards, lead Ace and 
King, if weak in trumps, but a small one if strong in them. 

8. If you have the last trump, with some winning cards, and one 
losing card only, lead the losing card. 

9. Eeturn your partner's lead, not the adversaries' ; and if you 
have only three originally, play the best ; but you need not return 
it immediately, when you win with the King, Queen, or Knave, 
and have only small ones, or when you hold a good sequence, have 
a strong suit, or have ^ve trumps. 

10. Do not lead from Ace Queen, or Ace Knave. 

11. Do not lead an Ace, unless you have a King. 

12. Do not lead a thirteenth card, unless trumps be out. 

13. Do not trump a thirteenth card, unless you be last player, or 
want the lead. 

14. Keep a small card to return your partner's lead, 

15. Be cautious in trumping a card when strong in trumps, par- 
ticularly if you have a strong suit. 

16. Having only a few small trumps, make them when you can. 

17. If your partner refuses to trump a suit, of which he knows 
you have not the best, lead your best trump. 

18. When you hold all the remaining trumps play one, and then 
try to put the lead in your partner's hand. 



10 WHIST. 

19. Eemember how many of each suit are out, and what is the 
best card left in each hand. 

20. Never force your partner if you are weak in trumps, unless 
you have a renounce, or want the odd trick. 

21. When playing for the odd trick, be cautious of trumping out, 
especially if your partner be likely to trump a suit ; make all the 
tricks you can early, and avoid finessing. 

22. If you take a trick, and have a sequence, win with the 
lowest. 

FOR SECOI^^D HAI^D. 

23. With King, Queen, and small cards, play a sm.all one, when 
not strong in trumps. But if weak, play the King. With Ace, 
King, Queen, or Knave, only, and a small card, play the small 
one. 

FOR THIRD HAXD. 

24. With Ace and Queen, play her majesty, and if she wins, re- 
turn the Ace. In all other cases the third hand should play his 
best card when his partner has led a low one. It is a safe rule for 
third hand to play his highest. 

FOR ALL THE PLATERS. 

25. Fail not, when in your power, to make the odd trick. 

26. Attend to the game, and play accordingly. 

27. Hold the turn-up card as long as possible, and so keep your 
adversaries from a knowledge of your strength. 

28. Retain a high trump as long as you can. 

29. When in doubt win the trick. 

3Q/^ Play the game fairly and keep your temper. 

THE LAY/S OF WHIST. 

Now, it must never be forgotten that in no important particular 
has the game of Whist been altered since the days of Hoyle. What 
modern editors have done, has been to render plain the instructions 
of that excellent authority, and to give in few words what he gave 
in many. 

Well, then, having got so far — having conquered the alphabet of 



LAWS AND REGXTLATIONS. 17 

Whist — we come now to consider the laws by which, in all com- 
panies, the game is governed. We shall endeavor to make very plain 
and easy what is necessary to be remembered by all players, giving 
the laws pure ct simple, and adding such explanatory remarks as 
may seem needful in separate paragraphs within brackets./ 

LAWS OF THE GAME OF WHIST. 

CUTTIJSTG IN. 

1. The two highest are partners against the two lowest. 

[Except, of course, in such cases as may be agreed to the contrary. The cutting-in may^ 
bfi done by each player taking a few cards from the pack, and when all have choseni 
placing them face upwards on the table. Where the cards are thrown out, and one 
drawn by each player, this is not necessary.] 

2. Less than three cards is not a ^t. 

[If fewer than three cards be cut off the pack, the player so cutting must replace the 
cards, and cut again.] 

8. In cuttiii*:', the lovv'est card deals, and the Ace is lowest. 

{^This holds good in most all card games.] 

4. Ties must cut again. 

[In some companies it is common for all players to cut again. In the Clubs, and 
among regular players, it is sufficient if the two holders of like cards (the tie) take a 
fresh cut, the highest and the lowest in the second Jut becoming partners with the 
highest aad the lowest in the first.] 

5. After the pack is cut, no fresh cards can be called for in that 

deal. 

[This is, of course, a Club rule, as is also the following : — " The cards may be changed as 
often as any player chooses to pay for them."] 

6. If a card be exposed, a new cut may be demanded. 

[It is important, before the pack be played with, to see that it is perfect, and that it 
contains no faced cards.] 

7. All cutting-in and cutting-out must be by pairs. 0k 
[According to the old-established custom, six persons form a full table , and after the 

first rubber is over, two players retire. Cutting-out determines who shall go 
out of the game. The two highest retire. Of course the new table cut again for 
partners.] 

8. The right-hand adversary cuts to the dealer. 

SHUFFLING. 

9 The cards must be shuffled above the table. - 
[This is absolute in order to prevent any sleight-of-hand in shuffling del&w or on the 



18 WHIST. 

table. By the latter plan, which used to be very common, the position of certain 
cards might be shown.] 

10. . Each player has a right to shuffle the cards, the dealer 

last. 

[In practice, the following is the plan most usually pursued : — The left-hand adversary 
shuffles, or " makes" the cards, and tne right-hand adversary cuts them, the dealer^s 
partner not interfering with them at all. It would be well, perhaps, if this plan were 
I regularly followed in all companies.] 

DEALING. 

11. The cards must be dealt one at a time, commencing with the 
player to the left of the dealer. 

12. In case of a misdeaU the deal passes to the next player. 

[The following are misdeals : — A card too many or too few given to either player. 
An exposed card. Looking to the trump card before it is turned up in the regular 
order of play. Dealing the cards wi|^ the pack not having been cut. The trump 
card dropped out of turn. A faulty pack. In every case, except the last, the deal is 
lost if a fresli deal be claimed by opponents. A card faced by acy other than the 
dealer is not subject to penalty.] 

13. The dealer musj: not touch the cards after they have left his 
hand, but he is allowed to count those remaining undealt if he sus- 
pects he has njade a misdeal. 

[He may, if he thinks he has made a misdeal, ask his partner and his opponents to 
count their cards, but it is in their option to comply or refuse. No misdeal can bd 
claimed that is caused by interference of adversaries.] 

»-\ 14. The trump card must be left on the table, face upwards, till 

the first trick is turned. 

[If it is not then taken up, however, it can be treated as an exposed card, and caLed 
at any part of the game, provided that no revoke be made by playing it. ^ 

15. One partner may not deal for another without the consent of 

opponents. 

[When ladies play, it is, however, quite usual for their gentlemen partners to deal for 
them.] 

THE GAME. 

16. Any card played out of turn can be treated as an exposed 

card, and called, provided no revoke be thereby caused. 

[Thus, a player who wins a trick plays another card before his partner plays to the 
trick. The second card becomes an exposed card.] 

17. If the third player throws down his card before the second, 
the fourth player has a right also to play before the second : or, if 
the fourth hand play before the second or third, the cards s< 



LAWS AND REGULATIONS. 19 

played must stand, and the second be compelled to win the trick if 

he can. 

18. No player but he who made the last trick has a right to look 
at it after it has been turned. 

[This ia important, as it is a common error to suppose that the winner of the trick 
has a right to see the last three tricks. Eight cards are all that can ever be seen — tha* 
is, the last and the current trick,] 

19. A trump card played in error may be recalled before the 
trick is turned. 

[But if the playing of such trump cause the next player to expose a card, such last 
exposed card cannot be called.] 

20. If two cards be played, or if the player play twice to the 
same trick, his opponents can elect which of the two shall remain 
and belong to the trick. Provided, however, that no revoke be 
caused. 

[But if the trick should happen to be turned with five cards in it, adversaries may 
claim a fresh deal.] 

21. A player, before he throws, may require his partner to *' draw 
his card," or he may have each card in the trick claimed by the 
players before the trick is completed. 

[The proper way is to say, " Draw your cards," as then the chance of partner claim- 
ing the wrong one is lessened.] 

22. If two players answer the lead together, the one whose turn 
it was to play can call the other card in the next or following trick 
as an exposed card. 

23. No player is allowed to transfer his hand to another without 
the consent of his adversaries. 

24. A hand once abandoned and laid down on the table, cannot 
be taken up again and played. 

[It is not sufScient, however, for a player to say, I resign — he mast resign absolutely. 
Coelebs gives the following in illustration of this law: — ''A., having intimated that 
he has game, B., his adversary, resigns, when it turns out that A^ was mistaken. 
Can B. recall his hand? Decision — B. should have called A.'s hand instead of re- 
signing his own. C. and D. proceed to call both hands respectively. A., B. and 
C. having thrown up their cards, can D. call all three hands? Decision — His part- 
ner's hand can be called by the opponents. A. and B. having thrown up their hand, 
are respectively permitted to retrieve them ; but, after an interval of some tricks, 
A-.'s partner claims to call B.'s hand. Condonation is pleaded, and plea allowed.] 

25. If a player announce that he can win every trick, adversaries 
may call his cards. 



20 WHIST. 

THE REVOKE. 

26.. The penalty for a revoke is the forfeiture of three tricks. If 

a revoke be made, the adverse party may add three to their score 

by taking them from their opponents, or they may reduce your 

score by three. 

[In order to more fully explain the intent of a revoke, we quote the following from 
Mr. Carleton : — " If a suit is led, aiid any one of the players, having a card of the 
same suit, shall play another suit to it — that constitutes a revoke. But if the error 
be discovered before the trick is quitted, or before the party having so played a 
wrong suit, or his partner, shall play again, the penalty only amounts to the cards 
being treated as exposed, and being liable to be called.""] 

27. If a player revokes, and before the trick is turned discovers 
his error, adversaries may call on him to play his highest or lowest 
card of the suit led, or they may call the card exposed at any time 
when such call will not lead to another revoke. 

28. No revoke can be claimed till the trick is turned and quilted, 

or the revoker's partner has played again. 

[There are two criteria for the establishment of a revoke, either the trick must have 
been quitted, or the person revoking, or his partner, must have played since.''— 
C(£lehs.] 

29. When a revoke is claimed, the cards must not be mixed, un- 
der forfeiture of the game. 

30. The player or partners against whom a revoke is established 

cannot claim the game in that deal. 

[Thus, if after taking three tricks for the revoke, the offending players should have 
points enough to make up the ten required for the game, they must remain at nine.] 

31. No revoke can be claimed after the cards are cut for the next 
game. 

32. When a revoke has occurred on both sides, there must be a 
new deal. 

SS. The proof of a revoke is with the claimants, who may examine 

each trick on the completion of the round. 

["There may," says Ccelebs, "be judgment in electing the penalty; e. g.^ if the op- 
ponents are four or two to love, add to your own score; if they are three to one, 
take them down ; if they have seven tricks, take three of them. Bets on the odd 
trick are decided, in case of a revoke, by the result after the penalty hab been 
exacted."] 

CALLIK^G nONORS. 

34. Honors cannot be counted unless they are claimed before the 
next deal. No omissioti to score them can be rectified after the 
cards are packed, but an overscore can be deducted. 



LAWS ANJy KEGULATIONS. , 21 

35. Honors can only be called at eight points, and then only by 
the player whose turn it is to play. 

[If a player calls at eight after he has played, or if any plaj'er calls except at the point of 
eight, it is in the option of the adverse party to call for a new deal. If the trump card 
is turned, no player must remind his partner to call, under penalty of one point] 

36. At nine points honors do not count. 

37. Four honors in one or both partners' hands count four to the 
game ; three honors two. Two honors on each side are not scored, 
but are said to be divided. 

THS SCOBE. 

38. If both partners score, and a discrepancy occur between 
them, adversaries may elect which score to retain. 

39. The score cannot be amended after the game is won, and the 
cards packed. 

[The manner of keeping the score with counters, &c., is shown at page 11.] 

INTIMATIONS BETWEEN PARTNEBS. 

40. A player may ask his partner, **What are trumps?" or, 
" Can you follow suit ?" '* Is there not a revoke V^ Or he may tell 
him to draw his card. All other intimations ar« unfair. 

[The Blue Peter, Tcnace, King-card, and various styles of play, cannot be provided 
for, and are therefore left unmentioned in the laws.] 

41. Lookers-on must not interfere unless appealed to. 

BY-LAWS. 

These are all the laws of the game of Whist ; but there are cer- 
tain other rules or by-laws with which it is important the finished 
player should be acquainted. The penalties attached to a disregard 
of any of the following by-laws differ in different companies, and to 
some, which partake rather of the nature of maxims, there is no 
penalty at all. 

When the trump is turned, and taken into the player's hand, it 
cannot be demanded by either of the players. 

When a card is taken distinctly from the hand to which it bo 
longs, it may be treated as an exposed card. 

Taking a trick belonging to your adversaries subjects you to no 
penalty, but it may be reclaimed at any time during the round. 



22 WHIST. 

If a player throws up his hand, and the next player follows his 
example, the game must be considered at an end, and last to the 
first player resigning. 

Honors scored improperly are in some companies transferred to 
adversaries. 

Approval or disapproval of a partner's play, or, in fact, any im- 
proprieties of speech or gesture, are not allowable. 

As* soon as the lead is played to it is complete. 

If a player announce that he can win all the remaining tricks, he 
may be required to face all his cards on the table. His partner's 
hand may also be so treated, and each card may be called sepa- 
rately. 

HINTS AND CAUTIONS FOR AMATEUES. 

Place each suit together, in the natural order of the cards ; but 
do not always put the trumps to the left, as thereby your adversary 
is able to count them as you put them aside. Many good players 
do not sort their cards at all, but arrange them in the hand just as 
they fall on the table. 

Never dispute the score, unless you are pretty certain you are 
right ; nothing is so ungraceful as a disputatious player. 

Never hesitate long in playing ; but if you have a bad hand, do 
your best and trust to your partner. 

Remember that no points can be marked if you neglect to score 
before the second trick of the succeeding round is played. 

Do not show honors after a trick is turned, as they may be called 
by your adversaries. 

At eight points the elder hand asks the younger, and not the 
younger the elder. That is to say, the player with the two honors 
in hand asks, ** Can you one ?" 

Remember the good old maxim, ** Second hand throws away, and 
third hand plays high." 

Always endeavor to retain a leading card or trump to nearly the 
end. 

Never throw a high card on a lost trick when a low one will 
suffice. 

Follow your partner's lead, and not your adversary's. 

When you suspect y<^r partner to be strong in trumps, ruff 
when he leads a small card and return a little trump. 



TENACE AND FUSTESSE. 23 

When your partner leads from an apparently good hand, do your 
best to assist him. 

Whist is a silent game ; therefore do not distract the attention of 
the players by idle conversation. 

Never interfere needlessly. 

Watch the style of your adversaries' play, and act in accordance 
with your own judgment. 

Make tricks vv^hen you can without injury to your partner's 
hand. 

Accustom yourself to remember the cards that are played. A 
good memory is a wonderful assistant at Whist. 

TENACE AND FINESSE. 

For the benefit of some beginners, it may be necessary to give a 
minute definition of two words, which, though universally used, are 
not generally understood. We mean Tenace and Finesse. Indeed, 
the game depends so much on the comprehension of their principles, 
that any man desirous of obtaining even a competent knowledg<? of 
it will never regret the trouble of the study. Many parts of Whist 
are mechanical, and neither maxims nor instructions are necessary 
to inform the beginner that an Ace wins a King, or that you must 
follow the suit played, if you have one in your hand. 

The principle of the Tenace is simple. If A. has the Ace and 
Queen of a suit, and B., his adversary, has the King and Knave, 
the least consideration will show that if A. leads, B. wins a trick, 
and vice versa ; of course, in every situation it is the mutual plan of 
players, by leading a losing card to put it into the adversary's hand, 
to oblige him to lead that suit, whereby you preserve the Tenace. 
So far is easily comprehended ; but it requires attention with prac- 
tice to apply the principle, so obvious in the superior to the inferior 
cards, or see that the same Tenace operates occasionally with the 
seven and Hyq^ as the Ace and Queen, and is productive of the same 
advantage. A., last player, remains with the Ace and Queen of a 
«uit not played, the last trump and a losing card. B., his left-hand 
adversary, leads a forcing card. Query. — How is A. to play? 
Answer. — If three tricks win the game, or any particular point, he 
IS not to ruff, but throw, away his losing card; because his left- 
hand adversary being then obliged to l^d to his suit, he remains 
Tenace, and must make his Ace and Queen. But, upon the sup- 



24 WHIST. 

position that making the four tricks regains him the rubber, he 
should then take the force, as in these situations you are justified 
m giving up the Tenace for an equal chance of making any material 
point. 

The Finesse has a near affinity to the Tenace, except that the 
latter is equally the object where two, and the former only where 
there are four, players. A. has the Ace and Queen of a suit led by 
his partner ; now the dullest beginner will see it proper to put on 
the Queen, and this is called finessing it, and the intention is obvi- 
ously to prevent the King from making, if in the hand of his*!right- 
hand adversary. Should it not be there, it is evident you neither 
gain nor lose by making the Finesse ; but few players carry this 
idea down to the inferior cards, or see that a trick might be made 
by a judicious Finesse, against an eight, as a King ; but to know 
exactly when this should be done, requires more skill than in the 
more obvious cases, united with memory and observation. Another 
case of Finesse, even against two cards, frequently occurs, and the 
reason, on reflection, is self-evident. A. leads the ten of a suit of 
wbich his partner has the Ace, Knave, and a small one ; B. should 
Finesse or let the ten pass, even though he knows the King or 
Queen is in his left-hand adversary's hand ; because he preserves 
th^e Tenace, and probably makes two tricks ; whereas, had he put 
on his Ace, he could make but one — in short, Tenace is the game of 
position, and Finesse the art of placing yourself in the most advan- 
tageous one. 

HOW TO PLAY THE GAME SCIENTIFICALLY. 

Nothing is so destructive to success in a player as rashness, 
while, on the other hand, there is nothing to be gained by hesita- 
tion. The middle course is the safest. 

And now, before we anatyze each hand, and show how it should 
be played, we may profit by an attentive study of Mr. Hoyle's Max- 
ims, as given in the following 

GENERAL RULES. 

Be cautious how you change suits, and allow no artifice of your 
adversaries to induce you to do, so, without your own hand war- 
rants it. 



HOW TO PLAY THE GA]^IS SCIEJS^TIFICALLY. 25 

Keep a commanding card to bring in your own strong suit when 
trumps are out, if your hand will permit. 

Never keep back your partner's suit in trumps, but return them 
at the first opportunity. ^ • 

With a strong suit and but few trumps, rather force your ad- 
versaries than lead trumps — unless it happens that joxi are strong 
in at least one other suit. 

Never neglect to make the odd trick when you have a chance. 

Look well to your own and your ^opponents' score, and shape 
your play by reference to them. 

In a backward game, it is sometimes wise to risk one trick in 
order to secure two ; but in a forward game, be more cautious. 

If you hold three cards of the suit led by your partner, return his 
lead with your best. 

Remember what cards drop from each hand, how many of each 
suit are out, and the best remaining card in each. 

Seldom lead from Ace and Queen, Ace and Knave, or King and 
Knave, if you hold another moderate suit. 

If neither of your adversaries will lead from the above suits, you 
must do it yourself with a small card. • 

You are strong in trumps with- five small ones, or three small 
ones and one honor. 

Do not trump a card when you are strong in trumps, more es- 
pecially if you hold any other strong suit. 

If you hold only a few small trumps, make them when you can. 

If your partner refuses to trump a suit of which he knows you 
have not the best, lead him your best trump as soon as you can. 

If your partner has trumped a suit, and refuses to play trumps, 
lead him that suit again. 

Never force your partner but when you are strong in trumps, un- 
less you have a renounce yourself, or want only the odd trick. 

If the adversaries trump out, and your partner has a renounce, 
give him that suit when you get the lead, if you think he has a 
small trump left. 

Lead not from an Ace suit originally, if you hold four in number 
of another suit. 

When trumps are either returned by your partner or led by your 
adversaries, you may finesse deeply in them, keeping the command 
as long as you can in your own band. 
2 



26 WHIST. 

If you lead the King of any suit, and make it, you must not 
thence conclude that your partner holds the Ace. 

It is sometimes proper to lead a thirteenth cpvrd, in order to force 
the adversary, and give your partner a chance of making a trick as 
last player. « 

If weak in trumps, make your tricks soon ; but when strong in 
them, you may play a m.ore backward game. 

With ^ve small trumps and a good hand, lead trumps, and so 
exhaust the suit. * 

With the lead, and three small trumps and the Ace, it is some- 
times judicious to allow your adversaries to make two tricks in 
trumps with King and Queen, and on the third round play your Ace. 
You then secure the last trick with your little trump. 

With one strong suit, a moderate one, and a single card, it is 
good play to lead out one round from your strong suit, and* then 
play your single card. 

Keep a small card of your partner's first lead, if possible, in order 
to return it v/lien the trumps are out. 

Never force your adversary with your best card of a suit, unlesb 
you have the second best also. 

In your partner's l^ad, endeavor to keep the command in his 
hand, rather than in your own. 

If you have a see-saw, it is generally better to pursue it than to 
trump out, although you should be strong in trumps with a good 
suit. 

Keep the trump you turn up, as long as you properly can. 

When you hold all the remaining trumps, play out of them, to in- 
form your partner, and then put the lead into his hand. 

It is better to lead from Ace and Nine than from Ace and Ten. 

It is better to lead trumps through an Ace or King than through 
a Queen or Knave. 

If you hold the last trump, some winning cards, and one losing 
card only, lead the losing card. 

When only your partner has trumps remaining, and leads a suit 
of which you hold none, if you have a good sequence of four, 
throw away the highest of it. 

If you have an Ace, with one small card of any suit, and several 
winning cards in other suits, rather throw away some winning card 
than that small one. 



THE LEAD. 21 

If you hold only one honor with a small trump, and wish the 
trumps out, lead the honor first. 

If trumps have been led thrice, and there be two remaining in 
your adversaries' hands, endeai^or to force them out. 

Never play tlie best card of your adversaries' lead at second hand, 
unless your partner has none of that suit. 

If you have four trumps, and the command of a suit whereof your 
partner has none, lead a small card, in order that he may trump it. 



With these general directions we may now proceed to consider 
each hand as analyzed by Hoyle and improved by modern players. 
The following are from the last and best edition of Hoyle ; the max- 
ims have been adopted by Payne, Trebor, Carleton, Coelebs, Captain 
Crawley, Matthews, and all the writers^on the game. 

THE LEAD. 

FIRST HAND. 

f 
Begin with the suit of which you have the greatest number ; for 

when trum_ps are out, jou will probably make tricks in it. 

If you hold equal numbers in different suits, begin with the strong- 
est ; it is the least liable to injure your partner. o 

Sequences are always eligible leads ; they support your partner's 
hand without injuring your own. 

Lead from King or Queen, rather than from a single Ace ; foi 
since your opponents will lead from contrary suits, your Ace will be 
powerful against them. 

Lead from King rather than Queen, and from Queen rather than 
Knave; for the stronger the suit, the less is your partner en- 
dangered. 

Do not lead from Ace Queen, or Ace Knave, till you are obliged ; 
for if that suit be led by your opponents, you have a good chance of 
making twa tricks in it. 

In sequences to a Queen, Knave, or Ten, begin with the highest, 
and so distress your left-hand adversary. 

With Ace, King, and Knave, lead the King ; if strong in trumps, 
you may wait the return of this suit, and finesse the Knave. 

With Ace, Queen, and one small card, lead the small one ; by 
this lead, your partner has a chance of making the Knave. 



28 WHIST. 

With Ace, King, and two or three small cards, play Ace and 
King if weak, but a small card if strong in trumps ; when strong in 
trumps, you may giA^e your partner the chance of making the first 
trick. 

With King, Queen, and one small card, play the small one ; for 
your partner has an equal chance to win, and there is little fear of 
your making King or Queen. 

With King, Queen, and two or three small cards, lead a small 
card if strong, and the King if weak in trumps ; strength in trumps 
entitles you to play a backward game, and giv(f your partner a< 
chance of winning the lirst trick. But if weak in trumps, lead the 
King and Queen, to secure a trick in that suit. 

With Ace, with four small cards, and no other good suit, play a 
sm.all one if strong in trumps, and the Ace if weak ; strength in 
trumps may enable you to make one or two of the small cards, 
although 3^our partner cannot support your lead. 

With King, Knave, and Ten, lead the Ten ; if your partner has 
the Ace, you may probably make three tricks, whether he pass the 
Ten or not. 

With King, Queen, and Ten, lead the King ; for if it fail, by 
putting on the Ten, upon the return of the suit from your partner, 
you may make two tricks. 

Wit^ Queen, Knave, and Nine, lead the Queen ; upon the return 
of that suit from your partner, by putting on the Nine, you may 
make the Knave. 

SEC0:N-D HAIts^D. 

With Ace, King, and small ones, play a small card if strong in 
trumps, but the King if weak. Otherwise your Ace or King might 
be trumped in the latter case. Except in critical cases, no hazard 
should be run with few trumps. 

With Ace, Queen, and small cards, play a small one ; upon the 
return of that suit you may make two tricks. 

With Ace, Knave, and small cards, play a small one ; upon the 
return of that suit you may make two tricks. 

With Ten or Nine, with small cards, play a small one. By this 
plan, you may make two tricks in the suit. 

With King, Queen, Ten, and small cards, play the Queen. By 
playing the Ten oivthe return of the suit, you stand a good chance 
of making two tricks. 



THE LEAD. 29 

With King, Queen, and small bards, play a small card if strong 
in tramps, but the Queen if weak in them ; for strength in trumps 
warrants a' backward game. It is advantageous to keep back your 
adversaries' suit. 

With a sequence to your highest card in the suit, play the low- 
est of it, for by this means your partner is informed of your 
strength. 

With Queen, Knave, and small ones, play the Knave, because 
you will probably secure a trick. 

With Queen, ^en, and small ones, play a small one, for your 
partner has an equal chance to win. , - 

With either Ace, King, Queen, or Knave, with small cards, play 
a small one ; your partner has an pqual chance to win the trick. 

W^ith either Ace, King, Queen, or Knave, with one small card 
only, play the small one, for otherwise your adversary will f.nesse 
upon you. 

If a Queen of trumps be led, and you hold the King, put that on ; 
if your partner hold the Ace, you do no harm ; and if the King 
be taken, the adversaries have played two honors to one. 

If a Knave of trumps be led, and yt)u hold the Queen, put it on ; 
for, at the worst, you bring down two honors for one. 

If a King be led, and you liold Ace, Knave, and small ones, play 
the Ace, v.diich can only make one trick. 



THIED KAK-D, 

The third hand plays high. 

With Ace and King, play the Ace and immediately return the 
King. It is not necessary that you should keep the command of 
your partner's hand. 

With Ace and Queen, play the Ace and return the Queen. By 
this means you make a certain trick, though it is sometimes policy 
to play the Queen. Your partner is, however, best supported by 
the old-fashioned method. 

With Ace and Knave, play the Ace and return the Knave, in 
order to strengthen your partner's hand. 

With King and Knave, play the King ; and if it win, return the 
Knave. 

Play the best when your partner leads a sm^l card, as it best 
supports him. 



30 WHIST. 

If you hold Ago and one small card only, and your partner lead 
the King, put on the Ace, and return the small one ; for, otherwise, 
your Ace may be an obstruction to his suit. 

If you hold 'King and only one small card, and your partner lead 
the Ace, when the trumps be out play the King ; for, by putting on 
the King, there will be no obstruction to the suit. 

FOUETH HAND. . 

If a King be led, and you hold' Ace, Knave, and a small card, 
pla}' the small one ; for, supposing the Queen to follow, you will 
probably make both Ace and Knave. 

Wben the third hand is weak in his partner's lead, you may often 
return that suit to great advantage ; but this rule must not be ap- 
plied to trumps, unless you are very strong indeed. 

Never neglect to secure the trick if there is any doubt about the 
game. 

If you hold the thirteenth trump, retain it to make a trick when 
your partner fails in his lead. 

If you stand in the nine holes, make all the tricks you can ; but at 
the same time be careful. Watch thi? game narrowly, and look 
well to your partner's lead. 

LEADING TRFMPS. 

Lead trumps from a Strong hand, but never from a weak one ; 
by which means you will secure your good cards from being 
trumped. 

Never trump out wdth a bad hand, although you hold five small 
trumps; for, since yo^ar cards are bad, you only bring out your 
adversaries' good ones. 

If you hold Ace, King, Knave, and three small trumps, play Ace 
and King; for the probability of the Queen falling is in your 
favor. 

If you hold Ace, King, Knave, and one or two small trumps, play 
the King, and wait the return from your partner to put on the 
Knave. By this plan you may win the Queen. But if you have 
particular reasons to exhaust trumps, play two rounds, and then. 
your strong suit. 

If you hold Ace^ King, and two or three small trumps, lead a 
small one, with a view to let your partner win the first trick ; but if 



THE LEAD. 31 

you have good reason for getting out trumps, play three rounds, or 
play Ace and King, and then your strong suit. 

If your adversaries are eight, and you hold no honor, throw olT 
your best trump ; for if your partner has not two honors you lose 
the game. But if he should happen to hold two honors — as he 
probably would — you have a strong commanding game. 

Holding Ace, Queen, Knave, and small trum.ps, play the Knave ; 
by this means, the Kin^ only can make against you. 

Holding Ace, Queen, Ten, and one or two small trumps, lead a 
small one ; this will give your partner a chance to win the first 
trick, and keep the command in your own hand. 

Holding King, Queen, Ten, and small trumps, lead the King ; for 
if the King be lost, uj^on the return of trumps you may finesse the 
Ten. 

Holding King, Knave, Ten, and sm.all ones, lead the Knave ; it 
will prevent the adversaries from making a small trump. 

Holding Queen, Knave, Nine, and small trumps, lead the Queen ; 
if your partner hold the Ace, you have a chance of making the 
whole suit. 

Plolding Queen, Knave, and two or three small trumps, lead the 
Queen. 

Holding Knave, Ten, Eight, and small trumps, lead the Knave ; 
on the return of truntps you may finesse, the Eight. 

Holding Knave, Ten, and three small trumps, lead the Knave ; 
this will most distress your adversaries, unless two honors are held 
on your right hand, tl^e odds against which are about three to onef 

Holding only small trumps, play the highest ; by which means 
you support your partner. 

Holding a sequence, begin with the highest ; thus your partner is 
instructed how to play his hand, and cannot be injured. 

If any honor be turned up on^your left, and the game much 
against you, lead a trump as soon as you can. You may thus 
probably retrieve an almost lost game. 

In all other cases it is dangerous to lead through an honor with- 
out you are strong in trumps, or have an otherwise good hand. 
All the advantage of leading through an honor lies in your partner 
finessing. 

If the Queen be turned up on your right, and you hold Ace, King, 
and small ones, iead the King, Upon the return of trumps finesse, 
unless the Queen falls. Otherwise the Queen wilkmuke a trick. 



82 WHIST. 

With the Knave turned up on your right, and you hold King, 
Queen, and Ten, the 1?est play is to lead the Queen. Upon the re- 
turn of trumps play the Ten. By this style of play you make the 
Ten. 

If the Knave turns up on your right, and you hold King, Queen, 
and small ones, it is best to lead the King. If that comes home, you 
can play a small one, for the chance of your partner possessing the 
Ace. 

If Knave turn up on your right, and y^u have King, Queen, and 
Ten, with two small cards, lead a small one. Upon the return of 
trumps play the Ten. The chances are in favor of your partner 
holding an honor, and thus you make a trick. 

If an honor be turned up on your left, and you hold only one hon- 
or with a small trump, play out the honor and then the small one- 
This will greatly strengthen your partnei^'s hand, and cannot injure 
your own. 

If an honor be turned up on the left, and you hold a sequence, 
lead the highest; it vfill prevent the last hand from injuring your 
partner. 

If a Queen be turned up on the left, and you hold Ace, King, and 
a small one, lead the small trump ; you have a chance for winning 
the Queen. 

If a Queen be turned up on your left, and you hold Knave -^ith 
small ones, lead the Knave; for the Knave can be of no service, since 
the Queen is on your left. 

If an honor be turned up by your partner, and you are strong in 
trumps, lead a small one ; but if weak in them, lead the best you 
have. By this means the weakest hand supports the strongest. 

If, an Ace be turned up on the right, and you hold King, Queen, 
and Knave, lead the Knave : it is a secure lead. 

If an Ace be turned up on the right, and you hold King, Queen, 
and Ten, lead the King.; and upon the return of trumps play the 
Ten. By this means you show strength to your partner, and prob- 
ably make two tricks. 

If a King be turned up on the right, and you hold Queen, Knave, 
and Nine, lead the Knave, and upon the return of trumps, play the 
Nine; it may prevent the Ten from making. 

If a King be turned up on your right, and you hold Knave, Ten,. 
and Nine, lead the Nine ; upon the return of trumpg play the Ten 
This will disclose your strength in trumps to your partner. 



RETURNliS^G PABTjS^EK's LEAD. *33 

If a Queen be turned up on the riglit, and you have Ace, King, 
and Knave, lead the King. Upon the return of trumps play the 
Knave, which makes a certain trick. 

HOW TO PLAY WHEN YOU TURN UP AN HONOR. 

If you turn up an Ace, and hold only one small trump with it, if 
either adversary lead the King, put on the Ace. 

But if you turn up an Ace, and hold two or three small trumps 
with it, and either adversary lead the King, put on a small one ; 
for if you play the Ace, you give up the command in trumps. 

If you turn up a King, and hold only one small trump with it, 
and your right-hand adversary lead a trump, play a sm.all one. 

If you turn up a King, and hold two or three small trumps with 
it, if your right-hand adversary lead a trump, play a small one. 

If you turn up a Queen or Knave, and hold, besides, only small 
trumps, if your right-hand adversary lead a trump, put on a small 
one. 

If you hold a sequence to the honor turned up, play it last. 

HOW TO PLAY FOR THE ODD TRICK. 

Never trump out if you can avoid it, for you can hardly be sure 
of the other three hands. 

If your partner, by hoisting the Blue Peter, or by any other 
allowable intimation, shows that he has means of trumping any suit, 
be cautious how you trump out. Force your partner, if strong in 
trumps, and so make all the tricks you can. 

Make tricks early in the game, and be cautious in finessing. 

With a single card of any suit, and only two or three small 
trumps, lead the single card. 

RETURNING PARTNER^S LEAD. 

In the following cases it is best to return your partner'^ s lead 
directly : 

When you win with the Ace, and can return an honor ; for then 
it will greatly strengthen his hand. 

When he leads a trump ; in wliich case return the best remaining 
in your hand, unless you hold four. An exception to this arises if 
tlie lead is through an honor. 
2* 



34 WHIST. 

When your partner has trumped out ; for then it is evident he 
wants to make his strong suit. 

When you have no good card in any other suit ; for then you are 
entirely dependent on your partner. 

In the follovnng instances it is proper that you should NOT return 
your partner^ s lead immediately : 

When you win with the King, Queen, or Knave, and have only 
small cards remaining. The return of a small card will more dis- 
tress than strengthen your partner's hand. 

When you hold a good sequence ; for then you may make tricks, 
and not»injure his hand. 

When you have a strong suit. Leading from a strong suit is a 
direction to your partner, and cannot injure him. 

When you have a good hand ; for in this case you have a right to 
consult your own hand, and not your partner's. 

When you hold five trumps ; for then you are warranted to play 
trumps if you think it right. 

When, in fine, you can insure two or three tricks, play them, and 
then return the lead. With a leading hand it is well to play your 
own game. 

THE FINISH. 

The most important part of a game at Whist is the Finish — the 
last two or three tricks. Be careful how you play, or you may make 
a bad ending to a good beginning. 

Loose Cards. — If you hold three winning cards and a loose one, 
play the latter, and trust to your partner. 

Loose Trump and Tenace. — Holding these, play the loose trump. 

King and the Lead. — If you hold a King and a loose card, the 
best plan is to play the last, so that your partner may lead up to your 
King. 

Long Trumps. — If you hold three, it is best to lead the smallest; 
by this means you give your partner a chance of making tricks, and 
still hold a commanding card in your own hand. It is not well to 
play out the King card. 

Third Hand with King, Sfc. — *' Supposing," says Coelebs, **ten 
tricks being made, you remain with King, Ten, and another. If sec- 



THE FINISH. 35 

ond hand plays an honor, cover it ; otherwise finesse the Ten for 
a certain trick. It you want two tricks play j^our King." 

Running a Card. — The same authority says — '* With such cards 
as Knave, Nine, Eight against Ten guarded, by 'running' the Eight 
you make every trick." 

CASES IN POINT. 

The following cases are given by Hoyle : 



If A. and C. are partners against B. and D., and eight trumps have 
been played out, and A. has four trumps remaining, B. having the 
best trump and is to lead, should B. play his trumps or not? No; 
because as he would leave three trumpsin A.'s hand, if A.'s partner 
has any capital suit to make, by B.'s keeping the trump in his hand 
he can prevent his making that suit. 

II. 

A. and C. are partners against B. and D. ; twelve trumps are play- 
ed out, and seven cards only remain in each hand, of which A. has 
the last trump, and likewise the Ace, King, and four small cards of 
a suit ; question, whether A. should play the Ace and King of that 
suit or a small one ? A. should play a small card of that suit, as it 
is an equal bet his partner has a better card in that suit than the last 
player, and, in this case, if four cards of the suit happen to be in 
either of the adversaries' hands, by this manner of playing he will 
be enabled to make five tricks in that suit. Should neither of the 
adversaries have more than three cards in that suit, it is an equal bet 
that he wins six tricks in it. 

in. 

Supposing three hands of cards, containing three cards in each 
hand, let A. name the trumps, and let B. choose which hand he 
pleases — A. having the choice of either the other two hands, will win two 
tricks. Clubs are trumps : first hand. Ace, King, and Six of Hearts ; 
second hand. Queen and Ten of Hearts, with Ten of Trumps ; third 
hand. Nine of Hearts, with Two and Three of Trumps. The first 
hand wins of the second, the second wins of the third, and the third 
wins of the first. 



36 WHIST, 

IV. 
THE ADVANTAGE BY A SEE- SAW. 

Suppose A. and B. partners, and that A. has a quart-major in 
Clubs, they being trumps, another quart-major in Hearts, another 
quart-major in Diamonds, and the Ace of Spades ; and let us suppose 
the adversaries, C. and D.,to have the following cards, viz., C. has 
four Trumps, eight Hearts, and one Spade; D. has ^yq Trumps and 
eight Diamonds : C. being to lead, plays a Heart, D. trumps it; D. 
plays a Diamond, C. trumps it; and thus pursuing the saw, each 
partner trumps a quart-major of A.'s, and C. being to play at the 
ninth trick, plays a Spade, which D. trumps : Thus C. and D. have 
won the first nine tricks, and leave A. with his quart-major in Trumps 
only. 

The foregoing case shows, that whenever you gain the advantage 
of establishing a saw, it its your interest to embrace it. 

STEENQTH IN TRUMPS. 

The following hands are given by Hoyle to demonstrate what is 
known as being strong in trumps : — 
Ace, King, and three small trumps. 
King, Queen, and three small trumps. 
Queen, Ten, and three small trumps. 
Queen and four small trumps. 
Knave and four small trumps. 
Five trumps without an honor must win two tricks if led. 

FORCINa YOUR PARTNER. 

You are justified in forcing your partner if you hold — 

Ace and three small trumps. 

King and three small trumps. 

Queen and three small trumps. 

Knave and four small trumps. 

Five trumps. 

CASE TO DEMONSTRATE THE DANGEIl OV FORCING- YOUR PARTNER. 

Suppose A. and B. partners, and that A. has a quint-major in 
trumps, with a quint-major and three small cards of another suit, 



i:n^dications and infere:n^ces. 37 

and that A. has the lead ; and let us suppose the adversaries, C. 
and D., to have only -^ve trumps in either hand ; in this case, A. 
having the lead, wins every trick. 

INDICATIONS AND INFEEENCES. 

The following are given by Mr. Carleton as allowable indications 
between partners, or hints from your adversaries' play : — 

Should the Ace fall from the second hand in the first round of a 
suit, it is fair to conclude that he is either very strong in it, or has 
only the one card. 

Should there be a renounce in which a court card is thrown away, 
it indicates that the holder of it has a high sequence in the suit, or 
perhaps no other, or wishes a trump played. 

When you have played all your trumps, avoid playing a suit 
from which your partner threw away, when he could no longer fol- 
low your trump lead. He is weak in that suit. If he has thxown 
away more than one suit, play that from which he threw away 
last. ^ 

When a suit is ruffed, and he who wins plays the Ace of trumps 
and then stops, be sure that is the last of his trumps. 

Should you hold the next best of a sequence that has been led, 
you may suspect the lead was from a single card, and with a view 
to a ruff. 

When there is no call at the point of eight, and you do not hold 
an honor yourself, the chances are your partner has two. You may 
model your game by that presumption. 

With Ace, King, win with the King , if leader, begin with the 
King ; and if it be trumped, or you think right to change the suit, 
your partner will guess where the Ace is. 

The call at eight is a hint to your partner tr play trumps. 

When the last player wins with a high card, and then leads a 
lower one of the same suit, with which he might equally have taken 
the trick, it is assumed that he has the intermediate cards. 

Leading a small card for your partner's Ace shows that you have 
the King. 

To these may be added the Blue Peter, as described in a former 
page. 



38 WHIST. 



HOYLE'S GRAMMAE OF WHIST. 

How should sequences of trumps be played ? — Begin with the 
highest. 

When sequences are not in trumps, how should they be played ? 
— If you hold five, begin with the lowest ; if less than five, begin 
with the highest. 

Why are sequences preferable to frequent changes of suits ? — 
Because they form safe leads, and gain the tenace in other suits. 

When should partners make tricks early ? — When they are weak 
in trumps. 

When may you allow your opponents to make tricks early in the 
round ? — When you are strong in trumps. 

When is it proper to play from an Ace-suit ? — When you hold 
three Aces, neither of which is a trump. 

When any good card is turned up on your right, how should you 
play ? — If an Ace be turned up, and you hold King and a small 
card, play the small one. If King be turned up, and you hold Ace 
and small ones, play a small one. If a Ten be turned up, and you 
hold King, Knave, Nine, and others, begin with the Knave, in 
order to prevent the Ten from making a trick, and then finesse with 
the Nine. 

How do you know when your partner has no more of the suit 
played? — By his playing his high card instead of a loose one. 
Thus, suppose you hold King, Queen, and Ten, and your partner 
answers with Knave, you may be certain that is the only card he 
possesses of the suit. 

When ought you to over-trump your adversary, and when not ? — 
If you are strong in trumps, you may throw away a loose trump ;but 
if weak, over-trump at all risks. 

If your right-hand adversary lead a suit in which you have Ace, 
King, and Queen, with which card are you to take the trick ? — With 
the Queen, as then the same suit may be led again by your opponent, 
under the i3ea that his partner holds the high cards. 

Wliy should you play from King- suit rather than from Queen- 
suit, though you may possess a like number of each ? — Because, it 
is two to one that the Ace does not lie in your adversary's hands, 
and it is five to four that if you play from Queen you lose her. 

When you possess the four best cards of any suit, why do you 



EXAMPLES FROM HOYLE. 39 

play your best ? — To inform your partner as to the state of your 
hand. 

The Queen turned up on your right, and you hold Ace, Ten, 
and one trump ; or King, Ten, and one trump, if right-hand 
opponent plays the Knave, what should you do ? — Pass the trick. 
You cannot lose by so doing, as your Ace must make, and you may 
gain a trick. 

"When can you finesse in other suits with impi;y;iity ? — When you 
are strong in trumps. 

EXAMPLES FROM HOYLE. 

In order to fully conquer the difficulties of Whist and achieve 
success, it is necessary, indeed, to persevere to the end. ** Never 
despair" is an excellent motto for a whist-player. Having carried 
the student safely over the pons asi,7iorum, let us now take a leaf or 
tvvo direct from Hoyle. Hitherto it has been our endeavor to im- 
prove upon the instructions of our great authority by carefully com- 
paring his maxims with those of later writers, and embodying with 
them the results of modera card-table experience. In this chapter 
we shall give the ipsissima verba of Edmond Hoyle from the last and 
best of the authorized editions of his treatise on Whist, believing 
that a careful perusal of the following examples cannot but prove 
of considerable use to all who would become thoroughly familiar 
with the game. 

PARTICULAR GAMES, AND THE MANNER IN WHICH THEY ARE TO 
BE PLAYED AFTER A LEARNER HAS MADE SOME PROGRESS IN 
THE GAME. 



" Suppose you are elder hand, and that your game consists of 
King, Queen, and Knave of one suit ; Ace, King, Queen, and two 
small cards of another suit ; King and Queen of the third suit, and 
three small trumps ; Query , how is this hand to be played ? You 
are to begin with the Ace of your best suit (or a trump), which in- 
forms your partner that you have the command of that suit ; but 
you are not to proceed with the King of the same suit, but you must 
play a trump next ; and if you find your partner has no strength to sup- 
port you in trumps, and that your adversary plays to your weak suit — 



40 WHIST. 

viz., the King and Queen only — in that case play the King of the 
suit which belongs to the best suit ; and if you observe a probability 
of either of your adversaries being likely to trump that suit, pro- 
ceed then and play the King of the suit of which you have the 
King, Queen and Knave. If it should so happen that your adver- 
saries do not play to your weakest suit, in that case, though ap- 
parently your partner can give you no assistance in trumps, pursue 
your scheme of trumping out as often as the lead comes into your 
hand ; by which means, supposing your partner to have but two 
trumps, and that your adversaries have four each, by three rounds 
of trumps, there remain only two trumps against you." 

II. 

ELDER HAND. 

** Suppose you have Ace, King, Queen, and one small trump, 
with a sequence from the King of five in another suit, with four 
other cards of no value. Begin with the Queen of trumps, and pur- 
sue the lead with the Ace, which demonstrates to your partner that 
you have the King ^ and as it would be bad play to pursue trumps 
the third round till you have first gained the command of your 
great suit, by stopping thus, it likewise informs your partner that 
you have the King and one trump only remaining ; because if you 
had Ace, King, Queen, and two trumps more, and trumps went 
round twice, you could receive no damage by playing the King the 
third round. When you lead sequence, begin with the lowest ; be- 
cause, if your partner has the. Ace, he plays it, which makes room 
for your suit. And since you have let your partner into the state 
of your game, as soon as he has the lead, if he has a trump or two 
remaining, he will play trumps to you with a moral certainty that 
your King clears your adversaries' hands of all their trumps," 

III. 

SECOIO) PLATEB. 

** Suppose you have Ace, King, and two small trumps, with a 
quint-major of another suit, in the third suit you have three small 
cards, and in the fourth suit one. Your adversary on your right 
hand begins with playing the Ace of your weak suit, and then pro- 
ceeds to play the King. . In that case do not trump it, but throw 



EXAMPLES FROM HOTLE, 41 

away a losing card, and if lie proceeds to play the Queen, throw 
awai}^ another losing card, and do the like the fourth time, in hopes 
your partner may trump it, who will in that case play a trump, or 
will play to your strong suit. If trumps are played, go on with 
them two rounds, and then proceed to play your strong suit ; by 
which means, if there happens to be four trumps in one of your 
adversary's hands, and two in the other, which is nearly the case, 
your partner being entitled to have three trumps out of the nine, 
consequently there remain only six trumps between the adversaries ; 
your strong suit forces their best trumps, and you have a proba- 
bility of making the odd trick in your own hand only ; whereas, if you 
had trumped one of your adversaries' best cards, you had so weak- 
ened your hand as probably not to make more than five tricks with- 
out your partner's help.'* 

IV, 

*' Suppose you have Ace, Queen, and three small trumps. Ace, 
Queen, Ten, and Nine of another suit, with two small cards of each 
of the other suits ; your partner leads to your Ace, Queen, Ten and 
Nine ; and as this game requires rather to deceive adversaries than 
to inform your partner, put up the Nine, which naturally leads the 
adversary to play trumps, if he wins that card. As soon as trumps 
are played to you, return them upon your adversary, keeping the 
command in your own hand. If your adversary who led trumps to 
you puts up a trump which your partner cannot win, if he has no 
good suit of his own to play, he will return your partner's lead, 
imagining that suit lies between his partner and yours. If this 
finesse of yours should succeed, you will be a great gainer by it, 
but scarcely possible to be a loser." 

PARTICULAR GAMES BOTH TO ENDEAVOR TO DECEIVE AND DISTRESS 
YOUR ADVERSARIES, AND TO DEMONSTRATE YOUR GAME TO YOUR 
PARTNER. 



** Suppose I play the Ace of a suit of which I have Ace, King, and 
three small ones; the last player does not choose to trump it, having 
none of the suit ; if I am not strong enough in trumps I must not 
play out the King, but keep the command of that suit in my hand 



I 



42 WHIST. 

by playing of a small one, whicli I must do in order to weaken his 
game." 

II. 

*' If a suit is led, of which I have none, and a moral certainty that 
my partner has not the best of that suit, in order to deceive the ad- 
versary I throw away my strong suit ; but to clear up doubts to my 
partner when he has the lead I throw away my weak suit. This 
method of play will generally succeed, unless you play with very 
good players, and even with them you will oftener gain than lose by 
this method of play." 

PARTICULAR GAMES TO BE PLAYED, BY WHICH YOU RUN THE RISK 
OF LOSING ONE TRICK ONLY TO GAIN THREE. 



*' Suppose Clubs to be trumps, a Heart is played by your adver- 
sary ; your partner having none of that suit, throws away a Spade ; 
you are then to judge his hand is composed of trumps and Diamonds ; 
and suppose you win that trick, and being too weak in trumps, you 
dare not force him ; and suppose you shall have King, Knave, and 
one sma5l Diamond; and further, suppose your partner to have Queen 
and Five Diamonds ; in that case, by throwing out your King in 
your first lead, and your Knave in your second, your partner and 
you may win five tricks in that suit ; whereas, if you had led a 
small Diamond, and your partner's Queen having been won with 
the Ace, the King and Knave remaining in your hand, obstructs 
his suit ; and though he may have the long trump, yet, by playing 
a small Diamond, and his long trump having been forced out of 
his hand, you lose by this method of play three tricks in that 
deal." 

II. 

** Suppose in the like case of the former, you should have Queen, 
Ten, and one small card in your partner's strong suit ; which is to 
be discovered by the former example ; and suppose your partner 
to have Knave and five small cards in his strong suit ; you having 
the lead are to play your Queen, and when you play again you are 
to play your Ten ; and suppose him to have the long trump, by this 
method he makes four tricks in that suit; but shqu.ld you play a 



EXAMPLES FROM HOTLS. 43 

small one in that suit, his Knave being gone, and the Queen remain- 
ing in your hand in the second round of playing that suit, and the 
long trump being forced out of his ht^nd, the Queen remaining in 
your hand obstructs the suit, by which method of play you lose 
three tricks in that deal." 

III. 

** In the former examples you have been supposed to have had the 
lead, and by that means have had an opportunity of throwing out 
the best cards in your hand of your partner's strong suit, in order 
to make room for the whole suit; we will noAV suppose your partner 
is to lead, and in the course of play it appears to you that your 
partner has one great suit ; suppose Ace, King, and four small 
ones, and that you have Queen, Ten, Nine, and a very small one of 
that suit ; when your partner plays the Ace, you are to play the 
Nine ; when he plays the King, you are to play the Ten ; by 
which means you see, in the third round, you make your Queen, 
and having a small one remaining, you do not obstruct your 
partner's great suit ; whereas, if you had kept your Queen and Ten, 
and the Knave have fallen from the adversaries, you would hare 
lost two tricks in that deal." 

IV. 

** Suppose in the course of play, as in the former case, you find 
your partner to have one great suit, and that you have King, Ten, 
and a small one of that suit ; your partner leads the Ace, in that 
case play your Ten, and in the second your King ; this method is 
to prevent a possibility of obstructing your partner's great suit." 

V. 

'* Suppose your partner has Ace, King, and four small cards in 
his great suit, and that you have Queen, Ten, and a small card in 
that suit ; when he plays his Ace, do you play your Ten, and when 
he plays his King, do you play your Queen ; by which method of 
play you only risk one trick to get four." 



44 WHIBT. 



SOME DIRECTIONS FOB PUTTH^TG UP AT SECOND HAND KING, 
QUEEN, KNAVE, OR TEN OP ANY SUIT, ETC. 



*' Suppose you have the King and one small card of any suit, and 
that your right-hand adversary plays that suit ; if he is a good 
player do not put up the King, unless you want the lead, because a 
good player seldom leads from a suit of which he has the Ace, but 
keeps it in his hand (after the trumps are played out) to bring in his 
strong suit." 

II. 

** Suppose you have a Queen and one small card of any suit, and 
that your right-hand adversary leads that suit, do not put on your 
Queen, because, suppose the adversary has led from the Ace and 
Knave, in that case, upon the return of that suit, your adversary 
finesses the Knave, which is generally good play, especially if his 
partner has played the King ; you thereby make your Queen ; but 
by putting on the Queen, it shows your adversary that you have no 
strength in that suit, and consequently puts him upon finessing upon 
your partner throughout that whole suit." 

Ill 

*' In the former examples you have been informed, when it is 
thought proper to put up the King or Queen at second hand ; you 
are likewise to observe, in case you have th.e Knave or Ten of any 
suit, with a small card of the same suit, it is generally bad play to put 
up either of them at second hand, because it is Q.ye to two that the 
third hand has either Ace, King, or Queen of the suit led ; it 
therefore follows, that as the odds against you are five to two, and 
though you should succeed sometimes by this method of play, yet 
in the main you must be a loser, because it demonstrates to your 
adversaries that you are weak in that suit, and consequently they 
finesse upon your partner throughout that whole suit." 

IV. 

** Suppose you have Ace, King, and three small cards of a suit; 
your right-hand adversary leads that suit ; upon which you play 



EXAMPLES FEOM HOYLE. 45 

your Ace, and your partner plays the Knave. In case you are 
strong in trumps, you are to return a small one in that suit, in order 
to let your partner trump it. And this consequence attends such 
play, viz., you keep the command of that suit in your own hand, and 
at the same time it gives your partner an intimation that you are 
strong in trumps ; and therefore he may play his game accordingly, 
either in attempting to establish a saw, or by trumping out to you, 
if he has either strength in trumps or the command of the other 
suits." 

SOME DIRECTIONS HOW TO PLAT WHEj^- A:N- ACE, KI:N'G, OR 
QUEEjS" are TUR^STED up OIN" your right HA]SrD, ETC. 



** Suppose the Ace is turned up on your right hand, and that you 
ha^^ the Ten and Nine of trumps only, with Ace, King, and Queen 
of another suit, and eight cards of no value, querc^ how must this 
game be played ? Begin with the Ace of the suit of which you 
have the Ace, King, and Queen, which is an information to your 
partner that you have the command of that suit ; then play your 
Ten of trumps, because it is ^yq to two that your partner has 
King, Queen, or Knave of trumps ; and though it is about seven to 
two that your partner has not two honors, yet, should he chance to 
have them, and they prove to be the King and Knave, in that case, 
as your partner will pass your Ten of trumps, and as it is thirteen 
to twelve against the last player for holding the Queen of trumps, 
upon supposition your partner has it not, in that case, when your 
partner has the lead, he plays to your strong suit, and upon your 
having the lead, you are to play the Nine of trumps, which puts 
it in your partner's power to be almost certain of winning the 
Queen if he lies behind it. 

" The foregoing case shows, that turning up of an Ace against 
you may be made less beneficial to your adversaries, provided you 
play by this rule." 

II. 

** If the King or Queen are turned up on your right hand, the 
like method of play may be made use of ; but you are always to 
distinguish the difference of your partner's capacity, because a 



46 WHIST. 

good player will make a proper use of such play, but a bad one 
seldom, if ever." 

III. 

'* Suppose the adversary on your right hand leads the King of 
trumps, and that you should have the Ace and four small trum.ps, 
with a good suit ; in this case it is your interest to pass the King ; 
and though he should have King, Queen, and Knave of trumps, with 
one more, if he is a moderate player, he will pla-y the small one ; im- 
agining that his partner has the Ace ; when he plays the small one, 
you are to pass it, because it is an equal wager that your partner has 
a better trump than the last player ; if so, and that he happens to 
be a tolerable player, he will judge you have a good reason for 
this method of play, and consequently, if he has a third trump re- 
maining he will play it; if not, he will play his best suit," 

THE TEN OR NINE BEING TURNED UP ON YOUR RIGHT HAND, ETC. 



** Suppose the Ten is turned up on your right hand, and that you 
should have King, Knave, Nine, and two small trumps, with eight 
other cards of no value, and that it is proper for you to lead trumps, 
in that case begin with the Knave, in order to prevent the Ten from 
making of a trick ; and though it is but about ^yg to four that your 
partner holds an honor, yet if that should fail, by finessing your 
Nine on the return of trumps from your partner, you have the Ten 
in your power." 

II. 

*' The Nine being turned up on your right hand, and that you should 
have Knave, Ten, Eight, and two small trumps, by leading the Knave 
it answers the like purpose of the former case." 

Jii. 
**You are to make a wide difference between a lead of choice and 
a forced lead of your partner's ; because, in the first case he is sup- 
posed to lead from his best suit, and finding you deficient in that 
suit, and not being strong enough in trumps, and not daring to force 
you, he then plays his next best suit ; by which alternation of play, 
it is next to a demonstration that he is weak in trumps. But should 
he persevere, by playing of his first lead, if he is a good player, you 



EXAMPLES FKOM HOYLS. 47 

are to judge him strong in trumps, and it is a direction for you to 
play your game accordingly/' 

IV. 

'* There is nothing more pernicious at the game of Whist than to 
change suits often, because in every new suit you run the risk of giv- 
ing your adversary the tenace ; and therefore, though you lead from 
a suit of which you have the Queen, Ten, and three small ones, and 
your partner puts up the Nine only, in that case, if you should hap- 
pen to be weak in trumps, and that you have no tolerable suit to 
lead from, it is your best play to pursue the lead of that suit by play- 
ing your Queen, which leaves it in your partner's option whether he 
will trump it or not, in case he has no more of that suit ; but in your 
second lead, in case you should happen to have the Queen or Knave 
of any other suit, with one card only of the same suit, it would be 
better play to lead from your Queen or Knave of either of these suits, 
it being five to two that your partner has one honor at least in either 
of those suits." 

*' If you have Ace, King, and one small card of any suit, with four 
tiumps ; if your right hand adversary leads that suit, pass it, because 
it is«an equal wager that your partner has a better card in that suit 
than the third hand ; if so, you gain a trick by it ; if otherwise, as 
you have four trumps, you need not fear to lose by it, because, when 
trumps are played, you may be supposed to have the long trump.'* 

CAUTION NOT TO PAST WITH THE COMMAND OF YOUR 
ADYERSARIES' GEE AT SUIT, ETC, 

I. 

** In case you are weak in trumps, and that it does not appear 
that your partner is very strong in them, be very cautious how you 
part with the command of your adversaries' great suit. For sup- 
pose your adversary plays a suit of which you have King, Queen, 
and one small card only, the adversary leads the Ace, and upon 
playing the same suit, you play your Qaeen, which makes it almost 
certain to your partner that you have the King ; and suppose your 
partner refuses to that suit, do not play the King, because, if the 



48 WHIST. 

leader of that su?t or his partner have the long trump, you risk the 
losing of three tricks to get one." 

11. 

*' Suppose your partner has ten cards remaining in his hand, and 
that it appears to you that they consist of trumps and one suit only ; 
and suppose you should have King, Ten, and one small card of his 
strong suit, with Queen and two small trumps ; in this case, you are 
to judge he has five cards of each suit, and therefore you ought to 
play out the King of his strong suit ; and if you win that trick, your 
next play is to throw out the Queen of trumps ; if that likewise 
comes home, proceed to play trumps. This method of play may 
be made use of at any score of the game, except at 4 and 9." 

r 

THE TRUMP TURlSrED UP TO BE REMEMBERED. 

** It is SO necessary that the trump turned up should be known 
and remembered, both by the dealer and his partner, that we think 
it proper to observe, that the dealer should always so place that 
card as to be certain of having recourse to it. For suppose it to 
be only a Five, and that the dealer has two more — viz., the Six 
and Nine — if his partner trumps out with Ace and King, he ought 
to play his Six and Nine ; because, let us suppose your partner to 
have Ace, King, and four small trumps, in this case, by your 
partner's knowing you have the Five remaining, you may win 
many tricks." 

TWO TRUMPS. 

The following Case happens frequently : — 

" That you have two trumps remaining when your adversaries have 
only one, and it appears to you that your partner has one great suit ; 
in this case always play a trump, though you have the worst ; be- 
cause, by removing the trump out of your adversaries' hands, there 
can be no obstruction to your partner's great suit." 

FIVE TRUMPS. 

" Suppose you have five trumps, and six small cards of any suit, 
and you are to lead ; the best play is to lead from the suit of which 



CALCULATIONS FOS BETTi:irG. 49 

you have six, because, as you are deficient in two suits, your adver- 
saries will probably trump out, which is playing your own game 
for you; whereas, had you begun with playing trumps, they would 
force you, and consequently destroy your game." 

CALCULATIONS FOR BSTTINa. 

Among modern players, heavy betting at cards has nearly gone 
out. Whist is now generally played for a simple stake — so much per 
game — so much per rubber ; but as no treatise on the game can be 
considered complete without a table of chances, we give the calcula- 
tions of Hoyle, as improved by modern practice* 

AT LONa WHIST — 

It is about ^ye to four that your partner holds one card out of any 

tWOo 

Five to two that he holds one card out of any three. 

Two to one that he does not hold a certain named card. 

Three to one that he does not hold two out of three named cards 
in a suit. 

Three to two that he does not hold two cards out of any four 
named. 

Five to one that your partner holds one winning card. 

Four to one that he holds two. 

Three to one that he holds three. 

Three to two that he holds four. 

Four to six that he holds five. 

BETTING THE ODDS. 

The odds on the rubber is five to two in favor of the dealers gener- 
ally. 

With the first game secured, the odds on the rubber, with the deal, 
are— 

1 to love about 7 to 2 

2 — _ 4 — 1 

3 — — 9 — 2 

4 — ^5 — 1 

5 -. _ 6 — 1 

At any part of the game, except at the points of eight and nine, 
3 



60 



WHIST. 



the odds are in proportion to the nnmber of points required to make 
the ten required. Thus, if A. wants four and B. six of the game, the 
odds are six to four in favor of A. If A. wants three and B. ^ye<, 
the odds are seven to ^ve on A. winning the game. 

At the commencement of the game it is about -gV P^^ cent, in favor 
of the dealer. 

The odds against the dealer counting two for honors (that is, three 
honors in hand) are about nearly four to one. 

Against the dealer and his partner holding the four honors, the 
odds are at least six to one. Against the non- dealers holding the 
four honors, the odds are about twenty to one, because it is only fifty- 
two to sixteen, or a little more than nine to one that an honor is 
turned up. 

Against honors being divided, the odds are about three to two 
against either side, though the dealers have certainly the best chance. 

The following, calculated strictly, are the 



ODDS ON THE GAME WITPI THE DEAL. 



1 love is 11 to 10 



2 love — 


5 ~ 


4 


3 love — 


3 


2 


4 love — 


7 — 


4 


5 love — 


2 — 


1 


6 love — 


5 


2 


7 love — 


7 — 


2 


8 love — 


5 — 


1 


9 love — 


9 — 


2 


1 to 1 is 


9 to 


8 


2 — 1 — 


■ 9 


7 


3 1 


9 — 


6 


4 1 


9 


5 


5 - 1 - 


- 9 — 


4 


6 — 1 — 


3 — 


1 


7 — 1 — 


9 


2 


8 — 1 — 


4 


1 



3 to 2 is 8 to 7 

4 — 2 — 4 — 3 

5 __ 2 — 8 — 5 

6 — 2 — 2 — 1 

7 _ 2 — 8 — 3 

8 — 2 — 4 — 1 

9 — 2 — 7 — 2 



4 to 3 is 7 to 6 

5 — 3 — 7 ^ 5 

6 — 3 — 7 — 4 

7 _ 3 _ 7 _ 3 

8 — 3 — 7 — 2 

9 _ 3 _ 3 _ ] 



5 to 4 is 6 to 5 

6 _ 4 — 6 — 4 

7 _ 4 _ 2 — 1 

8 _ 4 — 3 — 1 

9 — 4 — 5 — 2 



6 to 5 is 5 to 4 

7 __ 5 _ 5 _ 3 

8 _ 5 — 5 — 2 

9 _ 5 _ 2 — 1 



7 to 6 is 4 to 3 

8 _ 6 — 2 — 1 

9 — 6 — 7 — 4 



8 to 7 is 3 to 2 

9 _ 7 -^12 — 8 



ODDS ON THE GAME. 51 



m 



Honors counting at eight points and not at nine, the odds are 
slightly in favor of the players at eight. It is usual for the players 
at eight points, with the deal, to bet six to five on the game. It is 
about an even bet, if honors are not claimed at eight points, that the 
dealers win. As a disinterested piece of advice, however, let us 
add — DonH bet at all. 

AT SHORT WHIST. 

The following are the generally accepted odds ; but it must bo 
remembered that, in respect of betting, the chances in Short Whist 
do not greatly differ from those of the old and, as we think, much 
superior game : — 

ON THE GAME WITH THE DEAL. 

At starting, the odds are about 11 to 10, or perhaps 21 to 20, in 
favor of the dealers. With an honor turned up, the odds are nearly 
a point greater in favor of the dealers. 



1 to love is about 


10 to 8 


2 


— 


5 3 


3 


— - . 


3 — 1 


4 


— 


4 — 1 


2 to 


1 is about 


5 to 4 


3 — 


2 — 


2 — 1 


3 — 


3 — 


11 10 


4 — 


3 — 


9 — 7 


ON THE RUBBER WITH THE DEAL. 


1 to love is about 


7 to 4 


2 


— 


2 — 1 


3 


— 


9 — 2 


4 


"""^ 


5 1 



The following are given as mere matters of curiosity. 



52 WHIST. 

It is 50 to 1 against the dealer holding 7 trumps, neither more nor 
less. 

15 to 1 against his holding 6 trumps. ' 

8 to 1 against his holding exactly ^ve, 

3 to 2 against his holding exactly 4. 

5 to 2 in favor of his holding 3 or more trumps. 

11 to 2 in favor of his holding 2 or more trumps. 

30 to 1 against his holding only the one trump turned up. 

AGAINST ANY NON-DEALER HOLDING ANY SPECIFIED NUMBER Ol 

TRUMPS. 

100 to 1 against his holding exactly 7. 
SOtol *' *' 6. 

15 to 1 ** «' 5. 

5 to 1 *' *' 4. 

3 to 2 *' '• 3. 

5 to 2 in favor of his holding 2 or more. 
50 to 1 in favor of his holding 1 trump or more. 
Against the dealer holding 13 trumps, it is calculated to be 158,- 
753,389,899 to 1. 

Against his holding 12 trumps, 338,493,367 to 1. 
Against his holding 11 trumps, 3,000,000 to 1. 
Against his holding 10 trumps, 77,000 to 1. 
Against his holding 9 trumps, 3500 to 1. 
Against his holding 8 trumps, 320 to 1. 
Against his holding 7 trumps, 50 to 1. 

These figures are, however, of but small practical utility in Whist 
from the simple fact that now-a-days such odds are seldom or never 
offered or taken. Whist is not a game to gamble at. 

L'ENVOY. 

The reader who has accompanied me thus far will at least acknowl- 
edge that there is more in a game at Whist than appears at first sight. 
In the Clubs it is played scientifically ; and with regular players two 
packs of cards are always brought in, kept on the table, and played 
with alternately each deal. This saves some trouble and time, as, 
while the one pack is being gathered by the younger hand, the elder 
hand *' makes'' the other. This plan likewise prevents a wide-awake 
player from " placing" cards in shuffling, and so obtaining a slight 



GENERAL ADYICE. 53 

advantage by knowing whereabout in the pack certain cards are 
likely to be. 

The reader must not, however, imagine that he is a Whist-player 
because he has read this or any other treatise on the game. An 
ounce of practice is worth a pound of theory ; and all that books can 
do is to teach the theory and principles of the game. Any lady or 
gentleman can become a good player with a little oare and attention. 
The good player will read the rules and maxims with attention, and 
profit by them ; but only the real lover and master of the game will 
be able to tell when he may depart from both with safety. There 
is all the difference in the world between slavishly following written 
instructions and adapting them to particular circumstances. As in 
life, so in Whist — you must use your own educated judgment if you 
would succeed. Practice makes perfect ; and there is no royal road 
to Whist any more than there is to learning. 

My readers will allow me, I am sure, to warn them tnat Whist is 
an amusement, not a labor ; and that it is best played at the table. 
The amateur should never play a card without a reason for it ; a bad 
reason is better than playing at random without any reason at all. 
Coolness, memory, and good temper are the three great secrets of 
success at Whist. Play the game well, and be cautious how you 
finesse. Take care of your trumps, and do not throw them away un- 
necessarily. It is good play, if you hold four leading cards in a 
suit, to exhaust that suit before you play another; as then, when 
trumps are out, you make a trick by leading the thirteenth card. It 
is judicious to force the strong hand, bad to force the weak one. 
Never throw away a trick without good reason, and avoid ruffing 
your right-hand adversary's lead, if you can without danger. Es- 
tablish your long suit, if possible ; and do not over-trump your right- 
hand opponent without you see absolute necessity. The first object 
is to win the game, the second to save it ; therefore, nothing venture 
nothing have. Always return your partner's lead in trumps ; hav- 
ing regard, however, always to your own hand. Endeavor to retain 
the turn-up and a commanding card as long as you can. Inform 
your partner of your strength in trumps by the allowable intimations 
— such as throwing a best card to a partner's winning card, playing 
the highest of a sequence when fourth player, and so on. Try to 
stop a long suit of your adversaries by playing a trump, without fear 
of being over-trumped. Look carefully at your hand to avoid ma- 
king a revoke ; and watch your opponents' play, in order to detect 



54 ' WHIST. 

one. It is quite fair to deceive your adversaries by underplay, and 
the use of the Blue Peter is acknowledged in all companies, though 
it was quite unknown to Hoyle. Endeavor to thoroughly compre- 
hend the principle of tenace, as this is a most valuable a^unct at 
Whist. Look well after the score, and play out your long suit as 
soon as you can. The playing of a single card is generally success- 
ful, as, if it makes a trick, you can then trump when your partner 
returns the lead, and perhaps establish a see- saw. 

Patient study and long practice are as necessary to make a good 
Whist-player as to make a good mathematician. But courtesy and 
willingness to acknowledge and forgive errors are no small recom- 
mendations : therefore, to lady and gentleman players I may say 
Omnibus Placeto, 



SHOET WHIST, DUMBY, DOUBLE DUMBT, &c 

SHOET WHIST. 

It is scarcely necessary to expend much time in describing Short 
Whist, its principles being precisely the same as those of the older 
and now almost universal game. The game about which Hoyle wrote 
was Whist, which was, some years ago, cut in half, in order to suit 
the taste of some aristocratic players. The story goes that the oper- 
ation was performed by Lord Peterborough, at Bath, in order that 
he might the more quickly recover some heavy losses, or make them 
still heavier. After enjoying considerable popularity for nearly half 
a century. Short Whist is now on the decline. The real differences 
between the two games are very slight, and perhaps it may be suffi- 
cient for the r^der if I give merely 

THE LAWS OF SHORT WHIST. 

1. The game consists of five points. One point scored saves the 
triple game ; three points, a double. The rubber is reckoned at two 
points. 

[Eight points may therefore be gained in a single rubber.] 

2. Honors cannot be ** called" at any part of the game, and do 
not count at the point of four. 

[In all other respects, honors are reckoned as in Long Whist.] 



SHOKT WHIST. 65 

3. The two highest and two lowest are partners, the lowest cut 
having the deal. 

[The cards are to be shuffled and cut in precisely the same way as in the old-fashioned 
game.] 

4. An exposed card necessitates a fresh deal. 

5. In cases of misdeal, the deal passes to the next player. 

[Misdeals occur from precisely the same causes as in Long "Whist, and need not, there- 
fore, be stated.] 

6. No questions as to either hand can be asked after the trick is 
turned. 

[Nor are any questions except tnose admissible in the other game to be asked.] 

7. Any card played out of turn, or shown accidontally, can be 
called. 

8. A revoke is subject to the penalty of three tricks. 

[Taken as in Long Whist.] 

9. The side making the revoke remains at four, in whatever way 
the penalty be enforced. 

10. Lookers-on must not interfere, unless appealed to by the ma- 
jority of the players. 



It is not necessary to dilate upon the best method of playing each 
separate hand at this game, because whatever is useful and true at 
Long Whist is equally useful and true at Short Whist. *' The pe- 
culiarities of the short game," says a recent writer, '^ call for special 
appliances. This should act as stimulants to the player, and rouse 
his energy." But what these special appliances are it is difficult to 
discover, seeing that the two games are identical in every thing but 
length. The only advantage of the short game lies in the more for- 
cible use that can be made of trumps. '' Trumps," says Carleton, 
** should be your rifle-company ; use them liberally in your manoeu- 
vres ; have copious reference to them in finessing, to enable you t<^ 
maintain a long suit. Should you be weak in trumps, ruff a doubt- 
ful card at all times ; with a command in them, be very chary of that 
policy. Let your great principle always be to keep the control of 
your adversaries' suit, and leave that of your partner free. If you 
see the probable good effect of forcing, decide which of your adver- 
saries you will assail, but do not attempt them both at once. Let it 
be the stronger if possible. When you force both hands opposed to 



56 WHIST. 

you, one throws away his useless cards ; while the chance is, the oth- 
er makes trumps that, under other circumstances, would have been 
sacrificed." And so, et cetera ad infinitum, Deschapelles, who ia 
the French Hoyle without his science, but with double his power of 
writing, says of Short Whist : — '* When we consider the social feel- 
ings it engenders, the pleasure and vivacity it promotes, and the ad- 
vantages it offers to the less skilful player, we cannot help acknowl- 
edging that Short Whist is a decided improvement upon the old 
game." All this is, however, open to ra-gument ; and therefore de 
gustibus non est, 

DUMBY, OE THEEE-HANDED WHIST. 

This game is precisely the same as Long Whist, only that one 
player takes two hands, one of which he holds in the usual manner, 
and the other he spreads open on the table. The rules are the sam.e. 

Another Game is played by three persons, in v/hich two Nines 
and Fours, and one of the Fives is cast out from the pack, and each 
player plays on his own account. 

A third way of playing Three-handed Wliist is to reject the fourth 
hand altogether, and allow it to remain unseen on the table. Each 
player then takes the miss, or unseen hand, in exchange for his own, 
if he thinks fit. Each player stands on his cards, and the best hand 
must win. There is, however, room for finesse, and the player who 
sees two hands — the miss, and that first dealt to him — has an unde- 
niable advantage. 

TWO-HANDED WHIST, 

This game is either played as Double Dumby, by exposing two 
hands and playing as with four players, or by rejecting two hands, 
and each player making the best he can of his own hand. In these 
games each honor counts as one point in the game. There is but 
small room for skill in any of the imperfect W^hist-games, and the 
player who is acquainted with the real old-fashioned game need not 
be told how to play his cards at Dumby or French Humbug. At 
best, these games are inferior to Cribbage, Ecarte, All-Fours, or any 
of the regular two-handed games. 



EUCHKE. 57 



EUCHRE. 

The origin of this fascinating game is somewhat uncertain. From 
the fact that the word Bauer, a peasant, is pronounced similarly to 
the names of the two leading cards in the game, some have supposed 
it to be of German invention. Yet the game is unknown in G-ermany, 
except in those parts where it has been introduced by wandering 
Americans. Others assumed that it had a nautical origin, and was 
invented by some old salt — the namxes given the commanding cards 
having reference to the forward anchors of the ship. As it has been 
traced to the counties of Lancaster, Berks, and Lehigh, in Pennsyl- 
vania, where it first made its appearance about forty years since, it 
is not difficult to conjecture how it arose. Some rich German far- 
mer's daughter, of these Americo-Teutonic regions, had been visiting 
Philadelphia in the winter. While there she had stayed at the house 
of some relative, whose girls spent their summers among the Lehigh 
hills ; and she carried home a confused memory of Ecarte. On her 
dim account, some one of her ingenious rural beaux had created the 
rudiments of the present game, with the name corrupted to Euchre. 
By additions and alterations it grew to be ^^at it is. Conjectural 
as this may appear, a number of corroborative facts seem to indicate 
that it is the truth. 

P.ULES AND TECHNICAL TERMS OF EUCHEE. 

Adopting. — Synonyme — "Taking it up.'' This is the privilege 
of the dealer, after the others have passed, to discard a.n inferior card, 
and use instead the trump card turned up. The words used are, ** I 
take it up." 

Alone. — Playing without the assistance of your partner, when 
you have a hand which it is probable would take ^yq tricks. The 
words are, ** I play alone," or ^' Alone," or '^ Cards away," or " Itry 

it." 

Eule 1. — A player can only play alone when he adopts, orders 
up, or makes a trump, or when his partner assists, orders np, or 
makes a trump. He cannot, however, play alone with a trump he 
has passed, or with a trump, the making of which he has passed. 

A player cannot play alone when he or his partner is ordered up 
by an opponent, or when the opposite side adopts or makes the 
3* 



58 EUCHKE. 

trump. Only those can play alone who have legally taken the re- 
sponsibility of the trump, and may be euchred ; therefore, when one 
player legally elects to play alone, neither of his opponents can play 
alone against him. 

Rule 2. — If the elder hand passes, and his partner offers to play 
it alone, the elder hand cannot come in and play it alone, but must 
turn his cards face down, and go out. 

Rule 3. — When your partner plays alone, you must always lay- 
down your cards, or place them tinder the pack, without exposing 
their faces. (See Responsible, and Eule 36.) 

Rule 4. — A player who goes alone, must announce his intention in 
a clear and audible way and tone, so that no doubt can be entertained 
of his design. If he expresses his purpose in a vague and ambiguous 
manner, so that it is not clearly understood by his adversaries, and 
he or they make a lead, he forfeits his privilege, and must play 
with his partner. 

Assist.- — If, when your partner deals, and the eldest hand passes, 
you know by your hand alone, or by comparing it with the deck- 
head, that you can make three tricks, you may say to him, *' I assist." 
This is equivalent to ordering up the trump into his hand, for he 
thereupon discards b^p poorest card, and the trump card is his to 
play when he needs it. 

Bower. — The Jack or Knave of the trump suit, and of the suit 
of the same color. 

Bridge. — This is where one side has scored four, and the other 
one or two. 

Rule 5. — ^When your opponents have one or two and you have four, 
if you are eldest hand, unless you have one trick certainly in your 
hand — that is, the right bower, or the left bower guarded — ^you will 
order it up whether you have a trump or not, to prevent them going 
alone, and making four tricks. 

Call. — The right to demand an exposed card.* 

Rule 6. — If your right-hand adversary plays a card out of turn, or 
shows it, you can require him to lead it whe-n his turn comes, or play 
it when his turn comes, and that suit is required, or if he would be 
otherwise privileged to play it, whether it be to his advantage or not. 

Rule 7. — A party refusing to play an exposed card on call, forfeits 
two to his opponents, as in a revoke. 

"^{See ^^ Decisions on Disputed Foints^^'' notes IK and F., Euchre^ ' 
pages 148 andl4:d.) 



TECHNICAL TERMS. 59 

** Cards Away."-— The same as, ** I play alone.** 

Count. — To reckon the game. 

Rule 8. — An error in count can be rectified at any time before the^ 
next deal is completed. 

Counters. — The trey and quatre are used in marking game. The 
face of the trey being up, and the face of the quatre down on it, counts 
one, whether one, two, or three pips are exposed ; the face of the 
quatre being up, and the trey over it, face down, counts two, wheth- 
er one, two, three, or four of the pips are shown ; the face of the trey 
uppermost counts three ; and the face of the quatre uppermost counts 
four. The deuce and trey are now rarely used as counters, being 
more liable to mistakes. 

Coat-Cards. — The Bower, King, and Queen, from the fact that 
they are coated, or dressed. 

Court-Cards. — The same as coat-cards. 

Cross the Suit. — To make a trump of a different color from the 
card turned up by the dealer. 

Rule 9. — If your partner turns down, and the making is passed to 
you, either pass or cross the suit. The exceptions to this rule are 
only to be learned by practice. 

Cut. — To separate the shuffled pack into tsm parts, a right pos- 
sessed by the right-hand opponent. ^ 

Rule 10. — A cut must not be less than three cards removed from 
the top, nor must it be made so as to leave less than four cards at 
bottom ; and the pack must be put on the table for the cut. 

Deal. — To distribute the cards to which each player is entitled. 
You give each player -^ye cards, in two rounds, commencing 
with your left-hand opponent. You begin by first dealing two cards 
to each, and then three. 

Rule 11. — Every player cuts for the deal at the outset of the 
game ; the highest getting the deal ; and if there be a tie, the 
parties tied cut again. 

Rule 12. — In cutting, the Ace is lowest, and the Jack the highest, 
the others having their regular numerical order. 

Rule 13. — If a party lets a card fall in cutting, that is his cut ; and 
if he shows two, the highest is his cut. 

Rule 14. — In dealing, you may begin by giving first two, and then 
three cards round to each party, or vice versa ; but you cannot be 
gin by dealing two to one, three to the next, and so on. 

Rule 15. — The cards may be shuffled by others than the dealers, 



60 EUCHRE. 

but the dealer must always shuffle last. If the dealer makes a mis- 
deal, he forfeits the deal to the eldest hand. 

Rule 16. — If a card is turned or faced in dealing, a new deal may 
be demanded, but the right to deal is not lost. 

Rule 17. — If any opponent takes up or looks at his cards before 
the trump card is turned up, the dealer does not lose his deal, incase 
of a misdeal. 

Rule 18. — If a deal is made out of turn, it is good, provided it be 
not discovered until the trump card is turned, and one of the parties 
have looked at their hands. 

Rule 19. — If an opponent displays a card dealt, the dealer may 
make a new deal, unless he or his partner has first examined his own 
cards. 

Rtde 20. — If the pack is discovered to be defective, by reason of 
having more or less than thirty-two cards, the deal is void ; but all 
the points before made are good. 

Dealer. — One who distributes the cards. 

Deck. — The same as Pack. 

Deck-Head. — The card turned up as trump. 

Discard. — Putting a card out of the dealer's hand, face down, 
under the pack, whgn he *' takes it up" in lieu of the trump card on 
the deck. ^ 

Rule 21 .—In discarding, you put awa,y any card not a trump, no 
matter how valuable, that will give you a chance to trump that suit. 
For instance, if Hearts be trumps, and your lay cards are the Ace of 
Spades, and the Queen of Clubs, and Eight of Clubs, discard the Ace 
of Spades. 

Rule 22. — The discard is not complete until the card is under the 
pack ; and if the eldest hand plays before the discard is com.plete, 
the dealer may change the card, or may go it alone, though a card 
has been led. 

Dutch It. — To make a trump of the color that is turned down> 

Rule 23. — When your opponent turns it down, it is your policy to 
make it the next in suit, thatis,to name the trump of the same color, 
unless you have a commanding hand in one of the cross suits. 

Eldest Hand. — The left-hand adversary of the dealer, so called 
because he is the first to play. 

Euchre. — The failure of that side which makes, orders up, or takes 
up a trump, to take three tricks ; this failure scoring two points to 
their adversaries. 



TECHNICAL TEKMS. 61 

Face-Card.. — The coat- cards. 

Faced Cakd. — One with its face turned up in shuffling, cutting, 
or dealing. 

Finesse. — This is where a player holding the best and third best 
trump, plays the latter first, taking the risk that his opponents do 
not hold the second best trump, or that his partner does. In either 
case he wins the two tricks. 

Force. — To lead a suit of which your opponents hold none, thus 
obliging them to trump or lose the trick. 

G-AME. — When one party makes ^ve points before the other. 

Go Alone. — Synonymous with ** play alone." 

Guarded. — Having a strong card of another suit behind your 
trumps ; or having a smaller trump behind a strong one. 

Hand. — The five cards dealt to each player. 

Information. — Any thing passing from one partner to another, 
by which the latter knows how to play. 

Rule 24. — If a player indicates his hand by words or gestures to 
his partner, directs him how to pla;y, even by telling him to follow 
the rules of the game, or in any way acts imfairly, the adversary 
scores one point. 

Rule 25. — If a player, when they are at a bridge, calls the atten- 
tion of his partner to the fact, so that the latter orders up, the latter 
forfeits th^ right to order up, and either of the opponents may play 
alone, if they choose so to do. 

*' What are trumps ?" '^ Draw your card." '' Can you not fol- 
low suit ?" '* I think there is a revoke ?" 

The above remarks, or those analogous, are the only ones al- 
lowed to be used, and they only by the person whose turn it is to 
play. 

Lay-Card. — Any card other than trump. 

Lay- Suit. — Any suit not a trump. 

Lead. — The right to play first. The first card played. 

Left Bower.^ — The Knave of the same color as the trump suit. 

Left Bower Guarded. — The Left Bower protected by another 
trump. 

Lone Hand. — A hand so strong in trumps alone, or in trumps, 
guarded by high cards of a lay suit, that it will probably win ^yq 
tricks if its holder plays alone. 

Lone Player.— The one playing without his partner. 

Love-Game.— Scoring ^ye points to your adversary's none. 



62 , EUCHRE. 

Making a Point. — Where the responsible wins the odd trick. 

Making the Trump. — Naming a new suit for trump, after the 
dealer has turned the trump card down. 

Rule 26. — Any player making a trump cannot change the suit 
after having once named it ; and if he should by error name the suit 
previously turned down, he forfeits his right to make the trump, 
and such privilege must pass to the next eldest player. 

March. — Where all the tricks are made by one side. 

Marking the Game. — Counting. 

Misdeal. — An error in giving out the cards, forfeiting the right 
to the deal, unless the dealer be interfered with, as elsewhere pro- 
vided. (See Deal.) 

Next in Suit. — Dutching it. 

Numerical Cards. — Those neither ace nor face. 

Odd Trick. — The third trick. 

Ordering Up. — Requiring the dealer and his partner to play the 
trump as it has been turned. 

Pack. — The ordinary pack of cards, with the smaller cards from 
Deuces to Sixes, inclusive, thrown out. 

Partner. — The one joined with you in playing against your 
adversary. 

Rule 27. — The penalty of the misconduct of one partner falls on 
both. 

Pass. — To decline to play at the trump turned up. 

Pass Again. — To decline the privilege of making a new trump, 
after the first has been turned down. 

Pip. — The marks or spots on the inferior cards. 

Play Alone. — To play a hand without one's partner. 

Point. — One of the ^\q required for the game. 

Revoke. — Playing a card of a different suit from that demanded 
This is sometimes vulgarly called renig. 

Rule 28. — When a player revokes, the adversaries add two to 
their score. 

Rule 29. — A revoke is not complete until the trick is quitted, 
and the revoker, or his partner, has played again. 

Rule 30. — Though the revoker can correct his error, before he or 
his partner has played a second time, yet the opponent cgtn call 
the exposed card if it be the revoker' s next lead, or his turn to play 
one of that suit. 

Rule 31.— When the revoker corrects his error, his partner, if he 



TECHNICAL TERMS. 63 

has played, cannot change his card played ; but the adversary may, 
if he could have played another card before. 

Rule 32. — When a revoke is claimed against adversaries, if they 
mix their cards, or throw them up, the revoke is taken for granted, 
and they lose the two points. 

Rule 33. — ^No party can claim a revoke after cutting for a new 
deal. 

Rule 34. — A revoke on both sides, forfeits to neither ; but a new 
deal must be had. 

Rule 35. — If a point has been made by a revoke, it must be taken 
from the score of the offender. 

Rank. — The relative power of the cards, commencing and going 
down, in trumps, as follows : Right Bower, Left Bower, Ace, 
King, Queen, Ten, Nine, Eight, Seven ; but in the Lay Suits the 
Jacks take place between the Queens and Tens. 

Responsible. — The party who order up a trump, assist, make 
a trump, or take it up. 

Rule 36. — None have the privilege of playing alone, except those 
who take the responsibility of the trump. 

Right Bower. — The Jack of trumps. 

Right Bower Followed. — The Right Bower with another 
trump behind. 

Round. — The four cards in a trick. 

Rubber. — The best two of three games. 

Ruffing. — Another term for trum|)ing a suit other than trumps. 

Score. — The points gained in a game or rubber. 

Sequence. — The numerical succession of cards of the same 
color. 

Shuffle. — To mix the cards before dealing. 

Side-Cards. — Lay cards. 

Slam. — Love-game, vulgarly called "a skunk." 

Spot. — The marks on the inferior cards. 

Stock. — To fraudulently shuffle the cards so as to deal what 
cards are desired for the dealer. The cards not dealt out. 

Suit. — Each separate set of the four denominations of cards in 
the pack ; as the suit of Hearts, the suit of Diamonds, &:c. 

Taking it Up. — Indorsing the trump by the dealer, and dis- 
carding another card for it, after the rest have passed. 

Rule 37. — The dealer who takes it up must let the trump remain 
on the talon until it is necessary to play it on a trick. 



64 

Talon. — The cards remaining in the pack after a deal. 

Tenace. — Where the last player holds in his hand the highest 
and third best of the cards out. 

Throw Away. — To play a worthless, card on a trick, when you 
cannot follow suit, and do not desire to trump ; as, for instance, 
where it is your partner's. 

TiiEOWiNGi- Up. — Tossing one's cards on the table. 

Rule 38. — Throwing up a hand is giving up the points ; and if 
the cards are turned face up, the left-hand player may call them 
as he thinks proper, and they must be played accordingly. 

Trick. — The same as Eound. 

Rule 39. — No player has a right to see any trick but the last. 

Trump. — The suit turned up, or made the commanding suit. 

Trump Card. — The card which is turned up by the dealer after 
the hands have been dealt around. 

Turn Down. — The trump card which is turned face downward 
on the talon by the dealer, after all have passed. 

Turn Up. — The trump card. 

Underplaying.— Following suit with a low card, when you have 
one in your hand superior to your adversary's. 

EUCHRE, AND HOW TO PLAY IT. 

The game of Euchre is played with thirty- two cards, all below 
the denomination of seven-spot being rejected. Four persons con- 
stitute the complement for the game, and partners are determined 
by dealing and turning up one card to each ; those receiving tho 
two lowest cards, and vice versa, being associated together. 

VALUE OF THE CAEDS. 

The value of the cards in Euchre is the same as in Whist, All- 
Fours, and other games, excepting that the Knave of the suit cor- 
responding with the trump is called the Right Bower , and is the 
highest card of the hand ; and the other Knave of the same color is 
called the Left Bower, and is the card of second importance. For 
example : if Hearts should be turned trump, the Knave of Hearts 
is the highest card, the Knave of Diamonds second in value, and 
the Ace, King, Queen, &c., of Hearts, then come in their regular 
order, as at Whist. When the Knaves are of the opposite color 
from the trump card, they rank no higher than at Whist. 



AND HOW TO PLAY IT. 65 



THE DEAL. 



The players usually cut for deal, and he who cuts the highest 
Euchre card is entitled to the deal, and that is accom- 
plished by giving the eldest hand, or first person to the left of the 
dealer, two cards, and so on all around, and then dealing an ad- 
ditional three cards to each player, in the same order. Regularity 
should be observed in dealing, and no party should be allowed to 
receive from the dealer, in any round, more than the number of 
cards given to the eldest hand. For instance, if the dealer begins 
by giving the left-hand player two cards, he cannot be allowed to 
vary, so as to give another three, and then two again, but must con- 
tinue as he began. The proper manner of dealing is as we pointed 
out at the outset, and should be rigidly observed. 

The advantage which accrues to the dealer is manifest. From 
the manner in which cards are played in all games, those of a cor- 
responding suit will necessarily fall together, and therefore the 
dealer enhances his prospects thirty-three and one-third per cent, 
for an additional trump by dealing three cards last round, for then 
he has the three immediately preceding the trump, when, if he had 
began the deal with three cards, he would end by having only the 
two cards preceding the trump. 

After five cards have been dealt to each player, in the order as 
above, the dealer turns up the top card on the pack or talon, which 
is called the trump. After the first hand, the deal passes to each 
player, in rotation. 

THE GAME. 

The game consists of five points — the parties getting that num- 
ber first being winners — and the points are indicated by the num- 
ber of tricks taken by the players. If all the tricks are taken by 
one side it constitutes what is technically termed a march, and- en- 
titles the fortunate parties to a count of two ; and it is necessary to 
take three tricks in order to count one, or ** make a point,^^ as it is 
called. Taking four tricks counts no more than three. 

When the trump is turned, the first person to the left of the 
dealer looks at his cards, for the purpose of determining what he 
intends to do, whether to ^*pass" or ** order the trump up;'* 



66 ' EUCHRE, 

and this, to a certain extent, will depend upon tlie strength of his 
hand. If he holds cards of sufficient value to secure three tricks, 
he will say, '' I order it up," and the dealer is then obliged to take 
the card turned up, and discard one from his hand ; and the card 
thus taken up becomes the trump. If the eldest hand has not 
enough strength to order it up, he will say, *' I pass," and then the 
partner of the dealer has to determine whether he will *' pass" or 
*** assist." If he has enough, with the help of the card his partner 
has turned, to make three tricks, he will say, '* I assist," and the card 
is taken up as before. If he passes, then it goes to the third hand, 
who proceeds exactly as the eldest hand. Should all the players 
pass, it becomes the dealer's privilege to announce what he will do, 
and, if he thinks he can take three tricks, he says, '* I take it up,** 
and immediately discards his weakest card, placing it under the 
remainder of the pack, and, instead of the card thus rejected, he 
takes that turned up, which remains the trump. It is not considered 
en regie for the dealer to remove the trump card until after the first 
trick has been taken, unless he needs it to play. It is let lay that 
every one may see what the trump is. We may as well state here, 
that it is always the dealer's privilege to discard any one card in 
his hand, and take up the trump card ; and this holds good whether 
he is assisted by his partner, is ordered up by his adversaries, or 
takes it up himself. This gives the parties having the deal an ad- 
vantage about equal to one trick. Should the dealer not be con- 
fident of winning three tricks, he says, '*I turn it down," and, at 
the same time, places the turn-up card, face down, on the pack. 
Should all the players decline to play at the suit turned up, and 
the dealer turn it down, the eldest hand is then entitled to make 
trump what he chooses (excepting the suit already turned down). 
If the eldest hand is not strong enough in any suit, and does not 
wish to make the trump, he can pass again, and so it will go in ro- 
tation, each one having an opportunity to make the trump, in his 
regular turn, to the dealer. If all the players, including the dealer, 
decline the making of the trump, the deal is forfeited to the eldest 
hand. The eldest hand, after the dealer has discarded, opens the 
game, and leads any card he chooses. The person playing the 
highest card takes the trick, and he in his turn is obliged to lead. 
In this manner the game proceeds, until the five cards in each 
hand are exhausted. Players are required, under penalty of the 
loss of two points, to follow suit. If, however, they cannot. 



TAKING UP THE TRUMP. 6? 

why then they may throw away a small card, or trump at their 
pleasure. 

The trey and qnatre are used in marking game. The face of the 
trey being up, and the face of the quatre down on it, counts one^ 
whether one, two, or three pips are exposed ; the face of the quatre 
being up, and the trey over it, face down, counts two^ whether one, 
two, three, or four of the pips are shown ; the face of the trey up- 
permost counts three ; and the face of the quatre uppermost counts 
four. The deuce and trey are now rarely used as counters, being 
more liable to mistakes. 

It may be laid down as one of the general rules of Euchre, that 
•whatever is undertaken by a player must be accomplished, in order to 
make the point. For instance, if I adopt, or order up the trump, and 
fail in securing three tricks, it is called being " Euchred," and entitles 
the opponents to a count of two ; or if I make the trump after 
the original one has been turned down, and do not secure three 
tricks, I am also " Euchred," and it counts as before. Therefore 
it will be perceived, that in order to properly play the game, one 
should have, in addition to the ordinary rules, a thorough knowledge 
of the theory of chances, as they apply to this game, and exercise 
it judiciously. 

ADOPTII^G, OR TAKING UP THE TRUMP. 

As to what constitute sufficient force of cards to take the trump 
up, is a matter of considerable importance to the player. The pur- 
pose being to make a point, of course there must be a reasonable 
probability of securing three tricks, and this probability should be 
made, to a certain extent, dependent upon the position of the game. 
If the dealer should be three or four on the score, while the op- 
ponents are one or two, the deal might be passed by turning the 
trump down, and still the chances of gaining the game be not ma- 
terially reduced ; but if the position should be reversed, why then 
the dealer would be warranted in attempting the hazard upon a 
light hand, as the prospects of defeat with the deal in his favor 
would be no greater than the percentage of the same against 
him. Of course, any player would know that his success would be 
beyond peradventure, if holding both Bowers and the Ace ; but 
the moment you attempt to point out what any thing less would 
avail, you depart from the scope of argument, predicated upon 
substantial bases, to the unsubstantial realms of hypotheses. Any 



68 EUCHRE. 

thing less than both Bowers and the Ace might be Enchred, and the 
plodding player who exhausted his time in the search of absolute 
certainty might be beaten a hundred times by the cards which he 
had rejected. It is generally accepted as *' sound doctrine,'' that 
three trumps — two of them being Court Cards, backed by a Lay 
Ace — is sufficient to attempt a point. The player must note the 
state of the game, and act accordingly. If the game stand four 
and four, it is better for you to take up the trump on a small hand 
than leave it to your adversaries to make. Suppose the game is 
three and three, you should be very careful of adopting the trump 
on a weak hand, because a Euchre puts your opponents out. 

PASSING AND OEDERINa UP. 

No prudent player will *' order" the trump unless he holds enough 
to render his chances of success beyond reasonable doubt. There 
are times and positions of the game when, however, there would be 
no imprudence in ** ordering" up upon a light hand ; for instance, 
supposing the game to stand four and four, the dealer turns the 
trump, and either the eldest or third hand has an ordinary good 
show of cards, with nothing better of another suit, there it would 
be proper to ** order up," for, should the trump be turned down, 
your chances of success would be lost, and in case you are Eu- 
chred, it would but give the game to those who would win it any- 
how at another suit. 

If the position of the player is eldest hand, and a suit should be 
turned, in which he receives both Bowers and another large trump, 
and he has also two cards of the corresponding suit in color, it 
would clearly be his policy to pass, for the obvious reason, that if 
the dealer's partner should assist, he would be enabled to Euchre 
the opposing side, and, if the trump were turned down, his hand 
would be just as good in the next suit ; and having the first op* 
portunity of making the trump, he could go it alone, with every 
probability of making the hand and scoring four. 

Should the eldest hand hold the Eight Bower, Ace, or King, and 
another small trump, and a card of the same color as the trump suit, 
it would be good play to pass ; for if your adversaries adopt the 
trump, yQU will, in all probability, Euchre them ; and if they reject 
it, you can make the trump next in suit, and the chances of scoring 
a point are in your favor. 



MAKING THE TRUMP — ASSISTING. 69 

When yon are four, and hold commanding trumps sufficient to 
make a sure point, order up, particularly if you are eldest hand, for 
then you will take your opponent's deal. 

As a general rule the eldest hand should not order up the trump 
anless he has good commanding cards, say. Right Bower, King and 
Ten of trumps, with a lay ace of a different color, or Left Bower, 
King, and two numerical trumps. The player at the right of the 
dealer should hold a very strong hand to order up the trump, because 
his partner has evidenced weakness by passing, and if the opposing 
side turn down the trump, his partner has the first say to make a 
new trump. 

MAKING THE TRUMP. 

In case the dealer turns the trump down, the eldest hand has the 
privilege of making it what he pleases, and the rule to be generally 
followed is, if possible, to Dutch it, i. e., to make it next in suit, or 
the same color of the trump turned. The reason for this is very 
evident. If Diamonds should be the trump turned, and the dealer 
refuse to take it up, it would be a reasonable supposition that neither 
of the Bowers were in the hands of your opponents ; for if the deal- 
er's partner had held one of them, he would in all probability, have 
assisted ; and the fact of its being turned down by the dealer also, 
raises the presumption that he had neither of them. Then, in the 
absence of either Bower, an otherwise weak hand could make the 
point in the sam.e color. For reverse reasons, the partner of the 
dealer would cross the suit, and make it Clubs or Spades ; as his 
partner had evidenced weakness in the red suits, by turning a red card 
down, it would be but fair to presume that his strength was in the 
black. 

Be careful how you make the trump when your adversaries have 
scored three points, and, as a general rule, do not make or order up a 
trump unless you are eldest hand. 

ASSISTmG. 

^' Assisting " is where your partner is the dealer, and, with the 
help of the card he has turned trump, you deem your hand sufficient 
to take three tricks. In other words, suppose the Ace of Hearts to 
be turned, and you hold the Left Bower and King: you say to your 



^0 EUCHEE. 

partner, *' I assist," and then he is obliged to take up the Ace turned, 
and discard, the same as though he had taken it up voluntarily. 
Two Court Cards is considered a good " assisting " hand ; but where 
the game is very close, of course it is advisable to assist, even upon 
a lighter hand ; for if the game stands four and four, the first hand 
will "order up," if the card turned is the best in his hand, and 
therefore the fact of his passing would be an evidence of weak- 
*ness. 

When assisted by your partner, and you hold a card next in de- 
nomination to the card turned up (whether higher or lower,) play it as 
opportunity offers. For instance, if you turn up the Ace, and hold 
either the left Bower or King, when a chance occurs play the Bower or 
King, and thus inform your partner that you have the Ace remaining. 
The same policy should be adopted when your partner assists and 
you have a sequence of three trumps, the trump cai'd being the 
smallest of the three, in such a situation invariably play the highest 
card of the sequence this will inform your partner tliat you hold the 
balance of the sequence, and with this knowledge he can shape his 
play to suit circumstances. Supposing the King is turned up and 
you hold the Queen and Ten spot, when an occasion presents itself, 
play the Queen, and if your partner is au fait at the game he will 
know you have the Ten spot in your hand. 

As a general rule, always assist when you can take two tricks. 

THE LdsTE HAND. 

There is still another privilege allowed the fortunate holder of a 
good hand, and that is to play it alone. If from the fulness of your 
hand there is a reasonable probability that you can secure all the 
tricks, you " play it alone," or without the assistance of your partner, 
and if successful are entitled to a score of four points. There is no 
abridgment of the right to play "alone," except when the attempt 
fias been anticipated by your adversary's ordering it up, which a 
prudent player will always do in certain positions of the game, to 
which we shall refer with more particularity. In playing a lone 
hand, the following rules are now universally adopted : if the dealer s 
partner assists, or makes the trump, the dealer has the privilege of 
playing alone, or if the eldest hand orders up or makes the trump, 
his partner may play alone. For example : — 

A and B are partners against C and D ; A deals ; C orders it up, 



THE LONE HAND. 71 

and thus prevents A or B playing alone ; but either C or D may play 
alone, provided the latter claims the privilege before plays a 
card. Suppose passes, and B assists or orders it up ; neither 
nor D can play alone, but B or A may, provided either claims the 
privilege before C plays, and must not play until A has discarded. 
Suppose and B both pass, D may now order up and play alone, 
but neither of the others can. Suppose C, B, and D pass, and A takes 
it up — of course he can play it alone, tut neither of the others can. 
Suppose A passes, i. 6., turns it down, and C makes the trump ; tho 
case stands then precisely as it would have stood had he ordered up 
the trump first turned ; and so, if C passes a second time, and B 
makes the trump, the case stands as it would have stood had B 
ordered up the turned card. If, however, C and B both pass, and D 
makes the trump, he may play alone, but neither of the others can. 
And, in like manner, if 0, B, and D pass, A may make the trump, 
and he play alone, subject to the provision already named — that the 
privilege is claimed before a card is played. {See Rule 2.) 

When the dealer's partner, having a right to go alone, elects to do so, 
the dealer has not the right to supersede him and play alone himself. 
In declaring to go alone w^hen it his turn to settle the game and con- 
firm, or make, the trump, as the case may be, the dealer's partner binds 
the adversaries, and consequently binds himself and his partner. It is 
not a question between the dealer and his partner, but between the 
partner and the opposing players. The partner, by confirming the 
trump and declaring to play alone, has settled the game and cut oE 
the opponent's right who is third man. It follows that, as he has 
been allowed to do this, his action must at the same time have cut 
off the right of the dealer to change the game. It would be a change 
for him to substitute himself for the player Avho has declared to play 
alone. Whenever this declaration is made by a player who has the 
'' say," it creates an obligation on the other side to play against a lone 
hand, and one on his part to play the lone hand. This obligation, his 
partner cannot be permitted to break. 

In playing a lone hand, it is always a great advantage to have the 
lead. The next advantage is, to have the last play on the first trick, 
therefore the eldest hand and the dealer may assume the responsibility 
of playing alone on a weaker hand than either of the other players. 

Where a player "goes it alone," and fails to take five tricks, he is 
only entitled to a score of one ; should he fail entirely, it entitles the 
adverse parties to the same score as the ordinary '^ Euchre," to 
wit, two points. 



72 KUCHBE. 

In some coteries, ^he adverse parties claim a score of four points 
upon '-''Euchring'''' alone hand. We have tried to trace this prin- 
ciple to some authoritative source, but have failed in getting the 
sanction of any v/hose opinions are entitled to weight upon the ques- 
tion. (See Decisions on Disputed Points^ Euchre^ Note /., page 146.) 

We have heard of instances where both sides were permitted to 
play alone, and in case of the failure of the original player to make 
a march, the other side was allowed to score four ; this is, however, 
only a foolish innovation, directly opposed to the axiom in Euchre, 
viz. : that only those can play alone who legally assume the re- 
sponsibility of the trump, and incur the chance of being euchred. 
-Besides, there can be no object in playing alone against a lone 
player, for a Euchre never counts m.ore than two. If it did, one 
lone player might count four in taking only three tricks, while the 
other must get all five tricks to count four. 

There is, also, an improper custom which prevails in some parts of 
the West, viz. : that of giving to the player of a lone hand the priv- 
ilege of the lead, irrespective and without regard to his position in 
the game, thus debarring the eldest hand of his right to the lead. 
This is so manifestly unfair that it is not worth notice here. 

These and other innovations and modifications, such as Set BacTc 
and Ace Euchre^ are entirely at variance wdth the established rules 
of the game, and are never played by those who are familiar with, 
and appreciate Euchre as a scientific amusement. 

When your opponent is playing alone, and trumps a suit you or 
your partner leads, be sure and throw away all cards of that suit 
upon his subsequent leads, provided you do not have to follow suit. 

When opposing a lone hand, and your partner throws away high 
cards of any particular suit, you may be assured that he holds good 
cards in some other suit ; you should therefore retain to the last the 
highest card you hold of the suit he throws away (if you have one) 
in preference to any other card, unless it be an Ace of some other 
suit. 



THE BKIDGE. 



If one side stands four in the game, and the other one, such posi- 
tion is called a '' bridge," and the following rule should be observed ; 



DISCABDING. *IZ 

To make the theory perfectly plain, we will suppose A and B to 
be playing against and D, the former being four in the game and 
the latter but one. C having dealt, B first looks at his hand, and 
finds he has but one or two small trumps ; in other words, a light 
hand. At this stage of the game, it would be his policy to ^' order 
up " the trump, and submit to being "Euchred," in order to remove 
the possibility of or D playing it alone ; for if they should, by 
good fortune, happen to succeed, the score of four would give them 
the game ; when, if it were ordered up, the most that could be done 
would be to get the Euchre, and that giving but a score of two, the 
next deal, with its percentage, would in all probability give A and 
B enough to m.ake their remaining point and go out. If, however, 
B should have enough to prevent a lone hand, he can pass as usual, 
and await the result. The Eight Bower or the Left Bower guarded 
is sufiicient to block a lone hand. 

The eldest hand is the only one who should order up at the bridge, 
for if he passes, his partner may rest assured that he holds com- 
manding cards sufiicient to prevent the adversaries making a lone 
hand. If, however, the eldest hand passes, and his partner is toler- 
ably strong in trumps, the latter may then order up the trump to 
make a point and go out, for by the passing of the eldest hand his 
partner is informed that he holds one or more commanding trumps, 
and may therefore safely play for the point and game. 

The eldest hand should always order up at the bridge when not 
sure of a trick : the weaker his hand, the greater the necessity for 
doing so. (See Rule 25.) 

DISOARDmG. 

When the dealer takes the trump up before the play begins, it is 
his duty to "discard " or reject a card from his hand, in lieu of the 
one taken up. We will suppose the Ten of Hearts to be turned, and 
the dealer holds the King and Eight Bower, with the Ace and ISTine 
spot of Clubs and King of Diamonds : the proper card to reject would 
be the King of Diamonds, for there would be no absolute certainty 
of its taking a trick. The Ace might be held by the opponents, and 
])y retaining the Ace and Nine spot of Clubs, the whole suit of Clubs 
might be exhausted by the Ace, and then the Mne spot might be 
good ; or, if the trump should be one of the red suits, and the dealer 
held three trumps and a Seven of Sp^es and Seven of Hearts, it 
4 



74 EUCHRE. 

would be better to discard the Spade, for, as the dealer's strength 
was in the red suit, the probabilities would be that the other side 
would be correspondingly weak, and therefore the Heart would be 
better than the Spade. Where you have two of one suit and one 
of another to discard from, always discard the suit in which you 
have one card, for then you may have an opportunity to ^'ruff." 

THE LEAD. 

We have seen that the game is opened by the eldest hand leading, 
and much depends upon this feature of the game. 

Where a dealer has been assisted, it is a common practice to lead 
through the assisting hand, and frequently results favorably ; for, in 
the event of the dealer having but the trump turned, a single lead 
of trump, exhausts his strength, and places him at the mercy of a 
strong suit of lay cards. It is not, however, always advisable to 
" swing " a trump, for if the eldest hand holds a tenace, his duty is 
to manoeuvre so as to secure two tricks ; but this is only an excep- 
tional case. The proper method of determining the nature of the 
lead is indicated by the quality of the hand and the purpose to bo 
accomplished. The eldest hand, holding two Aces and a King, with 
two small trumps, of course would lead trump through assisting 
hand, for the reason that the only hope of securing a " Euchre " 
would be dependent upon the success of the lay suits, and they only 
can be made available after the trumps have been exhausted. 

Where the dealer takes the trump voluntarily, the eldest hand is 
of course upon the defensive, and to lead trump under such circum- 
stances would be disastrous. 

Should your partner have the Right Bower turned, lead a small 
trump; by so doing, you will be sure to weaken your adversary's 
hand. 

When your partner makes the trump, or orders it up, lead him the 
test trump you hold. Do this in any case. 

When you hold the commanding cards, they should be led, to 
make the march ; but if you are only strong enough to secure your 
point, side cards should be used ; put the lowest on your partner's 
lead, if it be a commanding card ; the highest on your adversary's. 

When opposed to a lone hand, always lead the best card you have 
of a lay suit, so that the possibility of your partner's retaining a 
card of the same suit with yourself may be averted ; particularly if 
it is a card of opposite color from the trump, for, if a red card should 



THE LEAD. 75 

be trump, and an opponent played it alone, there would be more 
probability of his not having five red cards tlian of his holding that 
number, and the further chance, that if he did hold five red cards, 
it would, in like proportion, reduce the probability of your partner 
having one of the same suit, and give him an opportunity to weaken 
your opponent's hand by trumping it. 

The exception to the above rule is, when you hold two or three 
cards of a suit, including Ace and King, and two small cards in other 
suits ; in this case your best play would be to lead one of the latter 
and save your strong suit, for the reason that your partner may hold 
commanding cards in yoar weak suits, and thus you give him a 
chance to make a trick with them; and if this does not occur, you 
have your own strong suit as a reserve, and may secure a trick 
with it. 

\yhen playing to make a lone hand, always lead your commanding 
trump cards first, reserving your numerical trumps and lay suit for 
the closing leads. When you have exhausted your commanding 
trumps, having secured two tricks, and retain in your hand a nu- 
merical trump and two cards of a lay suit, lead the highest of the 
lay suit to make the third trick, then your trump. For instance, 
suppose Hearts are trumps, and you hold the Right and Left Bowers 
and Ten of trumps, and Ace and Kine of Spades ; lead your Bowers, 
then the Ace of Spades, following with the Ten of trumps and your 
lay Nine. The reason for playing thus is obvious. You may not 
exhaust your adversaries' trumps by the first two leads, and if either 
of them were to retain a trump card superior to your Ten, by lead- 
ing the latter you would, in all probability, suffer the mortification 
of being Euchered on a lone hand. For example — we will suppose 
one of your opponents holds the Queen, Seven, and Eight of trumps, 
with a small Diamond and Club, or two of either suit : he would 
play the two small trumps on your Bovrers, and if you led the Ten 
of trumps, he would capture it with his Queen, and lead you a suit 
you could not take. Your chance of escape from such a dilemma 
would be very small. On the other hand, if, on your third lead, you 
were to lead the lay Ace, you would force your adversary to play his 
remaining trump, and allow you to win the point. 

When you hold three small trumps and good lay cards, and dtisire 
to Euchre your opponents, lead a trump,i for when trumps are ex- 
hausted you may possibly make your commanding lay cards win. 

When you make the trump next in suit, always lead a trump, 



76 . EUCHKE. 

unless you hold the tenace of Eight Bower and Ace, and even 
then it would be good policy to lead the Bower, if you hold strong lay 
cards. 

When you hold two trumps, two lay cards of the same suit, and a 
single lay card, lead one of the two lay cards, for you may win a 
trick by trumping the suit of which you hold none, and then, by 
leading your second lay card, you may force your opponents to 
trump, and thus weaken them. With such a hasid it would not be 
good play to lead the single lay card, for you might have the good 
fortune to throw it away on your partner's trick, and ruff the same 
suit when led by your opponents. 

"When your partner has made or adopted the trump, it is bad play 
to win the lead, unless you are the fortunate possessor of a hand 
sufficiently strong to play for a march. 

If your partner assist you, and has played a trump, and you have 
won a trick and the lead, do not lead him a trump unless you hold 
commanding cards, and are pretty certain of making the odd trick or 
a march, for your partner may have assisted on two trumps only, in 
which case such a lead would draw his remaining trump, and, in all 
probability, prove fatal to his most cherished plans. 

When you have lost the first two tricks, and seciired the third, if 
you hold a trump and a lay card, play the former, for, in this posi- 
tion of the game, it is your only chance to make or save a Euchre. 
There are only two exceptions to this rule, viz. : when you have 
assisted your partner, or when he has adopted the trump and still 
retains the trump card in his hand. In the former instance, you 
should lead tlie lay card, trusting to your partner to trump it ; in the 
latter case, you should also lead the lay card, unless your trump is 
superior to your partner's, and your lay card is an Ace or a King, in 
which case you should play trump, and trust to the lay card to win 
the fifth trick. The reason for this lAaj is very manifest : if your 
opponents hold a better trump than you, it is impossible to prevent 
them w^inning the odd trick, and, therefore, the Euchre or point; 
but if they hold a smaller trump, your lead exhausts it, and you may 
win the last trick with your lay card. This position frequently 
occurs in the game, and we recommend it to the attention of the 
novice. 



ON TKUMPING CONCLUDING HINTS. *J*I 

In the game of Euchre, nothing is more important than the judi- 
cious employment of trumps, and the successful issue of the game is, 
perhaps, more dependent upon a thorough knowledge of their power 
and use, than all the other points of tlie game comhined. In the 
course of this article we have already had much to say about trumps, 
particularly in that portion which treats of the lead, but if our 
readers will permit, we propose to briefly notice one subject which 
has remained untouched — that of trumping, or ruffing, as it is tech- 
nically termed ; and if our ideas on the subject will prove of any 
service to the tyro in the game, we shall have accomplished all we 
designed, both by this and other portions of the present article. 

If your partner adopts or makes the trump, and you hold the 
Eight or Left Bower alone, ruff with it as soon as you get the oppor- 
tunity. 

When playing second, be careful how you ruff a card of a small 
denomination the first time round, for it is an even chance that your 
partner will take the trick if you let it pass. When such a chance 
presents itself, throw away any single card lower than an ace, so 
that you may ruff the suit you throw away when it is led. 

When your partner assists, and you hold a card next higher to 
the turn-up card, ruff with it when an opportunity occurs, for by so 
doing you convey valuable information to your partner. 

When you are in the position of third player, ruff with high or 
medium trumps. This line of play forces the high trumps of the 
dealer, as at the game of Whist, and thereby you weaken your 
adversaries. 

When your partner leads a lay ace, and you have none of that 
suit, do not trump it ; but if you have a single card, throw it away 
upon it. 

CONCLUDING HUsTTS. 

Never lose sight of the state of the game. When you are four 
and four, adopt or make the trump upon a weak hand. 

When the game stands three to three, hesitate before you adopt 
or make a trump upon a weak hand, for a Euchre will put your 
adversaries out. 

When you are one and your opponents have scored four, you can 



*IS EXJCHEE. 

afford to try and make it alone upon a weaker hand than if the score 
was more favorable to you. 

When you are eldest hand and the score stands four for you and 
one for your opponents, do not fail to order up the trump, to prevent 
them from going alone. Of course you need not do this if you hold 
the Right Bower, or the Left Bower guarded. 

Be very careful how you underplay — skilful players may attempt 
this, hut as a general rule the tyro should take a trick when he can. 

Never trump your partner's winning cards, hut throw your 
losing and single cards upon them. 

When second hand, if compelled to follow suit, head the trick if 
possible ; this greatly strengthens your partner's game. 

When you cannot follow suit or trump, dispose of your weakest 
card. 

When opposed to a lone player, be careful how you separate two 
cards of the same suit. Throw away a single king rather than sepa- 
rate a seven and queen. Be cautious how you separate your trumps 
when you hold the Left Bower guarded. 

When it comes your turn to say what you will do — whether you 
will pass, assist, order up, or go it alone- — decide promptly and with- 
out unnecessary hesitation or dela}'-. If you do not have sufficient 
interest in the game to give your undivided attention to it, you will 
do well to keep away from the table, for you have a partner's inter- 
est to consult as well as your own. Finally — lose without a murmur, 
and win without triumph. 

We have not in this article given any other than the accepted 
rules, as applied to Euchre. We have at the outset stated the mean- 
ing of a few technical expressions connected with the game. We 
have made but few practical applications, for we have presumed that 
one competent to master it could apply the rules for himself. 

All undertakings, whether in business or pleasure, are advanta- 
geous only as they are founded upon, and assimilated with, common 
sense. And until the player unites reason with fortune, he can 
never count with any degree of certainty upon success. 

The innumerable phases which the game is capable of assuming 
would require more paper and words to express than one would 
willingly devote to pleasure. For when the pursuit of pastime 
merges into the exactions of study, relaxation becomes a task, and 
*' desire fails." 



TWO-HANDED ETJCHUE. 79 



TWO-HANDED EUCHEE. 

In this, as in the fonr-handed game, the deal being made, the 
non-dealer may pass or order up ; should he pass, the dealer, at his 
option, may pass, or discard and take up the trump, when the game 
begins by the lead of the non-dealer ; but should the dealer think 
his hand not strong enough to risk a play, he too will pass, when his 
adversary may pass again, or make a trump (wliich, as a general 
rule, should be next in suit) ; if he pass a second time, the dealer 
has the right to make a trump or again pass, in which case the cards 
are to be bunched, and the deal passed to the original non -dealer. 

If the dealer takes up the trump and plays the hand, he must 
win three tricks to make a point; or should he take the five tricks, 
he makes a "march," which entitles him to score two points. 
Should he fail to make three tricks, he is Euchred and hlfe adver- 
sary counts two points. The same rules apply to the party ordering 
up, or making the trump. 

In passing, or ordering up, much will depend upon the state of the 
game, and what the player desires to accomplish ; he may pass upon 
a good hand, when he has reason to believe that by so doing he 
will Euchre his adversary, should he play the hand. In this case, 
too, he should have good reason to suppose that his adversary will 
take up the trump, or else have cards to make the trump himself. 

The player, remembering that he has but a single hand to contend 
against, may play, or even order up, if he has a reasonable hope of 
making three tricks. 

Lead your strongest trumps first, until you have won two tricks, 
and then, having a trump left, lead some other card, so that, if your 
adversary takes it, you may have a chance to trump the card he 
leads, and thus make your point. Having won two tricks, and your 
adversary being without a trump, play for a marcJi. by leading 
trumps, or your highest cards. 

The deal is considered equal to a point, therefore never pass the 
deal unless to save a Euchre. 

Having discarded, you have no riglit to take the card back and 
discard another, even though you have made a mistake. Your 
opponent must profit by your mistakes, as well as by your bad play, 
or weak hand. 



80 EUCHEE, 



THEEE-HANDED EITCHEE. 

This game, as its name indicates, is played by three persons, and 
as each one plays for himself, and is therefore opposed by two adver- 
saries, the game requires closer attention, and the exercise of more 
judgment than any of the other Euchre games. 

In two-handed Euchre, the player may stand upon a slight hand, 
but not so in this game ; to stand or order up he must have a good 
hand, inasmuch as he has two hands combined against him, and 
should he be Euchred, both adversaries count tv/o. 

Another important feature of the game is, that the play varies 
according to the stage of the game ; for example — at the beginning 
of the game, each player strives to make all he can for himself; at 
the first play the dealer makes a maixli^ and counts two ; the next 
dealer makes one point, and the third dealer two ; the first dealer 
again deals, and makes one point ; the game now stands thus : — 

Dealer No. 1 3 points. 

" 2 1 point. 

'' 3 2 points. 

Fo. 2 now has the deal, and should he be Euchered, ISTo. 1 wins 
the game ; therefore, while No. 1 plays to win the game by a Euchre, 
Ko. 3 plays to let the dealer make a point, or even a march, which 
would make the game stand — 

No. 1 3 points. 

" 2 3 points. 

*' 3 2 points. 

It is now No. 8's deal, and if the circumstances justify the case, 
both his adversaries may combine against him and Euchre him, if 
they can, which would put them both out ; or, they may both play 
so as to let him make a point, that each may have another chance 
to win the game. Each player is now three, and No. 1 deals — but 
as they are all anxious to win the game, without dividing the honor 
or the profit, the dealer is permitted to make one point, but not two, 
if his opponents can prevent it. 

No. 2 next strives to win by a march, but, as in the last case, his 
adversaries play to prevent his making more than one point ; and the 
same strife again takes place when No. 3 deals. 



SET BACK EUCHRE. 81 

Now, as each player is four, the game must terminate with tha 
next deal, so that the dealer must either make his point or he 
Euchred, in which case hoth his adversaries win, and therefore on 
the last deal, hoth non-dealers play the strength of their combined 
game against the common enemy, and thus beat him, if they can. 
The dealer, however, has a remedy against a defeat, which is in this : 
if, upon examining his hand, he believes he cannot make a point, he 
can pass, and thus throw the deal elsewhere, thus having one more 
chance to win, and the same policy may be pursued by each player, 
until the game is played out. In some coteries the player who 
achieves a march is entitled to score three points, for the reason that 
three persons are engaged in the game ; but thus counting three 
may be considered an innovation, and not the regular game. Where 
parties differ in opinion as to the right to score three, the question 
should be settled before the game is commenced. 

SET-BACK EUCHEE. 

This game may be played by two or more persons, and is gov- 
erned by the same rules as ordinary Euchre, except in the matter 
of counting, as hereinafter explained. It is quite amusing and 
exciting, especially when played for money. 

Suppose four persons sit down to play, and agree that the pool 
shall be one dollar: each one contributes twenty-five cents. At the 
beginning of the game, each player is five, and now the struggle 
commences to wipe out these scores, and thus win the game. Each 
player plays for himself, and all are combined against him who 
orders up or plays the hand. Should any one not win a single 
trick, he has one point added to his score, and whoever is euchered 
is obliged to put another quarter into the pool, and has two points 
added to his score. 

The player who thinks he cannot take a trick, has the right to 
throw up his hand, and thus save himself from being set lach. The 
player who is the first to reduce his score to nothing, wins the 
game and the pool. 

The above is the game of Set-Back Euchre pure and simple, 
but various modifications are frequently introduced. The following 
are the most popular of these : — 

After a trump is made, ordered up, or taken up, should any 
player deem himself possessed of a sufficient force of trumps to 



82 EUCHRE. 

make a march, he will say, "I declare'' — which signifies he will 
play to take all the tricks — and if he is successful in making the 
march, he wins the game and pool, no matter how many points are 
scored against him. Should he, however, be unsuccessful in the 
undertaking, he forfeits double the number of points against him, 
and, in addition, must pay in the pool the penalty of a Euchre. For 
instance, if a player stands with seven points to go, and declares 
without making the march, he must be "set back" to fourteen 
points, and pay a quarter to the pool. The player who declares to 
make a march has the privilege of the lead, and becomes eldest 
hand, unless he be the dealer; but if the dealer declares, he does 
not have that privilege. In some circles it is customary for the 
unsuccessful players to pay to the winner of the pool a certain sum 
(previously agreed upon) for each point they have to go when the 
game is concluded ; this is not, however, considered a rule to be 
strictly followed, but may be left to the option of the players. 

Another variety of this game is played as follows : When the 
party adopting, making, or ordering up the trump, is Euchred he is 
set back two points, while his adversary scores two, as in the ordi- 
nary game. The severity of the penalty for a Euchre, in this game, 
being so great, unusual caution should be observed in taking up or 
making a trump, especially as each man plays for himself, and is 
therefore opposed by all the other players, as in the three-handed 
game, the laws of which apply with equal force to this. 

LAP, SLAM, JAMBONE, AND JAMBOEEE. 

By whom these variations were invented is unknown, but it is gen- 
erally conceded that they are of Southern origin, where Euchre has 
long been a decided favorite, and where these variations are more 
frequently played, than in any other part of our country. 

LAP. 

TKe Lap game may be played by two, three, or four persons, when 
they agree to play a series of games, so that the lap may be applied, 
which is simply counting upon the score of the ensuing game all the 
points made over and above the five of which the game consists. 
For example, if one party,, having made four points, should Euchre 
his opponents, or make a march, either of which entitles him to 
score two points, he not only wins the game then being played, but 



SLAM, OR LOVE-GAME — JAMBOISTE. 83 

counts one point on the next game ; or, if a player in a four-handed 
game, having four points, plays a lone hand, and makes his five 
tricks, he wins the game and scores three points on the next game. 
TThen the lap game is played, it is usual to count four points when 
a lone hand is Euchred. 

SLAM, OE LOVE-GAME. 

Slam and Love appear to be synonymous terms, and, when applied 
to games, imply that when a party has won a game before his oppo- 
nent has made a single point, the vanquished has been Slanted^ or 
played a Love-game. The term Love is used in all games, and simply 
means nothing. In billiards, the professional marker or keeper of 
the game announces, at the end of each count, the state of the 
game, thus — twenty-five-love — meaning that one player is twenty- 
five and the other nothing. In Euchre, the penalty for being slamed 
is, that the game thus lost is to be counted a double game, and must 
be counted as two games. And further, suppose a player, being 
four, and his adversaries nothing, plays a lone hand and makes his 
five tricks, he not only wins that game, which is to be counted as 
two games, but counts the extra three points on the score of the 
third game, by means of the Lap as heretofore explained. 

JAMBOKE. 

Janibone is a word unknown to Webster, but, as applied to Euchre, 
means that a party who plays Jambone plays a lone hand with his 
cards exposed upon the table. Thus, if a player holds what he 
supposes to be an invincible hand, with Avhich he cannot fail to win 
five tricks, announces in his turn that he will play Jambone, he 
spreads his cards upon the table face up. When the cards are thus 
exposed, the player entitled to the lea,d has the right to call any one 
of the cards so exposed to be played to the first trick,^ but this right 
does not extend to any but the party entitled to lead. Let ns illus- 
trate by a single example : — 

Suppose the dealer turns up as the trump card the King of Hearts. 
The other players pass, or his partner may propose to assist — but, 
npon examining his cards, he finds he holds the two red Bowers, the 
Ace and Ten of trumps, and a card of some other suit, and there- 
upon determines to risk a Jambone, which he announces, and ex- 
poses his cards, having discarded the odd card. The eldest hand, or 



84 JAMBONE. 

player entitled to the lead, holds the Queen of trumps, plays it, and 
calls for the Ten, which the dealer is obliged to play, thus losing the 
trick.- Although he wins the other four tricks, he can count only 
one point ; but should it so happen that the Jambone player, under 
all the disadvantages of exposing his hand, and of giving the elder 
hand the right to call for either of his cards, as explained, wins all 
the tricks, he is entitled to count eight points. 

The right to the call is forfeited when the partner of the player 
having the lead gives any intimation which enables the two to win 
the first trick. 

A Jambone hand may be played by either party, subject to the 
same rules which govern playing alone in the regular game. 

"When the adverse party order up or make the trump, a Jambone 
hand cannot be played, and the holder must be content with the 
satisfaction of Euchring his opponent. 

The Jambone player being entitled to lead, his left-hand opponent 
only, has the riglit to say which of the exposed cards shall be lead. 

ISTo call can be made after the first trick has been played, after 
which the Jambone player may exercise his own judgment, and 
lead whichever card he pleases. 

If the Jambone player wins less than five tricks, he can score but 
one point ; and should he fail to win three tricks, his adversaries are 
entitled to score eight points. 

When the dealer plays Jambone, and the eldest hand leads a card 
not a trump, but which the dealer will trump, he should call for the 
lowest exposed card, so that his partner may have a chance to play 
a higher trump than the one called, and thus win the trick. 

If the dealer holding a Jambone hand finds that by discarding and 
taking up the trump, he weakens his hand, he is not obliged to dis- 
card, so that the turn-up card merely indicates the trump suit. 

The player calling the card for the first trick, must call it the mo- 
ment he leads, or he forfeits his right to the call. 

If the lead belongs to the Jambone player, his opponent entitled 
to the call must call before a card is played, otherwise the Jambone 
player may play any card he chooses, the right to the call being 
forfeited. 

These are the most important points in the Jambone game, which 
the player will find quite interesting, and which will call forth his 
greatest skill and the exercise of his profoundest judgment. 



CEIBBAGE. 85 

JAMBOEEE. 

Jamboree signifies tlie combination of the five highest cards, as, for 
example, the two Bowers, Ace, King, and Queen of trumps in one 
hand^ which entitles the holder to count sixteen points. The holder 
of such a hand, simplj announces the fact, as no play is necessary ; 
but should he play the hand as a Jambone, he can count only eight 
points, whereas he could count sixteen if he played it, or announced 
it as a Jamboree. 

When the parties are playing Laps and Slams, and one of the 
players has four points to his opponent's nothing, and announces a 
Jamboree, the sixteen points thus won, added to his four, making 
twenty points, is equal to four games, each of them a Slam, which 
entitles him to count eight games in all. 

Jamboree, like Jambone, cannot be played as such, if the adverse 
party order up the trump or make it, in which case the hand can 
only make two points, as in an ordinary Euchre. 



CRIBBAGE. 

Of the origin of Cribbage we are not aware that any thing is 
known further than that it is essentially an English game. 

The game is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards : Sixty- 
one points constitutes the game. These points are scored on a 
Cribbage Board, of which see a representation on next page. It has. 
as will be seen, sixty-one holes, and in these the points aforesaid 
are marked ; the whole table being subdivided into compartments 
of ^YQ holes each. 

The board is placed either across or lengthways between the 
players. It is a matter of indifference how the end of the board 
from which you commence is placed ; but you must count from that 
end which contains the sixty-first, or game hole ; beginning at the 
outside edge (A or B), and passing along it to the top, then down 
the inside row to game. To mark the game, each player has two 
pegs ; if the first score be two, stick a peg and leave it in the 
second hole, and when next it becomes your turn to mark, place the 
other peg in the number that gives the points you have to mark, 
counting from your first peg. When you have to mark a third 
score, take out the back peg, and reckon from the foremost, which 



86 



CEIBBAGE. 



must never be disturbed during the progress of the game, the scores 
being invariably marked by the hindmost peg of the two. Thus, 
the foremost peg always keeping its hole, the players can detect 
the amount that is marked, and check each other's score. To 
avoid confusion, it is usual for the pegs of each party to be of dif- 
ferent colors ; although the one player never, in any way, touches 
his adversary's half of the board. 

All the Kings, Queens, Knaves, and Tens, 
count as ten each ; the rest of the cards ac- 
cording to their ordinary value, as*-Sixes for 
six. Eights for eight, and so forth; Aces 
reckon one only. This means merely their 
value as cards. The points which count for 
the game are made by Fifteens, Sequences, 
Flushes, Pairs, &c. 

There are games at Cribbage for two, 
three, or four players ; but the theory is con- 
tained in Five-card Cribbage for two players. 



Game 
Hole. 



FIYE-CAED CEIBBAGE. 

The players shuffle the cards in the usual 
manner, and cut for deal. The player cut- 
ting the lowest card deals. The lowest card 
in cutting is always the Ace ; but in Crib- 
bage, if two Court Cards, or a Court Card 
and a Ten, are cut, there is a tie, and the 
players must cut again. The deal deter- 
mined, the cards are shuffled by the dealer, 
who then lays them on the table on his op- 
ponent's side of the Cribbage-board, which is 
usually placed on the table between the play- 
ers. The non-dealer then cuts the pack into 
two parts ; and with the undermost half the 
dealer distributes "G-ve cards each, beginning 
with his adversary. The dealer then places 
the remaining cards on the other heap, and 
the pack remains undisturbed by either party 
till the crib cards are discarded. Each player 
then looks at his hand, and throws out two 
cards, it being imperative that the non-dealer 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE GAME. 87 

throws first. The elder hand (the non-dealer) then again cuts the 
cards on the table by taking up any number, not fewer than three, 
without exposing the faces of any of the cards ; the dealer lifts the 
topmost card of the lot left on the table, the non-dealer replaces 
the cards he cut, and the dealer puts the top card, face upward, on 
the whole. This operation, though rather complicated in descrip- 
tion, is very simple in practice. The discarded and the exposed 
cut-card (the turn-up) form what is called the crib. Th^ number 
scored in the crib belongs always to the dealer; the deal being 
taken alternately. If a Knave happen to be the *' turn-up," the 
dealer takes "two for his heels." The turn-up is reckoned in 
making up the score of each player's hand, as well as of the crib. 

The game then commences. The elder hand plays a card — on 
his own side of the Cribbage-board — calling out the value of the 
card played. Thus, we will suppose the elder hand to hold a King, 
Knave, and a Five ; and the dealer, a Seven, Knave, and Eight ; 
and that a Four has been turned up. The non-dealer then plays 
(say) the Knave, and says, " Ten ;" the dealer replies by playing 
his Knave, and cries "Twenty," and takes two for the pair; his 
opponent then plays his King, and says " Thirty." This being the 
nearest point to thirty-one, and the dealer having no Ace in his 
hand, cries " Go," when his adversary scores one hole on the 
board. Each player's hand is then counted ; the elder scoring 
four — two for each fifteen ; and the dealer two, for the seven and 
eight, which make fifteen. But if the Knave in either hand be of 
the same suit as the turn-up, the holder of such Knave scores " one 
for his nob." The crib is then taken by the dealer, and the game 
proceeds as before. Or, to explain this more fully ; after dealing, 
laying for crib, and cutting, as explained, the elder hand plays a 
card, which the other endeavors to pair or fifteen — the pips on the 
one card being added to those on the other. Then the non- dealer 
plays another card, and so on up to thirty-one, or the nearest point 
to it. For the " go" a single hole is scored, except when exactly 
thirty^one is made, when two holes are added to the score of the 
player whose last card makes the required number. 

The points which each party has made, during the playing out 
the hand, having been all taken at the time they were gained, and 
the deal being finished, each party now completes his score, and 
marks that number of points towards game to which he is entitled. 
The non-dealer reckons first ; and, having marked his gains, if any, 



88 CRIBBAGE. 

on the board, the dealer in his turn counts-— first, his hand, and 
then his crib, for the crib belongs to the dealer. 

The hands are reckoned thus, in every way that it is possible to 
produce the combination : 

Points. 
For every fifteen — ^as, 7 and 8 ; 10 and 5 ; 9 and 6 ; 8, 3, and 
4, &c., 2 

For a sequence of three or four cards — as, 2, 3, 4, 5, - 3 or 4 
For a flush in hand, that is, three cards of any one suit, - - 3 
For a full flush, when the cards in hand and the turn-up are of 

the same suit, -- ------4 

For a pair (two of a kind, as two Fives, Sixes, Sevens, &c.), - 2 

For a pair-royal (three of a sort), 6 

For a double pair-royal (four of a kind, as four Kings, 

Aces, &:c.), --_-.---.i2 

Knave of the suit turned up (the nob), ----- 1 

Sequences always count double when, in the four cards, there are 
two of a sort. Thus : suppose the hand to consist of a Seven, an 
Eight, and two Nines, the score would be ten — two for the fifteen 
(7 and 8), and six for the double sequence, 7, 8, 9 ; 7, 8, 9 ; with 
two for the pair of Nines. Or, again, suppose the hand to consist 
of a Three, a Four, and two Fives, the score would be — 

3 4 5 3 holes j 

3 4 5 - 3 *^ V 8 holes 

The pair - - - -- - 2**) 

The non-player, at the commencement of the game, takes three 
holes as an equivalent for the crib belonging to the dealer. This 
*' three for non-deal" may be taken at any part of the game, but 
it is usual, in order to avoid confusion, to take them at the be- 
ginning. 

After counting up all the points another deal then takes place, and 
is conducted in a similar manner ; and so on, until either one of the 
parties has completed the required number of sixty-one, when he is 
proclaimed the victor, and the game is finished. 

In reckoning the hand and crib, after the deal, you have been al- 
ready informed that the non-dealer counts first. It will facilitate 
your reckoning, if you sum up the amount of points to which you 
are entitled, in the following order : Firstly, Fifteens ; secondly! 



TECHNICAL TERMS. 89 

Sequences; thirdly, Flushes; fourthly, Pairs, Pairs-Hoyal, or 
Double Pairs-Eoyal ; fifthly, the point for the Knave. Eeckoning 
up the hand, or crib, is technically termed '* showing." Thus tho 
non-dealer is said to have **the first show," a point of immense im- 
portance at the final stage of the game ; since he may thus be en- 
abled just to '* show out," and consequently win the game ; while 
the dealer may hold in his hand, and crib, points enough to make 
him out three times over, but altogether useless, since he has not the 
first show. 

The non-dealer having summed up his score, under the observation 
of his opponent, the latter then performs the same operation, as re- 
lates to his own hand. He then turns up crib, which has up to this 
time lain perdue^ and scores all to which it may entitle him. 

Cribbage differs from all other games at cards by the almost num- 
berless varieties of chances it affords. In almost all the books on 
card- games, cribbage is said to be useful to young people in accus- 
toming them to calculate readily. We may perhaps take this with 
the least possible grain of salt. Let us now explain the principal 



TECHNICAL TEEMS USED IN CEIBBAGE. 

Crib. — The two cards thrown from the hand of each player. These, 
with the turn-up, form the dealer's crib. 

Fifteens, — Every two, three, or more cards which, added together, 
make fifteen, reckon two holes towards game, whether they be made 
in play, hand, or crib. Fifteens may be formed of court cards and 
Fives, Tens and Fives, Nines and Sixes, Eights and Sevens, or by three 
or four cards together. Thus, a hand consisting of three Fours with 
a Three turned up would count eight — a fifteen and a pair-royal ; a 
hand of a Nine and three Sixes would count twelve — three fifteens 
and a pair-royal. Or, 7, 7^ 4, 4, eight points — two fifteens and two 
pairs ; or a crib of 7, 7, 7, 7 and 1 on the pack, would score 24 — six 
fifteens and a double pair-royal. Or a crib consisting of four Deuces 
and a Nine turn-up, 20 — fifteen 8 and 12 for pair-royal, and so on 
ad infinitum. This method of counting fifteens is common to all 
games at Cribbage. Whenever fifteen can be made of two, three, 
or more cards, in play or hand, the player making the fifteen adds two 
points to his score. 

Pair or Pairs. — Every pair made in the play or the hand, reckons 



90 CEIBBAGE. 

for two points. To pair is to play a card of the same description, 
but it need not be of the same suit. If a tenth card be played, 
and you can answer it immediately with a similar tenth card, 
without exceeding thirty -one, it is a pair, and counts two. But in 
these pairs, all tenth cards do not count alike. It must be King for 
King, Queen for Queen, and so forth. At the end of the deal, you 
take the turn-up card to assist jou in pairing, and count two for all 
pairs made by its assistance. 

Pair-Boyal or Prial. This consists of three cards of a similar 
sort, held either in the hand or crib, or occurring in the course of 
the game, as three Kings, three Aces, three Nines, &;c. It scores 
six. Thus : if the leader play a Six, you put another Six on it, and 
score two for the pair ; he then returns a Six, makes a pair-royal, and 
counts six points. If you have a pair-royal in your hand or your 
crib, you also score Six for it ; and should you only hold a pair, and 
turn up the third, it reckons also for six. It is needless to say these 
combinations do not count for points, when other cards have been 
played between them. 

DouMe Pair-Royal. Four cards of a sort make this combination, 
for which the score is twelve ; alike, whether made in play, or in the 
hand, or in the crib. The turn-up card re<'/kons with hand and crib, 
in this, as in every other case. Moreover, should your opponent 
have made a pair-royal, by playing a third of a sort, you are entitled 
to the double pair-royal, if you answer him with a fourth. 

In taking six for a pair-royal, or twelve for a double pair-royal, 
you are not to suppose that the six and the twelve are merely in- 
creased numbers, bestowed as premiums for such combinations of 
the cards, and settled by arbitrary arrangement, independent of the 
rule that two points are allowed for every pair. A pair reckons for 
two, and the same principle, applied to a pair-royal, produces six ; 
because, as a p^jr-royal contains three distinct pairs, you score two 
for each pair. Place, for instance, three Sixes in a row on the table, 
and mark them 1, 2, and 3, thus: 

1 2 3 

Six Six Six 

Here Nos. 1 and 2 form the first pair, Nos. 1 and 3 the second pair, 
and Nos. 2 and 3 the third pair ; without the same two cards having 
ever been reckoned more than once together. 

Having analyzed this example, there will be little difficulty in 



TECHNICAL TERMS. 91 

ascertaining the number of pairs to be found by talcing in piecetf a 
double pair-royal. The readiest way to attain demonstration is to 
place the four Sixes in a row on the table, as you did the three Sixes, 
and number them 1, 2, 3, and 4, thus : 

12 3 4 

Six Six Six Six 
^os. 1 and 2 combined together, form a pair, and yield 

two points, for which carry out - - - - 2 

Nos. 1 and 3 form the second pair, and give two more 2 

Nos. 1 and 4 form the third pair - - - - 2 

Kos. 2 and 3 form the fourth pair - - _ - 2 

Nos. 2 and 4 form the fifth pair - - - . 2 

Nos. 3 and 4 form the sixth pair - - - - 2 

Total - - - - 12 

Thus, we have six distinct pairs in a double pair-royal, which, of 
course, are thereby entitled to twelve points. Observe, that in ma- 
king these points, although we reckon the cards over and over again, 
they always unite in different associations, and the same two cards 
are never reckoned twice together. 

Sequences consist of three or more cards following in successive 
numbers, whether of the same suit or otherwise. He who holds 
them scores one point for every card in the combination, whether it 
take place in playing or in counting the hand or crib. But there 
cannot be a sequence under three cards. As in certain other cases, 
the court cards. King, Queen, and Knave, rank in sequences, after 
their usual classification as to rank, and not all alike as tenth cards. 
To form a sequence in play, it matters not which of the cards is 
played first or last, provided the sequence can be produced by a 
transposition of the order in which they fell. Thus, you lead the 
Five of Hearts, your adversary returns the Three of Diamonds ; you 
then play the Four of any suit, and score three for the sequence ; he 
then plays Six and makes four, and so on, as long as the continuous 
sequence can be made. The spirit of this rule may be applied to 
all combinations occurring in regular successions. 

You here observe that it does not matter of what suit are the cards 
forming the sequence, nor does the order signify in which they are 
played. You must not pass thirty-one in making a sequence. If 
4* 



92 CRIBBAGE. 

a sequence in play is once broken, it must be formed afresh, or can 
not be acted on. 

In reckoning your sequences at the close of the deal, you use 
the card turned up along with your hand and crib ; and reckon them 
every way they will. A single example of this will here suflfice : — 
Suppose the crib to consist of two Kings (Clubs and Diamonds), 
and two Queens (Hearts and Spades), the Knave of Spades being 
the card turned up ; — how many can you take for sequences ? 

Twelve, being four sequences of three each ; to be computed by 
reckoning the Knave with the Kings and Queens ; ringing the changes 
in the latter somewhat in a similar manner to the mode in which you 
have been taught to form a double pair-royal. To simplify this, take 
the Knave, the two Queens, and the two Kings, and spread them be- 
fore you ; when they will count thus : — 
Knave, with Queen of Hearts and King of Clubs - - f3 
Knave, with Queen of Spades and King of Clubs - - 3 
Knave, with Queen of Hearts and King of Diamonds - 3 
Knave, with Queen of Spades and King of Diamonds - 3 

Points for four Sequences - - - - - - 12 

A Flush. — A Flush cannot happen in play, but occurs only in 
computing the hand or crib. A Flush signifies that all the cards in 
hand or crib are of the same suit, in which case you are allowed to 
mark one point for every card of which the Flush is composed. Thus, 
if your hand comprise three Hearts, you will take, on scoring for 
your hand, three for the flush in Hearts ^ and should the turn-up 
card chance to be also a Heart, you will add another point for that, 
making four altogether. You are not permitted, however, to reckon 
a flush in th.:; crib, unless the cards, of which the crib is composed, 
are of the same suit as the card turned up. It is essential to recol- 
lect the difference between a flush in the hand and a flush in the 
crib. 

His Noh. — The Knave of the turned- up suit. In counting, in 
hand or crib, it marks one point. 

His Heels. — The Knave when turned up. It reckons for two 
holes, but is only once counted. 

End Hole. — The last hole on the board into which the player 
places his peg when he makes game. 

Pegs. — The little brass, wooden or ivory pieces with which the 
gdme is scored on the board. 



RULES OP CEIBBAGE. 93 

Tfic Go. — The point nearest thirtj-one. If thirty-one exactly be 
made, the player scores two holes ; for the simple *'go," one hole : 
in addition, of course, to any more he may make with his last card. 

Last, — The three holes taken by the non-dealer at Five-card Crib- 
bage. 

The Start. — The state of the pack after being cut and before the 
cards are dealt. 



RULES OF CEIBBAGE. 

1. The players cut for deal, the holder of the lowest card being 
dealer. The Ace is lowest, and all ties cut again. All tenth cards 
— Kings, Queens, Knaves, and Tens — are ties. 

2. Faced cards necessitate a new deal, if called for by the non- 
dealer. 

[In the old laws, a faced card in the dealers hand was considered of no consequence : 
but according to modern play, any card faced in the process of dealing obliges a new deal ; 
but there is no penalty attached to the mistake.] 

3. Should too many cards be dealt to either, the non-dealer m.ay 
score two, and demand another deal, if the error be detected previous 
to his taking up his cards ; if he do not wish a new deal, the top or 
last-dealt cards may be withdrawn and packed ; v/hen any player 
has more than the proper number of cards in hand, the opponent 
may score four, and call a new deal. 

[This is seldom enforced — a new deal following any misdeal.] 

4. If a player touch the pack after dealing, till the period of cut- 
ting it for the turn-up card, his opponent may score two points. 

5. If a player take more than he is entitled to, the other party 
not only puts him back as many points as are overscored, but like- 
wise takes the same extra number for his own game. 

[This is called "pegging." You must be careful how you peg your opponent. If he 
has taken too many holes, the proper way to- rectify his error, whether it be wilful or other- 
wise, is to take your back peg and place it in the hole his front peg should have properly 
occupied. Then remove his front peg, and make it your front peg by adding as many 
to your score as he has wrongfully taken. If in pegging him you remove his or your own 
front peg first, he may claim to have the pegs as they were ; or if you peg him wrongly, 
he is entitled to score all the holes he formerly marked, and your error in addition.] 

6. Should either player even meddle with his own pegs unneces- 
sarily, the opponent may score two points ; and if either take out 
his front peg, he must place the same back behind the other. If 
any peg bo misplaced by accident, a bystander may replace it, ac- 



94 CEIBBAGE. 

cording to the best of his judgment ; but the bystander should never 
otherwise interfere unless requested by the players. 

7. If any player neglect to set up what he is entitled to, he loses 

the points so omitted to be taken, but his adversary cannot add them 

to his own score. 

[Formerly the opponent could add to his own score all holes omitted to be taken; but 
this is now obsolete ; the original loss being sufficient penalty.] 

8. Each player may place his own cards, when the deal is con- 
cluded, upon the pack. 

9. The cards are to be dealt one by one. 

[It was formerly the custom in six and eight-card cribbage to deal two, three, or four 
at a time. The rule now-a-days, however, is as we have given it for all games at cribbage.] 

10. The non-dealer, at the commencement of the game, in five- 
card cribbage, scores three points, called three for last ; but in six 
and eight-card cribbage this is not to be done. 

11. After the score is taken on the board, the pegs must not be 
replaced, if a mistake be perceived, without the consent of the oppo- 
nent. 

12. Neither player is allowed to touch his adversary's pegs, under 
penalty of losing his game, except it be to peg him for a wrong 
score. 

13. All cases of dispute must be decided by appeal to the by- 
standers. 

14. Three cards at least must be temoved from the pack in cut- 
ting for deal or turn-up. 

15. When the Knave is turned up, ''two for his heels'' must be 
taken before a card is played, or the two cannot be scored. 

16. The non-dealer discards for the crib first, and a card once laid 
out cannot be recalled if it be covered. 

17. Neither player may touch the crib cards till the hand is played 
out. 

[It is usual to throw the crib cards over to the dealer^s side of the board, which plan 
insures regularity, and indicates whose deal it is. The pack is also placed on the other 
Bide ready for the next dealer.] 

18. The dealer shuffles the cards, and the non-dealer cuts them 
for " the start." In four-handed cribbage, the left-hand adversary 
shuffles, and the right-hand adversary cuts. 



MAXIMS FOR LAYING OUT THE CKIB. 95 



MAXIMS FOE LAYING OUT THE CEIB. 

Much of the success of the cribbage player depends on the man 
ner he lays out his cards for crib. The player should consider not 
only his own hand, but also to whom the crib belongs, as well as the 
state of the game ; for what might be proper in one situation would 
be highly imprudent in another. 

Firstly, When it is not your own crib, yon will lay out such 
cards as are likely to be, in an average number of cases, of the least 
possible advantage to your opponent, in the production of pairs, fif- 
teens, sequences, &c. 

Secondly, When it is your own crib, you will lay out favorable 
cards for the crib. 

Thirdly, It being your own crib to which you are about to discard, 
you will prefer consulting the interests of the crib, in preference 
even to those of your hand. 

The most advantageous cribbage cards are Fives, Sevens, Eights, 
&c., when so assorted as to form fifteens, sequences, pairs, or flushes. 
The Five is, of all others, the most useful card, since it makes 
fifteen equally with either one of the tenth cards ; of which there 
are no fewer than sixteen in the pack. Fives must therefore be in 
general the most eligible cards to lay out to your own crib, and the 
least eligible (for you) to lay out to your adversary ; since, in so 
doing, you are almost certain to give him points. To discard a pair 
of any cards, again, is mostly bad play, unless it is for your own 
crib ; and cards which follow each other in order, as a Three and 
Four, or Nine and Ten, being likely to be brought in for sequences, 
are generally bad cards to lay out in the case of its being your ad- 
versary's crib. The same calculation should, in its principle, be 
carried out as far as possible. Suppose you discard, to your oj)po- 
nent's crib, two Hearts, when you might with equal propriety have 
laid out a Heart and a Club instead, — you here give him the chance, 
however remote you may fancy it, of making a flush in his crib , 
which could not be effected by him, had you laid out the Heart and 
Club. 

To lay out cards purposely, which are disadvantageous for the 
crib, is called in the " cribbage dialect" of our ancestors '' balking' 
or ^'bilking" the crib. 

The least likely cards to reckon for points in the crib, and there- 



96 CRIBBAGE. 

fore generally the best to discard for your adversary, are Kings ; since 
a sequence can only be made up to, or as it may be termed, on one side 
of them; and cannot be carried beyond them. A King is therefore 
a greater balk in the crib than the Queen. So, again, of an Ace, — 
a sequence can only be made from it, and not up to it ; and an Ace 
is therefore frequently a great balk to a crib ; though in discard- 
ing an Ace some judgment is required to be exercised, being often a 
good card to hold for play ; and forming a component part of fifteen, 
particularly when combined with Sixes, Sevens, and Eights, or with 
Fours and Tenth cards. 

The cards, then, best adapted to balk our antagonist's crib, are 
a King, with a Ten, Nine, Eight, Seven, Six, or Ace ; a Queen, 
with a Nine, Eight, Seven, Six, or Ace, or cards equally distinct or 
far off, and therefore certain not to be united in sequence by meet- 
ing with any other cards whatever. Of course, particular hands 
require particular play, and general principles must give way be- 
fore their exceptions. *' Circumstances alter cases ;" throughout 
this work, as in all similar works, the author writes for what may 
be called '' average hands of cards," and recommends that play 
which would be most conducive to success in the largest proportion 
of events. 

Never lay out a Knave for your adversary's crib, if you can with 
propriety avoid it, as the probability of the turn-up card being of 
the same suit as the Knave is three to one against it. Conse- 
quently, it is only three to one but the retaining such Knave in 
your hand gains you a point ; whereas, should you discard it to 
your opponent's crib, it is only three to one against the chance of 
its making him a point ; hence the probable difference of losing a 
point by throwing out your Knave is only three to two and one-third ; 
or nine to seven ; that is to say, in laying out a Knave for your 
antagonist's crib, when you could equally keep the same in your 
hand, sixteen times^ you give away just seven points ; it being only 
nine to seven but you give away a point every time you play in 
this manner, and eY&rj single point is of consequence if contending 
against a good player. As we just now remarked, there may, of 
course, occur exceptions to this and every other rule. 

The cards which are usually the best to lay out for your own 
crib are two Fives, Five and Six, Five and Tenth card. Three 
and Two, Seven and Eight, Four and Ace, Nine and Six. and 
eimilar couples. If you have no similar cards to lay out, put down 



MAXIMS FOR LAYII^G OUT THE CRIB. 97 

as close cards as jou can ; because, by this means you have the 
greater chance of either being assisted by the cards laid out by 
your adversary, or by the turn-up; and further, you should uni- 
formly lay out two cards of the same suit for your own crib, in 
preference, cceteris paribus, to two other cards of the same kind, 
that are of different suits, as this gives you the probable chance of 
flushing your crib ; whereas, should you lay out two cards of 
different suits, all gain under the head of a flush is at once destroyed. 
It is mostly good play to retain a sequence in hand, in preference 
to cards less closely connected; more especially should such 
sequence be a flush ; and once more remember, that the probable 
chance of points from the crib is something nearly approaching to 
twenty per cent, over the hand. It is, therefore, indispensably 
your duty, if you wish to win, to give the lead to your crib at the 
expense of your hand. ? 

In general, whenever you are able to hold a pair-royal in hand, 
you should lay out the other two cards, both for your own and your 
adversaries' crib — some few cases, however, excepted. For example, 
should 3^ou hold a pair-royal of any description, along with two 
Fives, it would be highly dangerous to give your antagonist the 
brace of Fives, unless in such a situation of the game that your 
pair-royal would make you certainly out, having the first show, or 
else that your adversary is so nearly home himself that the con- 
tents of the crib are wholly unimportant. Many other cards are 
very hazardous to lay out to your adversary's crib, even though you 
can hold a pair-royal — such as Two and Three, Five and Six, 
Seven and Eight, and Five and tenth card ; therefore, should you have 
such cards combinecl together, you must pay particular regard to 
the stage of the game. This caution equally applies to many other 
cards, and particularly when, the game being nearly over, it hap- 
pens to be your own deal, and that your opponent is nearly home, 
or within a moderate show-out. Here, then, should be especial 
care taken to retain in hand cards which may enable you to play 
'* off" or wide of your adversary, and thus prevent his forming any 
sequence or pair-royal. In similar positions you should endeavor, 
also, to keep cards that will enable you to have a good chance of 
winning the end hole, which frequently saves a game. 



98 CRIBBAGE. 



HOW TO PLAY THE HIGH GAME. 

The chances in this game are often so great, that even between 
skilful players, it is possible, at Five-card Cribbage, when the ad- 
versary is fifty- six, for a lucky player, who had not previously made 
a single hole, to be more than up in two deals, his opponent getting 
no farther than sixty in that time ; and in Four-handed Cribbage a 
case may occur, wherein neither of the two players hold a single 
point in hand, and yet the dealer and his friend, with the assistance 
of a Knave turned up, may make sixty-one by play in one deal, 
while the adversaries only get twenty -four ; and although this may 
not happen for many years, yet ''similar games may now and then 
De met with. 

The following we take from Walker's treatise, as quoted by all the 
modern writers on the game. 

'* Should you hold a Three and a Two, it is frequently the best 
play to lead off the Three (or the Two), on the chance of your ad- 
versary playing a tenth card {of which never forget that there are 
sixteen)^ making thirteen, when your Two (or your Three) drops in, 
making two points for the fifteen. The same principle applies to 
the leading from a Four and an Ace, and has this additional ad- 
vantage, that should you thus succeed in forming fifteen, your 
opponent can form no sequence from your cards. 

"Remember, that when your adversary leads a Seven or Eight, 
should you make a fifteen, you give him the chance of coming in with 
a Six or a Nine, and thus gaining three holes against you; but this 
will sometimes tend to your advantage by allowing of your rejoin- 
der with a fourth card in sequence. For instance, your opponent 
leads an Eight, and you make fifteen by answering with a Seven ; 
he plays a Six, making twenty-one, and scores three for the se 
quence, but having a Nine or Ten, you play it, and score four or 
two after him. In all such cases, play to the state of your game ; 
for what would be at one time correct, would be, at another, the 
worst possible play. 

'^ To lead from a pair is generally safe play, good ; because, should 
your opponent pair you, you form a pair-royal, making six holes ; 
while the chance of his rejoining with a fourth is too small to be 
taken into consideration. It would rarely, though, be correct to 
d from a pair of Fives, as he would make fifteen with a Tenth card. 
' When your adversary leads a card which you can pair, it is bet- 



HIGH GAME. 99 

ter to make fifteen, in preference to the pair, should you be able so 
to do ; as you will naturally suspect he wishes you to pair him, in 
order to make a pair-royal himself. But here, as elsewhere, your 
chief guide is the relative state of the game. 

*' When you can possibly help it, consistently with your cards, do 
not, in play, make the number twenty-one ; for your antagonist is 
then likely to come in with a tenth card, and score two. 

*' Should you hold a Nine and Three, it is good play to lead the 
Three ; because, should it be paired, you form fifteen by playing the 
Nine. The same applies to the holding of a Four and a Seven ; in 
which case, should your Four be paired, you make fifteen with tho 
Seven. 

** The following style of play facilitates your obtaining the end hole. 
Should you hold two low cards and one high card, lead the former ; 
but should you hold one low card and two high cards, lead from the 
latter. Like other general directions, all this is, however, subject 
to contingencies. 

*' Holding a Ten and Five, and two holes being at the moment an 
object of great importance, lead the tenth card, in hopes of your ad- 
versary's making fifteen, when you can pair his Five. 

" Holding a Seven and Four, it is good play to lead the Four ; be- 
cause, if paired, your Seven comes in for fifteen : the same direction 
applies to your holding a Six and Three, and Three and Nine, or other 
cards similarly related. 

*' When compelled to lead from a sequence of three cards, play tho 
lowest, or highest, in preference to the middle card. With a Six, 
Seven, and Eight, the Seven is, however, then the best card, as it 
enables you to bring in a sequence. 

*' In laying out for your own crib, suppose you hold a pair of Fives, 
and no tenth card, discard them both. Bear in mind that of all the 
tenth cards, the Knave is of the most importance ; and that those 
cards which tell best in counting the hand, are not always the best 
for playing. 

'' If in play you threw down a Four, making the number twenty- 
seven, your adversary has the chance of j^airing your Four, and of 
making at the same time thirty-one. If you make twenty-eight with 
a Three, you incur the same risk. These apparent trifies must be 
studied, and similar points on your part, if possible, avoided, while 
you should be constantly on the watch to grasp tliem for yourself, 
should your antagonist leave an opening. 



100 CEIBBAGE. 

** As the dealer plays last, his chances are greater than those of the 
leader for making the end hole or other desirable points in play. 
The dealer has also in his favor the chance of gaining the two points 
by lifting a Knave or Jack, and making * two for his heels.' " 

The phrase ** playing off" is used in contradiction to its reverse, 
** playing on.'' Thus, should your adversary lead a Five, and you 
follow with a Six, Seven, Four, or Three, you *' play on," because you 
allow him the chance of making a sequence ; while, by playing a 
high card, you only leave him the chance of making a fifteen with 
a small one — that is, you '*play off." Half the battle depends on 
whether you play " off" or '' on ;" but all must depend on your own 
judgment. Occasionally you may play on with a view to your own 
longer sequence ; as for instance, he plays a Seven, and you hold a 
Five, Four, and Three. You play the Five in reply to his Seven, 
which allows him to play the Six, if he has one, and then you are able 
to come in with your Four, and perhaps win the Three to follow. 

ODDS OF TRE GAME, 

The chances of points in a hand are calculated at more than 
four, and under five ; and those to be gained in play are reckoned 
two to the dealer, and one to the adversary, making in all about six 
on the average, throughout the game ; and the probability of those 
in the crib are estimated at five ; so that each player ought to make 
sixteen in two deals, and onward in the same proportion to the end 
of the game ; by which it appears that the first dealer has rather 
the advantage, suj)j)osing the cards to run equal, and the players 
likewise equally matched in skill. By attending to the above cal- 
culation, any player may judge whether he is at home or not, and 
thereby play his game accordingly, either by making a push when 
he is behind and holds good cards, or by endeavoring to balk the 
opponent when his hand proves indifferent. 

IN FAVOR OF THE DEALER. 

Each party being even 5 holes going up, is 6 to 4 

at 10 holes each 12 . . 11 

15 each 7 . . 4 

20 each 6 . . 4 

25each 11 .. 10 



SIX-CARD CRIBBAGE. 101 

Each party being at 30 each, is : 9 to 5 

6 
9 

8 

2 

20 

1 



35 each 7 

40 each . . 10 

45 each 12 

50 each 5 

55 each 21 

60 each 2 

When the dealer wants 3 and his opponent 4 5 

In ail situations of the game, till within 15 of the end, 

when the dealer is 5 points ahead 3 

But when within 15 of the end 8 

And if the dealer v/ants 6, and the adversary 11 10 

Should the dealer be 10 ahead, it is 4 or 5 

And near the end of the game 10 or 12 

When the dealer wants 16, and the antagonist 11 . . 21 

AGAINST THE DEALER. 



20 



Both players being even at 56 holes each, is 7 . . 5 

57 7 .. 4 

58... 3 .. 2 

If the dealer wants 20, and his opponent 17 5 . . 4 

Wh^n the dealer is 5 points behind, previous to turning 

the top of the board 6 . . 5 

When he is 31, and the antagonist 36 6 . . 4 

When 36, and the adversary 41 7 . . 4 

EVEN BETTING. 

When at 59 holes each player. 

In all points of the game, till within twenty of the end, if the non 

dealer is three ahead. 
The dealer wanting 14, and his antagonist 9. 
Ditto 11, Ditto 7. 

SIX-CAED OEIBBAGE. 

This game is also played with the whole pack ; it is the game 
most popular in this country ; but both in skill and scientific 
arrangement it is vastly inferior to that played with five cards. 
Still, it is a pleasant resource in a dull hour, and abounds with 



102 CRIBBAGE. 

amusing points and combinations, without taxing the mind much. 
It is played on the same board, and according to the principal por- 
tion of the rules of the preceding game. Its leading peculiarities 
may be thus summed up. 

The dealer gives six cards to himself and his adversary. Each 
player lays out two of these for crib, retaining four in his hand. 
The deal and the *' start" card is the same as at the five-card game, 
in like manner the pairs, sequences, fifteens, &c., operate, and the 
game |)oint is sixty-one. The non-dealer, however, is not allowed any 
points at the beginning. The main difference between the games 
is, that in the game already described, the object is to get thirty- 
one, and then abandon the remaining cards ; at the six-card game 
the whole are played out. There are more points made in the play, 
while, at -Qye cards, the game is often decided by the loss or gain of 
one point. At Six-card Cribbage, the last card played scores a 
point. This done, the hands and crib are scored as at the five-card 
game ; then another deal is played, and the victory is gained by the 
party who first gets sixty-one. 

As all the cards must be played out, should one party have ex- 
hausted his hand, and his adversary have yet two cards, the latter 
are to be played, and, should they yield any advantage, it must be 
taken. For instance, C. has played out his four cards, and D. hav- 
ing two left (an Eight and Seven), calls fifteen as he throws them 
down, and marks three points — two for the fifteen, and one for the 
last card. Again, should D.'s two cards have been a pair (Threes, 
for instance), he marks two for the pair, and a third point for the 
last card. Speculating on this and other probabilities, you will al- 
ways endeavor, when you are last player, to retain as close cards as 
possible, for this will frequently enable you to make three or four 
points, by playing 3^our last two cards, when you would otherwise 
make but a single point. But this demands further illustration, as 
it is of paramount importance. For example : 

Suppose you hold for the last two cards a Seven and Eight, and 
that your adversary has only one card remaining in his hand, the 
probable chance of its being either a Six or a Kine (in either of 
which cases you come in for four points) is eleven to two ; there- 
fore, it is only eleven to two but you gain three points by this 
play, exclusive of the end-hole ; whereas, were you to retain, as 
your last two cards, a Seven, with a Ten, or any two cards simi- 
larly wide apart, you have no chance to score more for them than 



SIX-CAED CKIBBAGE. 103 

the end-hole, as there is no probability of their coming in for any 
sequence ; or, if you can retain a pair of any kind for the last two 
cards (your adversary having only one card, and he being the first 
player), you by this means make a certainty of two points, exclusive 
of the end-hole. By the same rule you ought always to retain such 
cards as will (supposing your adversary to have none left) make a 
pair, fifteen, ifcc., for by this means you gain many points which you 
otherwise could not possibly get. 

The calculations for throwing out at the five-card game are, for the 
most part, applicable to this. Still, there is not quite so much 
temptation to sacrifice the hand for the sake of the crib, as they do 
not both contain a similar number of cards. At this game the hand 
scores more than the crib, as there is one player always on the look- 
out to balk crib, while so many points being open to the play, offers 
a greater inducement to keep together a good hand. As soon as 
thirty -one, or the number nearest to it, be made in playing the hand, 
the cards should be turned down, that no confusion may come of 
their being mixed with the succeeding cards. 

As before explained, in speaking of Five-Card Cribbage, your 
mode of conduct must be governed uniformly by the state of your 
game. Play to your score, and put the final result partially out of 
view. Whether it is your policy to play ** on" or *' off," must be 
ever the question in making up your judgment. 

On an average, a hand, the moderns say, ought to yield about 
seven, and a crib five points. It is useful to remember this in lay- 
ing out, and to note the difference between the odds of seven to five 
in favor of the hand here, and the superiority of the crib to the hand 
at Five- Card Cribbage. 

The average number of points to be made each time hy play is 
from four to five. The dealer has the advantage here, because he 
plays last. Pasquin considered that you were only entitled to 
twenty-five points for three shows and play, and that the dealer is 
at home if, when he makes his second deal, he is twenty-five points 
'up the board, and when he deals for the third time, within eleven 
holes of game. The present system of calculation is to allow twenty- 
nine instead of twenty-five holes for the three shows, and to con- 
sider that at the end of the second round each player is at home at 
twenty-nine holes. 

As youyare on a parity at starting, being both at home, you will 
play with moderate caution your first hand, making fair risks, but 



104 CRIBBAGE. 

not running into too wide speculations. On taking up your 
second hand, you will adapt your play to the relative scores on the 
board, as you have been told in relation to the other variety of the 
game, and will play " on" or '^ off," according to the dictates of 
policy. The same rule vnll govern your conduct during the re- 
mainder of the game ; and should your adversary have gained the 
preference, or should you be more than home, both cases must be 
taken into consideration in playing your hand. If your cards pre- 
sent a flattering prospect, and you are by no means home, it is your 
duty to make a push, in order to regain the lead by running; 
whereas, should your adversary be better planted than you, and 
should you take up bad cards, it will be the best play to keep off, 
and only endeavor to stop your antagonist as much as possible, and 
thereby have a probable chance of winning the game, through his 
not being able to make good his points. 

As so many points are to be gained in play by the formation of 
long sequences, you will frequently find it advantageous, having 
eligible cards for the' purpose in view, to lead or play so as to tempt 
your adversary to form a short sequence, in order that you may 
come in for a longer. And this opportunity is particularly to be 
sought for, when a few holes are essential to your game, though 
gained at any risk. If you hold, as leader, a One, Two, Three, and 
Four, the best card to lead is the Four, since if paired, you 
answer with the Ace, and your adversary's second card may not 
form a fifteen. 

THEEE-HANDED OEIBBAGE. 

\ The game of Three-handed Cribbage is not often practised. It is 
played, as its name imports, by three persons ; the board being of 
a triangular shape, to contain three sets of holes of sixty each, with 
the sixty-first or game hole. Each of the three players is 
furnished separately with pegs, and scores his game in the usual 
manner. 

Three-handed Cribbage is subject to the same laws as the other 
species of the game. The calculations as to discarding and play- 
ing are very similar ; but it must be remembered that as all three are 
independent, and fight for themselves alone, you have two antago- 
nists instead of one. 

Five cards compose the deal. They are delivered separately, 



FOUR-HAXDED CRIBBAGE, 105 

ana after dealing the fifteenth, another, or sixteenth card, is dealt 
from the pack, to constitute the foundation of the crib. To this 
each of the three players adds one card, and the crib, therefore, 
consists of four cards, while each individual remains with four cards 
in handt The deal and crib are originally cut for, and afterwards 
pass alternately. 

It is obvious that you will be still even, if you gain only one 
game out of three, since the winner receives a double stake, which 
is furnished by the two losers to him who first attains the sixty-first 
hole. It has been computed that he who has the second deal has 
rather the best chance of victory ; but there seems very little 
difference. 

Occasionally, at this game, some amusement arises from the com- 
plicated sequences formed in play ; but ordinarily it is a poor enough 
affair. It rnll frequently happen that one of the three players 
runs ahead' of the two others so fast, that it becomes their interest 
to form a temporary league of union against him. In this case they 
will strive all they can to favor each other, and regain the lost 
ground ; and, in general, players will do well not to lose sight of 
this principle, but to prefer favoring the more backward of the 
adversaries, to giving the chance of a single point to the other. 
Such leagues, however, are a good deal resembling those betweeh 
higher authorities — in the making of which, each enters a ment^tl 
caveat to break it the first moment it suits his convenience. 

FOUE-HANDED CKIBBAGE. 

The game of Four-handed Cribbage is played by four persons, ir» 
partnerships of two and two, as at Whist — each sitting opposite to 
his partner. Eubbers or single games are played indifferently. 
Sixty-one generally constitute the game ; but it is not unusual to 
agree, in preference, to go twice round the board, making the num- 
ber of game one hundred and twenty-one. 

At the commencement of the sitting, it is decided which two of 
the four players shall have the management of the score, and the 
board is placed between them. The other two are not allowed to 
touch the board or pegs, though each may prompt his partner, and 
point out any omissions or irregularities he may discover in the 
computation. The laws which govern Five-Card Cribbage are 
equally applicable here, as to the mode of marking holes, de- 



1 06 Cr.IBBAGE. 

ficiencies in the counting, the taking too many points, etc. He 
who marks has a troublesome task, arising from the constant vigilance 
requisite to be exercised, in order not to omit scoring points made 
by his partner ; his own gains he seldom forgets to take. He who 
does not mark should acquire the habit of seeing that his partner 
marks the full number he requires. Partners may assist each other 
in counting their hands or cribs — their interests being so com- 
pletely identified. 

It is most usual to play rubbers, and to cut for partners every 
rubber. The t^o highest and two lowest play together. The Ace 
is always lowest. In some circles they consider all tenth cards 
equal in cutting for partners : in others they allow of preference, ac- 
cording to rank, as at Whist. This would, however, be only appli- 
cable to cutting for partners. Also, in some cases it is the practice 
for the deal to go to^the two who cut the lowest cards for partner- 
ship ; but in general, the deal is decided by a subsequent c^it between 
the two parties who are to score ; the Ace being the lowest card, 
and all tenth cards being equal. If it is decided not to change part- 
ners after a game or rubber, there must be a fresh cut still for the 
deal. Each may shufBe the cards in turn, according to the laws 
which regulate this operation at Whist. 

<,The deal and crib pass alternately round the table as at Whist, 
from right to left. The usual laws of Cribbage regulate the act of 
dealing, as to exposing cards, and so forth ; and no one is suffered 
to touch their hands until the deal is complete. Before dealing, the 
cards must be cut in the ordinary way by your right-hand antago- 
nist. 

The dealer delivers ^ve cards to each, in the usual mode, from 
right to left, one card at a time. The remainder of the pack he 
places on his left hand. Each person then lays out one card for the 
crib, which is of course the property of the dealer. The left-hand 
adversary must discard first, and so round the table ; the dealer lay- 
ing out last. There is no advantage in this, but such is the custom 
It is hardly necessary to say that the crib always belongs 'to the 
dealer. 

As there is but one card to be laid out from the five received by 
each plaj^er, there is seldom much difficulty in making up your 
choice. Fives are the best cards to give your own crib, and you 
will never, therefore, give them to your antagonists. Low cards are 
generally best for the erib, and Kings or Aces the worst. Aces 



rOUB-HANDED CEIBBAGE. _ 107 

sometimes tell to great advantage in the plaj at this g ime. When 
your partner has to deal, the crib being equally your own, as if you 
had it in your proper possession, must be favored in the same way. 
Before discarding, always consider with whom the deal stands. 

When all have laid up for the Crit), the pack is cut for the start- 
card. This cut is made by your left-hand adversary's lifting the 
pack, when you, as dealer, take off the top-card, as at Five-Card 
Cribbage. Observe that it is the left hand adversary who cuts this 
time, whereas, in .cutting the cards to you at the commencement 
of the deal, it is your right-hand adversary who performs the opera- 
tion. 

Having thus cut the turn-up cara, the player on the left-hand of 
the dealer leads off first, the player to his left following, and so on 
rouii3 the table, till the whole of the sixteen cards are played out ac- 
cording to the laws. Fifteens, sequences, pairs, (fee, reckon in the 
usual way for those who obtain them. Should either player be un- 
able to come in under thirty-one, he declares it tn be a *'go," and 
the right of play devolves on his left-hand neighbor. No small cards 
must be kept up, which would come in under a penalty. Thus, should 
A. play an Ace, making the number twenty- eight, and should each of 
the other three pass it without playing, not having cards low enough - 
to come in, — on its coming round to A., he must play if he can un- 
der thirty-one, whether he gain any additional points by so doing 
or not. Example : 

B. plays an Ace and makes thirty. Neither of the other three can 
come in, and on the turn to play coming round again to B., he plays 
another Ace and marks four points ; tv/o for the pair of Aces, and 
two for the thirty-one. 

Many similar examples might be adduced, and there frequently 
arise difficult and complicated cases of sequences made this wiy out 
of low cards. Indeed, the playing out of the hand require^ constant 
watchfulness on all sides; much more so than in Six-Card Cribbage. 
So many points are made by play in Four-handed Cribbage, that it 
is essential to play as much as possible to the ]3oints, or stages, of 
the game ; sufficient data respecting which will be presently 
given. 

' In leading off, great care is necessary ; not only at first starting, 
but after every ** rest," or thirty-one. A Five is a bad lead, because 
the chances of a Ten succeeding it are so numerous ; and an Ace is 
seldom a good lead, since, should the second player pitch what is 



108 CRIBBAGE. 

highly probable, a tenth card, vour partner cannot pair him with - 
out making the ominous number of twenty-one ; a number equally 
bad at every description of Cribi3age, since the next player has thus 
so good a chance of converting it, by another tenth card, into thirty- 
one. A Nine, again, is a bad lead, for should your left-hand adver- 
sary make fifteen with a Six, he cannot be paired by your partner, 
without making twenty-one. Boar this constantly in mind, and 
when possible to avoid it by equally good play, never either make 
the number twenty-one yourself, nor lead so as to compel your part- 
ner to do so. Threes or Fours form safe leads. 

The second player will observe caution in pairing a card, so as 
not to give away the chance of six for a paltry couple, unless par- 
ticularly wanting ; or from some collateral reasons, he may consider 
it a safe pair ; as in the case of the turn-up's being a similar card, — 
his holding the third of the same in his hand — the having seen one 
of the same already dropped, and so on. The same care must be 
shown in not playing closely on, unless compelled by the cards. 
Suppose your right-hand adversary leads a Three, it is obvious 
that if you reply with a Two or Four, you give your left-hand an- 
tagonist a good chance of forming a sequence, which he could not 
do had you played off. On the other hand, there frequently arise 
cases in which you feel justified in playing '' on," purposely to tempt 
your adversary to form the sequence ; in order to give your partner 
the chance of coming in for a still longer sequence. ^ In many situa- 
tions, a few holes may be of paramount value, gained at any risk. 
If the second player can make fifteen, it is generally better play 
than pairing the card led. Towards the end of the game it is some- 
times important to retain cards all wide apart, when the object is 
merely to prevent your antagonist f3:om making points in play ; but 
as you only lay out one card, you have little chance of assorting 
your hanu as you could wish. 

The third player should aim at making the number below twenty- 
one, in order to give his partner a good chance of gaining the end- 
liole for the "go," or the two for thirty- one. 

The dealer knowing he will have to play last the first round, will 
sometimes find it advantageous to hold Aces, or low cards for the 
purpose ; particularly when it is essential to score a few holes in 
play, or when the only chance of game arises from the possibility of 
playing out. Holding Aces, it is frequently better play, when you 
have the option, to make twenty-seven or twenty-eight, than thirty, 



FOUR-HANDED CEIBBAGE. 109 

in order to have a chance of bringiiig in your Aces, which sometimes 
yield a heavy amount of points at that stage of the computation. 
When it is certain that the game will be decided in the course of the 
playing out of the hand, without coming to your show, you will 
keep good cards for playing at all hazards. 

When the hand is played out, the different amounts are pegged, 
the crib being taken last. He who led off must score first, and so 
on round to the dealer. Each calls the number to which he con- 
siders himself entitled, and watches to see that they are scored prop- 
erly ; while at the same time he docs not fail to scan his adversaries' 
cards with an observant eye, to see that, through mistake^ they do 
not ttike more than their due. 

The amount of points to be expected, on an average, from each 
hand, is seven, and from the crib about four to five. From the play, 
it is computed that each of the four players should make five points 
every time. Reasoning on these data, the non-dealers are at home, 
at the close of the first round, t^liould they have obtained nineteen 
or twenty points, and the dealers are at home at the end of the first 
round, should they have acquired twenty-three or twenty-four. At 
the finish of the second round, with their average number, each set of 
players would be forty-two to forty- three. At the close of the thir^. 
round, the non-dealers should be just out, or else the dealers will win. 
You must not, however, suppose there is any advantage to be gained 
from not having originally the deal ; the chances are so various that 
the parties start fully equal ; no matter whether with, or without tho 
deal. From the above caloula,tion, the game, going only once round 
the board, should be over in three rounds, both parties having a crib 
inclusive. Those who have not the first deal, have the original 
chance of winning, if they can keep it, by holding average cards 
throughout the game. Should they fail in making this good, the 
dealers (those who dealt originally are here signified,) will generally 
sweep all, having their second crib, and first show afterwards. As 
we have before intimated, it is quite as likely that the non-dealers 
will fail in holding ** their own," as not. The non-dealers should 
observe moderate caution in the first hand, but under this head It is 
needless to say more to either party, than to impress it upon them 
again and again, to become thoroughly acquainted with the number 
of points which form medium hands, as well as the different stages 
of the game, and play accordingly. Moderate attention is all that 
is required to play Four-handed Cribbage well. It is a pleasant 



no 



CIMBBAGE. 



lively game, and when well conducted yields considerable amuse- 
ment. 



EXAMPLES OF HANDS. 

We now give a few of the h^ds most common, and which the 
player will discover at a glfince, without counting his cards before 
him. 

Any sequence of three cards and a fifteen . . . count 5 
Any sequence of four cards and a fifteen ^as seven, eight, 

nine, and ten) ..... . . , ** 6 

Any sequence of six cards . . . • . . ** 6 

Any flush of four cards and a fifteen . . . . '* 6 

Any flush of four cards and a pair . . . . *' 6 

Two Ac^s, two twos, and a nine .....'* 6 

A seven, eight, nine, ten, and Knave . . . • ** 7 

Three twos and a nine . . . . . • . •* 8 

Two sixes and two threes . . , ' . . . •• 8 

Two threes and two nines . . . . • • " 8 

Two sixes, a three, and a nine . . . . . ** 8 

A six, seven, eight, and nine ....." 8 

A six, {ive, and two sevens . . .... *' 8 

Any double sequence of three cards and a pair (as Knave, 

Queen, and two Kings) ......** 8 

Any sequence of four cards and a flush ....'' 8 

A six, seven, eight, nine, and ten .....*' 9 

Two tenth cards (not a pair) and two fives . . . ** 10 

Two nines, a seven, and an eight ...•.*' 10 

Two sixes, a seven, and an eight *' 10 

Three fours and a seven *' 12 

Three sixes and a nine ** 12 

Three sevens and an eight . . • , , . ** * 12 

Three eights and a seven ** 12 

Three nines and a six . "12 

Three threes and a nine . . ... . ** 12 

Three sixes and a three ** , 12 

Three sevens and an Ace ......*' 12 

Two tens (pair) and two fives .... . ** 12 

Two nines and two sixes • ** 12 

Two eights and two sevens ** 12 



EXAMPLES OF HAi^DS. 



Ill 



Two fives, a four, and a six 

Two fours, a five, and a six 
Two sixes, a four, and a five 



count 



Two eights, a seven, and a nine 

Two sevens, an eight, and a nine 

Three fives and a tenth card 

Four, five, and six of Clubs, and a ^ve of Hearts turned 

up — (six for the sequences, three for the flush, four for 

tiie fifteens, and two for the pair of fives) 
Two nines, a six, seven, and eight 
Two threes, two twos, and an Ace 
Any double sequence of five cards, as 1, 1, 2, 2, 3 
Two eights, a seven, and tv/o nines 
Two sevens, two eights, and a nine 
Two sixes, two fives, and a four 
Two sixes, two fours, and a G.ye 
Two fives, two fours, and a six 

Suppose you have a crib composed of 

A five of Clubs, 

Five of Spades, 

Five of Diamonds, 

And knave of Hearts, 

With the five of Hearts turned up. 



tC 



Tw 



enty-nine. Thus ; 



How many points would it count? 
Knave and five of Spades — fifteen . 
Knave and five of Diamonds — fifteen 
Knave and five of Clubs — fifteen 
Knave and five of Hearts — fifteen . 
Five of Spades, five of Diamonds, and five of Clubs — fifteen . 
Five of Spades, five of Diamonds, and five of Hearts — fifteen . 
Five of Spades, five of Hearts, and five of Clubs — fifteen 
Five of Diamonds, five of Hearts, and five of Clubs — fifteen . 
Double pair-royal of fives . . . . 
One point for the knave, being of the same suit as the card 

turned up 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
14 



15 
16 
16 
16 

20 
24 
24 
24 

24 



2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
12 



Total, 29 
Many other hands might be given, but these are sufficient ; the 

experienced player sees immediately he takes his cards in hand what 

they will make with the turn-up added. 

Remember always that it is better to spoil your hand than to make 



112 BEZIQUE. 

your opponent's crib. Look well to the state of his game, and b© 
not too ready in making holes in play. Be careful, watchful, and 
steady ; and above ail, keep your temper ! 



BEZIQUE. 

This interesting game is supposed to have originated in Sweden. 
It is said that during the reign of the first Charles — a reward hav- 
ing been offered by that monarch for the best game of cards, to 
combine certain requirements — a poor schoolm.aster, by name Gus- 
tavo Flaker, presented for the prize the game of cards which he 
called Fiakernuhle, which was accepted by his royal master, and 
he made the happy recipient of the promised purse of gold. The 
game became very popular in Sweden, and was finally introduced 
into Germany, changed in some respects, and called Penuchle. 
There it also acquired great popularity. 

It is only a few years since it was first introduced in Paris ; but 
it has now become a favorite game with all classes there. It is 
played in the cafes, in the family circles, in saloons, and in fashion- 
able assemblies. The French gave it the name of Beziquo. 
Bezique is a variation of the game of Cinq-Cents^ which has been 
played a long time in the provinces of the south of France. It has 
also borrowed somewhat from the game of Maria ge^ also an ancient 
game. 

Bezique is fast becoming popular in the United States, and is 
now much played here in fashionable circles. It is known among 
our German brethren as Peanukle. 

TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN BEZIQUE. 

Bezique (Single). — The Queen of Spades and Knave of Dia- 
monds. 

Bezique (Double). — Two Queens of Spades, and two Knaves of 
Diamonds. 



BEZIQUE. 11^ 

Brisques. — The Aces and Tens in the tricks taken. 

Common Marriage. — The King and Queen of the same suit, 
other than trumps. 

Eldest Hand. — The player immediately at the left of the 
dealer. 

Fours of Aces, Kings, Queens, or Knaves. 

Pack. — The same as the Euchre, Piquet, or Ecarte pack, 
composed of thirty-two cards, all under the Seven spots being 
discarded. 

Qi?int-Major. — Same as Sequence. 

Royal Marriage. — The King and Queen of trumps. 

Sequence. — Ace, King, Queen, Knave, and Ten of trumps. 

Stock. — The number of packs of cards corresponding with the 
number of players, shuffled together, and ready to be dealt. 

Talon. — The cards remaining after the dealer has distributed 
eight to each player. 

RULES OF THE GAME. 

Bezique, as it is now played, has undergone great modifications 
since it has taken rank among the games in vogue. The manner 
of playing the game, the various modifications and counts, and the 
laws generally adopted, are here given. 

1. Bezique is ordinarily played by two persons, with two or three 
packs of thirty-two cards (Euchre packs). 

2. After having decided by lot, by turning two cards, which player 
deals, the one who deals hands the cards to be cut, and then dis- 
tributes them by giving two cards, or three and two, till eight are 
dealt to each player, which is the number of cards almost always 
used in playing. 

3. It is occasionally agreed to play with nine, and sometimes ten 
cards. 

4. The number of cards having been decided and dealt to each 
of the players, the next card is turned up ; this is the trump, which 
is the seventeenth if eight cards are played vvith, or the nineteenth 
if nine, or the tweuty-fir^t if it is with ten cards ; that is, when two 
are playing. 

5. After the dealer has placed the rest of the cards to his left (in 
this country we place the talon on the right), which forms the talon, 
his adversary plays first ; and the one who wins the trick takes a 



114 BULES OF THE GAME. 

card from the talon in order to complete his number of eight, nine, 
or ten cards. The one who has lost the trick then takes a card in 
the same manner, and the play continues till the talon is exhausted 
The winner of the trick has the privilege of the lead. 

6. The following is the value of the cards, in making the tricks : 
1st, the Ace, which takes ail -other cards ; 2d, the Ten ; 3d, the 
King ; 4th, the Queen ; 5th, the Knave ; 6th, the Nine ; 7th, the 
Eight ; 8th, the Seven. 

7ii Before commencing the play, it is usual to decide on the num- 
ber of points which is to make the game — that is, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 
or more. 

8. When the turned-up card is not a Seven, the player holding 
the Seven of trumps ca.n exchange it for the turned-up card — in 
which case he scores ten points. ^ 

9. The value of the combinations, in counting the points, are as 
follows : 

Each Ace or Ten taken or saved in trick counts 10 points. 

Each Seven of trumps, when played or turned up 

The last trick 

A common marriage 

A royal marriage 

A Bezlque 

Four Knaves 

Four Queens ^ 

Four Kings 

Four Aces 

A sequence (quint-major) 

A double Beziqae 

10. It is permitted to decline following suit as long as there are 
any cards left in the'talon ; but the privilege ceases when the talon 
is exhausted ; and, moreover, the player must, if he can, win the 
trick. 

11. In a case of a misdeal, the hand passes, or you commence 
anew, according as your adversary may choose. 

12. The player taking the trick just previous to exhausting the 
talon, may then declare any combination in his hand. The winner 
of the trick then takes the last card in the talon, and his adversary 
the trump card, and afterwards no combination can be declared or 
counted. The declared cards on the table must be taken in the 



' 10 




' 10 




* 20 




^ 40 




' 40 
* 40 


.*«' 


' 60 




' 80 




^ 100 




' 250 




* 500 





BEZIQUE. 115 

hand of each player, and the rule imperatively isj follow suit with 
the highest in your hand, and if yon cannot follow suit, trump the trick. 

13. The last trick having been made, each player counts the 
Aces and Tens which are in the tricks he has taken ; these Aces 
and Tens are called brisques. For each brisque the holder scores 
ten points, which are added to the score made during the playing 
by the combinations. 

14. Brisques are not counted when any one of the players makes 
the game by scorings made by combinations ; that is to say, when 
neither of the players has made the number of points fixed to com- 
plete the game, then he who, with the brisques, counts most over the 
fixed number, wins ; and, in case of a tie, the winner is the one 
taking the last trick. 

15. After all the cards have been taken in 'hand, if any player 
revoke by not playing the highest in suit, or refuse to trump when 
he has not suit in hand, his adversary may claim a deduction of 
forty points from the score of the player so revoking, or refusing to 
trump. 

16. There are cases where one card is made to count several 
times. For example : a King which has counted in a marriage can 
count also in the score of 80 points (four Kings) ; it counts also in 
a score of 250. It is to be understood, in the last case, that it must 
be a King of trumps. 

17. An Ace of trumps, which has counted in a score of 100 (four 
Aces), can also serve to make a soore of 250 (sequence). The 
Queen of Spades and Knave of Diamonds, after having counted for 
a Bezique, can serve to count in a score of 250 (sequence), and the 
Queen of Spades in a marriage. 

\We T-^ay <iifFerently in this country. The following is the rule here: — King and 
Queon of trumps, or any other suit once married, cannot again be married in the 
same hand, but may constitute one of four Kings or Queens, a sequence of trumps, 
or a Bezique, double or single. In other words, any card, ea'cept either of ihosQ 
ichich have been used to form Bezique, may serve to compose any other combination- 
in whicli it has not previously been employed.] — See note to Rule 25. 

18. If, after having scored an 80 of Kings, the same combination 
is filled in the hand, it also counts ; but neither of the first four 
Kings can be used to complete the combination. It is necessary — 
this is to be distinctly understood — that it must be a new com- 
bination. 

19. The above rule holds good for Aces, Queens, and Knaves. 

20. It is the practice, in order to escape errors, to place on the 



116 RULES OF THE GAME. 

table, with the faces up, all cards which have been used to make the 
combinations after thej have been declared ; that is, a marriage, a 
100 of Aces, an 80 of Kings, a 60 of Queens, a 40 of Knaves, a 
Bezique, a 250, or a 500 ; but the player is privileged to play these 
cards when he pleases. 

21. The possessor of a Bezique, sequence, or any other com- 
bination of cards in hand, must take a trick before declaring the 
same. 

22. If a player declares Bezique, and subsequently is fortunate 
enough to draw cards sufficient to declare double Bezique, the lat- 
ter counts 500 points, in addition to the 40 points already scored 
for Bezique. 

2^3. When a single Bezique is in hand, it may be declared and 
placed upon the table, and there remain until the double Bezique 
is subsequently acquired. The player must judge from the con- 
dition of his hand whether it would be better to try and achieve 
double Bezique, or abandon the effort for other combinations. 

24. When a card is led, and other cards identical in value are 
played in the same round, the first card played takes precedence of 
all others of the same denomination^ and wins the trick, unless it is 
trumped, or outranked by a card of superior value. 

25. Only one combination may be declared at a time. 

[In some coteries they play differently, and the fortunate holder of more than one com- 
bination may declare all such combinations upon taking a trick ; but after Bezique 
has been declared, the cards composing that combination cannot be employed to 
form any other. It is, therefore, good policy to retain the Queen and Knave in 
hand, to aid in forming other arrangements of the cards, before declaring Bezique, 
particularly when Spades or Diamonds are trumps, for then the Queen may be 
serviceable in composing a royal marriage, sequence, or four Queens, while the 
Knave may avail in forming a sequence or four Knaves, and both may afterwards 
be employed to declare Bezique.] — See Rule 17. 

26. Whenever a player neglect to take his card from the talon, 
he loses the play, or, left to the choice of his adversary, he can take 
the next two cards. 

27. The play is equally void, at \he choice of the adversary, when 
a player plays with a card too many ; he must, if the play is not de- 
clared void, play twice in succession without drawing a card from 
the talon. 

28. A player who, having only three cards, declares four and 
scores, must, when the error is discovered, correct the score by not 
counting it, and he can be compelled to play one of the three cards, 
if the error is not discovered before his adversary shall have played ; 



BEZIQUE. Ill 

because this last would have been able, by reason of the error, to 
haye thrown away a card which he supposed there was no reason to 
retain, since, on account of the error, he would not be able to count 
again by filling a combination. 

HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO YOUNG PLAYEES. 

1. It is presumed that a beginner is being instructed, and we say to 
him : You hold eight cards in your hand ; you have led a card, and 
your adversary has taken it ; you hold the Queen of Spades ; your 
adversary having taken his card from the talon, you take yours ; 
that card is the Knave of Diamonds ; you have then a Bezique, but 
you say nothing ; you wait till you take a trick, then declare it, and 
score 40 points ; you have three Aces, and draw another from the 
talon ; that makes a 100 of Aces, which you also declare when you 
take another trick — and so on, for as many combinations as you are 
fortunate enough to form in your hand. Whenever your adversary 
takes a trick, keep silent, wait patiently, for he is not allowed to 
score if he fails to make his declaration before you have taken the 
following trick. 

2. It is good play to make your Aces and Tens whenever an oc- 
casion is presented for doing so, being careful, however, not to throw 
away the former when there is any likelihood of declaring four Aces. 
As the Aces and Tens count ten each in trick, the careful player, 
by a judicious use of small trumps and Aces of the suit led, may 
make an aggregate score at the end of the game of very respectable 
proportions. Remember, that every Ace or Ten you let ^our adver- 
sary take, scores twenty against you. 

3. Do not fail to note, when your opponent displays a sufficient 
number of Bezique or sequence cards of the same denomination, to 
satisfy you that it will be impossible for you to form either of those 
combinations. This will enable you to improve your game by throw- 
ing away cards which might otherwise be retained with the false 
hope of making impossible combinations. For instance, we will 
suppose A. and B. to be playing at Bezique, with one pack of cards 
each; A. twice declares a common marriage in Spades, and also four 
Aces, two of which are trumps ; it is therefore very evident that B. 
cannot make either a single or double Bezique, and it would be stupid 
m him to keep the Knave or Knaves of Diamonds in hand, unless 
In the anticipation of declaring four Knaves. Neither could B. hope 



118 HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO YOUNG PLAYERS. 

to make up the sequence, as A. had shown both trump Aces. It 
would therefore be policy in B. to play out the Tens and Knaves of 
trump in hand, whenever opportunity offered for doing so with 
profit. B. would thus relieve his play, and prepare for other com- 
binations yet in the cards. 

4. Be careful not to throw away in play either Bezique or sequence 
cards, while ♦here is a reasonable probability of forming either. The 
reward for declaring those valuable combinations, particularly double 
Bezique, is so far beyond that of all others in the game, that it is 
good play to retain in hand any card which may serve to compose 
either of them, as long as any chance remains of achieving either. 

5. If possible, avoid showing cards that will inform your antago- 
nist that he cannot compose double Bezique or the sequence ; you 
may thus embarrass and cramp his game^ by preventing him from 
forming some more practicable combination, and frequently save 
Aces and Tens, which he would otherwise take from you. 

6. It is preferable to retain the Kings and Queens in hand, until 
you can marry them. Therefore, Tvheu you are in a dilemma whether 
to throw away an Ace or a King, save the latter, when you can take 
the trick with the former. You will thus count ten, and in this way 
may count all your Aces in tricks ; whereas, it is very difficult to 
declare four Aces and avoid losing some of them. It is true that 
four Aces count more than four Kings, but you have a reasonable hope 
of marrying the latter, and may theai throw them into your opponent's 
tricks without injury to your own game. See Hint 2. It is possible 
thus to save all your Aces in trick, marry your Kings, and declare 
four Kings. 

7. Do not forget to exchange your Seven of trumps for the card 
turned up, particularly if the latter is a sequence or Bezique card, 
and fail not to call for a score of ten for each Seven of trumps you 
play. 

8. If possible, retain your Aces and Tens of trumps for the last 
eight tricks, and get the lead by taking the trick previous to ex- 
haustiDg the talon. You will thus compel your adversary to lose 
his Aces and Tens, by playing them on the cards you lead, and by 
being superior in trumps, you may take all the tricks, and make a 
very respectable score by this ruse. Besides getting the lead; you 
acquire the privilege of making the last declaration. 

9. At the latter part of the game, just before the pack has ^^ gone 
from thy gaze^^* note what cards your antagonist has upon the table, 



BEZIQUE. 119 

and make such use of this information as will *' brin^ grist to your 
mill ;" flank his Aces and Tens, and demortilize his hand generally. 

bEzique without a teump. 

This is played as the ordinary game, except that no card is turned 
to make a trump, but the trump is decided by the first marriage 
which is declared. For example : you or your adversary declare a 
marriage in Clubs, then Clubs become trumps, and so on with the 
other suits. 

The quint-major of trumps, or the score of 250, cannot be declared 
until after the first marriage has been declared. The Seven of 
trumps in this game does not count ten points. The Beziques, four 
Kings, four Queens, &:c., are counted the same as in BEzique when 
the trump is turned, and can be declared before the trump is deter- 
mined. It is the same with the other cards which form combinations ; 
their value remains the same as in the ordinary game of Bezique. 



bEzique panache. 

In the game so called, the four Aces, four Kings, four Queens, 
four Knaves, must be, in order to count, composed of Spades, Dia- 
monds, Hearts and Clubs ; thus an 80 of Kings, composed of two 
Kings of Spades, one of Hearts, and one of Diamonds^ does not form 
a combination ; and in like manner with Queens and Knaves. This 
game ought to be the object of special agreement. 

With respect to the combinations of the four points^ the rules are 
those of ordinary Bezique. 

BfiZIQUE LIMITED TO A FIXED POINT. 

-This game is played after an agreement made that the player who 
shall first have reached the point or number fixed for game, may 
stop on attaining the number of points agreed upon without playing 
the hand through. In this case, the player who claims to have won 
the game counts his points, adding to them his brisques; but if ho 
is wrong (for example, when the game had been fixed at 1,500, and 
his points and his brisques only count 1,490, or less), the game is 
not continued, but is, on the contrary, gained by his adversary. 



120 THREE AND FOITR HAl!n)ED BEZIQUE. 

THEEE-HANDED BfiZIQUE. 

Bezique is sometimes played three-banded and four-handed. The . 
following is the manner of playing three-handed Bezique : The 
game is begun, if two packs are played with, by throwing out one 
card, an Eight, no matter what color. After cutting for deal, the 
dealer has the cards cut by the player on his left, and distributes 
the cards by two or by three, commencing on his right.* 

As in ordinary Bezique, and according to agreement, this game is 
played with eight, nine or ten cards. 

The first to play is the player sitting to the right of the dealer, 
and, in like manner, the one to the right of the winner of a trick. 

All the rules which apply to two-handed Bezique, in like man- 
ner, apply to this game. 

FOUE-HANDED BEZIQUE. 

This game is usually played two against two, cutting for partners, 
and alternating every game ; the players are also permitted to choose 
their partners, or may, in fact, play just as chance has placed them 
around the table. 

The cards are cut and dealt as mentioned in the three-handed 
game. 

In making a declaration and score, the rules are the same as in 
the ordinary game of Bezique. 

The last trick counts ten points, or more if so agreed. 

The partners unite their scores and their brisques, and count them 
as in the ordinary game of Bezique. 

The laws governing the ordinary game are equally applicable to 
the four-handed game. 

The partners should not be placed by the side of each other, but 
on opposite sides of the table. 

* In this country, the dealer always deals the first card to \A%left-hand adversary, who, 
being the eldest hand, commences the round when the deal is completed, and the play 
continues throughout to the left ; just the reverse of the French practice. 



ATJrFOURS. 121 



. . ALL-FOURS. 

It is useless to inquire into the origin of this game ; because, like 
many other games at cards, its birthplace and paternity are unknown. 
Its name, however, is derived from the characteristics of the game 
itself — the four chances or points consisting of high^ the name given 
to the best trump ; low, the designation of the smallest trump played 
in the round ; Jach, the Knave of the trump suit ; and game. 

There are t;^o distinct varieties of All-fours, in one of which the 
first card played by the non-dealer from his hand is the trump ; and 
in the other, the trump is turned up from the pack. The last is 
generally known by the classic name of Pitch, or Blind All-fours. 
Certain terms are common to both games, the general characteristics 
being similar. All-fours is a very popular game in the South and 
Southwest, where it is known as '' Old Sledge," and " Seven-up." 

TEEMS USED IN THE GAME. 
High, the highest trump out ; the holder scores one point. 
Low, the lowest trump out ; the original holder scores one point, 
even if it be taken by his adversary. 

Jack, the Knave of trumps. The holder scores one point, unless 
it be won by his adversary, in which case the winner scores the 
point. 

Game, the greatest number that, in the tricks gained, can be shown 
by either party ; reckoning for-^ 

Each Ace four towards game. 
" Kin^ three '' '' 

** Queen tvx> *' *' 

*' Knave one '* *' 

" Ten ten ** ** 

The other cards do not count towards gamQ ; thus it may happen 
that a deal may be played without either party having any to score 
for game, by reason of his holding neither court-cards nor Tens. In 
such a case, or in case of eqifial numbers — ties — the elder hand, the 
non-dealer, scores, the point for game. 

Begging is when the elder hand, disliking his cards, uses his 
privilege, and says, *' I beg :" in which case the dealer must either 



122 METHOD OF PLAYING ALL-FOUBS. 

suffer his adversary to ^core one point, saying " Take one," or give 
each three cards more from the pack, and then turn up the next 
card, the seventh, for trumps ; if. however, the trump turned up be 
of the same suit as the first, the dealer must go on, giving each th^e • 
cards more, and turning up the seventh, until a change of suit for 
trump takes place. 

Eldest Hand. — This term is used in the four-handed game, and sig- 
nifies the player immediately to the left of the dealer. ^ 



METHOD OF PLAYING ALL-FOURS. 

The game is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, which take 
rank as at Whist — the Ace being the highest and the Deuce the 
lov/est. Any number of points may be played for ; but it is com- 
mon to state an uneven number, as ^ve or seven ; the last beiug 
most common. 

The players ctit for deal, the highest card having the deal, which 
is now the recognized law of the game. The Ace is highest — 
the other cards taking their regular order. Ties cut again. Th*^ 
dealer then gives six cards to each, three at a time, and turns up 
the thirteenth, if there be two players, and the twenty-fifth if there 
be four. The turn-up is the trump. The non-dealer then looks 
over his hand, and either holds it for play or begs, as already ex- 
plained. If the Knave turn up, it belongs to the dealer, who scores 
one for it (but when the Knave is dealt to a player, and is taken 
in play by a higher card — Ace, King, or Queen of trumps — then 
the point is scored by the winner). The non-dealer having decided 
on his hand (it is not allowed to '' beg'' more that once, without it 
be previously agreed to do so), he plays a card of any suit. Then 
the dealer plays another card to this, and, if it be higher, he wins 
the trick, and plays anothe^r card, and so on throughout the six 
tricks. Each player must follow suit if he can, unless ke chooses to 
trump. When the whole of the tricks are played out, the points are 
taken for high, low. Jack, game, as the case may be. Thus, one 
player may score a point for high^ and the other for low ; the great- 
est number, counting on the court-cards. Aces and Tens in each 
hand, reckoning for game. The vvinning the Knave, the making 
the Tens, and the taking your adversary's best cards, constitute 
the science of the game. The tand 'm which the Knave of trumps 



ALL-FOUES. 123 

is eventually found, is the one which scores the point for the Jack. 
The high and the low always belong to the original possessor of those 
trumps. 

LAWS OF ALL-FOURS. 

1. A new deal can be demanded if, in dealing, an opponent's card 
iJtfaced, or if the dealer in any way discover any of his adversary's 
cards ; or if, to either party, too few or too many cards have been 
dealt. In rjither case it is optional with the players to have a new 
deal, provided no card has been played, but not afterwards. 

2. If the dealer expose any of his own cards, the deal stands 
good. 

3. No player can beg more than once in each hand, except by 
previous mutual agreement. 

4. Each player must follow suit if he can, unless he chooses to 
trump, on penalty of his adversary scoring one point. 

5. If either player score wrongly, the score must be taken down, 
and the adversary shall either score four points or one, as may have 
previously been agreed. 

6. 'When a trump be played, it is allowable to ask the adversary 
if it be either high or low. 

7. One card may count all fours ; for example, the eldest hand 
holds the Knave, and stands his game ; the dealer having neither 
trump. Ten, Ace, nor court-card, it will follow that the Knave will 
be both high, low. Jack, and game. 

8. The points score in the following order • 1st higli^ 2d low<, 3d 
Jach^ and 4th game. Thus it will be seen that if two parties are 
playing, and the game stands six points each, he who scores high 
goes out first, as that takes precedence of the other points, unless 
Jack is turned up by the dealer. The same is the case when the 
game stands^y^ to six ; the former goes out on high and low, although 
the latter may make Jack and game in play ; but if the former make 
high, Jack, the latter will go out on low, 

9. Each Jack turned up by the dealer counts one ffeint for him 
in the game, unless a misdeal occurs he/ore the Jack is turned. If 
the dealer turns Jack and a misdeal occurs afterwards, even though 
it be in the same hand, or if he turns Jack and the cards run out 
by reason of the same suit being turned, he is not debarred from 
the privilege of scoring the point. 

(See '''' I)ecisions on Disputed Points^'^'' All-Fours^ notes 11.^ F/., 
and X.J pages 149, 150. and 151.) 



124 THE FOUR-HANDED GAME. 

10. Should the same suit be turned until the cards run out, then 
the cards must be bunched, and dealt anew, but the last card must 
be turned for trump before a new deal can be claimed. 

{See ^'Decisions on Disputed Points^'''' All-Fours, note IV,, 
page 150.) 

11. If a misdeal occurs, the dealer must bunch the cards and deal 
anew. ' . 

[The dealer deals again, otherwise he might make a misdeal puposeiy for the sake of 
getting the beg. The reason is embodied in the law maxim, that ''a man cannot talce ad- 
vantage of his own wrong." A forfeits the deal, if B chooses to claim it, for his misdeal. 
But when the misdeal is to A's manifest advantage, A has to deal again, otherwise he 
would "take advantage of his own wrong," This decision also applies to the game of 
Pitch.] 



THE FOUE-HANDED GAME. 

All-fours is played by either two or four players ; the same rules 
applying in this four-handed, equally as in the two-handed game. 

The parties usually decide who shall be partners by cutting the 
cards, the two highest and the two lowest being partners. The four 
players divide themselves into two sets, each player sitting opposite 
his partner, as at Whist. The first deal is decided by cutting the 
cards, the lowest cut having the deal, but afterwards it is taken by 
each party alternately. "When parties play for money it is usual to 
cut for deal at the commencement of each game. The dealer and 
the player on his left only are permitted to look at their cards pre- 
vious to the latter deciding upon his hand, and in case he begs, the 
other parties must not raise their cards until the dealer announces 
whether he will " give one " or run the cards to another trump. This 
is done to prevent collusion between partners. 

In some coteries privilege is granted to the dealer and eldest hand 
to lunch the cards, i. e., to have a fresh deal provided they mutually 
agree to do so, after the latter has begged, and the cards have been 
run by the £^rmer ; and sometimes, instead of lunching the cards, 
they mutually agree to run them, three more all around, and turn up a 
new trump. Again, it sometimes happens that a player will claim a 
new deal, because he has neither an Ace, face card, or trump in his 
hand. These modifications are played in some localities, but they 
do not belong to the regular game of All-Foues, and, unless they 
have been agreed upon previous to commencing the game, they 
cannot be claimed as legitimate. 



COilMERCIAIi PITCH, OK, AUCTIOX ALL-FOUES. 125 



PITCH, OR BLIND ALL-FOURS. 

This is played the same as the game just described, with the fol- 
lowing exceptions: — 1st. There is no begging. 2d. 'No trump is 
turned. 3d. The eldest hand has the privilege of making any suit 
he chooses trump, the first card he leads, or pitches, being trump. 
4th. In the event of a tie in counting game no game is scored by 
either party. 

[In the regular game of All-fours, in case of a tie, the non-dealer scores game to 
counterbalance the advantaige the dealer possesses in having the chance of turning 
Jack. By parity of reasoning, some contend that the non-pitcher should score the game 
in case of a tie, to equalize the great advantage the pitcher has over his opponent in 
making the trump. We, however, incline to the opinion that it should not be scored to 
either party.] 

In all other particulars, Pitch is played precisely the same as 
regular All-fours, and all ^he laws of the latter game apply to it 
with equal force, except the modifications enumerated and explained 
above. Pitch is by no means an uninteresting game, and in many 
localities has superseded the regular game of ^' Old Sledge." 

(See '''"Decisions on Disputed Foints^^^ Pitchy Eules V. and VIL, 
page 150.) 



COMMEECIAL PITCH, or, AUCTION ALL FOUES. 

This is another game of "All-Fours," quite amusing and exciting 
in its character, especially as it may be played by as many as eight 
persons. It is subject to the usual rules of "All-Fours," and is 
played as here described : — 

Before the game commences, it is usual to score ten points to each 
player, and each strives to v/ipe out this score, as in the game of 
Set Back Euchre. Every point a player makes is deducted from his 
score, and the first who wipes his score entirely out wins the game. 
The cards are shufiied, cut, and dealt as in the ordinary game, except 
that no trump is turned, and then commences the commercial part of 
the play, which is bidding for the privilege of making the trump. 
This is commenced bv the eldest hand, who is said to "sell tho 



126 COMMERCIAL PITCH, OR, AUCTION ALL-FOURS. 

trump." If, upon examination, the player next to the eldest hand 
thinks his hand is strong enough to make a trump, he hids, or de- 
clares how many points he will give the eldest hand to he allowed to 
make the trump — he may, for example, hid tioo — the next hand may 
bid tliree^ while the third and fourth^ not having good hands, decline 
to hid; and if no one is disposed to give more, the play begins by 
scoring the bid, which announces the pleasant fact, that the eldest 
hand has wiped out three points before a card has been played. Novv% 
if the player who made the highest bid does not make the points bid, 
he loses, or is set hack three points, so that he would have tliirteen' 
to make, while the eldest hand would have but seven to go. In this 
manner the game proceeds, each one retiring upon making ten points^ 
until the players a,re reduced to two, and he who is finally beaten 
forfeits whatever may have been pending upon the issue of the game. 
If a pool has been made up to be played for, the first hand out wdns. 
It sometimes happens v/hen a player has four points scored, and 
thinks he can make four points, and the game, tljat he will bid fo-ur 
for the privilege of the pitch, but if he fails he is set back four points. 
If no player bids for the pitch, then the eldest hand takes that priv- 
ilege, and pitches what trump he chooses. The player who makes 
the trump is compelled to pitch it. The trump must be put up for 
sale, but if the seller is offered less than he thinks he can make by 
pitching the trump himself, he may refuse to sell, and retain the 
privilege of the pitch ; if, however, he fails to make the number of 
points he was offered for the pitch, then he is set back that number. 
There is another variety of the game, which differs from the above 
in the following particulars : — 1st. The dealer sells the privilege of 
pitching. 2d. The player who buys the privilege of making the 
trump scores all the points he actually makes ; but if he does, not 
succeed in making all the points he bids, he is set back the number 
of points he falls short of completing his bid. For example: if he 
bids three, and only makes two points, he rubs out two points for 
those he has made, and is set back one point for that v»^hich he failed 
to make, and all the other players score for the point he come short 
of his bid. 8d. If none of the players bid for the trump, and it 
comes round to the dealer, then he (the dealer) pitches what trump 
he chooses, and scores for the point he makes. He is not, however, 
subject to any penalty, even if he does not make a point. The score 
of this game is kept the same as Founce. 



ALL-FIVES.- — FRENCH FOURS. 127 



ALL-FIVES. 

This game is played with an entire paci, in the same way as All- 
fours. But instead of nine or eleven, sixty-one points are played 
for, to constitute the game, which is marked on a cribbage-board. 
For Ace of trumps the hold or m^vks four points when he plays it ; for 
King of trumps, three ; for Queen, two ; for Knave, one ; for the five 
of trumps. Jive ; and for the Ten of trumps, ten. If the Knave, Ten, 
or Five be taken in play by superior cards, the points belonging to 
them are scored by the winner. In counting for game, the five of 
trumps is reckoned as ^yq>, and all the other Aces, Kings, Queens, 
Knaves, and Tens, are counted as in All-fours. A good deal of 
skill is necessary in order to play this game well : the proficient 
holding back a superior card to catch the Ten oi Five. Trump 
after trick is not compulsory unless previously agreed to. The first 
card played by the non-dealer is the trump. The jest of the rules 
are the same as in All-fours. It may be played by four persons, 
either as partners or singly, and is a good merry sort of game. 



FEENCH FOUES, 

Sometimes called ''''French Loo^"-'' is a variety of All-Fours. It 
is played with a pack of fifty-two cards : three cards are dealt to 
each player, and the pack is turned with the cards exposed, face 
upwards, the top card being trump. Whoever malces or tal^xs low, 
Jack, or game, scores a point for each. Higli is of course scored by* 
the fortunate player who has it dealt to him, or draws it from the 
pack.. There is no '^ begging " in this game, but the eldest hand, i. e.^ 
the player next on the left of the dealer, may lead any card he 
chooses, and his opponent must follow suit. After each trick the 
dealer distributes one card, face up, to each player, beginning with 
tlie winner of the trick. Thus each player will have three cards in 
hand until the pack is exhausted. The game is otherwise governed 
by the same laws as All-fours. Two, four, or eight may play this 
^aine v/itli a complete pack, but when any other number engage at 
it, sufficient unimportant cards must be taken from the pack before 



128 .CASsmo.- 

dealing, to make the deal go round witlioiit remainder. Thus — 
when three play, one card (usually the trey of one of the suits) must 
be rejected. The rejected cards must be exposed to the view of all 
the players. French Fours may be played with partners the same 
as the regular game of All-fours. 

Apparently this game is more simple than All-fours, but such is 
not the case, for although each player m.ay see what cards' his ad- 
versary draws, yet where four play the game, a better memory and 
closer attention are essential than at the game of "Whist. 



CASSINO. 

Cassino is of Italian origin, and is a pleasant, simple game, when 
the stakes played for are not too high. It has the advantage of be- 
ing a game that may be played by two, three, or four persons. But 
to understand the method of playing, it is necessary to recollect, the 

TEEMS USED IN THE GAME. 

Great Cassino^ the Ten of Diamonds, two points. 

Little Cassino^ the Two of Spades, reckons for one point. - 

The Cards — when you have a greater share than your adversary, 
three points. 

The Spades — when you have the majority of the suit, one point. 

The Aces — each of which reckons for one point. 

Lurched — when your adversary has won that game before you have 
gained six points. 

The Sweep — matching all the cards on the board. 

Building Up. — Suppose the dealer's four cards in hand to be a 
six, ten, and two aces — his adversary plays a six, — the dealer puts 
an ace upon it and says " seven," with a view of taking them with 
his seven — the non- dealer throws a deuce upon them and says 
"nine," hoping to take them with a nine then in his hand, — the 
dealer again puts upon the heap his other ace, and cries '*ten," 
when, if his adversary has no ten, he plays some other card, and 
the dealer takes them all with his ten. This is called building up,"^ 

THE MODE OF PLAYING CASSINO. 

The following rules are given by Hoyle, and adopted by all his 
continuators : 

* See Decisions on Disputed Points, iolio 151. 



THE MODE O^ PLAYING CASSINO. 129 

The dealer and partners are determined by cutting, as at Whist. 
The dealer gives four cards, one at a time, to each player ; and 
either regularly, as he deals, or by one, two, three, or four at a 
time, layspfour more, face u^^wards, upon the board, and, after the 
first cards are played, four others are to be dealt to each person, 
until the pack be concluded ; but it is only in the first deal that any 
cards are to be turned up. ^ 

The deal is lost, if, in the first round, before any of the cards are 
turned up on the table a card is faced by the dealer ; but if a card 
happen to be faced in the pack before any of the said four be turned 
up, then the deal must be begun again. 

Each person plays one card at a time, with which he may not only 
take at once every card of the same denomination upon the table, 
but likewise all that will combine therewith ; as, for instance, a Ten 
takes not only every Ten, but also Nine and Ace, Eight and Deuce, 
Seven and Three, Six and Four, or two Fives ; and if he clear the 
board before the conclusion of the game, he scores a point. When- 
ever a player cannot pair or combine, he puts down a card. 

The number of tricks must not be examined or counted before all 
the cards are played ; nor may any trick but that last won be looked 
at, as every mistake must be challenged immediately. 

After all the pack is dealt out, the player who obtains the last 
trick sweeps all the cards then remaining unmatched on the table. 

In this game, the points gained by each party are counted at the 
end of each deal, and that party which has the least number of points 
scores nothing, but his points are deducted from the winning party's, 
who scores the diiference towards game, which is eleven points. 

A, Tie precludes both parties from counting the points on which 
they tie. When three persons play, the two lowest add their points 
together, and subtract from the highest ; but if their two numbers 
added together amount to or exceed that of the third player, then 
neither scores. 

The principal objects are to remember what has been played ; and 
when no pairs or combinations can be made, to clear the hand of 
court cards, which cannot be combined, and are only of service in 
pairing or in gaining the final sweep : but should no court cards be 
left, it is best to play any small ones, except Aces, as thereby com- 
binations are often prevented. 

In making pairs and combinations, a preference should generally be 
given to Spades, as obtaining a majority of them may save the game. 

When three aces are out, take the first opportunity to play the 



130 STE AIGHT POKEE. 

fourth, as it then cannot pair; but when there is another Ace re- 
maining, it is better even to play the little Cassino, that can only 
make one point, than to risk the Ace, which may be paired by tlie 
opponent, and make a difference of two points ; and if great Cassino 
and an Ace be on the board, prefer the Ace, as it may be paired or 
combined, but great Cassino can only be paired. 

Do not neglect sweeping the board when an opportunity offers ; 
always prefer taking up the card laid down by the opponent, and as 
many as possible with one card ; endeavor likewise to win the last 
cards or final sweep. 

While great or little Cassino is in, avoid playing either a Ten or 
a Deuce. 

When you hold a pair, lay down one of them, unless when there 
is a similar card on the table, and the fourth not yet out. 

At the commencement of a game, combine all the cards possible, 
for that is more difficult than pairing ; but when combinations can- 
not be made, do not omit to pair, and also carefully avoid losing 
opportunities of making tricks. 

The points are thus calculated : 
That party which obtains the great Cassino (or Ten of 

Diamonds) reckons 2 points. 

Ditto, little Cassino (the Deuce of Spades ) 1 

The four Aces, one point each 4 

The majority in Spades 1 

The majority of cards 3 

Besides a sweep before the end of the game, when any 

player can match all on the board, reckons 1 



STRAIGHT POKER. 

Success in playing the game of Poker (or Bluff, as it is some- 
times called) depends rather upon luck and energy than skill. It 
is emphatically a game "of chance, and there are easier ways of 
cheating, or playing with marked cards, than in any other game. 
The game is played with a pack of fifty- two cards, and any number, 
from two to ten persons, form a party for Poker. In throwing round 
for deal, the lowest card gives the deal. Five cards are dealt out. 



POKER, OE BLUFF. 131 

one at a time, as in Whist. When a misdeal is made, the pool is 
doubled, and each player must put in an additional ante^ and the 
eldest hand deals. This is called a '-'' double-lieader!*'^ It sometimes 
occurs that two misdeals are made in succession ; in that case, each 
player must deposit another ante in the pool, and the deal again 
passes to the left. This is called a '' treMe-lieadery No trump card 
is used, and after the first hand the winner of the "pool" always 
deals. 

THE GAME. 

An '* ante''^ or stake is deposited in the centre of the table by the 
dealer ; this is called the Pool or Pot, The dealer then throws 
round his cards singly, five to each player. The elder hand, or per- 
son on the left of the dealer, must then define his position. No cards 
are played out, as in ordinary games, but the player, after examin- 
ing his hand, either says he will "jt?a55" or bets a certain sum of 
money that he has the best hand, and puts up the amount of his bet 
into the pool. The next player must bet an eqiial sum on his hand, 
or else throw it up. And if the bets are not limited, he can bet or 
'•''run over'''' as much more as he pleases; and if he bets more, it is 
usual to say, *' I see you, and go so much better," naming the 
amount ''overrun;" the third player must fully cover the bet, or 
al>andon his hand altogether ; or he is allowed to bet still higher, 
if he wishes; and player number four must bet the same or go out. 
Thus the play goes round; and when it comes to the dealer's '''' say]^ 
if it so happens that the players have all made the same bets, he 
will also make the same bet if he pleases, and if he does he must 
^^calV' for a show of hands, and the game js then ended — the best 
hand taking the Pool. But should the dealer bet higher than 
the rest, or if any one of the party has increased the first bet be- 
fore it reaches the dealer, the betting must still continue, and 
pass round, until the bets of all players are equal. The 
game cannot end until all the players have an equal stake in the 
Pool — the last person who bets to make the stakes all equal being 
obliged to ^'•calV^ for a show of hands. Thus, if the bets go round 
a second time-, should any one wish to bet still higher, it must pass 
round a third time, and so on. For example : — A., B., C, andD. are 



\ 



132 POKBR. 

playing. D. is the dealer. A. leads, and bets one dime. B. puts 
down a dime. C. says, '*I'll go a dime better," and he puts down 
two dimes. D., the dealer, must also put down two dimes ; and ho 
cannot end the game then, because he and C. have put two dimes in 
the Pool, while A. and B. have as yet only put in one dime. It now 
passes to A., who must put in another dime to make his bet equal, 
or throw up his hand altogether. It then passes to B. in the same 
way. Should they both put up the extra dime only, the game then 
ends with B., who must *' calV^ for a show of hands — the highest one 
taking the Pool. But should either of these players go a dime (or 
any sum) better than C, the bet must^go round past C. again, to give 
him an opportunity of raising his bet to the standard, and so on. 
When all the players '* pass," and decline entering for the Pool, the 
chips are doubled, and each player must deposit another ** ante'^ in 
the Pot ; when this happens, the eldest hand deals. This is also a 
double-header. Where all the players refuse to equal a bet, the 
party making the bet takes the Pool without showing his cards. 
Should there be no limit or restriction to the betting, the player who 
has the most nerve, and bets the largest number of chips, usually 
takes the Pool ; but it is a law imperative, that any player, if over- 
bet, may demand a ** sight.^^ Thus it sometimes happens, that a 
person with a poor hand will take the Pool, because he bets so high on 
his hand, that the rest think it is a good one, and are afraid to cover 
it. This is called '* bluffing." Hence the game is sometimes de- 
nominated '* Bluff." Hoyle so mentions it. In playing this game, 
the bets are generally limited to a certain amount. There is a va- 
riety of Poker where the deal passes round in succession, each player 
dealing in rotation. In playing this kind of Poker, a knife or key 
is passed around to show who has next deal, but in the above game 
the knife is passed to indicate who makes the next ante. 

DEAW POKEE 

This game is played with a full pack of fifty -two cards, and any 
number of players from two to six may take part in it. It is gov- 
erned by the same rules and penalties as Common Poker, and the 
same terms apply to it ; indeed, it differs from that game in the fol- 
lowing particulars only, viz.: In Draw Poker each player can discard 
from his own hand as many cards as he may choose, and call upon 
the dealer to give him the same number of cards from the pack, or 



techtntical terms used in poker. 133 

he may throw up his whole hand, and call for a fresh one ; but, before 
drawing the new cards, he must chip for the privilege of drawing, 
and hand those he discards to the dealer, or throw them in the 
centre of the table. The eldest hand discards first, and so in rota- 
tion round to the dealer, who discards last. The eldest hand, or 
indeed any of the other players, has the privilege of betting or 
*' raising the pool " as high as he or they choose previous to draw- 
ing, provided there is no limit to the ante^ and the other players 
must bet an equal sum, or abandon their chance for the pool. In 
Draw Poker the Age may pass, and cannot be debarred from the 
privilege of the last say. The Age does not use the term "I pass,'' 
as in Straight Poker, but merely says ^^My Age^''^ which signifies he 
will wait for another say. The deal passes around in rotation, and 
the winner of the pool has not the privilege of a continued deal, as 
in Straight Poker. 

TECHOTOAL TERMS USED IN POKER. 

Age. — (Same as Eldest Hand.) 

Ante is the stake deposited in the pool by each player at the 
beginning of the game ; lax players are frequently called upon to 
*' ante up.'''' Any bet in Poker is called an ante. 

Blind. — The eldest hand has the privilege of making a bet before 
he raises his cards ; this bet is usually limited to a few chips, and is 
called ''going blind." The "blind" may be doubled by the player 
to the left of the eldest hand, and the next player to the left may at 
his option straddle this bet ; and, if the dealer choose, he may, in 
turn double the straddle. 

To illustrate this, we will suppose A, B, C, and D. to be playing 
a game of Poker: A is the dealer, B, who is eldest hand, goes 
a dime blind, and deposits that sum in the pool, doiibles the 
blind, and places two dimes in the pool, D straddles C, and puts 
four dimes in the pool, and A doubles the straddle, and deposits 
eight dimes in the pool. (In Straight or Draw Poker all this must 
be done previous to any of the parties seeing any of the cards dealt 
to them.) ISTow, if B, upon raising his cards, determines to see A, 
he must put fifteen dimes in addition to his original blind, must 
go fourteen, D twelve dimes, and A eight dimes, which makes the 
sum of each equal. Any player, declining to see the blind, abandons 



134 POKEE. 

his right to the pool. Eldest hand, only^ has the privilege of starting 
the blind, but he may, if he chooses, delegate the right to another 
player. When the blind is not douUed, it may be called by depositing 
in the pool double the ante constituting 'the hlind^ and on coming 
round to the eldest hand he may " make the Hind good " by deposit- 
ing a sum making the blind equal in amount with the player who has 
called itj or abandon it, and '^ pass Ms liandJ''' Any player has the 
privilege of seeing the blind, and running over it in his proper turn. 

Bluffing off. — When a player with a weak hand bets so high that 
he makes his opponents believe he has. a very strong hand, and they 
are deterred from ^'^ seeing ^^ him, or ''going better." He thus gets 
the pool, and ^^ Muffs them off.'''' 

Brag. — Betting for the pool. 

Gall. — To call a show of hands, is for the player whose say is last 
to deposit in the pool the same ante bet by any preceding player, 
and demand that the hands be shown. 

Chips. — Counters representing money, the value of which should 
be determined by the players at the beginning of the game. 

Chipping^ or to Chip., is synonymous with betting. Thus a player, 
instead of saying "I bet," may say "I chip" so much. 

Double- Header. — When all the players "pass," and decline to 
enter for the pool, or where a misdeal occurs, the stakes must be 
doubled., and the dealer deals again. 

Discard. — Taking one or more cards from your hand and placing 
them in the centre of the table, face downwards. 

Draw. — To discard one or more cards, and receive a correspond- 
ing number from the dealer. 

Eldest Hand., or Age. — The player immediately at the left of the 
dealer. 

Filling. — To match, or strengthen the cards to which you draw. 

Foul Hand. — A hand composed of more or less than five cards. 

Going Better. — When any player makes a bet, it is the privilege 
of the next player to the left to raise him., or run over it, that is, to 
deposit in the poo^ the amount already bet by his adversary, aud 
make a still higher bet. In such a case it is usual to say: "I see 
you, and go so much better," naming the extra sum bet. 

Limit. — A condition made at the beginning of a game, as to the 
amount that may be bet on a hand. The limit of a game may be 
one dime, or the trifling sum of one thousand dollars. 



VALUE OP THE CARDS. 135 

Pass. — The privilege of declining to enter for the pool. The eld- 
est hand first has this privilege, and so it passes in turn to the dealer. 
This is called passing your hand, / 

Raising a Bet. — The same as going better. 

Say. — When it is the turn of anv player to declare what he will 
do, whether he will het^ or 'pass his hand, it is said to be his say. 

Seeing a Bet. — To bet as much as an adversary. 

SigJit. — Every player is entitled to a "sight for his pile," and 
when a player makes a bet, and his opponent bets higher, if the 
player who makes the first bet has not funds sufficient to cover the 
bet made by his adversary, he can put up all the funds he may have 
and call a show of hands for that amount. 

Straddle. — See Blind. 

Treble- Header. — When all the players have passed for two games 
in succession, or when two misdeals have been made in succession. 



VALUE OF THE CARDS. 

The cards count by Pairs, by Two Pairs, by Triplets, by Flush, by 
Full, and by Fours. Sometimes straights or sequences are counted. 

Oke Paie. — Two cards of the same denomination. For example : 
Two Deuces are the lowest, and two Aces the highest pairs. The 
pair may be of any color. 

Two Paies. — Two pairs of different cards in the same hand count 
next to a single pair. Aces and Kings are the highest, and Deuces 
and Treys are the lowest two pairs. 

Steaight Sequence, or Rotation, is five cards following in regu- 
lar order of denomination, as Ace, Deuce, Trey, Four, and Five, and 
the cards may be of different suits ; a Straight will beat two pairs. 
In some coteries a Straight Flush outranks four cards of the same 
denomination. In a Straight the ace plays both ways, but its 
value is different. When with the King, Queen, Knave and Ten, it 
makes the highest straight; when with Deuce, Trey, Four and Five, 
the lowest. 

Straights are not considered in the game, although they are played 
in some localities, and it should always be determined whether they 
are to be admitted at the commencement of the game. 

Triplets are three cards of the same denomination, and rank 



136 POKEK. 

higher than two pairs. For example : — three Deuces beat a pair of 
Aces and Kings. 

A Flush is five cards all of the same suit, and beats three Aces. 
Should it so happen that two Flushes are dealt in the same deal, the 
winning hand must be decided by the denomination of cards com- 
j)Osing the Flush. Thus, a Flush, with an Ace highest, would beat 
a Flush w^ith King highest. 

Full Hand is three cards of the same denomination, and a single 
pair. A Full ranks higher than a Flush ; foi example ; — two Deuces 
and three Treys will b^at a Flush. 

FouE of the same denomination is the highest combination of the 
cards in Poker, and four Deuces will beat a full hand of Aces and 
Kings. Therefore, the only certain winning cards are four Aces, or 
four Kings and an Ace. Should two or more hands come together 
of equal value, in pairs, the best of them is decided by the side 
cards. {See Law 32.) 

[It is strongly urged by some experts that the strongest hand at Drj^w Poker should be 
a Straight FlusJi, for the reason that it is more difficult to get than four of a kind, and re- 
moves from the game the objectionable feature of a known invincible hand. It is impod' 
Bible to tie four Aces or four Kings and an Ace, but it is possible for four Straight Flushes 
to be out in the same deal. No gentleman would care to bet on a " sure thing," and wo 
therefore think the Straight Flush should be adopted when gentlemen play at this game.] 

LAWS OF DEAW POKER. 

1. The game of Draw Poker is played with a pack of fifty-two 
cards. 

2. At the outset of the game, the deal is determined by throw- 
ing around one card to each player, and the player who gets the 
highest card, deals. 

3. In throwing for the deal, the ace is highest and the deuce low- 
est. Ties are determined by cutting. 

4. If a player lets a card fall in cutting, that is his cut ; and, if he 
shows two, the highest is his cut. Less than three cards is not a 
cut. 

5. After the first hand is played, the deal passes from right to 
left in regular succession, and each player takes the deal in turn. 

[In Straight Poker, the winner of the pool deals.] 

6. The cards must be shuiiied above the table ; each player has a 
right to shuffle the cards, the dealer last. 



LAWS OF DRAW POKER. 137 

7. The player at the right of the dealer cuts the cards. 

8. Five cards must be dealt to each player ; one at a time, com- 
mencing with the player to the left of the dealer, and, if a card is 
faced in the pack, a new deal may be demanded. 

9. If a card be accidentally exposed by the dealer while in the act 
of dealing, the player to whom such card is dealt must accept it as 
though it had not been exposed. (See Ldw 21.) 

[This rule does not apply when a card is faced in the pack.] 

10. If the dealer gives to himself or either of the other players 
more or less than five cards, and the player receiving such a number 
of cards discovers and announces the fact he/ore he raises his hand, 
it is a misdeal, and the dealer must shuffle and deal the cards again. 

11. If the dealer gives to himself or either of the other players 
more or less than five cards, and the player receiving such a number 
of cards raises his hand before he announces the fact, no misdeal 
occurs, and he must stand out of the game until the next hand, 
(See ^'Decisions on Disjyuted Points^''' /., //., ///., and X/., pages 141^ 
142, a?i^ 143.) 

12. After the deal has been completed, each player may discard 
from his hand as many cards as he chooses, and call upon the dealer 
to give him a like number from those remaining in the pack, or he 
may throw up his whole hand and call for a fresh one. 

13. Previous to receiving fresh cards from the pack, each player 
must place in the centre of the table the discarded ones, which can- 
not again be taken in hand under any circumstances. 

[Decmon. — A, B, 0, and D are playing Draw Poker. D is dealer. They have all drawn 
and D lays off one card, and then takes np his hand and finds he has a full ; he does not 
take the card, but bets for the pot with his contented hand. Has D the risrht to bet his 
hand as he did ; or is he, because he laid that card off, obliged to take it ? Answer. — The 
dealer must take the card he has laid off.] 

14. Before discarding and drawing from the pack, each player 
must chip in the pot or pool for the privilege of drawing. 

15. The eldest hand must discard first, and so in regular rotation 
round to the dealer, who discards last, and all the players must dis- 
card before any party is helped^ 

16. Any player may demand of the dealer how many cards ho 
drew, and the latter must reply, any time before a bet is made. The 
first bef puts an end to the right to inquire, and removes the obliga- 
tion to answer. 



138 POKER. 

17. Previous to drawing from the paclc, any player in Ms proper 
turn may bet or raise the pool as much as he chooses, provided there 
is no limit to the game, and his opponents must het an equal sura, or 
more, unless they pass out and abandon their chance to v^in the pool. 
Should the game, however, have a limit, no player can bet more than 
the sum agreed upon as the limit at the commencement of the game, 

18.' A player cannot go Mind after the cards are cut. Should tho 
eldest baud go Hind, the other players must see the blind before 
they draw to their hands, or else pass out of the pcame. 

19. Should the dealer give any player more cards than the latter 
has demanded, and the x^layer announces the fact before he raises the 
cards, the dealer must draw one of the cards and restore it to the 
pack. But if the player raise the cards before informing the dealer 
of the mistake, he must stand out of the game during that hand. 

20. Should the dealer give any player fewer cards than the latter 
has discarded, and the player announces the fact previous to lifting 
the cards, the dealer must give the player from the pack sufficient 
cards to make the whole number correspond with the number origin- 
ally demanded. If the player raises the cards before making the^e- 
mand for more, he must stand out of the game during that hand. 

21. If a player discards, and draws fresh cards to his hand, and 
while serving him the dealer exposes one or more of the cards, the 
dealer must place the exposed cards upon the bottom of the pack, and 
give to the player a corresponding number from the top of the pack. 

{See Law 9.) 

\_Deci&ion. — A, B, C, and D play at the game of Braw Poker. A deals, and B chips 
and asks for three cards. While helping him, A accidentally turns up one of the three 
cards. Has B the privilege of electing whether to accept or decline the card thus ex- 
posed? Answer — B has no choice in the matter, and cannot receive the card. If this 
rule prevailed, B might accept the card if it was of the suit or denomination he desired, 
or decline it, if of no value in making his hand, and thus have two chances, which would 
be a manifest injustice to the other players.] 

22. The eldest hand (age) has the privilege of passing once, and after- 
wards coming in the game again to brag. After the ceremony of the 
deal has been concluded, the player who is eldest hand says : " My 
age," which signifies he passes. 

[No other player has this privilege at the game of Draw Poker, but the reverse of this 
rule applies when playing Straight Poker, and at that game any player may pass with the^ 
privilege of coming in agikin^ provided no player preceding him has made a bet.] 

23. Should the eldest hand, or age, and the other players chip to 



LAWS OF DEAW POKER. 139 

fill their hands, and after all the hands are full should the players all 
pass, then the pool is forfeited to the eldest hand. 

24:. Should all the players pass without chipping to fill their hands, 
then the pool becomes a " double-header ;" the ante is doubled, and 
the deal passes to the eldest hand. 

25. Should any player in his regular turn brag or bet any sum 
within the limit of the game, his opponents must call him, go better, 
or pass out of the game. 

26. Should a player call an opponent, both parties must showtheii 
hands, the caller last, and the best poker hand wins. 

27. When a player brags, and his opponents decline to call him or 
go better, he wins the pool, and cannot be compelled to show the 
value of his l^and. 

28. "When a player is called he must show all the cards in his hand, 
and any player who has bet for the pool, although he may subse- 
quently have passed out, has a right to see what cards his opponent 
wins the pool upon. {See ^''Decisions upon Disputed Points^'''' Draw 
FoTcer^ Note /X, page 143.) 

29. If a player passes, and afterwards discovers that he has a win- 
ning hand, he cannot come in the game again during that hand, but 
must relinquish all claim to the pool. {See ^'' Decisions upon Dis- 
puted Points^'''' Draw Polcer^ Note XY.^ page.144:.) 

30. None but the eldest hand (age) has the privilege of going a 
blind, but he can delegate this right to the next player. The party 
next and to the left of the eldest hand may double the blind, and the 
next player straddle it, the next double the straddle, and so on until 
the same reaches the dealer. (See Terms used in Polcer^ page 133.) 

81. When a player makes a bet, and his opponent bets higher, if 
the player who makes the first bet has not funds sufficient to cover 
the bet made by his adversary, he can put up all the funds ho may 
have and call a show of h^nds for that amount. 

- [If the player calling for a show of hands has the best- one, he wins the ante, and an 
amount from each player who bets over him, equal to the sum that he himself has bet. 
The next best hand is entitled to the balance of the bets, after settling with the caller.] 

82. If, upon a call for a show of hands, it occurs that two or more 
parties interested in the call hold hands identical in value, then the 
parties thus tied must divide the pool, share and share alike, pro- 
vided, no party likewise interested should hold a hand superior in 
value. Where ties occur in pairs the best hand is decided by the 
value of the other cards. 



140 POKER. 



WHISKEY POKEE. 

* 

This is a neat variation of Draw Poker, and is a most amusing 
game. Each player contributes one chip to make a pool, and the 
same rules govern as at " draw," except that the strongest hand you 
can get is a straight flush. Five cards are dealt to each player, one 
at a time, and an extra hand is dealt on the table, which is called the 
^'"widowy The eldest hand then examines his cards, and, if in his 
judgment his hand is sufficiently strong, he passes. The next player 
then has the privilege of the v/idow, and for the purpose of illustra- 
tion we will suppose he takes it ; he then lays his discarded hand 
(that which he relinquishes for the widow) face up in the centre of 
the table, and the next player to the left selects from it that card 
which suits him best in making up his hand, and so on all around the 
board, each player discarding one card, and picking up another, until 
some one is satisfied, which he signifies by knocking upon the table. 
When this occurs, all the players around to the satisfied party have 
the privilege of one more draw, when the hands are shown, and the 
strongest wins. If any player knocks before the widow is taken, the 
widow is then turned faceup, and each player from him who knocks 
has but one more draw. Should no one take the widow, but all pass 
to the dealer, he then turns the widow, and all parties have the 
right to draw until some one is satisfied. 

STUD POKEK. 

Is the not very euphonious name of a game which, in all essential 
particulars, is like the other Poker games, and is subject to the 
same laws, and mode of betting, passing, etc. It is played in this 
manner : 

Five cards are dealt, one at a time — the first dealt, as usual, face 
down, all the others face up, the higher pair, or best hand, winning, 
as at "draw." To illustrate, suppose the dealer's four cards as ex- 
posed, are a King, four, seven, and a five ; and his opponent's a 
Queen, ten, six, and nine — the dealer's hand in sight, is the better 
hand, but the call being made, and the unknown cards turned over, 
the non-dealer shows an ace, and his opponent an eight ; of course 
the dealer loses 



DECISIOI^S ON DISPUTED POIin:S, ^ 141 



DECISIONS ON DISPUTED POINTS. 



In games of all kinds, as well as in bets, questions often arise 
which the rules or laws designed to cover the case do not reach, 
or upon which there are different views as to the true interpre- 
tation of the laws. Indeed, it would be impossible to establish 
a code of laws for this purpose, that should meet with unerring 
certainty every conceivable contingency, just as it is impossible 
to do the same thing in political economy. Hence, when such 
questions arise, they must be submitted to what may be termed 
the unwritten common law or equity of games ; and decided, as the 
lawyers say, *' according to equity and good conscience.'* 

To render '' The Caed Platee" complete in all its depart- 
ments, we have compiled from '* Wilkes^ Sjnrit of the Times^^^ which is 
generally accepted as the ablest exponent of the laws of games, the 
solutions of a variety of ** vexed questions," which embrace many 
points on which disputes or misunderstandings are most likely to 
arise. The decisions are founded, as will be readily admitted, upon 
the principles of common justice and equity, or what might per- 
haps be properly termed '' the logic of games ;" and will be accepted 
as putting at rest the disputed points to which they refer. 

STEAIGHT AND DEAW POKEE. 

I. A, B, C, and D are playing a game of Straight Poker. A deals, 
B passes, C and D chip. A, the dealer, raises his hand and discov- 
ers he has dealt himself six cards. Is it a misdeal, and to be dealt 
over, or does A lose his hand ? Answer. — The dealer loses his hand, 
but it is not a misdeal. The dealer should have discovered his hand 
was foul before he raised his cards. 

II. A, B, C, and D are playing a game of Poker. A deals, B 
chips, C passes ; D, holding a flush, runs over B ; A passes ; B sees 
D and runs over him ; D calls him, and upon B showing his hand it 
is discovered that he has but four cards, which are, however, four 
aces. Can B claim the poolj Answer, — B cannot win the pool 



142 decisio:n^s oisr disputed points. 

Having only four cards, his hand is foul, and he might for that 
reason have called for a fresh deal. It is not equitable to allow a 
player to take the pool on a hand upon which he might claim a new 
deal, if it were for his advantage to do so. 

III. In playing a game of Draw Poker, the dealer gives himself 
six cards, but upon raising his hand discovers the mistake, and 
announces it to the board before any party has drawn. Is he ruled 
out and the other players allowed to draw, or should there be another 
deal ? Answer, — The dealer loses his hand. It is the business of 
the player to see that he has five cards, no more or no less, before 
he raises them. If he raises the hand and it proves foul, he must 
stand out of the game until the next deal. If he does not raise it, it 
is a ntisdeal. 

ly. At a game of Draw Poker, the player next to the dealer asks 
for three cards, and has four served to him, but does not discover 
the fact until one or two others have been served by the dealer ; still 
he does not raise the cards, and immediately informs the dealer of 
the mistake. What should be done in a case like this ? Answer,^^ 
The dealer must draw one of the four cards, and restore it to th« 
pack. 

V. In a game of Draw Poker, suppose the eldest hand goes a blind, 
the next straddles the blind, &c. ; must the dealer make the blind 
good before any cards are dealt ; also, must all the other players do 
the same ? Answer, — When there is a blind, the player must *' see** 
the- blind, not before the cards are dealt, but before they draw to 
their hands. 

yi. A, B, C, and D are playing Draw Poker. D is dealer. They 
have all drawn and D lays off one card, and then takes up his hand 
and finds he has a full ; he does not take the card, but bets for the 
pot with his contented hand. Has D the right to bet his hand as he 
did; or is he, because he laid that card off, obliged to take it? 
Answer. — The dealer must take the card he has laid off. . 

yil. A, B, 0, and D are playing at Straight Poker, A being the 
dealer, and B having the age. B passes on his privilege; 
also passes. D brags five chips ; A also brags. B comes in upon 
his privilege ; C also bets, but D demurs at his doing so, and con- 
tends that C, having passed upon his first say, passed out of the 
game, and cannot come in again to bet during the hand. Which is 
right ? Answer. — C is right. If any player had bragged previous 
to C's passing, then he (C) would have been ruled out ; but as no 



DECISIONS ON DISPUTED POINTS. 143 

bet was made pri^r to his passing, lie lias the privilege of betting, 
just the same as if he had not passed. It is an established rule in 
Straight Poker, that a player may pass, and come in again to bet, 
provided no other player has previously bragged. 

YIII. In playing Poker, when straights or routines are played, 
does ace play both ways ? ace, deuce, tray, four and ^ve, and ace, 
king, queen, jack, and ten ? Or does ace, deuce, tray, four and 
five constitute a routine ? Answer. — The ace plays both ways, 
but its value is different. When with the king, queen, knave and 
ten, it makes the highest straight ; when with deuce, tray, four and 
five, the lowest. 

IX. Has a player who calls another in a game of Poker a right 
to see the whole of his hand, or can the party so called show 
only a portion of his hand — (a pair, for instance), and demand that 
the caller beat that before showing more ? Answer. — The party who 
is called must show his whole hand. Poker is a shoiv game, and any 
party who hrags in a pool must show his hand to the board, if re- 
quired to do so, even if he relinquishes his chance of winning; 
because his adversaries have a right to know whether he is trying 
to bluff them, without a hand to support it. After a party once 
bets, any other player who also bets has a right to see what hand 
his opponent brags upon. If a player wins the pool without being 
called, his adversaries have a right to see his cards bach up ; other 
wise he might brag or bet with six or more cards. But if any player 
throws his cards with the pack, ho cannot call for a show. To do 
this he must retain his cards in his hand. ^'^- 

X. A deals B three cards (one each time, as in Poker), and himself 
three. B holds three aces, and A holds three diamonds (a flush) ; 
both parties agree to abide by the rules of Poker, or Bluff, and con- 
sider the three cards as representing a hand of said game. Which 
wins ? Answer. — B wins. If three cards are to make a hand, three 
of a kind are a. full hand, and beat a flush of three. 

XI. A, B, C, and D are playing at Draw Poker; each one chips 
for the privilege of drawing cards. Can C bet ^ve chips before he 
gets his cards, and oblige B to bet five chips, in order to get the 
cards he has already put up one chip to draw ? Or, in other words, 
after a player has chipped and called for, say, threo cards, can an 
opposing player chip higher and compel him to respond to this 
larger bet, or relinquish the privilege of drawing ? Answer. — In 
the case stated, i. e., before the cards are drawn, C can raise as 



144 DECISIONS OK DISPUTED POINTS. 

V much as he likes within the limits of the giime, if there be one, and 
all the other players must put up chips equal to the raise, or abandon 
their hands. Thus — when C raises B's bet four chips, he (B) must 
put up four more before he can draw. 

XII. A, B, C, and D plaj at the game of Draw Poker. A deals, 
and B chips and asks for three cards. While helping him, A 
accidentally turns up one of the three cards. Has B the privilege 
of electing whether to accept or decline the card thus exposed? 
Answer. — B has no choice in the matter, and cannot receive the 
card. If this rule prevailed, B might accept the card if it was of 
the suit or denomination he desired, or decline it if of no value in 
making his hand, and thus have two chances, which would be a 
manifest injustice to the other players. When an original hand is 
being dealt, then, if a card is exposed by the dealer, the party to 
whom it is dealt must take it. 

XIII. A, B, C, and D play a game of Straight Poker. A deals, B 
goes blind, C looks at his cards and passes. D proposes to straddle 
the blind, which is objected to by B, on account of C's passing. Can 
his (B's) objection be sustained ? Answer. — B is right; C having 
passed, prevents D's straddling the blind. 

XI Y. A, B, C, and D are playing Poker, with full blind — that is, if 
one goes blind, next straddles, it would cost the next man double the 
whole blind. A goes blind a quarter of a dollar. B straddles A's 
blind. C fills the blind. D lays his hand. A cannot fill. The 
question arises as to the amount it costs B to call C . Answer. — It 
costs C a dollar to see the blind, and therefore it will cost B half a 
dollar to fill. 

XY. At a game of Poker, A " chips," B calls him and holds to A's 
view an ace (while the rest of the party are passing). A says, " You 
have not two of those ? if so, they beat me." B replies yes, and the 
rest having passed out, shows them ; they being acknowledged good, 
puts the hand to the deck. A running his hand over again, discov- 
ers two pairs in his, and says, *' Hold on, I have better/' and shows 
them. Can A claim the money under these circumstances ? An- 
swer. — A cannot. He must discover his good hand before he ac- 
knowledges B's to be good, and let it go to the pack. 

XYI. A, B, and C are playing Poker. A deals the cards ; B draws 
five cards, C draws one; B bets one check, C bets twenty-five 
checks ; B puts up twenty-five checks, all that he has before him, 
and borrows fifteen dollars and bets C. C has $100 in checks ; he 



DECISIONS ON DISPUTED POINTS. I45 

puts them up, and then B calls out what he has, without C saying 
anj thing. The point is, whether B can hold C responsible for tho 
money under these circumstances ? Answer. — He can only hold G 
for what he (B) has up. 

XVII. Seven persons, A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, are engaged at 
Draw Poker. A deals, and the hands are all made. B passes to C, 
who bets, and after C thus bets, D demands from the dealer (A) to 
be told how many cards he (the dealer) drew. A demurs to reply, 
claiming that D should have used his eyes, as all was done openly, 
and without attempt at concealment. Is the dealer bound to an- 
swer D's question, or, if compelled to answer, must not the question 
be put at the time the dealer makes up his hand ? Answer. — 
Any player may demand how many cards the dealer took, and the 
latter must reply, up to the time a bet is made. The first bet puts 
an end to the right to inquire, and removes the obligation to answer. 

XVIII. A party of ^yq are playing Draw Poker, N (dealer), L, M, 
G, and A. L is blind. M and Gr pass. A fills the blind. N (dealer) 
passes. L makes good the blind, and raises it five dollars, and A 
calls the raise. L draws three cards, and A also calls for three ; 
but A, on discarding, discovers that two cards were stuck together, 
and, consequently, that he had six cards in his original hand. He 
immediately, and before seeing the cards he called for, announced 
the fact to the board, and L claims the pot, including the money A 
had put up. Is he entitled to it ? Answer. — It is L's money. A's 
hand is foul. 

XIX. A, B, C, and D are playing a game of Poker, with the age. A 
deals, B goes a blind, C straddles or doubles over B's blind. If aU 
the parties come in (B and C each making their blind good), who has 
the age ? Answer. — When all make good, the player next the dealer 
has the age. 

XX. In playing Draw Poker, the eldest hand or age chips, and the 
other players also chip, to fill their hands. After all the hands are 
full, the age and other players pass. Can the age take the pot 
without chipping again for it, or is it a double-header ? Answer. — 
The eldest in the case stated takes the pot. It only becomes a 
double-header when all pass before the hands are helped. 

XXI. A, B, C, and D are playing the game of *' poker ;" the 
'* ante" is twenty-five cents ; each player, as he *' antes,'' passing 
the *' buck" to his left-hand adversary, as usual. Now, 1st. A 
** antes," passing the *' buck" to B. Has B got the right to *' ante" 

7 



146 DECISIONS ON DISPUTED POINTS, 

immediately, making the pool fifty cents, and pass "buck" to C, 
instead of waiting till the next deal ? 2d. If he has that right, can 
it be invalidated by any one objecting to its being done ? Answer. — 
He has not the right. He may go " blind" if hti chooses, but he 
cannot get rid of the *' buck." 

XXII. A, B, C, and D play a game of Straight Poker. A deals, 
B goes blind, and all the four players simply make the blind good. 
The question is, whether, as no one has raised the blind, there can 
be any more betting, or whether the best hand takes the pool ? 
Answer. — The highest hand takes it. When the man who went 
blind simply made it good, it was equivalent to a call. As he did 
not raise it, there could be no more betting. 

EUOHKE. 

I. How many points does a lone player lose if he fails to win three 
tricks? It is customary in some circles, and clubs even, for the 
opponents to count but two points only, when the person who plays 
alone against them does not win three tricks. This practice is quite 
extensively adopted in the New England States, where, however, 
the game is comparatively but recently introduced ; and there, too, it 
is sometimes permitted to score three points under such circum- 
stances ; but by what analogy or authority does not appear. Various 
reasons are given for the practice, the principal one of which seems 
to be, that the risk of the lone player's opponents is not increased, 
but rather diminished, by the withdrawal of one opponent from the 
round, and therefore they ought not to count more than they could 
claim if their two opponents both played together against them ; 
and moreover, that the lone player having to contend, single-handed, 
against his two adversaries, he ought not to be compelled to pay so 
heavy a penalty as four points for the defeat. In almost every other 
portion of the United States, however; in fact, everywhere now-a- 
days, where Lap and Slam are comprehended and played, the party 
playing alone, and failing to win three tricks, loses four points. 
Some few good old players, who ought to know better, object to the 
Lap, &c., and declare it not Euchre ; and we remember — and are not 
the oldest inhabitant either — that the same kind of objection was 
urged, and in like manner, against the practice of playing alone — 
now fondly cherished as one of the most attractive events in play — 
when, about a quarter of a century ago, it was first explained to 



DECISIONS ON DISPUTED POINTS. 



147 



some players, to whom it was then a novelty, as part and parcel of 
the play ! 

In favor of counting four points for the euchre of a lone hand, it 
is claimed that if the risk of the two players is not increased by the 
withdrawal of one of their antagonists, yet the gain of the lone 
player is doubled if he wins all five tricks ; and if he does have 
them both to contend with, single-handed, yet he encounters them 
voluntarily — challenges, defies them to the strife, with full luiowl- 
edge of the consequences — availing himself of what he judges to 
be a highly favorable chance to win four points to his score. If 
successful he does score them, and surely there can be no valid 
reason why he should be permitted to gain twice the number of 
points he runs the risk of losing. Besides, such a practice bears no 
analogy with any principle of the game. Indeed, when all the play- 
ers are in, and one side, at the score of four, if contending for the 
point only, are euchred, their opponents are allowed to score two, 
in this case really losing double as much as they aim to win. But 
those two points are allowed to the winning party, only because the 
other side, though playing but for one point, might possibly have 
made a march — thus equalizing the loss or gain to the risk. To 
allow four points for tlie euchre of a lone player is the universal 
rule here (Washington); and, indeed, skilful players everywhere, who 
thoroughly comprehend the mysteries and science of the game, 
approve and confirm the practice. Your sanction and judgment 
in the case will greatly oblige many lovers of this entertaining 
gam.e. 

Answer. — We are not to alter or make the law, but only to de- 
clare it. So far as we are concerned, the question is res judicatce. 
Our correspondent argues shrewdly, but there is a good deal to be 
said on the other side. He says that now-a-days, wherever ** Lap and 
Slam" are comprehended, the lone player who fails to take three 
tricks loses four. To this w^e reply that ** Lap and Slam" are totally 
unknown in many places where Euchre is the game most in favor. 
We speak of the West. We have often played the game there, 
and have seen it played hundreds of times, but never heard of " Lap 
and Slam" among the players. It may be very good, but it is not 
Euchre, and our correspondent asks for the rules of Euchre. It seems 
clear enough to us why the two who play against a lone hand should 
Bcore but two for a euchre. They only make a euchre — three tricks- 
while, to score four, the single player must get all five. If he takes 



148 DECISIONS ON DISPUTED POINTS. 

three, lie scores but one ; if they take three, they score two. This 
is the established odds of the game. It might be reasonable to let 
them score four, if they take all the tricks, but this will never 
occur. Scoring four is an extraordinary privilege beyond the gen- 
eral order of the game, and the conditions of it are these : One 
player shall play his hand against both his opponents, and he shall 
take all five of the tricks. 

II. 1 . In playing the game of Euchre, when I assist my partner, can 
he play it alone? 2. My partner makes or takes up a trump, can I 
play it alone ? 3. When an opponent takes up a trump, makes a 
trump, or orders me up, can I play alone against him ? 4. If an 
opponent play it alone, can I play alone also ? 5. If my partner 
pass the making of a trump, and I make it, can he play aJone ? 
Answer. — 1. Your partner can play it alone. 2. You can play 
it alone. 3. Yon cannot. 4. Your opponent playing it alone 
bars you from so doing. 5. He cannot do so, having declined to 
take the responsibility of making the trump. The great fundamen- 
tal rule of the game, in regard to playing alone, is this — only the 
parties can do so who take the responsibility of the trump, and are 
therefore liable to a euchre if they fail in their undertaking. 

III. A, B, C, and D are playing Euchre. A and C are partners. A 
deals, B passes ; C sa^s : '' I play it alone," and plays. A claims 
the right to play it alone after says he plays it alone, and has 
played. The question is, has A a right to play alone after his part- 
ner says he plays it alone and plays ? Answer, — A has no right to 
play it alone at all, after his partner, who had the first option, has 
elected to play alone. Wh^n C declared that he would play alone, 
it bound his opponents, and, by necessary consequence, equally 
bound himself and his partner. Therefore, the opponents have the 
right to keep A out of the game, and make C do that which he con- 
tracted to do — play alone. 

lY. In four-handed Euchre, if the dealer throws his hand upon the 
table, having the two bowers, ace, king, and nine of trumps, can his 
left-hand adversary call for the nine of trumps upon his ovv^n lead of 
the queen ? and must the dealer play the called card ? in other 
words, in Euchre, as in Whist, does the showing of a card give an 
opponent the privilege of calling it? Answer. — In this special 
case the dealer would not be compelled to play the nine. The rule 
in Whist is in the nature of a penalty, and as there is no such spe- 
cial rule ijx Euchre, we must look at the reason of the rule to see 



DECISIONS ON DISPUTED POINTS. 149 

whether it ought to apply to the case stated. Now in Whist, by ex- 
posing his card or cards a pkxyer gires knowledge to his partner ; 
and hence the rule that such may be called for, and must be played. 
In the case submitted to us, the dealer, we assume, played alone. 
His hand was invincible. If one of his opponents had had all the 
other trumps, it would not have availed to stop the march. Hence, 
the dealer was not bound to play the nine on the queen. The strin- 
gent rule of Whist cannot be extended to Euchre in a case where tho 
reason for the rule is wanting. It is a common practice for Euchre 
players who can infallibly take all the remaining tricks, to show, 
and they are conceded without tho formality of separate play. The 
same principle applies to the case above. Under other circum- 
stances, if a player shows a card, it can be called. 

y. In a game of Euchre, A and B play against C and D. The 
trump is made by the latter. A and B having taken two tricks, C 
lays down his cards, which are both bowers and a king, and says he 
will bet he cannot be euchred. B, who sits at his left, and whose 
play it is, having ace and two trumps, takes the bet, claiming the 
right to call C's cards, he having exposed them, contending that, it 
being B's play, he had a right to play any card he pleased. Who 
was right ? Answer. — C having laid down his cards, thereby ex- 
posing them, his opponents can call them as they think proper. 

ALL-FOUKS, AND PITCH. 

I. At a game of All-fours, the parties are six each ; one holds the 
jack and ace of trumps, and plays the former ; it is taken by the 
queen, and the player claims the game, saying that the jack counts 
iirst. Who wins ? Answer. — The jack does not count first, except 
when it is turned up, or when it is the highest card. It then counts 
as high. 

II. In the course of play, A deals, and turns jack ; B begs, and the 
cards are run ; the same trump is turned, and they are run three 
further. In the last run there is a misdeal. Does A count for 
turning jack ? Answer. — The jack counts ; the misdeal did not 
take place until subsequent to its being turned. If the misdeal had 
been made previous to the jack being turned, or if there had been 
any doubt about it having been turned prior to the misdeal, the 
point could not have been scored. When a jack is turned, and a 
misdeal is made by reason of the pack being imperfect, the jack 
counts. 



150 DECISIOITS ON DISPUTED POINTS. 

III. A, B, C, and D play a game of All-fours : spades were turned 
up. A led the ace of hearts, B played a heart, C trumped it, D 
played the four of clubs, and recalled it, saying : *' I have a heart." 
Pie accordingly took back the club, and trumped the trick over C. 
A contended that he hud no right to do it when he held the ten of 
hearts. Who is right ? Answer, — D must play the ten of heart;3 
in consequence of not having trumped over C on his first play. D 
cannot take advantage of his own wrong. See No. V. 

lY. In playing a game of All-fours, A and C are partners against B 
and D. A having the deal, turns np a club for trump ; B begs ; A 
runs them and again turns np a club ; he still continues, and once 
more turns up a club. The question is, can B insist that the dealer 
turn the last card for trump ? Answer. — The last card must bo 
turned, provided the cards have gone round equally. Should the 
last card^ under these circumstances, be the same suit as the cards 
previously turned for trump, then the cards mmst be bunched, and 
dealt anew. 

V. A and B are playing a game of All-fours. They are six each. 
A, in dealing, makes a misdeal, and turns a trump. B contends that 
he (A) has to deal over again, and claims that a man cannot lose his 
deal in All-fours. Who is right ? Answer. — B is right. The dealer 
deals again, otherwise he might make a misdeal j)urposely for the 
sake of getting the beg. The reason is embodied in the law maxim, 
that *' a man cannot take advantage of his own wrong." A forfeits 
the deal, if B chooses to claim it, for his misdeal. But when the 
misdeal is to A's manifest advantage, A has to deal again, otherwise 
he would ** take advantage of his own wrong." This decision also 
applies to the game of Pitch. 

YI. A, B, C, and D are playing All-fours. A deals, andj^urns 
up a spade. B begs, and A deals three more cards to each, and 
turns up the jack of spades Does this jack — not being a trump, of 
course — count one point for A and partner ? Answer. — It counts a 
point. 

YII. A, B, and C are playing a game of Pitch. A deals, B 
pitches, and goes out on that hand. In the regular course, it would 
be B's deal and C's next pitch ; but B being out of the game, must 
C deal, or can he claim his pitch ? Answer. — C can claim his pitch, 
as it would be a manifest wrong to deprive him of that advantage, 
while at the same time A's rights would not thereby be in any way 
compromised or interfered with. The proper way, in a case of this 



DECISIONS 0:^- DISPUTED POINTS. 151 

kind, would be for B to deal C and A their hands, and then retire 
from the game. 

The same point may arise in the game of All-fours, ai relation 
to the beg, and is governed by the same rule. 

VIII. A, B, and G are playing a game of All-fours. A is five, 
B two, and C is six ; A deals and B begs. Has A the right to give 
one, thus putting C out, and continue the game between B and 
himself with the same hand? Answer, — He has. Supposing A to 
hold high and low in his hand, or either, it would be policy on his 
part to give one. And there is no restriction to the privilege of 
giving when an opponent begs. 

IX. A game of All-fours is being played. The adversaries are 
six, and beg. The dealer, through inadvertence, gives, and of 
course puts his opponents out It is claimed that this cannot be 
done ; that the game cannot be given away, but must b(i played to 
its conclusion; that the dealer has no power thus to relinquish it. 
Answer. — It ought not to be done, but it can be done. If the dealer 
gives when his adversaries are six, it is simply his fault. There is 
no rule of the game to prevent him from giving them, any more 
than there is when the others are five. 

X. A party of four sat down to a game of All-fours. The dealer 
distributed six cards to each player and turned up the jack of clubs 
for trump. The eldest hand begged, and the dealer, not being able 
to give him one, run the cards, and clubs came trumps until the 
cards ran out. The dealer and his partner claimed a count for the 
jack, but their opponents in the game contended, that as the cards 
ran out, the jack could not be scored. Can a jack be counted 
when the cards run out ? Answer. — The jack is counted. 



cAssmo. 

I. In playing a game of Cassino, A holds in his hand a deuce, ace, 
nine and ten. He plays his deuce on a seven lying on a table, 
making it nine ; B, his opponent, cannot take it. Can A play his 
ace and make it ten? Answer, — He cannot, but if B had played 
an ace upon it, he (A) might have taken it with his ten. As it is, 
his best play is to take the nine he has *' built up,'* with his nine in 
hand. 



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Bound in boards, cloth back. Price . ..- 50 cts. 

Bound in cloth, gilt side. Price 75 cts. 

Athletic Sports for Boys. A Eepository of Graceful 
Recreations for Youth, containing clear and complete instructions in Gym- 
nastic, Limb Exercises, Jumping, Pole Leaping, Dumb Bells, Indian Clubs, 
Parallel Bars, the Horizontal Bar, The Trapeze, The Suspended Ropes, 
Skating, Swimming, Rowing, Sailing, Horsemanship, Riding, Driving, 
Angling, Fencing and Broadsword. The whole splendidly illustrated with 
194 fine wood-cuts and diagrams. Bound in boards, with cloth back. 

Price _ 75 cts. 

Bound in cloth, gilt side. Price 1 00 

The Play-Room ; or, In-Door Games for Boys and Girls ; 
including Round Games and Forfeits, Slate and Board Games from the 
simple Game of Tit-Tat-To to the Scientific Game of Chess ; also numerous 
Table and Toy Games, together with a large collection of Evening Amuse- 
ments, Comprehending Comic Diversions, Parlor Magic, Tricks vv'ith Cards, 
Scientific Recreations and Puzzles. Profusely illustrated with 197 fine wood- 
cuts. Bound in boards with cloth back. Price 50 cts. 

Bound in cloth, gilt side. Price 75 cts. 

The Play Ground ; or, Out-Door Games for Boys. A Book 
of Healthy Recreations for Youth, containing over a hundred Amusements, 
including Games of Activity and Speed ; Games with Toys, Marbles, Tops, 
Hoops, Kites, Arcbery, Balls ; with Cricket, Croquet and Base-Ball. Splen- 
didly illustrated with 124 fine wood-cuts. Bound in boards, cloth badk. 

Price --» 50 cts. 

Bound in cloth, gilt^de. Price 75 cts. 

The American Card Player. Containing clear and 

comprehensivedirections for playing the Games of Euchre, Whist, Bezique, 
All Fours, French Fours, Cribbage, Cassino, Straight and Draw Poker, 
Whisky Poker and Commercial Pitch, together with all the laws of those 

games. 150 pages, bound in boards with cloth back. Price. 50 cts. 

Bound in cloth, gilt side. Price 75 cts. 



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OUE CELEBEATED SEEIES OF 

DETECTIVE TALES AND ADVEIiTURES 
The Diar37" of a Detectiye Police Officer. This batch 

of stories was also written by the famous London Detective "Waters," 
and have had an immense sale. It is wonderful to read about the tricks, 
disguises and stratagems this shrewd officer employed to accomplish his ex- 
traordinary arrests, and to bring a lot of cunning* rogues to justice. Some- 
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they found out who he was. This splendid book embraces twenty very in- 
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Flint Johnson ; Tho Monomaniac; The Partner; The Conspiracy; Mark 
Stretton ; The Dramatic Author ; The Two Widows ; Mrs. Witherton ; The 
Orphans ; Helen Porsyth ; The Stolen Letter, a Lawyer's Story. Large 
octavo. Price - 75 cts. 

Leaves from the Note-Book of a New York 

Detective; or. The Private Record of J, B. Some of these are extraor- 
dinary stories, and all of them well toid. The book has the interest of a 
single story, with the advantage to the reader of being able to stop at the 
close of each part without annoyance. Of the relative merits of each tale 
it is difficult to speak, since they are so diverse in character. There is 
something very exciting about these stories ; the reader partakes of the 
hopes and fears of the Detective as his prospect of success waxes or wanes, 
and enjoys a glow of satisfaction at his ultimate triumph. Some of the 
situations the Detective gets into are very perilous, for it is no joke to be in 
the clutches of a forger, counterfeiter, burglar or murderer, made desperate 
by the certainty of being punished if secured and delivered to the ministers 
of justice. Large octavo. Price 75 cts. 

Strange Stories of a Detective; or, Curiosities of 

Crime. There is something very thrilling and fascinating about these 
stories ; and the immense sale this collection is having is an evidence of its 
l)opularity with the reading public. However startling the incidents may 
be, there is no improbability about them. Indeed, the book bears internal 
evidence of being a transcript of personal experience, or based on it ; and 
many of the cases will be recognized by readers familiar with the annals of 
the police. They are all pictures of the time, and well painted at that. 
Large octavo. Price 76 cts. 

The Experiences of a French Detective. This is a 

collection of very startling stories, showing how a shrewd French Detective 
outwitted a lot of cunning French criminals. The adventures of the officer 
are very thrilling. The disguises and tricks he adopted to entrap the 
scamps he had to catch, and the hair-breadth escapes he made from dan- 
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continued narrative that is dramatic in the extreme, and show that " Truth 
is stranger than Fiction." Large octavo. Price 75 cts. 

Autobiography of a London Detective. This series 

of powerful Tales is by "Waters," who was a famous London Detective 
officer, and the book produced a great sensation when first published in 
England, the sale exceeding 100,000 copies. This work embraces seventeen 
Stories, all founded upon the facts that occurred in the eventful experience 
of this celebrated Officer. No person who loves exciting reading should 
fail to get this interesting book. Large octavo. Price 75 cts. 



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The Reason "Why : General Science. A careful col- 
lection of some thousands of reasons for things, which, though generally 
known, are imperfectly understood. A book of condensed scientific knov/- 
ledge for the million. By the author of *' Inquire Within." It is a hand- 
some 12mo volume, of 356 pages, bound in cloth, gilt, and embellished with 
a large number of wood cuts, illustrating the various subjects treated of. 
This work assigns reasons for the thousands of things that daily fall under 
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explanation. 

ti ibsiAMPLE. 

Why does silver tarnish when exposed to the light f Why is the sJcy hlue ? 
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The Biblical Reason "Why. A Hand-Book for Biblical 

students, and a G-uide to Family Scripture Readings. By the author of 
"Inquire Within," &c. Illustrated, large 12mo, cloth, gilt side and back. 
This work gives reasons, founded upon the Bible, and assigned by the most 
eminent Divines and Christian B^iilosophers, for the great and all absorbing 
events recorded in the History of the Bible, the Life of our Saviour, and the 
Acts of His Apostle^. 

EXAMPLE. 

Why did the first patriarchs attain such extreme longevity f 
Why is the Book of the Prophesies of Isaiah a strong proof of the authenticity 
of the xohole Bible ? 
This volume answers upwards of 1,400 similar questions. Price $1 50 

The Reason Why '- Natural History. By the author 

of "Inquire Within," "The Pteason Why," &c. 12mo, cloth, gilt side and 
back. Giving reasons for hundreds of interesting facts in connection with 
Zooology, and throwing a light upon the peculiar habits and instincts of the 
various Orders of the Animai Kingdom. 

EXAMPLE. 

Why do dogs turn around two or three times before they lie down ? 
Why do birds often roost upon one leg f 
This volume answers about 1,500 similar questions. Price ....$1 50 

The Sociable * or^ One Thousand and One Home Amusements. 
Containing Acting Proverbs, Dramatic Charades, Acting Charades, Tableaux 
Vivants, Parlor Games and Parlor Magic, and a choice collection of Puzzles, 
&c., illustrated with nearly 300 Engravings and Diagrams, the whole being 
a fund of never-ending entertainment. By the author of the " Magician*s 
Own Book." Nearly 400 pages, 12mo, cloth, gilt side stamp. Price.. $1 50 

Inquire Within for Anything You Want to Know ; cn^ Over 
3, foO Facts for tJie People, Illustrated. 436 large pages. Price $1 50 

" Inquire Within " is one of the most valuable and extraordinary volumes 
ever presented to the American public, and embodies nearly 4,000 facts, in 
most of which any person will find instruction, aid and entertainment. It 
contains so many valuable recipes, that an enumeration of them requires 
seventy-two columns of fine type for the index. 

The Corner CTipboard ; or, Fads for Everybody. By the 
Authoi of " Inquire Within." Large 12mo, 400 pages, cl»th, gilt side and 
back. Illustrated with over 1,OOC Engravings. Price $1 50 



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Chesterfield's Art of Letter- Writing Simplified. 

A Guide to Friendly, Affectionate, Polite, and Business Correspondence. 
Containing a large collection of the most valuable information relative to 
the Art of Letter-Writing, with clear and complete instructions how to be- 
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gether with numerous examples of Letters and Notes on every subject of 
Epistolary Intercourse, with several important hints on Love-Letters. 
I*rice 12 cts. 

KnO"Wlson's Farrier, and Complete Horse Dbdor, ^q have 

printed a new and revised edition of this celebrated book, which contains 
Knowlson's famous Recipe for the Cure of Spavin, and other new matter^ 
It is positively the best book of the kind ever written. We sell it cheap, 
because of the immense demand for it. The farmers and horse keepers like 
it because it gives them plain, common-sense directions how to manage 
their horses. We sell our new edition (64 pages, 18mo) cheap. Price — -12 cts. 

The Art of Conversation. With Bemarks on Fashion 
and Address. Ry Mrs. Maberly. This is the best book on the subject ever 
published. It contains nothing that is verbose or difficult to understand, 
but all the instructions and rules for conversation are given in a plain and 
common-sense manner, so that any one, however dull, can easily compre- 
hend tiiem. 64 pages OGtavo, large. Price 25 cts. 

Horse-Taming by a New Method, as Practiced by 

J. S. Rarey, A New and Improved Edition, containing Mr. liarey's whole 
Secret of Subduing and Breaking Vicious Horses, together with his improved 
Plan of Managing Young Colts, and Breaking them to the Saddle, the Har- 
ness and the Sulkey, with ten Engravings illustrating the process. Every 
person who keeps a horse should buy this book. It costs but a trifle, and 
you will positively^ find it an excellent guide in the management of that 
noble animal. This is a very handsome book of 64 pages. Prict3-.-12 cts. 

The G-ame of Whist. Eules, Directions and Maxims to 

be observed in playing it. Containing, also, Primary Rules for Beginners, 
Explanations and Directions for Old Players, and the La^vs of the Game. 
Compiled from Hoyle and Matthews. Also, Loo, Euchre, and Poker, 
as now generally played. With an explanatifn of Marked Cards, &c., 
&c. Price X9- cts. 

The Ladies' Love Oracle ; or, Counselcrr to the Fair Sex. 
Being a Complete Fortune Teller and Interpreter to all questions upon the 
different events and situations of life, but more especially relating to all 
circumstances connected with Love, Courtship and Marriage. By Madamk 
Le Marchand. Beautifully illustrated cover, printed in colors. 
Price 30 cts. 

The Laws of Love. A Complete Code of Gallantry. 
Containing concise rules for the conduct of Courtship through its entire 
progress, aphorisms of love, rules for telling the characters and dispositions 
of women, remedies for love, and an Epistolary Code. 12mo, paper. 
Price - 25 cts. 

The Great Wizard of the North's Hand-Book of 

Natural Magric. Being a series of the Newest Tricks of Deception, ar- 

"^ ranged for Amateurs and Lovers of the Art. By Professor J. H. Anderson, 

the great Wizard of the North. Price 25 cts. 



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The Bordeaux "Wine and Liquor-Dealers' Guide. 

A Treatise on the Manufacture of Liquors. By a Practical Liquor Manu- 
facturer. 12mo, cloth. The author, after telling what each liquid is 
composed of, furnishes a formula for making its exact counterpart— exact 
in everything. Each formula is comprehensive — no one can misunderstand 
it. Price, $2 50 

The Ladies' Guide to Beauty. A Companion for the 

Toilet. Containing practical advice on improving the complexion, the hair, 
the hands, the form, the teeth, the eyes, the feet, the features, so as to in- 
sure Ihe highest degree of perfection of which they are susceptible. And 
also upwards of one hundred recipes for various cosmetics, oils, pomades, 
&c., &c. Paper. Price 25 cts. 

Broad Grins of the Laughing Philosopher- Being 

a Collection of Funny Jokes, Droll Incidents, and Ludicrous pictures. By 
Pickle the Younger. This book is really a good one. It is full of the 
drollest incidents imaginable, interspersed with good jokes, quaint sayings, 
and funny pictures. Price 13 cts. 

Yale College Scrapes ; or, JIcw the Boys Go It at New 
Haven, This is a book of 114 pages, containing accounts of all the noted 
and famous " Scrapes" and '* Sprees,'* of which students at Old Yale have 
been guilty for the last quarter of a century. Price 25 cts» 

The Comic English Grammar ; or, A Complete Grammar 
of our Language, with Comic Examples, Illustrated with about fifty 
Engravings. Price 25 cts. 

The Comical Adventures of David Dufficks. 

Illustrated with over one hundred Funny Engravings. Large octavo. 
Price 25 cts. 



BOUND SONG BOOKS. 

Tony Pastor's Complete Budget of Comic Songs. 

Containing a complete collection of the New and Original Songs, Burlesque 
Orations, Stump Speeches, Comic Dialogues, Pathetic Ballads, as sung 
and given by the celebrated Comic Vocalist, Tony Pastor. Cloth, 
gilt. Price $1 25 

The Universal Book of Songs. Containing a choice 

collection of 400 new Sentimental, Scotch, Irish, Ethiopian and Comic 
Songs. 12mo, cloth, gilt. Price $1 25 

The Encyclopedia of Popular Songs. Being a com- 
pilation of all the new and Fashionable Patriotic, Sentimental, Ethiopian, 
Humorous, Comic and Convivial Songs, the whole comprising over 400 
songs. 12mOj cloth, gilt. Price , $1 25 

The Lyrics of Ireland. Embracing Songs of the Affec- 
tions, Convivial and Comic Songs, Moral, Sentimental and Satirical Songs, 
Patriotic and Military Songs, Historical and Political Songs, and Miscella- 
neous Songs. Edited and annotated by Samukl Lover, author of " Handy 
Andy," &c. Embellished with numerous illustrations. 12mo, cloth, gilt 
side and back. Price - $1 50 



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Dr. Valentine's Comic Lectures ; or, Morsels erf 

Mirth for the Melancholy. A budget of "Wit and Humor, and a certain 
cure for the blues and all other serious complaints. Comprising Comic 
Lecturer on Heads, Faces, Noses, Mouths, Animal Magnetism, Etc., with 
Specimens ef Eloquence, Transactions of Learned Societies, Delineations of 
Eccentric Characters, Comic Songs, Etc., Etc. By Dr. W. Valentine, 
the favorite Delineator of Eccentric Characters. Illustrated with twelve 
portraits of Dr. Valentine, in his most celebrated characters. 12mo, 

cloth, gilt. Price $1 25 

Ornamental paper cover. Price 75 cts. 

Dr. Valentine's Comic Metamorphoses. Being the 

second series of Dr. Valentine's Lectures, with Characters, as given by the 
late Yankee Hill. Embellished with numerous portraits. Ornamental 

paper cover. Price ..^^ 76 cts. 

Cloth, gilt. Price - $1 26 

Mrs. Partington's Carpet-Bag of Fun. A Collec- 
tion of over one thousand of the most Comical Stories, Amusing<Ad ven- 
tures, Side-Splitting Jokes, Cheek-Extending Poetry, Eunnv Conundrums, 
QUEER SAYINGS OF MBS. PARTINGTON, Heart-Rending Puns, 
"Witty Repartees, Etc., Etc. The whole illustrated by about 150 comic 

woodcuts. 12mo, 300 pages, cloth, gilt. Price $1 25 

Ornamented paper covers. Price ..- 75 cts. 

Sam Slick in Search of a "Wife. l2mo, paper. 

Price - 75 cts. 

Cloth. Price _ $1 25 

Everybody has heard of " Sam Slick, the Clockmaker," and he has given 
his opinion on almost everything. 

Sam Slick's Nature and Human Nature. Large 

12mo. Paper. Price _ 75 cts. 

Cloth. Price $1 25 

The Attache; or, 8am Slick in Eiigland. 12mo. Paper. 

Price - 75 cts. 

Cloth. Price $1 25 

Sam Slick's Sayings and Doings. Paper. Price 75 cts. 

Cloth. Price..., ...$1 25 

Ladies' Guide to Crochet. By Mrs. Ann S. Stephens. 

Copiously illustrated with original and very choice designs in Crochet, 
Etc., printed in colors, separate from the letter-press, on tinted paper. 
Also with num.erous wood-cuts, printed v.dth the letter-press, explanatory 
of terms, Etc. Eound in extra cloth, gilt. This is by far the best work on 
the subject of Crochet ever published. Price $1 25 

The Laughable Adventures of Messrs. Brown, 

Jones and H,obinson. Shov/ing where they wont and how they went ; 
what they did and how they did it. "With nearly two hundred most thril- 
lingly comic engravings. Price 30 cts. 

The Knapsack Full of Fun ; or, One Thousand Rations 
of Laughter, Illustrated with over 500 comical Engravings, and contain- 
ing over one thousand Jokes and Eunny Stories. By Doesticks and other 
witty writers. Large quarto. Price 30 cts. 

The Plate of Cho-wder ; A Dish fm- Funny Fellows, Ap- 
propriately illustrated with 100 Comic Engravings. By the author of 
** Mrs. Partington's Carpet-Bag of Eun." 12mo, paper cover. Price 25 cts. 



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_ ^ , — ^ 

Spayth's American Dranght Player ; or, Tiie Theory 

and Practice of the Scientific Game of Checkers: Simplified and illas- 
trated with practical diagrams ; containing upwards of 1,700 Games and 
Positions. By Henky Spayth. Third edition, with over two hundred 
corrections and improvements, containing: The Standard Laws of the 
Game, Full Instructions, Draught Board, numbered, Names of the Games, 
and how formed, The " Theoiy of the Move and its changes '* practically- 
explained and illustrated v/ith Diagrams, Playing Tables for Draught 
Clubs, New Systems of Numbering the Board, Prefixing Signs to the Varia- 
tions, List of Draught Treatises and Publications chronologically arranged. 

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS, 

The Press are unqualified in their commendation of this valuable work. 
The following brief extracts are taken from extended notices of it : 

** It is by far the best work upon the game that has ever been published.'* 
— Atlantic Monthly Magazine, 

'* Mr, -Spayth's book contains matter of the profoundest and most indispen- 
sable moment." — The Independent. 

" It is the most instructive treatise on the game ever published in , any 
country."— jBw^aZo Courier. 

Boi^din cloth, gilt side and back. Price. - - $3 OO 

Spayth's Game of Draughts. Containing upwards of 
Pive Hundred Games and Positions, Full Instructions, the Move and its 
Changes, [Laws of the Game, etc. By Henry Spayth, author of "The 
American Draught Player." This book is entirely new, and although it is 
designed as an addition, or supplement to the author's first work, '*The 
American Draught Player," it is complete in itself. It contains lucid in- 
structions for beginners*, laws of the game, diagrams, the score of 3G4 
games, together with about 150 novel, instructive and ingenious "criti- 
cal positions.'* The work is an admirable treatise upon the noble game to 
which Mr. Spayth has given so much profitable study and thought, and 
will, if possible, still further enhance his reputation, both as a player and 
author. To the experienced Draught player it will, during the long winter 
evenings, prove an invaluable companion, and. the novice can from its 
pages learn a mental recreation that has been and is the delight of many of 
our greatest minds. Cloth, gilt back and side. Price... $1 60 

Spayth's Draughts or Checkers for Beginners. 

Being a comprehensive guide for those who desire to leam the game. This 
treatise was written by Henry Spayth, the celebrated player, and is by far 
the most complete and instructive elementary work on Draughts ever pub- 
lished. It is profusely illustrated with diagrams of ingenious stratagems, 
curious positions and perplexing problems, and contains a great variety of 
interesting and instructive games, progressively arranged and clearly ex- 
plained with_ notes, so that the learner may easily comprehend them. "With 
the aid of this valuable manual, a beginner may soon master the theory of 
Checkers, and will only require a little practice to become proficient in the 
game. Cloth, gilt side. Price _. , 75 Cents 

That S It; or, Plain Teaching. By the author of-** Inquire 
Within," "The Reason Why," &c. Illustrated with over 1,200 Wood 
Cuts.^ 12mo., cloth, gilt side and back. This book is a perfect encyclopedia 
of universal information upon things common and uncommon, found in na- 
ture, art and science. Th.e whole visible world is swept within the circuit 
of its touch, and the subjects are illustrated by wood engravings of an ex- 
cellent character, done in a high style of that art. Over one thousand 
wood engravings adorn its pages, from the round globe to the smallest 
flower, and from thence to the tiniest insect. It is a library m itself, and to 
a lad or miss of an inquiring turn of mind, it is a perfect Aladdin's palace 
of useful and interesting information. Price _ $1 50 



C9pi«8 of th« above boolu seat fiHia ef postage eu r»9«ipi of prifle. 



Day's American Ready-Reckoner, containing Tables 

for rapid calculations of Aggregate Values, Wages, Salaries, Board, Inter- 
est Money, &c., &c. Also. Tables of Timber, Plank, Board and Log Mea- 
surements, with full explanations how to measure them, either by the 
square foot (board measure), or cubic foot (timber measure). Also, 
how to Measure Wood by the Cord, with Tables applicable to Piles 
of AYood of any shnpe, and showing in a simple manner how to ascer- 
tain the Contents in Cords of a Pile of any shape. Also, Tables of 
Land Measurements, showing the Contents of a Piece of Land of almost 
any shape, from a quarter acre up to ten acres, and telling exactly how to 
Measure Land in any quantity by Chains and Links, or by Yards and Peet. 
Also, telling how to describe a piece of land in deeding it. Also, giving in- 
formation as to acquiring and locating a Earm on the Public Lands of the 
United States. By B. H. Day, This Ready- Reckoner is composed of 
Original Tables which are positively correct, having been revised in the 
most careful manner. The Table of Aggregate Values of Merchandise 
or Produce by the Piece, Pound, Yard, Foot, Inch, Gallon, Quart, 
Pint, Peck, or Bushel, from an eighth up to 100 cents, bringing in all 
necessary fractions. This set of Tables is very complete for reckoning 
the aggregate values of articles priced at almost any fractional part of a 
dollar, and is of course applicable to articles of any price whatever, over a 
dollar. It is perfect in this respect. The second set of Tables gfp-e the 
value by the ounce of articles sold by the pound from two cents per pound, 
cent by cent up to one dollar per pound. The Table of Wages by the Week, 
showing the Wages from a fourth of a day up to four weeks. The rates of 
wag-BS begin at twenty-five cents and gradually rise up to twenty dollars 
per week. Tables of Wages by the Month, show the Wages per day and 
for any number of days in the month from one dollar up to one hundred 
dollars per month. Tables of Salaries by the Year, show the amount of the 
Salary for one day, and for any number of days up to one month, begin- 
ning at twenty dollars, and rising gradually up to fifteen hundred dollars 
a-year. Tables of Board by the Week give the board for one day, increas- 
ing one day at a time up to four weeks, then the board for thirty days and 
thirty-one days at rates from one dollar, increasing gradually up to fifty 
dollars per week. The Interest Tables show the rates at five, six, seven 
and eight per cent, on any amount, from one day up to one year. Then 
come the Board, Plank and Timber Tables, showing the Contents of 
Boards, Planks, Bound Logs, and other Timber ; also, the Wood and Land 
Measurements. These Tables are all prefaced by explanations telling ex- 
actly how to make the measurements, and giving easily understood exam- 
ples, so that any person can measure for himself if he don't want to use 
the tables, or distrusts them. This is, indeed, the most simple and easily 
understood Beady-Reckoner ever jmnted. Most books of this kind are 
hard to understand, and that is why we wanted to print one with explana- 
tions how the reckoning should be done. We think purchasers of this book 
will be satisfied that we have succeeded in making a Reckoner that any- 
body can comprehend. It is a book of 102 pages, and embraces more mat- 
ter than 500 pages of any other Reckoner. Bound in boards, with cloth 

bick. Price - - 50 

Bound in cloth, gilt back. Price 75 

Boundin leather tucks [Pocket Book Style.] Price $1 00 

Miner's Domestic Poultry Book. A Treatise on tK^ 

History, Breeding and General Management of Foreign and Domestic Fowls, 
By T. B. Mixer. Author of "American Bee-Keeper's Manual," embra- 
cing all the late Importations of Fowls, and being descriptions by the best 
Powl Fanciers in the United States, of all the most valuable breeds, with 
the author's extensive experience as a breeder, together with selected mat- 
ter of interest, comprising, as it is believed, the most complete and authen- 
tic work on the subject ever published. Illustrated with numerous Por- 
traits from Life. Bound in cloth. Price , $1 50 



Copieg of the abova books sent free of postage on receipt of price. 



Mrs. Cro wen's American Ladies' Cookery Book, 

Comprising every variety of information for ordinary and holidny occasion.s> 
and containin^: over 1200 original Receipts for preparing and cooking Soups 
and Broths, Fish and Oysters, Clams, Muscles and Scollops, Lobsters, 
Crabs and Terrapins, Meats of all kinds, Poultry and Game, E:r:is an I 
Cheese, Vegetables and Salads, Sauces of all kinJs, Fancy Desscrrrf. Pud- 
dings and Custards, Pies and Tarts, Bread and Biscuit, lloils and Cikos, 
Preserves and Jeliics, Pickles and Catsups, Potted Meats, etc., etc. Toge- 
ther with valuable and important hints on choosing and purchasing all 
kinds of Provisions, and preparing Ripe Fruits for Table, B'lls of Fare for 
the relief of young housekeepers. Arrangement of the Table for every varie- 
ty of Dinner Parties, Etiquette of the Dinner Table, Cookery for Invalids, 
Carving Made Easy, Etc. The -whole being a complete sysrem of American 
Cookery. By Mrs. T. J. Crowen. Illustrated with several diagrams. This 
genuine and really practical American Cook Book is worth a thousand of 
the foreign republications which are issued from the press in this country. 
Mrs. Crowen gives directions for making all sorts of economical dishes, 
baking all kinds of cakes and pies, manufacturing every variety of confec- 
tionery, preserving, pickling, &c., so plainly that the housekeeper of a 
week's standing can easily act upon her directions, and yet she has taken so 
coniprehensive a scope that the very best and most skillful will find some- 
thing new. All the iReceipts in this work have been carefully tried, and 
may be relied 'upon as the result of actual experience. 12mo, cloth bind- 
ing, 474 pages. Price — $2 00 

Martine's Sensible Letter Writer; Beinp: a comprehen- 
sive and complete Guide and Assistant for those who desire to carry on 
Epistolary Correspondence ; Containing a large collection of model letters, 
on the simplest matters of life, adapted to all ages and conditions, 

EMBRACING, 

^Business Letters; 
Applications for Employment^ vntJi 

Letters of Recommendation^ and 

Answers to Advertisements ; 
Letters between Parents and Children ; 
Letters of Friendly Counsel and Re- 

monstrance ; 
Letters soliciting Advice^ Assistance, 

and Friend'y Favors ; 

The whole containing 300 Sensible Letters and Notes. This is an invalua- 
ble book for those persons who have not had sufficient jiractice to enable 
them to write letters without great effort. It contains such a variety of 
letters, that models maybe found to suit every subject. Bound in boards, 

with illuminated cover and cloth back, 207 pages. Price . 50 

Bound in cloth 75 

Duncan's Masonic Ritual and Monitor, or Guide to 

the Three Symbolic Degrees of the Ancient York Bite, And to the 
Degrees of Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master, and the Koyal 
Arch. By Malcolm C. Duncan. Explained and interpreted by copious no'tes 
and numerous engravings. Although this work is a complete Ritual of the 
S3rmbolic and Chapter Ijegrees, and is also profusely illustrated with engra- 
vings of the Secret Signs and Grips, it is not so much the design of the au- 
. thor to gratify the curiosity of the uninitiated, as to furnish a guide to the 
younger members of the order, by means of which their progress from 
grade to grade may be facilitated. The *' work" laid do^vTi in this book dif- 
fers from anything heretofore published. No Mason should be without it. 

Bound in Cloth. Price ^2 50 

Leather tucks [Pocket Book Style] with gilt edges $3 00 



Letters of Courtesy, Friendship and 
Affection ; 

Letters of Condolence and Sympath ; 

A Choice Co lection of Love Letters, for 
Every Situation in a Courtship ; 

Notes of Ceremony, Familiar Invita- 
tions, etc., together with Notes of Ac- 
ceptance and Regret. 



Copies of the above boolis sent tree of postage ou receipt of price. 



Chesterfield's Letter "Writer and Com"Dlete Book 

OF ETIQUETTE ; or^ Concise SystematiG Directions for' Arranging and 
Writing Letters. Also, Model Correspondence in Friendship and Business, 
and a great variety of Model Love Letters, If any lady or geDtAeman de- 
sires to know how to begin a Love Correspondence, this is just the book they 
want. If they wish to speak their minds to a tardy, a bashful, or a careless 
or indifferent lover, or sweetheart, this book tells exactly how it should be 
done. This work is also a Complete Book of Etiquette. You will find more 
real information in this booky than in half a dozen volumes of the more ex- 
pensive ones. It is emphatically a book for the million, and one which 
every young person should have. As it contains Etiquette for 'Ladies, as 
well as for Gentlemen — Etiquette of Courtship and Marriage— Etiquette for 
writing Love Letters, and all that sort of thing, it is an appropriate book to 
present to a lady. This book contains 136 pages, and is bound in pasteboard 
sides, with cloth back. Price ^ 40 cts. 

Brisbane's G-olden Ready Reckoner. Calculated in 

Dollars and Cents, bx^in^x a useful Assis-tant to Traders in buying and selling 
various sorts of commodities, either wholesale or retail, showing at once the 
amount or value of any number of articles, or quantity of goods, or any 
merchandise, either by the gallon, quart, pint, ounce, pound, quarter, hun- 
dred, yard, foot, inch, bushel, etc., in an easy and plain manner. To which, 
arc added Interest Tables, calculated in dollars and cents, for days and for 
months, at six per cent, and at seven per cent, per annum,, alternately; and 
a great number of other Tables and Hules for calculation never" before in 
print. Bound in boards, cloth hack. By William D. Brisbane, A. M., 
Accountant, Book-keeper,, &c. Price-- - » 35 cts. 

Richardson's Monitor of Free-Masonry. A Com- 
plete Guide to the various Ceremonies and Houtine in Eree-Masons' Lodges, 
Chapters, Encampments, Hierarchies, &c., &c., in all the Degrees, whether 
Modern, Ancient, Ineffable, Philosophical,, or Historical. Containing, also, 
the Signs, Tokens, Grips, Pass-words, Decorations, Drapery, Dress^ liegalia 
and Jewels, in each I>egree. Profusely illustrated with Explanatory En- 
gravings, Plans of the Interior of Lodges, &c. By Jabez Eichardsoji* 
A. M. A book of 185 pages. 

Bound in paper covers. Price --- 50 cts. 

Bound and gilt. Price • -. -. $1 00 

This is the only book ever written which gives a detailed description oi' 
the doings inside a Masonic m,eetingo 

109 Tricks "With Cards. J. H. Geebn, the Beformed 

Gambler, has just authorized the publication of a new edition of his book 
entitled, *' Gamblers* Tricks with Cards Expoaed and Explained." This is 
a book of 05 pages, and it exposes and explains all the Mysteries- of the 
Gambling Tables. It is interesting, not only to those who play, but to those 
who do not. Old Players will get some new ideas from this- curious book. 

Paper covers. Price » „-..30 cts. 

Bound in boards with cloth back. Price 50 cts. 

Boxing Made Easy; or, Tlie Gomplde Manual of Self' 
Defense. Clearly Explained and Illustrated in a Series of Easy Lessons, 
with some Important Hints to Wrestlers, Price 15 cts. 

HoTsT" to "W°in and How to Woo. Containing Rules for 
the Etiquette of Courtship, v/ith diructions showing' how to win the favor of 
the Ladies, how to begin and end a Oourtship,. and liov/Love Letters kIiouU 
be written. Price. ..J _.., »___ _13 cts. 



Copies of tlie a'bove books sent frse of postage' oa receip/: ef. ^^fi. 



aO OD BOO KS. 

The Parlor Magician ; or, One Hundred Tricks for the Draw- 
ing-room, containing an Extensive and Miscellaneous Collection of Con- 
juring and Legerdemain ; Sleights with Dice, Dominoes, Cards, Ribbons, 
Hings, Fruit, Coin, Balls, Handkerchiefs, etc., all of which maybe Per- 
formed in the Parlor or Drawing-Room, vathout the aid of any apparatus ; 
also embracing a choice variety of Curious Deceptions, which may be per- 
formed with the aid of simple apparatus ; the whole illustrated and clear- 
ly explained with 121 engravings. Paper covers, price 30 cfs. 

Eound in boards, with cloth back-* ^-- -^ 50 ct«. 

Book of Riddles and Five Hundred Home 

Amusements, containing a Choice and Curious Collection of Riddles, 
Charades, Enigmas, Rebuses, Anagrams, Transpositions, Conundrums, 
Amusing Puzzles, Queer Sleights, Recreations in Arithmetic, Fireside 
Games, and Natural IMagic, embracing Entertaining Amusements in Mag- 
netism, Chemistry, Second Sight, and Simple Recreations in Science for 
Family and Social Pastime, illustrated with sixty engravings. Paper covers, 

price - .-.-30 cts. 

Bound in boards, with cloth back ^-..50 cl»» 

The Book of Fireside Games. Containing an Explana- 
tion of the most Entertaining Games suited to the Family Circle as a Re- 
tTeation, such as Games of Action, Games which merely require attention. 
Games which require memory. Catch Gaines, which have for their objects 
Tricks or Mystification, Games in which an opportunity is afforded to 
display Gallantry, "Wit, or some slight knowledge of certain Sciences, 
Amusing Forfeits, Fireside Games for Winter Evening Amusemc^nt, etc. 

Paper covers, price 30 cts. 

Bound in boards, with cloth back 50 cts. 

Parlor Tricks with Cards, containing Explanations of 
all the Tricks and Deceptions with Playing Cards ever invented, embra- 
cing Tricks with Cards performed by Sleight-of-hand ; by the aid of Mem- 
ory, Mental Calculation, and Arrangement of the Cards ; by the aid of 
Confederacy, and Tricks Performed by the aid of Prepared Cards. The 
whole illustrated and made plain and easy, with seventy engravings. Paper 

covers, price 30 cts. 

Bound in boards with cloth back ,—-50 eta. 

Parlor Theatricals ; or, Wirder Evenings' Entertainment. Con- 
taining Acting Proverbs, Dramatic Charades, Acting Charades, or Drawing 
Room Pantomimes, Musical Burlesques, Tableaux Yivants, &c. ; with In- 
structions for Amateurs ; how to Construct a Stage and Curtain ; how to 
get up Costumes and Properties, on the •' Making tJp " of Characters, Ex- 
its and Entrances ; how to arrange Tableaux, etc. Illustrated with Engra- 
vings. Paper covers, price 30 cis. 

Bound in boards, cloih back 50 cts. 

The Book of 500 Curions Puzzles. Containing a 

large collection of entertaining Pai»doxe«, Perplexing Deception in niTm- 
bers, and Amusing Tricks in Geometry. By the author of " The Sociable,'* 
*' The Secret Out," *' The Magician's Own Book." Illustrated with a Great 
Variety of Engravings. This book will have a large sale. It will furnish 

Fun and Amusement for a whole winter. Paper covers, price f?0 c<s. 

Bound in boards, with cloth back 50 cts. 

dice: & FITZGEBALD, 18 Ann St. 

Copies of &e afcore tKKJkg sent to any afidreas in ilie V. S. ft-ee &( p^afege on re«8ipt of priceT 



1 

A- 



M.^ 



SMfTHSONIAN tNSTITUTfON LIBRARIES 




ent free ol Postage at the Prices Mar kei 



'ruinps' American Hoyle ; or, Gentleman^s Hand-Book of Games, — ^2 

FSpaytli's American Draught Player,-- 3 

Spayth's Game of DriiUglits, - — 1 

Spay th's Draughts or Checkers for Beginners. - 

Scattergood's Game of Checkers Simplified and Explained, - 

Harjd-Book of Billiards. By Phelah and Berger, 

The American Card Player, - 

Marasche's Manual of Chess, - --- — 

The Secret Out; or, 1000 Tricks with Cards, - - 1 

100 Gambler's Tricks with Cards. By Green , • - 

Parlor Tricks with Cards, - 

Hilgrove's Ball-Hoom Guide, - - 

Book of 500 Curious Puzzles, with 100 Illustrations, 

Martine's Sensible Letter writer, 

Day's American Beady Beckoner and People's Calculator, 

Chesterfield's Letter Writer and Etiquette Combined,-- 

Brisbane's Golden Beady Beckoner, 

The Parlor MagicJiauy^^OO illustrations,- — - 

The Perfect Gc ntlemaiir^iA Ccmpleto Book of Etiquette,----. 1 

The Look of Biddies and 500 Amusements,--- - - 

Parlor Theatricals, — - - - 

Look of Eireside Games and Home Amusements, -- 

Le ¥archand's Ecrtu^e Teller ard Dream look, 

^The Young Beporter; or, Kow to Write Short Hand, 

:adame Le Kcrmand's Unerring Eortune Teller, - — 



50 

75 

50 

30 

50 

50 

50 ij 

SO 

SO 

75 

30 

50 

50 

35 

G5 

30 

50 

30 

SO 

SO 

35 

5 

3 



DICK & FITZG-ERALD, Publishers, 

NEV/ lORK. 

ll^icK & FiTZGEPvALD wiU send any of the above Works by] 
mail, postage paid, to any part of tlio United 
States, on receipt of the price. 



ms