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Full text of "The American city"

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PHILLIPS 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 

ENID, OKLAHOMA 











From the collection of the 






Prepnger 
■^^ iJibrary 

TAT Jb* _ 



b t 



San Francisco, California 
2007 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/americancity24granrich 




Volume XXIV 



January — June, 1921 



PUBLISHED BY 



THE CIVIC PRESS 

TRIBUNE BUILDING, NEW YORK 






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INDEX TO AUTHORS January— June, 1921 




Abell, J. B 193 

Adams, John D 623 

Adams, Thomas .... 287 

Austin, B. F 306 

Baker, E. H 79 

Ball, Charles F 378 

Ballard, F. W 461 

Balmer, Robert 247 

Bayley, Clarence E.. 132 
Beard, Harriet E... 2.57 

Btauvais, P. H 32 

Bell, Harry J 197 

Bernhard, Robert A. 395 
Bigger, Frederick . . 50 

Black, Z. E 307 

Blum, E. Y 311 

Bonnar, Benjamin H. 81 

Bradbury, E. A 627 

Burke, John W. 615 

Burnett, L. S 486 

Burton, P. T 496 

Byers, Charles Alma 398 

Caldwell, John S. 

15, 133, 269 

Campbell, Carlos C. 463 

Campbell, W. C 413 

Cassat, D. B 631 

Caulkins, E. Dana.. 587 

Clark, H. W 171 

Clyde, Sheridan .... 517 

Cole, L. S 128, 230 

Comey, Arthur C... 154 

onard, William R. . 13 

le, Charles H 483 

Coulter, Waldo S. . . 368 

Cravath, James R. . . 150 

Cunningham, J. J... 517 

OeBoer, S. R 55 

Deering, Edward M. 59.') 

Dermitt, H. M 203 

Dougherty, Donald C. 315 
Duncan, John W... 375 

Duncan, L. H 625 

Dunn, C. F 415, 517 

Duryea, Morris Jesup, 

629 

Engler, Irvin 4 

■I'assett. Charles M., 

343, 475 



Felt, A. T 3UU 

Fenner, D. C 109 

l-isher, W. H 415 

Fleming, Samuel E. 36 

Ford, George B 383 

Foitdick, Raymond B. 225 

trase, H. B 33 

Freed, E. S 34 

Freeman, T. L 35 

Friedman, Herman.. 407 

Gannett, Farley 280 

Gavett, Weston .... 504 

Gibbon, W. A 258 

Gibson, J. E 159 

Graham, Lloyd S... 465 

Greene, George W . . 307 

Gulick, Luther 429 

Hager, Gerald F..., 515 

Hall, Bolton 474 

Hallett, Geo. H., Jr. 468 

Ham, W. H 451 

Harmon, W. C, Jr. 129 

Harris, A. R 79 

Hartwell, David A. . 24 

Herdman, Hugh H. 484 

Flicks, Everett 411 

Hill, Nicholas S., Jr. 607 

Holden, William. 197, 411 

Ilolland, Clifford M. 231 

Hubbard, G. \ 121 

Hubbard, Pr6vost... 243 

Huff, Charles H 564 

(iiches, James W... 590 



TaoKson, Margaret. . . 
Jacobs, Philip P. . . . 
Janiieson, Simms.... 

JeiTries, L. D , 

Joachim, Leo H. . . . 

Jortnson, A. L 

Jortnson, Col. Geo. A. 

Johnson, George E . 
Johnson, L. S 



393 

473 

83 

11 

67 

142 

175 
151 
407 



Kearney, Paul W. . . 499 
Kelley, Robert F. G. 510 
Ketcham, Charles M. 413 
Kimball, Theodora... 584 

Koch, Felix J 569 

LaMotte, V. G 201 



LeCocq, Frank .... 147 

Leland, Arthur .... 71 

Lloyd, E. B 145 

Lowe, Lucy 14 1 

Lurie, Harry L 373 

Macallum, A. F.... 157 
MacDonald, Thos. H. 494 

March, Harry J 143 

Mayer, LeRoy G... 405 

MpKenzie, Thomas. 139 

McKibben, James A. 521 

McNabb, John 140 

Medaries, Arthur. . . 36 

Milliken, John C. . . 464 

Montoliu, C 355 

Munson, William L. 228 

Ncwsom, Reeves J. 25 

Noble, M 20 

Norton. Herman J. 259 

Orebaugh, R. W ... 255 
Osoinach, John A., 

75, 305 

Otis, Harrison Gray. 263 

Oxnam, O. R 307 

PaTmer, Harry F. . . 195 

Parker, George 179 

Parsons, Will C 260 

Pierce, W. Dwight.. 379 

Pldtt, Arthur E 259 

Pratt, Lowell C 594 

Ragsdale, George T. 374 

Raitt, C. B 35 

Ramsey, Leonidas 

Willing 479 

Rankin, Rebecca B.. 286 

Raymond, K. B 141 

Reardon, E. 1 83 

Remington, W. H. B. 486 

Rightor, C. E 527 

Rigsby, R. W 469 

Robinson, William A. 291 

Roy, J. J. Vick 378 

Ryan, Oswald 588 

Sabine, Harold F.. . 63 

Sanborn, James F. . 566 
Schaphorst, W. F., 

361, 487, 559 

Srheidker. H. A 623 

Shanks, Sanders, Jr. 187 



Sharpies, Philip P.. 127 

Shaw, Walter A 574 

Shay, George D 459 

Sheaf, Frederick W. 482 

Sim, George 471 

Smith, Roy S 75 

Spiller, Caryl 77 

Steele, H. Wirt 258 

Stewart, Mildred 

Penrose 9 

Stockly, William W. 620 

Strayer, George D.. 115 
Street, A. L. H.85, 183, 

205, 321, 431, 537, 635 

Strong, William A.. 593 

Sweeney, Daniel J.. 29 
Sylvester, Horace C, 

Jr 417 

Taylor, A. D 65 

Thomas, C. H 485 

Tibbetts, A. C 592 

Tingley, Lewis C... 519 
Tiautschold, Regi- 
nald 238 

Tripp, B. Ashburton. 39 



Ulrich, George* J. 



481 



Wands, George W.. 611 

Warner, E. A 315 

Washington, H. A.. 348 

Waugh, Frank A 497 

Weissgerber, Oscar F. 164 

Wells, James P 295 

Weston, Robt. Spurr 119 

W^etherell, Frank E. 535 

Whipple, George C. 112 

Whitten, Robert H.. 617 

Wiles, J. B 199 

Wilson, John 456 

Winters, S. R 274 

Withers, I. A 376 

Witts, Milford 629 

Wood, Major Edward 

A 251 

Woods, Carroll R... 311 
Woodward, William 

C. 495 

Wooldridge. A. P... 143 

Wright, Allen Henry 62 

Wright, Henry C... 579 

Wright, K. C Ill 



INDEX TO SUBJECTS January— June, 1921 



As an aid to readers of The American City in 
looking up references, the page numbers of the indi- 
vidual issues of the volume are given: 
January, 1-107 April, 343-449 . 

Feoruary, 109-223 May, 451-557 

March. 225-341 June, 559-653 

Accident Prevention 

— -Automobile Accidents Reduced by Billboard 

Sign, Omaha, Nebr 525 

• — Automobile Headlight Regulations 150 

— Building Regulations, Rochester, N. Y. 

(pamphlet notice) 437 

— Chicago Safety Council Teaches Accident 

Prevention 195 

— Course of Study in Safety Education (pam- 
phlet notice) 211 

— Education in Safety (pamphlet notice) 545 

— Fire and Accident Prevention (pamphlet 

notice) 91 

— Flashing Lights Attract Drivers' Attention, 

Rutherford, N. J 481 

— Louisville, Ky., Safety Campaign 373 

— Municipal Liability Denied (legal decisions) 

Broken Flagstone Causing Injury at 

Night; City Not Notified of Defect — 

Yonkers, N. Y 87 

Injurv to Bystander from F'ire Hose Reel 

— Atlanta, Ga 85 

Notice of Claim for Damages Must Be 
Accurate as to Tinie and Place — Helena, 

Mont 87 

Runaway Team Causing Accident — East 
Cleveland, Ohio 321 

—Painted Traffic Markings 617, 653 

— Records of Accidents: System for the Police 

Department 615 

— Swinging Semaphores for Safety of School 

Children, Youngstown, Ohio 33 

— Teaching .\ccident Prevention, Detroit. 

Mich 2">6 

— Vehicles Required to Stop at Rear of Stand- 
ing Street Cars; Ordinance Valid; Cleve- 
land, Ohio (legal decision) 323 

— Wint-er Casualties 28 

See also "Fire Prevention and Control," 
"Grade Crossing Elimination" 

Accounting, Municipal and County — See 
"Finance" 

Aeroplanes 

— Flying (iuide and Log Book (book review).. 211 
- — Map from Aeroplane Used for City Planning, 

Dallas. Tex. 251 

— Modesto, Calif., Aviation Field 481 

— Municipal Landing Fields and Airports 

(book review) 89 

American City Bureau 

— Summer School of Community leadership. 404 

Americanization 

— "America Day," Pomona, Calif 593 

— Boston's Comprehensive Program 521 

— California Commission of Immigration and 
Housing, Annual Report (pamphlet no- 
tice) 641 

— Franklin. Pa., Americanization School 623 

—Publications on 91. 211, 327, 543 

— Scranton, Pa., Americanization Class (pho- 
tograph ) f>f*7 

Annexation to City 

— Contested on Account of Liability to Mu- 
nicipal Taxation, (Georgetown, Ky. (legal 
decision ) 8-^ 

— Kenl Estate Sale Promotes Expansion of 

City. Xenia, Ohio 517 

— Special Election Notice Substantial Compli- 
ance with Statute — Wheeling. W. Va. — 
(legal decision) 85 

Assessments — See "Finance" 



Baths and Swimming Pools 

— Administration of Municipal Bath-Houses. . 39.'i 
— Hockey Rink Combined with Swimming 

Pool. Milton, Mass ..^ 119 

— Montgomery, Ala., Municipal Swimming 

Pool 348 

— School Baths, Baltimore, Md 510 

— Swimming Parties for Children, Paterson, 

N. J 486 

Billboards and Signs 

— -Alexandria, La., Billboard of Welcome.... 309 
— Automobile Accidents Reduced by Billboard 

Sign, Omaha, Nebr 525 

— Poster Advertising .Association 14 

Bond Issues — See "Finance" 
Books — See "Publications" 
Bridges and Viaducts 

— Knoxville. Tenn., Viaduct Adds Business 

Block to City 463 

— (Ornamental Bridge, in a Park in Portland, 

Maine (photograph) 493 

Buffalo's Memorial History 29 

Cemeteries 

— Cleveland, Ohio, Competition for Ideas as to 

Disposal of Cemetery . ._ 592 

— Fort Collins, Colo 59 

Charities 

— .\dvertising a Charity Campaign by -Street 

Lights, Sclienectady. X. V 146 

— Conference of Social Work (book review) . . 89 
— Emergency Relief Organization through Red 

Cross 1 77 

— Lodging-Houses, Plea for (pamphlet notice) 89 
— Rhode Island Welfare Work (pamphlet no- 
tice) 439 

— Social .Xgencies (pamphlet notice) s!) 

— Social Workers' (luide to the Serial Publi- 
cations of Representative Social Agencies 

(book review) 437 

Sec also "Conwiunity Trusts" 

Charters and Charter Revision 

— An Asset of the Ideal City: Its Charter.... 343 
— Bonding Limit Raised; General Statute Re- 
peals Charter Provision — Jackson, Mich. — ■ 
(legal decision) 205 

— Denver, Colo.. City and County Consolida- 

tion 67 

— Los Angeles, Calif., Partial City and Coun- 
ty Consolidation 69 

— Parade Permit Required by Ordinance; -Au- 
thorized by Charter Provision — Buffalo, 

X. Y. — (legal decision) 209 

— Sacramento, Calif., .Adopted Proportional 

Representation and City Manager Plan.. 4 

See also "City Manager Plan" 

Child Welfare 

— Bibliography on Infant Care (pamphlet no- 
tice) 91 

— Child Labor Day. 1921 53 

— Delinquent Child Problem 475 

—Handbook of Child Welfare (pamphlet no- 
tice 54:; 

—Juvenile Court Legislation (pamphlet notice) 91 
— -Vational Child Health Council Health Dem- 
onstration 37S 

— New Jersey's Child Welfare Campaign .... 399 
— Rural Child Welfare (pamphlet notice).... 91 
See also "Health and Sanitation," 
"Schools" 

City Beautification — See "City Planning,'' 

"Forests," "Lighting," "Parks," etc. 
City Manager Plan 

— Arkansas Legislative .\ct That City Manager 
Need Not Be Resident of City, Held \oid 
(legal decision) 32.' 

— Budget in Its Relation to the City Manager 527 



— Dayton, Ohio, New City Manager 319 

— I.atest Approved Form of City Government. 344 

— Sacramento, Calif., Adopted by 4 

— Story of the City-Manager Plan (pamphlet 

notice) 91 

— Success Reported by 38 Cities 6 

City Planning and Replanning 

— Aeroplane Map Used by City Planner, Dal- 
las, Tex 251 

— An Asset of the Ideal City: City Planning.. 344 

— Bibliography on Housing, Town Planning 

and the Garden City (pamphlet notice) . 639 
— liuffalo, N. Y 143 

— Burlington, Iowa, Recreation Facts (pam- 

phlet notice) 545 

— California Real Estate Association En- 
courages City Planning 544 

— Cambridge, Mass. (pamphlet notice) 329 

—(Cleveland, Ohio, Brooklyn Section, Group 

Plan 478 

— Cleveland, Ohio. Competition for Ideas as to 

Disposal of Cemetery 592 

— Decatur, III. (pamphlet notice) 213 

— Fairhope, Ala. — A Town Planning Scheme 

for Its Development into an Organic City 355 

— Flint, Mich, (pamphlet notice) 89 

— Japanese Cities, Programs of 429 

— "Johnstown, Pa., Considering Adoption of 

City Plan 319 

— Joliet, III. (pamphlet notice) 437 

— Looks of the Town 128 

— Los Angeles, Calif., City Planning Commis- 
sion 637 

— Louisville. Ky.. Engineering Work 95 

— Map Making, Bristol, \'a 469 

• — Map Reproducing and Tracing 553 

— Pittsburgh's Playgrounds and Citizens' Com- 
mittee on City Plan 50 

— Portland, Ore. (pamphlet notice) 50 

— Rewards of City Planning 230 

— Rural Planning and Development: Some 

References 584 

— Sebring. Fla., Water-Front 65 

— Shaker Heights V'illage, Ohio, General Plan 

and School Group 39 

■ — South Australia, Town Planning Act ...... 637 

— Zoning 

Aims: Efficient Industry and Wholesome 

Housing 287 

-An Asset of the Ideal City: Zoning 345 

Basic Step in City Planning 480 

Berkeley, Calif., Votes for Comprehensive 

Zoning 633 

Massachusetts Constitutional Amendment 
-Authorizes Zoning Ordinance (legal de- 
cision) M. 433 

Milwaukee, Wis.. Zoning Ordinance 154 

Minnesota Legislative Act Enables Cities 

to Do Zoning Under Police Power 512 

New Jersey Zoning Regulations LTpheld. . 394 

Simplifying Zoning 383 

Sec also "Water-Front De-.-'elopment" 

Civic and Commercial Organizations 
and Their Work, 

72,. 193, 305, 404. 513. 621 



Albany. N. Y 


73 


Manistee, Mich 


31 


.Mexandria. La. , . . 


309 


Marion, Ohio 


193 


Bluefield, W. Va.... 


309 


Memi)his. Ten'i..7j. 


'.wr-, 


Canon Citv, Colo... 


625 


Newport. R. T 


411 


Chicago, 111 


195 


Okmulgee. Okla 


79 


Cleveland, Ohio .... 


311 


Oneonta, N. V 


411 


Conneaut. Ohio . . . . 


404 


Pittsburgh, Pa 


201 


Dallas, Tex 


307 


Portsmouth. Ohio. 77, 


199 


Elmira, N. Y...... .. 


627 


Red Lake Falls. Minn. 


41,T 


Elwood, Ind 


515 


Red Wing, Minn 


75 


Fall River. Mass 


413 


Sacramento, Calif. . . 


4 


Findlay. Ohio 


197 


San Tos^ Calif. . . . 


199 


Frankfort, Ky 


407 


Seattle. Wash 


35 


Franklin, Pa 


623 


Sioux City, Iowa... 




'"ireenfietd, Mass. . . . 


79 


197, 407, 


621 


Hagerstown. Md. . . . 


83 


Sterling, Colo 


blV 


Hannibal, Mo 


623 


Sumter, S. C 


81 


Ironwood, Mich 


307 


Texarkana, Ark.-Tex. 


405 


Kankakee. Ill 


315 


Waterbury, Conn.... 


305 


Kansas City, Mo.... 


513 


Watertown, Wis 


629 


Leavenworth, Kans.. 


311 


Winston-Salem, N. C. 


203 


Lexington. Kv...415, 


, 517 


Nenia, Ohio 


517 


Los Angeles, Calif.. 


34 







--Accident Prevention Taught by Chicago 

Safety Council 19-"> 

— Americanization School, Franklin, Pa 623 

— -Auditorium and Market-House Combined 

Leavenworth, Kans 311 

Memphis, Tenn 75 

— Billboard of Welcome, Alexandria, La , 309 

— Bus Line Plans Abandoned as Result of Sur- 
vey, Lexington, Ky 415 

— Campaigns 

"Buy Now" 

—Bluefield, W. Va 301 

—Kankakee. Ill 315 

—Winston-Salem, N. C 203 

Fire Prevention 

—Findlay, Ohio }^l 

— Ironwood. Mich 307 

"Get It Done," Kansas City. Mo 5i;? 

Membership, Continuous, Memphis. Tenn. 305 
— Camp Ground for Tourists, Sioux City. Iowa 621 

— Charter Reform, Sacramento, Calif 4 

— Community Center Substitute for Saloon, 

Los -Angeles, Calif 34 

— Dollar Days, Portsmouth. Ohio '< 

— Fire Insurance Rate Reduced, Dallas, Tex.. 307 
— Firemen and Policemen Aided by Chamber, 

Sioux City, Iowa 197 

—Gas Problem Settled by Consumers, Conne- 
aut. Ohio 40* 

—Golf Club Financed by Chamber. Marion, 

Ohio .•••• ^^^ 

— High School Athletic Team Rewarded by 

Business Men. Newport. R. 1 411 

— High School Students* Excursion to State 

University, Watertown, Wis 629 

— Hotels 

Okmulgee, Okla '9 

Red Lake Falls, Minn 415 

— Lectures 

Advertising Course, Lexington, Ky 517 

Agricultural Lectures Bring Farmers and 

Townspeople Together, Elwood. Ind.... 515 
— Merchandising (Tonference, Oneonta. N. Y. 411 
— Minneapolis and St. Paul Associations, An- 
nual Meetings 317 

— Motor Truck .Advantages Shown to Farmers, 

Portsmouth, Ohio 1^9 

— Pageants 

Pittsburgh, Pa. (pamphlet notice) 543 

Pittsburgh, Pa 201 

Red Wing. Minn 75 

—Park Saved by Swift Campaign, Texarkana, 

Ark.-Tex 405 

— "Pep"' Suppers, Hagerstown, Md 83 

— Rabbit Hunt, Sterling, Colo 517 

— Real Estate Sale Promotes Expansion of 

Xenia, Ohio 519 

— Reclamation Project Insured by Bond Issue, 

Frankfort, Ky 407 

—Rest Room. Elmira. N. Y 627 

— Retailers' Bureau, Hagerstown, Md 83 

— Road Building 

Canon Citv. Colo 625 

Hannibal, Mo 623 

Manistee. Mich. 31 

Sumter County, S. C 81 

— School (Part-Time) for Employed Boys and 

Girls. Seattle, Wash 36 

— Snow Removal, Albany, N. Y., etc 73 

— Street Railway and (Chamber of Commerce 

Cooperate, Fall River, M^ss 413 

— Tax Campaign, Cleveland, Ohio 311 

— Town's Cooperation Gained for Public Pro- 
jects, Greenfield, ♦Mass 79 

— Trade Tours to Spread Good Fellowship, 

Sioux City. Iowa 407 

— Traffic Bureau. Hairer«town, Md 83 

— Trees, Dead. Given to Woodchoppers. Water- 
bury, Conn 305 

— Water Conservation Project Financed with 

Help of Chamber, San Jos6. Calif 199 

Civil Service 

■ — Municipal Reports (pamphlet notices) 

Rochester, N. Y ..• • 61 

St. Paul, Minn .• • 437 

— Pensions for Faithful Municipal Employes.. 346 

— Removal of Employes for Misconduct -Allow- 
able, Boston, Ga. (legal decision) 537 

—Salaries of City Employes Payable Although 
No Services Were Rendered, Scranton, 
Pa. (legal decision) 433 



Cleaning, City 

— Clean-Up and Paint-Up Blue Book (pam- 
phlet notice) 441 

— Denver, Colo., Rubbish Court 36 

— Havre, Mont., Campaign to Rid City of Tin 

Cans 590 

— Mop and Water Truck for Scrubbing 331 

See also "Street Cleaning" 

Comfort Stations 

— in England 580 

— Newark, N. J., Argument for Installation 

(pamphlet notice) 213 

Commission Government 

— An Improvement Over Older Types 344 

—Fort Collins, Colo 59 

Community Buildings and Centers 

— Cleveland, Ohio, Brooklyn Section, Group 

Plan 478 

— Community Buildings for Rural Communities 

(pamphlet notice) 327 

— Community Center, By-monthly Publication 

(pamphlet notice) 639 

— Denver, Colo., Auditorium 376 

— Los Angeles, Calif 34 

— Ottawa, Kansas 425 

— Wanaque, N. J 319 

Community Chests 473 

Community Organization and Unification 

— Agricultural Lectures Bring Farmers and 

Townspeople Together, Elwood, Ind 515 

— Community Activities (pamphlet notice) .... 639 

— County Fair Enters New Era 479 

— Publication on 89 

Community Trusts 

— Publication on 



329 



Conferences, Conventions and Exhibi- 
tions 53, 162, 325, 397, 533, 633 

— Art Exhibits for American Homes and Com- 
munities 262 

— Fire Engineers' International Association, 

Toronto, Ont. (pamphlet notice) 439 

— Southwest Water Works Association, Okla- 
homa City, Okla 331 

— Street Cleaning Officials' Conference, Chi- 
cago, 111. (pamphlet notice) 439 

Contracts, Public (legal decisions) 

— Blanket Street Improvement Contracts — 

California 85 

— Charter Violation Voids Contract — Los 

Angeles, Calif 321 

— Check of Successful Bidder Returned If 
Contract Is Based on Illegal Proceedings — 
Weston, Kans 85 

— Garbage Removal Contract Held Valid — 

Missouri 433 

— Liability of City 

Affirmed: Must Pay for Benefits Under 

Void Contract — Calloway, Minn 635 

Denied: Not Ordinarily Liable for In- 
terest on Money Due Contractor — Wor- 
cester, Mass 433 

— Patented Material May Be Prescribed by 
City Under Competitive Bidding Contract 
— Nashville, Tenn 209 

Counties 

— Between Utilities and Cities, as Affecting 

Rates 574 

— Pennsylvania Laws (pamphlet notice) 641 

Crime and Correction — See "Law," "Po- 
lice and Prisons" 

Elections 

— High Cost of Elections (pamphlet notice) . . 329 
— Note of Councilman Void When Given as 

Hostage for Vote — Lackawanna County, 

Pa. — (legal decision) 537 

— Notice of Special Election on Extension of 

Municipal Boundaries — Wheeling, W. Va. 

— (legal decision) 85 



— Proportional Representation Adopted 

Canadian Cities *68 

Sacramento, Calif * 

—Resignations of City Officials Not Allowed 
Until Successors Qualify — Blair, W. Va. — 
(legal decision) 541 

Electric Light and Power Stations — See 
"Lighting," "Power Plants" 

Emergency Relief Organization 
Through Red Cross 177 

Employment — See "Labor Problems" 

Engineering, Municipal — See "Public 
Works," "Roads," "Sewage," "Water- 
Supply," etc. 

Finance, Municipal and County 

— Accounting 

Principles of Accounting and Reporting 

(book review) 543 

System of Accounting, Easily Understood, 

Important to City 347 

— Appropriations by City for Extraordinary 
Purposes (legal decisions in various 

states) 539 

— Arkansas Road Finance Situation 494 

— Bond Issues 

Frankfort, Ky., Reclamation Project 407 

Highway Finance 417 

Liability of City as Guarantor of Local 
Improvement Bonds Considered a Debt 
in Ascertaining Constitutional Debt 
Limit — Louisa, Ky. — (legal decision) . . 207 
Market for Municipal Bonds Encouraging 191 
Memphis, Tenn., Auditorium and Market- 
House 78 

Raising of City Bonding Limit Authorized 
by Central Statute Impliedly Repealing 
Charter Provision — Jackson, Mich. — (le- 
gal decision) 205 

Sumter County, S. C, Road Building.... 81 
— Budgets 

Two Methods of Presenting Budgets 299 

Waste Prevented by Budget System 347 

— (Centralized Purchasing, an Asset of the 

Ideal City 346 

— City's Liability (legal decisions) 

Affirmed: Must Pay for Benefits Under 

\'oid Contract — Calloway, Minn 635 

Denied: Not Ordinarily Liable for Inter- 
est on Money Due Contractor — Wor- 
cester, Mass 433 

— Consolidation of City and County •.•.••• ^'^ 

— Economical and Sanitary Problems of Cities. 112 
— Elections. High Cost of (pamphlet notice) . 329 
— Expense-Cutting Through a Municipal Test- 
ing Laboratory 346, 571 

— Garnishee Process Not Applicable to Mu- 
nicipal Corporations — West \'irginia — (le- 
gal decision) 435 

— Salary of City Employe Payable Although 
No Services were Rendered — Scranton, 

Pa. — (legal decision) 33 

— Statistics. Financial, of Cities Over 30,000 

(pamphlet notice) 545 

— Taxation 

Abutting Property Outside City Not Sub- 
ject to Assessment — Ashland, Ky. — 

(legal decision) 637 

Annexation to City Contested 6n Account 
of Liability to Municipal Taxation — 

Georgetown, Ky. — (legal decision) 85 

Assessed \"aluation of First- and Second- 
Class Cities . ■ ■ -^ 319 

Cleveland, Ohio, Votes Higher Taxes to 

Save Money 311 

Delinquent Tax Problem, Dubuque, Iowa 631 
Hartford, Conn., Pavement Assessments. 382 
Kentucky Tax Systems Cbook review) .... 89 
Lawyers Not Immune from Occupation 

Taxation— California — (legal decision). 637 
Los Angeles County, Calif., Under City 

and County Consolidation 69 

Maps to Determine Spring Assessments, 

Yonkers, N. Y 595 

Owner of Land Benefited by Improve- 
ment Not Liable for Assessment — Mor- 
gantown, N. C. — (legal decision) 205 



Parallel Paradoxes — The "Wage Fund" 
and the "Tax Fund" ^ 156 

Railroad Right-of-Way Not Assessable for 
Local Improvements — Johnson City, 111. 
— (legal decision) 205 

Fire Prevention and Control 

— Alarms 

Bridgeport, Conn., System of Signals... 259 

Publications on 91, 641 

— An Asset of the Ideal City: Fire Protec- 
tion 345 

— Australia, Fire Houses in 498 

— Cartoons to Teach Fire Prevention (draw- 
ing) 246 

— Chamber of Commerce Aids Firemen and 

Policemen, Sioux City, Iowa 197 

— Cities Purchase Fire Apparatus 449 

— Committee -on Fire Prevention and Con- 
servation Needed in Every City 603 

— Conventions 

International Association of Fire Engin- 
eers, Toronto, Ont. (pamphlet notice) . . 439 
New York State Firemen's Association, 
Glens Falls, N. Y. (pamphlet notice) . . . 641 
— Engine for a Small Town, Corinth, Miss... 555 

— Everybody's Business 62 

— Findlay, Ohio, Fire Prevention Campaign.. 197 
— Hollow Building Tile, a Fire-proof Material 

for Home-Building 331 

—Hose, Rebuilt 95 

— Hydrants Thawed by a Portable Device.... 219 
— Insurance, Fire 

Rate Reduced, Dallas, Tex 307 

Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and 

Towns for Fire Insurance 15, 133, 269 

— Ironwood, Mich., Fire Prevention Campaign 307 
— Loss of Life and Property in the United 

States 62 

— Loss of Records from Burning of Public 

Buildings 577 

— Motor Apparatus 

Commercial Truck for Fire Department 

Service 445 

Indianapolis, Ind., Record Purchase 107 

Photographs 167, 388 

— Assiniboia, Canada 402 

— Canastota. N. Y 284 

— Clintonville, Wis 618 

—Elgin, III 284 

— Norwich, Conn 619 

— Putnam, Conn 167 

— Savannah, Ga 618 

— Tarrytown, N. Y 509 

Pumping Machine for Fire Service 219 

South Nyack, N. Y., Fire Company Issues 

Bonds for Purchase of Truck 35 

— National Board of Fire Underwriters, Six 

_ Publications 91 

— North Dakota Fire Losses (pamphlet notice) 439 

— -Publications on 91, 641 

— Pumps for Water-Supply Plus Fire Protec- 
tion 97 

— School Children as Home Fire Inspectors, 

Columbus, Ohio 260 

— Schools in Texas Aid in Fire Prevention 

Campaign 142 

— Sprinklers, Automatic, Needed to Protect 

Buildings 645 

— Station, Memphis, Tenn 360 

— Structural Defects Influencing the Spread 

of Fire (pamphlet notice) 545 

— Valve Supyvision and Care (pamphlet no- 
tice) 641 

— Wireless Telephones in Fire and Police De- 
partments, Chicago, 111 458 

— Wooden Building Violating Fire-Limit Ordi- 
nance May Be Demolished — San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. — (legal decision) 209 

Forests and Forestry 

— An Asset for the Community 474 

— Beautifying a City Street (photograph) .... 277 

— Caterpillar and Worm Extet mination 95 

— Dead Trees Given to Woodchoppers, Water- 
bury, Conn 305 

— Fitchburg, Mass 121 

— Indiana. Conservation in (pamphlet notice) 437 
— Maine Forest Protection and Conservation 

(pamphlet notice) 329 

— Municipal Forests 

Czechoslovakia 37 

United States 352 



— Native Trees in City Streets 497 

— Oregon (pamphlet notices) 213, 329 

— Paris, France 474 

— Romance of Our Trees (book review) 211 

— Shade Tree Pests: How to Combat Them.. 274 
— Silviculture, The Practice of (book review) 327 
— Southern Forestry Congress (pamphlet no- 
tice) 327 

— Sprayer with Tractor 107 

— Traveling Exhibits for Public Libraries, 

New York State 124 

—Tree Surgery (pamphlet notice) 89 

Forward Steps Reported by Municipal 
Officials and Department Heads, 

31, 139, 255, 2>7i, 481, 589 

Fountains, Drinking 

— Outdoor Fountains, Method of Installing... 333 
— Nozzle Protection in Side-Stream Fountains 

99, 441 

Fountains, Ornamental 

—Dallas, Te.xas 370 

Franchises — See "Gas Service," "Public 
Utilities" 

Garbage Collection and Disposal — See 
"Waste Collection** 

Gardens 

— Complete Garden, The (book review) 639 

— Des Moines, Iowa, Garden Commission's 

Work 32 

— Landscape Gardening (book review) 639 

— \'acant Lot Gardens (pamphlet notice) 545 

Gas Service 

— Consumers Purchase Plant, Conneaut, Ohio 404 

— Extension of Service, Indianapolis, Ind 61 

— Portable Gas Tank on City Streets: Ordi- 
nance Giving Arbitrary Powers to Issue 
Permit, Invalid — New Orleans, La. — (le- 
gal decision) 205 

— Rates as Prescribed by Franchises (legal de- 
cisions) 
Enforceable by Consumer or \'illage — 

Freeport, N. Y 209 

Increase Only by Authority of Public 
Service Commission — North Hempstead 

and Mount Morris, N. Y 431 

—Standards for Gas Service (pamphlet notice) 639 

Government, Municipal 

— Forms of 344 

See also "City Manager Plan," "Commis- 
sion Government," "Law," "Elections," 
etc. 

Grade-Crossing Elimination 

—Cleveland, Ohio 564 

— Long Island Railroad Lessens Accidents at 

Crossings 427 

■ — Publication on 213 

Health and Sanitation 

— Ambulance, Motor-Driven, Milwaukee Coun- 
ty, Wis. (photograph) 285 

— Barber Shop Regulation by Ordinance Up- 
held — San Antonio, Tex. (legal decision) 435 

— -Boston, Mass., Department of Health 495 

— Child Health Demonstration Planned by Na- 
tional Child Health Council 378 

— Child Welfare Week, New Jersey 399 

— Cleveland Hospital and Health Survey (pam- 
phlet notice) 639 

— Code of Health for Cities (pamphlet notice) 545 

— Comfort and Shelter Stations 

in England 580 

Publication on 213 

— Community Hospital a Necessity in Every 

City '. 503 

— Connecticut Health Conditions (pamphlet 

notice) 545 

— Country Places, Sanitation of (pamphlet no- 
tice) 641 

— County Unit as a Teacher of Health (Morgan 

County, Ala.) 366 

— Dental Clinic for Children, Dutchess County 

Fair, N. Y 9 



— Drug Control (pamphlet notice) 639 

— Economical and Sanitary Problems of 

American Cities 112 

— Economy in Health Budgets 497 

— Entomology, Sanitary (book review) 437 

—Flies (pamphlet notice) 545 

— Food Handling by Diseased Persons Pro- 
hibited, Fort Worth, Tex 376 

— Gloversville, N. V'., Health Center 141 

- — firoup Health Insurance for School Workers 347 
— Health Officers' Enlarged Field of Activity 602 
— Hospital, Library and Service Bureau, Chi- 
cago, 111 • 232 

— Malaria, Caused by Mosquitoes 

Drainage and Fish as Remedies 179 

Man's Carelessness 568 

Publications on 91, 213 

— Michigan Health Almanac (pamphlet notice) 545 

— Midwifery (pamphlet notice) 91 

— Milk, Inspection and Regulation of 

Montclair Wins Banner for Best Milk in 

New Jersey 181 

Publications on 211, 213 

— Municipal Hospital and Ambulance Service 

Important 579 

— Municipal Testing Laboratory for Health 

Protection 346, 571 

— National Health Council 170 

— Nursing, Public Health (pamphlet notice) . . 91 

— Physical Education for Children 587 

—Publications on _. 213, 437 

— Rural Child Welfare "(pamphlet notice).... 91 

— Rural Hospital Service Needed 237 

— Sanitary Survey, a Check on Community- 
Health ', 228 

— School Cafeterias as a Community Asset . . 389 
— Standard Soil Pipe, Case Against (pamphlet 

notice) 213 

— Tuberculosis 

Publication on 213 

— Typhoid 

Chlorination and Filtration as Pievm ive, 

\'ote for (cartoon) 600 

Man's Carelessness 568 

Massachusetts 171 

Reduction in West Virginia (pamphlet no- 
tice) Li, 641 

— \'ermin. Carriers of Typhus 379 

— Water-Supplies and the Typhoid Rate: Mas- 
sachusetts Method, with Discussion 171 

See also "Baths and Swimming Pools," 
"Street Cleaning," "Recreation" 

Home Rule for Cities 

— Demand Grows 343 

— Greater Freedom for Cities Needed 1 

Housing 

■ — Bibliography (pamphlet notice) 639 

— Bridgeport, Conn., Novel Housing Experi- 
ment 451 

— Building Construction, Handbook of (book 

review) 89 

• — California Commission of Immigration and 
Housing, Annual Renort (pamphlet no- 
tice) '. 641 

— Community Court Idea and the Housing 

Problem 398 

— England, Housing Betterment in (book re- 
view) . . . .' 89 

— Hollow Building Tile for Protection from 

Heat 331 

— Industrial Housing (pamphlet notice) 327 

, — Massachusetts Homestead Commission Re- 
port (pamphlet notice) 213 

— Publications on 89, 327, 329, 543 

— School Housing Conditions in American 

Cities 253 

— Tenement House Survey in Cincinnati (pam- 
phlet notice) 437 

— Zoning for Efficient Industry and Whole- 
some Housing 287 

Labor Problems 

— Housing Problem in Its Relation to the Con- 
tentment of Labor (pamphlet notice) .... 329 

— Labor Legislation in 1920 (pamphlet notice) 91 

— Minimum Wage Laws of America at Work 

(pamphlet notice) 211 

— Parallel Paradoxes of the "Wage Fund" 

and the "Tax Fund" 156 

— Time Study (pamphlet notice) 439 



— Unemployment 

American Association for Labor. Legisla- 
tion Suggested by 144 

Detroit, Mich., ^lethod of Meeting the 

Problem 373 

Program for the Prevention and Relief of 
Abnormal LTnemployment (pamphlet no- 
tice) 435 

— Workmen's Compensation (pamphlet notice) . 91 

See also "Cizil Service" 

Landscape Architecture 

— Sacramento, Calif., Appoints City Landscape 

Architect 144 

Law, Municipal 

— Courts 

Juvenile Court Legislation (pamphlet no- 
tice) 91 

Rubbish Court, Denver, Colo 36 

— Housing Ordinance Exempts New Dwellings 

from Taxation, New York, N. Y 319 

— Legal Aid (pamphlet notice) 639 

— Legal Decisions. . 85, 205, 321, 431, 537. 574, 635 
— Ordinances. Legal Decisions on 

Barber Shop Inspection; Valid — San An- 
tonio, Texas 435 

Construction of Ceilings and Walls Re- 
quired of Certain Materials; Invalid — • 

Chicago, 111 323 

Garage Permit Requiring Consent of Ad- 
joining Landowner; Invalid — Wilming- 
ton, Del 207 

Garbage Control; Valid — Michigan and 

Utah 183 

Hack-Stand Permit Requiring Consent of 

Abutting Owners; V^alid — Topeka, Kans. 87 
Lodging- Plouse Licenses; Valid — St. 

Louis, Mo 209 

Lumber Yard Permits Required; Valid — 

Minneapolis, Minn 541 

Parades Requiring Permits 

—Buffalo, N. Y.; Valid 209 

— Duquesne, Pa. ; Valid 321 

— Florida ; Invalid 435 

Portable Gas Tank on City Streets: Issu- 
ance of Permit an Arbitrary Power; In- 
valid — New Orleans, La 205 

Rate-Fixing for Service Rendered by Pub- 
lic Utilities by Contract 574 

Snow Sweepers of Street Railway Com- 
pany Regulated; Invalid — Sugar Notch, 

Pa 325 

Stock Sale Requiring Showing of Assets; 

^ Invalid — Pittsburgh, Pa 431 

Vehicles Required to Stop at Rear of 
Standing Street Cars; Valid — Cleveland. 

Ohio 323 

Zoning Ordinance Authorized by .\mend- 

ment to Massachusetts Constitution.... 433 
— Snow and Weed Removal Ordinance, Fort 

Collins, Colo 59 

Letter to the Editor 

— from Syracuse, N. Y 58 

Liability, Municipal 

— Expulsion of Undesired Persons by Officials; 

Massachusetts Towns Not Liable — Edgar- 
town, Mass. — (legal decision) 433 

Sec also "Accident Prevention." "Fi- 
nance" 

Libraries, Public 

—Special Work in the Community 393 

— Traveling Forestry Exhibits for New York 

State Public Libraries 124 

Licenses 

— Dog Licenses, New Bedford, Mass 485 

Lighting, City and Street 

— Advertising Charity Campaigns by Street 

Lights, Schenectady, N. Y 146 

— Chatham, Ont., Hydro-Electric System 611 

— Costs Determined by a Standard Method, El- 

mira, N. Y 461 

— Cut-Out, Automatic, for Series Incandescent 

Street Lights 549 

— Engine Service in Belleville, Kans., Water 

and Light Works 643 



— Kansas City, Kans., Motor Truck Owned by 
the Water and Light Department (photo- 
graph ) 166 

— Perry, Okla., Water and Light Plant Re- 
modeled and Enlarged 129 

— Posts, Lighting 

Alhambra, Calif 62 

Salt Lake City, Utah 341 

San Gabriel. Calif 62 

— Street Lighting Systems in City and Town.. 238 

— Trenching Machines \'ersus Hand Labor for 

Laying Conduits 13 

See also "Gas Service" 

Manufacturers' and Contractors' Items, 

93, 215, 331, 441, 547, 643 
Markets 

— Leavenworth, Kans 311 

— Memphis, Tenn 75 

Memorials 

— Buffalo's Memorial History 29 

— Publication on 543 

See also ''Community Buildings" 

Milk. Inspection and Regulation of — See 
"Health" 

Mosquito Extermination — See "Health"' 

Motion Pictures 

— for Nature Studv in Public Schools, Evans- 
ton. Ill ' 319 



Motor Apparatus 

— -Busses 

School Bus. Blakely, Ga. (photograph) .... 
Survey Causes Abandonment of Bus Line, 

Lexington, Ky 

— Fire Department Equipment 

Commercial Truck for Fire Department 

Service 

Indianapolis, Ind., Record Purchase 

Photographs 167, 284, 509, 618, 

Pumping Machine 

South Nyack. N. Y., Bond Issue for Pur- 
chase of Fire Truck 

— Lawn Mowers 

with Tractors 99, 

— National Standard Truck Cost System (pam- 
phlet notice) 

— New Vork City Departments, Motorization of 

—Photographs 166, 284, 388, 402. 508, 618, 

— Police Department, Motor Cycles for.... 54, 

Photographs on 285, 

— Road .Apparatus 

Elevating Grader Loading Wagons, Ne- 
braska ( photograph) 

Excavator Crane 

Loading Device for Street Departments... 
Motor Trucks, Photographs of. 166.285,403 
Planer for Use on Bituminous Roads.... 
Spanish Booklet on Road Machinery (pam- 
phlet notice) 

Trenching Machines \'ersus Hand Labor. . 
— in .Snow Removal 

Albany, \. Y 

Chicago. Ill 

New lerse}-"s Purchase of Snow-Plows. . . 

New S'ork, N. Y 

— Sprayer with Tractor 

- -Street Cleaning Apparatus 

Fitchburg. Mass 

Photographs on 402, 

— Syracuse. N. Y 

— Trucks. Transportation 

Farmers Shown .Advantages, Portsmouth, 

Ohio 

Photograph on 

Tir^s 

• — Resiliency 

— Tread 

— Unloader and Storage Bin, Portable 

— for Waste Collection 

Auto-Conveyor for Ixiading and Hauling 

-Ashes and Garbage 

Buffalo. N. Y 

Grand Rapids. Mich 

Highland Park, Mich 

Indianapolis. Ind 

Memphis, Tenn 



63 
415 



445 

lor 

619 
219 



647 
449 

647 
286 
653 
547 

508 



20 
337 
557 
619 

20 

339 
13 

73 
217 
107 
447 
107 

24 
403 

58 



199 
509 

105 

93 

651 



341 
465 
139 
583 
60 
400 



Municipal Ownership 

— -Aviation Field and Fair Ground, Modesto, 

Calif 481 

— -Forests, Municipal, in the United States 

(List) 352 

— Garbage Collection Systems 

Buffalo, N. Y 465 

Grand Rapids, Mich 139 

Highland Park, Mich 583 

Memphis. Tenn 400 

—Gravel Pit, Salt Lake City. Utah 496 

— -Hydro-Electric System, Chatham, Ont 611 

— Street Car System, Fort Collins, Colo 59 

— Swimming Pool, Montgomery, Ala 348 

—Water and Light Plant, Perry, Okla , 129 

— W^ater- Works 

Cincinnati, Ohio 569 

New Bedford, Mass 599 

Westerville, (Dhio 255 

See also "Public Buildings" 

Music, Community 

— Lindsborg. Kans. (photograph) 254 

— New York, N. Y., First Music Week (pam- 

l>hlet notice) 543 

News and Ideas for Commercial and Civic 
Organizations — See "Civic-Commercial 
Organizations and Their Work" 

Officials, Public 

— City Landscape Architect Appointed, Sacra- 
mento, Calif 144 

— Council Majority a Quorum — Lowell, Mass. 

— (legal decision) . 537 

— Expulsion of Undesired Persons by Officials; 
^Iassachusetts Towns Not Liable — Edgar- 
town. Mass. — (legal decision) 433 

— Missouri Constitution on Office-Holding — 

Hardin, Mo. — (legal decision) 207 

— New York State Conference of Mayors and 

(^ther City Officials (pamphlet notice).... 211 
See also "Ciz'il Service" 

Ordinances, Municipal— .9ct' "Law, Munici- 
pal" 

Pageantry 

— Red Wing, Minn., Historical Pageant 7.'5 

Parks 

— -Alleghany State Park, Western New York 

(pamphlet notice) 439 

—Benches, Park 103, 649 

— Breathing-Spaces in City Streets (photo- 
graph) 277 

— Bridge. Portland, Me. (photograph) 493 

• — -Campaign for Parks and Playgrounds, Texar- 

kana. Ark. -Tex 405 

— Camp Grounds for Tourists, Sioux City, 

Iowa 621 

— Canon City, Colo., Qiamber of Commerce 

Members Build "Road to Wonderland". . 625 

— -Connecticut State Park (pamphlet notice).. 439 
— Dedication of Parks in Newly Platted Land 

— Miami, Fla. — (legal decision) 87 

^Entomology and Landscape Engineering.... 647 

— Hawaiian County Park 133 

— Lawn Mowers, Motor 647 

with Tractors 99, 449 

• — Shrubbery. Care of (pamphlet notice) 439 

— Spraying by Motor-Pressure in Parks, Spo- 
kane, Wash 375 

— Winter Sports in City Parks 55 

See also "Fountains" 

Pavements — See "Roads" 

Pensions, Municipal — See 'Civil Service" 

Police and Prisons 

— Accident Record- Keej)ing by Police Depart- 
ments 615 

— -.American City Police Departments 225 

— -.American City Police Problems (pamphlet 

notice) 89 

— -An -Asset of the Ideal City: Police Protec- 
tion 345 



IG 



— Chamber of Commerce Aids Firemen and Po- 
licemen, Sioux City, Iowa 197 

— Detroit, Mich., Increased Force Checks 

Crime 589 

— Ideal City's Method of Dealing with Law- 
breakers 475 

— Motor Apparatus 

— Motor-Cycle as a Remedy for the Crime 

Epidemic 54 

— Motor-Cycles Combat Crime Wave 547 

— Photographs on 285 

Denver, Colo 508 

— Pennsylvania State Police, a Model Worthy 

of Study 371 

— Pension Right of Policeman Under Charter — 

San Francisco, Calif. — (legal decision) .... 205 

— Wireless Telephones in Police and Fire De- 
partments, Chicago, 111 458 

Ports and Port Terminals — See "Water- 
Front Development" 

Power-Plants, Municipal 

— Coal Storage Systems 221 

— Engine Service in Belleville, Kans., Water 

and Light Works 643 

— Hydroelectric Power for American Cities.... 295 
— Reciprocating Steam Engines for Municipal 

Power-Plants 487 

— Steam Turbines for Municipal Power-Plants 361 

Publications 

— Book and Pamphlet Notices 

89, 211, 327, 437, 543, 639 

— Buffalo's Memorial History 2& 

— Manufacturers' Literature on Methods, Ma- 
terials and Appliances 

(adv.) pp. 4 and 6 in each issue 

— Reports, Municipal 

91, 213, 329, 425, 437, 439, 545, 641 

Public Buildings 

— Cleveland, Ohio, Public Hall 22 

— Conference of Building Officials (pamphlet 

notice) 213 

— Construction 

Concrete Construction (pamphlet notice) . . 91 
Foundations, Stable, for Municipal Struc- 
tures 566 

Fountain Ruling Pen for Drawings 103 

Handbook of Building Construction (book 

review) 89 

— Des Moines, Iowa, Astronomical Observatory 535 
— Garage Permit Requiring Consent of Adja- 
cent Landowner; Ordinance Invalid — Wil- 
mington, Del. — (legal decision) 207 

— Leavenworth, Kans., Auditorium and Sales 

Pavilion 311 

— Losses from the Burning of Public Buildings 577 
— Memphis, Tenn., Auditorium and Market- 
House 75 

— Ottawa, Kans., Auditorium 425 

— Village Has Power to Erect Hall — CThisholm, 

Minn, (legal decision) 435 

Sec also "Community Buildings ," 
"Schools" 

Publicity, City 

— Alexandria, La., Welcoming Sign-Board.... 309 

Public Utilities 

— American Public Utilities Bureau, Work of 

(pamphlet notice) 329 

— Flexible Fares (pamphlet notice) 329 

— Kansas Utility Rates (pamphlet notice) 545 

— Pipe Extension Charges, Method for Deter- 
mining 607 

— Rate Regulation 

Contracts between Utilities and Cities, Le- 
gal Status of 574 

State Commissions, Work of 

— Changed Attitude of the Public and 

Public Service Companies 280 

— Illinois Decisions 574 

— Service at Cost: Danger Points (pamphlet 

notice) 327 

— Street Lighting Costs Determined by a Spe- 
cific Method 461 

See also "Gas Service," "Power-Plants" 



Public Works 

— Concrete Work — Volume I (book review) . . , 327 

— Foundation?, Stable, for Municipal Struc- 
tures 566 

— Great Britain: Empire Municipal Directory 

and Year Book 1921-1922 (book review).. 639 

— Idaho Department of Public Works, First 

Biennial Report (pamphlet notice) 329 

Recreation, Public 

— Adult Play Activities (pamphlet notice) 437 

— Amusement Park Lease by City Not Allow- 
able Without Express Charter Authority — 
Bloomsburg^ Pa. (legal decision) 635 

— Athletic Team Rewarded by Business Men, 

Newport, R.I 411 

— Atlanta, Ga., Children at Play (photo- 
graph) 252 

— Ball Ground, Newport, R. 1 71 

— Bibliography (pamphlet notice) 213 

— Burlington, Iowa, Recreation Facts (pam- 
phlet notice) 545 

— Church Recreational Work (pamphlet notice) 211 

— Community Music, Lindsborg, Kans., (photo- 
graph) 254 

— Coordinating Recreational Activities, Hous- 
ton, Tex 258 

— Folk Dancing for Adults (pamphlet notice) . 211 

— Game Suggestions (pamphlet notice) 543 

— Golf Club Financed by Chamber of Com- 
merce, Marion, Ohio 193 

— Hockey Rink and Swimming Pool, Combined, 

Milton, Mass 119 

— Playgrounds 

Austria Requisitions Unused Land for 

Playgrounds 38 

Campaign for Parks and Playgrounds, Tex- 

arkana, Ark.-Tex 405 

Chicago, 111., Summer Playground (pam- 
phlet notice) 211 

Financing and Procuring Playgrounds 263 

Publication on 639 

Gary, Ind., All-Season Playground 163 

Layout and Equipment (pamphlet notice). 437 
Pittsburgh's Citizens' Committee Report.. 50 

— Program for the Entire Year, Sacramento, 

Calif 471 

— Publicity for Community Recreation (pam- 
phlet notice) 543 

— Schoolhouses as Recreation Centers, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa 378 

— Self-Government Taught at a Recreational 

Center, Rochester, N. Y 258 

— Skating Rinks 55, 163 

— Suggestions for Recreation (pamphlet notice) 543 

— Winter Sports in City Parks 55 

Minneapolis. Minn 140 

See also "Community Centers," "Parks," 
"Baths and Svnmming Pools" 

Rest Rooms 

— Elmira, N. Y 627 

Roads, Pavements, Streets and Alleys 

— Construction 

Bids from Engineers Should Not Be Asked 

for by Counties 113 

Bituminous Concrete Foundations 606 

Canon City, Colo., Chamber Cooperates to 

Build "Road to Wonderland" 625 

Central Mixing Plant in County Road 

Work, Utah m 

Cinders and Tar Build (lood Road, Manis- 
tee, Mich 31 

Colorado Springs, Colo., Retains Expert's 

Services for $1,200,000 Paving Program 223 

Convict Labor on Road Construction in Ne- 
braska 20 

Design of Pavements 

— for Heavy Traffic 243 

— Traffic Census, Limited Value of 158 

Gravel Survey Saved Iowa $100,000 369 

Laboratory Analyses of Paving Materials 
in Municipal Testing Laboratory 572 

Location, Grading and Drainage of High- 
ways (book review) 543 

Material, Patented, May Be Prescribed by 
City, Nashville, Tenn. (legal decision) . . 209 

Methods of Concrete Road (Construction... 233 

Modern Road Building and Maintenance 
(pamphlet notice) 329 



1.1 



Municipal Cement Plant and Gravel Pits, 

Detroit, Mich 460 

Research Work on Modern Highway Con- 
struction, Assured 170 

Specifications for Brick Pavements, Sub- 
grade and Curbing 387 

Storing Materials in Winter 125 

Subgrade Needs Intensive Study 349 

Sumter County, S. C 83 

Westerly. R. 1 139 

— Contract for Improving Several Streets — Cal- 
ifornia — (legal decision) 85 

— Curbs Cut Back at Corners, Peoria, 111 12 

— Dedication of Streets in Newly Platted Land 

— Miami, Fla. — (legal decision) 87 

— Equipment 

Elevating Grader Loading Wagons, Nebras- 
ka (photograph) 20 

Excavator Crane 337 

Loading Device for Street Departments... 557 

Motor Trucks, Photographs of 403 

Laconia, N. H 619 

Onondaga County, N. Y 166 

Provo City, Utah 285 

Planer for Use on Bituminous Roads 20 

Spanish Booklet on Road Machinery (pam- 
phlet notice) 339 

Trenching Machines \"ersus Hand Labor. 13 
— Finance 

Arkansas Road Finance Situation 494 

Bond Issue, Sumter County, S. C 81 

Highway Finance 417 

— Maintenance 

Bituminous Macadam Pavements, Mont- 

clair, X. J 145 

Brick Pavement Maintenance, Appleton, 

Wis 164 

Brick Streets Saved by Resurfacing with 

Asphalt, Peoria, 111 11 

Cheaper to Repair Old Roads Than to 

Build New Ones 12, 127 

Chickasha, Okla., Method of Street Repair 464 
Comparison of Maintenance Methods, Ne- 
braska and Wisconsin 151 

Gravel Pit, Municipal, Salt Lake City, 

Utah 496 

Hannibal, Mo., Chamber Promotes Road 

Maintenance 623 

Nebraska Maintenance Costs Reasonable.. 601 
— Mileage of Public Roads in the United States 397 
— Modern Road Building and Maintenance 

(pamphlet notice) 329 

— Motor Vehicle Highway Creed 105 

— Notes on Irrigation, Roads and Buildings, 
and on the Water Supply of Towns (book 

review) ' 327 

—Patented Pavements Now Permissible in Il- 
linois 557 

— Renumbering of Streets, Utica, N. Y 459 

— Resiliency in Tires 105 

— Rock Asphalt for Street Maintenance 337 

— Wyoming State Highway Commission's Sec- 
ond Biennial Report (pamphlet notice) .... 329 
See also "Street Cleaning, Sprinkling and 
Oiling" 

Rural Planning and Development 

— References on 584 

Schools, Public 

— Accident Prevention Taught in Detroit 

Schools 256 

— Americanization Class, Scranton, Pa. (photo- 
graph) 507 

— Baths in the Public Schools, Baltimore, Md.. 510 

— Buildings 

Pipestone, Minn., High School 591 

Publication on 89 

Shaker Heights Village, Ohio, High School 

Group 39 

Southampton, N. Y., High School 63 

— Bus for Colomakee School, near Blakely, Ga. 

(photograph) 403 

— Cafeterias in Schools, a Community Asset... 389 
Publication on 639 

— Fire Prevention 

Campaign Aided by Texas Schools 142 

Taught by Blackboard Cartoons (photo- 
graph) 246 

— Group Health Insurance for School Work- 
ers. South Hartford, Conn 347 

— Housing Conditions in American City 

Schools 253 



— Motion Pictures in Nature-Study Classes, 

Evanston, 111 S19 

— National Point of View in Education 115 

— Part-Time Schools for Employed Boys and 

Girls, Seattle, Wash 3j 

— Physical Education for Children 587 

— Purchasing, Stores and Accounting, Toronto, 

Ont. (pamphlet notice) 437 

— Recreational Activities in Schoolhouses, 

Pittsburgh, Pa 378 

— Rural School of the Twentieth Century, The 

(book review) 327 

— Safety 

Portland, Ore., Campaign .• • • • ^^^ 

Swinging Semaphores for Safety Signs, 

Youngstown, Ohio 33 

— Textbooks 

Americanization 91, 211 

Government 89, 91, 545 

Thrift 91 

— Twelve-Hour Day for School Buildings 

(pamphlet notice) 641 

— University Advantages Shown to High 

School Students, Watertown, Wis 629 

- — Weatherford, Texas, High School Bond Is- 
sue 482 

Sewage Disposal and Treatment 

— Activated Sludge Process of Sewage Treat- 
ment (book review) 639 

— Assessments for Sewers, Hartford, Conn . . . 563 
— Competition for Sewerage System Plan, 

Chauny, France 53^ 

— Ejector Valves 103, 651 

— Liability of City for Flooding of Sewer De- 
nied — Cheektowaga, N. Y. — (legal de- 
cision) 207 

— Malaria Combated by Drainage 179 

— Manhole Cover for Heavy Duty 441 

— Necessity for Sewer Improvement Deter- 
mined by Mayor and Council — Oklahoma 

— (legal decision) 87 

— New Jersey Sewage Works Association, An- 
nual Meeting (pamphlet notice) 639 

— New Orleans Sewerage and Water Board... 261 
— Pomona, Calif., Storm Drain Carried Heavy 

Boulders 132 

— Portable Sewer Cleaning Equipment 3,39 

— Safety Lock Sewer Rods 97 

— Segment Block Storm Sewer, Aberdeen, S. 

Dak 147 

— Siphons for Disposal Works 504 

— Standard Soil Pipe Opposed (pamphlet no- 
tice) «13 

— Trenching Machine Versus Hand Labor for 

Laying Sewers 13 

Signs, Commercial, Road and Street — See 
"Billboards and Signs" 

Snow Removal — See "Street Cleaning" 

State Legislation for Cities 

— "City of Chicago" — Revised Draft of a Pro- 
posed Article of the New Illinois Consti- 
tution (pamphlet notice) 213 

— Constitutional Limitation Lacking, Legisla- 
ture Empowered by Statute to Impose Ob- 
ligation on City — Richmond, Va. — (legal 
decision) 323 

— Organizations Plan for Needed Legislation 

to Promote Municipal Progress 1 

— State Referenda and the Municipalities in 

1920 Election 291 

Street Cleaning, Oiling and Sprinkling 

— Assessments for Street Sprinkling, Hartford, 

Conn 250 

— Conference 'of Street Cleaning Officials, (Chi- 
cago, 111. (pamphlet notice) 439 

— Constantinople, Turkey, Street Cleaners.... 23 

— Fitchburg, Mass., Sweeping and Oiling 24 

— Flushing by Motor, Methods and Cost 282 

— Motor Apparatus (photographs) 

Tacoma, Wash 403 

Westmount, Canada -, • • • 402 

—Oiled Roads, Value of . . . ^. 333 

— Oil on the Sand Dunes, Columbia River 

Highway 110 

— Snow Removal 

Albany, N. Y . . 73 

in American Cities 168 



12 



Chicago, 111.. New Snow Loader 217 

Economic Value of Snow Removal 149 

Fort Collins, Colo 59 

New Jersey's Purchase of Snow-Plows.... 107 
New York City Fights Snow with Tractors 447 
Regulating Use of Snow Sweepers by 
Street Railway Company, Ordinance In- 
valid — Sugar Notch, Pa. — legal decision) 325 

Street Lighting — See '"Lighting" 

Swimming Pools — See "Baths and Swim- 
ming Pools" 

Taxation — See "Finance" 

Town Planning — See "City Planning" 

Traffic and Transportation 

— American Society of Civil Engineers' Prize 

Essay Contest on Transportation 230 

— Automobile Accidents Reduced 

Billboard Sign, Omaha, Neb 52,5 

Headlight Regulations 150 

— Bus Lines Abandoned as Result of Survey, 

Lexington, Ky 415 

— Chicago, 111., Committee Report on Local 

Transportation (pamphlet notice) 439 

— Flashing Light Attracts Eh-ivers' Attention, 

Rutherford, N. J 481 

— Motor Trucks 

Farmers Shown Advantages of Motor 

Trucks, Portsmouth, Ohio 199 

Hauling Flagstaff, Spokane, Wash, (pho- 
tograph) 509 

— Motor \'ehicle Highway Creed 109 

— National Standard Truck Cost System (pam- 
phlet notice) 647 

— New York and New Jersey to be Linked by 

Vehicular Tunnels 231 

— Painted Street Markings for Safety Zones 

and Traffic Guides 617, 653 

— Regulation of Highway Traffic (book review) 543 

— St. Louis Transit System, Present and Fu- 
ture (pamphlet notice) 329 

— School Bus, near Blakely, Ga. (photograph) 403 

— Street Railways 

Fall River, Mass., Chamber of Commerce 

Rehabilitates Local Trolley System 413 

Flexible Fares (pamphlet notice) 329 

Fort Collins, Colo., Street Cars Carry Pub- 
licity for City Ordinances 59 

Rate Regulation by State Commissions.... 574 

Illinois Legal Decisions 576 

Service at Cost (pamphlet notice) 327 

Working Capital in Street Railway Valua- 
tion (pamphlet notice) 91 

— Traffic Light of Mushroom Type Stays in 

Place 443 

— Transfer Men Required to Notify City of 
Furniture Removals — St. Louis, Mo. — (le- 
gal decision) 541 

— Uniform Vehicle Law, Proposed (pamphlet- 
notice) 617 

— Unloader and Storage Bin, Portable 651 

See also ".4ccident Prevention" 

Tree Planting— 5^^ "Forests" 
Waste Collection and Disposal 

— Auto-Conveyor for Loading and Hauling 

Ashes and Garbage 341 

— Bridgeton, N. J., Report (pamphlet notice) . . 213 

—Buffalo. N. Y • 465 

— City Control of Garbage; Validity of Ordi- 
nances, Michigan and Utah 183 

— Combination Ash-and-Garbage Wagons, Win- 

netka. 111 257 

— Destructor, Municipal, Montevideo, Uruguay 247 

— Grand Rapids, Mich 139 

—Highland Park, Mich 583 

— Memphis, Tenn 400 

— Motorization Saves Thousands for Indian- 
apolis, Ind 60 

— Storm Drain's Unusual Service, Pomona, 

Calif 132 

Water-Front Development 

— New York-New Jersey Port and Harbor De- 
velopment (pamphlet notice) 329 

— Reclamation Project Insured by Bond Issue, 

Frankfort, Ky 407 



— Sebring, Fla., Town Plan 65 

Water-Supply and Water-Works 

— Asheville, N. C, New Pipe Line 223 

—Cincinnati, Ohio, Insured 120,000,000 Gal- 
lons Per Day 569 

— Chlorination Experience of Pittsburgh, Calif. 573 

— Clarksburg, W. Va. (pamphlet notice) 641 

— Color Characteristics of a New England 

Water-Supply . 278 

— Conservation Project Financed with Aid of 

Chamber of San Jos6, Calif 199 

— Engine Service in Belleville, Kans., Water 

and Light Works ^ ^ . . . 643 

— Filtration and Sterilization (pamphlet notice) 439 

— Flushing of Mains, Terre Haute, Ind 126 

— Harrodsburg, Ky 555 

— Kansas City, Mo., Water-Supply (pamphlet 

notice) . , 439 

— Machinery and Technical Developments — 

Their Value to Water- Works 598 

— Manhole Cover for Heavy Duty 441 

— Meters 

Improved Construction 551 

New York City's Meter Investigation.... 588 

Sales 93 

Statistics of Over 1,000 Cities in United 

States and Canada 41 

Use of Meter Boxes 620 

— Motor Apparatus 

Clintonville, Wis., Fire Truck Used to 

Pump Water (photograph) 618 

Kansas City, Kans., Water and Light De- 
partment Truck (photograph) 166 

Oil-Burning Apparatus 27 

— New Orleans Sewerage and Water Board... 261 

— Notes on Irrigation, Roads and Buildings, 
and on the Water-Supply of Towns (book 
review) i 327 

— Perry, (Dkla., Water and Light Plant En- 
larged 129 

— Pipes 

Charges for Pipe Extension, How to De- 
termine 607 

Lead Joints for Cast Iron Pipes 101 

Modern Cast Iron Pipe 157 

Proper Sizes of Pipes for Distribution Sys- 
tems 368 

Tile Pipe Breakage Caused Typhoid, 

Salem, Ohio 614 

— Providence, R. I. (pamphlet notice) 425 

— Pumping Station Design and Operation 25 

Lynn, Mass 25 

— Pump Selection for Municipal Water-Works 559 

— Rates for Service Rendered by Public Utili- 
ties by Contract (lepal decisions) 57.'> 

in Small Cities and Villages 456 

— Service Box for Year-Round Use 643 

— Sherrill-Kenwood, N. Y., Water District En- 
larged 93 

— Southwest Water Works Association, Con- 
vention at Oklahoma City, Okla. 331 

— Standard Schedule for Grading Cities for 
Fire Insurance: Water-Supply Require- 
ments 16, 133 

— Steam Turbine-Driven Centrifugal Pumping 

Unit 97 

— Surface Supplies Open to Dangerous Pollu- 
tion 175 

— Testing the Effects of Different Waters on 

Mains, Charleston, S. C 159 

— Thawing Frozen Services, Devices for 

for House Pipes 105 

for Hydrants 219, 335 

— Trenching Machines Versus Hand Labor. . . 13 

— Typhoid Rate in Massachusetts, and Discus- 
sion of Massachusetts Method of Water 
_ Purification 171 

— Vote for Chlorination and Filtration as a 

Typhoid Preventive (cartoon) 600 

— Waste Restriction, Boston. Mass 392 

— Water-Main Excavation, New Bedford, 

Mass ,. 599 

— Westerville, Ohio, Municipal Water Plant 

Helps Pay Other City Expenses 255 

Weed Removal 

— Fort Collins, Colo., Ordinance 59 

Weights and Measures 

• — Bureau of Standards Reports (pamphlet no- 
tice) 439 

— Municipal Testing Laboratory, Economy of. . 571 

Zoning — See "City Planning" 



VOLUME XXIV 



NUMBER 1 




NEW YORK 

JANUARY, 

1921 



Organizations Plan for Needed Legisla- 
tion to Promote Municipal Progress 



DURING January the legislatures of 
forty states will be in session and 
there will be exceptional opportunity 
for the introduction and passage of state 
legislation which the cities need. Many 
national, state and local organizations are 
advancing the passage of bills which, if 
enacted into law, will do much to permit or 
encourage activity by municipal govern- 
ments in raising the standards of city life. 

Greater Freedom for Cities 

In many states the greatest single need 
is a larger measure of municipal home rule. 
At the last annual convention of the New 
Jersey League of Municipalities this need 
was emphasized by Clinton Rogers Wood- 
ruff in the following words : 

"We talk of self-governing American 
cities and municipal democracy, but so long 
as the state legislatures have the final say 
as to the form and content of city charters, 
there can be little real self-government or 
real municipal democracy. Most of our 
cities — except in those states where the 
policy of municipal home rule prevails — are 
in bondage to the state legislatures. The 
term and extent of this bondage vary, but 
it is irksome and undermining. While we 
must remember that no city lives unto it- 
self alone, nevertheless it should be given 
a chance to show what it can do and how it 
can be developed. There is an all too prev- 
alent feeling that the cities should be saved 
despite themselves by some outside influ- 
ence, but just so long as this opinion pre- 
vails, so long will municipal politics con- 
tinue in their present parlous state, and so 



long will the progress of our cities proceed 
haltingly. 

"A belief in municipal home rule does not 
necessarily run counter to the idea of the 
right of the state to establish the minimums 
in such matters as education, health and 
police. On the other hand, the cities should 
have the right to go just so far beyond these 
minimums as their wishes and convictions 
demand. The test of the propriety or im- 
propriety of any given insistence or inter- 
ference or control by the state in the local 
public policy of a city should be : Does the 
local policy conflict with the general public 
policy of the state, as determined by the 
policy-determining authority of the state 
and which, as such general policy, is em- 
bodied in laws equally applicable to every 
part of the state? By all means give the 
cities a chance to determine the form of 
government and to determine the functions 
they wish to exercise." 

Among the reports received from organ- 
izations which have written to The Amer- 
ican City regarding their activities in be- 
half of 1921 legislation are the following. 
In each case the name given is that of the 
corresponding secretary or other ofiicer of 
the organization, to whom application may 
be made for further specific information. 

The National Conference on City Plan- 
ning advocates at all times (i) a state law 
empowering cities of all classes to appoint 
city plan commissions, and (2) a state law 
permitting cities to zone. Besides these two 
laws there is little doubt that the National 
Conference would advocate a state plan- 
ning bureau like that in Pennsylvania, and 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



would approve in legislation the principle 
of regional planning. Although it is perhaps 
questionable if any existing laws on the 
subject could be described as "model" legis- 
lation, some might be profitably used as the 
basis of statutes in other states. This is 
particularly true of the Ohio law permitting 
the appointment of city plan commissions 
and describing their functions. — Flavel 
Shurtleff, Secretary, 60 State Street, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

The Boston Society of Landscape Archi- 
tects is not at present proposing to intro- 
duce any legislation, but it has before it 
two recommendations of its city planning 
committee: (i) that better means of pre- 
venting bad platting be discovered; (2) that 
the principle be approved of a metropolitan 
commission for the Boston Region for plan- 
ning and survey, transportation, water- 
front development, and such other adminis- 
trative functions as concern more than one 
municipality. 

The B. S. L. A. cooperated last year with 
the Massachusetts Federation of Planning 
Boards and other bodies in securing: (i) the 
right for municipalities to zone according 
to use, making effective a Massachusetts 
constitutional amendment of November, 
1918; (2) the regulation of billboards, mak- 
ing effective another constitutional amend- 
ment of November, 1918, providing a state- 
wide regulation by the State Division of 
Highways and permitting further regula- 
tion by any municipality. — Arthur C. 
Comey, Landscape Architect, Abbott Build- 
ing, Harvard Square, Cambridge, Mass. 

The National Association of Real Estate 
Boards has placed itself on record as favor- 
ing city planning, and also state regulation 
of real estate brokerage. Four states now 
have effective legislation of that sort. A 
Model License Bill has been adopted and is 
recommended by the National Association, 
in the hope that such regulation will do 
much to protect the ignorant or uninformed 
purchaser of real property. The real estate 
boards of various cities have been active in 
securing legislation. For instance, the Chi- 
cago Real Estate Board has aided in the 
zoning movement in that city; the Minne- 
apolis Real Estate Board, through a special 
committee, was instrumental in securing 
legislation for a housing code in that city, 
and another bill which provided for zon- 
ing. — Tom S. Ingersoll, Secretary, 630 Con- 
sumers Building, Chicago, 111, 



The National Short Ballot Organization 
does not specifically advocate legislation in 
any state or city. It is, however, furnishing 
assistance to local organizations along the 
following lines : 

State administrative consolidation : Con- 
stitutional amendments pending in New 
York and Indiana to simplify the structure 
of state government and to remove minor 
elective offices from the ballot ; campaign to 
interest other legislatures in what is being 
done in New York, Illinois, Idaho, Ne- 
braska and Massachusetts along these lines. 

County government reform : Gathering 
and reissuing all available literature on the 
neglected subject of county government, 
looking toward the county-manager idea. 
The principal campaign will be in Michigan 
and in several cities, including New York, 
where city-county consolidation is in pros- 
pect. 

City manager charters: This campaign 
has been transferred to the National Mu- 
nicipal League. Aid will be given in efforts 
to secure state-wide optional city-manager 
laws in New Jersey, Indiana and Illinois 
along the lines of the twelve state-wide 
city-manager laws now in operation. Tech- 
nical and publicity aid will be given to city 
charter commissions and campaign commit- 
tees wherever charter revision is proposed. 
—Richard S. Childs, 8 West 9th Street, 
New York City. 

During the last year the American Public 
Health Association has not been active in 
promulgating state or local legislation. 
However, a committee of the Association is 
at work on a Model Health Code, and a re- 
port is expected within the next half-year. 
— A. W. Hedrich, Secretary, 169 Massa- 
chusetts Avenue, Boston, 17, Mass. 

The National Fire Prevention Associa- 
tion writes that the only state legislation it 
is advocating is an enabling act permitting 
cities to fix on persons disobeying fire pre- 
vention orders the costs of extinguishing 
preventable fires. In some states, cities 
can already do this without state legislative 
permission. The Association will present 
before the Massachusetts Legislature a 
copy of the law now in force in Pennsyl- 
vania cities of the second class. It is hoped 
that legislation of this sort may become 
general throughout the country as the 
people awaken to an appreciation of the 
economic significance of the fire waste. — 
Franklin H. Wentworth, Secretary, 87 Milk 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICA x\ CITY 



Street, Boston, Mass. 

The National Physical Education Service 
of the Playground and Recreation Associa- 
tion of America has been very successful 
in assisting states in adopting physical edu- 
cation laws. Such legislation has already 
been passed in Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, 
Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, 
Oregon, Pennsylvania, Utah, Virginia and 
Washington. The campaign will be pushed 
in other states. The general program in- 
cludes the provision of a state director of 
adequate training and experience to assist 
local communities in the establishment of 
physical education programs; provision for 
the instruction of all prospective teachers 
in the general course of physical education ; 
provision that local authorities be required 
to provide adequate physical education for 
all children within their districts ; and state 
appropriations to aid local communities in 
the employment of physical education teach- 
ers. The Service is also a firm advocate of 
periodic physical examinations of all chil- 
dren. — E. Dana Caulkins, Manager, 309 
Homer Building, 13th and F Streets, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

The National Kindergarten Association 
is actively pressing a campaign in about one- 
half of the states of the Union, either by its 
direct efforts, or by assisting other organ- 
izations sponsoring local legislation. The 
California kindergarten law of 1913 is used 
as a model. This law provides that the 
Board of Education in each school district 
may maintain free kindergartens; that the 
establishment of such a kindergarten is 
mandatory upon the presentation of a peti- 
tion signed by the parents of not less than 
25 children of kindergarten age residing in 
the area to be served ; and that teachers for 
such kindergartens must have had at least 
two years* training in a recognized kinder- 
garten training school. The Association 
proposed an amendment to the law, namely, 
that if the average monthly attendance for 
two succeeding months drops below fifteen, 
the class may be discontinued for the re- 
mainder of the year. Full legislative in- 
formation, as well as the names of the or- 
ganizations sponsoring this legislation in 
the several states, may be obtained from 
Miss Bessie Locke, Corresponding Secre- 
tary, 8 West 40th Street, New York, N. Y.* 

* Editorial Note.— An article on the subject of the 
urgent need of public kindergartens, by Miss Bessie 
Locke, will appear in an early issue of The American 
City. 



The National Civil Service Reform 
League, although not at this time undertak- 
ing any special campaign, is recommending 
the adoption of civil service laws for states 
and cities throughout the country. During 
the past year the League has secured the 
adoption of a civil service law in Maryland 
and a civil service provision in the Balti- 
more charter. H. W. Marsh, Secretary, 8 
West 40th Street, New York City. 

The National Safety Council is not now 
advocating any specific legislation. It is 
very much interested in proper traffic regu- 
lation in cities to prevent automobile acci- 
dents, which are increasing at a rapid rate. 
As the proper handling of traffic is inti- 
mately bound up with city planning, the 
Council strongly favors legislation which 
will give cities the necessary authority to 
carry out city planning on a proper basis, 
in order to provide, among other things, a 
traffic system which will minimize the pres- 
ent very serious hazard to life and limb. — 
S. J. Williams, Secretary, 168 North Michi- 
gan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

The. Illinois State Legislature at the com- 
ing session will take up a number of ques- 
tions of concern to the municipalities of 
that state. Among them will be that of 
municipal home rule for public utilities, 
with the possibility of abolishing the State 
Public Utilities Commission. Another ques- 
tion that will come up will be that of con- 
tinuing the increased tax rates which were 
authorized two years ago, for a term of 
three years. The Housing Commission will 
present a bill regulating the construction of 
dwelling houses, and probably also a bill 
for the regulation of rents. The Illinois 
Municipal League has taken no position on 
these proposals. — John A. Fairlie, Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, Urbana, 111. 

As an example of the reforming energy 
of the women's club movement, reference 
may be made to the program of the Legis- 
lative Council of Indiana Women. Two 
bills will be promoted, one providing for the 
employment of a full-time health officer for 
counties and for cities, instead of the pres- 
ent system, under which a practicing phy- 
sician devotes only part of his time; and 
the other a School Attendance Law, for 
compulsory education to the age of four- 
teen, or until the eighth grade in school is 
completed. — Mrs. Edward Franklin White, 
President, 5222 East Michigan Avenue, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 



Sacramento's New Charter 



Proportional Representation and the City Manager Plan Adopted by the 

Capital of California 

By Irvin Engler 

Assistant Secretary, Goasolidated Chamber of Commerce of Sacramento 



SACRAMENTO, the capital of Cali- 
fornia, leaped into civic prominence on 
November 30. On that day by a vote 
of more than 5 to i — the exact totals were 
7,962 to 1,587 — the voters of Sacramento 
adopted a new charter which gives the city 
the distinction of being ( i ) the largest city 
in the United States having the Hare pro- 
portional representation voting system; (2) 
the largest city in California having the city 
manager form of government; (3) the 
second and largest capital city in the 
United States to adopt the manager plan, 
the other being Phoenix, Ariz. 

Moreover, the general claim advanced for 
the new document is that it rtiore nearly 
parallels the "Model City Charter" than 
does any other charter in the nation. 

Of course, the one feature that will be 
most closely watched by other municipali- 
ties and students of municipal goverment will 
be Sacramento's experience with the Hare 
proportional representation voting system. 
Sacramento was the fourth city in the 
United States to adopt the Hare system. 
One of these — Kalamazoo — was forced to 
surrender it because of a Supreme Court 
decision, leaving Sacramento to share the 
distinction with Ashtabula, Ohio, and 
Boulder, Colo. Sacramento is by far the 
largest of these cities, having a population 
of 66,000 and a registration of 30,500 voters. 
The council is to be elected in May, 1921, 
and that election will give proportional rep- 
resentation the "acid test" in the United 
States. 

Meeting the Opposition 

The new charter was adopted by an 
overwhelming vote in the face of strong 
opposition directed against proportional rep- 
resentation. One of the newspapers opened 
a bitter attack on the Hare system fifteen 
days before the election, and kept up a con- 
stant fire. It published articles written by 
the editors of the Boulder Camera, the 
Kalamazoo Gazette, and the Ashtabula Star- 
Beacon, an editor in New Westminister, 
and one in Nelson, British Columbia; it 



quoted a resident of Ashtabula and printed 
an article written by a former councilman 
of that city; it claimed that the city 
managers of Ashtabula and Boulder are 
opposed to proportional representation, and 
sent a correspondent to Ashtabula to "size 
up" the situation there. This constituted 
the evidence presented against the Hare 
system. 

The other two Sacramento dailies strong- 
ly supported proportional representation 
and the entire charter. The Sacramento 
Chamber of Commerce, which sponsored the 
new charter movement, had gathered a mass 
of favorable evidence, including the stand 
of the Ashtabula Chamber of Commerce, 
the opinions of E. O. Heinrich, former 
manager of Boulder, and A. A. Parkhurst, 
the editor of the other Boulder daily; also 
the attitude of Harry H. Freeman, City 
Manager of Kalamazoo, and, of course, the 
reports of the American Proportional Rep- 
resentation League, as well as the stand 
taken by the National Municipal League. 
This defense was reinforced by the services 
of Cameron H. King, deputy registrar of 
voters of San Francisco, who conducted two 
demonstrations of the Hare system and 
converted hundreds to the idea that propor- 
tional representation was eminently fair and 
just. 

How did the movement start? Why did 
Sacramento shake off its old charter by 
such a sweeping decision? In 191 1 Sacra- 
mento adopted the commission form of 
government, which became effective in the 
spring of 1912. Almost from the start 
there was objection to the commission form. 
The defects of the system, as pointed out in 
so many instances, were very apparent in 
Sacramento. Division of authority and re- 
sponsibility, election of men unqualified by 
training or experience to executive posi- 
tions, and extravagance in city affairs, were 
resented. 

Investigation of Facts 

Harry S. Maddox, who was Secretary of 
the Chamber of Commerce of Sacramento, 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



kept a steady finger on the public pulse and 
diagnosed Sacramento's case nearly a year 
before it became recognized as serious. He 
prescribed the manager plan as the remedy, 
and began a thorough investigation, includ- 
ing a personal visit to cities in the East and 
West operating under the manager system, 
and collection of data from every city- 
manager community, large and small. Part 
of the valuable data collected are given in 
this issue of The American City. (See page 
6.) 

Just about a year ago the drive was 
launched. Securing of signatures for the 
election of Freeholders was a matter of only 
a few days. The Freeholders were repre- 
sentative of all interests in the city — busi- 
ness, commercial, labor, women's organiza- 
tions, manufacturers — and although not 
pledged in advance to the city manager idea, 
practically decided upon that form of gov- 
ernment at their first meeting. L. C. Hunter, 
manager of a large wholesale concern, was 
chosen chairman of the Board. Hundreds 
of charters and a mass of data were collec- 
ted and gone over carefully by the Free- 
holders, who labored four months without 
pay, hoping only to give Sacramento the 
kind of government that would satisfy the 
demands of the people. 

In any event, the decision was overwhelm- 
ing, ranging from 3 to i in some precincts 
to as high as 23 to i in others, favoring the 
new charter and rejecting proposed amend- 
ments to the old charter. It was the most 
emphatic approval ever given a municipal 
proposition in Sacramento's history. 

In passing, another point which developed 
during the campaign, is of more than local 
interest. The opinions of two attorneys were 
published by the opposing paper, declaring 
proportional representation would be uncon- 
stitutional in California, as it was declared 
in Michigan. Ten other attorneys, however, 
held that the Hare system would not con- 
flict in any .way with the California con- 
stitution. It is likely that this will be deter- 
mined in the courts, through a friendly 
procedure, before the first council is elected. 

Provisions of the New Charter 

Under the new Sacramento charter the 
only elected officials will be the council of 
nine. The council is to appoint the manager, 
civil service board, attorney, police judge, 
clerk, treasurer and board of education. The 



board of education appoints the school 
superintendent. The city manager appoints 
all the administrative officials of the city, his 
principal appointees being the controller 
and engineer. 

The councilmen will each receive $300 a 
year, and as all city manager charters pro- 
vide, will handle matters of policy only. The 
board of education is to consist of five 
members, not more than three of whom shall 
be of the same sex, to serve without pay. 

The engineer is to have charge of all 
operative work which at present comes un- 
der the commissioner of streets and com- 
missioner of public works, while the con- 
troller, in addition to keeping the city books, 
will be in control of all finances, will have 
charge of assessment and collection of taxes 
and purchase of supplies. The charter per- 
mits the council to use the county assess- 
ment rolls for city assessments and also to 
have the county tax collector collect city 
taxes, making allowances to the county 
offices for such service. Greater efficiency 
and a very substantial saving to taxpayers 
are looked for through this arrangement. 

Provision for development of the city 
water-front and water-works is a valuable 
feature, and another is the article enabling 
the city manager, through the departments 
of the engineer and controller, and with the 
consent of the council, to proceed with city 
contract work when bids are deemed 
excessive. 

Such provisions as have proved beneficial 
have been taken over by the new charter 
from the old, others were improved upon, 
and still others were inspired by the Na- 
tional Municipal League's "Model Charter." 
The result is a document which should not 
only prove a splendid governing instrument 
for Sacramento, but should be of value to 
other municipalities struggling for better 
government. 

The first council is to be elected on May 3, 
1921. The manager is to be appointed by 
June 30, and the new charter will go into 
operation on July i, 1921. 

The movement for better government has 
spread throughout Sacramento County, and 
a campaign is being launched for a new 
county charter providing for a county 
manager. It is even predicted that at a not 
far distant date there will be strong senti- 
ment for consolidated city and county gov- 
ernment with a manager at the head. 



Is the City Manager Plan a Success? 

The Question Is Answered in the Following Excerpts from Letters Received by 
the Sacramento Chamber of Commerce from Cities Where the Plan is in Operation 

Editorial Note. — The italics are those of the Sacramento Chamber. 



TO secure first-hand information on the 
practicability of the city manager 
form of government, the Sacramento 
Chamber of Commerce made inquiry of 
chambers of commerce, newspaper editors 
and individual citizens in a number of cities 
where the plan is in operation. Such let- 
ters were not addressed to city managers or 
other city officials, for an absolutely un- 
prejudiced opinion was sought. 

It is a very significant fact that in the 
letters of response there was a sweeping 
expression in favor of the city manager 
plan. In not a single instance was it de- 
clared that the plan is a failure. On the 
contrary, as shown by the following, there 
were many very enthusiastic endorsements 
of the method. 

It is thus shown that there is nothing 
wildly theoretical in the city manager plan 
— it actually works, and it works to the ad- 
vantage of all the citizens. This, after all, 
is the greatest essential of good government. 

Other letters were sent to cities having 
the commission form of government, such 
as Sacramento had, and a large majority cf 
the answers voiced dissatisfaction and com- 
plaint, a number stating that there was 
strong sentiment for the city manager form. 

Cities of Over 100,000 Population 

The success of the city manager plan in 
Dayton, Ohio, population 153,830, one of 
the pioneer cities in the movement, is so 
generally recognized and admitted that it 
was not considered necessary to secure addi- 
tional proof. It was in large part due to 
the remarkable results attained in Dayton 
that the city manager plan spread so rapidly 
in Ohio and in the neighboring states of 
Michigan and Virginia from 1914 to 1916. 

The question is sometimes raised that 
certain conditions in Dayton were respon- 
sible for the great success of the city man- 
ager plan in that city and that the plan 
might not work as well elsewhere. This 
question is best answered by the following 
expressions from other cities. 

During the last six years 166 cities in 25 



states have adopted city manager govern- 
ment, 108 having regular city manager 
charters and 58 having the method in a 
more or less modified form. In 1919, 23 
cities took it up, and already this year there 
have been 5 additions to the list. The total 
number of city manager cities is now 208. 
The following expressions show how it is 
working out: 

AKRON, OHIO (208,435) 

G. P. Jones, editor. — "Remarkable results have been 
secured in Akron sinc« the establishment of the city 
manager form of government on January 1, 1920. In 
this short time definite results, showing the value of 
centralized administrative power in the hands of an 
expert, have been achieved." 

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. (137,634) 

Arthur W. Stace, editor. — "The city manager plan 
in Grand Rapids has worked out more successfully 
than the old plan. It has resulted in economy in city 
affairs u-ith increased efficiency, and the people appear 
to feel satisfied that it is a great improvement." 

Lee H. Bierce, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"We like the city manager plan because it permits of 
greater efficiency. The affairs of the city are now 
being conducted very much like a large manufacturing 
institution would be managed. There is only one ele- 
ment that is disgruntled ivith the new form of govern- 
ment. It is composed of some petty politicians of 
small caliber who used to run the city but are not 
considered big enough to do so at the present time." 

NORFOLK, VA. (116,777) 

Barton Myers, President, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"The city manager form of government has com- 
pletely transformed conditions in Norfolk. Its superior 
efficiency is so generally recognized that under 'no 
circumstances would we return to the former system." 

W. G. Swartz, business man. — "Wonders have been 
worked in Norfolk since the city manager form of 
government was inaugurated. Politics have been en- 
tirely eliminated from city affairs. Red tape has been 
abolished, as power and authority have been concen- 
trated under one head. More public improvements 
are under way at the present time than were under- 
taken in any ten-year period previously. The city 
manager plan has the entire enthusiastic support of 
the people of this city." 

Cities of Between 50,000 and 100,000 
Population 

NIAGARA FALLS, N. Y. (50,760) 

George W. Knox, attorney. — "The general senti- 
ment of the people of Niagara Falls seems to be that 
the city manager plan is a huge success compared to 
the old conditions. Efficiency has been greatly in- 
creased. When we spend a dollar, we get a dollar's 
worth in return. Under the old system our tax 
rate put us pretty well to the top of the column of 
municipalities in this state. Under the new sy.stem 
there are only two cities with a lower tax rate. These 
things have been brought about despite the election 
of men to the council who were opposed to the city 
manager plan. Our experience shows that the plan 
works to the advantage of the people even though 
men are elected to the council who are not in sym- 
pathy with it. This is because responsibility is directly 
placed, and there can be no 'passing the buck' because 
there IS no one to pass it to." 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



ROANOKE, VA. (50,842) 

Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — "The city man- 
ager plan has been effective in Roanoke for a com- 
paratively short time, but thus far has been highly 
successful. We feel that the change was justified and 
that time will show its wisdom." 

SPRINGFIELD, OHIO (60,840) 

H. S. Kissell, real estate man. — "The city manager 
plan has awakened in Springfield a civic pride such as 
we never knew before. The humblest citizen feels 
he can get a square deal with our city officials." 

George S. Shaw, business man. — "VVlien the city 
manager form of government was first introduced to 
the voters of Springfield I was against it, but after 
several years' trial I am a booster for it. We are 
now getting 100 cents for every dollar spent, and have 
had more street improvements, more gas, electric light, 
water and street car extensions during the last two 
and a half years than we could have expected during 
the next ten years under the old form of government. 
This is because graft has been eliminated; because the 
various departments are 100 per cent efficient, and be- 
cause the entire city is being run like an up-to-date 
business house. I believe it to be the only successful 
form of government for any city, regardless of size." 

R. W. McKinney, Principal, Wittenberg Academy. — 
"The city manager plan has given Springfield more 
for the ta.ves paid than ever before." 

WHEELING, W. VA. (54,322) 

H. P. Corcoran, Manager, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"The city manager plan has been successful in every 
way in Wheeling. It has met expectations and is 
giving efficient government." 

WICHITA, KANS. (72,128) 

W. E. Holmes, Secretary, Board of Commerce. — 
"Wichita has now had about three years' experience 
under the city manager form of government. The 
plan has eliminated politics from the city government ; 
has developed greater efficiency in service; is more 
economical as to administration; affords an oppo*-- 
tunity for more wholesome, healthy and moral social 
conditions, and is nvuch more responsive to the wants 
of the people. It is an ideal business form of govern- 
ment, as it carries out all the sound, well-established 
principles that govern private business." 

Cities of Between 20,000 and 50,000 
Population 

ALAMEDA, CALIF. (28,806) 

E. C. Soules, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"The city manager form of government has proved a 
distinct success in Alameda, and is so considered by a 
large majority of citizens. It is a big factor in the 
development of the city, lending efficiency, economy 
and prompt action to all municipal undertakings." 

A. F. St. Sure, Judge of Superior Court. — ^"The 
city manager plan of government has proven sound 
in practice in Alameda. By avoiding amateur execu- 
tives and clearly fixing the responsibility for executive 
acts, the business of the city has been transacted with 
economy, dispatch and efficiency. We have one gov- 
ernment, and not many, with an experienced expert 
at the head, who has been given the power to execute 
the policy established by the combined judgment of 
the council. Although executive functions have been 
centralized, 'one-man power' has not resulted, for the 
control of the council over the tenure of the manager 
removes this danger. It is safe to predict that the 
city of^ Alameda will never return to the old form of 
municipal government." 

A. D. Oliver, banker. — "Some of the noticeable im- 
provements that have come to my attention since the 
establishment of the city manager form of govern- 
ment have been: pronounced improvement of the 
streets; cleaning up of vacant lots; uniform triniminq 
of shade trees, etc. Where a decided improvement is 
apparent in the matters that are most easily dis- 
cernible, it is logical to assume that there i? improve- 
ment in other directions. With a comhetent ^ city 
manager, familiar with all details, it is much easier to 
induce representative citizens' to take an int'^rest in 
the city'.i affairs by serving on the various boards. T 
believe that the general opinion in Alamed^i is that 
the change has been entirely successful, resulting in 
economy and great efficiency." 



ASHTABULA, OHIO (22,082) 

H. W. Luethi, Manager, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"We believe the city manager plan is in line with 
the idea of modern business in centralizing responsi- 
bility and thereby securing the most efficient service. 
It has produced splendid results in Ashtabula, has 
brought about more efficient government, and the 
people are well pleased with it." 

BEAUMONT, TEX. (40,442) 

George J. Roark, Manager, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"We have recently established the city manager form 
in Beaumont. Of course we have not had full oppor- 
tunity to test the plan locally, but everyone is looking 
forward with much enthusiasm and worlds of hope, 
and there is no doubt but what it will prove all that 
we expect." 

CHARLESTON, W. VA. (39,608) 

S. P. Puffer, Managing Director, Chamber of Com- 
merce. — "Charleston is well satisfied with the city 
manager plan." 

EAST CLEVELAND, OHIO (27,292) 

R. C. Morris, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"The city manager form of government is proving 
very efficient in East Cleveland. Compared with the 
previous system, there is a very noticeable difference 
for the better." 

JACKSON, MICH. (48,374) 

C. F. Holland, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"From Jackson's experience, we give the following as 
some of the advantages of the city manager plan : 
centralised responsibility ; quicker action on projects; 
a greater equality among all classes of citizens as re- 
gards civic affairs, that is, elimination of the so-called 
'pull' ; elimination of politics from city affairs." 

KALAMAZOO, MICH. (48,858) 

Ray O. Brundage, Secretary, Chamber of Com- 
merce. — "The city manager form of government is 
much of an improvement over the previous form. We 
consider it a success." 

MUSKEGON, MICH. (36,670) 

T. A. McCarthy, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. 
— "The city manager plan is a big step forward in 
municipal government, and should the people of 
Sacramento adopt it, their only regret will be that 
they did not inaugurate it long ago. The_ city man- 
ager method makes municipal government just exactly 
what it should be — good business. The one outstand- 
ing advantage is that it centralizes authority and, at 
the same time, it fixes definitely the responsibility for 
carrying out the people's wishes. It does away with 
the favorite pastime under other forms of government, 
namely, 'passing the buck.' We of Muskegon feel that 
under the city manager plan the affairs of the city 
are conducted in a businesslike way and that the 
various departments of the city are conducted upon 
well-accepted business principles, with the result that 
we get full value for the money spent. " 

NEWBURGH, N. T. (30,272) 

Frederick H. Keefe, publisher. — "The city manager 
form of government has been in operation in New- 
burgh for more than four years and has in every way 
demonstrated that it is a very efficient and up-to-date 
plan of administration of city affairs. It has resulted 
in very economical administration without in any way 
impairing efficiency. I feel sure that if it were again 
to be put to a vote of the people they vvould unhesi- 
tatingly be in favor of a continuation of it." 

PHOENIX, ARIZ. (29,053) 

C. H. Akers, publisher. — "T am sure that you could 
not get a business man in Phoenix to go back to the 
old style of government. Our city manager seems to 
be the most popular man in this whole town_ simply 
because the method, or used by the Commission and 
the Manager, is working out with splendid, good re- 
sults." 

SANDUSKY, OHIO (22,897) 

Portion of editorial in recent issue of the Star- 
Journal. — "To make both ends meet in these days 
when prices and wages have soared and income has 
not increased proportionately, is no small task. Yet 
this is what has been accomplished by City Manager 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



Zimmerman. Despite the reduction of revenue, the 
chief item of loss being about $21,000 of liquor tax, 
the city has taken care of all operation and mainte- 
nance charges and sinking fund charges and had a 
surplus of more than $4,000 on hand at the end of the 
year. . . . We have been fortunate. We have 
been able to live within our means, thanks to efficient 
and far-seeing management that made every dollar 
count. For this, credit is due not only to the Com- 
mission, the Manager and other officials, but to the 
system, uith its elimination of politics and coordination 
of departments." 

SAN JOSE, CALIF. (39,604) 

Roscoe D. Wyatt, Secretary, Chamber of Com- 
merce.— "I think it can be truthfully said that the 
city manager system in our city has largely eliminated 
city politics and the various evils that accompanied the 
old form of government; it has coordinated the various 
city departments, making them all more efficient; it has 
placed responsibility upon one person — the city man- 
ager — so that every taxpayer may know just where to 
go for information or to make complaints. The great 
majority of our citizens are satisfied that the new 
form of government, which has now been in opera- 
tion for more than three years, is a very decided im- 
provement over the old." 

WATEBTOWN, N. T. (31,263) 

Ralph S. Baker, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. 
— "Although our city manager form has been in effect 
for a comparatively short time, it has given every 
promise of being a tremendous success. Thus far we 
are well satisfied with the results." 

Cities of Under 20,000 Population 

ALBUQUERQUE, N. MEX. (15,157) 

H. B. Watkins, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"The citjr manager form of government has been en- 
tirely satisfactory in every way, and the people would 
not consider going back to the old form." 

AMABILLO, TEX. (15,494) 

W. B. Estes, Secretary, _ Board of Development. — 
"No city would make a mistake by adopting the city 
manager form of government. It has been a great 
success in Amarillo." 

AUBUBN, ME. (16,985) 

George C. Wing, attorney. — "The city manager plan 
divorces the business of a city from politics. I think 
the taxpayers get more for their money. I believe the 
majority opinion in Auburn is in its favor, and par- 
ticularly a very large majority of those who in the 
main pay the bills." 

BAKEBSFIELD, CALIF. (18,638) 

C. F. Johnson, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"The city manager plan has been an unqualified suc- 
cess in Bakersfield. It has resulted in more efficient 
government, with economy in city affairs, and I do not 
think that the people would for a moment consider 
going back to the old order of city government." 

BOULDEB, COLO. (10,989) 

Frank E. Eckel, Secretary, Commercial Associa- 
tion. — "Boulder has found the cjty manager plan very 
successful, resulting in very efficient city government." 

BBISTOL, VA. (6,720) 

W. H. Rouse, business man. — "The work of the 
city in connection with administration has been con- 
siderably expedited under the city manager plan. It 
is a happy and satisfying division of legislative and 
administrative duties as compared with the old system 
of committee government and a general jumble and 
confusion of duties. I feel confident that under the 
city manager plan the various functions of any city 
will be handled with greater efficiency and will re- 
spond to the wishes of the people with greater despatch 
than is possible under other forms." 

BBOWNSVILLE, TEX. (11,791) 

Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — "The city man- 
ager plan has operated with much success in Browns- 
ville." 



CADILLAC, MICH. (9,734) 

Perry F. Powers, editor. — "I am sure that the people 
of our city regard with almost unanimous favor our 
present city manager form of government. It is more 
economical, results come quickly, responsibility is 
fixed, and it soon gets the business affairs of a city 
away from politics." 

CBYSTAL FALLS, MICH. (3,394) 

W. J. Reynolds, County Treasurer. — "Crystal Falls 
has been under the city manager plan for about three 
years. Before the institution of this form of govern- 
ment we suffered an unwieldy council to manage our 
affairs under an unbusinesslike arrangement that ex- 
cluded any possible chance of improvement. Since the 
institution of the new form of government, the results 
have been astounding. I do not believe there is a 
resident of the city who is not satisfied with the new 
form of government." 

EL DOEADO, KANS. (10,995) 

Russell Fisher, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — 
'The city manager form of government is regarded 
as a decided success in El Dorado. Efficiency has de- 
veloped because the plan has centralized responsibility. 
This city led the United States in percentage growth 
during the past few years, because of oil discoveries, 
and the city officials have been compelled to do a vast 
amount of emergency work. This work has been ac- 
complished, I am sure, much more speedily and with 
more satisfactory results than could have been accom- 
plished under the old form." 

ELIZABETH CITY, N. C. (10,000) 

Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — "The people in 
general feel that the city manager plan has been a 
success in every way in Elizabeth City." 

GLENDALE, CALIF. (11,500) 

R. M. Jackson, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"The city manager plan is a success in Glendale. It 
has resulted in efficient government and has measured 
fully up to expectations. The people are well satis- 
fied." 

GEIFFIN, GA. (8,240) 

W. B. Royster, Manager, Board of Trade. — "Griffin 
feels very proud of what has been accomplished, under 
the city manager plan of government. We hope that 
Sacramento will soon be added to the rapidly growing 
list of enterprising communities which have availed 
themselves of this remarkably successful form of 
government." 

HAYS, KANS. (2,339) 

R. S. Markwell, President, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"The city manager plan is giving general satisfaction 
here. The affairs of the city have been put upon a 
business basis, and a gradual reduction in the tax rate 
is jn sight. We believe it is the best form of mu- 
nicipal government." 

KINGSPOBT, TENN. (5,692) 

Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — "The city man- 
ager form of government has been a success in Kings- 
port. It has accomplished and is accomplishing the 
things we hoped for." 

LA GBANDE, OBE. (6,913) 

A. W. Nelson, Secretary, Union County Ad Club. — 
"It is my firm conviction that the city manager form 
of government saved La Grande from bankruptcy." 

McALESTEB, OKLA. (12,095) 

W. E. Harmuth, Secretary, Commercial Club. — 
"The city manager plan has been an unqualified suc- 
cess in McAlester since the day of its inauguration. 
This has not only been true with reference to the 
efficient manner in which the city's business is carried 
out, but in the satisfied manner in which the citizens 
feel toward the city government, exemplified at the 
recent primary election, when no candidates appeared 
to oppose two of the commissioners for reelection — 
something unheard of before in this city. The plan 
has given us an economical government without in any 
way impairing efficiency. This is so for many reasons, 
chief of_ which is the fact that the city manager has 
no political debts to pay, refuses any hint of politics 
to creep into his hiring of employes, and he alone is 
(Continued on page 30) 



Capitalizing Good Teeth 



By Mildred Penrose Stewart, M. A. P. H. 

Director, Dutchess County Health Association, New York 



THE county fair was only one week off. 
The Dutchess County Health Associa- 
tion had had a most successful original 
health exhibit the year before, and every- 
body seemed to think we could do it again. 
Another perusal of the Routzahns' book on 
"The ABC of Exhibit Planning" reminded 
us that to have a successful exhibit one must 
resist the temptation to tell all one knows 
and must simply get a single idea over. The 
idea should be worth getting over and should 
lead the spectator to realize the importance 
of some definite line of the work. 

One of the activities of the Dutchess 
County Health Association at the moment 
was an effort to obtain a travelling dental 
clinic for the county. Evidently a dental 
exhibit was needed — but what more stupid 
than posters and models of teeth, or than 
pictures and price lists of travelling dental 
clinics? 

With the fair only four days off, our idea 
suddenly came, and from Philadelphia ! "Oh, 
give each kid who has teeth in good condi- 
tion a dollar," said the Chief Medical In- 
spector of Schools of that town. 

Telegrams elicited the information that a 



dental house in Brooklyn would lend us 
dental apparatus free of charge if we would 
come after it. A nurse in her Ford was 
dispatched posthaste, her presence on Fifth 
Avenue with her muddy Lizzy piled high 
with dental chair, cabinet, foot-engine, glass- 
shelved table, etc., causing rather scornful 
smiles but no serious disturbance. 

Two Dutchess County millionaires with 
sporting blood backed the enterprise finan- 
cially, though we had no way of telling how 
many dollars might be needed to make our 
offer good; seven dentists promised to give 
several hours of their time to examine the 
teeth of the children at the fair. 

Then came the question of what one meant 
by "teeth in good condition," and the whole 
place was shaken to its foundation, as no 
two dentists could agree on this point ; their 
discussions grew so detailed that we were 
really lost in a maze of dental terms and 
technicalities. We feared that we did not 
dare demand perfect teeth in case we should 
not find any. After all, we wanted to re- 
ward the children who had done the best 
possible, who had kept their teeth clean and 
had had all cavities filled. We wanted to 




EXAMINING A CANDIDATE FOE THE PRIZE TOE GOOD TEETH 



10 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. l 



prove to unbelievers that the mouths of 
most children are in need of dental atten- 
tion. Hence we decided that "teeth in good 
condition" should mean "teeth clean and 
with no cavities." 

Dollars for Dentistry 

The day of the fair came. Our tent was 
decorated on the outside with enormous 
painted cardboard toothbrushes and with a 
sign offering a dollar to any child between 
the ages of five and sixteen whose teeth 
were in good condition. Inside the tent a 
white-coated dentist and a uniformed nurse 
stood beside the dental chair. 

The crowds began to come to the fair, but 
nobody came into the tent! "They'll never 
give you no dollar" was the muttered senti- 
ment of passing children. Finding that the 
foot-engine brought terror to little hearts, 
we hid that implement of torture. We left 
the tent flaps always open and we captured 
a Vassar girl for a barker. She urged the 
children in, and, fortunately for us, the third 
one to arrive had clean teeth and his two 
or three cavities filled, so that we could give 
him a dollar. The barker shouted this news, 
and a crowd collected around us and from 
then on we were kept busy. In the mean- 
while the first little dollar boy returned lead- 
ing five or six other small boys to try for the 
prize. 

The second day a small boy was waylaid 
by the nurse's protest of "Look here, you 
were examined yesterday." To which he 
calmly returned, "Yes, but I've been to the 
dentist and had my teeth cleaned since then." 
We thought he deserved the dollar ! Several 
such enterprising infants went to their 
dentists to have their teeth cleaned or cavi- 
ties filled and returned for the dollar. Cer- 
tainly this showed an up-and-coming spirit 
in the future citizens of Dutchess County. 

One little girl received a dollar and re- 
turned in the afternoon with her sister, who 
was refused because her teeth were not clean. 
This tragedy reduced sister to noisy tears. 
Later their mother took the trouble to come 
in and thank us for the lesson we had taught 
her youngest. The child would not brush 
her teeth and she had learned in a never- 
to-be-forgotten way that brushing teeth is 
a habit not to be despised and that mother 
was right. 

Near our tent a nurse dressed as a clown 
weighed and measured children. Oc5casion- 



ally, when business was not good, — though 
this was seldom, as she weighed 800 child- 
ren during the fair, — she would attract 
attention to our tent by pretending to brush 
her teeth with our big cardboard tooth- 
brushes, or by similar antics. Once our 
barker grew weary and her confused mind 
wandered between the weighing and the 
teeth examining, with the startling result 
that she suddenly began to shout, "Come in 
and have your teeth weighed ! Come in 
and have your teeth weighed !" The in- 
dignant expressions on the faces of the 
crowd and an immediate thinning out of 
our clients finally made her realize that 
something was amiss, and she hastily 
changed her refrain. 

A dollar represented a good deal of 
money to some youngsters. One child had 
to be dragged forcibly past our tent again 
and again. "But, mother, I might get it 
this time," was her wail. But, alas ! years 
of neglect had left her teeth in such condi- 
tion that no hurried call on a dentist could 
have made her eligible for the coveted 
prize. 

In the four days of the fair the teeth of 
480 children were examined and 74 dollar 
bills were given away. That meant that 
out of every six children only one had teeth 
which were clean and not in need of imme- 
diate dental attention. Add to this the fact 
that many children did not come in for 
examination, because they knew they had 
cavities in their teeth, and you may realize 
what a serious situation confronts the 
country, especially in rural districts, as our 
children were indicative of the situation 
everywhere. Consider the enormous variety 
of bodily ills which may originate in poor 
teeth. If, at the least estimate, every child 
in six needs dental attention, something 
should be done, and done quickly. The 
cure seems to be, first, education causing 
a demand for proper care, and second, the 
facilities for such care. 

As a step toward this latter cure, the 
travelling dental clinic has been successful 
in several places. This consists of a truck 
containing movable equipment, which goes 
to the most inaccessible parts of a county. 
The dentist and the nurse who are in atten- 
dance put up the apparatus in some corner 
of the schoolhouse and there attend to the 
children's teeth (always with the consent 
of the parents). 



ii 



Peoria Saves Worn Brick Streets with 

Asphalt 

Work From 1913 to Date Has Lengthened Life of Pavement 

By L. D. Jeffries 

City Engineer, Peoria, 111. 



IN 1913 the first asphalt resurfacing work 
over old brick was completed in Peoria. 
An area of 9,500 yards was chosen on 
Fayette Street, from Adams to Knoxville. 
This old pavement had been laid some thirty 
years and had become so badly worn and 
disintegrated that traffic over it was almost 
out of the question. 



traffic and shows no signs of wear after 
eight years of continuous service. Last year 
an area of 10,000 square yards was resur- 
faced on First Avenue in the same manner, 
and to-day it is one of the best-appearing 
streets in the city. 

Main Street, 60 feet wide, with a double 
track running the entire length, is now un- 




LAYING A 2-INCH ASPHALT STBEET WITH 1-INCH BINDER COURSE ON OLD BRICK 

PAVEMENT, PEORIA, ILL. 

The car tracks are shown raised with five rows of brick paralleling the rail on the outside. T^e comer 
shown has been cut back to a 15-foot curb radius 



This being the first work of the kind in 
Peoria, the contractor was required to give 
a 1 0-year guarantee, and to date not a cent 
has been spent on repairs of any kind for 
resurfacing work. The resurfacing con- 
sisted of a i-inch binder course and a 1-1/2 
inch wearing course. The old brick surface 
was swept clean and thoroughly broomed to 
remove all loose dirt, and then was painted 
'with hot asphaltic cement. All depressions 
in the street were filled with binder course 
to bring the surface up to an even grade. 
This street sustains an. unusually heavy 



der construction. This street contains 60,- 
000 square yards outside the areas which are 
paved with brick. It is the main thorough- 
fare of the city, and naturally is the most 
heavily traveled. The asphalt sheet was 
made 3 inches thick instead of 2 1/2, as on 
the other street. The car tracks were all 
raised 3 inches, and the brick along the 
gutter line for a distance of 5 feet adjoining 
the curb was torn up and laid flat so as to 
maintain the same grade in the gutters and 
adjoining improvements. For all this work, 
Bermudez asphalt was used, and has proved 



12 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i, 



its wearing qualities. 

The cost of resurfacing has varied from 
$i.8o to $2.00 per square yard for the finish- 
ed pavement, or practically 50 per cent less 
than a new pavement. The writer believes 
it will last fully as long as a new one, inas- 
much as the brick surface affords a founda- 
tion which is in every way practically equal 
to new concrete. This work is being done 
by J. W. Bushell, a local contractor. 

Curbs Cut Back at Corners 

The street corner shown in the illustra- 
tion has been cut back to a 15-foot radius. In 
doing this the old catch-basin was removed 
and a flat grating was placed upon the old 
brick work. A 12-inch pipe was connected 
to the old basin about 3 feet below the sur- 
face of the pavement and brought in back 
of the curb, terminating in a 12-inch elbow 
and opening into the curb, as shown. 

The city is spending in the neighborhood 
of $6,000 this year for cutting back street 
corners in Peoria, and about 40 corners 
have been changed already. The old corners 



were practically all on a 5-foot radius, and 
the new ones that have been established are 
all on a 15-foot radius. This necessitates 
the changing of all catch-basins, sewers, and 
fire hydrants. The curbs are built of con- 
crete 6 by 24 inches, and the pavement is 
replaced usually by the same type of pave- 
ment existing on the street. Catch-basin 
castings are removed, and a flat grating is 
placed upon the brick work of the old catch- 
basin and brought up to the required grade. 
A 12-inch tile is then placed about 3 feet 
below the surface, connecting with the 
catch-basin and terminating in a 12-inch 
tile elbow which opens into a circular open- 
ing in the cement curb. This type of radius 
for curb corners seems to meet the approval 
of traveling automobilists, as it makes a 
very much more convenient turn and adds 
greatly to the general appearance of the 
street. 

Both the resurfacing work and the cut- 
ting back of the curbs have been fostered 
by Mayor E. N. Woodruff and H. J. Mona- 
han. Commissioner of Public Works. 



Better to Build up Good Roads by 
Constant Care 



IT is better to build a cheap road and keep 
it in good condition by adequate mainte- 
nance than to build the most expensive 
highway and permit it to deteriorate for 
want of care, say officials of the Bureau of 
Public Roads of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

Maryland, which has one of the finest sys- 
tems of improved highways in the United 
States, if not the best, has consistently fol- 
lowed this practice. The originally improved 
roads in Maryland were comparatively in- 
expensive, costing only what the taxpayers 
were willing to pay for. The first few years 
the average cost was less than $10,000 a 
mile. In some cases the work entailed con- 
s'derable grading and drainage, but in 
others it amounted simply to resurfacing the 
old turnpikes, which had already been 
graded and drained. 

Generally, the roads built at that time 



were macadam, 12 feet wide and 6 inches 
thick. Soon the width was increased to 14 
feet. Later many were widened still farther, 
some very successfully, by adding concrete 
shoulders on each side of the existing 
macadam. This method of improving roads 
makes it possible for traffic to continue un- 
impeded on the road while the work is going 
on. 

The macadam roads in Maryland have 
given very good satisfaction, but continuous 
care has been largely responsible for their 
success. The roads are constantly patrolled 
and no hole of any size is allowed to go un- 
repaired. Material for patching is kept at 
convenient points along the road for the use 
of the patrolman. From a relatively small 
investment in admittedly low-type road it 
builds up a better one from year to year, 
always conserving the bulk of the previous 
investment. 



13 



Trenching Machines vs. Hand Labor 

By William R. Conard 

Conard & Buzby, Consulting Engineers, Burlington, N J. 



FOR quite a period of years mechanical 
rather than manual methods for mov- 
ing soil have been recognized as con- 
siderably more economical and efficient, pro- 
vided the surrounding conditions were such 
that the mechanical equipment could be 
used to somewhere near its rated average 
capacity.. 

If the information the writer has is cor- 
rect, machines for excavating trenches were 
first used in this country for the purpose of 
opening the ground for placing drainage 
tile in areas which unless drained would be 
practically valueless. By draining, such 
areas became of very considerable value be- 
cause usually they would produce large 
crops with little or no fertilizing. From this 
beginning the use of the trench machine 
has spread until it is recognized as an im- 
portant part of the equipment in putting in 
underground structures, such as water and 
gas pipe, domestic or storm sewers, con- 
duits for wires, etc. 

While the writer was familiar with 



trenching machines, and had been connec- 
ted with work where they were in use, it 
was not until he worked on the construction 
of the water system at Camp Dix, New 
Jersey, associated with Messrs. Hazen, 
Whipple & Fuller, consulting engineers, 
that he had any direct experience with their 
use. 

At Camp Dix, as at all of the other 
cantonments, it was necessary to accom- 
plish certain work in the shortest possible 
space of time. The installation of the main 
pipe lines for the water-works came under 
the writer's direct charge, and is the por- 
tion of the work with which he is the most 
familiar. From the first of August, 1917, 
until the first of September, 1917, at which 
time the first troops began arriving, it was 
necessary to install some 17,000 feet of line 
from the pumping station to the camp, and 
about 10,000 feet of distribution line within 
the camp. To accomplish this, three trench- 
ing machines were employed, two being 
used almost continuously, and the third 




A PAKSONS EXCAVATOE USED BY THE CITY OF HIGH POINT, N. C, IN DIGGING TRENCHES 
15, 18 AND 24 INCHES WIDE AND UP TO 10 FEET IN DEPTH 



14 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



after about ten days' use being shifted over 
to sewer lines. By August 29 'the pipe was 
in and the water on the Hues. The average 
day's trench by machine was probably about 
800 feet, the smallest day's work being 120 
feet and the largest 1,500 feet with one 
machine, with several days of 1,000 to 1,400 
feet. The digging conditions were very 
good, the soil being mostly loam and gravel, 
which held up well, and the weather dry 
most of the time. From then until the last 
of October, when the writer went on some 
emergency work at the pumping station, 
trenches of some 40,000 feet were dug — 
most of the time by two machines, for short 
periods by three, and for others by only one 
— for water pipe alone, mostly with the 
same favorable soil conditions. 

The total amount of hand and machine 
trenching at Camp Dix for mains and ser- 
vices for water and sewer lines amounted 
to some 375,000 feet. For this there were 
670 days of trench machine work at a cost 
of about $13,000 for rental of machines 
alone. No record of the operating costs is 
at hand, but the writer's recollection is that 
it was a total of about $50 per day, includ- 
ing up-keep, operators, operating, repairs 
and machine rental. For the water lines 
during the period of the writer's experience 
the machine average was in the neighbor- 
hood of 900 feet per day, and the cost per 
foot of trench was around 6 cents. This 
was for the opening only, the back filling 
after pipe laying being extra. 

In 1918 the writer was engineer in charge 
of the construction of water-works and 
sewer plants for one of the four large shell 
loading plants that were started on the 
eastern seaboard. In this construction there 
was some 50,000 feet of sewer and 100,000 
feet of water lines to be installed, where 
the ground water was fairly close to the 
surface and there was a loose, sandy soil. 
On this operation one trenching machine 
was used on both water and sewer lines, 
but mostly on the water lines. Because of 
the soil conditions the rate of trenching was 
much less than at Camp Dix, running about 
200 feet per day at a cost of about $40 per 



day, or 20 cents per foot. Even at this rate 
the cost was considerably less than for hand 
work, which ran between 50 and 60 cents, 
largely on account of the soil and the wet 
conditions. 

By the foregoing it can be seen that 
trenching machines can be used to advan- 
tage under widely varying conditions. As 
with manual trenching, the costs vary with 
the conditions, so that unless the conditions 
surrounding any particular piece of work 
are considered, it is hard to form an esti- 
mate of average cost. 

Assuming, however, average conditions 
of loam, sandy loam, gravel, or clay not too 
hard, and a territory in or near latitudes 38 
degrees to 45 degrees north, it would seem 
that a machine could be used for 125 work- 
ing days a season, and that for the average 
trench under favorable and open going con- 
ditions 400 feet is not too much to expect as 
the average for a day's work. This would 
give 50,000 feet for a season. South of lati- 
tude 38 degrees a season's use should be 
nearer 175 days' work, which, using the same 
average of 400 feet per day, would give 70,- 
000 feet per year. At present prices for 
labor and materials, and figuring the inter- 
est on the investment, the depreciatio»7-the 
upkeep and the cost of operation (but not 
the original cost of the machine) for the 
average machine for average work, the fig- 
ures would be somewhere around $10,000 
per annum per machine, which would result 
in a cost per linear foot of trench for the 
New England, Middle Atlantic, Central and 
Central Western and Northwestern and 
Coast States of around 20 cents, and for the 
other or southern sections of around 14 
cents. 

The better plan for those figuring on the 
use of trenching machines, however, would 
be to work up data of all the varying local 
conditions of soil, congested or open work, 
width and depth of openings desired, use to 
which the trench will be put, — in fact, all 
surrounding circumstances that are likely 
to enter into the use of machine. — and sub- 
mit to persons who have had experience 
with the use of machines. 



The Poster .Advertising Association, with representation in over 7,000 cities and towns 
in the United States and including in its membership nearly all of the billposting concerns 
of the country, has suggested to The American City that any individual or organization 
wishing to make complaints regarding billboards may refer its objections to the head- 
quarters of the Association at 1620 Steger Building, Chicago, 111. While not every outdoor 
advertising excess can be remedied, the Association is positive that it can often bring about 
considerable improvement. 



15 



Standard Schedule for Grading Cities 
and Towns for Fire Insurance 

Part I 

With Reference to Their Fire Defences and Physical Conditions 

By John S. Caldwell 

Engineer, New England Insurance Exchange, Boston, Mass. 

Editorial Note. — This article, which will be continued through subsequent issues of The 
American City, contains data of vital import to municipal officials, from several standpoints. 
First, it points out the system by which the National Board of Fire Undermriters grades 
cities and towfts according to their natural and artificial means for combating fire, which 
thereby determine the rate of fire insurance zt/ithin the city or town. It then outlines the basis 
of the schedule, the application of the deficiency scale, by which the score of a city in the 
grading schedule is lowered through lack of some vital element needed for fire fighting, and 
then takes up a detailed discussion of the tvater-supply. The portion of the article appearing 
ill the February issue will contain the remaining discussion of the water-supply, and the or- 
ganisation and effectiveness of the fire department. 



IT was once deemed sufficient in the de- 
termining of insurance rates for a city 
or town to have a water-works system, 
with hydrants in evidence, a fire depart- 
ment with apparatus, equipment and men to 
handle it, a fire alarm system, a police de- 
partment, building laws, etc., but until 
quite recently it had never been considered 
necessary to attempt to go into any great 
detail regarding the efficiency of such pro- 
tection. 

The natural result of such a procedure is 
apparent. Inconsistencies brought about 
fire insurance rates which were not com- 
parable with existing conditions, some being 
too high and others too low. 

In New England the necessity for a 
change was realized and in 1913 the classi- 
fied system of rating for dwelling house 
property was put into effect, whereby the 
cities and towns of New England are graded 
on a 200-point basis, allotting the 200 points 
to a perfect or standard city or town ac- 
cording to the value of its water-supply, fire 
department, fire alarm system, ordinances, 
etc., the class being determined by certain 
limitations of the points allotted. 

Meanwhile the National Board of Fire 
Underwriters was engaged in the compiling 
of a universal schedule which could be 
adopted all over the country so that uniform 
results might be obtained in arriving at the 
value of the fire protection facilities of the 
various cities and towns. In the working 
out of this problem the advice of water- 
works officials, fire chiefs, insurance .or- 
ganizations, etc., was obtained, so that the 
final result may be said to represent the 



best opinion obtainable on the various sub- 
jects considered. 

It is, of course, not to be claimed that the 
Schedule is perfect, as the practical applica- 
tion has shown that various changes are 
necessary to meet certain local conditions, 
but it is felt that it is a forward step and is 
a vast improvement over the old method. 
It is this Schedule which was adopted by 
the National Board of Fire Underwriters 
in 19 1 6, and by the New England Insurance 
Exchange in 1918. 

The Basis of the Schedule 

The Grading Schedule is based upon the 
plan of assigning to the various features of 
fire defence found in cities of the United 
States, points of deficiency depending upon 
the extent of variance from standards 
formulated from a study of conditions in 
more than 300 cities ; the natural and struc- 
tural conditions which increase the general 
hazard of cities, and the lack of laws or of 
their enforcement for the control of un- 
satisfactory conditions, are graded in the 
same way. The sum of the maximum 
points of deficiency totals 5,000 and is di- 
vided in accordance with the relative values 
of the features as given below: 

RELATIVE VALUES 

Water-supply: _ Points 

Engine Stream Basis 1,700 

Hose Stream Basis 2,000 

Fire Department: 

Engine Stream Basis 1,500 

Hose Stream Basis 1,200 

Fire Alarm 550 

Police 50 

Building Laws 200 

Hazards 300 

Structural Conditions 700 

6,000 



i6 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



It is recognized that climatic conditions 
affect fire losses, by reason of the frequency 
of fires due to the heating hazard, by re- 
tarding the response of fire apparatus, by 
hampering effective fire fighting during 
cold weather and storms, by the increase in 
combustibility due to hot and dry weather, 
and by the greater probability of fires 
spreading at time of high winds. These 
elements are to a greater or less degree 
common to the whole country, and there- 
fore no deficiency is considered in the 
Schedule for normal climatic conditions. 
Some sections of the country, however, are 
subject to abnormal climatic conditions, 
and to cities in these sections a super-defi- 
ciency is applied, which will be described 
later. This super-deficiency is to be added 
to the deficiency determined by the appli- 
cation of the Schedule proper. 

Application of the Defieiency Scale 

In determining the points of deficiency 
to be applied to many of the items, it ap- 
pears reasonable to use a graduated scale of 
points depending upon the per cent of de- 
ficiency, with a lesser increment for the first 



is graded in per cent approximately as fol- 
lows: slight 10, moderate 25, considerable 
50, serious 75, and total 100. In considering 
the degree of such unreliability, the size of 
the community is considered; that is, con- 
ditions which in a city would be considered 
serious would in a small town be only mod- 
erate or considerable because of the less 
general probability of a fire occurring. 

It was very early recognized, after the 
Schedule had been applied to representa- 
tive cities and towns, that the application 
of the items under Fire Department pro- 
duced deficiency charges in small munici- 
palities which were out of proportion with 
the actual experience in such localities, due 
to the infrequency of fires, and it was de- 
cided to deduct from the total points of de- 
ficiency under Fire Department 10 per cent 
for each 1,000 population below 10,000 for 
certain items which were not as important 
in the small communities as in the larger 
cities. 

After arriving at the total number of 
points of deficiency, the class of the city or 
town is determined from the following 
table : 



CLASS DIVISION 

A First Class City or Town is one receiving 0- to 500 points of deficiency 

A Second Class City or Town is one receiving 501 to 1,000 points of deficiency 

A Third Class City or Town is one receiving 1,001 to 1,500 points of deficiency 

A Fourth Class City or Town is one receiving 1,501 to 2,000 points of deficiency 

A Fifth Class City or Town is one receiving 2,001 to 2,500 points of deficiency 

A Sixth Class City or Town is one receiving. 2,501 to 3,000 points of deficiency 

A Seventh Class City or Town is one receiving 3,001 to 3,500 points of deficiency 

An Eighth Class City or Town is one receiving 3,501 to 4,000 points of deficiency 

A Ninth Class City or Town is one receiving 4,001 to 4,500 points of deficiency 

A Tenth Class City or Town is one receiving More than 4,500 points; or without 

a water-supply and having a fire 
department grading 10th class; or 
with no fire protection. 

30 per cent than for the remainder; that is. Let us consider in detail the various sub- 

a deficiency of lo per cent in good or mod- jects which are included in the Schedule, 

erately good conditions has less actual ef- starting first with the water-supply. 

feet than where conditions are poor. Such 

a scale has been prepared as shown below; Water-Supply 

either the full scale, a multiple or a f rac- I- Appointment of Employes 

111- 2- Lfhciency of Executive 

tional part thereof is used, depending upon 3. Records and Plans 

the relative weight or importance of the t' l^roY AiS by^DeStment 

item under consideration. 6. Normal Adequacy of Entire System 

/. Kehability of Source of Supply 

-___ „^^.-_„ c:/->Arir S- Sufficiency of Reserve Pump Capacity 

UEiaCIENCY bCALL 9 Sufficiency of Reserve Boiler Capacity 

, Per Cent — ^ 10. Condition and Arrangement of Equipment 

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 11. Fuel Supply or Electric Power 

0% 10 25 45 67 90 112 134 156 178 200 12. Construction of Pumping Station 

1% 1 12 27 47 70 92 114 136 158 180 ^ 3. Fire Protection of Pumpmg Station 

2% 2 13 29 50 72 94 116 138 160 182 14. Hazards of Pumping Station 

3% 3 15 31 52 74 97 119 141 163 185 ^5. Exposures to Pumping Station 

i% 4 16 33 54 76 99 121 143 165 187 ^6. Reliability of Supply Mains as Affecting Ade- 

6% 6 18 85 67 79 101 123 145 167 189 ,^ „ ^Hi*:^ ,, „ . ,^ , „. 

6% 6 19 87 59 81 103 125 147 169 191 17. Reliability of Installation of Supply Mains 

7% 7 21 39 61 83 105 127 149 171 194 18- Completeness of Arterial System 

8% 8 22 41 63 85 108 130 152 174 196 !"• Reliability of Installation of Mains 

9% 9 24 43 65 88 110 132 154 176 198 20. Effect of Small Mains in the High-Value District 

Considered 

Where quantity or numbers cannot be 2i- 4:inch Mains in System 

, 1 , . .1 J r ji e ' 22. Dead Ends — 4- and 6-inch Mains 

used as the basis, the degree of deficiency 23. Completeness of Gridiron of 6-inch Main» 



January, ipii 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



1? 



•24. Quality and Condition of Pipe 

■do. Electrolysis 

26. Spacing of Gate Valves 

27. Condition of Gate Valves 

28. Distribution of Hydrants in tlie High-Value Dis- 

trict Considered 

29. Ditto in Residential Districts 

30. Condition of Hydrants 

31. Size and Design of Plydrants 

32. Valves on Hydrant Branch 

In order to ensure efficient operation, em- 
ployes on municipal systems should be under 
adequate civil service rules with tenure of 
office secure, except that cases of long ten- 
ure of office with an efficient organization 
are considered equivalent. 

The chief executive, that is, the super- 
intendent or chief engineer, should be com- 
petent and qualified by either experience or 
education, but preferably both, to efficiently 
fill the office. 

Records and plans of the supply works, 
pumping stations, and distribution system, 
together with complete records of the op- 
eration of the system, should be in con- 
venient form, safely filed, indexed and kept 
up to date. 

Emergency crews shall either be on duty 
at- all times or quickly available with an 
emergency wagon loaded with the necessary 
tools. At least one responsible employe 
familiar with the system should respond to 
fire alarms in high-value districts and -sec- 
ond alarms elsewhere. 

Alarms of fire should sound in some 
quarters of the department, also in pumping 
stations where pressures are raised or pumps 
started to furnish fire service; telephone 
service to pumping station shall be con- 
sidered as 25 per cent of the total require- 
ments, and in the event of a lack of oper- 
ating force on duty, this is considered as 
equivalent to deficient alarm service. 

The item of adequacy of the entire system 
is one of the most important in the whole 
Schedule, as here one must determine as to 
whether the source, including the entire 
supply works, has the normal ability to 
maintain maximum consumption demands 
and fire flow. 

In considering the deficiency under this 
item, the results obtained at fire-flow tests 
in the most favorable location in the high- 
value district are used as a basis in making 
calculations as to the probable deficiency 
under maximum consumption conditions, 
due allowance being made for any emer- 
gency supply. The extent of the deficiency 
of each part of the supply works must be 
considered and the percentage of the most 
serious used. 



Cities are considered on an engine basis 
if the fire flow available at pressure per- 
mitting direct hydrant streams does not ex- 
ceed actual engine capacity plus one-third 
of the required fire flow, assumed to be as 
waste at time of fire, and the fire flow to 
be that obtained at the weakest part of the 
high-value district and at time of maximum 
consumption. 

Allowance is also made on the ability of 
a system to deliver a fire supply on small 
fires direct without the use of engines, which 
increases the speed of operation of the fire 
department, even when full engine capacity 
is available. 

Following is a table of required fire flow 
based on the population but modified by the 
individual characteristics of construction 
and hazards of the particular city or town 
under consideration. This table includes a 
probable loss from broken connections in- 
cidental to a large fire and is based on the 

formula G = 1,020 VP (i — -Oi VP), 
where G = gallons per minute and P = 
population in thousands, but in all cases 
consideration must be given to local condi- 
tions. 

TABLE OF REQUIRED FIRE FLOW 









.fc^"^^ 


c 




a 








*2 *j^ rt 


jt 




3 


3 >. t~ 


5 


3 fe"^ u 


a, 



Req 
Flo\ 
Per 
Ave 


& 


Req 
Floi 
Per 
Ave 


1,000 


1,000 


28,000 


5,000 


2.000 


1,500 


40,000 


6,000 


4,000 


2,000 


60,000 


7,000 


6,000 


2,500 


80,000 


8,000 


10,000 


8,000 


100,000 


9,000 


13,000 


3,500 


125,000 


10,000 


17.000 


4,000 


150,000 


11,000 


22,000 


4,500 


200,000 


12,000 



Over 200,000 population, 12,000 gallons a minute, 
with 2,000 to 8,000 gallons additional for a second 
fire. 

In residential districts: for villages or towns under 
in 000 population, 500 to 1,000 gallons a minute, 
where the district is not congested; for cities over 
this population, cr where the district is congested, 
1,000 to 3.000 gallons a minute, with up to 6,000 
eallons a minute in densely built sections of 3-story 
buildings. 

In considering the reliability of source 
of supply, the effect on adequacy must be 
considered for such items as frequency and 
duration of droughts, physical condition of 
intakes, danger from earthquakes, floods, 
forest fires, ice dams and other ice forma- 
tions, silting up or shifting of channels, 
absence of watchmen where needed, etc. 

The pumping capacity must be such that 
with the two largest pumps out of service 
the remainder in connection with such stor- 
age as may be available must be sufficient to. 



i8 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



maintain maximum consumption and fire 
flow at required pressure. For cities re- 
quiring less than 5,000 gallons fire flow, the 
relative infrequency of fires is assumed as 
offsetting in part the probability of a serious 
fire occurring at times when pumps are out 
of service, and allowance is made accord- 
ingly. 

In cases where both low-lift and high- 
lift pumps are provided and reliability of 
supply is dependent on each, they must be 
considered separately and the sum of the 
points of deficiency applied. 

There should be boiler capacity with a re- 
serve of one-quarter the entire capacity, and 
in any case at least one boiler must be suffi- 
cient to operate all machinery and the pumps 
required to maintain maximum consumption 
and fire flow with allowance made for stor- 
age. Nominally there must be sufficient 
boiler capacity kept under at one-half re- 
quired steam pressure to deliver full re- 
quirements in connection with storage for 
a period of two hours. With sufficient stack 
or forced draft capacity, an overload of 50 
per cent over the maker's rating is used 
for fire tube boilers and 100 per cent for 
water tube. 

The following forms and combinations 
of plant equipment, if of modern design and 
well constructed and installed, are assumed 
as approximately equal, advantages of each, 
if any, being in the order of their naming : 

a. Centrifugal or reciprocating pumps driven 

by steam engines 

b. Centrifugal or reciprocating pumps driven 

by electric motor 

c. Pumps operated by water-power 

d. Centrifugal or reciprocating pumps oper- 

ated by internal combustion engines 
approved for this service ; duplicate 
ignition parts to be on hand for each 
engine; adequate provision to be made 
for starting engines cold at least six 
times in rapid succession 

All equipment must be of a design ap- 
plicable to the service ; service record in the 
plant under consideration and in smaller 
plants shall be considered and actual operat- 
ing conditions observed; pumps to be free 
from knock, with low slip, and capable of 
operating at full speed; iDoilers to be well 
set, in good condition and with proper semi- 
annual inspection service; stacks to be sub- 
stantially installed ; electrical equipment for 
power to be in accordance with National 
Electrical Code and not liable to injury by 
water spray. Water-power equipment must 



be accessible and properly safeguarded; 
operating force to be competent. 

A minimum of five days' coal supply 
should be provided; where long hauls, con- 
dition of roads, climatic conditions or other 
causes make a longer interruption of de- 
livery possible, a greater storage should be 
provided. Gas supply should be from two 
independent sources or from duplicate gas 
producer plant, with a storage of at least 24 
hours' gas supply. Oil supply should be 
from underground storage of at least five 
days' capacity, with force feed to engine or 
boiler. Unreliability of gas or oil supply 
to boilers may be lessened by proper pro- 
visions for the use of coal. Water for 
power should equal at all times that neces- 
sary to meet maximum requirements and 
should have proper flood and ice control. 

Steam piping (or gas or oil piping with 
internal combustion engines or to boilers) 
or electric transmission lines, should be so 
arranged that a failure in any line, or the 
renewal of a valve, transformer or oil 
pump would not prevent maintaining in 
connection with storage, maximum domestic 
consumption for two days and fire flow for 
ten hours. Overhead electric lines introduce 
a degree of unreliability which may be in 
part offset by storage ; consideration in con- 
nection with such lines shall be given to 
number and duration of wind, sleet and 
snow-storms, character of poles and wires, 
character of country traversed, effect of 
forest fires and ease of and facilities for re- 
pairs; the use of the same transmission line 
from transformer or switchboard by other 
plants introduces a hazard of short circuit 
or prior use of power, and may be con- 
sidered as the equivalent to the use of over- 
head lines in applying the Schedule. 

Pumping stations and other portions of 
the plant should contain no combustible 
material in their construction; otherwise an 
automatic sprinkler equipment should be 
provided; outside hydrants and hose, inside 
stand-pipes and hose, and chemical extin- 
guishers should be provided. A public fire 
station, if within ^-mile, shall be consid- 
ered as giving about one-half protection. 
If the pumping station is not fireproof, the 
several sections, particularly any with high 
potential generating equipment, shall be 
separated by parapetted fire walls and open- 
ings protected by standard fire-doors and 
wire glass in metal frames. The station 
shall be protected against exposures. Elec- 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



t^ 



trie wiring shall be in accordance with the 
National Electrical Code and all internal 
hazards safeguarded. - 

Under the item of reliability of supply 
mains as effecting adequacy will be included 
any and all pipe lines or conduits on which 
supply to the distribution system is depen- 
dent; suction or gravity lines to pumping 
station, flow lines from reservoirs, force 
mains, etc., are included, and a system may 
have one or all of these as part of it. Con- 
sideration must be as to greatest effect on 
maximum consumption and fire flow at re- 
quired pressures that a break could have. 
If remaining pipes and storage cannot de- 
liver even maximum consumption, allow- 
ance is made for only that amount avail- 
able at required pressure. In applying, all 
mains which deliver from a source of sup- 
ply or of storage to the high-value district 
must be considered. Aqueducts, of good de- 
sign and of substantial construction, such 
as masonry on concreted steel, if properly 
installed, shall be considered sufficiently de- 
pendable not to require duplication, and no 
application will be made as to the effect of 
a possible break. 

Under the assumption of the most serious 
single break, when capacity of mains from 
the source of supply is less than maximum 
consumption, deficiency shall be considered 
as offset by storage when the difference be- 
tween maximum consumption and the capac- 
ity of the mains is equaled by one-fifth the 
storage after deducting fire flow for ten 
hours, except as restricted by the capacity 
of the mains from the storage. When ca- 
pacity of the mains from the source of sup- 
ply is more than maximum consumption, 
the excess capacity plus 2.4 times the stor- 
age shall be considered as offsetting de- 
ficiency if equal to the fire flow in a million 
gallons a day. The effect of a break in 
suction or discharge headers, lack of by- 
passing or poorly gated by-pass or arrange- 
ments at any reservoir, filter, etc., poorly 
arranged cross-connections, etc., must be 
considered; also features which would tend 
to cause or prevent an interruption of serv- 
ice, such as length of line, and two or more 
lines from the same or different sources or 
from storage. 

Deficiency for each individual possible 
break is considered, and charge made for 



the case giving the maximum total number 
of points, including the increase due to 
distance. 

In considering the reliability of installa- 
tion of supply mains it is assumed that they 
must be in good condition and reliable; 
cast iron, wrought iron, wood stave and 
masonry conduit have been found satisfac- 
tory, in various places and under certain 
conditions ; service records and general con- 
ditions must be considered. Mains should 
be laid so as not to endanger each other, 
and their failure at stream and railroad 
crossings and other points where physical 
conditions are unsatisfactory should be 
guarded against; they should be cross-con- 
nected and gated about once a mile, and 
equipped with air valves at the high points 
and blow-offs at the low points. 

The general arrangement of valves, spe- 
cials and connections at cross-overs, inter- 
sections, reservoirs and discharge and suc- 
tion headers must be considered with a view 
to quickness in shutting down breaks; the 
need of check valves on supply or force 
mains and other arrangements to prevent 
emptying of reservoirs at time of a break 
in a main must be considered, as well as 
ease of repair in case of breakage. If there 
is more than one main and conditions do not 
affect all, application is made in proportion 
to the carrying capacity affected and the 
degree of unreliability. ■ 

The arterial system includes the main ar- 
teries and secondary feeders which extend 
throughout the system. These feeders 
should be of sufficient size, considering 
their length and the character of the sec- 
tions served, to deliver the fire flow neces- 
sary for the district. The basis of defi- 
ciency is applied by the results obtained in 
the fire-flow tests and general consideration 
of the arrangement. 

Mains of the arterial system should not 
be laid across filled ground and should have 
special construction at railroad crossings 
and near bridge abutments and should be 
so gated that not more than ^-mile within 
the distribution system will be affected by a 
break. All mains should have sufficient 
cover to prevent freezing, with a minimum 
cover of 2 feet to prevent injury from 
traffic. 



(To be continued in the February issue) 



20 



The Value of Convict Labor 

Road Construction in Nebraska Materially Aided by This Means 

By M. Noble 

Associate Editor, Highway Report, Nebraska State Department of Public Works 



MANY people have heard that in Ne- 
braska two prisoners escaped while 
assisting with the work of building 
a small part of the 4,500-mile state highway 
system. The really important fact of the 
matter is that nearly 50 convicts are, 
through the efforts of the State Highway 
Department, living and working out of 
doors during the summer without causing 
trouble. 

During the early part of April, 1920, the 
Department of Public Works, under which 
the Bureau of Roads and Bridges superin- 
tends the state highway work, decided, be- 
cause of the excessively high prices bid on 
earth excavation, to reject all bids on road 
work for the four state and Federal aid 
projects. It was decided to take over the 
work, doing it by means of prison labor 
and utilizing the surplus war equipment, 
which had been turned over to the Depart- 
ment. By so doing, it was thought to ac- 
complish the work at estimated prices, and 
at a much lower cost to the state than by 
contract. Accordingly, camps were estab- 
lished near enough to Lincoln so that state 



officials might easily superintend and inspect 
the work as it progressed. 

The Convict Labor Camp 

Three camps were established, at Seward, 
Tecumseh and Table Rock. Each of the 
three camps has an average personnel of 
thirty and is established on lands rented 
from farmers. Each consists of six bunk- 
houses all built on portable bodies, which 
are light enough to be pulled by mules from 
one location to another. Two connecting 
bunk-houses provide for the kitchen and 
dining-room, and a third house furnishes 
sleeping quarters for the road foreman and 
guards, and is also used as an office. The 
houses are 20 by 9 feet and have sufficient 
windows for lighting and ventilation. The 
diner has a built-in table in the center, 
around which are low benches. The kitchen 
is equipped with built-in cupboards and a 
six-hole range. There are also tables of 
good size and height for the use of the cook. 
Equipment for each of the camps costs ap- 
proximately $450, and the cost of each outfit 
averages in the neighborhood of $500. 




ELEVATING OBADEB LOADING WAGONS, ALL OFEBATED BY CONVICT LABOR 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



21 




TYPICAL CONVICT LABOR CAMP, NEBRASKA, SHOWING PORTABLE HOUSES 



The cook has several helpers to assist in 
serving the men. The dining-room and 
kitchen are screened, and ice is provided 
for the refrigerators. Many of the sup- 
plies are bought from the neighboring 
farmers, although staple articles of food are 
purchased in large quantities for all the 
camps. 

Each of the three camps has about 20 
teams of either mules or horses. This stock 
is rented from a local contractor. The 
equipment for the work consists of a double 
outfit at each of the camps. The outfit is 
composed of tw^o Holt tractors of 125-horse- 
power, two graders, two road-plows and a 
half-dozen dump-wagons. It is estimated 
that by using for road-building purposes the 
large tractors which were given to the state 
as surplus war equipment, at least the cost 
of 12 head of horses is saved. The expense 
of feeding the stock would average betvveen 
$1,000 and $1,200 a month. The tractor 
alone consumes 65 gallons of gasoline and 3 
gallons of oil per day of 10 hours. 

Contrary to the practice in some states, 
the men do not work in prison garb, but 
use ordinary work clothes. The convict re- 
ceives $1.50 per day for his work, besides a 
tobacco allowance and food. The state 
penitentiary receives 75 cents per day per 
man, and the cook and supervisors are paid 
from the State Aid Road Fund. The War- 
den of the State Institution is quoted as 
saying: "The success of road work being 
done by convict labor depends very con- 
siderably upon the supervisors. Theirs is 
the task of seeing to the comfort of the men, 
and, in addition, they will have to be es- 
pecially tactful in the treatment and han- 
dling of the prisoners." 

When the convicts were chosen for road 



work, they were told that they were sent 
out as trusties and put on their honor. The 
honor system is maintained throughout, and 
in accordance with this system the guards 
are designated as supervisors. 

The Work. Accomplished 

According to estimates, over a half-mil- 
lion yards of grading has been completed 
by convicts in 1920. The project includes 
14 miles of road between Tecumseh and 
Crab Orchard, 15 miles between Table 
Rock and Lewiston, 7 miles of the Seward- 
York-Aurora Highway in Seward County, 
and 9 miles of the Omaha-Lincoln-Denver 
Highway in Seward County. In all, 45 
miles of roads will be built. At the Table 
Rock camp there is hard stone to excavate 
in some places, and in others a kind of 
gumbo. This rough work is being done by 
pickax. 

There is unusual interest in athletic 
sports, particularly baseball, among the 
prisoners, who are permitted to play local 
ball teams. One evening the entire camp 
was taken to the moving picture house at 
the expense of the townspeople. The Table 
Rock camp is composed entirely of negroes 
and has proved one of the most satisfactory 
camps in Nebraska. 

Most of the work that is being done in 
the camps is grading. This involves haul- 
ing the material from cuts or for fills a con- 
siderable distance. The graders are pulled 
by the Holt tractors, and approximately 6 
to 8 dump wagons are used. The state em- 
ploys engineers to see that the grade stakes 
are set correctly and far enough ahead of 
the actual grading each day so that the 
work runs along smoothly. 



The Cleveland Public Hall 



CLEVELAND recently set in place the 
cornerstone of its gigantic public hall 
— a building, which when completed, 
will be the largest structure of its kind in 
the United States. The hall is to cover two 
city blocks, its roof area will be nearly 
three acres, and its main auditorium or arena 
will have a seating capacity of 13,300. It 
will permit the holding of expositions larger 
than ever held before under one roof, 
and will provide facilities for amusement 
projects ranging from grand opera to the 
three-ring circus. 

The arena or public hall proper is to be 
370 feet long and 220 wide, yet in this vast 
auditorium there will not be a single pillar 
to obstruct the view. The whole auditorium 
will be lighted from the ceiling, where the 
use of incandescents with a total wattage of 
437,000, or the equivalent of 218,000 ordi- 
nary lamps, is being planned. 

South of the arena will be a unit hous- 
ing a complete theater capable of seating 
an audience of 2,700, and with facilities for 
a company of 200 players. The stage of 
the theater unit will also be the stage of 
the main auditorium and will have a prosce- 
nium arch of 72 feet span, a depth of 48 
feet, and an overall width of 108 feet. Fly 
galleries are to be done away with and noth- 
ing . but modern stage-setting machinery 
used. The stage will include one section 
which can be raised or lowered in order to 
provide a swimming tank or an ice rink for 



big spectacles. One of the notable installa- 
tions to be made in the hall will be a pipe 
organ of such size that a 50-horse-power 
motor will be required to operate it. 

To the north of the arena will be located 
another complete unit of the same approxi- 
mate size as the theater unit on the south. 
It will be six stories in height and will in- 
clude the formal lobby and some twenty 
convention halls with seating capacities 
ranging from 300 to 1,200. Restaurants, a 
barber shop, telephone booths and commit- 
tee rooms will add to the convenience of the 
convention delegates. 

The basement is designed for exposition 
purposes, and pipe lines will be installed in 
the basement ceiling to supply compressed 
air, vacuum, gas, electricity, water-power 
and steam to exhibitors, thus permitting the 
demonstration of any kind of machinery. 
Including the arena and formal lobby, 100,- 
000 square feet of exhibit space will be 
available. Curving runways will be built 
from the basement to the arena floor to take 
care of circus parades and pageants. 

The exterior of the building is to be of a 
modified Italian Renaissance type to har- 
monize with the architecture of Cleveland's 
Mall or Group Plan, of which it is a unit 
occupying a section of the easterly side. 
Other buildings in this group already com- 
pleted and in use are the City Hall, the 
Court House and the Federal Building. The 
Public Library will probably be the next 




THE JJIBGEST PUBLIC HALL OF ITS KIND IN THE UNITED STATES, ADAPTED FOB ANY- 
THINO FBOM COMMEBCIAL EXPOSITIONS TO QBAND OFEBA 



January, 1921 



The AMERICAN CITY 



23 



unit of the group to go under construction. 
The original plans were drafted by 
former Architect F. H. Betz and F. R. 
Walker, consulting architect. Mr. Betz has 
since been succeeded by J. H. MacDowell. 
It -is planned to complete the arena sec- 



tion by the fall of 1921. The total cost of 
the arena with its two units and equipment 
will be approximately $5,000,000, partly 
provided for through a great bond issue 
campaign conducted by a Committee of One 
Hundred Organizations. 



The Ash-Man Enters Constantinople 



IN Constantinople, City of Superstition, 
the common, ordinary cur was looked 
upon as a "sacred scavenger" by the 
Mohammedans. Perhaps the superstition 
contained more truth than fiction, for when 
the dogs which flocked the streets were ban- 
ished because of health measures, the streets 
became the breeding-place for the germs of 
all sorts of epidemic diseases, whereas these 
wandering pariahs had kept the public high- 
ways fairly clean. It was only when the 
more progressive citizens of Constantinople 
believed that there was danger of rabies 
that the wily ways of the dog-catcher were 
resorted to. The sacred canines were 
banished to a desert island in the Sea of 
Marmora, where they eventually starved to 
death and where their bones were found 
bleaching in the sun by war refugees. 

The dogs have been replaced by some- 
thing more modern in the way of public 
health utilities, and, if superstition ever en- 
folded the canine for the 
reason stated above, 
there are possibilities 
that the latest type of 
labor introduced by 
American relief workers 
may become known as 
"sacred street-cleaners." 
For the American Red 
Cross, realizing that 
some substitution must 
be made for the work of 
the curs, has introduced 
into Stamboul, that part 
of Constantinople known 
as the dirtiest city in the 
world, a satisfactory 
street-cleaning system. 

The new street clean- 



mind. The accumulation of refuse in the 
city had grown worse and worse, and while 
the street cleaning appliance introduced by 
the society seems simple as compared to 
the modern means employed in the larger 
cities of the United States, it has helped to 
solve the problem. It is primitive but effec- 
tive. Little pack-horses have been adopted. 
Each pack-horse is fitted with two large 
containers which hang from either side of 
the pack-saddle. A native workman, armed 
with spade and broom, guides the animal 
from trash heap to trash heap, fills the con- 
tainers with the disease-breeding rubbish, 
and takes it to a convenient dumping 
ground, where it is burned. 

This simple method is generally applic- 
able in Oriental cities, in whose steep, nar- 
row streets vehicles are often almost out of 
the question. Its adoption should do much 
to prevent the periodic ravages of epidemic 
diseases. 



mg program is giving 
peace to the supersti- 
tious Mohammedan 




Courtesy of American Red Cross 

THE EQUIPMENT IS PRIMITIVE, BUT EFFECTIVE 



24 



Dustless Streetslin Fitchburg, Mass. 

Pick-Up Sweeper Used — Oiling Replaces Watering 

By David A. Hartwell 

Commissioner of Public Works ] 



FOR a number of years the cost of water- 
ing and oiling streets in Fitchburg was 
levied against abutting property. Dur- 
ing the last fiscal year a new scheme was 
tried, by which watering and oiling was done 
at the expense of the general public. Also, 
practically all watering for dust laying was 
eliminated and oiling substituted. By doing 
away with any assessments for watering 
and oiling, the city's available revenue was 
decreased about $12,000. Since there were 
no special assessments, abutters on sprinkled 
or oiled streets were not as urgent in their 
demands upon the Department of Public 
Works as in earlier years. 

For some years past a trolley sprinkler 
and flusher has been used, at a cost of 
$4,000 a year. Inasmuch as this work was 
limited to the streets on which there were 
car tracks, and was somewhat objectionable 
when there was much traffic on the street, 
it was decided to eliminate this charge dur- 
ing the last fiscal year. 

When oil is first applied to a street as a 
dust layer, it is somewhat of a nuisance, but 
in the end it is much more satisfactory than 
water for laying the dust in all kinds of 



&■ 



weather. Two applications of oil during 
an ordmary season not only keep the dust 
laid, but are also a substantial aid in keep- 
ing the streets in repair, as the oil pre- 
vents a large amount of erosion in times of 
heavy rain. During the last season, as there 
were no assessment limitations to be con- 
sidered, there was a considerable extension 
of the mileage of streets oiled, even cover- 
ing a few country roads. It is planned to 
extend still further the mileage of streets 
and roads oiled in the coming year, because 
of the excellent results obtained. 

The elimination of the trolley street 
flusher on the principal paved street necessi- 
tated some other method of cleaning, and 
for this purpose an Elgin motor sweeper 
was purchased and charged against the 
street maintenance appropriation. In spite 
of the difficulty in securing and keeping a 
competent operator, the machine did ex- 
cellent work on smooth pavements and fair 
work on rough paving. The early morning 
sweeping of the principal retail business 
streets before the appearance of much 
traffic, aided the patrolmen in keeping the 
street clean. 





ELGIN SWEEPER AT WOBK ON FITOHBTTBG. MASS., STREETS 



25 



Modern Pumping Station Design and 

Operation 

Metering of Pump Discharge, Use of Electric Power and Fuel Oil Make 
Operation More Economical 

By Reeves J. Newsom 

Commissioner of Water-Supply, Lynn, Mass. 



IT has been necessary within the last two 
years, in order to keep abreast of the 
times and to get proper efficiency in 
operation, to make three typical changes in 
pumping station equipment in Lynn, Mass. 
A motor-driven centrifugal pump installed 
in 1912 in the Glen Lewis station had been 
so outgrown by the progress in design of 
this type of pump that it was economical to 
junk the equipment and replace it with new. 

Old Station Equipment 

The Walden Pond station, equipped with 
a steam-driven pump, became uneconomical 
and impractical to operate, and unable, be- 
cause of its peculiar situation and the diffi- 
culty in obtaining men for its operation, to 
supply the amount of water needed, and it 
has been supplanted by a new station in a 
dififerent location with electric motor-driven 
centrifugal equipment. 

In the main pumping station, which 
pumps daily into the mains and equalizing 
reservoir, the coal situation has become so 
involved that we have found it necessary to 
change to oil as fuel for the boilers. 

The Glen Lewis equipment consisted of a 
centrifugal pump delivering about fifteen 
million gallons per day against a 20-foot 
head driven by a loo-h. p. synchronous 
motor with suitable switchboard and 
starter. The priming pump was of the 
ordinary reciprocating type, belt-driven 
from a small motor. There was no water 
meter installed with this pump, and for six 
years it was run without any idea of the 
efficiency at which it was operating. 

In 1918 the writer ran a series of tests 
using a Pitot tube meter for measuring the 
water, and found that at rates from 12-3/4 
millions to 16-3/4 millions per day against 
heads ranging from 10.9 feet to 27 feet, the 
combined efficiency of the unit varied be- 
tween 26 and 47 per cent. This unit has now 
been replaced by a pump which delivers 
about seventeen million gallons per day 



106502 



f1 



against a 20-foot head driven by a 75-h. p. 
induction motor at 500 r. p. m. The auxili- 
ary equipment is in all respects identical 
with that at the Hawkes Pond station, as is 
also the method of operation, which will be 
described later. This pumping unit at the 
time of its acceptance tests showed a com- 
bined efficiency of 74.5 per cent. 

The Walden Pond station, built in 1902, 
received water into the suction well through 
a canal about three-quarters of a mile in 
length. When it was in operation, two men 
were required at all times to attend to the 
screens at the end of the canal and to con- 
trol the flow of water. The equipment in 
the station consisted of a cross-compound 
Corliss engine, the piston rods of which 
were extended through the cylinders, and 
the pump attached beyond. Because of the 
arrangement of suction canal, discharge 
lines, etc., water which needed to be lifted 
from one pond to another only 20 feet 
higher was actually being pumped against 
a 45-foot head. 

This station was used to pump water 
which flowed by gravity from the Saugus 
River to Hawkes Pond during the winter 
and spring months. Because of the neces- 
sity of getting together a force of engineers 
and firemen, it could be operated only when 
a steady run of water of at least two or 
three months' duration was assured, and to- 
day, of course, it would be impossible to 
get together a force of men for a short-term 
job of that kind. Short flood flows in the 
river could never be utilized, and the con- 
sumption of water by the city demands 
more than the steady spring flows will yield. 

The New Station 

All these difficulties were overcome by 
building a new station on the shore of one 
pond at a point only 500 feet from the other, 
and equipping the station with a motor- 
driven centrifugal unit. This location re- 
duced the lift to 23 feet, including piping 



26 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



losses, and the starting and stopping of the 
plant is so simple that all flood flows can be 
taken advantage of, even though they are 
of only one day's duration. This has prac- 
tically doubled the value of the Saugus 
River as a source of supply. 

The equipment in the new station con- 
sists of a centrifugal pump capable of de- 
livering twenty-one million gallons per day 
against a 23-foot head, and is driven by a 
loo-h. p. induction motor at 450 r. p. m. 
This motor, as well as the one at the Glen 
Lewis station, is wound to use 4,000-volt, 
Y-connected current direct from the trans- 
mission line without a transformer. 

The auxiliary equipment in both stations 
includes a two-panel switchboard, a water 
meter, and a priming unit, and in the 
Hawkes station a j4-i"ch mesh copper 
screen of the revolving endless chain type 
with suitable washing pan and hot and cold 
water connections for cleaning off dirt and 
ice. 

The switchboards contain both electrical 
and water instruments consisting of the fol- 
lowing: voltmeter, ammeter, oil switch of 
the remote control type, lighting and prim-' 
ing pump switches, overload release, under- 
voltage release, inverse time limit overload 
release, the power company's watthour 
meter, and a curve-drawing wattmeter; a 
clock, indicating discharge and suction 
gages, and recording discharge and suction 
gages. On the back of the panel and wired 
in series with the under-voltage release is 
mounted a diaphragm suction regulator 
which shuts down the pump just before it 
loses water. The water meters are indica- 
ting, recording, integrating instruments, 
actuated by Pitot tubes. 

The priming pumps are novel adaptations 
of a direct-connected, motor-driven, hydro- 
turbine vacuum pump, and, complete, occupy 
a space only 20 x 40 inches. They are so 
compact that they are tucked under the out- 
board bearings of the pumps, and in 
general appearance are a part of the big 
units, adding practically no space to the 
area which they cover. 

The Hawkes Pond unit showed on its 
acceptance test an overall efficiency of yy 
per cent. 

These two motor-driven installations are 
on the supply system, where absolutely con- 
tinuous operation is not essential, and we 
are able, in view of this fact and the safety 
devices which are provided, to operate them 



twenty-four hours per day for weeks at a 
time practically without attendance. The 
only labor involved is the daily changing of 
charts and reading of meters, and the 
occasional supplying of a small amount of 
oil to the bearings. This is done at both 
stations by the patrolmen on the respective 
parts of the reservoir system, so that there 
is no labor chargeable to the operation of 
the stations. 

The Walnut Street station is equipped 
with a fifteen-million-gallon-per-day tur- 
bine-driven centrifugal pump, and two 
reciprocating crank and fly wheel pumps, 
ten million and five million gallons per day 
capacity respectively, power for which is 
furnished by two 175-h. p. boilers. There 
is also a motor-driven centrifugal auxiliary 
pump of three and three-quarter millions 
per day capacity, for which we purchase 
power from the local electric light company. 
As our consumption is about nine million 
gallons per day, it is essential that at least 
one boiler be in operation at all times in 
addition to the electric unit, and ordinarily 
all the pumping is done by steam, using both 
boilers. 

The Fuel Problem 

The coal problem has become very serious 
in two ways. At times coal is scarcely 
obtainable, and last winter for several 
weeks we had to depend on trucks coming 
through the deep snows from a city twenty 
miles distant to keep our pumps going. Then, 
too, the quality of the coal now on the 
market has made its use very uneconomical. 
The station duty has dropped as much as 30 
per cent at times, and in order to keep up 
steam there has had to be wasted unburned, 
through the ash-pit, 18 to 20 per cent on the 
average, and, at times, as high as 28 per 
cent, of the coal fired. Combined with these 
facts has been the ever-rising price of coal 
from around $4.00 per ton to $16.50 at the 
present time. 

We have made a contract for oil at the 
equivalent of about $9 per ton for coal, and 
the price is guaranteed for two and one- 
half years, and the delivery of oil for five 
years. This contract is backed by a $10,- 
000 bond, which is two-thirds of the cost 
of the oil-burning apparatus, and the 
amount to be saved is such that if the oil 
company delivers oil for only a few months 
we can change back to coal without loss. 

The oil situation appears to be pretty 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



27 




HAWKES POND PUMPING STATION, LYNN, MASS. 
Capacity of pump, 21 million gallons daily against a 23-foot head; motor, 100 horse-power. 

building, $15,000; equipment, $12,000. 



Cost of 



stable, however, when it is remembered that 
enormous royalties are paid to the Mexican 
Government on the output of oil, and it is, 
therefore, vitally interested in keeping them 
in operation, and, further, any interference 
with the oil output would not be tolerated 
by the British and American navies. The 
company which delivers the oil into trucks 
from storage tanks in Chelsea, Mass., owns 
also the wells, the pipe lines, and the tank 
steamers which bring it to this country, so 
that transportation difficulties would seem 
to be minimized. 

The Oil-burning Apparatus 

The oil-burning apparatus which is being 
installed consists of three principal elements, 
the storage tank, the combined pump and 
heater, and the burners, with connecting 
piping and auxiliaries. 

The storage tank is of reinforced con- 
crete, built in two separate compartments 
with a total capacity of 35,000 gallons, or 
about three weeks' supply. A suction pipe 
comes from each compartment of the tank 
and runs to the pump inside the boiler room. 
These pipes are surrounded near the end by 
vSteam jackets which heat the heavy fuel oil 



so that it will flow. Pipes extending to the 
bottom enter the tank at the same points, to 
which ejectors can be attached for remov- 
ing water which may collect from time to 
time. 

The pump to which the suction pipes are 
attached is of the double-duplex, direct- 
acting type, mounted above the heater, 
which is cylindrical in shape, the whole 
thing being a small, compact unit. The 
heater is constructed like a surface con- 
denser, the steam being inside the tubes and 
the oil flowing around them. In this heater 
the temperature of the oil is raised to about 
130 degrees F. 

From the heater the oil is pumped to the 
boiler front, where it passes through an 
auxiliary heater composed of another steam- 
jacketed section of pipe which is used to 
heat the oil beyond the pump when the 
boilers have been banked, or when for any 
reason the main heater does not function 
properly. The piping is so arranged that all 
exhaust steam from the heaters and pump is 
returned to the boilers. 

The oil then passes through a regulator 
and to the burners, where it is atomized by 
steam and mixed with air. The burners are 



28 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



placed just below the location of the coal 
grates, the pipes cfoming in through the ash 
doors, which are entirely bricked up except 
for the requisite air slots. 

The regulator is actuated by changes in 
steam pressure and controls the flow of oil 
to the burners. The supply of air is con- 
trolled by the position of the chimney drafts. 
It is possible to obtain a regulator which will 
also control the air, but a centrifugal pump 
load is so steady that practically no change 
is required in the amount of air needed, 
once it has been set to meet the atmospheric 
conditions for the day's run. and the com- 
plication of such a regulator is not, there- 
fore, justified in our installation. 

We use both boilers ordinarily to carry 
the load and to prevent its unequal distri- 
bution and the overloading of either of the 
boilers. Steam flow meters are being in- 
stalled to show the respective outputs. 

Dangers and Advantages in Using Oil 

The dangers in the use of oil are two — 
having too hot a fire, and having the fire 
too concentrated. The limit to which an oil 
fire can be forced is usually beyond the 
safety point of the boiler, and so the output 
must be- watched. If the burners are too 
close to the boilers, the flame may be so con- 
centrated that the rivets in the shell will 



melt. A boiler setting built especially for 
oil is usually very high, but a coal installa- 
tion can in most cases be adapted to oil by 
removing the grates and putting the burners 
in the top of the ash-pits. 

The principal advantages which will in 
our case be derived from the use of oil are 
as follows : 

1. Oil is cheaper than coal. 

2. It can be burned more efficiently than coal. 

3. Greater boiler capacity can be developed. 

4. Coal and ash handling charges will be 
eliminated. 

5. Variation in quality will be minimized. 

6. Banking of fires can be done very much 
more economically. 

7. Neater and cleaner and better working 
conditions will be obtained. 

The burning of oil seems to solve our 
problem in this station, temporarily at least, 
and perhaps until such time as the eventual 
solution, the development of available 
water-power, will be consummated. 

Under favorable conditions steam power 
can be developed and used more cheaply in 
Lynn than electrical power, but in the case 
of the two stations mentioned above, which 
are situated on the supply system and which 
are operated only a part of the time, the 
difficulty in obtaining labor, and the higher 
fixed charges on steam-driven equipment, 
more than offset the higher cost of operating 
bv electricitv. 



Damage Suits Against Municipalities for 
Winter Casualties 



IT is not amiss to call the attention of 
municipal officials to the necessity of 
avoiding damage suits by requiring pave- 
ments to be kept clean from snow and ice. 
A municipality must see to it that the streets 
and sidewalks are in safe condition as far 
as they can be put in that condition by the 
use of vigilance. 

Safety First should be applied in the 
building of sidewalks. All • cement side- 
walks should be roughened in such a manner 
as to insure the safety of pedestrians during 
the winter months. This can be done by the 
municipality if the owner refuses, providing 
a proper ordinance has been passed. It is 
advisable that an ordinance be framed to 
call for the roughening of cement sidewalks 
so that contractors and the owners of prop- 
erty will have due notice of the requirement. 



It is a simple matter, and every property 
owner should be willing to abide by the reg- 
ulation. 

Safety First should be applied to the con- 
struction of area-ways, cellar doors, over- 
head signs and awnings. Iron plates on side- 
walks should be roughened and should be 
examined and tested. The same applies to 
all cellar doors and area-ways. Fall and 
early winter is the best time for the work to 
be done, for then repairs can be made before 
the extreme cold weather begins. Overhead 
signs and awnings are another source of 
danger and should receive consideration at 
this time of the year. Wooden awnings and 
projecting eaves where snow and ice 
accumulate and may fall on pedestrians, 
should receive close attention on the part of 
municipal authorities. 



29 



Buffalo's Memorial History 

By Daniel J. Sweeney 

City Clerk, Buffalo, N. Y 



ABOUT a year ago the city of Buffalo 
concluded the distribution of more 
than 15,000 copies of a history of 
Buffalo and Erie County during the period 
of the world war, compiled by the City 
Clerk under authority of the City Council. 
The book, with striking cover design in red, 
white and blue, is believed to be the most 
notable record of a municipality at home 
and overseas accomplished by any locality 
in America. It is both a tribute and a rec- 
ord, and will be valuable as a permanent 
reference work. 

Immediately after the signing of the ar- 
mistice on November 11, 19 18, various so- 
cieties and public officials suggested the 
erection of monuments, the building of me- 
morial halls, public buildings, boulevards, 
parks, or recreational centers as memorials 
to the boys who carried the Stars and 
Stripes to victory along the Western Front. 
Buffalo officials considered all these, but 
finally adopted the suggestion that a history 
of Buffalo during the period of the world 
war be written and a copy given to each 
Buffalonian who had participated in the 
war as an enlisted man in the Army or 
Navy, Marines or Red Cross. 

Mayor George S. Buck appointed a com- 
mittee of one hundred representative citi- 
zens, of which Finley H. Greene, a promi- 
nent war worker in the various drives at 
home, was made chairman. The committee 
selected the City Clerk, who was a former 
newspaper man, as editor, and he in turn 
selected various associate editors to engage 
in the work. The greater portion of the 
book was written by the editor, who, by rea- 
son of his connection with the city govern- 
ment, had participated in all its plans to aid 
the National Government in winning the 
war. Many of the records of the city's ac- 
tivities were in his possession and had been 
filed and indexed from time to time with 
just such an end in view. 

The Buffalo War History is a publication 
of 750 pages, in quarto form, and profusely 
illustrated with photographs and maps. It 
contains a roster giving the names and regi- 
mental connection of every soldier and ma- 



rine, and the sailor assignments of Buffalo's 
naval veterans as well. It contains a list of 
Red Cross nurses, doctors and dentists, and 
a sqparate roster for each of the local mili- 
tary organizations which were called into 
the Federal service. The roster also gives 
all the citations and a complete list of the 
dead and wounded, and, in a descriptive 
way, in another section of the publication, 
tells when and where and how the wounds 
were received or death incurred. 

One map shows the draft divisions of the 
city of Buffalo ; another locates all the 
training camps in the United States; a third 
is a detailed map of the Western Front in 
Europe; another shows the progress of the 
Buffalo boys in the draft divisions in the 
Argonne-Meuse offensive. Other maps 
shov,- the progress of the io8th Infantry on 
that memorial September 29th, 191 8, when 
the great Hindenburg line was smashed ; 
Colonel Donovan's forces of the 42nd 
(Rainbow) Division in the Marne salient; 
the Chateau-Thierry and the St. Mihiel en- 
gagements. 

The other illustrations begin with the din- 
ner held at the Bankers' Club in New York 
City on November 3, 191 5, to formulate 
plans for national preparedness, at which 
Joseph M. Choate, former Ambassador to 
Great Britain, presided, and which was at- 
tended by Louis P. Furhmann, then Mayor 
of Buffalo. Every step of Buffalo's part in 
the war ; the preparedness parades and 
meetings; the assembling and dispatch of 
all National Guardsmen to the Mexican 
border; their return; the organization of the 
draft units; their departure for the training 
camps; views at the training camps and on 
the trip across ; intensely interesting photo- 
graphs from the air and on land, of notable 
battlegrounds and of Buffalo boys before 
and after battles, on shell-torn roads in 
France, at work and at play; their trip 
home; the welcoming parades; — all unfold 
in attractive sequence as the reader turns 
the pages of the book. Many are the pho- 
tographic reproductions of scenes at home 
while the Liberty Loan, the Red Cross, the 
War Savings Stamp and other war work 



30 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



committees carried on their labors. 

The book was paid for by the city gov- 
ernment. The cost of publication — over 
$50,000 — exceeded somewhat the amount an- 
ticipated, but the work was so complete and 
so well produced that the citizens, generally, 
received it with delight. The first 10,000 
copies were produced at an average cost of 
$3.90 apiece. The distribution was through 
the City Clerk's office. Each soldier who 
presented his discharge, which was properly 
stamped against duplication, received a copy 
of the book. The books were delivered to 
the City Clerk's office in lots of 500. On 
each delivery fully twice the number of ap- 
plicants presented themselves as there were 
books available, and on one occasion it was 
necessary to secure police reserves to fa- 
cilitate the delivery, more than 3,500 people 
having banked themselves in and about the 
corridors of the City Hall and the surround- 
ing streets, seeking to obtain copies of the 
book. The tremendous increase in the cost 
of white paper and of labor has increased 
the cost of the book, but the Council ordered 



5,000 additional copies to meet the demand 
of returning soldiers. 

The work was undertaken at a time when 
the boys were still overseas, but as they 
straggled home from the debarkation camps 
many interesting tales and valuable data 
were obtained from them. A city under- 
taking such a work at this time would be in 
a position to write a narrative with greater 
historical completeness and fuller details of 
important events, but it would necessarily 
lack the atmosphere in which the Buffalo 
work was undertaken and carried on. One 
would, perhaps, be more prosaic, or calculat- 
ing, in the preparation of a history at this 
time. While many valuable data, unavail- 
able at first, could be included in a new 
work, much of value would be lost because 
of the lapse of time. 

It seems to be the consensus of opinion 
of those throughout the country who have 
obtained copies of the book that the city of 
Buffalo has erected an historical monument 
in this publication which will be the pride 
of the citizens for many years. 



Is the City Manager Plan a Success? 



{Continued from page 8) 



responsible for the success or f^ailure of the executive 
end of the government. Thus the city manager^ form 
allows of the elimination of the cumbersome 'majority' 
of city officials before even the smallest item can be 
carried out." 

PETOSKEY, MICH. (5,064) 

J. Frank Quinn, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. 
— "The present form of our city government — city 
manager — is superior to the previous form in both 
efficiency and economy. This is the expression of 
every Petoskey business man with whom I have talked 
on the subject." 

PORTLAND, MICH. (2,747) 

Fred J. Mauren, editor. — "Portland's affairs have 
been handled by a city manager for more than a year, 
and the plan has given excellent satisfaction. There 
is no dodging responsibility — no passing the buck. 
The city's business is being transacted with greater 
simplicity, more satisfactorily and with less expense 
than under the old plan." 

BEDDING, CALIF. (6,000) 

Leslie Engram, City Clerk. — "Redding has a modi- 
fied form of the city manager government. It has 
given splendid results." 

BOCK HILL, S. C. (8,809) 

Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — "The city man- 
ager plan has been a success in Rock Hill, has given 
efficient and economical government, and the people 
are well pleased with the results." 

SAN ANGELO, TEX. (9,392) 

Thomas F. Owen, Secretary, Board of Development. 
— "Most decidedly, the city manager plan has been a 
success in San Angelo. We adopted it in 1915. Two 
years ago an attempt was made by some disgruntled 
politicians to overthrow it, but they were beaten by a 



vote of nearly four to one. If you want to eliminate 
politics from city government, if you want your city 
to be operated successfully, have it run by a city 
manager. It is the only way to secure the best re- 
sults for the taxpayer, to establish efficiency, and to 
save money." 

SANTA BABBABA, CALIF. (19,441) 

C. W. Kirk, Secretary, Chamber of Commerce. — 
"There seems to be no objection to the city manager 
plan in Santa Barbara. Everything is running along 
smoothly." 

SAULT STE. MABIE, IVnCH. (12,096) 

Charles E. Chipley, Industrial Secretary, Civic and 
Commercial Association.— "From our experience, the 
city manager form of government is businesslike, and 
for that reason much superior to other forms. I be- 
lieve it will ultimately be adopted by every city in 
the United States. A city is the largest corporation 
in which its citizens are commonly interested, and 
fixed responsibility and businesslike management are 
essential to its proper and profitable conduct. The 
efficiency of the city manager form is largely de- 
pendent upon the personnel of the commission and the 
ability of the manager, but, regardless of this, the 
government of the city u-ill be superior because of the 
plan itself. In brief, the arguments in theory and 
practice are all in favor of the city manager form, 
and the final result would warrant any inconvenience 
which might result before the same operates smoothly." 

XENIA, OHIO (9,110) 

Lewis C. Tingley, Secretary, Chamber of Com- 
merce. — "We consider the city manager plan a great 
success, and it is giving this city a cleaner and more 
efficient government than before. After two years' 
experience we have found it more economical and 
far more efficient. The inauguration of the new form 
of government meant the passing of an old political 
machine." .^ 



31 



fbrward y^tops 

^oported to THE AMERICAN CITY 

bpffunicipal Officials & Department H^ads 



(jiy Managers 



Cinders and Tar Build Good Road 

Manistee, Mich. — Early last spring a 
movement was started in Manistee, Mich., 
and sponsored by the local Board of Com- 
merce, having as its objective a boulevard 
or driveway of a permanent nature leading 
from the heart of the city through an ex- 
panse of sandy flats and dunes to the shore 
of Lake Michigan, a distance of about 3,600 
feet. This, it was argued, would serve a 
two-fold purpose : it would give Manisteeans 
and visitors to our city access to one of our 
greatest resort assets, Lake Michigan, and 
at the same time open up for development 
as summer resort property a vast amount 
of hitherto almost worthless land. 

The proposed project was presented to 
the City Commission with a- request that it 
be given consideration and that some action 
looking toward the construction of such a 
road be taken at once, in ordei that, in the 
event of its becoming a reality, it might be 
available for public use during the season of 



1920. The Commission in turn referred the 
matter to the writer, who holds the dual 
position of City Manager and City Engi- 
neer, for recommendation. 

After a careful survey and study of con- 
ditions, a concrete roadway 18 feet in 
width was recommended, and met with 
hearty approval, but at that point a stum- 
bling-block was encountered. There were 
not sufficient funds available for the im- 
mediate construction, and, as time seemed 
an important factor, it was inexpedient to 
issue bonds; furthermore, the likelihood of 
carrying a bond issue seemed slight. The 
writer then began casting about for some 
other method or type of construction that 
would insure a permanent or a semi-perma- 
nent roadway at a much less expense. 

From several of our largest mills we have 
an almost unlimited supply of coal cinders, 
which for years past have been placed on 
our outlying and unimproved streets. These 
when well rolled and oiled, present a fair 
roadway for light traffic. With this in mind, 
the writer proposed that the boulevard be 
graded through to the lake and that on the 
sand subgrade a mat of cinders be placed, 
well rolled, and covered by macadam sur- 
face rolled into the cinders and then bound 




THIS ROADWAY, CONSTRUCTED AT LOW COST, CONNECTS MANISTEE WITH LAKE ftUCHIGAN 
AND OPENS NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUMMER-RESORT DEVELOPMENT 



32 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



with tar. This method was adopted, and 
the result has been so gratifying that I give 
you the co;istruction, step by step, and the 
cost, in the hope that it may prove of benefit 
to some other locality or individual. 

The site of the proposed road was first 
graded; as the grade was established, the 
cuts balanced the fills and no sand was taken 
out nor hauled in. Upon this subgrade was 
placed a mat of cinders, averaging about 12 
inches in thickness and 24 feet wide, that 
being the width oi the finished roadway. 

This cinder mat was wet down and rolled 
thoroughly and the soft spots which showed 
up after rolling were filled in with more 
cinders and again rolled, until the whole 
surface was uniformly hard and smooth. 
For this rolling an Austin-Western 5-ton 
gasoline tandem roller was used most satis- 
factorily. 

Upon this cinder base was then placed a 
i>^- to 2-inch course of ^- to ^-inch 
crushed stone, which was rolled into the 
cinders. Great care was exercised here 
that the stone covering should leave no 
cinders exposed which would present a soft 
spot to traffic over the road. 

A tank car of Tarvia "A" was purchased 
and applied hot by auto distributor in the 
proportion of about one gallon to a square 
yard of road. Immediately following its 
application, gangs of men spread over it 
another coating of the same sized stone to 
the thickness of about one inch, and this 
stone was again rolled. 

Upon completion of this operation an- 
other application of about ^-gallon of 
binder to the square yard was used for a 
width of about 10 feet down the middle of 
the roadway, and the second application was 
covered with sharp sand. The road was 
then ready for use, the sand being allowed 
to iron into the roadway under traffic, and 
presented a smooth, hard surface. After 
one season of very hard usage, no holes, 
bumps or scarifications are apparent, and 
it is the intention of the writer to build onto 
this surface again in the near future by the 
application of more Tarvia and sand for the 
full width of the roadway. 

The total cost of the work as completed 
to date was $7,777.94 for about 9,200 square 
yards, or approximately 85 cents per square 
yard. The total cost is subdivided as fol- 
lows: 

Grading $ 835.00 

Cinders, 3,100 cu. yds. @ 41c. (cost of 

hauling) 1,271.00 

Stone, 412 cu. yds. @ $2.70 1,112.40 



Tarvia "A," 10,000 gal. @ 18c. (cost ap- 
plied) $1,800.00 

Rolling roadway, 21 days @ $10.00 210.00 

Labor 2,549.54 

Total $7,777.94 

Note. — Labor comparatively low in Manistee: teams 
$8 per day, including teamster; foreman $115 per 
month ; common labor 40 cents per hour. 

P. H. BEAUVAIS, 

City Manager. 



Park 

Departments 



Organized Gardening 

Des Moines, Iowa. — Is a garden commis- 
sion worth while ? Des Moines thinks so. 

Mayor Mac Vicar appointed Des Moines' 
first Garden Commission in 1916, and under 
it was coordinated the garden work of the 
newspapers, the park department, the public 
schools, and the county agricultural agent. 
The first year of the Garden Commission's 
regime a garden expert from the Iowa State 
Agricultural College was engaged for six 
months as secretary of the Commission. 
His salary was financed by the Park De- 
partment and popular subscription. The 
second year the schools became actively 
affiliated with the organized garden work, 
and the school garden supervisor was ap- 
pointed garden superintendent for the Com- 
mission. Under him there were eight super- 
visors for school and city gardens. Vacant 
lots were listed for the use of gardeners 
without lots. A great deal of help was de- 
rived from the city weed ordinance, whereby 
the Commission was empowered to list for 
gardening purposes all vacant lots where 
weeds remained uncut. These lots, for the 
most part, belonged to out-of-town owners 
with whom the Commission was unable to 
get in personal touch in order to get permis- 
sion to assign the lots for gardening. More 
than three hundred lots were obtained under 
this ordinance. Resident owners of vacant 
lots who were not gardening themselves 
were, as a rule, glad to list their lots for the 
benefit of the lot-less gardeners. 

Prizes and shows were given in connec- 
tion with the gardening work. The prize 
junior market gardener was a twelve-year- 
old girl who cultivated the back yard of the 
family premises, raising vegetables for the 
table use of her family, for canning which 
she did herself, and for marketing. Each 
market day, all season, she hauled her little 
express wagon full of vegetables to the 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



33 



city and sold them. She raised more than 
fifty dollars' worth of vegetables from her 
back-yard patch. 

Besides the senior Garden Commission, 
on which are representatives of the city 
Park Department, the Federation of 
Women's Clubs, the public schools, and the 
County Agricultural Department, there is a 
Junior Commission composed of school chil- 
dren. The Junior Commission works with 
the Senior Commission. Each garden dis- 
trict in the school organization has its cap- 
tain and lieutenants, and each school has 
two representatives on the Commission. 
More than 2,200 gardens were listed by 
junior garden club members last summer. 

Beautification of lawns and premises was 
added to the gardening activity encouraged 
by the Commission this year. Prizes were 
offered for the greatest improvement in 
premises during the season, and hundreds of 
entries were made in the contest. 

H. B. FRASE, 
Superintendent of Parks and Public Property. 



Public ^afeiy 
Departments 



course, much used by fast motor traffic. 
Two hundred and thirty-two pupils have to 
cross the street four times each day. 

Recently two swinging semaphores were 
made, 84 inches in diameter with an inner 
6-inch circle painted green, the color of 
safety, the rest of the disk being red. The 
larger disk contains the word "School," and 
the smaller, "Go Slow." One of the older 
boys has been appointed Safety Director for 
the school, and he, in turn, appoints two 
other boys to aid him in this service. These 
boys place one of the semaphores at the 
curb about 100 feet from the school to the 
north, and the other about the same distance 
to the south. The boys keep the semaphores 
swinging during the entire time they are at 
the curb, so that drivers cannot fail to see 
them. The motion attracts more attention 
than would a stationary sign. In the mean- 
time, all pupils who have to cross the avenue 
in going to or from school are required to 
cross between two white lines, six feet apart, 
in front of the school. This crossing is 
directly under the observation and super- 
vision of the principal. 

When not in use, the semaphores are kept 
in the school building, and are carried to 
their places just before each dismissal and 
assembly time. 



Swinging Sema- 
phores for Safety 
Signs 

YouNGSTOWN, Ohio. — 
Every school principal 
realizes that one of the 
greatest problems which 
he is called upon to meet 
is that of protecting 
school children from the 
menace of reckless auto- 
mobile driving. In 
Youngstown, the princi- 
pal of the Parmelee 
School has contrived a 
device, illustrated in the 
accompanying picture, 
which has been used suc- 
cessfully in minimizing 
the danger of accidents 
near the school. 

Parmelee School is lo- 
cated on one of the busi- 
est streets in the resi- 
dence section, and along 
the main thoroughfare 
to Cleveland. It is, of 




THE SWINGING SIGN COMPELS MOTORISTS' ATTENTION 



34 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



The success of the device and its effect up- 
on traffic has been marked. Out of hundreds 
of machines that pass the school every day, 
only tvi^o machines so far have failed to slow 
down. 

Youngstown people are very highly 
pleased with the results thus far obtained, 
and many parents of school children, to 
show that their appreciation is more than 
mere sentiment, have called at the school in 
person to express their thanks for the 
efforts made to safeguard their children. 

E. S. FREED, 
Principal Parmeke School. 



j^ocreation 
Departments 



Now That the Saloon Has Gone 

Los Angeles, Calif. — Some time ago the 
Los Angeles Playground Commission, real- 
izing the need for gathering places for men, 
particularly after the elimination of the 
saloon, conceived the idea of providing a 
place where men could gather and enjoy 
wholesome, attractive recreation. Indi- 
vidual clubs and city organizations, par- 
ticularly the Municipal League in this city, 
were also interested in such a plan, and 
after several conferences the Municipal 
League, with the support of other organiza- 
tions, presented to the City Council a plan 
for providing what might be termed a sub- 
stitute for the saloon. 

After much persuasion and discussion the 
City Council appropriated funds for rental 
and partial equipment of a three-story build- 
ing in a down-town section, for this experi- 
ment. The Playground Commission, taking 
over the management, started to equip and 
put this building in shape. After several 
months of alterations and improvements the 
plant was opened in a quiet way, starting 
with a library, reading room, game room, 
pool hall, canteen, and various rooms for 
club meetings, large gatherings and enter- 
tainments. This building is located in a 
section of the city inhabited for the most 
part by men without large resources to 
spend on recreation. The equipment of the 
building is rather plain and meager, but it 
is sufficient for the needs at the present 
time. In addition to the plant described, 
there are plans for a gymnasium, and for a 
theater which it is hoped will develop into 



what might be termed a community theater. 
It is the plan to make this plant self- 
supporting and to give to those who attend 
the idea that it is their club and that 
there is no charity whatsoever connected 
with it. To bring this about, a small fee is 
required for practically all services, except 
that of the library, which offers books, 
magazines, papers, and the opportunity for 
playing quiet games without charge. 

In the basement there are five shower 
baths, a seven-table pool hall, and a comfort 
station for men ; the regular fee is charged 
for pool, 10 cents for shower bath, with 
soap and hot water, and no fee for the 
comfort station. On the first floor there is 
a library, with 20 by 40 feet floor space, and 
a canteen, a bootblack stand and a cigar 
stand. On the second floor there is the 
large gymnasium, or hall, with a stage, and 
adjoining are three large club or gathering 
rooms, and the office. On the third floor 
are other meeting rooms, and a balcony 
overlooking the auditorium. 

There are no restrictions in th's building. 
The only requirement is that those who at- 
tend shall conduct themselves properly. 
There are no signs posted on the walls, and 
the library is conducted without a librarian. 
Each member is put on his honor, and the 
library is crowded from opening to closing 
hour. This scheme has proved satisfactory, 
and no property of any value has been lost. 
In the canteen the usual prices are charged, 
and a very good quality of food is served. 
At an early date it is hoped to start the gym- 
nasium classes and physical work for both 
young and elderly men. In add'tion, a 
social club will be promoted, and for this 
and for the gymnasium there will be a mem- 
bership card, admitting members only, and 
a small fee will be charged. In this way it 
will take on the aspect of a regular men's 
club. The theater will be started with a 
stock company, and it is planned to work 
gradually into a dramatic organ'zation in 
the men's 'club itself. If profits accrue 
from any of these activities they will go 
into the betterments of the club. 

In the operation and conduct of this plant 
there are a manager, cooks, pool hall at- 
tendants, caretakers, gymnasium leaders, 
and a clerk. The aim is to make for good 
citizenship in so far as the city, represent- 
ing the public at large, can do so. There is 
a definite effort to create an atmosphere of 
ownership, and thus increase the loyalty 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



35 



and interest of the men's club in every way. 
The need of such institutions is recog- 
nized in many places. The Los Angeles 
experiment demonstrates that they can be 
conducted successfully, not only from the 
view-point of service, but financially as 
well, for with monthly costs for rental, 
salaries, etc., in excess of $800, the club is 

more than meeting expenses. 

C. B. RAITT, 
Superintendent, Playground Department. 



pire 

Departments 



How to Get a Fire Truck 

South Nyack, N. Y. — Jackson Engine 
Company No. 3, of the volunteer fire depart- 
ment, needed a new fire truck. A truck built 
for a neighboring town had been refused on 
account of delays in delivery, and was of- 
fered at a bargain. The opportunity was 
too good to resist, and Jackson Engine 
Company purchased it "as it stood," in an 
unfinished condition, paid a deposit, and 
drove it home under its own power. 

The total cost of the truck was $3,500. 
Some old equipment was disposed of, netting 
$1,215 toward the purchase of the truck, 
leaving a balance of $2,285. To pay this, 
instead of resorting to a note, the company 
issued bonds in $25 denominations, paying 
7 per cent and amortizing in five years, part 
of the interest and principal being paid each 
year. About half of the bonds were dis- 
posed of to members of the company, and 
the remainder among thrifty and public- 
spirited citizens. Money 
to meet the annual re- 
quirements on these 
bonds will be raised by 
dances or fairs. 

The result is that 
Jackson Engine Com- 
pany has a Republic 
2>4-ton truck, with 
Goodrich tires, Eiseman 
magneto, Continental 
Red Seal motor, special 
fire department radiator, 
and special hood. The 
steel body will carry 20 
men and 1,200 feet of 
hose. Public interest in 



the local department has been considerably 
increased by the novel method used to 
finance the purchase. 

T. L. FREEMAN, 

Chairman Auto Committee. Fire Department. 



Departments 
of Education 



Education for the Employed 

Seattle, Wash. — The part-time school 
conducted by the public school system of 
Seattle has just been started, and it has the 
hearty support of such organizations as the 
Chamber of Commerce and community 
groups. This school will provide an edu- 
cational opportunity for boys and girls who 
are employed, giving them four hours of in- 
struction each week. 

Although the movement for part-time 
schools in the United States is of recent 
origin, there are 19 states in which such 
schools are in operation. For many years 
the laws of the state of Washington have 
given the public school supervision over the 
boys and girls of the state until they have 
reached their fifteenth birthday, or gradu- 
ated from grammar schools. This has 
worked well as far as it has gone. It has 
not recognized, however, the need of super- 
vision between fifteen and eighteen years of 
age, a period in a child's life every bit as 
critical, if not more so, than the period be- 
fore h's fifteenth birthday. 

Some facts secured from the school cen- 
sus for May, 1920, show that the situation 
as affecting boys and girls between fifteen 




THE THRIFTY CITIZENS OF SOUTH NTACK ABE NOW PEO- 
THE T^»"^^j.^ii.^^^BY THIS FIBE APPARATUS 



36 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



and eighteen is not as satisfactory as it 
should be. There were 3,820 between these 
ages out of school last year. This repre- 
sents about one-third of the total number 
in this age group. The serious part of it 
is that not more than 25 per cent were regu- 
larly employed. Non-attendance at school 
for the majority of this group does not 
mean employment, but idleness. 

The Part Time School Law, enacted by 
the State Legislature in 1919, and made 
operative in Seattle by resolution of the 
Board of School Directors October 14, ex- 
tends the age for compulsory attendance at 
school to the eighteenth birthday, or gradu- 
ation from high school. A boy or girl who 
is regularly employed, having been issued 
a permit by the school authorities, will be 
required to attend a part-time school not 
less than four hours each week. 

Attendance at part-time school cannot be 
substituted for full-time attendance at 
school until after the fifteenth birthday or 
completion of the grammar school, and then 
only providing the child is regularly em- 
ployed and has a permit from the school 
authorities. A child becomes subject to 
full-time school attendance whenever he 
ceases to be employed. 

The part-time school hours are specified 
in the law as 8 A. M. to 5 P. M., excepting 
Saturday, when they are 8 A. M. to 12 noon. 
Attendance at evening school may not, ex- 
cepting by special arrangement, be substi- 
tuted for attendance at part-time school. 

The curriculum of the part-time school 
will recognize the fact that the boys and 
girls it serves are probably approaching the 
end of their school opportunity. This does 
not mean, however, that it will not exert an 
influence to get its pupils to return to the 
regular schools. An effort will be made to 
get each pupil to develop a life plan. The 
subjects he studies will be made as con- 
tributory to the working out of that plan as 
possible. He will be helped, too, to find em- 
ployment that is related to the career to 
which he aspires. Work and school will be 
closely linked together. Instruction in citi- 
zenship, in hygiene, in the use of good Eng- 
lish, and for the cultivation of a taste for 
reading as a use of leisure time, will make 
their contributions toward producing a finer 
citizenship. 

The new law need not inconvenience em- 
ployers or the employed boys and girls. 
Plenty of time will be allowed for adjust- 
ment to the requirements of the law. The 



provisions of the law as far as employment 
is concerned are easily understood. No boy 
or girl under eighteen may be employed 
without a permit. This permit is valid only 
for the employment for which it is issued. 
Whenever a minor changes employers, a 
new permit must be issued to the new em- 
ployer and the first permit must be returned 
to the school authorities by the first em- 
ployer. 

SAMUEL E. FLEMING. 
Director of Department of Vocational Education, 
Seattle Public Schools. 



Police 

Departments 



A Rubbish Court 

Denver, Colo. — The city of Denver 
makes one annual clean-up of rubbish ac- 
cumulated on vacant lots and alleys. This 
clean-up is begun in the spring and com- 
pleted about July I. On July 15, 1920, we 
created the Municipal Rubbish Court, held 
in the City Hall Thursday of each week at 
3 P.M. 

The city is divided into nine districts, and 
one inspector is assigned to each district. 
He is held responsible for any violation of 
the city ordinances, such as throwing ashes 
into the alleys or putting them on vacant 
lots, rubbish or tin cans in vacant lots and 
in alleys, untidy premises, dirty yards, over- 
running ash-pits, and uncovered garbage 
cans. 

Those responsible for the violation of any 
of these ordinances are ordered before this 
Court. Each case is taken up separately, 
and the offenders are instructed as to the 
ordinances and informed as to the proper 
disposition of rubbish and refuse. Each 
violator is given a copy of the ordinances 
and informed that, after a repetition of the 
same complaint he will be prosecuted before 
the Municipal Police Court, and fined. We 
do not fine any violators brought before this 
Court, which averages about twenty a week 
in attendance. 

It is felt that in this way a great deal is 
being accomplished in keeping the city clean. 
In most cases the violator is embarrassed by 
being ordered before this Court, especially 
as we have many visitors, and newspaper re- 
porters who write up the cases for the daily 
papers. 

ARTHUR MEDARIES. 
Chief, Municipal Inspection Bureau. 



37 



The Forests of Czechoslovakia 



Municipal Forests in Bohemia and Slovakia Total More Than 4,000,000 Acres 



IN a very interesting article in American 
Forestry entitled "The Forests of a New 
Republic," by E.F.Prantner, Editor of the 
Czechoslovak Review, the important fact is 
brought out that in Bohemian lands, includ- 
ing Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, the state 
owns about 1,400^000 acres of forest, chari- 
table institutions own 600,000 acres, munici- 
palities own 2,500,000 acres, and the large 
estates held by private owners cover 8,- 
000,000 acres. The article also gives in- 
teresting information about Slovakia: 

"Here the state owns about 750,000 acres, 
municipalities hold 2,000,000, and private 
owners have 2,250,000 acres. This is the 
entire forest area of Slovakia, comprising 
about 5,000,000 acres. In many instances 
the municipalities of Slovakia were enabled 
to materially reduce or totally abolish direct 
taxation through lumbering operations in 
their holdings. 

"A novel feature of Czechoslovak forest 
development is the principle that the annual 
growth must equal or exceed the annual cut. 
This is a wise and far-sighted policy. It is 
estimated that 6,600,000 cubic meters of fire- 
wood and 9,400,000 cubic meters of commer- 
cial timber are cut yearly. The quantity 



used for fuel during and since the war will 
be greatly reduced, in the very near future, 
through stimulated production of bituminous 
coal, lignite and oil. At the prevailing prices 
for lumber, competent authorities estimate 
the value of the annual timber cut to be 
about $120,000,000. 

"The policy now pursued in lumbering 
operations is to allow the cutting of only 
mature timber. On the other hand, it re- 
stricts the cutting of timber to such quanti- 
ties as are added to standing timber. That 
is, if the increase in standing timber in a 
given year amounts to 20,000,000 cubic 
meters, then the cut for that year may be 
about the same quantity. If it is more or 
less, the cut must correspond. 

"It is well to point out some of the main 
features of the laws governing the Czecho- 
slovak forests. Without official sanction, no 
soil once used for forest purposes may be 
used for any other ; all lumbered areas must 
be reforested within five years; no forest 
may be wilfully destroyed, or cut in such 
a way as to impair its usefulness for forest 
purposes. Regard'ng fire protection, the 
laws further provide that owners must 
maintain efficient and sufficient number of 




A CZECHOSLOVAKIAN FOREST IN WINTER, A VERITABLE FAIRYLAND 



38 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 




A MUNICIPAL FOREST IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA 



trained foresters and wardens, an accepted 
number of fire prevention devices, provisions 
for the extermination of injurious insects, 
and against trespassing. 

"While nearly all of these regulations 
were enacted before the present Republic 
came into existence, the more important pro- 
visions have been adopted by the present 
government. However, the Czechoslovak 
people are awake to the importance and 
economic necessity of maintaining their 
forests on such a plane as will yield the 
best results. So that one of their most pre- 
cious possessions, the forest, may be prop- 



erly safeguarded, a commission headed by 
Dr. Charles S'iman, Chief Forester, is now 
engaged in codifying the forest laws. This 
commission is also framing regulations for 
the intensive development of forests to 
assure a sufficient timber supply for the 
future. Czechoslovak forests are super- 
vised by the Bureau of Forestry, which is a 
part of the Department of Agriculture. All 
forests are subject to the authority of this 
agency. It is also proposed that all forest 
estates over 1,250 acres in extent shall be- 
come a part of the public domain and be 
scientifically cultivated and cut. 



Requisitioning Unused Land for Playgrounds 



Land which is not in use, and which is 
not expected to be used in the immediate 
future, may now be requisitioned in Aus- 
tria by national, provincial or municipal 
authorities and used as public playgrounds. 
Provisions to this effect were contained in 
a law enacted by the Austrian National 
Assembly on July 22, accord'ng to a report 
received by the Children's Bureau of the 
U. S. Department of Labor. This land will 
be placed in charge of organizations inter- 
ested in the promotion of outdoor recrea- 
tion, and will be used both by school chil- 
dren and young persons above school age. 
The owner of the land will receive suitable 



compensation for its use. The question 
whether requisition is permissible will be 
decided by the provincial government, 
which will also decide the amount of com- 
pensation when agreement is not reached 
on that point. 

By the terms of another law passed at 
the same time, rent paid for the use of any 
land for playground purposes may not be 
increased unless the taxes or the mort- 
gage interest on the land have been in- 
creased since the rental agreement was 
made. The making of false statements to 
evade the provisions of these laws is pun- 
ishable by a heavy fine or imprisonment. 



39 



A Model High School Group for a 
Residential Suburb 

By B. Ashburton Tripp 

Landscape Architect, Cleveland, Ohio 



SHAKER Heights Village is, perhaps, 
Cleveland's most attractive suburb, by 
reason of its natural endowments, its 
accessibility and the wise policy of its de- 
velopers. The village possesses a town plan, 
made when the area within its corporate 
bounds was real country to Clevelanders. 
Exclusively a residential suburb, Shaker 
Heights is closely restricted as to the charac- 
ter of its dwellings; apartment houses and 
tenements are unknown, no form of in- 
dustrial establishment is tolerated, and only 
at one point, the store center, may marketing 
be done. A chain of lakes, old impounding 
reservoirs built by the early Shaker settlers 
for their mills, form the nucleus of the park 
system, a charming reserve of natural 
scenery dedicated to public use. 



Consistent with the ideals which estab- 
lished the standard of this community are 
the activities and aims of its Board of Edu- 
cation, business men of Cleveland who pride 
themselves on that distinction of place held 
by the Shaker Heights Village in the school 
system of Ohio. Distributed here and there 
throughout the village are the grade school 
locations, which as necessity arises become 
schools instead of mere sites. Shaker 
Heights is a growing community expanding 
in a well-organized manner. During the in- 
fancy of the village one large centralized 
building met the educational requirements 
quite satisfactorily both in the grades and 
in the High School. This period, however, 
was short. The rapidly increasing population 
made necessary additional facilities, and the 



JkCToi ror AMiH&unciiT or 5viu)in&i aho Cioym^ 

5hakeiiHughts High School 




THE CITIZENS OF THIS SUBURB HAVE REASON TO BE PROUD OF THEIR SCHOOL GROtNDS 



40 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



Board undertook the selection of a site for 
the center of the village's educational acti- 
vities, there to establish the High School, 
around which, in an ordered manner, could 
be grouped future buildings to accommodate 
the inevitable needs of a constantly increas- 
ing population. 

■ A 25-acre tract in the heart of the vil- 
lage makes possible the fulfillment of any 
requirements in the area it is designed to 
serve. As it is bounded on all sides by streets 
and overlooks the park system on two sides, 
the questions of light, air and accessibility 
are settled most favorably. A general 
scheme was prepared providing for the de- 
veloping of the entire area, which consists of 
the following units: the main High School 
building: detached "wings" for use by the 
domestic science and manual training 'de- 
partments when future needs reqiiire their 
evacuation of the main building; the Junior 
High School ; the athletic field, including a 
quarter-mile running-track encircling a com- 
bination football and baseball field ; four re- 
gulation championship tennis-courts ; a com- 
bined locker-house and natatorium ; a 
stadium bowl for baseball contests, outdoor 
meetings and dramas by the school and for 
community gatherings arid festivals. For 
football games temporary stands will extend 
from the ends of the semicircular bowl, as 
permanent stands would seriously interfere 
with baseball and serve but little useful 
purpose for the rest of the year. A small 
pond, created by impounding the water of 
a stream which serves as a connecting link 
in the chain of lakes of the park system, 
lies in a depression at one end of the grounds 
and quite effectively ties the school reserva- 
tion into the naturalistic park surroundings. 

The Distinctive^High School Building 

The High School building, just completed, 
is an imposing structure of the colonial 
order, with a clock-and-bell tower as an out- 
standing feature mirrored in a formal pool 
at the base of the entrance steps. Its dis- 
tance from the main highway on which it 
fronts is 250 feet. The approach is by wide 
formal walks of brick, and the view of this 
facade is unbroken except for the massed 
evergreen plantation which ties the building 
into its surroundings. A driveway winds 
from a side street around the rear of the 
building to a large turn at the carriage en- 
trance on the opposite side of the building. 



In its present arrangement there are 
accommodations for four hundred students. 
In addition to the classrooms are the audi- 
torium, seating 400, the gymnasium, and the 
heating and ventilation plants. 

As before mentioned, the departments of 
domestic science and manual training have 
only a temporary home in the main building, 
the limit of their stay depending largely on 
the rapidity of population increase. When 
this time comes, these departments will 
occupy separate buildings erected for their 
particular needs to the left and the right 
and slightly to the front of their parent 
building. 

In the immediate future the Board con- 
templates the erection of a Junior High 
School building at the southern end of the 
grounds. This, the natatorium and locker- 
house, and the two buildings mentioned in 
the preceding paragraph, will constitute the 
group designed to give their special service 
to the entire village. 

The grounds of the area have been de- 
veloped with a view toward the ultimate 
scheme. A complete system of underground 
drainage has been installed, as well as a 
system for the watering of the lawns and 
shrubbery. The running-track is of the 
latest and best accepted construction and 
will bring a large share of the inter- 
scholastic meets to Shaker Heights because 
of its championship qualifying specifications. 
All that has been done and contemplated by 
the plan is for permanence and economy of 
up-keep. 

The successful results in the development 
of this school group have been secured by 
an intelligent comprehension of the elements 
of a problem which had to be solved in its 
entirety before the location of any building 
was selected or work begun. By the coordi- 
nation and cooperation of the resources of 
the Board, its architect and landscape archi- 
tects, there was an economy of execution 
which would have been possible in no other 
way. The point which can never be too 
strongly emphasized and is so clearly 
brought forward in this instance is the ne- 
cessity of a preconceived plan. The sur- 
roundings and their treatment in relation to 
the buildings are as much a part of the un- 
dertaking as any one of the structures them- 
selves. 

Editoriau Note: The architect for this group is 
Franz C. Warner of Cleveland. The landscape archi- 
tects are Messrs. B. Ashburton Tripp, of Cleveland, 
and Sheffield A. Arnold, of Boston. 



41 



Water-Supply Statistics of Metered 

Cities 

Tabulation of Data From Over 1,000 Cities in the United States and Canada 



THROUGH the kind cooperation of 
over 1,000 water-works superinten- 
dents and engineers, as well as other 
nnmicipal officials. The American City is 
able to publish for the benefit of its readers 
water-supply statistics covering a broader 
field and a larger number of communities 
than have hitherto been surveyed by any 
publication. The statistics include the 1920 
population figures, with an asterisk to indi- 
cate figures already given out by the Census 
Bureau. The source of the water-supply 
is indicated by abbreviations which are 
listed below. 

The statistics of metered cities only have 
been included in this tabulation, and if a 
city has had i per cent or more of the 
services metered it has been included. Many 
cities still retain the cubic foot measurement 
of water in their meter rates, but, in order 
to make the tabulation uniform, all rates 
per 100 or per 1,000 cubic feet have been 
changed to an equivalent rate per 1,000 gal- 
lons for purposes of ready comparison. 

The first instalment of these tables, which 
appeared in the December, 1920, issue of 
The American City, contained data alpha- 
betically arranged from Alabama through a 
portion of Nebraska. The current tabula- 
tion completes the statistics from the United 



States and includes a number of Canadian 
cities. 

If any errors are found in these tables, it 
will be considered a favor if readers will 
notify The American City at once, in 
order that corrections may be made. 

The recapitulation given at the bottom of 
this page summarizes the meter rates for 
the various states and Canada in such a 
manner that a general idea of the prevail- 
ing rates in any state may be secured. 

In order to make it possible to condense 
the large volume of material in a reason- 
ably small space, a system of symbols has 
been adopted as follows: 



(P)- 



A.W.- 
B.- 

Br.- 

c- 

Cr.- 

D.W.- 

I.G.- 

p.- 

Res.- 
Ri.- 
Sp.- 
St.- 

w.- 

Chl.- 

Hyp.- 

Chem.- 



Indicates private ownership of the 

water-works 
Indicates U. S. Bureau of the Census 

population figures for 1920 
Artesian Well 
Bay 
Brook 
Canal 
Creek 
Deep Well 
Infiltration Gallery 
Impounded 
Lake 
Pond 
Reservoir 
River 
Spring 
Stream 
Well 

Liquid Chlorine 
Hypochlorite of Lime 
Chemicals 



Average Average Best 
Highest Meter Commercial 

Rate Per Rate Per 
State 1,000 Gallons 1,000 Gallons 

Alabama 313 .140 

Arizona 975 .295 

Arkansas 475 .168 

California 244 .15 

Colorado 205 .73 

Connecticut 286 .105 

Delaware 10 .186 

Dist. of Columbia. .10 .067 

Florida 347 .116 

Georgia 259 ,151 

Idaho 409 .119 

Illinois 304 .18 

Indiana 229 .092 

Iowa 406 .175 

Kansas 328 .11 

Kentucky 288 .159 

Louisiana 291 .094 

Maine 296 .118 

Maryland 215 .135 

Massachusetts ... .396 .175 

Michigan 235 .107 

Minnesota 337 .174 

Mississippi 35 .162 

Missouri 457 .281 

Montana 476 .09 



RECAPITULATION 

Average Average Best 
Average Highest Meter Commercial Average 

Yearly Rate Per Rate Per Yearly 
Mininfum State 1,000 Gallons 1,000 Gallons Minimum 

12.33 Nebraska 312 .142 7.03 

20.00 Nevada 433 .245 12.00 

11.83 New Hampshire.. .256 .082 9.54 

11.68 New Jersey 337 .216 8.71 

15.02 New Mexico 30 .10 24.00 

8.44 New York 330 .123 7.39 

10.00 North Carolina... .372 .158 8.52 

10.00 North Dakota . . . .455 .168 4.20 

9.00 Ohio 372 .154 7.30 

10.10 Oklahoma 469 .138 9.90 

16.40 Oregon 287 .126 11.73 

6.26 Pennsylvania 295 .114 10.12 

7.29 Rhode Island 33 .174 15.00 

6.95 South Carolina... .335 .135 10.32 

7.51 South Dakota 354 .142 7.67 

11.32 Tennessee 272 .122 9.68 

8.70 Texas 491 .22 10.10 

17.66 Utah 073 .06 5.00 

7.66 Vermont 253 .81 5.70 

8.58 Virginia 191 .077 10.42 

6.03 Washington 524 .219 12.41 

6.14 West Virginia... .294 .084 9.60 

12.43 Wisconsin 262 .092 6.35 

7.37 Wyoming 70 .217 15.00 

8.25 Canada 274 .106 8.71 



42 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



Municipality 



NEBRASKA— (Cont.) 

Cedar Bluffs 

Columbus 

Crawford 

Creighton 

Decatur 



Falls City.... 

Fullerton 

Grand Island . 

Hastings 

Hebron 



Kearney. . 
Lincoln. . ■ 

Ord 

Ralston. . 
Schuyler. 

NEVADA 

Elko 

Lovelock . 
Pioche. . . 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Claremont 

Concord 

Dover 

Keene 

Lebanon 



Manchester 

Milford 

Nashua (P) 

Newport 

Portsmouth 



Somersworth. 



NEW JERSEY 

Behnar — 

Camden 

Cape May City. 

Dover 

Freehold 



Gladstone 

Glen Ridge 

Jamesburg CP) 

Jersey City 

Kearny 



Madison 

Mont- lair 

Newark ....._ 

New Brunswick .... 
Nutley (P) 

Paterson (P) 

Pleasantville.etc. . . (P) 

Rahway 

Sussex 

West Orange (P) 

NEW MEXICO 

Carlsbad (P) 



NEW YORK 
Albany..,. . . 

Albion 

Avon 

Binghamton. 
Boonville.. . . 



Brockport . . . . 

Buffalo 

Cape Vincent. 

Carthage 

Catskill 



Cincinnatus. 
Coming 



600 
6,000 
2,200 
1,800 

800 

5,000 

2.000 

*13,960 

*1 1,647 

2,000 

10,000 

*54,934 

^500 

500 

3,000 



2,175 

1,250 

595 



9,524 

*22,167 

14,500 

11,210 

6,000 

*78,384 
4,000 

*28,379 
3,500 

*13,569 

7,030 



25,000 

*116,309 

3,000 

9,864 

7,500 

1,400 

4,800 

1,500 

•279,864 

♦26,724 

6,000 

•28,810 

•414,216 

•32,779 

9,500 

•135,866 

10,000 

•11,042 

1,200 

•15,573 



2,500 



•113,344 

5,500 

2,550 

•66,800 

2,000 

3,900 
•506,775 
1,100 
5,000 
4,728 

500 
•15,820 



4> >. 

o 3 



W. 
W. 
Ri. 
W. 
W. 

W. 
W. 
W. 

w. 
w. 

w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 



Sp.-W 
St. 
Sp. 



Imp. 
L. 

P.-Sp. 
L. 
Ri. 

L. 
W. 
W. 
P. 
W. 

Ri. 



W. 
W. 
W. 
W.-Sp 
W. 

Sp. 

Ri. 

W. 

Imp. 

Imp. 

W. 
Ri. 
Ri. 
Br. 
Ri. 

Ri. 

Res. 

Ri. 

L. 

Ri. 



W. 



Ri. 
Imp. 
L. 
Ri. 
Sp.-Br 

L. 
L. 
Ri. 
Sp. 
Ri. 

W.-Sp, 
Imp. 



No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 



No 
Yes 
No 



No 

No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

Yes 



No 
No 
ISo 
No 
No 

No 
Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 

ho 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 



No 



Yes 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 

Yes 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 



No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 

No 

No 
Chi 
No 
No 
No 



Chi 
No 
No 



No 
No 
No 
No 
Chi 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

Chi 



No 
No 
No 
Chi 
No 

No 
No 
No 



No 

No 

No 
Chi 
Chi 

Chi 
No 
No 
No 
Chi 



No 



Chi 
No 
Chi 
Hyp 
No 

Chi 
Chi 
No 
No 
Hyp 

No 
Chi 



Consumption 






5,000 

500,000 

250,000 

20,000 

30,000 

800 000 

100 000 

3.500,000 

1,800,000 

100,000 

600,000 

3,750,000 

175,000 

72,000 

140,000 



525,000 
200,000 
100,000 



700,000 
2,400,000 

675,000 
1,000,000 

300,000 

5,335,327 
150,000 

2,600,000 
300,000 

1,700,000 

744,500 



800,000 

14,000,000 

1,500,000 

500,000 

550,000 

123,000 

266,000 

60,000 

54,000,000 

2,500,000 

500,000 

1,476,400 

43,100,000 

5,500,000 

350,000 

10,000,000 

300,000 

2,900,000 

75,000 

840,000 



250,000 



20,000,000 

600,000 

300,000 

6,033,322 

200,000 

255,000 
130,000,000 
250,000 
800,000 
888,494 

Unknown 
3,000,000 



83 

114 

11 

38 

160 

50 

251 

155 

50 

50 

68 

70 

144 

46 



241 
160 
168 



74 
108 
47 
90 
50 



32 
120 
500 
51 
73 



55 
40 
182 
94 

83 
51 
104 
168 
37 

74 
30 
203 
63 
54 



100 



177 
109 
118 
90 
100 

65 
257 
227 
160 

188 



190 



No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
Yes 



No 
No 
No 



No 
No 
Yes 
No 
No 

No 
No 

Yes 



Yes 
No 



Yes 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
Yes 

No 
No 
No 



No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 



Yes 



No 
No 
Yes 
No 
No 

Yes 
\es 
No 
No 
No 

No 
Yes 






^!A 



142 
1 ,000 
412 
250 
112 

1,000 

375 

2,400 

2,767 

300 

1,400 

13,000 

650 

107 

365 



580 
253 
105 



1,347 
3,883 
1,999 
2,342 

787 

8,389 
680 

3,900 
713 

3,050 

1,114 



1,300 
22,500 
1,300 
1,840 
1,200 

199 

1,025 

287 

34,102 

3,750 

1,050 
4,904 
61,533 
6,800 
1,900 

17,000 

1,800 

2,400 

35J 

2,475 



535 



20,674 
835 
600 

10,000 
700 

1,200 

76,258 

150 

842 

140 

95 
3,544 



o 




Meter Rates 


"a 

DO 






V 01 

•a u 








E 

E 3 w 


3 <u 
137 


97 






S<5 


30c 


20c 


$8.00 


1000 


100 


20c 


lOc 


9.60 


365 


89 


12c 


6c 


8.00 


250 


100 


35c 


I8c 


8 00 


100 


83 


26.7c 


24c 


9.00 


1,000 


100 


53c 


lie 


9.00 


364 


97 


20c 




6.00 


2,400 


100 


16c 


6c 


6.00 


2,767 


100 


18c 


8c 


6.00 


300 


100 


32c 


13.3c 


6.00 


1,400 


100 


20c 


10c 


9 00 


11,300 


87 


15c 


15c 


6 00 


650 


100 


50c 


15c 


8.00 


107 


100 


25c 


20c 


6 00 


361 


99 


28.7c 


10c 


7.00 


320 


m 


30c 


7.6c 


None 


240 


95 


50c 
50c 

20c 


lec 
60c 

10c 


12.00 


983 


73 


$12 00 


2,589 


67 


22 2c 


5c 


10 00 


1,630 


S2 


30.7c 


2c 


10 00 


2,305 


98 


15c 


1.5c 


4.00 


342 


44 


25c 


12.5c 


5 00 


6,867 


82 


13 3c 


9 3c 


8.00 


360 


53 


40c 


12c 


16.00 


1,500 


39 


24C 


6c 


13.00 


3 


4 


25c 


13 6c 


5.00 


3,000 


98 


30c 


10c 


6.00 


400 


36 


36c 


None 


13.00 


1,100 


85 


23.3c 


23.3c 


$10.50 


1,400 


6 


26c 


10c 


8.00 


6 


5 


20c 


20c 


16.00 


1,475 


80 


29.6c 


21.3c 


None 


100 


8 


33.3c 


15.3c 


10.00 


199 


100 


33.3c 


8c 


8.00 


1,025 


100 


$2 00 


$1.70 








25C 
12c 


15c 
6c 


12 00 


8,534 


25 


None 


3,750 


100 


20c 


16c 


6.76 


1,200 


100 


22 5c 


18c 


None 


5,574 


100 


30c 


20c 


10.00 


44,277 


72 


13 3c 


13.3c 


6.00 


2,500 


37 


20c 


18c 


15.00 


1,900 


100 


40c 


16.7c 


7.00 


14,000 


83 


30c 


10c 


12.00 


1,700 


95 


32.5c 


lOc 


6.40 


376 


2 


20c 


6.3c 


4.00 


5 


1 


21.3c 


6.3c 




2,475 


100 


23.3c 


11.3c 


None 


515 


96 


30c 


lOc 


$24.00 


8,310 


40 


13 3c 


4c 




300 


36 


30c 


12c 


$7.20 


600 


100 


30c 


6.6c 


5 00 


10,450 


100 


10c 


6c 


4.00 


400 


57 


25C 


5c 


6.00 


1,200 


100 


50c 


10c 


8 00 


5,792 


8 


8c 


4c 


1000 


12 


8 


20c 


8C 


5.00 


482 


67 


48c 


8c 


8.00 


195 


100 


13 3c 




16.00 


90 


95 


40c 


25c 


4 00 


3,544 


100 


37c 


5.6c 


14.00 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



43 



ifunicipality 



NEW YORK— (Cont.) 

Cortland 

Danville 

Dunkirk 



Elmira 

Fairport 

Fillmore (P) 

Fort Plain 

Frankfort 



Geneseo. . . . 
Geneva. . . . 
Glens Falls. 
GloversviUe. 
Hamilton... 



Herkimer. . . 
Homell. . . . 
Hudson . . . . 
Ithaca . . . . . 
Jamestown . 



Johnson City . 

Johnstown 

Kingston 

Le Roy 

Little Falls. . 



Locust Valley 

Middletown 

Mohawk 

Mt Morris 

Mt. Vernon (?) 



Newburgh 

New Paltz 

New Rochelle......{P) 

New York City. . . . 

N. Y. C.Brooklyn.. 



N. Y.C.Queens 

N. Y. C. Richmond... 

Niagara Falls 

Norwich 



Ogdensbuig. 



Oneonta (P) 

Oswego 

Owego 

Oxford 

Peekskill 



Pleasantville 

Port Jefferson (P) 

Poughkeepsie 

Rensselaer (P) 

Riverhead 



Rochester 

Rome 

Salamanca 

Schenectady 

Seneca Falls (P) 



Shortsville . 

Sodus 

Solvay . 

Syracuse . . 
Tarrytown . 



Troy 

Utica (P) 

Walden 

Waterford 

W'atervliet 



Watkins.. 
Waverly. . 
WellsviUe. 



•13,294 

4,300 

*19,336 

*45,305 

4,500 

800 

2,800 

4,500 

2,156 
•14,648 
•16,591 
•22.023 

2,000 

•10,453 
•15,025 
•11,745 
18,000 
•38,917 

8,600 
•U),905 
•26.688 

4,800 
•13,029 

^,500 

•18,420 

3,000 

3,500 

•42,726 

•30,366 

1,200 

36,213 

•5,621,151 

•2,022,262 



•172,775 W 



W. 

Sp.-Cr 

L. 

Ri. 
W. 

Sp. 
Sp. 
Sp. 

L. 

L. 

Imp. 

Imp. 

Sp. 

W. 

Sp. 
Sp. 
Cr. 
W. 

W. 

Imp. 

St. 

Sp.-L. 

Cr. 

W. 

Sp.-St. 
Sp. 
L. 
Ri. 

L. 
Sp. 
Imp. 
Res. 
Res.-W 



•115,959 

•60,760 

8,500 

17,000 

•11,582 

•23,026 

5,000 

1,654 

•15,S6» 

2,835 

2,y00 

•35,000 

•10,823 

5,000 

•295,750 
•J6,341 

9,500 
•88,723 

6.300 

1,228 
1,500 
7,000 
•171,717 
5,000 

•72,013 

•94,156 

5,000 

5,000 

•16,073 

3,000 
5,270 
5,000 



Res. 
Ri. 
Br.-L- 
Ri. 
Ri. 

Imp. 

Bi.-VV. 
Sp. 
Cr. 

W. 
W. 
Ri. 
Ri. 
W. 

L. 

Imp. 
W.-Res 
Imp. 
L 

W. 
Sp. 
L. 
L. 
Res.-Sp 

Res. 

St.-Res 

A.W. 

Ri. 

Cr.-Res 

L. 

Imp. 

Ri. 



No 
No 
No 

Yes 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
Yes 
No 
No 
■ies 

No 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 

No 

No 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
Yes 

No 
No 
No 
No 
Yes 

No 
No 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
No 
No 
No 
Yes 

No 
No 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

No 
No 
No 
No 
Yes 

No 
No 
No 

No 
Yes 

No 
No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 

No 
No 
Yes 



Consumption 



^& 



No 
Chi 
Chi 

Chi 
No 
No 
No 
No 

Chi 
No 
No 
Chi 
Chi 

Chi 
Chi 
Chi 
Chi 
No 

No 

Cnl 
Chi 
No 
Chi 

No 
No 
No 
Chi 
Chi 

Chi 
No 
Hyp 
Chi 
Chi 

No 
Chi 
Chi 

Hyp 
No 

Hyp 
Chi 
No 
No 
No 

No 

No 
Chi 
Chi 
No 

No 
Chi 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 

Chi 
Chi 
Chi 

No 
Chi 
No 
No 
Chi 

Chi 
No 
Chi 



1,263,745 

600,000 

5,000,000 

4,300,000 
150,000 
45,000 
450,000 

Unknown 

223,599 
2,000,000 
3,000,000 
2,500,000 

180,000 

1,200,000 
2,300.000 
2,000,000 
2,250,000 
3,250,000 

4,000,000 
.^ 000,000 
4,500,000 
125,000 
3,500,000 

Unknown 

3,400,000 

350,000 

500,000 

2,300,000 

4,250,000 
375,000 

3,700,000 
618,900,000 
200,000,000 

14,420,000 
20,000,000 
13,000,000 

2,000,000 
3.500,000 

2,000,000 
5,500,000 
750,000 
Unknown 
4,000,000 

98,000 

250,000 

3,000,000 

1,500,000 

75,000 

27,160,000 
7,000,000 
2,000,000 

13,124,413 
1,000,000 

42,000 

Unknown 

800,000 

27,000,000 

900,000 

17,000,000 

12,000,000 

105,932 

550,000 

3,150,000 

160,000 
650,000 
650,000 



95 
140 
259 

95 

33 

563 



161 No 
No 



185 

117 

143 

54 

142 
312 
102 
110 
99 

83 
174 
257 

235 
206 

173 
233 
150 

252 

35 
86 
86 
139 
15 

92 
266 
213 
147 
159 

34 

Hi 
158 
180 

236 
128 
21 
110 
196 

53 
123 
130 



No 
No 

Yes 

Yes 
No 
No 



No 
Yes 
No 
No 
No 

No 
\es 
No 
Yes 
No 

No 

No 
No 
No 
Yes 

No 
Yes 

No 



is 



Yes 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 
Yes 

No 
Yes 

No 
No 
No 
No 
Yes 

No 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 

No 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 

No 
No 
Yes 
No 
No 

No 

No 
Yes 
Yes 
\es 

No 



Yes 



2,800 
1,100 
4,000 

10,081 
900 






715 
850 



3,547 

3,680 

4,422 

450 

3,006 
4,000 
2,306 
4,500 
9,000 

1,500 
2,943 
5,000 
935 
2,300 

13 

3,638 

600 

685 

6,400 

6,000 
200 

8,692 
396,989 
200,000 

19,439 
18,219 
8,000 

2,100 
3,400 

2,650 
5,777 
1,250 
460 
2,500 

638 

425 

6,500 

2,000 

350 

62,136 
5,000 
2,000 

15,473 
1,641 

318 

320 

1,008 

32,168 

1,255 

14,000 

17,000 

913 

875 

2,700 

500 
1,400 
1,300 



2,400 

3 

4,000 

10,386 

850 

10 

48 

800 

509 

3,265 

48 

4,340 

450 

3,006 

100 

200 

4,400 

9,000 

1,500 
257 
200 
310 

1,300 

12 
118 
325 

15 
6,400 

140 

200 

8,028 

108,036 

30,000 

19,253 
6,284 
8,000 

2,100 
120 

75 

200 

700 

460 

2,500 

634 

40 

6,500 

1,200 

350 

49,200 

150 

27 

813 



318 
250 

1,000 
26,%9 

1,006 

400 
16,000 
980 
795 
300 

500 

575 

1,000 



86 

1 

100 

100 
94 

"7 
94 

84 

92 

1 

98 

100 

100 
3 

8 
98 
100 

100 

9 

4 

33 

57 

93 
3 

54 

2 

100 

3 

100 

98 

27 

15 

99 
35 
100 



Meter Rates 



M ■" '^ 

mQ a 



20c 
12c 
lOc 

40c 
$1.50 

30c 
22 7c 

25c 

40c 

26.7c 

16c 

16c 

33.3c 

33 3c 

28c 

8c 

46 6c 
20c 

20c 
40c 

22 2c 
30c 

18.7c 

50c 
16.7c 
30c 
40c 
40c 

15c 

40c 

30c 

13.4c 

13.3c 



13.3c 

8c 



100 33.3c 
4 None 



3 
3 

56 
100 
100 

99 

9 

100 

60 
100 

79 
3 
1 
5 
4 

100 
78 

100 
84 
80 

3 
94 
100 
91 

1 

100 

41 
77 






B 

lis, 

I "I 





■ 


4.7c 


$5.00 


1.5C 




5.5c 


6 00 


7.5c 


6 00 


4c 


4 80 


16c 




3.7c 


$1.00 




6.00 


18c 


6.00 


6 7c 


1.30 


3.3c 




4 6c 


4.00 


13 3c 


6.00 


10c 


9.00 


2c 





50c 
25c 
30c 
24c 
20c 

40c 

60c 

26.7c 

33 6c 

40c 

14c 
20c 



7c 
26.5c 

20c 

32c 

20c 

14.8c 

$3.00 

None 
40c 
40c 
25c 
35c 

26.7c 

60c 

33.3c 



5c 

9 3c 

20c 

7c 

6.6c 

6 7c 

10c 

4c 

40c 

6.3c 

5c 

5c 

16c 

10c 
26.7c 

20c 
13.4c 



9.3c 

13.3c 

3c 

6c 
10c 

10c 

3 5c 

6c 

15c 

13.3c 



15c 

21.3c 

9c 

20c 

10c 

2c 

7c 

5.5c 

13.3c 

20c 

15c 

12c 

6c 

$1.50 

5c 

8c 

40c 

10c 

10c 

20c 
5.5c 
10.7c 



44 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



Municipality 



NEW YORK— (Cont.) 

Whitehall 

Yonkers 



NORTH CAROLINA 

Chapel HiU 

Charlotte 

Concord 

Elkin 

Gastonia 



Hertford 

Hickory 

Lenoir 

Monroe 

Morehead City. 



Newbem 

Raleigh 

Rocky Mount. 

Shelby 

Statesville 



Wad«boro. . 
Washington. 
Wilmington. 
Wilson , 



NORTH DAKOTA 

Carrington 

Dickinson 

Fargo 

Valley City 

Wahpeton 



OHIO 

Akron 

Andover 

Arcanum . . , 

Athens 

Bamesville . 



Beach City. 

Bryon 

Celina 

Cincinnati. . 
Circleville. . 



Cleveland 

Columbus 

Conneaut (P) 

Coshocton 

Covington 



Dayton 

Defiance 

Delavyare (P) 

Dennison (P) 

East Liverpool 



East Palestine. 

Eaton , 

Elyria , 

Fostoria 

Franklin 



Fremont 

Gallon ".(P) 

Girard.. (P) 

Greenwich 

Hiram 



Lakewood . 

Logan 

London. . . 
Lorain . . . . 
Mansfield.. 



Marietta 

Martins^ Ferry 

Marysville 

Ifclassillon (P) 



o 

P4 



6,000 
•100,226 



3,000 

•46,338 

11,000 

^,000 

•12,871 

2,200 
5,076 
3,718 
6,000 
3,500 

12,158 

•24,418 

•12,742 

4,000 

8,500 

2,700 

7,000 

•33,372 



u a 
3 a. 
o 3 
t/3c« 



Ri. 
Imp. 



Cr. 
Ri. 
Ri. 
Cr. 
Cr. 

W. 
Ri.-W, 
Imp. 
W. 
W. 

W. 
Cr. 
Ri. 
Ri. 
Cr. 

W. 

W.-Cr. 

Ri. 



•10,653 
1,500 


Cr. 
W. 


6,00C 


W. 


•21,961 


Ri. 


6.00C 


W. 


3.500 


Ri. 


•208,435 


Ri.' 


1,200 


W. 


1,400 


W. 


6,200 


W. 


4,700 


Imp. 


800 


W. 


4,252 


W. 


4,226 


W. 


•410,247 


Ri. 


7,500 


Cr. 


•796,836 


L. 


•237,031 


Ri. 


10,000 


L. 


13,000 


W. 


2,500 


W. 


•152,559 


W. 


9,000 


Ri. 


10,000 


W. 


12,000 


Cr. 


•21,411 


Ri. 


5,949 


W. 


3,500 


St. 


•20,474 


L. 


12,000 


Ri. 


3,000 


W. 


•12,468 


Ri. 


8,000 


W. 




W. 


876 


Res. 


600 


Sp. 


•41,732 


L.. 


5,600 


W. 


4,240 


w. 


•37,295 


L. 


•27,824 


W. 


•15,100 


Ri. 


•11,634 


W.-Ri. 


3,576 


W. 


•17,428 


W. 



No 
Yes 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

No 
Yes 
No 
No 
No 

No 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

No 
Yes 
Yes 
\es 



No 
No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 



Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 

No 
No 

No 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 

No 
Yes 
\es 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

Yes 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 

Yes 
No 
No 
No 



Chi 
Chi 



Hyp 

Chi 

Chl 
No 
Chl 

No 

Hyp 
No 
Chl 
No 

No 
Hyp 
No 
Hyp 

Chl 

Chl 
Chl 
Chl 
Chl 



No 

No 

No 

Hyp 



Chl 
No 
Chl 



Chl 

No 
No 
No 
Chl 
No 

Chl 
No 
Chl 
No 
No 

Chl 
No 
Chl 
Chl 



Chl 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 



No 
No 

Chl 
No 
No 

Chl 



Consumption 






No 
No 
No 
No 



950,000 
9,420,486 



1,000,000 

3,750,000 

500,000 

100,000 

1,000,000 

75,000 
180,000 
300,000 
150,000 
280,000 

1,130,000 

2,800,000 

800,000 

200,000 

70,000 

75,000 

300,000 

3,000,000 

1,300,000 



33,760 

25Q,000 

2,800,000 

300,000 

365,000 



21,000,000 

70,000 

110,000 

800,000 

400,000 

30,000 

600,000 

350,000 

56,000,000 

460,000 

140,000,000 

21,605,000 

1,800,000 

1,600,000 

70,000 

17,500,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 
2,500,000 
3,375,000 

700,000 

300,000 

3,000,000 

1,000,000 

6&0,000 

1,250,000 

800,000 

600,000 

20,000 

29,000 

2,975,000 

800,000 

800,000 

5,000,000 

2,500,000 

2,500,000 

4,000,000 

616,000 

1,600,000 



158 
94 



333 

81 
46 
50 

78 

34 
36 
81 
25 



Yes 
Yes 



No 
Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 

No 
No 
No 
Yes 



80 
93 


JNo 
Yes 


115 


Yes 


as 


Yes 


5C 


Yes 


82 


No 


28 


No 


43 




90 


No 


122 


No 


22 


No 


50 


No 


128 


Yes 


60 


Yes 


104 


No 


101 


Yes 


58 


No 


79 


Yes 


129 


No 


85 


No 


38 


No 


141 


No 


83 


No 


i;^ 


No 


61 


No 


176 


Yes 


91 


Yes 


180 


No 


12;^ 


No 


28 


No 


116 


Yes 


111 


No 


100 


No 


208 


Yes 


157 


Yes 


118 




86 




146 


No 


83 


No 


183 


No 


100 


No 


100 


No 




No 


23 


No 


48 


No 


71 


Yes 


143 


Yes 


188 


No 


134 


Yes 


90 


Yes 


166 


No 


345 


No 


144 


No 


86 


No 






750 
10,540 



350 
7,500 
1,100 

200 
1,200 

200 
650 
568 
800 
450 

1,304 
4,651 
1,762 
570 
1,100 

200 

900 

7,585 

1,802 



Eii 



750 
10,628 



25 

7,600 

1,050 

175 

1,200 

100 
650 
553 
800 
60 

136 
2,424 
1,696 

483 
1,100 

200 

750 

3,000 

1,802 



186 


185 


550 


550 


3,900 


3,900 


660 


660 


625 


15 


34,600 


30,000 


230 


240 


400 


15 


1,800 


625 


800 


800 


220 


200 


860 


850 


876 


64 


63,687 


61,716 


1,450 


700 


113,000 


113,000 


38,298 


37,099 


2,500 


1,600 


3,200 


15C 


478 


478 


32,000 


32,000 


1,200 


400 


1,965 


1,569 


2,700 


2,500 


4,625 


506 


1,287 


167 


950 


600 


4,784 


4,660 


3,000 


3,000 


700 


60 


3,046 


2,800 


1,700 


800 


1,500 


900 


104 


104 


100 


7 


»■ 




9,050 


9,050 


1,200 


35 


1,000 


100 


6,500 


6,400 


6,000 


5,650 


4,000 


1,200 


3,665 


120 


659 


37 


4,400 


3,400 



7 

100 

96 

88 

100 

60 
100 

98 
100 

13 

10 
52 
96 
85 
100 

100 
84 
40 

100 



100 
100 
100 
100 
2 



100 
100 
4 
29 
100 

91 

100 

7 

97 

48 

100 

98 

64 

6 

100 

100 
33 
80 
93 
11 

13 

63 

97 

100 

9 

9i. 

47 

78 

100 

7 

100 

3 

10 

83 

93 

30 
3 
6 

77 



Meter Rates 






ffiOa 



.2 ao 



50c 
21.3c 



30c 
26c 
31.5c 
25c 
25c 



32c 
20c 
50c 
40c 

25c 
25c 

88c 
75c 
35c 

60c 

40c 

21.6c 

30c 



66.7c 
83c 
15c 
40c 
23c 



9.5c 
13.3c 



20c 

6.8c 

13.5c 

17c 

8c 



30c 
10c 
20c 
75c 

20c 
30c 
25c 
16c 
30c 

6.3c 

16c 

26c 

34.7c 

25c 

12c 
40c 
40c 
30c 

77c 

25c 
37.6c 
20c 
20c 
16c 

12c 
25c 
35c 
25c 
57c 

12c 

30c 

25c 

J2.00 

26.7c 

30c 

25c 

25c 

29.4c 



24c 

7c 

30c 

16c 

8c 
7c 

20c 
12.5c 

15c 

33.3c 
12c 

11.5c 
20c 



33.3c 
16c 
15c 

10.7c 
10c 



"« Si 



7c 

7c 

9c 

10c 

15c 
8c 
10c 
16c 
10c 

6.3c 

14.7c 

6c 

8c 

8c 

6c 

6c 

16c 

10c 

10c 

6c 
25c 
20c 



7c 



15c 
10c 
10c 
15c 

12c 
15c 
16c 
75c 
10.7c 

12c 

2.5c 

7c 

14.7c 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




46 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



Municipality 



PENN— (Continued) 

College Hill (P) 

Confluence (P) 

Connellsville (P) 

Conneaut Lake 

Corry (P) 



Dawson 

Duquesne 

Ebensburg 

Edgeworth (P) 

EUwood City (P) 



Franklin 

Gettysburg (P) 

Harrisburg 

Homestead 

Huntington 



Indiana (P) 

Jersey Shore (P) 

Johnston (P) 

Juniata 

Kutztown 



Leechourg (P) 

Leighton (P) 

Lewiston (P) 

Mahanoy City (P) 

Meadville 



Media 

Meyersdale (P) 

Millersburg (P) 

Millvale 

Minersville (P) 

Mt. Carmel (P) 

Mt. Union 

New Wilmington . . . (P) 

Oil City 

Osceola Mills (P) 

Pabnerton (P) 

Philadelphia 

Phoenixville 

Pittsburgh 

Mt Oliver Sta....(P) 

PortVue (P) 

Pottsville._. (P) 

Reynoldsville 

Ss. Mzrys (P) 

Sewickley 



Sharpsville 

Somerset 

Springdale 

Steelton 

Susquehanna (P) 

Tyrone (P) 

Uniontown (P) 

Vandergrift (P) 

Wampum 

Warren (P) 

West Newton (P) 

RHODE IS1.AND 

Bristol (P) 

Newport (P) 

Providence 

So. Kingstown, etc. . (P) 
Westerly 



Woonsocket . 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

Abbeville 

Anderson (P) 

Bishopville 



3,500 

1,050 

*13,804 

374 

7,000 

950 

*19,011 

2,100 

3,500 

8,958 

12,000 

4,250 

•75,917 

24,000 
8,000 

7,000 
6,000 
♦67,327 
7,800 
3,000 

4,000 

6,000 

20,000 

16,000 

•14,568 

6,500 
4,500 
3,000 
7,961 
8,000 

17,500 

6,000 

800 

•21,274 

2,800 

7,200 

1,823,158 

11,500 

•588,193 



2,000 
•21,785 
5,000 
7,000 
5,000 

4,500 
3,200 
3,000 
15,000 
3,500 



3 0. 
o 3 

C/3C« 



Ri. 
St. 
Ri. 
W. 
W. 

W. 

A.W. 
Sp.-W 

W. 

Cr. 

W. 

Imp. 
Ri. 
Ri. 
Cr. 

Cr. 

St. 
St. 
St. 
Sp. 

Ri. 
Sp. 
Imp. 
W.-Sp. 
W. 

Cr. 

Sp. 

Sp. 

Imp. 
St. 
Sp.-W. 
W. 
Sp. 

w. 

Ri. 
Ri. 
Ri. 
Ri. 

Ri. 

Res. 
W.-Sp. 
Sp.-W. 

Ri. 

W. 
W. 
Res. 
Ri. 

St-Sp. 

9,027 St. 
15,609 Imp. 
W. • 
W. 
Run-Ri 



13,000 

1,000 

14,256 

3,000 



1,500 

•30,255 

•237,595 

6,928 

15,000 

•43,496 



•10,535 
500 



W. 



Imp. 

Imp. 

Ri. 

Sp. 

W. 

Br. 



Cr. 

Ri.-Cr. 

W. 



Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 

Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 
No 

Yes 
No 
No 
No 
No 

Yes 
No 
jNo 
Yes 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 

No 
No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 

No 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 

No 



Yes 

Yes 
No 



Chi 
Hyp 
Hyp 

No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
Chi 
CM 

Hyp 
Hyp 

Chi 
Hyp 

Chi 

No 
No 
Chi 
No 
Hyp 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

Chi 
No 
Chi 
Chi 
No 

No 
Hyp 
No 
No 
No 

No 
Chi 
Chi 
Chi 
Hyp 

No 
No 
Chi 



Consumption 



No 

Hyp 
Chi 

Hyp 
No 
Chi 

Hyp 
Hyp 
No 
No 
Chi 

No 



No 
Chi 
Chi 
Chi 
No 

No 



No 

No 
No 



200,000 
350,000 
220,000 
100,000 
830,000 

8,000 

600,000 

150,000 

1,663,000 

2,500,000 

2,500,000 

450,000 

9,099,422 

2,800,000 

900,000 

500,000 

1,600,000 

1^,000,000 

400,000 

325,000 

2,714,000 
2,000,000 
4,000,000 
1,800,000 
2,000,000 

388,600 

300,000 

300,000 

1,244,100 

1,000,000 

600,000 

500,000 

20,000 

2,714,000 

375,000 

800,000 

311,000,000 

1,500,000 

120,000,000 

12,000,000 

40,000 

7,000,000 

400,000 

1,200,000 

2,000,000 

250,000 
200,000 
120,000 
1,800,000 
750,000 

1,000,000 

3,500,000 

646,230 

8,000 

1,200,000 

80,000 



1,700,000 

4,060,000 

20,528,652 

680,000 

250,000 

2,800,000 



200,000 
750,000 
125,000 



32 

72 

476 

J79 

208 
11 
120 
117 
112 

72 
250 
134 

51 
108 

127 
333 
200 
113 
137 

60 

67 

100 

156 

125 

34 
83 
25 
127 
134 

11 
171 
131 
204 



20 
322 

80 
17:i 
400 

56 
63 
40 
120 
21 

111 

224 

50 

8 
85 

27 



71 
250 



No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

Yes 

No 
No 
No 
No 

No 

No 
No 
No 

No 

No 

No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
Yes 
No 

No 
No 

Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 

No 

No 
No 

No 
No 
No 

Yes 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 

Yes 
No 
No 

No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
Yes 

No 
No 
Yes 

No 
No 

No 



No 
Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 

Yes 



No 
Yes 
No 






500 
164 

3,200 
75 

1,668 

140 

2,100 

600 

876 

1,800 

3,000 

800 

19,400 

2,800 

1,907 

i,eoo 

1,400 

9,000 

1750 

400 

3,600 
1,250 
3,800 
2,000 
3,267 

1,357 

860 

800 

1,850 

2,400 

3,000 
1,400 

200 
3,600 

550 

600 

375,000 

3,300 

94,000 

21,000 

375 
6,000 

700 
1,200 
1,400 

825 
700 
425 
2,000 
800 

2,005 
3,800 
2,710 
80 
3,100 

680 



2,400 

7,102 

32,£97 

894 

2,500 

4,500 



498 

1,600 

298 






300 

48 

1,000 

14 

1,450 

140 

2,200 

53 

876 
1,800 



90 

13,783 

465 

60 

1,110 

35 

6,973 

3 

Setting 

5,000 

22 

196 

200 

3,405 

7 
20 
*0 

6 
40 

1,100 
100 
160 

5,000 

8 

1,100 

92,000 

29 

38,000 

21,000 

300 
300 
700 
1,200 
170 

825 

750 

425 

1,860 

36 

14 
3,800 
2,710 

80 
2,450 

580 



60 

160 

31,025 

220 

2,300 

4,200 



412 

1,495 

250 



60 
29 
31 
19 

87 

100 
100 
9 
100 
100 

3 
11 

71 
17 
3 

70 
3 

78 




100 
2 
5 
10 

100 



1 

100 

100 

100 

79 

100 



Meter Rates 



re 
bo 


"n S 


.SJo 


£!■= 




^ fco 


i> £ = 


£1"=- 






14c 


6c 


25c 


6c 


33c 


12c 


30c 


Spec. 


50c 


10c 


60c 


30c 


35c 


3Sc 


25c 


15c 


42c 


5c 


50c 


3c 


35c 


8c 


25c 


14c 


5.7c 


5.7c 


30c 


15c 


15c 


6c 


50c 


15c 


26c 


2.5c 


27c 


5c 


6c 


6c 


40c 


30c 


20/c 


6c 


50c 


8c 


20c 


4c 


4.8c 


10.6c 


33.7c 


10.7c 


20c 


8c 


30c 


15c 


None 


4c 


25c 


8c 


26.7c 


8c 


33.3c 


16c 


50c 


7c 


40c 


26c 


20c 


6c 


14c 


4c 


25c 


9.6c 


13.3c 


5.3c 


None 


8.4c 


18c 


12c 


24c 


14c 


20c 


None 


20c 


8c 


18c 


7c 


35c 


9.6c 


30c 


10c 


20c 


20c 


23c 


20c 


50c 


50c 


20c 


7c 


40c 


15c 


10c 


2c 


26c 


10c 


42.6c 


12c 


42c 


16c 


35c 


7c 


65c 


lie 


40c 


25c 


40c 


25c 


20c 


10c 


40c 


26c 


30c 


IGc 


28c 


9.3c 


20c 


6c 


26c 


15c 


40c 


26c 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



47 



Afunicipality 



S. C. — (Cojtinued) 

Camden 

Charleston 

Cheraw 

Chester 

Denmark 

Greenwood 

Greer 

Manning 

Orangeburg 

St Matthews 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Carthage 

Mitchell 

Sioux Falls 

Watertown 

TENNESSEE 

Clarksville 

Dyersburg 

Franklin 

Jacksou 

Knoxville 

Memphis 

Murfreesboro (P) 

Nashville 

TEXAS 

Amarillo (P) 

Austin 

Brady. 

Brownsville 

Brownwood 

Bryan 

Cleburne 

Commerce 

Crockett 

DaUas 

Dennison 

El Paso 

Ennis 

Fort Worth 

Galveston 

Greenville 

Jacksboro 

Longyiew 

MciKinney 

Nacogdoches 

Orange (P) 

Pecos 

Port Arthur 

Quanah 

kosenbferg 

San Saba * 

Sealy (P) 

Sherman 

Smithville 

Stamford (P) 

Sweetwater 

Teague 

Temple 

W aco 

Waxahachie 

Weatherfbrd (P) 

Yoakum (P) 

UTAH 
Salt Lake City 

VERMONT 
Bristol 



4,000 
*67,957 

3,150 
5,600 
5,621 
8,703 
3,000 

2,800 
7,500 
1,800 



700 

8,500 

25,176 

10,000 



8,500 

7,000 

3,500 

•18,860 

•77,818 

•162.351 

5,500 

•118,342 



•15,494 

•34,876 

3,500 

13,163 

8,223 

6,295 

18,000 

3,850 

5,000 

•158,977 

•17,067 

•77,543 

8,000 

•106,482 

•44,255 

14,000 
1,600 
5,713 
8,000 
6,000 

10,000 

2,500 

•22,251 

4,000 

2,000 

2,000 
2,200 
•15,051 
4,000 
3,004 

7,500 

4,000 

•11,033 

38,500 

7,200 

6,302 
7,500 



•118,110 
1,200 



Cr. 

Imp. 

Ri. 
Cr. 
W. 
W. 

W.-Sp 

w. 
w. 
w. 



w. 
w. 
w. 

L. 



Ri. 
W. 

Sp. 

w. 

Ri. 

W. 
Sp. 
Ri. 



W. 
Ri. 
Cr. 
Ri. 
Cr. 

W. 
W. 
W. 
W. 
W.-Res, 

Imp. 

W. 

W. 

L. 

W. 

Imp. 

W. 

Ri. 

W. 

W. 

W. 
W. 
W. 
W. 
W. 

Sp. 

w. 
w. 
w. 

Res. 

L. 
W. 
Ri. 
W.-Ri. 
W. 

W. 
W. 



St. 
Sp. 



Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 



Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 
No 



No 
Yes 
Yes 
\es 



No 
No 
No 



Yes 

Yes 
No 

No 
Yes 



Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 



No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 



No 
Yes 
Yes 
No 

No 

No 



No 
No 



No 
Chi 

Hyp 
No 
ho 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 



No 
No 
Chi 
No 



Chi 
Ctl 
No 
No 



Chi 
Chi 
Chi 



No 

Chi 



Chi 
No 



No 



No 
No 
Chi 
Chi 

Chi 
No 
Chi 
No 



No 
No 
No 



No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

Chi 



Chi 
Chi 
No 

Chi 



No 
No 



Consumpt 


ion 


B 

3 

cd 

V 






> « 


'B. 

U 
u 






u 

BH 


225,000 
6,600,000 


56 
97 


No 
Yes 


760 
8,400 


550 
8,950 


110,000 
600,000 
35,000 
500,000 
125,000 


35 

107 

6 

58 
42 


No 
No 
No 

i-IO 

No 


220 
700 
120 
1,200 
425 


220 
500 
120 
1,000 
425 


75,000 

350,000 

75,000 


27 

47 
42 


Yes 

No 
No 


250 
900 
190 


250 
600 
175 


45,000 

500,000 

2,500,000 

500,000 


64 
59 
99 
50 


No 
No 
No 
No 


130 
1,400 
4,500 
1,450 


1^0 
1,400 
4,190 

420 


750,000 
500,000 
100,000 
2,500,000 
900,000 


87 

72 

3 

133 

11 


No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 


1,250 

950 

800 

5,000 

14,921 


700 
960 
625 
216 
14,921 


15,500,000 

450,000 

14,000,000 


96 

82 
118 


Yes 

No 
No 


27,718 

1,000 

24,000 


21,821 

600 

20,000 


770,000 

5,268,591 

Unknown 

1,000,000 

. 750,000 


50 
151 

"76 
91 


'No' 
No 
No 
No 


2,800 
6,340 
532 
1,500 
1,000 


3,260 
6,340 
350 
1,200 
1,000 


160,000 
750,000 
160,000 


26 
42 
42 


Yes 

Yes 

'Yes' 
No 


900 

3,500 

800 

3 5 

29,813 


900 

3,100 

100 

305 

29,813 


9,000,000 


58 


2,000,000 
7,000,000 
300,000 
8,500,000 
3,830,000 


117 
90 
38 
80 

87 


Yes 
Yes 
No 
No 
No 


4,265 
12,000 

1,020 
19,000 

8,780 


3,100 

10,000 

200 

18,500 

9,000 


750,000 
44,000 
250,000 
150,000 
200,000 


54 
28 
44 
19 
33 


No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
No 


1,700 
275 
600 

1,275 
450 


350 
250 
600 
1,275 
450 


1,000,000 

15,000 

450,000 

40,000 

75,000 


100 

6 

20 

10 

38 


Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 
No 


1,081 
30 

2,849 
375 
225 


1,289 
30 

2,849 
360 
150 


100,000 

70,000 

800,000 

Unknown 

600,000 


50 
32 
53 

'260 


No 
No 
No 
No 
No 


250 
210 
3,510 
600 
800 


100 
12 

3,150 
600 
560 


Unknown 

425.000 

1,750,000 

3,750,000 

500,000 

200,000 
51,000 


ioe 

159 
98 
70 

32 

68 


No 
No 
No 
\es 
Yes 

No 
No 


900 
725 

2,400 
10,000 

1,400 

f 810 

1,000 


900 

225 

2,400 

6,750 

1,400 

650 
550 


20,000,000 


220 


No 


22,638 


7,336 


90,000 


75 


No 


300 


6 



Meter Rates 



QK a. 



35c 

24.7c 

37c 
40c 
40c 
13.5c 
26c 

80c 
25c 
30c 



50c 

26.7c 

40c 

25c 



35c 
25c 
30c 
18c 
18c 

33.3c 

40c 

18.7c 



60c 
20c 
$1.76 
30c 
20c 

75c 
25c 
60c 
25c 
26c 

50c 

27.5c 

40c 

00c 

26.7c 

30c 
11.76 
46c 
40c 
40c 

30c 
80c 
30c 
$1.00 
40c 

50c 
50c 
50c 
30c 
60c 

30c 

25c 

62.5c 

37.5c 

40c 

50c 
33c 



7.3c 
None 



i-lU p. 



15c 
6c 

16c 
8.5c 
15c 
8c 
10c 

15c 

17.5c 

20c 



20c 
13.3c 
13.3c 

10c 



10c 
15c 
10c 
9c 
19c 

12c 
15c 
8c 



40c 
10c 
30c 
12 5c 
20c 

25c 
20c 
20c 
18c 
26c 

10c 

20c 
12e 
30c 
12 

15c 
90c 
12c 
35c 
20c 

20c 
30c 
13c 
50c 
10c 

20c 
12c 
30c 
15c 

15c 



18c 

10c 

6c 

10c 

25c 
30c 



48 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



Municipality 



VERMONT— (Cont.) 

Burlington 

Essex Junction 

Fairhaven 

Morrisville 



Northfield 

Richf ord 

White River June. 



.(P) 



VIRGINIA 

Alexandria (P) 

Danville 

Emporia 

Fredericksburg 

Hampton (P) 



Lynchburg. . . 
Martensville . 
Richmond. . . 
Shenandoah . 



WASmNGTON 

Bellingham 

Crehalis 

Ellensburg 

Hoquiam (P) 

lone (P) 



Kent 

Olympia 

Omak 

Oroville 

Port Townsend . 



Pullman. . . 

Seattle 

Spokane. . . 
Sunnyside . 
Tacoma . . . 



Waitsburg 

Walla Walla 

Winlock (P) 

Zillah 



WEST VIRGINIA 
Berkeley Springs . . . (P) 

Charleston (P) 

Clarksburg 

Huntington (P) 

Morgantown (P) 



Sisterville 

Weston (P) 

Wheeling 



WISCONSIN 
Appleton . . . 
Bayfield. . . . 

Chilton 

Clinton .... 
Cudahy 



Delavan 

Fond du Lac. 
Fort Atkinson . 
Janesville .... 
Xaukauna. . . . 



Kenosha 

i>a Crosse . . . . 
Lake Geneva . 
Lake Mills. . . 
Madison 



Menomonee 

Merrill (P) 

JkiCrrillan 

Milwaukee 

Mineral Point 

Onalaska 



•22,779 
1,500 
3,000 
1,600 



2,000 
2.500 



18,060 

25,000 

2,750 

7,000 

7,800 

*29,956 

4,200 

♦171,667 

1,500 



♦25,570 

6,000 

5,500 

10,042 

650 

3,000 
9,500 
500 
1,000 
3,600 

3,400 
♦316,652 
♦104,437 

2,000 
♦96,965 

1,200 

20,000 

1,220 

700 



1,800 
♦39,608 
♦27,869 
♦50,177 
♦12,117 

3,338 

6,000 

♦64,322 



L. 

Sp. 
P. 
Sp. 

Sp. 
Sp. 
Sp. 



Ri. 
Ri. 
Ri. 
Ri. 
Res. 

Ri. 
Cr. 
Ri. 
Ri. 



Ri. 
W. 

St. 
Cr. 

Sp. 
Sp.-W 
Ri. 
W. 
St. 

A.W. 
Ri. 
W. 
W. 
Ri. 

Sp. 

St. 

w. 
w. 



Sp. 
Ri. 
Ri. 
Ri. 
Ri. 

Ri. 
Ri. 
Ri. 



♦19,661 
2,100 
2,000 
1,000 
6,500 

2,800 
♦23,427 

5,000 
♦18,293 

6,000 

♦40,472 

♦30,363 

3,500 

1,750 

♦38,378 

6,200 
9,000 
650 
♦467,147 
3,000 
1,200 



Yes 
No 

No 
No 

No 
No 
No 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 
No 
Yes 



No 

No 
No 
\es 
No 

No 
No 
Yes 
No 
No 

No 

No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 



No 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 

Yes 
No 



Hyp 



Ri. 
L. 
W. 
W. 
L. 

Sp. 

w. 
w. 
w. 

w. 

L. 
W. 

A.W. 
W. 
W. 

W.-Ri. 
Ri. 
W. 
L. 
W. 
W. 



Yes 
No 
No 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 
No 

Yes 
No 
No 
No 
No 



Consumption 



NO 
No 

No 

No 
No 



Chi 
Chi 
Chi 
Chi 
Chi 

Chi 
Chi 
Chi 
No 



Chi 
No 
No 
Chi 
No 

No 
Chi 
No 
No 
No 

No 
Chi 
No 
No 
Chi 

No 
Yes 
No 
No 



No 
Chi 
Hyp 
Chi 
No 

No 

Chi 
Chi 



Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 
No 



No 
Chi 
No 
No 
Chi 

No 



No 
No 
No 

Chi 
No 
No 
No 
No 

Chi 
No 
No 
Chi 
No 
No 



<;p 



1,416,228 

Unknown 

60,000 

150,000 

Unknown 
100,000 
200,000 



1,600,000 
1,800,000 
300,000 
1,000,000 
2,500,000 

6,000,000 
200,000 

16,314,877 
450,000 



5,000,000 
800,000 
1,062,260 
3,000,000 
Unknown 

240,000 
500,000 
100,000 
200,000 
350,000 

200,000 
36,000,000 
23,000,000 

250,000 
23,000,000 



62 



72 
109 
143 
321 

200 
48 
95 

300 



80 
53 
20 
200 
100 

59 
111 
220 
125 
237 



No 

No 
No 



Yes 

No 
No 
No 
Yes 



160,000 133 

5,000,000 260 

100,000 82 

36,000 60 



98,000 
6,000,000 
5,000,000 
3,500,000 
1,600,000 

750,000 

600,000 

16,226,000 



2,000,000 

140,000 

70,000 

80,000 

700,000 

100,000 
1,600,000 

450,000 
2,200,000 

225,000 

6,000,000 

3,000,000 

160,000 

200,000 

4,000,000 

600.000 

Unknown 

20,000 

61,891,603 

30,000 

153,700 



No 
No 

No 



No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 

No 

No 

No 
Yes 
No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
No 



No 
Yes 
No 
No 
No 



23 No 
100 No 

297 No 



102 
67 
36 
80 

108 

36 
64 
90 
120 
38 



Yes 



No 
Yes 
No 

No 
Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 



149 Yes 
100 Yes 



No 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 

No 
No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 



B > 



<U 0) 

BH 



3,967 
450 
600 
650 

450 
350 
600 



390 
4,600 

350 
1,400 
1,800 

6,600 

750 

33,627 

375 



7,000 
1,100 

792 
2,240 

170 

850 

1,800 

130 

250 

764 

800 
62,600 
26,211 

467 
19,500 

300 

4,050 

209 

141 



253 
8,500 
4,800 
9,300 
2,244 

1,000 

760 

11,000 



3,100 
396 
165 
220 
950 

600 
4,860 
1,000 
3,200 

786 

6,800 

6,200 

600 

324 

7,402 

1,100 



70 

66,422 

270 

241 



4,000 

200 

10 

15 

240 

4 

50 



160 
4,600 

350 

42 

1,063 

400 

325 

24,944 

60 



1,400 
130 
186 

1,200 
20 

200 

1,476 

60 

10 

63 

800 
52,600 
22,025 

467 
1,740 

290 

1,300 

75 

2 



74 

1,500 

360 

9,300 



Meter Rates 



V v - 



39 

100 

100 

3 

59 

6 
43 
74 
13 



29 

18 

7 

100 



150 


7 


23 


3 


600 


67 


96 


9 


3,250 


100 


90 


23 


128 


78 


107 


49 


950 


100 


bOO 


100 


4,00C 


83 


988 


99 


1,600 


60 


730 


93 


5,800 


100 


6,500 


89 


58( 


97 


32t 


99 


7,377 


99 


620 


47 


11 


16 


65,769 


99 


27( 


100 


96 


40 



20c 
30c 
25c 
20c 

37 3c 
20c 

25c 



30c 
10c 
20c 
20c 
29.3c 

23.8c 
1.5c 

13.5c 
10c 



33.3c 

22 ."ic 

13c 

40c 

50c 

$1.70 
35c 

26 7c 
20c 
60c 

$2.25 

13.3c 

10c 

36c 

13.3c 

26.7c 

20c 

58.3c 

$1.33 



30c 
30c 
a5c 
20c 
30c 

35c 



q o S 



8c 

6c 

10c 

8.7c 

13.3c 

6.7c 

6c 



8c 

10c 

5.5c 

2c 

10.7c 

8c 
10c 

5c 
10c 



ESS, 



$6.00 
9.00 
2.50 

None 

8.00 



13.00 



12.00 
6 00 

12.00 
8.00 

16.00 



5.3c 
5c 
8c 



13.20 
7.20 
9.00 



$12.00 
12.00 
12.00 
8c 15.00 
5c 18.00 



$1.25 
15c 
10c 
lie 
14c 

10c 

6.3c 

6c 

12c 
6.3c 

10.7c 

8c 

20c 

$1.33 



lie 

10c 

7.6c 

10c 



12.00 
None 
24.00 



18.00 

12.00 
6 . 
9.60 

18.00 
6.00 

12.00 
9.00 



3.00 



$12.00 
9.00 
9.00 
12.00 



40c 
16c 


IOC 

6c 


26.7c 


4.7c 


40c 


16c 


50c 


10c 


30c 


30c 


8c 


8c 


24c 


16c 


40c 


15c 


10.7c 


4.7c 


23.3c 


2.7c 


30c 


9c 


16c 


6c 


20c 


4c 


35c 


10c 


25c 


6c 


10c 


6.3c 


30c 


5c 


44c 


lie 


30c 


30c 


8c 


6c 


60c 


20c 


20c 


4c 



5c None 
10c 6.00 



$3.00 
9.00 
7.00 
6.00 
1.20 



None 
3.00 
7.00 
5.00 

6.00 

'io^oo 

6.00 
4.00 

10.80 

13.20 

6.00 

None 

5.00 

5.50 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN 



CI TY£ni<j^ Oklahoma ^9 



Wunicipality 



WISCONSIN— (Cont.) 

Oegon 

Reedsburg 

Ripen (P) 

Sparta 



Stevens Point (P) 

Superior (P) 

Watertown 

Wausau 

Wanwatosa. ....... 

Wisconsin Rapids.. . 



WYOMING 

Pine Bluffs 

Rock Springs (P) 

Thermopolis 



CANADA 
ALBERTA 

Bassano 

Red Deer 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 
Karaloops 



MANITOBA 
East Kildonan . 



NEW BRUNSWICK 

St. John 

St. Stephen 

Woodstock 



NEWFOUNDLAND 
St. Johns 



NOVA SCOTIA 
New Glasgow 
Sydney 



ONTARIO 

Aurora 

Brampton . 
Branttord . 
Cobourg. . . 
Dundas . . . 



Elmira 

Guelpb.... 
Ingersoll. . 
Kitchener . 
London... 



Niagara Falls . 

Oriliia 

Ottawa 

Owen Sound. . 
Parry Sound. . 

Peterborough . 

Preston 

Ridgetown . . . . 

Simcoe 

St. Catherines. 



.(P) 



Thorold 

Toronto 

Walkerville (P) 

Wallaceburg 

Whitby 

Woodstock 



P. E. ISLAND 
Charlottestown . 

QUEBEC 

Montreal 

Quebec 

River du Loup. 



SASKATCHEWAN 
Moose Jaw 









•0 


a 



■^ 




13 


V 


M 


J* >. 


v 












3 








0. 



3 c 
3 




(U 


p., 


ffiui 


fe 


t/i 


1,000 


w. 


No 


No 


3,500 


w. 


No 


No 


5,000 


Sp. 


No 


No 


5,000 


w. 


No 


No 


*1 1,370 


Ri. 


Yes 


Hvp 


•39,624 


W. 


Ves 


No 


10,000 


W. 


No 


No 


/*18,661 


W. 


No 


No 


5,000 


A. W. 


No 


No 


8,000 


W. 


No 


No 


900 


W. 


No 


No 


6,750 


Ri. 


Yes 


Chi 


3,000 


W. 


No 


No 


1,200 


Ri. 


No 


Chi 


2,500 


Ri. 


No 


No 


5,000 


Ri. 


No 


No 


5,000 


L. 


No 


Chi 


6o;ooo 


L. 


No 


No 


3,000 


W. 


No 


No 


4,500 


Ri. 


Ves 


No 


32,000 


L. 


No 


No 


11,000 


L. 


No 


No 


27,000 


Imp. 


No 




2,300 


W. 


No 


No 


4,32» 


1..-W. 


Part 


No 


32,700 


Sp. 


No 


Chi 


5,000 


^■r 


Yes 


No 


6,000 


Sp.-Cr. 


Yes 


Chi 


2,500 


W. 


No 


No 


17,032 


Sp. 


No 


No 


5,000 


Sp. 


No 


Chi 


22,000 


Vv. 


No 


No 


60,000 


W.-Sp. 


No 


No 


14,307 


Ri. 


Ye,s 


Chi 


8,000 


L. 


Yes 


Chi 


112,000 


Ri. 


No 


Chi 


13,000 


Sp.-Ri. 


Yes 


No 


4,500 


B. 


No 


No 


22,000 


Ri. 


No 


Chi 


5,000 


Sp. 


No 


No 


2,200 


W. 


No 


No 


4,010 


Sp. 


No 


No 


22,000 


L. 


No 


Chi 


4,000 


C. 


No 


Chi 


499,278 


L. 


Yes 


Chi 


11,000 


Ri. 


No 


Chi 


5,000 


Ri. 


Yes 


Chi 


3,500 


L. 


Yes 


Hyp 


10,000 


Sp. 


No 


No 


12,000 


w. 


No 


No 


694,000 


Ri. 


Yes 


No 


120,000 


L. 


No 


No 


7,000 


Ri.-L. 


No 


No 


22,500 


w. 


Yes 


Chi 



Consump 


ion 


E 

3 

•a 
u 

V 

u 




u 

> rt 


'c. 

6 

Hi 


120 

780 

1,000 

620 


10,000 

285,000 
500,000 
350,000 


10 
82 
100 
70 


No 
Yes 
Yes 
No 


1,200,000 

2,700,000 

746,376 

'-,000,000 

500,000 

570,000 


106 
68 
75 
107 
100 
71 


Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
\es 
No 


1,169 
6,686 
1,700 
3,200 
1,624 
1,400 


60,000 

600,000 

Unknown 


67 
89 


No 

No 
No 


175 

1,200 

500 


180,000 
250,000 


150 
10 


Yes 
No 


120 
316 


1,000,000 


200 


Yes 


1,100 


30,000 


6 


Yes 


340 


15,000,000 
500,000 
400,000 


250 
167 
91 


No 
No 
Yes 


7,236 
750 
700 


5,000,000 


166 


Yes 


4,200 


2,500,000 
3,043,980 


227 
113 


Yes 


2,000 
2,935 


150,000 
450,000 
3,600,000 
800,000 
480,000 


65 
104 
110 
160 

96 


Yes 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 


600 
1,050 
7,200 
1,000 

640 


7,500 

2,500,000 

750,000 

2,000,000 

6,000,000 


30 
147 
150 

91 
100 


No 
No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 


350 

3,847 

1,035 

4,201 

16,807 


3,500,000 

690,000 

21,500,000 

1,500,000 
300,000 


245 
86 
192 
116 
67 


Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
\es 
No 


3,378 

1,650 

25,300 

3,220 

900 


3,100,000 

275,000 

45,000 

237,600 

5,700,000 


141 
55 
20 
59 

259 


\es 
No 
No 
No 
No 


4,660 
580 
450 
950 

6,500 


600,000 
62,490,000 

3,330,000 
150,000 
500,000 

1^21,600 


150 
125 
330 
30 
143 
152 


Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 


900 
104,766 

2,400 
900 
630 

2,600 


1,500,000 


125 


No 


2,400 


15,000,000 

13,500,000 

1,250,000 


22 
112 
179 


Yes 
No 
No 


85,000 
11,000 
1,500 


890,000 


40 


Yes 


2,362 



•a k, 
g V 



776 
250 
620 

567 
6,761 
1,619 
2,000 
1,050 
1,400 



175 

1,100 

425 



4 
340 



400 

78 

300 



10 



2 

960 

2,654 

200 

420 

60 

68 

300 

3,956 

6,396 

42 
48 
400 
15 
15 

82 
580 

12 
670 
300 

10 

3,566 

260 

520 

80 

110 



60 



1,668 

45 

5 



2,362 100 



Meter Rates 






7 
100 
25 
100 

49 
100 
95 
63 
65 
100 



4c 

-8c 

25c 

21. 5c 

34.7c 
40c 

21. 3c 

30c 

9.3c 

64c 



30c 

$1.50 

30c 



50c 
15c 



None 
27c 



None 
30c 
45c 



7c 



30c 

25c 



Flat 
35c 
35c 
35c 

48c 

30c 
25c 
25c 
23c 
l6.8c 

12c 
26c 



35c 
13.9c 



30c 
16.7c 
19.2c 

20c 
13.8c 
8.3c 
24c 
16c 
15c 



30c 



12.8c 
60c 

25c 



80c 



in cO 

5) C - 

►JU a 



3c 
6.9c 

8c 
4.7c 

6c 

6c 
5.7c 

6c 
9.3c 

8c 



pap 
.536? 

c a !3 



$6.00 
6.00 
7.00 



10c 
40c 
15c 



10c 
10c 



Sc 
27c 



6c 

6c 

13c 



7c 



3c 
10c 



7c 
9c 
9c 
8c 
l6c 

He 
lOc 
7c 
9c 
8.9c 

6c 
8c 
l3c 



l6c 
93c 



,3oc 
5.6c 
4.6c 

5c 
13.8c 
6.3c 
l6c 
7c 
6c 



15c 



Spec. 
25c 
8.5c 



10.00 
9.00 
5.00 
5.00 
3.00 



None 

$18.00 

12.00 



$20.00 
12.00 



None 



6.00 



12.00 
20.00 
10.00 



10.00 
8.00 



9.60 
4.00 
12.00 
12.00 

10.00 
10.00 
5.00 
5.90 
10.00 

$4.00 



4.00 



6.00 
6.00 
10.00 



None 
8.00 
6.00 

10.00 
8.00 



20.0 



7.00 



16c 18.00 



50 



Pittsburgh's Playgrounds and Citizens 
Committee on City Plan 

By Frederick Bigger 

Executive Secretary of the Citizens' Committee 



THE Citizens Committee on City Plan 
of Pittsburgh is an unofificial body of 
private citizens who believe that a 
definite and workable program of develop- 
ment is even more necessary for the city of 
Pittsburgh, in its business, than for any in- 
dividual Pittsburgher in his business or pro- 
fession. 

The committee was organized with the 
single object of producing the Pittsburgh 
Plan, to give Pittsburgh an orderly, scien- 
tific, comprehensive program of city build- 
ing. The committee has no political connec- 
tions and no partisan purposes. It is financ- 
ing its own program of planning. Since it 
came into existence, late in 1918, there has 
been renewed interest in city planning. The 
official City Planning Commission, which 
had about ceased to receive adequate munici- 
pal and public support, has taken a new lease 
of life. It is believed that any part of the 
planning work which the official Commission 
will undertake to do adequately, and for 
which it will receive proper support, should 
be done by that body, thereby relieving the 
Citizens Committee of such portion of its 
program. 

It should be understood that the planning 
studies which are being made have specifi- 
cally to do with the physical development of 
the city. Necessarily this development can 
only be properly understood and planned for 
when the social and economic factors have 
been studied. 

The City's Present Recreational Facilities 

Take, for example, the first portion of the 
Committee's work — its report upon Pitts- 
burgh's playground. This study does not 
attempt to cover all the recreation problems 
of the city. It covers only the playground 
system, together with special sites for 
athletics. It is a general study only, designed 
to show the needs of the children and youth 
of the various parts of the city, and to 
formulate a policy which the city may wisely 
follow in supplying those needs. 

Recreation work and facilities in Pitts- 



burgh are now in charge of the City Bureau 
of Recreation, the City Bureau of Parks 
(both in the Department of Public Works), 
the Bureau of Police of the Department of 
Public Safety, the North Side Playground 
Association (a private body receiving both 
private subscriptions and municipal appro- 
priations), the Pittsburgh Board of Educa- 
tion, various social agencies (settlement 
houses) and industrial corporations. The 
Citizens Committee on City Plan believes the 
time is here when proper unification of the 
work of these groups should be undertaken. 

It is true that commendation may be given 
to certain details of playground plant and 
administration in Pittsburgh. It is equally 
true that comparisons are odious, that it 
matters less whether Pittsburgh's play- 
grounds compare favorably or unfavorably 
with those of other cities than it matters 
whether Pittsburgh's plant is adequate to 
meet its needs. Therefore it has seemed 
necessary to ascertain the truth and face it, 
no matter how unpleasant, rather than to 
dress it up into a more palatable statement. 

The purpose of the present study of play- 
grounds has been the planning for the 
coordination of all the physical facilities into 
a system so adjusted to the city plan as to 
assure the best service to the people, and 
economy of ultimate unified administration. 
The study is technical — or at least semi- 
technical. It has aimed to produce facts and 
to make common-sense deductions from 
those facts. It is therefore as far as possible 
removed from being the expression of per- 
sonal opinion or group opinion. The report 
indicates a sane, businesslike, and efficient 
program for the acquisition and development 
of playground areas. In so far as it does 
this its emphasis falls upon efficient technical 
administration of a constructive, progressive 
program for part of the city-building 
process. 

The Citizens Committee believes that, al- 
though the correct detailed development of 
individual playground areas is important, the 
question of general policy is of vital import 



January^ 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



51 




ATHLETIC FIELD CENTER, 




P055IBLE 

ARRANGEMENT 

or DIEFERENT 

TYPES OF 

PLAYGROUND 

ON 

MINIMUM 

51ZE PL0T5 

OF GROUND 



Q 50 lOO 

T I I I I I I I I I I 

SCALL IN FEET. 



A PAGE FROM THE PLAN FOB PITTSBURGH PLAYGROUNDS; HARLAND BARTHOLOMEW, CONSULTANT 



52 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



in assuring that result. Therefore we have 
placed at the very beginning of our report 
the following general recommendations : 

Recommendations 

"Playground activities and all other forms of 
public recreation should be administered by one 
agency, preferably by a City Department of 
Recreation. Particular attention should be 
given to the adjustment of playground activities 
to the school curriculum. As a step toward this 
accomplishment, and in order to meet present 
needs, a working agreement should be effected 
by the Bureau of Recreation, the Bureau of 
Parks, the Board of Education, and the North 
Side Playground Association whereby a unified 
piogram of year-round playground activity may 
be developed. The following points should be 
covered : 

"i. The dedication or allotment of the neces- 
sary grounds for playground purposes should 
be made by the city and the Board of Education. 

"2. The city and the Board of Education 
should adjust their obligations so that the pur- 
chase of additional grounds may be effected by 
either or both. 

"3. The program of development given in 
this report should be adopted and, from time 
to time as funds are available, extensions and 
improvements should be made. Whenever pos- 
sible this should be done in order of urgency, 
undertaking projects at the top of the list. The 
question of purchase of sites versus develop- 
ment of grounds should be carefully considered. 

"4. A complete topographic map, and a plan 
for ultimate development based thereon, should 
be prepared by the city for all playgrounds. 
(The Board of Education should furnish topo- 
graphic maps of all its playground properties.) 
No site can justly be called a playground until 
at least the grading and enclosure are com- 
pleted. 

"Whenever a property of rough topography 
or of considerable variation in grade is consid- 
ered for purchase, a sketch plan of possible 
development based upon an accurate topographic 
survey, together with an estimate of the cost 
of grading, should be made before purchasing 
the land. It should not be forgotten that finan- 
cially the important point is the cost of usable 
land and not necessarily the purchase price of 
the site. 

"5. The development of each playground 
should be undertaken progressively, and no 
permanent construction whatever should be 
made in any playground or park until after the 
plan of ultimate development of that ground 
has been drawn up and officially adopted. 

"6. Early development of athletic field cen- 
ters should be made. These are especially im- 
portant, inasmuch as the facilities there pro- 
vided will in a large measure meet the need now 
evidenced by the demand for baseball grounds. 
At such places the development of community 
centers will be particularly effective in arousing 
local interest and spirit which may be ex- 



pressed in inter-community contests, games and 
pageants. 

"7. The Bureau of Parks should be charged 
with the installation and maintenance of the 
parking and planting of all city-owned play- 
grounds, and the playgrounds upon school prop- 
erty might be included. Care of the play space 
and buildings should of necessity be the re- 
sponsibility of the operating agency. 

"8. All playgrounds having enough space 
for baseball diamonds should have facilities for 
spraying the grounds in winter to provide ice 
for skating. 

"9. At all playgrounds a daily record should 
be kept of the attendance (visits) of boys and 
girls under ten years of age, boys over ten, and 
girls over ten. In order that there shall be no 
discrimination in service, it is desirable that a 
separate record of negro children be kept. The 
place of residence of all children who are regu- 
lar attendants should be recorded. Such rec- 
ords, heretofore incompletely kept, will be the 
public's measure of service rendered by the 
playgrounds, and will be invaluable in deter- 
mining any need for change in character of 
activity or for extension of facilities. 

"10. An adjustment of personnel should be 
made so that properly qualified supervisors, di- 
rectors and play leaders, employed by the city 
or by the Board of Education, may be most 
efficiently engaged without regard as to whether 
one or the other agency pays the salary. This 
will permit of adjustment of playground work 
to educational work and will prevent duplica- 
tion of effort. 

"11. If the playgrounds are not open on 
Sunday for organized play, there should in any 
case be official supervision of the children and 
youth who will inevitably congregate upon these 
grounds. 

"Only when public opinion has become strong 
enough to demand the execution of a unified 
playground program such as is here recom- 
mended, to the exclusion of selfish interests, can 
there be assured economical and efficient ex- 
penditure of public funds for development and 
administration," 

In the way of specific recommendations 
the Committee has tabulated more than one 
hundred recommendations as to individual 
playgrounds and athletic field sites, which 
when properly developed will constitute a 
system giving adequate service to every 
section of the city. These recommendations 
have been listed in the order of their 
urgency as determined by factors such as 
general and school population, service 
rendered by existing recreational centers, 
juvenile delinquency statistics and the like. 
The plan suggested by the Committee is that 
when money is available, as many items as 
possible be taken from the top of the list of 
recommendations so that the most urgent 
needs may be met first of all. The Commit- 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



53 



US]-. 




THE PBESCEIPTIONS OF THE CITIZENS COMMITTEE WIIiIi HELP FATHER PITT TAKE 

ON WEIGHT 



tee suggests the re-rating of the playground 
areas every three to five years in order to 
meet the changing conditions in various 
sections of the city. 

Special emphasis is placed by the Com- 
mittee on the need for all-year-around ser- 
vices by the playgrounds. "If a city is at 
all justified in expending money for play- 
ground purposes," the report reads, "that 
expenditure should be made in accordance 
with the need to be met, and not merely for 
supplying something that can be used only 
two or three months out of the twelve. If 
recreation is needed at all, it is needed all 



the time. Consequently, the playgrounds 
should either be located next to the school 
or should be provided with proper build- 
ings." 

As examples of what may be done to 
properly arrange and develop playgrounds 
and athletic field sites, the Committee has in- 
cluded in its reports drawings showing 
possible arrangements of such sites, and in 
conjunction with the Pittsburgh Architec- 
tural Club has conducted a competition to 
obtain suggestions for the future develop- 
ment of one of the larger grounds for recre- 
ational purposes. 



On the Calendar of Conventions 



January 19-20, 1921. — New Yoek City. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. Secre- 
tary, Charles Warren H^nt, 33 West 39th Street, 
New York, N. Y. 

January 26-28. 1921. — Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Society of Heating and Ventilating 
Engineers. Secretary, C. W. Obert, 29 West 
39th Street, New York, N. Y. 

February 1-3, 1921. — Toronto, Ont. 

Engineering Institute of Canada. Secretary, 
Fraser S. Keith, 176 Mansfield Street, Montreal, 
Que. 



February 3-5, 1921. — Oakland, Calif. 

California Association of Commercial Secre- 
taries. Secretary, Charles P. Bayer, Secretary of 
Chamber of Commerce, Pomona, Calif. 

February 9-12, 1921. — Chicago, III. 

American Road Builders' Association, Secre- 
tary, E. L. Powers, 11 Waverly Place, New 
York, N. Y. 

February 25-26, 1921. — Harrisburgh, Pa. 

Pennsylvania Commercial Secretaries' Associa- 
tion. Secretary, E. J. Fellow, Chamber of Com- 
merce, Lebanon, Pa. 



The National Child Labor Committee has announced that Child Labor Day will be 
observed Saturday, January 22, in synagogues; Sunday, January 23, in churches, and 
Monday, January 24, in schools. The National Child Labor Committee has prepared a 
special pamphlet for the use of leaders of meetings on that day and posters to announce 
such meetings. These, with other publications of the committee, may be obtained on appli- 
cation to its office, 105 East Twenty-second Street, New York City. 



54 



The Crime Epidemic and the Motor- 
Cycle as a Remedy 



IN an interesting editorial, the New York 
Sun comments as follows upon the out- 
burst of crime which has shaken a great 
portion of this country : 

The epidemic of crime or wave of crime, or 
whatever it be called— the great prevalence of 
crime — is not due, we imagine, to any new 
access of depravity in the community. There 
are no more criminals than at any other time, 
nor are these criminals morally worse than in 
tamer periods. The condition, which has de- 
veloped something approaching a panic among 
honest folk, has been due to a broad general 
confidence in the criminal classes that they can 
do what they please and "get away with it." 

They have gradually ceased to be afraid of 
the police for the last two years or so, as they 
have seen crime after crime slip into the past 
unsolved and unpunished. This is the whole 
situation in a nutshell. If there shall be a 
change of form on the part of the police, and 
murderers, burglars and highwaymen are 
caught as fast as they raise their heads, the 
wave of crime will subside at once. 

This is the necessary, the imperative thing. 
The police must function in order to restore 
normal conditions. Crime can never be 
stopped altogether; but the rogues and the ruf- 



fians can be driven back to trivial assaults and 
petty larceny. These minor offenses are the 
natural activities of the semi-degenerate gang- 
sters, who are now doing sensational stunts 
with much "gun play" because of the immunity 
which they deduce from the record of the 
police and detective performances. 

The accompanying illustration shows a 
patrol recently placed on Route 131 of the 
Pennsylvania state highway system to safe- 
guard motorists who travel over that impor- 
tant highway thoroughfare from New York 
to Washington. Many hold-ups had made 
this route dangerous, but the men from 
Troop E, Lancaster, Pa., who carry a plenti- 
ful supply of ammunition, have made the 
road safe, and criminals are now giving it 
a wide berth. 

This mode of protection may well be 
applied by other cities in patrolling streets 
and highways. Well-mounted and well- 
armed, constables, troopers or policemen, as 
the case may be, acting in pairs or squads, 
can by the use of the motor-cycle largely 
eradicate hold-ups from our thoroughfares. 




Photograph by C. H. Thomas, Kennctt Squ-are, Pa. 

MOTOR-CYCLE PATROL ON PENNSTLVANLA, HIGHWAY BETWEEN NEW YORK AND 

WASHINGTON 



55 



Winter Sports in Our City Parks 



By S. R. DeBoer 

Landscape Architect 



THE time was when to be a good park 
man it was sufficient to be a good 
florist. Those were the days of "Keep 
off the grass"' signs. The signs have dis- 
appeared, and with them has disappeared 
the old character of the park superinten- 
dent's work. Service has become his guid- 
ing motto. Beauty ? Yes. but beauty in 
the service of the community. In addition 
to caring for his flowers, his shrubs and 
his trees, the park man has become the 
guardian of the happiness and health of 
the people he serves. 

Outdoor Recreation Every Season of 
the Year 

With this idea of service in park work 
has also come the realization of the neces- 
sity of giving people outdoor recreation, as 
far as possible, every season of the year. 
Winter sports fill a very important part in 
this recreation scheme. Much as it may be 
necessary to have people come out to the 
parks on the hot summer days, it is fully as 
essential to have them enjoy the invigorat- 
ing winter air in the days of steam heat, 
of colds and "flu." 

The war has changed our ideas of ath- 
letics; a little, at least. The colleges and 
universities are waking up. Where is the 
benefit to the growing body of your boy or 
my girl at college, to have a score of big 
huskies play a football game, or another set 
play a baseball game? The games on the 
corner lots were all right; there all the 
boys had valuable exercise. But in our 
schools and colleges athletics seem to affect 
the majority of students only in the lung 
exercise of cheering. I would be the last 
one to condemn this exercise, but as a gen- 
eral body builder it is rather one-sided. 
For the good of our boys — and of our girls 
— is it not about time that we reverse the 
tables and have two teams of eleven each on 
the bleachers as spectators, and the several 
hundred students as actual players, and 
therefore the beneficiaries of the sport? 

The one way to judge the value of a sport 
to the community as a whole is to judge the 
number of actual players as compared with 



the number of spectators. There are no 
spectators in skating, or nearly none; every- 
body skates. If the faces of the players are 
radiating health and cheerfulness, you get 
results ; if they are gloomy, as professionals 
may look gloomy, you are wasting valuable 
effort and time. Look at the smiles, at the 
glowing cheeks of a crowd on skates. 

How to Make a Skating Rink 

A lake is a valuable asset for skating. 
No artificially made rink can compare with 
it. It needs less care, is more permanent 
and more satisfactory. Where there is at 
least two feet of water, good ice, once es- 
tablished, can be maintained much longer 
than on an artificially made rink. In the 
care of ice there is a great deal in an early 
beginning. As soon as the ice is strong 
enough to carry the men, it should be taken 
care of. The danger at this time especially, 
as it is at other times, is snow. The finest 
black ice, once covered with a blanket of 
snow, will lose its hardness, and unless the 
snow is removed before melting starts, will 
turn into the well-known gray-colored snow- 
ice. The snow melts into the ice, and the 
crust of it freezes over again. Careful 
planing and cleaning may gradually make 
this crust usable again, but it never regains 
the hardness of the original ice. The first 
day of thaw it will soften and become use- 
less. 

If the weather stays sufficiently cold, this 
snow ice can still be improved upon by flood- 
ing, or, better, by spraying at night. Flood- 
ing must be done rather judiciously, for 
fear that the flooded area will not knit to- 
gether with the ice under it and shell ice be 
formed, which is soon cut through by the 
skater. Cracks should be filled with hot 
water, which better knits together with the 
existing ice than cold water. 

On places where natural lakes do not 
exist, artificial rinks can be made. Probably 
no places on the globe have developed the 
science of making artificial rinks as highly 
as have the mountain resorts of Switzer- 
land. "Winter Sports in Switzerland," by 
E. T. Benson, contains valuable information 



56 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 




EVERT YEAR MORE CITIES ARE APPRECIATING THE POSSIBILITIES OFFERED BY THEIR 

PARKS FOR WINTER RECREATION 



on this subject, as on all other winter sports, 
and will convince one that to talk about the 
science of making a rink is not to over- 
state the undertaking. A good article on 
ice skating rinks, by George H. Browne, 
was published in Landscape Architecture 
for January, 191 6. 

In Switzerland the ground for the rink 
is leveled off in spring. Weeds may be al- 
lowed to grow over it during the summer, 
as the roots help to form the foundation 
which is necessary for building up a rink. 
As soon as snow falls, this is heavily 
tramped on the rink by men, until a well- 
compacted mass of snow 4 inches thick has 
been formed. This is sprinkled with water 
and freezes. If no more snow falls for a 
time, the rink can be built on this founda- 
tion, otherwise the snow will have to "be 
tramped in again and everything done over. 

Two inches of water is put on top of the 
snow on a sunny day. On a very cold day 
this water would freeze separately from the 
snow foundation and not knit together with 
it very well, but on a sunny day it will knit 
satisfactorily. Then for several nights one 
inch of water is put on the rink, until the 
ice is 18 inches thick. Snow followed by 
frost is easily cleaned off.' But snow fol- 
lowed by thaw is serious. The ice thaws 
unevenly, making a number of small holes. 
Each of these holes should be filled by hand 
with a freezing mixture of snow and water, 
or, still better, with pounded ice and water. 
Every evening the dust of skating should be 
swept off. 



Flooding should be done only when the 
sun shines, to allow the new ice to knit to- 
gether with the existing ice. Sprinkling is 
much better, but often has to be done six 
or seven times a night. 

Seepage is the great difficulty with arti- 
ficial skating rinks and must be prevented 
at all costs if the rink is to be a success. 
Mr. Browne recommends a clay covering at 
the bottom of the rink to make the floor 
impervious to water. After a good founda- 
tion has been secured, everything depends 
on continuous sprinkling. Wait with the 
next sprinkling until the former one is 
frozen. Warm water is better than cold. 
With the thermometer 10 F., the best time 
to sprinkle is after sunrise, 7-8 A. M. Be- 
low 5 F., the frost will tear cracks in the 
ice. In general, the coldest weather, below 
zero, does not make the best ice, but it 
does make the ice that withstands thaw the 
longest. 

Instruction in Skating — Skating Contests 

Contests in the various games should be 
organized occasionally, and the superinten- 
dent of a rink should constantly keep in 
mind that contests are not for the benefit 
of the few participants nor even for the 
people watching them, but are simply the 
means of bring the attractions of the sport 
to the attention of a greater number of 
people. Contests for fast skating should be 
conducted on short tracks, which can be 
built in the same shape in which the race 
tracks for horses are built, only with this 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



57 



difference — that the races are held on the 
inner part of the track and the public uses 
the place on which the horses would race, 
as a skating place around the inner track. 
Fancy skating contests, which often draw 
large crowds, are also best conducted this 
way. Prizes should be allowed the winners, 
to keep the interest of the players keen. 
Especially where boys and girls are en- 
tered in the races, prizes should be given, 
though they need not be expensive if proper 
judgment be used in their selection. 

These affairs are best conducted by an 
experienced man who can also teach the 
various ice games and fancy strokes on 
skates. An instructor similar to the play- 
ground instructor would be valuable in this 
respect. For those who have not studied 
fancy skating, there is a surprise in store, 
for fancy skating is more or less of an art, 
or maybe a science, following well-defined 
lines. 

No doubt skating is the most popular 
and the most valuable of our ice sports. 
But where there is plenty of ice, room 
should be put at the disposal of players of 
other games. For curling, the ice must be 
still smoother and harder than for skating. 
A curling rink should be 42 yards long and 
8 or 9 yards wide, and tees should be placed 
at the ends of the rink, 38 yards apart. The 
game is played by eight persons, four on 
each side. A series of curling rinks can be 
made side by side and roped off to keep them 
separate from the skating rinks. 

Hockey is a valuable game, that is played 
with a ball or puck of tough, seasoned cork, 
3 inches in diameter and i inch thick. This 
is batted over the ice with a club. As a 
rule, the whole pool should be used for this 
game, and for this reason skating and 
hockey do not go together very well. On 
large lakes an area can be fenced off by 
boards a foot high, to keep the puck in the 
lines, and the rest of the lake can be used 
for other sports. 

Buildings and Equipment 

At places where large crowds are ex- 
pected, and especially children, heated 
buildings should be provided to allow the 
people to warm and rest themselves. On a 
large lake where boating is a summer sport 
a permanent building may well be put up. 
With the lower floor near the water level, 
it can be used by the skaters as well as by 
the boaters. * 



The main room should be heated, pre- 
ferably with hot water, to enable the care- 
takers to get hot water from the heating 
plant for sprinkling the ice. Where no 
central heating plant can be installed, a 
large stove will answer the purpose. A 
bucket of warm water will enable the skat- 
ers to clean their skates. The floor can be 
built of cement, but should be covered with 
two inches of sawdust during the skating 
season. A refreshment counter where 
drinks and light lunches can be had at rea- 
sonable cost should be included in such a 
building. 

In Holland, where skating is the national 
winter sport and where in the winter all 
freight traffic, or a great deal of it, goes 
over the frozen canals, long excursions on 
skates are possible. To supply the skaters 
making these trips with refreshments, little 
tents are built at frequent intervals, in 
which warm milk and cake are sold. 

The equipment of the skating pavilion 
should include an emery wheel, driven by 
an electric motor, for sharpening skates. A 
small charge can be made for this service, 
as otherwise the demand will become too 
heavy. Long ropes, for roping off races 
and the like, also for rop'ng off dangerous 
places or places which should not be used 
temporarily, should be kept in the building. 
In addition to this, it is well to have a 
ladder handy in case of accidents caused 
by the breaking of the ice, and a first aid 
chest. The building should also include 
lavatories and a check room for overcoats 
ajnd other clothes. Large public rinks 
should be well lighted at night. Many 
working people will not be able to come 
during the day and will appreciate skating 
by night, 

Tobogganning — Bob-Sledding — Skiing 

The Swiss mountain resorts probably also 
lead in tobogganning. Long toboggan roads 
are built there from a hilltop down to the 
valley. These roads are only a few feet 
wide, but are built mathematically correct. 
Grades are studied and curves calculated as 
carefully as in railroad engineering. The 
speed of toboggans going over these runs 
may be as high as 70 miles per hour. The 
turns are banked up with snow, which is 
tramped and sprinkled until frozen solid. 
One of these courses is 1,300 yards long and 
is covered in 60 seconds. 

This sport may be valuable to the Swiss 



58 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. i 



resorts, for it draws crowds, but it is not the 
sport we like to encourage for our park 
visitors. There are too many spectators 
for the few actual runners. Besides, for 
inexperienced people these runs are dan- 
gerous. Greater benefits are derived from 
our children's tobogganning. Let them 
bring their sleds, and give them a place 
that is safe. Where there are no hills to 
be had, a scaffolding can be built with a run 
of snow and ice. 

Denver has a rather unique opportunity 
for the kiddies. The parks do not have any 
slopes long enough for good sledding, so 
part of one of the ma-n asphalted streets 
lead'ng to a residence district is closed for 
traffic. The hill is over three cty blocks 
long. Though the street is one of the 
main thoroughfares for that part of the 
city, no complaints are made of its being 
closed. The value of this hill in the street 
to hundreds of youngsters is apparent even 
to the hurried autoist of our times. A 
watchman with a first-aid k't is essential 
on a place like this. If the snow surface 
becomes worn, a light sprinkling of water 
can be given with a sprinkling wagon. 

In hilly countries bob-sledding can be de- 
veloped into a great sport. It requires con- 
siderable skill, but less than the professional 
tobogganning, and the amateur can get lots 
of fun and loads of good cheer and health 
out of it, by coasting down the country 
roads through the hills. 

The lover of skiing will never think of 
any other sport. It is a great outdoor sport, 
in which our larger parks can give con- 
siderable service, especially those that have 
hilly grounds. As a rule, however, our city 
parks are a bit too tame for this sport. Ski 
jumping contests are valuable to attract 
people to it, but have the same objections 
mentioned before if they develop into a 
few men making high jumps and large 
crowds getting wet and cold feet watch- 



ing the performances. 

Studying the Footprints of Wild Animals 
in the Snow 

This is hardly a winter sport, but I hap- 
pen to belong to that great number of 
former kids who have never gotten over the 
admiration they once felt for the boy who 
could tell the difference between the jack- 
rabbit's trail in the fresh snow and the 
cottontail's. A wonderful article in the 
National Geographic Magazine, by Edward 
W. Nelson, in May, 191 8, gave me the 
thought that it might not be impossible to 
have some one, interested both in the 
youngsters and in the wild animals, take 
out small groups of children and show 
them and explain to them the mysteries of 
these footprints, and get them acqainted 
with the hab'ts of some of our winter ani- 
mals. Is there any boy who has not in- 
herited enough of the hunting instinct of 
our forefathers to want to know about these 
th'ngs? And is there any child whose love 
for an-mals and outdoor life would not be 
stimulated by studies like these? Maybe 
this should be left to the initiative of the 
schools; nevertheless, it is a service our 
parks can give. 

The opportunities for winter sports are 
of very wide range. The park superinten- 
dent who tries to encourage all these sports 
may find the winter season equal to his 
famous busy spring season as far as the 
amount of work goes. But the valuable 
work he is giving his community will be 
appreciated by its citizens — ^^he can rely on 
that ; for the average citizen, ready as he is 
to criticize, will never fail to recognize the 
efforts made for his well-being and enjoy- 
ment, and he is a fair judge whether the 
park superintendent is giving the best there 
is in him, or is simply sleeping his winter 
sleep at the time that the snow cloak covers 
his lawns and the ice floor binds his lakes. 



The American^ City Advocates City Motorization 



To THE Editor of The American City : 

We have been a subscriber to The American 
City for some time past and have been quite 
interested in several articles printed therein 
regarding the progress made by several cities 
in motorizing their departments, thereby enab- 
ling them to give more efficient service at a 
great saving to the taxpayers. 

We wish to say that the articles and illus- 
trations as published in The American City 



have been an inspiration and a great service to 
this department in causing us to give our most 
minute attention to motorizing the entire de- 
partment, and I want to assure you that The 
American City will help many municipalities 
by giving them such information as can be of 
great help to each city. 

HENRY F. GOLDACKER, 
Deputy Commissioner of Public Works. 

Syracuse, N. Y., 
September 22, 1920, 



59 



Street Cars Carry Publicity for City 

Ordinances 

Fort Collins, Colo., Displays Snow and Weed Removal Notices on Municipal 

Electric Railway 



THOUGH it is one 
of the minor func- 
tions of city gov- 
ernment, keeping the 
sidewalks of small cities 
in northern latitudes free 
from snow in winter is 
perhaps one of the most 
vexing problems with 
which street department 
officials have to cope. 

Fort Collins, a city of 
about 9,000 population, 
situated in northern 
Colorado, has since 1914 
been operating under a 
commission form of gov- 
ernment. This city has 
for many years owned 
and operated its own 
gravity water-works sys- 
tem and its own cemetery, 
and in January, 1919, it 
issued bonds and bought 
the local street car system, which had gone 
into the hands of a receiver under stress of 
war-time increase in operating cost. These 
street cars are often used as a means of in- 
forming citizens of municipal activities, as 
later described. 

One of the city ord'nances of long stand- 
ing requires all property owners to remove 
snow and ice from their sidewalks within 24 
hours after its fall, and in case the owner 
fails in this obligation, provides that the 
city remove such snow and ice at the 
owner's expense. The owner is then billed 
for the actual cost of such removal, and if 
the bill is not paid within 30 days, it be- 
comes a lien upon the property and is certi- 
fied to the County Treasurer for collection 
at the same time and along with the regular 
taxes. 

There are in this city some 60 miles of 
sidewalks, so should the property owners 
fail to clean their walks it would be physi- 
cally impossible for the city forces to clean 
all of them between storms ; nor is it neces- 




THE MUNICIPAL STREET CABS WARN OF WEEDS IN SUMMER 
AND SNOW REMOVAL IN WINTER 

(See the front cover of this issue) 

sary. By advertisement in the local pa- 
pers and by banners 27 by 8-1/2 inches 
carried along the side of municipal street 
cars, the citizens are admonished to remove 
snow from their walks lest the city be forced 
to remove it at their expense. In addition, 
the cooperation of the reporters on local 
newspapers is sought, and often locals or 
editorials call upon the citizens to clear 
their walks; particular stress is laid upon 
the fact that owing to the supervision and 
overhead required for city forces, the cost 
will necessarily be greater than if they clean 
their own walks. The notices are continued 
in the paper and the banners still carried 
after the city forces start to work, arid 
every possible means of giving publicity to 
the matter is made use of. Often the coopera- 
tion of the police is sought, and copies of 
the ordinances are left at the doors of house- 
holders whose walks are not clean. 

The same general method is used in the 
summer for getting weeds cut on lots and 
the parking area in front. 



6o 



Motorization Saves Thousands for 
Indianapolis 

City Averts Enormous Increase in Cost of Hauling Its Ashes by Purchasing 

Tractors and Trailers 



ON October i, 1918, the contract for 
hauling ashes in Indianapolis ex- 
pired. The contract had been held by 
the Indianapolis Hauling Company, which 
submitted a new bid. Beginning January 
I, 1 9 19, it would have cost $84,000 a year, 
and $54 an acre for annexed territory, to 
continue the ash-hauling work for a period 
of five years. The city immediately cast 
about for a new collection system. The re- 
sult was the purchase of four 5-ton White 
trucks and twenty-five Lee trailers. This 
fleet started work in the winter of 1918-19. 
Since that time the motor equipment has 
gone faithfully along practically writing 
itself off the books. During 1919 a total of 
115,286 cubic yards of material was col- 
lected and hauled to the dumps. 

Figuring seven years as the life of the 
trucks and trailers, the item of depreciation 
for 1919 was approximately $8,286. Opera- 
ting costs, including oil, gasoline, tires, re- 
pair parts, labor on trucks and trailers, 
totaled $12,305. An allowance of 6 per cent 
interest on the balance of the cost 
of the equipment adds $2,784 to the 
year's total. Then throwing in a pay-roll 
of $53,063, the total cost for 1919 mounts to 
$76,439, which, on the basis of 115,286 cubic 
yards of ashes collected, gives approximately 
66 1/3 cents as the haulage cost per cubic 
yard. 

The real advantage of the motorized and 
city-controlled ash-hauling system is not at 
once apparent in these figures. The renewal 
terms proffered by the private contractors 
were not a flat figure of $84,000, but rather 
that amount plus $54 an acre for annexed 
territory. Since taking over its own ash- 
hauling job, the city of Indianapolis has 
extended its service facilities to a greatly en- 
larged territory, which, had it been annexed 
under the terms of the tentative new private 
contract, would have run the expense of that 
service very close to $100,000. 

The city now owns the equipment and 
controls its use. , Formerly some sections 
of the city were neglected at times when the 
weather was inclement, and complaints were 



accordingly vociferous and vexing. Calls 
and collections are now made regularly, in 
fair weather and foul, and complaints have 
consequently been reduced to a negligible 
number, according to Thomas A. Riley, 
supervisor of the Indianapolis Ash-Hauling 
Department. 

Few Complaints Now 

There used to be as many as 200 com- 
plaints a day, under the contract system, 
but now complaints average only 10 a day, 
a truly remarkable record when it is con- 
sidered that 70,000 homes are served. 

The best indication of the complete satis- 
faction which motor equipment has given is 
the authorization made recently by the 
Board of Public Works and City Purchas- 
ing Agent Dwight S. Ritterfor the purchase 
of two additional White 5-ton trucks and 
a half-dozen more Lee trailers. 

Lost Time Minimized 

The Indianapolis method of ash collection 
is as follows : Horses, hauling trailers, cover 
given alley routes collecting ashes from 
house to house. The loaded trailers are then 
left at predetermined street locations, where 
empty trailers are waiting. The horses are 
hitched to the empties and start out for new 
loads. Meanwhile the tractors, on their way 
to the ash dumps, couple the loaded trailers, 
which have been abandoned at the street 
corners, to their trains and continue on their 
respective journeys to the dumps in various 
sections of the city. 

A trailer will hold 4 cubic yards of ashes. 
Each tractor pulls a train of 3 trailers, mak- 
ing 6 round trips in a day. The entire fleet of 
four trucks and 24 trailers thus hauls 288 
cubic yards of ashes daily. One cubic yard 
weighs between 1,100 and 1,200 pounds. 

One of the outstanding features of the 
motor equipment is its flexibility. The equip- 
ment is frequently diverted from ash-haul- 
ing to snow-cleaning duties. During an 
intensive three-weeks springtime clean-up 
campaign 15,000 cubic yards of refuse were 
hauled. Every Saturday evening 35 trailer 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



61 




WHITE TRACTOR TURNING A CORNER WITH TRAIN OF LEE TRAILERS LOADED WITH 

ASHES, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



loads of refuse are hauled away from the 
city market-place. 

Trucks Also Aid Garbage Collection 

When a fire at the loading platform creat- 
ed an emergency in the garbage-hauling de- 
partment, the trucks went to the rescue. 
Customarily garbage collections are made 
by 35 wagons, which haul their loads to the 
loading platform in the central part of the 
city. There cranes deposit the boxes on 
flat cars, 20 boxes to the car. Three cars 
are required to haul a day's collection of 
garbage to the city-owned reduction plant, 
located about four miles from the loading 
platform. 

Wagon hauls range from a few blocks up 
to five miles. One wagon will average three 
loads a day. During the three weeks that 



the trucks were used; they cut the hauling 
expense in the garbage department practi- 
cally in half. One truck proved to be the 
equivalent of three wagons and it was found 
that a truck could be loaded in an hour and 
one-half. Thus a single truck accomplished 
in an hour and one-half the equivalent of a 
day's work for a horse. Moreover, the 
trucks travelled all the way to the reduc- 
tion plant outside the city instead of only 
to the loading platform. Between 90 and 
and 100 tons of garbage are collected daily 
in Indianapolis. 

If the garbage collection department is 
ever completely motorized, the railroad spur 
from the loading platform to the reduction 
plant, and even the loading platform itself, 
can be eliminated, thus doing away with two 
items of expense. 



Agreement Between City and Gas Company 



An agreement between the city of Indian- 
apolis and the Citizen's Gas Company, whereby 
the company will make extensions and im- 
provements to its property by December 31, 
•1921, costing about one million dollars, has 
been signed by Charles W. Jewett, the Mayor, 
the Board of Public Works and the officers of 
the gas company. 

The company's output is materially increased 
by the agreement, and the enlarging of its dis- 
tributing capacity has established a priority 
order for the winter that gives local consumers 
for cooking, lighting and water-heating prefer- 



ence over all other users, and makes it unlaw- 
ful for other consumers to use gas in emerg- 
ency periods. 

The agreement was reached after several 
weeks of negotiation between the city officials 
and the gas company, and grew out of the 
great hardships which were endured by the 
people during the first cold snap of the season, 
when so many consumers used gas for heat- 
ing purposes that the demand far exceeded 
the supply. At this time the company was 
forced to reduce pressure to the minimum to 
prevent an exhaustion of gas from all its mains. 



62 



Lighting Posts That Have IndividuaUty 

By Allen Henry Wright 



WHEN municipalities undertake the 
installation of ornamental street 
lights, it might be well to follow the 
example of some of the cities on the Pacific 
coast where, in planning for ornamental 
lighting, designs of posts or fixtures appro- 
priate to the individual towns have been 
selected. 

Take, for instance, the city of Alhambra, 
near Los Angeles, Cal., a community which 
bears the name of the famous palace of the 
Moorish kings in Granada, Spain. Here will 
be found ornamental lighting posts bearing 
the star and crescent of the Mohammedans, 
used as an ornament at the base of the posts, 
while the lights themselves are suspended 
from the horns of crescents. A visitor can 
tell immediately when his car reaches the 
limits of Alhambra by the type of its light- 
ing standards. 

Again, in the adjoining small city of San 
Gabriel, whose reputation throughout the 
state is based upon the fact that within its 
confines are the remaining portions of one 
of the historic chain of missions established 
in the eighteenth century by the Franciscan 
padres, one finds ornamental light posts with 
globes shaped like the old mission bells, re- 
plicas of which mark the King's Highway, 
or El Camino Real, connecting the string of 
missions along the coast. By its lighting 
posts San Gabriel is known to travelers 
through that section of the state, and in a 
number of other California cities also are to 




TYPE OF LIGHT POSTS USED IN SAN 
GABRIEL, CALIFORNIA 

be found distinctive lights, suggestive of the 
history of the several communities. 



Fire Prevention Is Everybody's Business 



Fire prevention is a subject for community 
thought and community action because fire 
is in itself a community subject. This is due 
to the fact that fire is a restless force which 
ever seeks to break its bounds. The match 
in any man's pocket, the flame in any lamp, 
the spark from any motor, may be localized 
at a single point in one hour and in the next 
have become transformed into a spreading 
fire which threatens a number of buildings. 
When such a fire assumes large proportions 
we call it a conflagration, and then it is very 
much a community affair, since it may 
plunge hundreds or even thousands of peo- 
ple into a community of dire misfortune. 



Everybody gets a thrill when the engines 
go clanging through the streets, but it is an 
expensive thrill compared with the feeling 
of satisfaction that comes from having a 
few extra firemen to do thorough fire pre- 
vention work. A loss from fire on build- 
ings insured and uninsured, with the main- 
tenance of the fire department and water- ' 
supply service, costs the United States more 
than $2,000,000 a day. Last year 15,219 
persons were burned to death and 17,641 
were seriously injured. These figures can 
be greatly reduced through systematic, thor- 
ough fire prevention work on the part of 
municipal departments. 



63 



The Distinctive High School Building 
in Southampton, N. Y. 

By Harold F. Sabine 

Supervising Principal, The Public Sctiools of Southampton 



THE Southampton High School build- 
ing is one of the most beautiful school 
buildings in the state of New York. 
It is ideally located on a six-acre plot of 
land on the Montauk Highway, where it 
attracts the attention of all who enter the 
village. In the rear of the building is a 
fine athletic field with ample space for foot- 
ball, baseball, track and tennis. 

The building is of modern fireproof con- 
struction in colonial design of soft-colored 
red brick with white marble and cement, 
decorations, in keeping with the colonial 
aspect of the popular resort, which dates its 
founding from 1640. The central portion 
of the building is three stories high, 
crowned with a cupola from which a view 
is obtained far out over the Atlantic Ocean 
and Peconic Bay. On the third floor are 
well-adapted and 
equipped laboratories for 
physics and chemistry, 
as well as two com- 
mercial rooms. From 
the south windows of 
this floor one hears the 
breakers and sees a wide 
expanse of the ocean a 
few hundred yards dis- 
tant. The second floor 
of the building is occu- 
pied by the High School 
proper — a school of 
about one hundred and 
fifty pupils and eight 
teachers. The central 
portion of the floor con- 
tains a well-lighted study 
hall and the balcony of 
the auditorium. On 
either side of the study 
hall are arranged seven 
classrooms, the library, 
the principal's ofiice, and 
the boys' and girls' lava- 
tories. 

As one enters the 
front door of the build- 
ing he catches a glimpse 



of the beautiful auditorium, which is across 
the hall directly opposite the entrance. It 
has a seating capacity of about five hundred, 
and has stage facilities and exits to the 
gymnasium below, which makes it well 
adapted for amateur dramatics. There are 
ten grade rooms on this floor. In the base- 
ment are two large playrooms, the gym- 
nasium, manual training rooms, a dressing- 
room, two lavatories, a cooking-room, the 
engine-room and a sewing-room. 

The windows of the High School are 
very large but are given scale by the small 
lights and fine detail, a treatment rarely 
found in public schools, where unsightly 
large sheets of glass usually give a blank- 
ness and barrenness to the entire building. 
The architects of the building were Hewitt 
and Bottomley. of New York City. 




A SCHOOL EXTERIOE OF SIMPLICITY AND DIGNITY 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




Snow Removal With 

TRACTORS 




New York City 

PURCHASED 

30 

"CATERPILLAR" 
TRACTORS 



'Caterpillar" Tractors were selected for snow removal work 
by the New York City Engineers because of4thei> endurance, 
power and traction. This winter, in the congested business 
districts of lower Manhattan, the traffic will be kept opea and 
fire danger prevented from ice and snow covered streets. 
Only the "Caterpillar" can meet the severe task of getting^to 
work when the storm commences, cleaning the snow faster 
than it falls, bucking^deep drifts, ice and sleet, day and alght, as 
long as the storm lasts. 

Street Cleaning Departments, Township, County and State 
Highway Officials, Public Utilities and Industrial Plants can de- 
pend on the "Caterpillar" for snow removal. It solves this 
problem as thoroughly as it does in road building, lumbering, 
agricultural and industrial service. 
Write for Bulletin on "Snow Removal." 



The HOLT Manufacturing Company 



INC. 



PEORIA, - - ILLINOIS 

SPOKANE, WASH., NEW YORK OFFICE, 50 CHURCH STREET 
Factories at Stockton, Cal., and Peoria, Illinois. 




<xsBsm 




Wliea writing to Advertisers please mention Thi Amkkican City. 



65 



The Planning of Sebring, a Lake-Front 
Town in Florida 

By A. D. Taylor 

Landscape Architect and Town Planner, Cleveland, Ohio 



AMONG the interesting town develop- 
ments which have been reported 
within the last few years is that of 
the town of Sebring, Fla. This town was 
started by George E. Sebring and his son 
approximately eight years ago. A site for 
its development was selected on the shores 
of Lake Jackson in southern central Florida. 
This lake covers an area of approximately 
fifteen square miles. 

The success of most of the prosperous 
towns of the South depends upon two fac- 
tors — one, the all-the-year-round popula- 
tion, and the other, the population of winter 
tourists. The central portion of Sebring 
has been carefully planned. The portion 
shown on the accompanying map, located 
within one-half mile of the center of the 
community, is the part which will in the 
future meet the requirements of the winter 
population. A comprehensive study has 
been developed whereby ideal surroundings 



on the lake front can be provided for those 
who wish to enjoy a period of winter rest 
and recreation in the Florida climate. The 
problem has involved the location of two 
hotel sites, one of which has already 
been developed, and the second of which 
contemplates development in the near 
future. 

For a distance of five miles on either 
side of the central portion of the town a 
macadam drive follows within thirty feet 
of the high-water mark of the lake. In de- 
signing communities of this kind, there are 
always possibilities of interesting drives 
which will make the scenery of distant sec- 
tions easily accessible to those who wish to 
enjoy them. 

The lake front lots have been designed in 
units approximating fifty feet in width, thus 
allowing the prospective purchaser to buy 
two or more units in order to acquire the 
desired area in his proposed home site. 



JL 







CAREFUL PLANNING ASSURES THE WELL-BEING OF SEBRING' S WINTER COLONY 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




Hard?-Not for the Bulldog! 

"We have been operating three Mack trucks nearly five 
years on a regular schedule of eighteen hours a day. 
One of them, with 201,000 miles to its credit, just re- 
cently had its first overhauling." — From one letter of 
hundreds we should like you to read. 

THE most rigid schedules are maintained with 
Mack Trucks. This is due to their unusual 
built-in safety factors. 

The case-hardened crankshaft, wristpins and cam- 
shaft are among the many outstanding features which 
have contributed to the established reputation of 
Mack Trucks. 

Distinctive Mack engineering features, combined with 
18 basic Mack patents have developed the motor 
truck the world is talking about. 

Our latest catalogues, Nos. 13 and 39, contain a detailed 
description of the many exclusive features that have 
made Mack supremacy possible, together with the com- 
plete specifications of every model. Send for them today. 

Capacities 1^2 to 7>^ tons. Tractors to 15 tons 

INTERNATIONAL MOTOR COMPANY, NEW YORK 




71 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The American City. 



67 



Municipal Finance 

BONDING ACCOUNTING TAXATION 



Dollars Speak in City and County 
Consolidation — Part II 

By Leo H. Joachim 

RECENT instances of city and county partments and public officials: industrial 
consolidation, notably those of Den- development bureau, building department, 
ver and Los Angeles, have confirmed inspection department, commissioner of sup- 
belief in the efficacy of this reform in re- plies, county superintendent of schools, city 
ducing materially the expenditures of mu- chaplain, two justices of the peace and two 
nicipal government. honorary boards, the art commission and 

The way to consolidation was a long and the library board. The people elect the city 

stormy one for Denver, lasting from 1904 council of nine members by districts, the 

to 1916, but in that year the city finally city auditor, the election commission, dis- 

amended its charter under the authority trict judges, district attorney, county judge 

granted to the people by Amendment XX to and juvenile judge. All appointments by 

the state constitution. By this charter the the mayor are made without confirmation 

modified mayor-and-council form of govern- by the council. Nothing could be more tell- 

ment was put into effect in the city and ing in a discussion on the economies effected 

county of Denver, the mayor was made the in the Denver consolidation than the com- 

residuary of executive power, and the en- parative chart of costs before consolidation, 

tire system was made primarily an appoin- as read in a report before the National Mu- 

tive one. The whole list of county officials nicipal League at Detroit in November, 

hitherto elective has been abolished. 191 7> by Professor William B. Guthrie of 

The mayor appoints four managers who the College of the City of New York : 

have functions distributed as folloxys: man- relative expenses in Denver before 

ager of improvements and parks, with and after consolidation 

jurisdiction of city and mountain parks; Expense. Appropriation, 

citv engineer, who has under him the con- i^^i 1^1'' 

troi of highway paving, sprinkling, clean- ^rTalu°er- •.•.•.•.■.■.•.: ::::::::: I4S Htilo 

ing of streets, sewer, and- street lighting f^^"^ If'^^o ^'''^"^ 

departments; manager of revenue, who is County Clerk !.....!.:!!!! 37*400 28,'ooo 

city and county assessor and treasurer; Coumy'supt:' of Schools:::: tfoll UTo 

manasrer of safety and excise, who directs Justice of the Peace (3) — 22,800 17,000 

,. *£ J • J , ' . 1 ./v District Attorney 27,700 25,000 

police, fire and excise departments, is sheriff Court House 42,000 23 130 

of the county and in control of city and ^°^^— ::::::::;:::: 'l',:Z Toill 

county jails ; manager of health and charity. Support of Poor 58,000 47,500 

, 1, J. -. .1 1. 1.. 1 , . t •/ Detention Home 6,000 3,800 

Who directs the health department, charity Horticulture i|70O 1)200 

bureau, county hospital and county farm. General 33*000 

and is coroner of the county. The man- '- — 

agers have the appointive power for their $699,400 $476,«oo 

respective departments. These are the chief statistics available 

The mayor appoints directly the city at- for the costs and must not be taken entirely 

torney and the water commission of five at their face value, because of the changes 

members. This body appoints a manager that have occurred in the city government, 

of the water plant. The mayor also ap- and the lapse of time. Much of the econ- 

points directly the following heads of de- omy is attributable to changes in the city 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



A Financial Service For the Municipality 

We are prepared to inform mtmicipal officials regarding 

1. Present cost of raising money 

2. The most desirable method of financing 

Our municipal department handles state, cotmty and municipal bonds representing over thirty 
states in the union. Otu" experience and facilities are at the disposal of any municipality. 

Correspondence invited 

A. B. I_,eacli & Co., Inc. 

Inveatment Seeuritiea 
62 Cedar Street, New York 

Chicago Philadelphia Boston Buffalo Minneapolis Baltimore Pittsburg Clereland 







^■1 EUREKA SNOW PLOW 

^^^KHB Horse Drawn Tractor Driven 

^HB^HHfl Will mount curbs with ease and re- 
■H^^^^^H move 24 inches of snow in one trip. 
^^^^^^■jl The wings are adjustable to any width 
4^^^^^^^^ and either wing may be detached. 
'-M^^^^^f ' One user writes regarding use with 
^^^^^^V > tractors, ' 'The plow is so simple and 
^^^^HV the method of attaching so easy that 


\1 




ySKKTIT these laets coupled with the reason- 
■HUHH^ able price should make a strong ap- 
^^9H^^ peal to all tractor owners interested 
^■^^^^^^H ' in snow removal." 




^HK^JlUk^^MM^. V iriiidilMMMIIikiMk 






Sidney _ Ohio 



Snowless Sidewalks 

made possible by 





Two Men, a Team and A Martin can clean more 
miles of sidewalks or gutter in a day and at less 
expense than several old style outfits and do a 
better job. 



All-Steel, Reversible, Adjustable, Practical 

SNOW REMOVER 

A heavy snow-fall blocks traffic, makes 
walkinsc difficult and causes accidents. 

Clean Sidewalks and Gutter 

make for comfort and safety. The Martin 
is the ideal tool for this work. Catalogues 
and prices sent at once on request. 

OWENSBORO DITCHER 
AND GRADER CO., Inc. 

OWENSBORO Box 100 KY.. U. S. A. 



r« 



When writing to Adyertiaert pleaae mention Thb Akkkicam Citt. 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



69 



administration; much of it, however, must 
be attributed to consolidation, and this may 
be shown concretely. 

Functions, for example, that were for- 
merly divided between the county assessor 
and the county treasurer, both receiving a 
salary of $4,600, and the city treasurer, at 
$5,000, were merged into those of the office 
of manager of finance at a salary of $4,000. 
Justice of the peace affairs which in 191 1 
cost $22,300, to which was added a munici- 
pal court costing $4,000, were covered after 
consolidation by city justices at a combined 
cost of $17,000. 

Two curtailments in expenditure that 
seem to be open to criticism are the cuts in 
the coroner's office and that of county su- 
perintendent of schools. 

The Gains in Los Angeles County 

Los Angeles has not gone as far as Den- 
ver, inasmuch as it has merely consolidated 
a number of offices and not entire units of 
government. It has been enabled to do this 
as a result of California legislation passed 
in 1895 (mentioned above) permitting coun- 
ties to make their own charters. Four 
counties have availed themselves of the 
privilege, including, in addition to Los An- 
geles, Butte, Tehama and San Bernardino, 
but in none of these are governmental func- 
tions centralized. In each county two gov- 
ernments still function, although a large 
number of officials have been taken from the 
elective lists. In California the Legislature 
has this check on the exercise of home rule : 
the charter adopted by the county must be 
submitted to the Legislature for approval. 

Los Angeles is perhaps the most notable 
example, as it has taken thirteen officials 
from the elective list. The consolidated 
offices are city and county assessor, city 
and county tax collectors, and city and 
county treasurers, the county officials act- 
ing ex officio. 

The act of 1895, in brief, provides that 
any municipality except one of the first 
class shall have by ordinance the power to 
elect for the levying and collection of city 
taxes, the county auditor to render a state- 
ment to the city clerk of the assessed values 
of properties within the municipality, and 
the trustees of the city council to determine 
the rate of taxation and so to notify the 
county auditor. The county auditor then 
computes the city taxes in a special column 
of the tax roll. 



The offices of city assessor and city tax 
collector, in the event of such consolidation, 
are abolished, and such duties as were per- 
formed by them other than those relative to 
assessments and collection of taxes are by 
ordinance transferred to other city depart- 
ments. The act provides for an annual 
charge by the county of the actual cost for 
services, but not to exceed i per cent of the 
first $25,000 so collected, and }i oi i per 
cent for all sums over that amount. If the 
city elects to have the county treasurer act 
for it, an additional % oi i per cent is 
charged for that service. Of the forty mu- 
nicipalities included within Los Angeles 
County, twenty-three avail themselves of 
the act, very much to the taxpayer's advan- 
tage, according to W. O. Welch, County 
Tax Collector, both as to the convenience 
of being able to pay all the taxes on one 
bill, and in the matter of economy. A spe- 
cial act of 1917 extended the privileges to 
cities of the first class and chartered cities. 
Los Angeles at that time provided for such 
consolidation of the assessor's and tax col- 
lector's offices. Taking eflfect for the year 
19 1 7, the consolidation effected a saving to 
the city for that year of more than $100,000 
in salaries, which has increased cor- 
respondingly with the growth of the city 
for the successive years. Perhaps the 
greatest convenience of all is the fact that 
the taxpayer need pay only one bill. As to 
the cost to Los Angeles City, the act pro- 
vided that it shall be actual cost, which sum 
is fixed for a number of years to be $25,000 
annually. This includes the service of as- 
sessing and collecting upon unsecured per- 
sonal property taxes, assessing and collec- 
tion of real estate and secured personal 
property taxes. 

The Los Angeles experience is illustrative 
of the economies we may expect in consoli- 
dations. Surveying the diverse experiences 
of cities that have undergone such changes, 
we may safely say that important savings 
can be effected. How far the abolition of 
offices will be carried, how far the now 
elongated ballot must be truncated, must 
remain considerations for individual com- 
munities to solve according to their own 
needs, and will form problems for future 
students of government. The important 
consideration is that consolidation of city 
and county is being slowly accepted as one 
of the chief and most efficient means for 
the improvement of county government. 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



B^EE 




AUTO TRUCK 
SNOW PLOWS 

For Cities, Counties, Parks, Cem- 
eteries, Universities, Hospitals 
and Large Industrial Plants 

Right now is the time to arrange for your 
snow plows to assure good delivery. Baker 
Auto Truck Snow Plows are readily at- 
tached to practically any make motor truck. 
They are serviceable — sensible — safe. 
They are equipped with our especially con- 
venient lifting device. The blades are 
hinged and allow passage over obstructions 
without shock. Plows are made with 8 
and 10 foot blades. 

Hundreds of Baker Plows are in use in the 
Snow Belt and are giving real service. 

We also make 20th Century Horse Drawn 
Snow Plows for sidewalk work 

Write for for Dnaeriptioe Literature 

The Baker Mfg. Company 

503 Stanford Ave., Springfield, 111. 



Friedman '*Snow-Loader" Revolutionizes 

Snow Fi^htin^ 




This machine will positively handle your snow removal at a saving of 90 per cent over any other 
method now in use. The Friedman "Snow-Loader" has been used in New York City with unbounded 
success and satisfaction, loading trucks of 8 cubic yards capacity, at an average speed of 60 seconds. 
If these statements interest you, it will pay you to write for further information concerning the most effi- 
cient snow-fighting machine yet developed. 



NATIONAL SNOW REMOVING CORPORATION 



67 East 93rd St., New York City 



78 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The American City. 



71 



The Smallest Ball Ground in the World 



By Arthur Leland 

Playground Architect, Newport, R. I. 



NEWPORT has one of the smallest 
baseball fields on which regular 
league games are played. 
Baseball, as everyone knows, requires a 
considerable playing area, such as is usually 
found only on the outskirts of a city. The 
playground pictured on this page shows 
what can be done to limit the destructive- 
ness of baseball and so civilize it as to bring 
it within the congested district of the city. 
The area required for playing the game it- 
self is not large, but the problem of foul 
balls, broken windows, broken heads of 
passers-by and small children makes it 
necessary to play the game in an outlying 
section unless special precautions are taken. 
The greatest width of the field shown is 
250 feet. It is only 210 feet from the home 
plate to right field fence. If left field fence 
was as near, the playing area would be less 
than 1.2 acres. The extreme width of the 
field is 400 feet, and besides the regulation 
diamond, there is a small diamond where 
games are played simultaneously, the home 
plate of which is 350 feet away from the 
home plate of the main diamond. There 
are also swings, see-saws, a sand-box, baby 
swings for small children, a hand-ball court 
at the back of the back-stop, which is in 
constant use, take-off for jump, a football 
field and a tennis court. The entire area is 
so graded as to permit flooding in the winter 
for skating. All this on an area of 2.4 acres. 
The average baseball bleachers and back- 
stop are numbered among the most hideous 
things man can make. Newport has im- 
proved upon these by means of a pergola 
effect covered with vines. In order to keep 
the baseball within bounds, a hood back- 
stop and screen fences are used. Home 
plate is under the hood. No batted ball 
can reach the street or the small children 
who play in other parts of the ground. Oc- 
casionally a high infield fly hits the net 
overhead. No foul ball can escape. This dia- 
mond has home plate within 40 feet of the 
street, where automobiles are parked and 
passenger trains are made up just the other 
side of the road, with a consequent conges- 
tion of travel. The most successful amateur 



CcfstCRAt- Fn_ATJ 



BA51N PLAYGROUNO 

NtWPOIX.T-«HODC ISLAND 



APTMUP^ UUt-ATtO 




NOTHING OMITTED AND NO SPACE WASTED 

baseball league ever operated in the city 
has played most of its games here. Last 
year interest in amateur baseball was kept 
up until the opening of the football season, 
for the first time in the history of the city. 
There have been no accidents, no broken 
windows, not a single lost ball — which in 
itself is quite an item with the present high 
cost of sporting goods. 

This ground is being saved for the loca- 
tion of a new passenger station and mean- 
while is leased to the city by the New York, 
New Haven and Hartford Railroad Com- 
pany on condition that the city assume re- 
sponsibility and keep it in good condition. 
Every baseball team in the city wishes to 
play here in spite of the fact that there are 
full-sized diamonds on the outskirts of the 
city. 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



-^1 



Qte " Evan s ton *T*1 an" of 
Street Maintenance 



WITH natural pride in their 
beautiful city, which lies just 
northof Chicago, thepropertyown- 
ers and city authorities of Evanslon, 
111. , have worked out what has come 
to be known as the "Evanston 
Plan' ' for keeping their macadam 
streets in first-class condition. 

The property owners on many 
streets have local Improvement 
Associations, who voluntarily con- 
tribute to the cost of maintenance 
of their street. This fund was 
formerly used for street sprinkling, 
but is now being used in system- 
atic Tarvia maintenance. The 
work is handled by the street de- 
partment under the direction of 
the Commissioner of Streets. This 
has worked out so satisfactorily 
that some of the Associations have 
a surplus in their treasury, where 
formerly all the funds went into 
street sprinkling, and the streets 
are dustproof, waterproof and 
automobile proof. 

Keeping Ahead of 
Old General Neglect 

The policy of the City of Evans- 
ton is to repair and re-treat the 
streets beforeitis absolutely necessary. 
Three patrol gangs are kept on 
the streets all summer, immediately 



nir 



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EVANSTON 
CockCoimty.lll. 

//<atfy black 
'>n(« iniicatt 
tnrviattd 
tlrttU xA 
Sfanatoit 



patching any spot in the macadam 
that begins to shbw signs of wear. 
As a result, the entire system of 
more than a half million square 
yards of Tarvia-treated macadam 
pavement is kept in wonderful 
condition all the year round. 

In fact, the streets of Evanston 
form a striking testimonial to the 
efficiency of systematicTarvia treat- 
ment and low cost maintenance. 

The Efficiency of 
Barrett Service 

The present Commissioner of 
Streets, Mr. K. M. Brown, writes 
as follows: 

"Efficiency of service by your 
company in the delivery and 



'Hl*®-^ 



Tarvia-A" in l»Ii-ltl(. 

application of Tarvia to the City 
of Evanston during the past sea- 
son has been very satisfactory. 

I assure you that your efforts 
in our behalf are appreciated, as 
we are able to keep our pavements 
in good serviceable condition 
despite the fact that they are sub- 
jected to unusually heavy traffic. ' ' 

Property Owners 
Prefer Tarvia 

Former Commissioner of Streets 
Mr. Walter W. Krafts, before 
leaving office, wrote as follows: 

"The people of Evanston are 
satisfied in every respect, and in 
asking for work to be done on 
streets, are asking for Tarvia in 
preference to other binders." 

The Evanston plan of street 
maintenance is attracting a great 
deal of attention in other munici- 
palities. 

We should be very glad to ex- 
plain this plan in greater detail to 
any interested city official or 
property owner upon request. In 
writing, address the nearest Barrett 
Company office. 





Presen/es Roads-Pwvents Dust 



Special Service Department 

This company has a corps of trained engineers and 
chemists who have given years of study to modem road 
problems. The advice of these men may be had for the 
asking by any one interested. If you will write to the 
nearest office regarding road problems and conditions in 
your vicinity, the matter will be given prompt attention. 



NcwYotk Cliicno Phllxlclphl* Boalon 

Drtroit New OrtMIM Binnindum IC«nMt Gly Tit A 

S«ltLA«Ci<r Sranle Poria AiUnu 1 UC 

jotiBMowB LebMMO Youn(«town Toledo 

Elisabeth Buffalo Balbmore Omaha 

THE BARRETT COMPANY. Ulniud: MoMraal TokMo Viraipct 



St. Looia Cleveland Cncinnati Pitlahurch 

lapolia Dallaa Naahvilla Syiacuaa 

Milwaufce* Bancor WaitiingtOD 

Columbaa Richmond Lalfobo Bethlehem 
Jacltasavilla Houston Deavef 
SL)ah«.N.B. HaUa..N.S. 



' Company KZS."' 



74 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The American City. 



73 



News and Ideas for Commercial 
and Civic Organizations 



Chamber of Commerce Snow 
Fighters 

Albany, N. Y. — It will be recalled that last 
winter, through the good work of its Snow 
Removal Committee, the Albany Chamber 
was able to open up the main highways be- 
tween Albany and Schenectady, Albany and 
Troy, and Albany and Castleton, the three 
main arteries of travel in and out of Albany, 
during the height of the season's severe 
snow-storms. In this work the Albany 
Chamber had the hearty cooperation of the 
Chambers of Commerce of Troy and 
Schenectady, and of hundreds of citizens, 
including owners of motor trucks, who 
furnished trucks, road-scrapers and plows, 
or volunteered to shovel. 

Especially helpful was the assistance 
given by the International Harvester Com- 
pany, which generously donated the use of 
several tractors, plows and road-scrapers, 
as well as men to operate them. The Cham- 
ber of Commerce also independently hired 
a few tractors of the Cleveland Tractor 
Company for use in breaking the drifts on 
other roads. As a result of all this work, 
the roads were kept open. Many delivery 
trucks, containing food supplies, which had 
been stalled, were released, and at least five 
funerals which had been held up on the 
Albany-Troy Boulevard were pulled out of 
the snow. 

This was, of course, all emergency work. 



Almost immediately after it was completed, 
the chambers of commerce in this section 
got together and formulated a plan of legis- 
lation to provide for keeping the roads open 
to motor traffic all the year round, including 
a systematic method of snow removal. The 
committee had several bills in the last 
Legislature providing for a state-wide sys- 
tem of clearing the roads of snow under the 
direction of the State Highway Commis- 
sioner, who would have the work done in 
each locality by the county superintendent 
of highways. The idea was to standardize 
methods and equipment, and the bill pro- 
vided for the securing by the county 
superintendents of the standardized equip- 
ment recommended by the State Highway 
Department, a procedure which should 
greatly reduce the cost. 

This, and several similar bills, failed be- 
cause of rural fear of expense, but the com- 
mittees are at work upon another one which 
the Albany Chamber hopes will eventually 
become a law. The movement was unani- 
mously endorsed at an important conference 
of presidents and secretaries of New York 
State organizations recently held in New 
York City at the offices of the Chamber of 
Commerce of the State of New York. 

In the meantime, the emergency snow 
service has again been organized. Between 
200 and 300 motor truck owners have of- 
fered the use of their vehicles, and the 





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OPENING HP THE ALBANY-CASTLETON BOAD LAST WINTER WITH TRACTORS, THE USE OF 
WHICH HAD BEEN DONATED TO THE ALBANY CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




"The Slide for Life" 

Remember when you played Conquer Leader, the daring "Slide for Life" — 
down the side of a hay-stack, maybe? Remember the zest you developed for 
playing the game, the ambition to outstrip your playmates, the courage^to 
see things through to a finish? 

Perhaps the children in your city cannot have hay-stacks to slide down. But 
they can have playgrounds; playgroimds fitted with the most modern and 
scientific play tools yet produced, where they can make their "Slide for Life" 
— build courage, ambition, and the desire to win — ^just as you did years ago. 




PUYGROUND EflUfPMENT 



For fifty years the Medart Company has manufactured and perfected gym- 
nasium apparatus for vigorous men — an experience that has particularly fitted 
it for the leadership it has always maintained in the playground movement 
and in the development of playground equipment best suited to withstand 
the severe use and abuse of the children. 

Catalogue "L" fully describes Medart Playground, Swimming Pool, Gymnasium 
and Locker Room Equipment. Contains valuable suggestions for playground 
installations. It will be sent gladly to anyone requesting it on their letterhead. 



Fred Medart Mfg. Co., Potomac &DeKalb, St. Louis, Mo. 

San Francisco 
Rial to BIdg. 



New York 
52 Vanderbilt Ave. 



76 



When writing to Advertisers please mention Thk Akbkican City. 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



75 




A PEN-AND-BRUSH SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL PAGEANT GIVEN IN RED WING, MINN., BY 
THE CHAMBER OF COMHtERCE, PUBLISHED IN THE "RED WING DAILY REPUBLICAN" 



Chamber's committee has taken steps to 
make available all the equipment that may 
be needed. An effort will be made to 
organize the volunteer workers into squads, 
each squad to report in rotation as soon as 
the snow begins to fly, and each to be kept at 
work clearing the roads until the storm 
ceases. It is hoped the work will ultimately 
be taken over by the state and county offi- 
cials. 

Several rousing meetings have been held, 
and 115 attended the last Snow Removal 
Committee meeting at which Colonel Fred- 
erick S. Greene, State Commissioner of 
Highways, was the principal speaker. 

ROY S. SMITH, 
Executive Manager, Albany Chamber of Commerce. 

Fine Municipal Auditorium for 
Memphis 

Memphis, Tenn. — This city is soon to 
have a combination auditorium and market- 
house, for the Supreme Court has upheld 
the validity of the act authorizing the issu- 
ance of bonds for such a purpose. Already 
$750,000 worth of bonds have been sold, 
and more will be issued if necessary. The 
movement began in the Chamber of Com- 
merce several years ago, and a committee 
which was appointed at that time is still 
serving. 

Following the decision of the Court, a 
contract was let for clearing the site and 
salvaging the buildings now on the property. 
This work will require about three months, 
and actual construction will begin soon. 

The new building will be modern in every 
respect and of handsome architectural de- 
sign. It will have one large auditorium with 
a seating capacity of 12.500, which can be 
reduced for smaller meetings to 6,500 or 
2.500. It will also have seven separate 
rooms, with a capacity each of about 300. 
The Commission expects to install a $100,- 
000 pipe organ. 

JOHN A. OSOINACH, 
Assistant Secretary, Memphis Chamber of Commerce. 



"Spirit of Red Wing" Portrayed 
in Historical Pageant 

Red Wing, Minn. — A beautiful histori- 
cal, home-coming pageant was presented in 
Red Wing last August under the auspices 
of the local Chamber of Commerce, and 
proved to be an excellent medium of com- 
munity publicity, applicable to other cham- 
bers of commerce which are considering 
out-of-door festivities of that character for 
next summer. 

In this pageant the story of the com- 
munity was dramatized by the people in the 
community, 700 of whom participated — men, 
women and children — all dressed in pic- 
turesque colored garments representative 
of the olden times. Among the throng of 
spectators were white-haired pioneers who 
fifty or more years ago had taken part in 
the very events enacted. They heard again 
the whoop of the redskin and the creaking 
of the ox-drawn cart, saw the first crops be- 
ing planted as the wilderness was tamed, 
and again watched the "boys in blue" march 
away in 1861. The scenes were set forth in 
song and dance and a score of interesting 
tableaux in a great, rolling, grass-carpeted 
amphitheater on the grounds of the Red 
Wing Golf Club. 

In the first episode, nestled among the 
hills was a reproduction of the Indian vil- 
lage in which Chief Red Wing, the sturdy 
Indian after whom the town was named, is 
supposed to have lived in the days before 
the white man invaded that beautiful 
A-ilderness. Full-blooded Indians were im- 
ported for the occasion. There were sixty 
Sioux from the Prairie Island reservation, 
a delegation of Chippewas from the wilds 
of northern Wisconsin, and six big chiefs 
from the Sante Indian reservation in 
Nebraska, now aged Indians, one of them 
97 years old. The ancient warriors sat 
smoking their pipes while their squaws at- 
tended to the domestic affairs. In this 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



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1 921 CATALOGUE 

Novvi; Ready fop Distribution 

This new catalogue contains 16 illus- 
trated pages showing by photographic 
reproduction all details of 

Bausman Better Benches 

The specifications, covering construc- 
tion, size andf^finish, will be of interest 
to you. This catalogue will be a val- 
uable addition to your file of park 
equipment. 
Write for your copy today. 

BAUSMAN MFG. CO. 

BAUSMAN, LANC. CO., PA. 



76 



When writing to Advertisers please mention Tfii Auekican City. 



January^ 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



77 



scene a yelling party of braves comes run- 
ning in bearing the scalps of their van- 
quished enemies. 

So the story goes on, through the period 
when the red man was lord of the land in 
that part of the American continent, to the 
coming of the first group of white men and 
their thrilling experiences in attempting to 
establish a settlement there, the signing of 
a grant of their lands to the Government by 
the Indians over a pipe of peace, on through 
Lincoln's call to arms in 1861, to the days 
of 1914 when Europe called on America 
for help. The victorious return of the 
troops and the joyous celebration of the 
event by the home folks, in which all the 
participants in the pageant, led by the vic- 
tory processional dancers, marched around 
the field and formed the final grand tableau 
with Columbia unfolding Old Glory to the 
strains of "The Star Spangled Banner," 
brought the pageant to a close. 

"The Spirit of Red Wing," one of the 
most important characters, was imperson- 
ated by a young woman, who sang: 

''I am the Spirit of the bold Red Wing; 
I welcome you one and all ; 
As over the past our eyes we cast 
And former days recall. 
Gone is the sturdy Indian Chief ; 
Gone his tribe but not his will ; 
For the Spirit brave that the Red Man gave 
Is the Red Wing Spirit still. 
Gone the ox with his cart of wheat; 
In the place are rail and mill ; 
But the winning way of the early day 
Is the Red Wing Spirit still. 
Gone are the men who built the town 
At the foot of yonder hill ; 
Rut the plucky cheer of the Pioneer 
Is the Red Wing Spirit still. 
The Boys are back from the fields of France ; 
And tyrants cease to kill : 
But the loyal, true Red, White and Blue 
Is the Red Wing Spirit still. 
Let us take up the busy task 
With mind and heart and will ; 
And the dear old town shall have renown 
For the Red Wing Spirit still." 

A water carnival was held on the Missis- 
sippi River, on which Red Wing is located, 
in connection with the pageant, and was 
participated in by a fleet of 400 of Red 
Wing's motor-boats. 

The idea of the pageant was conceived by 
the Red Wing Chamber of Commerce, 
which assumed full responsibility for it and 
handled all the committee activities. The 
Thurston Management, of Minneapolis, was 
secured to supervise the acting and stage 
the performance. 



No stone was left unturned to make the 
event a home-coming occasion for the old 
residents. The Mayor sent out to all the 
early settlers whose addresses could be 
obtained, a circular letter containing an 
irresistible appeal to "Come Home." Across 
the top was a view of the Red Wing water- 
front, and underneath, the words, "Come 
Home [picture of a single red wing] Red 
Wing, August 5th and 6th, 1920." Many of 
the early inhabitants voluntarily came to 
the pageant headquarters at the Chamber of 
Commerce and offered to cooperate in mak- 
ing the event a success. One of the episodes 
provided for the appearance on the stage 
of all the early settlers and their descend- 
ants at present living in Red Wing. 

A souvenir of the pageant giving the 
scenario and program in full, and other 
literature used in working it up, may be 
obtained by addressing the Red Wing 
Chamber of Commerce. 

CARYL SPILLER. 
Formerly Manager, Red Wing Chamber of Commerce. 

Dollar Days 

Portsmouth, N. H. — Two eventful Dol- 
lar Days were held in Portsmouth on Nov- 
ember 15 and 16. The "Dollar Day" idea 
is not new, but the interesting thing about 
these Portsmouth days was their tremen- 
dous success. Something like one hundred 
merchants entered into the plan. An ad- 
vertising fund of $1,000 was raised among 
them by the Retail Trade Division of the 
Chamber of Commerce, which had adver- 
tisements of the sale placed in every news- 
paper within a radius of twenty-five miles 
of Portsmouth. In the city papers several 
pages were used for the purpose by the 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Three days before the opening of the 
sale, an 8-page supplement was run in one 
of the local papers, containing nothing but 
Dollar Day advertising. The Chamber had 
6,000 extra copies of this supplement run 
oflf and distributed by automobile from house 
to house throughout a 2o-mile area sur- 
rounding Portsmouth. The Dollar Day 
story was told in the street cars, on the 
moving picture screen, and by every other 
conceivable means. The store windows con- 
tained Dollar Day placards, and the displays 
in the windows were marked with hundreds 
of small Dollar Day signs. 

The rush began the moment the stores 
were opened on the first dav of the two-day 
sale. Many were obliged to close their 
doors four or five times during the day for 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Computing Land Values on 400,000 
Separate Parcels of Real Estate 



How the Monroe Calculating Ma^ 
chine equalized and computed 
land values through the appli- 
cation of the Modern Analytic 
Method of Realty Valuation, 
for the City and County of Los 
Angeles. 




THE Joint Bureau of Appraisal, Los Ange- 
les, Cal., faced the tremendous task of 
computing land values on 400,000 separ- 
ate parcels of real estate. 

A mighty big job. But with the help of the 
Monroe Calculating Machine it vfas done so 
accurately, quickly and economically that the 
enthusiastic Superintendent wrote: 

"The work of computing land values for the 
City and County Assessors marks an un- 
doubted triumph in the appHcation and use of 
the Monroe. In the hands of our 60 to 70 
computers, it proved such a flexible instru- 
ment that without it we would never have 
made the record of handling such a mass of 
detail calculations. The most striking fea- 
ture was the ease and facility with which men 
who have never used such machines before 
became quite proficient in a few days." 



Shomng Monroes in me at ihe'^officr 
of the Joint Bureau of Appraisal 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



The Monroe s speed, accuracy and simplicity 
of operation (no trained operators required), 
adapt It for use on every kind of figure-work 
in every County. City and State office. 

Figuring extensions on tax rolls, figuring bal- 
ances, penalties and interest in the Treasurer's 
office— figuring water rates, cost of operation, 
etc., in the Water Department — figuring pav- 
ing, bridge construction, curbs, sewers, etc.. 
in the Engineer's office, the Monroe will 
readily assume the burden— in fact will make 
all your figure — work as easy as turning a 
crank. 

Mail coupon for demonstration or more com- 
plete information contained in "How New 
York State saved $85,000.00 and your re- 
quest will be referred to the office nearest you 
of the 100 offices in United States and Canada 
rendering Monroe Service. 




BEG U S PAT OFF 

Calculating Machine 

MAIL THIS COUPON NOW 

Monroe Calculating Machine Co., Woolworth Building, New York. 

Without obligation (check items desired) I 

( ] Arrange for a demonstration in our office on our own work. ■ 
, ] Send us a copy of "Monroe Book of Facts". 

Firm Name ■ 

My Name I 

Address '• — • • • ■ 

A.C. 1-21 I 




77 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The American City. 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



79 



fifteen minutes at a time 
in order to handle the 
crowds inside and pre- 
vent such congestion that 
selling would be impos- 
sible. Many merchants 
reported the result of the 
first day's sale as the 
largest in the history of 
their business, and in 
some instances the fig- 
ures recorded a larger 
sale than in any two 
days' business thereto- 
fore experienced. The 
second day was a repe- 
tition of the first. 

This was undoubtedly 
the most successful sell- 
ing event ever held in 
this section. No prizes were offered, and 
there were no special features. The attrac- 
tion lay entirely in the honest values given 
and in the earnest endeavor to satisfy the 
public. Large stocks of merchandise were 
moved, the spirit of cooperation among the 
merchants was strengthened, and scores of 
customers who had before been strangers 
to Portsmouth began to think of that city 
as their future trading center. 

E. H. BAKER, 
Secretary, Portsmouth Chamber of Commerce. 

Okmulgee's New Hotel 

Okmulgee, Okla. — A million-dollar 
hotel, planned and financed by the Chamber 
of Commerce, is under construction in 
Okmulgee and will be ready for occupancy 
early in 1921. This is said to be the first 
hostelry of its class to be built in the state. 
The Hotel Okmulgee, as it is called, is eight 
stories high, occupies one-half a city block, 
and is constructed of brick and terra cotta. 
There are 234 guest-rooms, a ballroom, three 
large dining-rooms, several private dining- 
rooms, and a large lobby. The hotel con- 
tains every modern convenience, including 
servidors in the kitchen. 

The money with which to build the hotel 
was raised by the Chamber of Commerce 
in a two-day drive in which the business 
men, oil and coal producers, and manu- 
facturers of the city subscribed to $250,000 
worth of the stock of the Creek Hotel Com- 
pany organized to handle the project. The 
purchasers gave promissory notes payable 
in one year for the amounts of their sub- 




THIS IS THE WAT OKMULGEE'S NEW HOTEL WILL LOOK 
WHEN COMPLETED 



scriptions. These notes were deposited in 
the local banks, by which they are collected 
as they mature. The Creek Hotel Company 
has been able to borrow on them the balance 
required to complete the construction of the 
building, the entire cost of which, exclusive 
of the furnishings, is estimated to be about 
$600,000. 

When completed, the hotel will be leased 
to the Oklahoma Hotel Company, which 
will furnish, equip and operate it. A con- 
tract has been made with this company to 
furnish each guest-room at a cost of not 
less than $1,200. The completed hotel will 
represent a total expenditure of about 
$1,000,000. 

A. R. HARRIS, 
Assistant Secretary-Manager, Okmulgee Chamber 
of Cornmerce. 

Chamber Wins Town's 
Cooperation 

Greenfield, Mass. — The annual town 
meeting in New England is a sharp test of 
the educational force of the local chamber 
of commerce in building up public opinion, 
As every voter, rich or poor, blue-blooded 
or recently Americanized, has an equal vote 
and an equal opportunity to express his 
views on every article in the warrant pre- 
sented at the yearly gathering of the voters, 
a far-sighted chamber of commerce will 
conduct a campaign of education through- 
out the preceding twelve months in order to 
gain the town's solid support of the projects 
it is advocating. 

Greenfield passed a vote of confidence in 
its Chamber of Commerce this year, when 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




New York Buys 100 Cletracs 

1AST February's terrific snow storm 
^ paralyzed surface traffic in New 
York for days. Only Cletracs and a 
small battery of whippet tanks just 
back from France were able to break 
through the drifts and clear the 
streets. 

That one lesson was enough. City of- 
ficials, after exhaustive tests, ordered lOO 
Cletracs which were delivered last Decem- 
ber. That was the end of the winter 
traffic tie-ups in New York. 

Every northern municipality, industrial 
corporation and railroad is face to face 
with the same problem. Let us help you 
solve it. Write for more detailed infor- 
mation. 

THE CLEVELAND TRACTOR CO. 

"Largest Producers of Tank-Type Tractors in the World" 
19205 Euclid Ave. Cleveland, Ohio 



m. m 

III J 



WW 



D.S.C 



u 



When writing to Advertisen please mention Tbb Ahuicam City. 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



81 



the following items, advocated by the 
Chamber, were put through: sewer exten- 
sion, isolation hospital, increase in police 
force, and public comfort station. 

At the next town meeting the Chamber 
will advocate the passage of a building or- 
dinance, a town planning ordinance, a new 
high school, propositions with which it is 
already familiarizing the citizens who will 
pass judgment upon them in March. 

This organization has had the whole- 
hearted support of the town officials right 
from the beginning and, through the Board 
of Selectmen, has made grade-crossing im- 
provements and put a stop to itinerant 
carnivals and loitering along the streets. 

BENJAMIN H. BONNAR. 
Manager, Greenfield Chamber of Commerce. 

Sumter County's Road-Buildiog 
Program 

Sumter, S. C. — Bonds for the construc- 
tion of $2,500,000 worth of hard-surface 
roads in Sumter County were recently voted 
after an intensive educational campaign con- 
ducted by the Sumter County Chamber of 
Commerce. Agitation of the subject was 
begun several years ago by the Chamber of 
Commerce, which finally succeeded in hav- 
ing an act passed by the Legislature authori- 
zing the holding of a special election to 
settle the question. 

The opening meeting of the campaign was 
held in the auditorium of the Girls' High 
School in Sumter, to which representative 
farmers and country merchants from each 
of ten townships were invited. Amusical pro- 
gram and refreshments helped to make the' 
evening a pleasant one. The company was 
addressed by L. H. Jennings, the chairman 
of the Hard Surface Highway Commission, 
of Sumter, who pointed out that the saving 
in gasoline, oil, and repairs to automobiles, 
as well as in time to the farmers, who 
would be able to haul two or three times as 
much material over the improved roads at 
less expense, would in the aggregate exceed 
the extra taxes the residents of the county 
would be asked to pay for the improvements, 
and that in ten years sufficient money would 
have been saved to more than pay back the 
entire bond issue to the taxpayers. 

At this meeting a committee of nine mem- 
bers was appointed, with Mr. Jennings as 
chairman, to conduct the campaign of edu- 
cation. That committee subsequently called 
a conference of the officers and directors of 



the Chamber of Commerce, the members 
of the Hard Surface Commission, and the 
Sumter County Board of Commissioners, at 
which the educational campaign was care- 
fully planned. Speakers were elected for pre- 
cinct meetings to be held on certain dates 
in fifteen different school districts. Each 
speaker was supplied with definite informa- 
tion beforehand. It was planned that three 
persons should present the subject at the 
meetings, each to handle it from a different 
angle. It was planned also to have certain 
well-known farmers and country merchants 
who were in favor of the bond issue speak 
a few words on the subject from the floor, 
if no more than to approve of the speakers' 
remarks and say they expected to vote for 
the bond issue. 

The Managing Secretary of the Sumter 
County Chamber of Commerce was appoint- 
ed campaign manager and publicity agent. 
The editor of The Sumter Daily Item was 
made associate publicity manager, his parti- 
cular duty being to review the publicity ma- 
terial and make sure that nothing harmful 
to the cause was published. 

Sixteen township meetings were held. Be- 
sides these, four-minute talks were given at 
the Chautauqa then in session in Sumter. The 
cause was also advertised at the motion pic- 
ture theatres, both on the screen and from 
the platform. Thousands of invitations to 
the meetings were sent to the voters by the 
Chamber of Commerce. The members of 
the opposition forces were especially invited 
|lto be present and offer a better solution of 
pAthe road problem, if they could, or to show 
cause in meeting assembled why the pro- 
posed plan was not the right way to secure 
permanent highways. In all the publicity 
material issued were statements to the effect 
that those underhandedly opposing the bond 
issue should be manly enough to face their 
fellow citizens and the speakers in open 
meeting, and that if they were unwilling to 
do this, their opinions were not worthy of 
attention by intelligent voters. 

At only one meeting did any material 
opposition develop, and that was not in op- 
position to the bond issue, but to the parti- 
cular highways which it was planned to im- 
prove. Differences of opinion on that sub- 
ject were satisfactorily adjusted after the 
election, which resulted in a vote of nearly 
three and one-half to one in favor of the 
bond issue. 
The act authorizing the bond issue stipu- 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



fmWMm 

The Largest Trailer Plant in the World 




Highway Trailers Solve Municipal 

Haulage Needs 




The two-way tide dump Highway Trailer with ateel 
body, thowing dumping action 




Release of body lock automatically dumps load 
clear of wheels 




Cost %200 to $600 Less 
Than Average Trailers 

The exclusive advantages which distinguish 
Highway trailers are a much greater factor 
in the wide preference they enjoy in all sorts 
of transportation than even the big price 
saving they effect. 

The steel body, two-way side dump trailer, 
with drop frame was specially designed for 
garbage and ash disposal. The release of a 
lock automatically pitches the load clear of 
the wheels, in the desired direction. One 
man easily returns the body to upright 
position. 

This type is easily adjusted for horse or 
motor traction. It has met with special 
favor in municipal hauling problems, be- 
cause of its handling ease and the varied 
uses to which it is adapted. 

Write for Literature or a Demonstration 

One Man Loads, Ualoads and Drives 



One of the High- 
way Trailer types 
that has won a 
wide prefer en ce 
for municipal dis- 
posal needs 



79 



When writing to Advertisers please mention Thx Ahxbicaw City. 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



83 



lates that nothing but permanent, hard- 
surface highways, built of concrete, bitu- 
lithic, asphalt, vitrified brick, or similar ma- 
terial, may be constructed. The program 
provides for putting a hard surface 16 feet 
wide on 120 miles of the county's main high- 
way system, comprising ten roads radiating 
out from Sumter to the county line in ten 
different directions. The county will re- 
ceive about $1,000,000 additional from fed- 
eral and state aid road building funds. If 
more money is needed to complete the pro- 
gram, the county authorities are assured 
that the necesary legislation can be obtained 
to make it possible to issue additional bonds. 
It has been estimated that fully 75 per 
cent of the road revenues at present received 
by the county is expended for the up-keep of 
the 120 miles of highways which are to be 
hard-surfaced and which are traveled by at 
least 80 per cent of the county's inhabitants. 
When the improvements have been completed 
those revenues can be diverted to the con- 
struction of sand-clay lateral roads tributary 
to the main arteries of travel. The cam- 
paign has resulted in a demand all over the 
county for highway improvement, regardless 
of the cost. The public has at last come to 
realize that poor roads constitute a costly 
and burdensome liability. e. i. reardon, 

Manaeing Secretary, Sumter County Chamber of 
Commerce. 

Hagrerstown's 

"Pep" Suppers 

Hagerstown, Md. — 
"Pep" suppers have been 
found by the Hagers- 
town Chamber of Com- 
merce to be an effective 
means of working up in- 
terest in new activities 
upon which the organ- 
ization desires to enter. 
At one such supper held 
early this fall the organ- 
ization of the Retailers' 
Bureau was announced, 
and at another the or- 
ganization of the Traffic 
Bureau. The Retailers' 
Bureau is now n'cely 
started, with a man in 
charge to give out credit 
ratings, run a collection 
agency, eliminate the 
"fake" Isolicitor, and 
conduct trade extension 
movements. The Traf- 



fic Bureau is made up of representatives 
of all the industries, manufacturers and 
traffic men of the commun'ty gener- 
ally, and is at present working for an ad- 
justment of the discriminatory freight rate 
on coal into Hagerstown. 

Soon after the Retailers' Bureau had been 
organized, another supper was held in the 
interest of its work, at which J. Thomas 
Lyons, Service Manager of the Baltimore 
Sun, gave a humorous and much appreciated 
talk on "Buying at Home." 

A supper was held one evening in Novem- 
ber to stimulate the work of the Community 
Council, which was organized by the 
Chamber of Commerce in September for 
the purpose of carrying out the recommen- 
dations made in the community study con- 
ducted in Hagerstown under the direction 
of the American Red Cross. The subject 
under consideration was the federation of 
the charity and welfare agencies, and per- 
sons connected with the Federated Charities 
of Baltimore and the Baltimore Alliance 
were secured to address the guests. 

An encouraging result of one of the 
"pep" suppers was the enrollment of fifty 

new members, which makes a total of 

eighty-four new members this year. 

SIMMS JAMIESON 
Manager, Hagerstown Chamber of Commerce. 




THE ABOVE WINDOW DISPLAY WAS USED WITH GOOD ErFECT 
IN EUREKA, CALIP., IN THE REORGANIZATION CAMPAIGN THAT 
WAS RECENTLY CONDUCTED THERE FOR THE EUREKA CHAM- 
BER OF COMMERCE BY THE AMERICAN CITY BUREAU 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Standardized and 
Sngineered /or 
Fire Service omy 




Fire Apparatus 

LE&DS ALL OTHERS IN EFFICIENCY AND POWER 

Built in all sizes and capacities 




WHAT WE PROPOSE — WE DO 
WHAT WE PROMISE — WE FULFILL 

STRENGTH and STRUCTURE 
SERVICE and SATISFACTION 

Jf contemplating purchase of Fire Apparatus 
GET IN TOUCH with the STUTZ 



TUTZ FIKE MGINE CO. 



INDIANAPOLIS 



INDIANA 




Wbeo writfo^ to Advertiserk please mention Ths Aue&ican City. 



«5 



The City's Legal Rights and Duties 

Information for City Attorneys and Other Municipal Officers, Summarizing 
Important Court Decisions and Legislation 

Conducted by A. L. H. Street, Attorney at Law 



Property Owners in Territory Sought 
to Be Annexed to City Cannot Suc- 
cessfully Object on Sole Grounds of 
Becoming Liable to Municipal Taxa- 
tion 

In a proceeding by a city of the fourth 
class for the annexation of territory, 
wherein the property owners in the district 
sought to be annexed remonstrated that 
they would be subject to municipal taxation 
and liable for the cost of improving streets 
and building sidewalks, this did not con- 
stitute a "material injury" within the Ken- 
tucky statute, which provides that, if a ma- 
jority of the resident voters or owners 
remonstrate "and" if the change will cause 
material injury, the annexation shall be de- 
nied. (Kentucky Court of Appeals, City 
of Georgetown vs. Pullen, 220 Southwestern 
Reporter, 733.) 

City Not Liable for Negligence of 
Fireman 

A municipality is not liable for a wrong- 
ful injury resulting from the acts of its 
servants or officers while engaged in the 
performance of their governmental duties. 
The maintenance and operation, by a mu- 
nicipality, of a fire department for the pur- 
pose of preventing and extinguishing fires, 
being a governmental duty, the municipality 
is not liable in damages to a bystander upon 
one of its sidewalks, who was knocked down 
and hurt by a hose reel which was being 
operated by firemen of the municipality 
while engaged in an attempt to extinguish a 
fire. (Georgia Court of Appeals, Ham- 
mond vs. City of Atlanta, 103 Southeastern 
Reporter, 39.) 

Where, by Reason of Illegal Proceed- 
ings on Part of City, a Contract Is 
Not Entered into, the Bidder Is En- 
titled to Return of Check 
Where one bids for a contract for a mu- 
nicipal improvement but afterwards ascer- 



tains that the proceedings under which the 
improvements are being made are void, he 
is entitled to the return of a check deposited 
as security for entry into the contract on 
acceptance of his bid, holds the Kansas City 
Court of Appeals in the case of Koch vs. 
City of Weston, 220 Southwestern Reporter, 
1007. 

"When plaintiff deposited the certified 
check," says the Court, "he agreed that the 
same be forfeited as liquidated damages, if 
he should become the successful bidder and 
failed to enter into the contract; but this 
contemplated forfeiture was based upon 
legal proceedings by the city. In a failure 
to enter into a contract based upon illegal 
proceedings, which would result in the con- 
tractor receiving nothing for his work, the 
proceedings being void, the promise of the 
contractor, accompanied by the certified 
check, was a naked ofifer, supported by no 
consideration." 

Substantial Compliance with Statute 
Directing Special Election to Deter- 
mine Extension of Municipal Boun- 
daries Is Sufficient 

Where an act of the Legislature directs 
that a special election be held to determine 
the question of the extension of municipal 
boundaries, and provides the general form 
of the resolution and notice to be given, a 
substantial compliance therewith is suffi- 
cient if it gives adequate notice of the time 
and places of voting and sufficiently desig- 
nates the voters authorized to participate. 
(West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals, 
Hood vs. City of Wheeling, 102 Southeast- 
ern Reporter, 259.) 

Blanket Street Improvement Contracts 
A municipality may improve several 
streets under a single contract. (California 
District Court of Appeal, Blake & Bilger 
Company vs. Chappell, 186 Pacific Re- 
porter, 823.) 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




STANDARD TREE BANDS 



PROTECTS TREES AND LARGE 
SHRUBBERY AGAINST ALL CLIMB- 
ING WORMS, CATERPILLARS, 
MOTHS AND INSECTS. 



LASTS A SEASON— FULLY 
GUARANTEED. 



Made of heavy waterproof paper, with a 
sticky material under the umbrella-like 
canopy. This canopy protects the "gum 
stickum" from the weather, as well as from 
dirt, dust and falling leaves. 

No climbing caterpillar or insect can pass 
this sticky material. It catches them and 
holds them if they set foot upon it. 

Attached to the band, on the inside, is a 
strip of fluffy felt. This felt fills up the 
depressions in the bark and prevents passage 
under the band. No cutting away of bark 
is necessary. The felt fills it up. 

Guaranteed to be effective for the season, 
in all weathers and all temperatures in which 
worms or insects are active (about 40° Fahr. 
to highest summer heat). 

Put up in rolls, 25 and 100 foot lengths, 
Hat when boxed, mushrooms when tacked 
on tree. 

Easily applied. Simply cut length to en- 
circle tree. Tack, then raise the outer band 
until it stands out like an umbrella. It will 
mushroom as shown in cut and so remain. 
It only takes a moment. 

Cheaper and better than the usual sticky 
materials applied direct to bark. Positively 
cannot injure tree. Bark colored and not 
unsightly. Can be taken down and dis- 
carded at end of season. 

The most effective and practical method 
of banding trees yet devised — also the cheap- 
est. Has the endorsement of foresters and 
fruit growers everywhere. 



^ 



^^^NDA*^ 






A powerful, highly concentrated and 
soluble plant food for flowers, house 
plants, shrubbery, trees, gardens, truck 
lands and lawns. 

Promotes luxurious growth; in- 
creases the yield; imparts a deep 
green color to foliage and bril- 
liancy to flowers. 

The most highly concentrated and 
properly balanced fertilizer ever com- 
pounded. 

Many times the strength of ordi- 
nary fertilizers. Never before has such 
a high analysis been attained. 

A pinch will intensely fertilize a 
house plant, a one-pound package 200 
square feet. 

Standard Flower and Garden Fer- 
tilizer will revive those puny, pale, 
sickly plants, flowers, trees, shrubs, etc. 
A trial will convince. 

ANALYSIS 

Nitrogen 15 to 17 per cent 

Equiv. Ammonia. . . .18 to 20 per cent 

Avail. Phos. Acid 10 to 12 per cent 

Potash (K20) 8 to 10 per cent 

Odorless 

Put up in 1 and 5 lb. Boxes and 25 
lb. Bags. 



Extensively used in parks, cemeteries and public grounds. 
Write for samples and prices. 

THE EGGERT CHEMICAL CO., Canton, Ohio 

AGENTS WANTED EVERYWHERE WRITE FOR PROPOSITION 



When writitic tn AHv^rtia^r« n1*»ae^ m^Tifir 



Tttw X\£ifo-rrL 



January, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



87 



Actual Notice, or Lapse of Sufficient 
Time so That Defect Should Have 
Been Discovered, Necessary in Order 
to Hold City Liable for Injury 
Caused by Broken Flagstone 
A city which maintained a flagstone as 
covering for a gutter basin in a street or 
way, was bound to exercise a reasonable 
degree of watchfulness to detect any in- 
stability in the stone; actual notice was not 
essential to charge it with liability to an 
injured pedestrian. If the flagstone which 
broke under a pedestrian's weight, to his 
injury, was broken, cracked or impaired be- 
tween 5 :35 P. M. of one day and 8 A. M. 
of the next day, when the accident occurred, 
the city could not, in the absence of actual 
notice of the defect, be liable as for neg- 
ligence. (New York Supreme Court, Ap- 
pellate Division; Treadwell vs. City of 
Yonkers, 182 New York Supplement, 675.) 

In Absence of Clear Abuse of Discre- 
tion, the Finding of Mayor and 
Council of Necessity for Sewer Im- 
provement Will Not Be Disturbed 

The Oklahoma statutes grant to a mayor 
and council the power to determine the 
necessity of establishing certain sewer dis- 
tricts within the town or city, and the gen- 
eral rule is that the finding by a city coun- 
cil that such improvement is necessary is 
final and cannot be reviewed by the courts 
in the absence of fraud and oppression. The 
general rule is, where the mayor and city 
council have determined a certain sewer 
improvement necessary, the courts cannot 
interfere to prevent said improvement, ex- 
cept in cases where it clearly appears that 
the discretion of the local legislative branch 
of the government has been abused and the 
ordinance is so unreasonable and oppressive 
as to render it void. (Oklahoma Supreme 
Court, Crawford vs. Cassity, 190 Pacific 
Reporter, 412.) 

Dedication of Streets, Parks, etc. 

The platting of land and the sale of lots 
pursuant thereto creates as between the 
grantor and the purchasers of the lots a 
private right to have the space marked upon 
the plat as alleys, parks, etc., remain open 
for ingress and egress and the uses indi- 
cated by the designation; but, so far as the 
public is concerned, such acts amount to a 
mere ofifer of dedication which, to complete 



the dedication, must be accepted before there 
is a revocation. (Florida Supreme Court, 
City of Miami vs. Florida East Coast Rail- 
way Company, 84 Southern Reporter, 726.) 

Notice to City of Claim for Damages 
Must Be Accurate as to Time and 
Place 

A claimant who notifies a city that his 
injuries were received on a day other than 
the true date does not comply with the 
Montana statute providing that a city shall 
not be liable in damages for injuries unless 
notice thereof, stating time and place, be 
given within 60 days. 

In deciding the above-stated proposition 
in the case of Berry vs. City of Helena, 182 
Pacific Reporter, 117, the Montana Supreme 
Court said: 

"A like provision is found in the statutes of 
nearly every state, and it is held quite 
uniformly that the notice must state accurately 
the time when the injuries were received. And 
this construction is not unreasonable. The 
claimant is in a better position than the city to 
know when his injuries were received, and the 
obvious purpose of the statute is to require 
him to give the city correct information to the 
end that an investigation to some purpose may 
be made. If the claimant is not required to 
give the true date, where shall the line be 
drawn? If he may vary two days, why not 
two weeks or a month ? Who shall say what is 
and what is not a reasonable variation from 
the truth? 

"The statute means just what it says. The 
notice must state the time when the injuries 
were received, and since our Code takes no 
account of the fractional parts of a day in a 
case of this character, the notice must state 
the day upon which it is claimed that the acci- 
dent occurred. The statute prescribes no par- 
ticular form of notice, and mere informalities 
would not vitiate a notice, but the statement of 
the time and place of the accident is made a 
matter of substance, not merely a matter of 
form, and the courts are not authorized to 
change the statute." 

Hack-Stand Permit Ordinance Based 
on Securing Consent of Abutting 
Owners Upheld 

A city ordinance which in effect grants 
special permits to licensed hack drivers who 
can procure the consent of the abutting 
property owners to stand their vehicles in 
the street in front of such property, is not 
unconstitutional on the ground that it grants 
special privileges, although the same privi- 
lege is not granted to those who do not ob- 
tain such consent. (Kansas Supreme Court, 
Mader vs. City of Topeka, 189 Pacific Re- 
porter, 969.) 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



DOW Calcium Chloride Flake 

Preserves Gravel and Macadam Roads 



What wears out macadam or gravel 
roads? 

Small loose particles are blown away 
as dust — they are pulled away by the 
vacuum created by rapidly moving 
wheels. 

Every time a layer of dust raises, 
every time tiny particles are thrown 
or washed away, still another layer 
is exposed to the disintegrating 
action of traffic and the elements 
until the road surface is broken down. 

Dow Calcium Chloride Flake binds 
the small particles together so thar 
each is held by its neighbor in a vise 
like grip. The Calcium Chloride 
takes sufficient moisture from the air 
to retard the dusting away. 

Dow Calcium Chloride Flake pro- 
vides the binding properties lacking 
in dry gravel, aids packing, retains 
moisture, provides *adhesion of one 
particle to the other. It makes a 
dense, hard, long wearing surface. 



The Michigan State Highway Depart- 
ment, after thorough research on 
binders and dust preventives for 
gravel and macadam, have used and 
are using thousands of tons of 
Calcium Chloride on graveled trunk, 
roads. 

Dow Calcium Chloride Flake is made 
on the same precise accurate basis as 
are the vast quantities of other chem- 
icals produced in the Dow plant which 
covers more than one hundred thirty- 
five acres of ground and employs more 
than one hundred graduate chemists 
and internationally famous research 
men. 

If you would make a reputation for 
low cost road maintenance and longer 
lasting roads, let us discuss with you 
by letter at once, the value of Dow 
Calcium Chlor'de Flake for your par- 
ticular road problems, whether on 
trunk roads or in parks, cemeteries 
and private estates where dust pre- 
vention is a problem. 



The Dow Chemical Company 



Midland, Mich. 

TRADE 



U. S. A. 



O 



89 



Municipal and Civic Publications 



AMSBICAN POLICE PROBLEMS. 

Raymond B. Fosdick, Former Chairman of Com- 
mission on Training Camp Activities. The Cen- 
tury Company, New York. 1920. 408 pp. 
This book is intended as a companion to "European 
Police Systems," by the same author. The book is 
based upon personal study of the police in practically 
every city in the United States with a population ex- 
ceeding 100,000, and in many smaller communities. 
In all, seventy-two cities were visited, and just before 
publication data were checked over and brought down 
to date. The book is a thorough survey of such ques- 
tions as the overwhelming prevalence of crime in the 
United States as compared with the countries of 
Europe, and discusses the various complicated problems 
which American police bodies are called upon to 
meet. 

MUNICIPAL LANDING FIELDS AND AIBPOETS. 

Edited and compiled by George Seay Wheat. G. 

P. Putnam's Sons, New York. 1920. 96 pp. 

Map and illustrations. 
This volume was written to present to the public the 
entire problem involved in the creation and administra- 
tion of flying routes, landing fields, and airports. The 
chapters discussing the various problems are written by 
distinguished authorities, including Gen. Menoher, 
Chief of the Army Air Service, and Captain Craven, 
Director of Naval Aviation. 

THE AMERICAN DEMOCRACY. 

A text in Government for use in High Schools, 

Academies, and Normal Schools. S. E. Forman. 

The Century Company, New York. 1920. 474 pp. 

Illustrated. 
A -study of American political and civic conditions, 
including chapters upon the County, the Town, the 
Township, and the Municipality. 

HANDBOOK OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. 

George A. Hool, Consulting Engineer, Madison, 
Wis., and Nathan C. Johnson, Consulting Engineer, 
New York City. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
Inc., New York City. 1920. Volume I, XLIV + 
802 pages; Volume II, 672 pages. Tables, dia- 
grams and illustrations. 
A most complete treatise of the subject of building 
construction, in two volumes, compiled by a staff of 46 
specialists and edited by Hool and Johnson. The books 
are specially prepared for architects, designing and 
constructing engineers, and contractors, and contain 
complete statements of theory and practice in design 
and construction, estimating and contracting, and 
mechanical and electrical equipment. 

BROKE. 

Edwin Brown. The Four Sea* .Company, Boston. 
1920. 370 pp. Illustrated. 
This book narrates the personal experiences of a 
man who, in order to satisfy himself as to what the 
different cities were doing for men out of work, volun- 
tarily lived and suffered with the homeless and penni- 
less. The book is a strong plea for the establishment 
of municipal lodging-houses, where men may obtain 
free shelter for the night. 

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION. 

Joseph K. Hart, Professor of Education In Reed 

College. The Macmillan Company, New York. 

1920. 230 pp. 

One of the series of the Social Welfare Library, 

edited by Edward T. Devine. It is the outgrowth of 

ten years of work in social and educational lines in the 

Western States. It approaches social problems from 

the standpoint of the community as a whole. 

TAXATION IN KENTUCKY. 

Simeon E. Leland, A.M., . Assistant Professor of 
Economics, University of Kentucky. Published as 
Number 1, Volume 1, Publication of the University 
of Kentucky. 1920. 170 pp. and index. Charts 
and diagrams. 
An exhaustive study of the existing systems of tax- 
ation in Kentucky, with proposals for changes which 
would brinf about greater and more efficient centraliza- 



tion of taxation administration. The plan contains the 
best features of the laws of many states, and resem- 
blances can be traced to the organization of the Wis- 
consin and New York taxation organizations. 

THE HOUSING FAMINE. 

How to End It. A Triangular Debate Between 

John J. Murphy, Edith E. Wood, and Frederick L. 

Ackerman. E. P. Dutton and Company, New York. 

246 pp. 
A discussion of one of the most urgent of problems, 
presenting three theoretical methods of meeting it. Mr. 
Murphy speaks for the free functioning of private 
enterprise, Mrs. Wood for state and municipal aid for 
housing projects, and Mr. Ackerman for a complete 
change in our industrial life which will eliminate 
profits and price competition and incidentally settle the 
housing difficulty. 

CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK. 

Proceedngs of the National Conference of Social 
Work, at the Forty-Seventh Annual Session in 
New Orleans, La., April 14-21, 1920. The Uni- 
versity 01 Chicago Press, Chicago. 1920. 524 pp. 
Illustrated. 
This volume contains the complete proceedings of the 
conference, and complete reports of all papers de- 
livered. 

HOUSING BETTERMENT. 

How England is Meeting the Housing Shortage. 
By Lawrence Veiller. Published as the Septem- 
ber, 1920, number of "Housing Betterment." The 
National Housing Association, 105 East 22nd 
Street, New York. 106 pp. 1920. 
This is a thoroughgoing discussion of housing in 
England, including consideration of the needs, the 
means adopted to meet them, the difficulties of the 
task, and the results obtained from the effort. It 
affords accurate and detailed information on a subject 
of very great importance at this time. 

SOCIAL AGENCIES, 

"The Story of a Year's Work." The Annual Re- 
port of the Central Council of Social Agencies for the 
year 1919-1920. Bulletin of the Central Council of So- 
cial Agencies, of St. Louis, Vol. I, No. 4, Oct., 1920. 
(Apply to the Secretary, Scott R. DeKins, 511 Locust 
St., St. Louis, Mo.) 

CIVIL SERVICE. 

"The Philadelphia Classification," a Statement Pre- 
pared for the Mayor and City Council by the Pennsyl- 
vania Civil Service Reform Association. Recommenda- 
tions as to accurate titles and standard salaries, with 
conclusions. Nov.. 1920. 11 pp. (Apply to ofRce of 
the Pennsylvania Civil Service Reform Association, 810 
Otis Building, Philadelphia, Pa.) 

TREE SURGERY. 

"Tree Surgery," by J. Frankln Collins, Forest 
Pathologist. Published as Farmers' Bulletin 1178, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Contribution from 
the Bureau of Plant Industry. 32 pp. Illustrated. 
1920. (Apply to Division of Publications, United 
States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.) 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

"Determining the Number of Rooms For a Depart- 
mental School Building," by Frank Irving Cooper, 
Architect, Chairman N. E. A. Committee on the 
Standardization of Schoolhouse Planning and Construc- 
tion. A paper read before the Department of Adminis- 
tration, N. E. A., July 7, 1920. 16 pp. Illustrated. 
(Apply to Frank Irving Cooper, Architect, Boston, 
Mass.) 

CITY PLANNING. 

The Uity Plan of Flint, Mich., including the report of 
Dr. John Nolen, City Planner, and Bion Arnold, Trans- 
portation Engineer. 95 pp. Maps and illustrations. 
An attractive work, giving in great detail a civic sur- 
vey, planning studies, a discussion of housing needs, and 
of transportation i)roblems and their solution. (Apply 
to Irving C. Root, Secretary, Planning Board, Flint, 
Mich.) 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



DISTANT CONTROL OF GATE VALVES 

BY THE 

DEAN CONTROL 



Easily 

Applied 
To Your 

Existing 
Valves 



-AHY- 

Pressure 

Size 

or 

Location 




Electrically 
/^ Operated 
From Any 
Circuit 



Operation 

is 
Positive- 

Sliutoff 
Effected 

in 
Few 

Minutes 



WATERPROOF— For Vault installation. 

CONTROL— From any Number of Dis-M. 
tant or Local Points. 



PAYNE DEAN LIMITED 

103 PARK AVE., NEW YORK 

MADE BV CUTLER-HAMMER 



A ^...rti.,... _r.... ~._^-_ 'r_- A. .-.».« <-*._._ 



January, \g2i 



TH£ AMERICAN CITY 



91 



LABOB LEGISLATION. 

"Review of Labor Legislation for 1920." Pub- 
lished by the American Association for Labor Legisla- 
tion, 131 East 23rd St., New York. 49 pp. 1920. 
This is the Sept., 1920, issue of "The American Labor 
Legislation Review," and contains the Draft Conven- 
tions and recommendations adopted by the Interna- 
tional Labor Conference of the League of Nations, 
Genoa, June 15-July 10, 1920. (Apply to the publish- 
ers, address given above.) 
STREET RAILWAYS. 

"Working Capital in Street Railway Valuation," by 
Deles F. Wilcox, Ph.D., Public Utility Expert. Pub- 
lished as supplement to "The Annals of the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science, Nov., 1920. 
24 j)p. (Apply to The American Academy of Political 



and Social Science, 39th St. and Woodlawn Ave., Phila- 
delphia, Pa.) 

JUVENILE-COURT LEGISLATION. 

"A Summary of Juvenile-Court Legislation in the 
United States," by Sophonisba P. Breckenridge and 
Helen R. Jeter. Published as Legal Series No. 3, 
Bureau Publication No. 70 of the Children's Bureau, 
U. S. Department of Labor. (Ajiply to Julia C. La- 
throp. Chief of Children's Bureau, Washington, D. C.) 

WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION. 

"Standards of Workmen's Compensation Laws." 
Published by The American Association for Labor 
Legislation. Revised to Nov. 12, 1920. 12 pp. (Apply 
to the Association, 131 East 23rd St., New York City, 

N. Y.) 



The publications listed above are for sale by their publishers. Those listed below are under- 
stood to be free upon application. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INFANT CARE. 

' 'A Bibliography of the Care and Feeding of Infants 
and Children." A list of books, magazines and pam- 
phlets for mothers, fathers, boys and girls, schools, 
libraries, health officers and nurses. 15 pp. (Apply to 
the Bureau of Child Hygiene, New Jersey State Depart- 
ment of Health, Trenton, N. J.) 
FIRE ALARMS. 

"The Adequacy and Relative Economic Position of 
Municipal Fire Alarm Systems." An address by J. T. 
Greene, Superintendent, Fire and Police Telegraph, 
Toledo, O., at the convention of the International Asso- 
ciation of Municipal Electricians, at New Orleans, La. 
8 pp. and map. (Apply to the Gamewell Fire Alarm 
Telegraph Co., Newton Upper Falls, Mass.) 
FIRE AND ACCIDENT PROTECTION. 

A series of six pamphlets issued by the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters. They include the follow- 
ing titles: Regulations of the National Board of Fire 
Underwriters for the Storage and Use of Fuel Oil; 
List of Inspected Automotive Appliances; Regulations 
of the National Board of Fire Underwriters Governing 
the Installation of Automatic and Open Sprinkler 
Equipments Recommended by the National Fire Pro- 
tection Association ; Regulations of the National Board 
of Fire Underwriters for the Installation, Maintenance 
and Use of Piping and Fittings for City Gas as Recom- 
mended by the National Fire Protection Association ; 
List of Appliances Inspected for Accident Hazard* ; 
List of Inspected Electrical Appliances.* All dated 
1920; those marked (*) revised to October, 1920. 
(Apply to Underwriters' Laboratories, 207 East Ohio 
St., Chicago, 111.) 
CITY-MANAGER PLAN. 

"The Story of the City-Manager Plan." A sym- 
posium of the experiences of cities under the plan, a 
general discussion of its theory and workings, and the 
principles of a standard charter. Includes list of all 
cities in the United States employing the plan in 
1920. 32 pp. (Apply to the National Municipal 



League, Harold W. Dodds, Secretary, 261 Broadway, 
New York City.) 
PUBLIC HEALTH. 

A series of three pamphlets by Ruth A. Dodd, Super- 
visor of the Bureau of Child Hygiene and Public Health 
Nursing of South Carolina, on the subjects of Rural 
Child Welfare, Midwifery, and Public Health Nursing. 
(Apply to James A. Hayne, M.D., Secretary, State 
Board of Health, Columbia, S. C.) 
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION. 

"Shearing Stresses in Reinforced Concrete Beams," 
showing the advantages of rigid connection of web re- 
inforcement. By H. S. Rogers, B.Sc, C. E. 12 pp. 
1920. (Apply to Engineering Department, Truscon 
Steel Company, Youngstown, Ohio.) 
MALARIAL MOSQUITOES. 

"A Study of the Malarial Mosquitoes of Southern 
Illinois. Operations of 1918 and 1919. By Stewart C. 
Chandler. Published by the Department of Registra- 
tion and Education of the State of Illinois, Division of 
the Natural History Survey. 15 pp. and illustrations. 
(Apply to Stephen A. Forbes, Chief, Division of the 
Natural History Survey, Urbana, 111.) 
AMERICANIZATION. 

"Problems in American Democracy." A manual for 
use in the public schools of New Jersey, prepared by 
Dr. Albert B. Meredith, formerly Assistant Commis- 
sioner in Charge of Secondary Education. 52 pp. 1920. 
(Apply to C. N. Kendall, Commissioner of Education, 
Trenton, N. J.) 

THRIFT. 

"Teaching Children How to Save." An outline of ma- 
terial prepared as a guide for superintendents, princi- 
pals, and teachers in making the teaching and applica- 
tion of the principles of saving and investing of money, 
and the wise use of material and time, a part of their 
regular school program. 21 pp. 1920. (Apply to 
Savings Division, War Loan Organization, Treasury De- 
partment, Washington, D. C.) 



Municipal Reports 



Cambridge, Mass. — Annual Report of the Water De- 
partment for the year ending March 31, 1919. 51 pp. 
(Apply to Walter H. Harding, Clerk of the Cambridge 
Water Board, Cambridge, Mass.) 

Chicago, 111. — Quadrennial Report of the_ Board of 
Local Improvements of the City of Chicago. An 
account of the activities of the department for the 
period 1915 to 1918. 100 pp. Illustrated. (Apply to 
Edward J. Glackin, Secretary, Board of Local Im- 
provements, Chicago, 111.) 

Wilmington, Del. — Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Reports 
of the Board of Water Commissioners for the years, 
respectively, of 1917-18 and 1918-19. (Apply to Will- 
iam G. Coxe, Board of Water Commissioners, Wil- 
mington, Del.) 



New Orleans, La. — Fortieth Semi-Annual Report of 
the Sewerage and Water Board. Dec. 31, 1919. (Ap- 
ply to P. S. Shields, Secretary, Sewerage and Water 
Board, S. & W. Board Building, New Orleans, La.) 

Newport, R. I. — Annual Report of the Street and 
Highway Department for the Municipal Year of 1919. 
(Apply to John F. Sullivan, Street Commissioner, New- 
port, R. I.) 

Wallingford, Conn. — Report of the Board of Electri- 
cal Commissioners for the Borough of Wallingford for 
the year ending July 31, 1920. (Apply to Charles E, 
Bellews, Secretary, Wallingford, Conn.) 

Milwaukee, Wis. — Report of the Pension Laws Com- 
mission of the City of Milwaukee. Nov. 15, 1920. 
(Apply to Ernest W. Heller, Secretary, Pension Laws 
Commission, Milwaukee Wis.) 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



CULVERTS 

Round Half- Round 




M 



The increased production of the new factory of 
the Newport Culvert Company is carried to all 
corners of the United States by railroad, steam- 
ship, motor truck, etc. The round and half- 
round type of non-corrosive corrugated culvert 
will be found in cities, towns, counties, under 
streets and highways, and carrying drainage 
beneath railway tracks. Complete data on 
corrugated culverts will be found in our litera- 
ture sent free on request. 

Newport Culvert Co. 

542 West loth St. Newport, Ky. 



When writing to Advertisers please mention Thb Auekican City, 



93 



Methods, Materials and Appliances 

News for Boards of Public Works, Engineers, Contractors, Purchasing Agents, 

and Others Interested in the Economical Construction and EflBcient Operation 

of Public Improvement Undertakings 



Water Meter No. 2,000,000 

On Wednesday, November 24, 1920, the 
Neptune Meter Company, 50 East 42nd Street, 
New York City, completed the unequaled and 
unparalleled record of manufacturing and sell- 
ing in less than 28 years 2,000,000 Trident water 
meters. This record indicates the rapid de- 
velopment of the water meter industry and the 
appreciation of municipal water departments 
and water companies of the absolute necessity 
of selling water by meter, and furthermore 
indicates the appreciation of water-works of- 
ficials for the Trident meter. 

Trident meters are well and favorably 
known in practically every city, town and 
village of the United States. The product is so 
designed and constructed that it renders an 
efficient and satisfactory service with a nominal 
up-keep expense. Its accuracy and durability 
have been firmly established. 

The Neptune Meter Company was organized 
in 1893, and during the first year sold 6,022 
meters. As indicative of the progress of this 
company, the following table of yearly sales is 
of interest : 



Year Number Sold 

1893 6,022 

1894 4,394 

1895 6,786 

1896 7,201 

1897 9,782 

1898 14,114 

1899 17,379 

1900 20,095 

1901 31,260 

1902 41,614 

1903 41,394 

1904 36,274 

1905 66,427 

1906 63,583 



Year Number Sold 

1907 66,669 

1908 82,398 

1909 109,217 

1910 118,054 

1911 112,386 

1912 121,525 

1913 132,025 

1914 124,029 

1915 125,620 

1916 127,252 

1917 122,249 

1918.. 121,549 

1919 132,663 

1920 156,000 



A New Truck Tire Tread 

Much scientific and technical interest is be- 
ing centered in the "Cross and Square" tread 
tire developed recently by engineers of the 
Firestone Tire & Rubber Company, of Akron, 
Ohio. The tread is somewhat of a departure 
from all the old ideas in tread designing. It 
was in the process of development many 
months before actual production was begun in 
the Firestone factory. 

The Cross and Square is said to be a highly 
developed combination of all the advantages 
contained in the former tread types. It is 
stated that all the minor disadvantages hereto- 
fore encountered in tire building have been 
practically overcome in its building. 

The basic idea behind the whole design is 
the elimination of localized tension at any 
point on the tire, according to the engineers 




A NEW TYPE 
or TREAD 



who perfected it. A 
plain square stud design 
permits the running of 
"breaks" straight across 
the tire, thereby causing 
a tendency for the tire 
to bend at this point. 
The resulting hinging ac- 
tion in the breaker and 
fabric under this weak 
spot causes separation 
and breaking down of 
the tire. 

The Cross and Square 
tread is zigzagged in 
such a manner that re- 
cesses cannot run for any 
considerable distance in 
one direction. At the 
same time the numerous 
different angles offer 
greater traction resist- 
ance and anti-skid effect. 

It is claimed for the 
new design that, beside 
the equal distribution of 
action over the tire and 
the balance of pressure, 
the extra rubber re- 
quired in the finishing of 
the design affords greater traction power, es- 
pecially on slippery pavements or muddy roads. 
Special features are being added to the design 
for use in the construction of truck tires, it 
is said. 

A Commercial Register 
of the United States 

The 1921 edition of Hendricks' Commercial 
Register of the United States for Buyers and 
Sellers has just come off the press. An ex- 
amination of the book shows that the publishers 
have maintained the same high standard which 
has been acknowledged for the past 29 years 
and have retained all the good features which 
have marked this publication and also added 
some new ones. The book is arranged very 
simply, with a complete index, convenient for 
business men and municipal officials. 

This book is particularly valuable, inasmuch 
as with the great reorganization of business 
following the war many changes have taken 
place and are still going on, and such an annual 
publication enables the buyer to check up and 
be sure just what firms are still in the field. 
This book is published exclusively by S. E. 
Hendricks Co., Inc., 70 Fifth Avenue, New 
York City. 



THE AMERICAN CITY '< 




January 1st, 1921, 



The 

Niagara Metal Stamping Corporation 

takes over 

the plant and business 

of the 

Niagara Falls Metal Stampiog Works 

The High Quality of 

Service and Products 

upon which the prosperity of the old Company was based 

will be Fully Maintained 

[and 

Added to 

in the interest of 

Present and Prospective Customers 




i 



When writing to Advertisers please mentioa Thk Ahxkxcah City. 



Jan. 1921 



METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLIANCES 



95 




CRACKED HOSE, SHOWING WHERE HOSE OF 

OLD CONSTRUCTION CRACKS BECAUSE OF 

FLATTENING 

Rebuilding Fire Hose 

The Bi-Lateral Fire Hose Company, 326 
West Madison Street. Chicago, 111., reports 
that its improvements in the construction of 
fire hose have been so generally accepted that it 
is making over into Bi-Lateral hose thousands 
of feet of hose of the old construction pur- 
chased at the same time with Bi-Lateral. Many 
sections of the old-style hose are being salvaged, 
as shown in the illustration, thus saving cities 
approximately 50 cents a foot over the cost of 
new hose. 




REHABILITATED HOSE, SHOWING OUTER 
JACKET IN GOOD CONDITION WITH A NEW 
INNER JACKET, BILATERALLY CONSTRUCTED 



Engineering Work for 
Louisville, Ky. 

The Edmund T. Perkins Engineering Corn- 
pany, 121 1 First National Bank Building, Chi- 
cago, 111., has been engaged, in conjunction with 
W. N. Brown of Washington, by the city of 
Louisville, Ky., to make topographical surveys 
and maps for use in its city planning, grade 
crossing elimination and sewerage. 



Waging the Fight Against Climb- 
ing Caterpillars and Worms 

A new tree band, made of heavy water-proof 
paper with a sticky, repellant material under 
the umbrella-like canopy, has been developed 
by the Eggert Chemical Company, Canton, 
Uhio. This canopy, which provides positive 
protection and. lasts for an entire season, pro- 
tects from the weather the gum on which the 
climbing worms, caterpillars, etc., are caught, 
and also keeps dirt, dust and falling leaves 
from accumulating on it. It is claimed that 
no climbing caterpillar or insect can pass this 
sticky material, as it catches them and holds 
them as soon as they set foot upon it. 

Attached to the band on the inside is a strip 
of fluffy felt, which fills up all depressions in 
the bark and prevents passage under the band. 
This eliminates the necessity of cutting away 
the bark as the felt fills up all of the crevices. 
The tree band is guaranteed to be effective for 
the entire season in all weathers and at all 
temperatures in which worms or insects are 
active. It is put up in 25- and lOO-foot rolls, 
flat when boxed, and mushrooms out when it 
is tacked on to the tree. It has been approved 
by men in the employ of the United States 
Forestry Service and by the State Forestry 
Departments of Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut. 

Enlarging a Water District 

The SherriU-Kenwood Water District of 
Sherrill N. Y., is installing a new water-works 
plant, consisting of about 70O tons of cast iron 
pipe, 4- to 12-inch, valves and "Mathews fire 
hydrants. This water district comprises the 
ci^y of Sherrill and that portion of the city of 
Oneida known as Kenwood, and is mainly popu- 
lated by the employes of 
Oneida Community, Ltd., 
makers of Community 
Silver. 

C. W. Knight & Son, 
of Rome, N. Y., are the 
engineers. The pipe, 
fire hydrants and gate 
valves were furnished by 
R. D. Wood & Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Murdock Joins 
Cummer 

R. B. Murdock, for- 
merly executive engineer 
of The Asphalt Associa- 
tion, has resigned, and 
now represents the F. D. 
Cummer & Son Company, 
of Cleveland and New 
York, manufacturers of 
asphalt paving plants and 
driers, at 19 West 44th 
Street, New York City, 
and will be in charge of 
Eastern domestic and ex- 
port sales. 




THE MATHEWS 
FIRE HYDRANT 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




REAL EFFICIENCY 

AND 

ECONOMY 



IN 



BE AIM 

SPRAYERS 



Your Park and shade trees Boards 
will insist that you get efficiency 
and economy when you select your 
machine for city spraying. You 
have features in Bean sprayers that 
will satisfy their most exacting demands. Each feature of the 17 special features means that 
muc^ more towards long life — economy of operation and real results from spraying. Each 
Bean sprayer is built oversize to stand the gruelling strain of continuous high pressure necessary 
for your work. 

We can satisfy your own idea on the machine you want for your work. A size for every need 
and a complete line of spraying accessories, guns, etc. 



Write today for Catalog No. 34A 



BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO., 



L.A.IMSING 
IWIICHIGAN 



Clear Proof of 

TIFFIN FLUSHER 

Worth 

Each year finds an ever increasing number of cities using Tiffin Two- 
Motor-System Flushers. 

This gives us an increasing number of 
service records to refer you to. 

It is now a simple matter to prove that 
Tiffin Machines do more and better 
work at a lower cost. 
Do you want this proof ? 

The Tiffin Wagon Co. 

Tiffin. Ohio 




86 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The American Citv. 



Jan. 1921 METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLIANCES 



97 




A 6,000,000-OALLON DE LAVAL INSTALLATION 



Water-Supply Plus Fire 
Protection 

In a statement which appeared in the Novem- 
ber issue of The American City, it was noted 
that the De Laval geared steam turbine-driven 
centrifugal pumping unit illustrated herewith 
regularly delivered 6,000,000 gallons per day 
against a 378- foot head in domestic supply serv- 
ice, but at an increased speed developed a fire 
pressure of 343 feet. The normal head against 
which these pumping units operate should have 
been stated as 272 feet instead of 378 feet. The 
duties developed by these steam turbine-driven 
centrifugal pumps compare favorably with 
those shown by the best triple expansion en- 
gines when the latter are in first-class condi- 
tion and less subject to falling off, as there is 
no slippage past valves and plungers in the 
centrifugal pump and no complicated steam 
valve gears requiring adjustments to the tur- 
bine. The cost of pumping is claimed to be 
much less with a De Laval unit because of the 
greatly reduced fixed charges following from 
the much smaller first cost and lessened costs 
for building and foundations, also from the 
lessened expense of attendance and supplies. 

Safety Lock Sewer Rods 

In using the various instruments which have 
been developed for removing obstructions from 
sewers, it is necessary to have a section of rod 
which can be depended upon to remain locked 
while in use. The F. Bissell Company, 226-230 
Huron Street, Toledo, Ohio, manufacturer of 
various types of scrapers, screws, plungers, 
gouges, brushes, claws, root-cutters, etc., for 
removing obstructions from sewers, has de- 
veloped a sewer rod with couplings to hold 
the rod firmly together without slack and with- 
out danger of separation in the duct but which 
easily uncouples when removed. The coupling 
is simple in design and made of malleable iron 
to withstand the severe handling to which it is 



subjected both in being transported and in the 
manhole. 

The rods are made from second-growth 
hickory with the couplings swedged or shrunk 
on very tightly, so that it is practically im- 
possible to pull them off. No rivets are used, 
thus eliminating the danger of breakage 
through the wood at rivet holes. Coupling and 
uncoupling is accomplished very readily and 
quickly, and when in the duct slack is elimi- 
nated between the joints, and the rods cannot 
possibly uncouple, although they will lend 
themselves to moderate bends. The rods are 
light and come in standard lengths of 3 and 
4 feet. 




SEWER KODS THAT LOCK SECUEELT 



New Sales Office in Atlanta 

The Chicago Bridge and Iron Works, Chi- 
cago, 111., has announced the opening of a new 
sales office at the Forsythe Building, Atlanta, 
Ga. Joseph L. Zeller, who has been connected 
with the company for a number of years, will 
be in charge and will handle the states of 
Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee and Florida. 
This company confines its activities chiefly to 
the manufacture of elevated tanks, large stor- 
age tanks and similar plate work. i 

Warren Brothers Move 

Warren Brothers Company, Boston, Mass., _. 
well known as the originators and contracting ^ 
engineers of W'arrenite-Bitulithic pavement,,J| 
have announced the removal of their general^ . 
offices on December 31, 1920, to the Parkman" 
Building, 9 Cambridge Street, Boston. Mass^ . .»„: 



THE AMERICAN CITY 







....ai 


ftiW 




fii.l 




^^H 


1 


il 


auMtotf^ri' 1/ ; MmSBBux rr'>'— •- ■■•,^*ifta.i 


,^ 




^^^^ 


1 


-^1 


J^,"' 


' 4iijntiail 








,«... 


m 









These two AUTOSWIvIv PICKS, sister machines of the famous ELGIN, do the work of four liorse-drawu sweepers 

and sprinklers. 

THE AUTOSWEEPER, as compared with horse-drawn sweeper, covers 
twice as many miles per day, requires less than half as many men, no 
regular constant care, less space to house, less ixnits per mile swept. 

ON YOUR STREETS, it will be a thing of pride to the city and the de- 
partment. The large, heavy, powerful broom, and the scientific spray- 
ing system, leave a dampened ribbon of clean pavement. 

Send for Circular No. 44- A 

EL^Giiv sa.l.e:s corf»oratioim 

OLD COLONY BUILDING 
U. S. A. CHICAGO 



501 FIFTH AVENUE 
NEW YORK 




The Key to Vigilance 



HARDINGE SYSTEM 

of 

Police Registration 



High Efficiency 
Low Cost 



Write for Book— "Key to Vigilance" 

HARDINGE BROTHERS, INC. 

4147 E. Ravenswood Ave., Chicago 



No matter WHAT drinking 
fountain you may put 

INDOORS 
^ This 

The MURDOCK 

PATENTED 

ISANTI -FREEZING-^ 
BUBBLE-FONT 

IS THE ONLY ONE THAT IS SAFE 
TO INSTAL OUTDOORS BECAUSE 

it is the only drinking fountain 
made that was designed and is 
built solely for outdoor use. It 
does not have to be turned off 
at the approach of cold weather. 

THE ONLY FOUNTAIN MADE 
THAT IS STRONG ENOUGH 
TO WITHSTAND PUBLIC 
ABUSE. 

Write for fully illustrated literature to 

The MURDOCK MFG. & SDPPLY CO. 

FIRE HYDRANTS 

YARD HYDRANTS 

HOSE BOXES 

CINCINNATI. OHIO 

Builden of Water Service devices since 1853 



87 



When writing to Advertisers please mention Th« American City. 



Jan. 1921 



METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLIANCES 



99 




A MOTOR-DRIVEN HAND MOWER IN WADE PARK, CLEVELAND 



Power and Tractor 
Lawn Mowers 

On large and fairly large lawns and parks, 
a power lawn mower, such as depicted here- 
with, is needed. This mower, manufactured by 
the Ideal Power Lawn Mower Company, Lans- 
ing, Mich., is in operation to-day on some of 
the most prominent lawns in the United States. 
It is manufactured in different sizes and is 
especially adapted for hand use. This machine 
is also manufactured as a tractor-triplex 
mower, which will cut a swath 84 inches in 
width and travel at a speed varying from 2^/2 
to 7 miles per hour, cutting as much as 25 acres 
of lawn per day. Unlike other triplex lawn 
mowers, it is easy to manipulate and turns 
about in its own length. 

Sanitary Drinking Fountains 

One of the most recent developments in the 
sanitary drinking fountain field is the Liberty 
Puro Fountain manufactured by the Puro 
Sanitary Drinking Fountain Company, Hay- 
denville, Mass. This is constructed on tlie 
principle that a fountain, as a medium for 
supplying uncontaminated water, must above 
all things be sanitary, and special stress has 
therefore been laid on nozzle protection. 

Bacteriological investigation has shown that 
infection readily takes place when water falls 
back from the drinker's mouth into the nozzle. 
This occurs in some obHque jet fountains as 
well as in the straight vertical bubblers when 
the nozzle is left unprotected. Mucus from 
mouth or lips, drippings or spatterings, how- 
ever small, that can reach the nozzle are suf- 
ficient to produce infection. 

To remedy these defects in side-stream foun- 
tains, means have been found by the engineers 
of the Puro Sanitary Drinking Fountain Com- 
pany to so isolate the nozzle as to make it 
almost impossible to contaminate the stream. 
The nozzle of the Puro Liberty Fountain is 
completely out of sight of the drinker and is 
nroterteH hv threp cuards in three different 



ways, namely, a face guard, a hood guard and 
an inner shield guard. All of these in turn 
afford such protection to the nozzle as to make 
it practically impossible for any foreign sub- 
stance to reach it except through malicious 
intent. 

The accompanying illustration shows the 
type of fountain and the special protection 
given the nozzle. The bowl and hood are of 
iron base covered with vitreous china enamel. 
The face guard, faucet and connections are 
made of solid and durable cast bronze heavily 
nickel-plated. There is practically nothing to 
get out of order, and the fountain is fool-proof. 
It can be mounted anywhere that connections 
can be made, or on a pedestal or cooler. 




A TYPE OF PROTECTED SANITARY DRINKING 
, . , , . POUNTAIN 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



ANNOUNCEMENT OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO ALL 

PUBLIC OFFICIALS HAVING TO DO WITH 

PUBLIC UTILITY PROBLEMS 

Believing that public officials and other readers of "The 
American City" who are confronted with public utility problems 
will be interested to know of the organization, recently, of the 
American Public Utilities Bureau, we submit below a brief state- 
ment of the purposes for which it was established and an outline 
of the scope of work which it is prepared to undertake. 

The American Public Utilities Bureau was organized because 
it was felt that such an institution was needed in view of the fact 
that this is the most critical period in the adjustment of the public 
relations of all the utilities. It will be a national agency for counsel 
and expert service on all public utility problems. The American 
Public Utilities Bureau believes in a square deal for all groups 
concerned, but is pledged to the idea that public utilities are 
primarily for public service. 

With respect to scope of work, we are prepared to take hold of 
any kind of a street railway, motor bus, gas, electric, water or 
telephone problem, as we have associated with us specialists of 
the highest professional standing who are thoroughly equipped 
with the necessary technical and practical knowledge and experi- 
ence. 

Last, but not least, it is one of the primary purposes of the 
American Public Utilities Bureau to enable public officials and 
others who are in need of such services to secure at the lowest 
possible expense the all-around preparation of their particular 
cases, which is highly essential if the public rights are not to be 
sacrificed in the present confusion in the utility field. 

Descriptive bulletin sent on request 

'f^n'JiIses American PubUc Utililles Bureau ^^^^'^ 

CONTRACTS An Association of Experts for Service to the Public ACCOUNTS 

ARBITRATION VALUATIONS 

TAXATION ACCOUNTING— ECONOMICS— ENGINEERING— LAW LABOR 

LEGISLATION ITS FIFTH AVENUE ADMINISTRATION 

OWNERSHIP NEW YORK RESEARCH 

TRANSPORTATATION LIQHT HEAT POWER WATER COMMUNICATION 



88 When writing to Advertiscn please mention Thb Ambrican Citt. 



Jan. 1921 



METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLIANCES 



lOI 



Lead as Material for Jointing 
Cast Iron Pipes 

The question of an efficient jointing material 
for bell-and-spigot pipe has caused much dis- 
cussion among engineers and water companies 
in the past, and a correct solution has not vet 
been definitely reached. The growth of the 
different systems in the last twenty years has 
been so rapid, and distribution problems have 
become so complex, that a material which was 
considered satisfactory for jointing cast iron 
pipes a few years ago has outlived its ef- 
ficiency. New methods have come into exist- 
ence, and each engineer of distribution has his 
own ideas on the subject, being quick to ad- 
vance his favorite material and defend it as 
the occasion may arise. 

The following interesting discussion of lead 
joints vs. lead wool for water-mains is fur- 
nished through the courtesy of the United 
Lead Company, iii Broadway, New York City. 
The coefficient of expansion of iron at ordi- 
nary temperature is .00001061. This means 
that if a bar of iron is heated so as to have a 
temperature one degree higher than originally, 
it will increase its length a little over 1/100,000 
of its length. Conversely, when the same bar 
is cooling, it will increase the same amount in 
length if it goes through the same range in 
temperature. 

The coefficient of expansion of lead is 
.00002924, and when its temperature changes 
one degree Centigrade, its length increases or 
decreases almost 3/100,000 of its original 
length. When lead is poured into a joint, it 
must be at least at 327° Centigrade, for it does 
not melt until this temperature is reached. Of 
course it is necessary to have it greater than 
this temperature or it would chill too quickly. 
^ In a 3-inch pipe the distance from the out- 
side of the pipe to the inside of the socket is 
0.4 inches. The temperature cools down to 
ordinary temperature, say, 40° Centigrade, 
which is a drop of 287° Centigrade. Therefore, 
.4 x .00002924 X 287 = .0034 inches, which is 
the actual distance that the lead shrinks away 
from the socket in the joint of a 3-inch pipe. 
In larger sizes where the distance between bell 
and spigot is greater, the shrinkage is greater. 
Some people state that this shrinkage is 
taken care of when the finished joint is calked 
once around. True, the lead has spread some- 
what, but with a hand- or air-hammer it is im- 
possible to exert enough force on the calk- 
ing tool to spread the lead any deeper than 
?4-inch. Furthermore, if the joint is hammered 
too vigorously, the bell of the pipe may break. 
This contact, which is only ^-inch wide 
around the whole pipe, is soon destroyed alto- 
gether when the pipe is jolted the least bit. It 
is true that the iron of the socket also increases 
in size because of expansion when heated by 
contact with the hot lead. It stands to reason, 
however, that the iron does not attain such 
a high temperature as the lead and conseauently 
does not have so great a drop in temperature 
as the lead. Even if it did expand and con- 
tract just as much as lead, the lead would still 



be there, because the spigot would also expand 
and finally contract and pull away from the 
lead. It may be argued that these slight differ- 
ences are so small that they may be ignored, 
but in order to have a better idea of the shrink- 
age on a 3-inch pipe, it might be appropriate 
to say that a fairly good quality of Japanese 
linen paper is just .003 inches thick. Thus it 
is readily seen that after a cast lead joint has 
cooled, there is an opening as thick as paper 
around the whole joint. If the pipe is pressed 
to one side, the opening in the opposite side of 
the pipe is doubled in size. 

If lead wool is used for calking a joint, no 
heat is applied in any manner. First, a layer 
of good quality oakum is calked tight, then the 
wool is calked from one to four strands at a 
time, depending on the size of the joint. In 
the first place, the lead interlocks with the 
strands of the oakum and makes a perfect bond 
between the two materials. The wool is driven 
in so tight that it enters every corner of the 
joint. Its texture after calking is fibrous, and, 
being so, is elastic to a certain extent. Calk- 
ing lead wool with an air-hammer has never 
been known to crack the bell. Some contend 
that this is due to a certain elasticity in the 
lead wool. With a Jead wool joint a greater 
deflection may be allowed for the pipe after 
calking than with cast lead. The latter forms 
a mass which is easily distorted, but the lead 
wool makes a solid mass in the whole joint, 
which is much less susceptible to this distor- 
tion. The shrinkage of the cast lead gives the 
pipe a small amount of "play," but when the 
joint is entirely filled with lead wool, the pipe 
has no encouragement to make this start. 
With cast lead the start is already made as 
soon as the joint is cold. 

Cast lead must be poured in a perfectly dry 
joint, otherwise there will be trouble, which 
usually results in a painful burn or an injured 
eye. Lack of any chance for such an accident 
is evident in lead wool, and, furthermore, the 
joint can be calked when in a wet trench, or 
when there is dampness in the joint itself. A 
leaking water or gas pipe may be repaired with 
lead wool while the water is leaking. The only 
necessary precaution for calking with lead 
wool is to keep oil and dirt out of the joint. 

It requires a more or less skillful man to 
pour lead joints, but lead wool can be calked 
by an ordinarily intelligent laborer who will 
do as he is told. Consider the disadvantage in 
moving a lead pot along a trench, and contrast 
it with the advantage of carrying a reel of 
lead wool out on the job and having no bulky 
apnaratus to move along. 

If automatic hammers are used, the gasoline- 
compressor is carried on a truck alongside the 
trench. What more convenient method for lay- 
ing cast iron pipe? The air-compressor can 
be used also as a tamper when attached to the 
proper tools. It can also serve as a means for 
detectine leaks in -the pipe. Every joint should 
be tested under high air pressure to insure a 
perfectly calked main. Lead wool has been 
calked successfully under water by a diver. 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Estimates of Cost of Proposed Work 
Reports on New Improvements 
Preparation of Plans 
Supervision of Construction 



Dams and Reservoirs 

Pipe Lines 

Filtration Plants 

New Water Supply Systems 



James P. Wells 



HYDRAULIC ENGINEER 



Main Office 

249 Cutler Building, Rochester, N. Y. 

Branch Offices 

In the South, Central West and Canada 



S9 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The American City. 



Jan. 1921 



METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLIANCES 



103 



New Sewage Ejector 
Operating Valves 

In its constant endeavor to improve the oper- 
ation of mechanical equipment used in sewage 
disposal, the Pacific Flush Tank Company, 
4142-43 East Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago, 
111., has placed upon the market a new sewage 
ejector valve, known as the Cox Operating 
Sewage Ejector Valve. This valve which will 
be used in connection with the Pacific Flush 
Tank sewage ejectors is controlled by an open 
float instead of the former type of closed float. 
The valve is very simple, with few parts ex- 
posed to wear. This operating valve is a sim- 
ple mechanism, the actual wearing parts con- 
sisting of two standard cup leathers which can 
readily be replaced quickly by purchase in any 
city. The difficulty with earlier valves used in 
the control of sewage ejectors was in the com- 
plicated wearing parts, which caused the ejec- 
tor to be out of commission most of the time. 
The simplicity of the new valve and its ease of 
maintenance, together with the advantage of 




A VALVE FOR OPERATING SEWAGE 
EJECTORS 

the open float, as compared with the old type 
of closed float, makes for a very reliable and 
efficient ejector. 

A Fountain Ruling Pen 

Draftsmen in city engineers' offices and 
others who make use of ruling pens in the 
preparation of plans, diagrams, charts, etc, 



will be interested in the "Minerva" 
fountain ruling pen, which has recently 
been placed on the market by Kolesch 
& Company, 138 Fulton Street, New 
York City. This pen is so arranged 
that it can be used with any ink, and 
one filling will do for a day's work. It 
difi^ers from most pens of the ruling 
type in that it will not leak or clog. It 
gives the user his entire time for con- 
centration upon his work. In using the 
pen as depicted, it is unscrewed from 
the handle, which is then filled with 
ink. In order to fill the pen point, the 
top is pressed gently to admit the 
small amount of ink necessary for the 
work immediately at hand. 

Reorganization of Metal 
Stamping Company 

Announcement has been made that 
the well-known firm of Niagara Falls 
Metal Stamping Works, Niagara Falls, 
N. Y., on January i effected a reor- 
ganization with Charles R. Robinson, 
formerly Vice-President of the Lacka- 
wanna Steel Company, as President, 
and Eliot Armstrong, who was asso- 
ciated with him in that company, as 
Vice-President. The name of the com- 
pany has been changed to Niagara Falls 
Metal Stamping Corporation. This 
company was originally founded in 
1897 by R. C. Eldridge and has been 
well known in the stamped metal field 
in the production of house numbers, 
street name signs and license tags. 



Park Benches 

This illustration shows a 370 Special Settee, 
a design of the Stewart Iron Works Com- 
pany, Cincinnati, Ohio. This settee is con- 




A SPECIAL TYPE OF PARK BENCH 

structed with wood slats and channel iron 
frame. It is a design that has been adopted 
by many of the leading parks throughout the 
country. 

MANY COMMUNITIES SEEM TO HAVE A 
SIMILAR VIEWPOINT 

A farmer wished to insure his barn and a few 
stacks. 

"What facilities have you for extinguishing a fire 
in your village?" inquired the superintendent of the 
insurance office. 

The man pondered a little while. Finally he an- 
swered, "Well, sometimes it rains." 

— Christian Register. 




THE AMERICAN CITY 

illlllillilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



Bracket 10347 and 
C. E. Nova lux Unit Form 4 



THE ONLY WAY 

To Obtain an Ornamental 
Lighting System and 
Retain Overhead 
Wires 



ELRECO 

COMBINATION 

POLES 



s 



s 



serve the double purpose of Ornamental Lighting 
Standards and Trolley Wire Supports. 

Handsome brackets for supporting very latest 
Novalux Lighting Units or the Ornamental Lumi- 
nous Lamps improve the appearance of the plain 
Trolley Poles. 

You can string your wires along the top of the 
poles, where they are practically unnoticeable and 
out of the way of traffic. 

You save the cost of additional lamp standards 
and underground construction, and avoid further 
obstruction of the curb Hne. 

Catalog F describes this money-saving plan and 
full details — ^free. 



Comoinaiion Pole 

and 
Ornamental G. E. 
Luminous Arc 



Electric Railway Equipment Co. 

Gincianati, Ohio 
New York Office— 30 Church Street 



90 



llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllli 
When writing to Advertisers please mention Thk Amxkicax City. 



Jan. 1921 



METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLIANCES 



105 




A PORTABLE SERVICE THAWING DEVICE USING HOUSE CURRENT 

Thawing Frozen House Services 

Through a new device, just developed by the 
General Electric Company, frozen water pipes 
may hereafter be thawed out electrically. The 
apparatus which does away so effectively with 
the annoyance of using hot cloths, and other 
methods, may be attached to a lamp socket, 
and in a few minutes the water returns to its 
normal circulation. The device consists of a 
transformer, 10 feet of cord for connection 
with the lighting circuit, and secondary con- 
nections for attachment to the pipe. The 
transformer adjusts the lighting voltage to a 
point where the current will produce enough 
heat for thawing. It uses about as much cur- 
rent as is consumed in operating an electric 
flat iron. 

In thawing out a pipe, the nearest faucet 
should be turned on and the secondary leads 
of the pipe thawer connected nearest the street. 
Pipes should be heated in sections until the 
water starts to flow out of the faucet. The 
length of time it will take to thaw a pipe de- 
pends first upon the degree to which it is 
frozen, the size of the pipe, and the length of 
the frozen section. Under most conditions 
thawing may be very economically done with 
the pipe thawer and without the customary 
fire hazard incurred by the use of the blow 
torch. 

The portable Wayne Pipe Thawer weighs 
,'>5 pounds complete. It is a valuable adjunct 
to the equipment of plumbers, and furnishes 
central stations with a means of helping their 
customers out of difficulties in a manner that 
is much appreciated. 

From War-Time Revetments to 
Modern Pavements Resiliency 
Is Paramount 

The first few days of Germany's rush upon 
Belgium taught the Belgians and their allies 
one lesson of immeasurable value : that forts 



of stone and concrete 
could not withstand the 
terrible impact of the 
enemy's giant explosives. 
As the result of this 
lesson, they dug them- 
selves trenches in the 
earth and erected para- 
pets of sand-bags to ab- 
sorb the impact of the 
monster shells and to re- 
duce their shattering ef- 
fect to a minimum. 

General Jackson ap- 
plied the same principle 
in the war of 1812; only 
instead of using sand- 
bags, he employed bales 
of cotton to withstand 
the shells from the Brit- 
ish men-of-war. The 
cotton-bales absorbed the 
impact and withstood the 
shattering effect of the 
explosives better than 
rigid forts ! 
The great service given 
by sand-bags to the Belgians and by cotton- 
bales to General Jackson was rendered through 
their ability to absorb impact. It might be 
said too, that their quality of resiliency, while 
not so pronounced as those of a material like 
rubber, was of considerable significance in 
withstanding the shattering effect of the ex- 
plosives. All materials that are compressible 
have qualities of resiliency, and the ability of 
the sand-bags and cotton-bales to resume their 
original form after sudden and terrific impact 
was of no little consequence in their great 
service. 

From war-time necessity for shock-absorb- 
ing and resilient materials, we may turn readily 
to commercial and civilian demand for ma- 
terials having these same qualities. For in-, 
stance, materials having resilient and shock- 
absorbing qualities must be used in the follow- 
ing: rubber tires — either solid or pneumatic — 
for automobiles and motor trucks ; rubber 
heels for shoes ; golf balls that withstand in- 
cessant banging ; and roads and pavements that 
undergo terriffic traffic. r 

Toughness in a rubber tire is a necessary 
means to its longevity of service, but its quality I 
of resiliency is just as important, the same as 
it is in a pavement. A rubber tire upon strik- , 
ing obstacles, whether in the form of a rut in \ 
a road or a rock or stone, must be able to 
resume its original forrn and shape after the 1 
impact. 

The manufacturers ernphasize the idea that ; 
zinc oxide in rubber tires helps perfect the all- 
important feature of resiliency in the tires. 
They do this knowing the significance of the 
tire's ability to return to its original form 
after encountering obstacles. 

The manufacturers of rubber heels empha- 
size the same quality of resiliency in their 
product, and of necessity must apply the same 
principle as do the manufacturers of rubber 
tires. 
And does not the same hold good in the 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



^IroUegMe 



A 


1 ^ 


We are 


1 To those 


prepared 


I interested 


to furnish 


1 inmodem^ 


complete 


I economiccil 


Gombination 


1 street 


li^htin^e? 


■ li^htin^.we 


trolley pole 


I wil send our 


equipment 


1 illustrated 


including 


1 booklet 


brackets 


I Send your 


dNovalux 


1 name and 


units . 


K addrejx 



KING MFG.C9 

55WJackson Blvd.,Chica^,III. 



WARRENITEBITULITHIC 
PAVEMENTS AND ROADS 

LAID ON BITUMINOUS 
CONCRETE BASE 

THE PROOF OF THE PUDDING 




Sawed Section of Warrenite-Bitulithic Pavement 

Laid on Camp Lewis Roads — 1}^-In. Wearing 

Surface and Zyi In. Foundation 

Warrenite-Bitulithic City Pavements and 
Country Roads have been laid on bituminous 
concrete base so very extensively during the 
past ten years as to prove beyond a doubt its 
eflSciency and superiority under all conditions 
of climate and traffic. 

For further information and booklets apply to 

WARREN BROTHERS COMPANY 

Executive Of f ices : Boston, Mass. 

DISTRICT OFFICESi 

New York, N. Y. St. Louis, Mo. San Francisco, Cal. 

Utica, N. Y. Phoenix, Ariz. Winnipeg, Man. 

Portland, Ore. Toronto, Ont. Richmond, Va. 

Vancouver, B. C. Washington, D. C. Nashville, Tenn. 
Chicago, III. Minneapolis, Minn. Los Angeles, Cal. 



n 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The Auerican City. 



Jan. 1921 



METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLIANCES 



107 




A CnMT'ACT si'KAVl.NU uUTflT FOR MUNICIPAL PARKS AND STREET TREES 



production of golf balls? Think how long a 
piece of stone or concrete would last under the 
incessant pounding which a golf ball must 
endure. A very short time, to be sure! The 
reason why the golf ball lasts is that in addi- 
tion to being tough, it is also resilient. The 
stone or concrete, too, may be tough, but its 
lack of resiliency results in its breaking. 

Eminent engineers consider resiliency of 
prime importance and infinite value in the con- 
struction of roads and pavements. The same 
principle holds good with these as with the 
shock-absorbing and resilient sand-bags and 
cotton-bales of war-time, and the resilient and 
shock-absorbing rubber tires, rubber heels, and 
golf balls of peace-time commercial life. The 
inability of too rigid, non-resilient pavements 
to "iron themselves out" under terrific modern 
traffic is the reason for this general belief 
among engineers. 

Experiments begun by Government experts 
to determine the destructive effect of impact 
on pavements and to find a remedy, show some 
striking results. Results now announced show 
that a weight of 7,750 pounds on the wheel of 
a truck moving at a speed of fifteen miles per 
hour, becomes 43,cxx) pounds in its destructive 
effect if the wheel has a drop of one inch. 
Such a drop is very readily caused by any 
small obstruction or crack in the pavement. 
In solving the impact problem engineers use 
an asphalt cushion course. The cushion will 
absorb the shock so as to reduce the shatter- 
ing effect of impact on the foundation. 

Expenditure for construction and mainte- 
nance of highways outside of cities is now 
averaging some $500,000,000 a year. 

New Jersey Buys Snow-Plows 

The Good Roads ^Machinery Co., 813 Bulletin 
Building, Philadelphia, has delivered 52 Cham- 
pion snow-plows to the State Highway Depart- 
ment of New Jersey. 



A Sprayer with Tractor 

The spraying outfit shown above is manu- 
factured bv the Bean Spray Pump Company, 
San Jose,' Calif., in two sizes, the regular 
equipment of the larger size including a super- 
Giant pump with 3-inch cylinders and a ca- 
pacity of 15 gallons per minute at 50 r.p.m. 
The nump is directly connected to the Fordson 
engine, with spiral jaw clutch so placed as to 
make it possible for the operator to move the 
tractor without running the spray pump. 

The operation of connecting the pump is 
simple and is accomplished by a rod extending 
back to the driver's seat. A tank of 300, 400 
or 500 gallons capacity is carried as a trailer 
behind. Two lines of hose and two guns are 
furnished with the outfit. 

The smaller rig has a Giant triplex pump 
mounted exactly as in the larger outfit. The 
regular equipment consists of a 200-gallon 
tank with an option of a 300-gallon tank. 
These outfits have been operated in the field 
for a whole season and have been found en- 
tirely satisfactory for use by commercial 
growers. They are admirably fitted for mu- 
nicipal service in spraying park trees and those 
located along the thoroughfares. 

The Bean Spray Pump Company also has 
a factory at Lansing, Mich., in charge of H. C. 
Lisle. 

Record Purchase for Fire 
Department 

The city of Indianapolis, Ind., has just 
awarded to the Stutz Fire Engine Company of 
that city what is reported to be the largest 
single order ever placed with one company at 
one time for fire apparatus. The order con- 
sists of twenty-five pumpers and ten city serv- 
ice trucks to be delivered to the Indianapolis 
Fire Department within the next month. 



THE AMERICAN CITY 






HIGHEST QUALITY ASPHALTS 

Any Melting Point Any Ductility Any Penetration 

PIONEER Mexican Asphalts and Compounds are different: less susceptible to 
heat and cold, and will comply with the strictest ductility requirements. 




RUBEROAD CEMENT 



It's New 



It's Different 



It's Efficient 



It sticks to concrete like molasses sticks to the fingers. It acts like liquid rubber 
and will last longer. 



THE PIONEER ASPHALT CO., 



Lawrenceville, 111. 



PENNSYLVANIA 

Portland Cement 

Quality and Service Supreme 

Pennsylvania Cement Co. 30 E. 42 St., New York City 



Rvpair Your Streets 'weitlk 

The Lutz Surface Heater 

It wftena uphalt and other bitam>noas pavements. 
It VukaniMB the old and new material into a perfect 
bond. It cements Asphalt on Granite, Brick, Cob- 
ble, or oUier hard pavements. It makes re-eurfaclng 
kdA maintenance easy and inezpendve. 

lUustrated Particulars on ReQUesl 

Equitable Asphalt Hainttnmnc* Co. 

1901 Campbell St. Kanaaa City, Mo. 



Repairlof ao Asphalt 
Pavement. New Vork 




HAVE YOU 

SEEN 



the lists of valuable catalogs 
on pages 4 and 67 A careful 
study of these pages will be 
of help to you in locating the 
machinery, materials or ap- 
paratus you want. 



CATALOGS 
YOU NEED 



82 



Wbro writing to Advertisers please mention Tbb Ay imiCAN CiTT. 



109 



VOLUME XXIV 



NUMBER 2 




NEW YORK 

FEBURARY, 

1921 



The Motor Vehicle Highway Creed 



By D. C. Fenner 



Systems of Highways 

I BELIEVE in 
A Federal Highway System ; 
A state highway system in every state 
connected wath the Federal Highway Sys- 
tem. 

Establishment of Highways 
I believe that 

Federal highways should be constructed, 
maintained, paid for and controlled by the 
Federal Government; 

State highways should be constructed, 
maintained, paid for and controlled by state 
governments ; 

County highways should be constructed, 
maintained, paid for and controlled by 
county governments in conjunction with and 
under the supervision of state governments. 

Selection of Routes for Highways 
I believe that 

Routes for the highways of these systems 
should be selected with the sole view of 
meeting the highway transportation needs 
of the nation, its states and their counties. 

Structural Standards for Highways 
I believe that 

Federal, state and county highways should 
be free from grades of more than 5 per cent ; 
should be free from sharp turns ; should be 
laid along the shortest route between centers 
of distribution and not through the main 
streets of all the towns along the route ; and 
should be free from crossings at grade with 
railways or other highways. A modern 
hard-surface highway should be wide 
enough to provide for two streams of 
vehicular traffic 96 inches wide. This means 
a road paved to a width of at least 20 feet, 



and the total width between inside edges of 
ditches should be not less than 30 feet. At 
points of congestion shoulders of proper 
width should be provided. Highway bridges 
should be of 20 tons capacity with a clear 
width of roadway of not less than 24 feet. 

Bridge and highway structures should be 
strong enough to support wheel loads of 
11,200 pounds distributed not more than 800 
pounds per inch of tire width, said width in 
the case of rubber tires to be measured be- 
tween the flanges of the rim, and axle loads 
of 22,400 pounds with a minimum distance 
of 4 feet between axles. 

They should further be able to support 
vehicular units of a maximum weight of 
28,000 pounds and durable enough to pro- 
vide throughout their entire length and 
breadth smooth and economical transporta- 
tion at all seasons of the year. 

The highway surface must be of such a 
nature that it is weather-proof and depend- 
able under severe usage. It must be wear- 
resistant, so that extensive or frequent re- 
pairs are not necessary, arid quick to repair 
without interruption of traffic and with 
simple tools and materials; low in tractive 
resistance; offering a good foothold for 
horses and rubber tires and yet smooth 
enough for good speed. 

This country needs roads; it cannot pros- 
per without them. But it cannot have them 
as long as its highway officials continue the 
practice of laying road-surfacing materials 
on an unprepared foundation and calling the 
result— a road. Roads which will resist the 
attack of the elements will stand the heaviest 
traffic without injury; roads which will not 
resist the elements are the cause of our 



IIQ 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



present great concern over an unfortunate 
waste of money. 

It is no longer possible to adopt one speci- 
fication for the entire length of a road. Each 
foot of subgrade conditions must be ana- 
lyzed, the subsoil must be properly drained 
so that water may be kept off, out of, and 
away from, the road and its foundations. 
A proper foundation to meet the conditions 
at any particular point can then be laid. 
Give a wise builder a contract for a building 
from Philadelphia to New York; tell him 
that there must be no breaks, that the whole 
structure must settle uniformly and evenly 
throughout its length. Will his foundations 
all be alike? The building of permanent 
roads is certainly a foundation proposition 
with proper attention to drainage and to 
subsoil conditions. 

Maintenance Requirements for Highways 

I believe that 

Federal, state and county highways should 
be constantly maintained in conformity with 
the minimum structural standards prescribed 
for them and that in winter-time main-line 
highways should also be kept reasonably 
free from snow and ice for motor vehicle 
trafHc. 

Financing of Highways 
I believe that 



The construction of Federal, state and 
county highways and their establishment as 
connected and coordinated systems will bring 
into being improvements of infinite value to 
every man, woman, and child in every walk 
of life, and should therefore be a general 
charge against all citizens. 

The maintenance and administration of 
Federal, state and county highways should 
be placed upon the users thereof in propor- 
tion to that use. 

Highway construction charges should be 
financed on the pay-as-you-go policy, if 
possible; otherwise, by bonds to be retired 
within the life of the improvements. 

Highway maintenance and administration 
charges should be financed on a cash basis 
from current assets. 

Administration of Highways 

I believe that 

The administration of Federal, state and 
county highways should be vested in officials 
of the highest integrity and ability; should 
be absolutely divorced from politics and 
political considerations and have unrestrict- 
ed freedom to function in the best inter- 
ests of the public as a whole and that por- 
tion of it which owns and operates motor 
vehicles. 



Oil on the Troubled Sands 



Shifting sand dunes which cover up a 
highway soon after it is completed have 
formed a serious obstacle to improved road 
building in some parts of the country, 
particularly in the Northwest. To remedy 
the €vil, the Bureau of Public Roads of the 
United States Department of Agriculture 
has employed a more extensive application 
of the agency that has been used in the past 
to lay dust on ordinary highways — oil. 

Fifty-three miles of construction of the 
Columbia River Highway from The Dalles 
eastward lies through sandy country, in 
many places of a volcanic ash as light as 
flour. As fast as cuts are opened up and 
fills made in this light soil the wind whips 
out the fill slopes, and sand dunes creep 
into rock cuts, completely blocking the 
road. Oil is the only agency yet found to 
stop the trouble. The equipment used to 



spray the crude oil consists of two supply 
tanks, or drums, in which the oil is carried 
from the storage tank at the railway siding, 
and a tractor, which draws the oiling rig 
and supplies the steam through a hose to 
the compressor tank, which is carried on a 
trailer. The oil is heated by the steam 
and forced through a hose with a nozzle 
consisting of a half-inch pipe. The steam 
atomizes the oil and sends it in a fine spray 
for 100 feet or more, depending on whether 
the spray is projected in the direction of 
the wind or against it. For obvious rea- 
sons, spraying is usually carried on in the 
direction of the wind. 

Where sufficient oil is used, this means 
of controling the sand dunes is very effec- 
tive, and it is believed that the cost will 
not be excessive, though exact figures are 
not obtainable at this time. 



February, 1921 



III 



Central Mixing Plant in County Road 

Work 

By K. C. Wright 

Resident Engineer, State Road Commission, Brigham City, Utah 

THE contract to construct nine miles 
of state road from Brigham City to 
the Utah Hot Springs, both in Box 
Elder County, Utah, was awarded in May, 
1919, to the Phelps Construction Company 
by the Utah State Road Commission. This 
piece of road skirts the western slope of 
the Wasatch Mountains and is part of the 
state highway, extending north from Salt 
Lake City to Idaho and other sections. It 
is, in fact, the only highway through the 
southern end of Box Elder County leading 
from central Utah to the state on the north. 
The Wasatch Range descends rapidly on 
its western slopes to the shores of Great 
Salt Lake. The change from the rocky 
foothills to the swamps adjoining the lake is 
made at some places in a very few hundred 
feet, leaving only room efiough for one 
highway. 

The traffic over this road is, by reason of 
its peculiar location, very heavy. Plain 
concrete 6 and 8 inches thick and 18 feet 
wide was chosen as the type of hard sur- 
face best adapted to meet the conditions. 

The contracting company started actual 
paving work in August, 1919, and almost 
immediately encountered labor troubles. 
Silt developed in the sand to such an extent 
as to require washing. Cars for shipping 
cement became scarce, and a multitude of 
other troubles hindered the work, so that 
at the close of the season, on November i, 
1919, only about three-fourths of a mile 
out of the nine miles had been completed. 




THE OEKTBAL MZZHTO PLANT IK BOX ELDSB 
C0X7NTT, UTAH 



The Change to the Present Method 

The contracting company saw that a 
change from the old way of road building 
was compulsory and so decided upon the 
method which is now being used and which 
has proved a success in many ways. It 
is, to say the least, a very great improve- 
ment over the use of the old highway 
paver with its mile of aggregate on the sub- 
grade and its other inherent weaknesses. 

The central mixing plant has been used 
this year. After mixing, the concrete is 
delivered to the subgrade in trucks, spread 
by means of a horse and a special scraper 



and finished with a finishing machine. 

The plant is eqiupped with two i-yard 
mixers, each operating independently of the 
other. Storage is provided, by means of 
overhead bins, for enough sand, gravel and 
cement for a half-day's run. The prevail- 
ing idea which governed the design was to 
insure as far as possible steady operation, 
and this has been realized so far as the 
mixing plant is concerned. 

Many sizes and styles of trucks have been 
tried, but the 2^-ton truck has proved most 
successful. Each truck is required to haul 
two batches of mixed concrete, one batch 
being dumped from each mixer as the truck 



112 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



comes into position. A two-batch (lo-bag) 
load seems to slip from the truck better 
than a larger one, and is very much easier 
to handle on the grade. Trucks of this 
size and capacity travel faster than the 
larger ones, and make better time both 
loaded and empty. 

The state specifications require that the 
concrete shall be in place within thirty min- 
utes after mixing, and it has been possible 
to haul the concrete a distance of four 
miles and keep under this time limit. Very 
much better results have been obtained 
where the haul has not exceeded two miles, 
and from observing results obtained in both 
cases, the writer has come to think that 
specifications permitting the use of a cen- 



tral mixing plant should limit the distance 
over which the mixed concrete is hauled 
by truck to two miles, as well as limiting 
the time to thirty minutes. 

It has been our experience that materials 
will separate on the long haul to such an 
extent as to cause a serious condition, de- 
Spite the fact that we have used a relative 
consistency not higher than 1.05, and a 
rough mix, based upon the maximum size 
of the aggregate. 

Good speed has been maintained, the 
average for the summer's run being nearly 
500 linear feet of road per day, with the 
haul varying from a few hundred feet to 
four miles. The maximum run, to date, 
is 678 feet in 8 hours. 



Economical and Sanitary Problems of 
American Cities 

By George G. Whipple 

Professor of Sanitary Engineering, Harvard University 



MANY thoughtful people to-day are 
pessimistic as to the future of all 
large cities, believing them to be 
physical monstrosities and economic ab- 
surdities. As cities grow in size they tend 
to lose individuality and become alike. Fi- 
nancially, their life depends upon their 
growth. Anticipation of growth demands 
extensive public works, and in recent years 
these have led to increasing per capita mu- 
nicipal debts and taxes. On the other hand, 
parsimony is not economy, and preparedness 
is as necessary in sanitation as in war. 

It has been my fortune lately to travel in 
the Orient, and one cannot observe the 
dense populations there, the reduced natu- 
ral resources of the land, the lack of ani- 
mals, and the universal use of human ex- 
crement as a fertilizer, without reflecting 
on the awful waste of nitrogen, which 
is taking place in the cities of our western 
civilization, and without wondering what 
may be the food conditions in America a 
number of centuries from now. It is not 
a pressing problem, that of utilization of 
nitrogen and fats in sewage and garbage, 
but it is one which should be kept in mind. 
We throw sewage with its nitrogen and 
fats into the sea because at the present time 
it would cost more to recover these sub- 
stances than they are worth in the market. 



That may be economically sound, but, never- 
theless, it is a waste which some day must 
be corrected. 

In small communities, comfort, which im- 
plies health and agreeable conditions of 
life, can usually be procured at a reason- 
able cost. In large cities, comfort can also 
be procured, but only at increasing cost. 
The question for any community to solve 
is this — can comfort be secured at a cost 
which the people can afford to pay? If the 
limit is approached, will it mean abandon- 
ment of comfort in order to maintain sol- 
vency? Will it mean repudiation of debts? 
Or will it mean limitation of growth? The 
ancient cities were large and prosperous 
because they were financed from the re- 
sources of conquered territory. The mod- 
ern city is built upon a different basis. If 
it cannot stand the economic strain, it will 
fall. Ex-Mayor McClellan of New York, 
once pointed out that when the tax rate 
reaches the normal interest rate, the taxes 
become confiscatory. 

In consideration of all sanitary problems 
the financial element must of necessity con- 
trol. Relative values must be studied, and 
then, with fixed appropriations determined 
by economic considerations, a dollar must 
be made to buy just as much health and 
comfort and beauty as possible. 



113 



Should Counties Ask Bids from Engineers 

for Road Work? 

Engineers of High Standing Respond Unanimously in the Negative 



THE notice reproduced on this pa^ge ap- 
peared in a local newspaper in the 
South some time ago. Through the 
requirement that an engineer must bid for 
the position of road engineer and furnish 
a certified check and a bond for the faithful 
performance of his duty, the engineer is 
placed in the class 
of commercial bid- 
ders, and no repu- 
table engineer would 
consider such work. 
A city or county 
could secure only 
second or third rate 
engineers under 
these conditions of 
employment. The 
method is to be dis- 
couraged under all 
circumstances. 

Copies of this no- 
tice were forwarded 
to a number of en- 
gineers interested in 
highway construc- 
tion and city plan- 
ning, and summar- 
ies of their responses 
are given below. 

A firm of engi- 
neers in Philadel- 
phia, acqu a i n t e d 
with the situation 
and conditions in the 
locality, state that 
the practice of invit- 
ing competitive bids 
for engineering is 

unfortunately not uncommon in certain sec- 
tons, but this particular firm has made it a 
rule not to enter into any such competitions, 
as it is felt that the outcome of such meth- 
ods is usually unsatisfactory to both client 
and engineer. 

A New York consulting engineer states 
that it would seem as if such a method of 
securing engineering services would not be 
successful, for few men who value their 
standing and future in the profession would 



NOTICE TO BIDDERS 
.Notice is hereby given that the County 

Commissioners of the County of 

will receive sealed bids for the engineer- 
ing upon the roads to be constructed by 
special road and bridge district number 

3, County, , and 

that such bids will be received up until 
lo o'clock Wednesday morning, October 
8, 19. .. It will be the duty of the Engi- 
neer employed by the Board to prepare 
plans and specifications for the work to 
be done in the said district, and to super- 
vise the work during its progress, and to 
do all other things usual and necessary 
for similar cases. A certified check for 
five hundred dollars must accompany 
each bid and the successful bidder will 
be required to give bond for the faithful 
performance of his duty in such sum as 
may be fixed by the County Commis- 
sioners. The Commissioners reserve the 
right to reject any and all bids and to 
employ from the bidders the engineer 
who in their opinion is most responsible 
and best qualified for the work to be 
performed. The Commissioners will 
open such bids as soon after the above 
time as practical. 

(Signed) , 

Chairman of the Board of County Com- 
missioners. 
Attest : 

(Signed) 

Clerk, Board of Conntv Commissioners. 



care to seek a commission under such cir- 
cumstances. A professional man's quali- 
fications and experience should be the guide 
for the client in selecting his services. The 
request for a bond for the faithful per- 
formance of duty is an insult to the pro- 
fession. 

A well -known 
Pittsburgh city plan- 
ner writes as fol- 
lows : "Local con- 
ditions sometimes 
justify this method 
in order to protect 
public interests from 
the erratic tenden- 
cies of low bidders; 
and, furthermore, 
the interpretation of 
certain state laws 
'-.reates an open ques- 
tion on the expendi- 
ture of public funds 
over a specific sum 
without competition. 
Of course, there is 
usually a rejection 
clause inserted, but 
this fact alone does 
not always guarantee 
protection. The best 
protection is to en- 
gage the profes- 
sional services of an 
engineer who is 
faithful, capable and 
honest, with the 
same confidence and 
interest that an indi- 
vidual has in his physician or attorney, 
who is never placed on the auction block." 
A firm of New York paving engineers 
states that "this is a very undesirable method 
for selecting an engineer and is very likely 
indeed to result in second and third rate 
engineering supervision. It would be ne- 
cessary for an engineer to visit the county 
and determine just what roads and bridges 
were to be constructed before he could pre- 
pare a bid. No provision is made in the 



114 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



proposal for any record as to his ability and 
qualifications, and the deduction to be drawn 
from it would be that the lowest bidder 
would probably get the work. Calling for 
a certified check and a bond for the faith- 
ful performance of his duty appears to us to 
be putting the matter on a commercial 
rather than on an engineering plane, and if 
the engineer were incompetent, we fail to 
see how the bond would protect the county. 
Personally, we will refuse to bid on work 
under these conditions, and we believe that 
the majority of reputable engineers would 
also decline to have anything to do with it." 

A firm of Rochester, N. Y., consulting 
engineers writes as follows: "Such a pro- 
posal hardly deserves comment. Let us 
hope that it met the fate it deserves, and 
there can be no question but that it did. No 
professional man of ability would consider 
offering himself on such a market. The 
legal mind that evolved this proposal must 
have been gathered to the fold under a simi- 
lar arrangement. For instance, of what 
value is the certified check for five hundred 
dollars, except to show that the 'engineer' 
has that much credit? The commissioners 
cannot, under their proposal, hold the 
money, if the 'lucky' man decides to with- 
draw. We must admit, however, that these 
commissioners are honest. They throw no 
camouflage over their real desire, namely, 
to get the cheapest man at his best figure, 
while many county and other engineers are 
selected by such boards for the same reason, 
although the item 'salary' is only 'among 
those present' in the advertisement. Times 
have changed in this respect, however, and 
engineers are being employed to a much 
greater extent for their ability, training and 
experience. The engineer recognizes, and 
the public is coming to recognize, his true 
professional standing, and he is not going 
to barter his talent under any such crude 
proposal as that mentioned above." 

A firm of Pittsburgh engineers of na- 
tional reputation agree "that this method of 
securing engineering services is most ob- 
jectionable and that not only must it neces- 
sarily fail to secure the protection which 
was no doubt the laudable intention of the 
conscientious public officials who were re- 
sponsible for it, but, in addition, it is almost 
certain to lead to the engagement of second 
and third rate services through awarding 
the work to the bidder who is willing to cut 
his price the lowest because of inability to 



secure engagements on any other basis. We 
have had in our experience abundant op- 
portunities to observe the excessive cost to 
municipalities and counties through law- 
suits and through failure or unsatisfactory 
quality of work, of services secured upon 
similar bases; and we desire to commend 
The American City for its efforts to in- 
duce municipal officials to recognize that 
the public interest is best served by secur- 
ing the professional service of reputable 
and experienced engineers at the usual and 
reasonable rate of compensation, rather 
than to attempt to buy engineering as they 
are accustomed to purchase brick or cast 
iron pipe." 

An Illinois engineer states that it is his 
"personal opinion that these people will get 
just exactly what they pay for; in other 
words, advertising for bids for any profes- 
sional work, whether engineering or not, is 
a mistake and cheapens the work all down 
the line, affecting the contractors and going 
so far as to bias the attitude of the men. 
I would as soon think of advertising for 
bids for this kind of work as I would 
think of advertising for bids for a dentist 
or a physician. In every way The Amer- 
ican City should discourage action of this 
kind, and if you are successful you will 
have rendered a service to the community 
in which the work is to be done as well as to 
all reputable engineers." 

A municipal and industrial engineer says : 
"I give very little attention to such abortive 
efforts to secure engineering services. They 
are so rare and unfruitful in results and 
this case is so ridiculous that it does not 
seem to be entitled to much attention. It 
would be interesting, however, to know just 
what results were secured and what type of 
engineers or surveyors responded and who, 
if anyone, was selected." 

A well-known North Carolina engineer 
says : "This is the second instance that has 
recently come to my notice of placing en- 
gineers on a par with digging ditches and 
delivering cast iron pipe. I do not believe 
that an average engineer would care to bid 

for a job of surveying in 

County, This is the only in- 
stance in which I have seen a certified check 
required and noticed that the successful 
bidder would be required to give bond. I 
suppose that some engineer would bid for 
this work, but I do not believe that any 
self-respecting engineer would." 



"5 



A National Point of Vie^v in Education 

By George D. Strayer 

Chairtnan of the National Committee on Chamber of Commerce Cooperation with the 

Public Schools; Professor of Educational Administration, Teachers 

College, Columbia University 



HOW shall we finance education in the 
United States? Anyone who knows 
the present situation in education 
must recognize the fact that we are face to 
face with a national crisis in education. 
From an inquiry made by the National Edu- 
cation Association last fall, it was shown 
that there were 30,000 vacancies among 
teachers in American schools. Superinten- 
dents of schools reported that more than 
60,000 teachers entering the schools for the 
first time this past fall were below the grade 
of those whose places they took in education 
and professional train- 
ing. In the United 
States only one-fifth of 
our teachers have had 
the equivalent of a four- 
year high school course 
plus two years of pro- 
fessional training. No 
other civilized country 
in the world makes so 
poor a showing with re- 
spect to the qualifications of its teachers. 

Startling Facts 

There are still communities in the United 
States in which children have as little as 
twelve weeks of school provided for them. 
There are tens of tTiousands of children who 
are in attendance in schools in which the 
language of instruction is not English, but 
a foreign tongue. There are tax-supported 
public schools in the United States in which 
the teachers are unable to speak English 
correctly, and in which English, if taught at 
all, is considered a modern foreign language. 

The total number of adult illiterates has 
been variously estimated. That the number 
is exceedingly large was established by the 
examinations given in the army camps 
which showed one man out of four unable 
to read an English newspaper and to write 
an intelligent letter home. 

No one will deny the importance of a 
program of education which will provide 
for the Americanization of the foreign- 
born. If those who come to us from for- 



Abraham Lincoln said: 
"I hope that the time 
may come when our 
country shall guarantee 
to all an unfettered start 
and a fair chance in the 
race of life." 



eign lands are to contribute most to our 
civilization, they must be given an oppor- 
tunity to understand and to appreciate our 
institutions. It is not merely a matter of 
teaching them the English language, but 
quite as much the need for the kind of as- 
sociation with them that will enable us to 
learn from them as well as to teach them. 

That we have neglected the physical well- 
being of boys and girls was made evident 
by the physical examinations conducted by 
the army, which showed one out of every 
three men unfit for "combat service." We 
need opportunities for 
play and physical educa- 
tion in American schools 
no less than we need 
better teachers of the 
subjects now found in 
our school curricula. 

Boys and girls in ru- 
ral America have not had 
a square deal. Approxi- 
mately half of all the 
public school pupils of the United States 
are enrolled in rural and village schools. 
In these schools we have to-day, for the 
most part, uneducated and untrained teach- 
ers. Thirty thousand of these teachers at 
the present time have no more than a sev- 
enth or eighth grade elementary school edu- 
cation. The schoolhouses in which these 
boys and girls are at work are for the most 
part without proper equipment in books or 
apparatus, and in very many cases unsani- 
tary and inadequate in practically every 
respect. The boys and girls from the farms 
and from the villages of the United States 
are coming into our cities. The strength 
of the city no less than the productivity of 
our farms is involved in the education pro- 
vided for these children. 

How is the situation to be met? Through- 
out the United States we have had local and 
state-wide campaigns for the increase of 
teachers' salaries, and for money to build 
school buildings involving increases in state 
and local taxation for public education. The 
situation has not yet been met. Teachers 



ii6 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



are actually less well paid now than they 
were in 1914. The increases in salaries 
have averaged approximately 61 per cent, 
while the cost of living has increased to a 
greater extent. Encouragement and aid 
from the National Government should be 
provided. 

Support the Smith-Towner Bill 

The Smith-Towner Bill, which was re- 
ported favorably by the Committee on Edu- 
cation of the House of Representatives on 
Tuesday, January 11, should be supported 
by all who believe in the future development 
of our system of public educa'tion. The bill 
provides for the organization of a Depart- 
ment of Education with a Secretary in the 
President's Cabinet. There are now in 
Washington more than two score offices, 
bureaus, divisions, boards, or branches of 
government concerned with education. An 
efficient and economic administration of the 
funds now granted by the National Govern- 
ment in support of education requires that 
they be organized under a single head. The 
dignity and practical importance of public 
education in our national life requires that a 
representative of education sit in the Cabinet 
of the President. 

The Smith-Towner Bill provides, as well, 
for appropriations of $100,000,000 to be dis- 
tributed to the states for the removal of il- 
literacy, the Americanization of the foreign- 
born, the training of teachers, the develop- 
ment of a program of physical education 
and health service, and the equalization of 
educational opportunity as between rural 
and urban areas. This encouragement of- 
fered by the National Government is by the 
provision of the bill to be met by expendi- 
tures by the state in every case as large in 
amount as that received from the National 
Government. It is provided, as well, that 
a state, in order to participate in the dis- 
tribution of funds, must maintain schools 
for all its children for at least twenty-four 
weeks in the year ; that it must have a com- 
pulsory education law requiring attendance 
between seven and fourteen years of age; 
and that it shall enact a law requiring that 
the English language shall be the basic lan- 
guage of instruction in the common school 
branches in all schools, public and private. 

Education: an Investment and an Insurance 

There are those who have suggested that 



we cannot afiFord this increased expenditure 
for public education at this time. The most 
adequate reply to this type of objection is 
found in the argument advanced by the 
British Minister of Education in advocating 
greatly increased expenditures for education 
during the period of the war. In answer 
to his opponents he declared that England 
could not afford not to spend vastly in- 
creased sums of money for education. He 
pointed out in no uncertain way that monev 
spent for education is to be considered as a 
productive expenditure. In America to-day 
we may well ask ourselves whether we may 
hope to hold our own in the economic world 
struggle which lies ahead of us if we fail to 
provide adequate education for all our peo- 
ple. When one considers, as well, the in- 
fluence of the bolshevistic or anarchistic 
agitator over the illiterate or foreign-born 
member of our society who has little or no 
appreciation of the meaning of our Amer- 
ican democracy, he may well reach the con- 
clusion that education is at the same time 
an investment and an insurance. 

Our National Government has encouraged 
education from the very beginning. With 
the formation of states out of the North- 
western Territory, land was granted in sup- 
port of education. As each state has been 
admitted to the Union since that time, 
grants of land in support of the public 
schools of the state have been made in in- 
creasing amounts. Since 1863 appropria- 
tions have been made for colleges of agri- 
culture and mechanic arts. More recently 
money has been provided by Congress for 
the development of vocational education of 
high school grade. The suggestion that the 
nation encourage the states, as is provided 
by the Smith-Towner Bill, is in line with a 
well-developed policy. Taxes paid to the 
National Government need not necessarily 
be increased in order to provide the funds. 
In the estimates submitted to Congress it is 
proposed to spend sixteen hundred million 
dollars for the War and Navy Departments. 
It may well be argued that one hundred mil- 
lion dollars taken from this amount and ex- 
pended for education would bring vastly 
greater returns to the United States. We 
have less to fear from the enmity of a for- 
eign people than we have from the lack of 
understanding of our democracy by those 
who constitute a very considerable percent- 
age of our population. 



February, I921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



117 




Courtesy of the Old Colony Magazine 

IMMIGRANT CHILDREN JUST LANDED AT ELLIS ISLAND, NEW TOEK 

Xlieix future usefulness to the community depends largely upon tbe pubUc scbools. The cost of their 

education represents an investment in American ideals 



II 



g 



THE AMERICAN CItY 



Vol. XXiV, No. 2 



State and Local Authority Upheld 

Arguments against the enactment of the 
Smith-Towner Bill have been advanced by 
those who have suggested that the propo- 
nents of the bill seek to centralize the con- 
trol of education in the National Govern- 
ment. Nothing could be farther from the 
spirit and express provisions of the bill. In 
Section 14 of the bill, as reported on Jan- 
uary II, are the following provisions : "That 
courses of study, plans and methods for 
carrying out the purposes and provisions of 
this act within a state shall be determined 
by the state and local educational author- 
ities of said state, and this act shall not be 
construed to require uniformity of courses 
of study, plans and methods in the several 
states in order to secure the benefits herein 
provided; and provided further, that all the 
educational facilities encouraged by the pro- 
visions of this act and accepted by a state 
shall be organized, supervised, and adminis- 
tered exclusively by 'the legally constituted 
state and local educational authorities of 
said state, " 

If anything further were needed to estab- 
lish the fact that the centralization of au- 
thority or control of education is not con- 
templated, it can be found in the resolution 
favoring the passage of the measure adopted 
by the National Education Association at 
its annual meeting at Salt Lake City last 
July. A commission of this association 
drafted the bill originally and has supported 
it vigorously during the past eighteen 
months. The resolution reads as follows : 

"We urge the immediate passage of the 
Smith-Towner Bill by which federal par- 
ticipation in the support of public education 
is provided and which, at the same time, pre- 
serves the autonomy of the state in the 
management of its schools. We condemn 
the efforts of the enemies of the public 
schools to defeat this measure, particularly 
by stigmatizing it as a measure which in- 
volves national control of education. Such 
control is not only clearly unconstitutional, 
but it is out of harmony with the spirit of 
American institutions. This Association 
pledges itself unreservedly to oppose any 



movement or proposal that would centralize 
control of the public schools." 

Wide Endorsement of the Bill 

The Smith-Towner Bill has the warmest 
support of those responsible for the adminis- 
tration of public education in the United 
States. Every state superintendent of 
schools, with possibly a single exception, has 
approved the measure and is working for its 
passage. The state, city, and county super- 
intendents of schools in their last annual 
meeting, with more than four thousand men 
present, unanimously endorsed the measure. 
It is even more significant that laymen's or- 
ganizations have debated the question and 
have endorsed the measure and are working 
for its passage. Among those that have 
given their unqualified support are : Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor, American Feder- 
ation of Teachers, General Federation of 
Women's Clubs, National Congress of 
Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations, 
American Library Association, National 
Council of Jewish Women, Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae, Patriotic Order Sons 
of America, National League of Women 
Voters, and National Society Daughters of 
the American Revolution. 

America must wake up if she is to hold 
her place among the great peoples of the 
world. A failure to provide education for 
all the boys and girls of America is to in- 
vite disaster. The most direct and effective 
channel through which the forces of social 
control can operate is the public school. Ig- 
norance cannot be segregated. The failure 
to provide education in one part of the 
country is a weakness that affects the whole 
country. If we are to make good the prom- 
ise of democracy in terms of an equalization 
of educational opportunity, the nation must 
encourage and aid its schools. May we not 
look forward to the realization of the ideal 
of our democracy as expressed by Abraham 
Lincoln when he said : 

"I hope the time may come when our 
country shall guarantee to all an unfettered 
start and a fair chance in the race of 
life." 



119 



Combined Open Air Swimming Pool and 
Hockey Rink at Milton, Mass. 

By Robert Spurr Weston 

Weston & Sampson, Consulting Engineers, Boston, Mass. 



or polluted, or 
For such, arti- 



EVERY boy, every 
girl for that matter, 
needs a "swimmin'- 
hole" or its equivalent. 
Fortunate indeed is the 
youngster who has access 
to one, or to clean and 
copious streams, or to 
pond, bay or ocean. Not 
all are so situated. Fre- 
quently 

"The bridge of the railroad 

now crosses the spot 
Where the old divin'-log 

lays sunk and fergot." 

Often where there are the 
most who desire to bathe, 
the streams are small 
the waters are unsafe, 
ficial pools and ponds are being provided in 
increasing number. These pools have been 
very popular, and usually the number of 
users has been underestimated by their de- 
signers. 

S'uch a pool has recently been completed 
in Cunningham Park, Milton, Mass., one of 
the southerly suburbs of Boston. This pool 
is so arranged that it may be converted into 
a hockey rink in winter, thus greatly ex- 
tending its yearly period of service. 

The Source and the Site 

The source of supply for the pool is a 
small, clean brook which rises in the near- 
by Blue Hills of the State Reservation. In 
summer the discharge of this brook is fre- 
quently less than lOO gallons per minute. 
For that reason and others, the contents of 
the pool are circulated continuously through 
a filter, a method commonly used for keep- 
ing indoor tanks in proper condition. 

The site is a low-lying meadow,which 
was formerly flooded in winter. The soil 
consists of wet, slippery clay and many 
boulders, and, while water-tight, obviously 
increased the difficulties of construction. 
Around the meadow in which the pool is 
located, on the bordering hillocks, are fine 
old evergreens and second-growth hard- 




THE SWIMMING POOL, MILTON, MASS., SHOWING HOW IT HAS 
BEEN DESIGNED TO FIT THE CONTOUR OF THE GROUND 



wood trees of good size, which have been 
supplemented receiitly by plantings of white 
pine and hemlock, designed to give the pool 
a natural setting as shown in the illustra- 
tion above. 

Design of the Pool 

The pool is irregular in shape. The shore 
lines are curved. The outlines of the pool 
are clearly shown in the photograph. Its 
greatest length is about 315 feet, and its 
average width about 150 feet. Its greatest 
depth is 8 feet, and there is a sand beach 
with shallow water for wading, around the 
whole pool. This beach slopes towards the 
concrete lining of the deeper section. This 
lining covers an area of 180 by 80 feet, 
which are the dimensions of the hockey 
rink. Around its border are sockets which 
support stanchions. These project 4 feet, 
above the water, and are of 2-inch pipe, 
spaced 8 feet center to center. They sup- 
port the 16 by 4-inch sections of the wooden 
barrier which is placed about the hockey 
rink in winter. 

The pool and rink are well lighted from 
overhead by four 7S0-watt Mazda lamps, 
and are used in the evenings, both in winter 
and summer, thus giving pleasure to many 
who otherwise could not enjoy them. 

The pool is provided with a chute and a 
diving float. The chute is located at the east 



120 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



end, in shoal water, and is used by small 
children and other non-swimmers. The div- 
ing float consists of a platform 13 by 18 feet, 
supported upon twenty 50-gallon oil barrels. 
On one side of the float is a spring-board of 
the usual type. On the opposite side is a 
spring-board with a low platform above it, 
arranged so that bathers may jump from 
the platform to the spring-board. Between 
the spr.'ng-boards is a diving-stand with a 
platform 4 feet wide by 5 feet 6 inches long, 
elevated 7 feet above the surface of the 
float. 

The Filter 

The sand filter, which is of the slow or 
English type, is 18 by 30 feet in area, and 
is located in the south bank of the pool. It 
is built of concrete, with roof of reinforced 
concrete, the latter covered with earth over 
which vines have been planted so as not to 
detract from the natural appearance of the 
pool. The filter contains 3 feet of sand 
supported on graded gravel and under- 
drained in the usual way, with tiles. Ad- 
joining the filter is a small house, 10 feet 
square, which contains the devices for reg- 
ulating the filter, and a i^-inch motor- 
driven centrifugal pumping unit which cir- 
culates the water of the pool through the 
filter and also empties the lower section of 
the pool, which is too low to be drained by 
gravity. The walls of the filter house have 
a stucco finish, and its roof is covered with 
"color-blend" asbestos shingles. 

The waters of the brook are diverted to 
the pool by means of a low dam, a,nd flow 
through a 6-inch pipe-line, which discharges 
into either the filter or the pool, as desired. 
During most of the year the brook water 
is so clear that its filtration is not necessary, 
but if it is not clear, the pool can be filled 
through the filter. The pool holds about 
750,000 gallons of water, and the filter is 
designed to circulate its contents weekly. 

The Pool is Popular 

The hockey rink was used during the 
winter of 1919-20, but the pool was not used 
until the last of July, 1920. The pool came 
into favor instantly, and although the sum- 
mer was below the average in coolness, it 
was used beyond all expectation. The 
Trustees estimated that as many as 250 per- 
sons a day might use the pool, but on the 
last Saturday in August, five hundred, 



mostly boys and girls, availed themselves 
of the privilege. Over 8,000 bathers used 
the pool during the protracted hot wave in 
August, 1920. 

Cunningham Park is a large estate held 
in trust for the benefit of the citizens of 
Milton. The property, over 200 acres in 
area, consists largely of forest and meadow, 
with .some arable land. Within the park, 
the Trustees have established a conva- 
lescent home, and a gymnasium with bowl- 
ing alleys, tennis courts, etc., and have 
flooded the meadow for skating during the 
winter. None of these means of amuse- 
ment, however, have been so popular with 
the residents of Milton as is the new swim- 
ming pool. This experience is similar to 
that of other places where open-air pools 
have been constructed. Nothing costing so 
little seems to please so many people so 
much. 

Keeping the Pool Sanitary 

The sanitation of the pool has been a 
matter of deep concern. Bathers were per- 
mitted to use the pool before any bath- 
house could be built. The boys and girls 
came in their bathing-suits, or changed 
into them in the near-by gymnasium. It was 
impossible to insist upon baths before they 
entered the pool. Bacteriological samples 
have been collected weekly, and the findings 
are good, considering the promiscuo.us use 
of the pool. The numbers averaged 672 per 
c. c, which is considered quite remark- 
able in view of the fact that the brook water 
sometimes contains 500 bacteria per c. c. 
although the average is less than 400 per 
c. c. This is a fair bacteriological condition, 
and is due to the disinfecting action of light 
and other agencies of self-purification, and 
to the low bathing load due in turn to the 
large size of the pool. It is considered very 
important to operate the pool under bacteri- 
ological control. 

Because its construction was in wet clay 
and boulders, the cost was abnormally high, 
even for the present times. With filter, dam 
and connecting piping, it was about $40,- 
000. In most places this cost could be re- 
duced materially even with prevailing prices 
for materials and labor. 

The plant was designed by Weston & 
Sampson, consulting engineers, with the 
advice of Loring Underwood, landscape 
architect, all of Boston. 



121 



The Municipal Forest in Fitchburg, Mass. 



By G. A. Hubbard 

City Forester, Fitchburg, Mass. 



FITCHBURG, a city of hills, in Worces- 
ter County, Mass., located fifty miles 
from Boston, with a valley running 
from the Leominster line through the heart 
of the city to the Westminster line for a 
length of four or five miles, lined with manu- 
facturing plants whose products go all over 
the world, was the first city in America to 
establish a municipal forest. On December 
29, 1914, during the administration of Hon. 
B. A. Cook as mayor, a petition was intro- 
duced by Dr. D. S. Woodworth, Chairman 
of the Park Commission, as follows: 

Ordinance for placing wider control of the 
City Forester certain tracts of land belonging 
to the city. 

Ordered : that the tracts of land herein men- 
tioned and belonging to the city, be and hereby 
are placed under the supervision, control and 
management of the City Forester as a part of 
the public domain, to be devoted to the culture 
of forest trees and, incidentally in some meas- 
ure, to the preservation of the water-supply of 
the city : 

First, a tract of land of approximately 50 
acres, located on Turnpike Road (so-called) 
and known as the Wanoosnoc Lot. 

Second, a tract of land of approximately 31.24 
acres, located on Rindge Road and known as the 
Taylor Farm. 

Third, two tracts of land of approximately 



16 and 8 acres, respectively, and located on the 
Ashby Road, and known as the Raymond Lot. 
The order was adopted in concurrence, 
presented to the Mayor and approved by him 
December 29, 1914. 

Description of Tracts 

The land forming the forest is composed 
of four lots with a total of 109 acres and 
s tuated in different parts of the city. The 
upper Raymond tract consists of 10 acres on 
the boundary line of Fitchburg and Ashby. 
This 10 acres is covered with hard wood of 
about 25 years' growth, and is in good grow- 
ing condition. A little west of this tract is 
the lower Raymond Lot, which consists of 
21 acres. More than half of this area is well 
covered with white pine of about thirty 
years' growth, the remainder of the lot 
being in hardwood, and a small portion of 
pasture covered with juniper. A small part 
has been cleared preparatory to planting with 
pine. 

A little nearer the city is situated the 
Taylor Lot of 31 acres. About 19 acres of 
this lot is covered with pine of probably 40 
years' growth. The remainder, aside from, 
a small portion that naturally seeded, has 
been planted with white and Scotch pine. A 



SMAIiIi FINES WITH FHUB HAZABD OF DBY OBASS 



122 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 




A STAND OF WHITE PINE — BETWEEN SO AND 40 TEARS' GROWTH 



portion of this planting has been in for five 
years, and the rest of the lot has been 
planted three years. The planting and the 
condition of this lot make a good object 
lesson, and show conclusively that planting 
pine where natural seeding does not do the 
work is a practical undertaking. After the 
young stock becomes established, — which 
usually takes the first year, — rapid progress 
is made. During the third year the growth 
is frequently from i to i>^ feet, and after 
five years individual trees have been noticed 
with a new growth of fully 3 feet. 

The Wanoosnoc Lot is situated on 
Wanoosnoc Hill in the southern part of the 
city adjoining the Leominster line, and has 
an area of 47 acres. About 15 acres is 
covered with hardwood growth and chest- 
nut about post size. A portion of the chest- 
nut has been cut and the remainder must 
soon be cut, as the chestnut blight is making 
headway and nearly all the trees are 
affected. This disease is reducing the chest- 
nut stands in Massachusetts very rapidly, 
and within a few years it will be impossible 
to find chestnut timber for poles, posts, 
plank, and many other important needs 
which this valuable tree has filled. The good 
old days of chestnutting, which was often 
a source of revenue as well as pleasure, will 
be a thing of the past, remembered only by 
the older people, who will tell the younger 
generation about picking up chestnuts by the 
bushel when they were young. It is hoped 
to find a method of fighting the blight. 



Success of the Project 

Forestry firms doing planting by contract 
usually guarantee from 70 to 80 per cent of 
planted stock to live, but in the experience 
of Fitchburg a much larger percentage is 
made to survive. The planting done during 
the last three years shows over 90 per cent 
alive to-day. Of course sufficient rainfall 
during the first month or two is essential. 
Assuming that the trees are properly planted 
and there is reasonable precipitation, the 
per cent should show well above 90. The 
earlier the planting can be done after the 
ground opens, the better. 

Waste land is a liability and usually 
entirely non-producing. This liability can 
be changed to an asset by adopting reason- 
able and inexpensive methods which are 
beyond the experimental stage and have 
been demonstrated as practical, good busi- 
ness. Many states are to-day buying up 
and reforesting waste land, a plan which is 
being followed by many progressive in- 
dividuals and which should be adopted by 
municipalities. 

Many cities and towns already own land 
used as watersheds or otherwise which could 
be planted. The main thing is to plant, 
whether it be done officially through a 
municipal forest or not. Every tree warden, 
every park board, every water board, and 
every individual who has land suitable for 
this purpose should do a little each year. 
The surroundings of reservoirs and sources 
of supply must be wooded to a certain extent. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



123 



These many acres can be planted, and as 
they reach harvesting age, can be thinned 
and replaced, making a source of revenue, 
as well as helping to conserve moisture and 
to improve appearance. 

The Necessity of Fire Lines 

Fire lines must be maintained in planting, 
for the fire menace is greater w^hen the trees 
are small than later on. Fire not only 
destroys the young trees but also reduces 
the humus cover, which is fertilizer and re- 
tains moisture. Especially is this true for 
old pasture land. During the first five years, 
until the stand is capable of making shade, 
all sorts of weeds and grasses make a fire 
hazard which should be guarded against by 
fire-breaks; then, should fire start it could 
be handled without sacrificing the whole. 
Forest fires cause a loss of over twenty mil- 
lion dollars a year. 

A fire line cleared of brush from 10 to 20 
feet wide around or through a lot will insure 
protection from approaching fire by giving 
a position from which to fight. Fire notices 
should be posted in conspicuous places each 
year, and. replaced if removed. 

In the larger areas of newly planted stock 
the fire-break is of great importance, for the 
grasses form a fire hazard which is nearly 
always like tinder, drying in a few hours 
after rain, and as fire creates its own wind, 
sometimes traveling at race-horse speed. In 
the view on page 122 is shown a lot entirely 
of white pine of from 30 to 40 years' growth. 
The shade causes moisture to be retained, 
and the fire-lines need be only around the 
outside as protection from adjacent lots. 
Cases of fire loss in pine of this size are 
rare, for any serious damage would be 
caused by crown fires, which would come 
from the outside and be very intense. 

The Value of Reforested Land 

The present high prices of lumber are a 
great temptation for a man who has waited 
a long time for his pine lot to mature, and 
many are putting pine into money too soon. 
The writer has seen large quantities cut when 
to have left it a few years would have been 
the better investment. Owners of pine lots 
need have no fear of a slackening demand 
or a diminishing price, for waste in hand- 
ling due to the old idea that timber re- 
sources are inexhaustible is gone, and rea- 
son and common sense are urgently calling 
to intelligent people's attention the duty of 



reforesting. This must be emphasized 
generally, not only to state and city forestry 
departments, but to individuals. Those acres 
which are not working should be made to 
pay. The initial expense is small, and after 
a few years comes the steady increase in 
value. 

In the spring of 1919 the Forestry Depart- 
ment of Fitchburg planted for an ex-mayor 
of the city an area taking 125,000 pines. 
This man is 65 years old, and there is no 
thought of his cutting these trees at 
maturity. He is planting for the future, 
and his pleasure in watching the trees grow 
is a sure reward. 

Land suitable for this purpose can usually 
be obtained at very low cost, probably 
around $5 per acre. Planted 6 by 6, it costs 
about $12.50 per acre for the transplants, 
and with $8 for the cost of planting, the 
total cost is $25.50 per acre. In some states 
land so improved is exempt from taxes for 
a period of years. This is not all the prob- 
able expense until maturity. In large areas 
a few replacements may be necessary, but 
usually, provided 90 per cent live, the few 
trees that die are so scattered they are not 
replaced. 

City Forests Invaluable 

In state or individual planting white pine 
is generally used, being of more monetary 
value than any other. In city forests, from 
an educational standpoint, a few Scotch and 
Norway pine may well be planted. In our 
locality, where the gypsy moth is at home, it 
is not advisable to have pine and hardwood 
together. The hardwood should be removed, 
leaving the pine, and thus making it immune 
from moth pests. In lots of hardwood 
growth, white ash is recommended for 
planting, as it is practically moth-proof. 

The results visible in the Fitchburg muni- 
cipal forest at this writing show conclusively 
that tracts of land not suitable for crop 
culture can be utilized and made to produce 
valuable products. The value of this work 
for a community or an individual is of far- 
reaching consequence, and demonstrated 
success is an incentive for increased efforts. 

Of course in the forming of a municipal 
forest from four-year-old transplants a con- 
siderable period of time must elapse before 
the stand shows that it is a practical busi- 
ness proposition. Rather than having to 
begin from the ground up, it is advisable to 
purchase land at a higher cost than that of 



124 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



waste land — for example, a lot partially 
covered with young growth, giving oppor- 
tunity for planting. Private owners or state 
plantings can use with success the waste 
land; but with a city, if the land is to serve 
a recreative and instructive purpose, a 
partly grown portion is to be preferred. 

The acquisition and maintenance of a 
municipal forest ought to be an easy matter 
for any city or town. Some man who is alive 
to the benefits must move, and the beginning 
requires a hard push, but after the first lot 
is obtained and a start made, the positive 



results soon and easily obtained will warrant 
enlarged operations. In many places there 
are people public-spirited enough to give for 
this purpose land that is not suitable for crop 
cultivation. Trees and rocks are the best of 
friends. 

The last session of the Massachusetts 
Legislature passed a bill providing for the 
purchase and planting of 100,000 acres of 
land. Many lumbermen appeared in sup- 
port of the measure, which is ample proof 
of the need of insuring our future lumber 
supply. 



Traveling Forestry Exhibits for Public 
Libraries in New York State 

New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse Spreads Educational 
Material Throughout State 



THIRTY-SIX libraries in New York 
State through cooperation with the 
State College of Forestry will have an 
opportunity to demonstrate to their patrons 
the different phases of forestry and what 
forestry is doing in the state to help develop 
idle lands. This demonstration is made by 
traveling "pocket exhibits" which are sent to 
the various libraries by the College of 
Forestry. The exhibit consists of eighteen 
panels divided into sets of six panels each. 
Each set is in a town or city for two weeks 
and is then sent on to the next town on the 
circuit and the second set installed for a 
second fortnight. 

The Nature of the Exhibits 

How the ambrosia beetle destroys trees by 
growing its own feed in a form of fungus 
which discolors and impairs the value of the 
timber, is graphically shown by Set No. 
I. The work of this beetle which, like that of 
the elm leaf beetle, threatens destruction to 
the beautiful shade trees of New York 
State, is illustrated in pictures and samples 
of the affected trees. The ambrosia beetle 
grows within the holes it makes in the 
wood, and damages lumber by running in- 
dividual food gardens. The work done by 
fungus is also shown, with the story of the 
blister rust, which has worked havoc among 
the white pines of America and whose 
ravages have caused a nation-wide cam- 
paign to eradicate the pest. 



The reforestation panel included in Set 
No. I shows what happens when cut-over 
lands are allowed to be burned and the 
erosion which follows makes what was once 
a productive forest a waste of barren rock. 
The panels are designed to show that New 
York should add to its forest wealth by 
making its forest lands grow crops of trees. 

Set No. 2 shows how the waste of the 
forest can be converted into clothes-line and 
other such substances. Here is shown the 
progress of the tree from the forest to the 
clothes-line. First, it is converted into pulp 
by grinding, and is cooked and treated in the 
paper mill until it is ready for the next step 
in the process of manufacture. It is conver- 
ted from pulp into kraft paper, a tough type 
of paper, which is then twisted and treated 
until the ground wood paste has been turned 
into clothes-line that will not soften or 
weaken when the Monday wash is hung up- 
on it. Another feature of the exhibit is the 
silk made from what was also the waste of 
the forest. To-day artifical silk stockings 
are being made from sawdust, by chemical 
conversion of the wood into cellulose, and 
its weaving into fabric. There were 15,000,- 
000 pairs of artificial silk stockings made 
from wood in America last year. 

This set includes a panel which is of parti- 
cular interest to those who are thinking of 
taking up forestry as their life work, as it 
shows typical episodes of student life. Pic- 
tures show the students not only in college, 



FebruarV, 19^1 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



125 





wmA 


6 ^ 






.1 





SAMPLE PANEL OF THE TRAVELING EXHIBITS 



but also in summer camp at Cranberry Lake 
and at the State Ranger School at Wana- 
kena. 

The story of forest recreation and city 
forestry is graphically told by art photo- 
graphs in the third and last set of the pocket 
exhibits. One panel, for instance, shows the 
municipal forest of Los Angeles, which has 
a public camping ground in the Angeles Na- 
tional Forest, known as Camp Seeley, where 
whole families are allowed to go at the 



lowest possible 
cost, for two 
weeks each. It 
costs only about 
$9 a week per 
person, and for 
this amount each 
family is pro- 
vided with its 
food from the 
camp kitchen, its 
own cottage, and 
even the railroad 
fare of about 75 
miles to and 
from Los An- 
geles. 

How the city 
forester works to 
give a city the 
proper types of 
shade trees and 
to keep the 
streets and parks beautiful from the stand- 
point of the forester, is also shown, as 
well as the development of school and home 
grounds. Various pictures of the Adiron- 
dack forest, an Adirondack lean-to and a 
state camp fire are also displayed in this set. 
The exhibits are furnished by the College 
of Forestry, and the libraries pay the ex- 
press charges between the cities on the cir- 
cuit, thus carrying the gospel of forestry to 
many thousands of people. 



Highway Departments Store Road Material in Winter 



Attention has been called in the editorial 
pages of The American City to the need 
for shipping and storing road-building ma- 
terial during the winter and early spring, in 
order to expedite construction work in the 
short open season, particularly in the North- 
ern States. We beg to call attention to 
some instances where governmental units 
have taken advantage of this method of ex- 
pediting road construction. 

Ogden, Utah, shipped in sufficient ma- 
terial for 20 miles of roadway last winter, 
and this road was completed in record time 
during the 1920 construction season. The 
state of Delaware has followed this prac- 
tice for three years. The Board of Free- 
holders of Passaic County, New Jersey, has 
acquired a central storage yard for stock 
piling road materials this winter. An 
Illinois city, Belleville, has already stored 



cement for next season's work. 

A number of states, recognizing the advan- 
tage of the early transportation and storage 
of material, have made it possible 'to pay 
the contractor in full or in part for the ma- 
terial when it is delivered. It can now be 
done in the following states: Alabama, 
Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecti- 
cut, Georgia, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, 
Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Minne- 
sota, Michigan, Nebraska, New Hampshire, 
New York, Rhode Island, South Dakota, 
Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Wis- 
consin, Wyoming, District of Columbia, 
Oregon and Vermont. In ten other states 
such procedure is not possible at the present 
time under existing statutes. In only three 
states is there any sentiment against this 
procedure. 



126 



"House-Cleaning*' for Water-Mains 

Flushing of Mains in Terre Haute Worthy of Note by Municipalities 



N 



O matter how good 
the water-supply, 
nor how clear and 
sparkling the water sent 
into the service mains of 
a city, there is bound to 
be some accumulation of 
sediment, just as there is 
some dust always to be 
found in the home that 
is swept and dusted 
daily. In order to re- 
move this sediment and 
to keep the mains in 
good condition, the 
Terre Haute Water 
Works Company, Terre 
Haute, Ind., flushes out 
the mains two or three 
times a year. Extra 
help is secured, and the 
hydrants nearest the sta- 
tion are opened up so 
that there are six 2j^- 
inch streams discharged 
at one time with two 
nozzles to a hydrant. As 
soon as the water from 
the hydrant nearest the 
station is running clear, 
and while it is being closed, the man at the 
fourth hydrant is just opening that up and 
the man from hydrant number one goes to 
number five. In this way the discolored 
water is confined to a limited area. Freshly 
filtered water follows up the flushing, flow- 
ing through the pipes that have been cleaned. 

When the hydrants in the business dis- 
trict are being flushed, the gang goes out 
about 4 :30 in the morning, so that the work 
can be done before heavy trafhc appears. 

In order to do efifective cleaning, it is 
necessary to materially increase the velocity 
or rate of flow in the mains. Hence, three 
hydrants are opened at one time. In order 
to get the greatest benefit from the flow, 
the water is permitted to run out onto the 
street instead of running through a hose to 
the nearest catch-basin, because the friction 
of the hose would reduce the rate of flow. 



We Are Gleaning House 



Twice a year, we flush aur street mains., 
which is similar to Cleaning House, thus follow- 
ing the example set by all good housekeepers. 

Cleaning house is expensive and not the most 
agreeable task in. the world, but we believe the 
good people of Terre Haute are entitled to the 

best possible service. .... 

Jf the water does not become clear in a little 

while, kindly advise us. 



THE TERRE HAUTE WATER 
WORKS COMPANY 

XELEPHOIME— 215 



THE NEWSPAPER ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE ' 'HOUSE-CLEANING' ' 



In Terre Haute it usually takes about 
6,000,000 gallons to flush the hydrants, and 
the extra labor amounts to several hundred 
dollars, in addition to the value of the 
water used for flushing. This work vir- 
tually amounts also to a testing of the hy- 
drants, so that it is insured that they are in 
good condition for use by the fire depart- 
ment. On one occasion two hydrants were 
found broken below the ground. They had 
evidently been hit by automobiles or trucks, 
and no notification had been sent to head- 
quarters. 

It would be well for more municipalities 
to seriously consider this proposition of 
regular flushing of the service mains, in 
order that there may be fewer complaints 
by consumers after fires. If sediment is 
regularly removed through flushing, there 
is no opportunity for such complaints. 



127 



Maintenance Cheaper Than New Roads 

By Philip P. Sharpies 



THE 1920 road program throughout 
most of the United States was a pro- 
gram reduced at every point until in 
reality it amounted to little beyond an at- 
tempt to finish work begun during the previ- 
ous year. Road officials were forced to see 
what could be done with the roads they al- 
ready had, or, in case construction was ab- 
solutely necessary, were obliged to turn 
from more expensive types of road surfac- 
ing to the contemplation of cheaper means 
of providing a road suitable for modern 
traffic. 

The money that can be saved by revamp- 
ing an old road, rather than reconstructing 
it, may best be stated in figures: to rebuild 
a road of standard 18- foot width with any 
of the modern first-class pavements costs in 
the neighborhood of $40,000 for the top 
alone, irrespective of the grading and drain- 
age. The interest on this money at the 
present time, even at 5 per cent, amounts 
to $2,000 per year. We must also provide 
for replacing the road when it is worn out. 



Giving the road the extraordinary long life 
of 20 years would call for $2,000 a year to 
be set aside for replacement. In addition 
to this, every road requires maintenance 
and up-keep, and this can hardly amount to 
less than $500 per mile per year through 
any period of years. We thus have as a 
total of our yearly expenditures, in case we 
build a new top, $4,500 per mile per year. 
In other words, if in any way we can so 
take care of the road that is already in use 
as to make it acceptable to the traveling 
public for anything less than $4,500, we 
have saved the city, county or state money. 
This is an aspect of road building that has 
not been popular with road engineers. It 
has been more fun to design and construct 
new roads than to devise means for caring 
for our old roads and then carrying out the 
work economically and acceptably. 

Pennsylvania's Road Thrift 

The state of Pennsylvania has realized 
for some time the merits of taking care of 




WHITZSHAUi BOAD, BIUSKEaON COUNTY, MICHIGA27 

This photograph shows the contrast between an untreated gravel road and one which has received 

annual treatments with Tarvla "B" and coverings of limestone chips since 1915 



128 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



the roads they have. If this had not been 
so, it would not now be possible to travel 
over the Lincoln Highway from one end 
of Pennsylvania to the other with com- 
paratively little discomfort. It is true that 
the old road breaks up in places in the 
spring, but these are put in shape again and 
the road receives maintenance by patching 
with some of the new road-patching com- 
pounds, and by surface treatments of bitu- 
minous materials. These simple means for 
car'ng for the state's macadam roads are 
sufficient to keep them going except where 
the traffic becomes extremely dense and 
heavy. Even here the state has foun 
means of resurfacing the old macadam roads 
at a comparatively light expense so that they 
may again carry the traffic of trucks and 
automobiles over a smooth and easy-riding 
surface. The writer refers particularly to 
the work that has been done on the Lan- 
caster Pike going out of Philadelphia. 

Other states have devised other methods 
of handling the same problem ; for example, 
the work on the old National Pike in Mary- 
land, carried along year by year in a very 
acceptable way with bituminous surface 
treatments. The state of Massachusetts, 
the oldest in a constructive highway policy, 
has improved year by year its original high- 
ways by very simple methods of resurfac- 
ing. The penetration method has given ex- 
cellent results, and even the heavy motor 
truck traffic in the vicinity of Boston is 
largely carried on this type of road. Simi- 
lar methods to that used on the Lancaster 
Pike have also been used in Massachusetts 
with success. 

The problem is the same in cities and 



towns. Philadelphia, for example, has a 
large mileage of old macadam streets that 
it can ill afford at the present high prices to 
throw away. William H. Connell, former 
Chief of the Bureau of Highways, showed 
what could be done in the residential dis- 
trict on this type of road by smoothing up 
and rebuilding many miles and then sur- 
face-treating them with tar materials. The 
work started by him is still carried on by the 
city. 

Pennsylvania state highways traverse 
many incorporated boroughs. Some of 
these evince the pride of ownership and have 
put the streets traversed by the state high- 
way in good condition; others have lost 
their sense of pride, or else abide their time, 
thinking that if the road is bad enough the 
state will step in and help them. These 
borough thoroughfares are a neglected part 
of the state's programs for good roads. 
Some of the well-known cheaper methods 
of road building would be applicable to 
these now abandoned thoroughfares. The 
main street of Leroy, N. Y., a splendid, 
wide thoroughfare between the stores, tra- 
versed by the East West Mohawk Valley 
Trunk Line, was in deplorable condition 
last year, and it was thought it would be 
necessary to appropriate a large sum of 
money to rebuild it. The town engineer, 
however, seeing that the appropriation 
would not be possible for the town's 
finances, begged to be allowed, to try a 
simple experiment in rescarifying, reshap- 
ing and treating with a cold tar application. 
The result was a splendid success, and the 
street is carrying a heavy traffic and is a 
pleasure to the town's inhabitants. 



The Looks of the Town 



By L. S. Cole 



Most of our cities depend primarily on 
geographical or geological location for their 
prosperity, yet some of those most fortunate in 
these respects often fail to attract desirable 
industries, and even frequently fail to hold 
those already located within their borders. In 
many cities "booster" clubs tell of the wonders 
and glories to be found therein, and when we 
approach these cities, we are greeted with the 
most uninviting, tumble-down assortment of 
buildings imaginable. Our railroad depots are 
sometimes located in the worst parts of town. 
How can we expect the town seeker to be 
other than disappointed? How else is he to 



measure the community service we have to 
offer? Surely the town that is made pleasant 
to live in from the standpoint of merchant, 
workman, and property owner alike is assured 
of peace and plenty. And just as surely, the 
town that fails, through lack of foresight or 
planning to provide the proper civic service 
will pay the penalty due to the stultified growth 
and decadence which must surely overtake its 
industries. 

Acknowledgment. — From an address delivered be- 
fore the annual convention of the Indiana Real Estate 
Association, Muncie, Ind. 



129 



Remodeling and Enlarging the Water 
and Light Plant at Perry, Oklahoma 



By W. C. Harmon, Jr. 



EXTENSIVE im- 
provements to the 
water and light plant 
have just been completed 
by the city of Perry, Okla. 
These include a concrete 
dam, a flow line of 12- 
inch cast iron pipe, a low- 
service pump pit, and mo- 
tor-driven centr i f u g a 1 
pumps, reconstructed set- 
tling-basins, new rapid 
sand filter plant of 1,000,- 
000 gallons per day capa- 
city, new motor-driven 
turbine pump for high 
service, Diesel oil engines 
and generators to replace 
the present steam power 
plant equipment, and necessary changes to 
buildings. 

The water-supply had previously been se- 
cured from two impounding reservoirs, one 
of about 20,000,000 gallons capacity located 
on the west side of the town, the other in the 
hills southeast of the town, having a capac- 
ity determined by its drainage area of about 
one square mile. Both of these are con- 
nected to the new plant. The low-service 




INTERIOE VIEW OF PERRY, OKLA., FILTEE PLANT 



pumps can draw from the pipe line from the 
west reservoir, while the reservoir in the 
hills is high enough to discharge directly 
into the filter plant. 

The Dam and the Reservoir 

To secure the needed additional water- 
supply, a new impounding concrete dam was 
built in Cow Creek, just above the water 
plant. The dam is built of mass concrete, 




130 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 




ONE OF THE DUPLICATE SETS OP 180-HOBSE-POWEB DIESEL 
ENGINES 



290 feet long, 21 feet high above low water, 
and 23 feet above the rock on which it is 
founded. There are reinforced concrete 
wing-walls at each end of the dam, having 
a total length of 63 feet on one end and 73 
feet on the other. The dam is designed to 
pass a flood 3 feet deep over its crest. A 
notch in the crest at the location of the 
stream channel, 6 inches deep and 30 feet 
long, gives an opening for the ordinary 
flow of the stream. 

The new reservoir thus formed has a 
drainage area of 30 square miles, a water 
area of 30 acres, and an average depth of 
9.5 feet, with a total storage of over 100,- 
000,000 gallons and an available storage of 
83,000,000 gallons. A dam and reservoir of 
the Santa Fe Railway will be submerged by 
the new lake, and in figuring the available 
storage a maximum allowance is made for 
water used by the Railway Company. This 
reservoir, with the two present reservoirs, 
will give the city sufficient storage capacity 
to supply 500.000 gallons per day over the 
longest known dry period. 

There was no record of the consumption 
of water available at the time the designs 
were made, but it has probably been less 
than 200,000 gallons per day. The popula- 
tion was estimated at about 4,000, so that 
the 500,000 gallons per day from the plant 
will be sufficient for some time to come. 

An intake manhole is built in the dam, in 
which are three sluice-gates at different ele- 
vations so that the best water may always 
be used. Each sluice gate is protected by a 
screen of bar iron with 2-inch clear open- 



ing. From the intake 
manhole a 12-inch cast 
iron pipe leads to the low- 
service pump pit. 

The pit for the low-serv- 
ice pumps is built of rein- 
forced concrete, 12 feet 
square and 24 feet deep. 
This is low enough so that 
water reaches the pumps 
by gravity most of the 
time. There are two 400- 
gallon-per-minute, centri- 
fugal pumps, horizontal, 
direct-connected to three- 
phase, 220-volt induction 
motors. The water is dis- 
charged into the first mix- 
ing basin of the new plant 
from these pumps. 
The old settling basins were revised and 
used in the new layout. The two basins 
were each 50 feet by 85 feet on top, total 
depth 10 feet, and concrete-lined with slop- 
ing sides. They were separated by a thin 
buttressed partition wall. The capacity of 
the basins was increased by building a wall 
on top of the outside curb, increasing the 
depth to 13 feet 6 inches, with a water depth 
of approximately 12 feet. This was re- 
quired so that the filters could be located at 
a desirable elevation, to furnish an anchor- 
age for the weirs and to lengthen the period 
of sedimentation. Inlet and outlet weirs 
were built in each basin so as to make the 
flow uniform, and the partition wall was 
raised to the same height as the outside 
walls. The water now passes through one 
basin and then through the other. The re- 
vised basins have a capacity of 650,000 gal 
Ions, which gives a settling period of 15^ 
hours, when the plant is operated at a rate 
of 1,000,000 gallons per day. The average 
speed of horizontal travel is i/io-foot per 
minute for the 1,000,000-gallon rate. 

The Filter Plant 

The new filter plant is built at the end of 
the power plant and adjoins the settling 
basins. It includes two coagulating basins, 
two filter units, and a clear well, and is built 
of reinforced concrete surmounted by a 
building of stone masonry and stucco on 
metal lath. 

The two coagulating basins each have a 
period of flow of approximately 50 minutes 
at the rate of 1,000,000 gallons per day. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



131 



They are equipped with mechanical agi- 
tators for mixing in the coagulating chemi- 
cals, consisting of two steel paddles in each 
basin, all driven by a water motor. The 
water enters one basin from the low-service 
pumps, and may be dosed with either lime 
or sulphate of alumina. After passing 
through the coagulating basin, the water 
goes through the settling basins and enters 
the other coagulating basin. It is there 
dosed with sulphate of aluminum, and after 
mixing flows to the filters. 

There are two filter units of reinforced 
concrete, each 14 feet by 14 feet in plan. 
Operating at a normal rate of 2 gallons per 
minute per square foot, the two filters have 
a total rate of approximately 1,125,000 gal- 
lons per day. Since the estimated maximum 
average consumption is less than half of 
this, 500,000 gallons per day, it may be sup- 
plied by about 11 hours' run of the filter 
plant. This capacity allows for the supply- 
ing of extraordinary demands and for oper- 
ation with one unit out of service. 

The filters are of standard construction, 
with a 30-inch bed of filter sand supported 
by an 18-inch bed of graded gravel. The 
underdrains consist of a cast iron manifold 
tapped for wrought pipe laterals, 6 inches 
center to center. The lateral pipes are 
placed above the concrete floor, and have 
3/16-inch holes on the bottom, 4^ inches 
apart, with alternate holes staggered from 
side to side, having an angle of 90 degrees 
between them. Bronze bushings are tapped 
into the lateral pipes for these openings. 
Venturi type effluent controllers are used, 
with a float controller butterfly valve to 
stop the filter when the clear well is full. 
Float-type loss-of-head gauges are used. 

High velocity wash, without air, is used. 
There are three cast iron gutters in each 
filter unit, designed to handle a washing 
rate of 16 gallons per square foot per min- 
ute. The wash water is stored in a cypress 
tank on the second floor of the plant, which 
has a capacity of 17,500 gallons. 

The greater part of the building is two 
stories high, and reinforced concrete was 
used for the floor construction. The second 
floor is used for chemical storage, and con- 
tains the wash-water tank and chemical 
solution tanks. There are two cypress solu- 
tion tanks for aluminum sulphate, discharg- 
ing into either of two orifice boxes. One 
orifice box may be used to dose the raw 
water as it enters the first coagulating basin, 



and the other one may dose the settled water 
as it enters the second coagulating basin. 
A dry lime feeding machine on the first 
floor is fed from a hopper on the chemical 
floor, and in turn feeds the chemical into 
the first basin. It is electrically driven. 

The high-service pumping equipment is 
completely revised for electrical operation. 
The city had on hand a 500-gaIlon-per- 
minute turbine pump, motor-driven, de- 
signed to pump against a head of 231 feet. 
This is to be used as a fire pump. A new 
400-gallon-per-minute motor-driven turbine 
pump, operating against 200-foot head, was 
purchased for use as a service pump. Both 
pumps were installed on the pipe gallery 
floor of the new plant and draw from the 
clear well below. The water is sterilized by 
the application of chlorine into the pump 
suction. 

The work also includes the rebuilding of 
the electric light plant. The old single- 
phase steam-driven generators were replaced 
by new oil-engine-driven units. These are 
i8o-b.h.p. Diesel engines driving 150-kv.- 
amp., 2,300-volt, 60-cycle alternators. A 
new switchboard and new station wiring 
were required. 

For One -Man Operation 

It should be noted that the water and light 
plant is designed for one-man operation. 
The operator standing at one end of the 
filter operating floor will have in view the 
raw water as it enters the plant, the coagu- 
lating basins, the filters, the high-service 
pumps on the floor below, and the oil en- 
gines, alternators and switchboard in the 
engine room. The starters for both the 
high-service and low-service pumps will be 
within reach. The only part of the plant not 
visible from the one position is the low- 
service pumps in their pit 150 feet away. 

The plant was designed and construction 
was supervised by Black & Veatch, consult- 
ing engineers, Kansas City, Mo. C. G. 
Bayles was resident engineer on the job. 
The dam, filter plant, and pipe lines were 
built by Alderson and Knox, of Perry. The 
filter equipment, filter piping, wash-water 
tank, and chemical equipment were furnished 
and installed by the Roberts Filter Com- 
pany, of Darby, Pa. The Diesel engines 
were furnished and installed by the Busch 
vSulzer Bros.-Diesel Engine Company, and 
the pumps by the F. M. Beeson Machinery 
Company, of Kansas City. 



132 



Unusual Service of a Storm Drain 

How a Corrugated Iron Drain Carried Debris and Heavy Boulders 

in Pomona, Calif. 

By Carence E. Bay ley 

City Engineer of Pomona, California 



ONE of the municipal improvements 
of which the city of Pomona, Calif., 
feels proud is the 4-foot corrugated 
storm drain which was installed in 1915. 
This drain consisted of 581 feet of 14-gauge 
Armco ingot iron corrugated pipe and in- 
cluded seven elbows. 

As it turned out, the drain was installed 
in the nick of time, for, on January 16, 
1916, Pomona and vicinity was visited by 
a storm which for destructiveness was per- 
haps the worst in the city's history. 
Bridges and culverts were washed out right 
and left, as well as long stretches of paved 
highway. Very extensive damage was done, 
the storm waters undermining and ruining 
many structures which had been placed with 
reasonable expectations of permanence. 

It did one's heart good, however, to see 
how the new corrugated storm drain stood 
up and did its work. By its successful 
operation thousands of dollars worth of 
property was saved which would otherwise 
have gone down to destruction. 



The aspect of the matter which made the 
• greatest impression on the author's mind 
was the absence of any noticeable damage 
from the rocks, gravel and debris which the 
flood waters carried through the corrugated 
pipe. An automobilist who was caught in 
the flood states that he was driving down the 
road at twenty-five miles per hour, during 
the storm, and the trash carried by the 
ditch into which the pipe empties was trav- 
eling as fast as was his car. The pipe 
was installed at a grade of about two per 
cent, and with the debris being carried 
through at such speed, it certainly under- 
went a service test. All sorts of material 
went through the pipe, including some boul- 
ders which were nearly a foot in diameter. 
These came bounding through, making the 
curves and all, and apparently never dam- 
aged the pipe in the least. 

To-day the drain, after four and a half 
years of service, seems to be practically as 
good as new. 

Acknowledgment. — Illustrations courtesy The High- 
way Magazine. 




TWO VIEWS OP THE STOEM DEAIN THAT WITHSTOOD THE EAVAOES OF POMONA'S 

WORST STORM 



133 

Standard Schedule for Grading Cities 
and Towns for Fire Insurance 

Part II 

With Reference to Their Fire Defences and Physical Conditions 

By John S. Caldwell 

Engineer, New England Insurance Exchange, Boston, Mass. 

Editorial Note. — The first instalment of this article, appearing in the January issue, out- 
lined the application of the Standard Schedule and discussed in part the place of water-supply. 
This portion concludes the discussion of the water-supply and takes up the fire department. 
The concluding portion will complete the Are department analysis and take up Are alarm, 
police, building laws, hazards and structural conditions. 



IN considering the minor distributors and 
gridiron system, 6-inch is considered the 
minimum size satisfactory for hydrant 
supply in residential districts to be closely 
gridironed with 6-inch cross-connecting 
mains at intervals not exceeding 600 feet ; or 
where initial pressures are high, a satisfac- 
tory gridiron may be obtained by a liberal 
per cent of larger mains cross-connecting 
the 6-inch at greater intervals ; in new con- 
struction, 8-inch should be used where dead 
ends and poor gridironing are likely to 
exist for some time, and 6-inch only where 
blocks are 600 feet or less in length; in 
high-value districts the minimum size to be 
8-inch with cross-connecting mains at dis- 
tances as given above; 12-inch and larger 
mains to be on the principal streets and for 
all long lines not cross-connected at frequent 
intervals. 

The mains of the distribution system 
should be of satisfactory quality and prop- 
erly tested for soundness and tightness of 
joints. The use of cast iron pipe under 
pressure double that specified for the class 
is considered as introducing an unreliable 
feature, particularly where pressures are 
raised for fires ; tests before back-filling the 
trench and service records of several years 
may, however, be assumed as offsetting this 
defect in part. 

Electrolysis conditions should be studied 
and methods of prevention applied. 

The distribution system should be 
equipped with a sufficient number of gate 
valves, so located that no single case of ac- 
cident, breakage or repair to the pipe sys- 
tem, exclusive of arteries, will necessitate 



the shutting from service a length of pipe 
greater than 500 feet in high-value dis- 
tricts, or greater than 800 feet in other sec- 
tions, and will not result in shutting down 
an artery; all valves to be inspected yearly 
and large valves more frequently, and be 
kept in good condition. The presence of 
some valves operating in opposite directions 
is to be considered the equivalent of unsatis- 
factory condition, ranging from fair to 
poor, depending on the number and im- 
portance. 

In considering hydrant distribution it is 
readily apparent that proper distribution 
depends first upon whether the system is on 
a direct hydrant or engine stream basis, 
realizing, of course, that wider distribution 
could be permissible where engines were 
ordinarily used than where hydrant stresses 
were utilized, also that the fire flow required 
for the district is a determining factor, as 
the same distribution cannot be expected in 
a residential district as would exist in a 
manufacturing or mercantile section. The 
required fire flow is determined and the fol- 
lowing table used : 





ENGINE 


STREAMS 


Fire Flow Rec 


[uired, 


Average Area Per 


Gallons Per Minute 


Hydrant Square Feet 


1,000 




120,000 


2,000 




110,000 


3,000 




100,000 


4,000 




90,000 


5.000 




86,000 


6,000 




80,000 


7,000 




70,000 


8,000 




60,000 


9,000 




65,000 


10,000 




48,000 


11,000 




48,000 


12,000 




40,000 



134 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



DIRECT HYDRANT STREAMS 

1,006 100,000 

1,600 90,000 

2,000 85,000 

2,600 78,000 

8,000 70,000 

4,000 65,000 

5,000 and over 40,000 

Hydrants should be inspected in the 
spring and fall of each year, after use at 
fires during freezing weather, and daily in 
high-value districts during protracted peri- 
ods of severe cold. 

The standard requirements for hydrants 
specify that they should be able to deliver 
600 g. p. m. with a loss of not more than 
23^ pounds in the hydrant and a total loss 
of not more than 5 pounds between the 
street main and hydrant outlet; they should 
have not less than two 2j^-inch outlets and 
also a large suction outlet where engine 
service is necessary. They should also be 
of such a design that when the hydrant 
barrel is broken off the hydrant will remain 
closed. Street connection should be not less 
than 6-inch in diameter and should be gated. 
Flush hydrants requiring chucks to be 
screwed on are considered undesirable, es- 
pecially in sections of the country subject 
to heavy snow-storms, because of delay in 
getting into operation. 

Fire Department 

The subjects considered under the fire 
department are as follows : 

1. Number of Officers 

2. Number of Operators 

3. Qualifications of Chief Officers 

4. Tenure of Office of Chief 

5. Appointment and Tenure of Office of Officers 

6. Enlistment Requirements 

7. Retirement Requirements 

8. Number of Hose or Engine Companies (Appa- 

ratus) 

9. Number of Ladder Companies (Apparatus) 

10. Distribution of Companies 

11. Total Required Manual Strength of Department 

12. Manual Strength of Existing Companies in the 

High-Value District Considered 

13. Engine Capacity 

14. Reserve Engines 

15. Condition of Engines and Hose Wagons 

16. Fire-Boats 

17. Powerful Stream Appliances 

18. Chemical Equipment 

19. Reserve Hose Wagons 

20. Amount of Hose 

21. Hose Larger than 2^ -inch 

22. Condition of Hose 

23. Minor Equipment 

24. Fuel 

25. Repair Facilities 

26. Horses 

27. Suitability of Fire Stations 

28. Discipline 

29. Drills and Training 

30. Responding to Alarms 

31. Fire Methods 

32. Conditions Affecting Fire Department Operations 

33. Building Inspections 

34. Records of Fires, etc. 

In considering the number of officers the 



Schedule requires that there should be a 
chief and an assistant or deputy chief for 
over two and up to twelve companies, and 
another assistant, battalion or district chief 
to each additional eight companies. There 
should be two officers to each engine, hose 
or ladder company ; a captain and two lieu- 
tenants may be considered sufficient for a 
combined company. Call officers — that is, 
officers who receive some pay for services 
but who do not devote their entire time to 
fire department duty — and volunteer officers 
are considered as equivalent to one-half 
full-paid officers. 

There should be a sufficient number of 
competent operators — that is, engineers, 
stokers and chauffeurs — so that one will be 
on duty at all times for each engine or 
motor-driven apparatus. 

Chief officers should be experienced in 
fire service and a chief should hold office 
for an indefinite term and be removable 
only for cause after public trial. Officers' 
appointments and promotions should be 
based on examination, seniority and record, 
under civil service rules with tenure-of- 
office provisions. Privates' enlistment 
should be under civil service rules and 
based on physical and mental examination 
with satisfactory age, weight and height 
limits, permanency to be only after a satis- 
factory probation period of six months, spe- 
cial training and examinations being re- 
quired for engineers and chauffeurs. Full- 
paid members should be retired at the age of 
62 unless unusually efficient at that time; 
proper and ample means should be provided 
for pensioning men for long service or dis- 
ability. 

The amount of apparatus in service and 
regularly responding to alarms should be 
sufficient to properly protect the city and 
should be on the basis of companies re- 
quired, it being assumed that each hose com- 
pany will be provided with a hose-carrying 
vehicle and that in cities of over 100,000 
population one-half the engine companies 
required for first-alarm response in high- 
value districts will be provided with a steam 
or automobile fire engine and a separate 
hose wagon; other engine companies may 
each have only a combined pump and hose 
wagon assigned to it. 

Every properly equipped piece of appa- 
ratus regularly responding to alarms should 
be considered as a separate company, 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



135 



whether so organized or not, except that to 
be considered as an engine company it must 
have an accompanying hose wagon or carry 
hose on the pumping equipment. Apparatus 
may be hand-, horse- or motor-drawn, and 
where 80 per cent of the apparatus is motor- 
ized the formula for automobile companies 
may be used. 

FORMULA FOR NUMBER OF COMPANIES 

P =^ Population in thousands for cities or towns 
under 50,000 

Number of Engine or Hose Companies 

1.0 + 0.14 P for Horse-drawn 

0.85 + 0.12 P for Automobile 

For cities 50.000 to 200,000 

4 + 0.08 P for Horse-drawn 

3.4 + 0.07 P for Automobile 

For cities having a population in excess 
of 200,000, the number of engine or hose 
companies depends on the distribution and 
on the ability to handle two simultaneous 
fires without leaving all other sections of the 
city unprotected. 

In certain cities a number in excess of the 
above will be required, depending on the 
structural conditions found in the city. 
Where the topography and general layout 
of the city require for proper distribution 
a greater number of companies than deter- 
mined by the formula, the deficiency is ap- 
plied under the item of distribution of com- 
panies. 

In cities almost solely residential in char- 
acter, such as suburbs in metropolitan dis- 
tricts, or where the city has small local 
high-value centers needing less protection 
than the formula for companies calls for, 
the estimate will be based on the population 
corresponding to the fire flow believed neces- 
sary, except that where such cities have con- 
gested shingle-roof frame districts, at least 
two additional companies must be provided 
to protect the city in case of a second fire. 

The number of companies in service 
should be assumed as increased by compa- 
nies available as outside aid, where, by regu- 
lar assignment, the response of such compa- 
nies is provided for to the district consid- 
ered or to fill in ; such increase to be on the 
basis of one outside company equalling one- 
half a company in service, but not to exceed 
a total increase in excess of one-third the 
total number of companies required. Where 
adequate provision is not made for mutual 
aid from outside aid companies, the full 
number of companies available within thirty 
minutes should be allowed as a credit equal 
to one-third the points which this number 
decreases the deficiency in actual companies. 



NUMBER OF LADDER COMPANIES 
In localities having five buildings three stories or 
higher there should be one ladder company; in places 
over 20,000 population the number of ladder com- 
panies should equal 1 + 0.03 P; over 20p,000 popula- 
tion the number of companies will depend on dis- 
tribution. Where no ladder company is required, 
application should be made on the basis of deficiency 
in ladder equipment on other apparatus. 

An aerial ladder must be provided in a district 
where five buildings are four stories or higher, and 
one ladder truck in five shall be of the aerial type. 

In general, the distribution of companies 
should be such as to provide an engine or 
hose company within the following dis- 
tances of every point in a district measured 
by the most direct route : 

DISTRIBUTION TABLE 

Horse-drawn Automobile 

Engine Engine 

District or Hose Ladder or Hose Ladder 

Merc'I or M'fg. . 5/2-mile ^-mile ^-mile 1 mile 
Closely built res. 1 mile 1J4 miles 1J4 miles 2 miles 

Strength of companies should be main- 
tained as follows: 

Least Number of Men 

on Duty, Continuous 

Duty or Two-Platoon 

Systems 

Companies Day Time Night Time 

Within or Near High-Value Dists. 

Engine Company 7 9 

Ladder Company 7 9 

Hose Company 5 7 

Water Tower Company 1 1 

Other Districts 

Engine Company 5 7 

Ladder Company 5 7 

Hose Company 3 5 

There are many modifying features to 
the above table, such as motor pumpers, 
drivers not performing fire duty, auxiliary 
squad, aerial ladder companies, etc., which 
would necessitate additional or less men per 
company than the table calls for. 

In departments having call or volunteer 
members, with tappers in houses and places 
of business or sufficient tower bells, horns 
or whistles, four call or eight volunteer 
members may be considered as equivalent 
to one full-paid member, up to one-third 
the least number required to be on duty at 
all times. Volunteer members receiving pay 
for fire service shall be considered on call 
basis. Call or volunteer members sleeping 
at fire stations may be considered as the 
equivalent of full-paid men in estimating 
the night strength. With the two-platoon 
system, if proper arrangements are not 
made for the response of men on off-shift 
for large fires, the least number of men on 
duty as given in the above table shall be in- 
creased one-fourth. For outside aid com- 
panies regularly assigned in the running 
card and assumed as equivalent to compa- 
nies in service, one-half the combined least 



136 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



number of men on duty will be allowed. 
For outside aid companies available within 
30 minutes but not regularly assigned, the 
actual least number of men will be allowed 
up to one-third the points which the com- 
bined least number of men on duty in these 
companies reduce the deficiency in men. 

In considering engine capacity where the 
domestic water-supply cannot deliver at di- 
rect hydrant stream pressure a quantity in 
excess of the fire engine capacity in service 
plus one-third the required fire flow, there 
should be provided a total pumping capac- 
ity equal to two-thirds the required fire flow. 

In cities of over 200,000 population and 
requiring fire flow for two simultaneous 
fires, engine capacity must be provided 
equal to two-thirds the total fire flow re- 
quired for the district. 

In cities where the fire flow required in 
the high-value district is less than that cor- 
responding to the population but there is a 
residential district of large extent and high 
conflagration hazard, the engine capacity 
. required shall be on the basis of a fire flow 
of 2,000 gallons in addition to the amount 
necessary to protect the high-value district, 
to provide protection for a simultaneous 
second fire. 

Where fire streams are available, in the 
district considered, from a high-pressure 
fire system, its capacity shall be considered 
as engine capacity, except that if residual 
pressures are less than 250 pounds, actual 
engine capacity should still be provided. 

In estimating engine capacity, reserve en- 
gines or engines from outside localities for 
which a regular assignment is made, they 
are to be considered at one-half actual ca- 
pacity but not to exceed one-third the total 
engine capacity required. When provision 
is not made for mutual aid, the full engine 
capacity available within 30 minutes shall 
be allowed as a credit up to one-third the 
points which this capacity decreased the 
deficiency; capacity of engines to be that ob- 
tained at tests. Where no test capacity is 
available, no engine is to be considered at 
more than 80 per cent of its rated capacity, 
and no engine in excess of 1,000 gallons 
capacity. 

In districts having a domestic water-sup- 
ply capable of delivering at a residual 
pressure permitting direct hydrant streams 
a fire flow in all parts of the district in ex- 
cess of the engine capacity available plus 
one-third the required fire flow, application 



shall be made under "Adequacy of Water- 
Supply" and no deficiency applied for en- 
gine capacity, except that where buildings 
are four stories or higher some engine ca- 
pacity, depending upon the pressures at 
which direct hydrant streams are available, 
may still be required. 

Engines should be kept in good condition ; 
the absence of annual tests and tests after 
repairs, in accordance with the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters' rules for test- 
ing, may be considered a deficiency. Hose 
wagons should be in good condition and of 
sufficient strength for the service and weight 
to be carried, and if automobile, should have 
motor of good capacity and in good condi- 
tion. A fire-boat should be required where 
there is an occupied wharf frontage of one 
mile, and additional boats such as to give a 
proportion of one to each three miles of 
wharf frontage; total fire-boat capacity to 
be equal to one-half the required fire flow 
for the district protected. For privately 
owned fire-boats or tugboats with fire pumps 
and turrets, if operating only in the harbor 
and if arrangements are made for their 
regular response to water-front alarms and 
for their operation under the chief of the 
fire department, credit would be allowed 
equal to one-half the points which such 
boats decrease the deficiency in municipally 
owned fire-boats. If such boats are not 
regularly tested, this credit shall equal only 
one-third the points. 

Suitable appliances should be provided for 
handling powerful streams, except where 
less than 1,000 gallons of water is avail- 
able as direct hydrant streams or from fire 
engines, or where not more than five build- 
ings in the high-value district considered are 
three stories or higher, these should include 
turret or monitor nozzles, Siamese connec- 
tions, deluge sets and cellar pipes, properly 
distributed. A water-tower or ladder pipe 
should be provided where five buildings are 
four stories or higher ; water-towers are re- 
quired in high-value districts having over 
ten buildings six stories and higher, such 
that one will be within i^ miles of every 
building six stories high. 

Each piece of apparatus carrying hose or 
ladders should have two 2JE^-gallon extin- 
guishers; and sufficient apparatus, either 
chemical engines, combination hose wagons 
or ladder trucks, should carry 35-gallon or 
larger chemical tanks to enable two pieces 
so equipped to respond to each first alarm. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



137 



Water-tanks operated in conjunction with 
booster pumps or compressed air or gas are 
considered the equivalent of chemical tanks. 
Companies carrying 150 feet of small hose 
for use on 2j/2-inch water lines are con- 
sidered as one-half value of chemically 
equipped apparatus. Where static hydrant 
pressures are less than 60 pounds, allow- 
ance of one-half credit is made for chemical 
tanks on pumping engines. 

There should be maintained in reserve at 
least one hose wagon for each twelve, or 
fraction thereof, steamers in service, or 
eight, or fraction thereof, automobiles. One 
or more reserve hose wagons should be 
loaded with at least 1,000 feet of hose, pre- 
ferably 3-inch. Where more hose wagons 
are in service than called for, a reserve 
loaded wagon is not required. 

Each engine or hose company should 
carry at least 1,000 feet of 2j/^-inch hose or 
larger and be provided with a complete 
spare shift ; hose on reserve wagons may be 
considered as spare hose where two or less 
hose companies are required. For cities of 
less than 50,000 population, if more compa- 
nies are provided than called for, the total 
amount of hose carried by all apparatus, di- 
vided by the required number of companies, 
would be considered as the average amount 
carried per company. 

For hose companies responding to first 
and second alarms in mercantile or manu- 
facturing districts .where direct hydrant 
streams are used, at least half the hose car- 
ried on wagons should be 2^-inch or 3- 
inch; if engines are used, and in all other 
districts, at least 200 feet of large hose 
should be carried on each wagon ; large hose 
not to be required where less than 1,000 
gallons of water are available as direct hy- 
drant streams or from engines, or where not 
more than five buildings in the high-value 
district considered are three 'storHes or 
higher. 

Hose should be in good condition ; a serv- 
ice of seven years should be expected be- 
fore being in such condition as to require 
discarding: hose not over five years old 
should be used in important companies, and 
if not regularly tested such hose should be 
considered as in poor condition. 

Complete minor equipment should be pro- 



vided for each company, this to include 
shut-off nozzles from ^-inch to i%-mch, 
and open smooth-bore nozzles from iJ/^-inch 
to i^-inch, short ladders, portable extin- 
guishers, salvage appliances, including 
water-proof covers and sufficient small 
equipment to enable the firemen to perform 
their work with the greatest facility and 
despatch. 

Good-quality quick-steaming coal, and 
gasoline where automobiles are used, should 
be provided in sufficient quantities at con- 
venient points and ready for quick handling. 

Adequate and preferably department fa- 
cilities for making ordinary repairs in any 
municipality, and major repairs in cities 
over 50,000 population, should be provided. 

It is particularly desirable to have equip- 
ment standardized, such as wheels, poles, 
all hose couplings, playpipes, tips and minor 
equipment. Spare parts, fittings, tools, 
poles, wheels and tires should be kept on 
hand. 

Suitable horses for horse-drawn equip- 
ment should be provided for all apparatus 
necessary for the required number of com- 
panies, reserve horses to be provided, equal 
to 5 per cent of the number in service, but 
not less than two horses when over six 
pieces of apparatus are in service. If hired 
horses are used or if horses are used for 
other than fire department purposes, they 
are to be considered as 50 per cent deficient. 

Fire stations should be adapted for the 
service as applying to ease and quickness 
of response; each engine or hose company 
should have hose-drying facilities and en- 
gine heaters provided for steamers depended 
upon for first streams. 

Provisions should be made in complete 
printed regulations for control of the de- 
partment and authority given the chief to 
enforce them, subject to review or confirma- 
tion by the supervising body or the civil 
service commission. Discipline should be 
rigidly maintained and fines and suspen- 
sions impartially imposed and sustained. 

Drills in charge of a competent officer 
should be regularly held at a drill tower, for 
all company members of the department. 
Drills should be classed as deficient if any 
for newly enlisted men, or if no drill tower 
is provided. 



(To bt concluded in the March issue) 



138 




MO BBIDB PARK, ISLAND OF KAUAI, H. I. 



A County Park in Hawaii, to Be Main- 
tained by the Life Insurance of the Giver 



McBRIDE Park is situated in the 
Hawaiian Islands on the Island of 
Kauai. It occupies the crest of one 
of the low foothills overlooking the sea, 
with a fine view upon fertile valleys, cane 
fields, and back to the high mountains. The 
hillsides are covered with pineapples, and 
the lower reaches with sugar cane, but the 
top has been planted with a splendid forest 
of eucalyptus and pine trees. Ornamental 
shrubs and trees, beautiful flowering beds, 
fountains, and some fine statuary decorate 
the park, which occupies about lOO acres. 
It was built as a private park by Mr. 
McBride, and is in the open country, ten or 
fifteen miles from a town of any size, and 



with no American residences within a mile 
or more. Mr. McBride made this park him- 
self and maintained it for the first few 
years. He then had his life insured for 
$60,000 with the provision that at his death 
this $60,000 should go to the maintaining of 
the park. After carrying it for a few 
years, he turned it over to the County Com- 
missioners of the Island of Kauai with the 
understanding that the commissioners were 
to keep up the life insurance and at his death 
they were to have the park as a county 
park with the $60,000 life insurance for 
maintenance. This is believed to be one of 
the most unique methods of maintaining a 
public park that have been attempted. 



Provision for Playgrounds in New Suburban Sections 

A Kansas City bank president suggests that local laws should provide that in every new- 
suburban section opened near any city there shall be one or more squares or blocks of land 
set aside permanently for playground and recreational activities. This, he feels, will increase 
the value of surrounding property and thus provide ample compensation for the real estate 
owners who develop the new area. It will also help to provide opportunities for healthful, 
wholesome neighborly activities, for play and recreation, for community organization, and for 
such joyous neighborliness as American communities sadly lack and greatly need. — The 
Playground. 



139 



Forward ^teps 

£oportod to THE AMERICAN CITY 

byJiunicipal Officials & Department Heads 



(Jity Engineers 



Good Roads for Westerly 

Westerly, R. I. — Because Westerly is 
located on the Rhode Island-Connecticut 
state line, it will have added to its already 
good system of improved roads more than 25 
miles of state highway by next summer. 

The state of Connecticut is just complet- 
ing 18 miles of bituminous construction 
from Norwich, Conn., to Westerly, through 
one of the wildest and most picturesque sec- 
tions of eastern Connecticut. Poor roads 
and a rugged country have been responsible 
for a sparse population in this region. The 
road makes a direct route to the shore re- 
sorts of southern Rhode Island — Watch 
Hill, Narragansett Pier and Newport — 
from Hartford, Conn., and the Connecti- 
cut River valley to the north of Massa- 
chusetts. 

Early in December this road was prac- 
tically graded, and it is now open to traffic. 
The seal coat of bituminous construction 
yet remains to be completed. The tar is on 
the ground, and the work will probably be 
finished by summer. The continuation of 
this road through Westerly along the shore 
towards Narragansett Pier is being con- 
structed by the state of Rhode Island. Eight 
miles are practically finished, and the re- 
maining gap of ten miles between the West- 
erly section and the section built a year ago 
at Wakefield has been contracted for. 

Westerly is installing a sewerage system, 
but because of labor conditions progress has 
been very slow. The problem facing the 
Highway Commission is the reconstruction 
of nearly 7 miles of highways, where the 
sewers are being installed. They expect to 
secure the services of a trained highway en- 
gineer, not only for this work but to take 
care of all the roads of the town in the 



future. With the rebuilding of its roads 

after the damage caused by the installation 

of the sewerage system. Westerly expects to 

have more and better roads than any other 

town in the state. 

THOMAS Mckenzie, 

City Engineer. 




Municipal Handling of Garbage 

Grand Rapids, Mich. — This city owns 
and operates its garbage collection system, 
and very satisfactory results have been ob- 
tained under this plan. 

In collecting the garbage, both wagons 
and motors are used, the vehicles being fitted 
with large covered tanks. The garbage 
collectors carry with them steel baskets 
into which they empty the garbage at 
each residence, and from which the refuse 
is dumped into the steel tanks on the 
trucks. 

Each property owner or tenant who wants 
the garbage collection service is required to 
pay for his own garbage can. Collections 
are made regularly once a week in winter 
and twice a week in summer. The garbage 
must not be mixed with paper, cans, or 
ashes; such rubbish is disposed of by the 
individual property owner. The garbage is 
sold under contract to the American Stock 
Food Company located at Sullivan, Mich., 
about twenty miles from this city. When 
collected, it is loaded on cars at a central 
loading station, and shipped to that point, 
where it is fed to hogs. 

The broad idea in handling the garbage 
municipally is that it discourages people 
from burying it, burning it, or otherwise 
disposing of it in an unsanitary manner. 
The cost to the property owner for the col- 
lection of his garbage averages about $1.24 
a year. 



140 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 




THESE TRUCKS ABE EASILY EMPTIED INTO GONDOLA CAES 



The accompanying illustration shows the 
municipal trucks discharging their contents 
into a gondola car for shipment. The city 
has in operation two 3j^-ton and one 2^- 
ton United trucks. They are driven along- 
side the car, and by a simple but ingenious 
arrangement the steel bodies are mechanic- 
ally lifted over the open car and their con- 
tents dumped. 

JOHN McNABB, 

Mayor. 



J^ocreation 
Departments 



Winter Sports Promotevl 

Minneapolis, Minn. — The city of Min- 
neapolis, climatically, is ideally situated for 
the carrying-on of all out- 
door winter sports. Plenty 
of ice and snow can usually 
be depended upon during 
the season, which is about 
two months' duration. 
Good use is made of all the 
facilities. The estimated 
attendance at park rinks 
during the season of 1920 
was approximately i ,000,- 
000. 

That the people of our 
city may enjoy the greatest 



of all winter sports — skat- 
ing, . 23 rinks are main- 
tained and are located so 
that a rink is available 
within walking distance 
of any part of the city. 
Each rink is well lighted, 
and the ice is kept in as 
good condition as is pos- 
sible in an outdoor rink. 
Warming-houses are pro- 
vided at all rinks, where 
wraps may be checked and 
skates rented. 

In connection with the 
rinks for general skating, 
five hockey rinks are 
maintained. Hockey be- 
came such a popular sport, 
and so many teams were 
organized and wished to 
play, that it was found 
necessary to light the rinks, so as to make 
evening play possible. 

The following is a brief description of 
the lighting system used: 

Size of rink 176 x 70 feet 

Lighted area 200 x 80 feet 

Sixteen 500-watt lights, with white enam- 
eled steel reflectors, which total 8,000 watts. 
The lights are suspended from two cables, 
18 feet from the ice, eight to a cable, each 
eight 25 feet apart. 

The distance between cables is 40 feet. 
A system of this arrangement gives a 
light which is equal to sunlight for playing 
purposes. 

A formal program of winter activities is 

promoted, which has proved very popular. 

Hockey in Minneapolis has reached a 

stage where it is the most entertaining 

and bio-^est attraction of the outdoor winter 




A SKATING RINK IS WITHIN WALKING DISTANCE OF ANT FART 
OF MINNEAPOLIS 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



141 



sports. The season of 1919-1920 saw 
twenty- four team's, divided into three 
leagues (Senior, Junior No. i, and Junior 
Nt). 2) playing in the municipal leagues. 
The leagues had a wonderfully successful 
season, and all their games were attended 
by large crowds, who greatly appreciated 
the fine brand of hockey furnished by the 
players. 

Skiing has long been a popular sport in 
Minneapolis, but as carried on by private 
organization it did not offer much oppor- 
tunity for any one but the expert. During 
the latter part of the winter season of 
1920, a Municipal Ski Club was organized. 
It met with immediate success. Three 
tournaments were held, with 88 participants, 
and approximately 3,000 spectators were 
present. The program of events included 
jumps of various descriptions, and embraced 
Senior, Open, Novice, and Boys' and Jun- 
ior classes. With the increased interest 
shown this season, the club expects to make 
use of two slides, one for novices and one 
for experts. 

The Municipal Hiking Club, whose mem- 
bers hike the year around, plan on organiz- 
ing a Cross-Country Ski Club. This is a 
phase of the sport that everyone can in- 
dulge in and enjoy. 

The Norwegian American Skating Club, 
an organization of this city, with an aim 
to advancing skating contests, fancy skat- 
ing, and skating as a recreational measure, 
affiliated itself with this department last 
year, and under the organization of the 
Municipal Skating Club, a number of inter- 
esting meets were held. Each year a series 
of five skating meets are run for the boys. 
The city is divided into four sections where 
races are held for the boys living in those 
districts, respectively. The contestants plac- 
ing first, second and third in these sectional 
meets, skate at a central rink to decide the 
city championship. No previous registra- 
tion is necessary, the only restriction being 
residence in the district where the meet 
is held. The boys are divided into three 
classes according to height, namely: 5 feet 
3 inches and under ; 5 f'?et and under ; 4 
feet 9 inches and under. The events were : 
50-yard dash; lOO-yard dash, and 220-yard 
dash. 

A great deal of interest in coasting and 
tobogganing is shown each year. Three 
natural hills are maintained to accommo- 
date the laree number of enthusiasts in this 



branch of outdoor activitiy. The hills are 
well illuminated, and every afternoon and 
evening a great number of people take ad- 
vantage of this opportunity. 

K. B. RAYMOgSTD, 
Supervisor of Recreation. 



Doparimenis 



An Active Health Center 

Glover.sville, N. Y. — The public health 
work of Gloversville is carried on from a 
central building. This consists of two 
floors, on the first of which are located the 
offices of the Health Officer and Registrar, 
plumbing and sanitary inspectors, and the 
Clerk, and the conference room of the city 
Board of Health, also the distributing sta- 




TTTT? riT.riTT'PTJGTTTT T T* TTT» A T nrtTT r<T»"fcTmTtT» 



142 



THE AMERICAN CITY- 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



tion for the county laboratory supplies and 
antitoxins. These offices are well equipped 
and centrally located. 

All vital statistics are kept in the Regis- 
trar's office for public reference. All the 
communicable diseases are reported to the 
Health Officer, who sends out a nurse to in- 
vestigate the cases, and make reports on 
the housing conditions, family history, 
sources of infections, instructions to famil- 
ies isolated, etc. A report of all these dis- 
eases is filed monthly with the Board of 
Health. 

The plumbing inspector investigates all 
new plumbing work, to make sure that the 
fittings are standard and that there are no 
leaks; also that all regulations are complied 
with. He issues plumbing licenses and 
looks after all complaints of defective 
plumbing and sewer connections. 

The sanitary inspector attends to the 
complaints of public nuisances and any 
other matters of interest to the public 
health, by regular weekly inspections. 

The Health Center accommodates the 
county distributing station for laboratory 
supplies and antitoxins. This is of great 
assistance in case of epidemics, because of 
the time saved by not having to send to the 
state, and in winter a great amount of 
trouble from freezing and from slow trans- 
portation will be eliminated. This station 
is in charge of the city technician, who has 
certain hours for the distribution of sup- 
plies. The city laboratory is located in the 
hospital building, which is apart from the 
Health Center. The laboratory work is of 
a diagnostic type for the most part, and is 
under the direct supervision of the city bac- 
teriologist. Reports from this division of 



the public health work are sent to the state 
department monthly. 

The meat and dairy inspector scores the * 
dairies and approves the milk brought into 
the city for sale. He inspects the markets 
and other places where food is sold. 

On the second floor are the two clinics, 
one for the tuberculosis work of the city and 
the other for the venereal work. Each 
clinic has a public health nurse on duty. 
The itubercujosis nurse investigates |any 
suspected cases reported by the doctors, to 
see that the patient is properly attended, that 
he is isolated from the rest of the family, 
that his food is correct, and whether the 
case should be transferred to a sanitarium. 
This nurse does the diphtheria culture work 
for the city. The cultures are taken and 
sent into the laboratory for examination 
and then reported to the Health Officer. 

The venereal clinic is very well equipped 
with all the necessary apparatus for carry- 
ing on the work properly. A physician is in 
charge of the public clinics held twice each 
week, at which time new patients are exam- 
ined and treatments are given. The nurse 
investigates new cases and does general 
social follow-up work. Outside of the 
clinic hours her duties are to look up the 
family histories, locate the source of infec- 
tion if possible, look up the patients who are 
negligent about their treatments, and give 
instructions as to the care of the patient in 
the home. Blood Wassermanns are taken 
at the clinic, but are sent into the state 
laboratory for examination. This clinic 
occupies two large rooms, one a consulting- 
room, the other a waiting-room. 

A. L. JOHNSON. M. D., 

Health Officer. 



F 



orvuar 



d^ieps 



. fathered 
Here & There 



Schools Aid ia Fire Prevention 
Campaign 

Texas is making effective use of the public 
schools in its fire prevention campaign. Fire 
prevention education is a fire cure. The fire 
waste in lives and property in this country is 
appalling. It is believed that instruction, 
especially to the young in the schools, vy^ill 



greatly reduce this vast fire waste. There- 
fore, the State Fire Commission, which un- 
der the laws of the state of Texas makes 
rates, has passed a resolution granting 
a credit of 3 per cent on their key rates to 
such cities and towns as teach fire preven- 
tion in their schools. This course of in- 
struction ig npt onerous j it occupies but little 



February, 1921 THE AMERICAN CITY 



143 



of the time of the pupils of the schools, and 
calls for but one or two simple text-books. 
This proposal has met with quick approval 
by mayors and school superintendents in 
Texas. 

The school program laid down by the 
State Fire Marshal follows: 

"In the third and fifth grades ohc period 
each week, of from fifteen to thirty minutes, 
must be given to the study of fire prevention. 
This period must be named 'Fire Prevention' 
on the daily program. The book to be used is 
'Safeguarding the Home Against Fire.' In 
the third grade this book shall be in the hands 
of the teacher; in the fifth grade it shall be in 
the hands of the pupils. 

"In the sixth and seventh grades one theme 
each term must be written on fire prevention. 
Ill the High School one theme each term must 
be written on fire prevention. 

"The work in the third and fifth grades, aside 
from the use of the above-named book, may 
consist of written or oral stories along fire 
prevention lines; the discussion and reports of 
large conflagrations, both state and national ; 
the discussion and reports of fire hazards, and 
particularly local hazards and conditions. 
'Uncle Jim, the Fire Chief,' an adopted state 
text-book in the supplementary reading course 
of the intermediate grades, might well be used 
in this course. 

"The work in the sixth and seventh grades, 
of one theme each term, should consist of the 
study of the large conflagrations ; a study of the 
child's own home and its hazards ; a study of 
the protection against and the removal of his 
own home hazards; a study of similar school 
conditions ; a study of the modern means of fire 
protection ; a study of the ways of turning in a 
fire alarm. 

"The work in the high school, of one theme 
each term, should consist of the study of the 
great conflagrations of history; a study of the 
fire department of the city; a study of fire 
hazards in the student's own home and school ; 
a study of the best use for civic progress to 
which the preventable fire waste might be ap- 
plied ; a study of the progress of fire prevention 
in the past ten years. 

"The theme work in the high school and the 
sixth and seventh grades might well be done 
during the months of October and April." 

A. P. WOOLDRIDGE. 

State Fire Marshal. 

City Planning in Buffalo 

Buffalo, N. Y.— The Council of Bufifalo. 
consisting of five Commissioners, including 
the Mayor, has been operating under the 
commission form of government since Jan- 
uary I, 191 6, and the many details con- 
nected with the location of garages, laun- 
dries, industries, etc., demanded so much 
attention that the need of zoning regulations 
was soon apparent. Consequently, about 



two years ago a City Planning Committee 
of six city officials (heads of bureaus) was 
appointed to devise a comprehensive plan- 
ning and zoning system for the city of Buf- 
falo and to report to the Council. 

The committee was instructed to prepare 
a zoning system first, but the necessity for ' 
a new municipal building became so pro- 
nounced that the matter of a civic center 
forced itself for consideration, and no little 
time and study have been given this matter 
concurrently with the study of the zoning 
problem. It is hoped soon to present some 
definite zoning regulations. 

In the studies made, due attention was 
given the danger of super-centralization in 
a large, growing city like Buffalo. Sub- 
centers were considered highly advisable 
for the group-'ng of minor units. Three city 
planning experts were consulted upon this 
matter in an advisory capacity, and a report 
favoring the fjolicy of a civic center was 
made by the committee to the Council. The 
Council, however, deemed it advisable to 
submit the question of desire for a civic 
center to a vote of the people at the Novem- 
ber general election. 

Meanwhile the Buffalo City Planning 
Association was formed, representing over 
100 different organizations with a member- 
ship of over 30,000, for the purpose of co- 
operating with the City Planning Committee 
and of educating the public in the principles 
of city planning. 

This association did a wonderful work in 
the matter of publicity. Talks and stereop- 
ticon lectures were given before many or- 
ganizations, clubs and societies at noon, 
afternoon and night, whenever the oppor- 
tunity presented. The women were of 
great service in the cause. 

The vote was 42,000 in favor with 30,000 
against, and considering the unfavorable 
conditions — strong newspaper apposition, 
many other public questions claiming inter- 
est and possible large expenditures, and a 
stormy election day — it is deemed a notable 
victory — one reflecting the strong civic 
spirit that prevails in Buffalo, and it is 
hoped that this article may be helpful to 
other cities, even as a previous article pub- 
lished in The American City on Mil- 
waukee's similar victory last April was help- 
ful to Buffalo. 

harry j. march. 

Executive and Engineer, City Planning 
Committee, 



144 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



A New City Office 

Sacramento^ Calif. — Sacramento has 
added to its staff of municipal officers a 
City Landscape Architect. Realizing that 
unless such an office were kept entirely free 
from political control it would have no at- 
traction for the type of man the city wanted 
to fill it, the position has been made ap- 
pointive and not elective. 

The duties of the City Landscape Archi- 
tect include most of the functions ordinarily 
expected of the visiting consultant, along 
lines of city planning and of general land- 
scape architecture. In addition to these 
duties, he must, in connection with the park 
board, take general charge of planting 
within the city. Sacramento has a wise 
ruling which forbids the moving, planting 
or trimming of street trees without the con- 
sent of the park board. The Landscape 
Architect is to have charge of this work 
also, together with the park board. 

The position has been recently filled for 
the first time by the appointment of Freder- 
ick Noble Evans. Mr. Evans comes to 
California from the University of Illinois, 
where he has been in charge of the profes- 
sional school of landscape gardening, lec- 



turing also to the classes in city planning. 
Some time ago Dr. John Nolen prepared a 
most valuable report on the parks of Sacra- 
mento. This report and the plans which ac- 
company it will be followed as far as pos- 
sible in the working out of the park system 
for the city. In cities where city landscape 
architects are permanently employed, the 
consultant' will have the advantage of having 
the ground prepared for his suggestions, 
and of an intelligent and competent support 
in working out the plans. 

There is little doubt that the time will 
come when most cities of size will create 
such an office, for the reason that it brings 
together certain functions of city adminis- 
tration too often separated. The person 
who fills the office should be able to ad- 
minister the affairs of the parks both from 
the business and from the creative side, and 
should be sufficiently trained in the prin- 
ciples of city planning to work toward the 
coordination of all branches of city activity, 
such as traffic, zoning, districting, selection 
of building sites, etc. Most of all, he must 
have an interest in the individual lot owner 
and make him realize his civic responsi- 

b'^^*y- LUCY LOWE. 



The Problem of Unemployment 



IN a statement by the American Associa- 
tion for Labor Legislation, a number of 
valuable suggestions are made for com- 
munities now facing problems of serious 
unemployment. A part of the report fol- 
lows : 

"The appointment of an unemployment 
committee by the mayor, if improper politi- 
cal influence is guarded against, insures 
semi-official standing and greater prestige. 
Membership should include all classes con- 
cerned, such as employers, workingmen, 
public officials, social workers, civic leaders, 
and representatives of churches, lodges and 
women's clubs. To carry out preventive 
measures, permanent organization rather 
than temporary activity during the crisis is 
essential. Educational work, based upon 
careful information gathered from employ- 
ment offices, relief agencies and all other 
available sources, should be undertaken in 
order to bring the facts of the unemploy- 
ment situation home to every citizen, with 
emphasis upon civic and industrial responsi- 
bility. 



"Start or push forward special public 
work, using private contributions in time 
of urgent need if public funds cannot be 
obtained. This should not be "made" or 
unnecessary work, but needed public im- 
provements in as great variety as possible, 
so as to furnish employment to other sorts 
of persons besides unskilled laborers. Give 
preference to resident heads of families if 
there is not enough work for all applicants. 
Employ for the usual hours and wages, but 
rotate employment by periods of not less 
than three days. Supervise the work care- 
fully. To avoid the difficulties of emer- 
gency action, make systematic plans for the 
regular concentration of public work in 
dull years and seasons, by special provi- 
sions in the tax levy, or by other appropri- 
ate method. Urge the repeal of laws re- 
stricting cities to contract work. Secure 
the aid of state and national officials in 
stimulating local action. Steady the em- 
ployment of the regular force, retaining 
employes on part time in preference to re- 
ducing their numbers." 



145 



Bituminous Macadam Pavements in a 
Ne\v Jersey Town 

By E. B. Lloyd 



To'wn Superintendent, Montclair, N. J. 



DURING the seasons 
of 1919 and 1920, 
the town of Mont- 
clair, N. J., carried out 
an extensive paving pro- 
gram, a small part of which 
consisted of the resur- 
facing of about five miles 
of streets with bitumin- 
ous macadam built by the 
penetration method. All 
these streets were on more 
or less of a grade, and it 
was desired to have the 
surfaces left in such 
shape that there would be 
the least tendency towards 
skidding or slipping in 
wet weather. It was 
therefore decided to put 
on the bitumen in one ap- 
plication and to omit the 
seal coat for at least a 
year. 

In each case there was 
an old telford foundation 
upon which to build. 
After the old macadam 
surface had been removed and spread to 
serve both as gutter and shoulder, the 
telford was renewed where needed. Any 
further inadequacies which became apparent 
after rolling were made up with the old 
macadam, and the foundation was brought 
to an accurate grade. The depth of the 
wearing surface was made 3 inches after 
compression with a lo-ton roller, and con- 
sisted of stone passing a 2i/^-inch screen 
and retained upon a ij^-inch screen. This 
wearing surface was rolled until absolutely 
firm and until there was no movement un- 
der the roller, and was then given an ap- 
plication of asphalt at the rate of i^ gal- 
lons per square yard of surface. After the 
application of the binder coat, stone pass- 
ing a ^-inch screen and retained upon a 
3^-inch screen was spread on the surface 
to fill the voids, and the pavement was then 
well rolled. Before opening to traffic, the 




APPLTING THE BITUMINOUS BINDER, AND THE FINISHED 
BOAD IN MONTCLAIB, N. J. 



surface was given a second covering with 
the ^-inch stone, and enough was spread 
to leave a slight surplus after entirely filling 
the voids. Approximately five miles of 
streets were resurfaced in this manner dur- 
ing the season of 1919, the work extending 
from early May until late October. 

In the spring of 1920 some defects ap- 
peared in the last-built roads, which could 
largely be accounted for by weather condi- 
tions at the time of construction. The 
earlier roads came through the severe win- 
ter without damage or the appearance of the 
slightest defects, and it was decided not to 
give these streets a seal coat until such time 
as it may be required in the future. After 
all defects had been corrected in the streets 
designated for sealing, the surfaces were 
carefully swept both by a mechanical 
sweeper and by hand, and a seal coat of ^- 
gallon per square yard was applied, cov- 



146 



THE AMEl^lCAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



ered with the ^-inch stone, well rolled, and 
opened to traffic. Asphalt of the same pene- 
tration (90) as the binder course was used 
for the seal coat. 

In addition to the slightly rough ^•urface 
obtained as a result of this method of con- 
struction, the postponement of the seal coat 



for a year appears to be advantageous in 
that any defect in workmanship or material 
is sure to appear after the street is sub- 
jected to a winter's weather and traffic, and 
it can then be easily repaired before the seal 
coat is applied and the street is finally 
completed. , _ * • 




Street Lights to Advertise Charity 
*^ Campaigns 



A .NEW and unique feature of the use 
of street lights for the advertising of 
a charity campaign was evolved and 
used in Schenectady, N. Y., to call atten- 
tion to the Fourth Red Cross Roll Call, held 
during the first week of December, 1920. 
A large Geneva cross covered with red 
cheesecloth was placed on either side of 
each street-lighting globe along the main 
street. In order that there should be no 
diminution in the amount of light from the 
street-lighting standard, no cloth was placed 
on the sides toward the roadway and the 
sidewal^.^"'^? 

The idea of using the street lights in this 
manner was originated by W. D'A. Ryan, 
director of the Illuminating Engineering 
Laboratory of the General Electric Com- 
pany. This is probably the first time that 
street lights have been used in such a man- 
ner, but it is believed that the idea will be 
copied by other cities when local or national 
drives or campaigns are being actively car- 
ried on. 

The Geneva crosses, which were 4 feet 
wide and built of basswood, were firmly 
secured to the lighting poles by blocks at 
the bottom drawn together by 16-inch bolts. 
The framework with the cloth already on 
it was erected by carpenters from a tower 
wagon belonging to the street railway com- 
pany. The fact that Schenectady went over 
the top for the first time in a Red Cross 
drive speaks well for the success of this 
advertising feature. Similar designs which 
are distinctive to certain local or national 
charitable organizations may well be fea- 
tured in this way during all types of civic 
campaigns. 




A UNIQUE FEATURE IN CHABITT CAMPAIGN 
ADVERTISING 



147 



New Segment Block Storm Sewer 

An Outline of a Design of a Sewerage System on Flat 
Grade with Provisions for Extensions 



By Frank LeCocq 

City Engineer, Aberdeen, S. Dak. 



THE city of Aberdeen, S. Dak., located 
in the north central part of the state, 
has a population of about 16,000 and 
is steadily growing. 

The territory within the city limits is 
about 2,000 acres. The general slope is 
from west to east and from north to south, 
extending towards Moccasin Creek, south- 
east of the city. The surface of practically 
the entire area within the city limits and 
the surrounding territory is extremely flat, 
varying not more than 10 feet in elevation, 
the extreme difference in elevation being 30 
feet. The topography is characterized by a 
series of slight elevations and depressions, 
and a large drainage area enters the city 
from the northeast through a ravine. Moc- 
casin Creek is very sluggish and acts simply 
as a storage reservoir for surface water. 
After traversing a large territory this creek 
empties into the James River. The Moc- 
casin forms an irregular loop, over 50 miles 
in length, south of the city, and comes back 



within 7 miles southeast of the city. In this 
50 miles there is only 13 feet of fall. 

The Present Sewers 

The city has two separate sewer systems. 
The sanitary sewers are used for building- 
connections only. All of the sanitary sew- 
age has to be pumped. The present storm 
sewers are small in size, and the grades are 
very flat, making it difficult to keep the 
sewers clean, and they are very inefficient. 
During heavy rains large areas of the city 
are flooded and considerable damage is 
done. • I * ; 

About eight years ago a storm-sewer sys- 
tem was designed by a former city engineer. 
Plans were submitted for a complete storm- 
sewer system which was supposed to meet 
the future growth of the city. According 
to the plan the city would be traversed with 
fourteen small trunk lines ranging in size 
from 24- to 36-inch. All these outlets would 
he located east of the city along Moccasin 




THE SECTION WHERE THE gO-INCH SEGMENT BLOCK SEWEB IN ABEBDEEN, S. DAE., IS 

ENI.ABGED TO 96 INCHES 



148 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



Creek. 

Two of these small trunk lines were built 
in 1914, making a total of four outlets at 
the present time. Each of these lines serves 
certain particular districts, and they are 
too small to provide for future extensions. 
After spending about $50,000 on these two 
small trunk lines, it was found that other 
lines would have to be put in immediately 
to serve territory where paving was being 
petitioned for. Several petitions for pav- 
ing had been filed with the Board of Com- 
missions, but had to be denied, as there were 
no storm sewers to serve these particular 
streets. 

Investigations 

The writer was instructed to make a care- 
ful study of the storm-sewer problem. It 
was found from the records that the aver- 
age annual rainfall for Aberdeen is about 
30 inches. A study of the rainfall records 
covering a period of about 25 years showed 
that out of 47 storms there were 7 storms 
in which the rainfall exceeded i inch per 
hour. There were 4 storms during which 
the rate was from i^- to i inch per hour, 
ahd the rate during the remaining 36 
storms was less than J/^-inch per hour. It 
was found that the storm sewer serving the 
business district of the city was entirely in- 
adequate and had to be relieved. A large 
number of small 8- and lo-inch laterals were 
completely filled with mud. After a care- 
ful study it was concluded that a dififerent 
system would have to be designed in order 
to take care of the present and future 
growth of the city. 

Design of System 

On June 16, 1919, the writer submitted 
complete plans and specifications for a 
storm-sewer system. This system is com- 
posed of a trunk line running north and 
south through the central part of the city. 
The outlet is southeast of the city limits 
and enters Moccasin Creek. All of the 
present east-and-west lines are intercepted 
by the trunk sewer; other laterals from 18 
to 36 inches to be added in the future will 
enter the trunk line from the east and the 
west. The main trunk line is 2i/^ miles 
long, ranging in size from 96 to 60 inches. 

This system resembles a symmetrically 
shaped tree with the main trunk line gradu- 
ally growing smaller from the outlet up, 
and with branches spaced equally extending 
into outlying districts. The plans also pro- 



vide for an open ditch 6 miles in length, 
extending southeasterly from the outlet and 
cutting off the 50-mile loop of Moccasin 
Creek. A fall of 13 feet would be obtained 
by the construction of this ditch, and the 
sewer outlet would be connected directly 
with the James River. 

The system as designed will take care of 
about an inch of rain per hour. It was 
found that the cost of designing the system 
to provide for storms of the greatest inten- 
sity would be too great. The sewers have 
to be laid on very flat grades, and in order 
to provide for the maximum rainfall the 
sizes would be prohibitive. The only thing 
possible under these conditions was to util- 
ize all the fall available, which is 2 feet to 
the mile, and to design such a system as is 
feasible in cost but which would take care 
of the drainage in a reasonable way and 
greatly improve present conditions. The 
main outlet will have a capacity, flowing 
full, of about 12,000 cubic feet per minute 
with a velocity of 3.7 feet per second. 

The ultimate cost of this system will be 
much less than if the former plan was car- 
ried out, since the cost of large sewers per 
unit of carrying capacity is much less than 
for small sewers. With a central trunk line 
the materials can be easily and economically 
added from time to time as they become 
necessary. 

The plans for this system were adopted 
by the city. The contract for the main 
trunk line was let on August i, 1919, to J. J. 
Dunnegan, of Shenandoah, Iowa. The lay- 
ing of all of the 96-inch and 90-inch pipe. 
4,400 feet in length, has been completed 
this year. The sewers included in the con- 
tract will be finished in 1921. The cost of 
the work will be $325,000. 

Material Used and Methods of Construction 

The sewer is being built of segment block 
of the interlocking type. This block is 
manufactured by the Red Wing Sewer Pipe 
Company, of Red Wing, Minn. This type 
of block has just been placed on the market, 
and the Aberdeen job was the first on which 
the new block was used. The block is eas- 
ily laid and has been satisfactory for this 
type of construction. It is not laid with 
cement joints, only a thin grout being used 
in the bottom and on top of the sewer after 
a section has been laid. Between the top 
and bottom sections of the forms, four jack- 
screws are used for raising and lowering 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



149 



the top part of the form. This type of 
form has proved to be of great value, as it 
is easily moved and put back in the proper 
position. 

Several hundred feet of the 96-inch sewer 
had to be laid in quicksand. Progress w?s 
very slow, but the sewer was laid satisfac- 
torily by placing a bed of gravel under it up 
to the quarter line. 

When the work is completed, Aberdeen 



will have the foundation for an adequate 
system of drainage and will undoubtedly 
enter into an extensive paving program, 
which has so far been held up for lack of 
proper street drainage. Although the city 
is located in a swamp, it will nevertheless 
become a place where frog-ponds will be 
things of the past. When completed, it will 
mean more to this city than any other pub- 
lic improvement ever undertaken here. 



Does It Pay to Clean City Streets 
in Winter? 

Snow Removal Expedites Transportation and Saves the Road Surface 



THE scene depicted below is a familiar 
one in cities where snow is not re- 
moved from business streets shortly 
after a storm has ceased. Can you im- 
agine the damage incurred to a pavement 
when a dual rear wheel of a motor truck 
having four or five loose chains locked over 
it starts thrashing around like the one in the 
illustration? The chains strike a fearful 
blow on the snow and ice, and soon reach 
the pavement and continue the damaging 
work. Perhaps many engineers will think 
this is only an incident, but in a number 
of cities all but the very hardest pave- 
ments have been damaged to considerable 
extent in this manner. There is not only 
the street to be considered — think of the 
damage to the truck when as each chain 
strikes the pavement, the wheel is instantly 
and momentarily checked in its speed, thrust- 
ing a great additional torque on the axle. 
Transportation facilities in cities are greatly 
hindered by snow in the streets. Snow- 
should not only be removed from the center 
of the roadway to permit a single or double 
line of traffic, but should be removed from 
near the curbs in order that traffic may 
have ample space to operate and manoeuver. 
The various methods of snow removal 
which have been developed within the last 
two years include the use of tractors with 
either pusher-type or V-shaped locomotive 
plows, several types of machines for load- 
ing snow into trucks, including the "snow 
tank" and material-handling machinery 
slightly modified to handle snow and ice. 
The use of motor street sweepers has been 
advocated and will, undoubtedly, be suc- 
cessful if used from the very start of the 




THRASHINGS THAT RUIN BOTH PAVEMENT 
AND TRUCK 

snowfall to continually push the snow to 
the sides of the street where it may be taken 
up by hand or by different types of ma- 
chinery. Such devices promptly used 
should prevent damage to pavement and 
trucks with its consequent losses and con- 
gestion of traffic. 



ISO 



Automobile Headlight Regulations 



By James R. Cravath 

Illuminating Engineer 



IT is interesting to note that at the present 
time states comprising about 25 per cent 
of the total automobile registrations in 
the United States have adopted the rules 
recommended jointly by the Headlight Spe- 
cification Committee of the Illuminating En- 
gineering Society and the Standards Com- 
mittee of the Society of Automotive Engi- 
neers. Headlight regulations adopted by 
many states heretofore, with the idea of re- 
ducing the dangers of glaring headlights, 
have until the last two years necessarily 
been rather indefinite in specifications, be- 
cause those expert in lighting matters had 
not themselves made the necessary tests to 
form^ate definite specifications as to what 
could^e permitted on the road without 
causing:* dangerous headlight glare. The 
committees referred to, however, have 
worked "out such specifications, so that they 
are available for all states and municipalities 
desiring to pass regulations which represent 
the best unbiased expert opinion available. 
These rules specify nothing as to the kind 
of appliances to be used on an automobile, 
but specify in candle-power at various points 
the results that must be attained by automo- 
biles using the highway, if they are not to 
emit dangerous glare or dazzle and at the 
same tihie give sufficient light for safe driv- 
ing and reasonable speed. They specify the 
candle-power in maximum and minimum 
values to be permitted at certain points 100 
feet ahead of the car. The measurement of 
this candle-power would have been a rather 
elaborate operation a few years ago, but, 
thanks' to recent developments in light- 
measuring apparatus, a small and relatively 
inexpensive, easily operated instrument is 
now available called a foot-candle meter, 
with which this can be done with reasonable 
accuracy by any intelligent man after a lit- 
tle instruction. The states which had 
adopted these standard specifications up to 



October 1, 1920, were Connecticut, New 
York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Wisconsin, 
California, and the province of Ontario, 
Canada. 

There was discussion at the last Illumi- 
nating Engineering Society convention, 
both formally and informally, regarding 
feasible methods of enforcing these head- 
light laws. It appeared to be the consensus 
of opinion of the experts in these discus- 
sions, that while punishment of the worst 
offenders will doubtless be necessary in the 
enforcement of any such law, education of -^ 
garage mechanics and car owners in the », 
making of proper headlight adjustments 
and the equipment of public garages with 
the necessary things to make such adjust- 
ments quickly and easily, are to be the most 
important elements in improving the gen- 
eral headlight situation. It was suggested 
that probably municipal testing stations- 
vvould have to be established, where tests 
could be made with an instrument to deter- 
mine whether a given car was violating the 
law, or certain officers would have to be 
equipped with instruments for making such 
tests on suitable stretches of road. The 
better equipment of public garages for head- 
light testing and repair and adjustments 
was strongly urged, and with proper law 
enforcement, it was pointed out, it would 
pay many garages so to equip themselves. 
The point was also made that headlight 
adjustments are difficult with most of the 
car equipment now on the market, and bet- 
ter appliances for focusing and pointing of 
headlights were urged. 

It was evident from the discussion that 
the enforcement of these headlight laws 
will not take care of itself any more than 
the enforcement of various other laws on 
our books. The whole matter, however, is 
gradually drawing nearer to a satisfactory 
solution. 



"If we are to regenerate our cities, to preserve their beauties, and to make them 
better, more is required than the good intentions of a group of technical experts 
or public servants; for this end a veritable civic conscience must be developed in 
all citizens." 



151 




HOLT TRACTOR PULLING BLADE GRADERS IN GANG MAINTENANCE WORK 

A Comparison of Road Maintenance 

Methods 

Team, Tractor and Truck Patrols Analyzed 

By George E. Johnson 

State Engineer, Lincoln, Nebraska 



THE patrol maintenance system organ- 
ized in Nebraska the first of April, 
1920, has been in operation nearly a 
year, has covered a fairly good mileage, 
and offers a rather interesting and repre- 
sentative report. 

At the beginning of the season, the five 
division engineers, each of whom has di- 
rect charge of a portion of the work on 
the state highway system, held meetings 
with the county boards of their respective 
divisions, at which time they took up 
the matter of county road maintenance 
and available funds. In nearly every 
county there were funds left over from the 
1919 automobile license tax, and this 
amount, added to the minimum amount 
which the county board and the county 
treasurer estimated would be collected in 
that county for the 1920 automobile tax, 
constituted the total available fund for the 
maintenance expenditures on the state 
roads of each county. 

Maintenance Methods 

There are three methods of maintaining 
these roads, namely, by team, by truck, and 
by tractor. The team patrol consists of one 
man, who furnishes his own team and equip- 
ment, and who is paid an average of $175 
per month. It can be seen that there is no 
depreciation cost, nor feed cost, nor interest 
on teams to take into consideration when 
figuring the cost per mile for such mainte- 



nance. The equipment necessary may be 
listed as follows: 

1 six-foot blader 

1 farm wagon 

1 planer 

1 scraper or fresno 

1 plow 

Small tools 

6 miles average team patrol section 

Two men are required for the truck pa- 
trol method, and each is paid $120 per 
month ; the gas and oil are furnished by the 
county boards, which are, in turn, reim- 
bursed by the state. This method is used 
where there is a large mileage to cover. 
The trucks used are part of the equipment 
turned over to the state by the war depart- 
ment, for use on state roads. The price of 
these trucks to the counties was the amount 
of freight and expense put on by the state, 
and averaged near $1,000, varying according 
to the type of body. The price of the 
trucks, were the county to purchase them at 
market value, would average from $3,500 
to $5,000 apiece. This would necessarily 
increase the cost of maintenance accord- 
ingly. The equipment usually found is as 
follows: 

1 truck 

1 scraper 

1 maintainer 

2 planers 

1 scraper or fresno 

1 plow 

17 miles average truck patrol section 

The tractor patrol method also calls for 
two men, and is used in counties where such 
equipment was already on hand at the be- 



15^ 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



ginning of 1920, the county having pur- 
chased it for county work, or preferring it 
to the other methods used. 

The equipment necessary for such a main- 
tenance patrol would consist of the follow- 
ing: 

2 highway maintainors 

2 small tractors 

Plow 

Wisconsin planer 

Buck scraper 

Shovels 

14 miles average tractor patrol section 

Investigation of Methods 

In order to determine the best methods of 
maintenance, the writer visited twenty-two 
different states and investigated the methods 
used and the results obtained. It was con- 
cluded that the conditions in Wisconsin 
were the most similar to those in Nebraska, 
and that that state was getting a great deal 
more benefit from the money expended than 
any of the others. The Chief of the Bu- 
reau of Roads spent two weeks studying 
the methods of the Wisconsin Highway De- 
partment, and the results of his investiga- 
tion were explained to the county officials 
before any definite system of maintenance 
was adopted. 

Before completing a maintenance system, 
it was necessary to consider that the state 
had in its possession over 200 army trucks 
which were available for use on state roads. 
This fact made it necessary that a plan for 
patrol maintenance of this type be recom- 
mended to counties having a large mileage 
to cover. Also, in some of the counties in 
which portions of State and Federal Aid 
projects were partially completed during 
1919 it was advised last fall that these coun- 
ties do something toward maintaining the 
finished portion of these projects. As at 
that time teams were hard to find, and the 
army trucks not yet available, it was recom- 
mended that the counties purchase light 
farm tractors with which to pull the high- 
way maintenance equipment. Thus the 
three types of maintaining state roads de- 
veloped and were put in operation April i, 
1920. 

Comparative Analysis of Metliods 

Now after four months of continuous 
operation it is possible to make a compara- 
tive analysis of the three methods used. In 
making the comparison, a three-month 
period of operation has been taken — April, 
May and June. The writer has not taken 
into consideration the conditions of the 



soils of the various roads maintained, nor 
the weather conditions, upon which the con- 
dition of all roads is dependent. This fac- 
tor naturally enters into the costs, and either 
increases or lowers them, according to the 
existing conditions. 

The following cost figures are quoted as 
an average, representative of the cost of the 
three kinds of patrol maintenance, per day, 
per mile, on roads which are a part of the 
state highway system. Attention should be 
called to the fact that it was necessary to 
buy a large part of the small equipment, as 
well as the machinery. Nevertheless, the 
counties taken show a representative amount 
and kind of work. It was necessary to in- 
clude depreciation costs on all state-owned 
equipment, as well as on that owned by the 
county, in order to arrive at the actual cost 
per mile for the different types of mainte- 
nace. 

AVERAGE COST OF TRACTOR PATROL 

APRIL, MAY, JUNE, 1920— 14-MILE 

PATROL SECTION 

Based on 5 Tractor Patrols 

Total maintenance cost of five counties for 
three-month period, plus depreciation on 

equipment $7,532.15 

Total maintenance cost of one county for 
three-montix period, plus depreciation on 

equipment 1,506.4,S 

Cost of one patrol for one month 502.14 

Cost of one patrol for one day 19.31 

Cost of one patrol per mile per day 1.38 

TOTAL MAINTENANCE COST OF TRUCK 

PATROL APRIL, MAY, JUNE, 1920— 

17 MILES AVERAGE PATROL SECTION 

Based on 11 Truck Patrols 

Total maintenance cost of 11 truck patrols 
for three-month period, plus depreciation 

on equipment — 17-mile section $13,692.64 

Total maintenance cost of one truck patrol 

for three-month period 1,244.79 

Cost of one patrol per month 414.94 

Cost of one patrol per month 15.96 

Cost of one patrol per mile per day .94 

TOTAL MAINTENANCE COST OF TEAM 

PATROL APRIL, MAY, JUNE. 1920— 

6 MILES AVERAGE PATROL SECTION 

Based on 10 Team Patrols 

Total maintenance cost of 10 team patrols 
for three-month period (several team pa- 
trols from one county) $6,493.26 

Total maintenance cost of one team patrol 

for three months 649 . 32 

Cost of one patrol for one month 216.44 

Cost of one patrol per day per mile 8.32 

Cost of one patrol per mile per day 1.38 

From the figures shown above it can be 
seen that the average cost of maintaining 
one mile per day by the tractor is $1.38. 
One must take into consideration, however, 
that this figure is based on a 14-mile patrol 
section; while the average cost of main- 
taining one mile per day by team is $1.38, it 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



153 



1.28 will bring- 



is based on a 6-miIe pa- 
trol section. It would 
seem from the figures that 
the tractor patrol covered 
twice the mileage covered 
by the team patrol, and 
at the same unit rate. 
This is not the case, how- 
ever, as the cost of the 
team patrol per day is 
$8.32, and the section cov- 
ered is 6 miles. In order 
to find the cost of the 
team patrol for 14 miles, 
it would be necessary to 
consider the same mileage. 
This means that the cost 
oi lYs team patrols would 
be added to the cost of i 
team patrol in order that 
the mileage covered should 
be 14; thus, $11.29 added to 
the cost of the team patrol for 14 miles 
to nearly the same figure as the tractor 
patrol cost for 14 miles, or $19.41, a differ- 
ence of only 10 cents. The cost of the 
team and tractor patrol for a 14-mile sec- 
tion is practically the same. 

For an all-round careful patrol the team 
cannot be excelled, as it is much easier to 
stop and fix ruts, small chuck-holes and the 
like when driving a team than when driving 
a tractor or a truck. In so far as the amount 
of work accomplished is concerned, this 
factor is entirely dependent upon the care 
of the patrolman, for a conscientious pa- 
trolman will work diligently, doing the most 
careful work possible in the shortest length 
of time. This is one reason why the Wis- 
consin State Highway Department favofs 
the team patrol. However, in Nebraska, 
where there is a large mileage to cover, it 
has been found that the truck is perhaps 
the most economical and the best type of 
patrol. 

The costs quoted are, as stated before, 
averages based on average patrol sections. 
The cost per day per mile does not actually 
mean that one mile is gone over but once 
for the cost quoted, but as many times as 
necessary. 

In considering the influence of weather 
and soil, it must be appreciated that the con- 
dition of the road will determine the num- 
ber of times the road will have to be gone 
over. The figures, on face value, would in- 
dicate that the truck maintenance method is 




THIS TYPE or PATBOL STATION HOtSES THE MAINTEKANCE 
EQUIPMENT AND IS A HEADQUARTERS FOR THOSE WORKING 
ON STATE ROADS IN THE DISTRICT 



the most desirable in all cases; however, 
there enters the matter of the reliability of 
machinery, against that of the teams. For 
instance, on a newly constructed grade, 
with deep fills, it is evident that the larger 
part of a patrolman's time will be spent in 
using the slip, if the patrol is team, while 
on a more level road a truck and a highway 
maintainer would take care of 90 per cent 
of the work. 

There is one more thing that should be 
taken into consideration with regard to the 
cost per mile per day for the different kinds 
of patrol maintenance ; that is, that the cost 
of each patrol section will materially de- 
crease if the road is kept in first-class con- 
dition the greater part of each season. The 
back slopes in the cuts, especially, will soon 
become grass-covered, and thus will re- 
quire little maintenance, as they do not 
wash. At the present time the new cuts 
have a tendency to wash, and unless there 
is some kind of ditch check, the slope will 
be worn in a short time. The patrolman 
should be vigilant in noting any tendency of 
this nature, and immediately place brush to 
protect the ditch washing, until such a time 
as he can furnish better protection. 

The cost of patrol maintenance is a fac- 
tor that is almost entirely under the control 
of the patrolman, for after the road is com- 
pleted the problem of drainage and road 
surface belong entirely to him, and he must 
render the invaluable service of keeping it 
in first-class condition for the traveling 
public. 



154 



Novel Provisions of the Milwaukee 
Zoning Ordinance 

By Arthur C. Comey 

Consultant on City Planning, Cambridge, Mass. 



MILWAUKEE is the third largest city 
in the United States to put zoning 
into effect. The ordinance presented 
by the Board of Public Land Commissioners 
and adopted by the City Council on Novem- 
ber 15, 1920, combines many of the best fea- 
tures of ordinances in other cities, and in 
several respects goes a step in advance of 
any of them. 

Relation Between Floor Space and Street 
Space 

As the level central portion of the city 
wa§ originally laid out with practically all 
streets 80 feet M^ide, thus facilitating the 
spreading out of the business section, the 
skyscraper problem could be attacked with 
more vigor than usual. A height limit of 
125 feet, which approaches the ideal, was 
set for the district of tallest buildings. Com- 
pare this figure with that of any other city 
of 500,000 or more, or, in fact, with height 
limits of much smaller cities. Boston alone 
has as low a limit, necessitated in its case 
by a condition opposite to that in Milwaukee 
— the almost total lack of wide streets. 

Towers up to 225 feet, the height limit 
previously in force, are permitted over one- 
quarter of the area. of a building, but this 
will not materially reduce the light and air 
afforded nor increase the amount of traffic 
arising from the buildings. In fact, Mil- 
waukee is probably the only large city which 
has established a relation between floor 
space and street space that will permit its 
business buildings to be served by a number 
of automobiles in any degree adequate for 
modern needs. Most cities are already 
faced with the utter impossibility of provid- 
ing room for the operation, not to mention 
the storage, of even a fraction of the auto- 
mobiles that would otherwise penetrate 
their central sections. Milwaukee, on the 
other hand, is perfecting its system of 
streets still further by projecting two great 
distributing arteries through its heart, one 
of which, 200 feet wide, is already author- 
ized.* Its street system and its zoning pro- 



* See The American City, August, 1920, page 135. 



visions together make acute traffic conges- 
tion a remote problem. The gain to busi- 
ness alone of being readily reached by auto- 
mobile would well repay this far-sighted 
policy, while other benefits, such as in- 
creased area of high land values and rela- 
tively low cost of transportation, affect a 
large part of the city's life. 

Ventilation and Light Throughout the 
City Area 

The indiscriminate location of apartment 
houses throughout the residential districts 
has just begun. Milwaukee has therefore 
been able to step in in time and stop this 
tendency. Apartment houses are absolutely 
excluded from large sections of the city by 
the requirement that in the 40-foot height 
districts no building used in any part for 
residence purposes by more than one family 
shall be in excess of two and one-half 
stories, the half -story being so defined that 
it cannot contain an independent apartment. 
Note that this provision is so drawn as to 
avoid unnecessary restriction of one-family 
dwellings, which may, if desired, be built to 
40 feet. With this exception, residences are 
everywhere limited as to stories to some- 
what lower heights than other buildings in 
the same height district, thereby nullifying 
any tendency to crowd in extra stories by 
reducing ceiling heights to the absolute 
minimum the law allows. 

Every room must have windows equal to 
one-tenth its floor area opening on a street 
or alley, or on a yard or court of sufficient 
dimensions to give a fair amount of light 
and air even in the most dense building dis- 
tricts. In most of the city, where prevailing 
existing conditions have not forced crowd- 
ing to be permitted, yards and courts are 
required to be so wide that there will be a 
really adequate supply. Furthermore, in 
the "D" area districts, which comprise most 
of the sections recently built or now build- 
ing up, these required windows must open 
on a street or yard of reasonable size, and 
there must be at least one side yard; no 
building shall occupy more than 30 per cent 



FEitKUARY, I92I 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



T5S 




THE FACTORY ON THE CORNER LOT DETRACTS FROM THE VALLE OF NEIGHBORING 

RESIDENCES 



of an interior lot ; and not more than twenty 
families shall be housed on any one acre of^ 
land, thus producing practically garden 
suburb conditions. In these and similar 
ways this city is providing as no other yet 
has for openness — ventilation and light 
throughout its area. 

No Garages on Apartment House Lots 

In residential districts small private 
garages are permitted as accessory to 
dwellings, but garages of any sort are ab- 
solutely prohibited on lots with apartment 
houses. Prior to the passage of the zoning 
ordinance one building was erected which 
provided space for one hundred automo- 
biles on its first floor. A convenience for 
dwellers in the apartment house — granted; 
but consider the baneful effect on surround- 
ing property, particularly opposite it, of in- 
troducing this business on a residential 
street. Furthermore, once built, how can 
cars of others than residents of the build- 
ing be kept out of it? In other words, how 
prevent it from becoming to all intents a 
public garage? 

The argument in favor of a small garage 
on a lot with an apartment house was dis- 
posed of by the consideration that only a 
few of its many families could benefit by its 
use, while all would suffer from the undis- 
puted element of nuisance involved in any 
garage. Moreover, this would in such 
cases be accentuated, as among other things 
the proximity of apartment houses would 
increase the noise, and the garage would 
usurp much of the meager play space for 
children and at the same time introduce a 
new element of danger to them. 



Definite as to Details 

In its details the Milwaukee zoning ordi- 
nance includes many novel provisions de- 
signed to make it more exactly effective in 
the work it is to do. Reference can be made 
to a few of these only in this article. Uni- 
form setback provisions apply in residence 
districts in "C" and "D" area districts 
where at least one-quarter of the frontage is 
built up. No new buildings except those be- 
tween projecting buildings are permitted 
to project in front of the average setback 
unless they leave open spaces on each side 
twice as wide as they are deep. This will 
permit shallow bays and entrance porches 
and reasonable use of a narrow corner lot 
facing an intersecting street without ma- 
terial injury to the open front yards estab- 
I'shed by the majority. 

Accessory uses — the "no man's land" of 
most zoning ordinances — are much more 
explicitly defined so as to prevent undue de- 
velopment of home industries or the nui- 
sance of rented garage space. Permission 
for a certain amount of manufacturing in a 
local business district is strictly confined to 
products the major port'on of which are to 
be sold at retail to the ultimate consumer. 
The method of fixing the precise boundaries 
shown on the map, as being either the cen- 
ter lines of streets or lines 120 feet back 
from the less restricted street unless other- 
wise indicated by dimensions, renders dis- 
pute impossible. In fact, throughout the 
ordinance little is left to the discretion of 
the building inspector. This is as welcome 
to him as it is to the architects and builders 
or property owners operating under the 
code. 



156 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



The zoning ordinance was prepared with 
the legal advice of Hon. Edward M. Bas- 
sett, of New York City, who was invited to 
meet with the Board of Public Land Com- 
missioners and its consultant for detailed 
consideration of the tentative ordinance 
prior to presentation of the printed report. 
Mr. Bassett's addresses to the City Council, 
the Rotary Club and to other civic organ- 



izations opened the publicity campaign, 
which enlisted wide support of the ordi- 
nance by the citizenship. His answers to 
destructive criticisms when the final draft 
was up in the Council helped to secure its 
passage practically intact. The zoning or- 
dinance is already proving its value and 
promises to be of inestimable value to the 
Milwaukee of the future. 



A Striking Message to City Officials 

on 

THE PARALLEL PARADOXES OF THE 

AND THE 



'WAGE FUND" 



Once upon a time a group of workmen held a meet- 
ing. Someone had a "happy thought." Said he: 

"These hard times will make the amount of work 
to be done in this town much smaller than a year ago. 
So let us take it easy in our work, and thus secure jobs 
and wages for as many men as possible." 

So the misguided conspirators cut down their hourly 
production. The result, of course, was an mcrease m 
unit costs to the manufacturer at a time when lower 
costs were needed to keep the factories going.' And 
the "wage fund" became increasingly difficult for the 
emplpyer to provide. 

The workers realized too late that a wage fund can 
be created only by producing something that satisfies 
human wants, and that by redoubling their efforts they 
might have stimulated prosperity through a combina- 
tion of lower prices, bigger sales and increasing em- 
ployment. They know now — or will some day learn 
— that efficient work adds more to the wage fund than 
docs the work of the slacker, and that a period of busi- 
ness depression is the time abov: all others when pro- 
ductive se»vice should be rendered with the utmost 



TAX FUND" 



Once upon a time "a city council held a meeting. 
Someone had a "happy thought." Said he: 

"These hard times will make taxes in this town 
more difficult to collect than a year ago. So let us 
stop new construction work of all kinds, and appro- 
priate the tax • fund only for ordinary running ex- 
penses." 

So the misguided city fathers cut down their bond 
issues and appropriations for public works. The result, 
of course, was increased unemployment there and else- 
where at a time when public works would have helped 
to restore the demand for labor and materials. And 
the "tax fund" became increasingly difficult for the 
citizens to raise. 

The official^ realized too late that the amount of 
collectible tax money depends on the prosperity of 
their citizens and the municipal assets of the com- 
munity, and that there is much greater economy in 
issuing bond» for roads or waterworks or bridges or 
playgrounds than in breeding privation and discontent. 
They kpow now — or will some day learn — that well- 
planned municipal improvements add more to realty 
values than they cost, and. that a period of business de- 
pression is the time above all others when the building 
of public works should be pushed with the utmost 
vigor. 



Courtesy of Comonunity Leadership 



The Federal Employment Service estimates that 3,473,466 fewer persons were 
employed in industry in the United States in January, 1921, than a year ago. If you 
want your city to do its share in restoring local and national prosperity, the prompt 
and vigorous advocacy of a constructive program of public works would help greatly. 

If not wholly convinced as to the wisdom of such a policy, please tell us why. 
Perhaps we can help you find the answer. Reprints are available of the editorial from 
The American City for December, 1920, on "Public Works as Panic Prevention," 
if you want them. 



157 



Modern Cast Iron Pipe 

By A. F. Macallum 

Commissioner of Work, Ottawa, Can. 

WHILE cast iron pipe has been in use type of cast iron pipe involves the applica- 
in France at Versailles for over tion of the principle of centrifugal force to 
150 years, its use in America did molten metal at a high temperature (about 
not commence until about 181 7. In that 1,800 degrees F.) in a permanent revolving 
year cast iron pipe was laid in Philadelphia mold. A regulated quantity of this cast 
as an experiment, which was so successful iron is introduced into a revolving water- 
that it has been almost exclusively used for cooled cylinder where, by the centrifugal 
water-mains, and more recently for gas- force exerted, the molten metal is spread 
mains, since that date. It is a factor of uniformly upon the surface of the mold, 
great magnitude not only in the development Within a minute the pipe is withdrawn from 
of modern water-supply projects, but in the the mold at a white heat. The pipe is brit- 
broadening of many industries. tie after leaving the mold, on account of the 

While many attempts have been made to outer surface being chilled, but after passing 

introduce varieties, the bell-and-spigot joint through an annealing furnace it becomes 

has been for over a century, and is yet, the tough and much stronger than ordinary 

standard joint, and because of its long use cast iron pipe, as shown by the tests made 

may be regarded as having proved its in- by Professor Gillespie, 

herent merit of design. Flanged pipe, al- The pipe made under these conditions has 

though made for the first installations, was a decided contrast in structure to pipe cast 

found too rigid for underground lines, be- in sand molds, where the casting is much 

sides being more expensive, and is now used slower and has not the segregation of im- 

only for special purposes. purities often found in the sand cast pipe. 

Cast iron pipe was generally cast on its As a consequence, the pipe is a homogenous, 

side, but because of its tendency to be "out dense, fine-grained iron throughout, having 

of round" or of uneven thickness, thus giv- no water or gas bubbles, and because of 

ing a pipe easily broken and unreliable, this this density and strength the pipe can be 

method of casting was abandoned and the made much thinner. 

pipe was cast vertically in molds. This In tests made by Professor Gillespie a 6- 

vertical casting of pipe gave very satisfac- inch pipe made by this machine was com- 

tory results, although the pipe was still sub- pared with a 6-inch Class C, ordinary sand- 

ject to blow-holes. molded pipe, and out of the same iron, with 

the following results: 

The New Method CENTRIFUGAL CAST PIPE 

The present specifications for cast iron Thickness 28 inches 

^ , , . , . , ., Ten sile strength 37,000 lbs. per sq. in. 

pipe are based on iron having a tensile Modulus of elasticity 14,500,000 

strength of 20,000 pounds. When higher Sly"iaL7T.\":::::::::::::: :••• ''K 

standards are given under the present f oun- " ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

dry methods and mixtures, the pipe is apt Thickness 51 inches 

to be more brittle. On account, however of J^^i'^^^^----^ . '':''' .'*'.^- ^1^,^^, 

new methods being adopted in the method Modulus of rupture 33,900 

of manufacturing iron pipe, consideration Q"^"*^ ^^''*°'" ^-^ 

is now being given to the revision of the From which it will be seen that the cen- 
specifications to meet these new conditions. trifugal pipe has a very high tensile cross- 
This new method, developed by DeLavaud, bending and resistance to shock values, 
a French engineer, is now being used in As found by these tests, the ratios of these 
this country after being subjected to tests to other coefficients similarly found for the 
in comparison with the ordinary standard sand-mold pipe from the same iron are as 
cast iron pipe, by Professor Peter Gillespie two to one, or twice as strong, 
of the Department of Applied Science, In the tests for corrosion made by Pro- 
Toronto University. fessor Gillespie he found no difference, but 
The process of manufacturing this new jn tests made at Sao Paulo, Brazil, it was 



158 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



found that the centrifugal cast pipe showed 
much better results than the sand-molded 
pipe. 

In soils such as found in Ontario, it has 
been found that ordinary cast iron pipe has 
very little corrosion. The writer has re- 
moved a section of old English cast iron 
pipe laid in 1859 in Hamilton that showed 
no corrosion whatever, after being in the 
ground over 50 years, having even the 
weight marks clearly legible. This old 
English pipe was made much thinner than 
called for in the present-day specifications, 
and being on a rising main is still in service 
under more severe conditions from pressure 
than when laid. This centrifugal cast iron 
pipe has a smooth exterior and internal sur- 
face, and besides reducing hydraulic fric- 
tional losses, takes a much better surface 
coating. 

It has been found that it machines 



easily, and because" of the method of manu- 
facture the wall thickness is practically ex- 
actly uniform. 

Because of its double strength the centrif- 
ugal cast pipe can successfully be made con- 
siderably thinner than the sand cast pipe, 
and as a consequence a 12- foot pipe 6 inches 
in diameter will weigh only 240 pounds, 
compared with 430 pounds for a sand cast 
pipe of the same diameter, with the conse- 
quent saving in freight rates on shipments 
of the same quantity of pipe. 

This light weight of the centrifugal cast 
iron pipe facilitates its laying, as a greater 
number can be calked on the ground and 
lowered into the trench. Besides, this latest 
development in the manufacture of iron 
pipe brings it into competition with steel 
pipe under conditions that had practically 
limited the field to steel pipe, and indicates 
an advance on previous methods. 



Designing Roads from a Traffic Census or from Common Sense 



Highway traffic is, of course, the first fac- 
tor to be seriously considered in connection 
with pavement economics. Traffic is the 
thing which makes highway surfacings 
worth while, and the thing which wears them 
out. Its amount and its characteristics are 
important and should always be taken into 
account. 

In a paper entitled "Relative Service 
Value of Pavement Types," A. R. Hirst, 
State Highway Engineer of Wisconsin, has 
ofifered some ideas to the Association of 
State Highway Officials which are worth 
serious consideration by all designing and 
constructing engineers : 

"A preliminary traffic census is absolutely 
valueless in helping to determine the type 
of surfacing to be used. An inspection of 
the location of a road on the map, a knowl- 
edge of its relation to other roads and to 
the general highway system, and to busi- 
ness centers, together with a consideration 
of the business tributary to it and probably 
to be tributary to it, will tell a highway 
engineer who knows his business whether 
the construction in question should be first, 
second or third class. The traffic on a road 
last year or last month has absolutely no 
value in this connection, because when a 
highway becomes part of a superior high- 
way system, or when one highway is paved 



with a surface superior to that on the ad- 
jacent and competing highways, traffic is 
so concentrated on that highway that what 
has been is no indication of what will be. 

"Any assumption of what traffic will be 
is merely an assumption, and the presence 
on a certain past day of one hundred auto- 
mobiles, ten trucks, eight farmers or their 
wives in single buggies, and three babies 
in their perambulators has really no bear- 
ing on the future situation. 

"Traffic counts have value only as serv- 
ing to give accurate information as to the 
constantly occurring changes in traffic con- 
ditions, and in determining the relative cost 
of services per unit given by various pave- 
ments. The unit cost per ton of carrying 
traffic is the important consideration, and, 
unfortunately, we have little or no informa- 
tion on this point. 

"The fact that this type of pavement was 
maintained for so much per annum and that 
type for so much per annum, means little 
unless we know the amount and weight of 
the traffic served and that it was served ade- 
quately. Even then the information would 
not be conclusive, because the pavement 
which gave this unit cost under the pre- 
vailing soil and climatic conditions might 
give an entirely dififerent unit cost under 
different soil and climatic conditions. 



159 



The Effect of Different Waters on Mains 



With Interesting Results of Tests Before and After Cleaning 

By J. E. Gibson 

Engineer and Manager, Water Department, Charleston, S. C. 



IN 1879, the City Council of Charleston 
granted to Jesse W. Starr, Jr., of Cam- 
den, N. J., a franchise for a public 
water-supply. This franchise provided for 
a supply of water to be obtained from ar- 
tesian wells, and the laying of some twelve 
miles of cast iron pipe. These mains were 
located on the principal streets and the 
water-fronts of the Cooper and Ashley 
Rivers. They were for the most part 6- 
inch cast iron mains, but the mains on 
Broad, Meeting, King and Wentworth 
Streets were 8-, 10- and 12-inch diameter 
respectively, as they were feeder mains from 
the plant on George Street. 

Water was first turned into the mains in 
1880 and came from the artesian wells lo- 
cated at Wentworth and Meeting Streets 
and the Citadel Square. The artesian water 
was very soft, containing only 30 or 40 
parts per million of hardness, but the total 
solids ran from 1,800 to 2,000 parts. It 
was highly prized for drinking and bathing 
purposes, but could not be used for cooking 
or manufacturing purposes on account of 
its high soda content. All starchy foods 
were turned a brownish green, and when the 
water was used in boilers a vfolent foaming 
ensued. This water had a temperature of 
90 degrees F., and rapidly incrusted the pipe 
wherever the protective coating was defec- 
tive. 

From time to time additional artesian 
wells were put down. The normal yield 
from these wells was approximately 1,000,- 
000 gallons per day, which was later in- 
creased by the use of the Pohle air lift to 
2,000,000 gallons per day. The growth of 
the city was such that this supply soon be- 
came inadequate and it was not possible to 
furnish a full normal pressure throughout 
the twenty-four hours of the day. 

In 1902 new capital was sought and a new 
franchise was granted for a water-supply to 
be obtained from a surface stream. The 
new water company took over the plant of 
the old water company and developed a 
supply of water from Goose Creek, the new 



pumping station being located about twelve 
miles north of the city limits. 

Goose Creek is a tidal estuary of the 
Cooper River, having a total drainage area 
of 60 square miles at its junction with the 
Cooper River. The stream is very tortuous 
and is bordered alternately by wide, tree- 
less marshes covered with a dense growth 
of salt-growing vegetation. At the site 
selected for the pumping station an earthen 
dam was thrown across the creek, and the 
tide-water was prevented from flowing up- 
stream. The water above the dam was al- 
lowed to freshen because of rainfall and in- 
flow, and this now forms the supply of 
water for the city of Charleston. The total 
drainage area above the dam is 42^/2 square 
miles, and the storage reservoir covers an 
area of 3J/2 square miles. The amount of 
water stored at the flow line elevation of 
the dam' (10^ feet above low tide) is 
2,780,000,000 gallons, and the average depth 
of the water is approximately 6 feet. 

The drainage area is low-lying and gener- 
ally covered with pine, cypress and kindred 
trees, and, in common with coastal waters 
from Maine to Texas, is highly colored with 
the vegetable organic matter of the 
swamps. The alkalinity usually runs from 
10 to 15 p. p. m., and the color anywhere 
from 100 to 250, depending upon conditions 
of rainfall, vegetation, etc. 

The water is filtered through gravity me- 
chanical filters, the coagulant used being 
sulphate of alumina. To satisfactorily re- 
move the color from water it has been 
found necessary to bring the water to prac- 
tically a neutral or acid condition, and that 
is done in the treatment of the Goose Creek 
supply. The color is removed from a nor- 
mal of, say, 180 to about 25 p. p. m., and in 
so doing the alkalinity is reduced from an 
average of 12 to about 2 p. p. m., below 
which point it is not deemed advisable to 
go. After filtration there is sufficient lime, 
in the form of lime water, added to the 
filtrate to restore the alkalinity to about 18 
p. p. m., and to reduce the carbon dioxide 



i6o 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



content of the filtered water to form 2 to 3 
p. p. m. The total solids, after treatment, 
average about 70 to 100. 

This water was first introduced into the 
city mains in the fall of 1903, and, because 
sufficient time had not elapsed for the dilu- 
tion of the salt in the flooded marshes, or 
for the reduction of color due to the heavy 
vegetable stain, it was not anywhere near 
the present quality. 

It will be noted, therefore, that artesian 
water was supplied from 1880 to the winter 
of 1903, and since that date Goose Creek 
water has been supplied through the mains. 
No change has been made in the piping 
system during all these years except to take 
care of the natural growth of the city. 

On October i, 1917, the city by purchase 
took over the plant of the private company, 
since which time it has been operated as a 
municipal corporation. The increasing 
values of real estate and storage ware- 
houses along the river fronts demanded in- 
creased fire protection, and in the fall of 
1918 the Commissioners of Public Works, 
who operated the plant for the city, author- 
ized the department to lay reinforcing mains 
along the river fronts in the congested dis- 
tricts. 

Cleaning the Mains 

At the same time it was deemed advisable 
to clean the existing mains, and a contract 
was made with the National Water Main 
Cleaning Company for the use of one of 
its cleaning machines. In all, some six 
miles of mains were cleaned, the work ex- 
tending over a period of about six months. 
The writer believes the method of cleaning 
water-mains is pretty generally understood, 
yet a short description may not be amiss. 

The stretch of main to be cleaned was 
first opened up at two points, usually from 
400 to 600 feet apart. A small carrier, made 
up of three cup leathers (similar to those 
used in a hand bilge pump) fastened to- 
gether by flexible connections, were at- 
tached to a small cable (J^-inch in diam- 
eter) and introduced in the main at one of 
the openings. The ends of the mains were 
plugged by means of wooden plugs, with a 
2-inch pipe connecting the two plugs, the 
small cable passing through a small hole in 
the side of the plug. Water was then ad- 
mitted through the plugs and the connecting 
2-inch pipe to the rear of the cup leather 
carrier, which was forced through the main, 



pulling the cable with it. As soon as the 
cable appeared at the second opening, the 
pressure was shut off, the carrier removed 
and the small cable made fast to the large 
cable (about ^-inch diameter), which was 
then pulled backward through the main to 
the first opening or point of introduction of 
the carrier. The wooden plugs were re- 
moved and the large cable made fast to the 
cleaning machine proper, which was then 
placed in the main and the opening closed 
up with a piece of cast iron pipe and sleeve 
joints. 

The cleaning machine proper consisted 
of a number of blades, similar to an ordi- 
nary boiler flue scraper, the blades being 
set in three or four groups and spaced 
around the circle so that the entire cir- 
cumference of the pipe was covered. The 
blades of the cleaning machine were made 
of tempered steel and set out slightly larger 
in diameter than the diameter of the pipe. 
Sometimes the leading or forward blades 
on the machine are made saw-tooth; the 
rear blades are always perfectly plain. On 
all of the work done at Charleston plain 
blades were used, as we wanted to pre- 
serve the coating of the pipe if possible!. 
We found, however, that practically all 
of the coating had been destroyed, prob- 
ably by time. As soon as the opening in 
the main was closed, scraping was beg^n 
by attaching the opposite end of the cable 
to a heavy winch which could be turned 
by two men each, on opposite cranks. At 
the same time, water was turned into the 
main from the rear of the cleaner so that 
all material scraped from the sides of the 
main was washed forward and out of the 
main at the opening. Usually it required 
about eight hours to cut in and clean 600 
feet of main. This time does not include 
the time of digging the openings in the 
streets, but it does include the time of 
cutting the main and replacing the sections 
cut out. 

Carrying Capacity of Mains 

It was not possible, on account of other 
work being carried on at the same time, 
to test all the mains for carrying capacity 
before and after cleaning, but one com- 
plete test was made on what was con- 
sidered a typical case. The main tested 
was located on Legare Street between Lam- 
boll and Tradd Streets, a total distance of 
755/^ feet. This main was laid in 1880 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



j6i 



and had never been 
cleaned. 

There were three hy- 
drants located on this 
main, two 755/^ feet 
apart, and the third 300 
feet further. The third 
hydrant was connected by 
means of pipe to a 2-inch 
Trident Crest meter, the 
first and second hydrants 
were connected by means 
of a ^-inch galvanized 
pipe and U-tube filled with 
mercury, and all other 
valves and supplies were 
cut ofif, except the one at 
the Tradd Street end. It 
will be seen, therefore, 
that by opening the third 
hydrant a flow was cre- 
ated in the length of pipe 
and the friction loss be- 
tween the first and second 
hydrants could be noted 
from the U-tube, and the 
quantity of water passing 
through the main would 
be measured by the 2-inch 
Trident meter. There 
were three sets of tests made: (i) before 
cleaning; (2) immediately after cleaning; 
and (3) fourteen months after cleaning. 
On account of the third hydrant's having a 
loose seat on the stem, it was not possible 
to make the first series of tests to cover the 
low rate of flow, as this loose seat acted as 
a ram, causing water-hammer in the main. 

The values of coefficient "C" in Chezy's 
Formula, V = C y/ RS, was determined, 
and these values are given in the accom- 
panying diagram. It will be noted that each 
test consisted of two series, that is, in- 
creasing and decreasing velocities. The 
result of each test as plotted represents 
ten individual observations, and the curves 
shown have been drawn by inspection. 
The rates of discharge are given in cubic 
feet per minute and in gallons per twenty- 
four hours. On the right hand of the 
graph, the results are shown in per cent on 
the assumed value of C of 100 for new 
cast-iron pipe. This is not absolutely cor- 
rect, as authorities vary, giving the value 
of C as low as 95 for low velocities and no 
for high velocities, but nevertheless the 




RESULTS OF TESTS OF MAIN BEFORE AND AFTER CLEANING 



figures are comparable. It will be seen 
that for the 40-year pipe the value of C 
had fallen to 34, and immediately after 
cleaning, this coefficient was increased to 
about 90, and that within a period of four- 
teen months it had again deteriorated until 
the value was about 61. 

This was rather disappointing to the 
writer, although he had been somewhat 
prepared from a previous experience on 
the 24-inch supply main leading to the 
city. These former tests indicated that it 
is reasonable to expect a main that has 
been once cleaned to deteriorate more rap- 
idly than new main, because in scraping the 
tubercles from the mains the protective 
coating is more or less destroyed, and there 
is left a rough and pitted surface which 
oflfers a maximum condition for rust and 
corrosion. This may be further aggra- 
vated should the water contain vegetable 
or other acids, which would set up differ- 
ences of polarity between the adjacent parts 
of the pipe. 

Goose Creek water is maintained at about 
18 parts of alkalinity, which is certainly 



1 62 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



positively alkaline, but there is a possibility 
that all waters (particularly along the 
coastal plain) contain acids that attack 
metals. We learn by experience, and it 
has been found that if the Goose Creek 
water is maintained at an alkalinity of 
from 12 to 15 p. p. m., little trouble is ex- 
perienced due to red water or corrosion in 
the hot water pipes of house boilers, but 
below this point considerable trouble is ex- 
perienced. 

It has been noted by the writer that the 
amount of the corrosion or tubercles does 
not so much reduce the carrying capacity 
cf the main as the nature of the internal 
surface of the pipe. 

In 1915, II miles of the 24-inch cast-iron 
main delivering water into the city were 
cleaned, and within a period of three 
months after cleaning, the friction loss had 
substantially increased to that before clean- 
ing, and it was again determined to clean 
this main. The actual cleaning, however, 
did not take place until about twelve months 
after the first cleaning. 

Results of First and Second Cleanings 

Before the first cleaning, judging from 
pieces of pipe that were removed to insert 
the cleaning machine, it was found that 
the internal surface of the main was cov- 
ered with large tubercles, projecting as 
much as J/2 to ^ of an inch, and having 
a diameter of 13^ inches or more. They 
were fairly close together, and the entire 
surface showed a tuberculated condition. 

At the second cleaning of the ma'n. some 
of the pipe formerly cleaned was removed, 



and it was found that the inner surface was 
covered with innumerable tubercles, having 
a diameter of about 34-ii^ch and projecting 
about 54-irich. They were much more nu- 
merous than in the first cleaning and looked 
as if someone had taken a pepper-shaker 
and peppered the entire surface of the 
main. The friction loss before the second 
cleaning was about the same as that with 
the larger tubercles. The protective coat- 
ing had been more or less destroyed by the 
first cleaning, and the condition of the 
water pumped through the main undoubt- 
edly promoted the growth of the tubercles. 
After the first cleaning and for a period of 
sixty days the water pumped through the 
main had an alkalinity of less than 5 p. p. 
m., using the erythrosine method. 

It is known that this method for deter- 
mining alkalinity is not delicate to within 
3 or 4 p. p. m., and, undoubtedly, at times 
the water was acid and had a high carbonic 
acid content all of the time. 

After the second cleaning the water was 
carried exceptionally high in alkalinity, 
with the hope that a deposit of calcium sul- 
phate might be obtained on the main. This 
does not seem to have taken place, although 
the carrying capacity of the main had not 
deteriorated nearly so rapidly as after the 
first cleaning. 

Since the above main was cleaned, an 
additional main has been laid for some 
30,000 feet, duplicating the 24-inch main, 
and it is hoped that in the near future, fric- 
tion losses can be obtained for the 30,000 
feet of old 24-inch main, using the new 
parallel main as a piezometric pipe. 



On the Calendar of Conventions 



February 14-20. — New York City. 

National Civic Federation. _ Annual meeting. 
Secretary, D. L. Cease, 1 Madison Avenue, New 
York, N. Y. 

I'ebruary 17-19. — Port Huron, Mich. 

Michigan Commercial Secretaries' Association. 
Semi-annual meeting. Secretarjf, C. W. Otto, 
Board of Commerce, Pontiac, Mich. 

February 24-25. — Eulensburg, Wash. 

Washington Association of Commercial Organi- 
sation Secretaries. Semi-annual meeting. Secre- 
tary, A. F. Marsh, Chehalis, Wash. 

February 25-26. — Harrisburg, Pa. 

_ Pennsylvania Commercial Secretaries' Associa- 
tion. Semi-annual convention. Secretary, E. J. 
Fellow, Chamber of Commerce, Lebanon, Pa. 



February 26-March 3. — Atlantic City, N. J. 

National Education Association — Department of 
Superintendence. Annual meeting. Secretary, 
Miss Charl O. Williams, Superintendent of 
Schools, Memphis, Tenn. 
February 26-March 3. — .Atlantic City, N. J. 

National Community Center Association.. An- 
nual meeting. Secretary, Eugene C. Gibney, 70 
Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
March 9-11. — Regina, Sask. 

Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipali- 
ties. Annual convention. Annual convention. 
Secretary, E. G. Hingley, Farmers' Building, Re- 
gina, Sask. 
.April 27-29. — Atlantic City, N. J. 

Chamber of Commerce of the United States of 
America. Annual meeting. Secretary, Elliot H. 
Goodwin, Riggs Building, Washington, D. C. 



163 



An All-Season Playground 

Asphalt Paved Tennis Courts Used for Skating Rinks in Winter in Gary, Ind. 



IN order that a tennis court or playground 
may be termed an all-year investment, 
some provision must be made to use the 
area for vi^inter sports. 

A close study of the situation when the 
courts in Gary were built led the officials to 
decide to lay a smooth sheet asphalt wearing 
surface which would give an excellent ten- 
nis court in warm weather and which could 
withstand the damaging effects of a surface 
of ice for skating purposes in winter. The 
playing surface was laid as follows : First 
the plot was excavated so as to allow for the 
laying of the base and the sheet asphalt 
wearing surface. Then a curb of concrete 6 
inches wide and 16 inches deep was laid 
around the entire lot. Drains were con- 
structed and pipes placed at the back of the 
court to hold the wire for the back-stops, 
and then tennis-net supports were set. 
After this, a layer of stone ranging in size 
from I to 23^ inches was spread over the 
entire surface, in such quantities as to pro- 
vide a depth of 5 inches after it had been 
rolled and consolidated. Texaco asphalt 
paving cement was then spread over the 



broken stone by means of hand-pouring 
pots, using about ij^ gallons per square 
yard. This was covered lightly with clean 
stone chips free from dust, and then the 
entire area was compacted with a 5-ton 
roller. Just enough stone chips were then 
applied so that upon rolling they were forced 
into the surface voids of the asphalt-coated 
stone, leaving no excess of asphalt on the 
surface. The next step was to lay a binder 
course i inch in depth, and then a i-inch 
sheet asphalt wearing surface, laid in the 
usual manner. 

These courts were constructed during the 
summer of 1919 and used as a skating rink 
last winter. The curb was allowed to ex- 
tend about 3 inches above the asphaltic sur- 
face, and during the winter the drainage in- 
lets were plugged and the courts were 
flooded with water. Upon freezing, they 
furnished an excellent skating rink. The 
contractors for this work were the Mu- 
nicipal Contracting & Supply Company, 
Gary, Ind. The accompanying illustration 
shows the court in summer being used as 
a playground. 

















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Photographs courtesy The Texas Company 

IN WINTER THIS SHEET ASPHALT TENNIS COURT IS FLOODED TO MAKE AN IDEAL 

SKATING RINK 



164 



The Maintenance of Brick Pavements 

By Oscar F. Weissgerber 

City Engineer, Appleton, Wis. 



IN many cities there are brick pavements 
in which the brick have worn down orl 
the edges and become like small cobble- 
stones, causing a great deal of noise, and 
inconvenience to business places and to the 
public at large. The annoyance is especially 
great when solid-tired vehicles, such as 
drays or other horse-drawn wagons clatter 
over the streets. Cities that have had this 
experience will be interested in a piece of 
work recently completed in Appleton, Wis. 
The work was done on College Avenue 
and on one block of Washington Street, 
where brick pavements were laid in 1908. 
The pavement on College Avenue was a 
Purington brick, the best in the market in 
those days, and, in fact, a good brick to-day. 
On Washington Street the brick used was 
softer and inferior to the Purington. There 
were places where the joints were worn 
down between the bricks from y^ to 1% 
inches from the original surface, thus pre- 
senting a very rough, corrugated surface. 
On both streets an asphalt filler was used 
that had been recommended on account of 
not being noisy. For awhile that was the 
case, but as the asphalt wore down, being 
gouged out by horseshoes, etc., it left the 
edges of the brick unprotected, with the re- 
sult as stated above. 

Numerous suggestions were made about 
turning the brick over, but the expense in- 
volved was considerable. There were 29,054 
square yards, and the lowest estimate, of $1 
per yard for turning and cleaning, did not 
include the cost of new brick to replace any 
that might be broken. Information was 
asked for from several cities, but none of 
them had any data as to expense for similar 
work. In August, 1919, the writer tried an 
experiment with about 200 square yards of 
the roughest piece of pavement, where the 
travel was the heaviest, with such good re- 
sults that the Mayor and Council authorized 
the expense of the whole work. This has 
now been completed, and the benefit derived 
is more than was expected. 

Before the improvement, the pavement, 
besides being noisy, was unsanitary. Al- 
though we flushed our streets twice a week, 
and oftener if necessary, between periods of 



flushing the refuse would get in the crevices 
and dry, and finally blow around. To-day 
the street is smooth, is much more easily 
kept clean, and the cost of cleaning has 
been materially reduced. 

Method of Surfacing Worn Pavement 

The pavement was thoroughly flushed and 
cleaned with the ordinary street flushers. 
After flushing, a crew of men went over the 
surface with brooms and small hooks to get 
all the dirt between the joints that the flush- 
ers would not take out. A horse-drawn 
street broom was used to remove the heavy 
material accumulated by the flushers in the 
gutters, where it was picked up and hauled 
away. 

After the pavement was thoroughly dry, 
another crew of men spread a coating of 
Tarvia "A" on the surface of the brick, 
leaving it about ^-inch thick. This ma- 
terial was heated in a kettle holding about 
four barrels, but there were never more than 
three in it at one time, on account of danger 
of overheating and fire. 

The binder was heated to the point where 
it would run freely from the faucet, or to 
a temperature of about 225 degrees F., and 
then carried in buckets to men who used 
ordinary floor squeegees with a rubber edge, 
similar to those used in drying floors after 
scrubbing. The material was spread evenly, 
and then a coating of pea or roofing gravel 
was spread to a depth of about 3/2 -inch. 

After the gravel was applied, a lo-ton 
roller was run over the surface. The roller 
forced the gravel into the binder in the 
joints between the brick, and the gravel that 
lay on the surface of the brick was gener- 
ally crushed into several smaller pieces. 
After rolling was completed, the street was 
immediately opened for traffic. 

This work should be done on a warm 
day, not on a hot one, as the brick get hot 
in the sun, and the material has a tendency 
to run to the gutter if too warm. It should 
be covered immediately to prevent its do- 
ing so. 

The best results were obtained with pea 
gravel, although some limestone screenings 
were used and also coarse Janesville sand. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



165 




APPLYING BITUMINOUS SURFACING TO OLD BRICK PAVEMENT 
Photograph shows heating, pouring and squeegeeing of binder in August, 1920 



Unless the screenings are hard and tough, 
they should not be considered. The entire 
yardage was completed in ten days, which 
included the cleaning, applying binder 
rolling, etc. The entire cost of the work 
was as follows: 

267 bbls. Tarvia "A" @ $8.313 $2,219.57 

Freight : • • 119-72 

Labor and teaming, including unloading 

and distributing material 1,454.01 

Supplies, tools, etc 67.23 

Gravel, screenings and sand 740 .24 

$4,600-. 77 

With 29,054 square yards covered at this 
amount, the unit cost per square yard 
amounts to 15.8 cents. Comparing this with 
the turning of the brick as mentioned in the 
first part of this article, it will readily be 
seen that the saving is considerable. 

For estimates for similar work for any 
city that contemplates using this method, 
the following may be taken as an average : 

1 barrel Tarvia, average of 50 gallons covered 108.8 

square yards, about J^ -gallon to the yard 
302 cubic yards of sand, gravel and screenings used, 

or one cubic yard covered 96.5 square yards 
Labor was paid from 41 to 45 cents per hour 
Foreman at $5.00 per day and teams at 90 cents psr 

hour 
Engineer and roller $5.00 per day 
Pea gravel cost $2.60 per ton, f.o.b. Appleton 



Supplies consisted of gasoline for roller, wood for tar 
kettle, and scrapers and brooms for workmen 

The pavements treated, in the writer's 
estimation, will wear for several years with 
the single coat, although it is recommended 
that another coat be put on next season. 

In all cases where similar work of this 
kind is contemplated, the writer would rec- 
ommend the double mat coat treatment — 
that is, a second coat of Tarvia "A" and 
gravel — applied in about 30 days after the 
first treatment is applied, or just as soon 
as the first coat has thoroughly ironed out. 

The second coat would not be nearly as 
expensive as the first, as the cleaning of 
the crevices in the pavement would be 
eliminated. Neither would as much binder 
be used, and with these additional coats a 
mat would be obtained the care of which 
would be only in proportion to the amount 
of travel. 

The City Council has decided to treat an- 
other street where conditions are similar 
and where a recent count of traffic showed 
400 vehicles in i^ hours. This street is 
one of the entrances to the city and carries 
all the heavy dairying and trucking to 
neighboring cities. 



i66 



Versatility Characterizes Municipal Motcj^r 

Trucks 



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A SERVICE MOTOR TRUCK OWNED BY THE KANSAS CITY, KANS., LIGHT AND WATER 

DEPARTMENT 




PART or ONONDAGA COUNTY'S FLEET OF 19 WHITE TRUCKS HAULING STONE FROM THE 

JAMESVILLE QUARRIES 



Fehruary, 1921 THE AMERICAN CITY 



167 




A GMO CHEMICAL AND SERVICE TRUCK IN USE BY THE CITY OF PUTNAM, CONN. 




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TFSTINa A B150 riBB TRUCK FOB CAPAQITT AND PRESSURE 



i68 



Snow Removal in American Cities 

Clear Streets in Winter Essential to Municipal and Business Transportation . 



THE importance of keeping at least the 
main municipal arteries of travel free 
from snow is growing rapidly, as a 
result of the increasing use. of the motor 
vehicle for municipal and business pur- 
poses. The solution of the snow removal 
problem in cities is therefore of prime im- 
portance. In order to make available to 
municipal officials complete and up-to-date 
information on snow removal methods in 
American cities, the kind of apparatus now 
used, and the suggestions and opinions of 
experts and others who have studied the 
subject, the New York State Bureau of 
Municipal Information has sought reports 
from American cities, a summary of which 
The American City takes pleasure in 
printing below. 

Methods of Attack 

There are three distinct methods of at- 
tacking the snow problem: 

1. Clearing streets for traffic 

2. Snow removal 

3. Snow fighting 

Until recent years, the custom in all cities 
was to wait until the storm ceased before 
beginning snow removal. Several cities 
now recognize the efficacy of beginning 
work while the snow is falling. These cities 
have a snow alarm which sounds when- 
ever indications point to a heavy fall of 
snow, or when a certain amount has fallen. 
Efficient snow-fighting methods involve 
three things: 

1. Preparedness 

2. Organization 

3. Equipment 

The consensus of opinion is that, wher- 
ever possible, effective machinery should be 
used, thereby reducing dependence on labor 
to a minimum. It is pointed out, however, 
that care should be exercised in investments 
for equipment : machinery used exclusively 
for snow fighting is idle so much of the 
time that every effort should be made to 
use whatever available city apparatus can 
be temporarily converted into use for snow 
fighting. In the spring, summer and fall, 
this apparatus should be available for other 
municipal services. 



How Some American Cities Remove 
Snow 

Albany, N. Y. — On wide streets, motor trucks are 
used, with hand loading, while on narrow streets 
hand-loaded teams are used. On wide streets having 
large sewers with good flow of water, horse-drawn 
snow scrapers carry the snow to sewer manholes. 
Horse-drawn road graders are used to open streets 
in outlying sections. The operation is as efficient as 
could be expected without special snow-removal equip- 
ment. 

Amsterdam, N. Y. — On streets with trolley tracks 
snow removal is accomplished by the traction company 
and city forces cooperating. On residential streets, a 
heavy snow-plow drawn by horses is used, and six 
miles of streets are opened wide enough for one-way 
traffic. 

Binghamton, N. F.— Hand shoveling to dump- 
wagons and trucks with hoists, and disposal of snow 
through manholes in floors of bridges over the Che- 
nango River, are used in this city. Snow is first re- 
moved from the zones established on the principal 
business streets for passengers getting on and off 
street cars, and then the work is extended throughout 
the city. Snow-plows are used on streets where there 
are no trolley tracks and where there is a considerable 
amount of traffic. 

Buffalo, N. Y. — Plows attached to tractors perform 
satisfactorily, and ordinary plows are used to furrow 
the snow toward the gutters. In the business sec- 
tions the furrows are picked up by snow removers of 
a capacity of approximately 2J/^ cubic yards. The cost 
of removing this snow was 7 cents per cubic yard in 
1919-20. The snow was dumped into manholes over 
two large 8-foot sewers. Snow-fences were used on 
the outskirts, and a tractor plow to move the snow 
into the gutters on residential streets. Exceedingly 
high drifts up to 15 feet could not be handled by any 
machinery available and had to be attacked by hand 
labor. 

Corning, N. Y. — Snow was removed last winter at a 
cost of 31 cents per cubic yard by team-drawn scrap- 
ers, loaded into sleighs and carted to the river bank, 
where it was deposited. It is planned to use a motor 
truck with snow blade scraper in front and a dump 
rigging and dump trailer attached which will probably 
cut the cost of snow removal in half. 

Geneva, N. Y. — Snow is carted away in the business 
sections and packed in the residential sections. 

Jamestown, N. Y. — -Hand labor and horse-drawn 
wagons were used last year to remove the snow, which 
is dumped into the river. This proved a very slow 
method. Outside men owning horses are employed 
and paid according to the length of the route covered 
and the difficulties encountered. Tor cleaning side- 
walks the city is divided into 32 routes. When it 
snows during the late afternoon or night, the police 
department calls the snow-plow men on the phone, 
usually about 3 A. M., and between the hours of 
6 A. M. and 6 P. M. the calls are made by the Super- 
intendent of Streets. There are 100 miles of streets, 
so that the men cover abo'ut 200 miles. They are 
usually through by the time pedestrians appear, be- 
tween" 6 and 6:30 A. M. The system works well and 
obviates the necessity of wading through drifts, as the 
early workers and school children would have to if the 
sidewalks were cleared by individual property owners. 
New York City. — The organization for snow work 
in New York City is divided into three classes: (1) 
snow fighting, to be composed of the department force 
and equipment augmented by hired laborers; (2) the 
contractors' forces for the removal of snow after the 
storm ceases; (3) street railway forces, which are un- 
der the direction of the street railway companies, con- 
signed to the streets which they are obliged to clear 
of snow under the terms of their contract with the 
city and their respective franchises. In the plan of co- 
operation between the Street Cleaning, Fire and Police 
Departments, two policemen and two firemen who are 
licensed chauffeurs are assigned to operate Caterpillar 
tractors. The general plan of operating the tractors 
together with the 5-ton auto trucks of the Department 
is as follows: 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



169 



As soon as a snowfall starts and it is believed there 
will be a continued storm, orders are issued to have 
the tractors and trucks begin work. The plows are at- 
t.iched to the trucks at various angles, and the police, 
hre and street cleaning operators who are assigned to 
tliis work are called to report immediately for duty 
and to proceed at once to the points they are to plow. 
'Ihe plows in teams of two clean a width of 20 feet of 
roadway for a distance of 3 lineal miles in one hour, 
and continue working over such a route after the 
snow has ceased falling. The average rate of snow- 
fall is }4-inch per hour, and the motor-driven plows, 
operating at a speed of 3 miles an hour, can cover the 
entire area every two hours, constantly plowing one 
inch of snow on each trip up and down the assigned 
area. 

With 150 tractors and 250 5-ton trucks operating, 
all of which have snow-plows attached, starting at 200 
different points and covering 3 lineal miles, cleaning 
20 feet of roadway, the Department plows at the 
cessation of each snowfall 600 miles of roadway in the 
imiiortant sections of the city; 70 per cent of this is 
in the borough of Manhattan, so that there is no such 
interruption of traffic as practically paralyzed the 
trucking business last year and caused the loss of 
millions of dollars. 

This work is alternated with the use of hired motor 
trucks to which Department snow-plows are attached. 
About 100 of these are engaged in work in the same 
manner as the Department trucks and tractors, cover- 
ing an additional 150 miles of roadway. This total 
force operates within one hour after the call has been 
issued by the Commissioner, so that if the storm is in 
progress one hour and it is decided to call out the 
forces, all of the equipment is in motion within two 
hours after the storm starts; in other words, the full 
force of motor trucks and tractors is operating -when 
the snow reaches the depth of on€ inch. 

The first point in the work of snow removal is to 
keep the traffic moving. This is accomplished by 
throwing the snow from the center to the sides of the 
roadway. The second point is to have the snow re- 
moved as quickly as possible after it is thrown to the 
sides. For this purpose 100 2-ton Department trucks 
and the Department force of carts, 500 in number, are 
utilized on the first day of each storm, to haul the 
snow to the most convenient disposal points, such as 
sewers and water-front dumps. During the progress 
of the storm the laborers are assigned to work at the 
same time as the call is issued for the plow to start 
out, and they pile the snow just as soon as it is 
thrown to the side of the road by the plows. This ob- 
viates delays while waiting for the contractor's forces 
to begin work, which is usually the following day. 

After they stop plowing, the plows attached to the 
tractors are used to remove snow from the roadways to 
the sewer manholes, which means that 150 tractors 
are busy pushing snow on all streets where sewers are 
available, and in this way great quantities of snow 
are removed quickly. 

Emergency men have been registered in order to 
have an available snow-fighting force of laborers ready 
to report at the 103 section stations throughout the 
three boroughs, at which places they are equipped with 
picks, shovels and pan scrapers, and under the direc- 
tion of squad leaders they are assigned to certain 
routes for sewering or piling the snow, depending upon 
the type of sewer adjacent to the various points at 
which they are assigned to work. The rates of pay 
to attract a sufficient number of laborers for snow 
work are determined from time to time upon a survey 
of labor conditions. 

Schenectady, N Y. — Ten-ton Holt Caterpillar trac- 
tors were secured from the Government warehouse in 
.Schenectady in 1919-20 and were used to push a 13- 
foot and a 16-foot triangular snow-plow, opening up 
the important arteries of traffic quite rapidly and 
effectively. 

Sherrilt, N. Y. — The roads were opened up for auto- 
mobiles with a 16-foot snow-plow drawn by six horses. 
A heavier snow-plow mounted on a tractor will be 
used this winter. 

Cambridge, Mass. — Horse-drawn levelers are used 
to break down drift piles on the side streets after the 
householders have had sufficient time to clear the side- 
walks. Following this, gutter plows are used to open 
up the gutters to prevent flooding during a thaw. 

Chicago, III. — The equipment consists of 35 snow- 
plows which can be attached to 5-ton trucks. These 
plows are used to open up the business streets to 
traffic. Men and trucks are hired to pile and cart all 
the snow to the dumps. A permanent special snow 
organization is Tsfntained, consisting of a specially 



trained group of street bureau employes assigned to a 
snow squad. 

Cincinnati, Ohio — Regular organized snow gangs 
are maintained, to report at specified places under the 
leadership of their district foremen. Work is started 
at the center of the city and branched out from there, 
gathering the snow and dumping it in special sewers 
wherein are installed flush valves to run the snow 
through the sewer. These flush valves are maintained 
orily in the center of the city. In the suburban dis- 
tricts the main transfer points are cleared, so as to 
inconvenience street car traffic as little as possible. 
Tractor plows and motor trucks are used to facilitate 
^■°';''- : I" *i 

Dayton, Ohio — Baker auto snow-plows attached to 
5j4-ton trucks are used, and snow is hauled away by 
teams and trucks. 

Indianapolis, Ind. — Snow is removed by the efficient 
service of the street railway company, and no fall has 
yet been heavy enough to prevent the company from 
clearing its tracks. The city removes all snow from 
the streets, including that which the street car com- 
pany throws from its tracks. No special equipment 
is used; the old hand shovel is supplemented at times 
by home-made plows drawn by horses. 

Milwaukee, IVis. — When snow accumulates up to 2 
inches, pan-scraping is resorted to, and the snow is 
removed by teams and trucks to the regular dumps. 

Newark, N. /.—After 3 inches of snow has fallen, 
motor flushers with snow-plow attachments are sent 
out to push the snow to the gutters, and in the morn- 
ing it is removed with motor trucks and teams and 
dumped into sewers if the flow is sufficient to carry 
it; if not, it is dumped into the Passaic River. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — The Bureau of Highways and 
Street Cleaning has successfully maintained a snow 
alarm for the last three years. At any hour of the 
night as soon as the snow starts to fall, the Electrical 
Bureau notifies the Chief of the Bureau and the engi- 
neers in charge by telephone in their respective homes. 
Each engineer living in the central part of the city is 
in constant communication with the Weather Bureau 
and- the Chief of the Bureau of Highways, and as 
soon as the indications point to a continuance of the 
storm, the snow-fighting equipment is called out. Up- 
wards of 1,000 telephone messages are sent to various 
parts of the city in calling out squad leaders, inspec- 
tors, snow-plows, drivers, team laborers, and officers 
in various police districts, who aid in getting out the 
men. In about one hour after the order is given, the 
horse-drawn plows and motor-driven plows attack the 
snow in the central business section of the city. These 
plows are supplemented by laborers with teams, who 
keep constantly at work day and night, dumping the 
snow into the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. 

Every man in the snow removal organization has a 
particular function assigned to him. Each dump in- 
spector knows his post, and knows just what to do 
when he gets there. The driver of every snow-plow 
and every team knows at what point he is to start to 
load and at what sewer manhole or wharf he is to 
dump his load. Thus confusion is eliminated. Fight- 
ing the snow at night during some of the storms iri 
the last three years has not been an easy task. In the 
central section of the city snow is removed from all 
thoroughfares. This work is performed under special 
contracts and supplemented by the regular street 
cleaning force, and is under the supervision of a 
special snow removal organization made up of men 
assigned to this work from the regular engineering 
stafl^. Certain main thoroughfares and all the street 
crossings throughout the entire city are also cleaned 
by the regular street cleaning forces, and a large 
municipal force is assigned to the seven highway dis- 
trict engineers, who supervise this work. A large 
force is always employed opening up the country 
roads, where the drifts often completely block traffic. 
All told, the force employed on snow removal con- 
sists of about 4,000 men, 1,200 trams, and 38 horse- 
drawn and 20 motor plows. 

To ensure the efficient operation of snow removal 
work, the following instructions and forms have been 
provided: 

(a) A set of detailed instructions which definitely 

indicate to the persons supervising the work, 
the nature of the work to be done and the 
methods to be used in its performance 

(b) A map indicating the highways included in each 

of the nineteen central snow removal districts 
and the nature and exact location of the snow 
dumps 

(c) An organization schedule indicating the name. 



170 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 2 



call address, telephone number, and the as- 
signment of each person detailed to snow re- 
moval supervision 

(d) Tickets of distinctive colors for loading and 

dumping respectively 

(e) Ticket issue records 

(f) Current status of work records 

(g) Squad leaders' daily reports 

(h) Squad leaders' daily report summary 

The central business section is divided into 19 dis- 
tricts, each district being under the supervision of a 
squad leader to whom is assigned a number of in- 
spectors, some of whom supervise the removal of 
snow, while others see that it is properly disposed of 
at the dumping places. The inspectors supervising the 
snow removal see that the snow is properly plowed into 
windrows adjacent to the curb and then piled up and 
hauled to the dump. They are also required to meas- 
ure and calculate the cubic capacity of all hauling 



vehicles and see that they are properly loaded, after 
which they give the driver a loading ticket, to be ex- 
changed at the dvmip for another ticket, which is re- 
tained by the driver and upon which payment is made. 

The inspectors at the dumping places are required 
to see that the snow is properly dumped and that no 
improper material likely to obstruct the sewer is 
mixed with the snow. In sewers where there is not 
a sufficient flow of water, a water jet has been pro- 
vided, which serves to increase the flow of the sewer, 
and tills is regulated by the inspector. 

Worcester, Mass. — A four-horse scraper is used to 
throw the snow back from the street railway tracks to 
the curb, thus forming a windrow, which permits the 
teams with carts to stand for loading between the car 
track and the windrow, without danger. Snow is 
loaded into sleds and drawn to the main sewer and 
dumped through manholes. The snow melts after go- 
ing a short distance and goes through the regular 
filtering beds on the outskirts of the city. 



Highway Research Work Assured 



The Engineering Foundation, the Chair- 
man of which is Charles F. Rand, 71 Broad- 
way, New York City, past President of the 
American Institute of Mining and Metal- 
kirgical Engineers, has already raised a 
fund of $500,000 to be applied to highway 
research. The Foundation is seeking to in- 
crease this fund to $5,000,000, the income 
of which will readily carry out the work. 

Functioning through the Engineering Di- 
vision of the National Research Council, 
it is planned to cooperate all the agencies 
in highway research and, aided by the Fed- 
eral Government, to employ highly trained 
research men who will gather scientifically 
the great mass of fundamental facts under- 
lying the economic construction of modern 
types of highways. These data will be dis- 
tributed among road builders in every state. 



Many national bodjes are actually coop- 
erating with the Engineering Foundation 
and the Engineering Division of the Na- 
tional Research Council. Among them are 
the American Association of State Highway 
Ofiicials, American Society of Testing Ma- 
terials, Society of Automotive Engineers, 
Bureau of Public Roads, National Automo- 
bile Chamber of Commerce, American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers, American Institute 
of Consulting Engineers, American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers, Association of 
State Geologists, Western Society of En- 
gineers, American Concrete Institute and 
American Automobile Association. Also 
the Engineering Departments of Columbia, 
Harvard and Yale, and the Universities of 
Maryland and Illinois, and Iowa State Col- 
lege. 



The National Health Council 



The need of coordination of the work of 
national voluntary health organizations has 
been appreciated for many years. Action 
to organize these activities resulted in a 
conference held in Washington on Decem- 
ber 10, 1920, at which meeting a National 
Health Council was created. The member- 
ship includes the American Public Health 
Association, American Red Cross, Ameri- 
can Social Hygiene Association, Council of 
State and Provincial Health Authorities, 
Council on Health and Public Instruction 
of the American Medical Association, Na- 
tional Child Health Council, National Com- 
mittee for Mental Hygiene, National Or- 
ganization for Public Health Nursing, Na- 



tional Tuberculosis Association. 

It has been decided that the legitimate 
field in which the Council might function 
should include (i) a special information 
bureau, (2) a legislative bureau. (3) the 
coordination of health activities, (4) peri- 
odic joint conferences, (5) a statistical bu- 
reau, (6) the development of educational 
health material. It is anticipated that the 
financial resources of the Red Cross and 
other participants will be sufficient to enable 
the Council to establish an office and staff 
and to undertake first those activities 
promising the greatest benefit to member 
organizations and through them to the 
country at large. 



171 



Water-Supplies and the Typhoid Rate 

The Massachusetts Method and a Warning in Reply 

By H. W. Clark 

Chief Chemist, Massachusetts Department of Public Health 



DURING the last 35 years the typhoid 
fever death rate of Massachusetts 
has decreased from 45 per 100,000 
inhabitants to less than 3 per 100,000 in- 
habitants, or, to be exact, 2.6. During the 
same period — namely, 35 years — public 
water-supplies in the state have increased 
in number from no to 213, and the per- 
centage of population using these supplies 
from about 78 to 96. Furthermore, during 
this period many poor supplies have been 
abandoned, better supplies, including the 
Boston Metropolitan system, have been in- 
troduced, and more systematic and thor- 
ough guardianship of watersheds has been 
exercised. Undoubtedly the largest factor 
in the tremendous decrease in the typhoid 
death rate of the state has been the intro- 
duction of public water-supplies and the 
doing away with the use of contaminated 
well waters. 

With the introduction of public water- 
supplies, sewerage systems have been in- 
stalled in all the cities and large towns, 
and with these two modern conveniences, 
privy vaults and other like contrivances 
have vanished and the bathtub has brought 
about greater personal cleanliness. The 
old methods of caring for the sewage of a 
family not only continually polluted the 
domestic well waters in use, but caused the 
breeding of innumerable flies, which spread 
disease by contaminating milk and other 
food. In Massachusetts the discharge of 
the sewage of a municipality into a river 
used afterwards as a water-supply occurs 
in only one instance, namely, that of the 
Merrimac and its tributaries above Law- 
rence. Furthermore, greater watchfulness 
of state and municipalities over milk sup- 
plies and food in general has also been 
scientifically developed during the same 
period, each new reform in sanitation re- 
acting favorably upon the others and 
greatly influencing the health and well- 
being of every community. 

Typhoid fever epidemics due to the use 
of fjolluted water, contaminated milk and 
other causes have diminished rapidly, un- 



til to-day practically all typhoid occurring 
in the state is due solely to typhoid car- 
riers. All health authorities agree, how- 
ever, that a pure water-supply is the chief 
factor in controlling typhoid and that a 
polluted water-supply furnishes the great- 
est danger of a serious and widespread 
epidemic. 

Filtration and Chlorination 

During the last 25 or 30 years two im- 
portant methods of purifying water have 
been quite fully developed, namely, munici- 
pal filtration and the use of chloride of 
lime or liquid chlorine. The writer firmly 
believes in the value of filtration and urges 
filter installation strongly wherever a 
water-supply needs such purification. The 
value of hypochlorite or liquid chlorine has 
also been too well established to need much 
discussion here. As efficient as chlorine 
treatment is, the writer feels that it is not 
in the same class as a purification measure 
with adequate filtration, and should be con- 
sidered solely as an adjunct.* 

Throughout large sections of the coun- 
try, especially where polluted river waters 
have to be used as municipal water-sup- 
plies, filters or chlorine treatment, or both, 
are absolutely necessary ; and that filtra- 
tion is an efficient method of eliminating 
water-borne typhoid, an enormous amount 
of reliable data collected during the past 
25 years has absolutely proved. To be suc- 
cessful, filters must be of suitable con- 
struction, adapted to the water which they 
are filtering, and operated under good 
supervision; in other words, they must be 
designed by experts and operated under 
expert supervision. 

At the present time it is understood that 
approximately 22,000,000 people in the 
country are using filtered water and that 
liquid chlorine or hypochlorite installa- 
tions have been made in upward of 2,500 
cities and towns. Massachusetts, how- 
ever, has very few filters in operation and 

* See Colonel George A. Johnson's discussion fol- 
lowing this article. 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



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February. 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



173 



few chlorine plants, yet it has the lowest 
typhoid fever death rate of any state in the 
country. Of the 3,700,000 people, more 
or less, within its borders using or having 
access to public water-supplies, about 400,- 
000, or not over 11 per cent, use filtered 
water. Lawrence, Lowel,!, Newburyport 
and Springfield are the only cities and 
Brookline the only large town filtering 
their supplies. Of course, there are other 
filters, as at Middleboro, Reading, Cohas- 
set, Norwood, etc., but the actual popula- 
tion of the state supplied in this way is 
comparatively small Moreover, of the 
four large municipalities mentioned as 
filtering their supplies, only one — Law- 
rence — does so on account of bacterial 
pollution; Springfield filters to improve its 
water physically, and Lowell and Brook- 
line to remove manganese and iron, as do 
a number of the smaller towns in the state. 
Only seven municipalities in the state have 
chlorine plants in operation all or part of 
the time, and one of these is Lawrence, 
which first filters its supply. 

The policy of Massachusetts for the last 
35 years has been to obtain for every city 
and town a water-supply that is safe and 
can be used for all domestic purposes with- 
out any purification treatment other than 
storage. The state has been almost phe- 
nomenally successful in accomplishing 
this. From the great metropolitan supply 
furnishing water to Boston and 20 sur- 
rounding cities and towns, down to the 
smallest supply, they are all practically 
safe at the present time, if we can judge 
from our typhoid fever, death rate for the 
last few years. . -.^ . k 

Nearly 100 cities and towns in the state 
have ground-water supplies, and the re- 
mainder use surface water. The ground 
waters are taken largely from driven wells 
25 to 59 feet deep, although many large 
curb wells are in use. These ground 
waters are. generally speaking, colorless, 
although there are a number of exceptions 
to this: they are usually soft, contain little 
organic matter, and many are equal to or 
better than the most famous or best-ex- 
ploited New England spring waters sold 
at high prices throughout the country. 
They are all generally low in bacteria, and 
many of them often sterile when exam- 
ined. Such waters are, of course, abso- 
lutely safe without filtration or chlorine 
treatment, and their introduction and use 



in so many cities and towns has un- 
doubtedly' had a great influence in lower- 
ing and eliminating typhoid in the state. 
They may perhaps be considered slowly 
filtered rain water. This water takes up 
in some instances slight amounts of or- 
ganic matter when entering the soil, but 
this organic matter is eliminated or at 
least oxidized by the exceptionally slow 
filtration of the water on its way to the 
wells. 

Now in regard to surface supplies the 
following can be said. Massachusetts is a 
thickly populated state containing 3,851,- 
000 people, or 419 per square mile, and the 
population is increasing rapidly. This 
population is largely concentrated, how- 
ever, in the eastern or metropolitan sec- 
tion of the state and along certain river 
valleys where water-power has been de- 
veloped and railroad facilities are excel- 
lent. Large areas of the state contain no 
more inhabitants per square mile than one 
hundred years ago. These areas are fre- 
quently hilly and the rainfall high; their 
brooks, rivers and lakes contain an abun- 
dant supply of good water. These waters 
before use are practically all purified by 
storage, and such slight pollution as may 
from time to time occur on their water- 
sheds has so far been almost invariably 
cared for by storage. They are low in 
bacteria when entering the supply systems, 
and the last water-borne typhoid epidemic 
in Massachusetts, due to a public water- 
supply, occurred so long ago that I doubt 
the possibility of its being easily recalled. 

The following table gives the typhoid 
fever death rate of a large group of Massa- 
chusetts cities and towns aggregating 
400,000 population using ground water- 
supplies, and a group of cities and towns 
totaling 1,500,000 people using surface 
water. Included in the surface-water 
group are Boston and a number of other 
cities and towns using the metropolitan 
water. These figures are for the ten years 
1910 to 1919 inclusive. 

Examination of the table makes clear 
that the two groups of municipalities have 
about an equal number of deaths yearly 
from typhoid fever per 100,000 people. 
There is no question that the ground 
water-supplies included in this table are 
absolutely safe. Bacterially they average 
better than the best filter effluents, and it 
goes without saying that if they are safe 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



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Built in ail sizes and capacities 




WHAT WE PROPOSE — WE DO 
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If contemplating purchase of Fire Apparatus 
GET IN TOUCH with the STUTZ 

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When writinc to Advertisers please mention The Auekican City. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



175 



TYPHOID FEVER RATE PER 100,000 
Municii>alities with— 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 

Surface water-supplies 12.9 8.9 8.0 9.1 8.6 6.fr 



Ground water-supplies 12. 



6.6 



8.1 



4.5 



8.1 



8.9 



1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 


3.5 


3.6 


3.2 


2.6 


6.7 


2.8 


2.4 


3.0 



the towns receiving surface water-supplies 
and showing typhoid death rates as low are 
receiving equally good and safe water. 
That is the story of Massachusetts to-day 



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DIAGRAMS SHOWING THE BEDUCTION IN TYPHOID BATES IN CITIES OP NfiW YOIEUC STATE 
^^^, AFTER THE INSTALLATION OP FILTERS AND STERILIZATION 



A Discussion of Mr. Clark^s Paper "l^ 

By Colonel George A. Johnson 



Is it practical, is it possible, to maintain 
a surface water-supply in a state of 
natural purity ? There is no debate, it is 
not. All surface water-supplies, including 
those of Massachusetts, are open to dan- 
gerous pollution at all times. Where 
there are growing communities there will 
always be dangerous wastes produced by 
such growths. No man or group of men 
can be depended upon to so care for those 
wastes that they will not in part some- 
where, sometime, pass into the waterways 
which drain such polluted areas. And al- 
ways there is the potential danger that the 
water-supplies derived from such water- 
sheds will sometime, somehow, become in- 



cidentally or accidentally polluted with' 
disease germs. 

The writer does not feel that Massa- 
chusetts is doing all that sound sanitary 
logic dictates. She has an enviable record 
respecting water-borne diseases, brought 
about largely through the efforts of the 
State Board of Health in setting up lines 
of primary prevention, but she ignores 
such sure secondary and tertiary lines of 
defense as filtration and sterilization where 
such expedients are not positively de- 
manded by the known gross pollution of 
the raw water-supply. Every state, every 
city, must avail itself of all modern safe- 
guards in order to insure for all time an 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




7i. 



,fi 



ow sare is sate enou 



fi 



hi 



WHEN it comes home to you — to 
your school — your child and fire 
— How Safe is Safe Enough? 

As safe as possible ! 

Any other answer h ridiculous — 
sometimes it is criminal! 

"As Safe as Possible" means a Grinnell 
Automatic Sprinkler System in the 
school where your child goes. Any- 
thing else — any substitute — may later 
be regretted over the biers of little 
children. 

With a Grinnell Automatic Sprinkler 
System any school can be made safe for 
children. 

This system is the highest type of fire- 



fighting device ever devised. It is auto- 
matic! Theheatofthefire works it. It 
is always on guard. Always ready. No 
human aid is required. When the Fire 
Starts the Water Starts! 

Laws require such protection for fac- 
tory workers. Are school children less 
worthy of your protection? You can't 
say "No" and be an American father 
or mother. 

Read "Fire Tragedies and Their Remedy" 

Send us a postal card for "Fire Tragedies and Their 
Remedy." Every mother and father needs it to convince 
school authorities that as safe as possible is what the pub- 
lic proposes to have for its children. Write us now, be- 
fore you put aside this magazine. Address Grinnell 
Company, Inc., 283 West Exchange St., Providence, R.I. 




Complete Engineering and Construction Service on Automatic Sprinklers. 
Industrial Piping, Heating and Power Eqiiipments. Fittings, Pipe, Valves. 

GRINNELL AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM- Wften the fire starts, the water starts. 

n When writing to Advertisers please mention Thb Amkucam Citt. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



177 



adequate protection against the ravages 
of water-borne epidemics. 

All surface waters untreated before pub- 
lic consumption are potentially dangerous. 
All the efforts and good intentions in the 
world cannot eliminate the possibility that 
sometime a typhoid carrier, perhaps among 
the watershed patrol, or a chance traveler 
over the watershed, or a leaky or over- 
flowing cesspool or other point of deposi- 
tion of the excrement of the inhabitants, 
or an isolated farmhouse in which there is 
typhoid fever in incipient, active or chronic 
form, may contribute poison to a public 
water later used for human consumption, 
and cause typhoid fever in the consumer. 
It is a matter which is uncontrollable ex- 
cept through the exercise of diligence and 
uniformity of application in setting up 
such secondary and tertiary lines of de- 
fence as filtration and sterilization of all 
surface waters. Failure .to recognize the 
soundness of this logic, which is founded oil 
indisputable proof and past experience, may 
result in a repetition in Massachusetts of the 
typhoid history of Plymouth and New 



Haven, where the water-supplies taken 
from watersheds but sparsely populated be- 
came suddenly and "accidentally" contami- 
nated from one case of typhoid, and epi- 
demics promptly followed. ^ 

The writer must be understood as in no 
wise attempting to belittle the truly remark-, 
able health record of Massachusetts. It is; 
an accomplished fact and susceptible of no 
criticism other than this: in public health 
matters one must not stand still or, in other 
words, stand on a good record of the past. 
The potentialities of the present and the 
future must be jealously regarded lest the 
public health suffer. 

Where the public health is at stake, rea- 
sonable money expenditures are, or should 
be, no object, and the evidence is conclusive 
that any amount of money spent for pure 
water, if it prevents typhoid fever, is money 
well spent. The balance is always on the 
right side of the ledger. Parsimoniousness 
in such matters or adherence to what the 
writer considers a "part-way" policy, can- 
not be justified on any ground other than a 
mistaken idea of economy. 



Are You Organized for Emergency 

Relief? 



Should there be a fire of great magnitude, 
an explosion, a serious subway accident or 
any similar disaster in New York City at 
any time, several thousand trained volun- 
teers are ready to report for duty on a 
moment's notice. Organized into an emer- 
gency unit by the New York County Chap- 
ter of the Red Cross, these trained nurses, 
ambulance drivers, canteen workers and 
first aid workers are equipped and ready 
to handle 10,000 casualties a day. 

Large supplies of surgical dressings, gar- 
ments of all sorts, operating equipment, 
litters and cots lie in the Red Cross ware- 
house, in readiness for immediate trans- 
portation. Day and night the garage, hous- 
ing nineteen Red Cross ambulances, is open, 
and a garage force of seven men keeps the 
cars in constant repair for use in transport- 
ing possible disaster victims to the hos- 
pitals. There are four drivers on regular 



duty and an unlimited number of women of 
war-time motor corps experience who are 
ready to be called on in case of emergency. 

The stock of canned meat, condensed milk 
and coffee stored in the canteen is sufficient 
to supply a small city. The canteen corps 
has equipment for making 600 gallons of 
coffee in 40 minutes and can serve 700 per- 
sons in 5 minutes. 

The disaster relief unit has already been 
called on for service many times — the most 
notable being the Wall Street explosion. 
A Red Cross truck, loaded with first aid 
supplies, arrived on the scene twenty-five 
minutes after the disaster occurred. 

This is what New York City has done. 
Every city, town and village in the coun- 
try, through its local Red Cross chapter or 
other organization, should in some similar 
manner be prepared to give immediate relief 
to sufferers in case of emergency. 




mimimi 



Water Works Companies 

have learned from experience that dependable 
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Wlien writing to Adrcrtiaen please mention Tmb Ambkicait Citt. 



179 



Drainage to Combat Malaria Fever 

By George Parker 

Sanitary Engineer, International Healtli Board 



AT the present time sanitary engineers 
representing national, state and local 
health organizations are busy com- 
bating malaria. It is essentially an engi- 
neer's problem through the necessity of 
destroying the breeding areas of the 
Anopheles mosquito. 

What causes malaria fever? An organ- 
ism or germ that is introduced into the 
blood through the bite of the female 
Anopheles mosquito, which obtains the germ 
by sucking the blood of a person sick with 
the disease. It follows that even if we have 
these mosquitoes, and there is no person in 
the neighborhood ill with malaria, the 
mosquitoes cannot obtain the infection to 
spread the disease ; or, even if infected per- 
sons are present, if there are none of this 
species of mosquito to transmit the disease, 
malaria will soon die out. But we have 
both — the infected people and the mosquito, 
and the latter is ever busy transplanting the 
germ of infection. 

Mosquitoes breed only in water, the slow- 
moving stream with irregular banks, 
swamps, ponds with grass-grown edges, 
etc., forming the selected areas for the 
Anopheles or malaria-carrying mosquito to 
breed in. Through the elimination of these 
places the mosquito is destroyed, and con- 
sequently the transmission of malaria ceases. 
This is only one of the methods employed 
in controlling the propagation of this kind 
of mosquito, but it unquestionably ranks 
first in importance, and is most satisfac- 
torily and economically handled by the 
engineer. 

Besides freeing a community of malaria 
fever, the removal of the water from 
swampy sections uncovers tracts of land 
for cultivation or other use, which would 
otherwise have remained a menace to the 
community. 

As swamps form on the lowlands, it is 
very often found that extensive and ex- 
tremely accurate drainage systems must be 
constructed to relieve them, for they must 
be drained absolutely dry to gain the de- 
sired result, and such systems must be so 
constructed as to function properly in years 
to follow. 



The Use of Fish In Combating Mosquito 
Breeding 

In a report by G. W. Park, Inspector, 
Bureau of Sanitary Engineering, Texas 
State Board of Health, he states that the 
Bureau has found the fish "Gambusia Af- 
finis" a wonderful help in abating mosquito 
breeding, thus aiding in anti-malarial work. 
This fish is the minnow commonly known 
by fishermen as the "pot belly." The spe- 
cies has no general outstanding external 
markings. It possesses the combined fea- 
tures of the several top-minnows and thus 
is hard to distinguish without becoming 
thoroughly familiar with live specimens. 

The average length of the female is about 
2 inches, and that of the male is about i^ 
inches. It feeds at the surface and sub- 
sists principally on insect larvae. It is very 
vigorous and hardy and does well when sub- 
jected to different changes in natural condi- 
tions. They are very prolific, easily propa- 
gated and reach areas not inhabited by any 
other species. They have an exceptional 
devouring capacity, and their general habits 
lead them to live in the identical areas 
where the mosquitoes breed. 

The Gambrusia Affinis as a control meas- 
ure may be applied to such areas as stock 
ponds, watering-troughs, surface reservoirs 
and the like where oiling and draining is 
impracticable. To obtain the best results, 
the water area to be treated should primar- 
ily be conditioned favorably for natural 
propagation of the fish. These conditions 
include : 

1. Clean edges and surface free from debris 

and floating vegetation 

2. Sufficient clear, shallow edges to provide 

protection against game fish when 
present 

3. Sufficient vegetation on bottom of area, 

to reduce artificial feeding to a mini- 
mum 

4. General attention and occasional feeding 

when needed 

5. Exclusion of unnecessary disturbances, 

especially in small areas 

In introducing the work in a community 
or municipality, a hatchery may be desig- 
nated and established. This should be en- 
couraged for educational and demonstra- 
tion purposes. Great care should be exer- 



THE AMERICAN CITY 





73 



The 

Recognized 
Textbook on 
Playground 
Planning — 



This 128-Page Medart Catalog is recog- 
nized everywhere as a text-book on Play- 
ground Planning and Installations. It 
shows in detail just what apparatus is best 
suited for boys, for girls and for smaller 
children. It shows ideal playground lay- 
outs, where cost is secondary to service 
and it shows, too, what combinations are 
most desirable for smaller communities or 
centers where only a limited appropriation 
is available. 

And, of course, it points out convincmgly 
just why you should always specify 
Medart Playground Equipment. 

Add this elaborate book to your library — 
it is an actual help to anyone interested in 
Playgrounds and Playground Planning. 
Sent promptly on request. 



FRED MEDART MFG. CO. 

Potomac & De Kalb, St. Louis, Mo. 
New York San Francisco 

52 Vanderbilt Ave. Rialto Bldg. 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The Akkkicaw City. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



181 





FBODUCING AND REDUCINa TH£ 
MAIiABIAL MOSQTTITO 

Upper left — Concrete spillway acting 
as dam. Back water at upper end of 
lake forms swampy areas producing 
anopheles. Lower left — Swampy con- 
dition mentioned above, which was re- 
lieved by diverting a small stream to 
pass through the area and gradually 
filling in by silt carried down stream 
during rains. This area could not be 
drained without lowering the concrete 
spillway, hence the method described 
was used. Bight — Drainage system being constructed through area that for years remained water- 
soaked and a breeding-place for anopheles 



cised in collecting and distributing the fish. 
The required number to stock an area de- 
pends entirely on size, condition and time. 
Several thousand impregnated females are 
considered sufficient for an average pond 
of about 10,000 square feet surface area, 
stocked in the early spring. Typical food 
consists of bread crumbs, minced liver or 
fish, and yolks of boiled eggs. 

At the present time the Bureau of Sani- 
tary Engineering of the Texas State Board 
of Health is making a test of the length of 



time this fish can live without food and its 
adaptability to stale, stagnant water. On 
September i, 1920, six of the fish were 
placed in an aquarium. Since that time 
they have not been fed nor has the water 
been changed. One died when they were 
first placed in the aquarium, and the other 
five have continued to live and are hardy. 
This is considered a very good demonstra- 
tion of the fact that they will survive even 
under most trying conditions and will hence 
aid mosquito extermination. 



Banner for Best Milk in New Jersey 



The Montclnir Herald, Montclair, N. J., 
reports that as a feature of the State Farmer 
Week exhibit at the Second Regiment Ar- 
mory, Trenton, N. J., the city of Montclair 
won the right to fly the State Championship 
Banner for the best milk served to con- 
sumers in its community in the state-wide 
dairy market competition. This competi- 
tion has greatly interested health officials. 



civic societies and consumers associations, 
and many cities have awaited with inter- 
est the result of the scores. Montclair's 
score in the raw milk class was 93.3, said 
to be the highest ever obtained by a New 
Jersey community. Newark scored 78.4 
and Atlantic City, 77.7, both of which are 
considered as high records. 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




A Tarvia Pavement — 

ten years old and still new — 



TTHE Tarvia road above is Water 
■■■ Street, Torrington, Connecti- 
cut. 

This street was constructed with 
"Tarvia-X" as a binder in 1909, 
and for three years thereafter re- 
quired no maintenance whatever. 
Since then it has been kept in tip- 
top shape by an occasional inex- 
pensive treatment of "Tarvia-B." 
It is an excellent example of the 
durability of a properly main- 
tained Tarvia pavement. 

Torrington is a busy manufac- 
turing town where there is plenty 
of heavy traffic, and its satisfactory 
experience with Tarvia may be 
taken as typical. Whenever Tar- 
via is given a fair trial it invariably 



makes good. And the fact that 
towns which once begin to use it 
continue using it in increasing 
quantities year after year, is the 
finest kind of endorsement it could 
have. 

There is a grade of Tarvia and a 
method of application suitable for 
new construction, for resurfacing, 
for general road maintenance, for 
dust-prevention and for patching. 

Tarvia gives a road a tough, 
resilient surface that is dustless and 
mudless and resists the severe wear- 
and-tear of modern motor traffic. 

Illustrated booklet telling about the 
various Tarvia treatments free on 
request. Address nearest office. 





Pfesert/es Roads-Prevents Dust 



Meet us in Chicago at 
the American Road 
Builders Association 
Convention during 
the week of Feb- 
ruary 7th. 




Detroit 

Salt L<k« Cut SoItU Pn>ri» Allutu 

JotutMVWB LebwioB YounvrtoWB Tole<lo 

__...„_ Eli-U* Bu(«k> Bohjnxm Onulw 

THE BAmerr COMPA^flr. Umiud: Moot,.) T«ft».io 



St. Loaia C1«r<Uit<l CiKlnnati PI(l>klitl> 

^•IMlit D>llu Nukvilto Smcine 

r.uliM B*(it«r WathingtoA 

Columbua Ridimond Latrob* Bctjildicm 
JackaosvilU Hottatoa Ocavcf 
».MikM.B. Hidi(a>.N.S. 



* Company Kj^ST' 



74 



When writing to Advertisers please mention Tbx Aukkican City. 



i83 



Validity of Garbage Ordinances 

Right of City to Control of Garbage Is Paramount to Property Right of 

Owner Thereto 

By A. L. H. Street 



THE right of the housewife to convert 
the remnants of Sunday's pot roast 
into hash remains inviolate under the 
decision of the Michigan Supreme Court in 
the case of Pantlind vs. City of Grand 
Rapids, 177 Northwestern Reporter, 302. 
But the same decision shows that the muni- 
cipality has something to say as to what be- 
comes of the remnants of the hash. In 
short, no constitutional right exists in the 
possessor of garbage to feed it to the family 
porker being fattened in the private pig- 
gery at the rear of the home, nor to market 
it at personal profit to some one who may 
desire it as provender for his swine, as 
against the right of the municipality to pro- 
mote the public health by taking unto itself 
the matter of disposing of refuse. The 
same reasoning is applied to hotels, restau- 
rants and other wholesale producers of 
garbage. 

A similar conclusion is reached by the 
Utah Supreme Court, and both that tribunal 
and the Michigan Court refer to a decision 
of the United States Supreme Court as sup- 
porting their conclusions. 

In the Michigan case, plaintiff sued to 
enjoin the defendant from enforcing a gar- 
bage disposal ordinance to his prejudice in 
being prevented from using the garbage 
produced at his hotels in feeding swine and 
poultry at his farm several miles distant. 
The Trial Court ordered an injunction, but 
the Supreme Court reversed the decision. 

The ordinance authorizes the local Board 
of Health to contract with some suitable 
person or persons to provide proper tanks 
for the reception of garbage, to collect the 
garbage and dispose of it, under regulations 
adopted by the Board. Transportation of 
garbage, dead animals and other unsanitary 
matter through the streets, excepting by 
licensed persons, is forbidden. 

Other caterers were permitted to join in 
the suit as plaintiffs, and the evidence 
showed that cleanliness characterized the 
keeping and handling of their garbage. In 
part, the Supreme Court says: 



"As to the right of plaintiffs to those whole- 
some substances, leavings of the kitchen or 
table, which are fit for food, we quote from the 
[case of] city of Grand Rapids v. De Vries, 
supra : 

" '* * * It may be said that the ordinance does 
not attempt to regfulate in any manner whatever the 
disposition of wholesome substances by the house- 
holder. It is aimed only at refuse; that is, discarded, 
worthless matter — matter unfit for food. The house- 
holder has perfect liberty, under the ordinance, to 
consume, or to sell or give away, all the leavings of 
his table or kitchen that are fit for food.' 

'"The above language plainly implies that the 
city in the exercise of its poHce power had the 
right to treat as a nuisance all such refuse as is 
unfit for human food. . . . Wholesome 
substance may be distinguished from garbage 
upon the facts of a given case ; but, generally 
speaking, they may include broken bread, 
meat trimmings, vegetable parts, specked 

apples, and the like, if fit for food 

But when such matter is mingled with garbage 
it becomes subject to public control. . . . 

"It is urged that a person who has produced 
garbage upon his premises has a right to dis- 
pose of it and to convey it through the streets, 
because it is property of value and that as to 
him the ordinance is wanting in due process 
of law required by the Constitution. Upon 
this point several dead-animal cases, so-called, 
are cited, but these are not controlling. It is 
not competent to declare a dead animal to be 
a nuisance immediately after death. . . . 
Dead animals are not nuisances in themselves, 
and the city in its ordinances must pay a 
proper regard for the rights of the owner on 
such property." 

The Court then proceeds to quote the fol- 
lowing language used by the United States 
Supreme Court in the case of Gardner vs. 
Michigan, 199 U. S. 331, 26 Sup. Ct. 108: 

''Touching the suggestion that garbage and 
refuse are valuable for the manufacture of 
merchantable grease and other products, it is 
sufficient ... to remark that it was a con- 
trolling obligation of the city, which it would 
not properly ignore, to protect the health of 
its people in all lawful ways having relation 
to that object: and if, in its judgment, fairly 
and reasonably exercised, the presence of 
garbage and refuse in the city, on the premises 
of householders and otherwise, would endanger 
the public health by causing the spread of dis- 
ease, then it could rightfully require such 
garbage and refuse to be removed and dis- 
posed of, even if it contained some elements of 
value. In such circumstances, the property 
rights of individuals in the noxious materials 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



mi 





IVIope Po^ivep — 
IVIope IVf lies 



The smallest particle of water in gasoline will give 
you carburetor and engine trouble. Motorists should 
require the extraction of all water before gasoline is 
discharged into the automobile reservoir. 

When gasoline is drawn from a storage tank by 
any process, a like volume of air is forced into the 
tank by atmospheric pressure. Its moisture content is 
condensed, forms water and mixes with the gasoline. 

The Bowser Patented Centrifugal Water Separa- 
tor is located on the discharge pipe of the pump. 
Water, being heavier than gasoline, is separated by 
the whirling motion of the separator and the water is 
trapped in the separator. 

After passing through a wire cloth strainer the 
gasoline, pure and full of power, is discharged, without 
exposure to the air, directly into the car. 

Bowser Piston Type Measuring Pumps for geisoline 
will assure you better carburetlon, more power, 
more miles per gallon. 

S. F. B9WSER & COMPANY, Inc. 

FORT WAYNE, IND., U. S. A. 



S. F. BOWSER CO., Ltd. 
Toronto 



S. F. BOWSER & CO. 
of Texas, Dallas 



ni 



Wh^n wrrifinD" tn AHvprtift^^ro nip 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



185 



described iji the ordinance must be subordi- 
nated to the general good." 

In the Utah case — Salt Lake City vs. 
Bernhagen, 189 Pacific Reporter, 583 — the 
Supreme Court of that state reaches similar 
conclusions under a similar ordinance, 
against a contention made on the part of 
defendant that "the enforcement of the or- 
dinance by the municipality is not destroy- 
ing property in the interest of health, but 
the effect is to take property of value from 
one and give it to another; that if the gar- 
bage, refuse, etc., is dangerous to health, 



and therefore a nuisance in the hands of 
the owner, it will continue to be deleterious 
to health and therefore a nuisance when de- 
livered to and taken into the custody of the 
municipality or its exclusive contractor; 
that the city can only justify depriving the 
defendant of property, or the property of 
his employer, after showing its deleterious 
nature, and by showing further that it is 
taken with the intent and purpose of de- 
stroying it, or in some way removing the 
part found injurious to public health." 



Community Leaders Will Study European 

Cities 

Tour for Business and Professional Men and Women 



AN unusual tour of Europe for the 
purpose of observing business, social 
and economic conditions is planned 
for business men, chamber of commerce 
executives, municipal officials, and other 
civic leaders during the summer of 1921. 
Although the usual objects of interest to 
tourists will not be neglected, the purpose of 
the trip will be to put representative Ameri- 
cans in close touch with the active current 
life of England and the Continent. The 
executive head of the party is Dr. John 
Nolen, city planner, whose work is famil- 
iar to all readers of The American City. 
It is hoped that in each city visited there 
will be an opportunity to meet the leading 
local exponents of civic, economic and in- 
dustrial affairs. 

In Great Britain, London, Birmingham, 
Liverpool and Edinburgh, will be visited 
with es{>ecial emphasis on the manner in 
which England is meeting the housing prob- 
lem, and an opportunity to see such garden 
cities as Letchworth, and Lord Leverhulme's 
interesting model community at Port Sun- 
light. Belgium will be visited next. 

This will be the first group of representa- 
tive business and professional men to make 
such a tour of the Central European States 
since the war. Germany once had a great deal 
to teach us in the matter of civic and social 
administration. Her people are eager to 
resume business relations with us. There 
will be ample opportunity to see how the 
German people are meeting their after- 
the-war problems in Berlin. Dresden, Mu- 
nich, and the iron-coal region about Dus- 



seldorf and Essen. Fourth of July will be >''i 
fittingly observed with the Army of Occu- ^^^ 
pation at Coblenz on the Rhine. 

Two days will be passed in Vienna, the 
most hopeless capital in Europe; and two 
in Prague, the capital of Czecho- Slovakia, 
the new state that is making such rapid 
strides in the reconstruction of its civic and 
industrial life. Then to Milan, where cen- 
ters the interesting industrial experiment in 
the control of factories by the workers. 
This situation will be interpreted on the 
ground by a competent Italian authority, 
after which the party will turn north to 
Berne, Lucerne, and Geneva, the meeting- 
place of the League of Nations. 

The end of July will bring the party 
to Metz and "American France" — St. Mi- 
hiel. Verdun, the great cemetery at Ro- 
magne, the Argonne, Rheims and Chateau 
Thierry. The greatest battlefields in his- 
tory will be visited before time has ob- 
literated the marks of the conflict; an- 
other summer, and the "devastated areas" 
will be superficially restored to their nor- 
mal life. The tour will come to its con- 
clusion with four days in Paris. 

Although the itinerary has been ar- 
ranged with a view to meeting the interests 
of men, women will be welcomed and their 
interests provided for, as it is recognized 
.that women are taking a constantly increas- 
ingly active part in American civic life. 

Full information may be obtained from 
A. E. Bailey, of the Intercollegiate Tours, 
65 Franklin Street, Boston, Mass. 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



NEWPORT 



CU 




RTJ" 



Serviceable for every Service 

Whether used In the city street, the country road 
or state highway, Newport culverts give dollar 
for dollar service. In all the years we have been 
making these durable culverts, we have yet to re- 
ceive a complaint regarding unsatisfactory or de- 
fective service. However, ^^le have received dozens 
of letters complimenting us on the merits and the 
lasting qualities we have put into our products 

NEWPORT CULVERTS ARE MADE FROM 6ENUINE OPEN 
HEARTH IRON. GOVERNMENT TESTS PROVE THEM 99.875 % 
PURE IRON, COPPER ALLOY, ABSOLUTELY RUST-RES I ST I NG 

don't forget to LAY NEWPORT CULVERTS 

next time. once laid, you can forget 
about them. 

Send your address for free booklet 

NEWPORT CULVERT C9 

542 \WEST lOtH ST. 

NEWPORT ^..> ...>_^ KENTUCKY 




i87 



BONDING 



Municipal Finance 

ACCOUNTING 



TAXATION 



Proper Publicity for Municipal Bond 

Offerings 

By Sanders Shanks, Jr. 

Editor of The Daily Bond Buyer of New York 



IN the course of a normal year, the states, 
counties, cities, villages and taxing dis- 
tricts of the United States sell about 
five thousand issues of bonds aggregating 
from four hundred to seven hundred mil- 
lions of dollars. These issues range in size 
and importance from the one-thousand- 
dollar paving loan of a small Ohio village to 
the fifty-million-dollar corporate stock issue 
floated by the city of New York for the 
building of new subways. From Canada 
to Mexico and from Maine to California, 
every state is represented in this long list 
of borrowing for the building of roads and 
bridges, schools, court houses, jails, water- 
works plants, fire department buildings, 
electric light and power plants, public mar- 
ket places, sewer systems, parks, etc. 

State and municipal bonds, considered 
from an investment standpoint, constitute 
one of the highest-grade American secur- 
ities, second only to United States Govern- 
ment bonds. Carefully guarded by consti- 
tutional and statutory provisions, these 
securities enjoy the confidence of the most 
conservative investors in the country. It is 
a well-recognized fact that there is always 
a demand for municipal bonds, regardless of 
factors which oftentimes make it difficult 
for other classes of borrowers to obtain ac- 
commodations. 

Public Sale Method of Bond Selling 

When a city issues bonds it must consider 
among other things the problem of dispos- 
ing of those bonds. The law governing the 
creation of municipal indebtedness usually 
requires that bonds be sold at public sale. 
In some cases municipal officials are per- 
mitted to choose their own method of nego- 
tiating the sale of the bonds, but as a rule 



the law requires that sealed bids be invited 
and the bonds be awarded to the highest 
bidder. This is simply an application to the 
sale of bonds of the same rule that is al- 
most universally followed by state and local 
governments in purchasing supplies of all 
kinds. "Public letting" or "Public bidding" 
is recognized as the only guarantee of com- 
petition and the only competent safeguard 
to protect the public treasury against over- 
charging or other forms of graft in the 
dealings of the municipalities with con- 
tractors, merchants, etc. 

The private sale of bonds (and a public 
sale ineffectively advertised is virtually a 
private sale), except in very unusual and in- 
frequent instances, was long ago con- 
demned by most states as unsafe and costly 
to the borrowing municipality, and is dis- 
couraged by the largest atid most repre- 
sentative bond dealers. This method offers 
to the unscrupulous buyer of bonds an op- 
portunity to purchase bonds considerably 
cheaper than they could be bought at a pub- 
lic sale where the element of competition is 
present. It is not an exaggeration to state 
that thousands of municipal bond issues 
have been purchased in this manner at 
prices representing far less than their true 
market value, because of the absence of 
competitive bidding and the ignorance of 
officials with respect to bond values. 

The problem which the city official 
charged with the duty of marketing a bond 
would do well to consider is that of attract- 
ing to his bond offering sufficient attention 
among bond buyers to assure a number of 
bids submitted in actual competition. It 
would, of course, be a difficult task for a 
small town or city to reach the thousands of 
wealthy investors, saving banks, trustees, 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



DOW Calcium Chloride Flake 

Preserves Gravel and Macadam Roads 



What wears out macadam or gravel 
roads? 

Small loose particles are blown away 
as dust — they are pulled away by the 
vacuum created by rapidly moving 
wheels. 

Every time a layer of dust raises, 
every time tiny particles are thrown 
or washed away, still another layer 
is exposed to the disintegrating 
action of traffic and the elements 
until the road surface is broken down. 

Dow Calcium Chloride Flake binds 
the small particles together so that 
each is held by its neighbor in a vise 
like grip. The Calcium Chloride 
takes sufficient moisture from the air 
to retard the dusting away. 

Dow Calcium Chloride Flake pro- 
vides the binding properties lacking 
in dry gravel, aids packing, retains 
moisture, provides adhesion of one 
particle to the other. It makes a 
dense, hard, long wearing surface. 



The Michigan State Highway Depart- 
ment, after thorough research on 
binders and dust preventives for 
gravel and macadam, have used and 
are using thousands of tons of 
Calcium Chloride on graveled trunk 
roads. 

Dow Calcium Chloride Flake is made 
on the same precise accurate basis as 
are the vast quantities of other chem- 
icals produced in the Dow plant which 
covers more than one hundred thirty- 
five acres of ground and employs more 
than one hundred graduate chemists 
and internationally famous research 
men. 

If you would make a reputation for 
low cost road maintenance and longer 
lasting roads, let us discuss with you 
by letter at once, the value of Dow 
Calcium Chloride Flake for your par- 
ticular road problems, whether on 
trunk roads or in parks, cemeteries 
and private estates where dust pre- 
vention is a problem. 



The Dow Chemical Company 



Midland, Mich. 

TRADE 



U. S. A. 




77 



When writing to Adrertiaera pleue mention Tki Amkhicam Citt. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



189 



insurance companies, fraternal orders, sink- 
ing funds, and other buyers which consti- 
tute the broad market always existing for 
municipal bonds. But this is not necessary, 
even were it advisable or even practicable. 

The Municipal Bond Dealer 

Scattered throughout the country, but 
with their offices in twenty or thirty of the 
principal cities, there are a few hundred in- 
vestment banking firms or companies which 
make a business of buying municipal bonds 
and reselling them to investors. Sometimes 
these dealers operate in a restricted terri- 
tory, specializing in bonds originating in a 
single state, while others, maintaining of- 
fices in a dozen cities, deal in bonds issued 
throughout the country. They purchase the 
bulk of all state and municipal bonds sold, 
and, because of their ability to resell them 
in the market where they will bring the 
h'ghest price, they are in a position to make 
the municipality the best bid. 

But these dealers cannot bid for the 
bonds of a city unless they are advised that 
the city has bonds to sell. And they can- 
not read the local newspapers printed in 
every little community in the United States 
In order to find out when and where bonds 
are to be sold. And so. the problem of the 
borrowing city resolves itself into the simple 
matter of getting in touch with a compara- 
tively small number of well-known and eas- 
ily found specialists, who will bid in com- 
petition for its bonds and take them at a 
price representing the real value of the 
securities in a market as broad as any mar- 
ket in the world. 

These specialists in municipal bonds may 
be reached through the medium of financial 
newspapers, especially those publications 
which make a specialty of publishing bond 
news and official advertisements of mu- 
n'cipal bond offerings. Because of the 
peculiar nature of this business, the mu- 
nicipal bond dealer must rely upon such 
publications to collect news of bond offer- 
ings for him, and so he becomes a regular 
and careful reader of the best of such News- 
papers. ^C V 

Experts Agree on Public Sale and Bond 
Dealer Advertising 

In a booklet distributed a few yearsago 
among municipal officials by a prominent 
Baltimore banking house, T. Stockton 
Matthews, a municipal bond dealer of wide 



reputation, says: 

"It pays to advertise in selling bonds as well 
as other commodities. While there are some 
exceptions when a private sale of securities 
will net the best price, yet, as a general rule, 
those issues which are intelligently and sys- 
tematically advertised for sale will be most 
profitably and creditably placed. The best, 
and in fact the only suitable, medium for such 
advertising is the standard financial journals 
and magazines which have among their sub- 
scribers practically all of the active and re- 
liable dealers in municipal bonds in this coun- 
try. The advertisements which are inserted 
in these columns are carefully and closely 
scanned." 

Few States Recognize Importance of Proper 
Bond Advertising 

Strange as it may seem, but few states re- 
quire by law that notices of bond sales be 
published in financial papers. The general 
rule is that a city publish its bond offering 
notices in the same local newspapers in 
which legal notices of interest only to local 
people are inserted. This sort of publicity 
is, of course, largely ineffective in reaching 
bond buyers located outside of the commu- 
nity reached by these local newspapers. 

The municipal bond lawyer, through 
whose hands hundreds of issues of bonds 
pass, has come to be regarded as an expert 
on the procedure and practice incident to 
the issuance and orig'nal sale of municipal 
bonds. He is in an excellent position to 
note the results of the many different meth- 
ods employed by municipalities in various 
sect'ons of the country in the negotiation 
of bond issues, and is consulted more and 
more each year by mun'cipalities for advice 
with respect to the proper way to go about 
the marketing of securities. The recom- 
mendations of several of the most promi- 
nent of these bond lawyers has a proper 
place in this discussion. L. L. Delafield, 
Jr., of the firm of Hawkins, Delafield and 
Longfellow, of New York, says : 

"Advertising in a local newspaper of a 
small municipality is of very little use in ob- 
taining bidders for bonds. It may be justified 
to require such advertising in order to give the 
citizens of the municipality knowledge of the 
fact that its officers propose to hold a sale, so 
that t!ie citizens may attend to see that all 
goes well, but bids are not obtained in this w^v. 

"In Order to obtain bids for municipal bonds, 
there is no better method than to publish the 
notice of sale in one of the financial papers that 
snecializes in this clnss of advertising. I have 
known of individual cases where the delay in- 
cident to a public sale in a falling market has 
cost the municipality money, but in the long 



A Financial Service For the Municipality 

We are prepared to inform municipal officials regarding 

1. Present cost of raising money 

2. The most desirable method of financing 

Our municipal department handles state, coimty and mimicipal bonds representing over thirty 
states in the union. Our experience and facilities are at the disposal of any mimicipality. 

Corre»pondene« invited 

A. B. Lieacti & Co., Inc. 

Invettntent Seeuritiea 
62 Cedar Street, New York 

Chicago Philadelphia Boston Buffalo Minneapolis Baltimore Pittsburg Clereland 



T/? e „ JlZUuzrira Fountciin ^ulin^ Pen 

Will do a whole day's work with one filling. 



• „ JJluijerifa " ♦ 



You can concentrate on your work — use any kind of ink — will not leak or blot. 
Guaranteed to operate satisfactorily. 

Price only $5.00 Postpaid— ORDER TODAY! 

KOLESCH & COMPANY, 138 Fulton St., New York 




Friedman "Snow-Loader" Revolutionizes 

Snow Fi^htin^ 




This machine will positively handle your snow removal at a saving of 90 per cent over any other 
method now in use. The Friedman "Snow-Loader" has been used in New York City with unbounded 
success and satisfaction, loading trucks of 8 cubic yards capacity, at an average speed of 60 seconds. 
If diese statements interest you, it will pay you to write for further information concerning the most effi- 
cient snow-fighting machine yet developed. 



NATIONAL SNOW REMOVING CORPORATION 



67 East 93rd St., New York City 



78 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The Amekican City. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



191 



run I am satisfied that the best policy requires 
a public sale. The financial papers are searched 
daily by all the bankers and investors who are 
interested in purchasing at the sales held by 
municipalities. Competition is keen, and a sale 
after advertisement in such a paper, in the vast 
majority of cases, will bring the best price 
obtainable." 

We may also quote the firm of Caldwell 
& Raymond, of New York, as follows: 

"There can be no question that better results 
will be obtained from advertising original of- 
ferings of municipal bonds in financial pub- 
lications than from advertising them in news- 
papers of general circulation, whether the lat- 
ter have only a local circulation or a general 
one. Practically all such original offerings are 
sold to dealers, bids, if any, received from pri- 
vate investors being in most cases out of line 
with market conditions." 

Another municipal bond attorney of note, 
Robert R. Reed, has advocated, as attorney 
for The Investment Bankers Association of 
America, the public sale of municipal bonds. 
Mr. Reed says that a mandatory public sale 
provision for municipal bond sales "seems 
to be gaining in favor and is generally de- 
sirable from the municipality's standpoint. 
We practically always advise a public sale 
when our opinion is desired by the munici- 
pality." 

A convincing argument in favor of ad- 
vertising original municipal bond ofiferings 
in financial publications is made by Chester 
B. Masslich, of New York, a bond lawyer 
who has been associated with the municipal 
bond business for a great many years. Mr. 
Masslich says: 

"Excellent reasons are responsible for the 
fact that the ultimate investor is rarely a bidder 
at original sales of municipal bonds, but prefers 
to buy them from an investment house which 
has first placed its own money in the bonds and 



investigated their worth. It is therefore to the 
investment houses that municipalities must 
look. A journal devoted to current municipal 
bond news naturally goes into the executive 
oflRces of all these investment houses, and every 
advertisement in its columns becomes immedi- 
ately known to these houses." 

New Jersey's Public Sale Law 

In recent years the New Jersey Legisla- 
ture has made an intensive study of the 
whole subject of 'municipal finance, which 
has resulted in the passage of the "Pierson 
Bond Law." (Chapter 252, P. L. 1916, as 
amended.) Under this modern statute, New 
Jersey municipalities are financing them- 
selves in the most modern, businesslike and 
economical manner, and the Pierson Law is 
recognized as a model by other states which 
are endeavoring to modernize their bond 
laws. 

Arthur N. Pierson, author of the law re- 
ferred to and a keen student of public 
finance, states in a letter to the writer : 

"I am convinced that all bond sales should 
be advertised as widely as possible ; especially 
in such financial papers as reach the bond 
dealer and investor. Through such mediums 
alone can we hope to get true competitive bids 
on our offerings." 

The viewpoint of the experienced city 
treasurer should be of interest in this dis- 
cussion. Here is the way City Treasurer 
R. N. Young, of Salt Lake City, sizes up the 
proposition: 

"It is an old saying that if you want to get 
money you go where money is, and I cannot 
conceive any corporation or municipality under- 
taking to dispose of securities without availing 
themselves of the services of a medium of ad- 
vertising that reaches the class of people and 
interests they must reach if they are to dispose 
of their offerings." 



Encouraging Market for Municipal Bonds 



The opening month of the year has seen 
the successful floating of several important 
municipal bond issues. Detroit offered two 
lots, one of $35,000,000, and the other of 
$10,126,000. This was closely followed by 
the sale of $11,455,000 4 per cent bonds by 
the city of Chicago, at a slightly lower fig- 
ure than that obtained by Detroit. 

During the same week Cleveland disposed 
of $5,000,000 School District 6's, and Akron 



of $2,000,000. Other interesting issues of 
the month included $4,225,000 by Rochester, 
N. Y., and $5,000,000 by Philadelphia. 

H^he ease with which these issues have 
been disposed of has been distinctly en- 
couraging, and while it is not anticipated 
that there will be any rapid movement in 
prices, the market is regarded as stong 
enough to absorb any offerings likely to be 
made in the near future. 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




'EASY ON A TRACK 
THE CLETRAC WAY 



SPECIFICATIONS 

Horsepower: IX at drawbar, 

zo at belt-pulley 
Length: 96 inches 
IVidth: 50 inches 
Height: 51 inches 
Untight: 3410 pounds 
Turning Circle: 12 feet 
traction Surface: About 

800 sq. in. 
Center to Center of Tracltj: 

38 in. 
Belt Pulley: Dia. 8 in., face 

6 in. 



Qettac 

TANK-TYPE 
TRACTOR, 



Cletrac Keeps the Streets Clear 

THE tank-type Cletrac is being used in many- 
towns throughout the country to keep streets 
clear of snow and slush. It works equally well pushing 
a snow plow or pulling an ordinary road scraper. 

Cletrac's broad sharp-cleated tracks take it easily 
over ice and snow on hard or dirt roads. 

This tractor has the certain traction and abundant 
power needed to keep it working steadily right through 
the worst storms of winter. 

Ask your local Cletrac dealer for a demonstration 
and write us for further facts about Cletrac in munici- 
pal work. 

The Cleveland Tractor Co. 



"Largest Producers of Tank-Type Tractors in the World" 
19205 Euclid Ave. Cleveland, Ohio 



When writing to Advertisers please nention Tbx Amexican Citt. 



193 



News and Ideas for Commercial 
and Civic Organizations 



Golf Club Financed by Marion 
Chamber 

Marion, Ohio. — The financing of a 
country club house and a nine-hole golf 
course is a recent accomplishment with 
wh'ch the Marion Chamber of Commerce is 
much pleased. The need of these recrea- 
tional facilities had been discussed by the 
organization for years, and committees had 
been appointed to establish them but were 
always later disbanded because of their 
inability to get results. The difficulty 
appeared to be that a division of opinion 
existed as to the proper location of the 
course. 

Another attempt to launch the project was 
made a year ago, when it occurred to one 
of the Chamber's officers to attempt to pre- 
vail upon the chairman of the Civic Com- 
mittee to spend several days at one of the 
southern winter resorts and become an en- 
thusiastic golfer. The young man did so, 
and that act "turned the trick." Upon his 
return he called a meeting of his committee, 
at which it was deeded to gather all the 
young men of the community together at 
an early date and secure their cooperation 
in launching the project. 

Country Canvassed for Site 

Before these young men were called to- 
gether, however, and in order that the dis- 
appointing experiences of former meetings 
held for the purpose might be avoided, a 
canvass was made of all the surrounding 
territory by three or four experienced 
golfers in search of a suitable site. One 
containing 120 acres was found to be avail- 
able and an option was taken on it, one of 
the young men giving his personal check to 
secure it. Two or three other men were 
then authorized to prepare an organization 
program and have it ready for the proposed 
meeting. The program was adopted, with 
a very few minor changes, at the first 
meeting of these young men. One commit- 
tee was promptly appointed to purchase the 



real estate, and another committee to set in 
motion an intensive drive for members. 

A holding company and an operating 
company were then formed. The Marion 
Country Club Holding Company was capi- 
talized at $50,000, and holds title to the 
real estate, which it leases to the operating 
company, the Marion Country Club Com- 
pany. The stock has a par value of $100, 
bears 6 per cent interest and is non-taxable. 
The sale of stock was made possible by the 
large subscriptions which were taken by 
several of the prospective members of the 
club, some of whom took as much as $3,000 
worth. The stock was offered at 6 per cent 
in order to make it an attractive investment. 

Securing the Money 

It was necessary later to increase the 
capitalization to $75,000, because $50,000 
proved to be insufficient to establish a first- 
class country club. The sum of $33,000 
was paid for the site ; it was estimated that 
it would cost at least $30,000 to erect and 
equip the club house, and the building of 
the first nine holes of an i8-hole golf course 
would cost $15,000. Even with the capitali- 
zation at $75,000, this left a deficit of $3,000, 
and so, in order not to entirely deplete its 
resources, the holding company gave a 
mortgage on the real estate for $10,000, 
hold'ng in reserve a sum of money to take 
care of incidental expenses. The operat'ng 
company will take over the Country Club 
when it is ready, and will pay therefor a 
rental equal to 6 per cent of the money in- 
vested by the holding company in the prop- 
erty, plus taxes and insurance. The hold- 
ing company and the operating company 
are almost entirely distinct from each other 
in the matter of their personnel. 

Golf playing will begin early in the 
spring, with nine holes prepared under the 
supervision of a well-known golf architect. 
In addition to the yearly dues of $75, each 
member of the Country Club will be required 
to own at least one share of stock in the 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




Standard Municipal Equipment 



The Mack truck has become 
practically standard for the 
heavier classes of municipal 
trucking. 

.For the reason that Mack 
construction is more than 
adequate in every detail for 
requirements which overtax 
those trucks whose safety 
factors are low. 
A large number of recent 
installations have been for 
street flushing and 
sprinkling. The Mack 
combination flusher and ^4g>- 



sprinkler embodies several 
fundamental advantages. 
Chief among them are single 
engine system; plenty of pow- 
er for truck and pump — low 
operating and maintenance 
costs — one man operation. 

Our engineering department 
will be glad to consider spe- 
cific problems of municipal 
equipment and make unbiased 
recommendations covering 
them. An inquiry does 
not incur the slightest 
^%v obligation. 



INTERNATIONAL MOTOR COMPANY 

New York 



Capacities 1J4 to IVi tons 



kk 




Tractors to 15 tons 



PERFORMAfiCE COUNTS" 



80 When writing to Advertisera please mention Tbb Ah xkicah Crt. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



195 



operating company. Non-members may also 
purchase stock in the operating company if 
they wish. The dues were placed at this 
high figure to enable the operating company 
to pay the interest on its stock, as well as 
to provide a fund with which to maintain 
the golf course. 

The membership has been restricted to 
300. Members resigning from the Country 
Club are required to surrender their stock 
to incoming members who may be accepted 
in their places. The stock certificates con- 
tain a clause binding members for the pay- 
ment of the unpaid house bills or dues. 

The purpose of restricting the member- 
ship to 300 was to make sure that the play- 
ing members would always be able to use 
the course, because an i8-hole golf course 
will accommodate only a certain number. 
That number really provides quite a nar- 
row margin, but since this golf course is 
the only one in the city, it was necessary to 
allow a slightly larger number of players 
access to it. The Chamber of Commerce 
feels that a country club of this character 
is an undoubted asset to a city because of 
the opportunity it afifords the younger men 
of the community to get together for whole- 
some social afifairs and participate in health- 
ful recreation, which should make them 
lose interest in the less wholesome attrac- 
tions of the larger cities. 

HARRY F. PALMER, 
Executive Secretary, Marion Chamber of Commerce. 



Chicago Safety Council Teaching 
Accident Prevention 

Chicago, III. — The Chicago Safety Coun- 
cil, recently incorporated under the laws of 
Illinois, is now a department of the Chi- 
cago Association of Commerce, cooperating 
closely with the National Safety Council. 

The Safety Council has undertaken the 
task of educating the people of this com- 
munity in safety principles and practices in 
order to bring about a substantial reduction 
in the number of accidents of both a public 
and an industrial character. The Safety 
Council is a non-profit, non-commercial and 
non-political organization. The sole pur- 
pose of its existence is to make Chicago a 
safer city. It will conduct its activities by 
means of various committees, and function 
through the schools, homes, churches and 
industries with the object of developing an 
interest in safety on the part of every one. 



Conservation of land, timber, minerals, 
water-power, etc., has been taught and prac- 
ticed in this country for a great many years. 
Conservation of men, of infinitely greater 
importance, is a relatively new science. This 
is accomplished by activities designed to 
educate people in accident prevention, or, as 
it is commonly called, safety. 

Most Accidents Preventable 

Experience has taught that at least three- 
fourths of all accidents are due to causes 
under control by the victims or by those 
associated directly or indirectly with the 
accident; and that about one-fourth of the 
accidents are chargeable to the failure of 
materials, lack of proper mechanical guards, 
etc. This emphasizes the fact that about 
75 per cent of all accidents are preventable 
by education, and it is to this phase of acci- 
dent prevention that the Chicago Safety 
Council is devot"ng its energy. 

How necessary it is that every one be- 
come interested in this matter is demon- 
strated by the fact that last year nearly 
2,000 people were accidentally killedi in 
Chicago and Cook County ; and that in the 
first ten months of 1920, 440 people met 
death in this territory by automobile acci- 
dents alone. The Safety Council is en- 
deavoring to make people appreciate that, 
after all, human life is the most precious 
asset of individuals and, at the same time, 
the greatest asset of the nation; that it is 
better to be careful than to be crippled; 
that the exercise of caution is a duty which 
every individual owes to himself, his fam- 
ily, his employer and his country. 

Accident prevention is now generally re- 
cognized as one of the larger economic 
problems of the t-mes. It is estimated that 
last year an average of 222 persons per day 
were killed in accidents of all sorts in the 
United States ; and that during the nineteen 
months this country was engaged in the 
world war, more Americans were killed 
here at home than on the battlefields of 
Europe. The National Safety Council esti- 
mates that some one is killed somewhere in 
this country in an automobile accident every 
thirty-five minutes ! 

These statistics should convince the most 
skeptical of the magnitude of the problem 
in both its human'tarian and its economic 
aspects. Chicago proposes, through the Chi- 
cago Safety Council, to effect a marked im- 
provement in its accident record, thereby 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Road -Building by Tractor 
Quicker and Cheaper 



I 



N breaking new roads, in grading, scarifying, plowing, excavat- 
ing, leveling, and in heavy hauling, the Best Tracklayer Sixty does 
the work better and faster than horses and does it at less cost. 

Its tremendous drawbar pull enables the Best to maintain an even 
cut with the grader. The power is unfaltering. There are no animals 
to favor on tough soil. No expert drivers needed to keep horses pull- 
ing together. The Best furnishes compact, dependable, easily- 
managed, flexible power, taking the place of 30 horses or mules 
and operating at a much lower cost. Besides, the Best will do a great 
deal of work which horses cannot perform. 

Another advantage in favor of the Best Sixty for road work is its 
ability to negotiate ground too soft for animals and too rough for 
trucks. The long, wide tracks distribute the weight over so great 
an area that the ground pressure per square inch is. less than that 
of the average-sized man. The tracks also bridge ruts and holes 
and gaps, enabling the Best to work efficiently under very unfavor- 
able ground conditions. 

There are many mechanical features of the Best that are respon- 
sible for Best performance. This tractor is the result of a develop- 
ment covering many years of tractor-building experience. Design, 
choice of materials, engine, workmanship — all have been time-tested 
and proven in actual practice. For years the Best has been con- 
spicuously successful on the big heavy-duty work of the West. 

Our catalog fully explains these mechanical features and their 
time-tested advantages. Write for it. Also ask for the name of our 
nearest dealer. 

C. L. Best Tractor Co. 



San Leandro 



California 




Wh»>n writing to Advertisers nieaae tnentinn Th« Ausbican City. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



197 



making the city a safer and at the same 
time a better city in which to live. 

HARRY J. BELL, 
Secretary, The Chicago Safety Council, Chicago 

Association of Commerce. 

Chamber Aids Firemen and 
Policemen 

Sioux City, lowA.^The December issue 
of The American City carried a story 
about the manner in which the Sioux City 
Chamber of Commerce secured higher pay 
for the employes of the local traction com- 
pany. The story that follows relates to a 
similar activity, that of securing an increase 
in the wages of the city's policemen and 
firemen, who were leaving their positions 
for positions elsewhere offering higher re- 
muneration. The increase in the cost of 
living found the men unable to finance 
their affairs on the inadequate wage they 
were receiving, and an appeal to the city 
for more pay revealed the fact that no 
funds would be available for such a pur- 
pose until in April, 1921, when additional 
revenue would be coming into the city treas- 
ury. The matter could not be postponed, 
however. The city's safety was at stake and 
immediate action was imperative if efficient 
police and fire departments were to be 
maintained. 

The critical situation which had arisen 
was brought to the attention of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, which immediately ap- 
pointed a committee to make a thorough in- 
vestigation of all the conditions and report 
to the Board of Directors with recommen- 
dations. This committee appeared before 
the City Council and satisfied itself that the 
city's finances would not permit the grant- 
ing of higher salaries to the men in ques- 
tion before the date mentioned. The com- 
mittee next investigated the living condi- 
tions of the men themselves and found them 
to be seriously in need of more money than 
they were receiving. 

Having satisfied themselves that the 
policemen and firemen were entitled to bet- 
ter wages than the city could provide, the 
members of the committee suggested to the 
Board of Directors of the Chamber that 
there be raised among the business men a 
fund from which the salaries the men were 
at that time receiving could be augmented 
until the city could take care of the matter. 
The suggestion was adopted, and soon 
thereafter pledges aggregating $40,000 were 



secured from the local business establish- 
ments, which willingly pledged themselves 
to pay into the fund, known as the Fire- 
men's and Policemen's Service Fund, a cer- 
tain sum monthly until April of 1921. Thus 
each man was provided with an additional 
$25 a month, which they receive simul- 
taneously with their regular pay from the 
city. This made the men much more con- 
tented, and the city is consequently safer. 
The work of the Chamber of Commerce 
in this instance has brought about a much 
closer relationship between the city's guar- 
dians and the business men. The fund is 
being administered jointly by the Chamber 
of Commerce and the city's Commissioner 
of Public Safety. 

WILLIAM HOLDEN, 
General Secretary, Sioux City Chamber of Com- 



Findlay*s Fire Prevention 
Campaign 

FiNDLAY, Ohio. — The complete reorgan- 
ization of the Fire Department and the in- 
stallation of motorized fire-fighting equip- 
ment is assured the city of Findlay as a re- 
sult of the activities of the local Chamber 
of Commerce. The committee which has 
been working on the problem found that 
the department was years behind the times 
in its internal organization and that the Fire 
Chief lacked the requisite authority to en- 
able him to improve the conditions. 

The first step in the campaign waged by 
the Chamber of Commerce in its effort to 
get the City Council to purchase up-to-date 
apparatus and reorganize the department 
was to arouse the interest of the public in 
the subject. This was done during Fire Pre- 
vention Week, conducted by the Chamber 
of Commerce during the week of October 
18, 1920. During this period the interest 
of the public schools was especially enlisted. 
Home inspection blanks were distributed 
among the pupils in an effort to eliminate 
the fire hazards; 1,500 of these were filled 
out by the children, who were also asked to 
write essays on fire prevention. 

Both the Kiwanis and Rotary Clubs co- 
operated actively to make Fire Prevention 
Week a success. A forceful speaker was 
brought from New York to address an open 
forum meeting held by the Chamber of 
Commerce for the purpose of discussing the 
subject of fire prevention. The- services of 
fifty state inspectors of fire hazards were 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



The City Beautiful 

is only possible by proper care of shade, ornamental trees and shrub- 
bery. 

Power spraying will do more towards beautiful parks and streets 
than other methods. 

~ Spray with the Bean 

Power Sprayers and re- 
duce the cost of main- 
tenance. 

Then use the same spray- 
er for whitewashing or 
coldwater painting your 
public buildings. 
Write today for our latest 
catalog. 

Bean Spray Pump Co. 

26 Hosmer St., 
San Jose, Calif. Lansing, lyiich. 




ffSEsmm 

The NATION'S Road Maker 



Power is the problem of the road builder. 
From the clearing of the right of way to the 
completed road every operation depends upon 
the power equipment. 

Road officials and contractors everywhere use 
"Caterpillar" Tractors because the "Cater- 
pillar" has proved dependable, thru years of 
service, for the whole range of power needs in 
modern road making and maintenance. 
Flexible roller frame construction (exclusive 
Holt feature), three speeds, positive traction, 
convenience of operation, accessibility of all 
parts — these and many other features com- 
bine to make the "Caterpillar" the most 
practical power for the road maker. 

Booklet, "The Nation's Road Maker" 
on request. 

The HOLT Manufacturing Co., 

Inc. 

PEORIA, ILLINOIS 

Spokane, Wash. New York Office, 50 

Church St. Factories at Stockton, Cal., 

and Peoria, 111. 




Doing the Work of 32 Mules for 
Sumpter County, Ga. 



Sumpter County, Georgia, operates three "Caterpillar" Tractors. 



"We are keeping a cost account and our savings ate based on 
this record. In grading, the daily saving with two 'Caterpil- 
lars' is $91.02 over our former cost with mules. In maintenance 
we drag 30 miles per day at a saving of $1.32 per mile over former 
costs." 



omisfm 



There U bat one V/U^^jr'^'*3l!C ~ ^^^ ^ ^"'^'^^ '^ 

iiiiiMiiiniiiniTiiMiTiiTiiimiiiiiiir ] [iiiiniiiiri 




February, 192 i 



THE AMERICAN CiTY 



199 



also secured, and approximately 300 special 
inspections were made by them. 

All these activities revealed conditions 
which convinced the members of the City 
Council of the necessity for making the im- 
provements in the Fire Department urged 
by the Chamber of Commerce. An ordi- 
nance giving the Fire Department extensive 
powers was subsequently presented to the 
Council and favorably acted upon by it ; and 
the Council has assured the Chamber that 
it will support the detailed recommendations 
for improvement that are finally made. Two 
experts were appointed to make an inten- 
sive study of the department, and after they 
have completed their work it is expected 
that a top-notch fire chief will be brought 
to Findlay to organize and train the local 
force. 

J. B. ABELL, 
Managing Secretary, Finllay Chamber of Com- 
merce. 

Farmers Shown Advantages of 
Motor Trucks 

Portsmouth, Ohio. — The fine spirit of 
cooperation which characterizes all the 
activities of the Portsmouth Chamber of 
Commerce was again exemplified in the 
"motor truck on the farm" tour which was 
conducted recently by that organization. 
Practically all the truck dealers in Ports- 
mouth participated in this tour, and the only 
two who did not remained out because of 
their inability to procure trucks in time. 

A "motorcade" (you cannot say "caval- 
cade" when speaking of automobiles !), con- 
sisting of a Buick coupelet, a Chevrolet 
suburban car, a Chevrolet 2-ton truck, a 
Nash I -ton truck, a Nash 2-ton truck, a 
White 2-ton truck, a Stewart 2-ton truck, a 
GMC i-ton truck, a CMC 2-ton truck, and 
an Overland service wagon, left the Ports- 
mouth Chamber of Commerce on a Tuesday 
morning and were on the road until Satur- 
day noon of that week. They covered five 
counties and a distance of over 400 miles. 
Two weeks before the tour took place an ad- 
vance agent distributed large posters over 
the territory to be covered, and announced 
the time when the cars would arrive at each 
country town. Another man was designated 
to reach the town one hour before the 
arrival of the automobiles and perfect the 
arrangements for the exhibit. 

An Alamo lighting system was set up on 
one of the GMC trucks, and at night the 
entire line of cars was illuminated bv wire 



stretched over the trucks. Music was pro- 
vided by the use of a piano mounted on one 
of the trucks, and by a cornetist, a saxo- 
phone player and a trap drummer who ac-^., 
companied the party. 

At each stop in the village short talks were 
given on "Motor Trucks on the Farm," after 
which the cars proceeded to a farmer's field 
which had previously been selected for the 
exhibit, where a demonstration was given on 
hauling manure spreaders, hauling in hay, 
pulling hay-cutters and pulling wheat 
binders. Cards giving the names of all the 
trucks in the exhibit were distributed at 
each town, with the request that any one 
interested in any particular type check that 
make on the card and send it, with his name 
and address, to the Portsmouth Chamber of 
Commerce, which would send full informa- 
tion about the car from the dealers. 

The tour was in no sense a sales effort, 
but was intended to bring to the farmers' 
attention by actual demonstration the ad- 
vantages to be gained from the use of such 
labor-saving equipment. No literature was 
distributed and no effort was made to sell 
cars, thereby placing all the dealers on an 
equal footing. 

The success of the tour was much greater 
than the Chamber anticipated. In all the 
small towns visited, large crowds of farmers 
gathered to examine the trucks and to listen 
to the talks. The music rendered by the 
small orchestra which accompanied the 
party was also appreciated, and in every 
way the tour more than justified the time 
and expense connected with it. Each auto- 
mobile dealer contributed $50 towards the 
general expense, and they all felt that the 
tour was the best advertising in which they 
had ever invested. 

J. B. WILES, 
Formerly Manager, Portsmouth Chamber of Commerce. 

Chamber Helps to Finance Water 
Conservation Project 

San Jose, Calif. — Valuable assistance 
has been rendered the ranchers and fruit- 
growers of this section by the San Jose 
Chamber of Commerce through its assist- 
ance in financing a water survey preliminary 
to establishing irrigation districts and reser- 
voirs in the mountains near-by, where the 
surplus water which accumulates during the 
winter and spring months may be held for 
use as needed. 

The orchards in the Santa Clara vallev 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



PACKARD 




Prompt Bus Service Pays Dividends 



If passenger-carrying busses are to 
be operated at a profit, they must 
maintain schedules, regardless of 
weather and road conditions. 

Because Packard trucks have a 
known reputation for dependability, 
combined with low hauling and re- 
pair costs, the New Jersey Auto Bus 
Association, of Newark, N. J., pur- 
chased a fleet of Packard trucks and 
fitted them with specially designed 
bodies, each of them capable of 
carrying fifty passengers. 

These busses, which develop fifty 
horsepower and roll day in, day out. 



at speeds up to 28 miles an hour, 
serve the public with safety, dis- 
patch and comfort, and without the 
annoying waits and delays that in- 
variably lead to lost patronage. 

Because of this excellent service, 
these busses, in turn, pay their 
owners a maximum return on their 
investment. 

They perform as Packard trucks 
habitually perform — crowding 
more work into each day at a lower 
cost — because they are correctly 
designed, precisely built, and 
scientifically specified to the job. 



PACKARD MOTOR CAR COMPANY • DETROIT 

Qsh the man ivho owns one 



February, 1921 THE AMERICAN CITY 



201 



produce from $40,000,000 to $50,000,000 
worth of cherries, apricots, prunes, peaches, 
pears, plums, apples and other fruits every 
year, and require an abundance of irriga- 
tion, but with no irrigation districts or reser- 
voirs in which to hold the winter waters, 
the majority of this natural water-supply 
runs down the streams in swift torrents and 
empties into San Francisco Bay. The or- 
chard acreage is increasing yearly, and it 
was found that the thousands of irrigation 
wells by which they are maintained were 
steadily lowering the underground water- 
level. The fruit-growers last spring there- 
fore began to look around for ways and 
means of establish-ng irrigation districts 
and reservoirs in the surrounding mountains 
in which the tremendous volume of water 
that goes to waste during the winter and 
spring months could be conserved. 

It was necessary first of all to have a sur- 
vey made of the district, and this, it was 
estimated, would cost $20,000. The horti- 
culturists appealed to the Chamber of Com- 
merce for assistance in raising this sum. 
The Chamber found that the County Board 
of Supervisors was able to appropriate only 
$5,000 toward such a fund. This amount 
the Chamber agreed to augment by under- 
taking to raise $7,500, if the fruit-growers 
would produce a similar amount, thus com- 
pleting the required total of $20,000. 

Dues Credited to Funds 

The Chamber launched a campaign for 
new members, and announced that every dol- 
lar received for new memberships during the 
months of May, June and July would be 
placed in the water survey fund. The cam- 
paign committee secured the cooperation of 
the Rotary Club, the 100 Per Cent Club, the 
Lions Club, the Progressive Business Men's 
Club, the Merchants' Association, and the 
Santa Clara County Automobile Associa- 
tion, among which competing teams were 
organized. Manager Roscoe D. Wyatt, of 
the Chamber, prepared the prospect list. 

Reports were made at the luncheon meet- 
ings held daily during the campaign, and 
the Chamber of Commerce was soon able to 
tell the fruit-growers that it had gone over 
the top in raising its share, its campaign 
producing more than $8,000. The fruit- 
growers also exceeded their quota, and inci- 
dentally added many of their number to the 
Chamber's membership. 



Since its reorganization a little over a 
year ago by the American City Bureau, the 
San Jose Chamber of Commerce has ac- 
complished much that is worth while, but 
this activity stands out perhaps more promi- 
nently than any other because of the fin'^ 
spirit of cooperation which the campaign 
engendered among the agricultural and hor- 
ticultural interests throughout the entire 
valley. The Chamber feels that the financial 
assistance rendered, while great, is the least 
substantial result of the undertaking, and 
that the cordial and helpful relations that 
were established constitute a more lasting 
result, which cannot fail to be a valuable 
factor in the progress of the community. 

V. J. LaMOTTE, 

President, San Jose Chamber of Commerce. 

Civic Activities Portrayed in 
Pageant 

Pittsburgh, Pa. — A very interesting and 
illuminating pageant was given in Pitts- 
burgh on December 8 by the Civic Club of 
Allegheny County as the crowning event of 
twenty-five years of effort for civic better- 
ment. In it were depicted the problems 
with which the Club has been confronted 
during that period and the progress that 
has been made toward their solution. 

The actual presentation of the pageant 
was preceded by a short program of music 
on the new organ in Carnegie Hall, and an 
address by Herbert Adams Gibbons on "Op- 
portunities and Responsibilities for Ameri- 
canism." 

In the opening scene of the pageant the 
Spirit of the City was shown as a great, 
powerful blacksmith, seated on a throne, 
and sleeping, shackled by chains of gold 
and custom. Below his throne sat his evil 
counsellors, Worldly Power, Greed, Pride 
and Complacency, impersonated by four 
men; and below them, in the outer darkness, 
groups of individuals representing the vic- 
tims of those evils against which the Civic 
Club has struggled. The time was that of 
the inception of the Civic Club twenty-five 
years ago. Civic Spirit, denoting service, 
next appeared, and in a prologue related 
her problems and purposes, and then the ac- 
tion began. 

The evil counsellors agreed upon the ap- 
pointment of Worldly Power (Self) to rep- 
resent them. While they were deliberating, 
Civic Sp'rit descended to the group? below 
and touched one after another of the vie- 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



nA&s,!TIIAI LER 

The Largest Trailer Plant in the World 




Highway Side-Dump Trailer, with 
body, one of the fleet employed by the 
Greater Winnipeg Water District, for 
the haulage of sand, gravel, concrete, 
and other materials in loose bulk. 

Note Price Advantage of 
Highway Trailers 

Costs $200 to $600 Less Than Average Trailers 

The exclusive advantages which distinguish 
Highway Trailers are a much greater factor 
in the wide preference they enjoy, in all sorts 
of transportation, than even the big price 
saving they effect. 

The steel-body, side-dump trailer, shown in 
the illustrations was specially designed for 
road and street building, and the practical 
elimination of slow, costly hand-shoveling in 
loading and unloading. 

The release of a lock automatically pitches the 
load clear of the wheels in the desired direc- 
tion One man easily returns the body to the 
upright position. 

There is also the steel-body, two-way, side- 
dump trailer with drop-frame, similar in ap- 
pearance, but lower, which operates in almost 
precisely the same manner, and which is 
chosen by many contractors and road engi- 
neers because of the drop-frame feature. 

Write for liieraiure and any special information required 

Edgerton, Wis. 




Note how completely the automatic dump empties the 
carrier. Also observe that the load is pitched entirely 
clear of the wheels. 



The Highway Trailer Co., 



Whea writing to Adyertiseri please mention Thb Ahkricam City. 



84 



February, 1921 THE AMERICAN CITY 



203 



tims of the evils referred to — Joyless Child- 
hood, the Unclean, the Plague-Stricken, 
Youth in Idleness, the Disinherited, and the 
Unprosperous, questioning each. Worldly 
Power (impersonated by a man) reproved 
her for her inquiries. She tried to awaken 
the Spirit of the City (the Smith). He did 
not hear her. And so, having found plenty 
of work to do, she called to her aid the four 
branches of the Club's activity — Govern- 
ment, Social Science, Education, and Art, 
which were impersonated by four women. 
With the help of these she started out upon 
her mission of reform. 

The Club's activities during the twenty- 
five years' period were next portrayed. For 
the Unclean a pure water-supply was ob- 
tained and public baths opened. For Child- 
hood, playgrounds, the Juvenile Court, the 
open air schools, the child labor law, etc., 
were attained. For Youth, the recreation 
program and new educational opportunities 
in the night schools were made available. 
For the Plague-Stricken, the tuberculosis 
campaign, the Municipal Hospital, various 
forms of health legislation, the tenement 
law, and the new sanitary code, were 
achieved. Then followed legal aid and 
Associated Charities, city planning and the 
organization of citizenship and American- 
ization campaigns. As these movements 
proceeded, the chains gradually fell from 
the Smith and he awoke. 

A grand festival then took place in cele- 
bration of the anniversary of the Civic 
Spirit's organized effort. It was a festival 
of rejoicing, to which all who had partici- 
pated in the work, and all good citizens as 
well, were invited. During this festival the 
long silent Smith spoke at last. He rejoiced 
with the rest, but he solemnly warned the 
Civic Spirit and her ministers not to pause 
midway in their task, but to proceed with 
their never-ceasing struggle for the better 
day, the city of the future that is to be. 

Thomas Wood Stevens, Director of Dra- 
matic Art of the Carnegie Institute of Tech- 
nology, was the author of the pageant and 
rehearsed its production. The cast was 
made up of "Tech" dramatic and music 
students, the Guild Players, public school 
children, foreign-born citizens of twelve 
nationalities, and 25 young society girls who 
represented candle spirits, one for each year 
of the Civic Club's existence, 

(MISS) H. M. DERMITT. 
Secretary, Civic Club of Allegheny County. 



BUY NOW BUY NOW 

All Strikes End 
Sooner or Later 



The reason we were able to finance the 
War so well is that business was good — 
people bought and sold. The only way we 
can PAY for the war is by buying and 
selling — trading. 

If you are on a buying strike — "forget it." 

If you won't buy the things the other fellow 
makes or handles HE can't buy the things 
YOU make or handle. That is reasonable, is 
it not? Those who are insistently determined 
to put off the buying of the things they need 
are not doing humanity a service, they are 
helping to clog the wheels of commerce and 
industry which will cause dire results. 

Your livelihood and prosperity are bound 
up in the livelihood and prosperity of other 
men — you can't deny that point. There is 
nothing fundamentally wrong with this coun- 
try — there are bountiful crops, ample money, 
capable heads and hands. Business is a gigan- 
tic organization kept alive and active by trade 
coursing through its veins. When trade stops 
circulating — business dies. No man's trade 
can flourish in splendid isolation. You can't 
sell the articles you make or handle to the 
man "out of a job" or the industry whose 
wheels are stopped. 

True thrift is always wise, but if the public 
refuses to buy the things they need NOW 
they are stopping up the channels that feed 
and clothe us ALL. 

Go out and buy to-day the things you need, 
for the prices ARE down. They went up a 
step at a time and they can't come down the 
bannister. If you wait for the "bottom to 
drop out" neither you nor the other fellow 
may be able to buy then. 

THINK and BUY the THINGS 
you NEED now 



Winston'Salem Chamber of Commerce 



This is One of a Series of Adver- 
tisements Being Published in the 
Daily Newspapers of Winston- 
Salem by the Chamber of Com- 
merce in an Effort to Do Its Share 
to Stimulate Buying and Stabilize 
Business. 



r^ 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




HEATING and MIXING PLANT 



for laying and repairing bituminous macadam 
and asphalt pavements Solves the need of mu= 
nicipalities, counties, state highway departments 
and paving and road building contractors for a 
sturdily built, easily portable ^=yard plant w^hich 
combines all the necessary requirements either 
for laying new pavements or keeping streets and 
roads in repair. The mixing is so thorough that 
every batch is a perfect batch. The weight of the 
machine is approximately 1 5,000 pounds and it may 
be readily drawn by tractor, road roller or horses. 

MUNICIPALITIES 

already owning stationary asphalt plants will find 
the **Simplex" single unit plant a tremendous 
money saver for all work not requiring the full 
capacity of the large plant and utilizing the old 
asphalt which can be successfully worked into 
pavements by the use of the "Simplex'* machine. 
Cities and Villages as yet unsupplied with a 
paving plant will find in the **Simplex" a means of 
reducing their paving and maintenance expense 
to the minimum consistent with good work. 

For full particulars apply to 

F. H. Conklin and W. Q. Harrington, Inc. 

Room 1762, 50 Church St., New York City 



When writing to Advertisers please mention Ths Ahexican Qtt. 



205 



The City's Legal Rights and Duties 

Information for City Attorneys and Other Municipal Officers, Summarizing 
Imi>ortant Court Decisions and Legislation 

Conducted by A. L. H. Street, Attorney at Law 



Gas Tank Ordinance Void Which 
Makes Issuance of Permit an Arbi- 
trary Power 
City of New Orleans Ordinance No. 2126, 
amended by Ordinance 5453, requiring a 
permit for the operation of a portable gas 
tank on a city street, without prescribing 
any terms or conditions on compliance with 
which a permit shall be granted, or without 
which it shall be withheld, purports to con- 
fer arbitrary power to grant permission to 
conduct a legitimate business to one person 
and withhold it from another in a like 
situation, and is therefore void. (Louisiana 
Supreme Court, City of New Orleans vs. 
Palmisano, 83 Southern Reporter, 789.) 

Vested Right of PoUceman to Pension 
and Place Under San Francisco 
Charter 

Under the San Francisco charter a police 
officer placed on the retired list and regu- 
larly granted a pension on proof of dis- 
abilities has a vested right to retain his 
place on the retired list and to have his 
pension continued until his disabilities 
cease. (California District Court of Ap- 
peal, Sheehan vs. Board of Police Commis- 
sioners, 190 Pacific Reporter, 51.) 

Railroad Company's Right of Way 
Cannot Ordinarily Be Assessed 
for Local Improvements 

A railway company's land is not subject 
to street improvement where such land is a 
part of its right of way used exclusively in 
operating its train service and there is no 
showing it would ever be used for any 
other purpose. 

In reaching this conclusion in the case of 
Johnston City vs. Chicago & Eastern Illinois 
Railroad Company, 124 Northeastern Re- 
porter, 568, the Illinois Supreme Court said : 

''There are unusual conditions under which 
a railroad rierht of wav can be said to be bene- 



lidal by a local improvement, but as a general 
rule it cannot be. The limit of an assessment 
tor benefits resulting from paving a street is 
the enhanced value of the property, and where 
its use is restricted to the running of trains 
there can be no assessment unless the value is 
increased for that use. Where the property is 
restricted by statute or grant to a particular 
use, and cannot be legally applied to any other 
use, and is at the time of the improvement de- 
\oted to such particular use, the true measure 
of the benefit which the improvement will con- 
fer is the increased value for the restricted 
use, in the absence of proof reasonably tending 
to show that the property in question, having 
regard to present conditions and the existing 
Iiusiness and wants of the public, is about to 
he devoted to other uses. 

■'In this state, however, it is a settled rule 
that the property of a railroad corporation, 
even though used for railroad purposes, if 
benefited, may be assessed for a local improve- 
ment. But an increase in freight traffic and 
the general business of appellant cannot be 
considered in assessing benefits to its right of 
way." 

Owner of Land Benefited by Improve- 
ment Not Personally Liable for 
Assessment 

Under a statute providing for payment 
for a local improvement by special assess- 
ment against benefited property, the land 
alone is liable; if that is insufficient to pay 
the assessment, resort cannot be had against 
the owner personally for payment of the 
balance. (North Carolina Supreme Court, 
Town of Morgantown vs. Avery, 103 At- 
lantic Reporter, 138.) 

Charter Provision Impliedly Repealed 
by General Statute 
Provision in a municipal charter requir- 
ing a two-thirds vote of electors before a 
bonding limit can be raised is impliedly re- 
pealed by a general statute subsequently 
enacted authorizing cities to raise such limit 
by a three-fifths vote. (Michigan Supreme 
Court, City Commission of Jackson vs. Ved- 
der, 176 Northwestern Reporter, t;s7-) 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




TIFFIN TRUCKS AND FLUSHERS 



Service for Road and Street Maintenance 



The road contractor must con- 
sider the splendid record of Tiffin 
Dump Trucks and Dump Wagons. 

The city engineer must take 
note of the excellent perform- 



ance of Tiffin Street Flushers 
throughout the country. 

Tiffin vehicles have proven a 
leading position in both these 
fields. 



The TIFFIN WAGON CO.. Tiffin, Ohio 



L i t er a ture 
about Tiffin 
Street Flush- 
ers andTrucks 
sent anywhere 
on request. 




TiffinFlushers 
do more and 
better work 
at less cost ,- 
due to high 
grade con- 
struction and 
two-motor- 
system design. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



207 



Liability of City on Local Improve- 
ment Bonds Considered a Debt in 
Ascertaining Constitutional Debt 
Limit 
Under the provisions of the Kentucky 
constitution limiting the debt limit of cities, 
contracts for local improvements to be paid 
for wholly by special assessments against 
benefited property are not to be regarded as 
creating municipal indebtedness. But if the 
city becomes a guarantor of the payment of 
principal and interest on local improvement 
bonds, and not merely a collector of the 
special assessments for the benefit of the 
holders of the bonds, then the debt evidenced 
by the bonds is to be counted in ascertaining 
M^hether the constitutional debt limit is be- 
ing exceeded. (Kentucky Court of Appeals, 
Castle vs. City of Louisa, 219 Southw^estern 
Reporter, 439.) 

Municipality Not Liable for Flooding 
from Sewer Where Owner Could 
Have Prevented Damage — Court 
May Require Sewer to Be Prop- 
erly Constructed 
Applying the general rule that one may 
not recover damages for an injury caused 
by the negligence of another when such in- 
jury readily could have been avoided by the 
use of ordinary care on the part of the in- 
jured person, the New York Supreme Court 
holds in the case of William P. Greiner 
Building Corporation vs. Town of Cheek- 
towaga, 181 New York Supplement, 759, 
that a municipality is not liable for damage 
resulting from backing up of a sewer and 
flooding of cellars where the damage easily 
could have been prevented by the property 
owners or occupants by using caps on 
drains on their premises, although the town 
may have been negligent in respect to main- 
tenance of the sewer in its particular con- 
dition. 

The Court also holds that a municipality 
is not liable for mere errors of judgment in 
making such public improvements as streets, 
sewers, etc., but that this rule could not 
operate to relieve defendant town from lia- 
bility for negligence in permitting surface 
waters to enter and overtax a sewer which 
was adequate only for the purpose of caring 
for house drainage. It was further decided 
that where a town constructed a house drain- 
age sewer so that at flood times surface 
waters entered it, overtaxed it, and flooded 
cellars of property drained, the owner of 



such property is entitled to mandatory in- 
junction requiring the town to cover or 
reconstruct manholes sufl5ciently to exclude 
surface waters, although owner is not en- 
titled to damages on account of his own 
failure to cap drains in cellars and thus 
prevent flooding. 

Ordinance Requiring Consent of Ad- 
joining Landowner Before Issu- 
ance of Permit to Erect Public 
Garage, Held Invalid 

An ordinance of the city of Wilmington, 
Del., declaring that no permit shall be 
granted by the building inspector for the 
erection of a public garage in the residen- 
tial portion of the city within 40 feet of 
adjoining land without the consent of the 
owners of such land, is invalid. 

In reaching the above-stated conclusion, 
the Chancellor of the Court of Chancery of 
Delaware recently said in the case of Myers 
vs. Fortunato, 188 Atlantic Reporter, 678: 

"It seems to me clear that private persons 
to whom as owners of land is given the 
power to control the use by the owners of 
adjoining land of their property are pre- 
sumably governed by self-interest, and are 
more apt than an official to be arbitrary 
and unjust when their own interests are 
affected. Obviously, then, decisions which 
uphold the validity of an ordinance giving 
to a single official arbitrary power to make 
effective an ordinance do not apply to legis- 
lation which gives such power to private 
persons when control is thereby given them 
over the use of land or other private per- 
sons." 

Construction of Missouri Constitution 
as to One Person's Holding More 
Than One Office 

The clause of the Missouri constitution 
providing that in cities or counties with 
more than 200,000 inhabitants no person at 
the same time shall be state officer and of- 
ficer of any county, city, or other municipal- 
ity, and that no person shall fill two offices 
either in same or different municipalities, 
applies as a whole only in counties and 
cities having more than 200,000 inhabitants ; 
so that the marshal of a city of the fourth 
class could also and at the same time hold 
the oflSce of constable of the township in t: 
which the city was situated. (Missouri S' 
Supreme Court, Nickelson vs. City of' 
Hardin, S2i Southwestern Reporter, 358.) 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




MANUFACTURERS 

or 

Asphalt Heaters 
Asphalt Tampers 
Asphalt Smoothers 
Fire Wagons 
Gravel Diiers 
Mastic Heaters 
Patrol Heaters 
Pouring Pots 
Road Repair Outfits 
Tool Heaters 
Tar Kettles 

also 

Tanks and special 
plate steel work to 
order. 



liCOK! 



Do You Need a Tar Heater? 
For What Kind of Service ? 

What Kettle Capacity? 

Order Now— Avoid Delays 

You Can't Go Wron^ on 
LITTLEFORD 

Tar and Asphalt Heaters 

What did winter do to your streets and roads? Now 
is the time to prepare for spring operations and for the 
early repair of the damage by freezing. 

You may need additional heaters. Study your re- 
quirements and place your orders as early as possible 
so as to insure prompt delivery. 

We will be pleased to send you complete information 
on request. Write now — a post card will do. 




500 E. PEARL ST. 
CINCINNATI, OHIO 




87 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The American City. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



209 



Ordinance for Licensing Lodging- 
Houses Held Valid 

An ordinance forbidding the operation of 
lodging-houses wherein sleeping quarters 
for three or more persons are provided with- 
out payment of a license tax or securing a 
permit, is not invalid as being unreasonable 
and discriminatory. (Missouri Supreme 
Court, City of St. Louis vs. Murta, 22 
Southwestej-n Reporter, 430.) 

Wooden Building Erected Within Fire 
Limits in Violation of Ordinance 
,May Be Ordered Demolished 

Where a wooden building was erected 
within the fire limits of a city, in violation 
of an existing ordinance, it could be ordered 
demolished by the municipal authorities on 
refusal of the owner to raze it, although 
the ordinance under which the building is 
so condemned was adopted after the struc- 
ture was erected, holds the California Dis- 
trict Court of Appeal in the San Francisco 
case of Maguire vs. Reardon, 183 Pacific 
Reporter, 303. 

It is further decided that the fact that 
the Board of Public Works of the city may 
have issued a permit for construction of 
the building could not preclude the city 
from enforcing condemnation of the build- 
ing. And it is held that even if the ordi- 
nance providing for demolit'on of buildings 
maintained in violation of the fire ordinance 
should be unconstitutional, a court would 
not lend its equity power to perpetuate the 
nu'sance constituted by erecting a frame 
building within the fire limits in violation 
of the fire ordinance, by enjoining enforce- 
ment of the invalid ordinance. 

Right of City to Prescribe Patented 
Material Under Competitive Bid- 
ding Contract 
"While there is some conflict of authority 
upon the question of the right of the officers 
of a municipality to prescribe a patented 
material for street paving under a statute 
or charter requiring competitive bidding, 
the great we-ght of the more recent author- 
ities is in favor of such right, where the 
owner of the patent does not himself bid 
for the contract, but makes an offer to fur- 
nish the patented material or mixture for a 
stipulated price, on equal terms to all bid- 
ders." (Tennessee Supreme Court, Burns 
vs. City of Nashville, 221 Southwestern Re- 
porter, 828.) 



Charter Provision Empowering City to 
Regulate Use of Streets and Public 
Grounds is Authority for Ordi- 
nance Requiring Permit for Pa- 
rade 

Municipal authorities who are active 
toward the adoption of measures intended 
to prevent seditious and disloyal meetings 
and demonstrations in public will be inter- 
ested in the decision of the Appellate Divi- 
sion of the New York Supreme Court in 
the case of City of Buffalo vs. Till, 182 
New York Supplement, 418. 

Defendant appealed from a judgment fin- 
ing him $50 for violation of an ordinance of 
plaintiff city containing the following pro- 
vision: 

"No person shall participate in any parade, 
gathering, assemblage or demonstration upon 
a.iy street, square, park or other place within 
the city to which the public are invited or have 
access, which parade, gathering, assemblage or 
demonstration has not been authorized by a 
written permit from the mayor." 

Grounds upon which defendant unsuc- 
cessfully sought to secure a reversal of his 
conviction included a contention that the 
Buffalo charter did not authorize the adop- 
tion of such an ordinance. But the Court 
found that such authority amply existed in 
clauses of the charter empowering the city 
to enact ordinances "to define and prevent 
disorderly conduct ; to prevent all disorderly 
assemblages;" "to regulate the use of 
streets, alleys, wharves and public grounds, 
and to declare in what manner and for 
what purpose they shall not be used ;" "and 
such other and further ordinances not in- 
consistent with the laws of the state, as 
shall be deemed expedient for the good gov- 
ernment of the city, the protection of its 
property, the preservation of peace and good 
order, etc." 

Either Consumer or Village May 
Maintain Action to Enforce Gas 
Franchise Rates 

Provision in the franchise of a gas com- 
pany that it should not charge consumers 
in a village more than $1.40 per 1,000 cubic 
feet, constituted a contract for the benefit 
of consumers, on which either the village 
or any consumer m'ght maintain action for 
enforcement. (New York Supreme Court, 
Village of Freeport vs. Nassau & Suffolk 
Lighting Company, 181 New York Supple- 
ment, 830.) 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




Write today 
for Catalog* 



Austin Rollers 
Tandem and Three- Wheeled 



Austin- Western Road Machinery has won for itself an enviable reputation not 
only in this country but in practically every country of the world where 
roads are built. 

Austin Roller performance has had a tremendous influence in moulding this 
universal conviction of 100% worth. Consequently it is in the interests of 
every road contractor to become thoroughly acquainted with this group of 
Road Equipment. 

Austin Rollers are built in Tandem motor types in four sizes and Three-Wheeled 
types — steam and motor — ^in five sizes. They have been specially designed "to 
meet modern road making conditions and will prove a positive asset to the 
road contractor who owns one. 





THE AUSTIN-WESTERN ROAD MACHINERY COMPANY 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



Richmond 
Columbua 
Philadelphia 
San Francisco 



Los Angeles 
Portland 
Louisvilla 
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Albany 
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Pittsburgh 
Memphis 



Nashville 
Atlanta 
St. Paul 
New Orleans 



Jackson 
Dallas 

Oklahoma City 
Salt Lake City 






>LMACO«> ALLIED MACHINERY COMPANY OF AMERICA <alm*coa> 



CAftLUIAkMACOA NCwVOAH 



88 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The Amekican City. 



211 



Municipal and Civic Publications 



THE ROMANCE OF OUR TREES. 

Ernest H. Wilson, Assistant Director, Arnold Ar- 
boretum, Harvard University. Doubleday, Page & 
Company, New York. 1920. XVI + 278 pp. 
Illustrated. 
A most readable and instructive volume for all who 
would know more of the history of the trees of our 
country. The opening chapters tell of the intimate 
association of trees and mankind from the earliest 
times. The book is written in non-technical language 
and in a manner which is readily understood by the 
uninitiated. The remarkable geographical distribution 
of trees influenced by the geological eras, notably the 
glacial epoch, wherein species known on one continent 
appear in local areas on another, is outlined. The re- 
lationships of the trunks of trees and their autumn 
splendors are described in interesting detail. 

The stories of trees which have meant much in his- 
tory and which are well known to the average reader 
are told in detail, particularly those of the ginkgo, the 
cedar of Lebanon, the common yew, the horse-chestnut, 
the magnolia, and the European beech. Following these 
are discussions of our nut trees, which have been urged 
so generally as sources of revenue to governmental 
units when used as shade trees along our streets. Our 
common fruit trees, as well as the Lombardy poplar 
and the willow of Babylon, are accorded chapters of 
their own. The closing chapters contrast the tall and 
stately trees and those which grow only as pigmies. 

RECREATION. 

Three pamphlets, reprinted from "The Playground": 
"Recreation as a Function of the Church," "Folk 
Dancing as Social Recreation for Adults," by Eliza- 
beth Burchenal; "What We Did on a Summer Play- 
ground in Chicago," by Genevieve Turner Holman. 
The third contains suggestions for activities on any 
small children's playground. Published by the Play- 
ground and Recreation Association of America, 1 Madi- 
son Avenue, New York City. (Apply to publishers.) 

ACCIDENT PREVENTION. 

"A Course of Study in Safety Education." By 
Harriet E. Beard, Supervising Instructor of Safety 
Education, Detroit Teachers' College. 1920. 31 pp. 
An article by the author in the department of "Forward 
Steps," in this issue of The A.merican City describes 
this course and its application in the Detroit Public 
Schools. (Apply to author.) 

MILK SUPPLY. 

"Pasteurization of Milk." Report of the Committee 
on Milk Supply of the Sanitary Engineering Section 
of the American Public Health Association. 32 pp. 
1920. The report contains up-to-date information on 
the effect of pasteurization on the composition of milk, 
the process of milk pasteurization, the analytical con- 
trol of pasteurization plants and state and municipal 
supervision of the pasteurization of milk. (Apply to 
A. W. Hedrich, Secretary of the Association, 169 Massa- 
chusetts Ave., Boston, Mass.) 

DOMESTIC SANITARY ENOINEERINO AND 
PLUMBING. 

F. W. Raynes, Longmans, Green & Company, New 
York. 1920. XIII 4- 476 pp. Tables, diagrams 
and illustrations. 
An interesting book from the English technical press 
covering the subject as stated in the title and devoting 
little space to the municipal side of sanitary engineer- 
ing. It covers the subjects of roof work, pipe fixing 
and pipe bending, pipe joints, solder, fluxes and lead 
burning, sanitary fittings and accessories, soil and waste 
pipes, drainage of houses and other buildings, disposal 
and treatment of sewage from mansions and houses in 
country districts, water-supply, appliances for raising 
water, hydrostatics and hydraulics, domestic hot-water 
supply, and low-pressure hot-water heating systems, 
and includes an appendix containing handy tables. 
Specific instances of house problems are worked out in 
the text. 



INSTRUCTION IN AMERICANIZATION. 

"Training Teachers for Americanization." A course 
of study for normal schools and teachers' institutes, by 
John J. Mahoney, State Supervisor of Americanization 
for Massachusetts, with a chapter on Industrial Classes, 
by Frances K. Wetmore, of the Public Schools of 
Chicago, and on Home and Neighborhood Classes, by 
Helen Winkler and El.«a Alsberg, of the Council of 
Jewish Women. Published as Bulletin. 1920, No. 12, 
by the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Educa- 
tion. 62 pp. (Apply to the Bureau of Education, 
Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C.) 

THE PROBLEM OF AMERICANIZATION. 

Peter Roberts, Ph.D. The Macmillan Compai-y, 

New York. 1920. vii + 246 pp. 
The author of this book has been director of the 
Americanization activity of the Y. M. C. A., and for 
fifteen years has been in intimate contact wtih immi- 
grants in every state in the Union. The purpose of the 
book is to aid men and women giving all or part time 
to Americanization work ; it submits a definite program 
and plan of operation, and outlines methods by which 
men and women may be trained for this work. 

OLD VILLAGE LIFE. 

Or "Glimpses of Village Life Through All Ages." 
By P. H. Ditchfield, F. R. Hist. S. E. P. Dutton & 
Company, New York. 1920. xii. + 253 pp. Illus- 
trated. 
This volume traces the development of village life 

in England from prehistoric times down to the present. 

There is a wealth of quaint antiquarian information and 

numerous interesting illustrations. 

FLYING GXHDE AND LOG BOOK. 

Bruce Eltynge, Hon. Lt., Royal Air Force-Pilot, 
Capt. Aerial Police Reserve, N. Y. C, Member 
Aero Club of America. Foreword by H. M. 
Hickam, Maj. Air Service. John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc.. New York. 1921. 150 pp. 
A useiful hand-book for the amateur or commercial 
flyer. It gives practical general suggestions, sugges- 
tions for laying out landing fields, lists of landing 
fields in the United States, with details of routes for 
cross-country flying, and several pages of hints on 
"trouble shooting" for aeroplane engines. A number 
of pages have been prepared to be used as a "log" of 
flights. 

FIELD WORK AND SOCIAL RESEARCH. 

F. Stuart Chapin, Ph.D., Professor of Economics 
and Sociology, Smith College. The Century Com- 
pany, New York. 1920. xi -f 224 pp. Charts 
and diagrams. 
This book gathers together the well-tested methods 
and techniques of social investigation and presents them 
in an accurate and practical form. The material is so 
arranged that the reader can readily find the detail of 
technique in which he is especially interested. Actual 
field work investigations of many different kinds are 
described in detail, and the theoretic principles under- 
lying procedure are so stated that the practice may be 
examined in the light of well-established methods. 

NEW YORK CITY. 

"The Metropolis," Alexander Otis, Editor. Pub- 
lished by the Metropolis Publishing Company, Inc., 
318-326 West 39th Street, New York. Vol. I., No. 1. 
January 1, 1921. Published semi-monthly. A magazine 
devoted to the interests of the city of New York. 

CITY PROBLEMS. 

"City Problems": the Proceedings of the Eleventh 
Annual Meeting of the Conference of Mayors and other 
City Officials of New York State. 146 pp. 1920. (Apply 
to William P. Capes, Secretary of the Conference, 
Albany, N. Y.) 

LABOR. 

"American Minimum Wage Laws at Work," by 
Dorothy W. Douglass. 41 pp 1920. A detailed de- 
scription of the operation of minimum wage laws in 
the various states. (Apply to The National Con- 
sumers' League, 44 East 23rd Street, New York, N. Y.) 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




IROQUOIS 



PORTABLE ASPHALT 
MIXING PLANTS 



<i 



You can^t fool the man who runs one 



}y 



HE knows that his Iroquois mixing plant is made of tested material of 
the highest grade and that the chances for breakdown are reduced 
to a minimum. That's why most of our orders come from previous pur- 
chasers or on their recommendation. 

These mixing plants, like other Iroquois equipment, are the product 
of 40 years' experience in asphalt street and road building, and 25 years' 
experience in the designing of equipment for that purpose. 

Iroquois mixing plants turn out more work at less operating cost. 
They furnish 800 and 1250 square yards of 2" street asphalt topping a 
day. 

Iroquois Portable Asphalt Mixing Plants are made in two types, 
with and without the power unit on the same frame as the mixer. The 
especial advantages of each type are described in our Bulletin No. 2A. 
Write for it at once. 



The Barber Asphalt Paving Company 

Iroquois Sales Department 
PHILADELPHIA 



When writing to Advertisera please mention Tbb Amxrican City. 



February, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



213 



CITY PLANNING. 

"Municipal Accomplishment in City Planning and 
Published City Plan Reports in the United States." 
Edited by Theodora Kimball, Librarian, School of 
Landscape Architecture, Harvard University, from in- 
formation assembled largely by the Detroit City Plan 
Commission. Published under the auspices of the Na- 



tional Conference on City Planning. 79 pp. 1920. 
This bulletin was prepared from questionnaires sent to 
about one hundred cities where planning work in the 
last twenty years has been represented in published 
reports. It shows in a striking fashion the character 
and intensity of municipal activity in city planning at 
the present time. (Apply to the National Conference 
on City Planning, 60 State St., Boston, Mass.) 



The publications listed above are for sale by their publishers. Those listed below are under- 
stood to be free upon application. 



MILE SUPPLY. 

"Standard Methods for the Bacteriological Exam- 
ination of Milk." Third edition. 24 pp. 1921. Pub- 
lished by the American Public Health Association. 
(Apply to the American Public Health Association, 169 
Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Mass.) 
MALABIA. 

"A Study of the Malarial Mosquitos of Southern 
Hlinois. I. Operations of 1918 and 1919." By Stew- 
art C. Chandler. Maps and illustrations. 1920. 
Issued as Article XI. of Vol. XIII., by the Illinois 
State Department of Registration and Education, Di- 
vision of Natural History Survey, Urb?na, 111. (Apply 
to Stephen A. Forbes. Chief.) 
CORLFORT AND SHELTER STATIONS. 

"Common Sense and a Public Need." An argument 
for the installation of comfort stations in Newark, 
N. J. By Arthur J. Smart. 8 pp. Illustrated. (Ap- 
ply to author, 48 Hartford Street, Newark, N. J.) 
REGINA, SASKATCHEWAN. 

An illustrated booklet descriptive of Regina and its 
vicinity. Issued with the compliments of the Mayor and 
Aldermen of the City of Regina and of the Members of 
the Board of Trade. (Apply to Board of Trade, Regina, 
Saskatchewan.) 
RECREATION. 

Publications of the Playground and Recreation Asso- 
ciation of America. A bibliography. 18 pp. (Apply 
to the Playground and Recreation Association of 
America. 1 Madison Avenue, New York City, N. T.) 
HEALTH. 

"The Economics of Health." by Ira S. Wile, M. D. 
Reprinted from "American Medicine," New Series, Vol. 
XV., Nos. 9. 10, 11, 1920. 23 pp. A detailed consid- 
eration of the relation of income to health. (Apply to 
Ira S. Wile. M. D., 264 West 73d St., New York City.) 
LEGISLATION. 

Revised draft of a proposed article of the new con- 
stitution for Illinois, to be entitled "City of Chicago," 
to be submitted to the Constitutional Convention. Re- 
port of the Special Council Committee on Constitutional 
Proposals. 7 pp. 1920. (Apply to James T. Igoe, 
City Clerk, Chicago. 111.) 
RErOSE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL. 

"A Report and Survey with Recommendations Upon 
the Municipal Refuse Collection and Disposal of the 
City of Bridgeton, N. J.," by William F. Morse, Con- 
sulting Sanitary Engineer. 15 pp. 1920. (Apply to 
William F. Morse, Hippodrome Building, Cleveland, 
Ohio.) 
FORESTRY. 

A State Forest Policy Adopted by the Oregon State 
Board of Forestry, December 4, 1920. 27 pp. In- 
cludes recommendations for federal policy, state policy, 
and for federal and state cooperation. (Apply to F. A. 
Elliott, State Forester, Salem, Oregon.) 
CITY PLANNING. 

The Decatur Plan, made for the City Plan Commis- 
sion of Decatur, 111., by Myran Howard West, of the 
American Park Builders, Chicago. Published by the 
Decatur Association of Commerce. 171 pp. Illus- 



trated. 1920. (Apply to W. F. Hardy, Chairman of 

the Commission.) 

PIPING. . ,, „ 

"The Case Against the Standard Soil Pipe. By 

A. E. Hansen, Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineer. Pre- 
pared for and at the request of the Committee on Re- 
search of the American Society of Sanitary Engineering. 
29 pp. 1921. The pamphlet is in the nature of a 
symposium citing the opinions of competent authorities 
against the standard soil pipe. (Apply to A. E. Smith. 
Secretary, American Society of Sanitary Engineering, 
State Department of Health, Columbus, Ohio.) 

BUILDING. 

The Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the 
Building Officials' Conference. 71 pp. 1920. Report 
of the Conference, and detailed discussion of building 
materials. (Apply to Sidney J. Williams, Secretary', 
Madison, Wis.) 

TUBERCULOSIS. 

Framingham Monograph No. 8, General Series III. 
Health Letters. Published by the Framingham Com- 
munity Health and Tuberculosis Demonstration of the 
national Tuberculosis Association. 84 pp. 1920. 
(Apply to Donald B. Armstrong, M.D., Executive 
Officer, Community Health Station, Framingham, Mass.) 

HOUSING. 

Seventh (and latest) Annual Report of the Home- 
stead Commission of the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts. Published as Public Document No. 103.- 23 
pp. 1920. Account of the activities of the Commis- 
sion, whose work has now been taken over by the new 
Department of Public Welfare. (Apply to Richard 
K. Conant, Commissioner, Department of Public Wel- 
fare, Room 37, State House, Boston, Mass.) 
GRADE-CROSSING ELIMINATION. 

"The Elimination of Grade Crossings," by Charles 
H. Huff. A series of six articles reprinted from The St. 
Louis Star. 30 pp. 1920. Mr. Huff was sent by the 
Star to various large cities to study grade-crossing 
elimination, with a view to informing the St. Louis 
public, as that city was considering plans for getting 
rid of its grade crossings. 
TAXATION. 

Annual Report of the [New York] State Tax Com- 
mission for 1919. Published ly the State of New 
York as Legislative Document No. 118. 514 pp. 1920. 
Contains a detailed account of taxation in New York 
State, with briefer statements of the tax systems pre- 
Tailing in the other states. (Apply to Walter H. 
Knapp, President, State Ta.x Commission, Albany, 
N. Y.) 
CIVIL SERVICE 

"Report on a Proposed Classification of Titles and 
Positions in the Civil Service of the City of Rochester. 
N. Y." Published by the Rochester Bureau of 
Municipal Research, Inc., December, 1920. 173 pp. 
Contains a detailed report of survey of civil service 
positions in the city, together with recommendations 
for reclassification and standardization. (Apply to the 
publishers.) 



Municipal Reports 



Boston, Mass. — Sixth annual Report of the City Plan- 
ning Board for the year ending January 31, 1920. 
(Apply to Elizabeth M. Herlihy, Secretary.) 

Bradford, Pa. — First Annual Message to the Council, 
by Spencer M. DeGolier, Mayor. 1920. (Apply to 
Hon. Spencer M. DeGolier, Bradford. Pa.) 

Chicago, IlL — Forty-Fourth Annual Report of the De- 
partment of Public Works for the year ending December 
31. 1919. (Apply to Charles R. Francis, Commissioner 
of Public Works.) 

Chicago, IlL — Report of the Chicago Zoological Gar- 
dens Committee, Forest Preserve District of Cook 



County. August 9, 1920. (Apply to Prank J. Wilson, 
Chairman. 547 County Building, Chicago. -111.) 

Hartford, Conn. — Thirteenth Annual Report of the 
Department of Engineering to the Court of Common 
Council. For the year ending March 31, 1920. (Apply 
to Roscoe N. Clark, City Engineer.) 

Jackson, Miss. — Quarterly Financial Statement, July 
1, 1920, to September 30, 1920, and annual report of 
the City Auditor for the fiscal year ending September 
30. 1920. (Apply to A. W. Tobias. City Auditor.) 

Scarsdale, N. Y. — Report of Special Water Com- 
mittee. (Apply to Richard R. Hunter, Chairman.) 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Water Supply and Water Power 
Engineering 

RELIABLE ESTIMATES OF COST 



Recommendations as to the best 
means of carrying out Public 
Works to insure a maxi- 
mum benefit from the 
investment. 



PREPARATION OF PLANS 
SUPERVISION OF CONSTRUCTION 



James P. Wells 

HYDRAULIC ENGINEER 

Main Office 

249 Cutler Building. Rochester, N. Y. 

NEW YORK CITY CHICAGO, ILL. 

KNOXVILLE, TENN. TORONTO. ONT. 

90 When writing to Advertiser! please mention Tbk Ambbicam City. 



215 



Methods, Materials and Appliances 

News for Boards of Public Works, Engineers, Contractors, Purchasing Agents, 

and Others Interested in the Economical Construction and EflBcient Operation 

of Public Improvement Undertakings 



A New Practical Road Planer 

A new practical machine for highway main- 
tenance has been invented by Richard A. Jones, 
for many years Street Commissioner of Wal- 
tham, Mass., as a result of his experience and 
knowledge of the conditions and requirements 
of modern road construction and maintenance. 
The Kinney Manufacturing Company, 3529 
Washington Street, Boston, Mass., has acquired 
full rights for the manufacture and sale of 
this equipment, which is to be known as the 
Kinney Road JPlaner, Jones' Patent. 

The road planer is especially designed for 
use on bituminous roads and highways. It is 
adapted for planing or leveling the waves or 
ridgy elevations which frequently appear on 
the road surface. The machine is a combina- 
tion drag, planer and scarifier. It is constructed 
entirely of metal and weighs about 3^ tons. 
It may be drawn by a steam roller or tractor, 
and the machine is mounted on steel runners. 
The runners are equipped with removable cast 
iron shoes, which are of ample length to cover 
or cross the road waves without following the 
contour of the surface. Upon the runners is 
mounted an oscillating iron plate, holding the 
planer knives and scarifying chisels or picks, 
all adapted for adjustment by hand-operating 
screws to meet the varying conditions of the 
road surface, or according to the kind of bitu- 



minous material of which the road is con- 
structed. The entire equipment may be raised 
or lowered at will or adjusted for planing as 
required. For moving the machine to a dis- 
tance or from one job to another, steel wheels 
are provided, equipped with lifting screws, by 
means of which the entire machine may be 
raised and balanced upon the wheels for trans- 
portation. When in actual service, the machine 
is lowered and moved upon the runners. It 
has a double equipment of picks or planer 
knives, and may be drawn backwards or for- 
wards without being turned upon the runners. 
By the use of this machine the bunches or 
ridgy elevations can be removed from the road 
surface without destroying the general contour 
of the road. The facilities for adjustment of 
the scarifiers and planers in any desired angu- 
larity or depth of cut enable the operator to 
meet the different conditions arising from 
changing temperatures or varying viscosities 
of the material used in the construction of 
the road. In operation the scarified ridges of 
the road are smoothed and leveled by the 
planer knives, and after proper sealing and 
rolling of the leveled portions, the road may 
be opened to traffic. If conditions require, the 
entire surface may be treated with a new seal- 
coat application of bituminous material, with 
the necessary covering. While designed es- 
pecially for use on bituminous surfaces, the 




A NEW MACHINE THAT PLANES THE EGAD AS IT SCABIFIES 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Concrete Garacr 
Buflt ^Mith House 




THERE are a number of reasons for making 
a garage part of the dwelling: conven- 
ience, saving in' construction, in lighting 
and heating, etc. 

We recently secured a number of interesting 
photographs and sketches showing a variety of 
ways in which a garage has been attached to 
dwellings, new and old. These suggestions ap- 
pear on one of our latest Service Sheets bear- 
ing the above title. 

In addition, we have other Service Sheets or 
Special Bulletins giving practical hints on the 
following concrete construction: 

Workingmen's Homes Corn Crib 
Walkways and Driveways Storage House 



Concrete Roads 


Smoke House 


Bridges and Culverts 


Hog House 


Foundation and Hatch- 


Poultry House 


way 


Dipping Vat • 


Gutter and Curb 


Tanks and Troughs 


Storage Cellar 


Piers for Small Boats 


Small Warehouses 


Garden Furniture 


Spring House 


Greenhouse t 


Small Dam 


Coal Pocket 


Milk House 


Posts and Walls 


Ice House 


Walls, Sills and Lintels 


Manure Pit [ | 


Garages and Runways 


Septic Tank 


Overcoating of Old Dwell- 


Oil Storage Tank 


ings 


Tennis Court 


Barn and Silo 


Inclosure Walls 


Cold-weather Concreting 



Ask for the Sheet or Bulletin that interests you 
most, also for a copy of the Alpha 96-page 
Handbook on concrete construction if you 
don't already own a copy. This Handbook is 
not forwarded unless specifically asked for. All 
sent free of cost or obligation if you live east of 
the Mississippi. We are obliged to ask in- 
quirers out of our sales territory to send fifty 
cents to cover the printing and mailing expense. 
Mention The American City. 

ALPHA PORTLAND CEMENT CO. 

Offices: EASTON, PA., CHICAGO, ILL. 

Branch Offices: 

New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Bellevue, Mich. 

Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Savannah, Ironton, Ohio 



When writing to Advertisers please mention The American City. 



Feh.. 192 1 



METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLIANCES 



217 



planer may also be used to good advantage 
on macadamized or dirt roads. 

In the New Hampshire State Highway De- 
partment, where this machine has been thor- 
oughly tested under severe conditions, it has 
been shown that by the use of one machine 
during the past season a saving of many thou- 
sands of dollars has been effected as compared 
with the expenditures involved in the usual 
method of reconstruction and renewal. One 
of tliese machines will be on exhibition at the 
Road Convention to be held in Chicago, 
F"ebruary 9 to 12, 1921. 

A New Development in 
Snow Removal 

A gang of Fifty or sixty men for removing 
snow from the streets of Chicago was replaced 
by four men and a new snow loader manufac- 



trucks, the loader filled the trucks to over- 
flowing very quickly. The machine is mounted 
on crawlers to gain the best traction. It is 
powered by a Buda 4-cylinder, truck-type gaso- 
line engine. A 2-armed apron scoops up the 
snow and turns it onto a wide cleated belt, 
which carries it up to discharge into waiting 
motor trucks. This apron plow is adjustable; 
it is possible to scrape the surface clean or leave 
enough space to pass over any obstruction. 
Adjustment is made by the operator from his 
platform on the loader. Skirt boards 12 inches 
deep keep the largest lumps on the belt and give 
it an effective carrying width of 36 inches. The 
belt is positive drive, being fitted with roller 
chain on each edge. 

Chicago city officials put the loader to work 
the day after Christmas to remove the snow on 
Michigan Boulevard. A f ter working the down- 




A NEW TYPE OF SNOW-HANDLING MACHINE USED THIS WINTER IN CHICAGO. ILL. 



tured by Barber-Greene Company, Aurora, 111., 
in its initial test late in December, 1920. Be- 
sides successfully replacing so many men, the 
machine was able to load so quickly that a 
great reduction was possible in the number of 
trucks required. Four trucks only, each being 
loaded in an average of five- minutes, were 
needed where twelve were required before, 
when most of their time was spent in waiting 
during loading. 

Xo change " had to be made in the usual 
scheme followed in removing snow by hand. 
Plows attached to trucks pushed the snow into 
long windrows in the gutters. In place of 
swarming gangs of men shoveling into high 



town length of the Boulevard, the machine 
worked across into the loop district. It ran 
for 30 hours without a pause, being operated 
by 3 shifts of 8 hours each. A minor repair 
was made, and the machine continued. One of 
the things that recommend it most highly to 
the officials in charge was the fact that it would 
work just as hard and tirelessly between mid- 
night and morning as at any other time. This 
is the time when men are least efficient, if they 
will work at all. 

This is one of the first machines of this type 
to be put on the market, and it is covered fully 
by patents. Mr. Barber developed the idea late 
in the summer of 1920. It had its first tryouts 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




Better Homes — Better Cities 



MORE homes and better homes mean 
greater civic welfare and progress. 
Well-built, permanent dwellings of fire- 
resistive type, contrary to popular belief, 
are decidedly economical. 

While a Hollow Tile house may cost slight- 
ly more to erect than frame, costs for de- 
preciation, maintenance, and insurance 
during the years that follow have proved 
to be about 66% less. 

, The large size units in Hollow Tile can be 
laid very easily and rapidly, saving in labor 
and material costs. The burned clay is 
enduring; it does not decay; 
and it successfully resists 
fire. Depreciation and up- 
keep charges are vastly 
reduced". 



MASlERpLE 

THE TRADEMARK OF THE HOLLOW BUIL0IN3 TILE 
ASSOCIATION AND YOUR GUARANTEE OF A PRODUCT 
MADE IN ACCO-JMNCE WITH ASSOCIATION STANDARDS 



The air cells, sealed up in the finished 
Hollow Tile wall, provide exceptionally 
effective insulation against damp- 
ness, heat and cold. They establish 
uniform conditions that protect health 
and afford comfort, regardless of the 
weather. 

The value of these advantages of Hollow 
Tile construction is undeniable, and the use 
of this material should be encouraged in 
every way. 

City officials and others interested in 
building regulation work can secure copies, 
to use as guides, of a 
"Standard Building Code" 
drawn up in accordance 
with best engineering prac- 
tices. Address Dept. 242. 



THE HOLLOW BUILDING TILE ASSOCIATION 

REPRESENTING AMERICA'S LEADING MANUFACTURERS 

CONWAY BUILDING, CHICAGO 

^2 When writing to Advertisers please mention The Amekican City. 



Feb. 1921 



METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLIANCES 



219 



in coal and ashes. Chicago expects to use the 
machine for ash and gravel loading during the 
summer. 

Wallace and Tiernan Move 

Owing to the steadily increasing growth and 
rapidly enlarging scope of the business of Wal- 
lace and Tiernan Company, Inc., formerly lo- 
cated at 349 Broadway, New York City, this 
company on January 15 moved to its new 
plant, Newark, N. J., where under one roof 
all the activities of its business will be con- 
ducted, including engineering, design, manu- 
facture, assembling, testing and shipping, and 
all laboratory work, as well as the sales and 
executive supervision. 

Wallace and Tiernan are manufacturers of 
chlorine control apparatus for the sterilization 
of water, sewage, tannery and other trade 
wastes, for the purification of swimming pools, 
for making bleaching solutions from liquid 
chlorine, largely used in bleaching paper and 
in the textile industry, and have developed a 
machine for deodorizing organic fumes in the 
waste-stacks of refining plants. 

A Portable Device for 
Thawing Hydrants 

After considerable study and experiment, the 
Ross hydrant thawing device has been devel- 
oped and is now placed on the market by the 
American-LaFrance Fire Engine Company, of 
Elmira, N. Y, This thawing device is simple 
in construction, compact in design, and effective 
in operation. 

The machine was invented by Louis S. Ross, 
Newton, Mass., who has long been an expert 
on steam engineering. The thawing device 
consists of a steam coil surrounded by a jacket 
tank, which is filled with water for pumping 
into the steam coil. By means of a hand- 
operated pump, water can be forced from the 
tank into the coils, and by regulating this feed 
either "wet" or "superheated" steam can be 
secured at the nozzle. Water is fed continu- 
ously into the coil, being converted into steam 
exactly as is the case when a drop of water 
falls on a red-hot stove. 

The heat is produced from a standard 
Presto-lite style "B" tank carried with the out- 
fit. Although it is impossible for this boiler 
to explode in ordinary operation, a safety 
valve is provided against any unforeseen con- 
dition. The steam is led through 15 feet of 
flexible metallic hose with a braided steel 
jacket covered for over half its length with 
asbestos, which in turn is protected by a con- 
vas cover, and the whole wrapping bound with 
^vire. The entire thawing device can be car- 
ried easily by two men, for it weighs only 135 
pounds completely charged ready for service. 
It measures only 28 inches across the base, 12 
inches wide, and 25 inches high. 

The features of portability, the fact that the 
boiler is not dependent upon an outside source 
of heat, and the rapidity with which the de- 
vice produces steam, make this thawing device 
of general value and unusual practicability 




A COMPACT, 



PORTABLE HYDRANT-THAWING 
MACHINE 



wherever a hydrant thawing device can be 
used, and of particular benefit to fire depart- 
ments. 

Engineering Firm Reorganizes 

The business of Miller, Holbrook, Warren & 
Co., Milliken Building, Decatur, 111., has been 
purchased by the new firm of Holbrook, War- 
ren & Andrews. Under the former name the 
firm has built up a substantial professional busi- 
ness in the structural and municipal field. The 
three members of the firm have been active in 
rnunicipal and governmental work for some 
time. Frank D. Holbrook was engaged for a 
period of about 15 years on Ohio River im- 
provements for the United States Government. 
Willis D. P. Warren has been engaged in 
various classes of engineering work in Illinois 
for 17 years and has put in the greater part of 
his time on municipal projects. Captain Clar- 
ence R. Andrew was formerly with the Govern- 
ment on Ohio River improvements and served 
in France in the Engineer Corps. 

Novel Pumping Engine for 
Fire Service 

Practically all motor fire pumping apparatus 
in service to-day uses the same engine to oper- 
ate the pump and to drive the machine. The 
city of Pueblo, Colo., has recently purchased 
the motor pumper illustrated below, consisting 
of a standard motor truck on which is mounted 
a 75-horse-power, four-cylinder Duesenberg 
motor driving a Lea-Courtenay centrifugal 
pump. At a recent fire test, water was taken 
under pressure of 20 pounds and for the first six 
hours was delivered at 120 pounds pressure to 
three standard 2H-inch lines, at approximately 
750 gallons per minute. The machine as built 
makes provision for four streams, or ap- 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



ID 



3<;:.>,>:^^ 



•^Xi--^\ -^.'mx 




Equal to the Demands 
of City Traffic 

Few pavements can withstand the constant abrasion 
of horses' feet and the damaging pounding of motor 
truck tires and chains like Bitoslag does. It is a 
pavement that 

Wears Like Iron 

and lasts many years. It is simple in construction and 
is equally durable and effective on country highways 
or city streets. Extremes of temperature have no 
effect on Bitoslag roads. Let us know ycur needs and 
we will be glad to consult with you at once to your 
advantage. 

Correspondence Invited 



BITOSLAG PAVING G 

gOWes-t Sirree-t - New York Ci^y 



98 



31 

When writing to Advertisers please mention The American City. 



Feb. 1921 METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLIANCES 



221 




A KEW TYPE OF FIRE PUMPING UNIT WITH SEPABATE ENGINES FOE CHASSIS AND PUMP 



proximately 1,000 gallons delivery per minute. 
The pump, which is a 4-inch, single-stage cen- 
trifugal, normally delivers 500 gallons per 
minute, but readily handles 750 gallons per 
minute at 100 pounds pressure. This unit was 
run for 38 hours and 10 minutes, excepting two 
periods of 40 minutes each caused by moving 
the unit from one source of water to another, 
and after this unusual test both the pump and 
the motor were apparently in as good shape as 
when first put into service. The Fire Chief 
stated after the conflagration that Bessemer, a 
suburb of Pueblo, was saved from destruction 
by fire through the use of this single unit. 



Goal Storage Systems 

In the coal storage system involving the use 
of a cable drag-scraper, manufactured by the 
R. H. Beaumont Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
the coal is received at the plant in railroad 
cars and discharged into the hopper below the 
tracks. A chain-and-bucket elevator picks up 
the coal and delivers it down a chute to form 
an initial pile 10 feet high adjacent to the rail- 
road track. If the coal is for stoker use, then 
a crusher is placed in the pit, where it can 
also be used for crushing frozen slag coal 
when reclaiming it in winter. A machinery 




ftsAWMOfiT 1589 
JSOMETBIC SKETCH OF CQAL-HANDUNG SCHEME 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



THE OTTERSOIV AUTO = EDUCTOR 

CUBANS CATCH BASIINS 

Saves Time — Money — L,abor 




Mounted on any 5-TON Chassis of suitable standard make. 

THE OTTERSON AUTO-EDUCTOR CO. SPRINGFIELD, OHIO 




Eureka Snow Plow 



Horte Drawn 



Tractor Driven 



Will mount curbs with ease and remove 
24 inches of snow in one trip. The 
wings are adjustable to any width and 
either wing may be detached. One 
user writes regarding use with tractors, 
"The plow is so simple and the method 
of attaching so easy that these facts 
coupled with the reasonable price 
should make a strong appeal to all 
tractor owners interested in snow re- 
moval." 

THE W. M. TOY COMPANY 

Sidney Ohio 




No matter WHAT drinking 
fountain you may put 

INDOORS 
^ This 

The MURDOCK 

PATENTED 

^ANTI- FREEZING-^ 
BUBBLE-FONT 

IS THE ONLY ONE THAT IS SAFE 
TO INSTAL OUTDOORS BECAUSE 

it is the only drinking fountain 
made that was designed and is 
built solely for outdoor use. It 
does not have to be turned off 
at the approach of cold weather. 

THE ONLY FOUNTAIN MADE 
THAT IS STRONG ENOUGH 
TO WITHSTAND PUBLIC 
ABUSE. 

Write for fully illustrated literature to 

The MURDOCK MFQ. & SUPPLY CO. 

FIRE HYDRANTS 
YARD HYDRANTS 
HOSE BOXES 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 

Bnildert of Water Service devicea aince 1853 



9i 



When writing to Advertisers please mention Th^ Ampbicaji Cxtt. 



Feb. 1 92 1 



METHODS, MATERIALS AND APPLIANCES 



223 



house contains the driving drums for the 
cable extending over the storage yard and 
having a scraper attached to it. The scraper 
is dragged back and forth over the coal, and 
is quickly detachable so that it can be turned 
around to reclaim the coal. Around the yard 
are steel posts. To store coal at any portion 
of the storage yard the tail blocks, are changed 
from one post to another. 

When reclaiming, the coal is scraped back 
to the reclaiming hopper and delivered to the 
bucket elevator, which will discharge the coal 
either to railroad cars or to conveyors supply- 
ing the boiler house. In the first drag-scraper 
installation, the machinery house and drums 
were located above the railroad tracks, but on 
all later systems the house and drums have 
been located on the ground, to get longer rope 
leads to the drum. 



supervision of R. J. Sherrill, Commissioner of 
Public Works, by Kelly & Wilson, contractors, 
Asheville, N. C. The accompanying illustra- 
tion gives an idea of the nature of the terrain 
through which the line runs, and shows a gang 
preparing to drop a length of pipe into the 
ditch. 

Eibell Leaves Mathieson 

F. B. Eibell, formerly Advertising Manager 
of the Mathieson Alkali Works, 25 West 43d 
Street, New York City, has resigned to take 
up the duties of Secretary and to become a 
member of the Board of Directors of the Tech- 
nical Advertising Service, Inc., 214 West 34th 
Street, New York City. 

Pitometer Company Moves 

On February i, 1921, the Pitometer Com- 




LATING CAST lEON WATER-MAIN THROUGH ROUGH COUNTRY FOR NEW WATER-SUPPLY 

OF ASHEVILLE, N. C. 



Over Nine Miles of C. I. Pipe 
for One Job 

In the construction of the new pipe line to 
double the water-supply of Asheville, N. C, 
51,300 feet, or 9.71 miles, of 16-inch cast iron 
pipe were installed. The total length of pipe, 
weighing 3,264 tons, was furnished by the U. S. 
Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry Co., Burlington, 
N. J. 

The laying of the 16-inch pipe meant the sur- 
mounting of a great many obstacles, in that the 
pipe was necessarily hauled in wagons through 
a very rough and mountainous territory to the 
point nearest to the pipe line. From there the 
lengths of pipe were "snaked" to the. trench 
to play their part in furnishing the additional 
3,500,000 gallons of water daily to Asheville. 
The work has been done under the personal 



pany moved its offices to the Hudson Terminal 
Building, 50 Church Street, New York City, 
where it will continue the practice of hydraulic 
engineering and specializing in water waste 
surveys for the conservation of municipal water 
supplies. The district offices at Detroit and 
Kansas City will remain as formerly. 

Bianchard Retained by 
Colorado Springs 

Announcement has just been made that Pro- 
fessor Arthur H. Bianchard, consulting high- 
way and transport engineer, Ann Arbor, Mich., 
has been retained by the city of Colorado 
Springs in connection with its $1,200,000 paving 
program.. Professor Bianchard, has been ac- 
tive in founding the Highway Engineering 
Scholarships at the University of Michigan. 



THE AMERICAN CITY 




Winning the Battles of Peace 



France hets almost won her great 
fight against war* s destruction. Eighty 
per cent of her wrecked and crippled 
factories again hum with activity. All 
of the 4,006 villages and towns in the 
devastated regions have again re- 
sumed municipal life; and of the 
6,445 schools in this vast area, 5,345 
have been rebuilt and opened. Farms, 
factories and homes again cover most 
of the scarred land. 

In her reconstruction, Fremce has 
shown the same unconquerable spirit 
that stopped her invaders at the 
Marne. 

And here, at home, another great 



peaceful victory is being won against 
the greatest odds. This has been the 
fight of the Bell telephone employees 
to rebuild a national service. 

Despite all of the difficulties of the 
post-war period, the organized forces 
of the Bell system have established 
new^ records in maintenance and 
construction. 

Facing, after the armistice, a public 
demand such as was never before 
known; they have yet responded 
to the nation's needs with hundreds 
of new buildings, thousands of miles 
of new wires and cables, and with the 
installation in the last year, alone, of 
over half a million new telephones. 




American Telephone and Telegraph Company 
And Associated Companies 

One Policy One System Universal Service 

And all directed toward Better Service 



tn A<lw«rt:»i- 



225 



VOLUME XXIV 



NUMBER 3 




NEW YORK 

MARCH, 

1921 



The Policing of American Cities 

By Raymond B. Fosdick 



THE constant recurrence of crimes in 
all parts of the country, and more es- 
pecially in the larger cities, has drawn 
attention sharply to problems of municipal 
policing. Whether or not there is a "crime 
wave," the outstanding fact cannot be 
avoided nor denied — life is cheap and prop- 
erty insecure, and both are far less safe in 
the United States than in other countries of 
similar advancement. Comparative tables 
of the prevalence of crime furnish ample 
evidence, not so much of a crime wave which 
might be expected eventually to abate, as of 
a condition continuing year after year, 
which up to the present shows few signs of 
betterment. 

It is logical to contrast the figures for 
the United States with those of Great 
Britain, both because of the availability of 
statistics, and because there are ordinarily 
no wide discrepancies between the figures 
for England and those for the countries of 
continental Europe. Consideration of four 
major crimes — burglary, robbery, auto- 
stealing, and homicide — furnish rather 
startb'ng comparisons. 

BURGLARY 

(Cases including housebreaking by day or night, shop- 
breaking, sacrilege, etc.) 

1916 1917 1918 

England and Wales 7,809 9,453 10,331 

Scotland 3,977 5,073 ♦ 

London 1.581 2.164 2,777 

Liverpool 1.135 1.361 1,136 

New York City • 9,4.')0 7,412 

Chicago 2,113 5,623 3.643 

Detroit 2.736 3,080 2.047 

Cleveland • 2,752 2,608 

St. Louis 3,212 2,483 2,989 

* Not available. 



The story is repeated in the burglary in- 
surance rates. Although it is impossible to 
make exact comparisons, owing to differ- 
ences of insurance methods and practices, 
the general conclusion is warranted that 
burglary rates in American municipalities 
are from fifteen to twenty times higher than 
in the principal cities of England. 

Robbery, especially highway robbery, ap- 
pears as an almost distinctively American 
crime. For instance, in 1918 New York had 
849 robberies, as against 63 in London and 
100 for all England and Wales. In each of 
the four years from 1915 to 1918 New York 
City had from four to five times more rob- 
beries than occurred in all England and 
Wales in any of the five years preceding the 
war. 

Nor is this condition in the United States 
peculiar to New York. Cities like St. 
Louis and Detroit, in their statistics of rob- 
bery and assault with intent to rob, fre- 
quently show annual totals varying from 
three to five times greater than the number 
of such crimes reported for the whole of 
Great Britain. 

Thefts of automobiles make a still more 
discreditable showing. In 191.9, 5,527 cars 
were stolen in New York, while only 290 
cases were reported in London. It is im- 
possible to make accurate deductions from 
these figures, as there are certainly more 
motor cars in New York than in London. 
But these figures confirm the others. 

Statistics for homicide, including murder 
and manslaughter, prove how much more 
cheaply human life is held in this country. 



226 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 

Eng-land and Wales... 220 226 196 180 154 

Scotland 39 57 53 29 • 

London 46 45 31 89 37 

Liverpool 8 8 8 9 5 

Glasgow 11 11 18 11 9 

New York 244 234 186 236 221 

Detroit * • 62 94 42 

Chicago 216 198 255 253 222 

Washington, D. C 26 25 24 24 27 

* Not available. 

Before the war the average number of 
murders per year in Berlin was 25, and in 
Vienna 19. 

No further proof is needed to convince 
even the most optimistic that American po- 
lice systems are not successful in combating 
crime ; and, further, that in comparison with 
European systems they are less effective 
than those of other countries. The natural 
reaction in the mind of one reading these 
discreditable figures is wholesale condemna- 
tion of the police. But before indulging in 
any such sweeping generalization, it is nec- 
essary to consider several factors that 
make the work of the American patrolman 
and detective much more difficult than that 
of his European counterpart. 

Difficulties of American Police 
Departments 

One of these factors, the importance of 
which is not easily measured, is the hetero- 
geneity of the population. Not only is there 
a large foreign element in most of our 
cities, but there is the enormous negro 
population in certain sections. The figures 
indicate clearly that colored persons and 
those of foreign origin are rather more 
given to felony than the native white ele- 
ment. For example, the figures for Chicago 
in 1918 show that the native whites were 
62.1 per cent of the population, and fur- 
nished 55.1 per cent of the felony arrests. 
The negroes, with 2 per cent of the popula- 
tion, had 13.2 per cent of the arrests for 
felony. Figures from other cities show simi- 
lar conclusions; but they demonstrate that, 
although the native white population 's 
somewhat less given to crime than either the 
foreign white or native negro element, the 
difference is by no means so great as is 
often assumed. There is in the disposition 
of Americans a curious mixture of violence 
and tenderness, which makes them quick to 
commit crimes of violence, while, at the 
same time, it causes the public to regard 
the criminal with a certain tolerance, which 
may run from an easy-going slackness about 
following up a prosecution to maudlin sym- 



pathy for a thoroughgoing scoundrel. This 
latter trait accounts for the extraordinary 
miscarriages of justice in the case of per- 
sons undoubtedly guilty of grave offenses. 

In addition to the heterogeneity of the 
population, which undoubtedly increases the 
difficulties of apprehending a criminal, it is 
probable that the nomadic character of great 
numbers of the inhabitants of this country 
both increases the quantity of crime and 
complicates the problem of its detection. 
Our large floating population, drifting from 
city to city, without strong attachment to 
any spot, is free from many of the restraints 
which affect citizens with fixed abodes; and 
the fact that its members know themselves 
to be "strangers" in a community gives 
them a sense of security impossible for a 
man with a large and varied circle of ac- 
quaintances. This, of course, greatly adds 
to the difficulties of the detective in his 
search for clues. In older countries, where 
the population is stabilized, the problem is 
far simpler. Also, in many countries, es- 
pecially those of continental Europe, every 
citizen is required to possess certain identify- 
ing papers, such as his birth certificate, 
record of military service, etc., which con- 
siderably facilitates the work of the police 
in keeping track of suspicious characters. 

While admitting that the problems which 
confront American police systems are ex- 
ceedingly difficult and complicated, it must 
also be recognized that the systems them- 
selves are far from perfect. The funda- 
mental weaknesses are the want of con- 
tinuity in police policy, and "politics." 

Weaknesses of American Police Systems 

From its beginnings the machinery of 
police control has been subjected to a shift- 
ing series of experiments, in a restless 
search for ideal systems. With this idea, 
cities have tried partisan boards, bi-partisan 
boards and non-partisan boards; they have 
lodged the appointment of their heads of 
police in the hands of governors, legish- 
tures, mayors, common councils, boards of 
public safety, attorney generals, judges of 
the circuit court, probate judges, state audi- 
tors, state commissioners of public build'ngs, 
and the people themselves ; they have labori- 
ously written into their laws elaborately de- 
vised checks and balances, covering every 
possible contingency of administration, and 
every item, of probable expense; Ihey have 
borrowed the plans of other cities which 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



227 



happened at the time to have honest police 
executives, or have combined the plans of a 
number of communities in fanciful arrange- 
ments of their own, in which, likely as not, 
an elaborately chosen board of commission- 
ers with full responsibility and no powers 
was superimposed on a chief of police with 
wide powers and no responsibility. 

In the 75 years in which New York City 
may legitimately be said to have had a regu- 
lar police force, nine fundamental changes, 
involving distinct breaks with the past, have 
occurred in the framework of her organiza- 
tion. In 91 years, London has made but 
one real change in the system of control, 
and the control of the Paris poHce remams 
practically unchanged since the days of 
Napoleon. Obviously, any system, and es- 
pecially a police system, derives a great part 
of its virtue from continuity of policy over 
considerable periods; frequent and kaleido- 
scopic changes tend inevitably to disorgan- 
ization and ineffectiveness. 

Of the unfortunate influences of "politics" 
on police organization, little need be said; 
not because the effects are negligible, but 
because they are too familiar in every city 
to require elaboration. It may be deplor- 
able, but it can scarcely be called strange, 
that the chief or commissioner vi^ho realizes 
that his tenure of office depends not upon 
his professional ability but upon political 
fortune, should spend a proportionate 
amount of his time and energy "where it 
will do the most good." This political con- 
ception — that police positions are plums for 
the local faithful — has also restricted cities 
in their choice of officials. In America it 
would be surprising for a municipality to 
select its chief of police from another com- 
munity, regardless of his qualifications. In 
other countries quite a contrary theory ob- 
tains. For example, the police commis- 
sioner of London was chosen to that posi- 
tion after twenty successful years in the 
T-iverpool department; the police commis- 
sioner of Rome previously headed the de- 



partments of Ancona and Naples. The 
relative merits of this system of selection by 
demonstrated ability without regard to resi- 
dence are in marked contrast to the gener- 
ally accepted American ideas. 

With such chaotic policies obtaining in 
the choice of the higher officers it is evident 
that the condition of the rank and file must 
leave much to be desired. Grave abuses 
have undoubtedly been corrected in many 
cities by the adoption of civil service regu- 
lations of appointment and promotion; but 
the value of a written examination as a test 
for promotion is pretty generally discred- 
ited, and often enough the examination for 
appointment is little more than a perfunc- 
tory formality. Only too frequently the net 
result of putting the force on a civil service 
basis has been simply to make it nearly im- 
possible for a conscientious chief or com- 
missioner to get rid of an undesirable and 
even rascally patrolman. 

The prevalence of crime throughout the 
country, both in the present and in the past, 
has demonstrated the fact that our police 
systems are ineffective, even though we 
recognize the extraordinary diflliculties of 
the problems of crime prevention they are 
called upon to face. The American citizen 
is paying heavily for political corruption, 
the ineptitude of officials, the lack of con- 
tinuity and plan in police policy. But the 
recollection of conditions of the not long 
distant past leaves little doubt that the turn 
has come; bad as conditions are now, they 
are vastly better than those accepted as com- 
monplace and inevitable a generation ago 
and even more recently. The awakening of 
civic consciousness in all municipal affairs 
has come rather slowly, but it has come. In 
time the American public will have a clearer 
comprehension of the exacting demands of 
the police profession, and will insist on sys- 
tems of police control which will satisfy 
those demands. 

Editorial Note. — This article is based upon the 
author's book, "American Police Problems." 



"When people begin to feel the ties which bind them together as citizens, and which 
attach them to the place which they inhabit, when they understand that their prosperity, their 
dignity, their happiness are bound up with the welfare of the city; when they learn to 
cherish their home town, their love for which unites with and intensifies their love for the 
nation, this expansion of civic consciousness is not the least of the benefactions gained from 
the adoption of comprehensive programs for future civic development" 



228 



The Sanitary Survey a Check on 
Community Health 

By William L. Munson, M. D. 

Sanitary Supervisor, New York State Department of Health 



WHAT would you think of a business 
house that never took an inventory 
or that had no accurate idea 
whether or not a profit was being made? 
An answer to this question is not necessary, 
because "such an animal does not exist." 
Concerns doing a business that involves the 
use of other people's money have to know — 
their employers demand that they know. 
Old methods in commerce, no matter how 
good they may be, must give way for better 
methods. Still, the same expert business 
men will live their lives in a community and 
never know whether that community is the 
best place to bring up their children in, or 
whether the water is fit to drink. Then 
when an epidemic of typhoid or some other 
preventable disease occurs, Mr. Good Busi- 
ness Man will want to know why — and 
heaven and earth will then be moved in 
order to check it, when just a small part of 
the expense and energy, if used before, 
would have prevented the occurrence. Why, 
then, you ask, do these things occur when 
we know how to prevent them? 

Community health is now almost reduced 
to an exact science. The "art of medicine" 
is rapidly disappearing and in its place is 
coming exact and scientific medicine. To- 
day you can buy your protection against 
disease as you do your coal or your flour. 
This is literally true with many diseases. 
If you are afraid of diphtheria because it is 
prevalent in your community, you can have 
your blood tested and know whether you 
will contract the disease if exposed. Then 
if you are found to be susceptible, you can 
be treated so that you will not have diph- 
theria. Surely this is buying health. 

The control of many other diseases be- 
side diphtheria is well understood by doc- 
tors. Why, then, with all this fund ot 
knowledge at our disposal, are we constantly 
seeing persons die of diseases that are so 
easy of control? Simply that we keep the 
fund of knowledge at our disposal and not 
in use. 

Many people will say, "We have a health 
department and it is supposed to attend to 



these things." Yes, you have a health de- 
partment, and, in many cases, without ap- 
propriations sufficiently large to run a good 
one-horse peanut-stand. It seems to be very 
slow work, but gradually people are coming 
to understand that good health departments 
and good health officers cost money, just as 
good roads and good highway departments 
do. If you want to know where you stand 
in the protection from disease that your 
city is giving its citizens, take an inventory 
of your health department, making a sani- 
tary survey of your city's activities along 
this line. Put down in black and white on 
one side of the ledger what you are doing, 
and on the other side charge up the things 
that should be done but are not. 

The sanitary survey, when completed, 
should cover all the activities in the city 
for the promotion of good health. It should 
also show where the deficiencies are and 
what should be done to remedy the com- 
plaint of shortcomings. Such a survey 
should contain: 

1. Introduction 

(a) History of work to date 

(b) Industries 

(c) Character of citizens 

(d) Assessed valuation 

(e) Taxation for all purposes 

(f) Comparison with taxation for health 

2. Statistics 

(a) Birth rate 

(b) Death rate 

(c) Infant mortality rate 

(d) Longevity rate 

(e) Morbidity rate 

(f) Death rate from preventable dis- 

eases 

3. Record keeping 

Covering register for tuberculosis, record 
cards of communicable diseases, carl 
index for nuisances, card indexes for 
inspection of milk, meat, foods and 
buildings, and files for reports, copies 
of letters, etc., all of modern and ac- 
cepted character 

4. Financial statement 

The budgets for two or three venrs 
should be given for comparison, show- 
ing where and how increase of work 
has taken place ; also, statement of 
salaries t)f those employed in the 

fippltVi rlpnnrtmpnt sTiniiM hp tnaHp 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



229 



5. Communicable diseases 

A list of those re- 
ported each year 
for five years 
should be given for 
comparison pur- 
poses. The meth- 
ods of handling 
these diseases 
should be known, 
whether contacts, 
carriers and missed 
cases are being in- 
vestigated, and the 
methods of disin- 
fection used, also 
whether epidemio- 
logical studies 
were being made 

6. Laboratory work 

Number and kinds of 
exami nations 
made, and whether 
modern and up-to- 
date, and if tests 
for detection of 
disease are being 
carried out 

7. Nursing service 

(a) Number, 
wnether suffi- 
cient 

(b) Kind and char- 
acter of nursing 
done 

(c) Routine work 

(d) Constru c t i v e 
work 

(e) Number of vis- 
its made, total 
work done, and 
results of con- 
structive work 

8. Food inspection 

Kinds of inspection made, whether spe- 
cial investigators are used, etc. 

9. Sanitation 

(a) Water: methods of purification; 

character and dependability of 
water; bacteriological counts 

(b) Milk: amount of diflferent grades; 

number of inspections of dairies; 
number and reports of bacterio- 
logical counts on same 

(c) Sewage disposal: methods used, etc. 

10. Clinics 

(a) Child hygiene 

(b) Pre-natal 

(c) Tuberculosis 

(d) Mental hygiene 

(e) Venereal disease 

(f) Pre-school 

11. Public health education 

This phase of the work is of great im- 
portance and should be stressed. The 
amount of cooperation of local offi- 
cials, local newspapers, and local 
churches should be inquired into 

12. Hospitals 

Number, kinds, and whether isolation for 
infectious diseases is provided 



Chart of Appropriations 

IN A C/TY OF 17,000 

tiOTE LOW HEAL THAPPROPHIATm 




INCREASED HEALTH APPROPBIATION WILL 
HEALTH ADMINISTRATION 



13 



HELP PROPER 



Recreation 

Playgrounds, parks and gymnasiums 

14. Industrial hygiene 

(a) Occupational diseases 

(b) General sanitation 

(c) Housing 

15. School children 

(a) Amount of defects 

(b) Amount of correction 

(c) Sanitation of buildings 

(d) Disease census 

(e) Education and hygiene 

16. Recommendations 

Stating the things necessary in order to 
furnish satisfactory results. These 
are the items that should be known 
and well investigated before recom- 
mendations are made 

A well-rounded health department laying 
stress upon no particular thing but func- 
tioning as a whole, is much to be desired 
over the health department that may run 
to one particular phase of public heatlh 
work, forgetting all others. 

When this mass of data is prepared it 
should not be filed away but should be put 



230 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



to work. Statistics are good for those who 
use them ; they are good for nothing to those 
who do not. 

What should an analysis of the data in a 
sanitary survey give in terms that are not 
technical and can be understood by the tax- 
payers ? 

First, the cost of health protection to each 
person in the city, not to be expressed in so 
many mills per dollar of assessed valuation 
but the amount in dollars and cents to each 
thousand dollars of assessed valuation ; thus, 
"the tax rate for health service is 89 cents 
per $1,000 of assessed valuation, or, a tax- 
payer having a home assessed $4,000 would 
pay $3.56 per year to protect that home from 
disease." This, it is apparent, can readily 
be understood. Also, the cost per person 
should be given. 



Second, a proper survey will show "old 
stock on hand." If antiquated methods are 
used they will be unearthed and should be 
discarded. Duplication of work, and un- 
necessary work, will be shown. 

Third, the offenses of omission are 
brought to the surface in making such a 
complete inventory, and these corrections 
should be in the recommendations. 

Fourth, graphic chart showing amounts 
of different appropriations for various city 
activities, communicable diseases, movement 
of infant mortality, birth and death rate. 

It is not advisable to clutter up an other- 
wise good survey with material that requires 
an expert to interpret it. Nothing, how- 
ever, is as convincing to the lay mind as a 
picture of the relative difference in appro- 
priations for various activities. 



The Reward of City Planning 

By L. S. Cole 



City planning may be divided into two 
major phases, namely, city building or re- 
building, and city extension. In this lat- 
ter phase the realtor looms large, and on 
him rests a large part of the responsibility 
for the success or failure of the work. He 
should give careful attention to the future 
needs of the city in general and of the dis- 
trict in particular, considering the welfare 
of his city before his personal gain, mak- 
ing himself a power for good in his com- 
munity. In this way only will he merit 
the distinction which the title of "realtor" 
confers upon him. 

Many cities are blessed by nature with 
hills, valleys, streams, etc. These are things 
of beauty as well as utility. How often we 
find a city which considers them liabilities ! 
Here is a town bisected by a creek too small 
for navigation. It is made into a dumping- 
ground and general health menace, the cause 



of endless litigation and expense, an eye- 
sore, which if properly handled would prove 
a source of pride and pleasure, a priceless 
asset. 

These are the things city planning aims 
to correct through careful zoning of indus- 
trial activity and control of building ex- 
pansion, together with utilization of natu- 
ral and created resources. Thus shall we 
be able to attract and retain industry, foster 
commercial activity, inculcate and build up 
in increasing measure the spirit of com- 
munity service, to our personal gain and 
national prosperity. Increased benefits, re- 
duced taxes, these shall be our reward; for, 
after all, taxes are merely the selling price 
of community service, and the burden or 
privilege of paying taxes will be determined 
entirely by the measure and quality of the 
service rendered. 

Acknowledgment: — From an address delivered be- 
fore the Indiana Real Estate Association. 



An Annual Transportation Prize to Be Awarded 



The American Society of Civil Engineers 
at its annual meeting in January accepted 
the offer of the Engineering News-Record, 
to establish an "Arthur M. Wellington 
Prize" to be awarded annually for the best 
paper presented before the society on any 
phase of the science and art of transporta- 
tion, whether by land, water or air. The 



prize is a memorial in honor of the former 
editor of the Engineering News and author 
of the well-known book entitled "The Eco- 
nomic Theory of Railway Location." A 
fund of $2,000 has been provided, the annual 
income from which will constitute the ma- 
terial element of the prize, and should stimu- 
late thought on this subject. 



331 



Linking New York and Ncav Jersey 

The Isolation of these Two States from Each Other to be Overcome 
by New Vehicle Tunnels 

By Clifford M. Holland 

Chief Engineer, New York and New Jersey Tunnel Commission 



THE states of New York and New Jer- 
sey, which are vitally interdependent, 
have needed for many years a larger 
and more reliable link in their transporta- 
tion facilities than the present overburdened 
ferry system. There is no room for the ex- 
pansion of the existing ferry service, and 
the transportation business of the water- 
front has vastly outgrown its present facil- 
ities. To overcome this lack of transporta- 
tion the new interstate tunnel was proposed 
and is now actually under construction. 

Although the total cost of the undertaking 
is estimated at $28,669,000, it has been 
shown that with reasonable tolls the tunnel 
will not only pay its maintenance but within 



noxious exhaust gases from motor vehicles. 
The ventilation problem has been one of the 
most difficult of solution in connection with 
the tunnel project. 

The tunnel will run from Canal Street, 
New York, a wide east-and-west thorough- 
fare which is approximately at the center 
of down-town traffic over the Hudson fer- 
ries, to a point almost directly opposite on 
the New Jersey shore, thus giving a tunnel 
of minimum length. The New Jersey ter- 
minus is near the center of traffic and af- 
fords direct communication with Jersey City 
Heights and points beyond, and the water- 
front and railroad yards are easily access- 
ible. 



^^ 




PROFILE AND PLAN OF THE NEW TOBK-NEW JERSEY TUNNEL, WORK ON WHICH IS 

ALREADY UNDER WAY 



12 years will pay its entire cost of construc- 
tion, and by the end of 20 years there will be 
a surplus of more than $66,000,000 to be 
divided between the states of New York 
and New Jersey. 

The essential features of the proposition 
are the construction of twin tubes of cast 
iron, 29 feet in external diameter, larger 
than any existing American sub-aqueous 
tunnel of the shield-driven type. The mean 
length of the cast iron ring section will be 
6,600 feet, and the distance between grade 
points of the tunnel — which includes the 
open-cut approaches — is 9,300 feet. There 
are to be two ventilating shafts on each 



In determining the traffic capacity of the 
tunnel, the chief considerations were: (i) 
volume and character of the vehicular traf- 
fic which will seek the tunnel; (2) capacity 
of one, two and three lines of traffic in each 
direction; (3) economical size of tunnel in 
relation to amount of traffic; (4) limitation 
of traffic by street congestion in vicinity of 
tunnel entrances and exits. A careful study 
of the average daily traffic based on 24- 
hour counts made at the ferries was 12.2 
times the maximum hourly traffic. A study 
of conditions showed that a two-line tun- 
nel — that Is, four traffic streams — will have 
sufficient capacity to accommodate all traf- 
fic n-f mnfnr oo utaII qc VinrcA-Hraiim vAViir1*»« 



232 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



up to the year 1935, and if horses were 
eliminated during rush hours its capacity 
would not be reached until 1937. 

To determine the proper dimensions of the 
tunnel, measurements were taken of vehicles 
crossing the Hudson River on the ferries 
between New York and New Jersey, and it 
was found that their height varied from 6 
feet 6 inches for passenger cars to a maxi- 
mum of 13 feet for large loaded trucks, but 
that the number exceeding 12 feet in height 
was not over i per cent. It was also found 
that the width of motor vehicles varied from 
6 feet for passenger cars and light trucks to 
a maximum of 10 feet 6 inches for army 
transport trucks. In the case of three-horse 
teams, the outside dimension of three horses 
abreast was found to be 9 feet, but the num- 
ber of vehicles exceeding 8 feet in width 
is only 3j4 per cent. 

Motor truck manufacturers suggested 12 
feet 2 inches as the greatest distance be- 
tween the road and the top of the truck 
body, and 8 feet as the greatest width of 
the body. To provide for all contingencies, 
such as unevenness in the surface of the 
roadway, spring action of vehicles, and al- 
lowances for jacking up in case of break- 
down, the clear headroom of the tunnel was 
fixed at 13 feet 6 inches. 

With the tunnel carrying two lines of 
vehicles in the same direction on one road- 
way, the normal operation conditions are as 
though there were one vehicle 8 feet wide 
in the slow line, and one 6 feet wide in the 
fast line. There may be times, however, 
when there will be 8-foot-wide vehicles op- 
erating in both the slow line and the fast. 
In the slow line of the two-line tunnel ve- 
hicles operating at a speed of 3 to 6 miles 
per hour should have a clearance of not 



less than 6 inches between the outside of the 
tire and the curb, while in the fast line, on 
account of the greater speed, this clearance 
should be not less than i foot. Allowance 
is made for a minimum clearance of i foot 
9 inches between the moving vehicles, and 
the minimum width of roadway is 19 feet. 
For safe and convenient operation, however, 
a clearance of 2 feet 9 inches between the 
moving vehicles should be provided, giving 
a 20-foot width of roadway for two-line 
trafiic, which has been provided. 

The problem of ventilating the tunnel has 
been investigated under three main sub- 
divisions: (i) amount and composition of 
exhaust gases from motor vehicles; (2) di- 
lution necessary to render these exhaust 
gases harmless; (3) method and equipment 
necessary for adequate ventilation. After 
very thorough study the tunnel has been de- 
signed with four ventilating shafts, two of 
which, 3,400 feet apart, are located near the 
pierhead line, and the other two between 
these shafts and the portals. With this ar- 
rangement, cost of operation is reduced to 
about one-quarter of what it would be if the 
tunnel were provided with only two ventilat- 
ing shafts at the bulkheads. All fans and 
motors are to be located in structures at the 
top of the ventilating shafts, and will be of 
standard sizes. The fresh-air duct is to be 
located between the roadways and the ex- 
haust duct above, in accordance with the 
results of experiments conducted in 1916 
by the Public Service Corporation of New 
Jersey. 

Work has already begun in digging the 
shaft for the tunnel, and contracts are being 
let gradually, in order to take advantage of 
the possible reduction in labor and material 
costs within the next three years. 



Data Sought by the Hospital, Library and Service Bureau 



The Hospital, Library and Service Bureau, 
22 East Ontario Street, Chicago, 111., has been 
organized by national hospital, public health, 
nursing, social service and other organiza- 
tions, aided by the Rockefeller Foundation. 
It will serve gratuitously those persons inter- 
ested in the construction, equipment and opera- 
tion of hospitals, sanatoriums, dispensaries, 
health centers, and institutions of like nature. 



Those interested in the material which is heinp 
collected by this bureau may secure a tentative 
outline on request to the above address. At- 
tention is particularly called to the fact that 
very little information has heen collected as 
yet, and the cooperation of all agencies is 
sought in adding to the material on file in 
order that greater use may be made of it by 
all health agencies. 



233 



Present Methods of Concrete Road 
Construction 



General Data for Public Officials 



STRICTLY speaking, there have been 
few actually new developments in the 
construction of concrete roads during 
the past season. Certain new adaptations 
or uses of equipment have been found which 
have been in existence before. The year 
was largely occupied by contractors and en- 
gineers in trying out and studying the re- 
sults of various types of equipment. 

Letting Contracts 

Perhaps the most interesting and most 
striking new development has been the 
change in ideas regarding the letting of 
contracts for road construction. There has 
been a general tendency toward awarding 



a longer time, before good construction 
weather begins, to fill their orders for road 
machinery. While not all of the aggregates 
for road building can be shipped and stored 
at the site of the improvement during the 
winter months, because of the difficulties in 
washing and in shipping freshly washed ma- 
terial, the aggregate producers have ample 
opportunity for making improvements and 
additions to their plants so as to take care 
of orders as soon as the season for shipping 
opens. In a great many cases these pro- 
ducers can operate throughout the cold 
weather and store their material ready for 
shipment at the proper season. Finally, the 
delivery situation is very much simplified 




THE MECHANICAL TAMPPER AND FINISHER 



more contracts during the winter months. 
This winter may not see so many contracts 
awarded as is perhaps desirable, but a def- 
inite beginning in this manner of contract 
letting is being made. During the entire 
month of January, 1919, there were awarded 
268,782 square yards of concrete pavement, 
while reports for the month of January, 
1920, show the award of 1,973,193 square 
yards. 

There are many advantages in this idea of 
contract letting. Contractors are able to 
plan their equipment for the work which 
they have on hand during a season when 
work outside is impossible. In turn, the 
manufacturers of this equipment are en- 
abled to gage their markets, and they have 



because open-top cars, in which aggregates 
are most frequently shipped, are available 
during the early months of the year for 
this type of work. 

There has been some thought given by 
officials and contractors in different parts 
of the country to the form which a contract 
should take. While a great many contrac- 
tors favor the cost plus a fixed percentage 
contract, others of excellent repute do not 
like this form of contract at all. As one 
large contractor has said, "Immediately it 
becomes known on the job that the contract 
is cost plus, even the mules on the job learn 
to loaf." There is a definite tendency 
toward the development of a contract in 
which the bidder itemizes the unit prices of 



234 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 




THE HAND ROLLEE FOE SECUEING A DENSE SUEFACE 



each item entering into the finished work, 
with the exception of labor. In this man- 
ner, should the cost of any material fluctu- 
ate up or down, the contractor is protected 
and the public profits by the reduction, or 
bears the expense, as the case may be. In 
the ordinary form of contract the bidder 
must consider the possibility of a change in 
prices, and, in a period of rising markets, to 
protect himself against an increase in the 
cost of the work he must bid accordingly 
higher. In other words, the contractor must 
often assume a risk and charge accordingly. 

Purchasing Materials 

One question which has received a con- 
siderable amount of discussion is the matter 
of the purchase of the material in the state 
highway contracts. A number of states now 
purchase one or more of the ingredients en- 
tering into the construction of roads and 
supply it to the contractor. The usual idea 
of the contractors in regard to this practice 
is that the contractor should be allowed to 
buy all of his materials in the open market. 
The contractor is frequently in a position 
where instant action is necessary to get a 
delivery of material. Delay costs him a 
great deal of money. The contractor in 
many cases can by paying a certain premium 
for the purchase or on the delivery of ma- 
terial save a far more costly delay which 
would be caused by having his equipment 
idle. 

Inspection at Source 

The quality and the grading of aggre- 
gate are designated in the specifications un- 
der which the contractor works. It is often 
the case, however, that a shipment of ma- 



terial when it arrives at the job does not 
come up to the specifications in one respect 
or another. In this case the inspector on the 
work condemns the material, and it must be 
taken away. There is a definite tendency 
toward the placing of an inspector at the 
plant which is the source of material, to 
see that the grading is correctly done and 
the material up to the specifications in 
every manner before it leaves the plant. 
This method of inspection is resulting in 
economy for both the contractor and the 
state, county or other agency letting the 
contract. 

Size of Aggregate 
The fact that a number of states and 
counties are increasing the larger limit in 
the size of coarse aggregate is particularly 
interesting. Actual consideration has 
shown that the pavement built with aggre- 
gate containing the larger sizes is as good 
as, and sometimes superior to, that built of 
the ordinary standard size. The aggregate 
producers favor this change in specifica- 
tions because it will materially reduce the 
cost of the finished product. There is less 
wastage of stone at the plant and at the 
quarry when the larger sizes can be used. 

Use of Bulk Cement 

During the past season the firms having 
large road contracts have been handling 
their cement in bulk form almost entirely. 
This manner of shipping cement has proved 
necessary in the operation of a large con- 
struction plant. The cement is more easily 
handled with the same equipment that is 
used for the coarse and fine aggregates, 
namely, the clam-shell bucket; and the en- 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



235 



tire central proportioning or central mixing 
plant is better organized without having to 
follow the laborious method of handling 
cement in sacks. One very important item 
is the large amount of capital which is tied 
up in the use of cement sacks. Sacks are 
costing more and more to manufacture, and 
there is always a large percentage of lost 
sacks. 

Use of Finishing Machines 

While the finishing machine for concrete 
pavements has not been a definitely new de- 
velopment of 1919 or 1920, its use and opera- 
tion have been outstanding features of the 
construction season. In the state specifica- 
tions covering 1919 work, only five permitted 
the use of the finishing machine; in those of 
1920 twenty states permitted machine finish- 
ing. In Illinois the work of the machine has 
proved entirely successful and the specifica- 
tions are to remain in effect. Wisconsin has 
not mentioned the use of the finishing ma- 
chine in her state specifications, and at a 
conference between contractors, material 
dealers, equipment manufacturers and state 
highway engineers definite statements were 
made to the effect that until the results 
from using the machine were proved entirely 
successful in other places, this method of 
finishing would not be specified. On no 
known contract has the capacity of this 
machine been approached. The apparatus is 
idle a considerable portion of the time of 



each working day. 

The roUer-and-belt method of finishing 
has been followed in practically every state 
in the country on both large and small jobs. 
The performance of this apparatus is al- 
ready known to be perfectly satisfactory. 

Balance of Plant Necessary 

No matter what type of equipment or plant 
layout the contractor uses, from the small- 
est road contract to the largest, there is need 
for perfect balance of every part of the 
plant. A mixer of large capacity cannot 
justify its existence on a piece of work un- 
less the materials reach it so as to keep it 
busy constantly, and unless the finishing 
behind the mixer can keep up with its per- 
formance. In addition to a balanced equip- 
ment, there must be constant attention paid 
to keeping each item in perfect repair, A 
breakdown of any part causes an unbalanc- 
ing and breakdown in the entire system. A 
repair crew under the direction of a master 
mechanic, and a complete stock of repair 
parts, are of vital necessity on every job. 

There is work for this repair crew, or at 
least a portion of it, throughout the entire 
winter season. Every part of the equip- 
ment needs overhauling and to be put in 
perfect shape for consistent work for the 
coming season. There are improvements 
that the contractor will find necessary, and 
parts of equipment which he can build, or 
at least remodel, in his own shop. Every 





^mOf')^W ■■■■ t 





ronSHINO THE ST3SFACB BY HAND BY THE BELT METHOD 



236 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 




PROTECTING THE NEWLY FINISHED ROAD WITH CANVAS ON LOW FRAMES 



part of the entire plant should be in perfect 
order and ready to start the season without 
the usual details which so often occur. 

Central Mixing Plants 

During the past two seasons in the larger 
contracts the method of preparing the cor- 
rectly proportioned batch at a central plant 
was followed. In some cases this batch was 
hauled to the mixer on the road and there 
mixed and placed on the subgrade. In 
other instances the batch was mixed at the 
central plant and hauled wet to the subgrade 
and there dumped. No definite lines can be 
drawn to show the size of the contract on 
which the industrial railway hauling a dry 
or wet batch is more economical than haul- 
ing by truck. No outstanding features in 
favor of or against the hauling of a mixed 
batch of concrete over a distance of several 
hundred feet to more than a mile have 
proved that it is better or worse than any 
other method. Each of the methods has 
proved satisfactory, but it will take more 
study and more experience to develop any 
definite knowledge regarding consistent per- 
formance of one method or the other. 

Preparing the Subgrade 

There are certain construction methods 
which are known to be proper and which 
need emphasis. Too much cannot be said in 
regard to the preparation of the subgrade. 
Not many actually new methods in sub- 
grade building have been discovered for a 
number of years. On the other hand, the 
recognized good methods of building the 
subgrade have too frequently been left in 
discard, and the foundation for a costly 



pavement has been inadequately made. En- 
gineers too frequently forget or disregard 
the problem of draining the subgrade. The 
different soils over which the pavement is 
laid have not been analyzed in a great many 
cases, and engineers have not always met 
the problems involved in each type of soil. 
Little need be said about the side forms 
for concrete pavement, further than the 
necessity for perfect support on the sub- 
grade. The heavy subgrade finisher and 
concrete tamper and finishers which are 
coming into wide use must be supported on 
forms which remain perfectly true to the 
grade under their weight. The evenness of 
the longitudinal grade of the finished con- 
crete depends upon the strength of the side 
forms, the accuracy by which they are laid, 
and upon their retaining a perfect grade 
under the weight of the finishing machine. 

Testing Concrete and Curing 

A great deal has been said about the 
proper consistency of mix used in concrete 
pavements. The slump test was developed, 
by which the amount of water in the mixture 
was gaged according to the amount of 
slump in a column of concrete left after 
the withdrawal of a cylinder. Practical 
use of this equipment, however, suggested 
the use of a truncated cone instead of a 
cylinder, because the concrete was less 
liable to be disturbed by the removal of the 
form. 

No new methods have been developed in 
the curing of the finished pavement, but 
special emphasis should be given to the 
proper methods, which are well known. 
During warm weather it is essential that a 



March^ 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



237 



canvas cover be suspended over the pave- 
ment immediately after finishing it, to pre- 
vent too rapid evaporation of the water in 
the concrete. Then may follow the curing 
cover, either a layer of water or of wet 
earth, which remains on the pavement for 
two weeks or longer. 

Concrete Roads Must Be Maintained 

Maintenance of pavement is too often 
done in a dilatory manner or is completely 
forgotten. Concrete roads need regular 
maintenance, as does every other type of 
pavement. This maintenance consists 
chiefly in filling the joints and cracks with 



regards the supply, training and salaries of 
the engineers, the improvement of the prac- 
tice in awarding contracts, and the develop- 
ment of material supplies. 
. During the coming years the road-building 
* program is going to demand an increasing 
supply of engineers. These men will need 
training. It will cost them a great deal of 
time and expense in securing this training. 
After they have secured it, the positions 
into which they step should carry with them 
salaries which are at least commensurate 
with the ability acquired and the responsi- 
bility involved by the position. 

It is evident that material deposits will 




OTTEINO A CONCEETE BOAD BY PONDING 



bituminous material, which prevents the 
passage of moisture to the subgrade. This 
operation should be performed regularly as 
early in the spring as the work can be done 
to advantage, and late in the fall. It should 
be done regularly at these intervals and at 
such other intervals as are found necessary. 
It is doubtful if there are any bad prac- 
tices in the present methods of building 
concrete roads which should be eliminated. 
Rather there are certain practices which 
need improvement. In general, these are as 



often be found from which the aggregates 
for road construction can be supplied, if 
surveys are made in the regions where proj- 
ects are to be built. If these deposits are 
developed, the cost of the aggregate on the 
job should be lower than when shipped 
long distances. This applies, however, only 
in cases where established plants cannot 
economically compete with local deposits, 
because of shipping facilities or because of 
the character of the material which they 
handle. 



The Need of Hospital Service for Rural Communities 



Attention must be given to the relation 
of the rural hospital in a general com- 
munity health program to other programs 
of local government and welfare service. 
The hospital represents merely one factor in 
public health work and private medicine. 
Public health work again is but one factor 
in the general program of public admini- 
stration. One must needs keep in mind that 



funds must be provided by a community 
for the financing of all its various public 
services; for the general government pur- 
poses of the legislative, executive and ju- 
dicial departments; and for the special 
services of protection of persons and prop- 
erty, of education, of recreations, of chari- 
ties and corrections, of highways, and last, 
of health, sanitation and hospitals. 



238 



Street Lighting in City and Town 

By Reginald Trautschold 



EVEN less than a decade ago, street il- 
lumination was almost wholly for 
utilitarian purposes — to discern large 
objects and surface irregularities in the 
street and on the sidewalk, and compara- 
tively little was accomplished in the way of 
ornamental street lighting, as mod- 
ern street illumination has quite 
generally become termed. The 
commercial and artistic aspects of 
the question could almost be said 
to predominate, for the actual 
money value to a town or city of 
well-lighted streets has been shown 
repeatedly by the great increases 
in commercial and real estate val- 
ues of brightly illuminated business 
sections and of harmoniously and 
properly lighted residential dis- 
tricts. Civic pride is concerned, 
for a city is often judged by its 
first impression on strangers, and 
there is the gain in safety to pedes- 
trians, traffic and property which 
proper illumination invariably en- 
genders. 

The question of safety alone 
would suffice to warrant the impor- 
tance now placed on adequate and 
plentiful street illumination. To 
conserve coal during the war, most 
communities drastically reduced 
street illumination, with rather un- 
fortunate results so far as lawless- 
ness was concerned and the num- 
ber of accidents attributable to lack 
of sufficient light. In Cleveland, 
accidents directly chargeable to 
lack of daylight — i. e., those cus- 
tomarily occurring after dark — in- 
creased some 2)7^2 per cent when 
the lighting was cut down. In the metro- 
politan district of New York the number 
of people killed at night increased 73 per- 
cent, and the number of injured 21 per cent, 
from 1913 to 1915. 

Adequate and proper lighting is highly im- 
portant to all communities, large or small, 
and it has been made possible in large meas- 
ure by the development of electric lighting. 
Good street illumination may not be wholly 



attributable to the use of electricity, for 
there have been some installations of gas 
street lighting which have been and still 
are reasonably modern, chiefly in the smaller 
towns in residential communities, but it is 
certain that electric lighting predominates 
and is, as a rule, the convenient 
and economical system to employ. 

Systems of Electric Street 
Lighting 

Two systems of electric street 
lighting are in quite general use — 
the arc light and the incandescent 
— and it would not be fair to say 
that the modern incandescent street 
lamp has or will immediately sup- 
plant the older arc light, despite 
the numerous advantages which 
the former possesses. Both systems 
have their fields. The arc lamp, 
which has been improved greatly 
since its commercial introduction 
about 1880, maintains a certain 
place for itself where powerful 
sources of light are required, by 
virtue of its efficiency in lumens 
per watt consumption, and some- 
times the more yellowish light of 
some arcs is considered an advan- 
tage. The most efficient and use- 
ful arc lamp for street lighting is 
the direct-current, series, luminous 
or magnetite arc lamp, either in 
the pendant or upright (ornamen- 
tal) type. It is economical to 
maintain and reliable in operation, 
consuming about 500 watts and 
giving a total illumination of about 
1.8 times that of a loo-candle- 
power, modern, street series incan- 
descent lamp. The average cost of operating 
such an arc lamp is approximately the same 
as that for a 1,000-candle-power street series 
incandescent lamp. Diffusing and distribut- 
ing glassware is used to moderate the glare 
of arc lamps, as it is with high-power in- 
candescent lamps, but even with such aid 
the use of arcs is now pretty well limited to 
centers of street intersections and to the 
middle of broad avenues. 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



239 




SMAIiL TOWN BUSINESS STREET WITH OENAMENTAL POSTS AND SINGLE FIXTUBES 



Now that incandescent street lamps may 
be obtained in sizes up to 1,000-candle- 
power, they are used very extensively for 
general service, where high degrees of il- 
lumination are required, as well as where 
more moderate lighting suffices. They pro- 
vide moderate power with very good effi- 
ciency, and the tendency in public street 
lighting now is to use the smaller and more 
flexible types of illuminants, which tend 
toward simplification of the lighting sys- 
tem and are procurable in a number of sizes. 
Technical considerations which are of con- 
siderable economic moment also favor the 
use of the modern street series incandescent 
lamps. The comparatively low voltage at 
which the series incandescent lamps operate 
is an advantage. This prevents the exces- 
sive heating of the lamp and also allows the 
use of heavier filaments than in constant 
voltage incandescent lamps such as are used 
in industrial and domestic lighting. Though 
the filaments of series incandescent lamps 
gradually evaporate in use, this also in- 
creases their resistance, so, with the current 
maintained virtually constant, the current 
density in the filament is consequently in- 
creased, and very nearly uniform intensity 
of light is maintained during the life of the 
lamp. This life will average close to 1,350 
hours. Carbons of arc lamps, on the other 
hand, have to be renewed after about 120 
hours' operation. 

Lighting Circuits 

The modern incandescent lamps for street 
lighting operate on alternating current cir- 
cuits — the only exceptions being a few iso- 
lated plants and some small public-service 



installations where the conditions of growth 
have not warranted new and more efficient 
equipment — with the lamps connected in 
series, rather than in multiple. The funda- 
mental advantage of series lighting is the 
economy in the use of copper, but an ad- 
vantage of even greater importance is the 
uniformity in the operation o-f the lights 
secured by the series connection. In series 
circuits the same current is forced through 
all the lamps in the line, while in the case 
of multiple circuit, which is used for all 
domestic and industrial lighting, it is the 
voltage which is supposed to remain con- 
stant. This, however, is not entirely pos- 
sible on a multiple circuit, on account of the 
voltage drop in the line between successive 
units, though the loss can be greatly re- 
duced — almost to a negligible quantity — by 
the use of extra quantities of the expensive 
copper, so where the distance of transmis- 
sion is great, as in street lighting, it is much 
more economical to use the series system. 

Alternating current circuits for street 
lighting are pretty generally standardized at 
6.6 amperes — occasionally at 7.5 amperes — 
and though such current is suitable for the 
smaller lamps and is used for lamps up to 
400 candle-power, greater efficiency is se- 
cured with 600- and 1,000-candle-power 
lamps if the current strength is increased 
to 20 amperes, the voltage at the lamps being 
reduced correspondingly. Even in the case 
of 400-candle-power lamps, a current 
strength of 15 amperes will increase the 
efficiency of the lamp. To secure this in- 
crease in current strength, compensators 
are installed next to the lamps of greater 
power. These compensators, which are 



240 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



really step-down transformers, also serve 
another important function. They act as 
"choke coils" or checks against surges or 
sudden changes of current strength pro- 
duced accidentally, through short-circuiting 
a number of lamps or through the action of 
other current-consuming elements in other 
parts, of the same circuit. In the case of 
filament failure, the compensator acts as a 
cut-out and permits the current to flow in 
series through the other lamps in the cir- 
cuits. 

For series street lamps of low candle- 
power which are not provided with com- 
pensators, a film cut-out held between the 
conducting clamps is provided to guard 
against breaking the circuit should the fila- 
ment of a lamp fail. The thickness of this 
film is such that it is an insulator at the 
normal voltage of the lighting circuit, but 
when a lamp filament fails, the voltage piles 
up and punctures the film, establishing a 
short circuit, or by-pass, which allows the 
current to pass on through the lighting cir- 
cuit as before, without passing through the 
damaged lamp. 

Selection of Lamps 

When electric street lighting was first 
taken up with a view to beautifying the 
street, as well as for the more practical 
purposes of proper street illumination, the 



CHARACTERISTICS OF MAZDA SERIES LAMPS 



Nominal Rated 


Total Lumens 


Watts Consumed 


Candle-Power 


6.6 Amperes 


7.5 Amperes 


40 


400 

600 

800 

1,000 

2,600 

4,000 

4,000 

6.000 

10,000 


35 

46.8 

60 

72 
155 
244 


36 


60 


48 


80 


60 


100 


72 


250 


147 


400 


228 






400 


Lamp Amperes 
15 
20 
20 


Watts at Compensator 
210-245 


600 


297-330 


1,000 


475-544 









tendency was to use ornamental fixtures with 
clusters of comparatively low-candle-power 
lamps, each in a diffusing globe mounted on 
decorative standards some 10 or 12 feet 
high. This practice has been greatly modi- 
fied since the high-power incandescent 
lamps for street lighting have been avail- 
able, and now the standard with a single 
powerful light promises to supplant the 
more elaborate equipment. The single-light 
standard can be more widely spaced, and 



this reduces the expense of maintenance. 
The poles, compared to those of cluster 
standards, are slender and graceful and 
therefore less conspicuous. They lend them- 
selves to more artistic treatment and har- 
monize better with the architectural sur- 
roundings, but the chief advantages of the 
single-light arrangement are very practical. 

The efficiency of the single light is very 
much higher, for the light from several 
lamps in a cluster is reduced by interfer- 
ence between the various globes and the 
pole itself. Each globe not only absorbs 
light from the lamp within, but also obstructs 
light from all the other lamps. The loss in 
many cases amounts to 15 or 20 per cent. 
In fact, it is claimed that a 20 per cent in- 
crease in light with a saving of 10 per cent 
in wattage can be secured by the use of 
single large lamps. 

In the question of light distribution, the 
single light also shows up to decided advan- 
tage, for though the downward illumination 
is very nearly the same for both arrange- 
ments, the upward illumination is nearly 50 
per cent greater with the single light. Ini- 
tial cost and maintenance expenses are 
naturally much lower with the simpler stand- 
ard, and the single light is much more flex- 
ible, as refractors, globes and reflectors can 
be provided to throw the light in any desired 
direction, an arrangement not feasible, as a 
rule, when there are a 
number of individual 
lights. 

Street Lighting Systems 

As illumination require- 
ments are rarely compar- 
able in even quite similar 
localities in cities and 
towns, it is quite impos- 
sible to advance rules or 
even definite recommenda- 
tions incorporating the ad- 
V i s a b 1 e candle-power 
of lamp, type of reflecting, refract- 
ing and diffusing equipment, spacing of 
posts and height of lamps, that are not sus- 
ceptible to such modification as to be of 
really little value. However, as in most 
cities, towns and even villages there is the 
important business district, the less impor- 
tant business streets adjoining, possibly a 
factory district, important and less impor- 
tant residential streets and quite probably 
parks, some indicative guide for the district 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



241 



can be made. This classification of streets 
or districts can, of course, be greatly ex- 
panded, but it will serve to indicate that 
there are roughly six classes of streets the 
lighting requirements for which will vary in 
every city or town of fair size, the intensity 
of the desirable illumination decreasing with 
the importance of the street for business 
purposes in the order mentioned. 

The spacing of the lighting standards will 
vary between quite wide limits — say between 
50 and 100 feet, or even more; the wider 
the street, the closer should be the stand- 
ards. This introduces the question of 
whether the lighting standards should be 
placed along the center of the street, as is 
done on some wide boulevards and avenues, 
or, if placed along the edges of the road- 
way, whether the lights should be placed 
opposite one another or the staggered ar- 
rangement adopted. As far as lights skirt- 
ing the roadway are concerned, a general 
scheme which tends to a harmonious and 
decorative layout is to place the lights op- 
posite one another when standards are set 
at each of the four corners of intersecting 
streets and to stagger them when lights are 
located at two diagonal corners. The 
mounting height of the lights should be ade- 
quate to keep all powerful rays of light out 
of the plane of vision, even when — as should 
invariably be the case where high illumina- 
tion is employed on important thorough- 
fares — diffusing media are employed. 

The illuminating systems of important 



cities naturally serving as criteria for the 
lighting of other communities, it may prove 
of interest to record the present standard of 
New York in this respect. As an indication 
of the cost of illumination, the power of the 
lamps used will be given in watts, a 500- 
watt lamp of the street series incandescent 
type giving approximately 1,000 candle- 
power. On the brightest streets, 500-watt 
lamps are used, mounted 20 feet above the 
road. On car streets and wide avenues the 
standard lamps are 400 watts, mounted at 
the same height. On the avenues where the 
traffic is not so heavy, 300-watt lamps are 
used, the 20-foot height being general. 
Residence streets are lighted by 200-watt 
lamps placed about i6j^ feet above the side- 
walk, or by lOO-watt lamps at a height of 
I4j^ feet. The lighting of the parks in New 
York has been pretty well standardized. 
The lights are staggered on either side of 
the roadway, 80 feet apart, mounted at a 
height of 10 feet, and are of the loo-watt 
size. In Cincinnati, another well-lighted 
city, the general scheme is to place the light- 
ing standards opposite one another at 80- 
foot spacing, with the lamp filaments 13 
feet 4 inches above the road-bed. 

Typical of good lighting practice as are 
these arrangements, they fail to convey a 
proper application of the degree of illumina- 
tion attained. In New York, the illumina- 
tion on a plane 4 feet 8 inches above grade, 
the average intensity in well-lighted streets 
is 0.135 candle-power, with a maximum of 




LIGHTING SCHEME FOR A HEAVILY SHADED STREET WITH SERIES INCANDESCENT LAMPS 
ALONG THE CENTER OF THE ROAD 



242 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



0.96 and a minimum of 0.021 candle-power. 
On other brightly lighted business streets 
the intensity of illumination varies from 
0.015 to 1.04 candle-power, with an average 
of 0.185, while on still others the range is 
between o.oio to 0.75 candle-power, with an 
average of 0.135. Well-lighted residence 
streets have an average illumination of 
0.068 candle-power, the maximum and mini- 
mum being 0.347 and 0.0102 candle-power 
respectively. 

Lighting Residential Districts 

In the lighting of many residential dis- 
tricts, the presence of shade trees and the 
desire to secure as uniform illumination of 
them as possible often makes it necessary or 
advisable to use only small-size lamps. Deco- 
rative considerations make it customary to 
place the lights in opal balls mounted on 
ornamental posts, with the result that a 
large amount of the light is thrown up- 
ward and so lost for lighting the street. 
To avoid this drawback, approved practice 
is to employ prismatic reflectors to collect 
the upward rays of the small lights — usually 
loo-candle-power lamps — and redirect the 
light outward at a slight downward angle. 
These primatic reflectors consist usually of 
a double concentric band with smooth outer 
and inner exposed surfaces, with prisms on 
the two inside surfaces, sealed at top and 
bottom to exclude dust and dirt. 

lighting Country Koads 

For rural highways the lighting fixtures 
are usually of the comparatively inexpen- 
sive variety with the lights and reflectors 
mounted on long mast arms over the center 
of the street. As it is impossible to secure 
any degree of uniformity in light intensity, 
owing to the necessarily wide spacing of 
the lights, the silhouette principle with di- 
rect illumination should be employed. This 
scheme provides a light background against 
which objects intervening on the ground 



stand out in bold relief, like the daguerreo- 
types of the days of our forefathers. In 
some cases, prismatic refracting glassware 
of the bowl type can be used to good ad- 
vantage to enhance the intensity of light 
immediately beneath the lighting unit, so 
securing more light directed on the road 
surface in the vicinity of the unit and a 
more nearly uniform light intensity over the 
entire, but limited, lighted area. The light- 
ing of interurban highways is quite cus- 
tomarily performed with twenty to twenty- 
one lamps per mile. 

A typical lighting fixture for country 
roads consists of a 20-inch radial wave re- 
flector street-hood body furnished with a 
diffuser. Such a unit may be used with 
lamps as large as 600 candle-power, con- 
suming approximately 350 watts. 

Costs 

No discussion of street lighting — even 
one as necessarily sketchy as this — can make 
any claim of being constructive without 
some mention of the all-important costs of 
street illumination. Obviously, no detailed 
figures can be advanced — so much depends 
upon the design of the lamp posts, etc., — ^but 
some very general figures will serve as an 
indication of what the average installation 
of modern ornamental street lighting actu- 
ally costs. Based on an average spacing 
distance of 70 feet for lighting standards, 
the installation cost per standard will aver- 
age not far from $100, and the yearly cost 
of operation and maintenance should not 
exceed $50 or $60 in normal times. Con- 
sidered in the light of the benefits to a 
community in enhanced business value of 
well-lighted streets, the safety to its citizens, 
and the attractiveness of its streets after 
sunset, this would indeed seem a trivial sum 
to pay. 

Acknowledgment: — Text and illustrations furnished 
by the courtesy of the Society for Electrical Develop- 
ment, Inc. 



Motorization Reduces Complaints Regarding Garbage 

Collection 

Under the contract system of garbage collection an average of 200 complaints were 
received each day, while under municipal collection with trucks and trailers only 10 are 
received each day from the 70,000 homes served in Indianapolis. One truck has proved to 
be the equivalent of three wagons and accomplishes in an hour and a half the equivalent 
of a day's work for a horse. Between 90 and 100 tons of garbage are collected daily. 



r 



243 



Considerations Governing the Design of 
Pavements for Heavy Traffic 

By Prevost Hubbard 

Chemical Engineer, The Asphalt Association 



THE load-carrying capacity of any type 
or design of pavement must of neces- 
sity be influenced by the support af- 
forded the pavement from below. Such 
support is furnished by that portion of the 
earth directly below the pavement, known 
as the subgrade. The supporting value of 
natural subgrades varies enormously, as 
illustrated by the two extremes of muck or 
quicksand and solid rock. Most subgrades 
consist of soil lying between the extremes 
mentioned but still varying greatly in sup- 
porting value, depending not only upon type 
but upon their moisture content and degree 
of compaction. With very few exceptions, 
any well-compacted soil will of itself sup- 
port the heaviest conceivable traffic if its 
moisture content is properly controlled and 
if it is protected by a structure which pre- 
vents the displacement of particles at its 
surface. The protective structure termed 
the pavement will then need to be only of 
sufficient thickness to afford such protection 
and at the same time itself withstand the 
various destructive agencies of traffic. For 
a given traffic, this thickness will depend 
largely upon the type of pavement used. 

The bearing capacity of most soils, par- 
ticularly the clayey types, decreases as their 
moisture content increases above a certain 
point. Although there is much yet to be 
learned regarding the comparative bearing 
value of soils, this fact is generally recog- 
nized, and various drainage methods are 
employed to control the moisture content of 
the subgrade. Proper drainage is the first 
essential for maintaining a dry subgrade, 
and measures taken to prevent access of 
water to the subgrade directly below the 
pavement are often more important than 
measures designed to remove accumulations 
of water in the subgrade. Some soils are 
so persistently retentive of moisture once 
absorbed that it is impossible to remove it 
with sufficient rapidity by any ordinary sys- 
tem of drains. Certain clayey soils belong 
to this class, and when all practical pre- 
ventive measures in the way of drainage are 
apt to prove inadequate, it may well be ad- 



visable to modify the character of the sub- 
grade material. Thus, at relatively low cost 
a clay subgrade may often be greatly im- 
proved by mixing it with sand in exactly 
the same manner as in the construction of a 
sand-clay road. Such a mixture will not 
only retain less moisture than the clay but 
will possess a much higher supporting 
value than moist clay. 

Uneconomical Design 

It is now generally admitted that in the 
past too little attention has been paid to 
drainage in the construction of pavements 
outside of municipalities. At the same time 
there exists a marked tendency to increase 
the massiveness of design to a point far 
beyond that which is at present proving 
entirely satisfactory for heavy traffic in 
municipalities and in other places where 
subgrade conditions are favorable. This 
matter should receive the most careful con- 
sideration of engineers, as it points not only 
to the most logical but also the most eco- 
nomical solution of the design of pavements. 
It is evident that in many cases it will cost 
far more to increase the thickness of a 
pavement to such an extent that the load 
will be distributed sufficiently to enable a 
poor subgrade to support it, than it would 
be to change natural subgrade conditions so 
as to create a high supporting value for the 
relatively thin pavement. 

The widespread use of rigid pavements, 
or pavements with rigid foundations, has 
been largely responsible for this trend in 
paving design, through too great depen- 
dence upon the bridging value of such rigid 
types. Right here exists a rather anomalous 
situation, for while many claims are made 
of the bridging value of rigid pavements, it 
is generally admitted that careful prepara- 
tion of the subgrade is necessary to uni- 
formly support these rigid types. As a mat- 
ter of fact, it is impracticable to design a 
highway which will permanently bridge ap- 
preciable areas of a weak subgrade when 
subjected to modern heavy traffic. 

In pursuing a policy upon which general 



244 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



attention has once been centered, many who 
are interested in highway construction are 
apt to overlook the experience of others fol- 
lowing different lines of development, and 
fail to profit by their experience. One of 
the most striking examples of this has to do 
with the flexible type of construction as 
represented by the asphalt base pavement, 
and this in spite of a number of valuable 
papers and discussions upon the subject by 
leading engineers. Citations of past and 
present experience in localities other than 
that of interest to the individual engineer 
apparently carry little weight once the ma- 
jority concentrate on a given line of de- 
velopment, and it is difficult to focus atten- 
tion on any other line for the time being. 

Remarkable Facts 

To state that considerably over 12,000,000 
square yards of asphalt base pavement are 
now giving satisfactory service in Cali- 
fornia and Oregon, many of them 5 inches 
or less in total thickness and subjected to 
heavy motor traffic, and that some of these 
pavements have been in service for over 20 
years with little or no cost for maintenance, 
should at least arouse some degree of in- 
terest on the part of eastern engineers. To 
further state that in such cities as Wash- 
ington, D. C, Chicago, Omaha, Pittsburgh, 
Buffalo and Denver, there are in existence 
sections of bituminous base which have 
given satisfactory service for over 20 years, 
should also serve to dispel any illusion that 
the serviceability of this type is restricted to 
any given locality. 

Service results should in themselves be 
conclusive, but explanations of such results 
are sometimes required before their full 
significance is grasped. It is true that 
theories have been advanced, but these have 
not been backed up by test data in such a 
way as to make them convincing. Some de- 
gree of cushioning effect imder traffic has 
been claimed and admitted for the asphalt 
base as well as the wearing course, but few 
engineers have believed that a mineral ag- 
gregate cemented together with asphalt 
could possibly possess any slab strength or 
beam strength, at least to an extent com- 
parable with the rigid type of construction. 

The Effect of Impact 
With this in mind, an investigation was 
begun under the direction of the writer as- 
sisted by W. E. Rosengarten, Traffic Engi- 



neer of the Asphalt Association, to deter- 
mine certain relations that exist between the 
rigid and flexible types of construction. 
Fortunately, through the very valuable 
work of the U. S. Bureau of Public Roads 
it has already been proved that impact and 
not dead load is the most destructive traffic 
factor to be taken into account in the de- 
sign of modern highways. It was therefore 
decided to limit these investigations to a 
study of the effect of impact upon test speci- 
mens having thicknesses equivalent to those 
commonly used in the construction of high- 
ways. It was clearly realized in advance 
that it would be impossible to duplicate all 
the variable conditions under which impact 
is delivered to a pavement by traffic, and it 
was therefore decided to confine this study 
to the effect of pure impact as delivered by 
an iron bar falling from a relatively small 
height. 

In order to obtain comparisons at two ex- 
tremes of conditions, it was decided to con- 
struct and test slabs of various design upon 
a solid uniform subgrade and to test beams 
of the same design supported only by knife 
edges. 

Testing Slabs on a Solid Uniform Subgrade 

A plot of ground was secured and upon 
this was laid a 6-inch course of cinders 
thoroughly compacted by rolling. Slabs 3 
feet square were constructed directly upon 
this subgrade, except that after the forms 
had been placed, the subgrade within the 
form was leveled up with a very thin layer 
of sand so that each specimen would have 
a uniform thickness throughout. Portland 
cement concrete slabs were cast 4 and 6 
inches thick, of a i :3 :6 mix. These were 
cured under a cover of moist sand after 
they had set. Some of the concrete slabs 
were then covered with from 2 to 4 inches 
of coarse graded aggregate asphaltic con- 
crete, and some with sheet asphalt with and 
without a binder course. In addition, slabs 
were constructed of asphaltic concrete base 
mixture and covered with either asphaltic 
concrete surface mixture or with sheet as- 
phalt so as to produce total thicknesses di- 
rectly comparable with the Portland cement 
concrete base specimens. At the same time 
corresponding sets of beams 4 feet long and 
10 inches wide were constructed of the same 
type and thickness. In general, the speci- 
mens were tested when the concrete was 28 
days old, although in a few cases they were 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



245 



slightly older when for one reason or an- 
other it was found impossible to keep up 
with the testing schedule which had been 
planned. 

All slabs were tested where they had been 
cast, by means of a machine which was de- 
signed and operated so as to drop a 125- 
pound iron ball upon the center of the upper 
surface from a height of 6 inches at the 
rate of about 30 blows per minute. In all 
cases a specimen was coiisfdered to have 
failed when the first crack appeared. 
Cracks in the Portland cement concrete 
were invariably first noted developing on 
one or more sides of the specimen from the 
plane of contact with the subgrade. Under 
continued impact these cracks traveled to 
the upper surface of the monolith and then 
across the upper surface toward the center. 
The all-Portland cement concrete specimens 
broke into two to four large fragments 
shortly after the first crack appeared, while 
similar slabs with an asphalt top showed 
no cracking of the top after the base had 
failed. The results obtained on check speci- 
mens were in some cases erratic, in others 
quite close together. By averaging results, 
however, the general trend is apparent and 
is closely borne out by results obtained on 
the beam specimens. 

The following diagram shows the resis- 
tance to impact of the various types of slabs 
as measured by the number of blows re- 
quired to produce failure. The dotted ex- 
tensions of the asphalt tops on slabs with a 
Portland cement concrete base show the 
number of blows at which the test was 
stopped, no failure of the top then being ap- 
parent. 

Testing Beams Supported by Knife Edges 

The beams were tested upon steel knife 
edges 3 feet apart with the same machine 
used for testing the slabs, but with a 50- 
pound iron ball dropped from a height of 




15^ inches at the center of the span at the 
rate of about 50 blows per minute. The 
number of blows required to produce the 
first crack was recorded as point of failure. 
In all beam tests complete failure occurred 
within a very few blows after a crack ap- 
peared. The results of these tests are 
shown in the second diagram in the same 
manner as the slab tests. 

In considering these diagrams no attempt 
will be made to draw conclusions based upon 
a comparison of absolute values as here 
shown; in fact, it is frankly admitted that 
such a course would be unwise until many 
more test data are available. It is believed, 
however, that the general similarity in trend 
of the results obtained in both the slab and 
beam tests are highly significant and point 
to interesting facts. What is clearly ap- 
parent for conditions under which these 
specimens were tested may te summed up a? 
follows : 

Asphaltic mixtures develop very decided 
slab and beam strength as measured by their 
resistance to impact. The all-asphalt type 
of slab and beam appears to offer consider- 
ably more resistance to impact than an 
equivalent thickness of 1:3:6 Portland ce- 
ment concrete, considered either as an in- 
tegral structure or as a base for an as- 
phaltic top. 

It is recognized that, unsupported by 
practical service results, deductions drawn 
from these tests might not be conclusive as 
applied to the design of highways for heavy 
traffic. They do, however, help to explain 
the remarkably satisfactory service record 
of the millions of square yards of 4- and 5- 
inch asphaltic concrete pavements in Cali- 
fornia and Oregon, and point the way to a 
more rational development in the design of 
highways in other localities. In summing 
up the substance of this paper, there are a 
few points which the writer wishes to em- 



^^BJt 



1: )£ n 
AsnwjK 
5mt A*HAa 



ZZZan ZZZZZZZEZZZZZZ ZZZZZZ OZZZZZB 



Beams 



» CCM[ar CoNfxETC 

COHCMTi: 



NuMecK Of Ounn 

^SULTS or IMPACT TESTS ON SLABS 



•(UMBER v Blows 



AND BEAMS OF DTTTEEENT MATEEIALS 



246 

phasize : 

Points of Emphasis 

I. Any rational design of highway should 
take into account the fact that the sub- 
grade must ultimately take the weight and 
shock of traffic as transmitted through the 
pavement, and practically any reasonable 
dry subgrade will do this if it is compacted 
and its surface is protected from displace- 
ment. Careful attention to subgrade prepa- 
ration and drainage is therefore the first es- 
sential to be considered. 

2, The asphaltic cojicrete pavement is 
highly resistant to impact, which is recog- 
nized as the most destructive traffic factor, 
and under impact develops as a single unit 
relatively high slab and beam strength. 

3. It is manifestly uneconomical, if not 
impracticable, to adopt a design of highway 
which will permanently bridge appreciable 
areas of weak subgrade. While the asphalt 
type develops bridging action to an appre- 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



ciable extent, it will of itself constantly seek 
to maintain contact with the subgrade at all 
points and thus reinforce itself with the 
maximum supporting value of the subgrade. 
The rigid type of pavement or base cannot 
do this because of its inherent characteris- 
tics. It is therefore almost sure to crack 
eventually where appreciable areas of sub- 
grade fail to support it uniformly. 

4- Both the service history of asphalt 
base pavements and the test data here pre- 
sented indicate that under given conditions 
it is not necessary to adopt as massive a de- 
sign for the flexible type of base as for the 
rigid type. It is difficult for engineers who 
have had no opportunity to observe the as- 
phalt base pavement under heavy traffic to 
think of it in terms of less thickness than 
the rigid base, but in the light of present ex- 
perience such consideration appears to be 
entirely warranted. 

Acknowledgment.— From a paper presented before 
the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia, December, 1920. 



Teach Fire Prevention in the Schools 




KEEP YOUR MATCHES IN PRISON 



— DON'T TURN THEM LOOSE 







ONE REASON FOR THE HIGH 
COST OF LIVING 



Cenrtesy of the National Board of Fire Underwriters 

BLAOKBOAED CARTOONS FOR THE SCHOOLROOM 

AJwost every sclioolroom contains pupils with some talent for drawing. The simple cartoons shown aboV« 
jnay be copied by them upon the blackboardn Ann vin >4ii in 



247 



The Municipal Refuse Destructor at 
Montevideo, Uruguay 

A Successful Experiment in New Principles and Design 

By Robert Balmer 

Sanitary Engineer, New York and Buenos Aires, Argentine 



IN 1915, after an open competition in 
which a number of the best-known Eu- 
ropean destructor firms had taken part, 
a Special Committee of 19, including the 
Mayor of Montevideo, Uruguay, all the 
Commissioners of Department, and a num- 
ber of prominent engineers and sanitarians, 
recommended the erection of a Balmer ref- 
use destructor. After the preliminary sur- 
veys and the preparation of the site, the 
work of construction was begun, and it 
was concluded within five months, on Au- 



antee of 60 long tons per battery was soon 
exceeded by normal operation at 100, long 
tons, with reserve capacity to meet any 
emergency. The public needs are met by 
two batteries. They proved themselves cap- 
able of dealing with the city's whole out- 
put of refuse — garbage, ash, rubbish and 
street sweepings, together with a number 
of special services, such as cremation of 
dead animals, condemned food, commercial 
residuals, etc. 
The destructor station occupies a part 




LOOKING TOWARD THE RESIDENTIAL PORTION OF MONTEVIDEO FROM THE DESTRUCTOR 

Note the proximity of high-quality residences 



gust 25, 1915. One month more was taken 
up with drying out and warming up the 
batteries; then came an official test of two 
months' duration, under the supervision of 
the author, which demonstrated a normal 
excess of 66.6 per cent over the contract 
stipulations. 

Description of Plant 

The plant consists of three batteries of 
three fire-grates each. The original guar- 



of the block between Ejido and Cuareim 
Streets, on a bluff overlooking a handsome 
boulevard or driveway that skirts the river- 
side — a conspicuous position, within seven 
blocks of the City Hall, and calculated to 
put to the severest test the possibility of 
nuisance from this system. 

Regular service under municipal manage- 
ment began January i, 1916, immediately 
after termination of the official trials above 
mentioned. Early in 1917, the City Engi- 



248 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 




THE PRONT or THE BATTERY Or FUENACES AT THE MONTEVIDEO REFUSE DESTRUCTOR 



neer, H. Millot-Grane, issued the official re- 
port for the preceding year. Some brief 
extracts from that report will demonstrate 
the character and extent of the service ren- 
dered during the first year's working. The 
report says: 

"In table A will be found a resume of the 
amount and quality of garbage and refuse re- 
ceived by the destructor during the year 1916, 
the first year of service. This table shows that 
the plant, although only a provisional struc- 
ture built only to test the efficiency of the 
system, received and destroyed without the 
slighest inconvenience all the garbage and 
refuse regularly produced by the city. 

"On the other hand, the elimination and 
destruction of the street sweepings and fish 
residuals bear testimony to the high crema- 
tory power of the batteries." 

A GARBAGE AND REFUSE DESTROYED 1916 



"Table B, complementary of the preceding, 
details some unexpected services rendered by 
the plant. In this direction, during the present 
year, an effort will be made to extend these 
services, making them available to many public 
and private institutions and, in general, to all 
those establishments which are interested in 
quickly getting rid of such refuse as they pro- 
duce in large quantities." 



TABLE B 



SPECIAL SERVICES 



Cartload 


5 Character 


Total Weight 


57,426 




64,443,610 Kilos 


10.415 
2,175 


Street Sweepings 


(141,775,942 lbs.) 

1.432.250 Kilos 

(3,150,950 lbs.) 

„2,176.000 Kilos 


593.. 
373 


Military Barracks 


(4,787,200 lbs). 
_296,000 Kilos 
651,200 lbs.) 
. 186,500 Kilos 


174. . 


Hospitals 


(410.300 lbs.) 
174,000 Kilos 


18.. 

56.. 
152 


Private Individuals .... 
Residuals from the Port 


(382,800 lbs.) 
..9,000 Kilos 
(19,800 lbs.) 
(19,800 lbs.) 
114.000 Kilos 
(250,800 lbs.) 
152,000 Kilos 






(334,400 lbs.) 



Source 


Objects Incinerated 


City Dog-Pound 


2,980 Dogs.. 
45 Sheep 
12 Cows 
1 Horse 


Animal Sanitary Police 


Medical Faculty 


Municipal Chemical Laboratory. . 


Various 

9 Cases of 

Foodstuffs 
$5,664 555 in notes 




etc. 
6 270 kilos (or 13 - 




794 lbs.) of Dupli- 
cates, etc. 



71,383 Cartloads with. 



68.983,360 Kilos 
(151.763.392 lbs) 



"In order to complete these brief notes on 
the incinerating capacity of the Montevideo 
destructor, as exhibited during its first year 
of working, and to give an idea of its intrinsic 
value. Table D is attached, in which may be 
seen its capacity exhibited in comparison with 
the incinerating stations of the greatest sci- 
entific importance as yet known, without ex- 
cepting that of Hamburg, which must be taken 
as the most considerable effort of modern sani- 
tary technique on the matter of garbage and 
refuse disposal. 

"The above consideration may be concluded 
by stating that, according to the technical 
report officially issued under date of September 
19, 1916, by the Institute of Industrial Chemis- 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



249 



TABLE D 


INCINERATION PER UNIT 


1916 


City of 


System 


Number 
of 
Units 


CeUs 

per 

Unit 


Daily Output 
per 
Unit 


Cost of 

Construction 

per Unit 


Weisbaden 

Frankfort 

Furth 

Milwaukee 

Hamburg 

Montevideo 


Dorr 

Herbertz 

Humboldt 

Heenan 

Udhe 

Balmer 


6 

6 

2 

3 

12 

3 


3 


19,500 Kilos 
(42,900 lbs) 
30,000 Kilos 
(66,000 lbs) 
27,500 Kilos 
(60,000 lbs) 
80,000 Kilos 
(176,000 lbs) 
i 44,000 Kilos 
(96.800 lbs) 
*90,000 Kilos 
(198,000 lbs) 


$13,606 
$52,900 
$17,250 
$69,000 
$21,850 
$21,666 



try, the clinker and ash of the Montevideo 
destructor show a perfect incineration of the 
garbage and refuse, or, which is the same, 
an absolute elimination of all organic matter." 

"And Table F exhibits the economy with 
which the plant is operated. In making up 
this last table, we have taken as basis the 
actual working budget of the plant, which 
reaches $28,800 annually, and the cost of amor- 
tization and interest on a capital of $65,000, 
covering the cost of the plant." 

"It is desirable to state here that this low 
cost of construction and operation is due to the 



mechanical simplicity of the Balmer system. 
The complicated apparatus and devices which 
form part of all known systems of destructors 
do not exist in our establishment. Situated 
at a low level, the natural action of gravity 
carries the garbage and refuse down to the 
fire-grates. 

"Another characteristic worthy of mention, 
as representing the economic nature of our 
installation, is its central location with respect 
to the service of collection. The distance of 
seven kilometers, from the centre of the city 
(City Hall) to the disgraceful garbage dump 



TABLE F 


COST OF OPERATION PER 1000 KILOS INCINERATED ANNUALLY (1916) 


City of 


System 


Annual Cost of 

Operation with 

10% Int. & Mort. 


Quantity 

Incinerated 

Annually 


Operating cost 
per 1000 KjIos 
(or long ton) 


Zurich 

Milwaukee 

Frankfort 

Wiesbaden 

Furth 

Hamburg 

Montevideo 


Horsfall 

Heenan 

HerberU 

Dorr 

Humboldt 

Udhe 

Balmer 


$30,820 
81.650 
67.160 
19,205 
11,040 
71,300 
35.000 


20,000 Long Tons 
54,000 " 
46,500 " ' 
17,000 « 
12,000 " 
100,000 " " 
66,000 " 


$1.54 
1.51 
1.45 
1.13 
12.000 0.92 
0.71 
0.53 




WORKMEN'S REST ROOM AT THE MUNICIPAL REFUSE DESTRITCTOB 



250 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



of the Buceo, was reduced, in virtue of the 
new station, to 800 metres. And, in the first 
year of working, it has been proved that, owing 
to this more favorable location, it would be 
possible to reduce to one-half the expense of 
collection and cartage, and thus effect a 
monthly saving sufficient to cover the total 
present cost of working of the station, viz., 
$2,400 monthly, and to cover likewise the 
interest and amortization on the capital em- 
ployed in construction." 

Up to the end of 1920, the destructor sta- 
tion has operated without developing its 
own power. It has now been decided by 
the municipality to install boilers and an 
electric generating plant to utilize the heat 
produced by the furnaces. By the third 
quarter of the current year, the new power 
service should be in full operation. It is 
estimated that each battery will develop a 
minimum of 400 kilowatt capacity. 

Principles of Operation 

A brief reference may now be permitted 
to the underlying principles of the Balmer 
destructor. These had already been put into 
practice in the lOO-ton destructor of Flores, 
Buenos Aires; in the 1,000-ton destructor 
of the Quema, Buenos Aires, and a dozen 
smaller destructors in that and other Argen- 
tine cities. In the Montevideo plant, the 
same principles have the advantage of the 
foregoing practical experience, aided by 
more careful designing and a more esthetic 
setting, expressive of the new social status 
of the service. 

Fundamentally, and espec'ally in dealing 
with serrii-tropical refuse, where ash is 
practically non-existent and where garbage 
constitutes an excessively high percentage, 
the Balmer destructor depends for its sani- 
tary efficiency on the development and util- 
ization of hitherto unappreciated and neg- 



lected elements in the refuse itself. By fer- 
mentation of organic constituents, displace- 
ment and expulsion of accompanying mois- 
ture, volatilization of hydrocarbons, and 
even oxidation of metals, — all aided by the 
application of waste heat from the combus- 
tion chamber, — a molecular readjustment is 
effected, which transforms the character of 
organic refuse to a combustible ; its ignition 
becomes easy, and it develops high tempera- 
tures. It is true that, under this treatment 
in the pioneer installations, some unusual 
phenomena presented themselves: spontane- 
ous combustion of the refuse in storage, 
and the production of explosive gaseous 
mixtures, with violent dilatation in the air- 
flues and in the furnace itself. These 
phenomena, while exceedingly inconvenient 
under the conditions of the first installa- 
tions, were very convincing signs of the ex- 
istence of considerable caloric potentials in 
ordinary city refuse, which only required 
adequate measures for their utilization to 
insure a perfect sanitary service and an 
abundant source of power. 

Tiie Collection System Used 

It may be noted here that in both capital 
cities above mentioned, the improvement in 
the service of final disposal of refuse re- 
acted automatically in the creation of a 
higher standard for the vehicles of collec- 
tion and transport of the refuse. A cov- 
ered type of van was at once developed, 
which effectually kept the refuse out of 
sight and provided shelter for the driver 
in all weathers. The service became less 
an ocular and olfactory offense, and soon 
gained the toleration and then the respect 
of the average citizen. 



Assessments for Street Sprinkling 



IN Hartford, Conn., it is customary to 
assess the cost of street sprinkling or oil- 
ing or flushing, as the case may be. 
The cost for this work for the fiscal year 
ending March 31, 1920, was $61,538.61. The 
rates charged were 6 cents per foot front- 
age for paved streets flushed every night 
and 4 cents for paved streets flushed less 
than every night, and 4^^ cents for macadam 
streets. In all, iii miles of streets, or 222 
miles of street frontage, are figured in the 
assessment. The assessment as prepared 



by the Department of Engineering, filled 700 
legal cap typewritten pages, which listed 
13,448 names of property owners. Of late 
years it has been the custom to substitute 
oil for water on all macadam streets, and 
especially where sand is added. The mat 
which is formed protects the road and 
many times does away with the necessity 
of redressing it. This cost might better be 
charged up to maintenance instead of being 
assessed against the individual property 
owners. 



251 



Aeroplane Map Used by City Planners 

in Dallas 

By Major Edward A. Wood 



IN order that the city planner may make 
his studies, many kinds of maps and 
drawings are necessary to show the re- 
lation of one section of the city to another. 
Natural as well as artificial features must 
be shown — watercourses, hills, valleys, 
wooded areas, railroad lines, streets and 
highways, buildings, etc. Usually these fea- 
tures are delineated by means of a topo- 
graphical map, requiring months and even 
years to make. A photograph, however, 
shows much more clearly than any map 
both natural and artificial features, and it is 
here that the map made by aerial photog- 
raphy surpasses any map drawn by hand, 
because it shows the landscape with its 
innumerable details and enables the city 
planner to visualize the scene. 

In the zoning of a city, the "mosaic" or 
aeroplane map is particularly valuable, be- 
cause it shows so clearly the existing use of 
the land, the height of buildings, shadows 
cast by the very high buildings, the rela- 



tion of the streets and highways one to an- 
other, the absence of direct connecting 
streets, the railway lines, terminals, indus- 
trial districts, etc. Taking it all in all, 
probably there is no one single map of as 
much value to the city planner as the 
"mosaic." 

Making the "Mosaic" 

Dallas is particularly fortunate in pos- 
sessing such a map. In March, 1920, when 
city planning began to assume definite form 
in this city. Mayor Frank W. Wozencraft 
and Fire and Police Commissioner L. E. 
McGee asked Colonel Burwell, Command- 
ant of Love Field, if a map of Dallas might 
not be made by aviators for the use of the 
City Planning Commission. The matter 
was finally arranged, and a De Haviland 
bomber, piloted by Lieut. M. J. Plumb, win- 
ner of the New York to Toronto race, ar- 
rived in Dallas early in April. Lieut. C. H. 
Billet, Photographic Officer, U. S. Air 




A£BOFLAinS VIEW OF DAT.T.AS, TEX. 



252 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



Service, after experimenting with the den- 
sity of the light, etc., selected an altitude of 
6,000 feet and began the making of the big 
map; 378 plates in all were exposed, and 
the taking of the pictures was limited to the 
hours between 10 A. M. and 2 P. M., to 
avoid shadows. Prominent streets were 
selected as guiding lines, and the giant 
bombing plane, adapted to a more peaceful 
occupation than bombing, flew back and 
forth along these parallels, accurately 
recording every detail of the landscape. 

One of the greatest advantages of aerial 
photography is the rapidity with which the 
work may be done, provided bad weather 
does not interfere. And yet the task is a 
difficult one for the pilot, for the ship must 
keep an even pull and a direct course. Fur- 
thermore, the same altitude must be main- 
tained, else the pictures will not have the 
same proportions. 

After the prints have been made comes 
the tedious part of the task, for every print 
must be carefully trimmed to fit its neighbor 



and pasted so as to maintain a proper scale. 
In this manner the "mosaic" is made, the 
name being derived from the many pictures 
that go to make up the completed map. 

The Dallas map is about 5 feet by 8 and 
includes 52 square miles of territory. This 
covers areas that are not as yet included 
within the city limits, but which some day 
will be occupied by the city. The map will 
be valuable in projecting new additions. 

Primarily the map was made for the 
City Planning Commission, to be used in its 
work. It will first be used in connection 
with the zoning of the city, and later in 
planning major and minor street systems, 
street widening and street extension proj- 
ects, relocation of freight terminals, the 
flood control of the Trinity River, location 
of parks and boulevards, and many other 
city improvements. Already the Fire Com- 
missioner has used this map to locate several 
new fire stations, and, according to George 
E. Kessler, City Plan Consultant for Dallas, 
the uses of such a map are legion. 



Atlanta Children at Play 




"THE OLD WOMAN WHO UVED IN A SHOE" 
With an area of only 26 square miles, Atlanta, Cra., has 18 public parks and playgrounds 



253 



Housing Conditions in American City 

Schools 



A REPORT on the finding of a national 
survey on housing conditions in 
American city schools has just been 
published. This survey is the second in the 
series of studies of conditions in urban 
schools which is being conducted by the 
National Committee for Chamber of Com- 
merce Cooperation with the Public Schools, 
and the American City Bureau' 

Four hundred and twenty-nine cities have 
participated in this survey. The purpose of 
this wide cooperation between civic and 
commercial organizations ivith city school 
officials is to assist in the study and develop- 
ment of the local school program based 
upon carefully assembled facts. When the 
American people come to a full realization 
of the present emergency they can be 
counted upon to provide the support neces- 
sary for the maintenance and development 
of our public school system. 

Public school enrollment, size of classes, 
school buildings and grounds, and local 
taxation in support of schools vitally afifect 
the efficiency of our public schools. The 
results of this inquiry upon all of these mat- 
ters will be found in this report. The find- 
ings presented here show that we have 
failed to provide education for all of the 
youth of America, and that there are tens 
of thousands of children now housed in old, 
unsanitary, dangerous buildings. The fol- 
lowing is a summary of this survey. 

Summary of Report 

Attendance 

1. The report is based on facts given by 
429 cities out of about 950 cities in the 
United States whose population exceeds 
8,000. The population of the cities reporting 
is 70 per cent of the total population of this 
group. 

2. A growth of 21 per cent in the school 
population of these cities in six years has 
greatly increased the demands upon school 
plants; 19 per cent of all these children leave 
school before they are 14, and 64 per cent 
before they are 16 years of age. If this 
growth in school population continues, or 
this heavy elimination can be checked in any 
considerable degree, the congestion in the 
school plants will become so acute as prac- 



tically to block the carrying out of the edu- 
cational program. 

Sise of Classes 

3. Lack of building accommodation is 
mainly responsible for large classes: 40 per 
cent of all elementary school classes have 
40 or more pupls each ; 20 per cent of all 
kindergarten classes have more than 50 
pupils; II per cent of all junior and senior 
high school classes exceed 35 pupils each. 
In such large classes the individual pupil 
cannot be given the care and personal in- 
struction to which he is entitled. 

Playgrounds 

4. Very little playground space is pro- 
vided for city school children. Half the 
children reported have less than a 6 by 6 
foot plot each for their recreational and 
athletic activities. Only 19 per cent of 
them have as much as the standard mini- 
mum of 100 square feet. The most favored 
child of the lowest fourth has only 12 square 
feet, less than is allotted to him in the class- 
room. 

Buildings 

5. Half the children reported are housed 
in buildings, with their additions, erected 
more than 22 years ago. One building of 
every four now in use was built before 
1886. Most of the buildings housing half 
of these children are unsanitary, inade- 
quately lighted, badly heated and ventilated, 
and do not have rooms that can be con- 
verted properly into the shops, laboratories 
and gymnasiums which are essential to the 
kind of education now demanded in pro- 
gressive cities. 

6. A large number of the school systems 
have too many small buildings either for 
economy of administration or effective 
grouping of the pupils. Half the elemen- 
tary school buildings do not exceed ten 
rooms each, and one-fourth of them have 
six rooms or fewer. 

7. Very few school buildings are fire- 
proof: 44 per cent of all buildings reported 
have brick or masonry walls, but the ma- 
terial of all floors, ceilings, partitions and 
stairways is combustible; 21 per cent are 



254 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



wooden frame buildings. At least 30 per 
cent of the children in these cities are 
housed in buildings of more than one story 
of these two types just described. Only 5 
per cent of the total number of buildings 
are of the types of construction usually 
called fire-proof. 

8. Although this large percentage of 
school buildings are non-fire-proof, only a 
small number have fireproofing elements to 
lessen the fire hazard to the children. In 
only 18 per cent of the two poorest types of 
buildings is the heating apparatus in a fire- 
proof enclosure. At least 25 per cent of the 
buildings of these two types are of two or 
more stories and do not have a fire-escape. 
Thirty-nine per cent of these two types are 
without fire-extinguishers, and less than 10 
per cent of them have automatic sprinkler 
equipment in any part of the buildings. 
Only 1 1 per cent have automatic fire alarms. 
Such facts as these demonstrate the exist- 
ence of a real menace to the children of 
these cities. 

9. Thousands of children in these cities 
are housed in makeshift buildings unsuited 
to school use, or are on half-time because 
of lack of space: 130,000 children are using 
portables; there are 43,000 in rented dwell- 
ings, stores and lofts; 55,000 are in annexes; 



8,000 are in halls and corridors, and 3,000 
in attics; 31,000 are in basements which are 
inadequately lighted and more than 3 feet 
below the ground level; 248,000 children in 
these cities are on half-time. Seventy-five 
per cent of the cities report one or more 
of these types of congestion. Over 600 new 
30-room buildings are required to correct 
this one phase of congestion in the schools 
of these cities. 

Expenditure and Tax Rates 

10. These cities vary widely in their tax 
rate for school purposes and in their an- 
nual expenditure per pupil attending school. 
The median tax rate allowed for school 
purposes is $15 per thousand of the assessed 
valuation. Half of these cities allow a rate 
between $9 and $25 per thousand. The 
range for all cities reporting is from $1.60 
to $60. The amount of income from local 
taxation for each pupil attending any kind 
of school in the city last year ranges from 
$16.50 to $132. The median for all cities 
reporting is $56.89. The middle half of 
these cities expend between $45 and $71 per 
pupil. 



Editorial Note. — Copies of the report can be ob- 
tained from the publishers, the American City Bureau, 
Tribune Building, New York, N. Y. 



The Unifying Influence of Community 

Music 




WITH A POPTTPLATIGN OP 2,000, LUTSSBOBO, KANS., PBIDES ITSELP ON A OOMBrONITT 
CHOEUS OF MOBE THAN 600. SINCE 1882 THE RENDITION OP HANDEL'S "MESSIAH" HAS 
BEEN A TEABLY FEATUBE IN THE TOWN. THE ANNUAL EASTEB FESTIVAL IS ONE OF THE 
MOST IMPOBTANT MUSICAL EVENTS IN THE MIDDLE WEST. SINGLE FAMILIES ABE 
BEPBESENTED BY THREE GENEEATIONS IN THE CHOBUS 



255 



forward y^tops 

Reported to THE AMERICAN CITY 

bpjfunicipal Officials 6^ Department Jfoads 



(jtty Managers 



Municipal Water Plant Helps Pay 
City Manager's Salary 

Westerville, O. — This city adopted the 
city manager form of government by a char- 
ter which became effective in January, 1916, 
and the present manager has held office since 
September, 1917. Under this plan of city 
administration a very satisfactory record 
has been made by the municipally owned 
water-works and the light and power plant. 

During the past year the first big step 
toward carrying out the new water-works 
program was completed, namely, the con- 
struction of a 20-foot-diameter reinforced 
concrete well, 31 feet in depth, laying about 
one mile of 6-inch cast iron force main, and 
erecting a 200,000-gallon steel water-tank 
and tower. This tower, shown in the accom- 
panying photograph, was furnished and 
erected by the Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel 
Company. 

The policy of the present administration 
has been to make as many improvements to 
the utilities as possible from the earnings. 
When the city manager administration took 
office in 1916 it inherited several thousand 
dollars of indebtedness in the water and 
light departments. The close of the year 
1920 shows that the earnings of these plants 
have paid for approximately $35,000 worth 
of improvements, enlargements and repairs, 
and that meanwhile the operation of the 
utilities has been kept strictly within their 
incomes. 

Although the population of Westerville 
(3,000) has increased by only several hun- 
dred during the last five years, the excellent 
service of the municipally owned utilities 
has more than doubled the number of light 
and power consumers, which has neces- 
sitated considerable outlay to provide for 



the growth. This has been met from the 
department's income. It is believed that the 
light and power is cheaper to the consumer 
than that of the average municipally or pri- 
vately owned utility. 

The writer is heartily in favor of mu- 
nicipally owned water, light, gas, sewage 
and other utilities, provided they are prop- 
erly managed. Even small municipalities 
should be able to employ an expert 
manager and pay at least three-fourths of 




THE CONICAL BOTTOM AIDS MATEEIALIiY IN 
SETTLING SEDIMENT TO BOTTOM OF 
RISEE PIPE OR MUD DRtM 

his salary and all the salaries of his assist- 
ants from the earnings of its utilities, be- 
sides having the benefits of this executive's 
time and experience for the other depart- 
ments of the corporation. The water and 
light department of Westerville pays $2,- 
025 toward the city manager's salary. 

Without a paying water and light plant, 
Westerville could not employ a city manager 
and keep within a reasonable tax rate. 

R. W. OREBAUGH, 

City Manager. 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



Departments 
of Education 



Teaching Accident Prevention 

Detroit, Mich. — Two years ago the 
Board of Education of Detroit, upon recom- 
mendation of the Superintendent, made 
safety education one of the subjects of the 
school curriculum. The first year was 
spent in an attempt to develop this subject 
through a part-time supervisor and a com- 
mittee of teachers. At the end of the first 
year the social importance of the subject 
was more fully realized and a full-time 
supervisor was appointed. The alarming 
and increasing number of accidents to 
school children on the streets of the city 
served to emphasize the need of work along 
this line. 

To the Department of Safety Education 
was assigned the business of studying the 
causes of accidents to children in the streets, 
playgrounds and homes, of building up a 
course of study to teach accident prevention 
in every grade, of organizing all the safety 
work in the public schools, and of co- 
operating in every possible way with the 
Police Department, the Fire Department, 
and with other civic activities concerned 
with public safety and welfare. Without 
text-books or precedents to follow, the De- 
partment of Safety Education made a care- 
ful study and analysis of the accident re- 
ports furnished to the Board of Education 
by the Detroit Police Department. These 
reports not only revealed the seriousness of 
a situation that in twelve months caused the 
injury or death of 1,097 school children in 
the city, but furnished valuable, definite in- 
formation about the causes and types of 
such accidents. They showed, for example, 
that the younger children need careful in- 
struction and frequent practice in safe ways 
of crossing the street ; that foreign children 
are in many cases the accident victims ; that 
accidents to boys from twelve to fourteen 
years of age are usually the result of bicycle 
riding or hitching; that instruction in home 
safety is greatly needed to reduce the num- 
ber of preventable accidents and deaths 
caused by falls, scalding, firearms, etc. 

Experiments were carried on in various 
grades and schools in order to find out how 



to teach safety in a manner suited to the 
natural interest and ability of the children 
and helpful to the teachers. Every teacher 
was found to be attempting to teach acci- 
dent prevention in some way or other, and 
many of the teachers have contributed use- 
ful ideas. As a result of these experiments 
a course of study has been prepared and is 
now a part of the curriculum of the public 
schools from the kindergarten through the 
eighth grade. It covers the principles of 
accident prevention, fire prevention, health 
conservation, first aid, and community civ- 
ics, adapted to each grade. Safety is not 
taught as a separate subject and does not 
impose an additional burden upon the 
teacher, but safety topics are suggested for 
use in the regular subjects of the classroom, 
and are welcomed by the teachers, s'nce they 
provide motivation and appeal to the inter- 
est of the children in their various studies — 
language, drawing, civics, arithmetic, and 
especially dramatics. These topics avoid all 
morbid features of accidents and emphasize 
the constructive side of safety. 

In the lower grades, games are used to 
teach the children the right way to cross the 
street and give them a working knowledge 
of the rules of the road. Starting with the 
traffic policeman and the pedestrian, both 
represented by children, the game is gradu- 
ally elaborated to include automobiles, 
trucks, street cars and motor-cycles. The 
front part of the school represents the main 
avenue nearest to the schools, aisles the side 
streets, and chalk marks on the floor repre- 
sent the curbs, street car tracks, and safety 
zones. Some children in their seats are 
"tall buildings with the traffic going on 
around them." Semaphores for the use of 
the younger children in their traffic games 
are made by the older boys in the manual 
training classes. One teacher of a first 
grade asked her pupils to request their 
parents to look out for little boys and girls 
who might be waiting to cross the street, 
and take them safely across. The next 
time the children played a traffic game, every 
one wanted to be a "father taking some It- 
tle child across the street." Thus very 
early the idea of service to others is devel- 
oped, and in many other lessons the same 
thing occurs, without conscious effort on the 
part of the teacher to emphasize that ob- 
jective. 

The teaching of accident prevention lends 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CllY 



257 



itself admirably to the various forms of 
language work, oral and written composi- 
tion, letter writing, and reading. The sav- 
ing of life is a subject that children are 
eager to talk about. They discuss acci- 
dents that have come within their experi- 
ence, describe ways of avoiding such acci- 
dents, tell what they are doing to help 
safety, compare safe places to play in with 
unsafe places, safe toys with unsafe toys, 
all with such lively interest that the teach- 
er's only difficulty is to direct the dis- 
cussions into the most helpful channels, and 
emphasize the constructive side of safety. 

Drawings by k"ndergarten and first-grade 
children illustrating safety at the street 
crossing show that the children have a 
clear idea of the four corners, the traffic 
policeman who helps pedestrians across, 
and people waiting for the signal, and some 
children even add an automobile or two to 
their drawing. Although in these crude 
sketches other persons are represented with- 
out arms, the policeman never fails to be 
provided with these useful appendages, and 
with blue uniform, buttons and badge as 
well. In the minds of kindergarten chil- 
dren the idea ot a uniform is already estab- 
lished and they may be given a conception 
of the other uniforms with which they are 
familiar, that of the postman, fireman, 
street cleaner, etc. In this way an intelli- 
gent and helpful attitude toward public 
service is developed, and the foundation 
laid for good citizenship. 

The course of study pro- 
vides for safety clubs and 
organizations for safety 
by the pupils themselves, 
for cooperation with the 
Fire Department, in efforts 
to reduce the fire loss, 
which in Detroit amounts 
to more than four million 
dollars annually, and for 
participation by the chil- 
dren in all civic enter- 
prises. 

The records of the De- 
troit Police Department 
show the results of a year 
of accident prevention 
work by the Department 
of Safety Education : 



Fatal accidents to school 
children 

Serious accidents to school 
children 

Minor accidents to school 
children 



Sept. 1, 1918 

to 
Sept. 1, 1919 

96 



837 



Sept. 1, 1919 

to 
Sept. 1, 1920 

48 

102 

439 

589 



Total 1,097 

HARRIET E. BEARD, 
Supervisor, Department of Safety Education. 



Public ^^orks 
Departments 



Auxiliary Garbage-Gollection 
Equipment on Ash Wagons 

WiNNETKA, III. — In this city garbage and 
ashes were formerly collected in separate 
equ'pment. It was noted, however, that the 
amount of garbage collected on any one 
route during the winter months was con- 
s'derably less than the amount collected on 
the same route during the summer months. 
The absence of alleys in Winnetka made it 
necessary to work the two equipments to- 
gether, namely, one ash wagon and one 
garbage wagon, in order to operate with 
only two men on each route. It was found 
that by fitting each ash wagon with the 
auxiliary carrying equipment shown in the 
illustration it was possible to do without 
garbage carts entirely during the winter 
months, thus saving the hire of five horses 
per day. 




THIS SIMPLE EQUIPMENT MAKES IT POSSIBLE TO DO WITHOUT 
SPECIAL GARBAGE CARTS IN WINTER 



258 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



The construction of the equipment is very 
simple, as it consists only of two metal con- 
tainers of heavy galvanized sheet iron w^ith 
reinforced corners and edges, supported by 
an angle-iron rack hung from the top of the 
ash wagon and clipped securely to the rear 
axle. This equipment has worked out very 
successfully and merely requires the proper 
bracing of the rear of the wagons used so 
that they will not be injured by the weight 
of the garbage and the containers. 

W. A. GIBBON, 
Superintendent of Public Works. 



Puhlic^olfare 
Departments 



Recreational Activities Coordinated 

Houston, Tex. — The boards of Commu- 
nity Service and of the Recreation Bureau of 
the Department of Public Welfare of the 
city of Houston were recently consolidated. 
They made a combined appeal to the Mayor 
and Council that a full department of the 
city government be created to supersede the 
previously existing bureau. This request 
was granted on January 24, and an ordi- 
nance establishing the Department of Re- 
creation and Community Service was 
passed. 

The ordinance creates a Board of Com- 
missioners of eleven members, of which the 
Superintendent of Schools, the Superinten- 
dent of Parks, the City Librarian, the City 
Health Officer, and the Director of Public 
Welfare are ex-officio members. Thus the 
recreational activities of the city are co- 
ordinated. 

The ordinance provides that all children's 
playgrounds, indoor recreation centers, play 
fields, gymnasiums, public baths, comfort 
stations, and other recreational properties 
now owned and controlled by the city of 
Houston, or that may hereafter be estab- 
lished or acquired by the city, shall be under 
the control and management of the new 
commission. The power of the School 
Board or the Park Board to veto the use of 
any of their respect"ve buildings or grounds 
for recreational purposes is preserved to 
those boards. The ordinance also gives 
power to the new commission to conduct 
recreational activities on or in private prop- 



erties with the consent of the owners. The 
new department has powe^ to receive dona- 
tions, legacies, or bequests for the improve- 
ment or maintenance of its playgrounds or 
recreational properties. 

Having secured the creation of the new 
recreation commission, the former boards 
of the Recreation Bureau and Community 
Service then organized themselves into a 
new voluntary association to be known as 
the Recreation and Community Service As- 
sociation of Houston, for the purpose of 
supplementing municipal appropriations 
from voluntary contributions, in order that 
a larger consolidated and well-coordinated 
program of public recreation may be de- 
veloped in this city. 

H. WIRT STEELE, 
Director of Public Welfare. 



Jfpcreaiion 
Departments 



A Recreational Center Which 
Teaches Self-Government 

Rochester, N. Y. — A plan for community 
work aimed at developing boys into useful 
cit'zens is being worked out by a group of 
Rochester citizens who have enlisted the aid 
of educational authorities. Business men 
who are backers of the plan have insisted 
on remaining anonymous. 

An evening recreation center for boys 
from 12 to 15 years old, in which instruc- 
tion will be given not only in games and 
athletics, but also in self-government, has 
just been opened as an adjunct to the public 
night schools. This recreation center plan 
is an experiment in Americanization. The 
school in which the center is being con- 
ducted is in one of the foreign districts of 
the city. The work of this center is under 
the immediate supervision of the director 
of the department of physical education of 
the public schools. Classes will be held for 
two hours in the evening once a week. 

Boy students at both day and night 
schools, and working boys, will be admitted 
to the classes. They are divided into three 
groups, according to age, and each evening 
is divided into four periods so that individ- 
uals may take part in all four classes each 
evening. 

The first class takes up gymnasium work, 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



259 



with train'ng in basketball, mass athletic 
work to fit the boys for later competi- 
tion, also wrestling and mass games of 
many sorts which have proved effective in 
training boys both mentally and physically. 
The second class is held in the game room 
and plays chess, checkers, shuffleboard, and 
pool. The third class is known as the self- 
government group, and gives training in 
parliamentary law, the conduct of meetings, 
and extemporaneous speaking, all of which 
will aid in turning out good American citi- 
zens. The practical application of what is 
learned to the problems arising out of the 
organization of the center as a whole, is 
the aim of this class. The fourth class 
takes up a special activity each week, such 
as Boy Scout work, motion pictures. Safety 
First, thrift, etc. 

HERMAN J. NORTON, 
Director, Department of Physical Education of 
the Public Schools. 



fire 

£)epartments 



A Sati factory Fire Sigoal 

Bridgeport, Conn. — The city of Bridge- 
port has installed and uses for fire signals 
eleven Klaxon horns in different sections of 
the city. They have been in use for six or 
eight years, giving excellent service and 
demonstrating their effectiveness in clearing 
the streets. They are operated from fire 
alarm headquarters; those in the center of 
the city through a uniform time relay, 
which is cut in at headquarters on a closed 
tapper circuit and is operated by a 20-volt 
storage battery through a switchboard. 
There is a duplicate set of batteries in re- 
serve. In testing, the record is made on the 
outgoing register, in the same manner as 
for the alarms going to the engine houses, 
which furnishes a check on the condition of 
the circuit. 

The open-circuit side has a duplicate set 
of twelve storage batteries that run to each 
of the seven horns operated from head- 
quarters to a 4-ohm open-circuit relay, lo- 
cated in the horn box on the pedestal. There 
are ten weather-proof Columbia dry cells 
in each horn box to operate the horn. Us- 
ing a relay and batteries at the location of 
a horn enables one to make all necessary 
tests in cleaning and adjusting a horn with- 




in CASE OF FIRE, THESE HOBNS EFFEC- 
TIVELT CLEAB THE STREETS 

out disturbing any other horn. 

There is a push button key on the tele- 
phone desk at fire headquarters, and when 
the apparatus responds to a still alarm, a 
signal of 2-2 is keyed out by the operator 
without leaving his chair. The accompany- 
ing picture shows the pedestal with horn, 
fire and police box, and signal light, which 
is flashed by a motor-driven transmitter at 
police headquarters. There are forty-eight 
of these lights. The globes have the words 
"Fire Alarm" or "Police" on them, as the 
case may be. When not being flashed, a 
steady light is shown. 

This fire alarm device was worked out in 
the Bridgeport Fire Department, and has 
proved exceedingly satisfactory. 

ARTHUR E. PLATT, 
Superintendent, Fire Alarm Telegraph and Police 
Signal System-. 



26o 



forwardSteps^^'^^ 



Children as Home Fire Inspectors 

Columbus, Ohio. — The American home 
is- a sacred precinct, not open to invasion, 
and yet it is a prolific source of fire loss and 
death. The child is the Ink that binds the 
school and the home together, the teacher 
being practically the mother during school 
hours. Under the Russell Law, fire preven- 
tion must be taught in the Ohio schools, and 
since this is so, why not use the child as the 
means of getting the vital doctr'ne into the 
home? 

From this train of reasoning was born 
the Home Inspection Blank idea. The city 
of Columbus tried it out in one of her 
"Clean up, Spade up, and Keep it up" cam- 
paigns. The result was at once astounding 
and satisfactory. This blank took in not 
only the fire hazards, but also the hazards to 
life and limb, and the beautification of the 
home and its surroundings. Perhaps this 
was going too far, since a few of the parents 
objected to questions they considered im- 
pertinent, and yet a large percentage of the 
questions were answered. For instance : 

It is difficult to have removed from homes 
the deadly rubber tube connecting service 
pipes with different types of natural gas 
stoves and heaters. Especially is this a 
delicate task in private home bathrooms 
and bedrooms. The ch'ldren found these 
menaces, and inspectors of th's department 
and the fire department removed them. It is 
true that some were immediately replaced, 
since neither this department nor the fire- 
men had a right to destroy them, but in the 
majority of cases the lesson of the danger 
had been driven home and — stuck! 

To make a long story short, each school 
child, no matter of what grade, was given 
a blank by h's teacher and told to fill it out. 
The teachers cooperated with this depart- 
ment and the Fire Prevention Committee of 
the Chamber of Commerce having charge 
of the local clean-up. Over 5,000 hazards 
were found. Those pertaining to health 
were referred to the proper city department. 
Boy and Girl Scouts also did splendid serv- 
ice. Fire chiefs of other cities used the 
idea, simplifying or adding to it to meet 



local conditions. The next time the blanks 
were used there was less parental opposi- 
tion. A copy of the blank follows : 

HOME INSPECTION BLANK FOR SCHOOL 
CHILDREN 



Ordered by the Fire Chief 

The teacher is requested to give one of these sheets 
to each of her pupils to take home. The questions 
should be answered by the pupil with the help of the 
parents and returned to the teacher on the following 
day. The teacher should take up the sheets when 
properly filled out and turn them over to the fire 
chief; they are not intended for the insurance com- 
panies. 



QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED: 



Name Town 

Street and No 

Is there any rubbish, such as old papers, broken 

furniture, etc., in the attic ? 

Is there any rubbish or scattered kindling in the 

basement or cellar ? 

Is there any inflammable rubbish in the yard?... 
Are floors under stoves protected by metal or 

otherwise ? 

Are walls, ceilings and partitions protected from 

overheating of stoves, furnaces and pipes? 

How do you dispose of your ashes? 

Do you keep your matches away from heat and 

out of the reach of children ? 

What is the material of the house and the 

roof ? 

Is the foundation enclosed? 

Are chimneys in good repair ? 

When were they last cleaned ? 

Do stovepipes pass through attic or closets? 

If there are any unused stovepipe holes, how 

are they covered ? 

Do you ever keep or use gasoline in the house?. . 
Do you use a gasoline or kerosene stove for any 

purpose ? 

How is your "house heated ? 

Are any gas connections made with rubber tub- 
ing? 

Name all the purposes for which kerosene is 
used in your home 



20 . Do you use a "dustless" oil mop ? 

If so, where do you keep it when not in use. 



10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 

15. 
16. 

17. 
18. 



?1 . Do you use electric smoothing irons? 

22. Name any other fire hazard in or about your 
h ome 

23. Have you any fire extinguishers? 

24. Where is the fire alarm box nearest your 
home ? 

25. Do you know how to turn in an alarm? 

In Columbus, the way to the home through 
the school child had been admirably paved 
by Lieutenant Glenn A. Beall of the local 
Fire Department. 

In addition to the inspect-on blanks, it is 
now proposed to present an attractive badge, 
engraved "School Fire Chief," to the best 
posted scholar in the several schools. After 
a reasonable time these badges will be open 
to competitive examination. 

WILL C. PARSONS. 
Division of Fire Prevention and Publicity, Ohio 
State Fire Marshal's Department. 



±6i 



Organization of the Sewerage and Water 
Board of New Orleans 

Long-Term Appointive Board Proves Effective in the Administration of Water- 
Supply and Drainage Systems 



THE drainage and water-supply prob- 
lems to be overcome in New Orleans 
have been difficult and unusual and 
have presented many opportunities, if not 
necessities, for unusual treatment. The fact 
that their treatment has been in the hands 
of men who have developed with and by 
their work and who have in mind all of the 
local experience and difficulties of the past 
to guide them in the maintenance, operation 
and extension of the work in the future, has 
been a most important factor in the success 
and economy of the results thus obtained. 
The Sewerage and Water Board of New 
Qrleans, a long-term appointive board in 
charge of this work, is composed of 13 mem- 
bers, as follows: 

1. Seven members, one from each of the 
seven municipal districts into which the city is 
divided, who must be a resident and property 
taxpayer of said district. These members are 
appointed by the Mayor, with the approval of 
the City Council, for 14-year terms, so that, 
except for deaths, resignations or removal 
from the districts which they represent, a va- 
cancy occurs only once every two years. In 
case of a vacancy for an unexpired term, said 
vacancy is filled for the period of the unex- 
pired term, so that the regular term dates are 
not disarranged. Reappointment is rather the 
rule in case of expiration of terms. 

2. Two members of the Board are ex-officio 
members because of their membership on the 
Board of Liquidation of the City Debt, a life 
board, which elects to fill its own vacancies, 
namely, the President of the Board of Liquida- 
tion and one other member. 

3. Three designated members of the City 
Commission and the Mayor of the city are ex- 
officio members of the Sewerage and Water 
Board, and the Mayor is ex-officio President of 
the Board. 

The members of the Board receive no 
salaries or compensation in any way from 
the Board, nor do the members of the Board 
of Liquidation. The Mayor and members 
of the Commission Council of course receive 
regular salaries. 

The Sewerage and Water Board was or- 
ganized in 1899. At that time the City 
Drainage Commission, which was somewhat 
similarly constituted, had existed since 
1897, ^^^ ii^ 1903 there was a final merging 



of the two boards into the Sewerage and 
Water Board, constituted as above de- 
scribed, and the drainage work was also 
placed under the jurisdiction of the Sewer- 
age and Water Board. 

The result of the above procedure has 
been that the original employes of the 
Drainage Commission and the first employes 
of the Sewerage and Water Board taken 
on from 1900 to 1903 constituted the nu- 
cleus of the force used to develop all three 
systems. Nearly all the men occupying the 
most responsible positions in connection 
with all three systems have come up by pro- 
motion from these original forces. No one 
has ever lost his position or failed of pro- 
motion because of any political considera- 
tion. 

At present the demand for service is over- 
taking the capacity of the present system, 
and the funds available for further improve- 
ments are too limited, with present material 
and labor cost, to permit the Board to main- 
tain such margins of safety as should really 
exist in the services over which it has juris- 
diction. This necessitates conditions for 
both operation and improvement which de- 
mand the most intimate knowledge of the 
systems by the forces in charge, in order to 
have the greatest possible amount of service 
for every expenditure and still keep every- 
th'ng moving toward proper and logical 
ultimate developments. 

A Wise Policy' 

The original general main drainage plans 
prepared in 1895, ^^id the sewerage and 
water plans developed from 1900 to 1903 and 
built mainly from 1903 to 1909, have all 
three proved themselves admirably adapted 
to meet the local difficulties, and the gradual 
construction and extension of all three sys- 
tems have conformed closely to these general 
plans, which in no case attempted to dictate 
so minutely the procedure of the future as 
to preclude such improvements as experience 
and changing conditions might require. 

There has, therefore, never been anything 
Ike a change of policy or administration on 



262 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



the part of the Sewerage and Water Board, 
but the whole development from the first in- 
ception of the drainage system, the con- 
struction of which was started in 1897, has 
been carried on harmoniously with a gradu- 
ally expand ng force to meet the expanding 
fields of work — first design, then construc- 
tion, then maintenance and operation, with 
extensions and improvements, all with the 
unanimous belief that every dollar of ex- 
penditure was of service for the greatest 
number of people. 

The expenditure for the construction of 
the three systems out of the Sewerage and 
Water Board construction fund have ag- 
gregated about $30,000,000 to date ; the cost 
of maintain"ng and operating the three sys- 
tems was $1,089,000 for 1919, having gradu- 
ally increased to that amount from $743,000 
in 191 5 on account of the increased material 



and labor costs, and increased amounts of 
service required of all three systems. In all 
of these expenditures there has never once 
been even a suspicion of any graft or any 
impropriety on the part of any member or 
any employe of the Board. 

All of the above would seem to indicate 
the wisdom of having commissioners ap- 
pointed for longer terms than that of the 
city administration. It was the obvious and 
expressed intention of the law creating the 
Sewerage and Water Board, that its salaried 
employes should hold their positions in- 
definitely, so long as there was need for 
their services and they were competently 
performing such service, and that vacancies 
should be filled as far as possible by promo- 
tion. There has as yet been no tendency to 
follow any other course. 



Art Suggestions for American Homes and Communities 



Realizing the vital importance of home 
surroundings as a background for develop- 
ing American life. The American Federa- 
tion of Arts, a national organization of 252 
chapters and thousands of individual mem- 
bers throughout the country, has in circula- 
tion two interior decoration exhibitions giv- 
ing color and arrangement schemes for 
home furnishings; several exhibitions of 
printed and woven fabrics which may be 
used in the various rooms from the living 
room to the nursery ; several exhibitions of 
prints, most of them in color, and photo- 
graphs suitable for home decoration. Other 
pertinent collections to follow will include 
pottery, furniture, silver, lighting fixtures, 
etc. Recently the Federation has inaugu- 
rated a service which consists of sending 
to individuals portfolios of prints and photo- 
graphs so that home-makers may at their 
leisure select one or more which particu- 
larly appeal. 

Not only to the home of moderate means 
does the Federation confine its suggestions. 
It keeps continuously on tour many groups 
of original oil paintings, water colors, etch- 
ings, tapestries, pieces of sculpture, most of 
which may be purchased. Then there are 
the collections of domestic architecture and 
landscape architecture, which round out 



this comprehensive group of some fifty tra- 
veling exhibitions. 

All the collections sent out by The Ameri- 
can Federation of Arts are assembled by 
experts, and while, of course, they are not 
submitted arbitrarily by the Federation jury, 
they contain some of the finest examples 
of artistic production in the various lines 
represented. A community showing an ex- 
hibition sent out by this organization bene- 
fits by it, and nine times out of ten makes 
the showing of Federation exhibitions a 
habit. Membership is not a condition of 
obtaining the exhibitions, and they may not 
be shown for pecuniary profit. 

A most interesting sidelight on this effort 
of The American Federation of Arts is the 
interest shown by public-spirited citizens 
and groups from the standpoint of commu- 
nity or town growth. The presence of 
such exhibitions in a town or village, or in 
a club or institution in a larger city, gives 
a certain cachet to the community or region, 
a sign indicating progress, a proof that that 
group at least is looking toward cultural 
advance. 

Further information may be obtained 
from Richard F. Bach, Extension Secre- 
tary, The American Federation of Arts, 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 
N. Y. 



263 



Playgrounds and More Playgrounds — 
How to Get Them 

By Harrison Gray Otis 



Editorial Note. — An increased and widespread interest in outdoor recreation is one of 
the war's heritages. Cities everywhere are enlarging their playground systems, and are em- 
ploying more trained recreation leaders. The Playground and Recreation Association of 
America, i Madison Avenue, New York City, has for fourteen years been promoting the play 
movement, and presents herewitli a resume of the methods that cities are employing to secure 
and extend public playgrounds and recreation systems. Getting playgrounds is only one step 
in the program. There still remain the problems of construction, equipment, management, 
operation, activities, and methods of securing trained play leadership. The American City 
will welcome inquiries from readers on any ^natters having to do itnth community recreation. 



MR. and Mrs. Public have about decided 
that playgrounds are good things. 
We say "about," because there are 
still hundreds of towns and cities that seem 
quite sure their 
alleys and gutters 
will do for John- 
nie, and that Nel- 
lie should "stay 
in her own back 
yard," anyw a y . 
However, the ra- 
pid spread of the 
playground move- 
ment during the 
past few years 
gives hope that 
Progress is wind- 
ing up the Big 
Bens of public 
opinion and plac- 
ing them under 
the pillows of 
these slumberers. 
An early awaken- 
ing seems certain. 

There is a dif- 
ference between 
deciding that a 
thing is good, and 
investing in it. 
Enter, the famil- 
iar problem of 
ways and means. 

How can we get playgrounds, more play- 
grounds? is the question before the house. 

The fact that other cities whose financial 
conditions are probably no more flourishing 




Courtesy Park International 
WE WANT A 



than our own are investing thousands, even 
millions, in playgrounds and parks, shows 
that the problem can be solved. The meth- 
ods by which some of these towns have se- 
cured the neces- 
sary funds may 
point out the fac- 
tors which will 
solve the equa- 
tion in our town. 
The year's sta- 
tistics for 1920 
showing the 
progress of public 
rec r e a t i o n in 
American cities 
present some in- 
teresting figures. 
The 465 cities 
reporting, main- 
tained 4,293 play- 
grounds and re- 
creation centers 
under paid leader- 
ship. They em- 
p 1 oy ed 10,218 
workers — an in- 
crease of 2,175 
over the number 
reported for 1919. 
There was an in- 
crease of 42 per 
cent in the num- 
ber of p 1 a y - 
grounds and recreation centers established 
during the year. More than $7,200,000 
was spent for recreation work. 
The complete report on bonds issued is 



PLAYGROUND 



264 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



not yet on hand, but during 19 19, 17 cities 
voted a total of $13,510,000 for establish- 
ing and increasing playground systems. 
One of the largest bond issues recorded in 
1920 is that voted last November by Akron, 
Ohio, a city of 208,000 population, amount-- 
ing to $2,000,000 for a system of parks and 
playgrounds. The largest single invest- 
ment in recreation authorized during 1919 
was the $10,000,000 bond issue voted by 
Detroit for increasing its public outdoor 
play facilities. 

These figures are little less than astound- 
ing when we realize that the whole move- 
ment for organized playgrounds in America 
is a development of this generation. When 
Chicago appropriated its first $1,200 for 
playgrounds, there was widespread opposi- 
tion and ridicule aroused by such a "frivol- 
ous expenditure of public money." This was 
less than twenty years ago. To-day Chicago 
has millions invested in its wonderful play- 
ground system. Is it paying? A study of 
juvenile delinquency, by Allen T. Burns, 
shows that the presence of recreation centers 
in Chicago's south side was coincident with 
a decrease of delinquency within a radius 
of half a mile, amounting to practically 30 
per cent. Chicago's voters prefer to invest 
in playgrounds rather than in reformatories 
and jails. 

A clear presentation of such facts means 
more playgrounds. There are arguments 
a-plenty to appeal to the heart and the 
pocketbook of the shrewdest business man. 
The art of driving them home is salesman- 
ship, and when the idea is thoroughly sold 
by modern publicity methods, the chief 
problem is solved, for if a community really 
wants playgrounds it can always find some 
way to raise the funds. 

Public Pay for Public Play 

There is a growing tendency to regard 
recreation as a municipal function, and 
there are, of course, self-apparent reasons 
why the public should support these recrea- 
tion centers which benefit the citizenship 
as a whole and are open equally to all. Fig- 
ures are not available as to just what pro- 
portion of funds for securing playgrounds 
comes from the public treasury, and what 
part is subscribed by private individuals. 

It is, however, significant that in 361 of 
the 465 cities reporting, public recreation 



work was supported in whole or in part by 
some department of the municipality — over 
79 per cent of the total number, and an 
increase of 20 per cent over the correspond- 
ing figures for 1919. 

Whenever the field secretaries of the 
Playground and Recreation Association of 
America are called upon to assist a com- 
munity in developing a year-round recrea- 
tion system, which usually involves more 
playgrounds, the advisability of securing 
municipal appropriations is strongly urged. 
The method of procedure employed by these 
trained promoters of community recreation 
varies, of course, with local conditions. The 
request for their services usually comes 
from some responsible organization, such 
as the Chamber of Commerce or Rotary 
Club, from a group of leading citizens, or 
from the city government itself. A strong 
representative committee is formed, and a 
careful study of the local problems made. 
A year's program is then developed, includ- 
ing the construction of a playground sys- 
tem or the expansion of the playground sys- 
tem in many cases, and a detailed budget is 
prepared. Simultaneously, an educational 
campaign is carried on, utilizing the usual 
channels of interviews, speeches, news- 
papers, and sometimes demonstration play- 
grounds, parades and pageants. 

The budget and a draft of the necessary 
legislation, with supporting data, endorse- 
ments, petitions and information as to what 
other cities are doing, is duly laid before the 
city authorities at the right time, by the 
right people, in the right way. Usually the 
initial municipal appropriation is not so 
large as will be needed as the work develops. 

Frequently the community finds that its 
immediate playground needs exceed the limi- 
tations of the available city funds and re- 
quire a special bond issue, which usually 
means an election. Again, it develops that 
the legal taxing and bonding limits have al- 
ready been reached and do not permit of 
further expansion. Increased taxation, 
moreover, is sometimes a bugaboo difficult 
to overcome, for it is a strange fact that 
some men who are generous contributors 
to a worth-while movement will oppose the 
same movement if it means a higher tax 
rate. Consequently, many cities have de- 
cided, perhaps wisely, not to wait for suffi- 
cient public funds before starting their play- 
ground systems. 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



265 



"Coupon Bonds" for Playground 

Charlotte, N. C, has a population of some 
50,000. Playgrounds were needed. A group 
of citizens decided to endeavor to raise 
money by popular subscription, and placed 
the necessary amount at $15,000. Feeling 
the need of the added stimulus to be gained 
by calling in a trained community organizer, 
arrangements were duly made, and a gen- 
eral committee of those interested met with 
the Mayor on Saturday, May 15, 1920. At 
this conference so much opposition was 
aroused that the Mayor was requested to 
telegraph the organizer not to come, but 
fortunately could not locate his address. 
On Monday a second conference of the 



to sell as many of the $5 membership cou- 
pons as he wished. It was explained to the 
committee that if they issued 150 of the $100 
certificates and sold them they would have 
their $15,000 and, incidentally, an advisory 
board composed of those who were actually 
interested in the movement. In turn, if 
these 150 holders each sold all of his $5 
memberships, there would be a total sus- 
taining membership in the Playground Asso- 
ciation of 3,000. 

The committee decided it was worth try- 
ing, and arranged for speaking dates and 
luncheon engagements with the following 
organizations : the Rotary Club, the Kiwanis 
Club, the Good Fellows Club, the Parent- 




ENJOYING A HOSE BATH AT A PATERSON, N. J., PLAYGROUND 



same group was called, with the organizer 
present. It developed that the city was just 
passing through a tremendous financial 
campaign to secure $40,000 for another 
movement, and that the total amount raised 
was only $22,000. The community and its 
leaders were worn out and discouraged. 
The organizer, realizing that it would be 
impossible to conduct another drive of a 
similar nature, sketched a rough draft of a 
certificate calling for the underwriting of 
$100. Attached to this certificate were nine- 
teen $5 membership coupons. A person sub- 
scribing to a $100 certificate would auto- 
matically become a member of the general 
advisory board of the Charlotte Playground 
Association. He was. of course, orivileeed 



Teachers Association, the Woman's Club, 
the Teachers Association, the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy, the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, and a num- 
ber of others. Before each group the play- 
ground movement was advocated, and it 
was carefully explained that the financial 
methods proposed would not involve solicit- 
ing money by the usual drive methods. A 
general luncheon to be held at a leading 
hotel Wednesday noon, May 26, was an- 
nounced, and cards pledging the signers to 
attend this luncheon were distributed at 
these meetings. Two committees were ap- 
pointed; one called the "Initial Gifts Com- 
mittee," composed of leading business men, 
was detailed to do a bit of advance work so 



266 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



!tf« 



W-f PLAY QF flr/i tA£M MAS TM£ MIMTtCS T Ittn U£/ta CH fMC MAIMriMAIfCt OP M0N-t4AINr£NAflC£ OF LAWS. 

SHARES $1.00 SERIES 1910. /f/ 

''No Shares 



NON-ASSESSABLE- UNLIMITED ISSUE 



S^ 



(il|ts(3prUftr$!l}at 



M/^/num^z/.^^i^,^ PLAVGRgUND^ STOCK z^ia^yca/ect( 
X^ySne^y£Ac/S/ten^/e^yi<>-xAz^M ?i<:l' /i^'corn o/</>7^- ,^<^y4 icd/>?i^ 

3ln Witness Btifwof /m^y<4^^yai^MoUz^x)^cffM.,Amie > 



\J;:,~^':iSut'i''^! 



PLATGEOUND "STOCK CERTIFICATE' 
IN BALTIMORE, MD. 



as to Start the subscriptions off in good 
sha|)e. The "Follow-Up Committee" was 
appointed to take the names of those who 
had agreed to attend the luncheon, to see 
that they did not forget the appointment, 
and to secure the attendance of other repre- 
sentative citizens. 

At the luncheon 145 people were present. 
The "eats" were followed by some rousing 
community singing, and the campaign plan 
was sprung. Within an hour the entire is- 
sue had been sold and over-subscribed, and 
there was every indication that the $16,100 
pledged would be increased to $20,000 with 
little effort. 

A similar method was employed in Wil- 
mington, Del., in September, 1920. An 
executive committee of the City Park Com- 
mission and of the Wilmington Community 
Service had charge of the campaign. Sep- 
tember 26 was "Community Sunday," and 
the pastors referred in their sermons to 
playground and recreational work. Officials 
of the Central Labor Union offered cam- 
paign help, and General T. Coleman DuPont 
added impetus to the drive by offering to 
give 5 per cent of the entire sum raised dur- 
ing the campaign. The "surprise feature" 
of the campaign was made known at the 
campaign luncheon at the Hotel DuPont on 
September 28, when the sale of $100 "cou- 
pon bonds" began. "Buy a playground 
bond" became the slogan. The young wo- 
men of the Red Cross Motor Corps went 
about the room collecting- olede-es. An ac^- 



ISSUED 



gregate of $22,600 was 
subscribed. 

The following organ- 
izations bought bonds at 
the luncheon, to the 
stated amounts; the in- 
mates at the New Castle 
County Workhouse 
(where community sings 
had been held), $100; 
Volunteers of America, 
$500; Knights of Colum- 
bus, $700 ; Washington 
|^M[[ Heights Century Club, 
$200; Junior League, 
$300; Greek citizens, 
$1,000; Stores Commit- 
tee, $300; DuPont em- 
ployes, $1,200; Theater 
Committee, $100; St. 
Andrew's and Grace 
Churches, $100 each; 
Daughters of Isabella, $300; Central Labor 
Union, $1,000; Kiwanis Club, $500; Red 
Cross Motor Corps, $.1,500; Hercules Pow- 
der Company, $400; Speakman Company, 
$200. Large contributions were also made 
by private citizens. 

Somewhat kindred to the "coupon bond" 
method is the "stock selling" plan. Balti- 
more was perhaps one of the first to sell 
playground "stock," in its playground cam- 
paign of 1910. One-dollar shares were sold 
at par in whatever quantities the purchaser 
could be persuaded to invest. This method 
lacks the "hurry-up" feature of the $100 
coupon bond, but by reducing the unit from 
$5 to $1 the number of "investors" is in- 
creased. The stock certificate, attractively 
engraved and containing apt quotations, has 
proved a popular selling document. 

Community Chest at Cleveland 

There is hardly a community in the coun- 
try that has not had experience in conduct- 
ing popular drives during the past few 
years, though perhaps "popular" is no longer 
a good word to use in this connection. 
There are cities, however, that are raising 
their funds for playgrounds by the same 
sort of campaign methods employed during 
the war. Other cities have adopted the 
"community chest" idea, with their play- 
ground projects included in the general 
budget. Cleveland, Ohio, has had a par- 
ticularly successful experience in conducting 
communitv chest camoaiens. The buderet 



March, I921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



267 



for 1921, which has recently been raised, 
provides $41,960 for Cleveland's recreation 
council. Some of the publicity methods 
used by Cleveland may well be adapted to 
playground campaigns. The accompanying 
diagram, which appeared on the back cover 
of the campaign book, tells its own story. 

During this campaign an eight-page 
photogravure newspaper supplement told 
the story in pictures in a most forceful and 
impressive manner. 

At Winnetka, 111., a residential suburb of 
Chicago, effective use was made of letters 
sent to practically every citizen. The letter- 
head contained the names of the "Committee 
of One Hundred" and set forth the proposi- 
tion briefly, clearly, and with a telling touch 
of human interest. Attached to the letter 
was a table of parallel arguments issued by 
the Playground and Recreation Association 
of America. 

Oftentimes the playground movement has 
had for its sponsor some one or more com- 
munity organizations. At Hagerstown, 
Md., the Rotary Club was so thoroughly 
"sold" that it became godfather to the move- 
ment and pledged sufficient funds to start 
things going. In Newark, Ohio, the public 
schools organized and put through a suc- 
cessful campaign. Six hundred h'gh school 
students were divided into thirty teams of 
twenty pup'ls each who did the actual solicit- 
ing. 

A Neighborhood-Made Playground 

A great deal can be accomplished with- 
out much money if there is determination 



Average Amounts Spent in 1919 for 

Various Items by Residents of Cleveland 

and Suburbs 

( Figures tor Commodities are average for entire United States 
as sliown in statement by U. S. Treasury) 



$5.00 



$10.00 



Candy 

Cigarettes 

Tobacco and 
Snuff 

Perfumery and 
Cosmetics 

Ice Cream, Soft 
Drinl(s, etc. 

Cigars 
Jewelry 
Community Fund 



Estimated on a 
Per Capita Basis 



■$9 50 



■$7.60 
■$7.60 



■$7.00 



■$5.75 



■$4.90 



■$4.75 



.$4.35 



Connnlty 
Fni 

M.35 



Loxuries Lsted 
above 

&47.10 

per capita 



PLAYGROUND CAMPAIGN PUBLICITY IN 
CLEVELAND 

and cooperation. In the stock-yard district 
of San Francisco, known as Bay View, the 
community got together last spring and 
turned a stump-filled, tin-can-covered field 



PLAYGROUNDS DEVELOP: 

1. Health, by spontaneous outdoor exercise 

2. Initiative, by forcing the child to make his 

own decisions 

3. Purity of mind, by keeping the child active 

in whoksome surroundings 

4. Cooperation, by teaching the child to give and 

take assistance, thus showing him the 
value of concerted action 

5. Ambition, by teaching the child that leader- 

ship is the result of successful endeavor 

6. Honesty, by causing the child to repudiate 

any success that does not come through 
fair play 

7. Imagination, by lifting the child out of the 

commonplace and filling him with en- 
thusiasm 

8. Self-confidence, by giving the child some re- 

sponsibility in the games 

9. Obedience, by teaching the child to respect 

the leader 
10. lustice, by teaching the child to have con- 
sideration for those who are physically 
and mentally weaker 



PLAYGROUNDS DIMINISH: 

Idleness, by keeping the child constantly em- 
ployed 

Delinquency, by influences that tend to de- 
velop the better self 

Exclusiveness, by giving each some part in 
the games 

Unfairness, by teaching true sportsmanship 

Gang-spirit, by diverting the spirit of leader- 
ship into the right direction 

Selfishness, by encouraging the child to help 
others 

Rowdyism, by furnishing the influences that 
foster courtesy and self-respect 



Temptation, 
streets 



by keeping children off the 



Social barriers, by bringing children of all 
classes together 

Reformatories, by giving the child active 
work to do, thus forming instead of re- 
forming character 



268 



THE .AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



into a community playground. Five hundred 
men, women and children spent a single day 
on the job, and the result was a surprise to 
everyone. A baseball diamond was laid out, 
a basketball court staked off, and a kiddies' 
corner located. The equipment was fur- 
nished by local fraternal organizations : the 
Ancient Order of Hibernians gave the back- 
stop for the ball field; the Knights of 
Pythias equipped the basketball court; the 
Carnation Club supplied the kiddies' field 
with sand-boxes, swings and slides. The 
entire play field, complete in every detail, 
was constructed and equipped by volunteer 
effort. 

A time-honored way of raising money was 
employed at Key West, Fla., with rather un- 
usual success. On April 6, 1920, the Red 
Cross held a cabaret and dinner dance for 
the purpose of securing funds for the play- 
ground. The affair consisted of a fashion 
review, instrumental and vocal music, and 
esthetic and social dancing. About 400 peo- 
ple attended, and the gross' receipts totaled 
$1,000. The amount cleared was enough to 
begn the playground work contemplated. 
On April 8 and 9 a one-act play, entitled 
"America First," wa*s given at two of the 
public schools. The admission charge of 
15 and 25 cents yielded $250 for playground 
equ-pment. This method of securing funds 
has the advantage of being a worth-while 
sort of community recreation in itself. 
There were 88 people in the cast, and music 
was furnished by two volunteer community 
orchestras. 

Individual Donations and Memorials 

Many communities have started or in- 
creased their playground systems through 
the generosity of well-to-do citizens who 
have donated funds, land, and in some in- 
stances fully equipped playgrounds, to the 
city. 

There are many illustrations of this form 
of public service. Two of the best-known 
in the country are those at La Jolla, a 
neighborhood of San Diego, Calif., and 
Peoria, 111., where complete recreation cen- 
ters, including admirable community build- 
ings, have been constructed through the 
generosity of private citizens. 

By far the larger number of playgrounds 
have been secured through bond issues and 



municipal appropriations, yet in nearly 
every case the initiative has fallen upon 
community leaders who have created the 
public sentiment necessary before public 
funds are forthcoming. Cooperation and 
publicity are the fundamental requisites. A 
handbook on publicity methods has just 
been published by the Playground and 
Recreation Association of America. 

Many playground systems owe their ex- 
istence to a combination of public and pri- 
vate funds. In Americus, Ga., last May, the 
city bought a playground site for $11,000, 
and the Americus Community Service com- 
mittee undertook to raise a like amount for 
equipment and operation. At Bay City, 
Mich., playground funds are provided in 
part by the school board and in part by the 
Bay County Community Board. 

Intelligent Leadership Essential 

The one thing needed most in this, as in 
all civic projects, is enlightened community 
leadership. The modern chamber of com- 
merce democratically organized is admirably 
adapted to the task of starting the ball roll- 
ing. 

Before a community sets out to get play- 
grounds it must know what it wants. A 
definite proposition is much easier to sell 
than a vague principle. Some sort of in- 
telligent study of the local situation, tem- 
pered by the knowledge of what other cities 
are doing, and of the essential features of 
modern playgrounds, is a prerequisite. It is 
often a wise economy to invite the co- 
operation of some acknowledged playground 
authority before definite plans are adopted. 

Another prerequisite is a clear under- 
standing of the laws relating to playgrounds. 
Several states have already passed enabling 
acts providing for their construction and 
maintenance. Among the best of these acts 
are the ones passed in Michigan, in New 
York and in Pennsylvania. 

State after state is enacting laws making 
compulsory the proper physical education of 
school children. A well-equipped play- 
ground is almost essential to the carrying 
out of such legislation. The time is not far 
distant when every city and town of the 
country will come to realize the importance 
of organized play in the great out-of-doors 
as a mighty factor in building good citizen- 
ship. 



269 

Standard Schedule for Grading Cities 
and Towns for Fire Insurance 

Part III 

With Reference to Their Fire Defences and Physical Conditions 

By John S. Caldwell 

Engineer, New England Insurance Exchange, Boston, Mass. 

Editorial Note. — The earlier instalments of this article cover the requirements for 
a satisfactory water-supply and fire department and the deficiencies applied to the 
Standard Schedtde for insufficient equipment or personnel. 



THE response to alarms should include 
that an adequate running card will be 
established, providing for first and 
subsequent alarms, and for outlying com- 
panies to occupy vacated stations. Appa- 
ratus should respond to all first (including 
telephone) alarms in amount commensurate 
with the normal hazard of the district, but 
not less than as follows : 

In mercantile and manufacturing districts : 

Not less than 2 engine or hose companies 
and I ladder company in cities under 25,000 
and over 4,000 population 

Not less than 3 engine or hose companies 
and I ladder company in cities over 25,000 and 
under 50,000 

Not less than 4 engine or hose companies 
and 2 ladder companies in cities over 50,000 

In residential districts : 

Not less than 2 engine or hose companies, 
except for cities under 4,000 population 

Modern fire methods should include the 
liberal use of chemicals, shut-off nozzles, 
and salvage appliances to reduce water dam- 
age, the use of appliances for powerful 
streams on serious fires, suitable ladder 
work and ventilation, and the general policy 
of attaching lines to Siamese connections 
serving sprinklers and stand-pipes. 

Lack of proper equipment should be con- 
sidered in determining deficiency in fire 
methods. 

In considering conditions affecting fire 
department operations, the street surfacing, 
existence of railroad crossings, drawbridges, 
grades, traffic regulations and ordinances 
are considered, together with presence of 
high-tens'on and overhead wires, which in- 
troduces a more or less obstruction to the 
use of ladders and in general retards the 
work of the department. 

Systematic and frequent inspections of 



buildings should be made by company and 
department officers to acquaint them with 
local conditions, and records of such inspec- 
tions should be kept both by notes and 
sketches. 

Proper records of all fires, fire methods, 
losses, apparatus, and all department mat- 
ters should be kept in convenient form. 

Fire Alarm 

The subjects considered under the fire 
alarm system are as follows : 

1. Qualifications of Management 

2. Adequacy of Maintenance Force 

3. Operators 

4. Headquarters Building 

5. -Apparatus at Headquarters 

6. Circuit Protection 

7. Batteries 

8. Circuits Underground 

9. Condition and Material of Circuits 

10. Circuits near High Potential 

11. Open or Grounded Circuits 

12. Overloaded Circuits 

13. Alarms to Fire Stations 

14. Condition of Inside Wiring 

15. Type of Bo.xes 

16. Conspicuousness and .Accessibility of Boxes 

17. Condition of Bo.xes 

18. Distribution of Boxes 

19. Tests and Records 

20. Speed of Alarms 

21. Fire Department Telephone System 

22. Transmission of Telephone Alarms 

23. Provisions for Transmitting Telephone Alarms 

from the Telephone Exchange 

24. Method of Handling Telephone Alarms at the 

Telephone Exchange 

In considering the item of Qualification 
of Management, it is assumed that the ex- 
ecutive in charge is competent and experi- 
enced in the details of fire alarm construc- 
tion and maintenance to efficiently fill the 
office. 

The maintenance force should be ade- 
quate so as to minimize the time that the 
system would be out of commission in case 
of breakdown, as well as to efficiently oper- 
ate and maintain it, or good, reliable pro- 
visions should be made for obtaining emer- 
gency competent help. 



270 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



The operating force should consist of 
some competent man controlled by the mu- 
nicipality, but not necessarily at fire alarm 
headquarters, on duty at all times to handle 
telephone alarms, provided, however, that 
in municipalities of less than 10,000 popula- 
tion one-half credit, and in larger cities 
one-quarter credit, may be given for a tele- 
phone operator on duty at each public ex- 
change at all times v^ith facilities for trans- 
mitting alarms giving the definite location 
of the fire. 

In cities handling an average of over one 
alarm a day, a fire alarm operator should 
be on duty at fire alarrn headquarters, and 
when manual operation is depended upon 
for transmission of alarms, two operators 
should be on duty at all times. An operator 
of the department telephone system if 
capable of operating the fire alarm system 
may be considered as one fire alarm oper- 
ator. 

The building housing the apparatus on 
which operation of the system and the re- 
ceipt and transmission of alarms are de- 
pendent should be housed securely against 
fire, including danger from conflagration. 
When service is dependent entirely upon 
the telephone exchange, application shall be 
made to the exchange building. 

The apparatus at headquarters should be 
such as will ensure the receipt, recording 
and transmission of all alarms, and should 
be maintained in proper working condition. 
Cities having over 100,000 population or 
more than 350 alarms a year should have 
provision permitting transmission manually ; 
if automatic transmission is also provided, 
means should be provided for cutting out 
the automatic feature. Relative values of 
headquarters equipment are as follows: 

Manual System : Per Cent 

Receiving apparatus 25 

Transmitting apparatus 25 

Recording apparatus 20 

Switchboard 16 

Testing facilities 15 

Automatic System: 

Repeater 50 

Break-wheel transmitter 20 

Switchboard 15 

Register 10 

Cable terminal 5 

In automatic systems registering device 
and means of manual transmission need not 
be at fire alarm headquarters, but must be 
where telephone alarms are received. 

The protection to circuits should consist 
of heavy-current and sneak-current fuses 
and lightning arresters at headquarters, so 



located as to prevent injury to any operat- 
ing mechanism, lightning arresters and 
heavy-current fuses at junction of overhead 
and underground construction and heavy- 
current fuses on battery rack. 

Energy for operating the system should 
be supplied by storage batteries in duplicate 
sets, or generator sets with sufficient re- 
serve, properly mounted in a well-heated 
and ventilated room separated from other 
apparatus. In single-circuit systems pri- 
mary batteries may be used. Provisions 
should be made for obtaining a duplicate 
source of supply within five hours. Charg- 
ing should be normally from an all-metallic 
circuit and should preferably be current of 
not over 250 volts. 

The location of outside circuits should be 
underground. In underground construction 
and aerial cables, they should be at least 
No. 14 gauge copper with rubber insulation 
in lead sheathing and with each leg of a 
circuit in a different cable. All aerial cir- 
cuits should have conductivity of No. lO 
galvanized iron and tensile strength of No. 
10 copper wire, with double or triple braided 
weatherproof insulation. Pole construction 
should be substantial, and wires including 
box leads should be well strung and free 
from injury. The running of circuits into 
buildings other than fire stations introduces 
a hazard. 

No circuit should be in the same duct or 
manhole nor on the same pole w'th high- 
potential circuits. All box and alarm cir- 
cuits must be normally closed, all metallic 
and under constant test. There should not 
be more than twenty boxes dependent upon 
any box circuit, and box circuits should 
have only boxes attached, except that in 
automatic systems registering instruments 
and tappers in fire stations may be con- 
nected. No alarm circuit should connect 
instruments in more than five fire stations. 

Except where only a single circu't system 
is required, each fire station should receive 
alarms over two alarm circuits ; in an auto- 
matic system each box circuit should extend 
to some fire station and may count as one 
of the alarm circuits. Station apparatus 
should include a gong, a tapper and a per- 
manent registering device, the register and 
tapper to be on the box circuit in automatic 
systems. 

Circuits at headquarters and in fire sta- 
tions should be in accordance with the Na- 
tional Electrical Code, wooden moulding be- 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



271 



ing strictly prohibited, and all circuits should 
enter stations in conduit. 

Boxes including both public and private 
should be of the positive non-interfering 
type, and when more than twenty boxes are 
on the system they should have the succes- 
sive feature; all boxes to be accessible to 
the public and conspicuous as applying to 
location and designation, and including red 
lights at night on or close to boxes in high- 
value districts; they should also be pro- 
vided with key in lock, glass panel door, or 
keyless self-acting door. 

Boxes should be maintained in good op- 
erative condition, tested monthly and after 
electrical storms, test to include visual in- 
spection, operation, cleaning and repairing; 
condition of boxes is used in judging of 
thoroughness of tests. 

Proper distribution of boxes requires a 
public box or a private box accessible to 
the public within at least 500 feet of every 
building in mercantile and manufacturing 
districts, and 800 feet of every important 
group of buildings elsewhere. 

Tests and records should include that 
circuits at headquarters will be tested three 
times daily in automatic, and twelve times 
daily in manual systems, also frequently in 
wind and electrical storms, including tests 
for grounds, breaks and current strength; 
in manual systems insulation resistance to 
be tested weekly; battery cells to be tested 
for voltage and electrolyte weekly; office 
circuits three to twelve times daily, circuits 
examined monthly and after wind and sleet 
storms; complete records to be kept of all 
tests of apparatus and layout of system and 
of all troubles; condition of system to be 
used in judging of thoroughness of tests. 

Speed of boxes and of alarm transmission 
should not be less than one stroke per sec- 
ond in automatic and two strokes per second 
in manual systems ; tower bells, if necessary, 
to be operated on a separate circuit so as not 
to delay the operation of the system. 

There should be a telephone at each fire 
station connected by a single-party line pre- 
ferably from some central po'nt where a 
municipally controlled operator is on duty at 
all times; for cities having more than five 
fire stations these should extend from a pri- 
vate switchboard. Provisions should be 
made permitting stations to be communi- 
cated with simultaneously or in groups. 

Telephone alarms should be transmitted 
from the public exchange to the same place 



in all cases and not to any fire company 
called, nor to all fire stations simultane- 
ously; they should be transmitted to all fire 
stations as box alarrhs, after notifying the 
nearest company by telephone. 

The sounding of ward or box numbers on 
tower bells or equivalent mechanism is suf- 
ficient in towns up to 5,000 population hav- 
ing call or volunteer fire departments. 

At least one circuit from the public tele- 
phone exchange should be reserved for fire 
calls with the switchboard jack conspicu- 
ously marked, and the supervising operator 
or other responsible employe should verify 
the location and oversee the transmission of 
fire alarms. 

Police 

The subjects considered under Police are 
as follows: 

1. Cooperation with Fire Department 

2. Patrol Wajions 

3. Signaling System 

i. Cooperation with Building Department 

From the standpoint of fire protection, the 
dut'es of the police are the discovery of 
fires and the sending of alarms, the pre- 
serving of order at fires, and the reporting 
of buildings under construction without per- 
mit. Adequate service requires a proper 
signalling and telephone system. Munici- 
palities of over 2,000 population should have 
an adequate number of patrolmen on duty 
day and night, and if over 15.000 population, 
should have sufficient wagons and ropes and 
a signalling system. 

Building Laws 

The subjects considered under Build'ng 
Laws are as follows : 

1 . Fire Limits 

2. Laws 

a. Areas and Heights 

b. Protection to Horizontal and Vertical Open- 
ings 

c. Frame Construction in Fire Limits 

d. Wall Thickness 

e. Chimneys and Heating Apparatus 

f. Improved Construction 

g. Private Fire Protection 

h. Provision for Fire Stops, Parapets and Fire 

Escapes 
i. Provision for Quality of Material and Work 

3. Wooden Shingle Roofs 

4. Records 

It is well recognized among builders and 
architects, as well as the insurance inter- 
ests, that one of the large contributing fac- 
tors to the enormous fire waste in this coun- 
try is the tinder-box construction of the 
average American city and town, and while 
it seems like "locking the barn door after 
the horse is stolen," the only way to offset 



272 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



this evil is by the adoption of adequate 
building laws, either state or municipal. 
There should be prescribed fire Imits, in- 
cluding all closely bujlt mercantile and 
manufacturing districts and surrounding 
blocks on all sides which constitute an ex- 
posure to the district or within which new 
construction of a mercantile or manufactur- 
ing character is developing; within these 
limits frame construction should be pro- 
hibited. Proper restrictions should be made 
for heights and areas, requirements for pro- 
tection to vertical and horizontal openings 
of all kinds, thickness of walls, private fire 
protection, chimneys and heating devices, 
etc., as given in the National Board Build- 
ing Code. Wooden shingle roofs should be 
prohibited throughout the limits covered by 
the water distribution system. A properly 
qualified official should be in charge, with a 
requisite number of assistants. Proper 
records of building permits and operations 
and inspections to be kept. Lack of en- 
forcement to be considered as equivalent to 
no laws. 

Hazards 

The subjects considered under Hazards 
are as follows : 

1. Electricity 

a. Laws 

b. Condition of New Inside Work 

c. Condition of Old Inside Work 

2. Gas Lighting and Heating 

a. Laws 

b. Conditions 

3. Oil Lighting and Heating 

a. Laws 

b. Conditions 

4. Explosives and Inflammables 

a. Inflammable Liquids of Class 1 

b. Inflammable Liquids of Class 2 

c. Inflammable Liquids of Class 3 

d. Hazardous Chemicals 

e. Carbide 

f. Garares 

p. Dry-Cleaning 

h. Nitro Cellulose and Films 

i. Motion Picture Machines and Booths 

i. Explosives 
k. Fireworks 

1. Matches 
m. Combustible Tibres, etc. 
n. Lumber and Packing Material 
o. Rubbish, Trash. Ashes. Bonfires, etc. 
p. Definite Requirement for Inspection of 
Premises 

5. Records 

Closely allied with the need of building 
regulations in our American municipalities 
is the need of regulation of hazardous con- 
ditions in all classes of property, as well as 
the public highways, and it has been demon- 
strated that the passage of laws, either 
state or municipal, on the subject of elec- 
tricity, explosives and inflammables and 
proper enforcement of such laws, produces 
immediate results. 



The National Electrical Code is the gen- 
erally recognized standard for electric wir- 
ing; its adoption by ordinance is of first 
importance. The laws should also provide 
that current shall not be furnished until the 
installations have been inspected and ap- 
proved. These results may be obtained 
through enforcement by a properly quali- 
fied official, or under insurance inspection 
backed by a city ordinance. Where elec- 
tricity is not generally used, the hazards of 
glass-body oil lamps, swinging and open 
gas flames, and of gasoline and acetylene 
lighting systems are unusually present. The 
increasing use of oil for heating and indus- 
trial purposes introduces a still further haz- 
ard which should be regulated by ordinance. 
In addition, the laws should cover other 
uses of inflammable liquids and their com- 
pounds, explosives and the care of com- 
bustible rubbish of all kinds. 

Requirements should conform to the sug- 
gested ordinances and regulations issued by 
the National Board of Fire Underwriters. 
Enforcement should be strict, and frequent 
inspections should be made; the most ap- 
proved method of inspection is through the 
members of the fire department. Lack of 
enforcement to be considered as equivalent 
to no laws. 

Structural Conditions 

.The subjects considered under Structural 
Conditions are as follows: 

1. Area of District 

2. Street Widths 

3. Accessibility of Block Interior 

4. Per Cent of Area in Streets and Open Spaces 

5. Per Cent of Rlock Area Built Upon 

6. Heights of Buildings Other Than Fire-nroof 

7. Large and Excessive Areas Other Than Frame 

8. Deficient Party and Fire Walls 

9. Unprotected Floor Openings 

10. Unprotected Exposed Openings 

11. Frame Buildings 

12. Permanent Awnings 

13. Conflagration Breeding Blocks 

14. Exposures of District 

Th's subject is designed to be applied to 
any mercantile or manufacturinsr district; 
in the smaller cities it is to be applied to the 
pr'iicipal mercantile district, but in larger 
c'ties a separate grading may be desirable 
for each distinctive high-value district. All 
items apply only to the district considered. 

In bounding a district, streets and alleys, 
sometimes extended, railroads and natural 
features will be used where practicable, and 
every block or part block shall be included 
in which approximately one-third of the 
area is of the same general class as the dis- 
trict. 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



273 



Narrow streets, inaccessibility of build- 
ings, congestion of the d'strict and of the 
individual blocks, poor general structural 
conditions and exposures from surrounding 
sections all increase the probability of 
sweeping fires. , 

Buildings of fire-proof construction, 
sprinklered brick buildings, fire-breaks, fire 
barriers and separate high-pressure fire sys- 
tems designed to deliver capacity at 90 
pounds hydrant pressure or more, form im- 
portant mitigating features. 

Credits 

The subjects considered under Credits 
are as follows: 

1. Superior Construction and Protection 

2. Fire Engine Capacity where Water-Supply at 

Direct Hydrant Streams is Adequate 

3. High-Pressure Fire System 

(Note.- — Items apply only to the high-value district 
considered.) 

Buildings of fire-proof construction and 
sprinklered build'ngs tend to offer a barrier 
against a spreading fire as well as offering 
the fire department a vantage point in pre- 
venting a fire from gaining conflagration 
proportions, and cred'ts are allowed accord- 
ingly. 

Where the full fire flow is available as 
direct streams either from a domestic water 
system or from a high-pressure system, 
the maintaining of engines in service, with 
adequate provisions for the'r response and 
operation, is considered an advantage as 
reducing the probability of a fire gain'ng 
headway in the interval of time necessary 
to control the flow from a broken main, and 
credit should be allowed accordingly. 

A high-pressure system may have a grav- 
ity supply, direct pumpage supply, or a 
combination of the two. It may be a sep- 
arate system for fire service only or may 
be the extension of a high-service domestic 
supply into a low-service area, in which 
latter case only two-thirds the actual fire 
flow obtainable should be assumed as avail- 
able capacity. Fire-boat pipe lines should 
also be considered. To be standard a high- 
pressure fire service must comply fully with 
the various items listed under Water-Supply 
and be capable of delivering in the weakest 
part of the system the full fire flow required, 
including that necessary for a second fire, 
such supply to be available in an area equal 



to that served by the number of hydrants 
necessary to deliver this required fire flow 
when discharg'ng 1,000 gallons a minute 
each. For standard fire service this quan- 
tity should be available at a residual pres- 
sure of 250 pounds, residual pressures less 
than this, down to 90 pounds as a minimum, 
permit classing a system as a iHigh-Pres- 
sure Fire System, but of less worth in re- 
ducing the deficiencies in Structural Condi- 
tions. Hydrants should be of ample dimen- 
sions with four independently gated hose 
outlets and with 8-inch gated connections 
to the mains, to be so distributed that the 
entire area of the district is protected and 
the average area served per hydrant will 
not exceed 40,000 square feet. 

Climatic Conditions 

The subjects considered under Climatic 
Conditions are as follows: 

1. High Winds 

2. Excessive Snowfall 

.S. Severe Cold Weather 

4. Hot, Dry Weather 

5. Unusual or Exceptional Conditions 

In consideration of these subjects ten 
years' records have been compiled from the 
United States Weather Bureau Stations 
relative to winds of 25 miles velocity or 
over, snowfall in excess of 10 inches per 
month, number of days having a maximum 
temperature of 32 degrees or less, months 
having an average mean maximum tem- 
perature of 65 degrees or more, with the 
number of days having .01 inch or over of 
precipitation, and unusual conditions not 
measured by climatic conditions, such as 
forest fires, tornadoes, hurricanes and cy- 
clone blizzards and severe snow-storms, 
earthquakes, etc. 

Where the fractional classes correspond- 
ing to the points of deficiency of the water- 
supply and fire department differ by three 
classes or more, there shall be added to the 
points of deficiency a certain number of 
points varying with the amount of diver- 
gence between the classes of the two fea- 
tures as represented in the following table : 

Additional Points of Deficiency, 

Divergence in Classes Engine Basis Hose Stream Basis 

.3 4.5 

4 90 

5 150 45 

6 225 90 

7 315 150 

8 420 225 

9 540 316 

10 680 420 



274 



Combating the Shade Tree Pests 



By S. R. Winters 



VARYING from the seemingly harmless 
efforts of the "measuring worm" in 
denuding trees of their foliage, to 
the more pronounced activities of the two- 
lined chestnut borer in sapping the very 
vitality of oaks by its mine-tunneling oper- 
ations, insect depredations upon shade trees 
in American towns and cities inflict an an- 
nual loss of $10,000,000. The toll exacted 
is both civic and eco- 
nomic in character, 
and the ravages of 
a countless variety 
of pests are of suffi- 
cient magnitude to 
necessitate commu- 
nity as well as in- 
dividual effort. 

The methods pre- 
scribed by the Bu- 
reau of Entomology, 
United States De- 
partment of Agri- 
culture, for combat- 
ing these tireless 
and insidious foes 
are almost as varied 
as the kinds of in- 
sects enumerated as 
inimical to shade 
trees. Spraying de- 
vices, used in ap- 
plying arsenical mix- 
tures, however, con- 
stitute an approved 
mode of warfare, the 
size of the equipment 
varying from a 
hand- operated 
sprayer for inject- 
ing a poisonous solu- 
tion into newly- 

opened burrows, to a high-geared spraying 
outfit for sending the stream of a death- 
dealing dose to a height of 35 or 40 feet, 
seeking the destruction of the gypsy moth. 
Or, as specified in eradicating the elm leaf 
beetle as an enemy of all species of elm, 
both community action and costly spray- 
ing apparatus are essential. Satisfactory 
results are insured only when all the trees 




nJMIGATINO AND FILLING A CAVITY 

When this cavity was opened it was found to be full 

of borers and fungus cups. A syringe could not 

reach the borers, so fumigating was used. The tree 

is now healthy and sturdy 



in a particular locality are treated simul- 
taneously. The winter months and earlj 
spring, the trees being dormant, are op- 
portune seasons when organized effort is 
most effective. 

The Elm T.e<«f Beetle 

The elem leaf beetle, enemy of every spe- 
cies of elm, but partial to the common Eng- 
lish elm, increase; 
when the buds begir 
to swell in th< 
spring. It hibernate: 
in the adult or beeth 
'ondition in any suit 
able shelter. Th( 
elm leaf beetle work; 
untiringly for a par 
tial or a complet( 
defoliation of trees 
apparently b e i n ^ 
particeps criminii 
with the bark-borin§ 
insect whose attack; 
subsequent to defoli- 
ation result in cer- 
tain death to th( 
stately elm. 
frequently 
tiv"ties of 
leaf beetle 
b'ng trees of theii 
leaves lead to a slov\ 
death. Spraying th( 
trees with lead ar- 
senate when tht 
buds of the elms 
have burst, repeated 
two weeks later, is 
the prescribed 
method of control. 
Destroying the pupaf 
at the base of the trees will likewise mini- 
mize its numbers. Two generations of the 
beetle are produced annually, the eggs oi 
the second generation appearing in July. 

The Enemies of the Birch 

For a quarter of a century or more, pri- 
vate and city parks have been deprived of 
their birch trees by the inability of the lat- 



Not in- 
the ac 
the eln 

in rob 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



275 



ter to withstand the attacks of natural 
enemies. The master offender is the bronze 
birch borer, whose infestations of the bark 
and wood are accomplished with the seem- 
ing ease with which the mole tunnels 
through the surface of the earth. The top 
branches of the birch yield first to the un- 
dermining influence, the vitality of the tree 
gradually deteriorates, and its complete 
death is accomplished a year or two later. 
Dying tops, reddish or rusty brown spots 
on the white bark of the trunk and larger 
branches, and ridges in the bark, are signs 
of infestation. The borer, which is par- 
ticularly destructive to imported birch in 
parks and lawns of the Northern States, at- 
tacks poplar and aspen trees as well. The 
insect is described by an entomologist as a 
slender, flattened, footless, creamy white 
grub, about three-fourths inch long when 
full-grown, which transforms into a small, 
slender, olive-bronze, winged beetle nearly 
one-half inch in length. They spend the 
winter in a chamber in the wood or outer 
bark which is a tribute to their excavating 
powers; emerging from their hibernating 
quarters the following spring, they are 
transformed into pupae, and these into 
adults, which gnaw their way out — oval 
holes in the bark being unmistakable evi- 
dence Trees which have been subjected 
to extensive ravages not only cannot be re- 
covered, but are a menace to other trees. 
The badly damaged specimens should be 
felled and burned during the winter, or not 
later than May first. 

Birch, poplar and aspen trees not beyond 
redemption can be rescued by spraying with 
a kerosene emulsion, which destroys the eggs 
and young larvae before they gain admit- 
tance to the wood. The kerosene emulsion, 
which is equally effective in annihilating in- 
sects on some other shade trees, is the re- 
sult of the following formula: two gallons 
of kerosene, one-half pound of laundry or 
fish-oil soap, and one gallon of water. Dis- 
solve the soap in boiling water, remove the 
solution from the fire, immediately add the 
kerosene and thoroughly agitate the mix- 
ture for five minutes, until it becomes 
creamy—an emulsion. To each two gal- 
lons of water add emulsion: in fall and 
winter, one gallon; in summer, one-third 
gallon. Designed to terminate the existence 
of any insect, it can be applied with a 

varipfv nf snravinp- devices, a tin atomizer 



not being too crude for small trees. Power 
sprayers with fine nozzles are essential for 
extensive operations. Any of the standard 
miscible oils can be substituted for kero- 
sene emulsion as a solution for spraying 
the bark. By the incorporation of one 
ounce of sodium arsenate in each gallon of 
water used for diluting kerosene emulsion 
or miscible oil, a number of species of tree 
borers are killed while young, by applying 
the mixture on the bark. 

The Pcplar Borer 

The poplar borer is an inimical agent in 
the Middle and Western States, taking toll 
of the tree to which its name refers. Ir- 
regular formation, death of limbs, and the 
riddling of the trunk of the tree with holes 
of sufficient capacity to invoke the effective- 
ness of wind in divorcing its branches from 
the body, are the results of insect depreda- 
tions to poplars. The tunneling stage of 
the borer is accomplished by a yellowish, 
cylindrical grub, distinguishable from other 
insects by the presence of numerous fine, 
short, hard points on a plate immediately 
back of the head. The larva negotiates 
mining operations the first year beneath 
the bark, and during the succeeding couple 
of years penetrates into the wood. Spray- 
ing of infested trunks with kerosene emul- 
sion and digging out and killing the young 
borers in early fall are prescribed tactics 
for arresting the invasions of the pest. 

The Hardy Tussock Moth 

In spite of an abundance of parasitic in- 
sects which are its natural enemies in re- 
tarding the multiplication of its kind, the 
whitemarked tussock moth is of increasing 
menace to shade and park trees. It has 
formed acquaintance with a wide variety of 
trees, evidencing partiality for poplar, soft 
maple, elm, alder, birch and willow. The 
marks of its infestations are conspicuous, 
glistening white, frothy-looking egg masses, 
located low down on the trunk or on main 
limbs of the trees. The season for this 
evidence is from September until the fol- 
lowing spring. The caterpillars hatch from 
overwintered eggs in April and May. 
Forthwith they begin skeletonizing the 
leaves,, subsequently puncturing holes in the 
leafy growth and finally devouring all but 
the main veins. Seemingly, a quirk in na- 
ture perpetuates their destructive tactics, 
making a continuous story. As the tiny 



276 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



Vol. XXIV, No. 3 



creatures are suspended from a tree by a 
silken thread, a wind or a passing object 
may transport the insect to other trees, to 
continue its devastating efforts. The insect 
remains a caterpillar for a month or five 
weeks, shedding its skin five times. The 
eggs can be destroyed in winter, either by 
hand picking or scraping them off and 
burning or by spraying with creosote oil 
mixed with turpentine to keep it liquid in 
winter. Another method is to spray the 
infested foliage with lead arsenate, a violent 
stomach poison obtainable at seed stores. 
A barrel pump 
mounted on a horse- 
drawn cart with one 
or two 50- 1 00- foot 
leads of garden hose 
and a lo-foot bam- 
boo rod with a spray 
nozzle at the end 
will meet the re- 
quirements of a 
small town. 

The Bagworm 

Shade trees, 
shrubs and ever- 
greens sustain con- 
siderable injury 
from a caterpillar 
described as a bag- 
worm, the name re- 
ferring to the bag- 
like shelter which is 
a part of the equip- 
ment of the insect 
for undergoing the 
changes to which it 
is subject. After a 
series of transfor- 
mations the bags are 
left clinging to leaf- 
less trees. The bag- 
worm has a limited 

distribution, rarely appearing north of 
southern New York and the central por- 
tions of Pennsylvania and Ohio. South- 
ward, however, it is a troublesome pest 
in robbing shade trees of their foliage, 
inflicting serious injuries in New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West 
Virginia, . Ohio, Indiana and Illinois in 
1907. A recurrence of similar serious visi- 
tations is not unlikely in the years ahead. 
The bagworm is most effectually combated 
by hand picking the bags in winter and 



t PBH BHlllppB 



TREE IN BROOKLYN, N. Y., BANDED TO PRO- 
TECT IT FROM CLIMBING CATER- 
PILLARS 



use of a 12-foot pole pruner. Another 
method which has proved its efficiency is 
to spray with Paris green in the proportion 
of one pound to 150 gallons of water. 

The Hickory Bark-Beetle 

The hickory bark-beetle is the most de- 
structive insect enemy of hickory trees in 
the eastern United States, taking a toll of 
millions of trees in recent years. Fading 
and dying foliage in August and September 
betrays the ravages of the pest. A notable 
illustration of its destructiveness in recent 
years was that 
achieved in Long 
Island The pres- 
ence of the beetle is 
unmistakably identi- 
fied by centipede-like 
galleries in the in- 
ner bark and 
grooved on the sur- 
face of the wood. 
Trees thus afflicted 
should be marked 
and utilized for fuel 
during the winter. 
From November to 
June is the time spe- 
cified for making 
effectual this work. 
"If this is not done, 
practically all the 
hickory trees may 
d'e within a few 
years," enjoins Dr. 
\. D. Hopkins of the 
Bureau of Entomol- 
ogy. 

Methods of 
Control 

Other than the ap- 
plication of an ar- 
senical spray with 
deadly effect, there are numerous artificial 
methods of control which serve to a rela- 
tive degree in minimizing the yearly loss 
of $10,000,000 exacted by insects in ex- 
ploiting the verdure and vitality of shade 
trees. The fall canker worm, for illustra- 
tion, can be successfully combated by plac- 
ing some sticky substance or cotton bands 
around the trees as a means of forestalling 
the ascent of the female to the place where 
she deposits her eggs. Fortunately, the 
canker worm is a wingless creature, and its 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



277 



for shade-tree beautification. The bands 
are placed in the fall and maintained until 
the end of May the following year. The 
Cottonwood borer, whose ravages are inimi- 
cal to the well-being of poplar and willow 
trees, is forestalled from perpetuating it- 
self by a mechanical arrangement on this 
wise: A wire screen, up to one-half-inch 
mesh, is wrapped around the base of the 
tree, projecting itself about a foot above the 
ground and several inches into the ground. 
It fits snugly at the top and is an inch or 
two away from the bark the remainder of 
the way, thus preventing the beetles from 
laying their eggs in it. 

Still another method of control is sug- 
gested in the warfare authorized on the 
leopard moth — an imported variety — which 
is proving a menace to the propagation of 
shade and ornamental trees along the At- 
lantic seaboard, from eastern Massachu- 
setts to southern New Jersey, and in the 
Hudson River Valley. As the moth had 
intrenched itself in the public parks of New 



York City, bisulphid of carbon was adopted 
as a remedy. The larvae of the leopard 
moth feed on living wood by tunneling 
operations rather than feeding on foliage; 
consequently, bisulphid of carbon is inserted 
into the apertures made by the pest, and 
the openings are forthwith closed with vari- 
ous substances. The death-dealing dose is 
injected into the burrows by a long-spouted 
oil can or a small glass syringe, which has 
the added convenience of determining the 
amount of bisulphid, and there is no thread- 
ing to be injured by the reagent. A tea- 
spoonful of the liquid is injected into each 
burrow. Putty and moist clay are ineffec- 
tual in daubing the holes and thus sealing 
the liquid, grafting wax being recommended 
as satisfactory. Coal tar can be used as a 
substitute, or the holes may be sealed by in- 
serting a wooden plug and sawing it off even 
with the trunk of the tree. The object de- 
sired is a stopper, tight enough to exclude 
rain and the entrance of other injurious 
insects. 



Breathing-spaces in City Streets 




A FEW TREES ADD TO THE BEAUTY AND COMFORT OF A CITY STREET 



278 



Color Characteristics of a New England 

Water-Supply 

An Analysis of Various Feeders Provides Interesting Data for the Consideration 
of Municipal Engineers and Water- Works Superintendents 



ONE of the matters which has to be 
given serious consideration in the 
choice of treatment of a water- 
supply is the question of color. While this is 
important only from the esthetic stand- 
point, still it is hard to secure the approval 
of citizens where the water delivered to con- 
sumers has a pale amber color in a drinking 
glass when resting on a white cloth. A 
color of less than 10 is practically always 
insisted upon. It has been found, however, 
that people accustomed to color of 15 to 20 
become greatly pleased at a reduction, and 
should any recurrence of the higher colors 
appear, there is usually a great hue and cry. 

Caleb Mills Saville, Chief Engineer, 
Board of Water Commissioners, Hartford, 
Conn., has given some very interesting data 
in a paper read before the annual conven- 
tion of the New England Water Works 
Association, in September, 1920. He de- 
scribed the development of the Nepaug 
Reservoir, which is one of the late additions 
to the Hartford water-works. There are 
three principal streams entering the Nepaug 
Reservoir — Clear Brook, Phelps Brook and 
the Nepaug River. Clear Brook is a small, 
rapid stream draining an area of about 1.05 
square miles and having its beginning in 
heavy gravel deposits. Only a very small 
amount of swampy land is tributary, and the 
color of the water rarely goes above 15, 
except in the spring of the year or under 
condition of storm run-off. Phelps Brook 
drains an area of about 2.9 square miles. 
There are several rather extensive swamp 
areas on its watershed, which account for 
the high colors recorded on the table re- 
produced herewith. 

The Nepaug River drains an area of about 
23.9 square miles. The course of the main 
stream is rather flat for this region. Where 
there are rather extensive meadow lands 
bordering, there are no areas of swamp or 
marsh land. Several tributaries, however, 
have their rise in somewhat extensive high 
swampy lands, and from these comes much 
of the color in the main stream. For the 
twelve months ending August i, 1920, the 



average and median colors are 30.5 and 31 
respectively, with a minimum of 10 during 
the snow and ice run-off period, and 50 in 
June and November, the former due to a 
severe downpour of rain, and the latter to 
seasonal conditions. 

Phelps Brook Conditions 

The accompanying sketch shows the 
principal part of the Phelps Brook water- 
shed, and on the left is a table giving in- 
formation obtained from observations made 
on two different occasions. A study of this 
shows some interesting facts which indicate 
the origin of the high color of this stream 
and suggest economical remedies. 

Two of the larger swamp areas are en- 
closed in irregular doted lines. At "A" is 
located a permanent weir with an automatic 
recording device, and there is a rain-gauge 
located not far from "M", The stream 
flow was measured at other places with a 
current meter, and colors determined both 
with a field glass and by laboratory com- 
parison. Conditions may be understood by 
a brief analysis of the data tabulated. 

Starting at "T," there is a color of 60 
with a run-off of 9.4 cubic feet per second. 
A branch from the south, "S," brings a 
color of 22, and the combined color at "R"' 
is found to be 55 at the head of the swamp. 
The several branches leadmg into this 
swamp differ considerably in color, "A" 
and "P" ranging as high as 75 and 90 re- 
pectively; the combined color at "N" with 
a flow of 0.9 cubic feet per second being 65. 
Nearly half of the water producing this 
color comes from the high-colored tribu- 
taries "P" and "Q." It is evident, there- 
fore, that the first steps toward improve- 
ment should be taken on these streams. 
"M" with 0.4 cubic feet per second and a 
color of 55 mingling with the 65 color of 
"N" with its flow of 0.9 cubic feet per 
second, gives at "L" a total of 1.3 cubic 
feet per second and an actual color of 63 
as against 63.5 color computed. 

Similarly, down the stream high colors 
coming from **I" and "J" combine at "G" 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



279 




POINT 


meu- 
TApy 

AI/EA 
SqMis. 


Character OfAka 


Ji//i£ esK) 1920 


M6. 12, 1920 1 


aSCtlARGE 
CU.FTPtR5£C 


COLOR 


DISCHAIfGE 
CU FT PER SEC 


COiO? 


TOTAL 


PERSqH 


TOTAL 


flWVfi 


A 






/60f 




76 


40 




74 


5 










75 








C 






1 




65 















Si» 1^ 




50 


40 




iM 


E 




Pond at /leadwaters 


02 ol 




35 








F 






6? J 




75 






56 


6 






io'® 




di 


OS 




160 


h 






40 !y 




7S 


3.1 




do 


1 




Swsmpy- 


03 ,i 




100 








J 




Muck hole gi headmtfii 


64 1^ 




65 








K 






56 \ 




6i 


1.1 




SO 


L 






/.,? 1 




63 








M 




riai P^lly wooded 


Q4o 




SS 








ti 






Odi 




65 















06 3 




60 








P 




Swamps at lieada/aters 


OS y 




75 








Q 






0.; !y 




80 








ff 






05 ?S 




55 








5 




Steep Wooded 


5 




22 








■T 




Swampy 


0.4 i 




60 


05 




7.^ 



Note- Points XSL are approx. the Sim& The reason the flous are 
so different rs because they vere taken on different days. 

THE PHELPS BBOOK WATERSHED WITH TABLE OF COLOS CHABACTEEISTICS 



in proportion to their discharges, and "G" 
combined with "H"' produces a color of 75 
at "F." "E" stream entering below "F" un- 
doubtedly has some influence in reducing 
color, but the long swamp area to "D" is 
more than sufficient to counteract it. It 
appears from this study so far that streams 
"I" and "J" ^^so will repay attention and 
that probably best results both in affusion 
and economy can be had here by attacking 
the entering streams before advancing to 
the more extensive swamp areas. 

A most interesting phenomenon was 
observed in connection with this work, and 
duplicate observations were taken to make 
sure that there was no error either of obser- 
vation or amount of water flowing in the 
stream. The elevation of the weir "A" is 
516, while that of a point about 4,000 feet 
west along the brook, or 700 feet east of 
"C," is 675, a difference in elevation of 159 
feet in 4,000. On June 6, the flow at "A" 
was 10 cubic feet per second, and the color 
70. At "D" the flow was 9.9 cubic feet per 
second, with color 00. No elevation was 
taken at "D," but the brook has little fall 
between "C" and "D." With practically the 



same flow at the two stations there was a 
reduction in color of 20.0, On August 12 
check observations were made; the flow at 
"A" was 4 cubic feet per second, with color 
74; the flow at "D" was 4 cubic feet per 
second, with color 100, a difference of 26. 

As there are no entering streams between 
"D" and "A," and as the gagings show no 
appreciable inflow of low-colored spring 
water, the conclusion seems warranted thai 
because of the swift water from "D" to 
"A" there is a reduction of color from 20 to 
26 points in a distance of about one mile. 
Similar work to the above is being under- 
taken on the Nepaug River stream, and as 
maintaining forces are available, work will 
be done from time to time, attacking first 
those locations where the greatest amount 
of color is evident. A survey of this charac- 
ter is comparatively inexpensive and often 
results in much economy by undertaking 
work to remedy the root of the trouble 
rather than starting on the more spectacular 
project of extensive swamp drainage. The 
latter is often disappointing in failing to 
get results commensurate with outlay be- 
cause of lack of careful diagnosis. 



28o 



The Change in Attitude of the Public and 

Public Service Companies Toward 

State Regulation 

By Farley Gannett 

Gannett, Seelye and Fleming, Harrisburg, Pa. 



A FEW years ago a lawyer friend of 
mine, whose specialty was corpora- 
tion law, and whose practice was 
largely before state regulatory commissions, 
told me this incident in his practice. 

One day the President of probably the 
largest utility in the state came to him to 
retain him to assist in putting a rate increase 
through the Public Service Commission. 
This was a most attractive and valuable 
commission, and one most desired by many 
attorneys and particularly so by my friend, 
whose practice was young but growing. 

The lawyer thanked the President and 
asked why he came to him when the utility's 
regular attorney, a man of national reputa- 
tion, was still under retainer and able to 
look after his client's affairs. The Presi- 
dent replied that he wanted them both; that 
he recognized that my friend specialized in 
this class of work, resided in the state capi- 
tal city, and would be of much value to his 
company. My friend again thanked the 
President and declined his retamer, much 
to the latter's astonishment. When asked 
his reason, he said that he could not take the 
case unless he took it alone ; that he recog- 
nized the ability of the company's regular 
attorney, who, however, had not yet learned 
that public utilities were under state regula- 
tion, and he was too old to learn it. The 
old attorney has since passed on, and my 
friend's firm now represents the utility. 

There are still many lawyers who cannot 
make up their minds to the new idea of 
state regulation ; and there are probably 
more operators of utilit'es who cannot. The 
older men are passing on or becoming con- 
vinced of the actual conditions, and these 
last few years have seen a vast change in 
their attitude. The utility has learned that 
far more can be gained by playing fair and 
honestly with the commissions and the pub- 
lic than by practicing subterfuge, withhold- 
ing facts and attempting to befuddle the 
authorities. 

When governmental control of public serv- 
ice corfK>rations was first discussed some 



twenty years ago, the idea was quite gener- 
ally objected to by the companies. Grad- 
ually this attitude was modified and softened 
until most of the states enacted laws or- 
ganizing public utility commissions. The 
older men in the business could not at first 
understand or countenance interference in 
their business by the public utility commis- 
sions. The rising prices of recent years 
have, however, so brought home to them the 
advantages of state control that they fear 
and dread the possibility of losing such 
control, which carries with it protection. 
In other words, they see that it is not one- 
sided control. The company is controlled, 
but so is the public. The commissions have 
prevented the public from keeping rates 
fixed by ordinance or agreement at such 
low levels as to drive the companies into 
receiverships. 

Utility Commissions Act as Buffers 

And now the utilities fear that the Legis- 
lature of Illinois may do away with the 
Public Utility Commission of that state. 
They fear {hat by so doing the utilities will 
become "a political football." They want 
the protection of the Commission, even 
though they do sometimes reduce the profits, 
operating salaries and management fees, and 
criticize managerial methods of the utilities. 
Utilities realize that it is due to the public 
utility commissions alone that many of 
them are able to live and do business. 

These are of course hard days for the 
public serv'ce commissions, called into being 
by the public to prevent undue profits by 
monopolies, and to protect those monopolies, 
recognized as properly so, in their invest- 
ments. These commissions for the last few 
years have had to say "yes" to the great 
majority of applications for rate increases, 
because of advancing costs of operation and 
maintenance. The public is dissatisfied with 
the creature it created. It is not keeping 
rates for gas, water, electricity, trolleys and 
telephones down, but constantly permitting 
them to mount higher and higher. 

If it had not been for the public utility 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



281 



commissions, where would the utilities be 
to-day, with their ordinances calling for 
five-cent fares, fixed water and gas rates, 
etc.? Imagine the controversies between 
city and company officials when attempts 
were made to alter existing ordinances. The 
situation in New York between ihe Mayor 
and the trolley company wouid have been 
repeated thousands of times. As it is, a 
great many public utilities, chiefly gas and 
trolley companies, have succumbed and gone 
into receivers' hands, but how many more 
would have done so were it not possible in 
many states to forget ordinances and con- 
tracts which set rates and fall back on the 
power of the public utility commiss'ons to 
regulate them equitably ! Thus, that which 
was the protection of the public a few years 
ago is now considered by the public to be its 
menace, and that which in the mind of the 
utility operator menaced the life of the ut'I- 
ity and took away its individuality and 'nde- 
pendence, is now its protector. 

If costs have really started to reach a 
permanently lower level, the utilities have 
the prospect of lower operat'ng and ma'nte- 
nance costs before long. Will they be as 
quick to reduce rates when costs are lower 
as they have been to raise them — and should 
they? There is a lag between the time in- 
creased rates are needed and the actual re- 
sults of rate raises. In those states where 
the law provides that approval must be ob- 
tained before rates are raised, this lag is 
great and its effect sometimes disastrous. 
In those states where new rates merely 
have to be filed thirty days in advance of 
the date they are effective, the lag is not so 
great, but it is considerable, for it sometimes 
takes months to get the new schedule in 
shape for filing. 

Utilities may be pardoned in some cases 
if they postpone rate reductions until after 
they have recouped the losses incurred dur- 
ing this period of lag, but as a rule the com- 
panies will probably not rush to reduce 
rates, and we may expect that the cities will 
before long begin actions before the com- 
missions, asking for rate reductions based 
on redufced operating expenses. .Thus, be- 
fore many years, or it may only be months, 
the commissions will have a chance to square 
themselves with the public by ordering rate 
reductions in the majority of cases which 
come before them. When this time arrives, 
will the utilities then attempt to oust the 
commissions, as the public is doing in some 



states now? I do not think they will. 

It is to be hoped that the utilities will 
carefully watch their balance sheets and will 
play the game to the extent of keeping the 
rates down on the basis of reduced cost of 
service if that cost does become less. It is 
to be hoped that they will not wait to be 
driven down by complaints to the commis- 
sions, and it is also to be hoped that the 
public will be patient and give the utilities 
time to recoup some of the money lost dur- 
ing the lag period, before starting suits be- 
fore the commissions asking for reductions. 

It may be fairly said that public utility 
rates did not rise as rapidly or as high as 
wages and prices of most other commodities 
did during the war, and subsequently. Per- 
haps some of the companies were earning 
so well under pre-war conditions as not to 
need much increase, and didn't want to 
run the risk of valuations by commissions. 
Others hoped that costs would soon cease 
their upward trend and start down, and 
thus postponed rate revisions. There are a 
large number of companies which have not 
increased rates at all during this period. 

All in all, it would seem, when the prob- 
lem is studied as a whole, that the public 
utility companies have come through the 
trying period of the last three years with a 
record which the public should appreciate. 
This situation should be made clear to the 
public by someone who is willing to collect 
the data, and the result would be to put the 
utilities in a good light in the eyes of the 
understanding section of the public. Now 
the utilities must not mar this record by 
trying to make the increases, which have 
been necessarily made, permanent — a perma- 
nent additional burden on the public. Of 
course the utilities are not entirely respon- 
sible for their good record during the war, 
as to increased rates. Had there been no 
commission control there would probably 
have been chaos. Some companies, which 
could do so, would have undoubtedly ad- 
vanced rates out of proportion to rising 
costs, while others, those which had their 
rates bound by contracts and ordnances, 
would have succumbed and gone into re- 
ceiverships. The fairly even tenor of the 
way of the utility during the war and post- 
war period can be credited to commission 
control. It has kept increases reasonable, 
and far below the increases in most other 
things, and at the same time it has saved the 
financial life of innumerable corporations. 



282 



Street Flushing for Cleanliness 

Descriptive Material and Cost Data of Value to Municipal Officials 



STREET flushing is being increasingly 
used by cities throughout the United 
States, supplanting the inefficient hand- 
sweeping method. Power flushers wash the 
surface of asphalt, brick, and concrete and 
other hard-surfaced pavements by directing 
streams of water from fan-shaped nozzles 
under pressure onto the pavement, chiseling 
off the dirt, scraping the surface, and carry- 
ing the refuse into the gutters. The pressure 
at which the water is thrown onto the pave- 
ment is obtained from a separate gasoline 
engine mounted between the driver's seat 
and the tank, which makes it entirely inde- 
pendent of the truck engine. 

The flushing units are so made that they 
can be used with one, two or three nozzles 
operating at a time. Three nozzles are used 
to. clean the street from curb to curb on one 
trip, us'ng one front and two side nozzles. 
Two nozzles are used at one time when 
cleaning exceptionally wide streets or streets 
having car tracks in the center. In this 
case the left front and right side nozzles 
should be used, or vice versa. Only one 
nozzle is used when an exceedingly h'gh 
pressure is required for spring clean-up or 
for streets which would ordinarily require 
a scraper to remove the dirt. 

When streets are covered with dirt that 
is hard and dry and baked to the surface, it 
is well to sprinkle before flushing in order 
to soften the material, which increases 
flusher efficiency about 50 per cent. Flush- 
ers are also equipped with sprinkler heads 
located at the front of the machine and 
fitted with a three-way cock, so that the 
operating levers controlling the front noz- 
zles can be used to control the sprinkler 
heads also. These sprinkler heads throw a 
wide fan-shaped stream in front of the 
truck, covering a strip of 60 feet, which can 
be decreased to 30 feet by reducing the 
speed of the flusher engine. 

The first method of street cleaning used 
was the "White Wing," the man with the 
push broom and cart. This is also the most 
expensive when present-day labor costs are 
considered. One motor-operated flusher can 
do the work of 20 White Wings. Horse- 
drawn sweepers were formerly used quite 
commonly up to the time flushers were 



placed on the market, but this method doe> 
not remove the fine particles of street dust, 
which is read'ly blown about by the wind. 
One flusher can do the work of about six 
horse-drawn sweepers. 

Operating and Cost Data 

In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, the flushers be- 
gin to operate at 4 o'clock in the morning. 
The first territory to be cleaned each day is 
the business district, and this is done at the 
early hour to avoid the heavy traffic. Dur- 
ing the day from 8 o'clock the residence dis- 
trict is taken care of, covering about 60 
miles of paving. The flusher covers th's 
territory once every 12 days. Two men 
are employed on the flusher at an average 
daily expense of $15. The dirt forced by 
the flusher into the gutter is picked up by a 
.p"ang that follows the machine continually. 
Flat sewers do not permit the flushing of 
this dirt into the catch-basins, so that it is 
necessary to clean out the gutters con- 
tinuously. 

In Waxahachie, Tex., 71,000 square yards 
of street are flushed daily by a Fierce- 
Arrow truck with Studebaker model flusher. 
This machine has been in operation since 
June I, 1919, and the total cost for repairs 
rnd parts to date has been $36. It is oper- 
ated by a competent man, who is very care- 
ful, and the streets are kept exceptionally 
clean. 

About 2 miles of paved street in Tyler, 
Tex., are flushed each night, with the ex- 
ception of Sunday night. This usually re- 
quires about 6 hours per night and about 
30 tanks of water to do the work. The 
flusher is equipped with a 1,200-gallon tank. 
During the summer months the flusher is 
used during the day as a sprinkler in order 
to lay the dust on public streets, and covers 
about 2 miles a day in this way, twice each 
day. The expense of operation of the 
flusher averages about $350 a montb. 

The c'ty of Chicago operates one double- 
imit flushing equipment and a single-unit, 
both of which operate satisfactorily. These 
machines were delivered in September, 1920, 
and have been operating in the down-town 
section of the city. Twelve miles of streets 
are flushed nightly between 10 P. M. and 6 



March, 1921 



THE AMERICAN CITY 



283 



A. M. at a cost of 13.4 cents per 1,000 square 
yards. Six additional Mack flushers will be 
put into commission this spring, and will 
radiate from the business section on the 
principal thoroughfares, serving a district 
approximately li miles long by 4 miles wide, 
each flusher working 16 hours per day. 

The Department of Streets and Public 
Improvements, Des Moines, Iowa, reports 
that the cost of operation depends consider- 
ably upon weather conditions, but conserva- 
tively, during an 8-hour period they are able 



flusher showed the following results : The 
machine was in operation 237 minutes, of 
which 633^ minutes were used for loading, 
75 minutes were used for discharging, and 
gSyz minutes spent in backing, starting, etc. ; 
17 tank loads were distributed, making a 
total of 25,000 gallons used for flushing, 
and 10.75 blocks were flushed per hour. The 
following table gives the cost of operation 
of this machine per 8-hour day: 

Auto driver $4.50 

Helper 4.00 

Gasoline (15 gallons at 29 cents) 4.35 




STREET FLrSHEB AT WORK IN TYLER, TEXAS, WITH TWO NOZZLES OPERATING 



to flush approximately 78,600 square yards 
with 34,000 gallons of water. It takes ap- 
proximately 20 gallons of gasoline and 2 
gallons of oil for the same period, which in- 
cludes the amount used in the auxiliary 
motor as well as for the truck proper. This, 
with the wages of the operators, amounts 
to $10.12, constituting the total expense of 
operating outside of maintenance, which has 
been very slight in the two years the ma- 
chine has been operated. 

The Department of Street Cleaning, 
Richmond, Va., ref)orts that under test the 



Oil .35 

Grease .10 

Depreciation ($8.500 — 15 per cent) 3 . 50 

Interest (6 per cent on $8,500) 1.40 

Total cost per day (8 hours) $18.20 

The Bureau of Streets, New Haven, 
Conn., uses a 5-ton Larrabee chassis with 
Studebaker attachment. The average re- 
sults accomplished by this machine in a 9- 
hour day are as follows: 

Street area flushed 303.713 square yards 

Street area sprinkled 46.058 square yards 

Amount of gasoline consumed... 17 gallons 

Amount of oil consumed 114 quarts 

Wages of driver $4.50 per day 

Wages of helper $3.50 per day 



The Value of a Gravel Survey 



Iowa gravel hunters working under the direction of the State Highway Commission, undoubtedly