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Full text of "American composers : a study of the music of this country, and of its future, with biographies of the leading composers of the present time, being a new rev. ed. of Contemporary American composers"

AMERICAN 
COMPOSERS 

NEW REVISED EDITION 






AMERICAN COMPOSERS 



/iDusic Xovers' Series 



GREAT COMPOSERS AND THEIR WORK $1.50 

By Louis C. Elson 

FAMOUS SINGERS OF TO-DAY AND YESTERDAY 1.50 

By Henry C. Lahee 

FAMOUS VIOLINISTS OF TO-DAY AND YESTERDAY 1.50 

By Henry C. Labee 

FAMOUS PIANISTS OF TO-DAY AND YESTERDAY 1.50 

By Henry C. Lahee 

GRAND OPERA IN AMERICA 1.50 

By Henry C. Lahee 

A HISTORY OF OPERA 1.50 

By Arthur Elson 

THE NATIONAL Music OF AMERICA AND ITS 

SOURCES 1.50 

By Louis C. Elson 

THE MODERN COMPOSERS OF EUROPE 1.50 

By Arthur Elson 

WOMAN'S WORK IN Music 1.50 

By Arthur Elson 

THE ORGAN AND ITS MASTERS 1.50 

By Henry C. Lahee 

THE LOVE AFFAIRS OF GREAT MUSICIANS. 2 VOLS. 4.00 

By Rupert Hughes 

SHAKESPEARK iv Music 2.00 

By Louis C. Elson 

ORCHESTRAL INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USE 2.00 

By Arthur Elson 

THE GRAND OPERA SINGERS OF TO-DAY Net, 2 50 

By Henry C. Lahee 

AMERICAN COMPOSERS Net, 2.50 

New Revised Edition 

By Rupert Hughes and Arthur Elson 

rr 

Cbc page Company 

53 BEACON STRBBT 

BOSTON MASS. 




FREDERICK SHEPHERD CONVERSE. 

(See page 457-1 



i 



AMERICAN 
COMPOSERS 

A STUDY OF THE MUSIC OF THIS 
COUNTRY, AND OF ITS FUTURE, 
WITH BIOGRAPHIES OF THE LEADING 
COMPOSERS OF THE PRESENT TIME 

BEING A NEW EE VISED EDITION OF 
CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN COMPOSERS 

BY 

RUPERT HUGHES 

Author of " Love Affairs of Great Musicians," etc. 
WITH ADDITIONAL CHAPTERS BY 

ARTHUR ELSON 

Author of " The Modern Composers of Europe, 
"Woman's Work in Music," etc. 



ILLUSTRATED 




THE PAGE COMPANY 
BOSTON * * * MDCCCCXIV 



Copyright, 1900, 
BY THE PAGE COMPANY 



Copyright, 
BY THE PAGE COMPANY 



All rights reserved 



Eighth Impression, April, 1910 

New Revised Edition, November, 1914 



THE COLONIAL PRESS 
C. H. SIMONDS CO., BOSTON, TJ. 8. A. 



PREFACE 

MR. HUGHES originally planned to under- 
take himself the preparation of this new edi- 
tion, but pressure of labor in other fields 
forced him to give up the project. He, 
consequently, turned over the large amount 
of material which he had collected to Mr. 
Elson, whose experience in the field of 
musical criticism has made him well fitted 
for the task of reviewing the progress of 
American Composers since the publication 
of the first edition. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

CHAPTER PAGE 

FOREWORD xv 

I: A GENERAL SURVEY n 

II. THE INNOVATORS 34 

III. THE ACADEMICS 145 

IV. THE COLONISTS 267 

V. THE WOMEN COMPOSERS 423 

VI. THE FOREIGN COMPOSERS .... 442 

POSTLUDE 447 

PART II. 

To THE READER 451 

I. THE ORCHESTRAL MASTERS .... 453 

II. VARIOUS RECENT NAMES 496 

III. OTHER MUSICAL FORMS 533 

INDEX 573 



LIST OF MUSIC 



PAGH 

AUTOGRAPH OF EDWARD MACDOWELL . 34 

" CLAIR DE LUNE," BY EDWARD MACDOWELL 46 

AUTOGRAPH OF EDGAR STILLMAN KELLEY . 58 
"ISRAFEL" (fragment), BY EDGAR STILLMAN 

KELLEY 74 

AUTOGRAPH OF HARVEY WORTHINGTON 

LOOMIS 77 

" SANDALPHON " (fragment), BY H. W. LOOMIS 82 

AUTOGRAPH OF ETHELBERT NEVIN . . 93 
" HERBSTGEFUHL (fragment), BY ETHELBERT 

NEVIN 102 

AUTOGRAPH OF JOHN PHILIP SOUSA . .112 
A PAGE FROM " EL CAPITAN," BY JOHN 

PHILIP SOUSA. 127 

AUTOGRAPH OF JOHN K. PAINE . . . 145 

POSTLUDE TO " CEDIPUS TYRANNUS," BY JOHN 

K. PAINE 158 

" SPRING'S AWAKENING " (fragment), BY 

DUDLEY BUCK 172 

vii 



viii List of Music. 

FAOB 

AUTOGRAPH OF HORATIO W. PARKER. . 174 
" NIGHT -PIECE TO JULIA" (fragment), BY 

HORATIO W. PARKER .... 180 
"Dm STUNDE SEI GESEGNET" (fragment), 

BY FRANK VAN DER STUCKEN . . 194 
" A LOVE SONG " (fragment), BY W. W. GIL- 

CHRIST 205 

AUTOGRAPH OF G. W. CHADWICK . . 210 

"FOLK SONG" (No. i), BY G. W. CHADWICK 216 

AUTOGRAPH OF ARTHUR FOOTE . . . 221 
" IT WAS A LOVER AND His LASS," BY 

ARTHUR FOOTE . ... 230 
IDYLLE " (fragment), BY ARTHUR WHITING 287 
"BALLADE" (fragment), BY HOWARD BROCK- 
WAY 303 

AUTOGRAPH OF HARRY ROWE SHELLEY . 304 
"SPRING" (fragment), BY GERRIT SMITH . 314 
"WHEN LOVE Is GONE," BY C. B. HAW- 
LEY 330 

"SONG FROM OMAR KHAYYAM," BY VICTOR 

HARRIS 339 

"HYMN OF PAN" (fragment), FRED FIELD 

BULLARD 352 

" PEACE," BY HOMER A. NORRIS . . . 362 

AUTOGRAPH OF G. W. MARSTON . . . 367 
EXCERPT FROM AN ORCHESTRAL SCORE, BY 

. F. G. GLEASON 378 

" IDYLLE " (fragment), BY WILLIAM H. SHER- 
WOOD 385 

AUTOGRAPH OF WILSON G. SMITH . . 395 



List of Music. ix 

PAGE 

" ARABESQUE," BY WILSON G. SMITH . . . 404 
FRAGMENT OF THE SCORE OF " SALAMMBO," BY 

JOHANN H. BECK 408 

AUTOGRAPH OF JAMES H. ROGERS . . . .412 
" BLACK RIDERS " (fragment), BY WILLIAM SCHUY- 

LER 416 

" PHANTOMS " (fragment), BY MRS. H. H. A. BEACH 429 

" GHOSTS," BY MARGARET RUTHVEN LANG . . 436 
" How DO I LOVE THEE? " (fragment), BY HENRY 

K. HADLEY 456 

PRELUDE TO SUITE (fragment), BY F. S. CONVERSE 461 
" FROM THE LAND OF THE SKY - BLUE WATER " 

(fragment), BY CHARLES W. CADMAN . . 472 

" ICHIBUZZHI " (fragment), BY ARTHUR FAR WELL . 511 
"I DRINK THE FRAGRANCE OF THE ROSE" (frag- 
ment), BY H. CLOUGH - LEIGHTER . . .531 

PRELUDE (fragment), BY HERMAN P. CHELIUS . 547 

FUGUE (fragment), BY HERMAN P. CHELIUS . . 548 
" IL PLEURE DANS MON COEUR " (fragment), BY 

CLAYTON JOHNS 553 

" SERENITY " (fragment), BY MARY TURNER SALTER 565 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

FREDERICK SHEPHERD CONVERSE (See page 457) 

Frontispiece 

EDWARD MACDOWELL 34 

EDGAR STILLMAN KELLEY 58 

HARVEY WORTHINGTON Looms 78 

ETHELBERT NEVIN 92 

JOHN PHILIP SOUSA . . . . . . .112 

HENRY SCHOENEFELD .128 

JOHN KNOWLES PAINE 146 

HORATIO W. PARKER 174 

FRANK VAN DER STUCKEN 188 

GEORGE WHITFIELD CHAD WICK 210 

ARTHUR FOOTE 222 

HENRY K. HADLEY 242 

ADOLPH M. FOERSTER 248 

CHARLES CROZAT CONVERSE 256 

Louis ADOLPHE COERNE 262 

HENRY HOLD EN Huss 292 

HARRY ROWE SHELLEY 304 

FREDERICK FIELD BULLARD 354 

HOMER A. NORRIS 358 

FREDERICK GRANT GLEASON 376 



xii List of Illustrations. 

PAGE 

WILLIAM H. SHERWOOD 384 

A. J. GOODRICH 388 

MRS. H. H. A. BEACH 426 

VICTOR HERBERT 464 

CHARLES WAKEFIELD CABMAN 470 

REGINALD DE KOVEN . ...... 476 

GUSTAV STRUBE 482 

ERNEST SCHELLING 49 

ERNEST RICHARD KROEGER 492 

MARGARET RUTHVEN LANG 520 

WILSON G. SMITH . 552 



PART I. 

AMERICAN COMPOSERS TO 
1900 

BY RUPERT HUGHES 



FOREWORD. 

ONE day there came into Robert Schu- 
mann's ken the work of a young fellow named 
Brahms, and the master cried aloud in the 
wilderness, " Behold, the new Messiah of 
music ! " Many have refused to accept 
Brahms at this rating, and I confess to being 
one of the unregenerate, but the spirit that 
kept Schumann's heart open to the appeal of 
any stranger, that led him into instant enthu- 
siasms of which he was neither afraid nor 
ashamed, enthusiasms in which the whole 
world has generally followed his leading 
that spirit it is that proves his true musician- 
ship, and makes him a place forever among 
the great critics of music, a small, small 
crowd they are, too. 

It is inevitable that a pioneer like Schu- 

XV 



xvi Foreword. 

mann should make many mistakes, but he 
escaped the one great fatal mistake of those 
who are not open to conviction, nor alert for 
new beauty and fresh truth, who are willing 
to take art to their affections or respect only 
when it has lost its bloom and has been duly 
appraised and ticketed by other generations 
or foreign scholars. And yet, even worse 
than this languorous inanition is the active 
policy of those who despise everything con- 
temporary or native, and substitute sciolism 
for catholicity, contempt for analysis. 

While the greater part of the world has 
stayed aloof, the problem of a national Amer- 
ican music has been solving itself. Aside 
from occasional attentions evoked by chance 
performances, it may be said in general that 
the growth of our music has been unloved 
and unheeded by anybody except a few 
plodding composers, their wives, and a retainer 
or two. The only thing that inclines me to 
invade the privacy of the American com- 



Foreword. xvii 

poser and publish his secrets, is my hearty 
belief, lo, these many years ! that some of 
the best music in the world is being written 
here at home, and that it only needs the light 
to win its meed of praise. 

Owing to the scarcity of printed matter 
relating to native composers, and the utter 
incompleteness and bias of what exists, I have 
based this book almost altogether on my own 
research. I studied the catalogues of all the 
respectable music publishers, and selected 
such composers as seemed to have any seri- 
ous intentions. When I heard of a com- 
poser whose work, though earnest, had not 
been able to find a publisher, I sought him 
but and read his manuscripts (a hideous task 
which might be substituted for the compara- 
tive pastime of breaking rocks, as punishment 
for misdemeanors). In every case I secured 
as many of each composer's works as could 
be had in print or in manuscript, and en- 
deavored to digest them. Thousands of 



Foreword. 

pieces of music, from short songs to operatic 
and orchestral scores, I studied with all avail- 
able conscience. The fact that after going 
through . at least a ton of American compo 
sitions, I am still an enthusiast, is surely a 
proof of some virtue in native music. 

A portion of the result of this study was 
published au courant in a magazine, awaken 
ing so much attention that I have at length 
decided to yield to constant requests and 
publish the articles in more accessible form. 
The necessity for revising many of the 
opinions formed hastily and published imme- 
diately, the possibility now of taking the work 
of our musicians in some perspective, and the 
opportunity of bringing my information up* 
to date, have meant so much revision, exci- 
sion, and addition, that this book is really a 
new work. 

The biographical data have been furnished 
in practically every case by the composers 
themselves, and are, therefore, reliable in 



Foreword. xix 

everything except possibly the date of birth. 
The critical opinions gain their possibly dog- 
matic tone rather from a desire for brevity 
than from any hope or wish that they 
should be swallowed whole. No attempt to set 
up a standard of comparative merit or prece- 
dence has been made, though it is inevitable 
that certain music-makers should interest one 
more than certain others even more worthy 
in the eyes of eminent judges. 

It may be that some inspectors of this 
book will complain of the omission of names 
they had expected to find here. Others will 
feel a sense of disproportion. To them there 
is no reply but a pathetic allusion to the in- 
evitable incompleteness and asymmetry of all 
things human. 

Many will look with skepticism at the large 
number of composers I have thought worthy 
of inclusion. I can only say that the fact that 
an artist has created one work of high merit 
makes him a good composer in my opinion, 



*x Foreword. 

whether or no he has ever written another, 
and whether or no he has afterward fallen 
into the sere and yellow school of trash. 
So Gray's fame is perennial, one poem 
among many banalities. 

Besides, I do not concur inthat most com- 
monplace fallacy of criticism, the belief that 
not more than one genius is vouchsafed to 
any one period of an art, though this opinion 
can be justified, of course, by a very exclusive 
definition of the word genius. To the average 
mind, for instance, the whole literary achieve- 
ment of the Elizabethan era is condensed into 
the name of Shakespeare. Contemporary 
with him, however, there were, of course, 
thirty or forty writers whose best works the 
scholar would be most unwilling to let die. 
There were, for instance, a dozen playwrights, 
like Jonson, Fletcher, Ford, Marlowe, and 
Greene, in whose works can be found literary 
and dramatic touches of the very highest 
order. There were poets less prolific than 



Foreword. xxi 

Spenser, and yet to be credited with a few 
works of the utmost beauty, minor geniuses 
like Ralegh, Sidney, Lodge, Shirley, Lyly, 
Wotton, Wither, John Donne, Bishop Hall, 
Drayton, Drummond, Herbert, Carew, Her- 
rick, Breton, Allison, Byrd, Dowland, Cam- 
pion so one might run on without naming 
one man who had not written something the 
world was better for. 

All periods of great art activity are similarly 
marked by a large number of geniuses whose 
ability is not disproved, because overshadowed 
by the presence of some titanic contemporary. 
It would be a mere impertinence to state such 
an axiom of art as this, were it not the plain 
truth that almost all criticism of contempo- 
raries is based upon an arrant neglect of it ; 
and if it were not for the fact that I am 
about to string out a long, long list of Ameri- 
can music-makers whose ability I think note- 
worthy, a list whose length may lead many 
a wiseacre to pull a longer face. 



xxii Foreword. 

Parts of this book have been reprinted from 
Godeys Magazine, the Century Magazine, and 
the Criterion, to whose publishers I am in- 
debted for permission. For the music repro- 
duced here I have to thank the publishers 
whose copyrights were loaned for the occa- 
sion. 

If the book shall only succeed in arousing 
in some minds an interest or a curiosity that 
shall set them to the study of American 
music (as I have studied it, with infinite 
pleasure), then this fine white paper and this 
beautiful black ink will not have been wasted. 



AMERICAN COMPOSERS 



CHAPTER I. 

A GENERAL SURVEY. 

CODDLING is no longer the chief need of 
the American composer. While he still 
wants encouragement in his good tendencies, 
much more encouragement than he gets, 
too, he is now strong enough to profit by 
the discouragement of his evil tendencies. 

In other words, the American composer is 
ready for criticism. 

The first and most vital flaw of which his 
work will be accused is the lack of national- 
ii 



12 Contemporary American Composers. 

ism. This I should like to combat after the 
sophistric fashion of Zeno, showing, first, 
why we lack that desideratum, a strictly 
national school ; secondly, that a strictly 
national school is not desirable ; and thirdly, 
that we most assuredly have a national school. 
In building a national individuality, as in 
building a personal individuality, there is 
always a period of discipleship under some 
older power. When the rudiments and the 
essentials are once thoroughly mastered, the 
shackles of discipleship are thrown off, and 
personal expression in an original way begins. 
This is the story of every master in every 
art : The younger Raphael was only Peru- 
gino junior. Beethoven's first sonatas were 
more completely Haydn's than the word 
" gewidmet " would declare. The youthful 
Canova was swept off his feet by the un- 
earthing of old Greek masterpieces. Steven- 
son confesses frankly his early efforts to copy 
the mannerisms of Scott and others. Na- 



A General Survey. 1 3 

tions are only clusters of individuals, and 
subject to the same rules. Italy borrowed 
its beginnings from Byzantium ; Germany 
and France took theirs from Italy ; we, ours, 
from them. 

It was inconceivable that America should 
produce an autocthonous art. The race is 
one great mixture of more or less digested 
foreign elements ; and it is not possible to 
draw a declaration of artistic, as of political, 
independence, and thenceforward be truly 
free. 

Centuries of differentiated environment (in 
all the senses of the word environment) are 
needed to produce a new language or a new 
art ; and it was inevitable that American 
music should for long be only a more or less 
successful employment of European methods. 
And there was little possibility, according to 
all precedents in art history, that any striking 
individuality should rise suddenly to found a 
school based upon his own mannerism. 



14 Contemporary American Composers. 

Especially was this improbable, since we 
are in a large sense of English lineage. As 
the co-heirs, with those who remain in the 
British Isles, of the magnificent prose and 
poetry of England, it was possible for us to 
produce early in our own history a Haw- 
thorne and a Poe and an Emerson and a 
Whitman. But we have had more hin- 
drance than help from our heritage of Eng- 
lish music, in which there has never been 
a master of the first rank, Purcell and 
the rest being, after all, brilliants of the 
lesser magnitude (with the permission of 
that electric Englishman, Mr. John F. Run- 
ciman). 

A further hindrance was the creed of the 
Puritan fathers of our civilization ; they had 
a granite heart, and a suspicious eye for 
music. Here is a cheerful example of con- 
gregational lyricism, and a lofty inspiration 
for musical treatment (the hymn refers to 
the fate of unbaptized infants) : 



A General Survey. 15 

* A crime it is ! Therefore in Bliss 

You may not hope to dwell ; 
But unto you I shall allow 
The easiest room in Hell." 

It was only at the end of the seventeenth 
century that singing by note began to sup- 
plant the " lining-out " barbarism, and to 
provoke such fierce opposition as this : 

" First, it is a new way an unknown tongue ; 
ad, it is not so melodious as the old way ; 3d, there 
are so many tunes that nobody can learn them ; 
4th, the new way makes a disturbance in churches, 
grieves good men, exasperates them, and causes them 
to behave disorderly; 5th, it is popish; 6th, it will 
introduce instruments ; 7th, the names of the notes 
are blasphemous ; 8th, it is needless, the old way 
being good enough ; gih, it requires too much time 
to learn it; loth, it makes the young disorderly." 

At the time when such puerility was dis- 
turbing this cradle of freedom and cacophony, 
Bach and Handel were at work in their con- 
trapuntal webs, the Scarlattis, Corelli and 
Tartini and Porpora were alive. Peri, 
Josquin and Willaert and Lassus were dead, 



1 6 Contemporary American Composers. 

and the church had had its last mass from 
the most famous citizen of the town of Pales- 
trina. Monteverde was no longer inventing 
like an Edison ; Lulli had gone to France 
and died ; and Rameau and Couperin were 
alive. 

At this time in the world's art, the Ameri- 
cans were squabbling over the blasphemy of 
instruments and of notation ! This is not 
the place to treat the history of our music. 
The curious can find enlightenment at such 
sources as Mr. Louis C. Elson's " National 
Music of America." It must be enough for 
me to say that the throttling hands of Puri- 
tanism are only now fully loosened. Some 
of our living composers recall the parental 
opposition that met their first inclinations to 
a musical career, opposition based upon the 
disgracefulness, the heathenishness, of music 
as a profession. 

The youthfulness of our school of music 
can be emphasized further by a simple state- 



A General Survey. \"J 

ment that, with the exception of a few names 
like Lowell Mason, Louis Moreau Gottschalk, 
Stephen A. Emery (a graceful writer as well 
as a theorist), and George F. Bristow, prac- 
tically every American composer of even the 
faintest importance is now living. 

The influences that finally made American 
music are chiefly German. Almost all of our 
composers have studied in Germany, or from 
teachers trained there ; very few of them turn- 
ing aside to Paris, and almost none to Italy. 
The prominent teachers, too, that have come 
from abroad have been trained in the Ger- 
man school, whatever their nationality. The 
growth of a national school has been neces- 
sarily slow, therefore, for its necessary and 
complete submission to 'German influences. 

It has been further delayed by the meagre 
native encouragement to effort of the better 
sort. The populace has been largely indiffer- 
ent, the inertia of all large bodies would 
explain that. A national, a constructive, and 



1 8 Contemporary American Composers. 

collaborative criticism has been conspicuously 
absent. 

The leaders of orchestras have also offered 
an almost insurmountable obstacle to the pro- 
duction of any work from an American hand 
until very recently. The Boston Symphony 
Orchestra has been a noble exception to this 
rule, and has given about the only opening 
possible to the native writer. The Chicago 
Orchestra, in eight seasons under Theodore 
Thomas, devoted, out of a total of 925 num- 
bers, only eighteen, or something less than 
two per cent., to native music. Yet time 
shows a gradual improvement, and in 1899, 
out of twenty-seven orchestral numbers per- 
formed, three were by Americans, which 
makes a liberal tithe.' The Boston Symphony 
has played the compositions of John Knowles 
Paine alone more than eighteen times, and 
those of George W. Chadwick the same 
number, while E. A. MacDowell and Arthur 
Foote each appeared on the programs four- 



A General Survey. 19 

teen times. The Kaltenborn Orchestra has 
made an active effort at the promulgation of 
our music, and especial honor is due to 
Frank Van der Stucken, himself a composer 
of marked abilities ; he was among the first 
to give orchestral production to American 
works, and he was, perhaps, the very first to 
introduce American orchestral work abroad. 
Like his offices, in spirit and effect, have been 
the invaluable services of our most eminent 
pianist, Wm. H. Sherwood, who was for 
many years the only prominent performer 
of American piano compositions. 

Public singers also have been most unpatri- 
otic in preferring endless repetition of dry 
foreign anas to fresh compositions from home. 
The little encore song, which generally ap- 
peared anonymously, was the opening wedge 
for the American lyrist. 

Upon the horizon of this gloom, however, 
there is a tremor of a dawning interest in 
national music. Large vocal societies are 



2O Contemporary American Composers. 

giving an increasing number of native part 
songs and cantatas ; prizes are being awarded 
in various places, and composers find some 
financial encouragement for appearing in con- 
certs of their own work. Manuscript societies 
are organized in many of the larger cities, 
and these clubs offer hearing to novelty. 
There have latterly appeared, from various 
publishers, special catalogues vaunting the 
large number of American composers repre- 
sented on their lists. 

Another, and a most important sign of the 
growing influence of music upon American 
life, is seen in the place it is gaining in the 
college curriculum ; new chairs have been 
established, and prominent composers called 
to fill them, or old professorships that held 
merely nominal 'places in the catalogue have 
been enlarged in scope. In this way music 
is reestablishing itself in something like its 
ancient glory ; for the Greeks not only 
grouped all culture under the general term 



A General Survey. 21 

of " Music," but gave voice and instrument 
a vital place in education. Three of our 
most prominent composers fill the chairs at 
three of the most important universities. In 
all these cases, however, music is an elective 
study, while the rudiments of the art should, 
I am convinced, be a required study in every 
college curriculum, and in the common schools 
as well. 

Assuming then, for the nonce, the birth 
we are too new a country to speak of a 
Renascence of a large interest in national 
music, there is large disappointment in many 
quarters, because our American music is not 
more American. I have argued above that 
a race transplanted from other soils must 
still retain most of the old modes of expres- 
sion, or, varying them, change slowly. But 
many who excuse us for the present lack of 
a natural nationalism, are so eager for such 
a differentiation that they would have us 
borrow what we cannot breed. 



22 Contemporary American Composers, 

The folk-music of the negro slaves is most 
frequently mentioned as the right foundation 
for a strictly American school. A somewhat 
misunderstood statement advanced by Dr. 
Antonin Dvorak, brought this idea into 
general prominence, though it had been dis- 
cussed by American composers, and made 
use of in compositions of all grades long 
before he came here. 

The vital objection, however, to the gen- 
eral adoption of negro music as a base for 
an American school of composition is that it 
is in no sense a national expression. It is 
not even a sectional expression, for the white 
Southerners among whose slaves this music 
grew, as well as the people of the North, 
have always looked upon negro music as an 
exotic and curious thing. Familiar as it is to 
us, it is yet as foreign a music as any Tyro- 
lean jodel or Hungarian czardas. 

The music of the American Indian, often 
strangely beautiful and impressive, would be 



A General Survey. 23 

as reasonably chosen as that of these im- 
ported Africs. E. A. MacDowell had, indeed, 
written a picturesque and impressive Indian 
suite, some time before the Dvorakian inva- 
sion. He asserts that the Indian music is 
preferable to the Ethopian, because its sturdi- 
ness and force are more congenial with the 
national mood. 

But the true hope for a national spirit in 
American music surely lies, not in the arbi- 
trary seizure of some musical dialect, but in 
the development of just such a quality as 
gives us an individuality among the nations 
of the world in respect to our character as a 
people ; and that is a Cosmopolitanism made 
up of elements from all the world, and yet, in 
its unified qualities, unlike any one element. 
Thus our music should, and undoubtedly will, 
be the gathering into the spirit of the voices 
of all the nations, and the use of all their 
expressions in an assimilated, a personal, a 
spontaneous manner. This need not, by any 



24 Contemporary American Composers. 

means, be a dry, academic eclecticism. The 
Yankee, a composite of all peoples, yet differs 
from them all, and owns a sturdy individuality. 
His music must follow the same fate. 

As our governmental theories are the out- 
growth of the experiments and experiences 
of all previous history, why should not our 
music, voicing as it must the passions of a 
cosmopolitan people, use cosmopolitan ex- 
pressions ? The main thing is the individu- 
ality of each artist. To be a citizen of the 
world, provided one is yet spontaneous and 
sincere and original, is the best thing. The 
whole is greater than any of its parts. 

Along just these lines of individualized 
cosmopolitanism the American school is 
working out its identity. Some of our com- 
posers have shown themselves the heirs of 
European lore by work of true excellence 
in the larger classic and romantic forms. 

The complaint might be made, indeed, that 
the empty, incorrect period of previous Ameri- 



A General Survey. 25 

can music has given place to too much cor- 
rectness and too close formation on the old 
models. This is undoubtedly the result of 
the long and faithful discipleship under Ger- 
man methods, and need not be made much 
of in view of the tendency among a few 
masters toward original expression. For, 
after all, even in the heyday of the greatest 
art periods, only a handful of artists have 
ever stood out as strongly individual ; the 
rest have done good work as faithful imitators 
and past masters in technic. It is, then, 
fortunate that there is any tendency at all 
among any of our composers to forsake 
academic content with classical forms and 
text-book development of ideas. 

Two things, however, are matters for very 
serious disappointment : the surprising pau- 
city of musical composition displaying the 
national sense of humor, and the surprising 
abundance of purest namby-pamby. The 
presence of the latter class might be ex- 



26 Contemporary American Composers. 

plained by the absence of the former, for 
namby-pamby cannot exist along with a 
healthy sense of the ludicrous. There has 
been a persistent craze among native song- 
writers for little flower-dramas and bird-trage- 
dies, which, aiming at exquisiteness, fall far 
short of that dangerous goal and land in 
flagrant silliness. This weakness, however, 
will surely disappear in time, or at least 
diminish, until it holds no more prominent 
place than it does in all the foreign schools, 
where it exists to a certain extent. 

The scherzo, however, must grow in tavoi. 
It is impossible that the most jocose of races, 
a nation that has given the world an original 
school of humor, should not carry this spirit 
over into its music. And yet almost none of 
the comparatively few scherzos that have 
been written here have had any sense of the 
hilarious jollity that makes Beethoven's wit 
side-shaking. They have been rather of the 
Chopinesque sort, mere fantasy. To the 



A General Survey. 27 

composers deserving this generalization I 
recall only two important exceptions, Edgar 
S. Kelley and Harvey Worthington Loomis. 
The opportunities before the American 
composer are enormous, and only half appre- 
ciated. Whereas, in other arts, the text- 
book claims only to be a chronicle of what 
has been done before, in music the text-book 
is set up as the very gospel and decalogue 
of the art. The theorists have so thoroughly 
mapped out the legitimate resources of the 
composer, and have so prescribed his course 
in nearly every possible position, that music 
is made almost more of a mathematical prob- 
lem than the free expression of emotions and 
aesthetics. " Correct " music has now hardly 
more liberty than Egyptian sculpture or 
Byzantine painting once had. Certain disso- 
nances are permitted, and certain others, no 
more dissonant, forbidden, quite arbitrarily, 
or on hair-splitting theories. It is as if one 
should write down in a book a number of 



28 Contemporary American Composers. 

charts, giving every scheme of color and 
every juxtaposition of values permissible to a 
painter. The music of certain Oriental na- 
tions, in which the religious orders are the 
art censors, has stuck fast in its rut because 
of the observance of rules purely arbitrary. 
Many of the conventions of modern Euro- 
pean music are no more scientific or original 
or consistent ; most of them are based upon 
the principle that the whim of a great dead 
composer is worthy to be the law of any liv- 
ing composer. These Blue Laws of music are 
constantly assailed surreptitiously and in de- 
tail ; and yet they are too little attacked as a 
whole. But music should be a democracy 
and not an aristocracy, or, still less, a hier- 
archy. 

There is a great opportunity for America 
to carry its political principles into this 
youngest of the arts. It is a gratifying sign 
that one of the most prominent theorists of 
the time, an American scholar, A. J. Good- 



A General Survey. 29 

rich, is adopting some such attitude toward 
music. He carries dogma to the minimum, 
and accepts success in the individual instance 
as sufficient authority for overstepping any 
general principle. He refers to a contempo- 
rary American composer for authority and 
example of some successful unconventionality 
with the same respect with which he would 
quote a European's disregard of convention. 
His pioneering is watched with interest 
abroad as well as here. 

Worthy of mention along with Mr. Good- 
rich' original work is the effort of Homer 
A. Norris to instil French ideas of musical 
theory. As a counterweight to the German 
monopoly of our attention, his influence is to 
be cordially welcomed. 

Now that Americanism is rife in the land, 
some of the glowing interest in things na- 
tional might well be turned toward an art 
that has been too much and too long neg- 
lected among us. 



3O Contemporary American Composers. 

The time has come to take American 
music seriously. The day for boasting is not 
yet here, if indeed it ever comes ; but the 
day of penitent humility is surely past. 

A student of the times, Mr. E. S. Martin, 
shortly before the Spanish War, commented 
on the radical change that had come over the 
spirit of American self-regard. We were 
notorious in the earlier half of the century 
for boasting, not only of the virtues we in- 
dubitably had, but of qualities that existed 
solely in our own imagination. We sounded 
our barbaric yawp over the roofs of the 
world. A century of almost unanimous Euro- 
pean disapproval, particularly of our artistic 
estate, finally converted us from this attitude 
to one of deprecation almost abject. Having 
learned the habit of modesty, it has clung to 
us even now, when some of the foremost 
artists in the world are Americans. 

Modesty, is, of course, one of the most 
beautiful of the virtues, but excess is possible 



A General Survey. 3 * 

and dangerous. As Shakespeare's Florio's 
Montaigne has it : " We may so seize on 
vertue, that if we embrace it with an over- 
greedy and violent desire, it may become 
vitious." In the case of the American com- 
poser it is certainly true that we " excessively 
demeane ourselves in a good action." If, 
then, the glory of our late successes in the 
field of battle shall bring about a recrudes- 
cence of our old vanity, it will at least have 
its compensations. 

Meanwhile, the American artist, having 
long ago ceased to credit himself with all the 
virtues, has been for years earnestly working 
out his own salvation in that spirit of solemn 
determination which makes it proverbial for 
the American to get anything he sets his heart 
on. He has submitted himself to a devout 
study of the Old Masters and the New ; he 
has made pilgrimage after pilgrimage to the 
ancient temples of art, and has brought home 
influences that cannot but work for good. 



32 Contemporary American Composers. 

The American painter has won more Euro- 
pean acceptance than any of our other artists, 
though this is partly due to his persistence 
in knocking at the doors of the Paris salons, 
and gaining the universal prestige of admis- 
sion there. There is, unfortunately, no such 
place to focus the attention of the world 
on a musician. Yet, through the success of 
American musical students among their rivals 
abroad ; through the concerts they are giving 
more and more frequently in foreign coun- 
tries ; through the fact that a number of 
European music houses are publishing in- 
creasing quantities of American compositions, 
he is making his way to foreign esteem 
almost more rapidly than at home. 

A prominent German critic, indeed, has 
recently put himself on record as accepting 
the founding of an American school of music 
as a fait accompli. And no student of the 
times, who will take the trouble to seek the 
sources of our art, and observe its actual 



A General Survey, 33 

vitality, need be ashamed of looking at the 
present state of music in America with a 
substantial pride and a greater hope for the 
future. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE INNOVATORS. 

Edward Alexander MacDowell. 




THE matter of precedence in creative art 
is as hopeless of solution as it is unimportant. 
And yet it seems appropriate to say, in writing 
of E. A. MacDowell, that an almost unani- 
mous vote would grant him rank as the 
greatest of American composers, while not 
34 




EDWARD MACDOWELL 



The Innovators. 35 

a few ballots would indicate him as the best 
of living music writers. 

But this, to repeat, is not vital, the main 
thing being that MacDowell has a distinct 
and impressive individuality, and uses his 
profound scholarship in the pursuit of novelty 
that is not cheaply sensational, and is yet 
novelty. He has, for instance, theories as to 
the textures of sounds, and his chord-forma- 
tions and progressions are quite his own. 

His compositions are superb processions, 
in which each participant is got up with the 
utmost personal splendor. His generalship 
is great enough to preserve the unity and the 
progress of the pageant. With him no note 
in the melody is allowed to go neglected, ill- 
mounted on common chords in the bass, or 
cheap-garbed in trite triads. Each tone is 
made to suggest something of its multitudi- 
nous possibilities. Through any geometrical 
point, an infinite number of lines can be 
drawn. This is almost the case with any 



36 Contemporary American Composers. 

note of a melody. It is the recognition and 
the practice of this truth that gives the latter- 
day schools of music such a lusciousness and 
warmth of harmony. No one is a more 
earnest student of these effects than Mac- 
Dowell. 

He believes that it is necessary, at this 
late day, if you would have a chord "bite," 
to put a trace of acid in its sweetness. With 
this clue in mind, his unusual procedures 
become more explicable without losing their 
charm. 

New York is rather the Mecca than the 
birthplace of artists, but it can boast the 
nativity of MacDowell, who improvised his 
first songs here December 18, 1861. He 
began the study of the piano at an early age. 
One of his teachers was Mme. Teresa Car- 
refio, to whom he has dedicated his second 
concerto for the piano. 

In 1876 he went to Paris and entered the 
Conservatoire, where he studied theory under 



The Innovators. 37 

Savard, and the piano under Marmontel. He 
went to Wiesbaden to study with Ehlert in 
1879, an d then to Frankfort, where Carl 
Heyman taught him piano and Joachim Raff 
composition. The influence of Raff is of the 
utmost importance in MacDowell's music, and 
I have been told that the great romancist 
made a prottgt of him, and would lock him in 
a room for hours till he had worked out the 
most appalling musical problems. Through 
Raff's influence he became first piano teacher 
at the Darmstadt Conservatorium in 1881. 
The next year Raff introduced him to Liszt, 
who became so enthusiastic over his composi- 
tions that he got him. the honor of playing 
his first piano suite before the formidable 
Allgemeiner Deutscher Musik Verein, which 
accorded him a warm reception. The follow- 
ing years were spent in successful concert 
work, till 1884, when MacDowell settled 
down to teaching and composing in Wies- 
baden. Four years later he came to Boston, 



38 Contemporary American Composers. 

writing, teaching, and giving occasional con- 
certs. Thence he returned to New York, 
where he was called to the professorship of 
music at Columbia University. Princeton 
University has given him that unmusical de- 
gree, Mus. Doc. 

MacDowell has met little or none of that 
critical recalcitrance that blocked the early 
success of so many masters. His works 
succeeded from the first in winning serious 
favor ; they have been much played in Ger- 
many, in Vienna, St. Petersburg, Amsterdam, 
and Paris, one of them having been performed 
three times in a single season at Breslau. 

MacDowell's Scotch ancestry is always 
telling tales on him. The " Scotch snap " is 
a constant rhythmic device, the old scale and 
the old Scottish cadences seem to be native 
to his heart. Perhaps one might find some 
kinship between MacDowell and the con- 
temporary Glasgow school of painters, that 
clique so isolated, so daring, and yet so ear- 



The Innovators. 39 

nest and solid. Says James Huneker in a 
monograph published some years ago : " His 
coloring reminds me at times of Grieg, but 
when I tracked the resemblance to its lair, 
I found only Scotch, as Grieg's grand-folk 
were Greggs, and from Scotland. It is all 
Northern music with something elemental in 
it, and absolutely free from the heavy, lan- 
guorous odors of the South or the morbidezza 
of Poland. 

Some of MacDowell's most direct writing 
has been in the setting of the poems of 
Burns, such as " Deserted " (" Ye banks and 
braes o' bonnie Doon," op. 9), "Menie," and 
" My Jean " (op. 34). These are strongly 
marked by that ineffably fine melodic flavor 
characteristic of Scottish music, while in the 
accompaniments they admit a touch of the 
composer's own individuality. In his accom- 
paniments it is noteworthy that he is almost 
never strictly contramelodic. 

The songs of opera 1 1 and 1 2 have a 



40 Contemporary American Composers. 

decided Teutonism, but he has found himself 
by opus 40, a volume of " Six Love Songs," 
containing half a dozen flawless gems it is a 
pity the public should not know more widely. 
A later book, " Eight Songs " (op. 47), is also 
a cluster of worthies. The lilt and sympathy 
of "The Robin Sings in the Apple-tree," 
and its unobtrusive new harmonies and novel 
effects, in strange accord with truth of ex- 
pression, mark all the other songs, particu- 
larly the " Midsummer Lullaby," with its 
accompaniment as delicately tinted as sum- 
mer clouds. Especially noble is " The Sea," 
which has all the boom and roll of the deep- 
brooding ocean. 

His collections of flower-songs (op. 26) I 
confess not liking. Though they are not 
without a certain exquisiteness, they seem 
overdainty and wastefully frail, excepting, 
possibly, the " Clover " and the " Blue-bell." 
It is not at all their brevity, but their trivial- 
ity, that vexes an admirer of the large ability 



The Innovators. 4! 

that labored over them. They are dedicated 
to Emilio Agramonte, one of MacDowell's 
first prophets, and one of the earliest and 
most active agents for the recognition of the 
American composer. 

In the lyrics in opus 56 and opus 58 Mac- 
Dowell has turned song to the unusual pur- 
poses of a landscape impressionism of places 
and moods rather than people. 

For men's voices there are some deftly 
composed numbers curiously devoted to lul- 
laby subjects. The barcarolle for mixed 
chorus and accompaniment on the piano for 
four hands obtains a wealth of color, en- 
hanced by the constant division of the voices. 

Studying as he did with Raff, it is but 
natural that Mac Do well should have been 
influenced strongly toward the poetic and 
fantastic and programmatic elements that 
mark the " Forest Symphony " and the 
" Lenore Overture " of his master. 

It is hard to say just how far this descrip- 



42 Contemporary American Composers. 

tive music can go. The skill of each com- 
poser must dictate his own limits. As an 
example of successful pieces of this kind, 
consider MacDowell's "The Eagle." It is 
the musical realization of Tennyson's well- 
known poem : 

' He clasps the crag with crooked hands; 
Close to the sun in lonely lands, 
Ring'd with the azure world, he stands. 
The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls ; 
He watches from his mountain walls, 
And like a thunderbolt he falls." 

Of course the crag and the crooked hands 
and the azure world must be granted the 
composer, but general exaltation and loneli- 
ness are expressed in the severe melody of 
the opening. The wrinkling and crawling 
of the sea far below are splendidly achieved 
in the soft, shimmering liquidity of the music. 
Then there are two abrupt, but soft, short 
chords that will represent, to the imaginative, 
the quick fixing of the eagle's heart on some 



The Innovators. 43 

prey beneath ; and there follows a sudden 
precipitation down the keyboard, fortissis- 
sime, that represents the thunderous swoop 
of the eagle with startling effect. 

On the other hand, the " Moonshine " seems 
to be attempting too much. " Winter '' does 
better, for it has a freezing stream, a mill- 
wheel, and a "widow bird." These "four 
little poems" of opus 32 had been pre- 
ceded by six fine " Idylls " based on lyrics 
of Goethe's. The first, a forest scene, has 
a distinct flavor of the woods, the second is 
all laziness and drowsiness, and the third is 
moonlight mystery. The fourth is as intense 
in its suppressed spring ecstasy as the radi- 
ant poem itself singing how 

" Soft the ripples spill and hurry 
To the opulent embankment." 

The six short "Poems" (op. 31) based on 
poems of Heine's are particularly successful, 
especially in the excellent opportunity of the 



44 Contemporary American Composers. 

lyric describing the wail of the Scottish 
woman who plays her harp on the cliff, and 
sings above the raging of sea and wind. The 
third catches most happily the whimsicality 
of the poet's reminiscences of childhood, but 
hardly, I think, the contrasting depth and 
wildness of his complaint that, along with 
childhood's games, have vanished Faith and 
Love and Truth. In the last, however, the 
cheery majesty that realizes Heine's likening 
of Death to a cool night after the sultry 
day of Life, is superb. 

Then there are some four-hand pieces, two 
collections, that leave no excuse for clinging 
to the hackneyed classics or modern trash. 
They are not at all difficult, and the second 
player has something to employ his mind be- 
sides accompanying chords. They are meaty, 
and effective almost to the point of catchi- 
ness. The "Tale of the Knights" is full 
of chivalric fire and martial swing, while the 
" Ballad " is as exquisitely dainty as a peach- 



The Innovators. 45 

blossom. The " Hindoo Maiden " has a deal 
of the thoroughly Oriental color and feeling 
that distinguish the three solos of " Les 
Orientales," of which "Clair de Lune" is 
one of his most original and graceful writings. 
The duet, " In Tyrol," has a wonderful crystal 
carillon and a quaint shepherd piping a faint 
reminiscence of the Wagnerian school of 
shepherds. This is one of a series of " Moon 
Pictures " for four hands, based on Hans 
Christian Andersen's lore. Two concertos 
for piano and orchestra are dazzling feats of 
virtuosity ; one of them is reviewed at length 
in A. J. Goodrich' book, " Musical Analysis." 
He has written also a book of artistic moment 
called "Twelve Virtuoso-Studies," and two 
books of actual gymnastics for piano practice. 
But MacDowell did not reach his freedom 
without a struggle against academia. His 
opus 10 is a piano suite published at the age 
of twenty-two, and opus 14 is another ; both 
contain such obsolescences as a presto, fugue, 



46 Contemporary American Composers. 



CLAIR DE LUNE. 

L* hUM Ctatt MTMM rt jouiit sur 1M Hot V 
La fmetrv winn librc tt ovvBrtr U brlMi 
La svlUno ftgtff da, ot U mwr qui brii*, 
L*-bM, dun Hot d'argent brode li-i ooin fl.ola. 



E. A- MAC DOWELL, OP 17- NP 1 



m* 












^P 



s 









m* 



. ^--r ^ ' - 



rff 



Copyright, 1880, Arthur P. Schmit. 



The Innovators. 



47 



t i . i r r J r 4j p i ' i. 




48 Contemporary American Composers. 

scherzino, and the like. But for all the 
classic garb, the hands are the hands of 
Esau. In one of the pieces there is even a 
motto tucked, " All hope leave ye behind who 
enter here ! " Can he have referred to the 
limbo of classicism ? 

It is a far cry from these to the liberal- 
ity that inspired the new impressionism of 
"Woodland Sketches" (op. 51) and "Sea 
Pieces" (op. 55), in which he gives a legiti- 
mate musical presentation of a faintly per- 
fumed "Wild Rose" or "Water Lily," but 
goes farther, and paints, with wonderful tone, 
the moods inspired by reverie upon the un- 
couth dignity and stoic savagery of "An 
Indian Lodge," the lonely New England 
twilight of "A Deserted Farm," and all the 
changing humors of the sea, majesty of sun- 
set or star-rise, and even the lucent emerald 
of an iceberg. His " From Uncle Remus " 
is not so successful ; indeed, MacDowell is 
not sympathetic with negro music, and thinks 



The Innovators, 49 

that if we are to found a national school on 
some local manner, we should find the Indian 
more congenial than the lazy, sensual slave. 

He has carried this belief into action, not 
only by his scientific interest in the collection 
and compilation of the folk-music of our 
prairies, but by his artistic use of actual 
Indian themes in one of his most important 
works, his " Indian Suite " for full orchestra, 
a work that has been often performed, and 
always with the effect of a new and profound 
sensation, particularly in the case of the 
deeply impressive dirge. 

A proof of the success of MacDowell as a 
writer in the large forms is the fact that 
practically all of his orchestral works are pub- 
lished in Germany and here, not only in full 
score, but in arrangement for four hands. 
They include " Hamlet ; " " Ophelia " (op. 
22) ; " Launcelot and Elaine " (op. 26), with 
its strangely mellow and varied use of horns 
for Launcelot, and the entrusting of the 



50 Contemporary American Composers. 

plaintive fate of " the lily maid of Astolat " 
to the string and wood-wind choirs ; " The 
Saracens " and " The Lovely Alda " (op. 30), 
two fragments from the Song of Roland ; and 
the Suite (op. 42), which has been played at 
least eight times in Germany and eleven times 
here. 

The first movement of this last is called 
"In a Haunted Forest." You are reminded 
of Siegfried by the very name of the thing, 
and the music enforces the remembrance 
somewhat, though very slightly. 

Everything reminds one of Wagner nowa- 
days, even his predecessors. Rudyard Kip- 
ling has by his individuality so copyrighted 
one of the oldest verse-forms, the ballad, 
that even " Chevy Chace " looks like an ad- 
vance plagiarism. So it is with Wagner. 
Almost all later music, and much of the 
earlier, sounds Wagnerian. But MacDowell 
has been reminded of Bayreuth very infre- 
quently in this work. The opening move- 



The Innovators. 5 1 

ment begins with a sotto voce syncopation 
that is very presentative of the curious audi- 
ble silence of a forest. The wilder moments 
are superbly instrumented. 

The second movement, "Summer Idyl," 
is delicious, particularly in the chances it 
gives the flautist. There is a fragmentary 
cantilena which would make the fortune of 
a comic opera. The third number, " In Octo- 
ber," is particularly welcome in our music, 
which is strangely and sadly lacking in 
humor. There is fascinating wit through- 
out this harvest revel. "The Shepherdess' 
Song" is the fourth movement. It is not 
pre"cieuse, and it is not banal ; but its sim- 
plicity of pathos is a whit too simple. The 
final number, " Forest Spirits," is a brilliant 
climax. The Suite as a whole is an impor- 
tant work. It has detail of the most charm- 
ing art. Best of all, it is staunchly individual. 
It is MacDowellian. 

While the modern piano sonata is to me 



52 Contemporary American Composers. 

anathema as a rule, there are none of Mac- 
Dowell's works that I like better than his 
writings in this form. They are to me far 
the best since Beethoven, not excepting even 
Chopin's (pace his greatest prophet, Huneker). 
They seem to me to be of such stuff as Bee- 
thoven would have woven had he known in 
fact the modern piano he saw in fancy. 

The " Sonata Tragica " (op. 45) begins in 
G minor, with a bigly passionate, slow intro- 
duction (metronomed in the composer's copy, 

^-50). The first subject is marked in the 
same copy, though not in the printed book, 

^-69, and the appealingly pathetic second 
subject is a little slower. The free fantasy is 
full of storm and stress, with a fierce pedal- 
point on the trilled leading-tone. In the 
reprise the second subject, which was at first 
in the dominant major, is now in the tonic 
major, though the key of the sonata is G 
minor. The allegro is metronomed J-I38, 
and it is very short and very wild. Through- 



The Innovators. 53 

out, the grief is the grief of a strong soul ; it 
never degenerates into whine. Its largo is 
like the tread of an yEschylean chores, its 
allegro movements are wild with anguish, 
and the occasional uplifting into the major 
only emphasizes the sombre whole, like the 
little rifts of clearer harmony in Beethoven's 
"Funeral March on the Death of a Hero." 

The last movement begins with a ringing 
pomposo, and I cannot explain its meaning 
better than by quoting Mrs. MacDowell's 
words : " Mr. MacDowell's idea was, so to 
speak, as follows : He wished to heighten 
the darkness of tragedy by making it follow 
closely on the heels of triumph. Therefore, 
he attempted to make the last movement a 
steadily progressive triumph, which, at its 
climax, is utterly broken and shattered. In 
doing this he has tried to epitomize the whole 
work. While in the other movements he 
aimed at expressing tragic details, in the last 
he has tried to generalize ; thinking that the 



54 Contemporary American Composers, 

most poignant tragedy is that of catastrophe 
in the hour of triumph." 

The third sonata (op. 57) is dedicated to 
Grieg and to the musical exploitation of an 
old-time Skald reciting glorious battles, loves, 
and deaths in an ancient castle. The atmos- 
phere of mystery and barbaric grandeur is 
obtained and sustained by means new to 
piano literature and potent in color and vigor. 
The sonata formula is warped to the purpose 
of the poet, but the themes have the classic 
ideal of kinship. The battle-power of the 
work is tremendous. Huneker calls it "an 
epic of rainbow and thunder," and Henry T. 
Finck, who has for many years devoted a 
part of his large ardor to MacDowell's cause, 
says of the work : " It is MacDowellish, 
more MacDowellish than anything he has 
yet written. It is the work of a musical 
thinker. There are harmonies as novel as 
those we encounter in Schubert, Chopin, or 
Grieg, yet with a stamp of their own." 



The Innovators. 5 5 

The " Sonata Eroica " (op. 50) bears the leg- 
end " Flos regum Arthurus." It is also in G 
minor. The spirit of King Arthur dominates 
the work ideally, and justifies not only the 
ferocious and warlike first subject with its 
peculiar and influential rhythm, but the old- 
fashioned and unadorned folk-tone of the 
second subject. In the working out there is 
much bustle and much business of trumpets. 
In the reprise the folk-song appears in the 
tonic minor, taken most unconventionally in 
the bass under elaborate arpeggiations in the 
right hand. The coda, as in the other sonata, 
is simply a strong passage of climax. Arthur's 
supernatural nature doubtless suggested the 
second movement, with its elfin airs, its flib- 
bertigibbet virtuosity, and its magic of color. 
The third movement might have been in 
spired by Tennyson's version of Arthur's fare- 
well to Guinevere, it is such a rich fabric of 
grief. The finale seems to me to picture the 
Morte d' Arthur, beginning with the fury of a 



56 Contemporary American Composers. 

storm along the coast, and the battle " on the 
waste sand by the waste sea." Moments 
of fire are succeeded by exquisite deeps of 
quietude, and the death and apotheosis of 
Arthur are hinted with daring and complete 
equivalence of art with need. 

Here is no longer the tinkle and swirl of the 
elf dances ; here is no more of the tireless 
search for novelty in movement and color. 
This is " a flash of the soul that can." Here 
is Beethoven redimvus. For half a century 
we have had so much pioneering and scien- 
tific exploration after piano color and tender- 
ness and fire, that men have neglected its 
might and its tragic powers. Where is the 
piano-piece since Beethoven that has the 
depth, the breadth, the height of this huge 
solemnity ? Chopin's sensuous wailing does 
not afford it. Schumann's complex eccen- 
tricities have not given it out. Brahms is too 
passionless. Wagner neglected the piano. 
It remained for a Yankee to find the austere 



The Innovators. 57 

peak again ! and that, too, when the sonata 
was supposed to be a form as* exhausted as 
the epic poem. But all this is the praise that 
one is laughed at for bestowing except on the 
graves of genius. 

The cautious Ben Jonson, when his erst- 
while taproom roisterer, Will Shakespeare, 
was dead, defied "insolent Greece or haughty 
Rome " to show his superior. With such 
authority, I feel safe in at least defying the 
contemporary schools of insolent Russia or 
haughty Germany to send forth a better 
musicwright than our fellow townsman, 
Edward MacDowell. 



Edgar Stillman Kelley. 1 

While his name is known wherever 
American music is known in its better as- 
pects, yet, like many another American, his 
real art can be discovered only from his 

manuscripts. In these he shows a very 
iSee p. 485- 



58 Contemporary American Composers. 

munificence of enthusiasm, scholarship, in- 
vention, humor, and originality. 




Kelley is as thorough an American by 
descent as one could ask for, his maternal 
ancestors having settled in this country in 
1630, his paternal progenitors, in 1640, 
A. D. Indeed, one of the ancestors of his 
father made the dies for the pine-tree shil- 
ling, and a great-great-grandfather fought in 
the Revolution. 

Kelley began his terrestrial career April 
14, 1857, in Wisconsin. His father was a 
revenue officer ; his mother a skilled musi- 
cian, who taught him the piano from his 
eighth year to his seventeenth, when he went 




EDGAR STILLMAN KELLEY. 



The Innovators. 59 

to Chicago and studied harmony and coun- 
terpoint under Clarence Eddy, and the piano 
under Ledochowski. It is interesting to note 
that Kelley was diverted into music from 
painting by hearing " Blind Tom " play Liszt's 
transcription of Mendelssohn's " Midsummer 
Night's Dream " music. I imagine that this 
idiot-genius had very little other influence of 
this sort in his picturesque career. 

After two years in Chicago, Kelley went 
to Germany, where, in Stuttgart, he studied 
the piano with Kruger and Speidel, organ 
with Finck, composition and orchestration 
with Seiffritz. While in Germany, Kelley 
wrote a brilliant and highly successful con- 
cert polonaise for four hands, and a composi- 
tion for strings. 

In 1880 he was back in America and 
settled in San Francisco, with whose musical 
life he was' long and prominently identified 
as a teacher and critic. Here he wrote his 
first large work, the well-known melodramatic 



60 Contemporary American Composers. 

music to " Macbeth." A local benefactor, 
John Parrot, paid the expenses of a public 
performance, the great success of which 
persuaded McKee Rankin, the actor, to 
make an elaborate production of both play 
and music. This ran for three weeks in San 
Francisco to crowded houses, which is a re- 
markable record for many reasons. A shabby 
New York production at an ill-chosen theatre 
failed to give the work an advantageous hear- 
ing ; but it has been played by orchestras 
several times since, and William H. Sherwood 
has made transcriptions of parts of it for 
piano solo. 

The " Macbeth " music is of such solid 
value that it reaches the dignity of a flowing 
commentary. Beyond and above this it is an 
interpretation, making vivid and awesome the 
deep import of the play, till even the least 
imaginative auditor must feel its thrill. 

Thus the gathering of the witches begins 
with a slow horror, which is surely Shake- 



The Innovators. 61 

speare's idea, and not the comic-opera can- 
can it is frequently made. As various other 
elfs and terrors appear, they are appropriately 
characterized in the music, which also adds 
mightily to the terror of the murder scene. 
Throughout, the work is that of a thinker. 
Like much of Kelley's other music, it is also 
the work of a fearless and skilled program- 
matist, especially in the battle-scenes, where 
it suggests the crash of maces and swords, 
and the blare of horns, the galloping of 
horses, and the general din of huge battle. 
Leading-motives are much used, too, with 
good effect and most ingenious elaboration, 
notably the Banquo motive. A certain 
amount of Gaelic color also adds interest 
to the work, particularly a stirring Gaelic 
march. The orchestration shows both 
scholarship and daring. 

An interesting subject is suggested by 
Kelley's experience in hunting out a good 
motif for the galloping horses of " Macbeth." 



62 Contemporary American Composers. 

He could find nothing suitably representative 
of storm-hoofed chargers till his dreams came 
to the rescue with a genuinely inspired theme. 
Several other exquisite ideas have come to 
him in his sleep in this way ; one of them 
is set down in the facsimile reproduced 
herewith. On one occasion he even dreamed 
an original German poem and a fitting musi- 
cal setting. 

Dr. Wm. A. Hammond, in his book on 
" Sleep and Its Derangements," is inclined 
to scout the possibility of a really valuable 
inspiration in sleep. He finds no satisfactory 
explanation for Tartini's famous "Devil's 
Sonata " or Coleridge' proverbial " Kubla 
Khan." He takes refuge in saying that at 
least the result could not be equal to the 
dreamer's capabilities when awake ; but 
Kelley's " Macbeth " music was certainly 
an improvement on what he could invent out 
of the land of Nod. 

After composing a comic opera, which 



The Innovators. 63 

was refused by the man for whom it was writ- 
ten because it was too good, he drifted into 
journalism, and wrote reviews and critiques 
which show a very liberal mind capable 
of appreciating things both modern and 
classic. 

Kelley was again persuaded to write a 
comic opera to the artistic libretto, " Puri- 
tania," by C. M. S. McLellan, a brilliant 
satirist, who has since won fortune by his 
highly successful and frequently artistic bur- 
lesquery. The work won excellent praise in 
Boston, where it had one hundred perform- 
ances. The work musically was not only 
conscientious, but really graceful and capti- 
vating. It received the most glowing en- 
comiums from people of musical culture, and 
largely enhanced Kelley's musical reputation 
in its run of something over a year. On its 
tour Kelley was also the musical conductor, 
in which capacity he has frequently served 
elsewhere. 



64 Contemporary American Composers. 

Kelley plainly deserves preeminence among 
American composers for his devotion to, and 
skill in, the finer sorts of humorous music. 
No other American has written so artfully, 
so happily, or so ambitiously in this field. A 
humorous symphony and a Chinese suite 
are his largest works on this order. 

The symphony follows the life of " Gulliver 
in Lilliput." In development and intertwin- 
ing of themes and in brilliance of orchestra- 
tion, it maintains symphonic dignity, while in 
play of fancy, suggestive programmaticism, 
and rollicking enthusiasm it is infectious 
with wit. Gulliver himself is richly charac- 
terized with a burly, blustering English 
theme. The storm that throws him on the 
shores of Lilliput is handled with complete 
mastery, certain phrases picturing the toss of 
the billows, another the great roll of the 
boat, others the rattle of the rigging and the 
panic of the crew ; and all wrought up to a 
demoniac climax at the wreck. As the 



The Innovators. 65 

stranded Gulliver falls asleep, the music hints 
his nodding off graphically. The entrance of 
the Lilliputians is perhaps the happiest bit 
of the whole delicious work. By adroit de- 
vices in instrumentation, their tiny band 
toots a minute national hymn of irresistible 
drollery. The sound of their wee hammers 
and the rest of the ludicrous adventures are 
carried off in unfailing good humor. The 
scene finally changes to the rescuing ship. 
Here a most hilarious hornpipe is interrupted 
by the distant call of Gulliver's aria, and the 
rescue is consummated delightfully. 

In nothing has Kelley showed such wanton 
scholarship and such free-reined fancy as in 
his Chinese suite for orchestra, " Aladdin." It 
is certainly one of the most brilliant musical 
feats of the generation, and rivals Richard 
Strauss in orchestral virtuosity. 

While in San Francisco, where, as every 
one knows, there is a transplanted corner of 
China, Kelley sat at the feet of certain Celes- 



66 Contemporary American Composers. 

tial cacophonists, and made himself adept. 
He fathomed the, to us, obscure laws of 
their theory, and for this work made a care- 
ful selection of Chinese musical ideas, and 
used what little harmony they approve of 
with most quaint and suggestive effect upon 
a splendid background of his own. The re- 
sult has not been, as is usual in such alien 
mimicries, a mere success of curiosity. 

The work had its first accolade of genius 
in the wild protests of the music copyists, 
and in the downright mutiny, of orchestral 
performers. 

On the first page of the score is this note : 
" This should be played with a bow unscrewed, 
so that the hairs hang loose thus the bow 
never leaves the string." This direction is 
evidently meant to secure the effect of the 
Chinese violin, in which the string passes 
between the hair and the wood of the bow, 
and is played upon the under side. But 
what self-respecting violinist could endure 



The Innovators. 67 

such profanation without striking a blow for 
his fanes ? 

The first movement of the suite is made 
up of themes actually learned from Chinese 
musicians. It represents the " Wedding of 
Aladdin and the Princess," a sort of sub- 
limated " shivaree " in which oboes quawk, 
muted trumpets bray, pizzicato strings flut- 
ter, and mandolins (loved of Berlioz) twitter 
hilariously. 

The second movement, "A Serenade in 
the Royal Pear Garden," begins with a lux- 
urious tone-poem of moonlight and shadow, 
out of which, after a preliminary tuning of 
the Chinese lute (or sam-yin), wails a lyric 
caterwaul (alternately in 2-4 and 3-4 tempo) 
which the Chinese translate as a love-song. 
Its amorous grotesque at length subsides into 
the majestic night. A part of this altogether 
fascinating movement came to Kelley in a 
dream. 

The third chapter is devoted to the " Flight 



68 Contemporary American Composers. 

of the Genie with the Palace," and there is a 
wonderfully vivid suggestion of his struggle 
to wrest loose the foundations of the building. 
At length he heaves it slowly in the air, and 
wings majestically away with it. 

It has always seemed to me that the purest 
stroke of genius in instrumentation ever 
evinced was Wagner's conceit of using tin- 
kling bells to suggest leaping flames. And 
yet quite comparable with this seems Kelley's 
device to indicate the oarage of the genie's 
mighty wings as he disappears into the 
sky : liquid glissandos on the upper harp- 
strings, with chromatic runs upon the elabo- 
rately divided violins, at length changed to 
sustained and most ethereally fluty harmonics. 
It is very ravishment. 

The last movement, "The Return and 
Feast of the Lanterns," is on the sonata 
formula. After an introduction typifying the 
opening of the temple gates (a gong giving 
the music further locale), the first theme is 



The Innovators. 69 

announced by harp and mandolin. It is an 
ancient Chinese air for the yong-kim (a dul- 
cimer-like instrument). The second subject 
is adapted from the serenade theme. With 
these two smuggled themes everything con- 
trapuntal (a fugue included) and instrumental 
is done that technical bravado could suggest 
or true art license. The result is a carnival 
of technic that compels the layman to wonder 
and the scholar to homage. 

A transcription for a piano duet has been 
made of this last movement. 

In Chinese-tone also is Kelley's most popu- 
lar song, "The Lady Picking Mulberries," 
which brought him not only the enthusiasm 
of Americans but the high commendation of 
the Chinese themselves. It is written in the 
limited Chinese scale, with harmonies of our 
school ; and is a humoresque of such catchi- 
ness that it has pervaded even London and 
Paris. 

This song is one of a series of six lyrics 



/O Contemporary American Composers. 

called " The Phases of Love," with this motive 
from the " Anatomy of Melancholy : " "I am 
resolved, therefore, in this tragi-comedy of 
love, to act several parts, some satirically, 
some comically, some in a mixed tone." The 
poems are all by American poets, and the 
group, opus 6, is an invaluable addition to our 
musical literature. The first of the series, 
" My Silent Song," is a radiantly beautiful 
work, with a wondrous tender air to a raptur- 
ous accompaniment. The second is a setting 
of Edward Rowland Sill's perfect little poem, 
" Love's Fillet." The song is as full of art 
as it is of feeling and influence. " What the 
Man in the Moon Saw " is an engaging satire, 
" Love and Sleep " is sombre, and " In a 
Garden " is pathetic. 

Besides two small sketches, a waltz and a 
gavotte, and his own arrangements, for two 
and for four hands, of the Gaelic March in 
" Macbeth," Kelley has published only three 
piano pieces : opus 2, " The Flower Seekers," 



The Innovators. 71 

superb with grace, warm harmony, and May 
ecstasies ; " Confluentia," whose threads of 
liquidity are eruditely, yet romantically, inter- 
tangled to represent the confluence of the 
Rhine and the Moselle ; and " The Headless 
Horseman," a masterpiece of burlesque weird 
ness, representing the wild pursuit of Ichabod 
Crane and the final hurling of the awful 
head, a pumpkin, some say. It is relieved 
by Ichabod 's tender reminiscences of Katrina 
Van Tassel at the spinning-wheel, and is 
dedicated to Joseffy, the pianist, who lives in 
the region about Sleepy Hollow. 

To supplement his successful, humorously 
melodramatic setting of "The Little Old 
Woman who Went to the Market her Eggs 
for to Sell," Kelley is preparing a series 
of similar pieces called "Tales Retold for 
Musical Children." It will include "Gulli- 
ver," "Aladdin," and "Beauty and the 
Beast." 

Kelley once wrote music for an adapt a- 



72 Contemporary American Composers. 

tion of " Prometheus Bound," made by the 
late George Parsons Lathrop for that ill- 
starred experiment, the Theatre of Arts and 
Letters. The same thoroughness of research 
that gave Kelley such a command of Chinese 
theories equipped him in what knowledge we 
have of Greek and the other ancient music. 
He has delivered a course of lectures on 
these subjects, and this learning was put to 
good and public use in his share in the stag- 
ing of the novel "Ben Hur." His music 
had a vital part in carrying the play over the 
thin ice of sacrilege ; it was so reverent and 
so appealing that the scrubwomen in the 
theatre were actually moved to tears during 
its rehearsal, and it gave the scene of the 
miraculous cure of the lepers a dignity that 
saved it from either ridicule or reproach. 

In the first act there is a suggestion of the 
slow, soft march of a caravan across the sand, 
the eleven-toned Greek and Egyptian scale 
being used. In the tent of the Sheik, an old 



The Innovators. 73 

Arabian scale is employed. In the elaborate 
ballets and revels in the " Grove of Daphne " 
the use of Greek scales, Greek progressions 
(such as descending parallel fourths long for- 
bidden by the doctors of our era), a trimetri- 
cal grouping of measures (instead of our 
customary fourfold basis), and a suggestion 
of Hellenic instruments, all this lore has 
not robbed the scene in any sense of an irre- 
sistible brilliance and spontaneity. The weav- 
ing of Arachne's web is pictured with espe- 
cial power. Greek traditions have, of course, 
been used only for occasional impressionisms, 
and not as manacles. Elaborately colored 
modern instrumentation and all the estab- 
lished devices from canon up are employed. 
A piano transcription of part of the music is 
promised. The "Song of Iras " has been 
published. It is full of home-sickness, and 
the accompaniment (not used in the produc- 
tion) is a wonderwork of color. 

Kelley has two unpublished songs that 



74 Contemporary American Composers. 




By permission. 

FRAGMENT OF " ISRAFEL," BY EDGAR S. KELLEY. 



The Innovators. 



75 




By permieeion. 



76 Contemporary American Composers. 

show him at his best, both settings of verse 
by Foe, " Eldorado," which vividly develops 
the persistence of the knight, and "Israfel." 
This latter poem, as you know, concerns the 
angel "whose heart-strings are a lute." After 
a rhapsody upon the cosmic spell of the angel's 
singing, Poe, with a brave defiance, flings an 
implied challenge to him. The verse marks 
one of the highest reaches of a genius hon- 
ored abroad as a world-great lyrist. It is, 
perhaps, praise enough, then, to say that Kel- 
ley's music flags in no wise behind the divine 
progress of the words. The lute idea dictates 
an arpeggiated accompaniment, whose har- 
monic beauty and courage is beyond descrip- 
tion and beyond the grasp of the mind at the 
first hearing. The bravery of the climax fol- 
lows the weird and opiate harmonies of the 
middle part with tremendous effect. The 
song is, in my fervent belief, a masterwork 
of absolute genius, one of the very greatest 
lyrics in the world's music. 



The Innovators. 77 

Harvey Worthington Loomis? 



In the band of pupils that gathered to 
the standard of the invader, Antonin Dvorak, 
when, in 1892, he came over here from Mace- 
donia to help us, some of the future's best 
composers will probably be found. 

Of this band was Harvey Worthington 
Loomis, who won a three years' scholarship 
in Doctor Dv6rak's composition class at the 
National Conservatory, by submitting an ex- 
cellent, but rather uncharacteristic, setting of 
Eichendorff's " Friihlingsnacht." Loomis evi- 
dently won Doctor Dvorak's confidence, for 
among the tasks imposed on him was a piano 
concerto to be built on the lines of so elab- 
orate a model as Rubinstein's in D minor. 
1 See p. 543- 



78 Contemporary American Composers. 

When Loomis' first sketches showed an elab- 
oration even beyond the complex pattern, 
Dvorak still advised him to go on. To any 
one that knows the ways of harmony teach- 
ers this will mean much. 

Loomis (who was born in Brooklyn, Feb- 
ruary 5, 1865, and is now a resident of New 
York) pursued studies in harmony and piano 
in a desultory way until he entered Doctor 
Dvorak's class. For his musical tastes he 
was indebted to the artistic atmosphere of 
his home. 

Though Loomis has written something 
over five hundred compositions, only a fe\i 
works have been published, the most impor 
tant of which are "Fairy Hill," a cantatilla 
for children, published in 1896 (it was writ- 
ten on a commission that fortunately allowed 
him liberty for not a little elaboration and 
individuality), " Sandalphon," and a few 
songs and piano pieces. 

A field of his art that has won his especial 




HARVEY WORTHINGTON LOOMIS. 



The Innovators. 79 

interest is the use of music as an atmosphere 
for dramatic expression. Of this sort are a 
number of pantomimes, produced with much 
applause in New York by the Academy of 
Dramatic Arts ; and several musical back- 
grounds. The 27th of April, 1896, a con- 
cert of his works was given by a number of 
well-known artists. 

These musical backgrounds are played in 
accompaniment to dramatic recitations. Prop- 
erly managed, the effect is most impressive. 
Feval's poem, " The Song of the Pear-tree," 
is a typically handled work. The poem tells 
the story of a young French fellow, an or- 
phan, who goes to the wars as substitute for 
his friend Jean. After rising from rank to 
rank by bravery, he returns to his home just 
as his sweetheart, Perrine, enters the church 
to wed Jean. The girl had been his one 
ambition, and now in his despair he reenlists 
and begs to be placed in the thickest of dan- 
ger. When he falls, they find on his breast 



80 Contemporary American Composers. 

a withered spray from the pear-tree under 
which Perrine had first plighted troth. On 
these simple lines the music builds up a 
drama. From the opening shimmer and 
rustle of the garden, through the Gregorian 
chant that solemnizes the drawing of the 
lots, and is interrupted by the youth's start 
of joy at his own luck (an abrupt glissandd) ; 
through his sturdy resolve to go to war in 
his friend's place, on through many battles 
to his death, all is on a high plane that 
commands sympathy for the emotion, and 
enforces unbounded admiration for the art. 
There is a brief hint of the Marseillaise 
woven into the finely varied tapestry of mar- 
tial music, and when the lover comes trudging 
home, his joy, his sudden knowledge of Per- 
rine's faithlessness, and his overwhelming 
grief are all built over a long organ-point 
of three clangorous bride-bells. The leit- 
motif idea is used with suggestive clearness 
throughout the work. 



The Innovators. 8 1 

The background to Longfellow's " San- 
dalphon " is so fine an arras that it gives the 
poet a splendor not usual to his bourgeois 
lays. The music runs through so many 
phases of emotion, and approves itself so 
original and exaltedly vivid in each that I 
put it well to the fore of American compo- 
sitions. 

Hardly less large is the Loomis calls it 
" Musical Symbolism," for Adelaide Ann 
Proctor's " The Story of the Faithful Soul." 
Of the greatest delicacy imaginable is the 
music (for piano, violin, and voice) to Will- 
iam Sharp's " Coming of the Prince." The 
" Watteau Pictures " are poems of Verlaine's 
variously treated : one as a head-piece to a 
wayward piano caprice, one to be recited dur- 
ing a picturesque waltz, the last a song with 
mandolin effects in the accompaniment. 

The pantomimes range from grave to gay, 
most of the librettos in this difficult form 
being from the clever hand of Edwin Starr 



82 Contemporary American Composers. 



Allegro tgittU. 

How, rrcl, it an eammott {itet o< tt City 



Ctlettbl to Vlth, 




Copyright, 1896, by Edgar S. Werner. 

A FRAGMENT OF " SANDALPHON," BY H. W. LOOMIS. 



The Innovators. 



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84 Contemporary American Composers. 

Belknap. "The Traitor Mandolin," "In Old 
New Amsterdam," " Put to the Test," 
"Blanc et Noir," "The Enchanted Foun- 
tain," " Her Revenge," " Love and Witch- 
craft " are their names. The music is full 
of wit, a quality Loomis possesses in un- 
usual degree. The music mimics every- 
thing from the busy feather-duster of the 
maid to her eavesdropping. Pouring wine, 
clinking glasses, moving a chair, tearing up 
a letter, and a rollicking wine-song in pan- 
tomime are all hinted with the drollest and 
most graphic programmism imaginable. 

Loomis has also written two burlesque 
operas, " The Maid of Athens " and " The 
Burglar's Bride," the libretto of the latter by 
his brother, Charles Battell Loomis, the well- 
known humorist. This latter contains some 
skilful parody on old fogyism. 

In the Violin Sonata the piano, while 
granting precedence to the violin, approaches 
almost to the dignity of a duet. The finale 



The Innovators. 85 

is captivating and brilliant, and develops some 
big climaxes. The work as a whole is really 
superb, and ought to be much played. There 
are, besides, a " Lyric Finale " to a sonata 
not yet written, and several songs for violin, 
voice, and piano. 

A suite for' four hands, " In Summer 
Fields," contains some happy manifestations 
of ability, such as "A June Roundelay," 
" The Dryad's Grove," and, especially, a hu- 
moresque "Junketing," which is surely des- 
tined to become a classic. From some of 
his pantomimes Loomis has made excerpts, 
and remade them with new elaboration for 
two pianos, under the name of "Exotics." 
These are full of variety and of actual nov- 
elty, now of startling discord, now of revela- 
tory beauty. A so-called "Norland Epic," 
freely constructed on the sonata formula, is 
one of Loomis' most brilliant and personal 
achievements. 

Loomis has an especial aptitude for writing 



86 Contemporary American Composers. 

artistic ballet-music, and for composing in the 
tone of different nationalities, particularly 
the Spanish. His pantomimes contain many 
irresistible dances, one of them including a 
Chinese dance alternating 4-4 with 3-4 time. 
His strikingly fleet " Harlequin " has been 
published. 

The gift of adding art to catchiness is a 
great one. This Loomis seems to have to an 
unusual degree, as is evidenced by the dances 
in his pantomimes and his series of six pieces 
" In Ballet Costume," all of them rich with 
the finest art along with a Strauss-like spon- 
taneity. These include " L'Amazone," " Pirou- 
ette," "Un Pas Seul," La Coryphee," "The 
Odalisque," and " The Magyar." One of his 
largest works is a concert waltz, " Mi-Careme," 
for two pianos, with elaborate and extended 
introduction and coda. 

A series of Genre Pictures contains such 
lusciousness of felicity as "At an Italian 
Festival," and there are a number of musical 



The Innovators. 87 

moments of engaging charm, for instance, 
"N'Importe Quoi," "From a Conservatory 
Program," "A Tropical Night," a fascinat- 
ing "Valsette," a nameless valse, and 
"Another Scandal," which will prove a gilt- 
edged speculation for some tardy publisher. 
It is brimming with the delicious horror 
of excited gossipry. An example of how 
thoroughly Loomis is invested with music 
how he thinks in it is his audacious scherzo, 
" The Town Crier," printed herewith. 

In songs Loomis has been most prolific. 
He has set twenty-two of Shakespeare's lyrics 
to music of the old English school, such as 
his uproarious " Let me the cannikin clink," 
and his dainty " Tell me where is fancy 
bred." 

"The Lark" is written in the pentatonic 
scale, with accompaniment for two flutes and 
a harp. 

In the same vein are various songs of 
Herrick, a lyrist whose verse is not usu< 



88 Contemporary American Composers. 

ally congenial to the modern music-makei 
Loomis' "Epitaph on a Virgin" must be 
classed as a success. Indeed, it reaches posi- 
tive grandeur at its climax, wherein is woven 
the grim persistence of a tolling bell. In 
the same style is a clever setting of Ben 
Jonson's much music'd " To Celia." 

In German-tone are his veritably magnifi- 
cent " Herbstnacht " and his "At Midnight," 
two studies after Franz. Heine's " Des 
Waldes Kapellmeister " has been made into 
a most hilarious humoresque. 

" Bergerie " is a dozen of Norman Gale's 
lyrics. " Andalusia " is a flamboyant duet. 

In Scotch songs there is a positive em- 
barrassment of riches, Loomis' fancies finding 
especial food and freedom in this school. I 
find in these settings far more art and grace 
than I see even in Schumann's many Scotch 
songs, or those of any other of the Germans. 
" Oh, for Ane and Twenty " has bagpipe 
effects. Such flights of ecstasy as "My 



The Innovators. 89 

Wife's a Winsome Wee Thing," and " Bonnie 
Wee Thing," are simply tyrannical in their 
appeal. Then there is an irresistible " Polly 
Stewart ; " and " My Peggy's Heart " is fairly 
ambrosial. These and several others, like 
" There Was a Bonnie Lass," could be made 
into an album of songs that would delight a 
whole suite of generations. 

A number of his songs are published : 
they include a " John Anderson, My Jo," that 
has no particular right to live ; a ballad, 
" Molly," with a touch of art tucked into it ; 
the beautiful " Sylvan Slumbers," and the 
quaint and fascinating " Dutch Garden." 

Aside from an occasional song like " This- 
tledown," with its brilliantly fleecy accom- 
paniment, and the setting of Browning's 
famous "The Year' at the Spring," for which 
Loomis has struck out a superb frenzy, and 
a group of songs by John Vance Cheney, 
Loomis has found some of his most powerful 
inspirations in the work of our lyrist, Aldrich, 



9O Contemporary American Composers. 

such as the rich carillon of " Wedded," 
and his " Discipline," one of the best of 
all humorous songs, a gruesome scherzo all 
about dead monks, in which the music 
furnishes out the grim irreverence of the 
words with the utmost waggery. 

Chief among the lyrics by Cheney are 
three " Spring Songs," in which Loomis has 
caught the zest of spring with such rapture 
that, once they are heard, the world seems 
poor without them in print. Loomis' literary 
culture is shown in the sure taste of his 
selection of lyrics for his music. He has 
marked aptitudes, too, in creative literature, 
and has an excellent idea of the arts kindred 
to his own, particularly architecture. 

Like Chopin, Loomis is largely occupied in 
mixing rich new colors on the inexhaustible 
palette of the piano. Like Chopin, he is not 
especially called to the orchestra. What the 
future may hold for him in this field (by no 
means so indispensable to classic repute as 



The Innovators. 91 

certain pedants assume) it is impossible to 
say. In the meantime he is giving most of 
his time to work in larger forms. 

If in his restless hunt for novelty, always 
novelty, he grows too original, too unconven- 
tional, this sin is unusual enough to approach 
the estate of a virtue. But his oddity is not 
mere sensation-mongering. It is his indi- 
viduality. He could make the same reply 
to such criticism that Schumann made ; he 
thinks in strange rhythms and hunts curious 
effects, because his tastes are irrevocably so 
ordained. 

But we ought to show a new genius the 
same generosity toward flaws that we extend 
toward the masters whose fame is won beyond 
the patronage of our petty forgiveness. And, 
all in all, I am impelled to prophesy to Loomis 
a place very high among the inspired makers 
of new music. His harmonies, so indefatiga- 
bly searched out and polished to splendor, 
so potent in enlarging the color-scale of the 



92 Contemporary American Composers. 

piano ; his patient building up, through long 
neglect and through long silence, of a monu- 
mental group of works and of a distinct 
individuality, must prove at some late day 
a source of lasting pride to his country, 
neglectful now in spite of itself. But better 
than his patience, than his courage, than his 
sincerity, better than that insufficient defini- 
tion of genius, the capacity for taking 
infinite pains, is his inspired felicity. His 
genius is the very essence of felicity. 

Ethelbert Nevin. 

It is refreshing to be able to chronicle the 
achievements of a composer who has become 
financially successful without destroying his 
claim on the respect of the learned and 
severe, or sacrificing his own artistic con- 
science and individuality. Such a composer 
is Ethelbert Nevin. 

His published writings have been altogether 




ETHELBERT KEVIN 



The Innovators. 



93 



along the smaller lines of composition, and he 
has won an enviable place as a fervent worker 
in diamonds. None of his gems are paste, 
and a few have a perfection, a solidity, and a 
fire that fit them for a place in that coronet 
one might fancy made up of the richest of 




the jewels of the world's music-makers, and 
fashioned for the very brows of the Muse 
herself. 

Nevin was born in 1862, at Vineacre, on 
the banks of the Ohio, a few miles from Pitts- 
burgh. There he spent the first sixteen years 
of his life, and received all his schooling, 



94 Contemporary American Composers. 

most of it from his father, Robert P. Nevin, 
editor and proprietor of a Pittsburgh news- 
paper, and a contributor to many magazines. 
It is interesting to note that he also com- 
posed several campaign songs, among them 
the popular " Our Nominee," used in the day 
of James K. Folk's candidacy. The first 
grand piano ever taken across the Allegheny 
Mountains was carted over for Nevin's 
mother. 

From his earliest infancy Nevin was musi- 
cally inclined, and, at the age of four, was 
often taken from his cradle to play for 
admiring visitors. To make up for the defi- 
ciency of his little legs, he used to pile 
cushions on the pedals so that he might 
manipulate them from afar. 

Nevin's father provided for his son both 
vocal and instrumental instruction, even tak- 
ing him abroad for two years of travel and 
music study in Dresden under Von Bohme. 
Later he studied the piano for two years at 



The Innovators, 95 

Boston, under B. J. Lang, and composition 
under Stephen A. Emery, whose little primer 
on harmony has been to American music al- 
most what Webster's spelling-book was to our 
letters. 

At the end of two years he went to Pitts- 
burgh, where he gave lessons, and saved 
money enough to take him to Berlin. There 
he spent the years 1884, 1885, and 1886, 
placing himself in the hands of Karl Klind- 
worth. Of him Nevin says : " To Herr 
Klindworth I owe everything that has come 
to me in my musical life. He was a devoted 
teacher, and his patience was tireless. His 
endeavor was not only to develop the stu- 
dent from a musical standpoint, but to en- 
large his soul in every way. To do this, he 
tried to teach one to appreciate and to feel 
the influence of such great minds of literature 
as Goethe, Schiller, and Shakespeare. He 
used to insist that a man does not become a 
musician by practising so many hours a day at 



96 Contemporary American Composers. 

the piano, but by absorbing an influence from 
all the arts and all the interests of life, from 
architecture, painting, and even politics." 

The effect of such broad training en- 
joyed rarely enough by music students is 
very evident in Nevin's compositions. They 
are never narrow or provincial. They are 
the outpourings of a soul that is not only 
intense in its activities, but is refined and 
cultivated in its expressions. This effect is 
seen, too, in the poems Nevin chooses to set 
to music, they are almost without exception 
verses of literary finish and value. His cos- 
mopolitanism is also remarkable, his songs in 
French, German, and Italian having no trace 
of Yankee accent and a great fidelity to their 
several races. 

In 1885, Hans von Biilow incorporated the 
best four pupils of his friend, Klindworth, 
into an artist class, which he drilled person- 
ally. Nevin was one of the honored four, 
and appeared at the unique public Zuhlren of 



The Innovators. 97 

that year, devoted exclusively to the works 
of Brahms, Liszt, and Raff. Among the 
forty or fifty studious listeners at these 
recitals, Frau Cosima Wagner, the violinist 
Joachim, and many other celebrities were 
frequently present. 

Nevin returned to America in 1887, and 
took up his residence in Boston, where he 
taught and played at occasional concerts. 

Eighteen hundred and ninety-two found 
him in Paris, where he taught, winning more 
pupils than here. He was especially happy 
in imparting to singers the proper Auffassung 
(grasp, interpretation, finish) of songs, and 
coached many American and French artists 
for the operatic stage. In 1893 the restless 
troubadour moved on to Berlin, where he 
devoted himself so ardently to composition 
that his health collapsed, and he was exiled 
a year to Algiers. The early months of 
1895 he spent in concert tours through this 
country. As Klindworth said of him, "he 



98 Contemporary American Composers. 

has a touch that brings tears," and it is in 
interpretation rather than in bravura that he 
excels. He plays with that unusual combina- 
tion of elegance and fervor that so individ- 
ualizes his composition. 

Desirous of finding solitude and atmosphere 
for composition, he took up his residence in 
Florence, where he composed his suite, " May 
in Tuscany" (op. 21). The "Arlecchino" 
of this work has much sprightliness, and 
shows the influence of Schumann, who made 
the harlequin particularly his own ; but there 
is none of Chopin's nocturnity in the " Not- 
turno," which presents the sussurus and the 
moonlit, amorous company of "Boccacio's 
Villa." The suite includes a " Misericordia " 
depicting a midnight cortege along the Arno, 
and modelled on Chopin's funeral march in 
structure with its hoarse dirge and its rich 
cantilena. The best number of the suite is 
surely the " Rusignuolo," an exceedingly 
fluty bird-song. 



The Innovators. 99 

From Florence, Nevin went to Venice, 
where he lived in an old casa on the Grand 
Canal, opposite the Browning palazzo, and 
near the house where Wagner wrote " Tristan 
und Isolde." One day his man, Guido, took a 
day off, and brought to Venice an Italian 
sweetheart, who had lived a few miles from 
the old dream-city and had never visited 
it. The day these two spent gondoliering 
through the waterways, where romance hides 
in every nook, is imaginatively narrated in 
tone in Nevin's suite, " Un Giorno in Venezia," 
a book more handsomely published even than 
the others of his works, which have been 
among the earliest to throw off the disgrace- 
ful weeds of type and design formerly worn 
by native compositions. 

The Venetian suite gains a distinctly Italian 
color from its ingenuously sweet harmonies 
in thirds and sixths, and its frankly lyric 
nature, and "The Day in Venice" begins 
logically with the dawn, which is ushered 



loo Contemporary American Composers. 

in with pink and stealthy harmonies, then 
"The Gondoliers" have a morning mood of 
gaiety that makes a charming composition. 
There is a " Canzone Amorosa " of deep fer- 
vor, with interjections of " lo t'amo ! " and 
" Amore " (which has the excellent authority 
of Beethoven's Sonata, op. 81, with its " Lebe 
wohl "). The suite ends deliciously with a 
night scene in Venice, beginning with a choral 
" Ave Maria," and ending with a campanella 
of the utmost delicacy. 

After a year in Venice Nevin made Paris 
his home for a year, returning to America 
then, where he has since remained. 

Though he has dabbled somewhat in or- 
chestration, he has been wisely devoting his 
genius, with an almost Chopin-like singleness 
of mind, to songs and piano pieces. His 
piano works are what would be called mor- 
ceaux. He has never written a sonata, or 
anything approaching the classical forms, 
nearer than a gavotte or two. He is very 



The Innovators. 101 

modern in his harmonies, the favorite 
colors on his palette being the warmer keys, 
which are constantly blended enharmonically. 
He " swims in a sea of tone," being particu- 
larly fond of those suspensions and inversions 
in which the intervals of the second clash 
passionately, strongly compelling resolution. 
For all his gracefulness and lyricism, he 
makes a sturdy and constant use of disso- 
nance ; in his song " Herbstgefiihl " the 
dissonance is fearlessly defiant of con- 
ventions. 

Nevin's songs, whose only littleness is in 
their length, though treated with notable 
individuality, are founded in principle on the 
Lieder of Schumann and Franz. That is to 
say, they are written with a high poetical 
feeling inspired by the verses they sing, and, 
while melodious enough to justify them as 
lyrics, yet are near enough to impassioned 
recitative to do justice to the words on which 
they are built. Nevin is also an enthusi- 



IO2 Contemporary American Composers. 



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Copyright, 1889, by G. Schirmer, Jr. 

A FRAGMENT FROM " HERBSTGEFOHL." 



The Innovators. 103 

astic devotee of the position these masters, 
after Schubert, took on the question of the 
accompaniment. This is no longer a slavish 
thumping of a few chords, now and then, to 
keep the voice on the key, with outbursts 
of real expression only at the interludes ; but 
it is a free instrumental composition with a 
meaning of its own and an integral value, 
truly accompanying, not merely supporting 
and serving, the voice. Indeed, one of 
Nevin's best songs, " Lehn deine Wang an 
meine Wang," is actually little more than 
a vocal accompaniment to a piano solo. His 
accompaniments are always richly colored 
and generally individualized with a strong 
contramelody, a descending chromatic scale 
in octaves making an especially frequent 
appearance. Design, though not classical, 
is always present and distinct. 

Nevin's first published work was a modest 
"Serenade," with a neat touch of syncopa- 
tion, which he wrote at the age of eighteen. 



IO4 Contemporary American Composers. 

His " Sketch-Book," a collection of thirteen 
songs and piano pieces found an immediate 
and remarkable sale that has removed the 
ban formerly existing over books of native 
compositions. 

The contents of the " Sketch-Book " dis- 
play unusual versatility. It opens with a 
bright gavotte, in which adherence to the 
classic spirit compels a certain reminiscence 
of tone. The second piece, a song, " I' the 
Wondrous Month o' May," has such a spring- 
tide fire and frenzy in the turbulent accom- 
paniment, and such a fervent reiterance, that 
it becomes, in my opinion, the best of all the 
settings of this poem of Heine's, not exclud- 
ing even Schumann's or that of Franz. The 
" Love Song," though a piano solo, is in 
reality a duet between two lovers. It is to 
me finer than Henselt's perfect " Liebeslied," 
possibly because the ravishing sweetness of 
the woman's voice answering the sombre plea 
of the man gives it a double claim on the 



The Innovators. 105 

heart. The setting 01 " Du bist wie eine 
Blume," however, hardly iocs justice either 
to Heine's poem, or to Nevin's art. The 
" Serenade " is an original bit of work, but 
the song, " Oh, that We Two were Maying ! " 
with a voice in the accompaniment making it 
the duet it should be, that song can have 
no higher praise than this, that it is the com- 
plete, the final musical fulfilment of one of 
the rarest lyrics in our language. A striking 
contrast to the keen white regret of this 
song is the setting of a group of " Chil- 
dren's Songs," by Robert Louis Stevenson. 
Nevin's child-songs have a peculiar and 
charming place. He has not been stingy 
of either his abundant art or his abundant 
humanity in writing them. They include 
four of Stevenson's, the best being the capti- 
vating " In Winter I get up at Night," and a 
setting of Eugene Field's " Little Boy Blue," 
in which a trumpet figure is used with deli- 
cate patnos. 



106 Contemporary American Composers. 

Nevin's third opus included three exquisite 
songs of a pastoral nature, Goethe's rollicking 
" One Spring Morning " having an immense 
sale. Opus 5 contained five songs, of which 
the ecstatic " 'Twas April " reached the 
largest popularity. Possibly the smallest 
sale was enjoyed by " Herbstgefiihl." Many 
years have not availed to shake my allegiance 
to this song, as one of the noblest songs in the 
world's music. It is to me, in all soberness, as 
great as the greatest of the Lieder of Schu- 
bert, Schumann or Franz. In " Herbstge- 
fiihl " (or " Autumn-mood ") Gerok's superb 
poem bewails the death of the leaves and 
the failing of the year, and cries out in 
sympathy : 

" Such release and dying 
Sweet would seem to me ! " 

Deeper passion and wilder despair could 
not be crowded into so short a song, and the 
whole brief tragedy is wrought with a gran- 



The Innovators, 107 

deur and climax positively epic. It is a flash 
of sheer genius. 

Three piano duets make up opus 5 ; and 
other charming works, songs, piano pieces, 
and violin solos, kept pouring from a pen 
whose apparent ease concealed a vast deal of 
studious labor, until the lucky 13, the opus- 
number of a bundle of "Water Scenes," 
brought Nevin the greatest popularity of all, 
thanks largely to " Narcissus," which has 
been as much thrummed and whistled as any 
topical song. 

Of the other " Water Scenes," there is 
a shimmering " Dragon Fly," a monody, 
" Ophelia," with a pedal-point of two periods 
on the tonic, and a fluent " Barcarolle " with 
a deal of high-colored virtuosity. 

His book "In Arcady" (1892) contains 
pastoral scenes, notably an infectious romp 
that deserves its legend, " They danced as 
though they never would grow old." The 
next year his opus 20, "A Book of Songs," 



io8 Contemporary American Composers. 

was published. It contains, among other 
things of merit, a lullaby, called " Sleep, Little 
Tulip," with a remarkably artistic and effect- 
ive pedal-point on two notes (the sub-mediant 
and the dominant) sustained through the 
entire song with a fine fidelity to the words 
and the lullaby spirit ; a " Nocturne " in which 
Nevin has revealed an unsuspected voluptu- 
ousness in Mr. Aldrich' little lyric, and has 
written a song of irresistible climaxes. The 
two songs, " Dites-Moi " and " In der Nacht," 
each so completely true to the idiom of the 
language of its poem, are typical of Nevin's 
cosmopolitanism, referred to before. This 
same unusual ability is seen in his piano 
pieces as well as in his songs. He knows 
the difference between a chanson and a Lied, 
and in " Rechte Zeit " has written with truth 
to German soldierliness as he has been sympa- 
thetic with French nuance in " Le Vase 
Bris6," the effective song " Mon Desire," 
which in profile suggests Saint-Saens' familiar 



The Innovators. 109 

Delilah-song, the striking "Chanson des 
Lavandieres " and " Rapelle-Toi," one of 
Nevin's most elaborate works, in which Alfred 
De Musset's verse is splendidly set with much 
enharmonious color. Very Italian, too, is 
the " Serenade " with accompaniment a la 
mandolin, which is the most fetching number 
in the suite " Captive Memories," published 
in 1899. 

Nevin has also put many an English song 
to music, notably the deeply sincere " At 
Twilight," the strenuous lilt "In a Bower," 
Bourdillon's beautiful lyric, " Before the Day- 
break," the smooth and unhackneyed treat- 
ment of the difficult stanza of "'Twas April," 
that popular song, " One Spring Morning," 
which has not yet had all the charm sung out 
of it, and two songs with obbligati for .violin 
and 'cello, " Deep in the Rose's Glowing 
Heart " and " Doris," a song with a finely 
studied accompaniment and an aroma of 
Theokritos. 



I io Contemporary American Composers. 

A suite for the piano is " En Passant," 
published in 1 899 ; it ranges from a stately 
old dance, "At Fontainebleau," to " Napoli," 
a furious tarantelle with effective glissandi ; 
" In Dreamland " is a most delicious revery 
with an odd repetition that is not preludatory, 
but thematic. The suite ends with the most 
poetic scene of all, " At Home," which makes 
a tone poem of Richard Hovey's word-picture 
of a June night in Washington. The depict- 
ing of the Southern moonlight-balm, with 
its interlude of a distant and drowsy 
negro quartette, reminds one pleasantly of 
Chopin's Nocturne (op. 37, No. i), with its 
intermezzo of choric monks, though the 
composition is Nevin's very own in spirit 
and treatment. 

In addition to the works catalogued, Nevin 
has written a pantomime for piano and 
orchestra to the libretto of that virtuoso 
in English, Vance Thompson ; it was called 
" Lady Floriane's Dream," and was given in 



The Innovators. Ill 

New York in 1 898. Nevin has also a cantata 
in making. 

It needs no very intimate acquaintance 
with Nevin's music to see that it is not based 
on an adoration for counterpoint as an end. 
He believes that true music must come from 
the emotions the intelligent emotions 
and that when it cannot appeal to the emo- 
tions it has lost its power. He says : " Above 
everything we need melody melody and 
rhythm. Rhythm is the great thing. We 
have it in Nature. The trees sway, and our 
steps keep time, and our very souls respond." 
In Wagner's " Meistersinger," which he calls 
"a symphonic poem with action," Nevin finds 
his musical creed and his model. 

And now, if authority is needed for all this 
frankly enthusiastic admiration, let it be found 
i:i and echoed from Karl Klind worth, who 
said of Nevin : " His talent is ung'ekeures [one 
of the strongest adjectives in the German 
language]. If he works hard and is conscien- 



112 Contemporary American Composers. 

tious, he can say for the musical world some- 
thing that no one else can say." 



John Philip Sousa. 













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In common with most of those that pretend 
to love serious music, a certain person was 
for long guilty of the pitiful snobbery of 
rating march-tunes as the lowest form of the 
art. But one day he joined a National Guard 
regiment, and his first long march was that 




JOHN PHILIP SOUSA. 



The Innovators. 113 

heart-breaking dress-parade of about fifteen 
miles through the wind and dust of the day 
Grant's monument was dedicated. Most of 
the music played by the band was merely 
rhythmical embroidery, chiefly in bugle fig- 
ures, as helpful as a Clementi sonatina ; but 
now and then there would break forth a 
magic elixir of tune that fairly plucked his 
feet up for him, put marrow in unwilling 
bones, and replaced the dreary doggedness of 
the heart with a great zest for progress, a 
stout martial fire, and a fierce esprit de corps ; 
with patriotism indeed. In almost every 
case, that march belonged to one John Philip 
Sousa. 

It came upon this wretch then, that, if it 
is a worthy ambition in a composer to give 
voice to passionate love-ditties, or vague con- 
templation, or the deep despair of a funeral 
cortege, it is also a very great thing to instil 
courage, and furnish an inspiration that will 
send men gladly, proudly, and gloriously 



1 14 Contemporary American Composers. 

through hardships into battle and death. 
This last has been the office of the march- 
tune, and it is as susceptible of structural 
logic or embellishments as the fugue, rondo, 
or what not. These architectural qualities 
Sousa's marches have in high degree, as any 
one will find that examines their scores or 
listens analytically. They have the further 
merit of distinct individuality, and the su- 
preme merit of founding a school. 

It is only the plain truth to say that 
Sousa's marches have founded a school ; that 
he has indeed revolutionized march-music. 
His career resembles that of Johann Strauss 
in many ways. A certain body of old fogies 
has always presumed to deride the raptur- 
ous waltzes of Strauss, though they have won 
enthusiastic praise from even the esoteric 
Brahms, and gained from Wagner such words 
as these : " One Strauss waltz overshadows, 
in respect to animation, finesse, and real mu- 
sical worth, most of the mechanical, bor- 



The Innovators. 115 

rowed, factory-made products of the present 
time." The same words might be applied to 
Sousa's marches with equal justice. They 
have served also for dance music, and the 
two-step, borne into vogue by Sousa's music, 
has driven the waltz almost into desuetude. 

There is probably no composer in the 
world with a popularity equal to that of 
Sousa. Though he sold his " Washington 
Post" march outright for $35, his "Liberty 
Bell" march is said to have brought him 
$35,000. It is found that his music has 
been sold to eighteen thousand bands in the 
United States alone. The amazing thing is 
to learn that there are so many bands in the 
country. Sousa's marches have appeared on 
programs in all parts of the civilized world. 
At the Queen's Jubilee, when the Queen 
stepped forward to begin the grand review 
of the troops, the combined bands of the 
household brigade struck up the "Washing- 
ton Post." On other important occasions it 



1 1 6 Contemporary American Composers. 

appeared constantly as the chief march of 
the week. General Miles heard the marches 
played in Turkey by the military bands in 
the reviews. 

The reason for this overwhelming appeal 
to the hearts of a planet is not far to seek. 
The music is conceived in a spirit of high 
martial zest. It is proud and gay and fierce, 
thrilled and thrilling with triumph. Like all 
great music it is made up of simple elements, 
woven together by a strong personality. It 
is not difficult now to write something that 
sounds more or less like a Sousa march, any 
more than it is difficult to write parodies, 
serious or otherwise, on Beethoven, Mozart, 
or Chopin. The glory of Sousa is that he 
was the first to write in this style ; that 
he has made himself a style ; that he has so 
stirred the musical world that countless imi- 
tations have sprung up after him. 

The individuality of the Sousa march is 
this, that, unlike most of the other influential 



The Innovators. 117 

marches, it is not so much a -musical exhorta* 
tion from without, as a distillation of the es- 
sences of soldiering from within. Sousa's 
marches are not based upon music-room 
enthusiasms, but on his own wide experiences 
of the feelings of men who march together in 
the open field. 

And so his band music expresses all the 
nuances of the military psychology : the ex- 
hilaration of the long unisonal stride, the 
grip on the musket, the pride in the regimen- 
tals and the regiment, esprit de corps. He 
expresses the inevitable foppery of the sever- 
est soldier, the tease and the taunt of the 
evolutions, the fierce wish that all this ploy- 
ing and deploying were in the face of an 
actual enemy, the mania to reek upon a tan- 
gible foe all the joyous energy, the blood- 
thirst of the warrior. 

These things Sousa embodies in his music 
as no other music writer ever has. To ap- 
proach Sousa's work in the right mood, the 



Ii8 Contemporary American Composers. 

music critic must leave his stuffy concert hall 
and his sober black ; he must flee from the 
press, don a uniform, and march. After his 
legs and spirits have grown aweary under the 
metronomic tunes of others, let him note the 
surge of blood in his heart and the rejuvena- 
tion of all his muscles when the brasses flare 
into a barbaric Sousa march. No man that 
marches can ever feel anything but gratitude 
and homage for Sousa. 

Of course he is a trickster at times ; ad- 
mitted that he stoops to conquer at times, 
yet in his field he is supreme. He is worthy 
of serious consideration, because his thematic 
material is almost always novel and forceful, 
and his instrumentation full of contrast and 
climax. He is not to be judged by the piano 
versions of his works, because they are abom- 
inably thin and inadequate, and they are not 
klamermaessig. There should be a Liszt or 
a Taussig to transcribe him. 

When all's said and done, Sousa is the 



The Innovators. 119 

pulse of the nation, and in war of more 
inspiration and power to our armies than ten 
colonels with ten braw regiments behind them. 
Like Strauss', Mr. Sousa's father was a 
musician who forbade his son to devote him- 
self to dance music. As Strauss' mother 
enabled him secretly to work out his own 
salvation, so did Sousa's mother help him. 
Sousa's father was a political exile from 
Spain, and earned a precarious livelihood 
by playing a trombone in the very band 
at Washington which later became his son's 
stepping-stone to fame. Sousa was born at 
Washington in 1859. His mother is Ger- 
man, and Sousa's music shows the effect 
of Spanish yeast in sturdy German rye bread. 
Sousa's teachers were John Esputa and 
George Felix Benkert. The latter Mr. Sousa 
considers one of the most complete musicians 
this country has ever known. He put him 
through such a thorough theoretical train- 
ing, that at fifteen Sousa was teaching har- 



I2O Contemporary American Composers. 

mony. At eight he had begun to earn his 
own living as a violin player at a dancing- 
school, and at ten he was a public soloist. 
At sixteen he was the conductor of an orches- 
tra in a variety theatre. Two years later he 
was musical director of a travelling company 
in Mr. Milton Nobles' well-known play, " The 
Phoenix," for which he composed the inci- 
dental music. Among other incidents in a 
career of growing importance was a position 
in the orchestra with which Offenbach toured 
this country. At the age of twenty-six, after 
having played, with face blacked, as a negro 
minstrel, after travelling with the late Matt 
Morgan's Living Picture Company, and work- 
ing his way through and above other such 
experiences in the struggle for life, Sousa 
became the leader of the United States 
Marine Band. In the twelve years of his 
leadership he developed this unimportant 
organization into one of the best military 
bands in the world. 



The Innovators. 121 

In 1892 his leadership had given him such 
fame that he withdrew from the government 
service to take the leadership of the band 
carrying his own name. 

A work of enormous industry was his col- 
lection and arrangement, by governmental 
order, of the national and typical tunes of all 
nations into one volume, an invaluable book 
of reference. 

Out of the more than two hundred pub- 
lished compositions by Sousa, it is not possi- 
ble to mention many here. Though some of 
the names are not happily chosen, they call 
up many episodes of parade gaiety and jaunti- 
ness, or warlike fire. The " Liberty Bell," 
" Directorate," " High School Cadets," "King 
Cotton," "Manhattan Beach," "'Sound Off!'" 
"Washington Post," "Picador," and others, 
are all stirring works ; his best, I think, is a 
deeply patriotic march, "The Stars and Stripes 
Forever." The second part of this has some 
brass work of particular originality and vim. 



122 Contemporary American Composers. 

In manuscript are a few works of larger 
form : a symphonic poem, " The Chariot 
Race," an historical scene, " Sheridan's Ride," 
and two suites, "Three Quotations " and "The 
Last Days of Pompeii." 

The "Three Quotations" are: 

(a) " The King of France, with twenty thousand men, 
Marched up a hill and then marched down 
again," 

which is the motive for a delightful scherzo- 
march of much humor in instrumentation ; 

(b) " And I, too, was born in Arcadia," 

which is a pastorale with delicious touches of 
extreme delicacy ; 

(c) " In Darkest Africa," 

which has a stunning beginning and is a stir- 
ring grotesque in the negro manner Dvdrak 
advised Americans to cultivate. All three 
are well arranged for the piano.- 

The second suite is based on "The Last 



The Innovators. 123 

Days of Pompeii." It opens with a drunken 
revel, "In the House of Burbo and Strato- 
nice ; " the bulky brutishness of the gladiators 
clamoring for wine, a jolly drinking-song, 
and a dance by a jingling clown make up a 
superbly written number. The second move- 
ment is named "Nydia," and represents the 
pathetic reveries of the blind girl ; it is tender 
and quiet throughout. 

The third movement is at once daring and 
masterly. It boldly attacks "The Destruc- 
tion," and attains real heights of graphic sug- 
gestion. A long, almost inaudible roll on 
the drums, with occasional thuds, heralds the 
coming of the earthquake ; subterranean 
rumblings, sharp rushes of tremor, toppling 
stones, and wild panic are insinuated vividly, 
with no cheap attempts at actual imitation. 
The roaring of the terrified lion is heard, and, 
best touch of all, under the fury of the scene 
persists the calm chant of the Nazarenes, 
written in one of the ancient modes. The 



124 Contemporary American Composers. 

rout gives way to the sea-voyage of Glaucus 
and lone, and Nydia's swan-song dies away 
in the gentle splash of ripples. The work is 
altogether one of superb imagination and 
scholarly achievement. 

Sousa, appealing as he does to an audience 
chiefly of the popular sort, makes frequent 
use of devices shocking to the conventional. 
But even in this he is impelled by the enthu- 
siasm of an experimenter and a developer. 
Almost every unconventional novelty is hooted 
at in the arts. But the sensationalism of 
to-day is the conservatism of to-morrow, and 
the chief difference between a touch of high 
art and a trick is that the former succeeds 
and the latter does not. Both are likely to 
have a common origin. 

The good thing is that Sousa is actuated 
by the spirit of progress and experiment, and 
has carried on the development of the mili- 
tary band begun by the late Patrick S. Gil- 
more. Sousa' s concert programs devote what 



The Innovators. 125 

is in fact the greater part of their space to 
music by the very best composers. These, 
of course, lose something in being translated 
over to the military band, but their effect in 
raising the popular standard of musical culture 
cannot but be immense. Through such in- 
strumentality much of Wagner is as truly 
popular as any music played. The active 
agents of such a result should receive the 
heartiest support from every one sincerely 
interested in turning the people toward the 
best things in music. Incidentally, it is well 
to admit that while a cheap march-tune is 
almost as trashy as an uninspired symphony, 
a good march-tune is one of the best things 
in the best music. 

Though chiefly known as a writer of 
marches, in which he has won glory enough 
for the average human ambition, Sousa has 
also taken a large place in American comic 
opera. His first piece, "The Smugglers," 
was produced in 1879, ar) d scored the usual 



126 Contemporary American Composers. 

failure of a first work. His " Katharine " 
was never produced, his " Desiree " was 
brought out in 1884 by the McCaull Opera 
Company, and his " Queen of Hearts," a one- 
act piece, was given two years later. He 
forsook opera then for ten years ; but in 1896 
De Wolf Hopper produced his " El Capitan " 
with great success. 

The chief tune of the piece was a march 
used with Meyerbeerian effectiveness to bring 
down the curtain. The stout verve of this 
" El Capitan " march gave it a large vogue 
outside the opera. Hopper next produced 
"The Charlatan," a work bordering upon 
op6ra comique in its first version. Both of 
these works scored even larger success in 
London than at home. 

In "The Bride Elect," Sousa wrote his 
own libretto, and while there was the usual 
stirring march as the piece de resistance, the 
work as a whole was less clangorous of the 
cymbal than the operas of many a tamer com- 



The Innovators. 



127 



DANCE. 

MGUo Moderate gnzioso. 








j,. . j' 



^B 






f r i f r 






tf " ' t 




Uied by permieeion of the John Church Company, owners of the copyright. 
A PAGE FROM " EL CAPITAN," BY JOHN PHILIP SOUSA. 



128 Contemporary American Composers. 

poser. In " Chris and the Wonderful Lamp," 
an extravaganza, the chief ensemble was 
worked up from a previous march, " Hands 
Across the Sea." 

But Sousa can write other things than 
marches, and his scoring is full of variety, 
freedom, and contrapuntal brilliance. 

Henry Schoenefeld. 1 

Long before Dv6rak discovered America, 
we aboriginals had been trying to invent a 
national musical dialect which should identify 
us as completely to the foreigner as our nasal 
intonation and our fondness for the correct 
and venerable use of the word " guess." But 
Dv6rak is to credit for taking the problem 
off the shelf, and persuading our composers 
to think. I cannot coax myself into the 
enthusiasm some have felt for Dvorak's own 
explorations in darkest Africa. His quartette 
(op. 96) and his " New World " symphony are 

1 See p. 493. 




HENRY SCHOENEFELD. 



The Innovators. 129 

about as full of accent and infidelity as Mile. 
Yvette Guilbert's picturesque efforts to sing 
in English. But almost anything is better 
than the phlegm that says, " The old ways are 
good enough for all time ; " and the Bohemian 
missionary must always hold a place in the 
chronicle of American music. 

A disciple of Dvorak's, both in advance and 
in retrospect, is Henry Schoenefeld, who 
wrote a characteristic suite (op. 15) before the 
Dv6rakian invasion, and an overture, " In the 
Sunny South," afterward. The suite, which 
has been played frequently abroad, winning 
the praises of Hanslick, Nicode, and Rubin- 
stein, is scored for string orchestra. It opens 
with an overly reminiscent waltz-tune, and 
ends conventionally, but it contains a move- 
ment in negro-tone that gives it importance. 
In this the strings are abetted by a tambou- 
rine, a triangle, and a gong. It is in march- 
time, and, after a staccato prelude, begins 
with a catchy air taken by the second violins, 



1 30 Contemporary American Composers, 

while the firsts, divided, fill up the chords. 
A slower theme follows in the tonic major ; 
it is a jollificational air, dancing from the first 
violins with a bright use of harmonics. Two 
periods of loud chorale appear with the gong 
clanging (to hint a church-bell, perhaps). The 
first two themes return and end the picture. 
The overture (op. 22) has won the high 
esteem of A. J. Goodrich, and it seems to 
me to be one of the most important of native 
works, not because of its nigrescence, but 
because of its spontaneity therein. It adds 
to the usual instruments only the piccolo, 
the English horn, the tambourine, and tri- 
angle and cymbals. The slow introduction 
gives forth an original theme in the most 
approved and most fetching darky pattern. 
The strings announce it, and the wood re- 
plies. The flutes and clarinets toss it in a 
blanket furnished by an interesting passage 
in the cellos and contrabasses. There is a 
choral moment from the English horn, the 



The Innovators. 131 

bassoons, and a clarinet. This solemn thought 
keeps recurring parenthetically through the 
general gaiety. The first subject clatters in, 
the second is even more jubilant. In the 
development a dance misterioso is used with 
faithful screaming repetitions, and the work 
ends regularly and brilliantly. There is much 
syncopation, though nothing that is strictly 
in "rag-time;" banjo-figurations are freely 
and ingeniously employed, and the whole is 
a splendid fiction in local color. Schoene- 
feld's negroes do not speak Bohemian. 

His determined nationalism is responsible 
for his festival overture, "The American 
Flag," based on his own setting of Rodman 
Drake's familiar poem. The work opens 
with the hymn blaring loudly from the an- 
tiphonal brass and wood. The subjects are 
taken from it with much thematic skill, and 
handled artfully, but the hymn, which ap- 
pears in full force for coda, is as trite as the 
most of its kith. 






132 Contemporary American Composers, 

Schoenefeld was born in Milwaukee, in 
1857. His father was a musician, and his 
teacher for some years. At the age of seven- 
teen Schoenefeld went to Leipzig, where he 
spent three years, studying under Reinecke, 
Coccius, Papperitz, and Grill. A large choral 
and orchestral work was awarded a prize over 
many competitors, and performed at the 
Gewandhaus concerts, the composer conduct- 
ing. Thereafter he went to Weimar, where 
he studied under Edward Lassen. 

In 1879 ne came back to America, and 
took up his residence in Chicago, where he 
has since lived as a teacher, orchestra leader, 
and composer. He has for many years 
directed the Germania Mannerchor. 

Schoenefeld's " Rural Symphony " was 
awarded the $500 prize offered by the 
National Conservatory. Dvordk was the 
chairman of the Committee on Award, and 
gave Schoenefeld hearty compliments. Later 
works are : " Die drei Indianer," an ode for 



The Innovators. 133 

male chorus, solo, and orchestra ; a most 
beautiful " Air " for orchestra (the air being 
taken by most of the strings, the first vio- 
lins haunting the G string, while a harp 
and three flutes carry the burden of the ac- 
companiment gracefully) ; a pleasant " Rev- 
erie " for string orchestra, harp, and organ ; 
and two impromptus for string orchestra, a 
" Meditation " representing Cordelia brooding 
tenderly over the slumbering King Lear, 
art ministering very tenderly to the mood, 
and a cleverly woven " Valse Noble." 

Only a few of Schoenefeld's works are pub- 
lished, all of them piano pieces. It is no slur 
upon his orchestral glory to say that these 
are for the most part unimportant, except 
the excellent "Impromptu" and "Prelude." 
Of the eight numbers in " The Festival," for 
children, only the " Mazurka " is likely to 
make even the smallest child think. The 
" Kleine Tanz Suite " is better. The six 
children's pieces of opus 41, "Mysteries of 



134 Contemporary American Composers. 

the Wood," make considerable appeal to the 
fancy and imagination, and are highly inter- 
esting. They show Grieg's influence very 
plainly, and are quite worth recommending. 
This cannot be said of his most inelegant 
" Valse Iilegante," or of his numerous dances, 
except, perhaps, his " Valse Caprice." 

He won in July, 1899, the prize offered to 
American composers by Henri Marteau, for a 
sonata for violin and piano. The jury was com- 
posed of such men as Dubois, Pierne", Diemer, 
and Pugno. The sonata is quasi fantasia, and 
begins strongly with an evident intention to 
make use of negro-tone. The first subject is 
so vigorously declared that one is surprised 
to find that it is elastic enough to express a 
sweet pathos and a deep gloom. It is rather 
fully developed before the second subject 
enters ; this, on the other hand, is hardly 
insinuated in its relative major before the 
rather inelaborate elaboration begins. In the 
romanza, syncopation and imitation are much 



The Innovators. 135 

relied on, though the general atmosphere 
is that of a nocturne, a trio of dance-like 
manner breaking in. The final rondo com- 
bines a clog with a choral intermezzo. The 
work is noteworthy for its deep sincerity and 
great lyric beauty. 

Maurice Arnold. 

The plantation dances of Maurice Arnold 
have an intrinsic interest quite aside from 
their intrinsic value. Arnold, whose full 
name is Maurice Arnold-Strothotte, was born 
in St. Louis in 1865. His mother was a 
prominent pianist and gave him his first les- 
sons in music. At the age of fifteen he 
went to Cincinnati, studying at the College of 
Music for three years. In 1883 he went to 
Germany to study counterpoint and composi- 
tion with Vierling and Urban in Berlin. The 
latter discouraged him when he attempted to 
imbue a suite with a negro plantation spirit. 



136 Contemporary American Composers. 

Arnold now went upon a tramping tour in 
Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey. Some of 
his compositions show the influence of his 
journey. He then entered the Cologne Con- 
servatory, studying under Wuellner, Neitzel, 
and G. Jensen. His first piano sonata was 
performed there at a public concert. He 
next went to Breslau, where, under the in- 
struction of Max Bruch, he wrote his cantata, 
"The Wild Chase," and gave public perform- 
ance to other orchestral work. Returning 
now to St. Louis, he busied himself as solo 
violinist and teacher, travelling also as a con- 
ductor of opera companies. When Dvdrak 
came here Arnold wrote his " Plantation 
Dances," which were produced in a concert 
under the auspices of the Bohemian com- 
poser. Arnold was instructor of harmony at 
the National Convervatory under Dv6rak. 

The "Plantation Dances" are Arnold's 
thirty-third opus, and they have been much 
played by orchestras ; they are also published 



The Innovators. 137 

as a piano duet ; the second dance also as a 
solo. Arnold has not made direct use of 
Ethiopian themes, but has sought the African 
spirit. The first of the dances is very 
nigresque ; the second hardly at all, though 
it is a delicious piece of music ; the third 
dance uses banjo figures and realizes darky 
hilarity in fine style ; the fourth is a cake 
walk and hits off the droll humor of that 
pompous ceremony fascinatingly. 

Arnold's " Dramatic Overture " shows afire 
and rush very characteristic of him and 
likely to be kept up without sufficient con- 
trast. So also does his cantata, " The Wild 
Chase." Arnold has written two comic 
operas. I have heard parts of the first and 
noted moments of much beauty and humor. 
The Aragonaise, which opens the third act, 
is particularly delightful. The orchestra- 
tion throughout displays Arnold's character- 
istic studiousness in picturesque effect. 

For piano there is a czardas, and a "Valse 



138 Contemporary American Composers. 

fil6gante " for eight hands ; it is more Vien- 
nese than Chopinesque. It might indeed be 
called a practicable waltz lavishly adorned. 
The fruits of Arnold's Oriental journey are 
seen in his impressionistic " Danse de la Mid- 
way Plaisance ; " a very clever reminiscence of 
a Turkish minstrel ; and a Turkish march, 
which has been played by many German 
orchestras. There is a " Caprice Espagnol," 
which is delightful, and a " Banjoenne," which 
treats banjo music so captivatingly that 
Arnold may be said to have invented a new 
and fertile and musical form. Besides these 
there are a fugue for eight hands, a " Min- 
strel Serenade " for violin and piano, and six 
duets for violin and viola. 

There are also a few part songs and some 
solos, among which mention should be made 
of "Ein Marlein," in the old German style, 
an exquisitely tender " Barcarolle," and a 
setting of the poem, " I Think of Thee in 
Silent Night," which makes use of a particu- 



The Innovators, 139 

larly beautiful phrase for pre-, inter-, and 
post-lude. Arnold' has also written some 
ballet music, a tarantelle for string orches- 
tra, and is at work upon a symphony, and a 
book, " Some Points in Modern Orchestra- 
tion." His violin sonata (now in MS.) shows 
his original talent at its best. In the first 
movement, the first subject is a snappy and 
taking example of negro-tone, the second has 
the perfume of moonlit magnolia in its lyri- 
cism. (In the reprise this subject, which had 
originally appeared in the dominant major, 
recurs in the tonic major, the key of the so- 
nata being E minor.) The second movement 
is also in the darky spirit, but full of mel- 
ancholy. For finale the composer has flown 
to Ireland and written a bully jig full of dash 
and spirit. 

N. Clifford Page. 1 

The influence of Japanese and Chinese art 
upon our world of decoration has long been 
l See p. 493- 



140 Contemporary American Composers. 

realized. After considering the amount of 
interest shown in the Celestial music by 
American composers, one is tempted to 
prophesy a decided influence in this line, and 
a considerable spread of Japanese influence 
in the world of music also. Japanese music 
has a decorative effect that is sometimes 
almost as captivating as in painting. 

The city of San Francisco is the natural 
gateway for any such impulse, and not a 
little of it has already passed the custom 
house. In this field Edgar S. Kelley's influ- 
ence is predominating, and it is not surpris- 
ing that he should pass the contagion on to 
his pupil, Nathaniel Clifford Page, who was 
born in San Francisco, October 26, 1866. 
His ancestors were American for many years 
prior to the Revolution. He composed operas 
at the age of twelve, and has used many of 
these immature ideas with advantage in the 
later years. He began the serious study of 
music at the age of sixteen, Kelley being his 



The Innovators. 141 

principal teacher. His first opera, composed 
and orchestrated before he became of age, 
was entitled " The First Lieutenant." It 
was produced in 1889 at the Tivoli Opera 
House in San Francisco, where most of the 
critics spoke highly of its instrumental and 
Oriental color, some of the scenes being laid 
in Morocco. 

In instrumentation, which is considered 
Page's forte, he has never had any instruc- 
tion further than his own reading and inves- 
tigation. He began to conduct in opera and 
concert early in life, and has had much 
experience. He has also been active as a 
teacher in harmony and orchestration. 

An important phase of Page's writing has 
been incidental music for plays, his greatest 
success having been achieved by the music 
for the "Moonlight Blossom," a play based 
upon Japanese life and produced in London 
in 1898. The overture was written entirely 
on actual Japanese themes, including the 



142 Contemporary American Composers. 

national anthem of Japan. Page was three 
weeks writing these twelve measures. He 
had a Japanese fiddle arranged with a violin 
finger-board, but thanks to the highly charac- 
teristic stubbornness of orchestral players, he 
was compelled to have this part played by a 
mandolin. Two Japanese drums, a whistle 
used by a Japanese shampooer, and a Japanese 
guitar were somehow permitted to add their 
accent. The national air is used in augmen- 
tation later as the bass for a Japanese song 
called "K Honen." The fidelity of the 
music is proved by the fact that Sir Edwin 
Arnold's Japanese wife recognized the vari- 
ous airs and was carried away by the national 
anthem. 

Although the play was not a success, the 
music was given a cordial reception, and 
brought Page contracts for other work in 
England, including a play of Indian life by 
Mrs. Flora Annie Steel. 

Previously to the writing of the " Moon- 



The Innovators. 143 

light Blossom " music, Page had arranged the 
incidental music for the same author's play, 
"The Cat and the Cherub." Edgar S. 
Kelley's " Aladdin " music was the source 
from which most of the incidental music 
was drawn ; but Page added some things 
of his own, among them being one of the 
most effective and unexpected devices for 
producing a sense of horror and dread I 
have ever listened to : simply the sounding 
at long intervals of two gruff single tones 
in the extreme low register of the double 
basses and bassoons. The grimness of this 
effect is indescribable. 

An unnamed Oriental opera, and an opera 
called "Villiers," in which old English color 
is employed (including a grotesque dance of 
the clumsy Ironsides), show the cosmopolitan 
restlessness of Page's muse. An appalling 
scheme of self-amusement is seen in his 
" Caprice," in which a theme of eight meas- 
ures' length is instrumented with almost every 



144 Contemporary American Composers. 

contrapuntal device known, and with psycho- 
logical variety that runs through five move- 
ments, scherzando, vigoroso, con sentimento, 
religioso, and a marcia fantastico. The suite 
called " Village Fete " is an experiment in 
French local color. It contains five scenes : 
The Peasants Going to Chapel ; The Flower 
Girls ; The Vagabonds ; The Tryst ; The 
Sabot Dance, and the Entrance of the 
Mayor, which is a pompous march. 

On the occasion of a performance of this, 
Louis Arthur Russell wrote : " His orchestra 
is surely French, and as modern as you 
please. The idiom is Berlioz's rather than 
Wagner's." 



CHAPTER III. 

THE ACADEMICS. 

John Knowles Pained 




THERE is one thing better than modernity, 
it is immortality. So while I am a most 
ardent devotee of modern movements, be- 
cause they are at worst experiments, and 
motion is necessary to life, I fail to see why 

^ee p. 474- 



146 Contemporary American Composers. 

it is necessary in picking up something new 
always to drop something old, as if one were 
an awkward, butter-fingered parcel-carrier. 

If a composer writes empty stuff in the 
latest styles, he is one degree better than 
the purveyor of trite stuff in the old styles ; 
but he is nobody before the high thinker who 
finds himself suited by the general methods 
of the classic writers. 

The most classic of our composers is their 
venerable dean, John Knowles Paine. It is 
an interesting proof of the youth of our native 
school of music, that the principal symphony, 
" Spring," of our first composer of import- 
ance, was written only twenty-one years ago. 
Before Mr. Paine there had never been an 
American music writer worthy of serious 
consideration in the larger forms. 

By a mere coincidence Joachim Raff had 
written a symphony called "Spring" in 
1878, just a year before Paine finished his 
in America. The first movement in both is 




JOHN KNOWLES PAINE. 



The Academics. 147 

called " Nature's Awakening ; " such an idea 
is inevitable in any spring composition, from 
poetry up or down. For a second move- 
ment Raff has a wild "Walpurgis Night 
Revel," while Paine has a scherzo called 
" May Night Fantasy." Where Raff - is 
uncanny and fiendish, Paine is cheerful 
and elfin. The third movement of Raff's 
symphony is called " First Blossoms of 
Spring," and the last is called "The Joys 
of Wandering." The latter two movements 
of Mr. Paine's symphony are " A Promise of 
Spring" and "The Glory of Nature." The 
beginning of both symphonies is, of course, 
a slow introduction representing the torpid 
gloom of winter, out of which spring aspires 
and ascends. 

Paine's symphony, though aiming to shape 
the molten gold of April fervor in the rigid 
mold of the symphonic form, has escaped 
every appearance of mechanism and restraint. 
It is program music of the most legiti- 



148 Contemporary American Composers. 

mate sort, in full accord with Beethoven's 
canon, " Mehr Ausdruck der Empfindung als 
Malerei." It has no aim of imitating spring- 
time noises, but seeks to stimulate by sug- 
gestion the hearer's creative imagination, and 
provoke by a musical telepathy the emotions 
that swayed the nympholept composer. 

The first movement of the symphony has an intro- 
duction containing two motives distinct from the two 
subjects of the movement. These motives represent 
Winter and the Awakening. The Winter motive 
may be again divided into a chill and icy motif 
and a rushing wind-motif. Through these the timid 
Awakening spirit lifts its head like the first trill ium 
of the year. There is a silence and a stealthy flutter 
of the violins as if a cloud of birds were playing 
courier to the Spring. 

Suddenly, after a little prelude, as if a bluebird 
were tuning his throat, we are enveloped in the key 
of the symphony (A major) and the Spring runs lilt- 
ing up the 'cellos to the violins (which are divided in 
the na'if archaic interval of the tenth, too much ig- 
nored in our over-colored harmonies). The second 
subject is propounded by the oboes (in the rather 
unusual related key of the submediant). This is a 



The Academics. 149 

lyrical and dancing idea, and it does battle with the 
underground resistance of the Winter motives. There 
is an elaborate conclusion of fiercest joy. Its ecstasy 
droops, and after a little flutter as of little wings, the 
elaboration opens with the Spring motive in the minor. 
In this part, scholarship revels in its own luxury, the 
birds quiver about our heads again, and the reprise 
begins (in A major of course) with new exultance, the 
dancing second subject appears (in the tonic), over- 
whelming the failing strength of the Winter with a 
cascade of delight. Then the conclusion rushes in ; 
this I consider one of the most joyous themes ever 
inspired. 

There is a coda of vanishing bird-wings and throats, 
a pizzicato chord on the strings and Spring has had 
her coronation. 

"The May Night Fantasy" is a moonlit revel of 
elves caught by a musical reporter, a surreptitious 
" chiel amang 'em takin' notes." A single hobgob- 
lin bassoon croaks ludicrously away, the pixies darkle 
and flirt and dance their hearts out of them. 

The Romance is in rondo form with love-lorn 
iteration of themes and intermezzo, and deftest 
broidery, the whole ending, after a graceful Recollec- 
tion, in a bliss of harmony. 

The Finale is a halleluiah. It is on the sonata 
formula, without introduction (the second subject 
being not in the dominant of A major, but in C 



150 Contemporary American Composers. 

major, that chaste, frank key which one of the popes 
strangely dubbed " lascivious "). The elaboration is 
frenetic with strife, but the reprise is a many-hued 
rainbow after storm, and the coda in A major (ending 
a symphony begun in A minor) is swift with delight. 

This symphony has been played much, but 
not half enough. It should resist the weari- 
ness of time as immortally as Fletcher's play, 
" The Two Noble Kinsmen " (in which Shake- 
speare's hand is glorious), for it is, to quote 
that drama, "fresher than May, sweeter 
than her gold buttons on the bough, or all 
th'enameU'd knacks o' the mead or garden." 

John Knowles Paine is a name that has 
been held in long and high honor among 
American composers. He was about the 
earliest of native writers to convince foreign 
musicians that some good could come out of 
Nazareth. 

He was born in Portland, Me., January 9, 
1839. He studied music first under a local 
teacher, Kotzschmar, making his de"but as 



The Academics, 151 

organist at the age of eighteen. A year later 
he was in Berlin, where for three years he 
studied the organ, composition, instrumenta- 
tion, and singing under Haupt, Wieprecht, and 
others. He gave several organ concerts in 
Germany, and made a tour in 18651866. 
In February, 1867, his "Mass" was given at 
the Berlin Singakademie, Paine conducting. 
Then he came back to the States, and in 
1872 was appointed to an instructorship of 
music at Harvard, whence he was promoted 
in 1 876 to a full professorship, a chair created 
for him and occupied by him ever since with 
distinguished success. 

His first symphony was brought out by 
Theodore Thomas in 1876. This and his 
other orchestral works have been frequently 
performed at various places in this country 
and abroad. 

His only oratorio, " St. Peter," was first 
produced at Portland in 1873, and in Boston 
a year later. It is a work of great power and 



152 Contemporary American Composers. 

much dramatic strength. Upton, in his 
valuable work, " Standard Oratorios," calls 
it "from the highest standpoint the only 
oratorio yet produced in this country." 

This oratorio, while containing much of 
the floridity and repetition of Handel at his 
worst, is also marked with the erudition and 
largeness of Handel at his best. The aria 
for St. Peter, " O God, My God, Forsake Me 
Not," is especially fine. 

A much-played symphonic poem is Paine's 
"The Tempest," which develops musically 
the chief episodes of Shakespeare's play. 
He has also written a valuable overture to 
" As You Like It ; " he has set Keats' " Realm 
of Fancy " exquisitely, and Milton's " Na- 
tivity." And he has written a grand opera 
on a mediaeval theme to his own libretto. 
This is a three-act work called " Azara ; " 
the libretto has been published by the River- 
side Press, and is to be translated into German. 
This has not yet been performed. Being, 



The Academics. 153 

unfortunately, an American grand opera, it 
takes very little acuteness of foresight to 
predict a long wait before it is ever heard. 
In it Paine has shown himself more a roman- 
ticist than a classicist, and the work is said 
to be full of modernity. 

Paine wrote the music for Whittier's 
" Hymn," used to open the Centennial Ex- 
position at Philadelphia, and was fitly chosen 
to write the Columbus March and Hymn for 
the opening ceremonies of the World's Fair, 
at Chicago, October 21, 1892. This was 
given by several thousand performers under 
the direction of Theodore Thomas. 

A most original and interesting work is 
the chorus, " Phoebus, Arise." It seems good 
to hark back for words to old William Drum- 
mond "of Hawthornden." The exquisite 
flavor of long-since that marks the poetry is 
conserved in the tune. While markedly 
original, it smacks agreeably of the music of 
Harry Lawes, that nightingale of the seven- 



154 Contemporary American Composers. 

teenth century, whose fancies are too much 
neglected nowadays. 

Paine' s strong point is his climaxes, which 
are never timid, and are often positively 
titanic, thrilling. The climax of this chorus 
is notably superb, and the voices hold for two 
measures after the orchestra finishes. The 
power of this effect can be easily imagined. 
This work is marked, to an unusual extent, 
with a sensuousness of color. 

The year eighteen hundred eighty-one saw 
the first production of what is generally 
considered Paine's most important com- 
position, and by some called the best 
work by an American, his setting of the 
choruses of the " CEdipos Tyrannos " of 
Sophokles. It was written for the presen- 
tation by Harvard University, and has been 
sung, in whole or in part, very frequently 
since. This masterpiece of Grecian genius 
is so mighty in conception and so mighty in 
execution that it has not lost power at all in 



The Academics. 155 

the long centuries since it first thrilled the 
Greeks. To realize its possibilities musically 
is to give proof enough of the very highest 
order of genius, a genius akin to that of 
Sophokles. It may be said that in general 
Paine has completely fulfilled his opportu- 
nities. 

Mendelssohn also set two Greek tragedies 
to music, Sophokles' " QEdipos in Kolonos " 
and his "Antigone." Mendelssohn is re- 
ported to have made a first attempt at 
writing Grecian music, or what we suppose 
it to be, mainly a matter of unison and meagre 
instrumentation. He was soon dissuaded 
from such a step, however, and wisely. The 
Greek tragedians, really writers of grand 
opera, made undoubted use of the best 
musical implements and knowledge they had. 
Creative emotion has its prosperity in the 
minds of its audience, not in the accuracy of 
its mechanism. To secure the effect on us 
that the Greek tragedians produced on con- 



156 Contemporary American Composers. 

temporary audiences, it is necessary that our 
music be a sublimation along the lines we are 
accustomed to, as theirs was along lines 
familiar to them and effective with them. 
Otherwise, instead of being moved by the 
miseries of CEdipos, we should be chiefly 
occupied with amusement at the oddity of 
the music, and soon bored unendurably by 
its monotony and thinness. 

Mendelssohn decided then to use unison 
frequently for suggestion's sake, but not to 
carry it to a fault. His experiments along 
these lines have been of evident advantage to 
Paine, who has, however, kept strictly to his 
own individuality, and produced a work that, 
at its highest, reaches a higher plane, in my 
opinion, than anything in Mendelssohn's noble 
tragedies, and I am not, at that, one of 
those that affect to look down upon the 
achievements of the genius that built "Eli- 
jah." 

Paine's prelude is an immense piece of 



The Academics. 157 

work, in every way larger and more elabo- 
rate than that to Mendelssohn's " Antigone" 
(the " CEdipos in Kolonos " begins strongly 
with only one period of thirteen measures). 
The opening chorus of Paine's "CEdipos" is 
the weakest thing in the work. The second 
strophe has a few good moments, but soon 
falls back into what is impudent enough to 
be actually catchy ! and that, too, of a 
Lowell Mason, Moody and Sankey catchi- 
ness. Curiously enough, Mendelssohn's 
"Antigone" begins with a chorus more 
like a drinking-song than anything else, and 
the first solo is pure Volkslied; both of them 
imbued with a Teutonic flavor that could be 
cut with a knife. In Mendelssohn's " CEdipos 
in Kolonos," however, the music expresses 
emotion rather than German emotion, and 
abounds in splendors of harmony that are 
strikingly Wagnerian in advance. 

Paine's second chorus describes the im- 
aginary pursuit by Fate of the murderer of 



158 Contemporary American Composers. 

MaelKna. 







Copyright, 195, by Arthur P. Schmidt. 
POSTLUDE TO " CEDIPUS TYRANNUS," BY J. K. PAINE. 



The Academics 



* la 




Vi/ 



160 Contemporary American Composers. 

King Laius. It is full of grim fire, and the 
second strophe is at first simply terrible with 
awe. Then it degenerates somewhat into an 
arioso, almost Italian. The fourth chorus 
defends the oracles from Jocasta's incredulity. 
It is written almost in march measure, and is 
full of robor. 

At this point in the tragedy, where it be- 
gins to transpire to CEdipos that he himself 
was the unwitting murderer and the incestu- 
ous wretch whose exile the oracle demands 
before dispelling the plague, here the divine 
genius of Sophokles introduces a chorus of 
general merriment, somewhat as Shakespeare 
uses the maundering fool as a foil to heighten 
King Lear's fate. No praise can be too high 
for Paine's music here. Its choric structure 
is masterly, its spirit is running fire. Note, 
as an instance, the effect at the words "To 
save our land thou didst rise as a tower ! " 
where the music itself is suddenly uplift with 
most effective suggestion. 



The Academics. 161 

The sixth chorus shows the effect of 
CEdipos' divulged guilt and the misery of this 
fool of Fate. The music is an outburst of 
sheer genius. It is overpowering, frighten- 
ing. The postlude is orchestral, with the 
chorus speaking above the music. Jocasta 
has hanged herself, CEdipos has torn out his 
own eyes with her brooch. The music is a 
fitting reverie on the great play, and after a 
wild tumult it subsides in a resigned quietude. 

From Greek tragedy to Yankee patriotism 
is a long cry, yet I think Paine has not wasted 
his abilities on his " Song of Promise," writ- 
ten for the Cincinnati May Festival of 1888. 
Though the poem by Mr. George E. Wood- 
berry is the very apotheosis of American 
brag, it has a redeeming technic. The music, 
for soprano solo, mixed chorus, and orchestra, 
reaches the very peaks of inspiration. I 
doubt if any living composer or many dead 
masters could grow so epic, as most of this. 
In a way it is academic, It shows a little of 



1 62 Contemporary American Composers. 

the influence of Wagner, as any decent 
music should nowadays. But it is not 
Wagner's music, and it is not trite academia. 
There is ho finicky tinsel and no cheap 
oddity. 

Considering the heights at which both 
words and music aimed, it is amazing that 
they did not fall into utter wreck and nau- 
seating bathos. That they have proved so 
effective shows the sure-footedness of genius. 
It is all good, especially the soprano solo. 

This music is exquisite, wondrously exqui- 
site, and it is followed by a maestoso e solenne 
movement of unsurpassable majesty. I have 
never read anything more purely what music 
should be for grandeur. And it praises our 
ain countree ! It might well be taken up by 
some of our countless vocal societies to give 
a much needed respite to Handel's threadbare 
" Messiah." 

When one considers the largeness of the 
works to which Paine has devoted himself 



The Academics, 163 

chiefly, he can be excused for the meagreness 
and comparative unimportance of his smaller 
works for piano and vocal solo. The only 
song of his I care for particularly is " A Bird 
upon a Rosy Bough " (op. 40), which is old- 
fashioned, especially in accompaniment, yet 
at times delicious. The song " Early Spring- 
time" is most curiously original. 

Of piano pieces there are a sprightly 
" Birthday Impromptu " and a fuga giocosa, 
which deals wittily with that theme known 
generally by the words " Over the Fence Is 
Out ! " The " Nocturne " begins like Schu- 
mann, falls into the style of his second Nov- 
ellette, thence to the largo of Beethoven's 
Sonata (op. 10, No. 3), thence to Chopinism, 
wherein it ends, an interesting assemblage 
withal ! 

A long " Romance " for the piano is 
marked by some excellent incidents and 
much passion, but it lacks unity. It is the 
last work in " An Album of Pianoforte 



164 Contemporary American Composers. 

Pieces," which is otherwise full of rare de- 
lights. It is made up of opera 25, 26, and 39. 
Opus 25 contains four characteristic pieces, 
a "Dance" full of dance-rapture, a most 
original " Impromptu," and a " Rondo Gio- 
coso," which is just the kind of brilliantly 
witty scherzo whose infrequency in American 
music is so lamentable and so surprising. 
Opus 26 includes ten sketches, all good, espe- 
cially "Woodnotes," a charming tone-poem, 
the deliciously simple "Wayside Flowers," 
" Under the Lindens," which is a masterpiece 
of beautiful syncopation, a refreshingly inter- 
esting bit in the hackneyed " Millstream " 
form, and a " Village Dance," which has 
much of that quaint flavor that makes Hel- 
ler's Etudes a perennial delight. 

Besides these, there are a number of 
motets, organ preludes, string quartettes, con- 
cert pieces for violin, cello, piano, and the 
like, all contributing to the furtherance of 
an august fame. 



The Academics. 165 

Dtidley Buck. 

Music follows the laws of supply and de- 
mand just as the other necessities of life do. 
But before a demand could exist for it in its 
more austere and unadulterated forms, the 
general taste for it must be improved. For 
this purpose the offices of skilful compro- 
misers were required, composers who could at 
the same time please the popular taste and 
teach it discrimination. Among these invalu- 
able workers, a high place belongs, in point 
both of priority and achievement, to Dudley 
Buck. He has been a powerful agent, or 
reagent, in converting the stagnant ferment 
into a live and wholesome ebullition, or as 
the old Greek evolutionists would say, start- 
ing the first progress in the primeval ooze of 
American Philistinism. 

A more thoroughly New England ancestry 
it would be hard to find. The founder of 
the family came over from England soon 



1 66 Contemporary American Composers. 

after the Mayflower landed. Buck was 
named after Governor Dudley of the Ply- 
mouth Colony. He was born at Hartford, 
March 10, 1839. His father was a prosper- 
ous shipping merchant, one of whose boats, 
during the Civil War, towed the Monitor 
from New York to Fortress Monroe on the 
momentous voyage that destroyed the Merri- 
macs usefulness. 

Buck, though intended for commercial life, 
borrowed a work on thorough-bass and a flute 
and proceeded to try the wings of his muse. 
A melodeon supplanted the flute, and when 
he was sixteen he attained the glory of a 
piano, a rare possession in those times. 
(Would that it were rarer now !) He 
took a few lessons and played a church- 
organ for a salary, a small thing, but his 
own. 

After reaching the junior year in Trinity 
College, he prevailed upon his parents to sur- 
render him to music, an almost scandalous 



The Academics. 167 

career in the New England mind of that day, 
still unbleached of its Blue Laws. 

At the age of nineteen he went to Leipzig 
and entered the Conservatory there, studying 
composition under Hauptmann and E. F. 
Richter, orchestration under Rietz, and the 
piano under Moscheles and Plaidy. Later he 
went to Dresden and studied the organ with 
Schneider. 

After three years in Germany, he studied 
for a year in Paris, and came home, settling 
down in Hartford as church-organist and 
teacher. He began a series of organ-concert 
tours lasting fifteen years. He played in 
almost every important city and in many 
small towns, popularizing the best music by 
that happy fervor of interpretation which 
alone is needed to bring classical composi- 
tions home to the public heart. In 1869 he 
was called to the " mother-church" of Chicago 
In the Chicago fire he lost many valuable 
manuscripts, including a concert overture on 



1 68 Contemporary American Composers. 

Drake's exquisite poem, " The Culprit Fay," 
which must be especially regretted. He 
moved his family to Boston, assuming in ten 
days the position of organist at St. Paul's ; 
and later he accepted charge of "the great 
organ " at Music Hall, that organ of which 
Artemus Ward wrote so deliciously. 

In 1875 Theodore Thomas, whose orchestra 
had performed many of Buck's compositions, 
invited him to become his assistant conductor 
at the Cincinnati Music Festival and at the 
last series of concerts at the Central Park 
Garden in New York. Buck accepted and 
made his home in Brooklyn, where he has 
since remained as organist of the Holy Trinity 
Church, and conductor of the Apollo Club, 
which he founded and brought to a high state 
of efficiency, writing for it many of his nu- 
merous compositions for male voices. 

Buck's close association with church work 
has naturally led him chiefly into sacred 
music, and in this class of composition he 



The Academics. 169 

is by many authorities accorded the very 
highest place among American composers. 
He has also written many organ solos, so- 
natas, marches, a pastorale, a rondo caprice, 
and many concert transcriptions, as well as a 
group of Etudes for pedal phrasing, and sev- 
eral important treatises on various musical 
topics. His two "Motett Collections" were 
a refreshing relief and inspiration to church 
choirs thirsty for religious Protestant music 
of some depth and warmth. 

In the cantata form Buck also holds a fore- 
most piace. In 1876 he was honored with 
a commission to set to music "The Centen- 
nial Meditation of Columbia," a poem written 
for the occasion by the Southern poet, Sidney 
Lanier. This was performed at the opening 
of the Philadelphia Exhibition by a chorus of 
one thousand voices, an organ, and an orches- 
tra of two hundred pieces under the direction 
of Theodore Thomas. In 1874 he made a 
metrical version of "The Legend of Don 



170 Contemporary American Composers. 

Munio " from Irving's " Alhambra," and set 
it to music for a small orchestra and chorus. 
Its adaptability to the resources of the vocal 
societies of smaller cities has made it one of 
his most popular works. 

Another bit of Washington Irving is found 
in Buck's cantata, " The Voyage of Colum- 
bus," the libretto for which he has taken 
from Irving's " Life of Columbus." It con- 
sists of six night-scenes, " The Chapel of 
St. George at Palos," "On the Deck of the 
Santa Maria," "The Vesper Hymn," "Mu- 
tiny," "In Distant Andalusia," and "Land 
and Thanksgiving." The opportunities here 
for Buck's skilful handling of choruses and 
his dramatic feeling in solos are obvious, and 
the work has been frequently used both in 
this country and in Germany with much suc- 
cess. Buck, in fact, made the German libretto 
as well as the English, and has written the 
words for many of his compositions. His 
largest work was " The Light of Asia," com- 



The Academics. 171 

posed in 1885 and based on Sir Edwin 
Arnold's epic. It requires two and one-half 
hours for performance and has met the usual 
success of Buck's music ; it was produced 
in London with such soloists as Nordica, 
Lloyd, and Santley. It has been occasionally 
given here. 

He has found the greater part of his texts 
in American poetry, particularly in Lanier, 
Stedman, and Longfellow, whose " King Olaf 's 
Christmas " and " Nun of Nidaros " he has 
set to music, as well as his " Golden Legend," 
which won a prize of one thousand dollars at 
the Cincinnati Festival in a large competition. 
His work is analyzed very fully in A. J. 
Goodrich' " Musical Analysis." 

Here, as in his symphonic overture to 
Scott's "Marmion," Buck has adopted the 
Wagnerian idea of the leit-motif as a vivid 
means of distinguishing musically the various 
characters and their varying emotions. His 
music is not markedly Wagnerian, however, 



172 Contemporary American Composers. 




Copyright, 1893, by Q. Schirmer. 

FRAGMENT FROM " SPRING'S AWAKENING," BY MR. BUCK 



TJic Academics. 173 

in other ways, but seems to show, back of 
his individuality, an assimilation of the good 
old school of canon and fugue, with an Italian 
tendency to the declamatory and well-rounded 
melodic period. 

It might be wished that in his occasional 
secular songs Buck had followed less in the 
steps of the Italian aria and the English bal- 
lad and adopted more of the newer, nobler 
spirit of the Lied as Schumann and Franz 
represent it, and as many of our younger 
Americans have done with thorough success 
and not a little of exaltation. Note for 
instance the inadequacy of the old-style 
balladry to both its own opportunity and 
the otherwise-smothered fire of such a poem 
as Sidney Lanier's " Sunset," which is posi- 
tively Shakespearean in its passionate per- 
fection. 

In religious music, however, Mr. Buck has 
made a niche of its own for his music, which 
it occupies with grace and dignity. 



174 Contemporary American Composers. 



Horatio W. Parker? 



l ,v- 



m 



w 



When one considers the enormous space 
occupied by the hymn-tune in New England 
musical activity, it is small wonder that most 
of its composers should display hymnal pro- 
clivities. Both Buck and Parker are natives 
of New England. 

Parker was. born, September 15, 1863, at 
Auburndale, Mass. His mother was his 
first teacher of music. She was an organist, 
and gave him a thorough technical schooling 
which won the highest commendation later 
from Rheinberger, who entrusted to him the 

first performance of a new organ concerto. 
1 See p. 466. 




HORATIO W. PARKER. 



The Academics. 1 75 

After some study in Boston under Stephen 
A. Emery, John Orth, and G. W. Chadwick, 
Parker went to Munich at the age of eighteen, 
where he came under the special favor of 
Rheinberger, and where various compositions 
were performed by the Royal Music School 
orchestra. After three years of Europe, he 
returned to America and assumed the direc- 
tion of the music at St. Paul's school. He 
has held various posts since, and has been, 
since 1894, the Battell Professor of Music at 
Yale. 

His rather imposing list of works includes 
a symphony (1885), an operetta, a concert 
overture (1884), an overture, " Regulus " 
(1885), performed in Munich and in London, 
and an overture, " Count Robert of Paris " 
( 1 890), performed in New York, a ballad for 
chorus and orchestra, " King Trojan," pre- 
sented in Munich in 1885, the Twenty-third 
Psalm for female chorus and orchestra (1884), 
an "Idylle" (1891); "The Normans," "The 



176 Contemporary American Composers. 

Kobolds," and " Harold Harfager," all for 
chorus and orchestra, and all dated 1891 ; an 
oratorio, three or more cantatas, and various 
bits of chamber-music. His opus number 
has already reached forty-three, and it is 
eked out to a very small degree by such 
imponderous works as organ and piano solos, 
hymns, and songs. In 1893, Parker won the 
National Conservatory prize for a cantata, and 
in 1898 the McCagg prize for an a capella 
chorus. 

Parker's piano compositions and secular 
songs are not numerous. They seem rather 
the incidental byplays and recreations of a 
fancy chiefly turned to sacred music of the 
larger forms. 

Opus 19 consists of "Four Sketches," of 
which the " Etude Melodieuse " is as good as 
is necessary in that overworked style, wherein 
a thin melody is set about with a thinner 
ripple of arpeggios. The " Romanza " is 
lyric and delightful, while the " Scherzino " 



The Academics, 177 

is delicious, and crisp as celery ; it is worthy 
of Schumann, whom it suggests, and many 
of whose cool tones and mannerisms it 
borrows. 

The " 5 Morceaux Characteristiques " are 
on the whole better. The " Scherzo " is 
shimmering with playfulness, and, in the 
Beethoven fashion, has a tender intermezzo 
amoroso. This seriousness is enforced with 
an ending of a most plaintive nature. The 
"Caprice" is brilliant and whimsical, with 
some odd effects in accent. The " Gavotte " 
makes unusual employment of triplets, but 
lacks the precious yeast of enthusiasm 
necessary to a prime gavotte. 

This enthusiasm is not lacking however 
from his " Impromptu," and it makes his 
" Elegie " a masterly work, possibly his best 
in the smaller lines. This piece is altogether 
elegiac in spirit, intense in its sombrest 
depths, impatient with wild outcries, like 
Chopin's " Funeral March," and working 



178 Contemporary American Composers. 

up to an immense passion at the end. This 
subsides in ravishingly liquid arpeggios, 
"melodious tears " ? which obtain the kin- 
dred effect of Chopin's tinkling " Berceuse " 
in a slightly different way. This notable 
work is marred by an interlude in which the 
left hand mumbles harshness in the bass, 
while the right hand is busy with airy fiori- 
ture. It is too close a copy of the finish of 
the first movement of Beethoven's " Moon- 
light " sonata. The lengthening skips of the 
left hand are also Beethoven esque trade- 
marks. 

Parker is rather old-fashioned in his forms 
of musical speech. That is, he has what you 
might call the narrative style. He follows 
his theme as an absorbing plot, engaging 
enough in itself, without gorgeous digressions 
and pendent pictures. His work has some- 
thing of the Italian method. A melody or a 
theme, he seems to think, is only marred by 
abstruse harmony, and is endangered by 



The Academics. 1 79 

diversions. One might almost say that a 
uniform lack of attention to color-possibili- 
ties and a monotonous fidelity to a cool, gray 
tone characterize him. His fondness for the 
plain, cold octave is notable. It is emphasized 
by the ill-success of his " Six Lyrics for 
Piano, without octaves." They are all of 
thin value, and the " Novelette " is danger- 
ously Schumannesque. 

The "Three Love Songs" are happy, 
" Love's Chase " keeping up the arch raillery 
and whim of Beddoe's verse. "Orsame's 
Song " is smooth and graceful, ending with a 
well-blurted, abrupt " The devil take her ! " 
The " Night-piece to Julia " is notable. We 
have no poet whose lyrics are harder to set 
to music than good Robin Herrick's. They 
have a lilt of their own that is incompatible 
with ordinary music. Parker has, however, 
been completely successful in this 'instance. 
A mysterious, night-like carillon accompani- 
ment, delicate as harebells, gives sudden way 



l8o Contemporary American Composers. 

. Conmoto. 




jr * ^ ji r T P |r ^^d^-fc^j 

Vnd U*t tetriigtt. Lite U- pertwldt-oot 

;rtf|T ftftff rjgf V^^f ^p fgp . 


I^A J r r ^^ 


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ber. TVfi, ,'oJ-ia let me woo tbee, Thas to cometa- 



to Owe. My toil rt) pour to . lo HIM, la- to dm 




Copyright, 1886, by Arthur P. Schmidt & Co. 

FRAGMENT OF MR. PARKER'S SONG, " NIGHT-PIECE TO 
JULIA-" 



The Academics. 181 

to a superb support of a powerful outburst at 
the end of the song. 

The " Six Songs " show not a little of that 
modernity and opulent color I have denied 
to the most of Mr. Parker's work. " Oh, 
Ask Me Not " is nothing less than inspira- 
tion, rapturously beautiful, with a rich use 
of unexpected intervals. The "Egyptian 
Serenade " is both novel and beautiful. The 
other songs are good ; even the comic-operatic 
flavor of the " Cavalry Song " is redeemed 
by its catchy sweep. 

Among a large number of works for the 
pipe-organ, few are so marked by that pur- 
poseless rambling organists are so prone to, 
as the " Fantaisie." The " Melody and Inter- 
mezzo " of opus 20 makes a sprightly humor- 
esque. The " Andante Religioso " of opus 1 7 
has really an allegretto effect, and is much 
better as a gay pastorale than as a devotional 
exercise. It is much more shepherdly than 
the avowed " Pastorale " (opus 20), and almost 



1 82 Contemporary American Composers. 

as much so as the "Eclogue," delicious with 
the organ's possibilities for reed and pipe 
effects. The " Romanza " is a gem of the 
first water. A charming quaint effect is got 
by the accompaniment of the air, played legato 
on the swell, with an echo, staccato, of its 
own chords on the great. The interlude is 
a tender melody, beautifully managed. The 
two " Concert Pieces " are marked by a large 
simplicity in treatment, and have this rare 
merit, that they are less gymnastic exercises 
than expressions of feeling. A fiery " Trium- 
phal March," a delightful " Canzonetta," and 
a noble " Larghetto," of sombre, yet rich and 
well-modulated, colors, complete the list of 
his works for the organ. None of these are 
registered with over-elaboration. 

To sacred music Parker has made important 
contributions. Besides a dignified, yet im- 
passioned, complete " Morning and Evening 
Service for the Holy Communion," he has 
written several single songs and anthems. 



The Academics. 183 

It is the masterwork, " Hora Novissima," 
however, which lifts him above golden medi- 
ocrity. From the three thousand lines of 
Bernard of Cluny's poem, " De Contemptu 
Mundi," famous since the twelfth century, 
and made music with the mellowness of its 
own Latin rhyme, Mrs. Isabella G. Parker, 
the composer's mother, has translated 210 
lines. The English is hardly more than a 
loose paraphrase, as this random parallel 
proves : 

Pars mea, Rex meus, Most Mighty, most Holy, 

In proprio Deus, How great is the glory, 

Ipse decore. Thy throne enfolding. 

Or this skilful evasion : 

Tune Jacob, Israel, All the long history, 

Et Lia, tune Rachel All the deep mystery 

Efficietur. Through ages hidden. 

But it is perhaps better for avoiding the 
Chary bdis of literalness. 
Those who accuse Rossini's " Stabat 



184 Contemporary American Composers. 

Mater " of a fervor more theatric than re- 
ligious, will find the same faults in Parker's 
work, along with much that is purely ecclesi- 
astical. Though his sorrow is apt to become 
petulance, there is much that is as big in 
spirit as in handling. The work is frequently 
Mendelssohnian in treatment. An archaism 
that might have been spared, since so little 
of the poem was retained, is the sad old 
Handelian style of repeating the same words 
indefinitely, to all neglect of emptiness of 
meaning and triteness. Thus the words 
" Pars mea, Rex meus " are repeated by the 
alto exactly thirteen times ! which, any one 
will admit, is an unlucky number, especially 
since the other voices keep tossing the same 
unlucky words in a musical battledore. 

The especially good numbers of the work 
(which was composed in 1892, and first pro- 
duced, with almost sensational success, in 
1893) are: the magnificent opening chorus; 
the solo for the soprano ; the large and fiery 



The Academics. 185 

finale to Part I. ; the superb tenor solo, 
"Golden Jerusalem," which is possibly the 
most original and thrilling of all the numbers, 
is, in every way, well varied, elaborated, and 
intensified, and prepares well for the massive 
and effective double chorus, " Stant Syon 
Atria," an imposing structure whose ambition 
found skill sufficing ; an alto solo of original 
qualities ; and a finale, tremendous, though 
somewhat long drawn out. Of this work, so 
careful a critic as W. J. Henderson was 
moved to write : 

" His melodic ideas are not only plentiful, but 
they are beautiful, . . . graceful and sometimes 
splendidly vigorous. . . . There is an a capella 
chorus which is one of the finest specimens of 
pure church polyphony that has been produced in 
recent years. ... It might have been written by 
Hobrecht, Brumel, or even Josquin des Pres. It is 
impossible to write higher praise than this. . . . 
The orchestration is extraordinarily . . . rich. As 
a whole . . . the composition . . . may be set 
down as one of the finest achievements of the 
present day." 



1 86 Contemporary American ComposefS. 

And Philip Hale, a most discriminant 
musical enthusiast, described the chorus 
"Pars Mea" as: 

" A masterpiece, true music of the church," to 
which " any acknowledged master of composition in 
Europe would gladly sign his name. . . . For the 
a capella chorus there is nothing but unbounded 
praise. . . . Weighing words as counters, I do not 
hesitate to say that I know of no one in the country 
or in England who could by nature and by student's 
sweat have written those eleven pages. ... I have 
spoken of Mr. Parker's quasi-operatic tendency. 
Now he is a modern. He has shown in this very 
work his appreciation and his mastery of antique 
religious musical art. But as a modern he is com- 
pelled to feel the force of the dramatic in religious 
music. . . . But his most far-reaching, his most 
exalted and rapt conception of the bliss beyond 
compare is expressed in the language of Palestrina 
and Bach." 

In September, 1899, the work was pro- 
duced with decisive success in London, 
Parker conducting. 

Besides this, there are several secular 



The Academics. 187 

cantatas, particularly " King Trojan," which 
contains a singable tune for Trojan with 
many delicate nuances in the accompaniment, 
and a harp-accompanied page's song that is 
simply ambrosial. Then there is Arlo Bates' 
poem, "The Kobolds," which Parker has 
blessed with music as delicate as the laces of 
gossamer-spiders. 

His latest work is devoted to the legend 
of St. Christopher, and displays the same 
abilities for massive and complex scoring 
whenever the opportunity offers. On the 
other hand, the work discloses Parker's weak- 
nesses as well, for thejibretto drags in certain 
love episodes evidently thought desirable for 
the sake of contrast and yet manifestly un- 
necessary to the story. The character of 
the queen, for instance, is quite useless, and,- 
in fact, disconcerting. The love scene be- 
tween the king and queen reminds one 
uncomfortably of Tristan and Isolde, while 
a descending scale constantly used throughout 



1 88 Contemporary American Composers. 

the work in the accompaniment incessantly 
suggests the "Samson and Delilah" of 
Saint-Saens. 

In spite of flaws, however, flaws are 
to be had everywhere for the looking, 
Parker's work has its fine points. The 
struggle between the demons and the singers 
of the sacred Latin Hymn has made excellent 
use of the Tannhauser effect. The Cathedral 
scene shows Parker's resources in the massive 
use of choruses to be very large. The bar- 
carolling billows of the river are ravishingly 
written, and the voice of the child crying out 
is effectively introduced. The song the giant 
Christopher sings through the storm is par- 
ticularly superb. 



Frank van der Stucken. 1 

On the bead-roll of those who have had 
both the ability and the courage to take a 

stand for our music, the name of Frank van 
1 See p. 477. 




FRANK. VAN DER STUCKEN. 



The Academics. 1 89 

der Stucken must stand high. His Ameri- 
canism is very frail, so far as birth and breed- 
ing count, but he has won his naturalization 
by his ardor for native music. 

Van der Stucken 's life has been full of 
labors and honors. He was born at Fred- 
ericksburg, Texas, in 1858, of a Belgian 
father and a German mother. After the 
Civil War, in which the father served in 
the Confederate army as a captain of the 
Texan cavalry, the family returned to Bel- 
gium, where, at Antwerp, Van der Stucken 
studied under Benoit. Here some of his 
music was played in the churches, and a 
ballet at the Royal Theatre. 

In 1878 he began studies in Leipzig, mak- 
ing important acquaintances, such as Rei- 
necke, Grieg, and Sinding. His first male 
chorus was sung there, with great success. 
Of his fifth opus, consisting of nine songs, 
Edvard Grieg wrote an enthusiastic criti- 
cism. After travelling for some time, Van 



190 Contemporary American Composers. 

der Stucken was appointed kapellmeister at 
the Breslau Stadt-Theatre. This was his 
debut as conductor. Here he composed his 
well-known suite on Shakespeare's " Tem- 
pest," which has been performed abroad and 
here. Here, also, he wrote a " Festzug," an 
important work in Wagnerian style, and his 
passionate " Pagina d' Amore," which, with 
the published portions of his lyric drama, 
"Vlasda," has been performed by many 
great orchestras. 

In 1883, Van der Stucken met Liszt, at 
Weimar, and under his auspices gave a con- 
cert of his own compositions, winning the 
congratulations of Grieg, Lassen, Liszt, and 
many other celebrated musicians. A promi- 
nent German critic headed his review of the 
performance : " A new star on the musical 
firmament." 

Van der Stucken was now called to the 
directorship of the famous Arion Male Chorus 
in New York, a position which he held for 



The Academics. 19! 

eleven years with remarkable results. In 
1892 he took his chorus on a tour in Europe 
and won superlative praises everywhere. 

In 1885 and successive years Van der 
Stucken conducted orchestral " Novelty Con- 
certs," which have an historical importance 
as giving the first hearing to symphonic 
works by American composers. In Berlin 
and in Paris he also gave our musicians the 
privilege of public performance. From 1891 
to 1894 he devoted himself to reforming 
the Northeastern Saengerbund, achieving the 
enormous task of making five thousand male 
voices sing difficult music artistically. Since 
1895 Van der Stucken has been conductor 
of the newly formed Cincinnati Symphony 
Orchestra, as well as dean of the faculty of 
the College of Music in that city. The in- 
fluence of this man, who is certainly one of 
the most important musicians of his time, is 
bringing Cincinnati back to its old musical 
prestige. 



192 Contemporary American Composers. 

As a composer, Van der Stucken shows 
the same orginality and power that charac- 
terize him as an organizer. His prelude to 
the opera "Vlasda" (op. 9) is one long 
rapture of passionate sweetness, superbly 
instrumented. An arrangement of it has 
been made for the piano for four hands by 
Horatio W. Parker. 

Van der Stucken's music to " The Tem- 
pest" (op. 8) is published in three forms. 
Besides the orchestral score, there is an 
arrangement for piano solo, by A. Siloti, 
of the " Dance of the Gnomes," " Dance of 
the Nymphs," and " Dance of the Reapers," 
the first and third being especially well 
transcribed. For four hands, Hans Sitt 
has arranged these three dances, as well as 
a short but rich "Exorcism," some splendid 
melodramatic music, and the rattling gro- 
tesque, "The Hound-chase after Caliban." 
All these pieces are finely imagined and 
artistically handled. 



The Academics. 193 

For piano solo, there is a group of three 
Miniatures (op. 7). The first is an Album- 
blatt of curious dun colors ; the second is a 
Capriccietto, a strange whim ; the third is a 
beautiful bit called " May Blossom." 

Of Van der Stucken's songs I have seen 
two groups, the first a setting of five love 
lyrics by Riickert. None of these are over 
two pages long, except the last. They are 
written in the best modern Lied style, and 
are quite unhackneyed. It is always the un- 
expected that happens, though this unex- 
pected thing almost always proves to be a 
right thing. Without any sense of strain or 
bombast he reaches superb climaxes ; with- 
out eccentricity he is individual ; and his 
songs are truly interpreters of the words 
they express. Of these five, "Wann die 
Rosen aufgebliiht "is a wonderfully fine 
and fiery work ; " Die Stunde sei gesegnet " 
has one of the most beautiful endings imagi- 
nable ; " Mir ist, nun ich die habe " has a deep 



194 Contemporary American Composers. 



STi T.I* ' II Iff B I . P" p P- f E-4* )HfJ' <" 

** itnct >u > r n 5~- ' Hun . 4r. nir M k'ii Lfi4 p.MhhiJ. Kiutl 

.., ,/. /. f. -TUfttni, 01 5 c^.r.*Mi*i>. 




Copyright, 1892, by Frledrich Luckhardt, Berlin. 
By permiwion of Luckhardt & Belder, New York. 

FRAGMENT OF MR. VAN DER STUCKEN'S " DIE STUNDE SEI 
GESEGNET." 



The Academics. 195 

significance in much simplicity, and its end- 
ing, by breaking the rule against consecutive 
octaves, attains, as rule-breakings have an 
unpleasant habit of doing, an excellent effect. 
" Liebste, nur dich seh'n " is a passionate 
lyric ; and " Wenn die Voglein sich gepaart " 
is florid and trilly, but legitimately so ; it 
should find much concert use. These songs, 
indeed, are all more than melodies ; they are 
expressions. 

Of the second group of eight songs for 
iow voice, " O Jugendlust " is athrill with 
young ecstasy ; " Einsame Thrane " has 
superb coloring, all sombre, and a tre- 
mendous climax ; " Seeligkeit " is big with 
emotion and ravishing in harmony, " Ein 
Schaferlied " is exquisite, " Von schon Sici- 
lien war mem Traum " begins in the style 
of Lassen, ' but ends with a strength and 
vigor far beyond that tender melodist. Be- 
sides these groups, there is a rich lyric 
" Moonlight ; " and there are many part songs. 



196 Contemporary American Composers. 

A work of considerable importance written 
many years before and presented by Franz 
Liszt at Weimar had its first American pro- 
duction in 1 899, at Cincinnati and New York. 
It is a symphonic prologue to Heine's tragedy, 
"William Ratcliff." The different psycho- 
logical phases of the tragedy are presented 
by characteristic motives which war among 
themselves. The Scottish locale is indicated 
vividly, and the despair of the lovers pre- 
sented in one place by the distortion and 
rending of all the principal motives. A dirge 
with bells and a final musing upon, and resig- 
nation before, implacable Fate give a digni- 
fied close to a work in which passion is 
exploited with erudition and modernity. 

W. W. Gilchrist. . 

The prize competition has its evils, un- 
questionably ; and, in a place of settled 
status, perhaps, they outnumber its benefits. 



The Academics, 197 

But in American music it has been of mate- 
rial encouragement to the production of large 
works. In the first place, those who do not 
win have been stimulated to action, and have 
at least their effort for their pains. In the 
second place, those who manage to win are 
several hundred dollars the richer, and may 
offer the wolf at the door a more effective 
bribe than empty-stomached song. 

In the city of Philadelphia lives a compo- 
ser of unusual luck in prize-winning. That 
large and ancient town is not noteworthy for 
its activity in the manufacture of original 
music. In fact, some one has spoken of it 
as "a town where the greatest reproach to 
a musician is residence there." The city's 
one prominent music-writer is William Wal- 
lace Gilchrist ; but he stands among the first 
of our composers. He is especially interest- 
ing as a purely native product, having never 
studied abroad, and yet having won among 
our composers a foremost place in the larger 



198 Contemporary American Composers. 

forms of composition. He was born in Jersey 
City, January 8, 1846; his father was a 
Canadian, his mother a native of this coun- 
try ; both were skilled in music, and his 
home life was full of it, especially of the old 
church music. After a youth of the usual 
school life he tried various pursuits, pho- 
tography, law, business ; but music kept 
calling him. A good barytone voice led him 
to join vocal societies, and at length he made 
music his profession, after studying voice, 
organ, and composition with Dr. H. A. 
Clarke, of Philadelphia. He was a success- 
ful soloist in oratorio for some years, but 
gradually devoted himself to church work 
and conducting, and to composition, though 
none of his music was published till he was 
thirty-two, when he took two prizes offered 
by the Abt Male Singing Society of Phila- 
delphia. 

Shortly after taking the Abt Society prize, 
he won three offered by the Mendelssohn 



The Academics, 199 

Glee Club of New York, and in 1884 he took 
the $1,000 prize offered by the Cincinnati 
Festival Association. 

This last was gained by his setting of the 
Forty-sixth Psalm for soprano solo, chorus, 
and orchestra. The overture opens with a 
noble adante contemplatif, which deserves its 
epithet, but falls after a time into rather un- 
interesting moods, whence it breaks only at 
the last period. The opening chorus, " God 
Is Our Refuge and Strength," seems to me 
to be built on a rather trite and empty sub- 
ject, which it plays battledore and shuttle- 
cock with in the brave old pompous and 
canonic style, which stands for little beyond 
science and labor. It is only fair to say, 
however, that A. J. Goodrich, in his " Musi- 
cal Analysis," praises "the strength and 
'dignity " of this chorus ; and gives a minute 
analysis of the whole work with liberal the- 
matic quotation. The psalm, as a whole, 
though built on old lines, is built well on 



2OO Contemporary American Composers. 

those lines, and the solo " God Is in the 
Midst of Her " is taken up with especially 
fine effect by the chorus. "The Heathen 
Raged " is a most ingeniously complicated 
chorus also. 

The cantata, " Prayer and Praise," is simi- 
larly conventional, and suffers from the sin of 
repetition, but contains much that is strong. 

Of the three prize male choruses written 
for the Mendelssohn Glee Club, the " Ode 
to the Sun " is the least successful. It is 
written to the bombast of Mrs. Hemans, and 
is fittingly hysterical ; occasionally it fairly 
shrieks itself out. " In Autumn " is quieter ; 
a sombre work with a fine outburst at the 
end. "The Journey of Life" is an andante 
misterioso that catches the gloom of Bryant's 
verse, and offers a good play for that art of 
interweaving voices in which Gilchrist is an 
adept. 

" The Uplifted Gates " is a chorus for 
mixed voices wjtb solos for sopranos and 



Tlie Academics. 2OI 

altos ; it is elaborate, warm, and brilliant. In 
lighter tone are the "Spring Song," a trio 
with cheap words, but bright music and a 
rich ending, and " The Sea Fairies," a chorus 
of delightful delicacy for women's voices. It 
has a piano accompaniment for four hands. 
In this same difficult medium of women's 
voices is "The Fountain," a surpassingly 
beautiful work, graceful and silvery as a cas- 
cade. It reminds one, not by its manner at 
all, but by its success, of that supreme 
achievement, Wagner's song of the "Rhine- 
maidens." The piano accompaniment to 
Gilchrist's chorus aids the general picture. 

A thoroughly charming work is the setting 
of Lowell's poem, "The Rose," for solos and 
chorus. The dreariness of the lonely poet 
and the lonely maid contrasts strongly with 
the rapture of their meeting. As the first 
half of the poem is morose yet melodious, the 
latter is bright with ecstasy ; the ending is 
of the deepest tenderness. 



2O2 Contemporary American Composers. 

By all odds the best of these choruses, how- 
ever, is "The Legend of the Bended Bow," 
a fine war-chant by Mrs. Hemans. Tradi- 
tion tells that in ancient Britain the people 
were summoned to war by messengers who 
carried a bended bow ; the poem tells of the 
various patriots approached. The reaper is 
bidden to leave his standing corn, the hunts- 
man to turn from the chase ; the chieftain, the 
prince, mothers, sisters, sweethearts, and the 
bards are all approached and counselled to 
bravery. After each episode follow the words 
" And the bow passed on," but the music 
has been so well managed that the danger of 
such a repetition is turned into grim force. 
The only prelude is five great blasts of the 
horns. A brawny vigor is got by a frequent 
use of imitation and unison in the voices. 
The choric work is marked throughout with 
the most intense and epic power, almost 
savagery ; a magnificent martial zest. The 
climax is big. It is certainly one of 



The Academics. 203 

the best things of its kind ever done over 
here. 

Another work of fine quality throughout 
is "A Christmas Idyl," for solos, chorus, and 
orchestra. A terrible sombreness is achieved 
in its former half by a notable, simplicity. 
The latter part is in brighter tone ; the solo, 
" And Thou, Bethlehem," is especially exult- 
ant. In manuscript is "An Easter Idyl," of 
large proportions, for solos, chorus, and or- 
chestra, or organ. 

In the single songs the influence of Gil- 
christ's early training in hymns is patent. In 
only a few instances do they follow the latter- 
day methods of Schumann and Franz. "A 
Song of Doubt and a Song of Faith " is pos- 
sibly his best vocal solo. It begins with a 
plaint, that is full of cynic despair ; thence 
it breaks suddenly into a cheerful andante. 
" The Two Villages " is a strong piece of 
work on the conventional lines of what might 
be called the Sunday ballad. " A Dirge for 



204 Contemporary American Composers. 

Summer " has a marked originality, and is of 
that deep brooding which is particularly con- 
genial to Gilchrist's muse. The Scotch songs 
are charming : " My Heart is Sair " is full of 
fine feeling, and must be classed among the 
very best of the many settings of this lyric 
of Burns'. 

Most modern in feeling of all Gilchrist's 
vocal solos is the group of " Eight Songs." 
They interpret the text faithfully and the 
accompaniment is in accord with the song, 
but yet possessed of its own individuality. 
" A Love Song " is tender and has a well- 
woven accompaniment ; " The Voice of the 
Sea " is effective, but hardly attains the large 
simplicity of Aldrich' poem ; " Autumn " 
is exquisitely cheery; "Goldenrod" is or- 
nately graceful, while "The Dear Long 
Ago " is quaint ; " Lullaby " is of an ex- 
quisitely novel rhythm in this overworked 
form. 

There is much contrast between the light 



The Academics, 



205 



A .LOVE SOffft 



|inf Cwnwill. 

Allegro ippjssianato. (J-ioo) 

''^ 



MlebyW.W.GIIelirU 




Copyright, 1885, by Arthur P. Schmidt & Co. 

A FRAGMENT. 



206 Contemporary American Composers. 

ness of his book, " Songs for the Children," 
and his ponderous setting of Kipling's " Re- 
cessional." The treatment of Paul Laurence 
Dunbar's " Southern Lullaby " is unusual, 
and the songs, " My Ladye " and " The Ideal," 
both in MS., are noteworthy. 

Gilchrist has written a vast amount of 
religious music, -including several "Te 
Deums," of which the one in C and that in 
A flat are the best, to my thinking. He has 
written little for the piano except a series of 
duets, of which the charming " M61odie " and 
the fetching " Styrienne " are the best. 

It is by his orchestral works, however, that 
he gains the highest consideration. These 
include a symphony for full orchestra, which 
has been frequently performed with success ; 
a suite for orchestra ; a suite for piano and 
orchestra ; as well as a nonet, a quintet, and 
a trio, for strings and wind. None of these 
have been published, but I have had the privi- 
lege of examining some of the manuscripts. 



The Academics. 207 

The spirit and the treatment of these 
works is strongly classical. While the 
orchestration is scholarly and mellow, it 
is not in the least Wagnerian, either in 
manipulation or in lusciousness. The sym- 
phony is not at all programmatic. The 
Scherzo is of most exuberant gaiety. Its 
accentuation is much like that in Beethoven's 
piano sonata (op. 14, No. 2). Imitation is 
liberally used in the scoring, with a delight- 
fully comic effect as of an altercation. The 
symphony ends with a dashing finale that is 
stormy with cheer. Gilchrist is at work upon 
a second symphony of more modernity. 

The " Nonet " is in G minor, and begins 
with an Allegro in which a most original and 
and severe subject is developed with infinite 
grace and an unusually rich color. The 
Andante is religiose, and is fervent rather 
than sombre. The ending is especially 
beautiful. A sprightly Scherzo follows. It 
is most ingeniously contrived, and the effects 



2o8 Contemporary American Composers. 

are divided with unusual impartiality among 
the instruments. A curious and elaborate 
allegro molto furnishes the finale, and ends 
the " Nonet " surprisingly with an abrupt 
major chord. 

The opening Allegro of the "Quintet" 
begins with a 'cello solo of scherzesque 
quality, but as the other voices join in, it 
takes on a more passionate tone, whence it 
works into rapturously beautiful moods and 
ends magnificently. The piano part has a 
strong value, and even where it merely orna- 
ments the theme carried by the strings, it is 
fascinating. The Scherzo is again of the 
Beethoven order in its contagious comicality. 
The piano has the lion's share of it at first, 
but toward the last the other instruments 
leave off embroidery and take to cracking 
jokes for themselves. The Andante is a 
genuinely fine piece of work. It ranges from 
melting tenderness to impassioned rage and 
a purified nobility. The piano part is highly 



The Academics. 209 

elaborated, but the other instruments have 
a scholarly, a vocal, individuality. I was 
shocked to see a cadenza for the piano just 
before the close, but its tender brilliance was 
in thorough accord with the sincerity of the 
movement. The " Quintet " ends with a 
splendid Allegro. 

In MS. are three interesting works for the 
violin, a Rhapsody, a Perpetual Motion, and a 
Fantasie. 

This last has a piano accompaniment of 
much ingenuity. The fantasial nature of the 
work lies principally in its development, 
which is remarkably lyrical, various melo- 
dies being built up beautifully on fractions 
of the main subjects. There is nothing 
perfunctory, and the work is full of art and 
appeal. Gilchrist is one of our most polished 
composers contrapuntally, but has been here 
in a very lyric mood. 

He is the founder and conductor of the 
Mendelssohn Club of Philadelphia, an un- 



2IO Contemporary American Composers. 

usually effective organization ; one of the 
founders of the local Manuscript Club ; 
the conductor of a choral society of two 
hundred voices, at Harrisburg, and the 
director of two church choirs. 



G. W. Chadwick? 




One of the most sophisticated, and, at the 
same time, most eclectic of native music- 
makers, is George W. Chadwick, to whom 
the general . consent of authorities would 
grant a place among the very foremost of 
the foremost American composers. 

His reputation rests chiefly on his two 
symphonies, a number of concert overtures, 
and many pieces of chamber-music, which 

1 See p. 477, 




GEORGE WHITFIELD CHADWICK.. 



The Academics. 21 1 

are much praised. Chadwick was born at 
Lowell, Mass., November 13, 1854. His 
parents were American, and it was not till 
1877, after studying with Eugene Thayer in 
Boston, and teaching music in the college at 
Olivet, Mich., that Chadwick studied for two 
years at Leipzig, under Jadassohn and Rei- 
necke, and later at Munich for a year under 
Rheinberger. In 1880 he returned to America 
and settled in Boston, where he has since 
lived, as organist, teacher, and conductor, an 
important figure in the town's musical life. 

Among his few works for the piano, are 
"Six Characteristic Pieces" (op. 7). The 
" Reminiscence of Chopin " is an interest- 
ing and skilful chain of partial themes and 
suggestions from Chopin. The " fitude " is a 
monotonous study in a somewhat Schumann- 
esque manner, with a graceful finish. The 
" Congratulation " is a cheerful bagatelle ; 
the " Irish Melody " is sturdy, simple, and 
fetching ; but the " Scherzino " is a hard 



212 Contemporary American Composers. 

bit of humor with Beethoven mannerisms 
lacking all the master's unction. 

The opus ends with an unfortunate com- 
position inexcusably titled " Please Do ! " 

There are two bright " Caprices " and 
three excellent waltzes, of which the third 
is the best. It is a dreamy, tender work on 
a theme by " B. J. L.," which refers, I pre- 
sume, to Mr. B. J. Lang. 

Chadwick has done a vast amount of part- 
song writing. His " Lovely Rosabelle " is 
for chorus and orchestra, and is marked with 
many original effects. His " Reiterlied " is 
superbly joyful. A setting of Lewis Carroll's 
immortal " Jabberwocky " shows much rich 
humor of the college glee-club sort. There 
is an irresistibly humorous episode where 
the instrument of destruction goes " snicker 
snack," and a fine hilarity at 

" ' O frabjous day 
Callooh, callay,' 
He chortled in his joy." 



The Academics. 213 

What would part-song writers do if the 
Vikings had never been invented ? Where 
would they get their wild choruses for men, 
with a prize to the singer that makes the 
most noise ? Chadwick falls into line with 
"The Viking's Last Voyage" (1881), for 
barytone solo, male chorus, and orchestra, 
which gives him a very high place among 
writers in this form. He has also a robus- 
tious " Song of the Viking," and an excellent 
Dedication Ode (1884), for solo, chorus, and 
orchestra, to the pregnant words of Rev. 
H. B. Carpenter, besides two cantatas for 
mixed voices, " Phcenix Expirans " and " The 
Pilgrims." In 1889 was published his 
" Lovely Rosabelle," a ballad for chorus 
and orchestra ; it contains some interest- 
ing dissonantial work in the storm-pas- 
sages. And his comic opera, " Tabasco," 
must be mentioned, as well as an enor- 
mous mass of sacred music, which, I con- 
fess, I had not the patience to study. 



214 Contemporary American Composers. 

The flesh was willing, but the spirit was 
weak. 

Among Chadwick's songs is a volume of 
Breton melodies harmonized with extreme 
simplicity. Others are " Gay Little Dande- 
lion," which is good enough of its everlasting 
flower-song sort ; " In Bygone Days " and 
" Request," which, aside from one or two 
flecks of art, are trashy ; and two childish 
namby-pambies, "Adelaide" and "The Mill." 
" A Bonny Curl " catches the Scotch-ton 
faithfully. 

Chadwick usually succeeds, however, in 
catching foreign flavors. His " Song from 
the Persian " is one of his best works, and 
possibly the very best is his " Sorais' Song," 
to Rider Haggard's splendid words. It has 
an epic power and a wild despair. Up to 
the flippancy of its last measures, it is quite 
inspired, and one of the strongest of Amer- 
ican songs. The "Danza" is captivating 
and full of novelty. " Green Grows the 



The Academics. 215 

Willow" is a burden of charming pathos 
and quaintness, though principally a study 
in theme-management. " Allah," however, 
is rather Ethiopian than Mahommedan. His 
" Bedouin Love Song " has little Oriental 
color, but is full of rush and fire, with a 
superb ending. It is the best of the count- 
less settings of this song. I wish I could 
say the same of his "Thou Art so Like a 
Flower," but he has missed the intense re- 
pression of Heine. 

The " Serenade " displays an interesting 
rhythm ; " The Miller's Daughter " is ten- 
der, and " A Warning " is delightfully witty. 
One regrets, however, that its best points 
were previously used in Schumann's perfect 
folk-song, "Wenn ich friih in den Garten 
geh'." Chad wick has two folk-songs of his 
own, however, which are superb. " He 
Loves Me " is a tender, cradle-song-like bit 
of delicious color. The " Lullaby " is a 
genuinely interesting study in this over 



2l6 Contemporary American Composers. 



Te Hrs. B.RSto 
TWO FOLK SONGS. 

I 




Copyright, 1892, by Arthur P. Schmidt 



The Academics. 



217 








218 Contemporary American Composers. 

worked form. " The Lily " has the passion- 
ate lyricism of Chaminade, and " Sweet Wind 
that Blows " is a fine frenzy. The " Noc- 
turne " is dainty and has its one good climax. 
" Before the Dawn " has some of Chadwick's 
best work ; it is especially marked by a dar- 
ing harmonic you might say impasto. 

His principal works, besides those men- 
tioned, may be catalogued (I am unable to 
do more than catalogue most of them, hav- 
ing seen only one of them, " The Lily 
Nymph," performed, and having read the 
score of only the " Melpomene " overture) : 
Concert overtures, " Rip Van Winkle " (writ- 
ten in Leipzig, 1879, an ^ played there the 
same year), "Thalia" (1883), "Melpomene" 
(1887), "The Miller's Daughter" (1887), and 
"Adonais" (in memory of a friend, 1899); 
Symphonies, in C (1882), in B (1885); an 
Andante for string orchestra (1884), and 
numerous pieces of chamber-music. In the 
case of the cantata, "The Lily Nymph," 



The Academics. 219 

Chadwick's art was quite f utilized by the 
superb inanities of the book he used. The 
" Melpomene " is a work of infinitely more 
specific gravity. It is one of the most im- 
portant of American orchestral works. 

As his "Thalia" was an "overture to an 
imaginary comedy," so this, to an imaginary 
tragedy. It has been played by the Boston 
Symphony and many other orchestras. It 
has that definiteness of mood with that in- 
definiteness of circumstance in which music 
wins its most dignified prosperity. 

It opens with the solitary voice of the English 
horn, which gives a notable pathos (read Berlioz on 
this despairful elegist, and remember its haunting 
wail in the last act of " Tristan und Isolde "). The 
woeful plaint of this voice breathing above a low 
sinister roll of the tympanum establishes at once 
the atmosphere of melancholy. Other instruments 
join the wail, which breaks out wildly from the 
whole orchestra. Over a waving accompaniment 
of clarinets, the other wood-winds strike up a more 
lyric and hopeful strain, and a soliloquy from the 
'cello ends the slow introduction, the materials of 



220 Contemporary American Composers. 

which are taken from the two principal subjects of 
the overture, which is built on the classic sonata 
formula. The first subject is announced by the 
first violins against the full orchestra ; the subsid- 
iary theme is given to the flutes and oboes ; after a 
powerful climax, and a beautiful subsidence of the 
storm in the lower strings, the second subject ap- 
pears in the relative major with honeyed lyricism. 
The conclusion, which is made rather elaborate by 
the latter-day symphonists, is reduced to a brief 
modulation by Mr. Chadwick, and almost before 
one knows it, he is in the midst of the elaboration. 
It is hard to say whether the composer's emotion 
or his counterpoint is given freer rein here, for the 
work is remarkable both for the display of every 
technical resource and for the irresistible tempest 
of its passion. In the reprise there is a climax that 
thrills one even as he tamely reads the score, and 
must be overpowering in actual performance : the 
cheerful consolation of the second subject provokes 
a cyclonic outburst of grief ; there is a furious climax 
of thrilling flutes and violins over a mad blare of 
brass, the while the cymbals shiver beneath the blows 
of the kettledrum-sticks. An abrupt silence pre- 
pares for a fierce thunderous clamor from the tym- 
pani and the great drum (beaten with the sticks of 
the side-drum). This subsides to a single thud of a 



The Academics. 221 

kettledrum ; there is another eloquent silence ; the 
English horn returns to its first plaint ; but grief has 
died of very exercise, and the work ends in a coda 
that establishes a major harmony and leaves the 
hearer with a heart purged white and clean. 

The " Melpomene " overture is a work of 
such inspiration and such scholarship that it 
must surely find a long youth in the chron- 
icle of our music. 

Arthur Footed 













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The nearest approach Americans make to 
the enthusiastic German Mannerchor is in the 
college glee clubs. The dignity of their selec- 
tions is not always up to that of the Teutonic 
chorus, but they develop a salutary fondness 
for color and shading, exaggerating both a 
1 See p. 479- 



222 Contemporary American Composers. 

little perhaps, yet aiming at the right warmth 
and variety withal. Even those elaborate 
paraphrases and circumlocutions of Mother 
Goose rhymes, to which they are so prone, 
show a striving after dramatic effect and rich- 
ness of harmony, as well as a keen sense of 
wit and humor that are by no means in- 
compatible with real value in music. 

Among their other good deeds must be 
counted the fostering of the musical ambitions 
of Arthur Foote, who was for two years the 
leader of the Glee Club of Harvard Univer- 
sity. Though he has by no means been 
content to delve no deeper into music than 
glee-club depths, I think the training has been 
of value, and its peculiar character is patent 
in his works. He is especially fond of writing 
for men's voices, and is remarkably at home 
in their management, and he strives rather for 
color-masses than for separate individualities 
in the voices. 

Among his larger works for men's voices 




ARTHUR FOOTE. 



The Academics. 

is an elaborate setting of Longfellow's poem, 
"The Skeleton in Armor," which is full of 
vigor and generally sturdy in treatment, 
especially in its descriptions of Viking war 
and seafaring. The storm-scenes, as in Mr. 
Foote's " Wreck of the Hesperus," seem 
faintly to suggest Wagnerian Donner und 
Blitzen, but in general Mr. Foote has resisted 
the universal tendency to copy the mannerisms 
so many take to be the real essence of the 
Bayreuthian. A pretty bit of fancy is the use 
of a spinning-wheel accompaniment to the 
love-song, although the spindle is nowhere 
suggested by the poem. Indeed, the spinning 
is treated as a characteristic motif for the 
Norseman's bride, somewhat as it is Senta's 
motif in "The Flying Dutchman." 

The chief fault with the " Skeleton " chorus 
is that it is always choric. There are no 
solos, and the different registers are never 
used separately for more than a bar or two, 
before the whole mass chimes in. Even the 



224 Contemporary American Composers. 

instrumental interludes are short, and the 
general effect must be rather undiversified, 
one of sympathy, too, for the unrested chorus. 

"The Wreck of the Hesperus" is an 
ambitious work, built on large lines, but hardly 
represents Mr. Foote at his best. It is for 
mixed voices, and is pitched in a most lugubri- 
ous key, being always either vociferous with 
panic or dismal with minor woe. A worse 
trouble yet is the attempt to make a short 
poem fit a long composition. The Procrustean 
operation strains even Longfellow sadly. 

This blemish is lacking in "The Farewell 
of Hiawatha," which is written for men's 
voices. Though it, too, is of a sad tone, its 
sombre hues are rich and varied as a tapestry. 
Its effects, though potent, seem more sincere 
and less labored. It is altogether noble. 

A larger body of sacred music for mixed 
voices than many other Americans can boast, 
also swells Foote's opus-score. Here he shows 
the same facility with the quartette as in his 



The Academics. 225 

other works. In fact, I think the effect of 
glee-club training on his young mind has 
strongly influenced his whole life-work. And, 
by the way, the most talented of all the great 
Sebastian Bach's twenty-one children every 
one a musical opus, too was diverted from 
the philosopher's career for which he was 
intended, and into professional musicianship, 
by just such a glee-club training in the uni- 
versities at Leipzig and Frankfort. 

Almost all of Foote's compositions are 
written in the close harmony and limited 
range of vocal music, and he very rarely 
sweeps the keyboard in his piano composi- 
tions, or hunts out startling novelties in 
strictly pianistic effect. He is not fond of the 
cloudy regions of the upper notes, and though 
he may dart brilliantly skyward now and then 
just to show that his wings are good for 
lighter air, he is soon back again, drifting 
along the middle ether. 

He has won his high place by faithful ad- 



226 Contemporary American Composers. 

herence to his own sober, serene ideals, and 
by his genuine culture and seriousness. He 
is thoroughly American by birth and training, 
though his direct English descent accounts 
for his decided leaning toward the better im- 
pulses of the English school of music. He 
was born at Salem, Mass., March 5, 1853, 
and though he played the piano a good deal 
as a boy, and made a beginning in the study 
of composition with Emery, he did not study 
seriously until he graduated from Harvard in 
1874. He then took up the higher branches 
of composition under the tuition of John 
Knowles Paine/' and obtained in 1875 the 
degree of A. M. in the special department of 
music. He also studied the organ and the 
piano with B. J. Lang at Boston, and has 
since made that city his home, teaching and 
playing the organ. 

His overture, "In the Mountains," has been 
much played from the manuscript by or- 
chestras, among them the Boston Symphony. 



The Academics. 227 

Besides a considerable amount of highly 
valuable contributions to American chamber- 
music, and two fine piano suites, he has 
written a great many piano pieces and songs 
which deserve even greater popularity than 
they have won, because, while not bristling 
with technical difficulties, they are yet of per- 
manent worth. 

I know of no modern composer who has 
come nearer to relighting the fires that beam 
in the old gavottes and fugues and preludes. 
His two gavottes are to me among the best 
since Bach. They are an example of what it 
is to be academic without being only a-rattle 
with dry bones. He has written a Nocturne 
that gets farther from being a mere imitation 
of Chopin than almost any night-piece writ- 
ten since the Pole appropriated that form 
bodily from John Field and made it his 
own. 

One of his most original pieces is the Ca- 
priccio of his D minor Suite, which is also un- 



228 Contemporary American Composers. 

usually brilliant in color at times ; and he has 
an Allegretto that is a scherzo of the good old 
whole-souled humor. Foote, in fact, is never 
sickly in sentiment. 

Of his rather numerous songs, the older 
English poets, like Marlowe, Sidney, Shakes- 
peare, Suckling, and Herrick, have given him 
much inspiration. The song " It Was a Lover 
and his Lass " is especially taking. His three 
songs, "When You Become a Nun, Dear," 
" The Road to Kew," and " Ho, Pretty Page ! " 
written by modern poets in a half-archaic 
way, display a most delicious fund of subtile 
and ironic musical humor. "The Hawthorn 
Wins the Damask Rose " shows how really 
fine a well conducted English ballad can be. 
Among his sadder songs, the " Irish Folk- 
song," " I'm Wearing Awa'," and the weird 
" In a Bower " are heavy with deepest pathos, 
while " Sweet Is True Love " is as wildly in- 
tense and as haunting in its woe as the fate 
of the poor Elaine, whose despair it sings. 



The Academics. 229 

This I count one of the most appealing of 
modern songs. . 

His greatest work is undoubtedly his sym- 
phonic prologue to Dante's story of " Fran- 
cesca da Rimini," for full orchestra. Without 
being informed upon the subject, I fancy a 
certain programmism in the prologue that is 
not indicated in the quotation at the begin- 
ning of the work : 

" Nessun maggior dolore, 
Che ricordarsi del tempo felice 
Nella miseria." 

The prologue, however, seems to me to 
contain more than the psychological content 
of these lines from the fifth canto of the 
" Inferno." 

The slow introduction in C minor begins with a 
long, deep sigh, followed by a downward passage in 
the violas and 'cellos that seems to indicate the steps 
that bring Dante and Vergil down to the edge of the 
precipice past which the cyclone of the damned rolls 
eternally. There is some shrieking and shuddering, 



230 Contemporary American Composers. 



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232 Contemporary American Composers. 

and ominous thudding of the tympani (which are 
tuned to unusual notes), then follows a short reci- 
tative which might represent Dante's query to 
Francesca how she came to yield to love. Sud- 
denly out of the swirling strings the first subject 
is caught up ; it is a frenzy passionately sung by 
the first violins, reenforced by the flutes at the 
crises. The second subject appears after a sudden 
prelude by the brass ; it is a very lyric waltz-tune in 
the relative major, and doubtless depicts the joy 
recalled in sorrow. The conclusion is quite lengthy, 
it is also in waltz form, and is first announced by a 
single flute over the violins and violas, the first violins 
keeping to the gloomy G string. This air is now 
given to a solo horn, and a fierce and irresistible 
dance fervor is worked up. The elaboration begins 
with the first subject in F sharp minor, caught up 
fiercely from a downward rush. The reprise is not 
long delayed, and the second subject appears, contrary 
to custom, in the tonic major instead of the tonic 
minor. The coda is deliciously tender and beautiful, 
possibly because, being a prologue, the work must pre- 
pare for a drama that begins cheerfully ; possibly 
because after all there is comfort in bliss remembered 
in sorrow. 

Tscha'fkowski has written a symphonic 
poem on the same subject, which has been 



The Academics. 233 

also the inspiration of numberless dramas, 
and is one of the most pathetic pages in all 
literature ; even the stern old Dante says that 
when he heard Francesca tell her story he 
almost died of pity, and fell to the ground as 
one dead. 

A Serenade for string orchestra (op. 25) 
contains a Prelude, a tender Air, a luscious 
Intermezzo in the rich key of B major with 
soli for violin and 'cello, a Romance with a 
good climax, and a gallant Gavotte with 
special attention to the too much slighted 
violas. 

Opus 36 is a suite for full orchestra. It has 
been played by the Boston Symphony, and 
consists of a brilliant Allegro ; an Adagio of 
deep sincerity and beautifully varied color, a 
period wherein the brass choir, heavily scored, 
chants alone, and the division of the theme 
among the wood-wind over the rushing strings 
is especially effective ; a very whimsical An- 
dante with frequent changes of tempo, and 



234 Contemporary American Composers. 

soli for the English horn in antiphony with 
the first oboe ; and a madcap Presto that 
whisks itself out in the first violins. 

Two other published works are a string 
quartette (op. 4) and a quintette for piano and 
strings (op. 36). This begins in A minor with 
a well woven and well derived set of themes, 
and ends in a scherzo in A major with spin- 
ning-song characteristics. Between these two 
movements comes an intermezzo of strongly 
marked Scotch tone. This has been per- 
formed by the Kneisel Quartette. 

5. G. Pratt. 

Almost every musician has heard of Chris- 
topher Columbus, and holds him in a certain 
esteem as a man without whose push the 
invention of America would have been long 
deferred ; but few American musicians have 
felt under a sufficient debt of gratitude to 
make his troubles and triumphs the founda- 



The Academics. 235 

tion of an appropriate musical work. Silas 
G. Pratt was bold enough to undertake the 
monumental task ; and he expended upon it 
large resources of scholarship, research, and 
enthusiasm. The work was performed at 
New York during the Quadricentennial of 
the discovery of America. 

If Pratt had been born in old Egypt, he 
would have found his chief diversion in the 
building of pyramids, so undismayed is he by 
the size of a task. His patriotism is a sharp 
spur to him, and has enabled him to write 
an orchestral composition devoted to Paul 
Revere's Ride ; a fantasy descriptive of a 
battle between the Northern and Southern 
armies ; " The Battle of Manila ; " " The Anni- 
versary Overture," in commemoration of the 
centennial of American Independence, per- 
formed in Berlin twice, and in London at the 
Crystal Palace, during Grant's visit there ; 
and a march called by the curious name of 
" Homage to Chicago." Besides these works 



236 Contemporary American Composers. 

Pratt has written the " Magdalen's Lament," 
his first orchestral composition, suggested by 
Murillo's picture; the lyric opera, "Antonio ; " 
a first symphony, of which the adagio was per- 
formed in Berlin, the other movements being 
produced in Boston and Chicago ; a second 
symphony, "The Prodigal Son;" a romantic 
opera, " Zenobia," produced in Chicago ; a 
lyric opera, " Lucille," which ran for three 
weeks in Chicago ; a symphonic suite based 
on the " Tempest ; " a canon for a string 
quartette ; a serenade for string orchestra ; 
a grotesque suite, " The Brownies," produced 
in New York and at Brighton Beach by 
Anton Seidl. Besides these works of musi- 
cal composition, Pratt has delivered various 
musical lectures, ingeniously contrived to 
entertain the great public and at the same 
time inform it. He has been active also in 
the organization of various musical enter- 
prises, among them the Apollo Club of 
Chicago. 



The Academics. 237 

Pratt was born in Addison, Vermont, 
August 4, 1846. At the age of twelve, he 
was thrown on his own resources, and con- 
nected himself with music publishing houses 
in Chicago. After various public perform- 
ances, he went to Germany in 1868, to study 
the piano under Bendel and Kullak, and 
counterpoint under Kiel. In 1872 he re- 
turned to Chicago and gave a concert of his 
own works. But the phoenix city had not 
entirely preened its wings after the great 
fire of 1871, and Pratt found no support 
for his ambitions. After teaching and giv- 
ing concerts, he returned to Germany in 
1875, where he attended the rehearsals 
of Wagner's Trilogy at Bayreuth, met Liszt 
here, and gave a recital of his own com- 
positions at Weimar. His " Anniversary 
Overture " was cordially received by the press 
of both Berlin and London. A third visit to 
Europe was made in 1885 for the production 
of the " Prodigal Son " at the Crystal Palace, 



238 Contemporary American Composers. 

on the occasion of which, Berthold Tours 
wrote that both the symphony and the 
"Anniversary Overture" were "grandly con- 
ceived works, full of striking originality, 
modern harmony, flowing melody, and beau- 
tiful, as well as imposing effects." 

Activity along such lines has left Pratt 
little time for the smaller forms of composi- 
tion ; a few have been published, among them 
the song, " Dream Vision," in which Schu- 
mann's " Traumerei " is used for violin obbli- 
gato ; and a few piano pieces, such as " Six 
Soliloquies," with poetic text. In these each 
chord shows careful effort at color, and the 
work is chromatic enough to convince one 
that he has studied his Bach thoroughly. 

Among his massive compositions there 
are two that seem likely to win, as they 
surely deserve, a long life. These are the 
symphonic suite, " The Tempest," and the 
" Prodigal Son." To the latter splendid 
achievement, A. J. Goodrich devotes several 



The Academics. 239 

pages of his "Musical Analysis," to which 
I can do no better than to refer the reader. 
The " Tempest " is based, of course, on Shake- 
speare's play, and is described as follows by 
the composer : 

" It is intended, in the first movement, Adagio, to 
typify the sorrow of Prospero, and his soul's protest 
against the ingratitude and persecution of his ene- 
mies. His willing attendant Ariel is briefly indicated 
in the closing measures. The Pastoral furnishes an 
atmosphere or stage setting for the lovers, Miranda 
and Ferdinand, whose responsive love-song follows 
the droning of a shepherd's pipe in the distance. 
Prospero's interruption to their passionate assurances 
of devotion, and the imposition of the unpleasant 
task, are briefly touched upon, and the movement 
closes with a repeat of the pastoral, and alternate 
reiteration of the lover's song. The Finale, after a 
short introduction, in most sombre vein, indicates 
the flitting about of Ariel and his companion sprites 
as they gather for revelry. The presence of the 
master is soon made apparent by the recurrence, in a 
subdued manner, of Prospero's first theme from the 
Adagio, the fantastic tripping of the elves continuing, 
as though the controlling spirit were conjuring up the 
fete for the amusement of the lovers and himself. 



240 Contemporary American Composers. 

" ' Ye elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes and 

groves ; 

And ye that on the sand, with printless foot 
Do chase the ebbing Neptune, and do fly him 
When he comes back.' 

" The dance then begins, and continues in a fan- 
tastic, at times grotesque and furious manner, the 
theme of the lovers being interwoven at times, in an 
unobtrusive way. At length, Caliban is heard ap- 
proaching, singing his drunken song. 

'Ban, 'Ban, Ca-caliban 

Has a new master : get a new man.' 

"Ariel and his companions flit about, ridiculing, 
mocking, and laughing at him ; eventually prodding 
and pinching him until, shivering, with aching joints, 
he staggers away. The revelry then continues, the 
song of the lovers becoming more and more prom- 
inent until, somewhat broadened out, it asserts it- 
self triumphantly above all, Ariel and his companions 
flitting about, Prospero happy, and Caliban subju- 
gated, all the chief themes being united to form the 
climax and close of the work." 

Although Pratt intentionally omitted the 
English horn and the bass clarinet, the scor- 
ing is remarkable for its color and faery. 



The Academics. 241 

The work is highly lyrical in effect, and the 
woodsiness is beautifully established. The 
solemnity of Prospero, the adroitness of the 
lovers and the contrasting natures of the vola- 
tile Ariel and the sprawling Caliban, make up 
a cast of characters in the development of 
which music is peculiarly competent. The 
stertorous monologue of Caliban and his 
hobbling dance, and the taunting and pinch- 
ing torment he is submitted to, make excel- 
lent humor. 



Henry K. Hadley.* 

The word symphony has a terrifying sound, 
particularly when it is applied to a modern 
work ; for latter-day music is essentially 
romantic in nature, and it is only a very rare 
composer that has the inclination or the 
ability to force the classic form to meet his 
new ideas. The result is that such a work 
usually lacks spontaneity, conviction. The 
1 See p. 454- 



242 Contemporary American Composers. 

modern writer does much better with the 
symphonic poem. 

The number of American symphonies 
worth listening to, could be counted on the 
fingers with several digits to spare. A new 
finger has been preempted by Henry K. 
Hadley's symphony called " Youth and 
Life." The title is doubly happy. Psycho- 
logically it is a study of the intense emotional 
life of youth, written by an American youth, 
a young man who, by the way, strangely 
reminds one, in his appearance, of Mac- 
monnies' American type, as represented by 
his ideal statue of Nathan Hale. 

And musically the work is imbued with 
both youth and life. It has blood and heart 
in it. The first movement is a conflict be- 
tween good and evil motives struggling like 
the mediaeval angels for the soul of the hero. 
The better power wins triumphantly. The 
second movement, however, shows doubt 
and despair, remorse and deep spiritual de- 




HENRY K. HADLEY. 



The Academics. 243 

pression. The climax of this feeling is a 
death-knell, which, smitten softly, gives an 
indescribably dismal effect, and thrills with- 
out starting. Angelus bells in pedal-point 
continue through a period of hope and prayer ; 
but remorse again takes sway. The ability 
to obtain this fine solemnity, and follow it 
with a scherzo of extraordinary gaiety, proves 
that a genius is at large among us. The 
Scherzo displays a thigh -slapping, song-sing- 
ing abandon that typifies youthful frivolity 
fascinatingly. A fugue is used incidentally 
with a burlesque effect that reminds one of 
Berlioz' " Amen " parody in the " Damna- 
tion of Faust." The Finale exploits motives 
of ambition and heroism, with a moment of 
love. The climax is vigorous. Without 
being at all ariose, the symphony is full of 
melody. Its melodies are not counterpoint, 
but expression ; and each instrument or choir 
of instruments is an individuality. 

Hadley is galvanic with energy and opti- 



244 Contemporary American Composers. 

mism, dextrous to a remarkable degree in the 
mechanism of composition. His scoring is 
mature, fervent, and certain. His symphony 
is legitimately programmatic and alive with 
brains, biceps, and blood, all three, the 
three great B's of composition. 

Hadley was born at Somerville, Mass., in 
1871. His father was a teacher of music 
and gave him immediate advantages. He 
studied harmony with Stephen A. Emery, 
counterpoint with G. W. Chadwick, and the 
violin with Henry Heindl and Charles N. 
Allen of Boston. Before attaining his major- 
ity, he had completed a dramatic overture, 
a string quartette, a trio, and many songs 
and choruses. In 1894 he went to Vienna 
and studied composition with Mandyczewski. 
Here he composed his third suite for the 
orchestra. In 1896 he returned to America 
and took charge of the music department of 
St. Paul's school at Garden City, L. I. He 
has had some experience as a conductor 



The Academics. 245 

and has been very prolific in composition. 
His first symphony was produced under the 
direction of Anton Seidl, in December, 1897 ; 
and at a concert of his own compositions, 
again, in January, 1900, Hadley conducted 
this symphony, and also two movements from 
his second symphony, "The Seasons." These 
two movements show a mellower technic, 
perhaps, but are less vital. He has written 
three ballet suites with pronounced success, 
the work being musical and yet full of the 
ecstasy of the dance. His third ballet suite, 
which is the best, was produced at a concert 
of the American Symphony Orchestra, under 
Sam Franko. 

The existence of a festival march, a con- 
cert overture, " Hector and Andromache," 
two comic operas, and six songs for chorus 
and orchestra, besides a number of part songs 
and piano pieces, and over one hundred songs, 
forty of which are published, gives proof of 
the restless energy of the man. The high 



246 Contemporary American Composers. 

average of scholarship is a proof of his right 
to serious acceptance. 

A cantata for orchestra, "Lelewala," a 
legend of Niagara, is published for piano 
accompaniment. Now, Niagara is a dangerous 
subject for the frail skiffs of rhyme, prose, or 
music to launch out upon. Barrel staves may 
carry one through the whirlpool, but music 
staves cannot stand the stress. Of all the 
comments upon the Falls of Niagara that I 
have ever read, or heard of, there has been 
only one that seemed anything but ridicu- 
lously inappropriate ; that one was the tribute 
of a young boy who, on standing face to face 
with the falls, simply exclaimed, in an awe- 
smothered whisper, " Well, by gosh ! " But it 
must be admitted that these words would baffle 
the music-making propensities even of the 
composer of Handel's " Hallelujah 'Chorus." 
That learned composer, George F. Bristow, 
now dead, made the mistake of attempting to 
compass Niagara in a work for chorus and 



The Academics. 247 

orchestra Hadley is not exactly guilty of the 
same fatai attempt in his " Lelewala," for the 
poem is chiefly a story of love and sacrifice; but 
Niagara comes in as a programmatic incident, 
and the author of the text has fallen lament- 
ably short of his subject in certain instances. 
In other moments, he has written with genu- 
ine charm, and the music has much that is 
worth while. 

Among his published songs are to be 
noted the unusually good setting of Heine's 
" Wenn ich in deine Augen seh' " and of his 
less often heard "Sapphire sind die Augen 
dein," and " Der Schmetterling ist in die 
Rose verliebt." A deservedly popular work 
is " I Plucked a Quill from Cupid's Wing." 
Among so many morose or school-bound 
composers, Hadley is especially important for 
the fact that he is thrilled with a sane and 
jubilant music. 



248 Contemporary American Composers, 

Adolph M. Foerster. 1 

It has been fortunate for American song 
that it forsook the narrow, roystering school 
of English ballad and took for its national 
model the Lied of the later German school. 
It is true that the earlier English had its 
poetry-respecting music in the work of 
such a man as Henry Lawes, or Purcell, just 
as it had its composers who far preceded 
Bach in the key-roving idea of the " Well- 
tempered Clavier ; " but that spirit died out 
of England, and found its latest avatar in 
such men as Robert Franz, who confessed 
that he had his first and fullest recognition 
from this country. 

A correspondence with Franz was carried 
on for eighteen years by one of the solidest 
of American composers, Adolph M. Foerster, 
who gives distinction to the musical life of 
Pittsburg. He knew Franz personally, and has 
written an important appreciation of him for 

1 See p. 543- 




ADOLPH M. FOERSTER. 



The Academics. 249 

the magazine Music. Foerster was born at 
Pittsburg in 1854. After three years of 
commercial life, he took up music seriously, 
and spent the years from 1872 to 1875 at 
Leipzig, studying the piano under Coccius 
and Wenzel, singing under Grill and Schimon, 
and theory under E. F. Richter and Papperitz. 
Returning to America, he connected himself 
with the Fort Wayne (Ind.) Conservatory of 
Music, then under the direction of the benefi- 
cent inventor of the Virgil Clavier. A year 
later he returned to Pittsburg, where he has 
since remained. For awhile he was con- 
ductor of a symphonic society and a choral 
union, which are no longer extant. Since, he 
has devoted himself to teaching and com- 
position. 

Of Foerster' s piano compositions opus 1 1 
is a "Valse Brillante," warm and melodious. 
Opus 13 is a "Sonnet," based, after the plan 
of Liszt, upon a lyric of Petrarch's, a beauti- 
ful translation from his " Gli occhi di ch'io 



250 Contemporary American Composers. 

parlai si caldamente." It is full of passion, 
and shows a fine variety in the handling of 
persistent repetition. Opus 18 couples two 
sonatinas. The second has the more merit, 
but both, like most sonatinas, are too triv- 
ial of psychology and too formal even to 
be recommended for children's exercises. 
" Eros " is a fluent melody, with a scherzesque 
second part. 

Opus 37 contains two concert e'tudes, both 
superb works. The first, " Exaltation," is 
very original, though neither the beginning 
nor the ending is particularly striking. The 
music between, however, has a fervor that 
justifies the title. This 6tude is, like those 
of Chopin, at the same time a technical study 
and a mood. The second, a " Lamentation," 
begins with a most sonorous downward har- 
mony, with rushes up from the bass like 
the lessening onsets of a retreating tide. 
Throughout, the harmonies and emotions are 
remarkably profound and the climaxes wild. 



The Academics. 2$ I 

I should call it one of the best modern piano 
compositions. 

Twelve " Fantasy Pieces" are included in 
opus 38. They are short tone-poems. The 
second, "Sylvan Spirits," is fascinating, and 
" Pretty Marie" has an irresistibly gay melody. 
He has dedicated the six songs of opus 6 to 
Robert Franz. These are written in a close 
unarpeggiated style chiefly, but they are very 
interesting in their pregnant simplicity. In 
two cases they are even impressive : the well- 
known lyric, " Im Rhein, im heiligen Strome," 
and "Meeresstille." Opus 12 is a notable 
group of three songs : " Mists" is superbly 
harmonious. Opus 25 includes "Ask Thou 
Not the Heather Gray," a rhapsody of the 
utmost ingenuity in melody and accompani- 
ment. It has a catching blissfulness and a 
verve that make it one of the best American 
songs. Opus 28 is a book called "Among 
Flowers." The music is in every case good, 
and especially satisfactory in its emancipation 



252 Contemporary American Composers. 

from the Teutonism of Foerster's earlier 
songs. The song " Among the Roses" has a 
beautiful poem, which deserves the superb 
music. It ends hauntingly with an unre- 
solved major ninth chord on the dominant of 
the dominant. So the frenzy of " In Blossom 
Time" is emotion of a human, rather than a 
botanical sort. " The Cradle Song " adapts 
the Siegfried Idyl, and the " Old Proverb " is 
rollicking. The two songs of opus 34 are 
fitted with words by Byron. The three songs 
of opus 44 also make use of this poet, now so 
little in vogue with composers. There are 
three songs in opus 42 : a pathetic " Little 
Wild Rose, " and " By the Seaside," which 
is full of solemnity. " The Shepherd's 
Lament " is one of his best lyrics, with a 
strange accompaniment containing an inverted 
pedal-point in octaves. There are also several 
part songs. 

In larger forms, Mr. Foerster is even more 
successful. Opus 10 is a Character-piece for 



The Academics. 253 

full orchestra, based on Karl Schafer's poem, 
"Thusnelda." It is short but vigorous, and 
well unified. Opus 15 is a Fantasie for 
violin and piano, the piano having really the 
better of it. The treatment is very original, 
and the strong idea well preserved. Opus 2 1 
is a Quartette for violin, viola, 'cello, and piano. 
The first movement begins solemnly, but 
breaks into an appassionato. All four instru- 
ments have an equal voice in the parley, and 
all the outbursts are emotional rather than 
contrapuntal. A climax of tremendous 
power is attained. The second movement 
omits the piano for a beautiful adagio. The 
third is an hilarious allegro, and the finale is 
an even gayer presto, with movements of 
sudden sobriety, suddenly swept away. 
Foerster calls this Quartette " far inferior " to 
a second one, opus 40. This, however, I 
have not seen ; but I do not hesitate to call 
opus 2 1 a masterly work. 

Opus 24 is an " Albumblatt " for 'cello and 



254 Contemporary American Composers, 

piano. It is a wonder-work of feeling and 
deep richness of harmony, of absolute sin. 
cerity and inspiration. Opus 29 is a Trio for 
violin, 'cello, and piano. The three begin in 
unison, andante, whence the 'cello breaks 
away, followed soon by the others, into the 
joviality of a drinking bout. There is a mili- 
tary moment, a lyric of more seriousness, and 
a finish agitato. The second movement is a 
larghetto highly embroidered. The third 
movement is a vivace with the spirit of a 
Beethoven presto. 

Opus 36 is a suite for violin and piano, 
beginning with a most engaging and most 
skilful Novelette. 

In MS. are : an elaborate ballad, " Hero 
and Leander," which, in spite of an unworthy 
postlude and certain "Tristan und Isolde" 
memories, is ardent and vivid with passion ; 
" Verzweifelung," which is bitter and wild 
with despair ; a suite for piano (op. 46) con- 
taining a waltz as ingenious as it is capti- 



The Academics. 255 

vating ; and a finale called " Homage to 
Brahms." This is a remarkably clever piece 
of writing, which, while it lacks the Brahms- 
ian trade-mark of thirds in the bass, has 
much of that composer's best manner, less 
in his tricks of speech than in his tireless 
development and his substitution of monu- 
mental thematicism for lyric emotion. In 
MS. is also a prelude to Goethe's " Faust " 
for full orchestra. It has very definite lead- 
ing motives, which include " Faust's Medita- 
tions," " Visions of Margarethe," " Evil " 
and " Love " (almost inversions of each other), 
" Mephistopheles," and the like. The strife 
of these elements is managed with great 
cleverness, ending beatifically with the motive 
of Gretchen dying away in the wood-wind. 

An orchestral score that has been pub- 
lished is the Dedication March for Carnegie 
Hall in Pittsburg. It begins with a long 
fanfare of horns heard behind the scenes. 
Suddenly enters a jubilant theme beginning 



556 Contemporary American Composers. 

with Andrew Carnegie's initials, a worthy 
tribute to one to whom American music owes 
much. 

Charles Crozat Converse. 

Musicians are not, as a class, prone to 
a various erudition (a compliment fully re- 
turned by the learned in other directions, 
who are almost always profoundly ignorant 
of the actual art of music). One of the rule- 
proving exceptions is Charles Crozat Con- 
verse, who has delved into many philosophies. 
An example of his versatility of interest is 
his coining of the word " thon " (a useful 
substitute for the ubiquitous awkwardness of 
"he or she" and "his or her"), which has 
been adopted by the Standard Dictionary. 

Converse' ancestry is American as far 
back as 1630. Converse was born at War- 
ren, Mass., October 7, 1832. After being 
well grounded in English and the classics, 
he went, in 1855, to Germany. Here he 




CHARLES CROZAT CONVERSE. 



Tjie Academics. 257 

studied law and philosophy, and music at 
the Conservatorium in Leipzig. He enjoyed 
the instruction of Richter, Hauptmann, 
Plaidy, and Haupt, and made the acquaint- 
ance of Liszt and Spohr. Spohr was espe- 
cially interested in, and influential in, his 
work, and confident of its success. 

Returning to America, he graduated from 
the Law Department of Albany University 
in 1860, with the degree of LL.B. The B 
has since been dignified into a D, as a tribute 
to his unusual accomplishments. Converse 
declined the honor of a Doctorship of 
Music from the University of Cambridge, 
offered him by its professor, the well-known 
English composer, Sterndale Bennett, in rec- 
ognition of his mastery of lore as evinced in 
a five-voiced double fugue that ends his 
Psalm-Cantata on the I26th Psalm. 

This scholarly work was performed under 
the direction of Theodore Thomas in 1888, 
at Chicago. 



258 Contemporary American Composers. 

A widely known contribution to religious 
music is Converse' hymn, "What a Friend 
We Have in Jesus," which has been printed, 
so they say, in all the tongues of Christen- 
dom, and sold to the extent of fifty millions 
of copies. This tune occupied a warm place 
in my Sunday-schoolboy heart, along with 
other singable airs of the Moody and Sankey 
type, but as I hum it over in memory now, 
it tastes sweetish and thin. Its popularity is 
appalling, musically at least. Converse has 
written many other hymn-tunes, which have 
taken their place among ecclesiastical sopor- 
ifics. Besides, he has recently compiled a 
collection of the world's best hymns into the 
" Standard Hymnal." In this field Con- 
verse, though conventional, and conven- 
tionality may be considered inevitable here, 
is mellow of harmony and sincere in senti- 
ment. 

Numberless attempts are made to supply 
pur uncomfortable lack of a distinctly na- 



The Academics. 259 

tional air, but few of them have that first 
requisite, a fiery catchiness, and most of 
them have been so bombastic as to pall even 
upon palates that can endure Fourth of July 
glorification. Recognizing that the trouble 
with "America" was not at all due to the 
noble words written by the man whom "fate 
tried to conceal by naming him Smith," Con- 
verse has written a new air to this poem. 
Unfortunately, however, his method of vary- 
ing the much-borrowed original tune is too 
transparent. He has not discarded the idea 
at all, or changed the rhythm or the spirit. 
He has only taken his tune upward where 
" God Save the Queen " moves down, and 
bent his melody down where the British 
soars up. This, I fancy, is the chief reason 
why his national hymn has gone over to the 
great majority, and has been conspicuously 
absent from such public occasions as torch- 
light parades and ratifications. 

Except the work issued under the alias 



260 Contemporary American Composers. 

"Karl Redan," or the anagrams, "C. O. 
Nevers " and " C. E. Revons," his only secu- 
lar musics that have been put into print are 
his American Overture, published in Paris, 
and a book of six songs, published in Ger- 
many. 

Music is called the universal language, but 
it has strongly marked dialects, and some- 
times a national flavor untranslatable to 
foreign peoples. So with these six songs, not 
the words alone are German. They are 
based on a Teutonic, and they modulate only 
from Berlin to Braunschweig and around 
to Leipzig. While the songs repay study, 
they are rather marked by a pianistic medita- 
tion than a strictly lyric emotion. " Aufmun- 
terung zur Freude " is a tame allegretto ; 
"Wehmuth" is better; "Tauschung" is a 
short elegy of passion and depth ; " Ruhe in 
der Geliebten " is best in its middle strain 
where it is full of rich feeling and harmony. 
The ending is cheap. " Der gefangene San- 



The Academics. 261 

ger" is only a slight variant at first on the 
" Adieu " credited to Schubert ; it is there- 
after excellent. 

Converse has a large body of music in 
manuscript, none of which I had the pleasure 
of examining save a tender sacred lullaby. 
There are two symphonies, ten suites, and 
concert overture, three symphonic poems, an 
oratorio, "The Captivity," six string quar- 
tettes, and a mass of psalmodic and other 
vocal writing. 

Of these works three have been produced 
with marked success : the " Christmas Over- 
ture," at one of the public concerts of the 
Manuscript Society, under the direction of 
Walter Damrosch ; the overture " Im Friih- 
ling," at concerts in Brooklyn and New York, 
under the baton of Theodore Thomas ; and 
the American overture, " Hail Columbia ! " 
at the Boston Peace Jubilee under Patrick 
Gilmore, at the Columbian Exposition under 
Thomas, and in New York under Anton Seidl. 



262 Contemporary American Composers. 

This last overture received the distinction 
of publication at Paris, by Schott et Cie. It 
is built on the rousing air of " Hail, Colum- 
bia! " This is suggested in the slow minor 
introduction ; the air itself is indicated 
thematically as one of the subjects later 
appearing in full swing in a coda. The in- 
strumentation is brilliant and the climax 
overwhelming. 

Altogether the work is more than adroit 
musical composition. It is a prairie-fire of 
patriotism. 

L. A. Coerne. 1 

A grand opera by an American on an 
American subject is an achievement to look 
forward to. Though I have not seen this 
opera, called "A Woman of Marblehead," it 
is safe to predict, from a study of its com- 
poser's other works, that it is a thing of 

merit. 

Louis Adolphe Coerne, who wrote the 
1 See p. 468. 




LOUIS ADOLPHE COERNE. 



The Academics. 263 

music for this opera, was born in Newark, 
N. J., in 1870, and spent the years from six 
to ten in music study abroad, at Stuttgart 
and Paris. Returning to America, he entered 
Harvard College and studied harmony and 
composition under John Knowles Paine. He 
studied the violin under Kneisel. In 1890 
he went to Munich, where he studied the 
organ and composition at the Royal Academy 
of Music, under Rheinberger, and the violin 
under Hieber. He now decided to give up 
the career of a violinist for that of composer, 
conductor, and organist. In 1893 he returned 
to Boston and acted as organist. A year 
later he went to Buffalo, where for three 
years he directed the Liedertafel. 

While in Harvard, Coerne had composed 
and produced a concerto for violin and 'cello 
with string orchestra accompaniment, a fan- 
tasy for full orchestra, and a number of 
anthems which were performed at the uni- 
versity chapel. While in Munich and Stutt- 



264 Contemporary American Composers. 

gart he wrote and produced a string suite, an 
organ concerto with accompaniment of strings, 
horns, and harps, three choral works, and a 
ballet, " Evadne," on a subject of his own. 
His symphonic poem on Longfellow's " Hia- 
watha " was also produced there with much 
success under his personal direction, and later 
by the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He was 
invited then by Theodore Thomas to attend 
the World's Fair at Chicago, to give recitals 
on the great organ in Festival Hall. 

It has been my misfortune not to have 
heard or seen hardly any of his writings ex- 
cept the published " Character Pieces " from 
the ballet " Evadne " (op. 155). A " Clown's 
Dance " in bolero rhythm is delightful. The 
"Introduction to Act II." contains many 
varied ideas and one passage of peculiar 
harmonic beauty. A "Valse de Salon" has 
its good bits, but is rather overwrought. A 
" Devil's Dance " introduces some excellent 
harmonic effects, but the " Waltz with Chorus 



The Academics. 205 

and Finale " is the best number of the opus. 
It begins in the orchestra with a most irre- 
sistible waltz movement that is just what a 
waltz should be. A chorus is then superim- 
posed on this rhapsody, and a climax of superb 
richness attained. 

For the organ Coerne has written much 
and well. There is an adaptation of three 
pieces from the string quartette (op. 19) ; a 
graceful Minuet, a quaint Aria, and a Fugue. 
Then there are three Marches, which, like 
most marches written by contemplative musi- 
cians, are rather thematic than spirited, and 
marked by a restless and elaborate prepara- 
tion for some great chant that is longed for, 
but never comes. Besides these, there are a 
very pleasant Pastoral, a good Elevation, and 
a Nocturne. 

Coerne's symphonic poem, "Hiawatha," has 
been arranged for the piano for four hands, 
and there is also an arrangement for violin or 
violoncello and piano, but I have not seen 



266 Contemporary American Composers. 

these. The thing we are all waiting for is 
that American grand opera, " A Woman of 
Marblehead." It is to be predicted that she 
will not receive the marble heart. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE COLONISTS. 

ART does not prosper as hermit. Of 
course, every great creator has a certain 
aloofness of soul, and an inner isolation ; but 
he must at times submit his work to the com- 
parison of his fellow artists ; he must profit 
by their discoveries as well as their errors ; 
he must grow overheated in those passionate 
musical arguments that never convince any 
one out of his former belief, and serve salu- 
tarily to raise the temper, cultivate caloric, 
and deepen convictions previously held ; 
he must exchange criticisms and discuss 
standards with others, else he will be eternally 
making discoveries that are stale and un- 
profitable to the rest of the world ; he will 



268 Contemporary American Composers. 

seek to reach men's souls through channels 
long dammed up, and his achievements will 
be marred by naYve triteness and primitive 
crudeness. 

So, while the artistic tendency may be a 
universal nervous system, artists are inclined 
to ganglionate. The nerve-knots vary in size 
and importance, and one chief ganglion may 
serve as a feeding brain, but it cannot monop- 
olize the activity. In America, particularly, 
these ganglia, or colonies, are an interesting 
and vital phase of our development. For a 
country in which the different federated states 
are, many of them, as large as old-world king- 
doms, it is manifestly impossible for any one 
capital to dominate. Furthermore, the na- 
tional spirit is too insubordinate to accept any 
centre as an oracle. 

New York, which has certainly drawn to 
itself a preponderance of respectable com- 
posers, has yet been unable to gather in 
many of the most important, and like the 



The Colonists. 269 

French Academy, must always suffer in 
prestige because of its conspicuous absentees. 
In the second place, New York is the least 
serious and most fickle city in the country, 
and is regarded with mingled envy and pat- 
ronage by other cities. 

Boston is even more unpopular with the 
rest of the country. And New York and 
other cities have enticed away so many of 
the leading spirits of her musical colony, that 
she cannot claim her once overwhelming 
superiority. And yet, Boston has been, and 
is, the highest American representative of 
that much abused term, culture. Of all the 
arts, music doubtless gets her highest favor. 

The aid Boston has been to American 
music is vital, and far outweighs that of any 
other city. That so magnificent an organiza- 
tion as its Symphony Orchestra could be so 
popular, shows the solidity of its general art 
appreciations. The orchestra has been re- 
markably willing, too, to give the American 



270 Contemporary American Composers. 

composer a chance to be heard. Boston has 
been not only the promulgator, but in a 
great measure the tutor, of American music. 

In Boston-town, folk take things seriously 
and studiously. In New York they take 
them fiercely, whimsically. Like most gen- 
eralizations, this one has possibly more excep- 
tions than inclusions. But it is convenient. 

It is convenient, too, to group together such 
of the residents of these two towns, as I have 
not discussed elsewhere. The Chicago coterie 
makes another busy community ; and St. 
Louis and Cleveland have their activities of 
more than intramural worth ; Cincinnati, 
which was once as musically thriving as its 
strongly German qualities necessitated, but 
which had a swift and strange decline, seems 
to be plucking up heart again. For this, the 
energy of Frank van der Stucken is largely 
to credit. Aside from the foreign-born com- 
posers there, one should mention the work of 
Richard Kieserling, Jr., and Emil Wiegand. 



The Colonists. 271 

The former went to Europe in 1891 and 
studied at the Leipzig Conservatory, under 
Reinecke, Homeyer, Rust, Schreck and Ja- 
dassohn. He also studied conducting under 
Sitt. At his graduation, he conducted a per- 
formance of his own composition, "Jeanne 
d'Arc." He returned to his native city, Cin- 
cinnati, in 1895, where he has since remained, 
teaching and conducting. Among his works, 
besides piano pieces and songs, are : " A May 
Song," for women's chorus and piano ; six 
pieces for violin and piano ; " Harold," a bal- 
lad for male chorus, barytone solo, and orches- 
tra ; " Were It Not For Love," composed for 
male chorus ; several sets of male choruses ; 
a motet for mixed chorus a cappella ; a ber- 
ceuse for string orchestra, an introduction 
and rondo for violin and orchestra ; and a 
" Marche Nuptiale," for grand orchestra. 

Emil Wiegand was also born in Cincin- 
nati, and had his first tuition on the violin 
from his father. His theoretical studies have 



2/2 Contemporary American Composers. 

been received entirely in Cincinnati. He is 
a member of the local Symphonic Orchestra, 
and has composed an overture for grand 
orchestra, a string quartette, and various 
pieces for the violin, piano, and voice. 

In San Francisco there is less important 
musical composition than there was in the 
days when Kelley and Page were active there. 
The work of H. B. Pasmore 1 is highly com- 
mended by cognoscenti, as are also the works 
of Frederick Zeck, Jr., who was born in San 
Francisco, studied in Germany, and has 
composed symphonies, a symphonic poem, 
" Lamia," a romantic opera, and other works ; 
Samuel Fleischmann, born in California and 
educated abroad, a concert pianist, who has 
written, among other things, an overture, 
"Hero and Leander," which was performed 
in New York ; and P. C. Allen, who studied 
in Europe, and has written well. 

But the larger cities do not by any means 
contain all the worthy composition. In 
1 See p. 513. 






The Colonists. 273 

many smaller cities, and in a few villages 
even, can be found men of high culture and 
earnest endeavor. 

In Yonkers, New York, is Frederick R. 
Burton, who has written a dramatic cantata 
on Longfellow's " Hiawatha," which has been 
frequently performed. In this work use is 
made of an actual Indian theme, which was 
jotted down by H. E. Krehbiel, and is worked 
up delightfully in the cantata, an incessant 
thudding of a drum in an incommensurate 
rhythm giving it a decidedly barbaric tone. 
The cantata contains also a quaint and touch- 
ing contralto aria, and a pathetic setting of 
the death-song of Minnehaha. Burton is a 
graduate of Harvard, and a writer as well 
as a composer. He organized, in 1896, the 
Yonker's Choral Society, of which he is 
conductor. 

At Hartford, Conn., is Nathan H. Allen, 
who was born in Marion, Mass., in 1848. In 
1867 he went to Berlin, where he wa a. pupil 



274 Contemporary American Composers. 

of Haupt for three years. In this country 
he has been active as an organist and 
teacher. Many of his compositions of sacred 
music have been published, including a can- 
tata, "The Apotheosis of St. Dorothy." 

At Providence, R. I., a prominent figure 
is Jules Jordan, who was born at Williman- 
tic, Conn., November 10, 1850, of colonial 
ancestry. Though chiefly interested in ora- 
torio singing, in which he has been promi- 
nent, he has written a number of songs, some 
of which have been very popular. The best 
of these are a rapturous " Love's Philosophy," 
a delicious "Dutch Lullaby," "An Old 
Song," and "Stay By and Sing." He has 
written some religious songs, part songs, and 
three works for soli, chorus, and orchestra, 
"Windswept Wheat," "A Night Service," 
and " Barbara Frietchie ; " also "Joel," a dra- 
matic scene for soprano and orchestra, sung 
at the Worcester Musical Festival by Mme. 
Nordica. This I have not seen, nor his 



The Colonists. 275 

romantic opera, " Rip Van Winkle." In June, 
1895, Brown University conferred on him 
the degree of Doctor of Music. Two albums 
of his songs are published. 

A writer of many religious solos and part 
songs is E. W. Han scorn, who lives in 
Auburn, Me. He was born at Durham, 
in the same State, December 28, 1848. He 
has made two extended visits to London, 
Berlin and Vienna, for special work under 
eminent teachers, but has chiefly studied 
in Maine. Besides his sacred songs Hans- 
corn has published a group of six songs, all 
written intelligently, and an especially good 
lyric, " Go, Rose, and in Her Golden Hair," 
a very richly harmonized " Lullaby," and two 
"Christmas Songs," with violin obbligato. 

In Delaware, Ohio, at the Ohio Wesleyan 
University, is a composer, Willard J. Baltzell, 1 
who has found inspiration for many worthy 
compositions, but publishers for only two, 
both of these part songs, " Dreamland " and 
1 See p. 554. 



2/6 Contemporary American Composers. 

" Life is a Flower," of which the latter is 
very excellent writing. 

Baltzell was for some years a victim of the 
musical lassitude of Philadelphia. He had 
his musical training there. He has written 
in the large forms a suite founded on Ros- 
setti's " Love's Nocturne," an overture, 
"Three Guardsmen," a "Novelette" for or- 
chestra, a cantata, "The Mystery of Life," 
and an unfinished setting of Psalm xvii. with 
barytone solo. These are all scored for 
orchestra, and the manuscript that I have 
seen shows notable psychological power. 
Other works are : a string quartette, a trio, 
" Lilith," based on Rossetti's poem, " Eden 
Bower," a nonet, and a violin sonata. He 
has also written for the piano and organ 
fugues and other works. These I have not 
seen ; but I have read many of his songs in 
manuscript, and they reveal a remarkable 
strenuousness, and a fine understanding of 
the poetry. His song, " Desire," is full of 



The Colonists. 277 

high-colored flecks of harmony that dance 
like the golden motes in a sunbeam. His 
" Madrigal " has much style and humor. 
He has set to music a deal of the verse of 
Langdon E. Mitchell, besides a song cycle, 
" The Journey," which is an interesting fail- 
ure, a failure because it cannot interest 
any public singer, and interesting because of 
its artistic musical landscape suggestion ; and 
there are the songs, " Fallen Leaf," which is 
deeply morose, and " Loss," which has some 
remarkable details and a strange, but effect- 
ive, ambiguous ending. Other songs are a 
superbly rapturous setting of E. C. Sted- 
man's "Thou Art Mine," and a series of 
songs to the words of Richard Watson Gilder, 
a poet who is singularly interesting to com- 
posers : "Thistledown" is irresistibly vola- 
tile ; " Because the Rose Must Fade " has 
a nobility of mood; "The Winter Heart" 
is a powerful short song, and " Woman's 
Thought," aside from one or two dangerous 



278 Contemporary American Composers. 

moments, is stirring and intense. Baltzell 
writes elaborate accompaniments, for which 
his skill is sufficient, and he is not afraid 
of his effects. 

In the far Xanadu of Colorado lives Rubin 
Goldmark, 1 a nephew of the famous Carl 
Goldmark. He was born in New York in 
1872. He attended the public schools and 
the College of the City of New York. At 
the age of seven he began the study of the 
piano with Alfred M. Livonius, with whom 
he went to Vienna at the age of seventeen. 
There he studied the piano with Anton Door, 
and composition with Fuchs, completing in 
two years a three years' course in harmony 
and counterpoint. Returning to New York, 
he studied with Rafael Joseffy and with 
Doctor Dvdrak for one year. In 1892 he 
went to Colorado Springs for his health. 
Having established a successful College of 
Music there, he has remained as its director 
and as a lecturer on musical topics. 
1 See p. 495- 



The Colonists. 279 

At the age of nineteen he wrote his 
"Theme and Variations" for orchestra. 
They were performed under Mr. Seidl's 
leadership in 1 895 with much success. Their 
harmonies are singularly clear and sweet, of 
the good old school. At the age of twenty 
Goldmark wrote a trio for piano, violin, and 
'cello. After the first performance of this 
work at one of the conservatory concerts, 
Doctor Dvorak exclaimed, "There are now 
two Goldmarks." The work has also had 
performance at the concerts of the Kalten- 
born Quartette, and has been published. It 
begins with a tentative questioning, from 
which a serious allegro is led forth. It is 
lyrical and sane, though not particularly 
modern, and certainly not revolutionary in 
spirit. The second movement, a romanza, 
shows more contrapuntal resource, and is full 
of a deep yearning and appeal, an extremely 
beautiful movement. The scherzo evinces a 
taking jocosity with a serious interval. The 



280 Contemporary American Composers, 

piano part is especially humorous. The finale 
begins with a touch of Ethiopianism that is 
perhaps unconscious. The whole movement 
is very original and quaint. 

Goldmark's music shows a steady develop- 
ment from a conservative simplicity to a 
modern elaborateness, a development thor- 
oughly to be commended if it does not lead 
into obscurity. This danger seems to threaten 
Goldmark's career, judging from his cantata 
for chorus and orchestra, the " Pilgrimage to 
Kevlaar," which, while highly interesting in 
places, and distinctly resourceful, is too ab- 
struse and gloomy to stand much chance of 
public understanding. 

Many of the works that I have had the 
privilege of examining in MS. have since 
been published ; there is much originality, 
much attainment, and more promise in a 
number of his songs. His setting of Mar- 
lowe's " Come Live with Me," in spite of a 
few eccentricities, shows, on the whole, a 



The Colonists. 281 

great fluency of melody over an elaborately 
beautiful accompaniment. His solemn and 
mysterious " Forest Song " could deserve 
the advertisement of being " drawn from the 
wood." "Die erste Liebe" shows a contem- 
plative originality in harmony, and ends with 
a curious dissonance and resolution. " O'er 
the Woods' Brow " is very strange and inter- 
esting, though somewhat abstruse. Less so 
is a song, "An den Abendsstern ; " it has a 
comparison-forcing name, but is a delightful 
song. " Es muss ein Wunderbares sein " is 
notable for novel effects in harmonies of 
crystal with light dissonances to edge the 
facets. A sonata for piano and violin and 
a romanza for 'cello have been published, 
and his " Hiawatha " overture has been played 
by the Boston Symphony Orchestra. On 
this occasion the always quoteworthy mezzo- 
tintist, James Huneker, wrote: 

" The nephew of a very remarkable composer, 
for Carl Goldmark outranks to-day all the Griegs, 



282 Contemporary American Composers. 

Massenets, Mascagnis, Saint-Saens, and Dv6ra"ks you 
can gather, he needs must fear the presence in his 
scores of the avuncular apparition. His ' Hiawatha ' 
overture was played by Mr. Gericke and the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra Wednesday of last week. At 
the first cantilena on the strings I nearly jumped out 
or my seat. It was bewilderingly luscious and Gold- 
markian, a young Goldmark come to judgment. 
The family gifts are color and rhythm. This youth 
has them, and he also has brains. Original invention 
is yet to come, but I have hopes. The overture, 
which is not Indian, is full of good things, withal too 
lengthy in the free fantasia. There is life, and while 
there's life there's rhythm, and a nice variety there 
is. The allegro has one stout tune, and the rush and 
dynamic glow lasts. He lasts, does Rubin Gold- 
mark, and I could have heard the piece through 
twice. The young American composer has not been 
idle lately." 

The New York Colony. 

In every period where art is alive there 
must be violent faction, and wherever there 
is violent faction there is sure to be a tertium 
quid that endeavors to bridge the quarrel. 



The Colonists. 283 

The Daniel Websters call forth the Robert 
Haynes, and the two together evoke the 
compromisers, the Henry Clays. 

In the struggle between modernity and 
classicism that always rages when music is in 
vitality, one always finds certain ardent spirits 
who endeavor to reconcile the conflicting 
theories of the different schools, and to 
materialize the reconciliation in their own 
work. An interesting example of this is to 
be found in the anatomical construction of 
one of the best American piano compositions, 
the fantasy for piano and orchestra by 
Arthur Whiting. 1 

The composer has aimed to pay his respects 
to the classic sonata formula, and at the same 
time to warp it to more romantic and modern 
usages. The result of his experiment is a 
form that should interest every composer. 
As Whiting phrases it, he has " telescoped " 
the sonata form. The slow introduction 
prepares for the first and second subjects, 
1 See p. 493- 



284 Contemporary American Composers. 

.which appear, as usual, except that they are 
somewhat developed as they appear. Now, 
in place of the regular development, the 
pastoral movement is brought forward. This 
is followed by the reprise of the first and 
second subjects. Then the finale appears. 
All these movements are performed without 
pause, and the result is so successful that 
Whiting is using the same plan for a quin- 
tette. 

Handwriting experts are fond of referring 
to the " picture effect " of a page of writing. 
It is sometimes startling to see the resem- 
blance in "picture effect " between the music 
pages of different composers. The hand- 
somely abused Perosi, for instance, writes 
many a page, which, if held at arm's length, 
you would swear was one of Palestrina's. 
Some of Mr. Whiting's music has a decidedly 
Brahmsic picture effect. This feeling is 
emphasized when one remembers the enthusi- 
asm shown for Brahms in Whiting's concerts, 



The Colonists. 285 

where the works of the Ursus Minor of 
Vienna hold the place of honor. The re- 
semblance is only skin deep, however, and 
Whiting's music has a mind of its own. 

The fantasy in question (op. n) is full of 
individuality and brilliance. The first subject 
is announced appassionato by the strings, 
the piano joining with arabesquery that fol- 
lows the general outlines. After this is 
somewhat developed, the second subject 
comes in whimsically in the relative major. 
This is written with great chromatic luscious- 
ness, and is quite liberally developed. It 
suddenly disappears into what is ordinarily 
called the second movement, a pastoral, in 
which the piano is answered by the oboe, 
flute, clarinet, and finally the horn. This is 
gradually appassionated until it is merged 
into the reprise of the first movement proper. 
During this reprise little glints of reminis- 
cence of the pastoral are seen. A coda of 
great bravery leads to the last movement, 



286 Contemporary American Composers. 

which is marked " scherzando," but is rather 
martial in tone. The decidedly noble compo- 
sition ends with great brilliancy and strength. 
It is published for orchestral score and for 
two pianos. 

Whiting was born in Cambridge, Mass., 
June 20, 1 86 1. He studied the piano with 
William H. Sherwood, and has made a suc- 
cessful career in concert playing with the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Kneisel 
Quartette, both of which organizations have 
performed works of his. In 1883 he went 
to Munich for two years, where he studied 
counterpoint and composition with Rhein- 
berger. He is now living in New York as a 
concert pianist and teacher. 

Four works of his for the piano are : " Six 
Bagatelles," of which the " Caprice " has a 
charming infectious coda, while the " Humor- 
eske " is less simple, and also less amusing. 
The "Album Leaf" is a pleasing whimsy, 
and the " Idylle " is as delicate as fleece. Of 



The Colonists. 



287 



Idylle. 



Slowly >nd <Jrmll7 



T*mpo 1. 



MtTHTB WHmiW. 




L * P 













Copyright, ISUo, by U. Schirmer. 

A FRAGMENT. 



288 Contemporary American Composers. 

the three "Characteristic Waltzes," the 
" Valse Sentimentale " is by far the most in- 
teresting. It manages to develop a sort of 
harmonic haze that is very romantic. 

For the voice, Whiting has written little. 
Church music interests him greatly, and he 
has written various anthems, a morning and 
evening service, which keeps largely to the 
traditional colors of the Episcopal ecclesias- 
tical manner, yet manages to be fervent with- 
out being theatrical. A trio, a violin sonata, 
and a piano quintette, a suite for strings, 
and a concert overture for orchestra complete 
the list of his writings. 

On the occasion of a performance of Whit- 
ing's " Fantasy," Philip Hale thus pictur- 
esquely summed him up : 

"In times past I have been inclined to the opinion 
that when Mr. Whiting first pondered the question of 
a calling he must have hesitated between chess and 
music. His music seemed to me full of openings 
and gambits and queer things contrived as in a game. 



The Colonists. 289 

He was the player, and the audience was hjs antago- 
nist. Mr. Whiting was generally the easy conqueror. 
The audience gave up the contest and admired the 
skill of the musician. 

" You respected the music of Mr. Whiting, but you 
did not feel for it any personal affection. The music 
lacked humanity. Mr. Whiting had, and no doubt 
has, high ideals. Sensuousness in music seemed to 
him as something intolerable, something against pub- 
lic morals, something that should be suppressed by 
the selectmen. Perhaps he never went so far as to 
petition for an injunction against sex in music ; but 
rigorous intellectuality was his one aim. He might 
have written A Serious Call to Devout and Holy 
Composition, or A Practical Treatise upon Musical 
Perfection, to which is now added, by the same 
author, The Absolute Unlawfulness of the Stage 
Entertainment Fully Demonstrated. 

" There was almost intolerance in Mr. Whiting's 
musical attitude. He himself is a man of wit rather 
than humor, a man with a very pretty knack at 
sarcasm. He is industrious, fastidious, a severe judge 
of his own works. As a musician he was even in his 
dryest days worthy of sincere respect. 

" Now this fantasia is the outward and sure expres- 
sion of a change in Mr. Whiting's way of musical 
thinking, and the change is decidedly for the better. 



290 Contemporary American Composers. 

There is still a display of pure intellectuality ; there 
is still a solving of self-imposed problems ; but Mr. 
Whiting's musical enjoyment is no longer strictly 
selfish. Here is a fantasia in the true sense of the 
term; form is here subservient to fancy. The first 
movement, if you wish to observe traditional termi- 
nology, is conspicuous chiefly for the skill, yes, fancy, 
with which thematic material of no marked apparent 
inherent value is treated. The pastorale is fresh and 
suggestive. The ordinary pastorale is a bore. There 
is the familiar recipe : take an oboe the size of an 
egg, stir it with a flute, add a little piano, throw in a 
handful of muted strings, and let the whole gently 
simmer in a 9-8 stew-pan. But Mr. Whiting has 
treated his landscape and animal kingdom with rare 
discretion. The music gave pleasure ; it soothed by 
its quiet untortured beauty, its simplicity, its discre- 
tion. And in like manner, without receiving or 
desiring to receive any definite, precise impression, 
the finale interested because it was not a hackneyed 
form of brilliant talk. The finale is something more 
than clever, to use a hideous term that I heard applied 
to it It is individual, and this praise may be awarded 
the whole work. Remember, too, that although this 
is a fantasia, there is not merely a succession of un- 
regulated, uncontrolled, incoherent sleep-chasings. 
" In this work there is a warmer spirit than that 



The Colonists. 291 

which animated or kept alive Mr. Whiting's former 
creations. There is no deep emotion, there is no 
sensuousness, there is no glowing color, no ' color 
of deciduous days.' These might be incongruous 
in the present scheme. But there is a more pro- 
nounced vitality, there is a more decided sympathy 
with the world and men and women; there is more 
humanity. 

" The piano is here an orchestral instrument, and as 
such it was played admirably by Mr. Whiting. His 
style of playing is his own, even his tone seems pecu- 
liarly his own, with a crispness that is not metallic, 
with a quality that deceives at first in its carrying 
power. His performance was singularly clean and 
elastic, its personality was refreshing. He played 
the thoughts of Mr. Whiting in Mr. Whiting's way. 
And thus by piece and performance did he win a 
legitimate success." 

Many American composers have had their 
first tuition from their mothers ; few from 
their fathers. Mr. Huss'is one of the latter 
few. The solidity of his musical foundation 
bespeaks a very correct beginning. He was 
born in Newark, N. J., June 21, 1862. His 

first teacher in the theory of music was 
1 See p. 493. 



292 Contemporary American Composers. 

Otis B. Boise, who has been for the last 
twenty years a teacher of theory in Berlin, 
though he was born in this country. Huss 
went to Munich in 1883 and remained three 
years. He studied counterpoint under Rhein- 
berger, and won public mention for profi- 
ciency. At his second examination his idyl 
for small orchestra, " In the Forest," was 
produced ; and at his graduation he per- 
formed his " Rhapsody " in C major for piano 
and orchestra. A year after his return to 
America this work was given by the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra. A year later Van 
der Stucken gave it at the first of his con- 
certs of American compositions. The next 
year Huss' " Ave Maria," for women's voices, 
string orchestra, harp, and organ, was given 
a public hearing. The next year he gave 
a concert of his own works, and the same 
year, 1889, Van der Stucken produced his 
violin romance and polonaise for violin and 
orchestra at the Paris Exposition. 




HENRY HOLDEN HUSS. 



The Colonists. 293 

His piano concerto for piano and orchestra 
he played first with the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra in 1894, and has given it on 
numerous occasions since. 

Other works, most of which have also been 
published, are : " The Fountain," for women's 
voices a cappella ; a festival " Sanctus," for 
chorus and orchestra ; an " Easter Theme," 
for chorus, organ, and orchestra ; " The 
Winds," for chorus and orchestra, with so- 
prano and alto solos ; a Festival March," 
for organ and orchestra ; a concerto for 
violin, and orchestra ; a trio for piano, violin, 
and 'cello ; a " Prelude Appassionata," for the 
piano, dedicated to and played by Miss Adele 
aus der Ohe, to whom the concerto is also 
dedicated. 

This concerto, which is in D major, is a 
good example of the completeness of Huss' 
armory of resources. The first movement 
has the martial pomp and hauteur and the 
Sardanapalian opulence and color that mark 



294 Contemporary American Composers. 

a barbaric triumph. Chopin has been the 
evident model, and the result is always pian- 
istic even at its most riotous point. Huss 
has ransacked the piano and pillaged almost 
every imaginable fabric of high color. The 
great technical difficulties of the work are en- 
tirely incidental to the desire for splendor. 
The result is gorgeous and purple. The an- 
dante is hardly less elaborate than the first 
movement, but in the finale there is some 
laying off of the impedimenta of the pageant, 
as if the paraders had put aside the magnifi- 
cence for a period of more informal festivity. 
The spirit is that of the scherzo, and the 
main theme is the catchiest imaginable, the 
rhythm curious and irresistible, and the en- 
tire mood saturnalian. In the coda there 
is a reminder of the first movement, and the 
whole thing ends in a blaze of fireworks. 

On the occasion of its first performance 
in Cincinnati, in 1889, Robert I. Carter 
wrote : 



The Colonists. 295 

" It is preeminently a symphonic work, in which 
the piano is used as a voice in the orchestra, and 
used with consummate skill. The charm of the work 
lies in its simplicity. The pianist will tell you at 
once that it is essentially pianistic, a term that is 
much abused and means little. The traditional ca- 
denza is there, but it is not allowed to step out of the 
frame, and so perfect is the relation to what precedes 
and follows, that the average listener might claim 
that it does not exist. Without wishing to venture 
upon any odious grounds of comparison, I want to 
state frankly that it is, to me, emphatically the best 
American concerto." 

Huss is essentially a dramatic and lyric 
composer, though he seems to be determined 
to show himself also a thematic composer of 
the old school. In his trio, which I heard 
played by the Kaltenborn Quartette, both 
phases of his activity were seen. There was 
much odor of the lamp about the greater 
part of the trio, which seemed generally 
lacking that necessary capillarity of energy 
which sometimes saturates with life-sap the 
most formal and elaborate counterpoint of the 



296 Contemporary American Composers. 

pre-romantic strata. The andante of the trio, 
however, displayed Huss' singularly appeal- 
ing gift of song. It abounded in emotion, 
and was to use the impossible word Keats 
coined "yearnful." Huss should write 
more of this sort of music. We need its rare 
spontaneity and truth, as we do not need the 
all too frequent mathematics of those who 
compose, as Tybalt fought, "by the book." 

For the piano there are "Three Baga- 
telles : " an " fitude Melodique," which is 
rather harmonic than melodic ; an " Album- 
blatt," a graceful movement woven like a 
Schumann arabesque; and a "Pastoral," in 
which the gracefulness of the music given to 
the right hand is annulled by the inexplicable 
harshness of that given to the left. 

For the voice, there is, of course, a setting 
of " Du bist wie eine Blume," which, save for 
the fact that it looks as if the accompaniment 
were written first, is a very pure piece of 
writing. The " Song of the Syrens " is a 



The Colonists. 297 

strong composition with a big climax, the 
" Jessamine Bud " is extremely delicate, and 
"They that Sow in Tears " has much dignity. 
There are two songs from Tennyson, " There 
is Sweet Music Here " and " Home They 
Brought Her Warrior Dead," with orchestral 
accompaniment. 

By all odds the most important, and a 
genuinely improved composition is the aria 
for soprano and orchestra, "The Death of 
Cleopatra." The words are taken from 
Shakespeare's play and make use of the 
great lines given to the dying Egypt, 
" Give me my robe, put on my crown, I 
have immortal longings in me," and the rest. 
The music not only pays all due reverence 
to the sacred text, but is inspired by it, and 
reaches great heights of fervor and tragedy. 
From Shakespeare, Huss drew the afflation 
for another aria of great interest, a setting 
for barytone voice of the " Seven Ages of 
Man." The problems attending the putting 



298 Contemporary American Composers, 

to music of Shakespeare's text are severe ; 
but the plays are gold mines of treasure for 
the properly equipped musician. 

A vivid example of the difficulties in the 
way of American composers' securing an 
orchestral hearing is seen in the experience 
of Howard Brockway, who had a symphony 
performed in 1895 by the Berlin Philhar- 
monic Orchestra, and has been unable to 
get a hearing or get the work performed in 
America during the five years, following, in 
spite of the brilliancy of the composition. 
The scoring of the work is so mature that 
one can see its skill by a mere glance at the 
page from a distance. When the work was 
performed in Germany, it was received with 
pronounced favor by the Berlin critics, who 
found in it a conspicuous absence of all those 
qualities which the youth of the composer 
would have made natural. 

Brockway was born in Brooklyn, Novem- 
ber 22, 1870, and studied piano with H. O 



The Colonists. 299 

C. Kortheuer from 1887 to 1889. He went 
to Berlin at the age of twenty and studied 
the piano with Earth, and composition with 
O. B. Boise, the transplanted American. 
Boise gave Brockway so thorough a train- 
ing that he may be counted one of the most 
fluent and completely equipped American 
composers. At the age of twenty-four he 
had finished his symphony (op. 12), a bal- 
lade for orchestra (op. u), and a violin and 
piano sonata (op. 9), as well as a cavatina 
for violin and orchestra. These, with certain 
piano solos, were given at a concert of Brock- 
way's own works in February, 1895, at the 
Sing-Akademie. His works were accepted 
as singularly mature, and promising as well. 
A few months later, Brockway returned to 
New York, where he has since lived as a 
teacher and performer. 

His symphony, which is in D major, is so 
ebullient with life that its dashing first sub- 
ject cannot brook more than a few measures 



300 Contemporary American Composers. 

of slow introduction. The second subject is 
simpler, but no less joyous. The thematic 
work is scholarly and enthusiastic at the 
same time. The different movements of 
the symphony are, however, not themati- 
cally related, save that the coda of the last 
movement is a reminiscence of the auxiliary 
theme of the first movement. The andante, 
in which the 'cellos are very lyrical, is a 
tender and musing mood. The presto is 
flashing with life and has a trio of rollick- 
ing, even whooping, jubilation. The finale 
begins gloomily and martially, and it is suc- 
ceeded by a period of beauty and grace. 
This movement, in fact, is a remarkable 
combination of the exquisitest beauty and 
most unrestrained prowess. 

Another orchestral work of great impor- 
tance in American music is the " Sylvan 
Suite" (op. 19), which is also arranged for 
the piano. In this work the composer has 
shown a fine discretion and conservation in 



7Yie Colonists. 301 

the use of the instruments, making liberal 
employment of small choirs for long periods. 
The work is programmatic in psychology 
only. It begins with a " Midsummer Idyl," 
which embodies the drowsy petulance of hot 
noon. The second number is " Will o" the 
Wisps." In this a three-voiced fugue for the 
strings, wood, and one horn has been used 
with legitimate effect and most teasing, fleet- 
ing whimsicality. The third movement is a 
slow waltz, called "The Dance of the Sylphs," 
a very catchy air, swaying delicately in the bas- 
soons and 'cello ; a short " Evening Song " is 
followed by " Midnight." This is a parade 
that reminds one strongly of Gottschalk's 
" Marche de Nuit." The march movement 
is followed by an interlude depicting the 
mystery of night, as Virgil says, " tremulo 
sub lumine" The composer has endeavored 
to indicate the chill gray of dawn by the end- 
ing of this movement : a chord taken by two 
flutes and the strings shivering sul ponticello. 



302 Contemporary American Composers. 

The last movement is "At Daybreak." Out 
of the gloom of the bassoons grows a broad 
and general luminous song followed by an 
interlude of the busy hum of life ; this is 
succeeded by the return of the sunrise 
theme with a tremendously vivacious ac- 
companiment. 

Other works of Brockway's are : a cantata, 
a set of variations, a ballade, a nocturne, a 
Characterstiick, a Fantasiestiick, a set of four 
piano pieces (op. 21), and two piano pieces 
(op. 25). All of these, except the cantata, 
have been published. Two part songs and 
two songs with piano accompaniment have 
also been published ; a violin sonata, a Mo- 
ment Musicale, and a romanza for violin and 
orchestra have been published in Berlin. 

These works all show a decided tendency 
to write brilliant and difficult music, but the 
difficulties are legitimate to the effect and 
the occasion. The Ballade works up a very 
powerful climax ; the Scherzino swishes fas- 



The Colonists. 



303 




Copyiipht, 18M, by SclileumgerV-hf Bueh und Miisikhandlung (Rob. Lienuu), 
Berlin. 

FRAGMENT OF A "BALLADE" BY HOWARD BROCKWAY. 



304 Contemporary American Composers. 

cinatingly ; and the Romanza for piano is a 
notably mature and serious work. 

Two ballads have made the so romantic 
name of Harry Rowe Shelley 1 a household 
word in America. They are the setting of 
Tom Moore's fiery " Minstrel Boy," and a 
strange jargon of words called " Love's 
Sorrow." In both cases the music is in- 
tense and full of fervor, and quick popularity 
rarely goes out to more worthy songs. 




But Shelley would doubtless prefer to be 
judged by work to which he has given more 
of his art and his interest than to the many 
1 See p. 494- 




HARRY ROWE SHELLEY. 



The Colonists. 305 

songs that he has tossed off in the light 
name of popularity. 

Shelley's life has been largely devoted to 
church work. Born in New Haven, Conn., 
June 8, 1858, and taught music by Gustav 
J. Stoeckel, he came under the tuition of 
Dudley Buck for seven years. His twen- 
tieth year found him an organist at New 
Haven. Three years later he went to 
Brooklyn in the same capacity. He was 
the organist at Plymouth Church for some 
time before Henry Ward Beecher's death. 
Since 1887 he has been at the Church of the 
Pilgrims. He visited Europe in 1887 and 
studied under Dvdrak when the Bohemian 
master was here. 

Shelley's largest works have been an 
opera, " Leila," still in manuscript, a sym- 
phonic poem, " The Crusaders," a dramatic 
overture, " Francesca da Rimini," a sacred 
oratorio, " The Inheritance Divine," a suite 
for orchestra, a fantasy for piano and orches- 



306 Contemporary American Composers. 

tra (written for Rafael Joseffy), a one-act 
musical extravaganza, a three-act lyric 
drama, and a virile symphony. .The suite 
is called " Souvenir de Baden-Baden." It is 
a series of highly elaborated trifles of much 
gaiety, and includes a lively " Morning 
Promenade," a dreamy " Siesta," a " Con- 
versationshaus Ball," and a quaint " Sere- 
nade Orientale " that shows the influence 
of Mozart's and Beethoven's marches alia 
turca. The orchestration of this work I 
have never heard nor seen. Its arrange- 
ment for four hands, however, is excellently 
done, with commendable attention to the 
interests of the secondo player. 

The cantata is called cc The Inheritance 
Divine," and it is much the best thing 
Shelley has done. It begins with a long, 
slow crescendo on the word " Jerusalem," 
which is very forceful. Shelley responds 
to an imaginary encore, however, and the 
word becomes little more than an expletive. 



The Colonists. 307 

Page 7 to refer more conveniently than 
technically is marked by sonorous har- 
monies of especial nobility. Now begins a 
new idea worked up with increased richness 
and growing fervor to a sudden magnificence 
of climax in the second measure on page 1 1. 
The final phrase, strengthened by an organ- 
point on two notes, is fairly thrilling. A 
tenor solo follows, its introductory recitative 
containing many fine things, its aria being 
smoothly melodious. A chorus, of warm 
harmonies and a remarkably beautiful and 
unexpected ending, is next ; after which is 
a sombre, but impressive alto solo. The 
two successive choruses, the quartette, and 
the soprano solo catch the composer nod- 
ding. The bass solo is better ; the final 
chorus brings us back to the high plane. 
Page 62 is particularly big of spirit, and 
from here on the chorus climbs fiery heights. 
In spite of Berlioz' famous parody on the 
" Amen " fugues, in the " Damnation of 



308 Contemporary American Composers. 

Faust," Shelley has used the word over a 
score of times in succession to finish his 
work. But altogether the work is one of 
maturity of feeling and expression, and it is 
a notable contribution to American sacred 
music. 

In 1898 "Death and Life " was published. 
It opens with a dramatic chorus sung by the 
mob before the cross, and it ends daringly 
with a unisonal descent of the voices that 
carries even the sopranos down to A natural. 
In the duet between Christ and Mary, seek- 
ing where they have laid her Son, the libret- 
tist has given Christ a versified paraphrase 
which is questionable both as to taste and 
grammar. The final chorus, however, has 
a stir of spring fire that makes the work 
especially appropriate for Easter services. 

The cantata "Vexilla Regis" is notable 
for its martial opening chorus, the bass solo, 
"Where deep for us the spear was dyed," 
and its scholarly and effective ending. 



The Colonists. 309 

A lapidary's skill and delight for working 
in small forms belongs to Gerrit Smith. 1 His 
" Aquarelles " are a good example of his art 
in bijouterie. This collection includes eight 
songs and eight piano sketches. The first, 
"A Lullaby," begins with the unusual skip 
of a ninth for the voice. A subdued accen- 
tuation is got by the syncopation of the bass, 
and the yearning tenderness of the ending 
finishes an exquisite song. " Dream- wings " 
is a graceful fantasy that fittingly presents 
the delicate sentiment of Coleridge' lyrics. 
The setting of Heine's " Fir-tree" is entirely 
worthy to stand high among the numerous 
settings of this lyric. Smith gets the air of 
desolation of the bleak home of the fir-tree 
by a cold scale of harmony, and a bold sim- 
plicity of accompaniment. The home of the 
equally lonely palm-tree is strongly con- 
trasted by a tropical luxuriance of inter- 
lude and accompaniment. 

The sixth song is a delightful bit of bril- 
1 See p. 537. 



3io Contemporary American Composers. 

liant music, but it is quite out of keeping 
with the poem. Thus on the words, " Mar- 
gery's only three," there is a fierce climax 
fitting an Oriental declaration of despair. 
The last of these songs, "Put by the Lute," 
is possibly Smith's best work. It is superb 
from beginning to end. It opens with a 
most unhackneyed series of preludizing 
arpeggios, whence it breaks into a swinging 
lyric, strengthened into passion by a vigorous 
contra-melody in the bass. Throughout, the 
harmonies are most original, effective, and 
surprising. 

Of the eight instrumental pieces in this 
book, the exquisite and fluent " Impromptu " 
is the best after the " Cradle Song," which is 
drowsy with luscious harmony and contains a 
passage come organo of such noble sonority 
as to put it a whit out of keeping with a 
child's lullaby. 

Smith was born December 11, 1859, at 
Hagerstown, Md. His first instruction was 



The Colonists. 311 

gained in Geneva, N. Y., from a pupil of 
Moscheles. He began composition early, 
and works of his written at the age of four- 
teen were performed at his boarding-school. 
He graduated at Hobart College in 1876, 
whence he went to Stuttgart to study music 
and architecture. A year later he was in 
New York studying the organ with Samuel 
P. Warren. He was appointed organist at 
St. Paul's, Buffalo, and studied during the 
summer with Eugene Thayer, and William 
H. Sherwood. In 1880 he went again to 
Germany, and studied organ under Haupt, 
and theory under Rohde, at Berlin. On his 
return to America he took the organ at St. 
Peter's, in Albany. Later he came to New 
York, where he has since remained continu- 
ously, except for concert tours and journeys 
abroad. He has played the organ in the 
most important English and Continental 
towns, and must be considered one of our 
most prominent concert organists. He is 



312 Contemporary American Composers. 

both a Master of Arts and a Doctor of 
Music. As one of the founders, and for 
many years the president, of the Manu- 
script Society, he was active in obtaining 
a hearing for much native music otherwise 
mute. 

In addition to a goodly number of Easter 
carols, Christmas anthems, Te Deums, and 
such smaller forms of religious music, Smith 
has written a sacred cantata, "King David." 
Aside from this work, which in orchestration 
and in general treatment shows undoubted 
skill for large effort, Doctor Smith's compo- 
sition has been altogether along the smaller 
lines. 

The five-song'd opus 14 shows well ma- 
tured lyric power, and an increase in fervor 
of emotion. Bourdillon's "The Night Has a 
Thousand Eyes," which can never be too 
much set to music, receives here a truly 
superb treatment. The interlude, which also 
serves for finale, is especially ravishing. 



The Colonists. 313 

" Heart Longings " is one of Mr. Smith's 
very best successes. It shows a free passion 
and a dramatic fire unusual for his rather 
quiet muse. The setting of Bourdillon's fine 
lyric is indeed so stirring that it deserves a 
high place among modern songs. " Melody " 
is a lyric not without feeling, but yet inclu- 
sive of most of Smith's faults. Thus the 
prelude, which is a tritely flowing allegro, 
serves also for interlude as well as postlude, 
and the air and accompaniment of both 
stanzas are unvaried, save at the cadence of 
the latter stanza. The intense poesy of 
Anna Reeve Aldrich, a poetess cut short at 
the very budding of unlimited promise, de- 
served better care than this from a musician. 
Two of Smith's works were published in 
Millet's " Half-hours with the Best Com- 
posers," - one of the first substantial recog- 
nitions of the American music-writer. A 
" Romance," however, is the best and most 
elaborate of his piano pieces, and is altogether 



314 Contemporary American Composers. 



Spring. 

Words by Alfred Tennyson. 



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Copyright, 1894, by Arthur P. Schmidt. 

A FRAGMENT. 



The Colonists. 315 

an exquisite fancy. His latest work, a cycle 
of ten pieces for the piano, "A Colorado 
Summer," is most interesting. The pieces 
are all lyrical and simple, but they are full of 
grace and new colors. 

But Smith's most individual work is his set 
of songs for children, which are much com- 
pared, and favorably, with Reinecke's work 
along the same lines. These are veritable 
masterpieces of their sort, and they are mainly 
grouped into opus 12, called "Twenty-five 
Song Vignettes." 

So well are they written that they are a 
safe guide, and worthy that supreme trust, 
the first formation of a child's taste. Even 
dissonances are used, sparingly but bravely 
enough to give an idea of the different ele- 
ments that make music something more than 
a sweetish impotence, They are vastly dif- 
ferent from the horrible trash children are 
usually brought up on, especially in our 
American schools, to the almost incurable 



3 1 6 Contemporary A merican Composers. 

perversion of their musical tastes. They are 
also so full of refinement, and of that humor 
without which children cannot long be held, 
that they are of complete interest also to 
"grown-ups," to whom alone the real artistic 
value of these songs can entirely transpire. 
Worthy of especial mention are the delicious 
" Stars and Angels ; " the delightful " A 
Carriage to Ride In ; " " Good King Arthur," 
a captivating melody, well built on an accom- 
paniment of " God Save the King ; " " Birdie's 
Burial," an elegy of the most sincere pathos, 
quite worthy of a larger cause, if, indeed, 
any grief is greater than the first sorrows of 
childhood ; the surprisingly droll " Barley 
Romance ; " " The Broom and the Rod," with 
its programmatic glissandos to give things a 
clean sweep ; and other delights like the 
" Rain Song," " The Tomtit Gray," " Mam- 
ma's Birthday," and " Christmas at the 
Door." To have given these works their 
present value and perfection, is to have 



The Colonists. 317 

accomplished a far greater thing than the 
writing of a dozen tawdry symphonies. 

One of the most outrageously popular 
piano pieces ever published in America was 
Homer N. Bartlett's " Grande Polka de Con- 
cert." It was his opus I, written years ago, 
and he tells me that he recently refused a 
lucrative commission to write fantasies 
on " Nearer My God to Thee " and " The 
Old Oaken Bucket " ! So now that he 
has reformed, grown wise and signed the 
musical pledge, one must forgive him those 
wild oats from which he reaped royal- 
ties, and look to the genuine and sincere 
work he has latterly done. Let us begin, 
say, with opus 38, a "Polonaise" that out- 
Pi erods Chopin in bravura, but is full of 
vigor and well held together. A " Dance 
of the Gnomes," for piano, is also arranged 
for a sextet, the arrangement being a develop- 
ment, not a bare transcription. There are 
two mazurkas (op. 71), the first very original 



318 Contemporary American Composers. 

and happy. "yEolian Murmurings " is a 
superb study in high color. A " Caprice Es- 
paflol " is a bravura realization of Spanish 
frenzy. It has also been brilliantly orches- 
trated. Two songs without words make up 
opus 96 : while " Meditation " shows too evi- 
dent meditation on Wagner, " A Love Song " 
gets quite away from musical bourgeoisery. 
It is free, spirited, even daring. It is patently 
less devoted to theme-development than to 
the expression of an emotion. This " Love 
Song " is one of the very best of American 
morceaux, and is altogether commendable. 

Opus 107 includes three "characteristic 
pieces." " The Zephyr " is dangerously like 
Chopin's fifteenth Prelude, with a throbbing 
organ-point on the same A flat. On this 
alien foundation, however, Bartlett has built 
with rich harmony. The "Harlequin" is 
graceful and cheery. It ends with Rubin- 
stein's sign and seal, an arpeggio in sixths, 
which is as trite a musical finis as fiction's 



The Colonists. 319 

'They lived happily ever afterward, sur- 
rounded by a large circle of admiring friends." 

Three mazurkas constitute opus 125. They 
are closely modelled on Chopin, and naturally 
lack the first-handedness of these works, in 
which, almost alone, the Pole was witty. 
But Bartlett has made as original an imita- 
tion as possible. The second is particularly 
charming. 

In manuscript is a Prelude developed 
interestingly on well-understood lines. There 
is a superb " Reverie Poetique." It is that 
climax of success, a scholarly inspiration. 
To the meagre body of American scherzos, 
Bartlett's scherzo will be very welcome. It 
is very festive and very original. Its richly 
harmonized interlude shows a complete eman- 
cipation from the overpowering influence of 
Chopin, and a great gain in strength as well 
as individuality. 

In his songs Bartlett attains a quality uni- 
formly higher than that of his piano pieces. 



320 Contemporary American Composers. 

" Moonbeams " has many delicacies of har- 
mony. " Laughing Eyes " is a fitting setting 
of Mr. " Nym Crinkle " Wheeler's exquisite 
lyric. " Come to Me, Dearest," while cheap in 
general design, has fine details. 

It makes me great dole to have to praise a 
song about a brooklet ; but the truth is, that 
Bartlett's "I Hear the Brooklet's Murmur " is 
superbly beautiful, wild with regret, a noble 
song. It represents the late German type of 
Lied, as the earlier heavy style is exemplified 
in "Good Night, Dear One." Very Teutonic 
also is the airiness and grace of " Rosebud." 

To that delightful collection of children's 
songs, " The St. Nicholas Song Book," 
Bartlett contributed largely. All of his lyrics 
are delicious, and " I Had a Little Pony " 
should become a nursery classic. 

In his " Lord God, Hear My Prayer," 
Bartlett throws down the gauntlet to the 
Bach-Gounod " Ave Maria," with results 
rather disastrous. He chooses a Cramer 



The Colonists. 321 

e*tude, and adds to it parts for voice, violin, 
and organ. While Gounod seems passionate 
and unrestrained, Bartlett shows his caution 
and his cage at every step. A Cramer e"tude 
is among the most melancholy things of earth 
anyway. " Jehovah Nissi " is an excellent 
sacred march chorus that won a prize, and 
there is a cantata, " The Last Chieftain." 
Bartlett' s cantata is without efforts at Indian 
color, but is a solid work with much dignity, 
barbaric severity, and fire. 

Bartlett was born at Olive, N. Y., Decem- 
ber 28, 1846. His ancestry runs far back 
into New England, his mother being a 
descendant of John Rogers, the martyr. 
Bartlett is said to have " lisped in numbers," 
singing correctly before he could articulate 
words. The violin was his first love, and at 
the age of eight he was playing in public. 
He took up the piano and organ also, and in 
his fourteenth year was a church organist. 
He studied the piano with S. B. Mills, Emil 



322 Contemporary American Composers. 

Guyon (a pupil of Thalberg), and Alfred Pease. 
The organ and composition he studied with 
O. F. Jacobsen and Max Braun. With the 
exception of a musical pilgrimage in 1887, 
Bartlett has not come nearer the advantages 
of Europe than study here under men who 
studied there. He has resided for many 
years in New York as organist and teacher. 
As a composer he has been one of our most 
prolific music-makers. His work shows a 
steady development in value, and the best is 
doubtless yet to come. 

He finds a congenial field in the orchestra. 
Seidl played his instrumentation of Chopin's 
" Military Polonaise " several times. As the 
work seemed to need a finale in its larger 
form, Bartlett took a liberty whose success was 
its justification, and added a finish made up 
of the three principal themes interwoven. A 
recent work is his " Concertstiick," for violin 
and orchestra. It is not pianistic in instru- 
mentation, and will appeal to violinists. 



The Colonists. 323 

While not marked with rfrherchfc violin tricks, 
or violent attempts at bravura, it has both 
brilliance and solidity, and is delightfully 
colored in orchestration. There are no 
pauses between the movements, but they 
are well varied in their unity. 

There is an unfinished oratorio, " Samuel," 
an incomplete opera, " Hinotito," and a cantata 
of which only the tenor solo, " Khamsin," is 
done. This is by far the best work Bartlett 
has written, and displays unexpected dramatic 
powers. The variation of the episodes of the 
various phases of the awful drought to the 
climax in " The Plague," make up a piece of 
most impressive strength. The orchestration 
is remarkably fine with effect, color, and 
variety. If the cantata is finished on this 
scale, its production will be a national event. 

The New England farmer is usually taken 
as a type of sturdy Philistinism in artistic 
matters. It was a most exceptional good 
fortune that gave C. B. Hawley a father who 



324 Contemporary American Composers. 

added to the dignity of being a tiller of the 
soil the refinements of great musical taste 
and skill. His house at Brookfield, Conn., 
contained not only a grand piano, but a pipe 
organ as well ; and Hawley's mother was 
blessed with a beautiful and cultivated voice. 

At the age of thirteen (he was born St. 
Valentine's Day, 1858) Hawley was a church 
organist and the conductor of musical affairs 
in the Cheshire Military Academy, from 
which he graduated. He went to New York 
at the age of seventeen, studying the voice 
with George James Webb, Rivarde, Foeder- 
lein, and others, and composition with Dudley 
Buck, Joseph Mosenthal, and Rutenber. 

His voice brought him the position of solo- 
ist at the Calvary Episcopal Church, at the 
age of eighteen. Later he became assistant 
organist at St. Thomas' Episcopal Church, 
under George William W'arren. For the last 
fourteen years he has had charge of the sum- 
mer music at St. James Chapel, in Elberon, 



The Colonists. 325 

the chapel attended by Presidents Grant and 
Gar field. For seventeen years he has been 
one of the leading spirits of the Mendelssohn 
Glee Club, and for ten years a member of the 
Mendelssohn Quartet Club. Most of his 
part songs were written for the club and first 
sung at its concerts. He is also a successful 
teacher of the voice, and has been too busy 
to write a very large volume of compositions. 
But those published show the authentic fire. 
Notable features of Hawley's composi- 
tions are the taking quality of the melody, its 
warm sincerity, and the unobtrusive opulence 
in color of the accompaniment. This is 
less like an answering, independent voice 
than like a many-hued, velvety tapestry, back- 
grounding a beautiful statue. It is only on 
second thought and closer study that one 
sees how well concealed is the careful and 
laborious polish ad unguem of every chord. 
This is the true art of song, where the lyrics 
should seem to gush spontaneously forth 



326 Contemporary American Composers. 

from a full heart and yet repay the closer 
dissection that shows the intellect perfecting 
the voice of emotion. 

Take, for example, his " Lady Mine," a 
brilliant rhapsody, full of the spring, and en- 
riched with a wealth of color in the accom- 
paniment till the melody is half hidden in a 
shower of roses. It required courage to 
make a setting of " Ah, 'Tis a Dream ! " so 
famous through Lassen's melody ; but Haw- 
ley has said it in his own way in an air 
thrilled with longing and an accompaniment 
as full of shifting colors as one of the native 
sunsets. I can't forbear one obiter dictum 
on this poem. It has never been so trans- 
lated as to reproduce its neatest bit of fancy. 
In the original the poet speaks of meeting 
in dreams a fair-eyed maiden who greeted 
him "auf Deutsch" and kissed him "auf 
Deutsch," but the translations all evade the 
kiss in German. 

" The Ring," bounding with the glad 



The Colonists. 327 

frenzy of a betrothed lover, has a soaring 
finale, and is better endowed with a well 
polished accompaniment than the song, " Be- 
cause I Love You, Dear," which is not with- 
out its good points in spite of its manifest 
appeal to a more popular taste. " My Little 
Love," "An Echo," "Spring's Awakening," 
and "Where Love Doth Build His Nest," are 
conceived in Hawley's own vein. 

The song, "Oh, Haste Thee, Sweet," has 
some moments of banality, but more of 
novelty ; the harmonic work being unusual at 
times, especially in the rich garb of the 
words, " It grovveth late." In " I Only 
Can Love Thee," Hawley has succeeded in 
conquering the incommensurateness of Mrs. 
Browning's sonnet by alternating 6-8 and 9-8 
rhythms. His " Were I a Star," is quite a 
perfect lyric. 

Of his part songs, all are good, some are 
masterly. Here he colors with the same 
lavish but softly blending touch as in his 



328 Contemporary American Composers. 

solos. " My Luve's Like a Red, Red Rose" 
is altogether delightful, containing as it does 
a suggestion of the old formalities and 
courtly graces of the music of Lawes, whose 
songs Milton sonneted. I had always thought 
that no musician could do other than paint 
the lily in attempting to add music to the 
music of Tennyson's " Bugle Song," but 
Hawley has come dangerously near satis- 
faction in the elfland faintness and dying 
clearness of his voices. 

He has written two comic glees, one of 
which, " They Kissed ! I Saw Them Do It," 
has put thousands of people into the keenest 
mirth. It is a vocal scherzo for men's voices. 
It begins with a criminally lugubrious and 
thin colloquy, in which the bass dolefully 
informs the others : " Beneath a shady tree 
they sat," to which the rest agree ; " He held 
her hand, she held his hat," which meets 
with general consent. Now we are told in 
stealthy gasps, " I held my breath and lay 



"The Colonists. 329 

right flat." Suddenly out of this thinness 
bursts a peal of richest harmony : " They 
kissed ! I saw them do it." It is repeated 
more lusciously still, and then the basses and 
barytones mouth the gossip disapprovingly, 
and the poem continues with delicious rail- 
lery till it ends abruptly and archly : " And 
they thought no one knew it ! " 

Besides these scherzos, Hawley has written 
a few religious part songs of a high order, 
particularly the noble "Trisagion and Sanc- 
tus," with its " Holy, Holy ! " now hushed in 
reverential awe and now pealing in exultant 
worship. But of all his songs, I like best his 
" When Love is Gone," fraught with calm 
intensity, and closing in beauty as ineffable 
as a last glimmer of dying day. 

To the stencil-plate chivalry of the lyrics 
of the ubiquitous F. E. Weatherby and John 
Oxenford, the song-status of England can 
blame a deal of its stagnation. It is not often 
that these word-wringers have enticed Ameri- 



330 Contemporary American Composers. 
When Lore is gone. 

Onfrun, tt Tturj 



c a. 



Vole. . 



PUno. 




Copyright, 1894, by G. Schirmer. 



The Colonists. 331 

can composers. One of the few victims is 
John Hyatt Brewer, 1 who was born in Brook- 
lyn, in 1856, and has lived there ever since. 

Brewer made his debut as a six-year-old 
singer, and sang till his fourteenth year. 
A year later he was an organist in Brooklyn, 
where he has held various positions in the 
same capacity ever since, additionally busying 
himself as a teacher of voice, piano, organ, 
and harmony. His studies in piano and har- 
mony were pursued under Rafael Navarro. 
Counterpoint, fugue, and composition he 
studied under Dudley Buck. 

In 1878 Brewer became the second tenor 
and accompanist of the Apollo Club, of which 
Mr. Buck is the director. He has conducted 
numerous vocal societies and an amateur 
orchestra. 

Of his cantatas, " Hesperus " is a work of 
the greatest promise and large performance. 

For male voices Brewer has written a can- 
tata called "The Birth of Love." Its fiery 
1 See p. 534- 



332 Contemporary American Composers. 

ending is uncharacteristic, but the beautiful 
tenor solo and an excellent bass song prove 
his forte to lie in the realm of tenderness. 
Brewer's music has little fondness for cli- 
maxes, but in a tender pathos that is not 
tragedy, but a sort of lotos-eater's dreami- 
ness and regret, he is congenially placed. 
Smoothness is one of his best qualities. 

Out of a number of part songs for men, 
one should mark a vigorous " Fisher's Song," 
a "May Song," which has an effective "bar- 
ber's chord," and "The Katydid," a witty 
realization of Oliver Wendell Holmes' capti- 
vating poem. His " Sensible Serenade " has 
also an excellent flow of wit. Both these 
songs should please glee clubs and their 
audiences. 

For women's voices Brewer has written 
not a little. The best of these are " Sea 
Shine," which is particularly mellow, and 
"Treachery," a love-scherzo. 

For the violin there are two pieces : one, 



The Colonists. 333 

in the key of D, is a duet between the violin 
and the soprano voice of the piano. It is 
full of characteristic tenderness, full even of 
tears. It should find a good place among 
those violin ballads of which Raff's Cavatina 
is the best-known example. Another violin 
solo in A is more florid, but is well managed. 
The two show a natural aptitude for composi- 
tion for this favorite of all instruments. 

For full orchestra there is a suite, "The 
Lady of the Lake," also arranged for piano 
and organ. It is smooth and well-tinted. A 
sextet for strings and flute has been played 
with favor. 

Brewer's chief success lies along lines of 
least resistance, one might say. His Album 
of Songs (op. 27) is a case in point. Of the 
subtle and inevitable " Du bist wie eine 
Blume," he makes nothing, and "The Vio- 
let " forces an unfortunate contrast with 
Mozart's idyl to the same words. But 
" Meadow Sweet " is simply iridescent with 



334 Contemporary American Composers. 

cheer, a most unusually sweet song, and 
"The Heart's Rest " is of equal perfection. 

The best-abused composer in America is 
doubtless Reginald de Koven. 1 His great 
popularity has attracted the search-light of 
minute criticism to him, and his accomplish- 
ments are such as do not well endure the 
fierce white light that beats upon the throne. 
The sin of over-vivid reminiscence is the 
one most persistently imputed to him, and 
not without cause. While I see no reason to 
accuse him of deliberate imitation, I think he 
is a little too loth to excise from his music 
those things of his that prove on considera- 
tion to have been said or sung before him. 
Instead of crying, " Pcreant qui ante nos 
nostra cantaverunt" he believes in a live- 
and-let-live policy. But ah, if De Koven 
were the only composer whose eraser does 
not evict all that his memory installs ! 

De Koven was born at Middletown, Conn., 
in 1859, and enjoyed unusual advantages for 
1 See p. 475- 



The Colonists. 335 

musical study abroad. At the age of eleven, 
he was taken to Europe, where he lived for 
twelve years. At Oxford he earned a degree 
with honors. His musical instructors include 
Speidel, Lebert, and Pruckner, at Stuttgart, 
Huff the contrapuntist at Frankfort, and 
Vannucini, who taught him singing, at Flor- 
ence. He made also a special study of light 
opera under Gene"e and Von Suppe". He 
made Chicago his home in 1882, afterward 
moving to New York, where he served as 
a musical critic on one of the daily papers for 
many years. 

De Koven has been chief purveyor of 
comic opera to his generation, and for so 
ideal a work as " Robin Hood," and such 
pleasing constructions as parts of his other 
operas (" Don Quixote," " The Fencing Mas- 
ter," " The Highwayman," for instance), one 
ought to be grateful, especially as his music 
has always a certain elegance and freedom 
from vulgarity. 



336 Contemporary American Composers. 

Of his ballads, "Oh, Promise Me" has a 
few opening notes that remind one of 
" Musica Proibita," but it was a taking 
lyric that stuck in the public heart. His 
setting of Eugene Field's " Little Boy Blue " 
is a work of purest pathos and directness. 
His version of " My Love is Like a Red, 
Red Rose " is among the best of its count- 
less settings, and "The Fool of Pamper- 
lune," the "Indian Love Song," "In June," 
and a few others, are excellent ballad- 
writing. 

Victor Harris 1 is one of the few that se- 
lected New York for a birthplace. He was 
born here April 27, 1 869, and attended the Col- 
lege of the City of New York, class of 1888. 
For several of his early years he was well 
known as a boy-soprano, whence he grad- 
uated into what he calls the " usual career " 
of organist, pianist, and teacher of the voice. 
In 1895 and 1896 he acted as the assistant 
conductor to Anton Seidl in the Brighton 
1 See p. 568. 



The Colonists. 337 

Beach summer concerts. He learned har- 
mony of Frederick Schilling. 

Harris is most widely known as an accom- 
panist, and is one of the best in the country. 
But while the accompaniments he writes to 
his own songs are carefully polished and well 
colored, they lack the show of independence 
that one might expect from so unusual a 
master of their execution. 

Except for an unpublished one-act operetta, 
"Mile. Maie et M. de Sembre," and a few 
piano pieces, Harris has confined himself 
to the writing of short songs. In his twenty- 
first year two of unequal merits were pub- 
lished, "The Fountains Mingle with the 
River " being a taking melody, but without 
distinction or originality, while " Sweetheart " 
has much more freedom from conventionality 
and inevitableness. 

A later song, " My Guest," shows an in- 
crease in elaboration, but follows the florid 
school of Harrison Millard's once so popu- 



338 Contemporary American Composers. 

lar rhapsody, "Waiting." Five songs are 
grouped into opus 12, and they reach a much 
higher finish and a better tendency to make 
excursions into other keys. They also show 
two of Harris' mannerisms, a constant repe- 
tition of verbal phrases and a fondness for 
writing close, unbroken chords, in triplets or 
quartoles. " A Melody " is beautiful ; " But- 
terflies and Buttercups " is the perfection of 
grace; "I Know not if Moonlight or Star- 
light " is a fine rapture, and "A Disappoint- 
ment " is a dire tragedy, all about some 
young toadstools that thought they were 
going to be mushrooms. For postlude two 
measures from the cantabile of Chopin's 
" Funeral March " are used with droll effect. 
" Love, Hallo ! " is a headlong springtime 
passion. Two of his latest songs are " For- 
ever and a Day," with many original touches, 
and a " Song from Omar Khayyam," which is 
made of some of the most cynical of the tent- 
maker's quatrains. Harris has given them 



The Colonists. 

XoN.N.H. 

Song from Omar Khayyam.. , VICTOR(UJ)RISOpl 



339 



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Copyright, 1898, by Edward Schuberth & Co. 



340 Contemporary American Composers. 

all their power and bitterness till the last 
line, "The flower that once has blown for- 
ever dies," which is written with rare beauty. 
"A Night-song" is possibly his best work; 
it is full of colors, originalities, and lyric 
qualities. Opus 1 3 contains six songs : 
" Music when Soft Voices Die " has many 
uncommon and effective intervals ; . " The 
Flower of Oblivion " is more dramatic than 
usual, employs discords boldly, and gives the 
accompaniment more individuality than be- 
fore ; "A Song of Four Seasons" is a 
delicious morsel of gaiety, and " Love within 
the Lover's Breast " is a superb song. Har- 
ris has written some choric works for men 
and women also. They show commendable 
attention to all the voice parts. 

One of the most prominent figures in 
American musical history has been Dr. Will- 
iam Mason. He was born in Boston, Janu- 
ary 24, 1829, and was the son of Lowell 
Mason, that pioneer in American composition. 



The Colonists. 341 

Dr. William Mason studied in Boston, and in 
Germany under Moscheles, Hauptmann, 
Richter, and Liszt. His success in concerts 
abroad and here gave prestige to his philos- 
ophy of technic, and his books on method 
have taken the very highest rank. 

His pedagogical attainments have over- 
shadowed his composition, but he has written 
some excellent music. As he has been an 
educational force in classical music, so his 
compositions show the severe pursuit of clas- 
sic forms and ideas. His work is, therefore, 
rather ingenious than inspired, and intellec- 
tual rather than emotional. Yale made him 
Doctor of Music in 1872. 

Another composer whose studies in technic 
have left him only a little inclination for crea- 
tion is Albert Ross Parsons, who was born at 
Sandusky, O., September 16, 1847. He 
studied in Buffalo, and in New York under 
Ritter. Then he went to Germany, where 
he had a remarkably thorough schooling 



342 Contemporary American Composers. 

under Moscheles, Reinecke, Richter, Paul, 
Taussig, Kullak, and others. Returning to 
this country, he has busied himself as organ- 
ist, teacher, and an editor of musical works. 
What little music he has composed shows the 
fruit of his erudition in its correctness. 

Such men as Doctor Mason and Mr. Par- 
sons, though they add little to the volume of 
composition, a thing for which any one 
should be thanked on some considerations, 
yet add great dignity to their profession in 
this country. 

Arthur, 1 a younger brother of Ethelbert 
Nevin, shows many of the Nevinian traits of 
lyric energy and harmonic color in his songs. 
He was born at Sewickley, Pa., in 1871. Until 
he was eighteen he had neither interest nor 
knowledge in music. In 1891 he began a 
four years' course in Boston, going thence to 
Berlin, where his masters were Klindworth 
and Boise. A book of four graceful " May 
Sketches " has been published, " Pierrot's 

1 See p. 474- 



The Colonists. 343 

Guitar " being especially ingenious. There 
are two published songs, " Were I a Tone " 
and " In Dreams," both emotionally rich. In 
manuscript are a fine song, " Free as the 
Tossing Sea," and a well-devised trio. 

A successful writer of songs is C. Whitney 
Coombs. 1 He was born in Maine, in 1864, 
and went abroad at the age of fourteen. 
He studied the piano with Speidel, and com- 
position with Seiffritz, in Stuttgart, for five 
years, and pursued his studies later in Dres- 
den under Draessecke, Janssen, and John. 
In 1887 he became organist at the American 
Church in that city, returning to America 
in 1891, since which time he has been an 
organist in New York. 

In 1891 his publication begins with "My 
Love," an excellent lilt on lines from the 
Arabian. Among his many songs a few 
should be noted : the " Song of a Summer 
Night " is brilliant and poetic, and " Alone " 

is marked by some beautiful contramelodic 
1 See p. 536. 



344 Contemporary American Composers. 

effects ; his " Indian Serenade " is a gra- 
cious work. 

J. Remington Fairlamb has been a prolific 
composer. He was born at Philadelphia, and 
at fourteen was a church organist. He 
studied at the Paris Conservatoire and in 
Italy ; was appointed consul at Zurich by 
President Lincoln, and while in Stuttgart 
was decorated by the King of Wurtemburg 
with the "Great Gold Medal of Art and 
Science " for a Te Deum for double chorus 
and orchestra. Of Fairlamb's compositions, 
some two hundred have been published, 
including much sacred music and parts of 
two operas. A grand opera, " Leonelio," in 
five acts, and a mass are in manuscript. 

Frank Seymour Hastings has found in 
music a pleasant avocation from finance, and 
written various graceful songs. He has been 
active, too, in the effort to secure a proper 
production of grand opera in English. 

Dr. John M. Loretz, of Brooklyn, is a 



The Colonists. 345 

veteran composer, and has passed his opus 
200. He has written much sacred music 
and several comic operas. 

A prominent figure in New York music, 
though only an occasional composer, is Louis 
Raphael Dressier, one of the six charter 
members of the Manuscript Society, and long 
its treasurer. His father was William Dress- 
ier, one of the leading musicians of the 
earlier New York, where Mr. Dressier was 
born, in 1861. Dressier studied with his 
father, and inherited his ability as a profes- 
sional accompanist and conductor. He was 
the first to produce amateur performances of 
opera in New York. His songs are marked 
with sincerity and spontaneity. 

Richard Henry Warren has been the or- 
ganist at St. Bartholomew's since 1886, and 
the composer of much religious music in 
which both skill and feeling are present. 
Among his more important works are two 
complete services, a scene for barytone 



346 Contemporary American Composers. 

solo, male chorus, and orchestra, called "Ti- 
conderoga," and a powerful Christmas anthem. 
Warren has written also various operettas, in 
which he shows a particular grasp of instru- 
mentation, and an ability to give new turns 
of expression to his songs, while keeping 
them smooth and singable. An unpublished 
short song of his, " When the Birds Go North," 
is a remarkably beautiful work, showing an 
aptitude that should be more cultivated. 

Warren was born at Albany, September 
17, 1859. He is a son and pupil of George 
W. Warren, the distinguished organist. He 
went to Europe in 1880, and again in 1886, 
for study and observation. He was the or- 
ganizer and conductor of the Church Choral 
Society, which gave various important relig- 
ious works their first production in New 
York, and, in some cases, their first Hearing 
in America, notably, Dvorak's Requiem Mass, 
Gounod's "Mors et Vita," Liszt's Thirteenth 
Psalm, Saint-Saens' "The Heavens Declare," 



The Colonists. 347 

Villiers Stanford's " God is Our Hope and 
Strength," and Mackenzie's "Veni, Creator 
Spiritus." Horatio Parker's " Hora Novis- 
sima " was composed for this society, and 
Chadwick's " Phoenix Expirans " given its 
first New York performance. 

A prominent organist and teacher is Smith 
N. Penfield, who has also found time for the 
composition of numerous scholarly works, 
notably, an overture for full orchestra, an 
orchestral setting of the eighteenth psalm, a 
string quartette, and many pieces for the 
organ, voice, and piano. His tuition has been 
remarkably thorough. Born in Oberlin, 
Ohio, April 4, 1837, he studied the piano 
in Germany with Moscheles, Papperitz, and 
Reinecke, the organ with Richter, composi- 
tion, counterpoint, and fugue with Reinecke 
and Hauptmann. He had also a period of 
study in Paris. 

Another organist of distinction is Frank 
Taft, who is also a conductor and a composer. 



348 Contemporary American Composers. 

His most important work is a " Marche Sym 
phonique," which was performed by the Bos- 
ton Symphony Orchestra. He was born in 
East Bloomfield, New York, and had his 
education entirely in this country, studying 
the organ with Clarence Eddy, and theory 
with Frederick Grant Gleason. 

A young composer of many graceful songs 
is Charles Fonteyn Manney/who was born 
in Brooklyn in 1872, and studied theory with 
William Arms Fisher in New York, and later 
with J. Wallace Goodrich at Boston. His 
most original song is "Orpheus with His 
Lute," which reproduces the quaint and fas- 
cinating gaucheries of the text with singular 
charm. He has also set various songs of 
Heine's to music, and a short cantata for 
Easter, "The Resurrection." 

An ability that is strongly individual is 
that of Arthur Farwell, 2 whose first teacher 
in theory was Homer A. Norris, and who 

later studied under Humperdinck in Ger- 
1 See p. 558. 2 See p. 508. 



The Colonists, 349 

many. Among his works are an elaborate 
ballade for piano and violin, a setting of 
Shelley's " Indian Serenade," and four folk- 
songs to words by Johanna Ambrosius, the 
peasant genius of Germany. Among others 
of his published songs is " Strow Poppy 
Buds," a strikingly original composition. 

A writer of numerous elegant trifles and 
of a serious symphony is Harry Patterson 
Hopkins, who was born in Baltimore, and 
graduated at the Peabody Institute in 1896, 
receiving the diploma for distinguished mu- 
sicianship. The same year he went to 
Bohemia, and studied with Dv6rak. He 
returned to America to assist in the produc- 
tion of one of his compositions by Anton 
Seidl. 

Very thorough was the foreign training of 
Carl V. Lachmund, whose "Japanese Over- 
ture " has been produced under the direction 
of Thomas and Seidl, in the former case at a 
concert of that society at which many impor- 



3 SO Contemporary American Composers. 

tant native works have had their only hearing, 
the Music Teachers' National Association. 
Lachmund was born at Booneville, Mo., in 
1854. At the age of thirteen he began his 
tuition at Cologne, under Heller, Jensen, and 
Seiss ; later he went to Berlin to study 
with the Scharwenkas, Kiel, and Moskowski. 
He had also four years of Liszt's training at 
Weimar. A trio for harp, violin, and 'cello 
was played by the Berlin Philharmonic Or- 
chestra, and a concert prelude for the piano 
was much played in concerts in Germany. 
Before returning to America, Lachmund was 
for a time connected with the opera at 
Cologne. 

The Boston Colony. 

To the composer potentially a writer of 
grand operas, but barred out by the absolute 
lack of opening here, the dramatic ballad 
should offer an attractive form. Such works 
as Schubert's "Eii-King" show what can be 



The Colonists. 35 ! 

done. Henry H olden Huss has made some 
interesting experiments, and Fred. Field 
Bullard has tried the field. 

Bullard's setting of Tennyson's almost lurid 
melodrama in six stanzas, "The Sisters," has 
caught the bitter mixture of love and hate, 
and avoided claptrap climaxes most impres- 
sively. 

" In the Greenwood " (op. 14) is graceful, 
and "A June Lullaby" has a charming ac- 
companiment of humming rain. Bullard has 
set some of Shelley's lyrics for voice and 
harp or piano, in opus 17. " From Dreams of 
Thee " gets a delicious quaintness of accom- 
paniment, while the " Hymn of Pan " shows 
a tremendous savagery and uncouthness, with 
strange and stubborn harmonies. Full of the 
same roborific virility are his settings to the 
songs of Richard Hovey's writing, " Here's a 
Health to Thee, Roberts," Barney McGee," 
and the " Stein Song." These songs have 
an exuberance of the roistering spirit, along 



352 Contemporary American Composers. 



HYMN OF PAN. 



Mulct, 

FRED FIELD BOLLARA 
Op.l7,N?4. 








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Copyright, 1894, by Miles & Thompson. 

A FRAGMENT. 



The Colonists. 



353 




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birds in the myr . tie bush . 



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354 Contemporary American Composers. 

with a competence of musicianship that lifts 
them above any comparison with the average 
balladry. Similarly " The Sword of Ferrara," 
with its hidalgic pride, and "The Indif- 
ferent Mariner," and the drinking-song, " The 
Best of All Good Company," are all what 
Horace Greeley would have called "mighty 
interesting." Not long ago I would have 
wagered my head against a hand-saw, that no 
writer of this time could write a canon with 
spontaneity. But then I had not seen Bui- 
lard's three duets in canon form. He has 
chosen his words so happily and expressed 
them so easily, and with such arch raillery, 
that the duets are delicious. Of equal gaiety 
is "The Lass of Norwich Town," which, 
with its violin obbligato, won a prize in the 
Musical Record competition of 1899. 

Bullard was born at Boston, in 1864. He 
studied chemistry at first, but the claims 
of music on his interest were too great, and 
in 1888 he went to Munich, where he studied 




FREDERICK FIELD BULLARD. 



The Colonists. 355 

with Josef Rheinberger. After four years of 
European life he returned to Boston, where 
he has taught harmony and counterpoint 
along rather original lines. He is a writer 
with ideas and resources that give promise 
of a large future. His scholarship has not 
led him away from individuality. He is 
especially likely to give unexpected turns 
of expression, little bits of programmism 
rather incompatible with the ballad form 
most of his songs take. The chief fault with 
his work is the prevailing dun-ness of his 
harmonies. They have not felt the impres- 
sionistic revolt from the old bituminous school. 
But in partial compensation for this bleak- 
ness is a fine ruggedness. 

Of his other published songs, "At Day- 
break" shows a beautiful fervor of repres- 
sion. "On the Way" is redeemed by a 
particularly stirring finish. In opus 8, "A 
Prayer " is begun in D minor and ended 
in D major, with a strong effect of sudden 



356 Contemporary American Composers. 

exaltation from gloom. "The Singer" be- 
gins also in sombre style with unusual 
and abrupt modulations, and ends in a bright 
major. " The Hermit " is likewise grim, 
but is broad and deep. It uses a hint of 
" Old Hundred " in the accompaniment. 

Opus 1 1 couples two dramatic ballads. 
In this form of condensed drama is a too- 
little occupied field of composition, and Bullard 
has written some part songs, of which "In 
the Merry Month of May," "Her Scuttle 
Hat," and "The Water Song" are worth 
mentioning. " O Stern Old Land " is a rather 
bathetic candidate for the national hymnship. 
But his " War Song of Gamelbar," for male 
voices, is really a masterwork. Harmonists 
insist on so much closer compliance with 
rules for smoothness in vocal compositions 
than in instrumental work, that the usual 
composer gives himself very little liberty 
here. Bullard, however, has found the right 
occasion for wild dissonances, and has dared 



The Colonists. 357 

to use them. The effect is one of terrific 
power. This, his " Song of Pan " and " The 
Sisters " give him a place apart from the rest 
of native song-writers. 

With all reverence for German music, it 
has been too much inclined of late to domi- 
neer the rest of the world, especially Amer- 
ica. A useful counter-influence is that of 
Homer A. Norris, who has stepped out of 
the crowd flying to Munich and neighboring 
places, and profited by Parisian harmonic 
methods. 

His book, " Practical Harmony," imparts a, 
to us, novel method of disarming the bugaboo 
of altered chords of many of its notorious 
terrors. He also attacks the pedantry of 
music " so constructed that it appeals to the 
eye rather than the ear, paper-work," a 
most praiseworthy assault on what is possibly 
the heaviest incubus on inspiration. In a 
later work on " Counterpoint " he used for 
chapter headings Greek vases and other 



358 Contemporary American Composers. 

decorative designs, to stimulate the ideal of 
counterpoint as a unified complexity of grace- 
ful contours. 

Norris was born in Wayne, Me., and be- 
came an organist at an early age. His chief 
interest has been, however, in the theory of 
music, and he studied with G. W. Marston, 
F. W. Hale, and G. W. Chadwick, as well as 
Emery. In deciding upon foreign study he 
was inspired to choose France instead of Ger- 
many. This has given him a distinct place. 

After studying in Paris for four years 
under Dubois, Godard, Guilmant, and Gigout, 
he made his home in Boston, where he has 
since confined himself to the teaching of 
composition. 

As yet Mr. Norris has composed little, 
and that little is done on simple lines, but 
the simplicity is deep, and the harmonies, 
without being bizarre, are wonderfully mellow. 

His first song, " Rock-a-bye, Baby," he sold 
for twelve printed copies, and it is said to 




HOMER A. NORRIS. 



The Colonists. 359 

have had a larger sale than any cradle-song 
ever published in this country. His song, 
"Protestations," is tender, and has a violin 
obbligato that is really more important than 
the voice part. The song, " Parting, ' is wild 
with passion, and bases a superb melody on 
a fitting harmonic structure. I consider 
" Twilight " one of the best American songs. 
It gets some unusual effects with intervals 
of tenths and ninths, and shows a remarkable 
depth of emotion. 

In the larger forms he has done a concert 
overture, " Zoroaster " (which, judging from 
an outline, promises many striking effects), 
and a cantata, " Nam," which has the sin of 
over-repetition of words, but is otherwise 
marked with telling pathos and occasional 
outbursts of intensely dramatic feeling. 

Perhaps his most original work is seen in 
his book of " Four Songs for Mezzo- Voice." 
The first is Kipling's " O Mother Mine," with 
harshnesses followed by tenderest musings ; 



360 Contemporary American Composers. 

the second is a noble song, " Peace," with an 
accompaniment consisting entirely of the 
slowly descending scale of C major ; a high- 
colored lilt, " The World and a Day," is fol- 
lowed by a Maeterlinckian recitative of the 
most melting pathos. This book is another 
substantiation of my belief that America is 
writing the best of the songs of to-day. 

One of the best-esteemed musicians in 
Boston, G. E. Whiting has devoted more of his 
interest to his career as virtuoso on the 
organ than to composition. Not many of 
such works as he has found time to write 
have been printed. These include an organ 
sonata, a number of organ pieces, a book of 
studies for the organ, six songs, and three 
cantatas for solos, chorus, and orchestra, "A 
Tale of the Viking," " Dream Pictures," and 
"A Midnight Cantata." 

Whiting was born at Holliston, Mass., 
September 14, 1842. At the age of five, he 
began the study of music with his brother. 



The Colonists. 361 

At the age of fifteen, he moved to Hartford, 
Conn., where he succeeded Dudley Buck as 
organist of one of the churches. Here he 
founded the Beethoven Society. At the age 
of twenty he went to Boston, and after 
studying with Morgan, went to Liverpool, 
and studied the organ under William Thomas 
Best. Later he made a second pilgrimage 
to Europe, and studied under Radeck. 

For many years he has lived in Boston as 
a teacher of music and performer upon the 
organ. In manuscript are a number of works 
which I have not had the privilege of seeing : 
two masses for chorus, orchestra, and organ, 
a concert overture, a concerto, a sonata, a 
fantasy and fugue, a fantasy and three Etudes, 
a suite for 'cello and piano, and a setting of 
Longfellow's "Golden Legend," which won 
two votes out of five in the thousand dollar 
musical festival of 1897, the prize being 
awarded to Dudley Buck. 

Of his compositions H. E. Krehbiel in 



362 Contemporary American Composers. 



Peace. 



EDWARD ROWLAND SILL. 

About ut-.J 



Rone A-Nouit. 







seek -ing, Tts Dot ID end - less atriv - mg. Thy quest is found: Tby 




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quest is found. Be still and Us - ten; Be still and drink the qui . et of 




Copyright, 1900, by H. B. Stevens Co. International copyright secured. 
I 'mil by permiuion of H. B. Stevens Co., Boston, owners of the copyright. 



The Colonists. 



363 



ai= > J -a 

Not for thy cry - ing, Not for thy 



all a - round. 



loud be- seech- ing, Will peace draw near: Will .peace draw near 






orequietly 



Rest with palms fotd.ed; Rest withthine eye-lids fal - len. 




364 Contemporary American Composers. 

1 892 recorded the opinion that they " entitled 
him to a position among the foremost musi- 
cians in this country." He is an uncle of 
Arthur Whiting. 

G. W. Marston's setting of the omnipresent 
" Du bist wie eine Blume " is really one of the 
very best Heine's poem has ever had. Possi- 
bly it is the best of all the American settings. 
His " There Was an Aged Monarch " is seri- 
ously deserving of the frankest comparison 
with Grieg's treatment of the same Lied. It 
is interesting to note the radical difference of 
their attitudes toward it. Grieg writes in a 
folk-tone that is severe to the point of grim- 
ness. He is right because it is ein altes Lied- 
chen, and Heine's handling of it is also kept 
outwardly cold. But Marston has rendered 
the song into music of the richest harmony 
and fullest pathos. He is right, also, because 
he has interpreted the undercurrent of the 
story. 

Bodenstedt's ubiquitous lyric, "Wenn der 



The Colonists. 365 

Friihling auf die Berge steigt," which rivals 
" Du bist wie eine Blume " in the favor of 
composers, has gathered Marston also into 
its net. He gives it a climax that fairly 
sweeps one off his feet, though one might 
wish that the following and final phrase had 
not forsaken the rich harmonies of the climax 
so completely. 

This song is the first of a " Song Album " 
for sopranos, published in 1890. In this 
group the accompaniments all receive an 
attention that gives them meaning without 
obtrusiveness. " The Duet " is a delicious 
marriage of the song of a girl and the ac- 
companying rapture of a bird. 

A captivating little florid figure in the 
accompaniment of a setting of " Im wunder- 
schonen Monat Mai " gives the song worth. 
" On the Water " is profound with sombre- 
ness and big simplicity. "The Boat of My 
Lover " is quaintly delightful. 

Marston was born in Massachusetts, at the 



366 Contemporary American Composers. 

little town of Sandwich, in 1840. He studied 
there, and later at Portland, Me., with John 
W. Tufts, and has made two pilgrimages to 
Europe for instruction. He played the organ 
in his native town at the age of fifteen, and 
since finishing his studies has lived at Port- 
land, teaching the piano, organ, and harmony. 
From the start his songs caught popularity, 
and were much sung in concert. 

Marston has written a sacred dramatic 
cantata, "David," and a large amount of 
church music that is very widely used. 
He has written also a set of quartettes and 
trios for women's voices, and quartettes for 
men's voices. 

Possibly his best-known song has been his 
"Could Ye Come Back to Me, Douglas," 
which Mrs. Craik called the best of all her 
poem's many settings. 

Only Marston's later piano pieces are really 
klaviermassig. So fine a work as his " Ga- 
votte in B Minor " has no need to consider the 



The Colonists. 



367 



resources of the modern instrument. It has 
a color scheme of much originality, though 
it is marred by over-repetition. "A Night 
in Spain " is a dashing reminiscence, not 
without Spanish spirit, and an "Album 
Leaf " is a divertissement of contagious en- 
thusiasm. 



iS 



15 



m 



Ariel's songs, from "The Tempest," are 
given a piano interpretation that reaches a 
high plane. There is a storm prologue which 
suggests, in excellent harmonies, the distant 
mutter of the storm rather than a piano- 
gutting tornado. " Full Fathoms Five Thy 
Father Lies " is a reverie of wonderful depth 
and originality, with a delicious variation on 



368 Contemporary American Composers. 

the good old-fashioned cadence. Thence it 
works up into an immensely powerful close. 
A dance, " Foot it Featly," follows. It is 
sprightly, and contains a fetching cadenza. 

One of the most prolific writers of Amer- 
ican song is Clayton Johns. 1 He is al- 
most always pleasing and polished. While 
he is not at all revolutionary, he has a cer- 
tain individuality of ease, and lyric quality 
without storm or stress of passion. Thus 
his settings of seven " Wanderlieder " by 
Uhland have all the spirit of the road except 
ruggedness. 

His setting of " Du bist wie eine Blume " 
is extremely tender and sweet. 

Two of Johns' best successes have been 
settings of Egyptian subjects : " Were I a 
Prince Egyptian " and Arlo Bates' fine lyric, 
"No Lotus Flower on Ganges Borne." The 
latter is a superb song of unusual fire, with 
a strong effect at the end, the voice ceasing 

at a deceptive cadence, while the accompani- 
1 See p. 551. 



The Colonists. 369 

ment sweeps on to its destiny in the original 
key. He has also found a congenial subject 
in Austin Dobson's " The Rose and the Gar- 
dener." He gets for a moment far from its 
florid grace in " I Looked within My Soul," 
which has an unwonted bigness, and is a 
genuine Lied. 

In later years Johns' songs have been 
brought out in little albums, very artistically 
got up, especially for music (which has been 
heinously printed, as a rule, in this country). 
These albums include three skilfully writ- 
ten " English Songs," and three " French 
Songs," " Soupir " taking the form of melodic 
recitative. Opus 19 is a group of " Wonder 
Songs," which interpret Oliver Herford's 
quaint conceits capitally. 

Opus 26 collects nine songs, of which 
" Princess Pretty Eyes " is fascinatingly ar- 
chaic. It is good to see him setting two 
such remotely kindred spirits as Herrick and 
Emily Dickinson. The latter has hardly been 



Contemporary American Composers. 

discovered by composers, and the former is 
too much neglected. 

Johns has also written a few part songs 
and some instrumental works, which maintain 
his characteristics. A delightful " Canzone," 
a happy "Promenade," and "Mazurka" are 
to be mentioned, and a number of pieces 
for violin and piano, among them a finely 
built intermezzo, a berceuse, a romanza that 
should be highly effective, and a witty scher- 
zino. He has written for strings a berceuse 
and a scherzino, which have been played by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and certain 
part songs, as well as a chorus for female 
voices and string orchestra, have been sung 
in London. 

Johns was born at New Castle, Del., No- 
vember 24, 1857, of American parents. 
Though at first a student of architecture, he 
gave this up for music, and studied at Boston 
under Wm. F. Apthorp, J. K. Paine, and 
W. H. Sherwood, after which he went to Ber- 



The Colonists. 371 

lin, where he studied under Kiel, Grabau, 
Raif, and Franz Rummel. In 1884 he made 
Boston his home. 

If San Francisco had found some way of 
retaining the composers she has produced, 
she would have a very respectable colony. 
Among the others who have come east to 
grow up with music is William Arms Fisher, 1 
who was born in San Francisco, April 27, 
1 86 1. The two composers from whom he 
derives his name, Joshua Fisher and William 
Arms, settled in Massachusetts colony in the 
seventeenth century. He studied harmony, 
organ, and piano with John P. Morgan. After 
devoting some years to business, he committed 
his life to music, and in 1890 came to New 
York, where he studied singing. Later he 
went to London to continue his vocal studies. 
Returning to New York, he took up counter- 
point and fugue with Horatio W. Parker, and 
composition and instrumentation with Dvdrak. 
After teaching harmony for several years, he 

1 See p. 568. 



372 Contemporary American Composers. 

went to Boston, where he now lives. His 
work has been almost altogether the compo- 
sition of songs. A notable feature of his 
numerous publications is their agreeable diver- 
sion from the usual practice of composers, 
which is to write lyrics of wide range and 
high pitch. Nearly all his songs are written 
for the average voice. 

His first opus contains a setting of " Nur 
wer die Sehnsucht kennt," which I like better 
than the banal version Tschai'kowski made of 
the same words. The third opus contains three 
songs to Shelley's words. They show some- 
thing of the intellectual emotion of the poet. 
The first work, " A Widow Bird Sate Mourn- 
ing," is hardly lyrical ; " My Coursers Are Fed 
with the Lightning " is a stout piece of writ- 
ing, but the inspired highfalutin of the words 
would be trying upon one who arose to sing 
the song before an audience. This, by the 
way, is a point rarely considered by the 
unsuccessful composers, and the words which 



The Colonists. 373 

the singer is expected to declare to an ordi- 
nary audience are sometimes astounding. The 
third Shelley setting, "The World's Wan- 
derer," is more congenial to song. 

Opus 5 is entitled " Songs without Tears." 
These are for a bass voice, and by all odds the 
best of his songs. An appropriate setting 
is Edmund Clarence Stedman's "Falstaff's 
Song," a noteworthy lyric of toss-pot moraliza- 
tion on death. His song of " Joy " is exuber- 
ant with spring gaiety, and some of his best 
manner is seen in his " E16gie," for violin and 
piano. He has also written a deal of church 
song. 

A venerable and distinguished teacher and 
composer is James C. D. Parker, who was 
born at Boston, in 1828, and graduated from 
Harvard in 1848. He at first studied law, 
but was soon turned to music, and studied 
for three years in Europe under Richte^ 
Plaidy, Hauptmann, Moscheles, Rietz, and 
Becker. He graduated from the conserva- 



374 Contemporary American Composers. 

tory at Leipzig, and returned to Boston in 

1845. 

His " Redemption Hymn " is one of his 
most important works, and was produced in 
Boston by the Handel and Haydn Society 
in 1877. He also composed other works for 
orchestra and chorus, and many brilliant piano 
compositions. 

An interesting method of writing duets is 
that employed in the " Children's Festival," 
by Charles Dennee. 1 The pupil plays in some 
places the primo, and in others the secondo, 
his part being written very simply, while the 
part to be played by the teacher is written 
with considerable elaboration, so that the 
general effect is not so narcotic as usual with 
duets for children. Dennee has written, 
among many works of little specific gravity, a 
" Suite Moderne " of much skill, a suite for 
string orchestra, an overture and sonatas 
for the piano and for the violin and piano, 

as well as various comic operas. He was 
1 See p. 476. 




FREDERICK GRANT GLEASON. 



The Colonists. 375 

born in Oswego, N. Y., September i, 1863, 
and studied composition with Stephen A. 
Emery. 

A composer of a genial gaiety, one who 
has written a good minuet and an " Evening 
Song " that is not morose, is Benjamin Lincoln 
Whelpley, 1 who was born at Eastport, Me., 
October 23, 1863, and studied the piano at 
Boston with B. J. Lang, and composition with 
Sidney Homer and others. He also studied 
in Paris for a time in 1890. He has written 
a " Dance of the Gnomes,"* that is char- 
acteristic and brilliantly droll, and a piano 
piece, called " Under Bright Skies," which 
has the panoply and progress of a sunlit 
cavalcade. 

Ernest Osgood Hiler has written some 
good music for the violin, a book of songs for 
children, " Cloud, Field, and Flower," and 
some sacred music. He studied in Germany 
for two years 

See p. 556, 



376 Contemporary American Composers. 

The Chicago Colony. 

Most prominent among Chicago's com- 
posers is doubtless Frederick Grant Gleason, 
who has written in the large forms with dis- 
tinguished success. The Thomas Orchestra 
has performed a number of his works, which 
is an excellent praise, because Thomas, who 
has done so much for American audiences, 
has worried himself little about the Ameri- 
can composer. At the World's Fair, which 
was, in some ways, the artistic birthday of 
Chicago, and possibly the most important 
artistic event in our national history, some of 
Gleason' s works were performed by Thomas' 
organization, among them the Vorspiel to 
an opera, " Otho Visconti" (op. 7), for which 
Gleason wrote both words and music. 

This Vorspiel, like that to " Lohengrin," is 
short and delicate. It begins ravishingly 
with flutes and clarinets and four violins, 
pianissimo, followed by a blare of brass. 
After this introductory period the work runs 



The Colonists. 377 

through tenderly contemplative musing to 
the end, in which, again, the only strings are 
the four violins, though here they are accom- 
panied by the brass and wood-winds and tym- 
pani, the cymbals being gently tapped with 
drumsticks. The introduction to the third 
act of the opera is more lyrical, but not so 
fine. Another opera is " Montezuma" (op. 
1 6). Gleason is again his own librettist. Of 
this opera I have been privileged to see 
the complete piano score, and much of the 
orchestral. 

In the first act Guatemozin, who has 
been exiled by Montezuma, appears dis- 
guised as an ancient minstrel and sings pro- 
phetically of the coming of a god of peace 
and love to supplant the terrible idol that 
demands human sacrifice. This superbly 
written aria provokes from the terrified idola- 
ters a chorus of fear and reproach that is 
strongly effective. The next act begins 
with an elaborate aria followed by a love duet 



378 Contemporary American Composers. 



t< 



w 



i}JZ 















EXCERPT FROM AN ORCHESTRAL SCORE BY MR. GLEASON. 



The Colonists. 379 

of much beauty. A heavily scored priests' 
march is one of the chief numbers, and like 
most marches written by the unco' learned, 
it is a grain of martial melody in a bushel of 
trumpet figures and preparation. The Wag- 
nerian leit-motif idea is adopted in this and 
other works of his, and the chief objection to 
his writing is its too great fidelity to the 
Wagnerian manner, notably in the use of 
suspensions and passing-notes, otherwise he 
is a very powerful harmonist and an instru- 
menter of rare sophistication. A soprano 
aria with orchestral accompaniment has been 
taken from the opera and sung in concert 
with strong effect. 

Another work played at the World's Fair 
by Thomas, is a "Processional of the Holy 
Grail." It is scored elaborately, but is rather 
brilliant than large. It complimentarily in- 
troduces a hint or two of Wagner's Grail 
motif. 

The symphonic poem, "Edris," was also 



380 Contemporary American Composers. 

performed by the Thomas Orchestra. It is 
based upon Marie Corelli's novel, " Ardath," 
which gives opportunity for much pro- 
grammism, but of a mystical highly colored 
sort for which music is especially competent. 
It makes use of a number of remarkably beau- 
tiful motives. One effect much commented 
upon was a succession of fifths in the bass, 
used legitimately enough to express a dreari- 
ness of earth. 

This provoked from that conservative 
of conservatives, the music copyist, a patroniz- 
ing annotation, " Quinten ! " to which Gleason 
added " Gewiss ! " A series of augmented 
triads, smoothly manipulated, was another 
curiosity of the score. 

Possibly Gleason' s happiest work is his 
exquisite music for that most exquisite of 
American poems, "The Culprit Fay." It is 
described in detail in Upton's " Standard 
Cantatas," and liberally quoted from in Good- 
rich' "Musical Analysis." While I have 



The Colonists. 381 

seen both the piano and orchestral scores of 
this work (op. 15), and have seen much 
beauty in them, my space compels me to 
refer the curious reader to either of these 
most recommendable books. 

Gleason has had an unusual schooling. 
He was born in Middletown, Conn., in 1848. 
His parents were musical, and when at six- 
teen he wrote a small matter of two oratorios 
without previous instruction, they put him to 
study under Dudley Buck. From his tuition 
he graduated to Germany, and to such teach- 
ers as Moscheles, Richter, Plaidy, Lobe, Raif, 
Taussig, and Weitzmann. He studied in 
England after that, and returned again to 
Germany. When he re-appeared in America 
he remained a while at Hartford, Conn., 
whence he went to Chicago in 1876. He has 
lived there since, working at teaching and 
composition, and acting as musical critic of 
the Chicago Tribune. An unusually gifted 
body of critics, dramatic, musical, and literary, 



382 Contemporary American Composers. 

has worked upon the Chicago newspapers, 
and Gleason has been prominent among 
them. 

Among other important compositions of 
his are a symphonic cantata, "The Audito- 
rium Festival Ode," sung at the dedication of 
the Chicago Auditorium by a chorus of five 
hundred ; sketches for orchestra, a piano con- 
certo, organ music, and songs. 

As is shown by the two or three vocal 
works of his that I have seen, Gleason is less 
successful as a melodist than as a harmonist. 
But in this latter capacity he is gifted indeed, 
and is peculiarly fitted to furnish forth with 
music Ebling's "Lobgesang auf die Harmo- 
nic." In his setting of this poem he has used a 
soprano and a barytone solo with male chorus 
and orchestra. The harmonic structure 
throughout is superb in all the various vir- 
tues ascribed to harmony. The ending is 
magnificent. 

A work completed December, 1899, for 



The Colonists. 383 

production by the Thomas Orchestra, is a 
symphonic poem called " The Song of Life," 
with this motto from S win bourne : 

" They have the night, who had, like us, the day ; 
We whom the day binds shall have night as they; 
We, from the fetters of the light unbound, 
Healed of our wound of living, shall sleep sound." 

The first prominent musician to give a 
certain portion of his program regularly to 
the American composer, was William H. 
Sherwood. This recognition from so dis- 
tinguished a performer could not but interest 
many who had previously turned a deaf ear 
to all the musical efforts of the Eagle. In 
addition to playing their piano works, he 
has transcribed numerous of their orchestral 
works to the piano, and played them. In 
short, he has been so indefatigable a laborer 
for the cause of other American composers, 
that he has found little time to write his own 
ideas. 



384 Contemporary American Composers. 

Sherwood will be chiefly remembered as a 
pianist, but he has written a certain amount 
of music of an excellent quality. Opera 1-4 
were published abroad. Opus 5 is a suite, 
the second number of which is an " Idylle " 
that deserves its name. It is as blissfully 
clear and ringing as anything could well be, 
and drips with a Theokritan honey. The 
third number of the suite is called "Greet- 
ings." It has only one or two unusual 
touches. Number 4 bears the suggestive 
title, " Regrets for the Pianoforte." It was 
possibly written after some of his less 
promising pupils had finished a lesson. 
The last number of the suite is a quaint 
Novelette. 

Sherwood's sixth opus is made up of a 
brace of mazurkas. The former, in C minor, 
contains some of his best work. It is origi- 
nal and moody, and ends strongly. The 
second, in A major, is still better. It not 
only keeps up a high standard throughout, 




WILLIAM H. SHERWOOD. 



The Colonists. 



385 



IDYLLE. 

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Copyright, 1883, by G. Schirmer. 

A FRAGMENT. 



386 Contemporary American Composers. 

but shows occasional touches of the most 
fascinating art. 

A scherzo (op. 7) cracks a few good 
jokes, but is mostly elaboration. Opus 8 is 
a fiery romanza appassionata. Opus 9 is a 
Scherzo-Caprice. This is probably his best 
work. It is dedicated to Liszt, and though 
extremely brilliant, is full of meaning. It 
has an interlude of tender romance. " Coy 
Maiden" is a graceful thing, but hardly de- 
serves the punishment of so horrible a name. 
"A Gypsy Dance" is too long, but it is of 
good material. It has an interesting metre, 
three-quarter time with the first note dotted. 
There is a good effect gained by sustaining cer- 
tain notes over several measures, though few 
pianists get a real sostenuto. An " Allegro 
Patetico" (op. 12), "Medea " (op. 13), and a 
set of small pieces (one of them a burlesque 
called "A Caudle Lecture," with a garrulous 
" said she " and a somnolent " said he ") make 
up his rather short list of compositions. 



The Colonists. 387 

Sherwood was born at Lyons, New York, 
of good American stock. His father was his 
teacher until the age of seventeen, when he 
studied with Heimberger, Pychowski, and 
Dr. William Mason. He studied in Europe 
with Kullak and Deppe, Scotson Clark, 
Weitzmann, Doppler, Wuerst, and Richter. 
He was for a time organist in Stuttgart and 
later in Berlin. He was one of those favorite 
pupils of Liszt, and played in concerts abroad 
with remarkable success, winning at the age of 
eighteen high critical enthusiasm. He has 
been more cordially recognized abroad than 
here, but is assuredly one of the greatest 
living pianists. It is fortunate that his 
patriotism keeps him at home, where he is 
needed in the constant battle against the 
indecencies of apathy and Philistinism. 

The Yankee spirit of constructive irrever- 
ence extends to music, and in recent years a 
number of unusually modern-minded theorists 
have worked at the very foundations : Dr. 



388 Contemporary American Composers. 

Percy Goetschius (born here, and for long a 
teacher at Stuttgart) ; O. B. Boise (born here, 
and teaching now in Berlin) ; Edwin Bruce, 
the author of a very radical work ; Homer 
A. Norris ; and last, and first, A. J. Goodrich, 
who has made himself one of the most ad- 
vanced of living writers on the theory of 
music, and has made so large a contribution 
to the solidity of our attainments, that he is 
recognized among scholars abroad as one of 
the leading spirits of his time. His success 
is the more pleasing since he was not only 
born but educated in this country. 

The town of Chilo, Ohio, was Goodrich' 
birthplace. He was born there in 1847, of 
American parentage. His father taught him 
the rudiments of music and the piano for one 
year, after which he became his own teacher. 
He has had both a thorough and an inde- 
pendent instructor. The fact that he has 
been enabled to follow his own conscience 
without danger of being convinced into error 




A. J. GOODRICH. 



The Colonists. 389 

by the prestige of some influential master, is 
doubtless to be credited with much of the 
novelty and courage of his work. 

His most important book is undoubtedly 
his " Analytical Harmony," though his " Mu- 
sical Analysis " and other works are serious 
and important. This is not the place to 
discuss his technicalities, but one must men- 
tion the real bravery it took to discard the 
old practice of a figured bass, and to attack 
many of the theoretical fetiches without 
hesitation. Almost all of the old theorists 
have confessed, usually in a foot-note to the 
preface or in modest disclaimer lost some- 
where in the book, that the great masters 
would occasionally be found violating certain 
of their rules. But this did not lead them 
to deducing their rules from the great mas- 
ters. Goodrich, however, has, in this matter, 
begun where Marx ended, and has gone 
further even than Prout. He has gone to 
melody as the groundwork of his harmonic 



390 Contemporary American Composers. 

system, and to the practice of great masters, 
old and new, for the tests of all his theories. 
The result is a book which can be unre- 
servedly commended for self-instruction to 
the ignorant and to the too learned. It is 
to be followed by a book on " Synthetic 
Counterpoint," of which Goodrich says, " It 
is almost totally at variance with the standard 
books in counterpoint." 

In his " Musical Analysis " he quoted freely 
from American composers, and analyzed many 
important native works. He has carried out 
this plan also in his book on " Interpretation," 
a work aiming to bring more definiteness into 
the fields of performance and terminology. 

Goodrich' composition is "a thing of the 
past," he says. In his youth he wrote a 
score or more of fugues, two string quar- 
tettes, a trio that was played in New York 
and Chicago, a sonata, two concert overtures, 
a hymn for soprano (in English), invisible 
chorus (in Latin), and orchestra, a volume 



TJie Colonists. 391 

of songs, and numerous piano pieces. He 
writes : " In truth, I believed at one time 
that I was a real composer, but after listen- 
ing to Tscha'ikowski's Fifth Symphony that 
illusion was dispelled. Had not Mrs. Good- 
rich rescued from the flames a few MSS. I 
would have destroyed every note." 

Only a piano suite is left, and this leads 
one to regret that Tschai'kowski should have 
served as a deterrent instead of an inspira- 
tion. The suite has an inelaborate prelude, 
which begins strongly and ends gracefully, 
showing unusual handling throughout. A 
minuet, taken scherzando, is also most original 
and happy. There is a quaint sarabande, and 
a gavotte written on simple lines, but superbly. 
Its musette is simply captivating. All these 
little pieces indeed show sterling originality 
and unusual resources in a small compass. 

W. H. Neidlinger's first three songs 
were kept in his desk for a year and 
then kept by a publisher for a year longer, 



392 Contemporary American Composers. 

and finally brought out in 1889. To 
his great surprise, the "Serenade," which 
he calls "just a little bit of commonplace 
melody," had an immense sale and created a 
demand for more of his work. The absolute 
simplicity of this exquisite gem is misleading. 
It is not cheap in its lack of ornament, but it 
eminently deserves that high-praising epithet 
(so pitilessly abused), " chaste." It has the 
daintiness and minute completeness of a 
Tanagra figurine. 

Mr. Neidlinger was born in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., in 1863, and was compelled to earn 
the money for his own education and for his 
musical studies. From Dudley Buck and, 
later, C. C. Muller, of New York, he has had 
his only musical instruction. He lived abroad 
for some time, teaching the voice in Paris, 
then returned to live in Chicago. He has 
written two operas, one of them having been 
produced by the Bostonians. 

Mr. Neidlinger builds his songs upon one 



The Colonists. 393 

guiding principle, that is, faithfulness to elo- 
cutionary accent and intonation. As he neatly 
phrases it, his songs are "colored sketches 
on a poet's engravings." 

The usual simplicity of Mr. Neidlinger's 
songs does not forbid a dramatic outburst at 
the proper time, as in the fine mood, "A 
Leaf ; " or the sombre depth of " Night," 
" Nocturne," and " Solitude ; " or yet the 
siustainedly poignant anguish of " The Pine- 



tree." Occasionally the accompaniment is 
developed with elaborateness, as in the bird- 
flutings of "The Robin," and "Memories," 
an extremely rich work, with its mellow 
brook-music and a hint of nightingale com- 
plaint in the minor. " Evening Song," a bit 
of inspired tenderness, is one of Mr. Neid- 
linger's best works. Almost better is " Sun- 
shine," a streak of brilliant fire quenched 
with a sudden cloud at the end. Other 
valuable works are "Messages," the happy 
little Scotch song, "Laddie," and "Dream- 



394 Contemporary American Composers. 

ing," which is now sombre, now fierce with 
outbursts of agony, but always a melody, 
always ariose. 

Mr. Neidlinger has made a special study 
of music for children, his book, " Small Songs 
for Small Children," being much used in 
kindergarten work. A book of his, devoted 
to a synthetic philosophy of song, is com- 
pleted for publication ; he calls it " Spenser, 
Darwin, Tyndall, etc., in % sugar-coated pills; 
geography, electricity, and hundreds of other 
things in song." 

The Cleveland Colony. 

The city of Cleveland contains a musical 
colony which is certainly more important 
than that of any town of its size. About the 
tenth of our cities in population, it is at least 
fourth, and possibly third, in productiveness 
in valuable composition. 

The most widely known of Cleveland com- 



The Colonists. 



395 



posers is Wilson G. Smith. 1 He has been 
especially fortunate in hitting the golden 
mean between forbidding abstruseness and 
trivial popularity, and consequently enjoys 
the esteem of those learned in music as well 
as of those merely happy in it. 




His erudition has persuaded him to a large 
simplicity ; his nature turns him to a musical 
optimism that gives many of his works a 
Mozartian cheer. Graciousness is his key. 

He was born in Elyria, O., and educated 
in the public schools of Cleveland, where he 
graduated. Prevented by delicate health 

from a college education, he has nevertheless, 
1 See p. 552. 



396 Contemporary American Composers. 

by wide reading, broadened himself into cul- 
ture, and is an essayist of much skill His 
musical education began in 1876, at Cincin- 
nati, where his teacher, Otto Singer, encour- 
aged him to make music his profession. In 
1880 he was in Berlin, where he studied for 
several years under Kiel, Scharwenka, Mos- 
kowski, and Oscar Raif. He then returned 
to Cleveland, where he took up the teaching 
of organ, piano, voice, and composition. 

The most important of Smith's earlier 
works was a series of five pieces called 
" Hommage a Edvard Grieg," which brought 
warmest commendation from the Scandina- 
vian master. One of the most striking char- 
acteristics of Smith's genius is his ability to 
.catch the exact spirit of other composers. 
He has paid "homage" to Schumann, Cho- 
pin, Schubert, and Grieg, and in all he has 
achieved remarkable success, for he has done 
more than copy their little tricks of expres- 
sion, oddities of manner, and pet weaknesses. 



The Colonists. 397 

He has caught the individuality and the 
spirit of each man. 

In his compositions in Grieg-ton Smith 
has seized the fascinating looseness of the 
Griegorian tonality and its whimsicality. The 
" Humoresque " is a bit of titanic merriment ; 
the " Mazurka " is most deftly built and is 
full of dance-fire; the "Arietta" is highly 
original, and the " Capricietto " shows such 
ingenious management of triplets, and has 
altogether such a crisp, brisk flavor, that it 
reminds one of Lamb's rhapsody on roast 
pig, where he exclaims, " I tasted crackling ! " 
The " Romance," superb in gloom and large- 
ness of treatment, is worthy of the composer 
of "The Death of Asra." A later work, 
"Caprice Norwegienne," is also a strong 
brew of Scandinavian essence. 

A " Schumannesque " is written closely on 
the lines of Schumann's " Arabesque." A 
later " Hommage a Schumann " is equally 
faithful to another style of the master, and 



398 Contemporary American Composers. 

dashes forth with characteristic and un-nai've 
gaiety and challenging thinness of harmony, 
occasionally bursting out into great rare 
chords, just to show what can be done when 
one tries. 

The man that could write both this work 
and the highly faithful " Hommage a Schu- 
bert," and then whirl forth the rich-colored, 
sensuous fall and purr of the " Hommage a 
Chopin," must be granted at least an unusual 
command over pianistic materials, and a most 
unusual acuteness of observation. 

He can write a la Smith, too, and has a 
vein quite his own, even though he prefers 
to build his work on well-established lines, 
and fit his palette with colors well tempered 
and toned by the masters. 

In this line is opus 21, a group of four 
pieces called "Echoes of Ye Olden Time." 
The " Pastorale " is rather Smithian 'than 
olden, with its mellow harmony, but the 
" Minuetto " is the perfection of chivalric fop- 



The Colonists, 399 

pery and pompous gaiety. The " Gavotte " 
suggests the contagious good humor of Bach, 
and the " Minuetto Grazioso," the best of 
the series, has a touch of the goodly old 
intervals, tenths and sixths, that taste like 
a draught of spring water in the midst of 
our modern liqueurs. 

The musical world in convention assem- 
bled has covenanted that certain harmonies 
shall be set apart for pasturage. Just why 
these arbitrary pastorales should suggest 
meads and syrinxes, and dancing shepherds, 
it would be hard to tell. But this effect they 
certainly have, and a good pastorale is a 
better antidote for the blues and other civic 
ills than anything I know, except the actual 
green and blue of fields and skies. Among 
the best of the best pastoral music, I should 
place Smith's " Gavotte Pastorale." It is one 
of the five pieces in his book of " Romantic 
Studies" (op. 57). 

This same volume contains a " Scherzo 



400 Contemporary American Composers. 

alia Tarantella," which is full of reckless wit. 
But the abandon is so happy as to seem mis- 
placed in a tarantella, that dance whose 
traditional origin is the maniacal frenzy pro- 
duced by the bite of the tarantula. An earlier 
Tarantella (op. 34) is far truer to the mean- 
ing of the dance, and fairly raves with shriek- 
ing fury and shuddering horror. This is 
better, to me, than Heller's familiar piece. 

The " Second Gavotte " is a noble work, 
the nai've gaiety of classicism being enriched 
with many of the great, pealing chords the 
modern piano is so fertile in. I count it as 
one of the most spontaneous gavottes of 
modern times, one that is buoyant with the 
afflation of the olden days. It carries a mu- 
sette of which old Father Bach need not have 
felt ashamed, one of the most ingenious 
examples of a drone-bass ever written. 

The " Menuet Moderne " is musical cham- 
pagne. A very neat series of little va- 
riations is sheafed together, and called 



The Colonists. 401 

" Mosaics." Mr. Smith has written two 
pieces well styled " Mazurka Poetique ; " the 
later (opus 48) is the more original, but the 
sweet geniality and rapturously beautiful 
ending of opus 38 is purer music. "Les 
Papillons " is marked with a strange touch of 
negro color ; it is, as it were, an Ethiopiano 
piece. Its best point is its cadenza. Smith 
has a great fondness for these brilliant pre- 
cipitations. They not only give further evi- 
dence of his fondness for older schools, but 
they also partially explain the fondness of 
concert performers for his works. His fervid 
"Love Sonnet," his "Polonaise de Concert," 
full of virility as well as virtuosity, and his 
delicious " Mill-wheel Song," and a late 
composition, a brilliant " Papillon," rich as a 
butterfly's wing, are notable among his 
numerous works. Possibly his largest achieve- 
ment is the three concert-transcriptions for 
two pianos. He has taken pieces by Grieg, 
Raff, and Bachmann, and enlarged, enforced, 



4O2 Contemporary American Composers. 

decorated, and in every way .ennobled them. 
But to me his most fascinatingly original 
work is his " Arabesque," an entirely unhack- 
neyed and memorable composition. 

Smith's experience in teaching has crys- 
tallized into several pedagogic works. His 
" Scale Playing with particular reference to 
the development of the third, fourth, and 
fifth fingers of each hand;" his "Eight 
Measure," "Octave," and "Five Minute" 
studies, have brought the most unreserved 
commendation from the most important of 
our teachers. A late and most happy scheme 
has been the use of a set of variations 
for technical and interpretative instruction. 
For this purpose he wrote his "Themes 
Arabesques," of which numbers one and 
eighteen not only have emotional and artistic 
interest, but lie in the fingers in a strangely 
tickling way. 

What might be called a professorial sim- 
plicity is seen in many of Smith's songs. 



The Colonists. 403 

The almost unadorned, strictly essential 
beauty of his melodies and accompaniments 
is neither neglect nor cheapness ; it is re- 
straint to the point of classicism, and roman- 
ticism all the intenser for repression. Take, 
for example, that perfect song, " If I but 
Knew," which would be one of a score of the 
world's best short songs, to my thinking. 
Note the open fifths, horrifying if you thump 
them academically, but very brave and 
straightforward, fitly touched. 

There is something of Haydn at his best 
in this and in the fluty " Shadow Song," in 
"The Kiss in the Rain," and "A Sailor's 
Lassie," for they are as crystalline and direct 
as " Papa's " own immortal " Schaferlied." 

Smith has gone over to the great majority, 
the composers who have set " Du bist 
wie eine Blume ; " but he has joined those at 
the top. Two of Smith's songs have a qual- 
ity of their own, an appeal that is bewitching : 
"Entreaty," a perfect melody, and "The 



404 Contemporary American Composers. 



A R A BESQUE. 




Copyright, 1889, by O. Ditson & Co. 



Tlie Colonists. 



405 




406 Contemporary American Composers. 

Dimple in Her Cheek," which is fairly peachy 
in color and flavor. 

A strange place in the world of music is 
that held by Johann H. Beck, whom some 
have not feared to call the greatest of Ameri- 
can composers. Yet none of his music has 
ever been printed. In this he resembles B. 
J. Lang, of Boston, who keeps his work per- 
sistently in the dark, even the sacred oratorio 
he has written. 

All of Beck's works, except eight songs, 
are built on very large lines, and though 
they have enjoyed a not infrequent public 
performance, their dimensions would add 
panic to the usual timidity of publishers. 
Believing in the grand orchestra, with its 
complex possibilities, as the logical climax of 
music, Beck has devoted himself chiefly to it. 
He feels that the activity of the modern 
artist should lie in the line of " amplifying, 
illustrating, dissecting, and filling in the out- 
lines left by the great creators of music and 



The Colonists. 407 

the drama." He foresees that the most com- 
plicated scores of to-day will be Haydnesque 
in simplicity to the beginning of the next 
century, and he is willing to elaborate his 
best and deepest learning as far as in him 
lies, and wait till the popular audience grows 
up to him, rather than write down to the 
level of the present appreciation. 

The resolve and the patient isolation of 
such a devotee is nothing short of heroic ; 
but I doubt that the truest mission of the 
artist is to consider the future too closely. 
Even the dictionaries and encyclopaedias ot 
one decade, are of small use to the next. 
The tiny lyrics of Herrick, though, have no 
quarrel with time, nor has time any grudge 
against the intimate figurines of Tanagra. 
The burdened trellises of Richard Strauss 
may feel the frost long before the slender ivy 
of Boccherini's minuet. 

Science falls speedily out of date, and 
philosophy is soon out of fashion. Art that 



408 Contemporary American Composers. 





A FRAGMENT OF THE SCORE OF " SALAMMB6," BY 
JOHANN H. BECK. 



The Colonists. 



409 




410 Contemporary American Composers. 

uses both, is neither. When it makes crutches 
of them and leans its whole weight on them, 
it will fall with them in the period of their 
inevitable decay. 

Of course, there is evolution here as well 
as in science. The artist must hunt out new 
forms of expressing his world-old emotions, 
or he will not impress his hearers, and there 
is no gainsaying Beck's thesis that the Chinese 
puzzle of to-day will be the antique simplicity 
of a later epoch. But it must never be for- 
gotten, that art should be complex only to 
avoid the greater evils of inadequacy and 
triteness. A high simplicity of plan and an 
ultimate popularity of appeal are essentials to 
immortal art. 

It is my great misfortune never to have 
heard one of Beck's works performed, but, 
judging from a fragment of a deliciously 
dreamy moonlight scene from his unfinished 
music drama, " Salammb6," which he kindly 
sent me, and from the enthusiasm of the 



The Colonists, 411 

severest critics, he must be granted a most 
unusual poetic gift, solidity and whimsicality, 
and a hardly excelled erudition. His orches- 
tration shows a hand lavish with color and 
cunning in novel effects. Several of his 
works have been performed with great ap- 
plause in Germany, where Beck spent many 
years in study. He was born at Cleveland, 
in 1856, and is a graduate of the Leipzig 
Conservatorium. 

In art, quality is everything ; quantity is 
only a secondary consideration. It is on 
account of the quality of his work that James 
H. Rogers must be placed among the very 
best of modern song-writers, though his pub- 
lished works are not many. When one con- 
siders his tuition, it is small wonder that his 
music should show the finish of long mastery. 
Born in 1857, at Fair Haven, Conn., he took 
up the study of the piano at the age of twelve, 
and at eighteen was in Berlin, studying there 
for more than two years with Loschorn, 



412 Contemporary American Composers. 

Rohde, Haupt, and Ehrlich, and then in Paris 
for two years under Guilmant, Fissot, and 
Widor. Since then he has been in Cleveland 
as organist, concert pianist, and teacher. 




His songs are written usually in a charac 
teristic form of dramatic, yet lyric recitative. 
His " Album of Five Songs " contains notable 
examples of this style, particularly the " Good- 
Night," "Come to Me in My Dreams," and 
the supremely tragic climax of "Jealousy." 
The song, " Evening," with its bell-like ac- 
companiment, is more purely lyric, like the 



The Colonists. 413 

enchanting " At Parting," which was too 
delicately and fragrantly perfect to escape 
the wide popularity it has had. His " Decla- 
ration " is ravishingly exquisite, and offers a 
strange contrast to the " Requiescat," which 
is a dirge of the utmost largeness and gran- 
deur. His graceful " Fly, White Butterflies," 
and " In Harbor," and the dramatic setting 
of "The Loreley," the jovial "Gather Ye 
Rosebuds" of jaunty Rob Herrick, the fop- 
pish tragedy of " La Vie est Vaine " (in 
which the composer's French prosody is a 
whit askew), that gallant, sweet song, " My 
True Love Hath My Heart," and a gracious 
setting of Heine's flower-song, are all note- 
worthy lyrics. He has set some of Tolstoi's 
words to music, the sinister love of " Doubt 
Not, O Friend," and the hurry and glow of 
"The First Spring Days," making unusually 
powerful songs. In the " Look Off, Dear 
Love," he did not catch up with Lanier's 
great lyric, but he handled his material most 



414 Contemporary American Composers. 

effectively in Aldrich' " Song from the Per- 
sian," with its Oriental wail followed by a 
martial joy. The high verve that marks his 
work lifts his " Sing, O Heavens," out of the 
rut of Christmas anthems. 

Of instrumental work, there is only one 
small book, " Scenes du Bal," a series of nine 
pieces with lyric characterization in the spirit, 
but not the manner of Schumann's " Carni- 
val." The most striking numbers are " Les 
Bavardes," " Blonde et Brune," and a fire- 
eating polonaise. 

These close the lamentably small number 
of manifestations of a most decisive ability. 

Another Cleveland composer well spoken 
of is Charles Sommer. 

A young woman of genuine ability, who 
has been too busy with teaching and concert 
pianism to find as much leisure as she 
deserves for composition, is Patty Stair, a 
prominent musical figure in Cleveland. Her 
theoretical studies were received entirely at 



The Colonists. 4*5 

Cleveland, under F. Bassett. Her published 
works include a book of " Six Songs," all of 
them interesting and artistic, and the " Madri- 
gal " particularly ingenious ; and a comic glee 
of the most irresistible humor, called " An 
Interrupted Serenade ; " in manuscript are a 
most original song, "Flirtation," a jovial 
part song for male voices, "Jenny Kissed 
Me," a berceuse for violin and piano, a 
graceful song, " Were I a Brook," a set- 
ting of Thomas Campion's " Petition," and 
another deeply stirring religious song for 
contralto, "O Lamb of God." 

The St. Louis Colony. 

The most original and important contribu- 
tion to American music that St. Louis has 
made, is, to my mind, the book of songs 
written by William Schuyler. The words 
were chosen from Stephen Crane's book of 
poems, "The Black Riders." The genius 
of Crane, concomitant with eccentricity as 



416 Contemporary American Composers. 



m. 



WILLIAM KHVTLim. 



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Words used by permission of Copeland and Day. 
Copyright, 1897, by Wm. Sehuyler. 

FROM WM. SCHUYLER'S " BLACK RIDERS." 



The Colonists. 



417 



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41 8 Contemporary American Composers. 

it was, is one of the most distinctive among 
American writers. The book called "The 
Black Riders " contains a number of moods 
that are unique in their suggestiveness and 
originality. Being without rime or meter, 
the lines oppose almost as many difficulties 
to a musician as the works of Walt Whit- 
man ; and yet, as Alfred Bruneau has set 
Zola's prose to music, so some brave Ameri- 
can composer will find inspiration abundant 
in the works of Walt Whitman and Emily 
Dickinson. 

Schuyler was born in St. Louis, May 4, 
1855, and music has been his livelihood. 
He is largely self-taught, and has composed 
some fifty pieces for the piano, a hundred and 
fifty songs, a few works for violin, viola, and 
'cello, and two short trios. 

In his setting of these lines of Crane's, 
Schuyler has attacked a difficult problem in 
an ideal manner. To three of the short 
poems he has given a sense of epic vasti- 



The Colonists. 419 

tude, and to two of them he has given a 
tantalizing mysticism. The songs, which have 
been published privately, should be repro- 
duced for the wide circulation they deserve. 

Another writer of small songs displaying 
unusual individuality is George Clifford Vieh, 
who was born in St. Louis and studied there 
under Victor Ehling. In 1889, he went to 
Vienna for three years, studying under 
Bruckner, Robert Fuchs, and Dachs. He 
graduated with the silver medal there, and 
returned to St. Louis, where he has since 
lived as a teacher and pianist. 

Alfred George Robyn is the most popular 
composer St. Louis has developed. He was 
born in 1860, his father being William 
Robyn, who organized the first symphonic 
orchestra west of Pittsburg. Robyn was a 
youthful prodigy as a pianist ; and, at the 
age of ten, he succeeded his father as organ- 
ist at St. John's Church, then equipped with 
the best choir in the city. It was necessary 



420 Contemporary American Composers. 

for the pedals of the organ to be raised to his 
feet. At the age of sixteen he became solo 
pianist with Emma Abbott's company. As 
a composer Robyn has written some three 
hundred compositions, some of them reaching 
a tremendous sale. A few of them have been 
serious and worth while, notably a piano con- 
certo, a quintette, four string quartettes, a 
mass, and several orchestral suites. 

There are not many American composers 
that have had a fugue published, or have 
written fugues that deserve publication. It 
is the distinction of Ernest Richard Kroeger 1 
that he has written one that deserved, and 
secured, publication. This was his 4ist 
opus. It is preceded by a prelude which, 
curiously enough, is thoroughly Cuban in 
spirit and is a downright Habanera, though 
not so announced. This fiery composition is 
followed by a four-voiced " real " fugue. The 
subject is genuinely interesting, though the 

counter-subject is as perfunctory as most 
1 See p. 492. 



The Colonists. 421 

counter-subjects. The middle-section, the 
stretto-work, and the powerful ending, give 
the fugue the right to exist. 

Among other publications are a suite for 
piano (op. 33), in which a scherzo has life, 
and a sonata for violin and piano, in which, 
curiously enough, the violin has not one in- 
stance of double-stopping, and the elaborating 
begins, not with the first subject taken vigor- 
ously, but with the second subject sung out 
softly. The last movement is the best, a 
quaint and lively rondo. A set of twelve 
concert etudes show the influence of Chopin 
upon a composer who writes with a strong 
German accent. The etude called " Castor 
and Pollux " is a vigorous number with the 
chords of the left hand exactly doubled in 
the right; another etude, "A Romanze," is 
noteworthy for the practice it gives in a point 
which is too much ignored even by the best 
pianists ; that is, the distinction between the 
importance of the tones of the same chord 



422 Contemporary American Composers. 

struck by the same hand. A work of broad 
scholarship, which shows the combined in- 
fluence of Beethoven and Chopin, who have 
chiefly affected Kroeger, is his sonata (op. 
40). A dominant pedal-point of fifty-eight 
measures, in the last movement, is worth 
mentioning. In a " Danse N6gre" and a 
" Caprice Ndgre," he has evidently gone, for 
his Ethiopian color, not to the actual negro 
music, but to the similar compositions of 
Gottschalk. Kroeger was born in St. Louis, 
August 10, 1862. At the age of five he 
took up the study of the piano and violin. 
His theoretical tuition was all had in this 
country. He has written many songs, a 
piano concerto, sonatas for piano and viola, 
and piano and 'cello, two trios, a quintette, 
and three string quartettes, as well as a 
symphony, a suite, and overtures based on 
" Edymion," " Thanatopsis," " Sardanapalus " 
(produced by Anton Seidl, in New York), 
"Hiawatha," and "Atala." 



CHAPTER V. 

THE WOMEN COMPOSERS. 

THIS is not the place to take up cudgels 
for a contest on the problem of woman's 
right to respect in the creative arts. There 
are some, it is true, who deny fervently that 
the feminine half of mankind ever has or 
can or ever will do original and important 
work there. If you press them too hard 
they will take refuge up this tree, that all 
women who ever have had success have been 
actually mannish of mind, a dodge in 
question-begging that is one of the most 
ingenious ever devised ; a piece of masculine 
logic that puts to shame all historic examples 
of womanly fallacy and sophistry. It seems 
423 



424 Contemporary American Composers. 

to me that the question is easily settled on 
this wise : it is impossible for a rational mind 
to deny that the best work done in the arts 
by women is of better quality than the 
average work done by men. This lets the 
cat's head out of the bag, and her whole body 
follows pell-mell. 

In a few instances it seems to me that the 
best things done by women equal the best 
things done by men in those lines. The 
best verses of Sappho, the best sonnets of 
Mrs. Browning, the best chapters of George 
Eliot, the best animal paintings of Rosa 
Bonheur, do not seem to me surpassed by 
their rivals in masculine work. If anything 
in verse of its sort is nobler than Mrs. Howe's 
" Battle Hymn of the Republic," it is still in 
manuscript. If there is any poet of more 
complete individuality than Emily Dickinson, 
I have not run across his books. In music 
I place two or three of Miss Lang's sin-all 
songs among the chief of their manner. 



The Women Composers. 425 

All over the world the woman-mind is 
taking up music. The ban that led Fanny 
Mendelssohn to publish her music under her 
brother's name, has gone where the puritanic 
theory of the disgracefulness of the musical 
profession now twineth its choking coils. A 
publisher informs me that where compositions 
by women were only one-tenth of his manu- 
scripts a few years ago, they now form more 
than two-thirds. From such activity, much 
that is worth while is bound to spring. Art 
knows no sex, and even what the women 
write in man-tone is often surprisingly strong, 
though it is wrongly aimed. But this effort 
is like the bombast of a young people or a 
juvenile literature ; the directness and repose 
of fidelity to nature come later. The Ameri- 
can woman is in the habit of getting what 
she sets her heart on. She has determined 
to write music. 

With an ardor that was ominous of success, 
Miss Amy Marcy Cheney, after a short 



426 Contemporary American Composers. 

preliminary course in harmony, resolved to 
finish her tuition independently. As an 
example of the thoroughness that has given 
her such unimpeachable knowledge of her 
subject, may be mentioned the fact that she 
made her own translation of Berlioz and 
Gavaert. She was born in New Hampshire, 
of descent American back to colonial times. 
At the age of four she wrote her opus I. 
She is a concert pianist as well as a frequent 
composer in the largest forms. She is now 
Mrs. H. H. A. Beach. 1 

Not many living men can point to a com- 
position of more maturity and more dignity 
than Mrs. Beach' "Jubilate," for the dedi- 
cation of the Woman's Building at the Colum- 
bian Exposition. The work is as big as its 
name ; it is the best possible answer to skeptics 
of woman's musical ability. It may be too 
sustainedly loud, and the infrequent and short 
passages piano are rather breathing-spells 
than contrasting awe, but frequently this work 
1 See p. 519. 




MRS. H. H. A. BEACH. 



The Women Composers. 427 

shows a very magnificence of power and 
exaltation. And the ending is simply superb, 
though I could wish that some of the terrific 
dissonances in the accompaniment had been 
put into the unisonal voices to widen the 
effect and strengthen the final grandeur. But 
as it is, it rings like a clarion of triumph, 
the cry of a Balboa discovering a new sea of 
opportunity and emotion. 

Another work of force and daring is the 
mass in E flat (op. 5), for organ and small 
orchestra. It is conventionally ecclesiastic 
as a rule, and suffers from Mrs. Beach' beset- 
ting sin of over-elaboration, but it proclaims 
a great ripeness of technic. The " Qui 
Tollis " is especially perfect in its sombre 
depth and richness. The " Credo " works 
up the cry of " crucifixus " with a thrilling 
rage of grief and a dramatic feeling rare in 
Mrs. Beach' work. This work was begun at 
the age of nineteen and finished three years 
later. It was given with notable effect in 



428 Contemporary American Composers, 

1892 by the Handel and Haydn Society of 
Boston. 

Mrs. Beach' " Valse Caprice " has just 
one motive, to reach the maximum of tech- 
nical trickiness and difficulty. There is such 
a thing as hiding one's light under a bushel, 
and there is such a thing as emptying a bushel 
of chaff upon it. 

" Fireflies " is a shimmering and flitting 
caprice of much ingenuity, but it keeps in the 
field of dissonance almost interminably, and 
clear harmony is not so much the homing- 
place of its dissonance, as an infrequent glint 
through an inadvertent chink. This neat 
composition is one of four " Sketches for 
the Piano," of which "Phantoms" is delight- 
ful with ghostliness. " In Autumn " is a most 
excellent tone-poem, and " Dreaming " is a 
well-varied lyric. As a colorist Mrs. Beach 
is most original and studious. Her tireless 
hunt for new tints often diverts her indeed 
from the direct forthright of her meaning, 



The Women Composers. 429 



PHANTOMS. 

<* Tout* fntil" noun.lil3l mrtM n ti,*O 
Vklor Rufo. 



Allegretto echereando. . . 
* . -M ? =' ' M^ ' 



Mn.H.aA.Bculi. 



Piano 




Copyright, 1892, by Arthur P. Schmidt. 

A FRAGMENT. 



43 o Contemporary American Composers. 

but the " Danse des Fleurs " is rich in its 
gorgeousness. The flowing grace of the 
"Menuet Italien " makes it an uncharacter- 
istic but charming work. 

Horace, you know, promises to write so 
that any one will think him easy to equal, 
though much sweat will be shed in the effort. 
It is the transparency of her studiousness, 
and the conspicuous labor in polishing off 
effects and mining opportunity to the core, 
that chiefly mars the work of Mrs. Beach, in 
my opinion. One or two of the little pieces 
that make up the half-dozen of the " Chil- 
dren's Carnival " are among her best work, 
for the very cheery ease of their look. " Pan- 
talon," "Harlequin," " Columbine," and "Se- 
crets" are infinitely better art than a dozen 
valse-caprices. 

Both the defects and effects of her qualities 
haunt Mrs. Beach' songs. When she is 
sparing in her erudition she is delightful. 
Fourteen of her songs are gathered into a 



The Women Composers. 431 

"Cyclus." The first is an "Ariette," with 
an accompaniment imitating the guitar. It 
is both tender and graceful. Probably her 
best song is the setting of W. E. Henley's 
fine poem, "Dark is the Night." It is of 
the "Erl-King" style, but highly original 
and tremendously fierce and eerie. The same 
poet's " Western Wind " is given a setting 
contrastingly dainty and serene. " The Black- 
bird " is delicious and quite unhackneyed. 
"A Secret" is bizarre, and "Empress of the 
Night " is brilliant. With the exception of a 
certain excess of dissonance for a love-song, 
"Wilt Thou Be My Dearie? " is perfect with 
amorous tenderness. "Just for This !" is a 
delightful vocal scherzo of complete originality 
and entire success. " A Song of Love " is 
passionate and yet lyric, ornamented but not 
fettered. " Across the World " has been one 
of Mrs. Beach' most popular songs ; it is 
intense and singable. "My Star" is tender, 
and the accompaniment is richly worked out 



432 Contemporary American Composers. 

on simple lines. Three Vocal Duets are well- 
handled, but the long " Eilende Wolken " has 
a jerky recitative of Handelian naivete", to 
which the aria is a welcome relief. Her 
sonata for piano and violin has been played 
here by Mr. Kneisel, and in Berlin by Mme. 
Carrefio and Carl Halir. 

Besides these, Mrs. Beach has done not a 
little for the orchestra. Her " Gaelic Sym- 
phony " is her largest work, and it has been 
often played by the Boston Symphony, the 
Thomas, and other orchestras. It is char- 
acterized by all her exuberant scholarship 
and unwearying energy. 

Margaret Ruthven Lang, 1 the daughter of 
B. J. Lang, is American by birth and train- 
ing. She was born in Boston, November 27, 
1867. She has written large works, such as 
three concert overtures, two of which have 
been performed by the Thomas and the Bos- 
ton Symphony Orchestras, though none of 

them are published. Other unpublished 
1 See p. 5 20. 



The Women Composers. 433 

works are a cantata, two arias with orches- 
tral accompaniment, and a rhapsody for the 
piano. One rhapsody has been published, that 
in E minor ; in spite of its good details, it is 
curiously unsatisfying, it seems all prelude, 
interlude, and postlude, with the actual rhap- 
sody accidentally overlooked. A" Meditation. " 
is bleak, with a strong, free use of dissonance. 

" The Jumblies " is a setting of Edward 
Lear's elusive nonsense, as full of the flavor 
of subtile humor as its original. It is for 
male chorus, with an accompaniment for two 
pianos, well individualized and erudite. It 
is in her solo songs, however, that her best 
success is reaped. 

When I say that Mrs. Beach' work is 
markedly virile, I do not mean it as compli- 
ment unalloyed ; when I find Miss Lang's 
work supremely womanly, I would not deny it 
great strength, any more than I would deny 
that quality to the sex of which Joan of Arc 
and Jael were not uncharacteristic members. 



434 Contemporary American Composers. 

Such a work as the " Maiden and the 
Butterfly " is as fragile and rich as a butter- 
fly's wing. " My Lady Jacqueminot " is 
exquisitely, delicately passionate. " Eros " 
is frail, rare, ecstatic. "Ghosts " is elfin and 
dainty as snowflakes. The " Spinning Song " 
is inexpressibly sad, and such music as 
women best understand, and therefore ought 
to make best. But womanliness equally marks 
" The Grief of Love," which is in every sense 
big in quality ; marks the bitterness of " Oh, 
What Comes over the Sea," the wailing Gaelic 
sweetness of the " Irish Love Song," and the 
fiery passion of "Betrayed," highly dramatic 
until its rather trite ending. " Nameless 
Pain " is superb. Her " Lament " I con- 
sider one of the greatest of songs, and proof 
positive of woman's high capabilities for com- 
position. Miss Lang has a harmonic individu- 
ality, too, and finds out new effects that are 
strange without strain. 

(l My Turtle Dove," among the " Five 



The Women Composers. 435 

Norman Songs," in fearlessness and har- 
monic exploration shows two of the strong- 
est of Miss Lang's traits. Her re'cherche's 
harmonies are no pale lunar reflection of 
masculine work. Better yet, they have the 
appearance of spontaneous ease, and the 
elaborateness never obtrudes itself upon 
the coherence of the work, except in a few 
such rare cases as " My Native Land," 
" Christmas Lullaby," and " Before My 
Lady's Window." They are singable to a 
degree unusual in scholarly compositions. 
To perfect the result Miss Lang chooses her 
poems with taste all too rare among musi- 
cians, who seem usually to rate gush as 
feeling and gilt as gold. Her " Oriental 
Serenade " is an example of weird and origi- 
nal intervals, and "A Spring Song,", by 
Charlotte Pendleton, a proof of her taste in 
choosing words. 

Her opus 32 is made up of two songs, both 
full of fire and originality. Opus 33 is a cap- 



436 Contemporary American Composers. 



GHOSTS. 

Word! by Hunlittrlck. 



Allegretto. 



WARGASET BUTUVEN LANG. 



Out In the mis . tj noon - light, the fust snow flake) I tee, 



fro . lie -monr the leaf- less boughs ol the ap-ple - tree. 




Copyright, 1889, by Arthur P. Schmidt & Co. 



The Women Composers. 437 







whis - per. u niund the bougks (he/ 



?rF 




438 Contemporary American Composers. 

tivating " Spring Idyl " for the piano, for 
which she has also written a " Revery," of 
which the exquisiteness of sleep is the theme. 
The music is delicious, and the ending is a 
rare proof of the beautiful possibilities of 
dissonance. 

Personally, I see in Miss Lang's composi- 
tions such a depth of psychology that I place 
the general quality of her work above that of 
any other woman composer. It is devoid 
of meretriciousness and of any suspicion of 
seeking after virility ; it is so sincere, so true 
to the underlying thought, that it seems to 
me to have an unusual chance of interesting 
attention and stirring emotions increasingl) 
with the years. 

An interesting and genuine individuality 
will transpire through the most limited 
amount of creative art. This has been the 
case with the few published works of a 
writer, whose compositions, though unpre- 
tentious in size and sentiment, yet reveal a 



The Women Composers. 439 

graceful fancy, and a marked contemplation 
upon the details of the moods. 

Irene Baumgras was born at Syracuse, 
New York, and studied the piano at the Cin- 
cinnati Conservatory of Music, where she 
took the Springer gold medal in 1881. She 
studied in Berlin with Moszkowski and Oscar 
Raif. She was married in Berlin, in 1884, 
to Philip Hale, the distinguished Boston 
musical critic. 

Her devotion to her art was so great that 
her health broke down from overwork, and 
she was compelled to give up piano playing. 
Some of her compositions have been pub- 
lished under the name of "Victor Rene"." 
Her 1 5th opus is made up of three " Morceaux 
de Genre," of which the " Pantomime " is a 
most volatile harlequinade, with moods as 
changeful as the key ; a remarkably interest- 
ing composition. Four " Pense"es Poetiques " 
make up opus 16. They include a blithe 
" Chansonette " and a " Valse Impromptu," 



44 Contemporary American Composers. 

which, unlike the usual impromptu, has the 
ex tempore spirit. Of her songs, " Mystery " 
is a charming lyric; " Maisie " is faithful to 
the ghoulish merriment of the words ; and 
" An Opal Heart " is striking for interesting 
dissonances that do not mar the fluency of 
the lyric. 

Of much refinement are the fluent lyrics 
of Mrs. Mary Knight Wood. They show a 
breadth in little, and a fondness for unex- 
pected harmonies that do not disturb the 
coherence of her songs. They possess also 
a marked spontaneity. An unexpected ef- 
fect is gained by the brave E flat in her 
" Serenade." Her popular "Ashes of Roses" 
also has a rich harmonic structure. Among 
other songs, one with an effective obbligato 
for the violoncello deserves special praise. 
She has written also for the violin and piano, 
and trios for 'cello, violin, and piano. 

Other women who have written certain 
works of serious intention and worthy art, are 



The Women Composers. 441 

Mrs. Clara A. Korn, Laura Sedgwick Collins, 
the composer of an ingenious male quartette, 
" Love is a Sickness," and many excellent 
songs, among them, " Be Like That Bird," 
which is ideally graceful ; Fanny M. Spencer, 
who has written a collection of thirty-two 
original hymn tunes, a good anthem, and a 
Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis of real strength ; 
Julie Riv6-King, the author of many concert 
pieces ; Patty Stair, of Cleveland ; Harriet P. 
Sawyer, Mrs. Jessie L. Gaynor, Constance 
Maud, Jenny Prince Black, Charlotte M. 
Crane, and Helen Hood. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE FOREIGN COMPOSERS. 

OURS is so young, and so cosmopolite, a 
country, that our art shows the same brevity 
of lineage as our society. Immigration has 
played a large part in the musical life of the 
United States, as it has in the make-up of 
the population ; and yet for all the multi- 
plexity of his ancestry, the American citizen 
has been assimilated into a distinctive indi- 
viduality that has all the traits of his different 
forbears, and is yet not closely like any of 
them. So, American music, taking its scale 
and most of its forms from the old country, 
is yet developing an integrity that the future 
will make much of. As with the federation 
442 



The Foreign Composers. 443 

of the States, so will one great music ascend 
polyphonically, e pluribus unum. 

In compiling this directory of American 
composers, it has been necessary to discuss 
the works only of the composers who were 
born in this country. It is interesting to see 
how few of these names are un-American, 
how few of them are Germanic (though so 
many of them have studied in Germany). 
Comment has often been made upon the 
Teutonic nature of the make-up of our 
orchestras. It is pleasant to find that a 
very respectable list of composers can be 
made up without a preponderance of German 
names. 

The music life of our country, however, 
has been so strongly influenced and en- 
livened and corrected by the presence of 
men who were born abroad that some recog- 
nition of their importance should somewhere 
be found. Many of them have become 
naturalized and have brought with them so 



444 Contemporary American Composers. 

much enthusiasm for our institutions that 
they are actually more American than many 
of the Americans ; than those, particularly, 
who, having had a little study abroad, have 
gone quite mad upon the superstition of " at- 
mosphere," and have brought home nothing 
but foreign mannerisms and discontent. 

Among the foreign born who have made 
their home in America, I must mention with 
respect, and without attempting to sug- 
gest order of precedence, the following 
names : 

C. M. Loeffler, 1 Bruno Oscar Klein, Leo- 
pold Godowski, Victor Herbert, 2 Walter Dam- 
rosch, 3 Julius Eichberg, Dr. Hugh A. Clarke, 
Louis V. Saar, Asgar Hamerik, Otto Singer, 
August Hyllested, Xavier Scharwenka, Ra- 
fael Joseffy, Constantin von Sternberg, 
Adolph Koelling, August Spanuth, Aim 
Lachaume, Max Vogrich, W. C. Seeboeck, 
Julian Edwards, Robert Coverley, William 
Furst, Gustave Kerker, Henry Waller, 
1 See p. 481. 2 See p. 463. 3 See p. 468. 



The Foreign Composers. 445 

P. A. Schnecker, Clement R. Gale, Edmund 
Severn, Platon Brounoff, Richard Burmeister, 
Augusto Rotoli, Emil Liebling, Carl Buschj 
John Orth, Ernst Perabo, Ferdinand Dunk 
ley, Mrs. Clara .Kathleen Rogers, Miss Adele 
Lewing, Mrs. Elisa Mazzucato Young. 

It is perhaps quibbling to rule out some of 
these names from Americanism, and include 
certain of those whom I have counted Ameri- 
can because they were born here, in spite of 
the fact that their whole tuition and tendency 
is alien. But the line must be drawn some- 
where. The problem is still more trying in the 
case of certain composers who, having been 
born here, have expatriated themselves, and 
joined that small colony of notables whom 
America has given to Europe as a first instal- 
ment in payment of the numerous loans we 
have borrowed from the old country. 

For the sake of formally acknowledging this 
debt, I will not endeavor to discuss here the 

careers of George Templeton Strong, Arthur 
'See p. 522. 



446 Contemporary American Composers, 

Bird, or O. B. Boise, all three of whom were 
born in this country, but have elected to live 
in Berlin. Their distinction in that city at 
least palely reflects some credit upon the 
country that gave them birth. 



POSTLUDE. 

IN the ninth century Iceland was the musi- 
cal center of the world ; students went there 
from all Europe as to an artistic Mecca. Ice- 
land has long lost her musical crown. And 
Welsh music in its turn has ceased to be the 
chief on earth. Russia is sending up a strong 
and growing harmony marred with much dis- 
cord. Some visionaries look to her for the 
new song. But I do not hesitate to match 
against the serfs of the steppes the high- 
hearted, electric-minded free people of our 
prairies ; and to prophesy that in the coming 
century the musical supremacy and inspira- 
tion of the world will rest here overseas, in 
America. 



PART II. 

AMERICAN COMPOSERS SINCE 
1900 

BY ARTHUR ELSON 



TO THE READER. 

MR. RUPERT HUGHES wrote the main body 
of this work in 1900; and as much has hap- 
pened since then, it has been deemed advis- 
able to bring the book down to a more recent 
date; but nothing has been changed in the 
original work, as it covered its ground thor- 
oughly, except that, wherever material about 
the earlier composers has been added in later 
pages, the requisite references have been 
given. 

Mr. Hughes himself was so busy in other 
fields that he did not feel able to give his 
time to the preparation of this work; but he 
had collected much material, upon which the 
following chapters are based in large part, 
and for which thanks are due to him. 

ARTHUR ELSON. 



PART II. 

AMERICAN COMPOSERS SINCE 
1900 

CHAPTER I. 

THE ORCHESTRAL MASTERS. 

FOURTEEN years have passed since Mr. 
Hughes wrote his able and comprehensive 
work on American composers. Within this 
period many of those mentioned have con- 
tinued their activity, while others have 
jumped from obscurity to importance, and 
still others have passed away from our mun- 
dane sphere of activity. Among the most 
important whom death has claimed are Ed- 
ward MacDowell, John K. Paine, and the 
veteran Dudley Buck. 

453 



454 Contemporary American Composers. 

Of those who are working in the orchestral 
field, one of the most important, if not the 
leader, is Henry Kimball Hadley. His earlier 
works have been described in some detail by 
Mr. Hughes. 1 His " Youth and Life " sym- 
phony has won recent attention in New York 
and elsewhere, while " The Four Seasons " 
took two prizes in 1901, and soon made its way 
into the orchestral repertoire. In addition to 
the " Hector and Andromache " overture, 
he has composed two others, " In Bohemia," 
and " Herod," the latter for Stephen Phillips' 
tragedy. A cantata, " In Music's Praise," 
continued its composer's prize-winning ca- 
reer. Six Ballades with orchestra belong 
among the larger works; also three comic 
operas. Abroad, Hadley brought out the 
one-act opera " Sane," a short but exciting 
affair. His " Atonement of Pan," written 
for the open-air " high jinks " of the San 
Francisco " Bohemians," is practically an- 

1 See p. 241. 



The Orchestral Masters. 455 

other opera. Among what are called lesser 
works (which are sometimes of paramount 
importance) Hadley numbers a string quartet 
and trio, a piano quintet, a violin sonata, 
piano pieces, and songs. But he seems to 
delight in continuing in the larger forms. 
His " Merlin and Vivian " is a lyric drama 
for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra. " The 
Fate of Princess Kiyo " is an orchestral can- 
tata for women's voices. But perhaps his 
most radical compositions are his symphonic 
poems, " Salome " and " The Culprit Fay." 
The former is a strong work, in which the 
orchestra is handled with Strauss-like ease and 
power. The latter is based on Joseph Rod- 
man Drake's poem of the same name, written 
to show that American scenes and rivers, 
as well as those of the Old World, could 
be made romantic. The culprit fay, who has 
been disgraced through the glance of a mortal 
maiden's eye, must make himself pure by 
finding and bringing back the glistening drop 



45 6 Contemporary American Composers. 



of water from the leaping sturgeon, and the 
spark from a falling star. In a mussel-shell 



How DO I LOVE THEE? * 

gouet from the Porti{WM,If BJIl 



c 



1 Ion DM? Let me eout Ike 




.ffjffr I 

^jjf^tfT^ 




boat he wins both prizes, and with them he 
1 Copyright, MCM, by Oliver Ditson Company. 



The Orchestral Masters. 457 

returns into his rights, and joins the fairy 
dance that lasts till cock-crow. In this work 
the composer has given a number of delight- 
ful tone-pictures, the fairies, the troubles 
of the culprit, the immensity of sea and sky, 
the final welcome, and many other dainty 
bits. It is little wonder that this composi- 
tion, too, won a prize. A still later work is 
the symphony " North, East, South and 
West," in which the compass is boxed in 
most inspired fashion. The Oriental mys- 
tery of the East, the lively merriment of the 
South, the energy of the golden West, and 
the rugged spirit of the North, all are con- 
trasted here in most excellent fashion, and 
made to form still another important work. 

Frederick Shepherd Converse, whose ac- 
tivity is of more recent date, is another or- 
chestral leader, somewhat contemplative in 
style, but with that same style very well 
suited to his subjects. Thus his symphonic 
poem " The Festival of Pan," based on a 



458 Contemporary American Composers. 

scene from the " Endymion " of Keats, is a 
most excellent reflection of the poet's own 
delicacy of style. There is revelry enough 
in the music, but it is of an ethereal kind. 
The revels of the mythical satyr-king are 
mirrored in a medium as translucent as that 
of the poet himself. The same is true of a 
second symphonic poem on the same general 
subject, entitled " Endymion's Narrative." 
This depicts the scene where Endymion, 
drawn apart by his solicitous sister Peona, 
confesses that he cherishes ideals beyond the 
common view, but is yet bound by affection 
and devotion to conditions which confine 
and stifle his higher aspirations. To use the 
composer's words more directly, " The piece 
begins with despondency and indecision. The 
hero is harassed by alluring glimpses of the 
ideal, and soothed by simple affection and 
love. There is a sort of dramatic growth of 
the various elements, until finally the idea 
comes victorious out of the struggle, and the 



The Orchestral Masters. 459 

ungovernable impulse rushes exultantly on 
with the mad joy of determination." Still 
another symphonic poem, of even more dra- 
matic force, is " Ormazd." That gentleman 
is the good member of the pair of old Per- 
sian gods, while Ahriman is the evil one- 
The former is constructive, the latter de- 
structive. They are always in conflict, 
though finally Ormazd will purge his wicked 
rival of sin. The composition begins with 
Ormazd assembling his heavenly host, and 
trumpet-calls, vague at first, lead into a 
strong martial passage. The moans of 
Ahriman and his followers are then heard 
ascending from the pit of Dusakh. At length 
there is revolt and conflict, ending in the 
victory of Ormazd, to whom the blessed 
Fravashis sing hymns of praise. This work 
shows Mr. Converse at his best. It has been 
called " decorative and imaginative," " show- 
ing dignity and musicianly skill," and " more 
luminous, more amply sonorous without 



460 Contemporary American Composers. 

being blatant," than any of his other 
works. 

Converse was born at Newton, Mass., in 
1871. His study was carried on under Paine, 
Chadwick, Baermann, and, later, with Rhein- 
berger at Munich. His early works included 
a violin sonata, a string quartet, a concert 
overture " Youth," and a symphony in D 
minor, given at Munich. After returning to 
teach, he soon gave up that work and devoted 
himself to composition. At this time the 
symphonic poems were created, and other 
works of large dimensions. There were the 
poems " Night " and " Day," on words of 
Whitman, and a work inspired by the same 
poet's " Mystic Trumpeter; " there was the 
baritone ballad " La Belle Dame sans Merci; " 
the oratorio (or dramatic poem) "Job;" a 
violin concerto; a second string quartet; 
and incidental music to Percy Mackaye's 
" Joan of Arc." 

But perhaps the composer is more widely 



The Orchestral Masters. 461 

known for his connection with that much- 
discussed subject, American opera. His one- 



Suite.! 

I. Prelude. 



F S CONVERSE Op.*.NL 



Piano 







lLJ r ^^ 



1 Copyright, 1899, by G. Schirmer, Jr. By permission 
of The Boston Music Company. 



462 Contemporary American Composers. 

act " Pipe of Desire " was the first native 
work in this form to be given at the Metro- 
politan Opera House. Its allegorical subject 
rendered it somewhat undramatic, but this 
fault was absent from the composer's next 
opera, the three-act " Sacrifice." The sacri- 
fice is made by an American captain, who 
loves a Spanish girl during the taking of 
California by the United States, but finds 
that she loves one of her own compatriots 
devotedly. The plot is based on a story 
written by Lieutenant H. A. Wise, but with 
altered names. Chonita is the girl who re- 
ceives Captain Burton's devotion in the first 
act, though all the while she loves Bernal. 
In this act are an impressive Indian prophecy, 
a captivating song by Chonita, and a fervid 
love-duet at the close. The second act, in 
one of the old missions, begins in spirited 
fashion, with a red-blooded soldiers' chorus 
and a rhythmic dance of Gypsy and Mexican 
girls. There is also a melodious prayer when 



The Orchestral Masters. 463 

the chapel is left empty and Chonita appears; 
and a dramatic finale when Bernal, discov- 
ered in disguise, tries to kill Burton, but only 
succeeds in wounding Chonita, who throws 
herself between the men. The third act 
shows Chonita recovering, and Burton anx- 
ious to free Bernal for her. When the Mexi- 
cans arrange a surprise, Burton solves the 
tangle by allowing them to kill him. Except 
for the climax, the third act drags a little; 
but the second act, with its strong and well- 
contrasted scenes, is about the best thing 
yet done in American opera. Mr. Converse 
is at work on another stage piece, a Mackaye 
affair, and the result will be a " Fantastic 
Opera," entitled " Beauty and the Beast," 

Victor Herbert, although originally placed 
among the foreigners by Mr. Hughes, 1 is an- 
other who has made an earnest effort to help 
found an American school of opera. Known 
by his many musical comedies, he has also 

1 See p. 444. 



464 Contemporary American Composers. 

written serious music, a symphonic poem, 
'cello works, and so on. His grand opera 
. " Natoma " is based on an Indian subject, 
the heroine having the title role. Natoma 
is an Indian maiden who serves and loves 
Barbara, the daughter of a Spanish gentle- 
man. Barbara is loved by Alvarado, a young 
Spaniard, and by Paul Merrill, a United 
States naval officer. Natoma is admired by 
the half-breed Castro. The unwelcome 
Spanish and half-breed suitors are repulsed, 
whereupon Castro forms a plot for Alvarado 
to kidnap Barbara, who, in common with 
Natoma, loves Merrill. The second act por- 
trays a festival, under cover of which Alva- 
rado is to act; but Natoma, doing the " dag- 
ger dance " with Castro, rushes past him 
and stabs Alvarado fatally, after which she 
seeks sanctuary in a church. Here, in the 
third act, Natoma is meditating vengeance 
of various sorts; but the priest calms her 
anger, and she finally becomes one of the 




VICTOR HERBERT. 



The Orchestral Masters. 465 

nuns. The libretto is in rather weak prose, 
but the composer devoted serious work to it. 
The score contains Indian melodies, used in 
very rhythmic fashion. They are pushed 
forward rather noticeably, and the ear some- 
times grows tired of them; but there is no 
doubt of the composer's skill in many in- 
stances. There are Spanish passages, also, 
such as the festival dance in the second act. 
Here the auditors are given examples of 
Bizet-like strength. There are pretty cho- 
ruses, and a charming minuet. The dagger 
dance is made most impressive by strangely 
intense effects on the brasses. The third act 
is made into a coherent and impressive whole 
in the score. The orchestration is brilliant, 
varied, and effective, and with a good libretto 
the work would have shown much vitality. 
A shorter opera by Herbert is " Madeleine." 
This is a one-act lyric work, based on the 
French play which was anglicized into " I 
Dine with My Mother." 



466 Contemporary American Composers. 

If pgetic librettos, however, were the 
only necessity for success, then Horatio 
Parker's 1 " Mona " would have a strong 
claim to fame. The book is by Brian Hooker, 
and deals with the time of Roman rule in 
Britain. Quintus, son of the Roman Gov- 
ernor by a British captive, has been brought 
up by Britons as Gwynn, and has won some 
power as a bard. He wishes to wed Mona, 
foster-child of Eyna and Arth, and last de- 
scendant of Boadicea. Caradoc, the chief 
bard, is urging rebellion, aided by Gloom, 
Mona's foster-brother. By birthright and 
prophecies she is chosen as leader, and has 
been brought up to hate Rome. Gwynn, 
whose Roman origin is unknown to his asso- 
ciates, works for peace. He must join the 
conspiracy to keep Mona's good will, but 
even so is practically cast off. Yet he fol- 
lows her as she travels to raise revolt, even 
saving her from the Romans many times. He 
1 See p. 174. 



The Orchestral Masters. 467 

is blamed by his father, but tells the latter 
that he will yet avert the war. If he does 
this, the Governor agrees to pardon the con- 
spirators. Gwynn then declares his love to 
Mona, and wins hers in return. But when 
he suggests peace, she distrusts him, and 
calls in her Britons. They keep him 
prisoner while the attack is made. The 
Britons are routed, and Gloom wounded in 
saving Mona against her will. Gwynn tells 
Mona of his parentage, and wishes to save her; 
but she disbelieves him, and kills him with 
her own hand. Taken captive, she finds 
with vain regrets that Gwynn told the truth. 
The score of this opera is scholarly, mu- 
sicianly, and masterful in its orchestration 
and handling of choral work with contra- 
puntal skill. But it is not a melodic work. 
It sometimes lacks the warmly insistent glow 
of rich harmonic progressions, and is devoted 
too largely to declamatory effects. Prof. 
Parker is a great musician, as Mr. Hughes' 



468 Contemporary American Composers. 

description of the masterly " Hora Novis- 
sima " shows; l but opera needs a certain 
dramatic fluency that does not always go 
with greatness. If the next generation should 
prefer declamatory effects, then " Mona " 
will come into its own. 

Walter Damrosch, too, though formerly 
classed with the foreigners, 2 has entered the 
field of serious American opera. Those who 
heard his ill-fated " Scarlet Letter " remem- 
ber learned music not well suited to its sub- 
ject. In " Cyrano," however, he has found 
a text capable of more lively treatment than 
the austere severity of the Puritans. This 
he has handled with sure touch, and skilful 
use of variety and contrast. 

Louis Adolphe Coerne, whose early work 
came to Mr. Hughes' notice, 3 is another who 
has won success abroad. Born in 1870 at New- 
ark, he studied in this country and Munich, 
returning to become organist, musical direc- 

1 See p. 183. 2 See p. 444. 3 See p. 262. 



The Orchestral Masters. 469 

tor, teacher in various colleges (now the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin), and an important com- 
poser. His first opera, " A Woman of Mar- 
blehead," won favorable mention in America, 
while his more recent and larger " Zenobia " 
was accorded a welcome reception in Ger- 
many. In 1912 his works had reached the 
respectable opus number of 70, and contained 
many examples of the large forms. Thus 
op. 5 is an orchestral Fantasie; op. 7 is a 
concert overture; op. 15 is a fairy ballet, 
" Evadne," a work of rare beauty; op. 18 
is a symphonic poem on the favorite subject 
of " Hiawatha; " op. 30 is an orchestral 
Requiem; op. 36 is another overture; op. 39 
is a tone-picture, " Liebesfruehling; " op. 59 
is a large tone-poem entitled " George Wash- 
ington; " and there are other works in can- 
tata form that are nearly as large. In ad- 
dition to these are many compositions for 
voice, piano, violin, organ, and other instru- 
ments. His music is decidedly modern, and 



47 Contemporary American Composers. 

replete with harmonic individuality. Those 
who wish to know his style will find it clearly 
marked even in the smaller works, such as 
the song " The Sea." There is here a broad 
melody, supported by harmonies that change 
and flash with kaleidoscopic beauty. 

Most interesting among native operas 
should be the forthcoming Indian work by 
Charles Wakefield Cadman. This will be 
called " Daoma." The story is a true Ponka 
tale, set in shape by Francis La Flesche and 
put into very poetic libretto form by Nelle 
Richmond Eberhart. The last-named has 
written the poems for a number of Cadman's 
songs, and has put into them the utmost ex- 
pressive beauty. The music of the opera will 
be based on forty or more Indian melodies, 
mostly Omaha, but some from the Iroquois 
and Pawnee music. 

Charles Wakefield Cadman is an American 
product, too recent to have been treated in 
the earlier text. Born at Johnstown, Pa., in 




CHARLES WAKEFIELD CADMAX. 



The Orchestral Masters. 471 

1881, he showed an early aptitude for music, 
and began to study piano at the age of 
thirteen. Some years later he composed 
music for a Pittsburg comic opera, but he 
did not take up composition seriously until 
about twenty years old. His first composi- 
tions were published in 1904, and consisted 
of ballads, organ works, and teaching pieces. 
He, himself, states that his serious works 
began when he took up the Indian music. 
In the last few years he has made great use 
of the native tunes. His " Four American 
Indian Songs " are remarkable alike in their 
beauty and in their fidelity to the Indian 
melodies used. The latter are kept with all 
their repetitions and syncopations, but are 
harmonized by the composer into the most 
artistic and beautiful lyrics. Best among the 
four is perhaps " From the Land of the Sky- 
Blue Water," with its minor plaint of cap- 
tivity. Infinitely sweet, too, is the third of 
the group, " Far Off I Heard a Lover's 



472 Contemporary American Composers. 



From the Land of the Sky-blue Water 



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eoDMUd by Alice C. Fletchn 

Poem by Nelle Richmond EberhArt 



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The Orchestral Masters. 473 

Flute." The question of Indian music will 
be discussed in connection with Arthur Far- 
well's work. Cadman, too, has used the 
Indian melodies in piano works, but his 
chief employment of them has been in song, 
where the voice keeps the melody intact 
and the words heighten the aboriginal effect. 
Of the other veins adopted by this com- 
poser, not the least successful has been the 
" Three Songs to Odysseus," dedicated to 
and sung by Nordica. These consist of 
Circe's welcome, Calypso's pleading for the 
hero to remain, and Nausicaa's lament at 
his departure. They show the composer's 
art at its best. There are broad sweeps 
of melody and declamation; bold changes; 
and a strange abruptness of modulation that 
seems odd at first, but grows into wonderful 
beauty upon closer acquaintance. The same 
is true of many of his single lyrics, such as 
the Persian " Groves of Shiraz," " The Sea 
hath a Hundred Moods," " As in a Rose 



474 Contemporary American Composers. 

Jar," and others. Another cycle is the Japa- 
nese Romance " Sayonara," and a still more 
recent one is a set of South Sea Island songs. 
With Cadman as composer, it is safe to say 
that the latter will be truly exotic and original. 

Less successful than the work of Cadman, 
but still distinctively Indian, has been the 
work of Arthur Nevin, a younger brother of 
Ethelbert. His shorter pieces are described 
by Mr. Hughes, 1 but his chief work has been 
the Indian opera " Poia," which was given 
abroad, and the suites " Lorna Doone " and 
" Love Dreams." 

John K. Paine did not live long after com- 
posing his opera " Azara." His other works, 
as described by Mr. Hughes, 2 are mostly 
well known; but it is possible that he es- 
caped the disappointment of rinding his 
cherished opera either shelved or unsuccessful. 
It is based on the legendary story of " Aucas- 
sin and Nicolette," and has both Provencal 
1 See p. 342. 2 See p. 145. 



The Orchestral Masters. 475 

and Saracen episodes. While the music is 
dignified and worthy, it lacks the easy flow 
and the pronounced (sometimes even tawdry) 
flavor that constitute dramatic style and 
make for operatic popularity. It is no dis- 
grace to fail in opera. Schubert, Schumann, 
and Mendelssohn did so, and even Beethoven 
seemed most at home upon the concert stage. 
Opera demands a special faculty, and its 
absence does not prevent a composer from 
being great in other fields. 

Paul Allen has composed several operas 
for Italy, a fair revenge for the invasion 
of America by Italian opera. 

Many American composers have operas 
in manuscript. Of these, Arthur Bird, Alex- 
ander Hull, Harvey Worthington Loomis, 
Gaston Borch, J. Remington Fairlamb, and 
W. Franke-Harling, are perhaps the most 
prominent. It is a healthy sign, and one that 
portends an early florescence of the school. 

In the field of light opera, Herbert and De 



476 Contemporary American Composers. 

Koven naturally stand at the head. The 
former seems usually to put some serious 
work even into his comedies, such as the 
Angelus in " The Serenade," the Bridal 
Chorus in " The Red Mill," and so on. These 
bits are comparable with the Kreutzer or 
Lortzing school, and are simply but fluently 
melodious, even if far less impressive than the 
work in " Natoma." De Koven l has kept 
up a constant stream of light operas, inclu- 
ding " Maid Marian," which showed more 
than passing value. He has composed many 
songs, and if none of them has equalled 
" Promise Me " in popular favor, they are 
still graceful and melodious. Among light 
operas, Charles Dennee's music to " The 
Defender " is also worthy of mention. 2 

Returning to orchestral music, we find 
many more names to be added to the roll of 
honor and the scroll of originality. 

1 For his earlier work, see p. 334. 

2 For his earlier work, see p. 374. 




REGINALD DE KOVEN. 



The Orchestral Masters. 477 

Franz van der Stucken is one of those who 
has grown to handle the full modern orches- 
tra with the utmost ease. He has long been 
known by " William Ratcliff " and other 
works. 1 His " Pax Triumphans " is a fairly 
recent example of this, and peace triumphs 
grandly, but with almost as much noise as 
we are accustomed to expect for war. 

Of those who continue careers already 
famous, George W. Chadwick, described in 
detail in the earlier text, 2 has perhaps been 
most active in the large forms. His two 
classical overtures, to Melpomene and Thalia, 
have found a companion in the more recent 
" Euterpe " Overture. This is a work of 
bright and pleasing style, not striking the 
deeper note of the " Melpomene " Overture, 
but evidently not intended to do so. A more 
pathetic threnody is the " Adonais " Over- 
ture, brought out in 1900, and endowed with 
the adjective " Elegiac." The composer's 
1 See p. 188. 2 See p. 210. 



478 Contemporary American Composers. 

" Noel " is a spirited and successful cantata. 
The Symphonic Sketches date back some 
sixteen years, but an interesting Symphoni- 
etta is six years younger. This work is in 
four movements, all effective and well con- 
trasted. A resolute first movement is full 
of vigor and spirit, with an Oriental flavor 
in its side-theme. A Canzonetta follows, 
with lyrical themes and a march-like sug- 
gestion. The light and bright Scherzino is 
very dainty, while the animated Finale, 
with its well-contrasted side episodes in slow 
tempo, makes an effective close for the work. 
Another orchestral work is the Suite Sym- 
phonique. More sensuous in style is the 
symphonic poem " Cleopatra," brought out 
in 1906. A still later work in this free form, 
and one that has proved most attractive, is 
the composer's " Aphrodite." The idea of 
the work was suggested by a beautiful head 
of the goddess, found on the island of Cnidos, 
and now in the Boston Art Museum. The 



The Orchestral Masters. 479 

composition endeavors to portray the scenes 
that might have taken place before such a 
statue when worshipped in its temple by the 
sea. There are festal dances; a storm at sea; 
the thanks of rescued mariners to their patron 
goddess; religious services in the temple; 
and other similar suggestions of suitable 
nature. All these are woven into the score 
with a skill and musicianship that obtain 
beautiful effects and bear full witness to the 
composer's gifts. 

Another composer who uses the classical 
forces with most admirable ease and fluency 
is Arthur Foote, who is duly described in the 
earlier text. 1 His orchestral suites show a 
dignity, an ease of expression, and an earnest- 
ness of material that place them among the 
best American compositions. He has con- 
tinued in this field by orchestrating some of 
his piano thoughts into the Four Character 
Pieces, Op. 48. The original set was entitled 

1 See p. 221. 



4&o Contemporary American Composers. 

" Five Poems after Omar Khayyam." Four 
of these have been worked up into orchestral 
form. Each is given for motto a quatrain of 
the lyrical tent-maker. First is that one 
regretting Iram, but taking consolation in 
the ruby of the vine. Next comes the lament 
over Jamshyd's emptied court. The third 
piece illustrates the famous " Jug of wine, 
loaf of bread, and Thou." Last comes 
again the idea 

" Better be jocund with the fruitful grape 
Than sadden after none, or bitter, fruit." 

The work is unusually interesting, and un- 
expectedly poetic in a composer who has 
hitherto avoided the free forms. Foote has 
also written a string suite, chamber works, 
and many new songs. 

In the main body of this book, Mr. Hughes 
did not have space to treat the foreign-born 
composers with any detail. 1 But at pres- 

1 See p. 444. 



The Orchestral Masters. 481 

ent a few deserve more extended mention, 
through having become more definitely identi- 
fied with our country. 

Of these, Charles Martin LoefHer is a leader. 
Born in Alsace in 1861, he has now for many 
years made Boston and its environs his home. 
His works, especially the larger orchestral 
compositions, show a grasp of tone-color, 
an ability to handle the large orchestra, and 
an originality of harmonic effects that unite 
to make this composer one of the foremost 
of the modernists. There is a rapidity of 
chordal change in his works that makes them 
very hard for the simplicity-loving old-timers 
to follow. But the compositions are built 
on broad lines, and the mosaic effects of 
theme and harmony are blended always into 
an impressive whole. Modernism has cer- 
tainly come to stay, and Mr. LoefHer is one 
of its best exponents. His style is his own, 
sonorous, rich, and in no way a slavish imi- 
tation of anything made in France. Of his 



482 Contemporary American Composers. 

works, four at least deserve especial mention. 
" The Death of Tintagiles " is based on Mae- 
terlinck's play of that name, and is a well- 
wrought and dramatic representation of the 
vague fears and unseen tragedy of the play. 
" La Villanelle du Diable," based on a Ver- 
laine poem with the wild refrain " Le Diable 
r6de et circule," is an effective picture of 
infernal revelry. In the strongest contrast 
is " La Bonne Chanson," illustrating another 
Verlaine poem, this time a tender love-pas- 
sage; the music is of ideal and ineffable 
beauty, carrying its message to radical and 
conservative alike. Last of the four works is 
" A Pagan Poem," a pleasing affair based on 
the eighth Eclogue of Virgil, which depicts 
a girl trying to charm her lover home from 
the city. The mysterious rites and the final 
triumph form a most admirable contrast in 
the score. 

Gustav Strube, whose chief work has been 
done in the present century, was born at 




GUSTAV STRUBE. 



The Orchestral Masters. 483 

Ballenstedt, in Anhalt, in 1867. After study- 
ing at Leipsic, and teaching at Mannheim, 
Mr. Strube came to Boston, where for over 
twenty years he was a violinist with the 
Symphony Orchestra. He became well known 
also as a conductor. His chief works consist 
of an overture, " The Maid of Orleans," two 
symphonies, a " Hymn to Eros," an Orches- 
tral Rhapsody, the overture " Puck," two 
violin concertos, a 'cello concerto, several 
chamber works, and the symphonic poems 
" Longing," " Fantastic Dance," " Echo and 
Narcissus," and " Die Lorelei." The last 
two are poetic enough, but the second sym- 
phony, in B minor, is a more important work. 
It shows the composer as a forceful, virile 
personality. There is enough of modernism 
in the work; it has its bits of augmented 
triad effects and whole- tone scales; but it 
does not run these to death at the expense 
of other interesting styles. The composer's 
work is radical without being extreme, mod- 



484 Contemporary American Composers. 

ern without growing decadent, and at the 
same time beautiful enough to appeal to the 
conservative faction as well. Rhythm, va- 
riety, skill in figure treatment and develop- 
ment, all play their part, and Strube's com- 
positions do not depend upon exotic flavor 
alone for their popularity. 

Another gifted composer in the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra is its admirable first 
flutist, Andre Maquarre. He, too, has entered 
the operatic field; but Boston has experienced 
only his orchestral prowess, in the shape of 
the overture " On the Sea Cliff." 

Still another composer in the same organi- 
zation is Otto Urack, the new 'cellist and 
conductor. A symphony of his, given re- 
cently, proved shapely in design and at- 
tractive in material. His orchestra is large, 
but his material noticeably conservative. 
More than one of his audience has spoken 
of him as a modern Mendelssohn. 

The New York Philharmonic Orchestra 



The Orchestral Masters. 485 

numbers among its violinists the composer 
Fritz Stahlberg. In 1909 he brought out a 
symphonic poem in memory of Abraham 
Lincoln, and three years later came his two 
symphonic sketches, " In the Highlands." 
Still more recent is his Symphonic Scherzo. 
The main body of this work is a rather in- 
volved echo of modern Germanism, with 
slight traces of Debussy added. The trio 
is more melodic, and most suitably orchestral 
in style, and the work as a whole shows 
real musicianship and sufficient imaginative 
power. 

One of the foremost of the native Americans 
treated by Mr. Hughes is Edgar Stillman 
Kelley, 1 who has continued his activity in 
many fields. For some years he has been 
abroad, living and working in Berlin at the 
advice of Xaver Scharwenka. Recently he 
came back to his native land, to hold a col- 
legiate fellowship for composition at Oxford, 

1 See p. 57. 



486 Contemporary American Composers. 

Ohio, and to take charge of the composition 
in the famous Cincinnati College of Music. 

Among Kelley's Berlin successes were a 
piano quintet in F-sharp minor, op. 20, and 
a string quartet, op. 25. The former, brought 
out in 1906, made a strong impression. The 
opening Allegro Risoluto is marked by an 
effective chief theme and a well-contrasted 
lyrical side theme. Piano and strings alter- 
nate and modulate in a most interesting 
manner. The movement is a trifle long, but 
the Lento Sostenuto e Misterioso that fol- 
lows it becomes very impressive with its 
bell-like effects and broad melodic sweep. 
A dainty Allegretto Scherzando and a 
rhythmic Finale bring the work to a strong 
close. The quartet makes the interesting 
experiment of developing all four movements 
from a single theme. At first it becomes a 
theme with variations; the second movement 
brings the theme as Toccatina and Fugue; 
an Adagio-Intermezzo then leads into the 



The Orchestral Masters. 487 

Finale, which suggests the sonata form and 
brings three new variations in its course. 
Both of these works show Mr. Kelley at his 
best. He writes clearly and logically, and at 
the same time has valuable musical ideas 
and real inspiration. To quote Arthur Far- 
well, Kelley has " been a leader in the move- 
ment to gain mastery over the unbridled 
and rampant forces of modern harmony, and 
is one of the first composers to have attained 
a lucid and well-ordered harmonic character 
in the midst of the post-Wagnerian harmonic 
chaos. His work is poetic, original, and beau- 
tiful in a high degree, exquisite in its formal 
proportions, and colored with rare art in its 
rich harmonies." 

Among Kelley 's larger works are " Two 
Moods of Nature," for mixed chorus; music 
for the play " The Jury of Fate; " a Suite of 
" Macbeth " music; and still more ambitious, 
his recent New England Symphony, which 
was successful in Germany. The Macbeth 



488 Contemporary American Composers. 

Suite has been remodeled into something 
very striking. The symphony, in the unusual 
key of B-flat minor, aims to reflect the 
mental and spiritual life of New England. 
The first movement, Lento, Allegro Appa- 
sionata, bears the motto " All great and 
honorable actions are accompanied with 
great difficulties; and must be both enter- 
prised and overcome with answerable cour- 
ages." The music shows a contrast between 
two strong themes representing duty and 
love of life; and these themes are effectively 
developed. The second movement, Andante 
Pastorale, is almost a scherzo, its motto 
being " Warm and fair the weather, the birds 
sang in the woods most pleasantly." The 
music is evolved largely from actual New 
England bird calls. The third movement, 
with the words " Great lamentations and 
heaviness," is based partly on Timothy 
Swan's old hymn tune " Why do we mourn 
departed friends," and becomes a species of 



* The Orchestral Masters. 489 

dirge. The final motto is " The fit way to 
honor and lament the departed is to be true 
to one another and to work together bravely 
for the cause to which living and dead have 
consecrated themselves." The music here 
is strongly rhythmic and full of conflict, 
though ending devotionally. The words are 
in every case quotations from the Log of the 
Mayflower. Still another orchestral work 
by this composer is the set of pictures en- 
titled " Christmas Eve with Alice." Here 
we are taken to Wonderland again, and meet 
with such familiar subjects as the white 
rabbit, the caucus race, the Cheshire cat, 
the magic draught, and the forest of forget- 
fulness. In the smaller forms, too, the com- 
poser is still active. His settings of Poe's 
ballads " Eldorado " and " Israfel " literally 
glow with harmonic color. 

Ernest Schelling has attained twentieth- 
century fame as a pianist and a pupil of Pa- 
derewski. Schelling was born at Philadelphia 



490 Contemporary American Composers. 

in 1876. At an early age he entered the Paris 
Conservatoire as a pupil of Mathias, and 
was playing in concerts when only eight years 
old. At sixteen he was forced by neuritis to 
give up music, and for four years after that 
he earned a very precarious living in America. 
When Paderewski came to Philadelphia, 
Schelling broke into the green-room liter- 
ally broke in, as he had to pass an obdurate 
guard and recalled himself to the great 
Pole. Paderewski then insisted on having 
the young man come to his Swiss home for 
aid, comfort, and renewed musical work. 
In Switzerland, too, he had to fight for ad- 
mission, for the servants had had no word 
of his coming, and set the dogs on him when 
he appeared. But all's well that ends well, 
and Schelling soon became a performer of 
international repute. 

Among Schelling's works, perhaps the 
most interesting to Americans is the Suite 
Fantastique for piano and orchestra. This 




ERNEST SCHELLING. 



The Orchestral Masters. 491 

is because that composition contains some 
well-known American songs as themes, al- 
though one must add that the artistic and 
well-balanced nature of the work is of course 
its most valuable quality. The songs used 
are " Dixie " and " The Suwanee River." 
These are worked into the score in the most 
delightful fashion, and are sometimes made 
laughably comic by contrasts between piccolo 
and bassoon or other orchestral incongruities. 
Schelling's other works include a Legende 
Symphonique that is really a symphony in 
two contrasted movements. There is a real 
symphony as well, and he has written also 
a Ballet Divertissement. His smaller works 
include an effective violin sonata, a number 
of songs, and the piano works that one would 
expect from such a great performer. Chief 
among the last is a powerful theme and 
variations, in which the impressive theme is 
treated with marked variety and truly re- 
markable strength. 



492 Contemporary American Composers. 

Ernest Richard Kroeger, whose early suc- 
cesses are already chronicled, 1 has followed 
his orchestral overtures by the suite " Lalla 
Rookh," which has been given in many 
places. Still more closely allied to poetry 
is his setting of Hewlett's " Masque of Dead 
Florentines," with voices. In this work the 
great ones of that famous city are announced 
by a Herald, commented on by the chorus, 
and allowed to speak for themselves in turn, 
while the music gives a faithful and striking 
picture of their lives and characters. The 
names include Dante and Beatrice, Petrarch 
and Laura, Boccaccio, Fiammetta, Leonardo 
da Vinci, the beautiful Simonetta, the wily 
Machiavelli, the clever Benvenuto Cellini, 
the gifted Michael Angelo, and others. The 
music depicts them all with due fidelity and 
excellent artistic contrast. Mr. Kroeger is 
still very active in the smaller forms also, 
the list of his songs and piano works being 
1 See p. 420. 




ERNEST RICHARD KROEGER. 



The Orchestral Masters. 493 

impressive for its length as well as its value. 
He considers as of most interest his " Ten 
American Character Sketches," " American 
Tone Pictures," " Twenty Moods," and a 
theme and variations for piano, while among 
his recent songs " The Flight of the Arrow," 
" Memory," and " Annabel Lee " deserve 
especial mention. 

Arthur Whiting, in addition to the Fan- 
tasie and other works already described, 1 
has produced an overture. His many smaller 
works now include the attractive and widely 
known song-cycle " Floriana." 

Nathaniel Clifford Page 2 has continued 
his incidental music with that written for 
" The Japanese Nightingale," in 1903. 

Henry Schoenefeld, 3 of Rural Symphony 
fame, has increased his compositions by a 
piano concerto, a violin concerto, and other 
pieces. 

Henry Holden Huss 4 goes on in his or- 
1 See p. 283. 2 See p. 139. 3 See p. 128. 4 See p. 291. 



494 Contemporary American Composers. 

chestral career with " The Recessional," for 
mixed chorus, orchestra, and organ. A 
string quartet and a violin sonata have found 
a cordial welcome also. Of his new songs, 
" Before Sunrise " has an effective rippling 
accompaniment, " Ich Liebe Dich " shows 
the intensity of the German Lied in its re- 
peated chords, the " Wiegenlied " is attract- 
ively soothing, and " It was a Lover and 
His Lass " is made pleasingly melodious. 
Most interesting of his recent piano pieces is 
the Poem " La Nuit," full of nocturnal beauty 
and mystery. Of the six pieces in op. 23, 
the Etude Romantique brings expression to 
the study of triplets, two Intermezzi echo 
the Brahms style, and a Polonaise Brillante 
has its steady rhythm ornamented by bril- 
liant runs. Other piano works by Huss are 
the Valse, Nocturne, and Gavotte, op. 20, 
and the Minuet and Gavotte, op. 18. 
Harry Rowe Shelley, 1 whose first sym- 

1 See p. 304. 



The Orchestral Masters. 495 

phony Mr. Hughes calls virile, has produced 
a second work in symphonic form, which 
wins favorable mention. 

Rubin Goldmark, 1 nephew of his great 
foreign namesake, began, as already de- 
scribed, by gaining a name in chamber 
music. His later chamber works have won 
prizes, one of which was given by the Feder- 
ation of Music Clubs. He has kept active 
in the smaller forms, while a work of larger 
dimensions is his symphonic poem " Samson 
and Dalilah." One must have ability to 
treat such a subject, for Saint-Saens has 
given us glorious music in his opera of the 
same title. Goldmark's music stands the 
comparison well. It is of course dramatic 
and orchestral in style rather than lyric. 
It is marked by well-chosen contrasts of 
material and masterly orchestration. 
1 See p. 278. 



CHAPTER II. 

VARIOUS RECENT NAMES. 

IN the last few years, Henry F. Gilbert 
has become a prominent figure among those 
who believe in working up the native music. 
This is reflected in his best-known orchestral 
work, the Comedy Overture based on negro 
themes. He had planned an opera, in which 
the libretto, taken from the Uncle Remus 
stories, was to be set to music founded on 
negro themes. The opera was abandoned, 
but Gilbert utilized the themes in the overture, 
which was partly rewritten. The overture 
is based on three four-measure phrases and 
one passage of eight bars. The first two 
short bits are taken from Charles L. Edwards' 

book " Bahama Songs and Stories; " the 
496 



Various Recent Names. 497 

eight-bar phrase is the old Mississippi song 
" I'se gwine to Alabammy, oh; " while the 
first four bars of the negro " spiritual " 
known as " Old Ship of Zion " form the sub- 
ject of a fugue, which is used in contrast to 
the lighter comedy element that precedes 
and follows it. The overture as a whole is 
bright and interesting. The chief criticism 
against it lies in the fact that it does not em- 
phasize the negro flavor, for example, in the 
same way that Dvorak's New World Sym- 
phony does. The single first movement of 
the latter, though in strict sonata form, gives 
much longer themes than four-bar phrases, 
and somewhat more characteristic ones. 
The Gilbert work is interesting per se, but 
it does not proclaim its negro character from 
the housetops. 

Gilbert's other published works are, in 
large part, a Legend and a Negro Episode 
for orchestra, five Indian Scenes for piano, 
" The Island of the Fay," after Poe, also for 



498 Contemporary American Composers. 

piano, and a number of songs. Among the 
latter is " The Pirate's Song," a strongly 
rhythmic minor strain to Stevenson's " Fif- 
teen Men on the Dead Man's Chest." " The 
Lament of Deirdre " is another effective work, 
with exotic flavor. " Orlamonde " has the 
true shadowy effect of Maeterlinck, while 
" Zephyrus " and the " Faery Song " show 
a marked lightness of touch. Of the Celtic 
Studies, two Songs to the Wind are highly 
poetic, " My Heart is Heavy " sounds a 
mournful note, while the Skald's Song is a 
humorous account of Irish-Danish battles. 
" Salammbo's Invocation to Tanith " is an- 
other powerfully dramatic affair, published 
for piano but set also for orchestra. Two 
South American Gypsy songs include " La 
Zambulidora," a lyric of youth and love, 
and " La Montanera," in praise of the free 
life of a mountain maid. The " Fish- Wharf 
Rhapsody " is an unusual affair, strong in its 
praise of freedom from conventionality. In 



Various Recent Names. 499 

manuscript Mr. Gilbert has three more or- 
chestral works, an Americanesque (on 
" Old Zip Coon," " Dearest Mae," and " Rosa 
Lee "), a set of three American Dances in 
Ragtime, and a fantastic symphonic poem 
" The Dance in Place Congo," based on 
Cable's story of that title. 

Arthur Mansfield Curry was born at 
Chelsea, Mass., in 1866. He studied violin 
with Kneisel and composition with Mac- 
Dowell. He has been active as chorus- 
master and conductor, as well as teacher of 
violin and composition. His symphonic 
poem " Atala " was given at Boston in 1911. 
It is based on Chateaubriand's work of that 
name, and deals with the life of Atala, 
daughter of an Indian chief. She loves 
Chactas, a Spanish-bred Indian captive, and 
flees with him. But Atala has once taken a 
vow of celibacy, so that she hesitates to give 
way to her love. The pair wander through 
various forest adventures, finally reaching 



500 Contemporary American Composers. 

a priest's home. Here Atala takes poison, 
just as the priest is about to tell her that the 
church would not be so harsh as to make her 
keep her vow. The score opens with a 
solemn introduction, followed by themes 
typical of the freedom of Chactas and the 
love of Atala. A later theme typifies her 
vow. There is an orchestral storm in the 
forest, clearing to a pastoral scene in which 
the priest's bell and his organ tones are 
heard. The work ends with the theme of 
Chactas alone. Mr. Curry originally in- 
tended to write an opera on this subject, 
but began to doubt the stage value of the 
story. His other works include an overture, 
" Blomidon," a manuscript Elegie in over- 
ture form, a Celtic legend, " The Winning of 
Amarac," for a reader, a woman's chorus, 
and orchestra, shorter works for chorus and 
solo voices, and some piano pieces. 

William Edwin Haesche was born at New 
Haven in 1867. He studied violin with 



Various Recent Names. 501 

Listemann, piano with Perabo, and compo- 
sition with Parker. He has been for some 
time one of the musical staff at Yale College, 
and conductor of the New Haven Choral 
Union. His compositions have been largely 
orchestral. His " Forest Idyl," almost the 
only one of these that is published, is a grate- 
ful work, full of expressive beauty. Horns 
are used frequently to give the sylvan sug- 
gestion, while dainty rippling triplets por- 
tray the rustling of the forest. The themes 
are worked up to good climaxes, and used 
with strings and woodwind in skilful antiph- 
onal fashion. Haesche's other orchestral 
works include a tone poem " The South," a 
symphonic poem " Fridjof's Saga," an over- 
ture " The Springtime," a symphony in 
A-flat, a symphonietta, and the orchestral 
cantatas " The Haunted Oak of Nannau " 
and " The Village Blacksmith." His smaller 
works consist of songs, piano pieces, and violin 
works. The latter are the most numerous, 



502 Contemporary American Composers. 

including a spirited " Souvenir de Wieniaw- 
ski " in mazurka form, a rhythmic Country 
Dance, a Characteristic Suite consisting of 
five numbers entitled Espanola, Polonaise, 
Air, Bagdad, and Czardas, a brilliant Hun- 
garian Dance with 2-4 czardas effect, and a 
suite entitled "Eyes of Night." His Le- 
gende for violin, 'cello, and piano shows ex- 
cellent interweaving of the instruments. 
" Young Level's Bride " is an effective work 
with chorus. Among the solo songs are a 
joyous " Love Song " and the rhythmic 
" Swing High and Swing Low." 

Arne Oldberg was born at Youngstown, O., 
in 1874. He studied piano with Hyllested 
in Chicago, and with Leschetizky, starting 
to train himself in composition while with 
the latter at Vienna. Study hi Chicago and 
Munich prepared him further for creative 
work, and he now spends much time com- 
posing when not teaching at the North- 
western University. He is very strict with 



Various Recent Names. 503 

himself, and holds that his representative 
work begins only with op. 15. Before that 
he wrote piano pieces, three string quartets, 
a piano trio, a concerto for 'cello and orchestra, 
a piano concerto, an overture, two sympho- 
nies, and a string suite. The list of his later 
works of larger dimensions is as follows : 

Op. 15, string quartet in C minor. 

Op. 16, piano quintet in B minor. 

Op. 17, piano concerto. 

Op. 18, woodwind quintet (with piano). 

Op. 19, horn concerto in E-flat. 

Op. 20, orchestral variations. 

Op. 21, overture " Paolo and Francesca." 

Op. 22, four songs for contralto and or- 
chestra. 

Op. 23, symphony in F minor. 

Op. 24, quintet in C-sharp minor. 

Op. 29, Festival Overture. 

Op. 32, organ concerto. 

Op. 33, symphony in C minor. 

Many of these have been heard frequently 



504 Contemporary American Composers. 

in our larger cities, especially opp. 15, 16, 17, 
21, 24, and 29. The composer's piano works 
include an interesting sonata, some strong 
variations, a Legend, an Arabesque, an In- 
termezzo, and a set of Miniatures. 

Still younger than Oldberg is Arthur Shep- 
herd, who was born at Paris, Idaho, in 1880. 
At twelve he came to the New England 
Conservatory, studying various branches, 
which included composition with Goetschius 
and Chad wick. He joined the faculty of 
that institution in 1909, after having taught 
for some years in Salt Lake City. He won 
the Paderewski prize in 1902 with his Over- 
ture Joyeuse, and in 1909 he was awarded 
two prizes by the National Federation of 
Music Clubs, one for his piano sonata, and 
one for his song " The Lost Child." He has 
continued in the larger forms with a Hu- 
moreske for piano and orchestra, an over- 
ture " The Nuptials of Attila," and the large 
orchestral cantata " The City in the Sea." 



Various Recent Names. 505 

His piano sonata, in F minor, is hailed as a 
really remarkable work. The first movement, 
Allegro con Fuoco, has a slow introduction, 
a strong chief theme using the introduction 
idea, and a side theme of the expected tran- 
quillity, with a powerful development. The 
ensuing Andante Sostenuto, in triple time, 
is like a dirge, with occasional bursts of 
lyric feeling. The third movement, Allegro 
Commodo, has a lively second theme (Gio- 
coso), which is altogether spontaneous and 
effective. The work is very modulatory in 
character, and somewhat free in form, wherein 
it reflects the modern spirit. But radicalism 
is here only a means to an end, the end at- 
tained being the creation of virile, forceful 
music. Shepherd's other piano compositions 
include a Theme and Variations, a Mazurka, 
and a Prelude. For voice he has composed 
a motet with mixed chorus and baritone 
solo, " The Lord hath brought again Zion." 
His songs include " A Star in the Night," 



506 Contemporary American Composers. 

an ecstatic " Rhapsody," a smooth " Noc- 
turne," the beautiful and brilliant " Adieu," 
the passionate and Debussy-like " Youth's 
Spring Tribute," the broad prayer entitled 
" Sun-Down," and several others. His 
" Marsyas " is a recent symphonic poem. 

Philip Greeley Clapp, who was born at 
Boston in 1888, is one of those musical young- 
sters who strive to outdo their predecessors. 
His symphony in E minor, given during the 
season of 1913-14 at Boston, is a result of 
this tendency. It is a large work, with four 
long movements and many changes of tempo. 
It is scored for full modern orchestra, and 
abounds in effects that are original, if not 
highly significant. The modernists to-day, 
able to use new orchestral combinations and 
an enlarged and enfranchised system of har- 
mony, can create music of some interest 
almost as a matter of routine. We listen to 
their tone-colors and new chords, and find 
that these are the chief characteristics of 



Various Recent Names. 507 

much modern music. But there is still a 
need for inspiration, and orchestral technique 
does not always imply inspiration. That is 
why so many of the works of Holbrooke, 
Scriabine, Delius, Schoenberg, and others 
of the sort, are heard once and laid aside. 
They are merely exercises in modernism, 
without the inspiration that should go into 
any real art work. Mr. Clapp's symphony 
is based too much on this experimental 
style; and it caused some of the musicians 
to say that they had not met with so much 
meaningless difficulty in thirty years. One 
performer may not see the purport of a work 
as a whole, but the symphony was no more 
successful with the audience. As modern 
works go, Mr. Clapp's is as good as many 
another, but the school itself has its defects. 
The composer numbers among his other 
productions the tone-poem " Norge," a Dra- 
matic Poem for trombone and orchestra, 
the orchestral prelude " In Summer," a 



508 Contemporary American Composers. 

string quartet, and the chorus " O Glad- 
some Light." 

Percy Lee Atherton was born at Rox- 
bury, Mass., in 1871. He studied music at 
Harvard, with Rheinberger and Thuille at 
Munich, and with O. B. Boise. Atherton's 
orchestral works, mostly in manuscript, are a 
Symphonic Andante, a Symphonic Scherzo, 
an Intermezzo, a beautiful tone-poem " Noon 
in the Forest," and a Scherzino for strings. 
He has entered the comic opera field with 
"The Maharajah" and "The Heir-Ap- 
parent." His other works include two violin 
sonatas, a suite for violin (all with piano), 
a Romanza and Rondo for the same two 
instruments, several piano pieces, and about 
fifty songs. 

Arthur Farwell, mentioned only briefly in 

the earlier text, 1 is now a prominent figure. 

He was born at St. Paul in 1872, and studied 

composition with Humperdinck, Pfitzner, 

1 See p. 348. 



Various Recent Names. 509 

and Guilmant. The time that he has left, 
after fulfilling his duties as supervisor of 
municipal and school music in New York 
and elsewhere, is devoted to the cause of 
native music. By native we may here un- 
derstand Indian. Even his " Cornell " Over- 
ture, which would naturally be based in part 
on college songs, contains some Indian melo- 
dies. The " Love Song," from an unfinished 
suite, is more general in its style. So, too, 
are the Symbolistic Studies, and some of his 
songs, such as the spirited " Drake's Drum," 
the attractive "Love's Secret," the solemn 
" Requiescat," or the broad " Hymn to 
Liberty " for quartet. For the rest, Indian 
subjects and melodies prevail. " Dawn," 
" The Domain of Hurahan," and the " Na- 
vajo War Dance " are orchestral pictures. 
Such songs as the cowboy's " Lone Prairie," 
the two Negro Spirituals, and the two Spanish- 
Californian folk-songs, are also rather local 
in color. For piano, however, Farwell has 



510 Contemporary American Composers. 

produced one Indian work after another. 
These include " American Indian Melodies," 
"Owasco Memories," "Dawn," " Ichibuz- 
zhi," " Pawnee Horses," " Impressions of the 
Wa-Wan Ceremony," and piano versions of 
the orchestral numbers. 

Indian music is impressive enough in its 
way. Natalie Curtis says that when the 
Indians chant together, in the depths of the 
forest or on the boundless spaces of prairie, 
their music becomes infinitely effective, 
even though it is only a unison melody that 
they sing. But few of us have heard this 
music under these conditions. The average 
Eastern musician has to take his Indian 
melodies from a book, where they may seem 
rhythmic and effective enough, but are not 
truly folk-music. In other words, the aver- 
age man will not recognize Indian music 
when he hears it; while he will recognize the 
negro style of music. The latter, therefore, 
is the true American folk-music, as Dvorak 



Various Recent Names. 511 

showed in his " New World " Symphony. 
The lack of harmony in the Indian music is 
ICHIBUZZHI. 1 



ABTHUB FAHWKLL OP. IS. 



Light and spirited. 




another point that tends to prevent its be- 
coming national. Melody is fairly easy to 

1 Copyright, 1902, by The Wa-Wan Press. By permis- 
sion of G. Schirmer (Inc.). 



512 Contemporary American Composers. 

handle, but harmony is often the individual 
language of a composer. In the case of 
Cadman, we find his work great because of 
the harmonic beauty he puts into it; and 
his " Songs to Odysseus," with original 
themes, hold one's attention fully as much as 
his settings of Indian melodies. In found- 
ing a native school, then, Farwell's work is 
bound to fail; it must be judged as music, 
without reference to its source. On this 
basis Farwell has done very interesting work; 
but we do not recognize its Indian qualities 
unless we are told about them. The same 
is true even of MacDowell's Indian Suite, 
which is recognizable as Indian chiefly in the 
concert program books. 

Otis Bardwell Boise, who has taught so 
many of our young students, was born at 
Oberlin, O., in 1845, an d died in 1912. Study- 
ing at Leipsic and Berlin, he became a 
teacher at New York, then in Berlin, and 
finally at the Peabody Conservatory in Balti- 



Various Recent Names. 513 

more. Known chiefly by his teaching, he has 
also composed a number of dignified orches- 
tral works, including a symphony, two over- 
tures, and a piano concerto. 

At the other end of the country is Henry 
Bickford Pasmore, 1 who was born at Jack- 
son, Wis., in 1857, but is now identified with 
San Francisco. He, too, studied in Leipsic. 
He has been organist and teacher, and has 
composed a march, an overture, masses, and 
smaller works. His songs are often highly 
effective, " My Love Dwelt in a Northern 
Land " being a striking bit of monochromatic 
work. 

David Stanley Smith was born at Toledo 
in 1877. He studied at Yale with Parker, 
composing a Commencement Ode for chorus 
and orchestra. After a year and a half with 
Widor, he returned to America to become 
assistant professor of music at Yale. His 
compositions consist in part of a symphony, 
1 Mentioned on p. 272. 



514 Contemporary American Composers. 

given and highly praised by Stock in Chicago; 
" The Fallen Star," for chorus and orchestra, 
which gained the Paderewski prize in 1909; 
incidental music for the play " Robin Hood," 
given at Yale; a Fugue for orchestra and 
organ; an Overture Joyeuse; an Allegro 
Giocoso for orchestra; two contrasted pieces, 
"L'Allegro" and "II Penseroso; " a Sym- 
phonic Ballad; " The Djinns," for chorus 
and orchestra; and " Prince Hal," a sym- 
phonic sketch. His piano trio has been given 
by the Adamowskis, and his string quartet 
is a valued number in the Kneisel repertoire. 
His Christmas Cantata " The Logos " is a 
work of much charm, and " The Wind-Swept 
Wheat," another choral work, shows marked 
beauty. His songs include an exquisite 
" Cradle Song," the quaint garden picture 
" Gold and Purple," a beautiful setting of 
Phoebe Gary's " The Rose," a fiery " Rom- 
any Love Song," the smooth lyric " When 
Stars are in the Quiet Skies," the joyous 



Various Recent Names. 515 

" Song of the Four Seasons," and others of 
equal value. 

Rossetter Gleason Cole was born near 
Clyde, Mich., in 1866. His studies at Ann 
Arbor enabled him to compose the cantata 
" The Passing of Summer." After further 
work in Berlin, where he won a composition 
scholarship in the Royal Academy, he became 
professor of music at Ripon and Iowa Col- 
leges, and later at the University of Wis- 
consin. He has devoted himself to compo- 
sition since then, working in various forms. 
He has composed a strong Ballade for 'cello 
and orchestra, and the orchestral melodrama 
" King Robert of Sicily." Cole deserves 
praise for working in the latter form, which 
has not yet received the attention it de- 
serves. The " Manfred " of Schumann and 
the " Enoch Arden " of Strauss are certainly 
effective enough to be held as good models, 
yet few composers enter this field; except, 
perhaps, in Bohemia, where Fibich's " Hip- 



516 Contemporary American Composers. 

podamia " blazed the path. Cole produced 
an earlier melodrama with piano, " Hia- 
watha's Wooing," but greater success was in 
store for " King Robert," which has been 
given widely in various arrangements. Cole's 
piano works include two early Novelettes, 
one with striking rhythm and the second 
worked up in broad chord passages. Of 
charming melodic effect are the five sketches 
" From a Lover's Notebook," published in 
Germany. " In Springtime " is a more recent 
work. For violin and piano Cole has written 
an admirable sonata and a number of less 
ambitious pieces. For organ he published 
an Allegro Quasi Marcia, an Andante Re- 
ligioso, and other numbers. Most successful 
among his songs have been " Auf Wieder- 
sehen," "Dearie" (or "Absence"), and 
" My True Love Hath My Heart," though 
the composer does not rate them as his most 
artistic productions. The latter might in- 
clude " A Kiss and a Tear," " May Song," 



Various Recent Names. 517 

" If Thou Wert Nigh," and the rich " Hal- 
cyon Song." Cole's work at its best shows 
a depth of feeling and a tenderness that is of 
caressing appeal. 

Edwin Grasse, famous as a violinist and 
violin teacher, was born at New York in 1884. 
The great misfortune of blindness did not 
prevent his studying at Brussels and be- 
coming a prominent musical figure on his 
return. He has composed a symphony, a 
suite, a violin concerto, two piano trios, and 
several pieces for piano and violin. 

Another violinist-composer is Eugene 
Gruenberg, of Boston, who has composed a 
symphony, a suite, and many smaller works. 

Arthur Hartmann, the famous concert vio- 
linist, considers himself an American, for he 
came to this country from Hungary at the 
mature age of two months. A pupil of Loef- 
fler, he is naturally devoted to modernism, 
and his effects are always original. He is best 
known as a composer by his male and mixed 



518 Contemporary American Composers. 

choruses with orchestra. Some of his songs 
are striking enough, as, for instance, the de- 
clamatory " Ballade; " but " A Child's 
Grace," though it might suit a Willy Ferrero 
who conducts at the age of seven, is rather 
too modulatory for the average child. 

Among the pianist composers, Sigismund 
Stojowski takes high rank. Now a teacher 
in New York, he was born in Poland, and 
studied at Cracow and Paris. He numbers 
among his compositions a symphony, a suite, 
a piano concerto, violin sonatas, and many 
piano pieces. 

Mme. Helen Hopekirk, a leader among the 
women pianists, has been active in compo- 
sition also. Her concerto and Concertstiick 
for piano and orchestra are works of which 
any American might be proud. In the smaller 
forms she has written a violin sonata, some 
dainty songs, and " lona Memories " for 
piano, the two latter items testifying to her 
remembrance of her Scottish birth. 



Various Recent Names. 519 

Mrs. Beach 1 has continued her work in 
the large forms with a piano concerto, which 
she has often played herself. " The Sea 
Fairies" and "The Chambered Nautilus" 
are cantatas for women's voices, showing an 
admirable balance between strength and 
tonal beauty. The accompaniment is for 
either piano or orchestra. Her op. 67 is an 
effective piano quintet. For piano she has 
composed the Variations on a Balkan Theme, 
which becomes a striking recital number in 
her hands; a somewhat lighter Suite Fran- 
caise; a Scottish Legend and Gavotte Fan- 
tastique; and Four Eskimo Pieces. The last 
are based on real Eskimo folk-songs, and are 
primitively strong and rhythmic. Their ti- 
tles are "Arctic Night," "The Returning 
Hunter," "Exiles," and "With the Dog 
Teams." Mrs. Beach's " Three Browning 
Songs " and " Two Mother Songs " have 
been well known for some time. More re- 
1 See p. 426. 



520 Contemporary American Composers. 

cent are the three songs of op. 71, consist- 
ing of a harp-like " Prelude " depicting sun- 
rise, the somewhat declamatory " O Sweet 
Content," and the pastoral lyric " An Old 
Love Story." 

Margaret Ruthven Lang l has continued 
her work chiefly as a song writer, though she 
keeps three orchestral overtures to her credit, 
and may have more in manuscript. She has 
produced some admirable children's songs, 
her op. 39 consisting of ten of these, and 
there is " Grandma's Song Book," in ad- 
dition. Perhaps her settings of Edward 
Lear's limericks may please the children, 
but they appeal also to children of a larger 
growth. Of her serious songs, " Summer 
Noon " is a quiet but effective picture, one of 
a set of six that includes " The Hills o' Skye," 
"Tryste Noel," and the strong "North- 
ward." Of the four in op. 38, the effective 
" Orpheus " and the unusual " Song in the 
1 See p. 432. 




MARGARET RUTHVEN LANG. 



Various Recent Names. 521 

Songless " seem the most striking. " Love 
is Everywhere," no. 4 in op. 40, carries one 
along in its grateful enthusiasm, while " A 
Song of the Gypsies," in op. 50, is another 
interesting and original bit. 

Among the organist-composers, Albert Au- 
gustus Stanley was born at Manville, R. I., 
in 1851. After study with Reinecke and 
Richter, he returned to Providence, and 
later on to the University of Michigan as pro- 
fessor. He has composed a symphony en- 
titled " The Soul's Awakening," the sym- 
phonic poem " Attis," an Ode for the Provi- 
dence Centennial, and many smaller works 
for organ and for voice. 

John Spencer Camp was born at Middle- 
town, Conn., in 1858. Studying in America 
when Dvorak was here, he became a con- 
ductor and organist at Hartford, composing 
orchestral works, cantatas, a string quartet, 
piano and organ pieces, and both sacred and 
secular songs. 



522 Contemporary American Composers. 

John A. Broekhoven, born at Beek, Hol- 
land, in 1852, has been for many years a 
teacher of counterpoint at the Cincinnati Col- 
lege of Music. He numbers among his works 
a Suite Creole for orchestra, a " Columbia " 
Overture, and smaller pieces. 

An influential conductor-composer in Kan- 
sas City is Carl Busch, who was born in 
Denmark in 1862. He has composed a sym- 
phony, a symphonic rhapsody, heroic can- 
tatas, violin music, and songs. 

Arthur Claassen, renowned in Brooklyn 
as teacher and conductor, was born hi Prus- 
sia in 1859. He has composed orchestral 
works, choruses, and chamber music. 

John Powell, of Richmond, has composed 
a violin concerto that came in for very high 
praise from Zimbalist when that artist per- 
formed the work. 

Mortimer Wilson, born in Iowa, is another 
new name in American orchestral annals. 
His three-movement " Country Wedding " 



Various Recent Names. 523 

Suite, consisting of a Pastoral Dance, Ro- 
manza, and festival Finale, was given a 
favorable hearing at Leipsic. His Symphony 
in A is a still more recent work. His compo- 
sitions include another symphony, several 
other orchestral works, and much chamber 
music. 

Nathaniel Irving Hyatt, born at Lansing- 
burgh, N. Y., in 1865, teaches in Troy, and 
has composed the " Enoch Arden " Over- 
ture, chamber works, and smaller pieces. 

Samuel Bellinger, of St. Louis, has many 
orchestral works hidden away in manuscript. 
If these fulfil the promise of his Scherzo for 
piano, they will be well worth while. 

Another faithful producer of manuscripts 
that should bear fruit is Fannie Dillon, 
known by her Six Preludes for piano. 

Among the younger women, Mabel Daniels 
is rapidly approaching leadership. Of her 
works, a Ballade for baritone and orchestra 
was recently included in a MacDowell festi- 



524 Contemporary American Composers. 

val program, along with works of that com- 
poser and of the great Europeans. Her songs 
with piano, too, are held highly interesting, 
and at least one of them has won a prize. 

John Nelson Pattison, born at Niagara in 
1845, studied with Liszt and others to be- 
come a pianist. But he did not neglect com- 
position, writing a " Niagara " symphony 
and many agreeable piano pieces. 

Alexander Hull, born at Columbus, O., 
in 1887, is one f the best of the modernists. 
Studying in part with Dr. Hugh A. Clarke, 
of Philadelphia, Hull is entirely an American 
product. He has taught much privately, 
and in the Pacific College also. Most of his 
works are songs, but " Java " is for full or- 
chestra and piano, and a symphony in D 
minor is in manuscript. Recently he has 
worked at an orchestral suite (having written 
an earlier one for strings and harp), and he 
has under way the operas " Paolo and Fran- 
cesca " and " Merlin and Vivien." For 



Various Recent Names. 525 

piano he has written a sonata, a Book of 
Sketches, and other pieces. Of the songs, a 
set of ten constituting op. 16 seem represent- 
ative. " Within the Convent Close " has 
a rapid chord accompaniment, glowing with 
all the strange radiance that a Debussy 
could obtain. " Blue, Blue Flow'ret " unites 
the quiet style of folk-music with the 
most speaking harmonic individuality. " The 
Argosy " has imaginative words well fitted 
by its odd 7-4 rhythm, and is another gem 
of originality. " The Rock " is a weird na- 
ture-picture. The " Wanderer's Night Song " 
(the first of Goethe's, and not that second 
one which an unwary translator entitled 
" Another ") is broad and compelling in its 
style. " Laziness " is another effective num- 
ber, and it may be hoped that no family 
troubles resulted from the composer's dedi- 
cating it to his sister. 

Edward Faber Schneider was born at 
Omaha in 1872. After studying with Schar- 



526 Contemporary American Composers. 

wenka in New York and Boise in Berlin, he 
settled in San Francisco. His symphony 
" The Autumn Time " received a San Fran- 
cisco hearing, and he wrote the music (soli, 
chorus, and orchestra) for " The Triumph 
of Bohemia," given at one of the " High 
Jinks " festival performances of the San 
Francisco Bohemian Club. His Romantic 
Fantasy and Midwinter Idyl are for piano 
and violin, while his other works are chiefly 
songs. 

Edward Burlingame Hill, son of the Chem- 
istry Professor H. B. Hill of Harvard College, 
was born at Cambridge in 1872. He studied 
music at Harvard, and with the excellent 
teacher and composer Fred Field Bullard. 
Hill is now on the musical staff at Harvard. 
He has composed two pantomimes to plots 
made by Joseph Lindon Smith, and both of 
these show much delicacy and originality of 
thought. The first is " Jack Frost in Mid- 
summer," the second not yet given. His 



Various Recent Names. 527 

three piano sonatas (or at least one of them) 
helped him to win Highest Honors from the 
music department at Harvard. Later piano 
works include the six Country Idyls, gently 
pastoral for the most part; the strongly 
effective number " At the Grave of a Hero; " 
and Four Sketches after Stephen Crane. 
The last group includes the mocking, carous- 
ing " Debils," a broad love-memory, a com- 
ical skit on the jingle of three birds talking of a 
man who thinks he can sing, and the sombre 
"March of the Mountains." The Three 
Poetical Sketches, op. 8, are " Moonlight," 
" A Midsummer Lullaby," and the broad 
picture " From a Mountain Top." Of Hill's 
songs, " In Kensington Gardens " has won 
a name; " Peace at Noon " and " Spring 
Twilight " are well-contrasted moods; " The 
Surges Gushed " is a rhythmic marine effect; 
and " The Full Sea Rolls and Thunders " is 
a strongly virile affair. 

Noble Kreider, born in Goshen, Indiana, 



528 Contemporary American Composers. 

is another of those whose orchestral works 
have remained for some time in manuscript. 
But he has no reason to complain of the re- 
ception accorded to his piano pieces. His 
Ballad, op. 2, is a strong and original work, 
and a reviewer has said of it, " Its ten pages 
of octaves crowding on octaves and chords 
sketch an immense story of elemental or 
semi-barbarous character, portentous and 
powerful." A melodious Nocturne, op. 4, 
brings suggestions of Ghopin, though the 
harmonies used against the expressive melody 
are often more modern and dissonant than 
those of the great Pole. An Impromptu is 
marked by rich harmony, flowing melody, 
and interesting phrase-construction. Of the 
two Studies, op. 6, the first, with its three- 
voiced pattern, is more interesting than the 
second, in sixths. The Six Preludes, op. 7, 
again suggest Chopin, though decided in their 
originality. They are marked in turn by a 
delightful lightness, a broad melody in low 



Various Recent Names. 529 

positions, an unpretentious but keen har- 
monic originality, brilliant left-hand work, 
vague but potent charm of melody, and a 
final close on an unresolved dissonance in 
no. 6. As this dissonance follows a cadence, 
Rupert Hughes calls it rather a " dissolved 
consonance." The three Moods in op. 9 
show an echo of the surging waves, a lotus- 
eating picture of " The Valley of White 
Pippins," and a tempestuous storm. 

Henry Clough-Leighter has devoted him- 
self to cantatas and songs. He has written 
also some piano studies and novelettes, in 
addition to the ballad " Lasca " for voice, 
piano, and full orchestra. Born at Washing- 
ton in 1874, he soon showed himself musically 
gifted under his mother's tuition, and from 
his fifteenth year has been a professional 
organist. Of his cantatas, " Christ Trium- 
phant " is a work of rare nobility and lofti- 
ness. He has set three other sacred subjects 
in this form, as well as a " Harvest Cantata " 



530 Contemporary American Composers. 

and " Across the Fields to Anne," These 
are published with organ or piano parts, but 
the composer has given them orchestral ac- 
companiment as well. He has written about 
a hundred choral works, too, more or less 
polyphonic in structure, and including set- 
tings of the Canticles and Services of the 
Anglican Church. "The Day of Beauty" 
is a lyric suite for voice, piano, and string 
quartet, giving sympathetic pictures of " Ra- 
diant Morn," " Silent Noon," and " Starry 
Night." " Love-Sorrow " is a cycle for voice, 
piano, violin, and 'cello. Cycles for voice 
and piano include " A Love Garden," " An 
April Heart," "Youth and Spring," and 
" Love-Life." His separate songs number 
well over a hundred. Most popular among 
them is assuredly the richly beautiful lyric 
" I Drink the Fragrance of the Rose." 

Of American orchestral work in general, 
one .may speak in high terms. It has diffi- 
culties in obtaining hearings, but it is making 



Various Recent Names. 



its way none the less. Music here, as else- 
where, is in a transition period, often echoing 

I DEINK THE FRAGRANCE OF THE ROSE* 



CBABLES BANSON TOVNI 

.Allegretto grazioso 






fat 



drink the fra-granc of the 




the more or less experimental work of certain 

1 Copyright, MCMII, by Oliver Ditson Company. 



532 Contemporary American Composers. 

modernists abroad. America has composers 
as skilled in orchestration as those of almost 
any other nation. In boldness of effects, 
too, our radicals are not behind the foreign 
pioneers. If we are at present composite 
and cosmopolitan rather than strictly na- 
tional, there is still tune for a distinctly 
American school to develop. Such a school 
might well fuse the discordant elements of 
modern music into a complete whole, which 
is what the musical world needs at present. 



CHAPTER III. 

OTHER MUSICAL FORMS. 

ALTHOUGH the orchestral forms are rightly 
regarded as the most important, it is quite 
possible for a genius to manifest itself in other 
ways. Thus Chopin wrote concertos, but 
his piano works alone sufficed to place him 
in the ranks of the immortals. The com- 
posers mentioned in this chapter may there- 
fore be quite as gifted as some of those pre- 
viously described; and probably a number of 
them will enter the orchestral field, too, in 
later years. 

Benjamin Cutter was born at Woburn, 
Mass., in 1857, and was much prized as a 
harmony teacher in the New England Con- 
servatory for many years before his death 

533 



534 Contemporary American Composers. 

in 1910. He composed a cantata " Sir 
Patrick Spens," a Mass, a piano trio, Baga- 
telles for viola and piano, violin works, 
songs, and choruses. His Mass, published 
with organ accompaniment, is a work of full 
dimensions. The Kyrie shows excellent 
interweaving of solo voices and chorus; the 
Gloria begins grandly with chorus; Qui 
Tollis works up to a great climax by transi- 
tion from soprano to chorus; the Credo re- 
verses the process, beginning with chorus 
and ending with strong quartet work; the 
Sanctus shows due enthusiasm, the Benedic- 
tus has real dignity, the Agnus Dei brings 
expressive solo work, and the Dona Nobis 
forms a strong finale. This Mass is one of 
the best works yet produced in America. 

John Hyatt Brewer, whose biography is 
given in the earlier text, 1 has continued as 
organist and exceptionally gifted chorus 
leader. As a composer he has won prizes 

1 Seep. 331. 



Other Musical Forms. 535 

from such diverse offerings as Mason and 
Hamlin, the City of Brooklyn, the Schubert 
Glee Club, and the Chicago Madrigal Club. 
He has been active in the American Guild 
of Organists, the Brooklyn Institute of Arts 
and Sciences, and other organizations. He 
really belongs with the orchestral composers, 
though he keeps his suite hidden away in 
manuscript. His other recent works follow 
the lines of his earlier productions. 

Another Brooklyn organist and composer 
is Raymond Huntington Woodman, born 
there in 1861. He, too, became an organist 
when fourteen years old, replacing his father 
when the latter met with an accident. He 
has also been very successful as a choral con- 
ductor, and an active leader in the music 
department of the Brooklyn Institute. As 
a composer, he has handled the orchestra 
as an accompaniment for some of his songs, 
using the organ to accompany his cantatas. 
The latter are twp in number, " The 



536 Contemporary American Composers. 

Message of the Star," for Christmas, and 
" The Way of Penitence," for Lenten use. 
The former is especially happy in its choral 
work, beginning with the attractive " There 
Shall Come a Star " and ending with the 
triumphant " Hail our Redeemer." Wood- 
man's piano pieces include a rhythmic and 
lulling Romance, while among his organ 
works the bright " Epithalamium," with 
quaint five-bar phrases in its middle section, 
deserves especial mention. Of his solo songs, 
" In San Nazzaro " is an effective cycle 
dealing with love and loss as they come to a 
young monk. " Give Me the Sea " is a strong 
minor picture of longing, while " Wind of 
the Downs " is virile in its suggestion of 
open air. Woodman has written in all about 
fifty songs, and numerous part-songs and 
choruses. 

Charles Whitney Coombs, already men- 
tioned as a song writer, 1 has continued his 
1 See p. 343. 



Other Musical Forms. 537 

career as composer and organist in New York. 
Among his works are the cantatas " The 
Vision of St. John," " The Ancient of Days," 
and " The First Christmas/' with solo voices, 
chorus, and organ. Among his songs the best 
is the intense lyric " My Heart, it was a cup 
of gold;" while "How Goodly are Thy 
Tents " is an anthem showing excellent 
melodic counterpoint. 

Another well-known organist-composer is 
Samuel Prowse Warren. 

In his later years, Gerrit Smith * entered 
the cantata field with " David." He also 
continued his admirable work in the smaller 
fqrms that he wrought with so much skill. 
These Mr. Hughes has described so well that 
no further comment is needed. 

George Balch Nevin, born at Shippens- 
burg, Pa., in 1859, has composed in very 
many vocal forms, but has been most suc- 
cessful with his church music. His Christ- 
1 See p. 309. 



Contemporary American Composers. 

mas cantata " The Adoration " and an 
Easter work, " The Crucified," represent him 
at his best; among his secular songs especial 
mention must be given to " The Bells of 
Shandon " and " The Song of the Armorer." 

Nicholas J. Elsenheimer, born at Wies- 
baden in 1866, has for many years been 
identified with the Cranberry Music School, 
of New York. He has composed the cantatas 
" Valerian " and " Belshazzar," and many 
part-songs. 

Henry Morton Dunham was born at 
Brockton, Mass., in 1853. He has been an 
organist in Boston for many years, and a 
teacher at the New England Conservatory. 
He will soon enter the orchestral field with 
his symphonic poem " Easter Morning." 
Meanwhile his reputation rests on some 
valuable organ works. His first organ so- 
nata is a dignified affair, his second remarka- 
bly effective, and his third a worthy example 
of the continuous-movement form. A Fan- 



Other Musical Forms. 539 

tasia and Fugue, op. 19, is a rapid rush for 
the most part. His Fantasia in C minor 
shows excellent use of contrast. A Festival 
March, op. 15, is worked out with great 
breadth. Dunham's other organ pieces in- 
clude Three Choral Preludes, a Passacaglia, 
a Theme and Variations for piano and organ, 
and many church works. 

Louis Campbell-Tipton, known profession- 
ally without the first name, was born at 
Chicago in 1877. He has lived for some time 
in Paris, but has become well known in Ger- 
many also. The reviewer of the " Signale," 
an important periodical, states that " In 
many respects he is ... more interesting 
than Debussy, although he may not show 
the latter's completeness in the smaller forms. 
This comes perhaps from the fact that Camp- 
bell-Tipton's musical ideas are larger, and, 
consequently, better suited to the larger 
forms." Of the Suite Pastorale, for violin 
and piano, the same writer says, " All the 



540 Contemporary American Composers. 

movements of this suite bear the marks of a 
firm hand in the moulding, modern harmonic 
freedom of an individual character through- 
out; living, fresh rhythms, and charming 
tone-colorings, making an interesting work 
from the first to the last note." A German 
encyclopedia calls his work " highly colored, 
vigorous, and dramatic." His chief piano 
compositions include the aspiring and spirited 
" Sonata Heroic," some effective Legends, 
and a suite, " The Four Seasons." The last- 
named shows bubbling enthusiasm for Spring, 
languorous calm for Summer, retrospection 
for Autumn, and a mysterious loneliness for 
Winter. There is also an early album of ten 
short pieces, with a bright Scherzetto and 
an effective Menuet among them. Of his 
songs, " The Opium Smoker " shows a strong 
contrast between the dream and the reality; 
Longfellow's " Hymn to the Night " is set 
with much breadth; " Three Shadows," 
with Rossetti's words, is of great intensity; 



Other Musical Forms. 541 

the Tone-Poems, op. 3, contain admirable 
pictorial effects, as in " Am winterlichen 
Meer" or "The Sea Shell;" while the Four 
Sea Lyrics comprise " After Sunset," " Dark- 
ness," "The Crying of Water," and " Re- 
quies." 

John Alden Carpenter was born at Park 
Ridge, near Chicago, in 1876. He studied 
first with his mother, a gifted musician, and 
later with Amy Fay, W. C. Seeboeck, Prof. 
Paine at Harvard (where he took Highest 
Honors with a piano sonata), with Elgar 
three months, and with Bernhard Ziehn, of 
Chicago, whom he praises highly. Carpenter 
is in business, but finds time to toss off com- 
positions that win remarkable eulogies. Chief 
of these is a sonata for violin and piano, 
played by Elman. It has an improvisa- 
tional Larghetto, followed by an energetic 
and incisive Allegro, with the later move- 
ments consisting of a Largo Mistico and a 
Presto Giocoso. Carpenter's songs are of 



542 Contemporary American Composers. 

great variety, ranging from children's work 
to settings of Verlaine. The former consists 
of two dainty albums, " When Little Boys 
Sing " and " Improving Songs for Anxious 
Children; " and their delicate humor is well 
indicated by these titles. " Treat Me Nice " 
is another bit of brightness. Of his four 
Verlaine songs, the " Chanson d'Automne " 
is impressively declamatory, " Le Ciel " is 
broad and effective, " Dansons la Gigue " 
suggests its subject well, and " II Pleure 
Dans Mon Coeur " is sufficiently mournful. 
" En Sourdine " treats another Verlaine 
poem. Of the Four Songs for Medium Voice, 
" Les Silhouettes " is full of variety, " Her 
Voice " shows a strange intensity, " To One 
Unknown " is a broad invocation to love, 
and " Fog Wraiths " has odd modulatory 
effects. Eight Son'gs for Medium Voice in- 
clude a rhythmic " Cradle Song," the smooth 
" Looking-Glass River," the melodious " Go, 
Lovely Rose," and the quaint bit of moral- 



Other Musical Forms. 543 

izing entitled "Little Fly." Carpenter's 
work, on the whole, is modern and modula- 
tory, but distinctly and decidedly original. 

Harvey Worthington Loomis, rated so 
highly by Mr. Hughes, 1 has produced an 
impressive work in his " Tragedy of Death." 
Its words show a mother's efforts to save her 
child before Death can take it from the 
Garden of Souls to Heaven. Undines and 
Fates also play their part. The music is 
partly vocal, partly melodramatic, and con- 
tains an expressive Intermezzo for piano 
alone. 

Adolph Martin Foerster, whose earlier 
productions place him in the orchestral 
class, 2 has devoted his recent work chiefly 
to songs, with the exception of op. 77, which 
is a Nocturne and Epigram for organ. His 
" Ave Maria," with minor-major contrasts, 
has a violin and organ obUigato. Op. 53 is 
an album of Ten Lyrics, and includes the 

1 See p. 77. 2 See p. 248. 



544 Contemporary American Composers. 

strangely impressive " Love Seemeth Terri- 
ble," the melodious " Sterne Ueberall," the 
folk-song-like " Suggestion," an intense 
" Farewell " with Byron's words, the beauti- 
ful " Water Lily," and others. Op. 57 con- 
tains in its Six Songs the smoothly lyric 
" Early Spring," an impressive minor setting 
of Heine's difficult " Fichtenbaum," a lively 
" Forester's Song," and the enthusiastic 
Lied " Der Lenz ist da." Most interesting 
are the Greek Love Songs, op. 63. There 
are nine of them, of which " Bittersweet " 
seems pleasingly odd, with its close on the 
dominant note, " Time's Revenge " echoes 
the ironic spirit of the words, " Rekindling 
the Flame " is an effective minor number, 
" Purity of Love " is appropriately intense, 
and " Love Aflame " a fiery close to the set. 
The Garland of Songs, op. 64, deserves note 
because it contains a broadly melodious 
setting of " The Last Rose of Summer," as 
well as the contrasted " Starless Night " and 



Other Musical Forms. 545 

" Starlit Night." " To the Beloved " and 
" Enraptured " are other gems in this set. 
Op. 65 contains four love songs, while op. 67, 
Child Lyrics, treats five Stevenson poems, 
including " Where Go the Boats " and " The 
Friendly Cow." In the Second Album of 
Lyrics, op. 69, is an artistic version of " Row 
Gently Here, My Gondolier," a slow and 
majestic " Midnight Reverie," the impress- 
ive little tone-picture " Absolved " (de- 
picting a frozen sentry released by death), a 
breezy " In March," a remarkably effective 
" Swan Song," and the German lyrics " Wo 
Ich Bin " and " Durch den Wald." Foers- 
ter's later songs include " Gefangen " (here 
meaning captivated), " Ein Reif ist gefallen," 
the dramatic " Indian Maid," the Wagner 
Albumblatt reminiscence " Calm Be Thy 
Sleep," the melodious " My Harp," the 
charming " Song of the Woods," and the 
tremendously impressive " Alone." In the 
last, the loneliness of the eagle, the lion, the 



546 Contemporary American Composers. 

river, and the mountain, are all depicted on 
a single note for the voice, and only at the 
end, when man sees into Eternity, is there 
any change from this monotone. 

Herman P. Chelius is a Bostonian (though 
of German birth) who is known as pianist, 
organist, choral conductor, teacher, and com- 
poser. In the last capacity he has produced 
a number of piano works and songs, but his 
Prelude and Fugue for piano is sufficient by 
itself to make a name for him. The prelude 
has a running fire of triplets spread between 
the hands, and over their rhythmic up-and- 
down sweeps are heard expressive chords. 
This structure, carried through the work, is 
varied harmonically in the most interesting 
fashion, the music being clear and logical, 
and, at the same time, without any labored 
search after novel or abstruse effects. The 
fugue, with its running subject echoing the 
prelude material, is built up into a most glori- 
ous tonal edifice. The exposition is carried 



Other Musical Forms. 



547 



through fully, and the many episodes and 
strettos show the true contrapuntal spirit. 

Grand Prelude and Fugue J 

in F minor. 



HEBMAN P CHEUDS. 



Piano. 



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1 Copyright, 1907, by Herman P. Chelius. 



548 Contemporary American Composers. 

taken in octaves instead of unison, and made 
to finish the work with the most tremendous 



FUGUE. 1 



Moderate. 



HERMAN P. CHELTCS. 



TUMO. 




power. It is little wonder that Baermann, 

1 Copyright, 1907, by Herman P. Chelius. 



Other Musical Forms. 549 

Foote, and other artists called this one of the 
greatest piano works ever written in America. 
Other piano pieces by Chelius include a 
Ballade in F, which Foote calls " beautiful, 
fresh, and interesting; " a Melodic, a Valse 
Caprice, a Valse Brillante, the melodious 
Angelic Vision, a Love Song, a Dance of 
Gnomes, and many other selections. His 
violin Romanza is another tuneful work. 
He has written also a 'cello piece, organ 
works, songs, and choruses. He is now pre- 
paring a set of piano pieces aimed to bring 
out all varieties of touch. 

Frederic Ayres, born at Binghamton in 
1876, studied with Kelley in Berlin and 
Foote in Boston. He, too, has written fugues, 
but he treats them in freer fashion and with 
less power. His Two Fugues, op. 9, even 
show harmonic episodes, though treating 
the fugal matter. But their material is in- 
teresting enough. Ayres has composed a 
piano trio also, but is best known by his 



550 Contemporary American Composers. 

songs. Of his Three Songs, op. 2, the " Spring 
Song " (Browning) shows a delicate melodic 
sense, " I Send My Heart Up to Thee " is 
effective but not individual, while " Be- 
stowal " is apparently simple, but in reality 
deeply sincere and very strong. " It Was a 
Lover and His Lass "-has a setting of rippling 
lightness and intricacy, while the Sea Dirge 
from " The Tempest " is again a strongly 
poetic work in apparently simple form. 
" Come Unto These Yellow Sands " has some 
remarkably original harmonic effects, while 
" Where the Bee Sucks " is smoothly melo- 
dious. 

Frank La Forge, who came into public 
notice as Mme. Sembrich's accompanist, is 
also a composer in his own right. His Ro- 
mance and Gavotte for piano are attractive 
enough, but he has done more in the domain 
of song. " Am See " is an example of mournful 
declamation; " An Einem Boten " is a dainty 
and humorous bit; " The Sheepherder " 



Other Musical Forms. 551 

has an effective Ostinato figure, giving 
a picture of monotony by its repetition; " In 
der Abends tille " echoes the mood of that 
Strauss gem " Traum durch die Dammer- 
ung; " " Friihlingseinzug " is an enthusi- 
astic specimen of the German Lied; " The 
Coyote," with its up-and-down wails, is a 
distinctly American subject; " To One Afar " 
shows masterly figure treatment; " Spuk " is 
duly mysterious and ghostly; " Come Unto 
These Yellow Sands " is beautiful, but has too 
many sustained notes for its subject; while 
" Before the Crucifix " is broadly effective. 

Clayton Johns, 1 who still teaches and 
writes in Boston in spite of illness, has in 
manuscript the music to an old mystery play, 
arranged for voice and instruments. He has 
added to his piano works an Introduction 
and Fugue, an Impromptu-Caprice, a Can- 
zone, a Waltz, and a Promenade, all of which 
hold their well-earned popularity. He has 
1 See p. 368. 



552 Contemporary American Composers. 

also issued two technical books, " The Es- 
sentials of Pianoforte Playing " and " From 
Bach to Chopin." But his songs carry far- 
thest with the public. One has yet to hear of 
a summer hotel in this broad country that has 
not echoed to " I Cannot Help Loving Thee," 
or "I Love, And The World Is Mine." 
These are classics in America, just as much as 
Nevin's well-beloved " Narcissus " ever was. 
Johns has set French texts in the dainty 
"Peu de Chose," the beautiful "Roses 
Mortes," the quiet " Apaisement," the som- 
bre " II Pleure Dans Mon Coeur," and the 
impressive " Un Grand Sommeil Noir." 
Other effective lyrics of his are " The Scythe 
Song," " An Old Rhyme," " Through East- 
ern Gates," " Song of the Trees," " The Lady 
of . the Lagoon," " A Bridal Measure," 
" When May was Young," " Moon of Roses," 
and others of the same sympathetic lyricism. 
Wilson G. Smith 1 has continued his well- 
1 See p. 395. 



Other Musical Forms. 



553 



liked piano works and songs, and has suc- 
ceeded in bringing his opus-numbers past 

WITHIN MY HEART AEE TEARS 1 

(IL PLEURE DANS MON COEUR) 



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What 11 *-1hi hcavintuThal my soul doth op. or 




the century mark. The Romanza Appa- 
1 Copyright, MCMIV, by Oliver Ditson Company. 



554 Contemporary American Composers. 

sionata and Simple Story of op. 95 are more 
appealing than some of his thinly veiled 
dances, while his recent " Summer Sketches," 
"Autumn Sketches," and "Moonlight 
Sketches " have unusual pictorial value. A 
Danse Arabesque, op. 102, is another work 
that is far removed from conventionality. 
In his songs, Smith has become one of a 
goodly fellowship by setting " The Night 
Hath a Thousand Eyes; " it should have 
pretty nearly a thousand composers, also, 
by this time. " That We Two Were May- 
ing " is another much-used poem, in setting 
which the composer was at least following his 
English namesake, Alice Mary Smith. 

Willard J. Baltzell, who refuses to put 
himself in his own biographical dictionary, 
is placed by early works among the orches- 
tral composers. 1 Editorial work in Phila- 
delphia and Boston has reduced his later 
productions to a minimum. 

1 See p. 275. 



Other Musical Forms. 555 

Daniel Gregory Mason is another exclu- 
sively American product, having graduated 
from Prof. Paine's fostering care, in 1895, 
to take courses with Chadwick and Goets- 
chius. His compositions include a piano 
quartet, in manuscript; a violin sonata in G 
minor; a Pastorale for violin, clarinet, and 
piano; a strongly effective Elegy in Varia- 
tion Form for piano; a piano Romance, Im- 
promptu, and the " Birthday Waltzes; " 
and the delightfully comic Variations on 
Yankee Doodle, in the style of different com- 
posers. His Four Songs, op. 4, consist of the 
broadly effective " Ah, Wherefore Wait," 
the lyrical " I Sang My Love a Song," the 
melodious " Ah, Little Stars, Look Smi- 
lingly," and the dainty " O Singing Birds." 
He has set also five children's songs from 
Stevenson. 1 

John Beach started out as one of the furi- 

1 Mason's recent music for the Cape Cod Pageant has 
placed him among the orchestral composers. 



556 Contemporary American Composers. 

ous modernists, to whom the tonic and domi- 
nant chords seem as relics of a prehistoric age. 
After recent study with Gedalge, he has 
started two operatic ventures, one the two- 
act " Jorinda and Jorindel," and the other 
a short curtain-raiser from " Pippa Passes." 
He has in manuscript a setting of Kipling's 
" Gypsy Trail " for baritone and orchestra. 
His published works include the " New Or- 
leans Miniatures " and " A Garden Fancy " 
for piano, the dramatic monologue " In a 
Gondola," and several songs, of which " The 
Kings " is a vigorous protest against fate. 
But his works are so extreme that they become 
doubtful in value. 

Benjamin Lincoln Whelpley, 1 who now 
lives in Boston, is one of the conservatives. 
He has entered the orchestral field with an 
Intermezzo, but is best known by his songs 
and piano pieces. The latter are about a 
score of little tone-pictures, such as the deli- 
1 See p. 375. 



Other Musical Forms. 557 

cate " In the Garden," the flute-like " Sere- 
nade," or the dainty " Will o' the wisp " of op. 
4. His Two Preludes, op. 15, are for violin, 
'cello, and organ, the second being especially 
broad. His songs include the minor plaint 
" I Know a Hill; " the attractive. " Forest 
Song; " three melodious lyrics with words 
from Tennyson's "Maud;" and two songs 
from "The Princess," of which "The 
Splendor Falls on Castle Walls " is well con- 
ceived, in spite of the fact that no composer 
can really do justice to that famous outburst 
of song. 

G. Marscal-Loepke is really Grace Marshall, 
who has been for some years the devoted and 
helpful wife of Clough-Leighter. She was 
born near Nineveh, Indiana, in 1885. After 
finishing studies in Boston in 1907, she began 
composing piano pieces and etudes, songs, 
part-songs, and choruses. " The Prince of 
Life " is one of her cantatas, and she has 
written numerous anthems. For juvenile 



558 Contemporary American Composers. 

students her little sets "To Nod-Land," 
" In the Woodland," " Childhood Joys," and 
" Little Wood Folk " are decidedly suitable 
and interesting. More ambitious are a 
broadly melodious Nocturne, a brusque Hu- 
moreske, and a Polka-Caprice. Her vocal 
works range from the strong " War Song of 
the Vikings " to the usual treatments of 
spring and love, " I Did Not Know " being 
an especially good example of the last subject. 
Charles Fonteyn Manney, mentioned for 
his graceful songs, 1 is now another prolific 
Boston worker. He has published sacred 
cantatas, such as " The Resurrection; " 
anthems, of which " I Heard a Great Voice " 
is a good example; part-songs, like " Snow- 
flakes; " and the expected piano pieces and 
solo songs. Of the latter, the cycle " A 
Shropshire Lad " gives a good portrayal of 
varying moods. " Parted Presence " is a 
full- voiced lament, while " O Captain, My 
1 See p. 348. 



Other Musical Forms. 559 

Captain " is another compelling bit of 
strength. " My Heart is Sair For Some- 
body " is not entirely Scotch, but few com- 
posers ever do really improve on the Scotch 
tunes. " Des Miiden Abendlied " and the 
" Chanson d'Automne " deserve special men- 
tion for their power. 

James Cartwright Macy, born at New York 
in 1845, is an earlier cantata composer, who 
is known also by his writings. 

Leonard Liebling is another man known 
widely by his writings and periodical work. 
He has composed some piano works, however, 
such as the smooth Romance Cantabile, the 
syncopated Reverie Poetique, and the bright 
Petite Valse. 

Arthur Reginald Little has composed as 
much as his name implies, but his work is of 
good quality. His " Ulalume," based on 
Poe's poem, is a piano selection that has 
some very pregnant themes, and is admirably 
grateful to the performer. 



560 Contemporary American Composers. 

Francis Hendriks is another rising piano 
composer. 

Edgar Thorn, who wrote some attractive 
piano pieces and songs, is now known to be 
a myth. When it was a question of helping 
a certain nurse in the MacDowell home, 
that composer wrote the pieces under the 
pseudonym, and let the nurse draw the roy- 
alties. 

Alvah Glover Salmon, born at Southold, 
N. Y., in 1868, has become knpwn through his 
lecture-recitals. He has also composed about 
a hundred works in various forms, but mostly 
for piano. 

Frank Lynes, born at Cambridge in 1858 
(he died in 1914), was an organist who com- 
posed many very well-known songs and 
piano pieces. 

.John P. Marshall, organist of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, has composed organ 
works and songs. 

Charles Henshaw Dana, who died at 



Other Musical Forms. 561 

Worcester, was another organist who com- 
posed church music and songs. 

George Albert Burdett, born at Boston in 
1856, has composed organ works, piano 
pieces, and anthems. 

Charles Arthur Havens is another song 
and anthem composer. 

Everett E. Truette, born at Rockland, 
Mass., in 1861, is a Guilmant pupil who was 
active in founding the American Guild of 
Organists. He has composed organ works 
and anthems. 

In the domain of teaching pieces, C. W. 
Krogmann, of Danvers, has done much ex- 
cellent work for piano, as well as for voice. 

Mrs. John Orth (L. E. Orth) is another 
very successful composer of teaching pieces, 
of which she has published over three hundred 
for piano, and very many light, pleasing songs. 

Of those who rest their reputation only 
on songs, Rupert Hughes himself is one. 
His Riley Album, containing ten songs, is 



562 Contemporary American Composers. 

full of unusual effects, made with the sim- 
plest of means. " A Scrawl " and " The 
Little Tiny Kickshaw " prove this in sym- 
pathetic fashion. " Billy Goodin " is a rhyth- 
mic bit of taunting, while " Coffee Like His 
Mother Used to Make " is another example 
of appealing simplicity. Hughes has also 
written a dramatic Scena entitled " Cain," 
to his own words. Cain is represented as 
dashing through the night and storm in a 
frenzy of remorse. When given in Chicago, 
this was called the most important novelty 
of its season, and it had such a strong effect 
that one woman was temporarily driven into 
hysterics. It is a work of harmonic liberty, 
having very daring thirteenth chords that 
contain every note of the diatonic scale. But 
in spite of this success, Hughes has turned 
to literature, and is now known as the author 
of such diverse works as " The Musical 
Guide," the strong story " Miss 318," and 
stage plays. 




WILSON G. SMITH. 



Other Musical Forms. 563 

A composer whose songs sometimes show 
a most tremendous strength and unusual 
originality is Sidney Homer. Born in Bos- 
ton in 1864, he studied with Chadwick and 
Rheinberger, and in turn taught singing. 
Some of his compositions seem inimitable, 
and the hearer unconsciously thinks, as with 
works of genius, " I could never have done 
that." Such are the noble " Prospice," the 
monotonous but intense " Song of the Shirt," 
the defiant " To Russia," the pathetic 
" How's My Boy," and the ironic " Pauper's 
Drive." In a lighter style are the Lyrics 
from Singsong and the Bandanna Ballads, 
while more earnest again are " A Woman's 
Last Word," " My Star," " There's Heaven 
Above," " The Eternal Goodness," and " The 
Song of the Watcher." 

Mary Turner Salter is another composer 
whose songs show exceptional vigor and 
originality. She was born at Peoria, 111., in 
1856. She married Sumner Salter, for many 



564 Contemporary American Composers. 

years musical director at Williams College. 
She was a singer at first, and was led into 
composition by her habit of musing and im- 
provising at the piano. She has written 
some part-songs, but most of her work is for 
solo voice. " The Cry of Rachel " ( " Death, 
Let Me In ") is a tremendously strong work, 
and Schumann-Heink, who sings it often, 
rates it with the world's most dramatic songs. 
In most utter contrast is " The Chrysanthe- 
mum," in which that flower gets angry and 
wishes it had no hair. The Songs of the Four 
Winds are naturally varied, that of the East 
Wind again showing power. Settings of 
Carman's " Lyrics from Sappho," " A Night 
in Naishapur," and " From Old Japan " are 
works of compelling intensity. The " Out- 
door Sketches " are more familiarly beauti- 
ful. Like real Lieder are the German songs 
" Fur Musik," " Die stille Wasserrose," and 
" Der Schmetterling." " Sleep, little lady " 
is a charming lullaby. " Contentment," 



Other Musical Forms. 



565 



" The Lamp of Love," " Goodnight," " A 
Water Lily," and " Serenity " are attract- 

SEBENITY 1 



HCU^VO.0^ . . _ 




Thou art the joy of 


ii > 


F j *L 


i j 


z: 

J -j...-^ 










ive in expected ways, while " The Song of 
Agamede " is another unusual bit. 

1 Copyright, MCMIV, by Oliver Ditson Company. 



566 Contemporary American Composers. 

Gena Branscombe is another much-prized 
song composer. Such cycles as the charming 
" Lute of Jade " or the open-air love-songs 
of " The Sun Dial " show a remarkable 
faculty for finely-chiseled lyric expression. 
Her songs are most tenderly poetic and beau- 
tiful. 

Among other women, Marguerite Melville, 
who married and settled abroad, deserves 
mention for compositions in various forms, 
while Edna Rosalind Park stays in her own 
country to compose songs. 

Arthur H. Ryder, born at Plymouth in 
1875, became an organist after studies at 
Harvard and in London. Of his songs at 
hand, " Gray Rocks and Grayer Sea " is a 
strongly effective bit of monochromatic work, 
" A Voice on the Winds " is weirdly original, 
" Robin Hood's Goodnight " is charmingly 
lyrical, and " Yvonne " is of noble breadth. 
He has written also sacred quartets and 
choruses. His " Midsummer Lullaby " is a 



Other Musical Forms. 567 

beautifully rhythmic piano piece, while " A 
June Idyl " consists of three tone-pictures 
for violin and piano. 

William Spencer Johnson, born at Athol, 
Mass., in 1883, has published about thirty 
songs, and composed many more. Of these, 
" A Lyric of Autumn " is strongly virile, 
" Impatience " shows the rhythmic beat of 
passionate eagerness, " A Gypsy Song " has 
mandolin-like arpeggios, the " Menuet " is 
a strange minor plaint of past joy and present 
sorrow, and " Beneath her Window " has a 
rippling accompaniment and flower-like 
themes. Three Verlaine Silhouettes consist 
of " Mandolin," " Fantoches," and the 
strongly varied " Pantomime." Eight songs 
called " The Little Past," with charming 
words by Josephine Preston Peabody, are 
dainty in the extreme. One of these, " The 
Green Singing Book," indulges in the realistic 
trick of having the voice part sung through, 
and then sung back with the book held up- 



568 Contemporary American Composers. 

side down. Other published songs by Johnson 
are the poetic and languorous " June," " The 
Piper " (Peabody words again), the poignant 
" Rain," the broad " Friendship," the indo- 
lent " Barcarolle," and a delicate setting 
of Hugo's " Hark, Through the Quivering 
Twilight." 

Victor Harris, already mentioned for his 
lyrics, 1 has written a number of new songs, 
including the melodious " In the Garden," 
the sincerely sweet " I Shall Know You," the 
rollicking " Man's Song," the dainty " April," 
the poetic " Summer Wind," the strongly 
expressive " A Little Way," the bright " Lady 
Laughter," the sympathetic " The Prince 
Will Come," and the characteristic " Way 
Down South." 

William Arms Fisher has been mentioned 

as a Boston worker. 2 His compositions still 

consist almost wholly of songs. Among these, 

" Sweet is Tipperary " is one of the com- 

'See p. 336. 2 See p. 371. 



Other Musical Forms. 569 

poser's favorites; " As Once in May " is 
the same poem that Strauss set in " Aller- 
seelen," and the American setting, though 
different, is still adequate; " O Risen Lord," 
one of several good sacred songs, has a violin 
obbligato; " Under the Rose "is a dainty 
affair; of the three lyrics by Arlo Bates, 
" When Allah Spoke " is extremely broad 
and effective; and " The Rose of Ispahan," 
in the same set, is rhythmically charming. 
" As Drooping Fern," " A Song of Joy," and 
" For Love's Sake Only " are poetic bits, 
while " Gae to Sleep " is pleasing enough, if 
not too characteristically Scotch. 

Hallett Gilberte, whose last name was 
once Gilbert, has made a great success in New 
York and other places with his songs. Most 
popular among them is " Ah, Love, But a 
Day." 

Harriet Ware is a successful song composer 
as well as a pianist. She has to her credit a 
strong setting of Markham's " The Cross," 



570 Contemporary American Composers. 

a real " Hindu Slumber Song," the plaintive 
" Last Dance," the intense " Wind and 
Lyre," a rhythmic " Boat Song," and the 
poetic cycle " A Day in Arcady." 

Mrs. Mary Carr Moore has composed 
songs, and has in manuscript the opera " Nar- 
cissa," based on the true story of Narcissa 
Prentiss, who married Marcus Whitman, 
went to the Pacific Coast with him as a mis- 
sionary, and was massacred there by Indians. 

Lola Carrier Worrell was born in Michigan, 
but has passed most of her life in Denver. 
Her songs are praised by such leaders as 
Foote and Cadman, and such singers as 
Gadski, Homer, and Fremstad. . Of those 
printed works at hand, "In a Garden " is a 
bit of rapid daintiness, " Waiting " is broadly 
lyrical, "It is June " is another bit of tonal 
enthusiasm, the " Autumn Bacchanal " is 
delightfully cheering, " Hohe Liebe " is in the 
Lied style, and " The Song of the Chimes " 
is a smooth lullaby. 



Other Musical Forms. 571 

Other American song composers include 
Stephen Townsend ("The Night hath a 
Thousand Eyes "), Natalie Curtis (songs 
from " A Child's Garden of Verses "), Albert 
A. Mack (" Forever and a Day "), W. H. 
Neidlinger (" Serenade "), Winthrop L. 
Rogers, William Armour Thayer, Stuart 
Mason (two French songs), Emiliano Renaud, 
Gertrude Sans-Souci, J. C. Bartlett, Fay 
Foster, William C. MacFarlane (" Cloister 
Roses," " The Lover's Shallop," etc.), Ham- 
ilton C. MacDougall, H. J. Stewart (the 
effective " Yosemite Legends "), Walter Rum- 
mel, John A Loud, W. Franke-Harling, Al- 
bert Ross Parsons, and Malcolm Dana Mac- 
Millan. 

Other names, which should certainly be 
included for various reasons, are Newnham, 
W. H. Dayas, Brainard, Dial, Arnold, F. 
Addison Porter, Alexander Russell, Henry 
Eichheim, Carl Engel, Benjamin Lambord, 
Henry Waller, William Schuyler, Chester 



572 Contemporary American Composers. 

Ide, Eleanor Freer, Fanny Knowlton, Caro- 
line Walker, and William McCoy, many of 
whom have had works published by the pa- 
triotic Wa-Wan Press. If still other names 
might have been treated in this section, the 
writer hopes that this sentence will be taken 
as an apology to anyone feeling unjustly 
omitted, as reasons of space have to be taken 
into consideration. The length of the list, 
however, and the number of recent names 
covered here, will add renewed proof to the 
fact that music is cherished in our country. 
If we have as yet no commanding genius of 
the first rank, we may console ourselves with 
the fact that most other countries, also, have 
none. Geniuses are few and far between; 
but there is no reason why the next member 
of the score or so of great masters should not 
appear in these United States. 

THE END. 



INDEX. 



Abt Society, 198. 
Academy of Dramatic Arts, 

79- 

Aeschylean Chorus, 53. 
Agramonte, Emilio, 41. 
Aldrich, Anna Reeve, 313. 
Aldrich, T. B., 89, 108, 204. 
Allen, C. N., 244. 
Allen, N. H., 273. 
Allen, P. C., 272, 475. 
Allison, XIII. 
Ambrosius, Johanna, 349. 
Americanism in Music, 12, 

33, 58. 

Apollo Club, 168, 236, 331. 
Apthorp, W. F., 370. 
Arion Society, 190. 
Arnold, Maurice, 135, 139, 

571- 

Arnold, Sir Edwin, 171. 
Atherton, P. L., 508. 
Aus der Ohe, Addle, 293. 
Ayres, F., 549-550. 

Bach, J. S., 15, 225, 227, 

248, 399, 400. 
Baermann, 460, 548. 



Baltzell, Willard J., 275, 

554- 

Bartlett, H. N., 317, 327. 
Bartlett, J. C., 571. 
Bassett, F., 415. 
Bates, Arlo, 187, 368. 
Baumgras, Irene, 439. 
Beach, Mrs. H. H. A., 426, 

432, 433, 5I9-S20. 
Beach, John, 555-55^. 
Beck, Johann H., 406, 411. 
Beethoven, 12, 52, 56, 100, 

116, 148, 163, 178, 208, 

306, 475- 
Bendel, 237. 
" Ben Hur," 72. 
Benkert, G. F., 119. 
Bennett, Sterndale, 257. 
Berlioz, 144, 243, 307, 

426. 

Bernard of Cluny's, 183. 
Best, W. T., 361. 
Bird, Arthur, 446, 475. 
Black, Jenny Prince, 441. 
" Blind Tom," 59. 
Boccherini, 407. 
Bodenstedt, 364. 



573 



574 



Index. 



Boise, O. B., 292, 299, 388, 

446, 508, 512-513. 
Bellinger, Samuel, 523. 
Borch, Gaston, 475. 
Boston Colony, 269, 350, 

371- 

Boston Symphony Or- 
chestra, 18, 219, 233, 269, 
281, 282, 286, 292, 432, 
483, 484, 5 6 - 

Bourdillon's, 109, 312. 

Brahms, 56, 97, 114, 255, 
284. 

Brainard, 571. 

Branscombe, G., 566. 

Breton, XIII. 

Brewer, J. H., 331, 334, 

534-535- 

Bristow, George F., 246. 
Brockway, Howard, 298, 

34- 

Broekhoven, John A., 522. 
Brounoff, Platon, 445. 
Browning, E. B., 424. 
Browning, Robt., 89, 99. 
Bruce, Edwin, 388. 
Bruch, Max, 136. 
Bruckner, 419. 
Bruneau, Alfred, 418. 
Buck, Dudley, 165, 173, 

i?4, 3S 3 2 4, 33 1 , 3 6 i. 

381, 392, 453. 
Bullard, F. F., 351, 357, 

526. 

Burdett, G. A., 561. 
Burmeister, Richard, 445. 
Burns, 204. 
Burton, F. R., 273. 
Busch, Carl, 445, 522. 
Byrd, XIII. 
Byron, 252. 



Cadman, Charles Wake- 
field, 470-474, 512. 
Camp, J. S., 521. 
Campbell-Tipton, L. 539- 

541- 

Carew, XIII. 

Carnegie, A., 256. 

Carpenter, H. B., 213. 

Carpenter, J. A., 541-543- 

Carreno, 36. 

Carroll, Lewis, 212. 

Carter, R. I., 294. 

Chadwick, Geo. W., 18, 
175, 210, 220, 244, 347, 
358,^460, 477-479, 563- 

Chaminade, 218. 

Champion, T., XIII., 415. 

Chelius, H. P., 546-549. 

Cheney, J. V., 89, 90. 

Chicago Colony, 18. 

Chicago Orchestra, 18. 

Chinese Music, 64, 86, 140, 

143- 
Chopin, 52, 56, 90, 98, loo, 

no, 116, 138, 163, 177, 

178, 211, 250, 294, 317, 

3i9, 338, 39 6 , 42i, 528, 

.533- 
Cincinnati College of 

Music, 486, 522. 
Cincinnati Colony, 191, 

270, 272. 

Claasen, Arthur, 522. 
Clapp, P. G., 506-508. 
Clarke, H. A., 198, 444, 

524- 

Clementi, 113. 
Cleveland Colony, 394, 415. 
Clough-Leighter, H., 529- 

53i, 557- 
Coccius, 132, 249. 



Index. 



575 



Coerne, L. A., 262, 265, 

468-470. 

Cole, R. G., 515-517- 
Coleridge, 62, 309. 
College Music, 20, 38. 
Collins, Laura S., 441. 
Columbus, 234. 
Conova, 12. 

Converse, C. C., 256, 261. 
Converse, F. S., 457-463. 
Coombs, C. W., 343, 536- 

537- 

Corelli, 15. 
Couperin, 16. 
Coverley, Robert, 444. 
Cramer, 321. 

Crane, Charlotte M., 441. 
Crane, Stephen, 415, 418. 
Curry, A. M., 499-500. 
Curtis, Natalie, 510, 571. 
Cutter, Benjamin, 533- 

534- 

Dachs, 419. 

Damrosch, Walter, 261, 

444, 468. 

Dana, C. H., 560-561. 
Daniels, Mabel, 523-524. 
Dante, 229. 
Dayas, W. H., 571. 
de Koven, R., 334, 475- 

476. 

Delius, 507. 
De Musset, A., 109. 
Denn6e, Charles, 374, 476. 
Dial, 571. 
Dickinson, Emily, 369, 418, 

424. 

Diemer, 134. 
Dillon, Fannie, 523. 
Donne, Jno., XIII. 



Dowland, XIII. 
Draessecke, 343. 
Drake, Rodman, 131, 168, 

455- 

Drayton, XIII. 

Dreams and Music, 62. 

Dressier, L. R., 345. 

Drummond, XIII., 153. 

Dubois, 134, 358. 

Dudley, Governor, 166. 

Dunbar, P. L., 206. 

Dunham, H. M., 538. 

Dunkley, Ferdinand, 445. 

Dv6rak, A., 22, 77, 128, 
129, 131, 132, 136, 278, 
279. 3S 349, 3?i- 

Eberhart, N. R., 470. 
Eddy, Clarence, 59, 348. 
Edison, 16. 
Edwards, Julian, 444. 
Egyptian Music, 72. 
Ehlert, 37. 
Ehling, Victor, 419. 
Ehrlich, 412. 
Eichberg, Julius, 444. 
Eichheim, H., 571. 
Elgar, 541. 
Elson, L. C., 16. 
Emerson, 14. 
Emery, Stephen A., 17, 95, 

175, 244, 358, 375- 
Engel, C., 571. 
English Music, 12, 248, 329. 
Esputa, John, 119. 

Fairlamb, J. R., 344, 475. 
Farwell, A., 348, 473, 487, 

508-512. 
Fay, Amy, 541. 
F6val, 79. 



576 



Index. 



Fibich, 515. 
Field, John, 227. 
Finck, Henry T., 54. 
Fisher, W. A., 348, 371, 

568-569. 
Fissot, 412. 
Fletcher, XII., 150. 
Florio, 31. 
Foerster, A. M., 248, 256, 

543-546. 
Folk-music, 22. 
Foote, Arthur, 18, 224, 234, 

479-480, 549. 
Ford, XIII. 
Foster, Fay, 571. 
Franke-Harling, W., 475, 

57i- 
Franz, Robt., 101, 104, 106, 

173, 203, 248. 
Freer, E., 572. 
French Influence, 29, 36, 

357- 

Fuchs, Robt., 419. 
Furst, Wm., 444. 

Gale, Clement R., 445. 

Gale, Norman, 88. 

Gavaert, 426. 

Gaynor, Mrs. Jessie L., 441. 

Gedalge, 556. 

Gen6e, 335. 

German Influence, etc., 17, 

40,49. 59. "9. J 32, 260. 
Gerok, 106. 

Gilbert, Henry F., 496-499. 
Gilbert^, H., 569. 
Gilchrist, W. W., 196, 209. 
Gilder, R. W., 277. 
Gilmore, P. S., 124, 261. 
Gleason, F. G., 348, 376, 

382. 



Godard, 358. 
Godowski, L., 444. 
Goethe, 43, 95, 255. 
Goetschius, Percy, 388. 
Goldmark, Carl, 279, 281. 
Goldmark, Rubin, 278, 282, 

495- 
Goodrich, A. J., 28, 130, 

171, 199. 380, 388, 391. 
Goodrich, J. Wallace, 348. 
Gottschalk, Louis Moreau, 

17, 301, 422. 
Gounod, 321. 
Grabau, 371. 
Grand Operas, 152, 262. 
Grasse, Edwin, 517. 
Gray, XII. 

Greek Music, 72, 73, 155. 
Greene, XII. 
Grieg, 39, 54, 134, 190, 281, 

396- 

Grill, 132, 249. 
Gruenberg, Eugene, 517. 
Guilbert, Yvette, 129. 
Guilmant, 358, 412, 509, 

561. 
Guyon, 322. 



Hadley, H. K., 241, 247, 

454-457- 

Haesche, W. E., 500-501. 
Haggard, Rider, 214. 
Hale, F.W., 358. 
Hale, Mrs. Philip, 439. 
Hale, Philip, 186, 288, 439. 
Halir, Carl, 432. 
Hall, Bishop, XIII. 
Hamerik, A., 444. 
Hammond, Dr. Wm. A., 

62. 



Index. 



577 



Handel, 15, 152, 162, 184, 

246, 432. 

Handel and Haydn So- 
ciety, 374, 428. 
Hanscom, E. W., 275. 
Harris, Victor, 336, 568. 
Hartmann, Arthur, 517- 

518. 
Harvard University, 154, 

222. 

Hastings, F. S., 344. 
Haupt, 151, 257, 311, 412. 
Hauptmann, 167, 257, 347. 
Hauslick, 129. 
Havens, C. A., 561. 
Hawley, C. B., 32. 
Haydn, 403, 407. 
Heindl, H., 244. 
Heine, 44, 88, 104, 105, 196, 

215, 247, 309, 364, 413. 
Heller, 164, 350. 
Hemans, 202. 
Henderson, W. J., 185. 
Hendriks, F., 560. 
Henley, W. E., 431. 
Henselt, 104. 
Herbert, XIII. 
Herbert, Victor, 444, 463- 

465, 475-476. 
Herford, Oliver, 369. 
Herrick, XIII., 87, 179, 

228, 369, 407, 413. 
Hewlett, 492. 
Heyman, 37. 
Hieber, 263. 
Hiler, E. O., 375. 
Hill, E. B., 526-527. 
Holbrooke, 507. 
Homer, Sidney, 375, 563. 
Hood, Helen, 441. 
Hooker, Brian, 466. 



Hopekirk, Helen, 518. 
Hopkins, H. P., 349. 
Hopper, 126. 
Horace, 430. 

Hovey, Richard, no, 351. 
Howe, Mrs. J. W., 424. 
Hughes, Rupert, 561-562. 
Hull, Alexander, 475, 524- 

525- 
Humorous Music, 25, 64, 

212, 433. 

Humperdinck, 348, 508. 
Huneker, James, 39, 52, 54, 

281. - 
Huss, H. H., 291, 297, 351, 

493-494- 

Hyatt, N. I., 523. 
Hyllested, August, 444, 

502. 

Iceland, 447. 

Ide, C., 572. 

Indian Music, 22, 48, 49. 

Irving, 170. 

Jacobsen, O. F-, 322. 

Jadassohn, 211, 271. 

Japanese Music, 139, 142. 

Jensen, G., 136, 350. 

Joachim, 97. 

Jojin, 343. 

Johns, Clayton, 368, 370, 

551-553- 

Johnson, W. S., 567-568. 
Jonson, XII., 57, 88. 
Jordan, Jules, 274. 
Joseffy, 71, 278, 444. 

Keats, 152, 296. 
Kelley, Edgar S., 27, 57, 76, 
140, 272, 485-488, 549. 



Index. 



Kerker, Gustave, 444. 
Kiel, 237, 371, 396. 
Kieserling, R., Jr., 270. 
Kipling, 50, 206, 359. 
Klatenborn, Franz, 19, 279, 

295- 

Klein, B. O., 444. 
Klindworth, Karl, 95, 96, 

97, in. 
Kneisel, Franz, 263, 286, 

432, 499- 

Knowlton, F., 572. 
Koelling, Adolph, 444. 
Korn, Mrs. Clara A., 441. 
Korthener, H. O. C., 299. 
Kotzschmar, 150. 
Krehbiel, H. E., 273, 361. 
Kreider, Noble, 527-529. 
Kroeger, E. R., 420, 422, 

492-493. 

Krogmann, C. W., 561. 
Kruger, 59. 
Kullak, 342, 387. 

Lachaume, Ami6, 444. 
Lachmund, C. V., 349. 
La Flesche, Francis, 470. 
La Forge, F., 550-551. 
Lambord, B., 571. 
Lang, B. J., 95, 212, 226, 

375, 432. 
Lang, M. R., 424, 432, 438, 

520-521. 

Lanier, S., 169, 171, 173. 
Lassen, Edward, 132, 190. 
Lassus, 15. 
Lawes, Harry, 153, 248, 

328. 

Leading Motives, 80. 
Ledochowski, 59. 
Leschetizky, 502. 



I Lewing, Adele, 445. 
Liebling, Emil, 445. 
Liebling, L., 559. 
Listemann, 501. 
Liszt, 37, 59, 97, 190, 196, 

.237, 34i, 387- 
Little, A. L., 559. 
Lodge, XIII. 
Loeffler, C. M., 444, 481- 

482, 517. 

Longfellow, 81, 223, 224. 
Loomis, C. B., 84. 
Loomis, H. W., 27, 77, 91, 

475, 543- 

Loretz, J. M., 344. 
Loschorn, 411. 
Loud, John A., 571. 
Lowell, 201. 
Lulli, 16. 
Lyly, XIII. 
Lynes, F., 560. 

MacDougall, H. C., 571. 
MacDowell, E. A., 18, 23, 
34,57,453,499,5i2,56o. 
MacFarlane, W. C., 571. 
Mack, A. A., 571. 
Mackaye, Percy, 460, 463. 
MacMillan, M. D., 571. 
MacMonnies, 242. 
Macy, J. C., 559. 
Mandyczewski, 244. 
Manney, C. F., 348, 558- 

559- 

Manuscript Societies, 20. 
Maquarre, Andre 1 , 484. 
March-tunes, 112. 
Marlowe, XII. 
Marmontel, 37. 
Marscal-Loepke, G., 557- 

558. 



Index. 



579 



Marshall, Grace, 557. 
Marshall, John P., 560. 
Marston, G. W., 358, 364, 

368. 

Marteau, Henri, 134. 
Martin, E. S., 30. 
Marx, A. B., 389. 
Mason, D. G., 555. 
Mason, S., 571. 
Mason, Dr. Wm., 340, 341, 

387- 
Mason, Lowell, 17, 157, 

340. 

Mathias, 490. 
Maud, Constance, 441. 
McCagg Prize, 176. 
McCaull, 126. 
McCog, W., 572. 
McLellan, C. M. S., 63. 
Melville, M., 566. 
Mendelssohn, 59, 155, 157, 

184, 475, 484. 
Mendelssohn Club, 209. 
Mendelssohn, Fanny, 425. 
Mendelssohn Glee Club, 

199, 200, 325. 
Meyerbeer, 126. 
Miles, General, 116. 
Millard, H., 337. 
Miller, C. C., 392. 
Millet, 313. 
Mills, S. B., 321. 
Milton, 152, 328. 
Montaigne, 31. 
Monteverde, 16. 
Moody and Sankey, 157. 
Moore, Mrs. M. C., 570. 
Morgan, John P., 371. 
Morgan, Matt., 120. 
Moscheles, 167, 311, 347, 

381. 



Mosenthal, J., 324. 
Moskowski, 396, 439. 
Mozart, 116, 306, 395. 

Namby-pamby, 25. 
National Airs, 259. 
Negro Music, 22, 23,- 48, 

122, 128, 131, 137. 
Neidlinger, W. H., 391, 

394, S7 1 - 
Neitzel, 136. 
Nevin, Arthur, 342, 474. 
Nevin, Ethelbert, 92, in, 

474, 552. 

Nevin, G. B., 537-538. 
Nevin, R. P., 94. 
Newnham, 571. 
New York Colony, 269, 

282, 350. 
New York Philharmonic 

Orchestra, 484. 
Nicod6, 129. 
Nobles, M., 120. 
Nordica, Lilian, 473. 
Norris, Homer A., 29, 348, 

357, 358, 388. 
Northeastern Saengerbund, 

191. 

Offenbach, 120. 
Oldberg, Arne, 502-504. 
Omar, 338. 
Orientalism, 45. 
Orth, John, 175, 445, 561. 
Orth, L. E., 561. 
Oxenford, John, 329. 

Paderewski, 489, 490. 
Page, N. C., 139, 143, 272, 
493- 



Index. 



Paine, John Knowles, 18, 
162, 226, 263, 370, 453, 
460, 474-475, S4i, 555- 

Palestrina, 16, 284. 

Pantomime Music, 79, no. 

Papperitz, 132, 249. 

Paris Conservatoire, 490. 

Park, E. R., 566. 

Parker, H. W., 174, 188, 
192. 347, 37i> 466-468, 
501, 5!3- 

Parker, J. C. D., 373. 

Parker, Mrs. E. G., 183. 

Parrot, John, 60. 

Parsons, A. R., 571. 

Pasmore, H. B., 272, 512. 

Pattison, J. N., 524. 

Peabody Conservatory, 
Baltimore, 512. 

Pendleton, C., 345. 

Penfield, S. M., 347. 

Perabo, Ernst, 445, 501. 

Peri, 15. 

Perosi, 284. 

Perugino, 12. 

Pfitzner, 508. 

Philadelphia, 197. 

Phillips, Stephen, 454. 

Pierne, 134. 

Plaidy, 167, 257, 381. 

Poe, 14, 76. 

Porpora, 15. 

Porter, F. A., 571. 

Powell, John, 522. 

Pratt, S. G., 234, 240, 347. 

Proctor, A. A., 8 1. 

Program Music, 41, 44. 

Prout, E., 389. 

Pugno, 134. 

Purcell, 14, 248. 

Puritan Influence, 14, 15. 



Radeck, 361. 

Raff, 37, 41, 97, 147. 

Raif, O., 381, 396, 439. 

Ralegh, XIII. 

Rameau, 16. 

Rankin, McKee, 60. 

Raphael, 12. 

Reinecke, 132, 211, 271, 

347, S2i. 
Reitz, 167. 
Renaud, E., 571. 
" Ren6 Victor," 439. 
Rheinberger, J., 211, 292, 

355, 46o, 508, 563. 
Richter, 521. 
Richter, E. F., 167, 249, 

257, 342, 381, 387- 
Riv6-King, Julie, 441. 
Robyn, A. G., 419. 
Robyn, Wm., 419. 
Rogers, J. H., 411, 414. 
Rogers, Mrs. C. K., 445. 
Rogers, W. L., 571. 
Rohde, 311, 412. 
Rossini, 183. 
Rotoli, Augusto, 445. 
Rubinstein, 77, 129. 
Riickert, 193. 
Rummel, Franz, 371. 
Rummel, Walter, 571. 
Runciman, John F., 14. 
Russell, A., 571. 
Russell, L. A., 144. 
Russian Music, 57, 447. 
Rutenber, 324. 
Ryder, A. H., 566-567. 

Saar, L. V., 444. 
Saint-Saens, 108. 
Salmon, A. G., 560. 
Salter, Mary T., 563-565- 



Index. 



San Francisco, 59, 272, 371. 
Sans-Souci, G., 571. 
Sappho, 424. 
Savard, 37. 
Sawyer, H. P., 441. 
Scarlattis, 15. 
Scharwenka, X., 396, 444. 
Schelling, Ernest, 489-491. 
Schiller, 95. 
Schimon, 249. 
Schnecker, P. A., 445. 
Schneider, 525-526. 
Schoenberg, 507. 
Schoenefeld, Henry, 128, 

I3S, 493- 
Schriabine, 507. 
Schubert, 103, 261, 350, 

475- 
Schumann, 163, 173, 177, 

215. 397, 475> 5*5- 
Schuyler, Wm., 415, 419, 

57i- . 
Scotch influence, 38, 39, 61, 

196. 

Scott, 12, 171. 
Seeboeck, W. C., 444, 541. 
Seidl, A., 236, 245, 261, 279, 

322, 349, 422. 
Seiffritz, 59, 343. 
Seiss, 350. 
Severn, E., 445. 
Shakespeare, XII., 31, 57. 

60, 87, 95, 150, 152, 173, 

228, 239, 297. 
Sharp, Wm., 81. 
Shelley, 351. 
Shelley, H. R., 304, 308, 

494-495. 

Shepherd, Arthur, 504-506. 
Sherwood, Wm. H., 19, 60, 

286, 311, 370, 383, 387. 



Shirley, XIII. 

Shumann, VII., 56, 88, 91, 

98, 101, 104, 106. 
Sidney, XIII., 228. 
Siloti, A., 192. 
Singer, Otto, 396, 444. 
Sitt, H., 192. 
Smith, D. S., 513-514. 
Smith, G., 309, 319, 

537- 
Smith, Wilson G., 395, 406, 

552-554- 

Sommer, Charles, 414. 
Sonatus, 5!, 56, 84. 
Sophokles, 154, 161. 
Sousa, John P., 112, 128. 
Spanish influence, 119. 
Spanuth, A., 444. 
Speidel, 59, 343. 
Spencer, Fanny M., 441. 
Spenser, XIII. 
Spohr, 257. 
Stahlberg, Fritz, 485. 
Stair, Patty, 414, 441. 
Stanley, A. A., 521. 
Stedman, E. C., 171, 277, 

373- 
Sternberg, Constantin von, 

444- 
Stevenson, R. L., 12, 

105. 

Stewart, H. J., 571. 
St. Louis Colony, 270, 415, 

422. 

Stoeckel, G. J., 305. 
Stojowski, S., 518. 
Strauss, J., 114. 
Strauss, R., 407, 455, 515. 
Strong, G. T., 445. 
Strube, Gustav, 482-483. 
Suckling, 228. 



Index. 



Swinbourne, 383. 
Symphonies, 64, 147, 218, 
298. 

Taft, F., 347- 

Tartini, 15, 62. 

Taussig, 342, 381. 

Tennyson, 42, 55, 328. 

Thayer, W. A., 571. 

Theokritos, 384. 

Theorists, 28, 388. 

Thomas, Theodore, 18, 151, 
153, 168, 169, 257, 261, 
264, 349- 376, 380, 432. 

Thorn, E., 560. 

Thuille, 508. 

Townsend, S., 571. 

Truette, E. E., 561. 

Tschaikowski, 232, 372, 

39i- 
Tufts, John W., 366. 

Upton, Geo. P., 152, 180. 
Urack, Otto, 484. 
Urban, 135. 

Van der Stucken, Frank, 

19, 188, 196, 292, 477. 
Vergil, 229. 
Verlaine, 81, 482. 
Vieh, G. C., 419. 
Vierling, 135. 
Vogrich, Max, 444. 
Von Bohme, 94. 
Von Billow, H., 96. 

Wagner, 50, 56, 99, in, 
114, 125, 157, 162, 201, 
207, 223, 237. 

Wagner, Frau Cosima, 97. 

Walker, C., 572. 



Waller, Henry, 444, 571. 
Ware, H., 569-57- 
Warren, G. W., 324, 346. 
Warren, R. H., 345, 347. 
Warren, S. P., 311, 537. 
Weatherby, F. E., 329. 
Weitzmann, 381, 387. 
Welsh Music, 447. 
Wheeler, A. C., 320. 
Whelpley, B. L., 375, 556- 

557- 
Whiting, Arthur, 283, 291, 

493- 

Whiting, G. E., 360. 
Whitman, Walt, 14, 418, 

460. 

Whittier, 153. 
Widor, 412, 513. 
Wiegand, Emil, 270. 
Wieprecht, 151. 
Willaert, 15. 
Wilson, M., 522-523. 
Wise, Lieut. H. A., 462. 
Wither, XIII. 
Women as Composers, 423, 

441. 

Wood, Mrs. M. K., 440. 
Woodberry, G. E., 161. 
Woodman, R. H., 535-53- 
Worrell, L. C., 570. 
Wotton, XIII. 
Wuellner, 136. 

Yale University, 175. 
Young, Mrs. E. M., 445. 

Zeck, F., Jr., 272. 
Zeno, 12. 
Ziehn, B., 541. 
Zimbalist, 522. 
Zola, 418. 



FACULTY Presented to the 

Faculty of Music Library 




Eldon Rathburn 



UNIVERSITY 
OF TORONTO