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U0 0^37c^.3C^J) 




CLASS OP 1830 

Senator fiom Massadmsetts 


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SVom 1776 to the Close or tlie "War Tor thio Union. 



AmoNS, xra : ivom official soumcxs. 




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Entered according to Act of Ck)ngress, in the year 186C. 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 

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The author had expected to finish this work early in the cur- 
rent year, but he found himself unable to compress it within the 
limits originally intended. The important events of the War for the 
Union were so many ; its area was so vast, its duration so con- 
siderable J the minor collisions and other incidents were so multifa- 
rious, yet often so essential to a clear understanding of its progress 
and results, that this volume has expanded far beyond his intent, 
and required for its preparation extra months of assiduous and 
engrossing labor. Even now, though its contents probably exceed 
in amount those of any other single volume which the War has 
called forth, it barely touches some points which may be deemed 
essential to a clear understanding of the whole matter. Of the War 
itself, however — that is, of the Military events which n^ade up the 
physical struggle initiated by Secession — this volume aspires to 
give a clear though necessarily condensed account, from the open- 
ing of the year 1862 down to the final and complete overthrow of 
the Confederacy. That all his judgments will be concurred in by 
every reader, the author has no right to expect ; but his aim has 
been to set forth events as they occurred, and as they will appear 
to clear-sighted observers a century hence ; and he rests in the 
confident belief that those, who dissent from his conclusions will 
nevertheless respect the sincerity with which they are cherished, 
and the frankness wherewith they are avowed. 

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The History whicli this Volume completes was not contemplated by its anthor till just 
after the Draft Riots by which this Emporium was damaged and disgraced in July, 1863. 
Up to the occurrence of those Riots, I had not been habitually confident of an auspicious 
immediate issue from our momentous struggle. Never doubting that the ultimate 
result would be such as to vindicate emphatically the profoundly wise beneficence of 
God, it had seemed to me more probable— in view of the protracted and culpable com- 
plicity of the North in whatever of guilt or shame, of immorality or debasement, was 
inseparable from the existence and growth of American Slavery — ^that a temporary tri- 
umph might accrue to the Confederates. The real danger of the Republic was not that 
of permanent division, but of general saturation by and subjugation to the despotic 
ideas and aims of the Slaveholding Oligarchy. Had the Confederacy proved able to 
wrest from the Federal authorities an acknowledgment of its Independence, and had Peace 
been established and ratified on that basis, I believe the Democratic Party in the loyal 
States would have forthwith taken ground for * restoration' by the secession of their 
respective States, whether jointly or severally, from the Union, and their adhesion to the 
Confederacy under its Montgomery Constitution — making Slavery universal and per- 
petual. And, under the moral influence of Southern triumph and Northern defeat, in 
full view of the certainty that thus only could reunion be achieved, there can be little 
doubt that the law of political gravitation, of centripetal force, thus appealed to, must 
have ultimately prevailed. Commercial and manufacturing thrift would have gradually 
vanquished moral repugnance. It might have required some years to heal the wounds 
of War and secure a popular majority in three or four of the Border States in favor of 
Annexation ; but the geographic and economic incitements to Union are so urgent and 
palpable, that State after State would have concluded to go to the mountmn, since it 
stubbornly refused to come to Mahomet; and, all the States that the Confederacy would 
GODs^t to accept, on conditions of penitence and abjuration, would, in time, have 
knocked humbly at its grim portals for admission and fellowship. That we have been 
saved from such a fate is due to the valor of our soldiers, the constancy of our ruling 
statesmen, the patriotic faith and courage of those citizens who, within a period of 
three years, loaned more than Two Billions to their Government when it seemed to 
many just tottering on the brink of ruin ; yet, more than all else, to the favor and bless- 
ing of Almighty God. They who, whether in Europe or America, from July, 1862, to 
July, 1868, believed the Union death-stricken, had the balance of material probabilities 
on their side : the^ erred only in underrating the potency of those intellectual, moral, 
•nd Providential forces, which in our age operate with accelerated power and activity in 
behalf of Liberty, Intelligence, and Civilization. 

So long as it seemed probable that our War would result more immediately in a Rebel 
triumph, I had no wish, no heart, to be one of its historians ; and it was only when — 
foDowing closely on the heels of the great Union successes of July, 1868, at Gettysburg, 
Vickshtii^, Port Hudson, and Helena — I had seen the Rebellion resisted and defeated in 

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this City of New York (where its ideas and vital aims were more generally cherished 
than even in Soath Oarolina or Loaisiana), that I confidently hoped for an immediate and 
palpable, rather than a remote and ciroaitoos triumph of the Union, now and evermore 
blended inseparably ^ith Emancipation — with the legal and National recognition of 
every man^s right to himself, Thenceforward, with momentary intervals of anxiety, 
depression, and doubt, it has been to me a labor of love to devote every available hour 
to the history of the American Conflict. 

This Yolome is essentially Military, as the former was Civil : that is, it treats mainly 
of Armies, Marche9, Battles, Sieges, and the alternations of good and ill fortune that, 
from January, 1862, to May, 1866, befell the contending forces respectively of the Union 
and the Confederacy. But he who reads with attention will discern that I have 
regarded even these under a moral rather than a purely material aspect. Others have 
doubtless surpassed me in the vividness, the graphic power, of their delineations of * the 
noise of the captains, and the shouting:^ I have sought more especially to portray the 
silent influence of these collisions, with the efforts, burdens, sacrifices, bereavements, 
they involved, in gradually molding and refining Public Opinion to accept, and ultimately 
demand, the overthrow and extinction of Human Slavery, as the one vital, implacable 
enemy of our Nationality and our Peace. Hence, whUe at least three-fourths of this 
Volume narrates Military or Naval occurrences, I presume a larger space of it than of any 
rival is devoted to tracing, with all practicable brevity, the succession of Political events; 
the sequences of legislation in Congress with regard to Slavery and the War ; the varying 
phases of Public Sentiment ; the rise, growth, and decline, of hopes that the War would be 
ended through the accession of its adversaries to power in the Union. I labor under a 
grave mistake if this be not judged by our grandchildren (should any of them condescend 
to read it) the most important and interesting feature of my work. 

I have differed from most annalists, in preferring to follow a campaign or distinct 
mUitary movement to its close before interrupting its narration to give accounts of simul- 
taneous movements or campaigns in distant regions, between other armies, led by other 
commanders. In my historical reading, I have often been perplexed and confused by 
the facility wherewith chroniclers leap from the Euphrates to the Danube, and from the 
Ebro to the Vistula. In full view of the necessary inter-dependence of events occurring 
on widely separated arenas, it has seemed to me preferable to follow one movement to 
its culmination before dealing with another ; deeming the inconveniences and obscurities 
involved in this method less serious than those unavoidable (by me, at least) on any dif- 
ferent plan. Others will Judge between my method and that which has usually been 

I have bestowed more attention on marches, and on the minor incidents of a campaign, 
than is common : historians usually devoting their time and force mainly to the portrayal 
of great, decisive (or at least destructive) battles. But battles are so often won or lost 
by sagaciously planned movements, skillful combinations, well-conducted marches, and 
wise dispositions, that I have extended to these a prominence whicl^nseemed to me more 
clearly justified than usually conceded. He was not an incapable general who observed 
that he chose to win battles with his soldiers' legs rather than their muskets. 

As to dates, I could wish that commanders on all hands were more precise than they 
usually are ; but, wherever dates were accessible, I have given them, even though in- 
vested with no special or obvious consequence. Printed mmnly as foot-notes, they con- 
sume little space, and do not interrupt the flow of the narrative. The reader who does 

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not Talue need not heed them ; while the critical student will often find them of decided 
use. Should any one demur to this, I urge him to examine thoughtfully the dates of 
the dispatches received and sent hj McClellan between his retreat to Harrison^s bar and 
Pope^s defeat at Groveton ; also, those given in my ac^^ount of his movements from the 
hour of his arrival at Frederick to that of Lee^g retreat from Sharpsburg across the 

I trust it will be observed by candid critics that, while I seek not to disguise the fact 
that I honor and esteem some of our commanders as I do not others, I have been blind 
neither to the errors of the former nor to the just claims of the latter — that my high 
estimation of Grant and Sherman (for instance) has not led me to conceal or soften the 
lack of reasonable precautions which so nearly involved their country in deplorable if 
not irremediable disaster at Pittsburg Landing. So with Banks^s mishap at Sabine 
Cross-roads and Butler^s failure at Fort Fisher. On the other hand, I trust my lack of 
faith in such ofScers as Buell and Fitz John Porter has not led me to represent them as 
incapable or timorous soldiers. What I believe in regard to these and many more of 
their school is, that they were misplaced — ^that they halted between their love of country 
and their traditional devotion to Slavery — that they clung to the hope of a compromise 
which should preserve both Slavery and the Union, long after all reasonable ground of 
hope had vanished ; fighting the Rebellion with gloved hands and relaxed sinews because 
they mistakenly held that so only was the result they sighed for (deeming it most be- 
neficent) to be attained. If the facts do not justify my conviction, I trust they will be 
found so fiiirly presented in the following pages as to furnish the proper corrective for 
my errors. 

Without having given much heed to rival issues, I presume this volume will be found 
to contain accounts (necessarily very brief) of many minor actions and skirmishes which 
have been passed unheeded by other historians, on the assumption that, as they did not 
perceptibly affect the great issue, they are unworthy of record. But the nature and 
extent of that influence is matter of opinion, while the qualities displayed in these col- 
lisions were frequently deserving of grateful remembrance. And, beside, an affair of out- 
posts or foraging expeditions has often exerted a most signal influence over the spirits 
of two great antagonist armies, and thns over the issues of a battle, and even of a cam- 
paign. Compressed within the narrowest limits, I have chosen to glance at nearly every 
conflict of armed forces, and to give time to these which others have devoted to more 
elaborate and florid descriptions of great battles. It has been my aim to compress within 
the allotted space the greatest number of notable facts and circumstances; others must 
judge how fully this end has been achieved. 

Doubtless, many errors of fact, and some of judgment, are embodied in the following 
pages : for, as yet, even the official reports, &c., which every historian of this war must 
desire to study, are but partially accessible. I have missed especially the Confederate 
reports of the later campaigns ; only a few of which have been made public, though 
many more, it is probable, will in time be. Some of these may have been destroyed at 
the hasty evacuation of Richmond; but many must have been preserved, in manu- 
script if not in print, and will yet see the light. So far as they were attainable, I have 
used the reports of Confederate officers as freely as those of their antagonists, and have 
accorded them nearly if not quite equal credit. I judge that the habit of understating 
or concealing their losses was more prevalent with Confederate than with Union com- 
ntoders; in over-estimating the numbers they resisted, I have not been able to perceive 

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any difference. It ia simple truth to say that such over-estimates seem to have been 
quite common on both sides. 

I shall be personally obliged to any one, no matter on what side he served, who will 
famish me with trustworthy data for the correction of any misstatement embodied in 
this work. If such correction shall dictate a revision of any harsh judgment on friend 
or foe, it will be received and conformed to with profound gratitude. My convictions 
touching the origin, incitements, and character, of the War from which we have so 
happily emerged, are very positive, being the fruits of many years' almost exclusive 
devotion to National affairs ; but my judgments as to occurrences and persons are held 
subject to modification upon farther and clearer presentments of facts. It is my pur- 
pose to revise and correct the following pages from day to day as new light shall be 
afforded ; and I ask those who may feel aggrieved by any statement I shall herein have 
given to the public, to favor me with the proofs of its inaccuracy. Unwilling to be 
drawn into controversy, I am most anxious to render exact justice to each and all. 

The subject of Eeconatruction (or Restoration) is not within the purview of this work, 
and I have taken pains to avoid it so far as possible. The time is not yet for treating it 
exhaustively, or even historically ; its importance, as well as its immaturity, demand for 
its treatment thoughtful hesitation as well as fullness of knowledge. Should I be living 
when the work is at length complete, I may submit a survey of its nature, progress, and 
results : meantime, I will only avow my undoubting faith that the same Divine Benignity 
which has guided our country through perils more palpable if not more formidable, will 
pilot her safely, even though slowly, through those which now yawn before her, and 
bring her at last into the haven of perfect Peace, genuine Fraternity, and everlasting 
Union — a Peace grounded on reciprocal esteem ; a Fraternity based on sincere, fervent 
love of our common country ; and a Union cemented by hearty and general recognition 
of the truth, that the only abiding security for the cherished rights of any is to be found 
in a full and hearty recognition of Human Brotherhood as well as State sisterhood — in 
the establishment and assured maintenance of All Rights for All. 

H. G. 

JS^ew York^ July 21, 1866. 

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L Texas and New Mexico in 1862 17 

Tiri0(«*s Traumi— T«zM SUU Convention putc* 
Ordinance of S<««s*ion— Surrender of the R«fnilAra 
— Thotr Loynltv and Safferinn— New Mexico re- 
■ptml* Act Icgaiiiins 81aT«ry— Canbv in coniraand— 
Pr«p«r«e to h<>ld New Mexico— Sibley BrlK«de- 

. r«p«r«e to h<>ld New Mexico— Sibley Briftade- 

Fort Cnlc— Siblev dedlnae to aUark— Buttle of 

Valverdf— Herolci'n and Death of MrRae— FlKht 

at Apache P)bm— Rebela occupy SanU F^— Tbey 

abandon t' ** ' 

1 New Mexico. 

n. Missouri and Arkansas in 1862 


nma to MiMonri — Guerrilla Operatlona— 
Rains and SUin roatrd— Capture of Milfurd— Price 
Tctreata to Arkanuu — Sigern Retreat from Benton • 
TiUe— Battle of Pta RidKe-Rebela defeated— The f 
War amonK the Indian*— Fifrht at the Cache— 
Goerrilla operation*— Flirht at Newtonia— Hind- 
man driven into A rkiiuMU — Cooler routed at 
llaj-cTllle— BaUle of Prairie Grov& 

IIL Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama in 
1862 — ^Forts Henry and Donelson 
— Pittsburg^ Landing 41 

BaUle pf Mill Spring— Capture of Fort Henry- 
Naval Bombardment of Fort IXmeleon— Oen. PII- 
fcnr't Sortie— Ooanterehar|!« of Lew Wallace and 
C F. Smith— Eecajpe of Flojrd and Pillow— Surren- 
der by Bockner— Retreat of Sidney Juhnalon from 
the Cumberland acroM the TenneMee— Nathville 
r««OTcr«d— Colamboa, Ky.— New Madrid— Uland 
Jfo. 10 — Fort Pillow— Memphis- Flrat Sicite of 
Vicksborg— Grant moves op tfie Tennessee to Pitts- 
bvri; Landi Of;— Sidney Johnston advances from 
Oonnth, Miss.— Assails Grant's tmai near Shiloh 
Cliarcb— Sherman and McClernand driven— Grant 
borne b«<.k— Boeil and Lew Wallace arrive— The 
RebeU driven— Lr«Ms—Halleck takes Corinth— 
Mitcbel repossesses HunUville and most of North 

TV. Bumside's Expedition to N. Carolina. T3 

Roanoke Island carried— Elisabeth city submits— 
Defenses of Newbem stormed — Newbem surren- 
d«fed-Fort Maeon rcduc«l— Fight at South Mills 
— Foster advances to Klnston — Falls to carry 

V. Batler^s Expedition to the Gulf— Cap- 
ture of New Orleans 81 

s^tL harrKcul 

n.nHT, 1 J,— 1. ini-tp 1114 n-'Llp 

Hi ^\n^ Tnt)qtbi4j( [be Sii^ 

^mdpfi—^imiU au'l i^vf«i Kurla J'»flt«H] and Si. 
FhlCp-^PHlrfvi the Kclivt FtcitU la -> Ftwibn nn lo 
OriMBa— Tba tartt earrrnder to i-^pL VurUi 


-Ram Arksii^Aa dM^rnJ'ed— Wrlit' 

f lutotry-- Flumli-ri Bltd 

I Md Gon, WiklEsiiu ■ 
jf-.BitnWd iMfc-Umlilb- 

H^l nnliirei the L«(!Hnrh« f 

ksha rhi'iwa to rini:irn::«P — Hulii'f iin^n^^iftoJ by 

Tiankfi^BijElEr't partlog AJdiiss4— Jc£ Duvh ii>i- 

>.>:i~f^-J whh hi* iwiLcy-. 

VL Virginia in '62— McClellan's Advance. lOT 

O^.iiLta t>eian_Tbp Rmil^. U Rltbttunil Bjit- 
iLetif l«rvatowrt^ltald i^f tl»e Ynm^l^d lUu Iriaiiu: 
m VMnla In Ham^Ann Rnads - Mr^Clcl Esn 4?n ttia 
Fill— 1m P>>gs nf Ynrltl--n FillTlr ^ WlNLmni- 
%■■ Fl^trtW^* Feint— Advaar c^ to >>i# Chi' li ■- 
fctWHIl J TfliHT fry ff Norfolk — Klftrielb of onr 
AndB— UeCtalksV romplalnti— Fl^l al Mc- 
SkmU-- Jaii«M wrprissa t>>nt B^val - Bai^Lt 
M*m Iktfv^ W$Dirli«el*r to ih. FcKt^Hnuw— J bc k . 

-F™a*«t stflkat Eir*.I] *t C>r«*^K#VJ 

■^ lb* 9-auth rorlf 41 port Ri^b- 
i TTlsr— H«Lb niut«il h^ CT%K.ik al 

Vn. McCleDan before Richmond 140 

Phs Jokn Porter worsts Branch at MechanietTill* 
— McClellaa pwtially acroM the Cbickahominy— 
BaUle of FalTcMn or Seven Pinea-McCleltaa 
risfonwd. bat still fmnbles and heslUtee— Stone- 
wall JackaoQ joins Ls«— A. P. Hill attacks our 
rifhtat Meehaaksvill*-BaUle of Gaines's Mill— 
nts John Porter worsted— McClellaa retrcaU to 
Ike Janea-ngkt at OlMidalc, or WhiU 0$k 

Swamp Bridge— Rebels attack, and are repelled 
with loes at Alnlrern Hill— MrCI«llan rHreaM to 
Harrison's Bar — Htntker returns to Malvern — 
KicClellan withdraws to Fortress Monroe, and em- 
barks his Army fur Alexandria. 

VIIL Gten. Pope's Virginia -Campaign 172 

Pope appointed to command the forcea of Fremont, 
Banks, and McDowell— Advances to the Rapiilan- 
Banks worsted by Jackson at Cedar MounUin— 
Pope retreato across the Rappahannock— J sckton 
flanks his risht— Strikes the KAllroad in bis rear 
at Bristow— Seises Manassas Junction— Compelled 
to retreat — Lonsstreet hurrvine to his rew 
Jackson worsU Klni;— Two Days' Battle of Gi 
Tilie and Grovetoo, or Second Bull Run — 


driven back ou Centerville- 



Jackson flanks hia 

rightf and atUcks Keamv at Chantilly— Pope re- 
treau to the defenses of Washington, and gives 
place to MoClellan-HU Losses-McClel Inn's fail- 
ure to support Pope — His Correepundeoce with 
Lincoln, Halleck A Cow 

IX. Lee's Invasion of Maryland in 1862. .193 

McClcllan crosses the Potomac, and advances to 
Frederick -Addr<M to Marvland— McClellan fol- 
lows to Freilerick— Lee's plans discovered— He la 
Intent on the capture of Harper's Ferry— McClellan 

K' hU and beats his rear-cnuird at Turner's Gap— 
snklln drives Howell Cobb out of CVampton^ 
Gap— Miles surrenders Harper's Ferry, with 12,000 
men, to Stonewall Jackmm — McClellan follows 
Lee to the Aniielara— Battle of Anlieuni or Sharpe* 
burg— Loases— Lee retreau across the Potomac — 
Porter follows— McClellan hesitates to pursue— 
J. e. a Stuart raids around his Armv— McClellan 
moves down to tha Rappahannock— Is relle^'ed by 

X. Tennessee — Kentucky — Mississippi — 

Bragg's Invasion— Corinth 212 

Brsi^ n mus e s die TmiMvsea fesd Cttmbcrtttid — 
Kl^by Siitltk nwta M. D. M*M«a aftfl Nelwh at 
iilciiiiitithi, Hy. — HraifK i:a;fi^iTn^ 4^W^ tftra at 
MunilriHltvl ilr< — Ajlvsncm lu trankforL and Inm^ 
rnral^ Kic' Ha wee sa fiovernnr of Hi^ntkiRky^ 
BttlJI folluws him trvm. ih^Tannassea to Beldelawa 
ud SprlDfMl-ltatlta «f FhrryTllla-lhvin n- 
UmlM Mii of Kimucky by OtinabarlaHl Gap— Itase' 
etmh» tAiM Ftk» M fmkm-Pr^Bm ratnats u, RJ pUv, 
Mlia.-'Van Duft! nsaJIs RtPwrmHS stCtdDtli— Is 
beaten od'irjiJi ^t^Ml il*ii]5b I«t— V an Dwn [lunofed 
to Kipley— Leieeaa. 

XL Slavery in the War— Emancipation ... 232 

Iialrk k Hentv mi F*tra] I , r . - 

Edniunil K*ni(<>(t*-Jiihh t^ i -jii* 

a HidAi ti^ — Ur. UiKoJ d — iH' >■ . Stw« r4 - ij<tL 
BBllR^-4;i«]i. FNdwaM^-Oaii. T. W. EImrimb— Gao. 
Wool— Oen. Uj.— <]«. Halleek-^GML Cinie»a— 
Hla Report hrrtaid by PTisl^int LliKoJn^Beward 
Id Mi^lellan— Gsh. Butti»td*-f:«ll Buell^Oen, 
||iwk«^-U«a.8ir.klw— 0«t. McCodt— Gey. DMbU^ 
flay-^G«m. WIllLsnts— Crl. Antbc«y^^, HubHf 
^-pverrnlftj bv the 1»»e*LdeJiir-C«ei. MrClellan 411 
iV Ni-gro — Hi^Tsoe Greeley to Lfncoln— ITjo Re* 
MiODM — thx to Lbe Chicacf> Cler^voieii— LlDcoln^l 
Fir*t PnxLuniilli^i of If^reedorPL— Th« KLrirlnns of 



XIL Slavery and Emancipation in Congress . 256 

E. R. Potter on Emancipation by War— Lincoln 
for colonising the Blacks— Congress forbids Mili- 
tary Ofllcera returning Fugitives from Slavery- 
Abolishes Slavery in the District of Columbia- 
Lincoln proposes, and Congress enacts. Compea- 
■ated Emancipation— ProhiblU Slavery b the Ter- 
ritories— Con nscates the Slaves of Rebels— Opens 
Diplomatic Intercourse with Liberia and Haytl — 
Requires Equality in Education and Punishment 
between Whites and Blacks— Right of Search on 
the African Coast conceded— Fugitive Slave Act 
repealed — Confinement of suspected Slaves in Fed- 
eral Jails forbidden— Coastwise Slave-Trade for- 
bidden—Color no Impediment to giving Testimony. 

XnL Eosecrans's Winter Campaign, 1862-3.270 

The Army of the Ohio at Bowling Oreen— Rtorgan- 
iied by Rosecrans— Morgan's Raids— Surprise of 
Moore at HarUville-Our Advance from Nash- 
rtl le— Battle of Stone River, near Murfreeeboro'— 
Bragg retreata— Cavalry Raids on our rear— Innsa's 
DiMsa of Livergne — Loem —Forrest roaUd by 

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SolUrao »t VaxktitH CroM-RMds— Momn cap- 
turn Elizab«thtown— Gen. H. Cnrtcr'a Kifdd Into 
East TenncMee— Wheeler raids down the Tennes- 
see to Fort Donebon— Beat«n oS by CoL Harding 
—Van Dom captures 1,500 UnionisU at Spring HUl 
—Col. A. & Hall defeau Moivan at Vao^ht? Hill 
— Gordon Granger rrpolses \ an Dom at Franklin 
—CoL A. D. Strelfr^i r*^ i°to Northern 6eoi]gia 
—Is overpowered and captured near Boom. 

XrV. Siege and Capture of Vicksburg... .286 

FfiUiMi ind TtnpftftjifHf* &f Tl. 'j*>-.:i^' . '^r-m l 
lit&*£> 'iTskAiil liinmv Ijftgfun^ — Ailijin l" i^i i ri- 
ftftLt, Mti^— 'Van Vitita ^et^tuni* Holfj' Si*r1pp^i-^ 
Jduriihy'^ii Ci]wanlir« — final tw^ivmhrnA %u illl 
Iwfik— Hov«y uijI WssblnBU no Ltw l^'litwuter^ 
Geb. Won. T. ^Hrmaa vn-iHerk* mijIfOa mma at 
Uempllli — tl^Ttafki L^n tbfi' Vhww^ nurtli ut Miem 
*hlft-^^^ni» Ptirler"* ClDobiMt* — Jabemisn tLamu 
Ibi Yb*^ Blnlh — llqiutu^il si a3l wilnLt vrJth 
b»aYv 1fi^ — AUdiipt* Ui flint b^ DniFnp 
£l uff— '!• iMrHv^ — ritij]|«rH>lMl hj G«-a, \i c i ')r r 
'^W1k> LuvritXiDil I a[i1.u»» ihv i'^ost iri' A rkjiikHU — 
(jInL f JiaA I Hiir^ttE* Fiicibriiuid — X^tbaf k ■ — Diio^in^ 
1^ Oalut^Frti^^* ag ALrtKFiifjn— YnJiiu Tu* KxV 

yii Umt ato| > t» i l ",t t;;tiwh*.^iri^:'jiiftp*ji»>i lo 
nUm— OrtBi Wrt the Svttfl-i*-!- mun^— lUfllt-d 
ll|;i(D— TbjeQwHi ^f the Wd mttUn^ EM BIvlt 

^Dltsblt^ MmI K^RndoilC^^-Ttld laiH imq^i U i-nli- 

MW4 liv lh« %Vebb iod Qnnai of ih* W^*l— Tbtr 
IiittjAn&La bhi^wii up in a panir — Tiw W»^Jtl flre« uj» 
Kiel tUvor— Linnt ii»i-«* doWii ih« Mln^LMij)^!- 
CflOL Ffirltr TunNi the Vifbibuiif IiaL1er(«^Jj rt«f ^ 
■M^ jRaJil to Batofl H<m«e— Porter lUlar kt lb;fl fiaU 
tiifMialtSraiitfl t^uir— Grant crwHS ■! tlniiiutHniT 
nWniIKin fclnis on HMlniJiV ESlnff— '.'nrtHW Ibe 
IUmIh^mJ fel I^Unlflaf'-iiiV F«iTV— Hfr^l ai Fort 
etb«R— hlHltlt Rft>ni.™i— IrlifJit a| and enptarw 
oi J*tV^«i -llellK- ..r Lh.'ih.iii-n F 

-KialTiL ~J 

lev— Surrenders— Grant drives Jo. Johnston ntrni 
Jackson- Fight at Milliken's Bi»d— Holmes as- 
sails Helena, and b routed. 

XV. Texas and Louisiana in 1863 — Cap- 
ture of Port Hudson 322 

1- ■ ■ 1. Jl»fi*lliii' — S^ir- 

r.H.^1 F,y M-STTl'Srr, d,ml r n, rH^n,J ^ iKir Fl«*^ ,IL<' 
aLiledaBil hnbsi-D^viti^r «t ^itiiii? I'w>~Tbff 
Alsbama cwlor«> i-bm FiBll#n»A-4-«n. tim-tik* Lb 
esMUJAnd at »«w Orlcanar— CJiuaring thv AUkuiiTa- 
llire— hl^l at Camui''* Rriilji^t^— Farmfni'^ P*^*mi 
thE Bntlerk* It t^rn ]]ud4an— B«p1h rrtutna \a 
Jhrtfidk'i QfiT^— A d i^auf^ liiOpelikuennnd Al*i' 
KidirLA, La«— ^Lsves 1f1wEi«i to EleToin ^ra, snd 
tmMte tW MkWMtpfit — InrMla l^iri JtudJcin — 
C«nbtal«d AtLdt-i QD lu tMtuMM— Rjf^nJiifTl tollh 
m k#i of 3^J0a^Benk; preuu LliB Slri&i— S«T»h,l 

imTfindirT*— rHtk Ti*vfcw tuijiri*^ Umrhcar^ k^ 
^FifLilnr at rhMurdsoavUlvFUknkEln nitafbi 

' Idn PU/priMd near fJp 

arl» far t^ RJo UrabdiD— 1>.}^ 

&lar{tanilit — JhirWidei 


barlti at Umuu ^ntEw^^ a&d tA kei Ur^wiuviUd 
' — C^pLurpt of Aruisat t^aea sad I^ait Cav rt Jl lo^Fort 
&|h«finsB abantkHiHl — Indlaiwla In our band»^ 

XVL Army of the Potomac under Bum- 
side and Hooker — ^Fredericksburg 
— Chancellorsville 342 

Gen. Bomaide in command In Vtisiala— Croeses 
the Rappahannock— Attacks Lee^ Anny.stronfrly 
posted on the Southern Heifhta— Is repulsed with 
heavy loes— Ricroeses the River- A freeh Ad- 
vance arrseted by the President— The Mud March 
—Rebel Raids In Virginla-Bumaide gives place 
to Hooker— Stoneman's Raid on Lee^ rear- 
Hooker cr oeee n the Rappahannock, and advances 
to ChancelktsviUe-Hls right wing turned and 
shattered by Jackson — Pleasanton checks the 
Enemy— Jackson mortally wounded— Desperate 
lighting around Chancellorsville— Hooker stunned 
--<)ar Army recoils — Sedgwick storms Marye's 
Heights— Strikes Lee's Rear— Is driven across the 
River— Hooker rfteroesce also — Stoneman's Raid a 
Falhire— Lonntreet assails Pack at Soilolk- Is 
D off witt loss. 

XVn. Lee's Army on Free Soil— Gettys- 
burg 367 

Lee stleotly flanks Hooker^ ^^^ *"^ moves 
northward— Cavalry Fight near Fairfax— Mllrov, 
at Winchester, surprised- and driven over the 
Potomac, with heavy loee— Cavalry encounters 
along the Bine Ridge-Jenktos raids to Cham- 
berwurg— Lee c r oss es the Potomac— Hooker and 
Halleek at odds— Hooker relieved — Meade ia 
d— Cwell at York — Collision of vaa- 

Erds at Gettysburg- Reynolds killed- Union- 
outnumbered and driven— Howard halts on 
Cemetery Hill— Sickles comes up— Hancock takes 
command— M—de arrives— Bota Annies concen- 

trated-Sickles driven back with losa-R«fael Ad- 
ranee cheeked-Nigfat falls— Rebel Grand Charge 
led hy Pickettr-Terribly repulsed— Lee retreats- 
Heavy loeses— Feeble porsoit by Sedgwick— Lee 
halU at Wllllamsportp-Meade hesiutce— Lee geU 
across the Potomac— Kllpatrick rooU the Rebel 
rear-guard— Meade crosses at Berlin, and move* 
down to the Rappahannock— Fight at Msneesas 
Gap— Diz's Advance on Richmond— Pleasanton 
eroases the RapMan— Lee flanks Meade, who re- 
treaU to Centervllle— Warren woisU A. P. Hill 
— Lee retires acroee the Rappahannock— Imboden 
surprises Cbarlesiown — Gen. D. A. Roesell stoma 
Rappahannock Station, capturing 1.600 prisoners 
— Meade croesee the Rapidan — Aflair of Mine 
Run— TolandV raid to Wyiheville— Averlll's to 
Lewisburg— Fight at Droop Mountain. 

XVm. The Chattanooga Campaign 404 

Morgan's Raid throogh Kentucky into Indiana 
and Ohio— He is surrounded, routfd^nd captured 
— His Imprisonment and Escape — Rosecrans ad- 
vances from Murfreesboro* by Shelbvvllle and 
Tullahoma. to the Tenneesee at Bridgeport— 
Bragg flanked out of Chattanooga — Roeecrani 
eagerly pursoee— Bragg concentratee at Lafayelt^ 
and turns upon hia pursuers— Rosecrans concen- 
trates on the Cbickamauga— Desperate battle there 
— Rosecrans, worsted, retreats to Chaitanoo g a 
Losses— Roawcrans superseded— Pegnun's raid in- 
to Kentucky— Sannders'b into East Tennessee 
Biirnside crosses the Cumberland Moonuins — 
Koozville liberated — Bumside r6tekee Cumber- 
land Gap, with 2,000 prisoners— Longstreet impel- 
led by Bran against him— Wolford struck at niil. 
adelphia, lenn.— Fight at Campbell's Sution— 
Bumside withdraws into Knozvilie^LongstreeC 
besiegee and assaults — Is repulsed with loss — 
Raises the Siege and retreats — Grant relievee Roee- 
crans— Hooker and Slocum hurried to the Tennes- 
see—Wheeler's and Roddy's raids — Grant reaches 
ChatUnooga — Hooker croeses the Tennessee— 
FItrht at VVaohatchie- Sherman arrives from 
Vicksburg— Grant impels attacks on Bragg by 
Granger, Hooker, and Sherman— Hooker carrlea 
Lookout Mountain— Bragg, en Mission Ridgeu at- 
tacked horn all sides and routed— His Bui^tln— 
Hooker pursues to KInnnid— Cleburne checks him 
In a cap in White Oak RldEe— Sherman and Gran- 
ger dispatched to KnoxvUle— Losses at Mission 

XIX. The War in Missouri and Arkansas, 

in 1863 446 

Marroaduke attacks Springfield, Mo.— Is repulsed 
—Again at Hartsvil le— Waring ronU hUn at Bates- 
vilie. Ark.— TheSam Gaty captured- Fayetterilie 
attacked by Cabell — Alarmaduke asaaiU Capo 
Girardeau — McNeil repels him — Coffey assails 
Fort Blunt— SUndwatie repulsed at Cabin Crsek 
— Coflev repuleed by Catherwood, at Ptnevlllc^ 
Mo. — Qoantrali^ Arson and Butchery at Law- 
rence. Kansas— Gen. Steele moves on Little Rock 
—Fight at Bayou Metea— Davidaon defeats &Iar- 
maduke at Bayou Fourche— Price abandons Little 
Rock to Steele— Bluntli Escort deetroyed bv Qnan- 
trell— Col. Clayton defeata Marroaduke at Pine 
Bluff— Gen. E. B. Brown defeaU Cabell and Coffey 
at Arrow Rock— McNeil chasee them to Clarks- 
ville— Standwatie and Quantrell repulsed by CoL 
PhillIpsatF<>rt Gibson— Sioux Butcheries in Min- 
neeou— Gen. Sibley rouu Little Crow at Wcod 
Lake— 600 Indians captured and tried for murder 
— Gen. Pope In command— Sibley and Sully pur- 
sue and drive the Savage s Gen. Conner in Utah 
— DefeaU Shos h onees on Bear River— Enemlea 

XX. The Carolinaa, Georgia, and Florida 

in 1862-3 — Siege of Charleston. .455 

Siege and Capture of Fort Pulaski by Gillmore— 

'"-^' '".tone r ' •• ' 

ipont . _ 

gnstine— Union Movement at Jacksvnvllle— Pen- 

Slnklnic < 
Com. Du] 

of Stone Fleet in Charleston Harbor— 
int sweeps down the Coast to St An- 

sacola and Jacksonville abandoned— Edisto Island 
relinquished— Gen. Hunter attacks SeceMionville, 
and is repulsed— Gen. Brannan threatens the Sa- 
vannah Railroad— Fight at Coosawhatchie— De- 
struction of the Nashville — Dupont repulied at 
Fort McAJlteter— The Isaac Smith lost near L«w 

Br^ville— Iron-clad Raid from Charleston- The 
ereedlU and Keystone State disabled — Beau- 
rocard and Ingraham proclaim the Blockade of 
Charleston raised— Dnpont with his Iroo-clads at- 
tacks Fort Sumtar, and Is repulsed — CoL Montgom- 
ery's Raid up the Combabce— The Atlanta cornea 
out from Savannah — Capt. Rogers, in the Wee- 
hawken, dieablee and captoree her— Gen. Gillnrara 
selaee half of Morris Island— Gen. Strong assanlto 
Fort Wagner, and is bloodily repulsed— Gillmora 
opens Tranches— The 'Swamp Angel' talks to 
Charleston— The Rebels driven out of Fort Wagner 
—Com. Stephene assaulto Fort Sumter— Charles- 
ton bombarded fVoin Wagner— Foundering of the 
Weehawken-D. H. Hill repelled at Ncwbera— 
Attacks Washington, N. C. — b drtvcB off by 
Foster— Fight at Gum Swamp. 

Digitized by 




TTI, The Political History of 1863 484 

Lord LvoM on Democratic * Peace '— SpringElec- 
tkat oflMft-CooacriplkMi ordered, flnt by ileb«L 

next by Unkm Oo^rew — Jodge Woodward 
proooaaece tbe latter onconttitational— Soapen- 
•fan of Habeas Corpiw— MUlUuy Armt and Coa- 
▼fctioa of VallaDdlfhain— DemomiU of Albany 
tWeoa — Preaident Llncolo'e R««ponae— Ohio 
DeaKKratic CooTentlon's Raeolvca— Vallandl«- 
baa Bomlaatad for Governor — Conrention da- 
■aad kin Rtleaie Preddent IJneoln<W Reply— 
TiM New York JonmalUU on the Freedom of the 
Pra«— Ex-Pmident Pierec'b Fourth of Jaiy Ora- 
-. Sevraoar^ ditto— Tbe Draft EtloU in 

New Tofit — Anon, Derastatlon, and Morder— 
6oT. SeTmoar^ Speech — He demaade a atoppan 
ef tha braft— Prwident Linooln'a Reply^-TEe 
Aataam Electione— The Draft adjndced valid— 
Tha UoTcmment aoatalned by tbe People. 

3nrn. Xegro Soldiery 511 

ftt^filniLrturtry Aiwlat— Ri*;™! At. 

*** 1*3"?— t.i*tL i«i:kK^ «t S\nt r>Hiatn»-Nif^M 
N]l4J^n( aojiiJ^e— ^ \^■ Insl — Qvn. IHfni^i^r .11- 
ct^tte a n^mH.JJijT f-l' E l*rl« ■— i.i'f r, Wit kHSftf't iji^ 

fia^van^ >vC^ii'«*^ 'f.Irn^ I*l9.iiJ]4'a Bta<-V r«<frutt- 
^g !« Ltqflfetaoa — ii*n. UulJir ihvmHim ^ Jf If. 
UMelt BB BollvT and rfarL}^ I^tipI h»r— CauM ma 
s»«rH.1l #i»rc \\ iiriviiit^ T^ptriJ trta of Cbibir — 
|e Ihdiiiiir tiUf Pfi Lhcrrcit — U*if. Andiaw, 

_ Rataltatkin-J^arTvtt 

-nil Sf ja ffc it Laki j!*f<yv(d«irr— ^^n. Ituuki% 
C»rd«r^?f«igrQ li*f 

p meruItiDtC i<M aluaJ— tlfflcken^j- 

TTTTT The War along the Coast in 1864. .528 

Orvani»tkm of the XXXVIUth 

Lincoln^ profler of Amnerty— tiiUmore and Sey- 
Boar la Florida — Finnegan d efc a ta Seymoar at 
Otaate^-Rebel Salt-Worlu In Florida deatroyed 
— Union CoDTeatlon at Jackaonrllle— Union Re- 
polM at Bloody BridM, S. C — Pickett aaaalU 
Newbera, N. C. — Hoke beaiecfa Weeaelb In 
Piymoath— The Rebel ram AlUutarle diaablee 
aarVeaiela WeeeelU aarrandere— The Albemarle 
ifhU our Fleet otf the month of the Roaaoke— 
la bcat«n off by them— Blown np by Lt. Cnahlng 
—Piymoath ntakea— Wlld'a Raid Into Camdan 

JULiV. The War beyond the Mississippi in 

1864 536 

n i.*ii k«**T — I hir Ami V 

|bJ Ri r e f Banfe* pfMw« ^m l^varti SbrEiic- 
HTl — Ctft, IStfxUnf'i FL^t— 4>ur Ail vai^cff n hi^mI 
Vp Cnj^v5tianb] bl fialilM Cr^t^FCwdi-iliii^ify 
«^k« ik* iCrWi P^CMtlt al PlMunt nt^fw- 
FW^i aMl IbiIvJaI^p jWlLl<^ al ■"ImaAtlt FiMt~ 
"Sn^ nflnalB ta Grand Erin? -- PiFfWf *.Trifc# 
VptM*«l Bae al Od* EUvrr- Return t^t Army 
Fleab |B AjPfiujHrla— LC'tVI. B«r1c; trn||f« 


_ . oH't It* R»trtrfie^l'»i!.jn i^ea 

y«ai«la at IVnnnV tiaytra— T«ABd Cout 
tlanki 'Tflmra f'> SlTiiTBftpiirt 

A^Tasrv fnTin LUit*; RjTifc ^ 

ai yMfai« d'AoHr — f^iwU ^utt-fi ^rnii.j^Ti 

DilWlar Bl MtfkK'i Mdh-^ir^ka r«- 
by Kirby !^ftiit]i nl JunVlci^U 
d — Sir«1*T bamine J* I* 
R-o*i— *Jefi. CiMT w.inia 
C*aflM-iTi.], Bh"^t- flyhti Ikb- 
MH«I M^ C-iwL^!^ thy e«p|qr*«^W Mill IJIU 
ai4i — l^Mi^p^Mt* C*«.<miU5w 111 Ark>ataj — 
— IbtB^rT^n* la r^immflotl in 
-Am*f* tilt K.%l¥U of Ihe Sum of Ub. 
Ml7--niieA lael tnraalrtB^Nitfb Ewiotf urttb- 
^ ~t Mb a PfM bLaib— Ri4nAEii hi R^IU— 
'-TrtM lbrval«iii Si, LMttIa— Ap* 
a ClH— <■«, Mow*>r Mlvwi 
-Hah^la cap1«r* fllajfr™— 
L IdtftaHM— Fl«il* Ntifil 4^n Ika Utile 
n^iii niMit « th«^ Mc Blne^EPi^pnt 

be litlJ# Oi^FC— Blant nniU him ai 
— Carde ehdea Un to raj*tti'¥llti«, 


XXV. Gen. Grant's Advance on Richmond . 562 

Graat made Lleateoant-Gaaeral— Hla Concep- 
tion of tbe War— Aaanoiea command- Anoy of 
tha Patomac reorvanisad— Kllpatrlck% Raid to 
RiekBo«i>Col. Dahl^ren killed-Orant croeaea 
tha Rapidaa-fiatUe of tha WUdenieM-Ora»t 


t on to Spottaylranki C H.— Heavr, inda- 
claive flghtlnp— Hancock etornu the Enemy^ 
Llnee, capturing MaL-Gen. Sd. Johnaon aAd 

\X.uh 1' \ Pil,. Jrt ...-.- ■^V l-.^MiilL fu'bii W 

JLHili ht i-vtx W •Ltbili Jtii^rt^Ta^ltcauinvard 
oiriTiff fn«in*'hrtrlf*tiTH--.Ml*f-|i* flull<^ umi Mie 
JaTiH*— Jfiirf tlghtliiC lK«t«— Kauli'fc tint KaJd 
— 'Tkrwi Unliiit liai>V<«it* k>tB:fet«ni up^^lirani 
ntovn brill I Lvfl lo I he Norlb Adda— N4infi-:^k 
and lA'tlf ht ar rr^a — nunial d« rrpvl^Hl— JHiftbt' 
J«ganbutH>Vtu|Ea-^La.>«^ fitallloa im|ie*ifa«bl« 
— fl'^nt mtfY* ^ bjn i^n t^ Ibe C'hirtahiuinlny 
— Rtvnfan-vt b* W, f, f^rnllk from )HiU«r'- fiu- 
»ilkra^inH)Jy RtipHilte ■! Old J lllrtHi'r--8he^r' 
dan^ Raid «<» Lvhui<4 <\ }L— i;r«nt iwvMt bj hla 
L«lli arnnt the Jainn^ t>*lgw KLebatmid— R^- 
criaa o i. for ti [» t trprt^Kii] A J ckti r ^^^ BoIJht lnp«U 
GllhrEa aitil Kaiiti 4j;^ljiit i<«l>^ti«iu||;— W, F« 
^inith'* L'i'q.T» l'i4J4f •*— I'a! iufiw Is tair)- U^ 
Ge>bM^«I AHanll numbed — ^lublelt f^aul^ A4- 
yunr* Id ilitf WvirJuni tlaUivtil — W11m>ii '■ and 
lUutt'» Ptjtrnpive RAid to il4irkj4i»ttU~il4Lller 
pnnti^tM rbu JpAin^-ahcriniati 4|fhl> ^^n ika 
rTl]lll«lB— Miljf* raJTl«te an <^t|>ra( nt I>Mrp 
Bpt1lnm~llurctil>lr> Mltie— }l.a4icfhr!|i i>t] oar 
L*1^ t^fTvn^n "Mr RttliMPdfnnoe^ and arf* kiik 
WofTteJ— WrttvI whM» and h-hil^Ia ih« l^^ejdoa 
Raltrmd— Jilll defmu Hanc^^rk ai RMini't ^a- 
U>:pb — WarHU aJTCDr^* ki and iOt«r llwi S^uEr^ 
■kl taM fload^lluUar iwuuiN and rarrJ^ Ffirt 
Harrtcon^FlcId fiik 1» rftmk^ It— lUMble wsl- 
vannM to Itatcher'a Run— Lfun rouU Hvllt^ 
HeaMKk ni"|^1* Wuf- II uti filnixi- f Unnoi< h t^- 

tlTM — LtfiMa ij[ tilt! CdlmfxtlirTi — l>LLl'-LinkA» 

XXVL West Virginia and North of the 

Rapidon in 1864 598 

Sum lOflMraptMrfa B#*re al Jnia^rlTlr^It^vaM- 
tallaa l^tarilnirft— AerrlU Kll* i\ku al Bprlnf- 
Aalii^^tgelli dafrat 4t Nir<riitarkal— Aver^U 
wonlad at Vl>t]laT]i|l« — Crt«k'B P|gfa( iHi«r 
DiibllD Htatluh— Ktmt«r''t tItIj iry at PlnLsMmt— 
{It tak«H SlaanUihL and ad vknr«« in LvDrbbbf]! 
— fUtAraU arr'4 lli« A Wvg kBOJa*— EkfI y^ 4>JiMa4 
£ljEvE Mtt of ^'induLa- WaJI*''^ beaUti rtn Iha 
MKMiPiviaif)' — l^nfly llll^nfttc'li WAvbl^pQA '- 

limr \l' lFi'-hi-*FT-r hLH''h' fIipJi^h. L«. ( TfimV ^^kflm-' 
lH|T-Uur_-llmMM.| l.v \|.'r*u,l.Li,^| <\,1, t^tMlgb 
fMtril Al N|.|iHi^ii >J„rl,lari a|»poilil«d to 
cotnMiani— l^Li E*rlif at l^lieiiuan — ltfru(« 
him al Fl«b<iri tiEU— [>frfl>ui«» lU V alley— 
Th* Rktiiiuin.l Wh^ *>ii K*t*JJftij*Hj — E4fly 
*iirp^i«ji rr.Mat At C*<iftr Tmk — fSbcfi^H 
IriUvr-'iui!' 'I' f- il Isik* TUti>ry— Lo*«*. 

XXVU. Between Virginia and the Missis- 
sippi, 1863-4 615 

7kin[[a'i Raid to UFmatlfl^M^fTitTWn ad- 
vaiWM feoiii Virk>btt>«— KfknnaL'k fatniil Ut lArk- 
Ha— W, Th Slterntah^ii Ailfaniie to MerldfaB^ 
Bvty SmVth't Fal iuMi— < ^i^adV F||rkl al Yvtm 
Cllf— ^P*lmer'» AdTimi^c in DhJiod- Forfnt 
lakka [}n1uEi^ Clljf-RtfptOw^l hy \i\vkt at EVdUk- 
cah — Amnlu und r»rH«d Fm-l riHuw- Hnkb- 
ery tlW SarmD^cr^ — ^tiiqfi'* rMitdtl by F<irr«*i 
ai' f jnniiiw ti — A. J. i^iP^ilh tfcitmla f'Virmi at 
Tufo'^^^''^^^'^* ^^''' '<*^" ^lEEubldf— Klirbla 
al] EKui^e SjutEli^iti, ITbarEmUHt, 3r1,HMy Urwlt, 
Tlwadi-ldjc!* And llirtfritle, EuM Teiiiiei**!- 

Mvfgr^i'* iiU-t. Riiliil |.Otr> K«UIU'ij^t'Lob»iiTl''l 

Surrvb'lr^- HurhfklirK ■Irlkr* \lwrp:aD al Ml, 
Mdfli'nA.and mkuU UUi^ Ei«Ar <.'yt?|h|Kni— Uor- 

fikty UMp-l-Piiifhi-ir.l^rT. Vnf-h at ballvill*- V'a, 

JLZLVlli. Sherman's Atlanta Campaign 625 

Strength of Sberman'a and Ja Johnaton^ Ar- 
miea— -Shemmn flanka Johnaton oat of Dalton 
—Hooker takea Reaaca^-Jefll a Doria takes 
Fight at Pampliln-vine Creek — At 
'" "—At Dallaa— AlUtoona 

New Hope Charch .. 

Paea won— Gen. Polk killed— Rebel Repniee at 
Kulp Houae— Sherman aaaaalta Keneeaw, and 
la rapulaed with a loaa of S/WO— Flanka John- 
atoD oat of it — PMaea the Chattahoochee — 
Hood ralieTeaJohnaton-Roaaaeaadafcato Clan- 
ton- Hood atrlkea oar left heaTlly. and ia 
repalaed— Strikea more hearily, and Is badly 
wonted— Stoneman'a wretched Raid to Maooa 
— He Barren dera — Hood atrlkea our right at 
Proctor^ Creek— la badly beaten by Howard 
and Logan— Kilpatrick'e Raid around Atlanta 
—Sherman morea by hla right behind Atlanta 
—Howard beaU Hardae at Joneaboro'— J. a 
Dark repeau tbe leaeoo— Ha»d abandons At- 
lanta — Sherman entara — Ordera It cleared of 
Inhabltanta — Pillow ralda to Lafayette — 
Wheeler to Dalton and throagh Soathem Ten- 
neaace — Jeff. Davia at Maoon — Hood flanka 
Sherman — French attache Allatoona— Corae 
baata him off— Hood croeaea Sand Moontaln— 
Tbomaa introated with the defaiaa of Tennea- 
jee S herman turns aontkward. 


Digitized by 




YYTY. The "War on the Ocean— Mobile 



The Confodcnttfl Nary — Their TorpedoM — 
BriUih-built Privat«er«— The Suntter — The 
Alabama— The Florida— Seizure of the Chew- 
peake— The Taliahauee — The Olustee— The 
ChlrkamaiWH— Capt. Cullina mImb the Florida 
in Biibia ^rbof^-Gov. Seward on Rebel b«U 
iigi>rt<i>cjr— The Georgia— Fight of the KMirearie* 
aud Alnbnina — CrilieUma thereon — Famurut 
before Mobile— Booibards and paaeea Fort Mor- 
frnn— The Rebel nun Tt^noeaeee flgbta our 
fl<^i— la eaptared — Fort iN>well blown np— 
Fort Gainea anmndera — Fort Morgan auccumba 
—Mobile sealed op. 

YYY. Political Mutations and Results — 
Presidential Canvass of 1864. 


State Eleetinna reflect the varying phaaea of 
the War— Keniocky .Unloniam — Lincoln to 
Hodgea — . Unooln at Oeit\-sb<irg — Ftvroonl 
nomrmtted for Prealdent — Radical Platfotm — 
Union Nntional Coovention— lu Platform— Lin- 
coln and Johnaon nominated — Johnioa'a Letter 
—A SeMton of Gloom— The National Finane«»a 
during the War— Nntional Debt— ''urreney De- 

EP€<ation — Pbacf 0%-eriures at Niagara and at 
cbmnnd — Davia infl«'XtMe — Chicago Demo- 
cmtTC ConvHntion — 'Pt-ace' Utieraoees — ^Tho 
Plaiform — McCl'*llan and Pondleton nominated 
—National victoriea atimuhite popular diaaent 
— Gen. McCl-Han tnea to hedge — Seward** 
Criticiani* — Fremont declines — The Autumn 
Eloctione— Maryland foe— Death of Roger B. 
Taiwy— Lincoln elected— The Soidlen' Votfr— 
The XXXVIIIih Conirreaa — Lincoln^ Inat 
Message— Slavery prohibited by Const itutiooal 
Ametidment — P^ace Oteriures at Richmond, 


fegoiiatioos in 
d loangurmL 


YYYT. Hood's Tennessee Campaign 677 

Fom>st's last Raid— Captnres Athens, Ala.— 
Is chitsed out of Tennessee by Rowseau— Hood 
pressi'S Gordon Granger at Decatur — Crosses 
the Tenness>4e at Flmvnoe— Thomas retires on 
Nashville — Hood follows — Fighting at Duck 
River and at during HiH— ScboBeld makes a 
stand at Franklin — Bloody drawn battle — 
Heavy Rifbxl loss -Pat. Cleburne killed — 
Thomas strong in Nashville — Fights around 
Murfrt^esboro*— A Cold Week— Thomas aaeomcs 
the Offensive — Stnedman strikes on our left — 
A. J. Smith, Johnson, and Wilson on our right 
— CoL Post storms Montgomery Hill- T. J. 
Wood and A. J. Smith cany first line of 
Rebel defenses— Overtook Hill stormed and 
taken — Rebels rotited and pursued to Franklin 
—Their ioesea— Hood chased acroea the Ten- 
nessee — Lyon's feeble Rnid— Stoikeman in Bast 
Tennessee— Gill em routs Duke, and then Vaughn 

— Breckinridge driven into North Carolinn — 
Saltvllls captured— Thomaa'b Captures— Hood 

YTYH. Sherman's Great March 689 

His Army in Northern Georgia— Concentrated 
at Athuita — He moves southward — Flirht at 
Lovcin-'* — Kil|mtrick before Macon— Slocum 
at Milledgeville — Howard at Sandenville — 
Kiluatrick at Wa\nesboro'—FiKhls Wheeler— 
Blair at Millan— Hasen at Stntesboro'— Fight at 
the Ogaectiee— Ulalr crosses at Fort Argj-le— 
Slocum crosaea at Louisville — Shitrman ap- 

ftroacbes Savannah — Hozen storms Fort McAI- 
bler— Sherman hears from F'«ster and Datafl- 
gren— Startofor Hilton He^d— Hardee evacuate* 
Savannah— Sherman's Iosms and captures in 
Georgia— C'Orrespondence with Lincoln— Dana's, 
I>avldson\ and Grieraon's Raids — Orieraon's 
Victory at Egypt— Hatch worsted at Honey 
Hill — Foster occupies pncotaligo— Sherman en- 
ters South Carolina— Pushes jbr the Edisto— 
Horrible Roa>ls— Figlit nenr Branch vUIe-Kil- 
Mtrick at Aiken— Ulalr fights and wins near 
Orangeburg- Fight at the Congaree — Hctod'a 
remnant, under Cheatham, pass our left — Co- 
lumbia surrendered — Great Conflngration — 
Sherman's and Wade Hamilton's accounts of It — 
Hardee evacuates Charleston and its defenwa 

— Pollard's account of lU devastation — Our 
Flag raised on Forta Sumter, Ripley, and Pinck- 
ney — Sherman's Foraging — His 'Bummers' — 
Fight at Wililaton's Sutlon— Atkins's repuls« 
— Sherman at Winnsboro'— Blair at Cheraw — 
Occupiea Fayetteville, N. C — Hampton sor- 
pri<«» Kllnatrick — Is beaten off— Slncum at- 
tacked bv Hardee at Aver>-sboro'— Rebels recoil 
— Jo. Jonn«t<m strikes Slocum at Bentonville — 
Indecisive Fighting — JobnBt->n decamps — Sher- 
man enters Goldsboro'— Butler and Weltiel's 
Expedition to Fort Fisher— The Pt>wder Ship- 
Porter's Bombaniment — Butler returns to the 
Jamea — Grant dissati«fl«>d — Expvdition sent 
back under Terry— Fort Fisher invested- Bom- 


baHad bv tha Fleat— Tha Sallota' aaanlt— R»- 
pulsed— uen. Ames assaults tnm the land aUa 
—Desiderate Fighting— The Fort carried— Lnasaa 
—Explosion o- Magasine— Gen. Schofield ar- 
'rives — Advances on Wilmington — Fight at 
Town Creek— Fort Andenou evactuted— Hoke 
retreat*— Bums Ves«etB and Stores— Wilming- 
ton given up — Advance to Kmston— Upham 
aurprlsed nt Southwest Creek — Hi>ke strikes 
out— Is repalsed, and roto^ata— Scbofleld «nt«ra 

XXXTTT. The Repossession of Alabama. . .716 

Wilson at Eastport, Miss.— Crosses tha Tenses- 
see, end mnves southward — Routs Roddy at 
Montevall»>— Hurries Forrest from Boyle's Cntk 
— Chances over the defeitses of Selnia, and lakea 
S,'00 Prisoner* — Mimtiromery surrenders — L«- 
nuni'e routs Buf»rd— Wilson takes Colnmboa, 
Ga., b V Assiiult — Lagmnge charges and eaptorea 
Fort Tvler— Wilson In Macon— Cuxton cao- 
tursa Tuskalooea- Zig»gs to Macon^^^anc^ 
in New Orlonita— Advances on Mobile— Steefii 
moves up fi^>m Pensacola- Routs Clantoo at 
Mitcheifs Creek— Spanish Fort besieged— lis 
garrison driven out — Deaperat* assault on 
Blakely— The Works carried, with 8.000 pris- 
pn«r>— Mobile evacuated— Fate of the ram W. 
H. Webb. 

Fall of Richmond — End of the 
War 724 

Grant passive— Rebel attempt to am Negroea 
— Warren's advance to the Mriierrio — Raid of 
the Rebel gunboats— Fight at Dabney'b Mill— 
Our left on Hatcher's Run— Rosser's Raid to 
Beverly— Capture of Kelly and Crook— Sheri- 
dan up the Valley — Annihilates Early at 
Waynesboro'— Captnres Charlouesville— Fa la 
to cross the Jamea above Richmond — Cr«as«a 
below, and renchea Grant — Gordon surprise* 
Fort Siecdman— Is repulsed at Fort Haske.l — 
Surrender of 2,000 Rebels— Meade coumer-as- 
aaults— Grant dirccu a General Advaaca by o«r 
left— <:riffln'b Flirht at the White Oak Road— 
Sb('rl.ian advances to Five Forks— Fails back 
to Dinwiddle C. H. — Les strikes Warrvn heavi- 
ly — Is successful, but Anally stopped— Sheridan 
agnin pushed bnck to DInwIddie C H.— Repeia 
his assailants— Warren hurried to his support 
-Rebels recoil — Sheridan again advances to 
Five Forks, and attacks— W arrenls corps or- 
dered to sirike Enemy's left flank — Combined 
Attack completely successful— Pickett routed 
and driven wevtward — Wiirren superseded by 
Fhtfridan — Our guns reopen on Petersburg — 
General assault almg our fr>nt — Forts Greeg 
and A'exHnder carried — .Miles dislodges tno 
enemy at Sutherland's Depot— Longsireet join* 
Lae-Ileih repulsed-A. P. Hill killed— Lao 
notifies Dav's tbat Richmond miut be evacuated 
—The Confederacy fires and quiu that City — 
Weitwl enters it unopposed— Captnres of prb- 
oners and arms — The news flashed over tho 
loywl States — Universal rejoicings — Oo«ineciI- 
cut Election — Petersburg abandoned— Lee oon- 
centmtes at Chosterfield C. H.— RetreaU weaU 
ward by AmelU C. IL— Sheridan hoods bun off 
from Daiivil e, at Jeersville — Davies atrikea 
his train at Paine's Cross- Roads— Lee baston- 
ing westward— Crook strikes him in flank- la 
repalsed— Custer strikes his train at Sailor's 
Cr«ek, and destroys 400 wagons — Ewell cat 
olL and, after a fight, compelled to aurrender 
— Ord strikes Lee's v«n near Farmville— Is re- 
pulsed, and Gen. Read killed— Lee croeses tb* 
Appomattox at Farmville- His Desperato 
Condition — Grant proposes a aurrender — 

Humphrevs attacks Le^ and Is bloodily ro- 
d—Lee resumes bis flight — Sheridan 
I him at Appomattox C l£— Last Charge 
• of Virg'' ' 


lis flight - 

.mattox C. It— Li ^_ 

of the Army of Virginia— Correspondenco bo- 
tween Lee and Grant — Lee Surrenaers — Parting 
with hU Soldiers— IIU Army diaaolved. 

XXXV. BeathofPresidentLincoln— Peace. 746 

The President at Otv Point— He enters RI<4. 
mond— Leiier to Weiisel— Recruiting stopped 
—Celebration at Fort Samter— The President 
assaseinnled by J. Wilkes Booth— Gov. Seward 
murderously assaulted by Payne Powell — Ac- 
cession of Andrew Johnson to the Presidency— 
OiTvrs rewards for arrest of Jefferson Davis 
and others— Stoueman's Raid into North Caro- 
lina—Sherman's Arrangement with Jo. John- 
ston — Repudiated by the Government — Reasona 
therefor- Johnston surrenders — Dick laylcr 
ditto— Dissolution of the Confederacy— Fllgfat 
and Capture of Davis— Kirby Smiths voico 
sUII for ^%'ar— vSheridan's Ex]>edition— The R«- 
bellion's A:*%1 col lame— Career of the Sheiuui- 
doah— Grant's Pkrting Address to his Soldiers 
—Dissolution of our Armlaa. 

Appended Notes 769 

Anjllytical Index 765 

Digitized by 





1. Lient-Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, 

2. Major-G«n. William T. Sherman. 
8. Major-GeiL Philip H. Sheridan. 
4 Major-Gen. Gborob G. Mbadb. 

5. Ma)or-Gen. Winfibld S. Hancock. 

6. MajorGen. Olivbr 0. Howard. 

7. Major-Gen. 

8. Major-Gen 

9. Major-Gen, 

10. Major-Gen. 

11. Major-Gen 

12. Major-Gen. 


Alfred H. Tbrrt. 
Frank P. Blair. 
Nathaniel P. Banks. 
Samuel R. Curtis. 


Georgb H. Thomas. 




13. Edwin D. Morgan, of N. York. 

14. William Spraoue, of R. L . 

15. Richard Yates, of Illinois . . 
16 Thos. C. Fletcher, of Missouri. 

17. Charles S. Olden, of N. Jersey 

18. Alex. W. Randall, of Wise. . 



19. AustiN Blair, of Michigan 

20. John Brough, of Ohio . . . 

21. Wm. a. Buckingham, of Conn. 

22. Oliver P. Morton, of Indiana. 

23. John A. Andrew, of Mass. 

24. Samubl Cont, of Maine . . 



25. Andrew G. Curtin, of Penn. .128 




26. Benjamin F. Wade, of Ohio 

27. Zachariah Chandler, of Mich. " 

28. Henry S. Lane, of Indiana . . " 

29. Ltman Trumbull, of Illinois . '^ 

30. Elihu B. Washburne, of Illinois. '* 

31. William D. Eellbt, of Penna. ** 

32. Henrt Winter Davis, of Md. 256 

33. Reuben E. Fenton, of N. York. " 

34. Gborgb W., Juuan, of Indiana. " 
36. John A. Easson, of Iowa . . " 

36. John P. Hale, of N. Hampshire. '' 

37. RoscoB CoNKLiNG, of New York " 

38. Major-Cren. Wm. S. Robecrans 272 44. Major-Gkn. Judson Eilpatrick. 272 

89. Major-Gkn. Franz Sigel 

40. Major-Gen. Godfrey Wettzel 

41. Major-Gen. James B. Stebdman. 

42. Major-Gen. Gordon Granger 
48. MajorGen. K R. S. Canby . 

45. Major-Gkn. P. J. Osterhaus 

46. Major-Gen. Alfred Pleasanton. 

47. Major-Gen. Carl Schurz. . . 

48. Brig.-Gen. Thos. F. Meagher • . 

49. Com. John A. Winslow . . . 



MajorGen. John Sedgwick 
Major-Gen. Isaac I. Stevens . 
Brig.-Gen. Edward D. Baker . 
68. Brig.-Gen. George D. Bayard. 

64. Major-Gen. Philip Kearny 

65. Mlqo^Gell. John F. Reynolds . 


56. Major-Gen. Ormsby M. Mitchel. 352 

57. Major-Gen. Jas. S. Wadsworth. " 

58. Major-Gen. Jas. B. MoPherson. " 
69. Major-Gen. Edwin V. Sumner. " 

60. Brig.-Gen. Fred. W. Lander . " 

61. Brig.-Gen. Nathaniel Lyon . " 

Digitized by 




62. Andrew Johnson, President 

63. Lafayette S. Foster, . . 


64. Hugh McCulloch, . . . 

Secretary of tbe Treaeary. 

65. Jambs Harlan, Sec. Interior 

66. William Dennison, . . . 


67. James Spiked, Attorney-General. 

68. Schuyler Colfax, . ' . . . 

Speaker of the Honee of RepresentatiTei. 



752 69. Thaddeus Stevens, .... 752 

Cbalrmaa Com. on Way* uxl M eani, Hoom of Repa. 

70. John Sherman, " 

Committee oa FlaaDce, SeoateL 

71. Henry Wilson, " 

Chairman Committee on Military AHain, Senatei. 

72. Gen. Robert C. Schenck, . . ** 

Chairman Cool on Military Afikin, Home of Repe. 

73. William Pitt Fessenden, . . " 

Ez-Secretary of the Traaaary. 

Fight of the Merrimao and Monitor in Hampton Roads 112 

View of Fredericksburg 344 

View of Cumberland Gap 432 

Fort Sumter Repossessed by yHE Union 736 


BaAle-fibld of Pea Ridge . . 29 
Battle-field of Mill Spring . . 44 
Forts Henry and Donelson . . 46 
New Madrid and Island No. 10 . 55 
Pittsburg Landing — Shiloh . . 62 
Roanoke Island — Croatan Sound. 76 
Nbwbbrn and Neusb River . . 77 
New Orleans and its Defenses . 86 
Forts Jackson and St. Philip . . 88 
Richmond and its Approaches . Ill 
McClbllan before Yorktown . 121 
Seven Pines, or Fair Oaks . . .143 

Mechanicsvillb 153 

Gaines^s Mill 156 

Malvern Hill 165 

Pope's Virginia and Lee's Mary- 
land Campaigns 174 

Cedar Mountain 176 

Gainesville, or Second Bull Run 184 
South Mountain — Turner's and 

Crampton's Gaps 197 

Harper's Ferry 200 

Antietam, or Sharpsburg . . . 205 
Pbrryville, or Chaplin's Creek . 219 

luKA 223 

Corinth — ^Defeat of Van Dorn . 226 
Stone River, or Murfrbesboro' . 275 

The Yazoo Region 297 

Yicksburg, Jackson, Yazoo City. 305 

Port Hudson besieged by Banks. 332 
Fredbricksburg — BuRNSiDB, Lee . 343 
Chancbllorsvillb — Hooker, Lbb. 356 
Winchester, Va., and Vicinity . 371 
Gettysburg — First Day's Fight . 378 
Gettysburg — Final Assault . . 384 
Mine Run and thb Rapidan . . . 399 
Chattanooga, Chickamauga, &c. . 416 
East Tennessee — Knoxvillb, &c. 429 
Fort Pulaski — Gillmore's Siegb . 457 

Secbssionville, S. C 461 

Charleston, S. C, and its Defenses 467 
Red River Region, Alexandria, &c, 538 
Thb Wilderness — Grant, Lee . 567 
Spottsylvania C. H. and Vicinity. 572 
Lee at bay on the North Anna . 578 
Cold Harbor and its Vicinity . 580 
Richmond and Petersburg . . . 594 
Defenses of Washington City . 604 
Sheridan in the Valley of Va. 609 
Sherman's Advance to Atlanta . 627 
Mobile Bay and its Defenses . 650 
Franklin, Tenn. — Hood's Fight . 681 
Nashville, Tenn. — Thomas, Hood 685 
Sherman's March to the Sea . . 690 
Sherman's March through South 

Carolina 698 

Wilmington, N. C. — Fort Fisher. 710 
Lee's Retreat — Appomattox C. H. 729 * 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Digitized by 





The frontiers of Texas, Mexican 
and savage, were guarded, prior to 
the ontbreaJc of Secession, by a line of 
forts or military poets stretching from 
Brownsville, opposite Matamoras, to 
the Red River. These forts were 
located at average distances of one 
hundred miles, and were severally 
held by detachments of from 50 to 
150 of the r^ular army. San Anto- 
nio, 150 miles inland from Indianola, 
on Matagorda Bay, was the head- 
quarters of the department, whence 
the most remote post — Fort Bliss, on 
the nsnal route thence to New Mex- 
ico — was distant 675 miles. The 
whole number of r^ulars distributed 
throughout Texas was 2,612, compri- 
sing nearly half the effective force of 
our little army. 

When, soon after Mr. Lincoln's 
election, but months prior to his in- 
auguration, Gren. David E. Twiggs 
was dispatched by Secretary Floyd 

from New Orleans to San Antonio, 
and assigned to the command of the 
department, it was doubtless under- 
stood between them that his business 
in T^cas was to betray this entire 
force, or so much of it as possible, 
into the hands of the yet undevel- 
oped traitors with whom Floyd was 
secretly in league. Twiggs's age 
and infirmities had for some time 
excused him from active service, un- 
til this ungracious duty — ^if duty it 
can be called — was imposed upon 
and readily accepted by him. With- 
in 90 days after his arrival* at Indi- 
anola, he had surrendered' the entire 
force at and near San Antonio, with 
all their arms, munitions, and sup- 
plies, to three persons acting as 
" Conunissioners on behalf of the 
Committee of Public Safety,'' se- 
cretly appointed* by the Convention 
which had just before assumed to 
take Texas out of the Union.* The 

' December 5, 1860. 

^FebnuiTj 18, 1861. He immediatelj and 
Qpenlj dedared that the TTnion could not last 
60 daja, and warned oi&oers, if they had pay 
doe them, to draw it at once, as this would be 
the last. 

'M»ntai7 5,1861. 

* Feb. 1. The Convention met this daj at 
Austin, and at onoe passed an ordinance of 
Secession, subject to a vote of the people at an 
election to be held on the 23d inst ; the ordi- 
nance, if approved, to take effect on the 2d of 
March. Texas was therefore still in the Union, 
even according to the logic of Secession. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



betrayal was colored, not fairly 
doaked, by a slim display of mili- 
tary force in behalf of the sovereign 
State of Texas, CoL Ben. McCnlloch, 
an original and ardent Secessionist, 
having undertaken and folfilled the 
duty of raising that force and post- 
ing it in and around San Antonio, 
so as to give countenance to the de- 
mand for capitulation. It was fairly 
stipulated in writing between the 
contracting parties, that our troops 
should simply evacuate Texas, march- 
ing to and Qpibarking at the coast, 
where their artillery and means of 
transportation were to be given up, 
while they, with their small arms, 
should proceed by water to any point 
outside of Texas; but these condi- 
tions, though made by a traitor in 
Federal uniform with feUow-traitors 
who had cast off all disguise, were 
shamefully violated. CoL C. A. 
Waite, who, after the withdrawal of 
Floyd from the Cabinet, had been 
sent down to supersede Twiggs in 
his command, reached San Antonio 
the morning aft«r the capitulation, 
when all the material of war had been 
turned over to the Kebel Commis- 
sioners, and 1,500 armed Texans sur- 
rounded our little band, in the first 
flush of exultation over their easy 
triumph. Unable to resist this rap- 
idly augmenting force, Waite had no 
alternative but to ratify the surren- 
der, dispatching, by permission, mes- 
sengers to the frontier posts, to ap- 
prise the other commanders that they 
were included in its terms. Collect- 
ing and dispatching his men as rap- 
idly as he might, he had some 1,200 
encamped at Indianola ready for em- 
barkation, when they were visited by 
Col. E. Van Dom, of the Confeder- 

ate service, recently a captain in our 
army, who had been sent Srom Mont- 
gomery with authority to offer in- 
creased rank and pay to all who 
would take service with the Rebels. 
His mission was a confessed failure. 
A few of the higher officers had par- 
ticipated in Twiggs's treason ; but no 
more of these, and no private sol- 
diers, could be cajoled or bribed into 
deserting the flag of their country. 

CoL Waite was still at San Anto- 
nio, when news reached Indianola* 
of the reduction* of Fort Sumter; 
and CoL Van Dom, with three armed 
steamers from Galveston, arrived with 
instructions from Montgomery to cap- 
ture and hold as prisoners of war all 
Federal soldiers and officers remain- 
ing in Texas. Maj. Sibley, in com- 
mand at that port, had chartered two 
small schooners and embarked there- 
on a part of his force, when he was 
compelled to surrender again uncon- 
ditionally. CoL Waite was in like 
manner captured at San Antonio, by 
order of Maj. Macklin, late an officer 
in our service, under Twiggs ; Capt 
Wilcox, who made the arrest, an- 
swering Waite's protest with the 
simple words, "I have the force." 
Waite, and a few officers with him, 
were compelled to accept paroles not 
to serve against the Confederacy im- 
less r^ularly exchanged. 

Of course, the forces at the several 
posts protecting the frontiers of Texas, 
being isolated and cut off fit>m all 
communication with each other, or 
with a common head-quarters, fell an 
easy prey to the Rebels. A part of 
them were commanded by officers in 
full sympathy and perfect under- 
standing with the Texas conspirators 
for Secession, who, by means of the se- 

» April n, 186L 

« April 13. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



cret oi^anization known as ^^ Knights 
of the Golden Circle," having its 
Texas head-quarters at San Antonio, 
and its ^ castles' or affiliated lodges in 
every part of the State, had prose- 
ented its undertaking at immense 
advantage over the unorganized and 
often unsuspecting as well as unin- 
formed Unionists. The conspirators 
had long before made themselves ac- 
quainted with the loyal or disloyal 
proclivities of the Federal officers; 
and, wherever an important position 
was held by an inflexible Unionist, 
they were able, by secret representa- 
tions at the War Department, to pro- 
cm^ such a substitution as they de- 
sired ; and thus Col. Loring, a North 
Carolinian, deep in their counsels, had 
been sent out by Floyd, in the Spring 
of 1860, to take command of the de- 
partment of New Mexico, while Col. 
G. B. Crittenden, a Kentuckian, of 
like spirit and purposes, was appointed 
by Loring to command an expedition 
against the Apaches, to start from 
Fort Staunton in the Spring of 1861. 
lieut Col. B. S. Roberts, however, 
who here joined the expedition with 
two companies of cavalry, soon dis- 
covered that Crittenden was devoting 
all his sober moments — which were 
few — ^to the systematic corruption of 
his subordinates, with intent to lead 
his raiment to Texas, and there turn 
it over to the service and support of 
the Bebellion. Roberts repelled his 
solicitations,' and refused to obey any 
of his orders which should be prompt- 
ed by the spirit of treason. He finally 
accepted a furlough, suggested by 
Loring, and quickly repaired under 
it to Santa Fe, the head-quarters of 
the department, Hiaking a revelation 
of Crittenden's treachery to its com- 

mander, Col. Loring, and his adju- 
tant, but only to find them both as 
thoroughly disloyal as Crittenden. 
He was rudely rebuked by them as a 
meddler with other men's business, 
and ordered directly back to Fort 
Staunton, but found opportunity to 
give notice to Capt Hatch, com- 
manding at Albuquerque, to Capt. 
Morris, who held Fort Craig, and 
other loyal officers, of the treachery 
of their superiors, and the duty in- 
cumbent on them of resisting it. 

Meantime, desperate effi)rts were 
made by the prominent traitors to 
bring their men over to their views, 
by assurances that the Union had 
ceased to exist — ^that it had no longer 
a Government able to pay them or 
feed them — while, if they would but 
consent to go to Texas and take ser- 
vice with the Confederacy, they should 
be paid in full, and more than paid, 
beside having great chances of pro- 
motion. To their honor be it record- 
ed, not one man listened to the voice 
of the charmer, though Capt. Clai- 
bom, at Fort Staunton, made several 
harangues to his company, intended, 
to entice them into the Confederate 
service. Of the 1,200 regulars in 
New Mexico, one only deserted during 
this time of trial, and he, it is be- 
lieved, did not join the enemy. Fi- 
nally, the disloyal officers, headed 
by Loring and CWttenden, were glad 
to escape unattended, making their 
rendezvous at Fort Fillmore, twenty 
miles fjroin the Texas line, not far 
fi-om El Paso, where Maj. Lynde 
commanded. Here they renewed 
their intrigues and importunities, 
finding a large portion of the officers 
equally traitorous with themselves. 
But Maj. Lynde appeared to hold out 

* See his testunoDj before the Committee on the Conduct of the War.— Report, Part 3, pp. 364-72. 

Digitized by 




against their solicitations. His forces, 
however, were so demoralized that, 
soon afterward,* when he led 480 
of them, out of 700, to the village of 
Mesilla, some twenty miles distant, he 
fell into an ambuscade of 200 badly 
armed Texans, and, after a skirmish, 
wherein his conduct can only be vin- 
dicated from the imputation of cow- 
ardice by the presumption of treason, 
he ordered a retreat to the fort, which 
his men were next day engaged in 
fortifying, when surprised, at lOJ a. m., 
by an order to evacuate that night. 
The commissary was ordered to roll 
out the whisky, from which the men 
were allowed to fill their canteens, 
and drink at discretion. If o water 
was furnished for the weary march 
before them, over a hot and thirsty 
desert. They started as ordered ; but, 
before they had advanced ten miles, 
men were dropping out of the ranks, 
and falling to tlie earth exhausted or 
dead drunk. 

At 2 A. M., a Texan force was seen 
advancing on their flank, whereupon 
Lynde's Adjutant remarked, " They 
have nothing to fear from us." Our 
men were halted, so many of them, 
at least, as had not abeady halted of 
their own accord; and the oflScers 
held a long council of war. Many 
privates of the command likewise 
took coimsel, and decided to fight. 
Just then, Capt. Gibbs appeared from 
the officers' council, and ordered a 
retreat upon the camp, saying, " We 
will fight them there." Arrived at 
the camp, our soldiers were ordered 
to lay down their arms, and inform- 
ed, " You are turned over as prison- 
ers of war." The subordinate offi- 
cers disclaimed any responsibility for 
this disgraceftd surrender, laying the 

blame wholly upon Lynde. Our 
men were paroled, and permitted, as 
prisoners, to pursue their course 
northward, after listening to a speech 
from Col. Baylor, of their captors, 
intended to win their good-will. 

Their sufferings, on that forlorn 
march to Albuquerque and Fort 
Wise, were protracted and terrible ; 
some becoming deranged from the 
agcmy of their thirst ; some seeking 
to quench it by opening their veins, 
and drinking their own blood. Maj. 
Lynde, instead of being court-mar- 
tialed and shot, was simply dropped 
from the rolls of the army, his dis- 
missal to date from his surrender ;* 
and Capt. A. H. Plummer, his com- 
missary, who held $17,000 in drafts, 
which he might at any moment have 
destroyed, but which were handed 
over to and used by the Kebels, was 
sentenced by court-martial to be rep- 
rimanded in general orders, and sus- 
pended from duty for six months ! 

New Mexico, thus shameftiUy be- 
i-eft;, at a blow, of half her defend- 
ers, was now reckoned an easy prey 
to the gathering forces of the Rebel- 
lion. Her Mexican population, ig- 
norant, timid, and superstitious, had 
been attached to the Union by con- 
quest, scarcely fiflieen years before, 
and had, meantime, been mainly un- 
der the training of Democratic offi- 
cials of strong pro-Slavery sympathies, 
who had induced her Territorial 
L^islature, some two years before, 
to pass an act recognizing Slavery as 
legally existing among them, and 
providing stringent safeguards for its 
protection and security — an act 
which was still uifrepealed. Her 
Democratic officials had not yet been 

• July 24, 186L 

• July 27, 1861. 

Digitized by 




replaced by appointees of President 
Lincoln. Her Delegate in Congress, 
Miguel A. Otero, had issued" and 
circulated an address to her people, 
intended to disaffect them toward the 
Union, and incite them to favor the 
Bebellion ; but her Democratic Gov- 
ernor, Abraham Eencher, though a 
North Carolinian, upon receiving 
news of Lynde's surrender, issued a 
proclamation calling out the entire 
militia force of the Territory, to act 
as a home guard ; which call, though 
it added inconsiderably to the effec- 
tive force of her defenders, was cal- 
culated to exert a wholesome influ- 
ence upon public opinion, and keep 
restless spirits out of mischief. Col. 
E. R S. Canby, who had succeeded 
to the command of the Department, 
was a loyal and capable soldier, and 
was surrounded, for the most part, 
by good and true men. When the 
new Governor, Henry Connolly, 
met" the Territorial Legislature, a 
very wholesome and earnest loyalty 
was found well-nigh universal, so 
that the Gt)vemor's cautious recom- 
mendation that the act for the pro- 
tection of slave property be modified, 
as needlessly severe and rigorous, 
was promptly responded to by an al- 
most unanimous repeal of the entire 
act, leaving the statute-book of New 
Mexico clean of all complicity with 
the chattelizing of man. 

Meantime, CoL Canby was quietly 
proceeding with the organization of 
his militia and other forces for the 
inevitable contest, crippled through- 
out by the want of money, munitions, 
and supplies of aU kinds. Even di- 
rections and orders, so plentifully be- 
stowed on most subordinates, were 
not vouchsafed him from Washing- 

ton, where the absorption of all ener- 
gies in the more immediate and mo- 
mentous struggle on the Potomac and 
the Missouri, denied him even an an- 
swer to his frequent and importunate 
requisitions and representations. An 
urgent appeal, however, to the Gov- 
ernor of the adjacent Territory of 
Colorado, had procured him thence a 
regiment of volunteers, who, though 
falling far enough short of the effi- 
ciency of trained soldiers, were worth 
five to ten times their number of his 
New Mexican levies. Making the 
best use possible of his scanty or in- 
different materials, he was probably 
about half ready to take the field 
when apprised that the Texans were 
upon him. 

Gen. H. F. Sibley had encounter- 
ed similar difficulties, save in the 
qualities of bis men, in organizing 
and arming, in north-western Texas, 
the "Sibley Brigade," designed for 
the conquest of New Mexico. His 
funds were scanty, and the credit of 
his Government quite as low as that 
depended on by Canby; but the 
settled, productive districts of Texas 
were not very remote nor inaccessible, 
while Canby's soldiers were for weeks 
on short allowance, simply because 
provisions for their comfortable sub- 
sistence were not to be had in New 
Mexico, nor nearer than Missouri, 
then a revolutionary volcano, where 
production had nearly ceased. Two 
insignificant collisions had taken 
place near Fort Craig." In the 
earlier, a company of New Mexican 
volunteers, Capt. Mink, were routed 
and pursued by a party of Texans, 
who, in their turn, were beaten and 
chased away, with considerable loss, 
by about 100 regulars from the fort 

' ¥eb. 15, 1861. 

"jDea 2, 1861. 

" In October, 1861. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The Borviviiig Texans escaped to 
Meaflla ; and Canby ocenpied the 
frontier poets so far down as Fort 
Stannton, leaving Fort FiDmore still 
in the hands of the Texans. 

Oen. Sibley, who had hoped to ad- 
yance in the Antnnin of 1861, was 
still at Fort Bliss, within the limits 
of Texas, on the 1st of Jannaiy, 
1862 ; bnt moved forward, a few days 
thereafter, with 2,300 men, many of 
them trained to efficiency in the Mexi- 
can War and in successiYe expeditions 
against Apaches and other savages, 
wherein they had made the name of 
" Texan Eangers ^ a soimd of terror 
V) their foes. For Canby "s regulars 
and American volunteers, they had 
some little respect — for his five or 
six thousand New Mexicans, none at 
alL Advancing confidently, but 
slowly, by way of Fort Thorn, he 
found" Canby in force at Fort Craig, 
which he confronted about the mid- 
dle of February. A careful recon- 
noissance convinced him that it was 
madness, with his light field-guns, to 
undertake a siege ; while his offer of 
battle in the open plain, just outside 
the range of the guns of the fort, 
was wisely declined. He would not 
retreat, and could not afford to re- 
main, consuming his scanty supplies ; 
while to pass the fort without a con- 
test, leaving a superior force unde- 
moralized in his rear, was an experi- 
ment ftiU of hazard; he therefore 
resolved to force a battle, and, with 
that view, forded the Rio Grande to 
its east bank, passed the fort at a 
distance of a mile and a hali', and 
encamped nearly opposite, in a posi- 
tion of much strength, but entirely 
destitute of water, losing 100 of the 
mules of his baggage-train during 

the night, by their breaking away, in 
the frenzy of thdr thirst, from the 
weary and sleepy guards appointed 
to herd them. He was thus compel- 
led to abandon a part of his wagons 
and baggage next morning, as he 
started for the river, the smallness of 
his force not permitting him to di- 
vide it in the presence of a capable 
and vigilant enemy. 

When his advance, 250 strong, 
under Maj. Pyron, reached, at Val- 
vtRDE, a point, at 8 a. jiL, where the 
river bottom was accessible, fiilly 
seven miles from the fort, they found 
themselv|p confronted by a portion of 
our r^mar cavalry, Lt-Col. Ro- 
berts, with two most efficient batte- 
ries, Capt. McRae and Lt. Hall, 
supported by a large force of r^ilar 
and volunteer infantry. Our bat- 
teries opening upon him, Pyron, 
greatly outnumbered, recoiled, with 
some loss, and our troops exultingly 
crossed the river to the east bank, 
where a thick wood covered a con- 
centration of the enemy's entire force. 
The day wore on, with more noise 
than execution, until nearly 2 p. m., 
when Sibley, who had risen from a 
sick bed that morning, was compelled 
to dismount and quit the field, turn- 
ing over the command-in-chief to 
Col. Thomas Green, of the 5th 
Texas, whose regiment had mean- 
time been ordered to the front. The 
battle was continued, mainly with 
artillery, wherein the Federal supe- 
riority, both in guns and in service, 
was decided, so that the Texans were 
losing the most men in spite of their 
comparatively sheltered position. To 
protract the fight in this manner was 
to expose his men to constant deci- 
mation without a chance of success. 

" Feb. 19, 1862. 

Digitized by 



Canbj, who had reached the field at 
1 p. M., considered the day his own, 
and was about to order a general ad- 
vance, when he found himself antici- 
pated by Green, at whose command 
his men, armed mainly with revolv- 
ers, burst from the wooded cover and 
leaped over the line of low sand-hills 
behind which they had lain, and 
made a desperate rush upon McRae's 
battery confronting them. Volley 
after volley of grape and canister was 
poured through their ranks, cutting 
them down by scores, but not for an 
instant checking tlieir advance. They 
were 1,000 when they started ; a few 
minutes later, they were but 900; 
but the battery was taken ; while Mc- 
Bae, choosing death rather than 
flight, Lieut. Michler, and most of 
their men, lay dead beside their guns. 
Our supporting infantry, twice or 
thrice the Texans in number, and in- 
cluding more than man for man of 
regulars, shamefully withstood every 
entreaty to charge. They lay grov- 
eling in the sand in the rear of the 
battery, until the Texans came so 
near as to make their revolvers dan- 
gerous, when the whole herd ran 
madly down to and across the river, 
save those who were overtaken by a 
cowardly death on the way. The 
Colorado volunteers vied with the 
regulars in this infamous flight. 

Simultaneously with this charge in 
front, Maj. Kaguet, commanding the 
Texas left, charged our right at the 
head of his cavalry ; but the dispar- 
ity of numbers was so great that he 
was easily repulsed. The defeat of 
our center, however, soon altered the 
situation ; our admirable guns being 
quickly turned upon this portion of 
the field, along with those of the 
Texans, when a few volleys of small- 

arms, and the charging shout of the 
victors, suflBced to complete the dis- 
aster. No part of our army seems to 
have stopped to breathe until safe 
under the walls of the fort. Six ex- 
cellent guns, with their entire equi- 
page, and many small-arms, were 
among the trophies secured by the 
victors. The losses of men were 
about equal — 60 killed and 140 
wounded on either side. But among 
the Confederate dead or severely 
wounded in the decisive charge, 
were Lt.-Col. Sutton, Maj. Lockridge, 
Capts. Lang and Heurel, and several 
lieutenants. Col. W. L. Robards 
and Maj. Raguet were also wound- 
ed, though not mortally. The celer- 
ity of the flight precluded the taking 
of more than half-a-dozen prisoners, 
among them Capt. Eossel, of the 
regulars, captured while crossing the 

Fort Craig was still invulnerable ; 
though a flag of truce, dispatched by 
Canby as he reached its gates, was 
fondly mistaken for a time by :he 
Texans as bearing a proposition to 
surrender. It covered an invitation 
to a truce for the burial of the dead 
and proper care of the wounded, to 
which two days were given by both 
armies ; when a Rebel council of war 
decided that an assault was not justi- 
flable,but that they might now safely 
leave Canby to his meditations, and 
push on up the river into the heart of 
the Territory. They did so, as they 
anticipated, without further opposi- 
tion from the force they had so sig- 
nally beaten. Leaving their wounded 
at Socorro, 30 miles on the way, they 
advanced to Albuquerque, 50 miles 
ftirther, which fell without resistance, 
and where their scanty stock of pro- 
visions was considerably replenished. 

Digitized by 




At Cabefo, 60 miks westward, they 
obtained more provisions and some 
ammunition. Still advancing on 
Santa F4, the Confederates enconn> 
tered,'* at Cafion Glorietta, or Apache 
Pass, 15 mfles from Santa Fe, near 
Fort Union, a new Federal force of 
1,800, composed partly of regolars, 
but mainly of green Colorado volon- 
teers, the whole commanded by CoL 
John P. Slongh. The Eebel force 
actually pres^it, under CoL W. R 
Scurry," was decidedly inferior in 
numbers," but in nothing else. The 
narrowness of the cafion precluded 
all flanking, enabling the Bebels to 
span it with a line of in&ntry , which 
instantly charged, with the Texan 
yell, revolver and knife in either hand. 
Our forces scarcely waited to be in 
danger before breaking and flying in 
the wildest coniusion. In a few mo- 
ments, not a man of them remained 
in sight of the Rebels. 

Scuny halted, re-formed his men, 
l»rought up his guns, and fired a few 
shots to ascertain the position (if po- 
sition they still had) of his adversa- 
ries, and then ordered Maj. Shrop- 
shire, with his right, and Maj. Rag- 
net, with his left, to charge with cav- 
alry and develop the new Federal 
line, while he would lead forward the 
obiter at the first sound of thdr guns. 
Delay ensuing, he moved to the right 
to ascertain its cause, and found that 
Shropshire had been killed. Imme- 
diately taking command of that wing, 
he advanced and attacked — ^the left 
op^ng fire, and the center advanc- 
ing, as he did so. Three batteries of 
8 guns each opened a deadly fire of 
grape, canister, and shell, as chey 

came within range, tearing through 
their ranks, but not stopping their 
advance. A short but desperate 
hand-to-hand conflict ensued, our in- 
fimtry interposing to protect their 
guns, which were saved and brought 
off*, with most of our wagons. But 
our infantry soon gave way, and the 
Texan victory was complete. Their 
loss was reported by Scurry as 36 
killed and 60 wounded ; but among 
the former were Hajors Shropshire 
and Raguet, Capt. Buckholt, and 
Lt. MOlSb During the fight, which 
lasted from noon untQ about 4 p. m., 
Maj. Chivington, of Colorado, with 
four companies, gained the rear of 
the Rebel position, and destroyed a 
part of their train, also a cannon, 
which he spiked ; when, learning that 
Slough was defeated, he decamped. 
Our total loss was reported at 23 
killed and 50 wounded ; while in a 
skirmish with Pyron's cavalry, the 
morning before, Slough took 57 pris- 
oners, with a loss of only 15. 

Sibley entered Santa Fe in triumph 
soon afterward, meeting no frirther 
resistance. He collected there all 
that remained of his little army, and 
confiscated to its use whatever of 
provisions and clothing, of wagons 
and animals, he could lay hands on« 
But he found the population, with 
few exceptions, indifferent or hostile, 
the resources of food and forage ex- 
tremely limited, and his hold upon 
the country bounded by the range of 
his guns. Never had heroic valor 
been persistently evinced to less pur- 
pose. Before he had rested a month, 
he found himself compelled to evacu- 
ate his hard-won conquest, and retreat 

* Bepreaentatire from Texas in the XXXHId 

"CoL Scuny, in his officii^ report^ de- 
clares that he had bnt 600 men present fit for 

Digitized by 




by forced marcbefi to Albuquerque, 
bis depot, wbich Canby, advancing 
fixMn Fort Craig, was seriously threat- 
ening. He reacbed it in time to save 
bifl supplies, but only to realize more 
completely the impossibility of attach- 
ing New Mexico to the Confederacy, 
or even of remaining in it He evac- 
uated it on the 12th of April, moving 
down both banks of the river to Los 
Lnnal, thence to Peralto on the east 
side, where he found Canby looking 
for him. Some fighting at long range 
ensued, with no serious results ; but 
Sibley, lai^ely outnumbered, crossed 
the river during the night, and pur- 
sued his retreat down the west bank 
next morning, Canby moving almost 
parallel with him on the east. The 
two armies encamped at evening in 
plain sight of each other. 

Sibley, in his weakened condition, 
evidently did not like this proximity. 
**In order," as he says in his re- 
port, "to avoid the contingency of 
another general action in our then 
crippled condition," he set his forces 
silently in motion soon after night- 
fidl, not down the river, but over the 
trackless mountains, through a des- 
olate, waterless waste, abandoning 
most of his wagons, but packing 
seven days' provisions on mules, and 
thus giving his adversary the slip. 
Dragging his cannon by hand up 
and down the sides of most rugged 
mountains, he was ten days in ma- 
king his way to a point on the river 
below, where supplies had been or- 
dered to meet him, leaving Iiis sick 
and wounded in hospitals at Santa 
Fe, Albuquerque, and Socorro, to fare 
as they might He naively reports 

I that "sufficient funds in Confederate 
paper was provided them to meet 
every want, if it he negotiated f^ 
and honors the brothers Kaphael 
and Manuel Armijo — ^wealthy native 
merchants — who, on his arrival at 
Albuquerque, had boldly avowed 
their sympathy with the Confederate 
cause, and placed stores containing 
$200,000 worth of goods at his dis- 
posal. He states that, when he evac- 
uated Albuquerque, they abandoned 
luxurious homes to identify their 
future fortunes with those of the 
Southern Confederacy, and consid- 
erately adds, " I trust they will not 
be forgotten in the final settlement." 

In closing, Gen. Sibley expresses 
the unflattering conviction that, *' ex- 
cept for its political geographical po- 
sition, the Territory of New- Mexico 
is not worth a quarter of the blood 
expended in its conquest ;" and inti- 
mates that his soldiers would deci- 
dedly object to returning to that 
inhospitable, undesirable country. 
These and kindred considerations 
had induced his return to Fort Bliss, 
Texas, and now impelled him to 
meditate a movement without orders 
still further down the country. 

Col. Canby wisely declined to run 
a race of starvation across those des- 
olate mountains, in the rear of the 
flying foe, but returned to Santa F6, 
whence his order, of even date " with 
Sibley's official report, claims that 
the latter had been "compelled to 
abandon a country he had en- 
tered to conquer and occupy, leav- 
ing behind him, in dead and wound- 
ed, and in sick and prisoners, one- 
half of his original force." 

' May 4^ 1B62. 

Digitized by 





Gen. Sterling Price was a good 
deal less indignant than any Union- 
ist at the unaccountable desertion*, of 
south-western Missouri by the new 
Union commander, directly on the 
heels of Fremont's triumphant and 
unresisted advance, when assured 
that his scouts were not mistaken in 
reporting the evacuation of Spring- 
field and retreat to Eolla, by an army 
which he would not have dared to 
attack. He gradually retraced his 
steps from the Arkansas border, en- 
tering Springfield in triumph, and 
subsequently advancing to Osceola, 
on the Osage, thence pushing forward 
his forces unresisted over the greater 
part of southern and western Mis- 
souri, occupying in force Lexington 
and other points on the great river, 
where Slavery and Rebellion were 
strong, and subsisting his army on 
the State from which they might and 
should have been excluded. The 
village of Warsaw was burned,' and 
Platte City partially so,' by Rebel 
incendiaries or guerrillas ; and there 
were insignificant combats at Salem,* 
Rogers' Mill,* near Glasgow, Potosi, 
Lexington, Mount Zion,' near Stur- 
geon, and some other points, at wliich 
the preponderance of advantage was 
generally on the side of the Unionists. 
Even in North Missouri, nearly a 
hundred miles of the railroad crossing 
that section was disabled and in good 
part destroyed ^ by a concerted night 
foray of guerrillas. Gen. Halleck 

thereupon issued an order, threaten- 
ing to shoot any Rebel caught bridge- 
burning within the Union lines — a 
threat which the guerrillas habitually 
defied, and President Lincoln declined 
to make good. 

Gen. John Pope, commanding the 
district of Central Missouri, having 
collected and equipped an adequate 
force, at length demonstrated' against 
the Rebels occupying Lexington, un- 
der Rains and Stein, compelling them 
to abandon the line of the Missouri, 
and retreat southward. Having, by- 
forced marches and his strength in 
cavalry, gained a position between 
them and their base at Osceola, he 
forced them to a hurried flight, with 
the loss of nearly 300 prisoners and 
most of their baggage, including 70 
wagons laden with clothing and sup- 
plies for Price, who lay at Osceola 
with 8,000 men. Meantime, a de- 
tachment of Pope's forces, under Col. 
JTeflfl C. Davis, surprised* a Rebel 
camp at Milford, not far from War- 
rensburg, and compelled its surrender 
at discretion. Three colonels, 17 
captains, over 1,000 prisoners, 1,000 
stand of arms, 1,000 horses, and an 
abundance of tents, baggage, and 
supplies, were among the trophies of 
this easy triumph. Pope's losses in 
these operations scarcely exceeded 
100 men; while his prisoners alone 
were said to be 2,500. Among them 
was CoL Magofiin, brother of the 
late Governor of Kentucky. 

* Nov. 2-16, 1861. See Vol I., pages 693-4. 
« Nov. 19, 1861. » Dec. 16. 

^ Pec 20. 

• Dec. 7. 
■ Dec. 16. 

• Dec 28. 
•Dec 18. 

Digitized by 




Price, thus ronghlj handled before 
he had been able to concentrate his 
forces, did not choose to risk a general 
engagement. He retreated rapidly 
through Springfield and Cassville, 
closely pursued, and fighting at inter- 
vals, until he had crossed the Arkan- 
sas line, forming a junction, soon 
afterward, near Boston Mountains, 
with Gen. Ben McCulloch, command- 
ing a division of Texas and Arkansas 
Confederates, thus raising his entire 
force to a number fully equal with 
that which had so keenly pursued 
him, which was now commanded 
by Gen. Samuel E. Curtis, of Iowa, 
and which, after continuing the pur- 
suit down to Fayetteville, Arkansas, 
had retraced its steps to and halted 
at Sugar creek, not far over the 
State line. Meantime, Price was 
joined" and backed by Earl Van 
Dom, late a captain " of TJ. S. regu- 
lars, now Confederate major-general, 
commanding the Trans-Mississippi 
department, and by Gen. Albert 
Pike, of Arkansas, heading a consid- 
erable brigade of Indians, swelling 
the numbers of the Eebels to about 

Van Dom promptly resolved to 
give battle, and to fight it in such 
manner that the defeat of the Union- 
ists should involve their destruction. 
Advancing rapidly from his camp at 
Cross Hollows, covering Fayetteville, 
he struck at " the division of Gen. 
Franz Sigel, holding Bentonville, the 
extreme advance of the Union posi- 
tion, 8 or 10 miles southwest from 
Gen. Curtis's center, near Mottsville, 
on the direct road from Fayetteville 
to Springfield. This attempt to iso- 
late, overwhelm, and crush Sigel was 
baffled by the coolness and skill of 

that general. Sending his train 
ahead under escort, he covered its 
retreat with his best battery and in- 
fantry, planting his guns on each 
favorable position, and pouring grape 
and shell into the pursuing masses, 
until their advance was arrested and 
disorganized, when he would limber 
up and fall back to the next eleva- 
tion or turn in the road, where he 
would renew the dispensation of 
grape with like results, then con- 
cede another half-mile, and repeat the 
operation. Thus fighting and faUing 
back, he wore out the day and the 
distance, repelling his foes, who at 
times enveloped his flanks as well as 
his rear, with a loss of less than 100 
men, a good part of these from the 
2d Missouri, Col. Schaefer, who, mis- 
taking an order, had left Bentonville 
considerably in advance, and who 
fell into an ambuscade by the way. 
Before 4 p. m., Sigel was met by re- 
enforcements sent him by Gen. Cur- 
tis, when the pursuit was arrested, 
and he deliberately encamped near 
Leetown, across Sugar creek, and in 
close proximity to General Curtis's 
center position. Pea Ridge is the 
designation of the elevated table-land, 
broken by ravines, and filling a large 
bend of Sugar creek, on which the 
ensuing battle was fought. 

Gen. Curtis, knowing himself 
largely outnumbered by the motley 
host collected to overwhelm him, 
had chosen a very strong position on 
which to concentrate his retreating 
force, provided the Rebels would at- 
tack it in front, as he expected. The 
country being generally wooded, he 
had obstructed most of the lateral 
roads with fallen trees ; while his ar- 
tillery and infantry, well posted and 

' March 3, 1862. 

" See page 18. 

" March 6. 

Digitized by 




strongly intrenched, were prepared 
to give the foe the warmest kind of re- 
ception as he advanced against them 
np the main road, leading from Texas 
through Fayetteville northward to 
Keytesville and Springfield. But 
Van Dom perceived neither the ne- 
cessity nor the wisdom of running 
into such a trap. Advancing from 
Fayetteville obliquely by way of 
Bentonville, and chasing Sigel off 
the direct road from the latter to 
Keytesville upon the cross-road that 
passes through the little village of 
Leetown and intersects the Fayette- 
ville road at Elkhom Tavern, he dili- 
gently improved the night following 
SigePs retreat in placing his entire 
army along the road from Benton- 
ville toward Keytesville, on the flank 
and in the rear of his foe; so that 
all Curtis's elaborate pi-eparations to 
receive him on the Fayetteville road 
went for nothing. 

Curtis woke late on the morning 
of the 7th to a realizing sense of his 
critical condition, with a far more 
numerous foe practically between 
him and his resources, rendering re- 
treat ruinous, and compelling him to 
fight the Eebels on the ground they 
had chosen, which proffered him no 
advantage, and with which their 
guides were far more familiar than 
his. But every moment's delay must 
necessarily be improved by Van Dom 
in making matters worse ; so Curtis 
promptly changed front to rear, mak- 
ing the first and second divisions, un- 
der Sigel and Asboth, his left, the 
third, under Jeff. C. Davis, his center, 
and the fourth, Col. Carr, his right. 
The line thus formed stretched about 
three miles, from Sugar creek, 
through Leetown, to Elkhom Tav- 
ern ; of the Eebel line confronting it. 

Price, with his Missourians, formed 
the right ; Mcintosh was in the cen- 
ter, and McCulloch on the left. 
The dispositions being made, at lOJ 
o'clock, Osterhaus was directed by 
Curtis to advance, supporting his 
cavalry and light artillery, and open 
the ball; while, at nearly the same 
moment, McCulloch fell with over- 
whelming force upon Carr's division 
at and near Elkhom Tavern. A 
broad, deep ravine, known as Cross- 
Timber Hollow, but termed in some 
reports Big Sugar creek, rendered 
almost impassable by a windfall of 
heavy timber, crossed the battle-field, 
severing the lines of either army, but 
especially those of the Rebels. 

Osterhaus advanced with great gal- 
lantry from Leetown nearly to the 
Bentonville road, on which he found 
the enemy moving rapidly in great 
force toward Elkhom Tavern, where 
McCulloch's attack upon Carr was 
already in progress. Assailed in turn 
by greatly superior numbers, he was 
soon driven back in disorder, with 
the loss of his battery. Col. Davis, 
who had been ordered by Curtis to 
support Carr, was now directed to 
advance through Leetown to the res- 
cue of Osterhaus, which he did with 
such vigor and determination that, 
though largely outnumbered and re* 
peatedly compelled to recoil, his divi- 
sion held the ground assigned them, 
losing two guns of Davidson's bat- 
tery by the sudden advance of the 
enemy when their horses were disa- 
bled, but regaining them by a des- 
perate charge of the 18th Indiana, 
which, with the 22d, was honorably 
conspicuous throughout the day. Col. 
Hendricks, of the 22d, was killed 
while leading a charge of his regi- 
ment. Night closed on tliis division, 

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sinking weary but undaunted on the 
field it had bo nobly won^— a field red- 
dened by the blood of many of their 
foes, including G^ns. McCulloch and 
Mcintosh, both mortally wounded. 

Carr was so fearfully overmatched 
throughout the day that, though al- 
ways presenting a bold front to the 
enemy, he was compelled to give 
ground, sending repeated and urgent 
representations to Gen. Curtis that 
he could hold out but little longer 
unless reenforced. Curtis sent him 
froxa time to time a battalion or a 
few light guns, with orders to perse- 
vere ; and at length, at 2 p. m., find- 
ing his left wholly unassailed, ordered 
Gen. Asboth to move to the right 
by the Fayetteville road to Elkhom 
Tavern, to support Carr, while Gen. 
Sigel should reenforce Davis at Lee- 
town, pushing on to Elkhom if not 
needed in the center. 

G«n. Curtis, with Asboth's divi- 
sion, reached Elkhom at 5 p. h. He 

found Carr still fiercely fighting, hav- 
ing received three or four shots, one 
of which inflicted a severe wound. 
Many of his field officers had fallen, 
with about one-fourth of his entire 
command. He had been seven hours 
under fire, during which he had been 
forced back about half a mile. As 
Curtis came up, he saw the 4th Iowa 
falling back in perfect order, dressing 
on their colors as if on parade, and 
ordered it to face about. Col. Dodge 
explained that it was entirely out of 
ammimition, and was only retiring to 
refill its cartridge-boxes. Curtis or- 
dered a bayonet-charge, and the regi- 
ment at once moved steadily back to 
its former position. 

Meantime, Gen. Asboth had plant- 
ed his artillery in the road and open- 
ed a heavy fire on the Rebel masses 
just at hand, while, of his infantry, 
the 2d Missouri plunged into the 
fight. The fire on both sides was 
close and deadly. Gen, Asboth was 

Digitized by 




severely wounded, Gen, Curtis's or- 
derly was hit, and one of his body- 
guard fell dead. As the shades of 
night fell, a messenger from Sigel 
gave tidings that he was coming up 
on the left, and would soon open fire. 
Asboth's batteries fell back, being 
out of ammunition, and the Eebels 
were enabled to fire the last shot. A 
little after dark, both armies sank 
down on the battle-field, and slept 
amid the dead and the dying. 

Curtis, finding that Van Dom had 
concentrated all his forces on this 
point, directed Davis to withdraw all 
his reserve from the center, and move 
forward to the ground on Carr's left, 
which was effected by midnight. 
Sigel, though he had reported him- 
self just at hand at dark, was obliged 
to make a detour, and did not reach 
headquarters till 2 a. m. 

Van Dom slept that night at the 
Elkhom Tavern, from which he had 
dislodged Davis by such desperate 
efforts." He had thus fer been fight- 
ing a part of our forces with all of his 
own, and had only gained ground 
where his preponderance of numbers 
was overwhelming. Curtis reports 
his entire command in Arkansas at 
10,500, cavalry and infantry — of 
whom 250 were absent after forage 
throughout the battle — and 48 pieces 
of artillery. He estimates the Rebel 
force in battle at 30,000, including 
5,000 Indians." Pollard says, "Van 
Dom's whole force was about 16,000 
men." But now our whole army was 

in hand, while at least a third of it 
had not yet fired a shot. Xot a man 
in our ranks doubted that our vic- 
tory must be speedy as well as de- 

T^ ^ sun rose ; Gen. Curtis awaited 
the completion of his line of battle 
by Asboth's and Sigel's divisions get- 
ting into position ; but no shot was 
fired by the enemy. At length, Cur- 
tis ordered Col. Davis, in our center, 
to begin the day's work. lie was 
instantly replied to from new bat- 
teries and lines which the Rebels had 
prepared during the night, some of 
the batteries raking our right wing 
so that it was constrained to fall back 
a little, but without slackening its 
fire. Asboth's and Sigel's di\dsion3 
were soon in position, completing our 
line of battle a little to the rear of 
the first, but without a break, and 
much of it on open ground, our left 
wing extended so that it could not be 
flanked. Gen. Curtis ordered his 
right to advance to the positions held 
the night before, and, finding him- 
self an elevation on the extreme 
right, considerably in advance, which 
commanded the enemy's center and 
left, here posted the Dubuque bat- 
tery, directing the right wing to ad- 
vance to its support, while Capt. 
llayden opened from it a most gall- 
ing fire. Returning to the center, 
he directed the 1st Iowa battery, 
Capt. David, to take position in an 
open field and conmience operations ; 
and so battery aft^r battery opened 

" Pollard says, " We had taken during the 
day T cannon and about 200 prisoners." 

" The Richnumd Whig of April 9th, 1 862, has 
a Rebel letter from one present to Hon. G. G. 
Vest, which says : 

"When the enemy left Cove creek, which is 
south of Boston Mountain, Gens. Price, McCul- 
loch, Pike, and Mcintosh seemed to tliink— at 

least camp-talk amongst officers high in com- 
mand so represented — that our united forces 
would carry into action nearly 30.000 men, 
more frequently estimated at 35,000 than a lower 
figure. I believe Gen. Van Dom was confident 
that not a man less than 25,000 were panting to 
follow his victorious plume to a field where 
prouder honors awaited them than any he had 
yet gathered." 

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fire, the infjEuitr j moving steadily to 
their Bnpport, while the left wing 
was pushed rapidly forward, climb- 
ing a low cliif fi"om which the Eebels 
had been driven by onr guns, and 
crowding them back into the deep 
ravines of Cross-Timber Hollow. 
The 36th Illinois was prominent in 
this movement ; while the 12th Mis- 
soori, pushing into the enemy's lines, 
captured a flag and two guns. 

The flight of the Eebels was so sud- 
den and swift, and the ravines where- 
in they disappeared so impracticable 
for cavalry, that our commanders 
were for some time at fault in the 
pursuit. Gen. Sigel pushed north on 
the Keytesville road, where but few 
of them had gone ; and it was not 
till afternoon that Gen. Curtis ascer- 
tained that, after entering the Hol- 
low, the main Bebel force had turn- 
ed to the right, following obscure 
ravines which led into the Hunts- 
ville road, on which they escaped. 
CoL Bussey, with our cavalry and 
howitzers, followed them beyond 

Gen. Curtis reports his entire loss 
in the battle at 1,351, of whom 701 
— ^more than half— were of Col. 
Carres division. The Eebel loss can 
hardly have been less ; since, in ad- 
dition to Gens. Ben McCuUoch and 
Mcintosh killed, Gens. Price and 
Slack were wounded. 
The victory at Pea Ridge was un- 

mistakably ours, but the trophies 
were not abundant. No cannon, nor 
caissons, nor prisoners of any account, 
save a few too severely wounded to 
hobble off, were taken ; and, though 
a letter to The New York Herald^ 
written from the battle-field on the 
9th, speaks of "a considerable quan- 
tity of wagons, supplies, etc., a load 
of powder, and nearly a thousand 
stand of arms," as captured by Sigel 
during his pursuit of the ftigitives 
upon the Keytesville road, they do 
not flgure in either of Sigel's official 
reports of the battle, nor yet in those 
of Curtis. The beaten Confederates, 
fleeing with celerity in different di- 
rections and by many paths, finally 
came together in the direction of 
Bentonville, some 8 miles from the 
Elkhorn Tavern, whence Van Dom 
dispatched a flag of truce to Curtis, 
soliciting an arrangement for bury- 
ing the dead, which was accorded. 

Pollard makes a scarcity of ammu- 
nition a main reason for Van Dom's 
retreat, and it is probable that neither 
army was well supplied with car- 
tridges at the close of this protracted 
though desultory struggle. He adds 
that " Gen. Curtis was forced to fall 
back into Missouri," and that the 
" total abandonment of their enter- 
prise of subjugation in Arkansas is 
the most conclusive evidence in the 
world that the Federals were worsted 
by Gen. Van Dom;" but fails to 

" Pollard sajs: 

" About t4 o^dock, Yui Dora had completed 
his arrangements to withdraw his forces. Find- 
ing that his right wing was much disorganized, 
and that the batteries were, one after another, 
retiring Crom the field, with every shot expend- 
ed, he had determined to withdraw his forces in 
the direction of their supplies. This was ac- 
comptiabed with almost perfect success. The 
ambulances, crowded with the wounded, were 
sent in adrance ; a portion of McColloch's di- 

vision was placed in position to follow ; whQe 
IGen. Yan Dora so disposed of bis remaining 
force as best to deceive the enemy as to his in- 
tention, and to hold him in check while execu- 
ting it. An attempt was made by the enemy to 
follow the retreating column. It was effectually 
checked, however; and, about 2 p.m., the Con- 
federates encamped about six miles from the 
field of battle, all the artillery and baggage 
joining the array in safety. They brought away 
from the field of battle 300 prisoners, 4 cannon, 
and 3 baggage-wagons." 

Digitized by 




mention the &ct that the Confederate 
anny was also compelled to fall back 
to a r^on less wasted and exhaust- 
ed than that which for many miles 
surrounded the well-fought field of 
Pea Eidge. 

As this was the only important 
battle in which ' Indians ' in consid- 
erable numbers took part, and as 
they were all found lighting — or, 
more strictly, yelling — on the side of 
the Confederacy, a few words of ex- 
planation may be^rtinent. 

We have seen ** that the important 
aboriginal tribes known to us as 
Creeks and Cherokees, holding from 
time immemorial extensive and de- 
sirable territories, mainly within the 
States of North Carolina and Geoi^ia, 
but extending also into Tennessee 
and Alabama, were constrained to 
surrender those lands to the lust of 
the neighboring Whites, and migrate 
across the Mississippi, at the in- 
stance of the State authorities, re- 
sisted, in obedience to treaties, by 
President John Quincy Adams, and 
succumbed to, in defiance of treaties 
and repeated judgments of the Su- 
preme Court, by President Andrew 
Jackson. They were located, with 
some smaller tribes, in a region lying 
directly westward of Arkansas and 
north of the Eed river, to which the 
name of Indian Territory was given, 
and which, lying between the 34th 
and 37th parallels of North latitude, 
and well watered by the Arkansas 
and several affluents of that and ofr 
Eed river, was probably as genial 
and inviting as any new region to 
which they could have been transfer- 
red. Yet, though their removal had 
been effected nearly a quarter of a 

century, it is certain that the mass of 
the Indians there collected still re- 
garded with just indignation the 
wrongs they had experienced, remem- 
bering fondly the pleasant streams 
and valleys of the lower All^hanies, 
from which they had been forcibly 
and wrongfully expelled. But their 
Chiefe had been early corrupted in 
their old homes, by the example and 
practice among their White neigh- 
bors of slaveholding — a practice novel 
indeed, but eminently congenial to 
the natural indolence and pride of 
the savage character. They, conse- 
quently, adhered to it in their new 
location; and, since to hold slaves 
was a proof of wealth and import- 
ance, nearly every one who by any 
means obtained property, exchanged 
a part of it for one or more negroes ; 
who, if they did not by labor increase 
his wealth, were certain, by fiattery 
and servility, to magnify his conscious 
importance. Thus thoroughly satu- 
rated with the virus of slaveholding, 
the most civilized Indian tribes fell 
an easy prey to the arts of the Con- 
federate emissaries. The agents 
through whom they received their 
annuities and transacted most of their 
business with the Federal Gbvem- 
ment, had nearly always been Demo- 
cratic politicians — of course, pro-Sla- 
very, and generally Southern — and 
for the last eight years emphatically so. 
These agents had little difficulty, at 
the outset of the Rebellion, in per- 
suading their Chiefe that the old 
Union was irrecoverably destroyed j 
that it was scarcely probable that an 
effort would be made to restore it ; 
and that, at all events, their interests 
and their safety dictated an alliance 
with that Confederacy which was 

' See Vol L, pages 102-6. 

Digitized by 




their immediate neighbor, and of 
which the conservation and perpetu- 
ity of slaveholding was the most 
cherished idea. Some of those Chiefc 
have since insisted that they were 
deceived by the Confederate emissa- 
ries, and especially by Gen. Albert 
Pike, chief Commissioner for Indian 
Affairs of the Confederacy, who had 
led them to confound that concern 
with the Union. What is certain is, 
that, directly after tidings reached 
them of the battles of Bull Run and 
"Wilson's creek — ^the latter reported 
to them from that side as a complete 
discomfiture of the North, which 
view the undoubted death of Lyon 
and abandonment of Springfield tend- 
ed strongly to corroborate — the Chiefs 
of most of the tribes very generally 
entered into a dose offensive and de- 
fensive alliance with the Confeder- 
acy; even so cautious and politic a 
diplomatist, as John Boss throwing 
his weight into that scale. It is said 
that, after the death of Lyon, Ben 
McCulloch's brigade of Texans was 
marched back to the Indian border, 
and that the Creeks and Cherokees 
were impressively required to decide 
quickly between the North and the 
South; else, betwixt Texas on the one 
side and Arkansas on the other, a 
force of 20,000 Confederates would 
speedily ravage and lay waste their 
country. They decided accordingly. 
Yet a very lai^e minority of both 
Creeks and Cherokees rallied around 
the Chief Opothleyolo, made head 
against the current, and stood firm 
for the Union. Assembling near the 
Creek Agency, they tore down the 
Bebel flag there flying and replanted 
the Stars and Stripes; and a letter" 
from CoL Mcintosh to the True Dem- 

ocrai^* called loudly for reenforce- 
ments to the Eebel array in the In- 
dian Territory, and expressed appre- 
hension that the Northern party 
might prove the stronger. A battle 
between the antagonistic Indian 
forces took place Dec. 9th, 1861, on 
Bushy creek, near the Verdigris 
river, 180 miles west of Fort Smith, 
the Confederates being led by Col. 
Cooper, ike Unionists by Opothleyolo. 
The result was not decisive, but the 
advantage appears to have been with 
the Bebel party, the Unionists being 
constrained soon after to make their 
way northward to Kansas, where they 
received the supplies they so much 
needed, and where a treaty of close 
alliance was negotiated** between 
Opothleyolo and his followers on one 
side, and Col. Dole, U. S. Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs, on the other. 
The Bebels were thus left in un- 
disputed possession of the Indian 
Territory, from which they collected 
the four or five thousand warriors 
who appeared at Pea Bidge; but, 
though the ground was mainly bro- 
ken and wooded, aflTording every fa- 
cility for irr^ular warfare, they do 
not seem to have proved of much 
account, save in the consumption 
of rations and massacre of the 
Union wounded, of whom at least 
a score fell victims to their barbar- 
itiels. Their war-whoop was over- 
borne by the roar of our heavy 
guns ; they were displeased with the 
frequent falling on their heads of 
great branches and tops of the trees 
behind which they had sought shelter ; 
and, in fact, the whole conduct of 
the battle on our part was, to their ap- 
prehension, disgusting. The amount 
of effort and of profanity expended 

" Oct 17, 1861. " Little Rock, Arkansas. 

VOL, IL — 3 

' At Leavenworth, Feb. 1, 1862. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



by their White officers in trying to 
keep them in line at the front, prob- 
ably overbalanced the total value of 
their services ; so that, if they chose 
to depart for their homes soon after 
the close of the battle, it is not prob- 
able that any strenuous efforts were 
made to detain them.** 

Gen. Curtis, after resting and re- 
fitting his army, finding no enemy in 
its vicinity, again put his column in 
motion, proceeding S. S. E. through 
north-western Arkansas to Bates- 
ville,** on White river, near which 
point he had expected to meet gun- 
boats with supplies from below. He 
found the river, however, at an un- 
usually low stage for the season — 
barely four feet; while the gunboats 
required six or seven ; beside which, 
the Mound City, which attempted 
the ascent, had been resisted and 
blown up in a fight with the Eebel 
battery at St Charles some days be- 
fore. Being compelled, therefore, to 
depend for all his supplies on wagon- 
trains from Eolla, Mo., now several 
hundred miles distant, he did not feel 
strong enough to advance on Little 
Kock, the capital of Arkansas,' nearly 
100 miles S. S. W. from his present 
position. Having halted seven weeks, 
wholly unmolested, at Batesville, he 
again set forth," crossing the Big 
Black by a pontoon-bridge, and pur- 
suing a southerly course through a 

"PoUard says: 

" The iDdian regiments, under Gen. Pike, had 
not come up in time to take any important part 
in the battle. Some of the red meu behaved 
well and a portion of them assisted in taking a 
battery; but they were difficult to manage in 
the deafening roar of artillery, to which they 
were unaccustomed, and were naturally amazed 
at the sight of guns that ran on wheels. They 
knew what to do with the rifle; they were ac- 
customed to the sounds of battle as loud as their 
own war-whoop ; and the amazement of these 

generally swampy, wooded, and thin- 
ly settled country, where none but 
n^roes made any professions of 
Unionism, and, being joined at Jack- 
sonport" by Gen. C. 0. Washbume, 
with the 8d Wisconsin cavalry, which 
had come through from Springfield 
alone and unassailed, proceeded to 
Augusta, where he took leave" of the 
White, and, assuming a generally S. 
W. direction, took his way across the 
cypress swamps and canebrakes of 
the Cache, where his advance (the^ 
33d Illinois, Col. Hovey), which had 
been struggling over roads heavily 
obstructed by fallen trees, was p.t- 
tacked** by some 1,500 Eebel cavalry, 
mainly Texans, led by Gen. Albert 
Rust, who held him in check for an 
hour, until he was joined by the 1st 
Indiana cavalry, Lt.-Col. Wood, with 
two howitzers, when an impetuous 
charge was made by the Indianians, 
whereby the enemy were routed and 
put to flight. The bodies of 110 dead 
Rebels were buried by our soldiers, 
whose loss was but 8 killed and 45 
wounded, including Maj. Glenden- 
nin, who led the charge, receiving a 
shot in the breast, which proved mor- 
tal. The Rebels were satisfied with 
this experiment, and gave no farther 

Gen. Curtis again struck'* Wliite 
river at Clarendon, just below the 
mouth of the Cache, only to learn, 
with intense chagrin, that CoL Fitch, 

simple children of the forest maybe imagined at 
the sight of such roaring, deafening, crashing 
monsters as 12-pounders running around on 
wheels. Gen. Van Dom, in his official report 
of tiie battle, does not mention that any assist- 
ance was derived fh}m the Indians— an nlly that 
had, perhaps, cost us much more trouble, ex- 
pense, and annoyance than their services in 
modem warfare oould, under any circumstances, 
be worth." 

" Arriving there May 6. " June 24. 

"June 25. ••July 4. "July 7. " July 9. 

Digitized by 




with the expected gunboats and 
transports, had gone down the river 
barely 24 hours previous. Being 
short of provisions, in a thoroughly 
inhospitable country, he had no choice 
but to make his way to the most ac- 
cessible point on the Mississippi. 
This was Helena, 65 miles 8. E., 
which was made*' by Gen. Wash- 
bume, with 2,500 cavalry and 5 how- 
itzers, in a march of 24 hours, the 
infemtry coming through during the 
two following days, bringing about 
half a raiment of white Arkansas 
volunteers, with a large number of 
n^roes, who, having been employed 
to block the roads in our front by 
felling trees across them, were entitled 
to liberty and protection under the 
r^nant military policy. A single 
train of 40 wagons, laden with sup- 
plies, being wholly unguarded, was 
captured by Eebel guerrillas in Mis- 
soori, within 30 miles of Holla, its 

Gen. John M. Schofield had at an 
early day " been placed by G^n. Hal- 
leck in command of all the Missouri 
militia — a force then visible only to 
the eye of faith. By the middle of 
April following, he had an array of 
13,800 men in the field, mainly cav- 
alry ; to which was intrusted the de- 
fense of the State, while our other 
troops were drawn away to Arkan- 
sas and the Tennessee. Gen. Curtis's 
movements eastward toward the Mis- 
sissippi opened the State to incur- 
siona from the Rebels, still in force 
in western Arkansas ; while consider- 
ble numbers of Price's men were 
clandestinely sent home to enlist re- 
cruits and oi^anize guerrilla bands for 
activity during the summer. Scho- 

field persisted in enrolling and organ- 
izing militia until he had 50,900 men 
on his lists, of whom about 30,000 
were armed. Upon fall considera- 
tion, he decided to enroll only loyal 
men, since passive were often con- 
verted into active Bebels by a re- 
quirement to serve in the Union 
forces. He had 20,000 men ready 
for service, when, late in July, 1862, 
the tidings of McClellan's disastrous 
failure before Eichmond combined 
with other influences to fill the 
interior of the State with formid- 
able bands of Bebel partisans. Of 
these, Col. Porter's, two or three 
thousand strong, was attacked ** at 
Kirksville, Adair County, by Col. 
John McNeil, with 1,000 cavalry 
and a battery of 6 guns, and, after a 
desperate fight of four hours, utterly 
defeated, with a loss of 180 killed 
and 500 wounded. Several wagon- 
loads of arms were among the spoils 
of victory, and Porter's force was 
by this defeat practically destroyed. 
McNeil's loss was reported at 28 
killed and 60 wounded. 

Four days thereafter. Col. Poin- 
dexter's band of about 1,200 Rebels 
was attacked, while crossing the 
Chariton river, by Col. Odin Guitar, 
9th militia cavalry, 600 men, with 2 
guns, and thoroughly routed ; many 
of the Rebels being driven into the 
river and drowned. "Many horses 
and arms, and all their spare anmiu- 
nition and other supplies, were cap- 
tured." " Poindexter, with what re- 
mained of his force, fled northward 
to join Porter; but was intercepted 
and driven back by another Union 
force under Gen. Ben. Loan, and 
again struck by Guitar; who, in a 
running fight of nearly 48 hours. 


• Nov. 27, 1861. 

'Aug 6, 1862. 

* Gen. Scbofleld's official report 

Digitized by 




killed, captured, or dispersed his 
entire command, Poindexter, after 
wandering alone through the woods 
for several days, was made a pris- 
oner ; and Porter, driven back upon 
McNeil by the same movement of 
Qen. Loan, was compelled to disperse 
his band to save it firom destruction. 
This was the last appearance of the 
Bebels in formidable force northward 
of the Missouri river ; tihiough small 
bands of guerrillas continued to 
plunder and murder there, as else- 
where, for more than a year. 

Independence, on the western bor- 
der of the State, was about this time 
attacked" by a Rebel band of 500 to 
800, under Col. Hughes ; and its gar- 
rison, 312 men of the 7th Missouri 
cavalry, was surrendered by Lt.-Ool. 
Buel, after a short resistance. Gen. 
CoflTey, with 1,500 Rebel cavaby from 
Arkansas, early in August, invaded 
south-western Missouri, and, avoid- 
ing Springfield, moved rapidly north- 
ward. CoL Clark Wright, 6th Mis- 
souri cavalry, was sent with 1,200 
men in pursuit; Gen. Totten being 
directed by Schofield to strike the 
band which had just captured Inde- 
pendence, before it could be joined 
by Coflfey; while Q^n, Blunt, com- 
manding in Arkansas, was requested 
to send a force from Fort Scott, to 
cooperate in cutting off Coffey's re- 
treat; and Col. Fitz-Henry Warren, 
1st Iowa cavalry, was dispatched from 
Clinton with 1,600 men to effect a 
junction with Maj. Foster; who, with 
the 7th militia cavalry, 800 strong, 
had been pushed out from Lexington 
by Totten, in quest of Hughes. 

These combinations upon our side 
failed most signally. Coffey and 
Hughes united their forces and fought 

Maj. Foster at Lone Jack, Jackson 
county, wounded and defeated him, 
with the loss of his two guns, and 
compelled him to fall back to Lex- 
ington, upon which place Coffey was 
advancing with an army now aug- 
mented to 4,500 men ; when, finding 
that Gen. Blunt was in strong force, 
threatening his line of retreat, wliile 
Loan's and Wright's and other com- 
mands were concentrating upon him 
from every direction, he relinquished 
the hope of capturing Lexington and 
relieving the Rebels north of the 
river, and turned to fly. Eluding 
Gen. Blunt in the night, he was hotly 
pursued to the Arkansas line, but 
escaped without serious disaster. 

Gen. Schofield was soon after" su- 
perseded in the command of the de- 
partment, by Gen. Curtis, but imme- 
diately placed at the head of the 
forces confronting the enemy in the 
south-west, where the Rebels, now 
led by Gen. T. C. Hindman," were 
threatening a fresh invasion. Setting 
forward from Springfield" to Sarcoxie 
to reconnoiter the enemy's i)08ition. 
Gen. Salomon's advance had been 
overwhelmed at Newtonia by a large 
body of Rebel cavalry. Salomon had 
thereupon moved forward to their 
support, and renewed the battle at 
noon ; fighting until sunset without 
serious loss,ultimately retiring in good 
order from the field. He estimated his 
strength at 4,500, and the enemy's in 
his front at 7,000. Gen. Schofield, 
being reenforced by Gen. Blunt from 
Arkansas, found himself at the head 
of 10,000 men ; while the Rebels at 
Newtonia were estimated at 13,000 
to 20,000. He resolved to advance 
that night and attack at daylight 
next morning ; Gen. Blunt approach- 

" Aug. 11. 

Sept. 24. 

' Late M. C. firom Arkansas. 

Digitized by 





ing Newtonia from the north and 
west, and Gren. Totten from the east. 
lie found, on coming up, that the 
enemy had sent their baggage to the 
rear, and were preparing to retreat. 
Immediately charging with cavalry 
and artillery, the Eebels fled without 
resistance, and were chased 30 miles 
into Arkansas. It appeared that, 
though in great numbers, they were 
badly armed, many of them not at 
aU ; having been sorely disappointed 
by the capture of a vessel laden with 
arms for their use on the Mississippi 
some time previously. Schofield 
pressed on" to the old battle-ground 
of Pea Ridge, only to find the ene- 
my's forces divided: a part, under 
Cooper, having moved westward to- 
ward Maysville, with intent to oper- 
ate on our communications with Fort 
Scott, while the main body had re- 
treated south-westerly toward Hunts- 
ville, leaving two or three thousand 
cav^by in our front to screen these 
movements. Gen. Blunt was there- 
upon sent after Cooper ; and, after a 
hard night's march, found him in 
camp near Maysville, and at once at- 
tacked, capturing his 4 guns and 
completely routing his command. 
The Rebels fled in disorder across 
the Arkansas to Fort Gibson. Their 
loss in material would have been 
greater had they had more to lose. 

Gen. Schofield, with the residue of 
his army, made a forced march over 
White River Mountains, to a point 8 
miles west of Huntsville, where Rains 
had encamped the day before. His 
advance was next morning pushed 
forward into Huntsville, whence a 
few Rebel cavalry fled at his ap- 
proacK He here learned that Rains 
was retreating across the mountains 

to Ozark, resolved not to fight until 
reenforcements should arrive, and 
that further pursuit would be useless ; 
so he retraced his steps, via Benton- 
ville, to Cross Hollows and Osage 
Springs, sending Gen. Herron, with 
the 1st Iowa and 7th militia cavalry, 
about 1,000 in all, to attack in the 
rear some 8,000 or 4,000 Rebel cav- 
alry who were encamped on White 
river, 8 miles from FayetteviUe ; while 
Gen. Totten, advancing via Fayette- 
viUe, was to assail them in front. 
Gen. Herron reached their camp at 
early dawn," and immediately at- 
tacked with such vigor that the 
Rebels, though in superior numbers, 
fled rapidly into the mountains, with 
the loss of their camp equipage. Gen. 
Totten did not arrive till aft»r they 
had vanished. Gen. Schofield found 
no ftulher enemies within striking 
distance, until compelled by sickness 
to resign his command," leaving Mis- 
souri substantially pacified. 

But Gen. Hindman, conmianding 
the Confederate forces in Arkansas, 
was not disposed to rest satisfied with 
such a conclusion of the campaign. 
Having collected, by concentration 
and conscription, a force estimated 
by oiu* officers in his front at 25,000 
to 30,000 men — while he officially re- 
ports that, for want of stores, etc., he 
was able to take on this expedition 
but 9,000 infantry, 2,000 cavahy, and 
his artillery — ^he crossed the Arkan- 
sas river at or near Van Buren, and 
advanced upon our scattered and nu- 
merically far inferior division, which 
was watching him from the neigh- 
borhood of ike last confiict. It was 
now December ; but the weather was 
clear and dry, and the days bright 
and warm, though the nights were 


"Oct 2a 

" Nov. 20. 

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chilly ; while the roads were in good 
condition. Gen. Blunt, commanding 
the Ist division, in good part of Kan- 
sas troops, numbering about 5,000 
men, was at Cane Hill, or Boones- 
borough, some 10 miles north-west of 
Van Buren, and 18 south-west of 
FayetteviUe, when he was apprised 
of this advance," with one of his 
three brigades (Gen. Salomon's), pro- 
tecting his trains at Rhea's 3£ills, 8 
miles north. Determined not to be 
driven out of Arkansas, he tele- 
graphed in various directions for 
Gen. Herron, commanding the 2d 
and 3d divisions, now in Missouri, 
and left subject to his orders by Gen. 
Schofield's departure; and attempted, 
by showing a bold front and direct- 
ing his cavalry to skirmish sharply 
with the Eebel vanguard, to delay 
Hindman's advance until Herron 
could reach him. Blunt's dispatch 
found *• that able and earnest leader 
at Wilson's creek, some 10 miles 
south of Springfield, but with most 
of his command from 10 to 20 miles 
nearer the Arkansas line. Within 
three hours, his divisions were in mo- 
tion southerly, making marches of 
fully 20 miles per day, with all their 
guns and trains. Having reached 
Elkhom,** he dispatched CoL Wick- 
ersham, with his 8,000 cavalry, to 
the more immediate relief of Blunt ; 
and pushing on to FayetteviUe, 
marching all night, he entered that 
place at 4 A. m., on Sxmday morning, 
Dec. 7th. Impressed with the peril 

of Blunt, he rested his men but an 
hour or so before putting his column 
again in motion, and had proceeded 
but 5 or 6 miles when his advance 
was met by the 1st Arkansas and 
7th Missouri (Union) cavalry, being a 
part of those he had dispatched from 
Elkhom to the aid of Blunt, who had 
just before been attacked and thrown 
into great disorder by Marmaduke's 
Eebel cavalry, forming the vanguard 
of Hindman's army. 

Gen. Blunt had been skirmishiog 
for the last two days with what he 
supposed the advance of the enemy's 
main body ; but learned, at 8 p. m. of 
the 6th, that Hindman had turned 
his left and interposed between him 
and all of Herron's infantry and ar- 
tillery. CoL Wickersham, with 4 cav- 
alry regiments, reported to Blunt at 
Cane Hill two hours afl^erward, with 
tidings that Herron would be at Fay- 
etteviUe early next morning. 

Blunt now attempted to warn Her- 
ron of his danger, but it was too late ; 
his messengers were intercepted by 
Marmaduke's cavalry. Hindman was 
probably reaching for Blunt's trains 
at Ehea's MUls, when, to their mu- 
tual astonishment, he locked horns 
with Herron on Hlinois creek, near 
the settlement known as Psaibie 

Herron, divested of his cavalry, 
had but about 4,000 men in hand, 
and ought to have stood on the de- 
fensive,** availing himself of every 
advantage of position and shelter. 

"Dec. 2. "Decs. *• On the evening of the 6th. 

*^ Qen. Herron, in a private letter to a friend 
at Dubuque, Iowa, dated Dea 16, says: 

*'For four mQes, we fought their cavalry, dri- 
ving ^em back to Illinois creek, where I found 
their yrhxAe force strongly posted on a long 
ridge, with magnificent positions for batteries: 
For one mfle in front, it was dear ground, and 
my road lay right in the oenter of their line. 

From a prisoner taken, I learned that Hindman 
was on the ridge, vrith his whole force, and in- 
tended to whip me out before Blunt could get 
up ; in other words, to take us one at a time. 
The case looked tough, with Blunt ten miles 
away, and 25,000 men between us; but I saw 
at a glance there were just two things that could 
be done ; namely, fight them without delay, and 
depend on the clumce of Blunt's hearing me 

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Anxions, however, for Blunt's safe- 
ty, and apprehending that he might 
be at that moment enveloped by an 
overwhehning Bebel force, he drove 
the Kebel cavaby impetuonsly across 
the creek, only to find their infantry 
and artillery strongly posted on a 
high, wooded ridge, three-quarters of 
a mile distant; their numbers con- 
cealed by the timber and thick un- 
derbrusL Sending across a light 
battery, which was instantly driven 
back, he, while still threatening a 
fi-esh advance on the road, cut a 
path to the creek, half a mile farther 
down, and pushed across a battery 
at a point which enabled it to draw 
the fire of the Eebel artillery. This 
movement, being unsuspected and 
nnperceived by the enemy, was en- 
tirely successftd; and, before the Reb- 
els had recovered from their surprise 
and confusion, Herron had pushed 
three full batteries, backed by three 
good regiments of infantry, across 
the regular ford. These batteries 
were so excellent and so admirably 
served that they had silenced, in one 
hour^s firing, their Rebel antagonists. 
Ours were thereupon advanced 
across an open field, firing volleys 
of grape and canister, until within 
a hundred yards of the ridge held 
by the Rebels, when the 20th Wis- 
consin and 19th Iowa infantry were 
ordered to charge the Rebel battery 
in their front. They did so most 
gallantly, hurling back its supports 
and taking the battery ; but were un- 
able to hold it, and compelled to 
Mi back. Their charge was at once 
returned with interest by the Rebel 
infantry, intent on the capture of 
our three batteries, and rushing up to 
within a hundred yards of the guns, 

when they were likewise repulsed 
with great slaughter. A fresh bri- 
gade, consisting of the 26th Indiana 
and 37th Illinois infantry, being now 
brought up from the right to the 
relief of our exhausted center, CoL 
Houston ordered and led a charge 
against the same Rebel battery which 
had been fruitlessly charged already. 
Again it was taken, and again the 
captors were compelled to abandon 
it by the overwhelming fire of infan- 
try concentrated upon them. 

Thus the battle stood, still desper- 
ately contested, neither lost nor won, 
when, at 2i p. il, Herron heard the 
welcome music of a battery opening 
at some distance on his right, and • 
was soon assured that Blunt's division 
was on hand. 

Blunt had that morning sent Col. 
Wickersham, with his cavalry, in ad- 
vance, followed by Gen. Salomon's 
infantry brigade, with directions to 
move rapidly on the Fayetteville road, 
and form a junction, if possible, with 
Herron. Three miles north of Cane 
Hill, however, Wickersham had taken 
the left-hand road to Rhea's MiUs, 
instead of the right, leading directly 
to Fayetteville ; and Blunt, on reach- 
ing the fork, had followed, deeming 
it imprudent to dislocate his com- 
mand. Coming up at length with 
Wickersham, he ordered him to face 
toward Fayetteville, and endeavor to 
reach Herron. Wickersham had 
barely started, when, a little after 
noon, the boom of artillery was heard 
in the north-east, and, leaving Gen. 
Salomon's brigade to guard his trains 
at Rhea's Mills, Blunt set forward, 
over a blind, hilly road, with his two 
others, in the direction of the fire. 

At 1:45 p. M., Gen. Blunt, in ad- 

and coming up^ or retreat and lose mj whole train. It required no time to make a decision.'* 

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vance of his divifiion, came into full 
view of the field where the battle 
was fiercely raging. The Rebels were 
very strongly posted on high, rolling 
ground, covered by timber, and only 
approached firom the north over 
large, open fields, which afforded no 
cover, save that a part of them bore 
a crop of ripe com. Blunt's eccen- 
tric advance had brought him in front 
of the enemy's left, where they had 
been massing a large force for the 
purpose of flanking Herron's position. 
The flankers found an enemy much 
nearer than they expected, and were 
at once hotly engaged with Blunt's 
division. Its three batteries, firing 
shell and case-shot at short range, 
soon proved an overmatch for the two 
Eebel batteries opposed to them, 
driving them and their supports back 
into the woods; where they were 
charged by Ool. Weer, leading the 
10th, 13th, and part of the 2d and 
11th Kansas and 20th Iowa, and a 
musketry fight of three hours was 
maintained with equal energy by the 
contending hosts. Meantime^ our 
batteries were advanced at various 
points and served with rare efliciency ; 
Lieut. Tenney, with six lO-pound 
Parrotts, repelling with shell and can- 
ister, while unsupported, a formidable 
infantry attack. Here fell the Eebel 
Gen. Stein, of Missouri. A battery 
of 10 guns, well supported, opening 
upon Tenney, he in ten minutes si- 
lenced its clamor, dismounting two 
of the guns, and driving off the resi- 
due. An attempt to capture Babb's 
and Hopkins's batteries, which were 
supported by the 11th £ansas, Lt.- 
Col. Moonlight, was defeated with 
fearful slaughter. 

As darkness came on, the firing 
gradually slackened and ceased ; tbe 
Rebels recoiling into their woody 
covert, our soldiers sleeping on their 
arms in the open field where they 
had so bravely struggled, expecting 
to renew the combat at daylight. 
Meanwhile, our wounded were all 
cared for, the trains of the whole 
army sent to FayetteviUe ; and Gen. 
Salomon's brigade, relieved from the 
duty of guarding them, ordered to 
the field; ammimition brought up 
and distributed, and everything made 
ready for proceeding to business at 
dawn ; but, just before daylight, Gen. 
Blunt received a flag of truce from 
Hindman, asking a personal inter- 
view with reference to the burial of 
the dead and relief of the wounded. 
Blunt met Hindman accordingly, and 
was soon satisfied that the meeting 
so solicited was but a trick; that 
Hindman had no force present or 
near but his staff-escort, and a party 
left to gather up his wounded ; that 
the bulk of his army had commenced 
retreating several hours before. 

Our loss in this battle was 167 
killed, 798 wounded, and 188 miss- 
ing — total, 1,148. Most of the miss- 
ing were captured in Marmaduke's 
initial attack on our cavalry, and 
were exchanged directly afterward. 
Of our loss, no less than 968 fell on 
Herron's conmiand of hardly more 
than 4,000 men. Lt.-Col. McFar- 
land, who led the 19th Iowa in its 
first charge, was killed ; as was Maj. 
Burdett, of the 7th Missouri cavalry. 
Lt.-CoL Black, 37th Illinois, and 
Maj. Thompson, 20th Iowa, were 
among the wounded. The Kebel 
loss" must have been greater, because 

*■ Gen. Blunt, in his oflBdal report, Bays: 
*' The enemy^fl loss in killed and wounded oau 

not fall short of 3,000, and will probably much 
exceed that number, as many of tliem, not se- 

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of our superiority in artillery, with 
which the .principal execution was 
done. Hindman'g official report 
makes it, 164 killed, 817 wounded, 

336 missing — total, 1,317 ; and claims 
to have taken 275 prisoners, 5 
flags, 23 wagons, and over 600 
small arms. 



The river Tennessee, taking rise 
in the rugged valleys of south-west- 
em Virginia, between the All^hany 
and the Cumberland ranges of moun- 
tains, but drawing tribute also from 
western North Carolina and northern 
Geoigia, traverses East Tennessee in 
a generally W. S. W. direction, en- 
tering Alabama at its N. E. comer ; 
and, after a detour of some 300 miles, 
through the northern part of that 
State, passes out at its N. W. corner ; 
reentering Tennessee, and, passing 
again through that State in a course 
due north, and forming the botmdary 
between what are designated respec- 
tively West and Middle Tennessee, 
thence flowing N. N. W. till it falls' 
into the Ohio scarcely 70 miles above 
the mouth of that river, whereof it 

is the largest tributary, draining an 
area of over 40,000 square miles. 
Very rarely frozen, it is usually navi- 
gable, save in dry summers, from its 
mouth to the Muscle Shoals, toward 
the lower end of its course through 
Alabama, and thence by smaller boats 
at high stages of water some 600 
miles, to Knoxville, the capital of 
East Tennessee. The Cumberland, 
draining the opposite slope of the 
Cumberland Mountains, takes its rise 
in the heart of eastern Kentucky, and, 
pursuing a similar but shorter course, 
runs W. S. W. into Middle Tennes- 
see, which it traverses very much as 
the Tennessee does northern Alaba- 
ma, passing Nashville, its capital, 
bending N. W. into Kentncky some 
20 miles eastward of the latter river. 

rerely wounded, were taken to Van Buren. 
Their loes in killed upon the ground will reach 
1,000; the greater number of whom have been 
buried by raj command." 

PoUard, on the other hand, says of this battle: 
^ ** Oar whde line of infantry were in dose con- 
fiici nearly the whole day with the enemy, who 
were attempting^ with their force of 18,000 men, 
to drire us from our position. In every instanoef 
they were repulsed, and finally driven back 
from the field ; Gen. Blndman driving them to 
within 8 miles of Fayetteville ; when our forces 
leQ bade to their supply d^p6t, between Ckme 
HiU and Van Buren. We captured 300 prison- 
era, and vast quantities of stores. The enemy's 
km in kOled. and wounded was about 1,000; the 
Confederate loaa, in kQled, wounded, and missing, 
about 300." 
Oen. ISunt Airther says of this Pollard victory : 

** Their transportation had been lefl south of 
the mountains, and their retreat thereby made 
unincumbered and stealthy. I am assured by 
my own men who were prisoners with tliem, as 
well as by deserters from their ranks, that they 
tore up the blankets of their men to muffle the 
wheels of their artillery." 

Gen. Herron, in a private letter, dated Dec. 
15th, says: 

"The loss of the enemy is terrific After 
their burial-parties had been on the ground for 
three days, we had to turn in and bury 300 for 
them. The country for 25 miles areund is full 
of their wounded. We have, as captures, 4 
caissons full of ammunition, and about 300 stand 
of arms. Hindman had prepared himself, and 
risked all on this fight. His movements were 
shrewdly managed ; and nothing but desperately 
hard fighting ewer carried us tlu'ough." 

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and pursuing a generally paralkl 
course to that stream, to its own re- 
ception by the Ohio, and being navi- 
gable for 250 miles by large steam- 
boats, save in seasons of sunmier 
drouth, and by boats of 500 tuns for 
some 300 miles further. These two — 
the only rivers, save the Mississippi, 
navigable southward from the border 
of the Free into the Slave States — 
were obviously regarded on both 
sides, in view of the notorious im- 
practicability of Southern roads in 
Winter and Spring, as the natural 
routes of advance for our Western 
armies collected and drilled on and 
near the Ohio during the Autumn of 
1861 and the Winter following. 

The close of 1861 left Gen. Hum- 
phrey Marshall, conmianding the Con- 
federate for6e8 in south-eastern Ken- 
tucky, intrenched at Paintville, John- 
son county, intent on gathering sup- 
plies and recruiting. Col. James A. 
Garfield, of Ohio, commanding a 
Union brigade consisting of the 42d 
Ohio, 14th Kentucky, and a squad- 
ron of Ohio cavalry, moved up the 
Big Sandy early in 1862, occupying 
Paintville* without resistance, and 
pushing on to Prestonburg, Floyd 
county ; near which town, at the forks 
of Middle creek, he encountered Mar- 
shall, whom he put to flight with 
little loss on either side. Garfield 
reported his ftill 'strength in this 
engagement at 1,800, and estimated 
that of Marshall at 2,500. Marshall 
was obliged to retreat into Virginia. 

Cumberland Gap was abandoned 
without resistance to the Unionists 
next month;" and Gen. Garfield, 
with 600 men, made a rapid excur- 
sion* to Pound Gap, where he sur- 
prised a Rebel camp, capturing 300 

rifles, destroying the camp equipage, 
and returning to Pike\^le without 

Gten. ZoUicoffer, at the close of 
1861, held a position on the Cumber- 
land, near the head of steamboat nav- 
igation on that sinuous stream, which 
may be r^arded as the right of the 
Eebel army covering Tennessee and 
holding a small part of southern Ken- 
tucky. His force did not exceed 
5,000 men ; but even this was with 
great difficulty meagerly subsisted by 
inexorable foraging on that thinly 
settled and poorly cultivated r^on. 
His principal camp was at Mill 
Speing, in Wayne county, on the 
south side of the river ; but, finding 
himself unmolested, he established 
himself on the opposite bank, in 
a substantial earthwork, which he 
named Camp Beach Grove. He had 
one small steamboat, which had run 
up with munitions from Nashville, 
and was employed in gathering sup- 
plies for his hungry men; but the 
advance of a Union detadiment to 
Columbia, on his left, had rendered 
his navigation of the river below him 
precarious, if not entirely obstructed 
it. On his right front. Gen. Schoepf, 
with a force of 8,000 men, occupied 
Somerset ; but was content to occupy 
it, without attempting or desiring to 
make trouble. But Gen. George H. 
Thomas, having been ordered* by 
Gen. BueU to take command in this 
quarter, had scarcely reached Lo- 
gan's Cross-Roads ' when Maj.-Gen. 
George B. Crittenden, who had re- 
cently joined Zollicoflfer and super- 
seded him in conmiand, finding him- 
self nearly destitute of subsistence, 
and apprehending an attack in over- 

» Jan. 7, 1862. * About *b. 22. • March 16. « Dec. 29, 1861. » Jan. 17, 1862. 

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whelming strength from all omr forces 
in that part of Kentucky, resolved to 
anticipate it ; * and, at midnight after 
the next day/ advanced with his en- 
tire available force, consisting of six 
Tennessee, one Alabama, and one 
Mississippi regiments of infantry, six 
dmnon, and two battalions of cav- 
alry, to strike and surprise the three 
or four Union regiments which he 
was assured were alone posted be- 
tween him and Somerset. He struck 
them as he had expected, but did not 
surprise them ; G^n. Thomas having 
taken the precaution to send out 
strong pickets of infantry on the 
roads leading toward the enemy, 
with a picket of cavalry still farther 
in advance. These were encountered 
by Crittenden's vanguard before day- 
light ; • but, after firing, retired slowly 
and in good order, and reported to 
CJoL M. D. Manson, commanding the 
advance brigade, who in ten minutes 
had his two raiments — 10th Indiana 
and 4th Kentucky, Col. S. S. Fry- 
in readiness ; and the Eebels, in that 
hour of darkness, necessarily pro- 
ceeded with caution, doubling them- 
selves as they advanced. Thomas 
was of course at the front, having or- 
dered up his remaining regiments, 
within ten minutes aflierward. 

The charge of the Kebels was des- 
perate, and the battle raged with 
great fury for nearly two hours, 
during which the muskets of the 
combatants were often fired through 
the same fence. Barely five Union 
regiments in all — the 10th Indiana, 
2d Minnesota, 9th Ohio, 4th Een- 
tacky, and 1st Kentucky cavalry. 

with Kinney's battery — were serious- 
ly engaged ; but the 12th Kentucky, 
and two or three Tennessee regiments, 
reached the field just as the day was 
won by a charge of the 9th Ohio on 
our left flank with fixed bayonets, 
supported by a galling fire from the 
2d Minnesota in front, under which 
the Bebels gave way and fied, 
scarcely halting until they reached 
their intrenched camp by the river ; 
leaving one gun on the battle-field 
and another by the way. 

In the heat of the battle, when 
the combatants were scarcely sejm- 
rated by an open space, Gen. ZoUi- 
cofler was shot by Col. Fry, and fell 
dead on the field, where his body 
was left by his followers. Col. Fry's 
horse was shot dead directly after- 
ward. Col. Eobert L. McCook, 9th 
Ohio, was wounded in the leg, and 
also had his horse shot. The Rebels 
lost 192 killed, 62 wounded and 
captured, besides those carried off 
by them, and 89 taken unhurt. Our 
loss was 89 killed, and 207 wounded. 

It rained, as usual, and the roads 
were horrible ; but the victors, con- 
siderably reenforced, were, before 4 
p. M., in front of the intrenchments 
at Camp Beech Grove, within which 
the flying Eebels had taken refiige 
an hour or two before. Shelling 
was immediately commenced on our 
side, feebly responded to on the 
other ; and this continued imtil 7 at 
night, when our soldiers desisted and 
lay down to rest. Gen. Schoepf s 
brigade came up that night, and 
were so disposed by Gen. Thomas 
as to make sure of the capture of 

* A Bebel letter to the LouiaviUe (Nashville) 
Oovrier, sajs: 

**The enemy in front occupied Somerset with 
aereral regiments, and Cdumbia with an equal 
Ibroeu On the 17th and 18th, it rained so mudi 

that Kshing creek could not be crossed ; and so 
the Somerset force of several thousand could not 
join the force from Columbia before the 20th." 

» Jan. 18-19. 

' Sunday, Jan. 19. 

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the enemy. At daylight, their little 
steamer was seen lying in the river, 
and was quickly set on fire by our 
shells ; cutting off, as was fondly cal- 
culated, all chance of farther Kebel 
retreat. Fire was then opened on 
their intrenchments, but there was 
no response ; and it was soon discov- 
ered that, taking advantage of their 

little boat, they had silently escaped 
across the river dnring the night, 
leaving 10 more guns,* with caissons, 
and many small arms, 1,200 or 1,500 
horses and mules, with tents, blankets, 
and all the material of an army, be- 
hind them. 

The Rebel engineers had con- 

• A Rebel letter to the Memphis Avalanche, says 11 guns were spiked and thrown into the river. 

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stmcted — ^mainlj by slave labor — 
at a point some 80 or 90 miles up 
the Tennessee and Cumberland, 
where those rivers first approach 
within 10 or 12 miles of each 
other, a few miles south of the 
Kentucky line, and north of the 
Louisville and Memphis Bailroad, 
two strong and spacious works; 
FoKT Henry, commanding the Ten- 
nessee from its eastern bank, and 
FoKT DoNELSON, Controlling the pas- 
sage of the Cumberland from the 
.west, a little below the Tennessee 
.village of Dover. A dirt road con- 
nected the two forts, whereof the 
garrisons were expected to support 
each other if assailed. Fort Henry, 
situated on a point or bend of the 
river, and scarcely above its surface 
when in flood, menaced the approach 
by water for a mile on either hand, 
but was overlooked by three points ** 
within cannon-shot on either bank of 
the river. It covered two or three 
acres of ground, mounted 17 large 
guns, 11 of them bearing upon any 
vessels approaching from below, with 
a spacious intrenched camp in its 
rear, and a wide abatis encircling 
alL It was defended by Gen. Lloyd 
Tilghman, of Kentucky, with 2,600 

To Brig.-Gen. TJ. S. Grant, of IIU- 
nois, was assigned the task of its 
reduction, with the powerful aid of 
Commodore A. H. Foote and his 
fleet of seven gunboats, four of them 
partially iron-clad. Leaving Cairo" 
with some 15,000 men on steam 
transports, he moved up the Ohio to 
the month of the Tennessee, then as- 
cended that stream to within ten 
miles of Fort Henry, where his trans- 
ports halted,'* while Com. Foote, 

with his gunboats, proceeded cau- 
tiously up the river, shelling the 
woods on either side to discover any 
masked batteries that might there bo 
planted. Having pushed this recon- 
noissance far enough to receive a 32- 
pound ball through the unprotected 
side of one of his boats, Gen. Grant 
decided that the proper landing-place 
for the troops was about four miles 
below the fort, where he and they 
were debarked " accordingly. The 
next day was spent in preparations, 
and the next appointed for the at- 
tack : Gen. Grant directing the main 
body of his forces, under Gen. John 
A. ifcClemand, to move diagonally 
across the country and seize the road 
leading from the fort to Donelson 
and Dover, while Gen. C. F. Smith, 
with his brigade, advanced along the 
west bank of the river, and Com. 
Foote, with his gunboats, moved 
slowly up and attacked the fort from 
the water. 

Com. Foote formed his vessels in 
two lines: the iron-clads Cincinnati 
(flag-ship), Essex, Carondelet, and St. 
Louis, in front, while the old wooden 
Conestoga, Tyler, and Lexington, 
formed a second line some distance 
astern, and out of the range of the 
enemy's fire, throwing shell over the 
iron-clads into and about the fort. 
Thus advancing slowly and firing 
deliberately, the iron-clads steadily 
neared the fort, using only their bow- 
guns, because imwiUing to expose 
their weak, unsheltered sides to the 
heavy guns of the fort, one of them 
having a caliber of 128 and another 
of 60 pounds, and but 12 of ours in 
all of our front line being available. 
For a moment only was there hesita- 
tion in the attack ; when, after an 

* So 8BJ8 Oen. TUghman's ofBcial report 

"Feb. 2, 1862. 

"Feb. 4-5. 

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"Feb. 4. 





hour's mutual cannonade, a 24-pound 
shot from the fort pierced the Essex 
at an unguarded spot, and, tearing 
through her thick oak planking as 
though it had been cheese, penetrated 
her starboard boiler, instantly filling 
her from stem to stern with burning 
steam, killing both her pilots at their 
post of duty, and severely scalding 
Capt. W. D. Porter and nearly 40 of 
his gunners and crew. Thus com- 
pletely disabled, the Essex drifted 
out of the action, to the great joy of 
the Eebels, who for a moment 
thought the victory their own ; but 
her consorts kept on firing and near- 
ing for twenty minutes more, when 
they were within 600 yards of the 
Eebel guns, whereof all but four had 
by this time been silenced : one hav- 
ing burst, disabling every man who 
served it, while the vent of the great 
10-inch columbiad had been closed, 
rendering it useless ; while our fire at 
short range grew hotter and hotter. 

Gen. McClemand, as Com. Foote 
had apprehended, had not yet worked 

his way through the miry woods and 
ov^r the difficult trails he was obliged 
to traverse in order to reach and 
occupy the main road from Henry 
to Donelson. Had he been directed 
to start at 6 instead of 11 that 
morning, he would probably have 
intercepted and c^tured Tilghman's 
entire force. As it was, the latter 
says he ordered all but the hundred 
or so inside the fort, and employed 
in working its guns, to take the road 
to Donelson, under Col. Heiman, his 
second in command ; and that order 
was obeyed with great promptness 
and celerity. Tilghman remained 
himself with the handful in the fort ; 
and, at 1:45 p. m., seeing further de- 
fense alike impotent and hopeless, 
and being urged by his officers to 
surrender, he, intending to negotiate 
for terms, raised a flag of truce, which, 
being unperceived, amid the dense 
smoke, had no effect on the fire of the 
fleet. Five minutes later, by the advice 
of his officers, he, having ceased firing, 
lowered his fiag, thereby surrender- 

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ing at diBcretion.'^ Our loss in this 
conflict, in addition to that on the 
Easex, was 1 killed and 9 wounded 
on the Cincinnati ; none on our other 
vessels. Oen. Tilghman says our 
total casualties were reported to him 
at 73, while his own were 21. Com. 
Foote reports his captures at 60 or 
70 men, besides the General and his 
Bta£E^ and a hospital-ship containing 
60 invalids, with barracks, tents, &c., 
sufficient for 15,000 men." 

FoBT DoNELSON — ^two miles below 
Dover, where the Cumberland makes 
a sliort bend westward from its 
northerly course — ^was a much larger 
and stronger work than Fort Henry, 
covering a level plateau of nearly a 
hundred acres, which surmounts the 
steep bluff, 100 feet high, with two 
strong water batteries on the bank 
at its base, of 9 and 3 guns respect- 
ively, one of them a 10-inch colum- 
biad, three 64-pounder8, and the rest 
32-pounders ; all protected by very 
heavy earthworks, and all bearing on 
the approach up the river. The fort 
itself had but 8 heavy guns mounted 
in addition to the field batteries of 
its garrison. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow " 
had been in command there " until 
the arrival " of Gen. John B. Floyd," 
when the number of its defenders 
had been swelled by successive re- 

enforcements to about 15,000 "* men. 
Most of them were Tennesseans, with 
about 2,000 Mississippians, 1,200 
Virginians, 1,000 Kentuckians, and 
a thin raiment each from Alabama, 
Arkansas, and Texas. The fort was 
commanded by two or three points 
farther inland, within cannon-shot; 
the country rolling to the bluflfe of 
the Tennessee: some of the hills 
midway having an elevation of about 
300 feet. Deep ravines, with steep, 
rocky sides, especially near the bluffs 
of the Cumberland, separated these 
hills, and, with the tall, dense, prim- 
itive forests generally prevailing, af- 
forded admirable positions for defen- 
sive warfare. A heavy and difficult 
abatis in good part surrounded the 
fortress landward, rendering assault 
at many points all but impracticable. 
Gen. Grant, bringing Smith's 
division across the Tennessee, and 
sending an officer down that river 
to turn back all vessels ascending it 
with troops or supplies, crossed from 
Fort Henry " to the neighborhood 
of Donelson, gradually extending 
his lines" so as to invest the Rebel 
stronghold nearly from river to river, 
by a line some three miles long, and 
100 to 300 rods distant from the 
Rebel rifle-pits and batteries, which 
formed an irregular crescent, encir- 
cling their fort at a distance of one 

** Geo. GraDt's official dispatch sajs : " In 
a little orer one hour, aU the batteries were 
nIeDced.'* Gom. Foote sajs: "The Rebel flag 
was haoled down after a very severe and 
dosely contested action of one hoar and fifteen 
minntes." Oen. I^hman sajs he surrendered 
** after an engagement of koo hours and ten 
Buniites." The time probably seemed longer 
on that side than on ours. 

"TOgfaman says he surrendered 66 beside 
his BtaJr(llX And 16 on the hospital-boat; and 
adds that his escaping force was oyertaken, 
three miles from Fort Henry, by our 

cayalry, who were easily repulsed, but who 
picked up about 20 of his stragglers, while 
several of his field-guns were lost on the way, 
owing to poor teams and bad roads. 

" Of Nashville, Tennessee. " Since Jan. 18. 

" Feb. 13. " Of Virginia. 

** The Richmond Dispatch has a letter from 
one of the officers, dated Augusta, Ga., Feb. 22, 
who says: "Our troops number about 18,000." 
The KashvUle Patriot^ of about Feb. 19, gives 
a list of the regiments present, with the strength 
of each, which foots up 13,829, and is evidently 
incomplete. ** Feb. 12. " Feb. 13. 

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or two niileB. Skirmifihing by aharp- 
ahooters on both sides was maintained 
with spirit throughout the day, main- 
ly from behind the trees of the great 
forest, which at most points covered 
our army and the space between the 
hostile lines. The weather was thus 
far like a clear, bright, Northern Octo- 
ber, and our men in the highest spirits. 
Com. Foote now arrived" with his 
gunboats — four iron-clad, and two 
wooden — and it was determined that 
he should attempt to silence and 
carry the water batteries. He did 
so at 3 p. M. next day, steadily ad- 
vancing with his iron-clads to within 
400 yards of the Rebels' great guns ; 
when, by an hour's desperate light- 
ing, he had driven most of the 
enemy's gunners from their batteries, 
and seemed on the point of complete 
success. Just here, . however, the 
wheel of his flag-ship St. Louis and 
the tiller of its consort, the Louis- 
ville, were shot away, rendering both 
boats unmanageable, and causing 
them to drift helplessly down the 
river. All his iron-clads had endured 
serious damage : the St. Louis hav- 
ing received 59 shots, and each of the 
others about half so many, with an 
aggregate loss of 54 killed and 
wounded. Of his twelve guns, one 
had burst, while the enemy had 
brought over 20 — ^most of them very 
heavy — ^to bear upon him from Don- 
elson, as well as the water batteries, 
to which the gunners returned on 
observing his predicament, and again 
poured in their hottest fire. Com. 
Foote, perceiving victory hopeless, 
gave up the contest, and retired 
with his boats down the river, badly 

G^i. Grant decided to ccmiplete 
the investment of the fort, at least on 
that side, while he fortified his weak 
points, and awaited the return of 
the gunboats in fighting condition. 
Floyd, however, not concurring in 
that view of the matter, decided to 
assume at once a vigorous offensive, 
while his men were elated with their 
defeat of the gunboats. Massing'* 
heavily on his extreme left, com- 
manded by Pillow, and ordering 
Buckner," in the center, to attack 
likewise, he made a desperate effort 
to beat back our investing and aug- 
menting forces, and open for his army 
a line of retreat up river toward 
Nashville. The attack of Pillow on 
our right, held by Gen. McClemand, 
was impetuous, daring, and persist- 
ent. After two hours' desperate 
fighting, McClemand was worsted 
and fell back on our center, sending 
urgently for riienforcements, but still 
contesting every inch of ground. 
Two or three of his regiments were 
badly broken, and several more re- 
ported out of ammunition ; which 
should not have been, since it was 
not yet noon. Our men, however, 
had the bad habit generally of using 
ammunition wastefully, loading and 
firing as fast as possible, even when 
there was not one chance in a thou- 
sand of hitting an enemy. The 
Kebels usually economized their car- 
tridges, firing only when they could 
do so with effect. 

Pillow, still successftil and slowly 
advancing, about noon joined hands 
; with Buckner in the center, and took 
command of their united forces, when 
a charge was made by Forrest's cav- 
alry on our infantry supporting a 

" Eyening of the 13th. 

** At daylight on the morning of the 15th. 

*Gen. Simon B. Bnokner, of Kentucky; fo^ 
merly oommander of her State Guard. 

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battery of six pieces, which was 

Gen. Grant — ^not expecting this 
Btriking proof of Rebel vitality — was 
some miles distant on a gunboat, con- 
ferring with Com. Foote, when Mc- 
Clemand^s cry for assistance reached 
headquarters. Gen. Lew. Wallace, 
commanding our center, oMered CJol. 
Cruft, with his first brigade, to the 
rescae. Cruft, misdirected by his 
guide, took a wrong road ; but it led 
him nevertheless into the fight, and 
served to draw off some Rebel atten- 
tion from McClemand's overmatched 
column. Meantime, Col. Thayer," 
commanding his 3d brigade, was or- 
dered by Wallace to the further sup- 
port of McClemand; and his fresh 
troops, admirably handled, uniting 
with Cruft's, succeeded in stopping 
and turning back the Rebel advance. 

Gen. Grant reached the scene of 
conflict about 3 p. m., and, after a 
survey of the ground, ordered a gen- 
eral advance; Gen. Lew. Wallace 
leading the attack on the enemy's 
left, while Gen. C. F. Smith, on our 
left;, should charge his right. This 
combined effort proved entirely suc- 
ceasfiiL Wallace recovered all the 
ground lost during the day, resting 
at 5 p. M. within 150 yards of the 
intrenchments whence Buckner had 
sallied, only to return baffled at 
night; while Gen. Smith's charge 
on our left, magnificently led by him 
against breastworks whereof the de- 
fisnse had doubtless been weakened 
to strengthen Pillow's effort, suc- 
ceeded with little loss. The 2d Iowa 

went into them on a run, closely fol- 
lowed by the 7th and 14th, with the 
25th Lidiana, cutting down or chas- 
ing off their defenders; and the po- 
sition thus gained was soon made 
secure against any effort to retake it. 
So closed the work of that bloody 

Since the siege began, the weather 
had suddenly changed to cold, with 
a light snow, followed by a piercing 
N. W. wind, rendering the sufferings 
on either side fearful and almost uni- 
versal. Our men were without tents, 
and at many points without fires; 
while the Rebels, worse clad and lit- 
tle better sheltered, shivered in their 
fireless trenches through weary day 
and sleepless night. Hundreds on 
either side were frost-bitten ; and it 
is said that quite a number of the 
wounded, left uncared for by the 
shifting tide of battle, were actually 
frozen to death. 

The night following the conflict 
just described was one of anxiety 
and trouble on the part of the Reb- 
els. Gen. Grant's force had been in- 
creased by the arrival of transport 
after transport, until it must have 
amounted to 30,000, if not nearer 
40,000 men, and was magnified by 
their apprehensions to 50,000." The 
effort to cut their way out through 
our right had been gallantly made, 
and had signally failed. Their out- 
numbered, roughly handled force, 
had endured 84 hours of alternate 
fighting and watching, while suffer- 
ing all the hardships of a Winter 
campaign, and were so outworn as to 

" CoL Hanson, 2d Kentucky, and CoL Cook, 
31d Tennessee, as well as Maj. Brown, 20th 
Mlaaiatippi, officially report that, after Buckner^s 
defect of MoClemaod, on the morning of the 
IMtk, there was no obstacle to the escape of 
Iheir entire force southward or up the Cumber- 

voL. n. — 4 

land. Ool Hanson says the way of escape re- 
mained open till they were ordered back to the 
trenches, late in the aflemoon. 

*^ John M., 1st Nebraska. 

" " Eighty-three regiments,** says one of their 

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fall asleep standing in line of battle, 
when actually under fire. The posi- 
tion gained by Smith would enable 
him to take other of their intrench- 
ments in reverse, or to advance under 
cover of a ridge directly upon their 
most important battery and field- 
work. Buckner declared that his 
post would certainly be attacked in 
the morning, and that he could not 
hold it half an hour ; he thought they 
might yet fight their way out, with a 
loss of three-fourths of their number, 
but did not deem it right to sacrifice 
so large a proportion. These repre- 
sentations being undisputed, a sur- 
render became inevitable. Yet Floyd, 
the sunset of whose career as Secre- 
tary of War had not appeared bril- 
liant at the North, at once protested 
that he would never surrender. Buck- 
ner — who, for obvious reasons, was 
scarcely more popular with Kentucky 
Unionists than was Floyd with those 
of the Free States — ^presented no such 
obstacle. Floyd, therefore, turned the 
conamand over to Pillow, who passed 
it to Buckner, whose late superiors 
now devoted their attention to the 
means of escape. Two Rebel steam- 
boats having arrived a little before 
daylight fi-om above,Floyd filled them 
with his soldiers, especially those of 
his own brigade, and, a little before 
sunrise, cast off and steamed up the 
river, leaving the residue to their fate.** 
Col. Forrest, with some 800 cavalry, 
escaped by the road up the immediate 
bank of the river, which was partly 
overfiowed, and therefore deemed 
impracticable for infantry, but which 
Forrest's troopers appear to have tra- 
versed without diflSculty or loss. 

During the night, a n^o had es- 
caped from the Rebel lines, and given 
our leaders their first clear informa- 
tion of the straits of the enemy. Gen. 
Grant was therefore not surprised at 
receiving, about daylight, the follow- 
ing overture : 

" Hbadquustbbs Fobt Donelson, 
" Feb. 16, 1862. 
" Sib : In consideration of all the circum- 
stances governing the present situation of 
alfairs at this station, I propose to the com- 
manding officer of the Federal forces the 
appointment of commissioners to agree upon 
terms of capitulation of the forces at this 
post under mj command. In that view, I 
suggest an armistice until 12 o'clock to-day. 
" I am, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, S. B. Buoki^sb, 

"Brig.-Gen. 0. S. Army. 
"To Brig.-Gen. U. 8. Grant, commanding 
U. S. forces near Fort Donelson." 

The reply was hardly so diplo- 
matic, but quite lucid — as follows : 

"Headquarters ox the Fntij), 
"Fort Donelson, Feb. 16, 1862. 
"ToGen. S. B. Buckner: 

" Sir : Yours of this date, proposing an 
armistice and the appointment of commis- 
sioners to settle on the terms of capitula- 
tion, is just received. 

"No terms, except unconditional and im- 
mediate surrender, can be accepted. 

" I propose to move immediately on your 

"I am, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, U. 8. Grant, 

" Brig. -General Commanding." 

Gen. Buckner's response closed the 
correspondence thus : 

" Headquarters Dover (Tenn.), 
"Feb. 16, 1862. 
" Brig.-Gen. U. S. Grant, U. S. Army : 

" Sir : The distribution of the forces un- 
der my command incident to an unexpected 
change of commanders, and the overwhelm- 
ing force under your command, compel me, 
notwithstanding the brilliant success of the 
Confederate arms, to accept the ungenerous 
and unchivalrous terms which you propose. 
" I am, sir, your servant, 

"S.B. Buckner, 
"Brig. -General C. S. Army." 

* Mf\j. W. M. Brown, 20th Miss., in his official 

«T)prt, says one of the boats did not appear to 

-"ver 50 men on board, and that Floyd took 

away about 1,500; but this is probably an un- 
der-estimate. As all would naturally wish to go, 
it is probable that all went who could. 

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The Bebel loss by tliis conflict and 
/capitulation most have been fully 
10,000 men, including 2,000 killed 
and wounded," to say nothing of 
anns and munitions. Our loss in 
Jdlled and woimded was probably 
the larger." 

The blow so well struck at Donel- 
8on was swiftly followed by important 
successes throughout Kentucky and 
in Tennessee. 

Geo, Don Carlos Buell had, at the 
then recent partition of departments, 
been assigned" to that of the Ohio, 
• including, besides three Free States, 
Tennessee, and all of Kentucky east 
of the Cumberland, with his head- 
quarters at Louisville ; where he still 
remained when his advance, consist- 
ing of some 16,000 men, led by Gen. 
0. M. Mitchel, moved," simulta- 
neously with Gen. Grant's demon- 
oration on Donelson, upon Bowling 
Green, the Rebel stronghold in Ken- 
tucky, where Gen. Albert Sidney 
Johnston had succeeded to the com- 
mand, while Gen. Beauregard had 
been sent him from tlie east as a re- 
aiforcement. But Johnston's force, 
enormously and purposely magnified 

by current report, had never amounted 
to 25,000 effectives, and had ere this 
in good pdrt been sent to the defense 
of Donelson, until it had been re- 
duced to about 7,000 or 8,000 men. 
As Mitchel advanced across Green 
river firom his camp at Bacon creek, 
Johnston commenced his retreat on 
Nashville ; so that, when Mitchel had 
reached " the north bank of Barren 
river, and looked across into Bowl- 
ing Green, sending over Col. Tur- 
chin's brigade during the night, at a 
ferry a mile and a half below, he 
found the railroad depot on fire, with 
7 locomotives, and a large amount of 
com and other provisions, with the 
bridges of course destroyed, and the 
last of the Rebel army, consisting of 
Texas Rangers, just moving off on 
a railroad train, whicli had been re- 
tained for the purpose. The river, 
being wide and at a high stage, 
could not here be crossed till next 
day ; so that Mitchel's forced march 
of 42 miles in 37 hours, clearing his 
road of trees which had been felled 
across it, was rewarded by very 
moderate captures, including a brass 
6-pounder, and some $5,000 worth 
of commissary stores ; but it was 

"Gen. Pfllow, in his supplemental report, 

** We tent up from Dover, 1,134 wounded. A 
Federal surgeon's certificate, which I hare seen, 
ssfB that there were about 400 Confederate pris- 
onera wounded in hospital at Paducah, making 
1,5M wounded. I was satisfied the killed would 
> the number to 2,000." 

Pollard gives what he terms a correct list, by 
regiments, of the Confederate prisoners taken at 
Port Donelson, footing up 5,079; but he evi- 
deadj does not include in this total the wound- 
ed, of whom many must have been left on the 
field or in the hospital at the fort, as he says: 
"The Tillage of Dover, which was within our 
fines, oonudned in every room in every house 
tkky wounded, or dead men. Bloody rags were 
everywhere, and a door conld not be opened 
without hearing groans.^ And in his list of regi- 

ments we do not find the 20th Mississippi, whose 
commander, Maj. W. M. Brown, officially reports 
that he surrendered 454 ; nor the 32d Tennes- 
see, CoL Cook, who reports that he surrendered 

Gen. Grant's report makes his captures 12,000 
to 15,000 prisoners, at least 40 pieces of artil- 
lery, and a large amount of stores, horses, mules, 
and other public property. 

•* Gen. Grant, speaking of the battle of the 
15th, says: "Our loss can not fall far short of 
1,200 killed, wounded, and missmg," including 
250 taken prisoners. The reports of CoL Cruft, 
Gen. W, H. L. Wallace, and CoL Lauman, show 
an aggregate loss of 1,306 in their three bri- 
gades, clearly indicating that Gen. Grant under- 
estimated his casualties. 

"Nov. 9, 18G1. "Feb. 11, 1862. »*Peb, 14, 

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computed that the Rebels had been 
compelled to destroy not less than 
half a million dollars' worth of 
munitions, including many arms. 
Large quantities of provisions and 
other stores, industriously collected 
throughout the preceding Fall and 
Winter, had been removed to Nash- 
ville during the last three or four 

Nashville had been electrified, 
during the 15th (Saturday), with a 
telegraphic dispatch from Dover, 
announcing a Rebel victory ; some- 
what tempered by reports from 
Bowling Green that Johnston would 
be obliged to evacuate that post. 
Next morning, however, came news 
o£ the capture of Dondson, with most 
of its defenders; and along with 
it a first installment of Johnston's 
army retreating from dismantled 
Bowling Green. The general aston- 
ishment was only equaled by the 
general consternation. Churches were 
closed, or failed to open ; there were 
hurried consultations and whispered 
adieus in every quarter, whence bank 
directors rushed to impel specie and 
other valuables toward the cars, 
soon to bear them to Chattanooga, 
to Columbia, and other points of 
comparative safety. Gov. Harris and 

his Legislature, with the State ar- 
chives and treasure, betook them- 
selves swiftly to Memphis; while 
Confederate oflBicers devoted their 
attention to moving as rapidly as pos- 
sible, the vast stores of provisions 
and munitions here accumulated. 
Two fine gunboats, being built at the 
river-side, were prepared for instant 
conflagration; and the magnificent 
and costly raiboad and wire suspen- 
sion-bridges over the Cumberland 
were likewise made ready for speedy 
destruction — a fate which overtook 
them two or three days later, A 
fortification had in the mean time * 
been commenced on the Cumberland, 
four miles below the city, calculated 
to dispute and prevent the passage 
of our gunboats; but this was soon 
abandoned upon information that 
Gen. Johnston had decided not to 
fight for Nashville, but to continue 
his retreat ; which he did, unassailed, 
to Corinth, Miss., south of the Ten- 
nessee river, and nearly 300 miles 
from Bowling Green. Six weeks 
were consumed in that retreat ; which, 
with a green and undisciplined army, 
was probably quite as disastrous as a 

Directly after the capture of Fort 
Henry, Commander Phelps, with the 

" "An Impressed New-Yorker," in his narra- 
tive of personal adventures, entitled " Thirteen 
Months in the Rebel Armj," sajs : 

"The army was not far from 60,000 strong, 
after Gen. George B. Crittenden*s forces were 
added to it at Murfreesboro*. The season of 
the year was the worst possible in that latitude. 
Rain fell — sometimes sleet — four days out of 
the seven. The roads were bad enough at 
best ; but, under such a tramping of horses and 
cutting of wheels as the march produced, soon 
became horrible. About 100 regiments were 
numbered in the army. The full complement 
of wagons to each reg^ent (24), would give 
above 2,000 wagons. Ima^ne such a train of 
heavily loaded wagons passing along a single 
mud road, accompanied by 56,000 infantry and 

5,000 horsemen, in the midst of rain and sleet, 
day after day, camping at night in wet fields, or 
dripping woods, without sufficient food adapted 
to their wants, and often without any tents ; the 
men lying down in their wet clothes, and rising 
chilled through and through. And let this con- 
tinue for six weeks of incessant retreat, and 
you get a feeble glimpse of what we endured. 
The army suffered great loss from sickness, and 
some from desertion; some regiments leaving 
Bowling Green with six or seven hundred men, 
and reaching Corinth with but lialf of this num- 
ber. The towns through which we passed were 
left full of sick men ; and many were sent off 
to hospitals at some distance from our route. ^' 

Pollard makes Johnston^s army at Murfrees- 
boro' but 17,000. 

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wooden gunboats Conestoga, Tyler, 
and Lexington, steamed up the Ten- 
nessee to Florence, Ala^ at the foot 
of the Muscle Shoals, where he cap- 
tured two steamboats, and constrained 
the Eebels to bum six others ; he hav- 
ing burnt the railroad bridge near 
Benton on the way. The wholly un- 
expected appearance of the National 
flag in North Alabama, where slaves 
were comparatively few, and at least 
three-fourths of the people had stub- 
bornly opposed Secession, was a wel- 
come spectacle to thousands, and was 
greeted with enthusiastic demonstra- 
tions of loyalty. . 

Com. Foote, with the gunboats 
Conestoga and Cairo, moved up" the 
Cumberland jfrom Donelson, three 
days after its surrender. At Olarks- 
Tille, he found the railroad bridge 
destroyed; while the wealthier citi- 
zens had generally fled, and he en- 
countered no resistance. As it would 
have been absurd to attack a city 
like Nashville with such a force, he 
now returned to Cairo for addi- 
tional boats ; while Gen. Smith, with 
the advance of our victorious army, 
mardied up to Clarksville; whence 
lieut Bryant, of the Cairo, followed 
by 7 transportSjConveying the brigade 
of Gen. Nelson, moved up the river 
to Nashville, where they arrived on 

the 24th, but found no enemy pre- 
pared to resist them. In fact, the 
city had virtually surrendered al- 
ready to the 4th Ohio cavalry, Col. 
John Kennett, being the advance 
of Buell's army. Col. Kennett had 
reached Edgefield Junction, 8 or 10 
miles from Nashville, and thence sent 
forward a detachment, imder Maj. 
H. C. Rodgers, who occupied with- 
out resistance the village of Edgefield, 
opposite Nashville, on the Cumber- 
land, and communicated with Mayor 
Cheatham, who surrendered the city 
to Col. Kennett on his arrival, which 
was before that of Gen. Nelson's com- 
mand. A small squad of the 4th 
Ohio crossed over into the city and 
returned, their orders not contem- 
plating its occupation ; but the bat- 
tery of the regiment had been planted 
where it commanded the heart of the 
city, and a reasonable fear of shells 
impelled Mayor Cheatham to profler 
and hasten a surrender, by which he 
agreed to protect and preserve the 
public property in Nashville until it 
could be regularly turned over to the 
use of the United States. 

But, in fact, the spoils of victory 
had already been clutched by the 
Nashville mob; so that, while the 
Rebel loss was enormous," the posi- 
tive Union gain was inconsiderable. 

" m>. 19. 

" Pollard sava: 

'^O^n. Johnston had moved the main body 
of bis command to Murfreeaboro' — ^a rear-guard 
being left in Nashville under Gen. Floyd, who 
had arrived from Donelson, to secure the stores 
and provisiona. In the first wild excitement of 
the panic, the store-bouses had been thrown open 
t9 the poor. They were besieged by a mob rav- 
etkous for spoils, and who had to be dispersed 
from the oommissariat by jets of water from a 
steam fire-engine. Women and children, even, 
vere seen scudding through the streets under 
loads of greasy pork, whicS they had taken as 
prizae from the store-booses. It is believed that 
hxmdreds of families, among the lower orders of 
he population, secured and secreted Govern- 

ment stores enough to open respectable groce- 
ries. It was with the greatest difficulty that 
Gen. Floyd could restore order and get his mar- 
tial law into any thing like an effective system. 
Blacks and Whites bad to be chased and cap- 
tured and forced to help the movement of Gov- 
ernment stores. One man, who, after a long 
chase, was captured, offered fight, and was in 
consequence phot and badly wounded. Not less 
than one milUon of dollars in stores was lost 
through the acts of the cowardly and ravenous 
mob of Nashville. Gen. Floyd and Col. Forrest 
exhibited extraordinary energy and efficiency in 
getting off Government stores. Col. Forrest re- 
mained in the city about 2 1 hours, with only 40 
men, after the arrival of the enemy at Edge- 

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Gen. Buell soon afterward reached 
Nashville, and established there his 
headquarters, while his army was 
quartered around the city. CoL 
Stanley Matthews, 5l8t Ohio, was 
appointed Provost-Marshal, and soon 
restored the city to order ; discover- 
ing and reclaiming a considerable 
amoimt of Eebel stores which had 
been appropriated to private use. 
The bridges and roads northward 
were speedily repaired, and railroad 
connection with Louisville reopened. 
The wealthier classes had in great 
part left, or remained sullenly dis- 
loyal ; but among the mechanics and 
laboring poor a good degree of Union 
feeling was soon developed. 

By the Union successes recorded 
in this chapter, the Rebel stronghold 
at Columbus, Ky., commanding the 
navigation of the Mississippi, had 
been rendered untenable. It was 
held by Maj.-Gen. Polk, Episcopal 
Bishop of Louisiana, who had ex- 
pended a vast amount of labor in 
strengthening its defenses, whUe the 
adjacent country had been nearly di- 
vested of food and forage to replenish 
iis stores. Its garrison had been re- 
ported at 20,000 men ; but had been 
reduced by successive detachments to 
2,000 or 3^000. Com. Foote, on re- 
turning from Clarksville to Cairo, 
speedily collected a flotilla of six 
gunboats, apparently for service at 
Nashville ; but, when all was ready, 
dropped down the Mississippi, fol- 
lowed by three transports, conveying 
some 2,000 or 3,000 soldiers, under 
Gen. W. T. Sherman, while a sup- 
porting force moved overland from 
Paducah." Arriving opposite Co- 
lumbus, he learned that the last of 

the Rebels had left some hours be- 
fore, after burning 18,000 bushels of 
com, 5,000 tons of hay, their cavalry 
stables, and much other property; 
while many of their heavy guns, 
which they were unable to take 
away, had been rolled off the bluff, 
here 150 feet high, into the river. 
The 2d Illinois cavalry. Col. Hogg, 
from Paducah, had entered and 
taken possession the evening before. 
A massive chain, intended to bar the 
descent of the Mississippi, had here 
been stretched across the great river, 
but to no purpose ; the Missouri end 
being loose, and buried in the mud 
of the river-bed. 

Island No. 10 lies in a sharp bend 
in the Mississippi, 45 miles below 
Columbus, and a few miles above 
New Madrid on the Missouri bank. 
This island had been strongly for- 
tified, its works well supplied with 
powerful guns and ammunition, 
under the direction of Gen. Beau- 
regard, so that it was confidently 
counted on to stop the progress of 
the Union armies down the river. 
Gen. Pope with a land force of nearly 
40,000 men, had previously marched 
down the Missouri shore of the river, 
reaching and investing New Madrid, 
March 3. Finding it defended by 
stout earthworks, mounting 20 heavy 
guns, with six strongly armed gun- 
boats anchored along the shore to aid 
in holding it, he sent back to Cairo 
for siege-guns ; while he intrenched 
three regiments and a battery under 
Col. Plummer, 11th Missouri, at 
Point Pleasant, ten miles below, so 
as to command the passage of the 
river directly in the rear of No. 10. 
The Rebel gunboats attempted to 
dislodge Col. Plummer, but without 

' March 4. 

Digitized by 




dticcess. Pope's siege-guns arrived 
fit sunset on the 12th, and, before 
morning, had been planted within 
half a mile of the enemy's main 
work, so as to open fire at daylight, 
just 34: hours after their embarkation 
at Cairo. The Rebel garrison had 
meantime been swelled to 9,000 in- 
fentry, under Maj.-Gen. McCown, 
and nine gunboats directed by Com. 
Hollins, on which our fire was mainly 
concentrated. A heavy cannonade 
from both sides was kept up through- 
out the day, with little damage to 
the Unionists, who, driving in the 
Rebel pickets, steadily pushed for- 
ward their trenches. 

A violent thunder-storm raged 
through most of the following night; 
and at daylight it was discovered 
that the Rebels had left, taking 
very little with them. Thirty-three 
cannon, several thousand small arms, 
with ammunition, tents, cartridges, 
wagons, &c., were abandoned by the 
fdgitives, with scarcely an attempt 
even to destroy them. Our loss 
during the si^e was barely 51 killed 
and wounded. 

Com, Foote, with his gunboats, had 
moved down from Columbus early 
in March, opening on the Kebel 
works at Xo. 10 on the 15th. Two 
days later, a general attack was made, 
with five gunboats and four mortar- 
boats; but, though maintained for 
nine hours, it did very little damage. 
Beaur^ard telegraphed to Kich- 
mond *• that our vessels had thrown 
3,000 shells, expended 50 tons of 
powder, and had killed but one of 
his men, without damaging his bat- 
teries. He soon left for Corinth,*' 
ceding the command at No. 10 to 



Brig.-Q^n. Makall, who assumed it 
in a bombastic proclamation. Mean- 
time, Gen. Pope's engineers were 
quietly engaged in cutting a canal, 
12 miles long, across the Missouri 
peninsula, opposite No. 10, through 
which steamboats and barges were 
safely transferred to the river below 
the Rebel stronghold ; while two of 
our heavier gunboats succeeded in 
passing the island " in a heavy fog. 
Qen. Pope, thus relieved from all 
peril from the Rebel flotilla, pushed 
a division " across the river toward 
the rear of the remaining Rebel 
stronghold, and was preparing to 
follow with the rest of his army, 
when the Rebels under McCown, 
sinking their gunboat Grampus, and 
six transports, abandoned No. 10 to 
its fate, and escaped eastward, leav- 
ing Makall to be driven back upon 
the swamps, and forced to surrender 
some thousands of men, several gun- 

• April 1. 
•April 5. 

** Tho Carondelet, April 4, and the Pittsburg, 
April 6. *• April 7. 

Digitized by 




boats, aod more than a hundred 

Com. Foote, having refitted, moved 
down ** the river in order of battle, 
followed by transports conveying 
part of Gen. Pope's army ; finding 
his way first impeded at Fort Pillow, 
or Wright, situated on the first 
Chickasaw Bluffs, near the Islands 
Nos. 33 and 34, about 70 miles above 
Memphis. Landing his mortars on 
the Arkansas bank, he commenced " 
a bombardment of the fort at a dis- 
tance of three-fourths of a mile, and 
was replied to with energy and ac- 
curacy. The high stage of the river 
prevented cooperation by our army ; 
so the cannonade was kept up for 
two weeks with spirit on both sides, 
but with little effect. 

A powerful ram having been re- 
ceived by the Rebels from below, they 
resolved to test its eflSciency ; and 
accordingly made an attack on our 
fleet,** the ram leading, backed by 
three gunboats, and making a rush 
at the Cincinnati, whose rapid broad- 
sides at short range made no impres- 
sion on her assailant's iron mail. 
The boats collided with a fearful 
crash, instantly followed by a broad- 
side from the Cincinnati and a vol- 
ley of musketry ; directly after which, 
Commander Stetnbel fired his pistol 
at the head of the Confederate pilot, 
killing him instantly. The pilot's 
mate thereupon shot the Commander 
through his shoulder and neck, dis- 
abling but not killing him. The 
Cincinnati, though crippled and sink- 
ing, was able to withdraw from the 

fight, and was run upon a shoal, 
where she sank ; while the Mallory, 
which had attempted to crush her, 
was herself caught by the St. Louis, 
cut into and sunk, most of her crew 
going down with her. One of the 
Confederate gunboats had ere this 
been burnt ; another had her boiler 
exploded by a shot; while the rest 
were so crippled as to render th^n 
nearly ineffective ; so they gave up 
the fight and drifted down the river, 
under cover of the smoke, to the pro- 
tection of their batteries. The Cin- 
cinnati was our only vessel that had 
suffered, and she had but 4 wounded. 
A month later," Fort Pillow was 
evacuated, as was Fort Bandolph, 
twelve miles below. Some damaged 
guns were left in them, but nothing 
of much value. Com. Davis dropped 
down next day to within gun-shot of 
Memphis, where he came to anchor ; 
and next morning, with five gunboats 
and four rams, slowly approached 
the city. Soon, a Rebel fleet of eight 
gunboats was seen approaching in 
order of battle, opening fire when 
within three-fourths of a mile. The 
Union ram. Queen of the West, soon 
struck the Rebel gunboat. Gen. 
Price, crushing in her wheel-house, 
and causing her to leak so badly 
that she was headed at once for the 
Arkansas shore. The Rebel gun- 
boat, Beauregard, now made at the 
Queen, which attempted to strike 
her; but the shock was skiUftilly 
evaded by the Beauregard's pilot, 
who struck the Queen aft so heavily 
as to disable her. The Union ram 

^ Gen. PopOi in his official report, says: 
"Three Generals, 273 field and oompany 
officers, 6,700 prisoners, 123 pieces of heavy- 
artillery — all of the very best character, and of 
the latest patterns — 7,000 stand of small arms, 
Several wharf-boat loads of provisions, an im- 

mense quantityof ammunition of all kinds, many 
hundred horses and mules, with wagons and 
harness, kc^ are among the spoils." 

"Apra 12. 

Digitized by 

• April lY. 
*' June 4 




Monarch thereupon made at the 
Beauregard, and struck her heavily 
on the bow, causmg her to fill rapidly 
and sink, while the Monarch took 
the Queen in tow and drew her out 
of periL Com. Davis's flag-boat, 
the Benton, threw a 50-pound ball 
from a rifled Parrott into the Rebel 
gunboat Gren. Lovell, striking her 
aft, just above the water-line, and 
tearing a great hole, into which the 
water rushed in a torrent. In four 
minutes, she had sunk in 75 feet 
of water, carrying down a part 
of her crew. There remained but 
four of the Rebel boats; and 
these, which had been for some time 
drifting, though firing, now turned 
their bows toward the Arkansas 
shore, which the Jeff*. Thompson 
soon reached, when her officers and 
crew leaped off and ran into the 
woods, while a shell exploding on 
her deck, set her on fire, and she was 
bumed down to the water. The 
crew of the Gen. Bragg and the 
Sumter escaped in like manner; 
while the swifter Gen. Yan Dom 
fled down the river. The battle had 
lasted a little over an hour, and its 
result was most decisive. No man 
was killed on board our fleet. Mem- 
phis, whose population had all been 
interested spectators of the combat, 
surrendered inmiediately. 

An expedition, comprising four 
gunboats and a steam transport, 
conveying the 46th Indiana, Col. 
Rtch, was soon dispatched up the 
Arkansas and White rivers, to open 
communicAtion with Gen. Curtis, 
known to be approaching from the 
West Reaching St. Charles, the 
Hound City, then in advance, was 
fired on fi^m two concealed batteries. 

and replied, while our troops were 
landed below to take those batteries 
in the rear. A ball, from a siege- 
gun on the bluff, pierced the side of 
the Mound City, and passed through 
her steam-drum, filling the vessel in- 
stantly with the scalding vapor. Of 
the 175 persons on board, barely 23 
escaped injury. Many jumped over- 
board, frantic with pain, and were 
drowned ; while the boats sent from 
the Conestoga to their relief, were 
fired on by the Eebels with grape 
and canister, killing most of our 
scalded and frantic fugitives. In a 
few minutes. Col. Fitch had carried 
the works by a charge, capturing 9 
guns and about 30 prisoners, inclu- 
ding Col. Frye, the commandant 
The expedition failed to effect its 

The triumphant Union fleet soon 
proceeded aown the river, encoun- 
tering no serious obstacle till near 
Vicksburg," where it communicated 
with Com. Farragut, whose fleet 
from the Gulf lay below this natural 
stronghold, accompanied by Gen. 
Williams, with four regiments of 
infantry. The Rebel fortiflcations 
were bombarded ** for several hours, 
without result; but Lt.-Col. Ellet, 
with two rams, went that day up the 
Yazoo river, to capture three Rebel 
gunboats, which, on his approach, 
were set on fire and impelled down 
the current, with intent to envelop 
our vessels in the flames. The Rebel 
boats were destroyed. 

The siege of Vicksburg was con- 
tinued by our fleet, and a determined 
attack made on it July 1, but de- 
feated. The Rebel ram Arkansas 
came down *• the Yazoo, ran through 
the astonished Union fleet, and took 

*» June 24. 

' June 26. 

* July 15. 

Digitized by 




refuge under the batteries of Vicks- 
burg, unliarmed. Repeated attempts 
to destroy or sink her" were defeated 
by the shore batteries ; and, on the 
24th, the siege was raised; Com. 
Farragut, with Gen. Williams, re- 
turning down the river ; while Com. 
Davis, with his fleet, steamed up to 
the mouth of the Yazoo, thus aban- 
doning, for the time, the reopening 
of the Mississippi. 

Gen. Grant's victorious army, after 
a brief rest at Fort Donelson, re- 
crossed, considerably strengthened, 
to the Tennessee, just above Fort 
Henry, where several gunboats and a 
large number of transports, passing 
down the Cumberland into the Ohio, 
and thence into the Tennessee, took 
up our soldiers by regiments and 
started with them on a new move- 
ment up the Tennessee. General 
Charles F. Smith had been desig- 
nated by Gen. Halleck to direct this 
movement, but was soon disabled by 
the sickness of which he died not long 
after reaching Savannah, Tenn., and 
Gen. Grant was thus restored to chief 
command. The rendezvous of the 
expedition was at a little place called 
Danville, where the railroad jfrom 
Memphis to Clarkesville and Louis- 
ville crosses the river. The gunboats 
Tyler and Lexington had abeady 
made a reconnoissance up the Ten- 
nessee, meeting their first resistance 
at Pittsburg Landing, an insignifi- 
cant two-house nucleus of a prospec- 
tive village, 8 miles above Savannah 
and 20 miles N.N.E. of Corinth, Miss., 
at the junction of the Memphis and 
Charleston with the Mobile and Ohio 
Railroad. The country hence to 
Corinth is rolling, and generally 

wooded. Two or three miles south- 
ward is Shiloh Church, and some ten 
miles farther is the road-crossing 
known as Monterey, where there 
were half-a-dozen houses. The re- 
gion is thinly and recently settled ; 
still mainly covered by the primitive 
forest; gently rolling, and traversed 
by a number of inconsiderable creeks, 
making eastward and northward, to 
be lost in the Tennessee. 

At Pittsburg Landing, the Tyler 
foimd a Rebel battery of six guns, 
which it silenced, aftier a mutual can- 
nonade of two hours; returning 
thence to Danville and reporting. 
The movement of the army south- 
ward on transports was continued — 
the 46th Ohio, Col. Worthington, 
leading, on the transport B. J. 
Adams — so far as Savannah, where 
it was landed," and proceeded to 
take military possession. All the 
transports, 69 in number, conveying 
nearly 40,000 men, were soon de- 
barking the army, with its material, 
at and near this place, whence Gen. ' 
Lew. Wallace's division was dis- 
patched " to Purdy, a station 16 miles 
W.S.W., where the railroad was de- 
stroyed. Gen. Sherman's first divi- 
sion was next ** conveyed up the river 
to Tyler's Landing, just across the 
Mississippi State line ; whence the 
6th Ohio cavalry was dispatched to 
Bumsville, on the Memphis and 
Charleston road, some miles eastward 
of Corinth, which was likewise de- 
stroyed without resistance. The ex- 
pedition then returned unmolested 
to Savannah. 

These easy successes, and the fact 
that no enemy came near or seemed 
to meditate annoyance, must have 
imbued our leading officers with a 

" July 15-*J2. 


"March 12. 

"March 14. 

Digitized by 




contempt for the power or the prowess 
of their enemy ; since our regiments, 
as they arrived, were mainly de- 
barked at Pittsbui^ Landing, on the 
side of the Tennessee nearest to and 
within easy striking distance of the 
Sebel headquarters at Corinth. One 
of the six divisions, under Gen. Lew. 
Wallace, wast encamped nearly op- 
posite Savannah ; the other five were 
thrown out in a semicircle southward 
of Pittsburg Landing, with a front 
like a Methodist camp-meeting, strag- 
gling firom Lick creek on the south 
or left, to Snake creek on the north 
or right, a distance of some three or 
four miles. Gen Prentiss's division 
was encamped across the direct road 
to Cbrinth, with Gen. McClemand's 
behind his right, and Gen. Sherman's 
still further to the right, \vith Shiloh 
church in his front, on a road lead- 
ing also, but more circuitously, to 
Corinth. Gen. Hurlbut's division 
lay in the rear of G^n. Prentiss. 
Gen. Smith's division, commanded, 
because of Smith's sickness, by Gen. 
W. H. L. Wallace, was on the left of 
and behind McClemand, with its 
right near Pittsburg Landing and its 
front somewhat protected by the 
ravines of two rivulets running into 
Snake creek. 

Though the vicinity of the enemy 
was notorious, not an intrenchment 
nor defense of any kind, not even an 
abatis, here so easily made, covered 
and protected our front; no recon- 
noitering parties were thrown for- 
ward to watch for and report an ad- 
vance of the enemy ; and even the 

* * Agate'* [Whitelaw Reid], of tho dncin- 
*^' GuseUe^ in his report of the battle, says : 

*• We had lain three weeks at Pittsburg Land- 
in?, within 20 miles of the Rebels, that were 
likelj u> attack us in superior numbers, with- 

pickets were scarcely a musket-shot 
from the tents of our foremost regi- 
ments ; some of which, it was asserted, 
had not even been provided with 
ammunition, though it was known 
that the woods, scarcely a mile away, 
had suddenly been found swarming 
with Rebel scouts and sharp-shooters 
in such strength as to forbid observa- 
tion on our part.** Low but ominous 
whispers and meaning glances of ex- 
ultation among the Rebel civilians 
in our rear had already given indi- 
cations that a blow was about to be 
struck ; and alarmed Unionists had 
sought the tents of our (Generals with 
monitions of danger, which were re- 
ceived with sneering intimations that 
every one should stick to his trade. 
Gen. Grant was at Savannah, super- 
intending the reception of supplies. 
Such was the condition of our forces 
on Saturday evening, April 5th. 

Albert Sidney Johnston was prob- 
ably the ablest commander at any 
time engaged in the Rebel service. 
He had braved unpopularity and re- 
proach from the herd of chimney- 
comer critics who supposed it the 
duty of a General to run his head 
against every stone-wall within reach, 
by refusing to fight losing battles for 
BowlingGreen and Nashville,and had 
thus brought off his army intact and 
undemoralized ; retreating across the 
Tennessee and into a region at once 
undevastated and unappalled by war, 
full of resources, wherein devotion 
to the Union had been utterly sup- 
pressed, if not eradicated, and whence, 
by a net-work of railroads and tele- 

out throwing up a single breastwork or prepar- 
ing a single protection for a battery, and with 
the brigades of one division [Sherman's] 
stretched from extreme right to extreme left of 
our line, while four other divisions had been 
crowded in between, as they arrived." 

Digitized by 




graphs, lie communicated easily with 
Richmond, and with every portion of 
the Cotton States. The recent evac- 
uation of Columbus by Polk was 
probably ordered by him, in obedi- 
ence to his policy of concentrating 
around Corinth the greatest possible 
force, with intent to rush upon and 
overwhelm the Union army, so care- 
lessly encamped just before him on 
the hither bank of the Tennessee. 
Having a spy in nearly every dwell- 
ing in southern Tennessee, he was 
doubtless aware that the command 
of that army had just been turned 
over by Gen. C. F. Smith, an expe- 
rienced and capable soldier, to Gen. 
Grant, so recently from civil life ; 
and he had no doubt of liis ability to 
accomplish its destruction. Calling 
urgently upon the Governors of Ten- 
nessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana, 
for all the troops they could spare 
or raise, and being strongly reen- 
forced by Gen. Braxtoi^ Bragg, with 
a drilled corps from Mobile and Pen- 
sacola," he had, by the 1st of April, 
collected an army of about 50,000." 
Moving silently out from Corinth, in 
light marching order and without 
tents, at 3 a. m., on the 3d, the ad- 
vance of his infantry preceded and 

masked by cavalry, he confidently 
expected to attack in full force on 
the morning of the 5th ; but a heavy 
rain on the 4th so deepened the mire 
of the narrow, wretched roads, that 
Ids army was by that time but fairly 
, concentrated at Monterey, thence 
moving with the utmost caution un- 
til within three and a half miles of 
our pickets, where, imable to advance 
farther without braving discovery, he 
halted for the night" Here, with 
double guards along his front, in- 
structed to shoot any man who, upon 
whatever pretext, should attempt to 
pass, a coimcil of war was held at 8 
p. M., and every preparation made for 
a stealthy and desperate assault at 
daybreak ; while the soldiers, forbid- 
den to make fires, sank on the cold, 
damp ground, under the open sky, 
and shivered through a part of the 
night. Each Colonel had orders to 
have his regiment under arms and 
ready to move by 3 a. m. 

At early dawn, the advance was 
resumed in line of battle : Maj.-Gen. 
Hardee, with the 3d corps, in front, 
with the 2d, and strongest, under 
Gen. Bragg, 500 yards behind him ; 
the 1st, under Gen. Polk, half a mile 
in the rear of this, with the reserve, 

^ About this time abandoned bj tlie Bebels. 

" Beauregard, in his field return of the ' Ar- 
my of the Mississippi,' before and after the bat- 
tle of Shiloh, makes his eflectire total, before 
battle, 40,355 men, of whom 4,382 were cavalrj, 
which he says was useless and could not oper- 
ate at all, the battle-field being so thickly wood- 
ed. But this return includes none of his troops 
left to guard his base at Corinth, or his trains in 
the rear of the battle-field, and conceals the fact 
that his cavalry were usefully employed in guard- 
mg, on their way to Corinth, his prisoners as 
well as his wounded. Beside, when he comes 
to sum up his losses, he states the loss of his 
cavalry at 301 — rather inexplicable, if that cav- 
alry was useless and unemployed. 

•• "An Impressed New-Yorker," who was 
then serving on Beauregard's staff) in his ** Thir- 
teen Months in the Rebel Army," says: 

" While it is no part of my duty, in this narra- 
tive, to criticise military movements, and espe- 
cially those of the Union forces, I may state that 
the total absence of cavalry pickets from Gen. 
Grant's army was a matter of perfect amazement 
to the Rebel oflScers. There were absolutely 
none on Grant's lef% where Gen. Breckinridge's 
division was meeting him ; so that we were able 
to come up within hearing of their drums en- 
tirely unperceived. The Southern Generals al- 
ways kept cavalry pickets out for miles, even 
when no enemy was supposed to be within a 
day's march of them. The infantry pickets of 
Grant's forces were not above three-fourths of a 
mile from his advance camps, and they were too 
few to make any resistance." 

Digitized by 




under Gen. John C. Breckinridge, 
closely following. This order, how- 
erer, was soon sacrificed to the exi- 
gencies of the contest. 

Rnmors of a Eebel advance, and 
the capture of some of our officers 
thereby, had reached our camps on 
Friday;** and an Ohio brigade had 
been sent out to reconnoiter, which 
had a brush with a smaller Rebel 
force, and pushed it back to a battery 
which was found in position near our 
lines. Gten. Lew. Waflace's division 
was thereupon ordered out, and ad- 
vanced to Adamsville, on the road to 
Purdy; but, meeting no opponent, 
after passing a night in drenching 
rain, it returned to its camp. On 
Saturday, there was firing along our 
front, which ought to have incited 
inquiry, if not alarm, but did not. 

As day broke,** our pickets in 
Prentiss's front came rushing into 
camp, barely in advance of the pursu- 
ing Rebels, whose shells were tearing 
through our tents a moment after- 
ward. Some of our men were dress- 
ing ; others washing or cooking ; a 
few eating their breakfasts ; many, 
especially officers, had not yet risen. 
The next instant, magnificent lines 
of battle poured out of the woods in 
ftx>nt of our camps, and at double- 
quick rushed in upon our bewildered, 
half-dressed, and not yet half-formed 
men, firing deadly volleys at close 
range, then springing upon the help- 
less, coatless, musketless mob with 
the bayonet. Some fell as they ran ; 
others as they emerged from their 
tents, or as they strove to buckle on 
their accouterments ; some tried to 
surrender; but the Rebels could not 
stop then to take prisoners. Some 
of these were found, though disabled. 

still alive, when we recovered those 
tents next evening. 

Thus was Prentiss's division routed 
before it had time to form in line of 
battle ; and Hildebrand's brigade, 
on Sherman's right, was demolished 
with equal expedition, in spite of 
Sherman's best exertions. His ef- 
forts and infiuence, backed by the 
most reckless self-exposure, held his 
remaining brigades, under Buckland 
and McDowell, steady for a time ; 
but these were soon compelled to 
fall back behind the next ravine, 
leaving their camps, with all their 
tents and tent equipage, to the enemy. 

McClemand's division, comprising 
10 regiments and 4 batteries, had 
been astonished with the rest, but 
not yet directly assailed. Moving 
up, at 7 A. M., to the support of Sher- 
man, it found his division mostly 
gone or going ; its best officers killed 
or wounded, its batteries either cap- 
tured or badly cut up. Buckland's 
brigade, which had gone after Hilde- 
brand's, forming our extreme right 
on the front, had fallen back to avoid 
certain destruction. To all practical 
intents, and in spite of its leader's 
desperate and untiring exertions, 
Sherman's division was out of the 
fight by 8 o'clock that ominous morn- 
ing. It seemed a miracle that their 
commander, always in the hottest of 
the Rebel fire, escaped with a single 
musket-ball through his hand. 

Prentiss formed his division as 
quickly as possible, and not far in 
the rear of their camps, where his 
men faced to the front and fought 
stubbornly for a time ; but they had 
been strangely drawn up in an open 
field, leaving to the enemy the cover 
of a dense scrub-oak thicket in our 

April 4. 

' On Sunday, April 6. 

Digitized by 





A PosfUons of Mi^.-Gen. Gnnrs forces on the morning 
of April 0th. 

B Positions of Grant, with the dirisions of Nelson and 
Crittiinden, on the evening of April 6th. 

Positions of Grant and Bnell on the morning of 

April 7th. 
D Positions of Grant and Baell on the evening of 

April 7th. 
E Beserve Artillery. 

front, whence they could pour volley 
after volley in comparative security. 
Soon, our men were flanked on either 
side, and fell back, perceiving that 
they were squandering their lives to 
no purpose. Thus the division lost 
all coherence and efficiency ; its lead- 
er became separated from a large 

portion of his command ; and by 10 
o'clock it had been virtually demol- 
ished. Prentiss himself^ with three 
regiments, held an unassailed posi- 
tion until, having long since become 
completely surrounded, he was finally 
obliged to surrender;" when over 
2,000 of our men in one body were 

*' This did not occur till about 4 p. h. ; but he 
had long before ceased to form a part of our 

line of battle, the Rebels haying flanked and 
passed on beyond him. 

Digitized by 




hurried to the Rebel rear as prisoners, 
and soon started on the road to 

McClemand for a while stood firm ; 
but the defection of Sherman's divi- 
sion on one side, and Prentiss's on 
the other, left the Rebels free to 
hurl themselves against him in tre- 
mendous force. Two green regi- 
ments, the 15th and 16th Iowa, which 
he now brought to the front under 
a heavy fire, gave way at once in 
disorder. Changing his front to 
meet the Rebel onset, he faced along 
the Corinth road and planted his 
batteries to command it ; so that the 
Eebels were for a time foiled in their 
efforts to advance ; and an effort to 
come in on his rear, over ground 
abandoned by Sherman's division, was 
handsomely repulsed, with heavy mu- 
tual loss, by Dresser's rifled battery. 

But one division could not sustain 
the weight of more than half the 
Rebel army, admirably handled, and 
constantly advancing fresh regiments 
to replace those already blown or 
too badly cut up. After repulsing 
several determined attacks, some- 
times advancing a little, but gener- 
ally giving ground, and losing three 
Colonels of the line and three officers 
<rf his staff, with at least half the 
effective force of his batteries, Mc- 
Clemand, by 11 A. M., found himself 
pushed back, with Hurlbut's fresh 
division on bis left, and the dSris 
of Sherman's on his right. 

Meantime, a brigade of Sherman's 
dirision, under Col. David Stuart, 
which had been oddly posted on our 
extreme left, holding what was known 
as the Hamburg road, had been sud- 
denly shelled fi^m the opposite bluffs 
of lick creek, by a force which the 
next instant peppered them with 

grape, and the next rushed across the 
creek and began pouring in sharp vol- 
leys of musketry, while the Rebel bat- 
teries, firing over the heads of their 
infantry, soon made our position un- 
tenable. Stuart fell back to the next 
ridge ; and, finding the Rebels who 
had followed Prentiss beginning to 
come in on his right, sent to Gen. 
W. H. L. Wallace for assistance. Gen. 
McArthur's brigade was promptly 
dispatched to Stuart's support; but, 
bearing too much to the right, was 
soon sharply engaged with the pur- 
suers of Prentiss. Falling back to a 
good position, he held it, though 
wounded, until Wallace came to his 
aid ; but Stuart, receiving no direct 
support, was driven back from one 
ridge to another, until by noon, him- 
self wounded, several of his officers 
fallen, and his command sadly shat- 
tered, he fell in behind Mc Arthur to 
reorganize. And thus, of our six di- 
visions, three had been thoroughly 
routed before mid-day. 

Gen. Grant had arrived on the bat- 
tle-field about 8 A. M. ; but, early as 
was the hour, his army was already 
beafen. As this, however, is a circum- 
stance of which he is not easily con- 
vinced, it did not seem to make as 
vivid an impression on him as on 
others. Sending word to Lew. Wal- 
lace to hasten up with his division 
on our right, he devoted his personal 
attention to reforming his shattered 
brigades, reestablishing his silenced 
batteries, and forming new lines of 
defense to replace those so suddenly 
demolished. Hurlbut's and W. H. L. 
Wallace's divisions were still intact ; 
while of the others the better but not 
the larger part of those not already 
disabled fell into line on their flanks, 
or just behind them. 

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Hurlbut held the direct road to 
Corinth, with woods at his back 
and open fields commanded by his 
batteries in his front; and here he 
stood, fighting a more nnmerons, 
equally gallant, and victory-flushed 
enemy, for more than five hours. 
Here he was thrice charged in foil 
force, and thrice he repulsed the foe 
with terrible slaughter. The close 
ranks which rushed upon him were 
first plowed through and through 
with grape, then, as they came 
nearer, with more deadly musketry ; 
until the shouted orders, entreaties, 
menaces, of frantic officers no longer 
availed, and the long lines sank back 
defeated to the shelter in their rear. 
Here fell, at 2 J^ o'clock, Albert Sidney 
Johnston, the Rebel commander-in- 
chief, struck in the thigh by a frag- 
ment of shell, but sitting silently on 
his horse for some minutes, and only 
taken off to die. Beauregard at once 
assumed command; but the death of 
Johnston was concealed, so far as 
possible, until his army had returned 
to Corinth. An hour later, Hurl- 
but's division, worn out by incessant 
fighting against fresh regiments, fell 
back nearly half a mile, to a position 
about that distance from the Landing. 

"W. H. L. Wallace's division was in 
like manner exposed to and attacked 
by the exultant Eebels about 10 a. m. ; 
and for six hours was hotly engaged, 
with scarcely an intermission. Four 
times was it charged along its whole 
line ; and every charge was repulsed 
with heavy slaughter. Once or twice, 
our men pursued their retreating foes ; 
but the disparity of numbers was too 
great, and they were soon pushed 
back to tlieir lines. They were still 
fighting as eagerly and confidently 
as ever, when Hurlbut's retreat com- I 

polled them to fall back also, or be 
fianked and surrounded as Prenti&i 
had been. Just now, their leader fell, 
mortally wounded ; closing in death 
a day's work which had won for him 
the admiration of all beholders and 
the lasting gratitude of his country. 
The division fell back into line witii 
Hurlbut's new position ; losing of its 
batteries but a single gun, whereof 
the carriage had been disabled. 

Lew. Wallace was at Crump's 
Landing, with his force extended on 
the road to Purdy, when he received, 
at llj A. M., Grant's order to bring 
his division into the fight. He had 
been anxiously awaiting that order, 
listening to the sound of the mutual 
cannonade since morning; and his 
column was instantly put in motion. 
Snake creek, with steep banks and 
swampy bottom, was in his way ; but 
his men were eager for the fray, and 
were soon making good time in the 
direction indicated. But he was 
met, near the creek, by messengers 
from Grant with tidings that our ad- 
vanced divisions had been over- 
powered and beaten back ; so that the 
road on which he was hastening 
would now lead him directly into the 
midst of the enemy, who could easily 
envelop him with thrice his^ num- 
bers. He thereupon turned abruptly 
to the left, moving down the west 
bank of Snake creek to the river 
road, which follows the windings of 
the Tennessee bottom, and crosses 
the creek at its mouth, close by Pitts- 
burg Landing. This countermarch 
delayed his junction with our sorely- 
pressed combatants until after night- 
fall ; and thus 11 regiments of our in- 
fantry, 2 batteries, and 2 battalions 
of cavalry, remained useless through- 
out that day's bloody struggle. 

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At 4J p. M., our Burprised but 
otherwise over-matched army, apart 
from Lew. Wallace's division, had 
been crowded back into a semicircle 
of three or four hundred acres imme- 
diatelj around, but rather to the left 
of the Landing. It could retreat no 
farther. A deep, rapid river in its 
rear could only be crossed with the 
loss of half its remaining men " and 
every thing beside. Of its five divi- 
sions, two had been beaten back ; the 
other three utterly routed. Our ar- 
tillery was half lost or disabled ; our 
field-hospitals overflowing ; our tents 
and camp-equipage mainly in the 
hands of the enemy; our losses in 
men enormous ; and those who had 
not fallen were in good part dis- 
heartened ; not less than 5,000 men 
in uniform, possibly twice that num- 
ber — to say nothing of sutlers, com- 
missaries, and the usual rabble of 
camp-followers — were huddled under 
the bank of the river, not all of them 
privates, but all repeating the stereo- 
typed excuse, " Our regiment is all 
cut to pieces," and resisting every 
entreaty of their more zealous officers 
to bring them again into line. 

But the Rebels, whose losses had 
also been heavy, fearing a trap, hesi- 
tated for a few minutes to follow W. 
H. L Wallaee's division, as it recoiled 
from the position it had so long and 
80 stoutly defended. Those mo- 
ments were incalculably precious, 
and were thoroughly improved. Col. 
J. D. Webster, chief of staff to Gen. 
Grant, a believer in artillery, im- 
proved the opportunity to collect our 

remaining guns — 22 only — and plant 
them on the blufl' in a semicircle, 
commanding the roads whereby the 
Rebels must approach. Gunners 
proving scarce. Dr. Cornyn, surgeon 
of the 1st Missouri artillery, volun- 
teered in that capacity, and proved 
himself a workman who needed not 
to be ashamed. There was rare 
virtue inherent in those 22 guns, and 
men around them who knew how to 
evoke it. 

It was hardly 6 o'clock when the 
Eebel batteries, once more in posi 
tion, opened, at a distance of a few 
hundred yards, on our last possible 
holding-ground.' Our next recoil 
must be over the bank, into the 
hideous, helpless massacre of a grand- 
er Ball's Bluff. Promptly and most 
efficiently, "Webster's guns make re- 
ply. Soon, the Rebel infantry v^as 
seen crowding up to their guns, open- 
ing fire at rather long range, to find 
our shattered battalions reformed and 
giving abundant answer. At this 
moment, the gunboats Tyler and 
Lexington, which had all day been 
chafing at their impotence, opened 
on our left, firing up a deep ravine 
that seemed to have been cut through 
the bluff on purpose. Seven-inch 
shell and 64-pound shot were hurled 
by them diagonally across the new 
Rebel front, decidedly interfering 
with the regularity of its formation, 
and preventing that final rush upon 
our guns and the supporting infantry 
whose success would have perfected 
their triumph. So, far into the even- 
ing of that busy, lurid Sabbath, our 

" Among the apocryphal anecdotes in circula- 
tkMi, one represents Gen. BueU as remonstrat- 
ing, two or three days afterward, against the 
•oidiership which placed Grant's army on the 
mth rather than on the north hank of the 
Tennessee. " Where wa^ your Ime of retreat ?' ' 
VOIfc IL — 5 

asked BuelL " Oh, across the river," responded 
Grant "But you could not have ferried over 
more than 10,000 men," persisted BueU. " Well, 
there would not have been more than that," re- 
plied Grant Temerity was then so rare among 
our Generals that it seemed a virtue. 

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batteries and boats kept up their 
thunders, fairly silencing the Rebel 
guns, and compelling their infantry 
to take post fiarther and farther back, 
in order to be out of the reach of our 
shells ; and all through the night, at 
intervals of 10 to 15 minutes, the 
gunboats continued to send their 
compliments into the Eebel lines, as 
if the pouring rain which fell at mid- 
night might not suflSce to break the 
slumbers of the weary thousands who 
had lain down on their arms wher- 
ever night found them, to gather 
strength and refreshment for the in- 
evitable struggle of the morrow. 

Before seeking his couch in the 
little church at Shiloh, the surviving 
Rebel leader dispatched a messenger 
to Corinth with this exhilarating dis- 
patch for Richmond : 

" Battle-field of Shiloh, ^ 
" Via Corinth and Chattanooga, > 
"April 6th, 1862.) 
"Gen. 8. Cooper, Adjutant-General: 

" We have this morning attacked the 
enemy in strong position in front of Pitts- 
burg; and, after a severe battle of ten 
hours, thanks to Almighty God, gained a 
complete victory, driving the enemy from 
every position. 

" The loss on both sides is heavy, includ- 
ing our commander-in-chief. Gen. Albert 
Sidney Johnston, who fell gallantly leading 
his troops into the thickest of the fight. 


" General Commanding." 
Maj.-Gen. Buell's long-expected 
* Army of the Ohio ' had been de- 
layed on its march from Nashville, 

•"His official report says : 

"As we proceeded up the river, groups of 
soldiers were seen on the west bank ; and it soon 
became evident that they were stragglers from 
the engaged army. The groups increased in 
size and frequency, until, as we approached the 
Landing, they numbered whole companies, and 
almost regiments; and at the Landing the banks 
swarmed witli a confused mass of men of vari- 
ous regiments. There could not have been less 
than 4,000 or 5,000. Late in the day, it became 
much greater. Finding Gen, Grant at the 
Landing, I requested him to send steamers to 

repairing roads and rebnilding the 
bridge over Duck river at Columbia ; 
which place Gen. B. himself left with 
his rear division on the 2d of April ; 
reaching Savannah with his advance 
division, G^en. Nelson's, on the even- 
ing of the 5th: the remaining di- 
visions were strung along the road 
from Columbia at intervals of six 
miles. A halt to rest on reaching 
the Tennessee was generally expect- 
ed ; but, on the morning of the 6th, 
ominous and persistent reports of 
musketry as well as cannon in the 
direction of Pittsburg Landing dis- 
pelled this illusion. Buell hastened 
to Gen. Grant's headquarters, only to 
learn that he had just started on a 
steamboat for the Landing; ha\ang 
left orders for Gen. Nelson, with 
Buell's advance, to push on up the 
right bank of the river, leaving his 
cannon, because of the badness of 
the roads, to be taken by steamboats. 
Though it was still believed at Sa- 
vannah that there was nothing going 
on above more serious than an affair 
of outposts, Gen. Buell sent orders 
to his rear divisions to hurry forward, 
and, taking a steamboat, proceeded 
to the Lauding ; where ihe multipli- 
city and constant increase of strag- 
glers soon convinced him that the 
matter in hand was urgent and im- 
portant." Finding Gen. Grant at 
the Landing, he requested the dis- 

Savannah to bring up Gen. Crittenden's division 
which had arrived during the morning, and then 
went ashore with him. The throng of disor- 
ganized and demoralized troops increased con- 
tinually by fresh fugitives from the battle, which 
steadily drew nearer the Landing; and with 
these were intermingled great numbers of teams, 
all striving to get as near as possible to the 
river. With few exceptions, all efforts to form 
the troops and move them forward to the fight 
utterly failed. In the mean time, the enemy had 
made such prog^ss again t our troops, that his 
artillery and musketry began to play into the 

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patch of steamerB to Savannah, for 
Gen. Crittenden's, his 2d division, 
while he landed to take part in the 

Gen. Nelson, starting at 1:30, ar- 
rived at 5 p. ic opposite the Landing 
with his leading (Col. Ammen's) bri- 
gade, which was immediately crossed 
and formed in line, under a fire of 
Rebel artillery, on the right of Web- 
ster's guns. Ammen's men were just 
able to put in an appearance before 
dark, firing a few volleys and repuls- 
ing a Eebel charge on their guns at 
6i p. M., -when the enemy desisted 
and withdrew. By Y, the whole di- 
vision was over, and soon in position ; 
lying down on their arms, under or- 
ders from Buell to advance and at- 
tack at early daylight ; which were 
implicitly obeyed. 

Crittenden's division reached Sa- 
vamiah at nightfall of Sunday, and 
was forwarded by steamboats direct- 
ly to the Landing; where it was 
rapidly debarked and formed on the 
right of Nelson. 

Buell's next division. Gen. A. Mc- 
D. McCook, was 12 miles from Sa- 
vannah when it received orders, 
which it made haste to obey, arriving 
at Savannah at 7 to 8 p. m. ; but, 
finding there no boats ready for its 
service, McCook routed up the cap- 
tains of the boats lying at the dock, 
and embarked Bousseau's brigade, 
with which he reached the Landing 
at 5 J A« M. ; his other brigades. Cols. 
Gibson and Kirk, arriving some time 

later, on boats which had been press- 
ed into service as they successively 
reached Savannah. The residue of 
Buell's army was too far behind on 
the Columbia road to be even hoped 
for. Two brigades of Wood's divi- 
sion arrived, however, just at the 
close of the battle. 

The fighting reopened along the 
whole line at daylight of the 7th, and 
imder conditions bravely altered from 
those of the day preceding. The 
arrival of part of Buell^s and all Lew. 
"Wallace's commands had brought to 
the field not less than 25,000 troops ; 
fresh, so far as fighting was con- 
cerned, for this day's action; while 
Beauregard, whose men, throughout 
the 6th, had been on foot 16 hours, 
and fighting most of the time had 
barely 3,000 left of his reserve where- 
with to match them. His force had 
been fearfully reduced by the casual- 
ties of battle, and scarcely less by 
skulking, or scattering in quest of 
plunder — faults common to all raw 
troops, but of which he complains 
in his report as though they were 
novel and amazing." He had hith- 
erto been buoyed up, or at least had 
buoyed up the spirits of his soldiers, 
by expectations and assurances that 
Gens. Price and Van Dorn, with 
some 30,000 men from across the 
Mississippi, were close at hand, and 
would reach him in time for this 
day's battle. But they did not come, 
and Buell did. The hot fire of mus- 
ketry and artillery poured in upon 

TiUl spot of the position, and some persons 
were kiQed on the bank, at the yery Landing." 

•• He says : 

'*From this agreeable dutj [of praising the 
nefitorious], I turn to one in the highest degree 
onpleasant — one doe, howeyer, to the brave men 
onder me, as a contrast to the behavior of most 
of tbe army who fought so heroically. I allude 

to the fact that some officers, non-commissioned 
officers, and men, abandoned their colors, early in 
the first day, to pillage the captured encamp- 
ments ; others retired shamefully from the field 
on both days, while the thunder of cannon and 
the roar and rattle of musketry told them that 
tlieir brothers were being slaughtered by the 
flresh legions of the enemy." 

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his entire front before sunrise, gave 
him ample assurance of this ; while 
his soldiers, exhausted and stiffened 
by yesterday's protracted efforts, and 
chilled, like ours, by the rain of the 
intervening night, stood to their arms 
firmly, but without alacrity or enthu- 

Nelson had quietly aroused his 
men at 4 a« m. ; and he advanced in 
parade order at 5^ ; soon concentrat- 
ing upon himself the lire of half the 
Eebel army. Not having received 
his artillery, his infantry, annoyed 
by two Rebel batteries, began, at 7i, 
to give ground ; when, on applying 
to Gen. Buell, the battery of Capt. 
Mendenhall, and at 9 that of Capt. 
Terrill — ^both regulars — were sent to 
his support, and the Eebel batteries 
in front thereby silenced. Meantime, 
the Rebel concentration upon this 
division was continued ; but its beha- 
vior was splendid, especially that of 
Ammen's brigade, admirably han- 
dled by its chief; while that of Ila- 
gen, on the right, maintained its po- 
sition with equal gallantry. The loss 
by this division of 739 out of 4,541 — 
more than half of it in Hagen's bri- 
gade — attests the tenacity of the 
Rebel resistance this day. 

Crittenden's and McCook's divi- 
sions were engaged later, but not less 
earnestly. Advancing across a ra- 
vine, McCook's right and center were 
immediately attacked in force; but 
the steady valor of Rousseau's bri- 
gade prevailed, and their assailants, 
recoiling, were pursued nearly a mile ; 
when they were reenforced and ral- 
lied among the tents whence McCler- 
nand's left had been so hurriedly 
driven the previous morning. Two 
of his guns, being now turned against 
us by the enemy, were finally cap- 

tured by a charge of Col. Buckley's 
5th Kentucky; while McClemand's 
headquarters were retaken by Rous- 
seau, who, impetuously pursuing 
across a level field, opened too wide 
a gap between his right and Gen. 
Crittenden's division, which was filled 
by Col. "Willich's regiment advancing, 
under a deadly fire of shell, shot, and 
musketry, to its support ; rushing up 
for a bayonet-charge to within 200 
yards of the enemy's line, when the 
latter gave way, and the regiment 
was deployed in line of battle to give 
them a hastening volley. Disordered 
by bad management, which brought 
its skirmishers under a fire of our 
own regiments on either side, Col. 
Willich's 32d Indiana hastily fell 
back; but was soon reformed and 
deployed, advancing with the entire 
division until the retreat of the 
enemy was decided. 

Lew. "Wallace, on our extreme 
right, with Sherman and McCler- 
nand between him and Buell's divi- 
sions, had likewise opened fire at day- 
light, dismounting a gun of the Rel)el 
battery before him. Throwing for- 
ward his right, by G^n. Grant's per- 
sonal direction, until his line, which 
had been parallel, formed a right 
angle with the river, he advanced 
en ec}id<m^ preceded by skirmishers, 
across a ravine to the opposite blufi^, 
where he waited for Sherman to 
come up ; and meantime, finding his 
right secured by a swamp, attempted 
to turn the enemy's left, which was 
thereupon heavily reenforced, being 
effectively cannonaded by the bat- 
teries of Thompson and Thurber. 
An attempt was made to capture 
Thurber's battery by a dash of cav- 
alry, which was easily defeated by 
the skirmishers of the 8th Missouri : 

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when the battery was charged by in- 
fantry ; who were easily repelled by 
Col. Morgan L, Smith's brigade. 

Meantime, Gen. Sherman, who had 
waited for the sound of Buell's 
guns upon the main Corinth road, 
advanced at 8 a. m., steadily and 
slowly, under fire, until he reached 
the point where the Corinth road 
crosses the line of McClemand's 
abandoned camps, and saw Willich's 
raiment, on his right, fighting gal- 
lantly for the possession of a point 
of timber some 500 yards east of 
Shiloh church. Hence the Rebel 
army could be seen re-forming its 
lines to the southward, with a bat- 
tery by the church, and another near 
the Hamburg road, pouring grape 
and canister into any column of our 
troops that advanced upon that green 
p^int of timber whence Willich's 
raiment had just been repulsed, but 
into which one of McCook's brigades 
(Rousseau's) was now advancing. 
Directing the fire of two 21-pound 
howitzers of McAllister's battery 
upon the Rebel guns, Sherman form- 
ed his two brigades (David Stuart's, 
BOW commanded by Col. T. Kilby 
Smith, and CoL Buckland's) to ad- 
vance in line with Rousseau ; which 
they did superbly, sweeping every 

thing before them. At 4 p. m., our 
soldiers held the original front line 
whence we had been so hurriedly 
driven 34 hours before ; and the whole 
Rebel army was retreating, unpur- 
sued, on Corinth." Gen. Sherman, 
with two brigades and the cavalry, 
went out a few miles next morning 
on the Corinth road, and had a smart 
skirmish with a small Rebel force, 
mainly of cavalry, which he repuls- 
ed, destroying a camp, and captur- 
ing a hospital, wherein he found 280 
Confederate and 50 Union wounded ; 
returning with the former to his 
camp near Shiloh next morning. 

Beauregard, in his official report, 

states that his effective force had now 

been reduced, " from exhaustion and 

other causes, from 40,000 to less than 

20,000 men ;" and adds : 

"Hour by hour opposed to an enemy 
constantly r^enforced, our ranks were per- 
ceptibly thinned under the increasing, 
withering fire of the enemy; and, by 12 m. 
[of the second day], 18 hours of hard fight- 
ing had sensibly exhausted a large number ; 
my last reserves had necessarily been dis- 
posed of; and the enemy was evidently re- 
ceiving fresh r§enforcements after each 
repulse ; accordingly, about 1 p. m., I deter- 
mined to withdraw from so unequal a con- 
flict; securing such of the results of the vic- 
tory of the day before as were practicable." 

This is pretty fair, but not strictly 

accordant with the dispatch which 

•"An Impressed New-Yorker*' says: 
"No heroism of officers or men could avail to 
8Uy tbe advance of the Federal troops. At 3 
P.M., the Ck>nfederate3 decided on a retreat to 
Corinth; and Gen. Breckinridge, strengthened 
by three regiments of cavalry — Forrest's, 
Adams's, and the Texas Bangers, raising his ef- 
fective force to 1 2,000 men — ^received orders to 
protect the rear. By 4 p. ii^ the Confederates 
were in fnll retreat The main body of the 
trmy passed silently and swiftly along the road 
toward Corinth; our division bringing up the 
rear, determined to make a desperate stand if 
parsued. At this time, the Union forces might 
hive dosed in upon our retreating columns and 
eiit off Breckinridge's division, and perhaps cap- 
tared it. A Fedc^l battery threw some shells, 
«a a feeler, acroes the road on which we were 

retreating, between our division and the main 
body ; but no reply was made to them, as this 
would have betrayed our position. We passed 
on with little opposition or loss, and by 5 o'clock 
had reached a point one and a half miles nearer 
Corinth than the point of attack Sabbath morn- 
ing. Up to this time, the pursuit seemed feeble, 
and the Confederates were surprised that the 
victorious Federals made no more of their ad- 
vantage. Nor is it yet understood why the pur- 
suit was not pressed. A rapid and persistent 
pursuit would have created a complete rout of 
the now broken, weary, and dispirited Rebels. 
Two hours more of such fighting as Buell's fresh 
men could have made would have demoralized 
and destroyed Beauregard's army. For some 
reason, this was not done; and night closed the 

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he, after sending back from Monterey 
a request to Gen. Grant for permis- 
sion to send a mounted party to the 
battle-field under a flag of truce to 
bury his dead, and being answered 
that, owing to the warmth of the 
weather, they had abready been 
buried, transmitted to Richmond, 

" CoBiNTH, TacBday, April 8th, 1862. 
" To the Secretary of War, Kiohmond : 

*^We have gained a great and glorious 
victory. Eight to ten thousand prisoners, 
and 86 pieces of cannon.** Buell rfienforced 
Grant, and we retired to our intrenchments 
at Corinth, which we can hold. Loss 
heavy on both sides. Beaubegabd." 

Beauregard ofiicially reports his 
loss in this battle at 1,728 killed, 
8,012 wounded, 967 missing: total, 
10,699, or a little more than one- 
fourth of the admitted strength of 

his army/^ G^n. Grant, writing on 
the 9th, gives his losses approxi- 
mately at 1,500 killed and 3,500 
wounded, and says nothing of a loss 
of prisoners, of whom about 2,200 
eflectives were marched off the field 
with Prentiss, with possibly 200 or 
300 more of our wounded of Sunday. 
A later and more circumstantial 
statement smnmed up our losses as 
1,735 killed, 7,882 wounded, 3,956 
prisoners ; totiJ, 13,573. Recurring 
to the reports of subordinates — all 
we have — we find their losses stated 
as follows : 

Kllkd. WooB'd. MlMlnf. TeteU 
8d Dlrlslon— G«ilW. H. L. Wal- 
lace (2 regt's not reported). .. 22« 1,068 1,164 M28 
4th Division— Gen. Hurlbut... 818 1,449 228 1,»&5 
5th DiTi8lon--43«n. Sherman... 813 1.275 441 2,064 
Bneirsarmy 266 1,816 88 2,ia 

Total 1,128 6,578 1,916 8,609 

Add to these our loss in prisoners, 

** These cannon were unquestionablj taken 
on Sunday; but how many of them were re- 
tained on Monday and carried off in the retreat, 
does not appear. It is not probable that Beau- 
regard returned to Corinth with so many or so 
effective guns as he bad taken thence when he 

*^ Beauregard's oi&cial report enumerates, 
among the casualties on his side, in addition to 
the loss of their oonmiander-in-chief| Albert S. 
Johnston, that Hon. Geo. W. Johnson, " Provi- 
sional Governor of Kentucky," was killed on 
Monday, having had his horse shot under him 
on Sunday; Brig.-Gten. Gladding, of Withers's 
corps, was mortally wounded ; that Gen. Bragg 
had two horses shot under him; Gen. Hardee 
was slightly wounded, his coat cut with balls, 
and his horse disabled ; that Gen. Breckinridge 
was twice struck by spent balls; that Gen. 
Cheatham was slightly wounded and had three 
horses shot under him ; that Brig.-Gens. Clark, 
Bowen, and B. R. Johnson were severely 
wounded ; and that Gen. Hindman had his horse 
shot under him and was severely injured by his 
fall [He was hoisted ten feet into the air by the 
explosion of a shell, which tore his horse to 
shreds, and was himself supposed to be killed ; 
but he rose at once to his feet and called for 
another horse.] Several ColoLels were killed, 
and many more severely wounded ; among them, 
Henry W. Allen, 4th Louisiana, who was chosen 

next Rebel Governor of the State, and whose 
oflBdal report of the second day's fight contains 
the following: 

" Having suffered from loss of blood and in- 
tense pain, I placed the regiment under the com- 
mand of Lt.-CoL S. £. Hunter, and rode over 
to the hospital to get relief. Aiter having my 
wound dressed, I was about lying down, in 
order to take a little rest, when a general stam- 
pede began of wagons, ambulances, and men. 
I mounted my horse immediately, and rode after 
the disgraceful refugees. I succeeded in putting 
a stop to the stampede, and placed cavalry in 
the rear, with orders to cut down aU who at- 
tempted to pass. Here I met an aid of G^n. 
Bragg, who ordered me to rally all the strag- 
glers and form them in h'ne. This I did. After 
forming a battalion, Lieut-CoL Barrow, com- 
manding the 11th Louisiana, came to me with 
the remnant of his reg^ent, and placed 
himself and reg^ent under my com- 
mand. This force, together with the remnants 
of two Alabama and one Tennessee regiment, 
made a large body of men, who stood firm in 
front of the hospitals, ready to receive the ad- 
vancing column of the enemy. 

" While rallying the stragglers, I came across 
two batteries that had lost all their commis- 
sioned o£Bcers. These I took possession of^ 
sent for ammunition, supplied them with men 
from my command, and sent one of them to 
Gen. Beauregard. This battery fired the 
last shots against the enemy. The other bat- 
tery, and the forces under my command, held 
their position in the very face of the enemy, 
until ordered to be retired by command of G«n. 

Digitized by 




and the killed and wounded in Pren- 
tiss's, McClernand's, and Lew. Wal- 
lace's divisions — the latter known to 
be very light — and our actnal losses 
in these two days' desperate conflict 
can hardly have been less than 15,000 
men ; and it is probable that Beaure- 
gard's, including the skulkers who 
here saw enough of fighting and never 
rejoined their regiments, was barely, 
if any thing, less than this.** 

The victory was clearly ours ; for 
we had the field and the dead ; but 
the losses were fairly equalized, while 
the Eebels had the spoil of our camps 
—though they could carry off but 
little of it — and the prisoners. 

Maj. Gren. Halleck, commanding 
the Department of the Mississippi, 
left St Louis directly after receiving 
news of the Shiloh battles," and 
reached Pittsburg Landing by steam- 
boat two or three days thereafter. 
Meantime, and for weeks following, 
no attempt was made against the 
Eebel army at Corinth ; and, though 
Gen. Pope arrived from Missouri on 
the 22d, with a reenforcement of 
25,000 men, even Monterey was not 
occupied by us till the 1st of May, 
when Gten. Halleck's army had been 

increased by accessions from various 
quarters to a little over 100,000 men. 
All this time, and afterward, Gen. 
Beaur^ard industriously strengthen- 
ed his works, covering Corinth with 
an irregular semicircle of intrench- 
ments, 15 miles long, and well-mount- 
ed with artillery; destroying the 
roads and bridges beyond, and block- 
ing the approaches with abatis. Qen. 
Halleck saw fit not to flank these for- 
midable defenses, but to overcome 
them by r^ular and necessarily slow 
approaches, involving constant and 
mutual artillery practice and picket 
fighting, with very little loss; throQ 
weeks of which brought our near- 
est batteries within three miles of 
Corinth.^' A reconnoissance under 
Gen. Paine to Farmington," five 
miles N. W. of Corinth, had brought 
on a skirmish, in which he took 200 
prisoners, striking the Charleston 
and Memphis Railroad at Glendale, 
three miles farther, and partially 
destroying it ; while the Ohio road 
was in like manner broken at Purdy. 
Col. Elliott, with two regiments of 
cavalry, was dispatched on the night 
of the 27th to flank Corinth and cut 
the railroad south of it, so as to in- 
tercept the enemy's supplies. He 

" " An Impressed New-Yorker," writing of 
the retreat from this Bebel vidoryy says: 

" I made a detour from the road on which the 
snnf was retreating, that I might travel faster 
and get ahead of the main body. In this ride of 
twelve miles alongside of the routed army, I 
saw more of human ag^y and woe than I trust 
I will ever again be called to witness. The re- 
treating host wound along a narrow and almost 
impassable road, extending some seven or eight 
mifes in length. Here was a long line of wag- 
ons loaded with wounded, piled in like bags of 
grain, groaning and cursing ; while the mules 
phmgod on in mud and water belly-deep, the 
water sometimes coming into the wagons. Next 
came a straggling regiment of infantry, pressing 
on past the train of wagons; then a stretcher 
borne upon the shoulders of four men, carrying a 
wounded ofBoer ; then soldiers staggenng along, 
with an arm broken and lumging down, or other 

fearful wounds, which were enough to destroy 
life. And, to add to the horrors of the scene, 
the elements of heaven marshaled their forces-* 
a fitting accompaniment of tb« tempest of human 
desolation and passion which was raging. A 
cold, drizzling rain commenced about nightfall, 
and soon came harder and faster, then turned to 
pitiless, blinding haiL This storm raged with 
unrelenting violence for three hours. I passed 
long wagon-trains filled with wounded and dy- 
ing soldiers, without even a blanket to shield 
them fVom the driving sleet and hail, which fell 
in stones as large as partridge-egga, until it lay 
on the ground two inches deep. 

**Some 300 men died during that awful re- 
treat, and their bodies were thrown out to make 
room for others who, although wounded, had 
struggled on through the storm, hoping to find 
shelter, rest, and medical care." 

•• April 19, 1862. '• May 21. " May 21. 

Digitized by 




struck it on the 30th, at Booneville, 
24 miles from Corinth, in the midst 
of an unexpected retreat of the Rebel 
army, which had commenced on the 
26th. Beauregard had held Corinth 
so long as possible against Halleck's 
overwhelming force, and had com- 
menced its evacuation by sending off 
a part of his sick and wounded. El- 
liott captured 20 cars, laden with 
small arms, ammunition, stores, bag- 
gage, &c., with some hundreds of 
Confederate sick, whom he paroled, 
burning the engine and trains. The 
evacuation was completed during the 
night of the 29th; the Rebel mus- 
ketry-firing having ceased at 9 a. m. 
of the preceding day. Explosions 
and fires during the night gave plain 
intimations of the enemy's departure ; 
so that some of our officers in the 
advance rode safely into town at 6| 
next morning, and reported no enemy 
present. Piles of provisions were 
found in flames, and one full ware- 
house undamaged ; but never a gun. 
Beauregard retreated to Tupelo, pur- 
sued by Gen. Pope so far as Baldwin 
and Guntown, but without material 
results. Our army was disposed 
along the line of the Memphis and 
Charleston Railroad ; which, by the 
falling of the Tennessee to a Summer 
stage, had become its line of supply. 

Gen. O. M. Mitchel, with a division 
of Buell's army, had left Nashville 
simultaneously with his commander, 
but by a more easterly route, advanc- 
ing through Murfreesboro', Shelby- 
ville, Fayetteville, to Huntsville, 
Ala., which he surprised at day- 
light," capturing 17 locomotives and 
a large number of passenger and 
freight-cars, beside a train which he 

had taken, with 159 prisoners, two 
hours before. Thus provided, he had 
uncontested possession of 100 miles 
of the Memphis and Charleston road 
before night, or from Stevenson on 
the east to Decatur on the west; 
seizing five more locomotives at Ste- 
venson, and pushing on so far west 
as Tuscumbia, trhence he sent an 
expedition so far south as Russelville, 
Ala., capturing and appropriating 
Confederate property on all hands, 
without the loss of a life. He took^ 
Bridgeport, Ala., with a force of five 
regiments, by striking rapidly and 
attacking from a quarter whence he 
was not looked for, driving out a 
force nearly equal in number to his 
own, with a loss of 72 killed and 
wounded, 350 prisoners, and 2 guns ; 
while his own loss was inconsiderable. 
He was soon compelled, by the gath- 
ering of Rebel forces around him, to 
abandon Tuscumbia and all south 
of the Tennessee, burning the railroad 
bridges at Decatur and Bridgeport, 
but holding firmly and peaceably all 
of Alabama north of that river. Had 
he been even moderately reenforeed, 
he would have struck and probably 
could have destroyed the great Rebel 
armories and founderies in Georgia, 
or have captured Chattanooga ; which 
was assailed,^* under his orders, by 
Gen. Negley, who was driven off by 
a Rebel force under Gen. E. Kirby 
Smith. Mitchel's activity and energy 
poorly qualified him for a subordinate 
position under BueU ; so he was trans- 
ferred, in June, to the command at 
Port Royal, S. C, where he died.'* 
Gen. Halleck was likewise summon* 
ed'* from the West to serve as Gren» 
eral-in-Chief at Washington, leaving 
Gen. Grant in command at Corinth. 

" April 9 

• April 29. 

'* June 6. 

'* Oct 20. 

• July 23. 

Digitized by 





Oen. Ambbobe E. Bubnside and 
Com. L. M. Goldsborough led an 
expedition, which had in good part 
been fitted ont in New York, and 
which left Fortress Monroe at the 
opening of the- year;* and, doub- 
ling Cape Henry, moved southward 
to Hatteras Inlet, whose defenses had 
been quietly held by our troops since 
their capture by Gen. Butler and 
Com. Striagham five months before.* 
The naval part of this expedition con- 
sisted of 31 Bteam gunboats, mount- 
ing 94 guns ; the military of arbout 
11,500 men, mainly from New Eng- 
land, oi^aaized in three brigades, un- 
der G^ns. Foster, Reno, and Parke, 
and embarked with their material on 
some 30 to 40 steam transports. The 
van of the expedition reached the 
entrance of the Inlet on the 13th ; 
when it was found that, though care 
had been taken to select or obtain 
gonboats of such draft as could read- 
ily be worked over the bar at high 
water, yet a large proportion of the 
transports, through the incompetence 
or dishonesty of those employed to 
procure them, were of such draft as 
rendered them totally unfit for this 
service. Of these, the propeller City 
of New York, 600 tons, heavily laden 
with rifles, ammunition, tents, bed- 
ding, and forage, and drawing 16 feet 
water, when the greatest depth attain- 
able on the bar was but 13, grounded, 
of course, in attempting to pass it ;' 
when the sea broke completely over 
her stem, every breaker lifting her, 
tad causing her, as it subsided, to set- 

tle still deeper in the sand, until she 
became a perfect wreck — ^her masts 
and smoke-stack cut away, her crew, 
with life-preservers tied about them, 
lashed to the rigging to save them- 
selves from being washed overboard 
by each succeeding billow; and at 
last, after an endurance of 12 to 15 
hours, the raging sea began to lift 
the deck from the hull with every 
surge. Ere this, her fires had been 
extinguished, her boats, all but one, 
filled or stove, and her men utterly 
exhausted by long fasting and expo- 
sure to the cold waves which broke 
over them continually ; while no at- 
tention was paid from the fleet to 
their signal of distress, or even their 
hail to the S. R. Spaulding, which 
passed out to sea. At length, two 
mechanics, W. H. and Charles A. 
Beach, of Newark, N. J., launched 
the yawl, and, aided by engineer 
Wm. Miller, steward Geo. Mason, 
and Hugh McCabe, fireman, pulled 
successftilly through the surf, over the 
bar, to the fleet, whence boats were 
at once dispatched to take ofl* the re- 
mainder of the crew,' who were speed- 
ily rescued. The vessel and cargo 
were totally lost ; as were the steam 
gunboat Zouave, the transports Lou- 
isiana and Pocahontas, and two or 
three others. Col. J. W. Allen and 
Surgeon S. F. Weller, 9th New Jer- 
sey, were drowned* by the upsetting 
of their small boat in the breakers, as 
they returned to the transport Ann 
E. Thompson from reporting the ar- 
rival of their regiment to Gen. Bum- 

' Jan. 11-12, 1862. 

• See Vol. I^ p. 699. 

» Jan. 13. 

* Jan. 16. 

Digitized by 




side. The National loss in precious 
time, as well as life and property, by 
the villainy which palmed oflF on the 
Government vessels totally unfit for 
this service, can hardly be overesti- 
mated. Two or three weeks of des- 
perately hard work were expended 
on getting over such of the craft as 
were not wrecked ; giving the alarmed 
Rebels- the amplest time to concen- 
trate and fortify. 

At length, every thing being in 
readiness, our fleet moved slowly up 
Pamlico and Croatan Sounds;' the 
gunboats in advance and on the 
flanks of the transports, formed in 
three columns, each headed by its flag- 
ship, every large steamer having one 
or two schooners in tow, with the 
spaces between the columns kept 
carefully clear, and all moving at the 
regulated pace of four miles per hour. 
The fleet consisted in all of 66 ves- 
sels, covering a space about two 
miles square; some 60 transports, 
mainly schooners, having been left 
at the Inlet. The day was beautiful ; 
the distance made about 28 miles, 
when they halted, near sunset, still 
10 miles from the southern point of 
EoANOKE Island, and lay undisturbed 
through the bright, moonlit night. 

At 8 A. M., the signal to weigh an- 
chor was given. At 11, progress was 
arrested, near the south point, by a 
storm ; and the fleet again lay at an- 
chor till next morning, when, at 10 
A. M., the order was given to move 
forward, and the gunboats led the 
way through the narrow passage 
known as Roanoke Inlet, into Croa- 
tan Sound, driving 7 Rebel gunboats 
before them. At noon, our gunboats 
were under flre of the chief Rebel 
battery on the Island, known as Fort 

Bartow, when the Rebel gunboats 
halted and added their fire to that 
of the fort. A line of piles driven 
across the channel was evidently ex- 
pected to obstruct our advance, but 
proved inadequate. Soon, our soldier- 
crowded transports were seen swarm- 
ing through the Inlet, and prepara- 
tions were made for landing at 
Ashby's Harbor, two miles below 
the fort, which had now been set on 
fire by our shells. The flames were 
soon checked, however, and the can- 
nonade on both sides continued ; while 
the Rebel gunboats, which had re- 
treated up the Sound, again appeared 
and engaged our fleet, till the Cnr- 
lew, their flag-ship, was struck by a 
100-poimd shell from the Southfield, 
and soon enveloped in flames. The 
firing was continued on both sides till 
night, without serious loss in men on 
either. The Rebel barracks in the 
rear of the fort were destroyed by 
fire, and their remaining gunboats 
compelled to withdraw from the con- 
test. All our transports had passed 
through the Inlet and anchored by 4 
p. M., when debarkation commenced 
under the fire of our gunboats ; and 
7,600 men were ashore, and most of 
them in bivouac, before 11 p. m. 

The Rebel forces in that region 
were commanded by Brig.-Gten. 
Henry A. Wise,* whose headquar- 
ters were at Nag's Head, across 
Roanoke Sound, and whose forces 
numbered from 3,000 to 4,000 ; but 
hardly 1,000 of them were on the 
Island prior to the approach of our 
fieet, when reenforcemehts were hur- 
ried over, raising the number of its 
defenders to about 3,000. Col. Shaw, 
8th North Carolina, was in immedi- 
ate command. Fort Bartow, other- 

• February 5. 

• £x-Go7emor of Virginia. 

Digitized by 




wiBe Pork Point battery, was a sub- 
Btantial earthwork, strengthened by 
abatis and a moat, and mounting 
10 gnns ; battery Huger, on Weir's 
Point, farther north, had likewise 
10 guns; battery Blanchard, mid- 
way, but 4. The swampy nature of 
the approaches, covered with thick- 
ets of shrubs and bushes, was counted 
on to bar access to Fort Bartow, save 
by a causeway road completely com- 
manded by its fire. 

After crouching through a rainy 
night, some of them in miry bogs, 
our soldiers were formed and led on 
at an early hour of the morning/ A 
large portion of the Rebel force was 
deployed as skirmishers, and contest- 
ed our floundering advance through 
the bog with spirit and effect until 
near 10 a. m., when our leading regi- 
ments were close under the fire of the 
fort. They had by this time found it 
impossible to obey the order?j which 


' Saturday, February 8. 

Digitized by 




directed tliem to flank the enemy on 
either side of the swamp — the abatis 
proving at most places impassable; 
and it was resolved to charge over 
the causeway directly in front. This 
was done by the 9th New York 
(Zouaves), Col. Eush C. Hawkins, 
the 51st, Col. Edward Ferrero, the 
23d Massachusetts, Col. John Kurtz, 
and 21st, Lt.-Col. A. C. Maggi. The 
25th and 27th Massachusetts, and 
10th Connecticut, Col. Eussell, were 
honorably distinguished in the at- 
tack. CoL R. was killed ; as was Lt.- 
Col. Viguier de Monteuil, 53d New 
York, who was serving as a volun- 
teer with Hawkins's Zouaves. Lying 
down to receive a fire of grape from 
the Rebel batteries, part of the 51st 
New York, with Hawkins's Zouaves 
and the 21st Massachusetts, instantly 
rose and rushed over the Rebel breast- 
works, chasing out their defenders 
and following them in their retreat ; 
securing, by their impetuosity, the 
capture of the larger number, as no 
time was given for their escape from 
the Island. Their loss in killed and 
wounded was but 56 ; but among the 
f jrmer were Capt. O. J. Wise, son of 
the General, and other valuable offi- 
cers ; while their loss in prisoners was 
not far from 2,700, including Cols. 
Shaw and Jordan, Lt-Cols. Fowle 
and Price, Majors Hill, Yates, and 
Williamson. Our loss in the bom- 
bardment and assault was about 50 
killed and 250 wounded. All the 
cannon, small arms, munitions, pro- 
visions, etc., on the Island, were 
among the spoils of victory. 

Com. Rowan, with 14 gunboats, 
was dispatched next evening up 
Albemarle Sound and Pasquotank 
river in pursuit of the Rebel gun- 

boats. He found them, 7 in number, 
at Elizabeth City; where, after a 
smart fight, they were set on fire by 
their crews and abandoned. One of 
them was captured, the others de- 
stroyed. The city itself was likewise 
set on fire, and in good part de- 
stroyed. Four of the gunboats were 
sent thence to Edenton, on the west 
end of Albemarle Sound, where eight 
cannon and a schooner were de- 
stroyed, and two schooners, with 
4,000 bushels of com, captured. 

Com. Rowan's flotilla next moved* 
five miles up the Chowan river to 
Winton, Hereford county, upon as- 
surances that its citizens wished to 
return to and be protected by the 
Union. Their reception was even 
warmer than they had expected. On 
reaching the town, they were saluted 
by a hailstorm of bullets, which con- 
strained them to fall down the river 
for the night ; returning next morn- 
ing, the village was shelled by them 
until abandoned, and then burnt. 

Gen. Burnside next concentrated 
his forces at Hatteras Inlet, for an 
attack on Newbebn, at the junction 
of the Neuse and Trent rivers, near 
Pamlico Sound, and the most im- 
portant seaport of North Carolina. 
Com. Goldsborough having been re- 
lieved. Commander Rowan directed 
the fleet. Leaving Hatteras in the 
morning,' the expedition* came to 
about simset at Slocum's creek, on 
the south side of the river, 18 miles 
below Newbem, where a landing 
was eflected next morning, and the 
troops pushed forward, so fast as 
ready, to within a mile and a half of 
the Rebel defenses; the gimboats 
moving up the river in advance of 
the troops, and shelling the road 

•Feb. 19. 

•March 12. 

Digitized by 




whereon they marched, No resist- 
ance was encountered by land ; but 
the fleet found the channel of the 
Xeuse obstructed, half way up, by 
24 vessels sunk in the channel, sev- 
eral torpedoes, and a number of iron- 
pointed spars firmly planted in the 
bed and inclined down stream, imder 
water, after the manner of the snags 
of the Mississippi. These obstruc- 
tions were speedily removed or sur- 
mounted ; while two or three batteries 
along the bank were successively 
silenced by a few shots from our flag- 
ship Delaware. The fleet halted for 
the night nearly abreast of the army ; 
which had had a hard day's work, 
dra^ng its guns through the deep 
clay of the roads, sodden with several 
days' rain ; and the men sank on the 
ground at night around their pitch- 
pine fires to enjoy a drenching from 
the freshly pouring skies. 

A dense fog covered land and 
water next morning,'* as our fleet, 
having safely passed the obstructions, 
steamed up past Forts Thompson and 
Ellis ; which, after firing a few shots, 
were hastily evacuated, a shell from 
one of the gunboats having exploded 
the magazine of the latter. Fort 
Lane, the last and strongest defense 
of Newbem on the water, was more 
carefully approached, in expectation 
of a sanguinary struggle; but it had 
by this time been likewise evacuated, 
in deference to the successes of our 
army ; and our fleet steamed directly 
up to the wharves, shelling the d6p6t 
and track whereby the Kebels were 
escaping fix)m the city. 

The Rebel defenses consisted of a 
well constructed breastwork, running 
a mile and a half from the Neuse 
across the railroad to an impenetra- 

ble swamp which connects Newbem 
with Morehead City, with a battery 
of 13 heavy guns next the river, 
several redoubts, all of them well 
mounted, 3 batteries of field artil- 
lery, and 8 regiments of infantry, 
numbering about 5,000 men, com- 
manded by Gen. Louis O'B. Branch. 
Our guns were few and light, be- 
cause of the diflSculty of landing and 
dragging heavier. 

Gen. Bumside was on the alert at 
6 A. M., and by 7 had his forces in 
motion. Moving up to within short 
range of the enemy's intrenchments, 
his men were formed in order of bat- 
tle, and opened fire along their en- 
tire front ; the ground being swampy 
on the left, and elsewhere cut up by 

** Sunday, March 14. 

Digitized by 




guflies and ravines which opened 
toward the enemy, affording no pro- 
tection from his fire. The naval bat- 
tery was in our center, Gen. Reno's 
brigade on the right, Gen. Parke's in 
the center, and Gen. Foster's on the 
left ; and the regiments most effective 
at Eoanoke were all honorably dis- 
tinguished here, as were the ith and 
5th Rhode Island, the 8th and 11th 
Connecticut, 9th New Jersey, and 
5l8t Pennsylvania. There was, of 
course, a great disparity of numbers 
— ^probably three to one — but this 
was in effect a contest wherein infan- 
try were required to charge and carry 
strong intrenchments, well provided 
with artillery. The loss was naturally 
much the greater on our side. Af- 
ter an hour's sharp fighting, the 21st 
Massachusetts, Col. Clark, accom- 
panied by Gen. Reno, was ordered 
forward on a double-quick, and went 
over the Rebel lyeastworks. It was 
immediately charged by two Rebel 
regiments, and repulsed; when Capt. 
Fraser, being wounded, was taken 
prisoner, but soon captured his guard 
and escaped. The 4th Rhode Island, 
disliking its position in front of a 
Rebel batliery of 5 guns, well backed 
by a fire from rifle-pits, next at- 
tempted a charge, and carried the 
battery at double-quick ; finding an 
entrance between a brick-yard and 
the parapet. Once inside, the Colonel 
formed his right wing in line, and 
charged down upon the guns at fiill 
speed, capturing the entire battery, 
routing its supports, and planting his 
flag on the parapet. The 5th Rhode 
Island and 8th and 11th Connecticut 
immediately rushing up, our triumph 
at that point was secure. 

Gen. Reno, on our right, seeing 
that he was losing heavily from the 

Rebel battery in his front, called up 
his reserve regiment, the 51st Penn- 
sylvania, Col. Hartranft, and ordered 
a charge, in which the 21st and 24th 
Massachusetts, 51st New York, and 
9th New Jersey participated. Its 
success was complete ; and the whole 
line of Rebel works was very soon in 
our hands. 

The enemy were now in full flight ; 
and Gen. Bumside ordered an ad- 
vance on their track, which was led 
by Gen. Foster ; but the speed of the 
fugitives was inimitable, and, when 
our van reached the bank of the 
Trent, opposite Newbem, they found 
that city on fire in seven different 
places ; the splendid railroad bridge 
over the Trent a sheet of flame, hav- 
ing been fired by a scow-load of tur- 
pentine, drifted against it; and the 
Rebel troops, with all the locomotives 
and cars in and about Newbern, on 
their way inland toward Goldsboro'. 
The wind suddenly lulling, the fires 
were soon extinguished by sailors 
from our fleet; but the railroad 
bridge, market-house, and about a 
dozen other structures, were burned. 
Our captures at the Rebel intrench- 
ments and in the city included 69 
cannon, two steamboats, large quan- 
tities of munitions and stores, with 
some 500 prisoners. Our total loss 
was about 100 killed and 500 wound- 
ed: the former including Lt.-Col. 
Henry Merritt;, 23d Massachusetts, 
Adjt. Frazer A. Steams, of the 21st, 
Maj. Charles W. Le Gendre and 
Capt. D. R. Johnson, of the 51st, 
and Capt. Charles Tillinghast, of the 
4:th Rhode Island. The Rebel loss, 
beside prisoners, hardly exceeded 
200, including Maj. Carmichael, 
killed, and Col. Avery, captured. 

Gen. Bumside, having undisturbed 

Digitized by 



possession of Kewbem, sent Gen. 
Parke" with his brigade, 3,500 strong, 
sonthwestward to the coast, where 
he occupied" Morehead City with- 
out resistance ; as also the more im- 
portant village of Beaufort, across 
the inlet known as Newport river ; 
and proceeded to invest Fobt Macon, 
a r^ular fortress of great cost and 
strength, seized by Gov. Ellis before 
the secession of the State." This 
work stands on an island, or rather 
ocean sand-bank, whence it looks off 
on the broad Atlantic, and com- 
mands the entrance to the Newport 
river. It is approached from the 
land with much diflSculty, but was 
soon invested, and a regular siege 
conmienced," its pickets driven in, 
and a good position for siege-guns 
obtained within fair distance, while 
the fleet menaced it on the side of 
the ocean. All being at length in 
readiness, fire was opened** from a 
breaching battery at 1,100 feet dis- 
tance, with flanking mortars behind 
sand-banks at 1,400 yards ; the fl^et 
also, consisting of three gunboats 
and a bark, steamed around in a 
circle, after the fashion inaugurated 
by Dupont at Port Royal, and fired 
as they severally came opposite the 
fort, until the roughness of the sea 
compelled them to desist. The land 
batteries were kept at work until 
late in the afternoon ; when, 7 of the 
garrison being kUled, 18 wounded, 
and most of the available guns dis- 
mounted, CoL White raised the white 
flag, and next morning surrendered 
his garrison of 500 men, with the 
fort and all it contained. Fort Ma- 
con was among the first of the im- 
portant fortresses of the old Union, 
which, having been seized by the 

Rebels, was repossessed by the Re- 

Meantime, Washington, Plymouth, 
and some other towns on the coast, 
were quietly occupied by our forces, 
which ascended the Chowan river 
without serious resistance so far as 

Gen. Reno was dispatched by 
Gen. Bumside from Newborn to 
Roanoke Island, whence his brigade 
was conveyed up Albemarle Sound 
to within three miles of Elizabeth 
City, where it was disembarked 
during the night" and pushed north- 
ward, with intent to intercept a 
Rebel force known to be about leav- 
ing Elizabeth City for Norfolk ; but 
Col. Hawkins of the 9th New York 
(Zouaves), who had the advance, 
mistook his road, and marched ten 
miles out of the way ; so that, on 
retracing his steps, and gaining the 
right road, his men were intensely 
fatigued, and he in the rear of the 
main column. The anticipated sur- 
prise proved a failure ; and, at a 
point nearly 20 miles inland, within 
a mile and a half of South Mills, 
our weary, overmarched men, who 
had been nearly 24 hours on their 
feet, were confronted by a less nu- 
merous Rebel force, very strongly 
posted in woods flanked by swamps, 
and with a large clearing in their 
front; upon entering which, they 
were saluted by a fire of grape, well 
supported by musketry, whereby a 
gallant but rashly ordered charge of 
the Zouaves was repulsed with con- 
siderable loss. The position was 
soon flanked by our superior num- 
bers, and the Rebels compelled to 
draw off, leaving nothing on the 
field but a very few dead and 

"Mtrch20. »Maich23. » See Vol. I, p. 411. " April IL " April 25. " AprU 19. 

Digitized by 




wounded. We lost 16 killed, inclu- 
ding Adjutant Gadsden, of the 
Zouaves, and 98 wounded, whicli 
was probably more than the loss of 
the Rebels. Gen. Reno gave his 
men six hours' much needed rest 
on the battle-field, and then returned 
to his boats, being under peremptory- 
orders to do so. He was obliged to 
leave behind 14 of his more severely 
wounded. As Camden Court House 
was the only village traversed by 
Gen. Reno on his advance, this en- 
gagement has been sometimes desig- 
nated the battle of Camden. 

By this time, Bumside's division, 
which had at no time exceeded 
15,000 men, had become so widely 
dispersed, and had so many import- 
ant points to guard, that its offensive 
efficiency was destroyed; and very 
little more of moment occurred in 
his department, until he was ordered 
by telegraph from Washington" to 
hasten with all the force he could 
collect to Fortress Monroe, where he 
arrived three days afterward. 

Gen. Foster was left in command 
of the department of North Caro- 
lina, with a force barely sufficient to 
hold the important positions left him 
by Gen. Bumside, until late in the 
Autumn, when, having been consid- 
erably reenforced by new regiments, 
mainly from Massachusetts, he re- 
solved to assume the offensive. He 
led one expedition from Washington,*' 
through Williamston to Hamilton, 
on the Roanoke, where he expected 
to find and destroy some iron-clads 
in process of construction ; but there 
were none. Pushing thence inland," 
in the direction of Tarboro', he ad- 
vanced to within ten miles of that 
place, expecting to surround and 

capture three Rebel regiments who 
had there been stationed ; but by 
this time a far superior Rebel force 
had, by means of telegraphs and 
railroads, been concentrated at that 
point, and he wisely retreated with- 
out molestation or loss, other than 
that inflicted by the rain, sleet, and 
deep mud through which the retreat 
was effected. The liberation of 
several hundred slaves was the chief 
result of this expedition. 

A few weeks later, Gen. Foster, 
with a considerably larger force — all 
that he could collect — set out from* 
Newborn" on a march directly in- 
land, intending to reach and destroy 
the important railroad junction at 
Goldsboro'. He encountered no im- 
pediments, save from trees felled 
across the road, until he reached 
South-west creek, where the bridge 
had been destroyed, and a regiment 
was found posted on the opposite 
bank, supporting tliree pieces of ar- 
tillery. These were driven off by a 
charge of the 9th New Jersey, and 
1 gun captured ; when, after two or 
three more skirmishes, Foster ad- 
vanced" to within a mile of Kinston ; 
where he encountered a considera- 
ble Rebel force under Gen. Evans, 
strongly posted between the Neuse 
and a deep swamp, whence they 
were driven after a short but sharp 
fight, and the bridge over the Neuse 
saved, though it had been fired by 
the fugitives, of whom 400 were 
taken prisoners. Evans fled through 
and abandoned the town; but re- 
formed two miles beyond it, and 
continued his retreat, before Foster 
could bring his artillery over the 
injured bridge and attack him. 

G^n. Foster, having bewildered the 

" July 4, 1862. " Nov. 3. » Nov. 6. "Dec 11. 

" Sunday, 14th. 

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enemy by feints in different direc- 
tions, advanced" directly on Golds- 
boro' ; but did not reach that point, 
because of a concentration in his front 
of more than double his force, under 
Maj.-Gen. G. W. Smith," with regi- 
ments drawn from Petersburg on the 
one hand, and Wilmington on the 
other ; but the Wilmington and Wel- 
don RaiLroad bridge over the Neuse 
was fired by Lt. Geo. W. Graham, 
23d New York battery, after several 
who attempted the daring feat had 
been picked off by the Eebel sharp- 

shooters. The bridge being de- 
stroyed, G^n. Foster commenced a 
rapid retreat on Newborn, which he 
effected without difficulty. His total 
loss in this expedition was 90 killed, 
(including Col. Gray, 96th New 
York, while charging at the head of 
his regiment at Kinston bridge), 478 
wounded, and 9 missing. Smith's 
official report admits a Kebel loss of 
71 killed, 268 wounded, and about 
400 missing. Gen. Foster paroled 
496 prisoners. Thus closed the year 
1862 in North Carolina, 



Gen. Benjamin F. Butlek, having, 
after the capture* of Fort Hatteras, 
returned to the North to find him- 
self an officer without soldiers or em- 
ployment, sought and obtained per- 
mission from the War Department to 
ndse, in the New England States, six 
r^ments of volunteers for special 
and confidential service. This un- 
dertaking involved fitftd collisions 
with the general efibrts then being 
made by the authorities of all the 
States to raise troops for service un- 
der Gen. McClellan; and Gen. B. 
was peculiarly unfortunate in thus 
colliding with Gov. Andrew, of Mas- 
sachusetts, from which State he nat- 
urally expected the larger number of 
his troops. But his indefatigable en- 
ergy and activity at length triumphed 
over all impediments; he having 
meantime b^n appointed, in facili- 
tation of his enterprise, commander 
of a new military department com- 
posed of the six New England States, 

with his headquarters at Boston. 
When his 6,000 men had been fully 
raised, and part of them dispatched, 
under Gen. J. W. Phelps, to Ship 
Island, he was stopped for a season 
by the lowering aspects of our rela- 
tions with England, consequent on 
the seizure of Mason and Slidell; 
whose ultimate surrender he pro- 
foundly deprecated, believing that a 
war waged against us by Great Brit- 
ain would double our effective mili- 
tary strength, while paralyzing that 
of the Rebellion, by the spectacle of 
hostilities waged against us in our 
extremity by that nation, which very 
many, alike in the North and in the 
South, regarded as our hereditary foe. 
The substitution* of Mr. Edwin M. 
Stanton for Gen. Simon Cameron, as 
head of the War Department, caused 
some iurther delay, during which an 
order was once issued to send Gen. 
Butler's troops from Fortress Monroe 
to Port Royal ; but it was, on his re- 

*Decn. "Formerly of Now York. 'Aug. 29, 

VOL. n. — 6 

1861. See VoL I., pp. 599-600. ' Jan. 13, 1862. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



monstrance, annulled before it bad 
been acted on. 

Sbip Island is one of quite a num- 
ber of inconsiderable sand-bars which 
barely rise above the level of the Gulf 
between the mouths of the Mississippi 
and the Bay of Mobile. It is accounted 
7 miles long by three-fourths of a mile 
in width, though its size, as well as its 
shape, is usually altered by each vio- 
lent inland-driving storm. It has a 
good harbor at its western end, with 
groves of pine and stunted oak at 
the far east ; while fresh water is ob- 
tained in plenty by sinking a barrel 
in the sand. Oysters and fish abound 
in the encircling waters ; while the 
climate in Winter is soft, sunny, and 
tropical. New Orleans bears 65 miles 
W. S. W. ; the mouth of Mobile Bay 
50 miles E. N. E.; the mouths of the 
Mississippi from 90 to 110 S. S. W. ; 
while Biloxi, on the Mississippi coast, 
is but 10 miles due north. Here 
Gen. Phelps and his brigade, having 
landed early in December, spent the 
Winter in very necessary drilling ; the 
General having signalized his advent 
by issuing * an elaborate proclamation 
to the loyal citizens of the South- 
west, declaring Slavery incompati- 
ble with free institutions and free 
labor, and its overthrow the end and 
aim of our Government — a declara- 
tion most unlikely to increase the 
number of White loyal citizens at 
that time and in that quarter, while' 
pretty certain to be careftiUy kept 
from the knowledge of most others. 
Its first result was a feeling of amaze- 
ment and dissatisfaction among a part 
of Gen. Phelps's subordinates ; while 
a single copy, taken to the Missis- 
sippi shore, and dispensed to the first 
comer, was there eagerly diffused and 

employed to arouse and embitter hoe* 
tility to the Union. 

Mobile had been generally guessed 
the object of Gen. Butler's mysteri- 
ous expedition, whose destination 
was not absolutely fixed even in the 
councils of its authors. An effort to 
reannex Texas had been considered, 
if not actually contemplated. It was 
finally decided, in a conference be- 
tween Secretary Stanton and Gren. 
Butler, that a resolute attempt should 
be made on New Orleans; and 
though Gen. McClellan, when re- 
quested to give his opinion of the 
feasibility of the enterprise, reported 
that it could not be prudently under- 
taken with a less force than 50,000 
men, while all that could be spared 
to G^n. Butler was 15,000, Presi- 
dent Lincoln, after hearing all sides, 
gave judgment for the prosecution. 
A fortnight later. Gen. Butler went 
home to superintend the embarkation 
of the residue of his New England 
troops, 8,500 in number, 2,200 being 
already on ship-board, beside 2,000, 
under Phelps, at the Island. Three 
excellent Western regiments were 
finally spared him from Baltimore 
by Gen. McClellan, swelling his force 
on paper to 14,400 infantry, 580 ar- 
tillery, 275 cavalry; total, 15,255 
men, to which it was calculated that 
Key West might temporarily add 
two regiments, and Fort Pickens an- 
other, raising the aggregate to nearly 
18,000. It in fact amounted, when 
collected at Ship Island, to 13,700. 

Gen. Butler set out from Hamp- 
ton Eoads,* in the steamship Mis- 
sissippi, with his staff*, his wife, and 
1,400 men. The next night, the ship 
barely escaped wreck on a shoal off 
Hatteras Inlet ; and the next day was 

» Dea 4, 1861. 

* Feb. 25, 1862, 9 P. M. 

Digitized by 




nm hard upon the rocks five miles 
from land, off Cape Fear, while going 
at full speed. Her Captain, be- 
wildered, gaye the order to let go the 
bow anchor, when she instantly drove 
upon its fluke, piercing her forward 
compartments and letting in a deluge 
of water. An hour later, she was 
hard and fast upon Frying Pan 
Shoals, one compartment filled to the 
water-line, and her forward berths 
afloat, her Captain manifestly incom- 
petent, and now nearly distracted. 
The coast in sight was strongly held 
by the enemy, whose horse patrol 
coold be decried from the ship ; 
and any Confederate cruiser, darting 
out from Cape Fear river, would 
have found the steamship and all on 
board an easy prey. An ordinary 
squall would very soon have broken 
up the vessel and strewed her wreck 
along the sands. 

Toward noon, a steamer hove in 
Bight, which, cautiously approaching, 
proved to be the U. S. gunboat 
Mount Yemon, of the squadron 
blockading Wilmington. Her com- 
mander, O. S. Glisson, came on 
board, and placed his vessel at the 
service of Gen. Butler. A hawser 
from the Mount Yemon was attached 
to the Mississippi, and many fruitless 
attempts made to drag her off. Three 
hundred of the soldiers were trans- 
ferred to the Mount Yernon ; shells 
were thrown overboard; and every 
device known to nautical experience 
tried to move the imperiled ship — 
all in vain. As the sun went down, 
the wind rose, and the waves swelled, 
till the huge ship began to roll and 
beat upon the rocks, the danger of 
wreck constantly increasing. At 
length, just after 7 p. m., and when 
the tide was within an hour of flood, 

she moved forward a few feet and 
was fairly afloat; ^slowly following 
the piloting Mount Yemon — the 
lead for a whole hour showing but 
six inches of water under her keel. 
At midnight, both came to anchor in 
the Cape Fear, and were next morn- 
ing, which was calm, on their way 
to Port Royal, where the Mississippi 
was unladen and repaired ; but was 
run aground again while moving 
down to the mouth of the harbor. 
The Captain was now deposed, Act- 
ing-Master Sturgis, of the Mount 
Yemon, appointed to his place ; the 
troops once more debarked, and the 
ship pulled into deep water by the 
help of all the tugs in port. She 
again put to sea March 13th, having 
been eleven days in the port; and 
seven more brought her safely in 
sight of Ship Island ; where so heavy 
a gale was blowing that landing 
troops was for two days impossible. 
It was the 25th of March when — 30 
days from Hampton Eoads — they 
were debarked on that desolate sand- 
bank ; where Gen. Butler was soon 
deep in consultation with Captains 
Farragut and Bailey, of the Navy, 
as well as with his military associates. 
Of these, Lt. Godfrey Weitzel, who 
had for two years been stationed at 
Fort St. Philip, and who had trav- 
ersed all the adjacent country, 
duck-shooting, was able to give the 
fullest and most valuable informa- 
tion. Gen. Butler made him his 
chief engineer. 

It was decided that the first attack 
on the forts defending the passage of 
the Mississippi below New Orleans 
should be made by the fleet ; Capt. 
Porter, with his 21 bomb-schooners, 
anchoring below them and bombard- 
ing them till they should be reduced, 

Digitized by 




or his ammunition nearly exhausted. 
Capt Farragut, with his larger and 
stronger vessels, would remain just 
out of fire as a reserve, awaiting the 
issue of the bombardment. That 
failing, he should attempt with his 
steamers to run by the forts. Jf he 
succeeded in this, he would try to 
clear the river of the enemy's fleet, 
isolate the forts, and push on so far 
as circumstances should dictate. Gen. 
Butler, so soon as Capt. Farragut 
had passed, was to land his troops 
from their transports in the rear of 
Fort St. Philip, and attempt to carry 
it by assault ; while the enemy, sup- 
posing the swamps in that quarter 
impassable, should be entirely absorb- 
ed in his contest with the fleet. The 
forts being thus reduced, the whole 
expedition would advance upon the 
city, in such manner as should then 
seem expedient. Gen. Butler en- 
gaged to have 6,000 men embarked on 
transports and ready for service in 
seven days; Capt. Farragut sailing 
at once for the mouths of the river, 
to prepare his fleet for action. 

The troops were formed into three 
brigades, under Gens. Phelps and 

•The Now Orleans journals, frequently 
brought over from Biloxi, bristled with such 
awe-inspiring paragraphs as the following: 

'* The Mississippi is fortified so as to be im- 
passable for any hostile fleet or flotilla. Forts 
Jackson and St Philip are armed with 170 
heavy guns (63-pounders, rifled by Barkley 
Britton, and received from England). The navi- 
gation of the river is stopped by a dam about a 
quarter of a mile from the above forts. No flo- 
tilla on earth could force that dam in less 
than two hours ; during which it would be with- 
in short and cross range of 170 guns of the 
heaviest caliber, many of which would be serv- 
ed with red-hot shot ; numerous furnaces for 
which have been erected in every fort and bat- 

" In a day or two, we shall have ready two 
iron-cased floating batteries. The plates are 4^ 
inches thick, of the best hammered iron, receiv- 
ed from England and France. Each iron-cased 
battery will mount twenty 68-pounders, placed 
80 as to skim the water, and strike the enemy's 

Williams, and Col. Shepley ; 100 car- 
penters detailed to make scaling-lad- 
ders ; 100 boatmen to manage the 30 
boats which were to make their way 
through the reedy creeks and marshes 
to the rear of Fort St. Philip. On 
the sixth day, 7 regiments and 2 bat- 
teries were embarked, awaiting the 
word to move from Capt. Farragut ; 
but high winds and low tides ob- 
structed the movements of the fleet; 
several of the larger vessels being 
many days in getting over the bar; so 
that Gen. Butler was obliged to disem- 
bark his troops and wear out another 
fortnight as patiently as he might. 

Meantime, the Eebels alongshore, 
who had by this time become satis- 
fied that New Orleans was aimed at, 
resorted to the expedients which had 
proved effective with most of our 
commanders up to that time, and 
which stood them in good stead with 
several for many months afterward. 
Having been compelled nearly to de- 
plete the Gulf region of soldiers in 
order to make head against Grant 
and Buell on the Tennessee, they 
supplied their places with imaginary 
regiments and batteries * in generous 

hull between wind and water. We hare an 
abundant supply of incendiary shells, cupola 
furnaces for molten iron, oongreve rockets, and 

" Between New Orleans and the forts, there is 
a constant succession of earthworks At the 
Plain of Chalmette, near Janin's property, there 
are redoubts, armed with rifled cannon which 
have been found to be effective at five miles* 
range. A ditch 30 feet wide and 20 deep ex- 
tends from the Mississippi to La Ciprione. In 
Forts St Philip and Jackson, there are 3,000 
men ; of whom a goodly portion are experienced 
artillery -men and gunners who have served in 
the navy. 

" At New Orleans itself, we have 32,000 in- 
fantry, and as many more quartered in the im- 
mediate neighborhood. In discipline and drill, 
they are far superior to the Yankees. We have 
two very able and active (Generals, who possess 
our entire confidence — Gen. Mansfield LoveO and 
Brig. -Gen. Buggies. For Commodore, we have 
old HoUins — ^a Nelson in his way." — y. 0. Pica- 
yune, April 5, 1862. 

Digitized by 




profusion; but these were not the 
forces required to paralyze such com- 
manders as Butler and Farragut. At 
length,* the joyM tidings reached 
the former from the latter that his 
fleet was all over the bar, reloaded, 
and ready for action; and that he 
hoped to move up the river next day. 
Two dajB later, Gen. Butler, with 
his 8,000 troops, was at the mouth 
of the river. 

New Orleans, situated on the left 
bank of the Mississippi, 100 miles 
above its mouths, with the l^rge 
sheet of water known as Lake Pont- 
chartrain closely approaching it on 
the north, and the smaller Lake 
Borgne some 20 miles distant on the 
east, was by far the largest and most 
important city of the Confederacy, 
with a population of 170,000, and 
the greatest export trade, just prior 
to the war, of any city in the world. 
Unable to perceive the wisdom of 
expatriating those magnificent feed- 
ers of its commerce, the Missouri, 
the Ohio, and the upper Mississippi, 
a majority of its people had opposed 
Secession, until the careftlUy nursed 
tempest of pro-Slavery foUy, fury, 
fanaticism, and ruffianism, stifled all 
outspoken dissent, about the time the 
war was formally opened by the Con- 
federate attack on Fort Sumter. 
Thenceforward, New Orleans became 
the virtual heart of the Confederacy ; 
and its immense wealth of coin and 
prodnoe was lavished in all directions 
in support of the military operations 
directed from Eichraond- Kegiment 
after regiment of Louisianians and 
foreign residents were raised and 
equipped here; but most of them 
had, when the hour of peril came, 
been drafted ofl^ from time to time, 

to meet pressing exigencies on the 
Potomac and higher Mississippi, or 
the Tennessee; so that but about 
3,000 of these, neither well armed, 
well drilled, nor particularly well af- 
fected to the cause, remained to dis- 
pute the advance of the Yankee in- 

Gen. David E. Twiggs had been 
rewarded for his stupendous treach- 
ery to the Union in Texas, by the 
command of the Confederate defenses 
of New Orleans, until stem expe- 
rience proved him as incapable, su- 
perannuated, and inefficient, as even 
our own Scott. At length, on a plea 
of declining health, he was sent home 
to die ; and Gen. Mansfield Lovell, 
who had abandoned a lucrative office 
under the Democratic municipality 
of New York to take service with 
the Confederates, was appointed his 

On assuming command,^ Lovell 
found the defenses of the great slave- 
mart more pretentious than formi- 
dable. The variety of water ap- 
proaches by Lakes Pontchartrain and 
Borgne, and the Bayous Barataria 
and La Fourche, all needed defenses 
against an enemy of preponderant 
naval force ; while even the Missis- 
sippi required fortifying and watch- 
ing above as well as below, to render 
the city entirely safe. Artillery by 
parks was indispensable ; and a good 
many guns had been supplied from 
the plunder of the Norfolk Kavy 
Yard, and elsewhere; but most of 
them were old, of moderate caliber, 
unrifled, and every way unsuited to 
the requirements of modem warfare. 
He telegraphed to Richmond, to 
Mobile, and other points, for heavier 
and better cannon ; but obtained very 

•April J 5, 18C2. 

'Oct 18, 18G1. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 







few, mainly from Pensacola, wheij 
that place was abandoned ; and had 
just begun to cast new ones, adapted 
to his needs, as also to provide him- 
self with iron-clads, when confronted 
by a military necessity for leaving 
that part of the country. 

Lovell, knowing far better than 
our commanders the essential weak- 
ness of his position, and early warned 
of his danger by the gathering of our 
forces on Ship Island, seems to have 
exerted himself to the utmost. He 
had fortified and guarded all the 
land approaches to the city ; so that, 
though Gen. Butler's army, had it 
advanced otherwise than by the Mis- 
sissippi, would probably have carried 
it, the cost in time, effort, and blood, 
would doubtless have been far greater 

than that actually incurred. But 
the operations of Farragut, in and 
about the passes, gave unmistakable 
indications of the real point of dan- 
ger; so that the Rebel General's 
forces and means of annoyance were 
mainly concentrated in and around 
Forts Jackson and St. Philip, which, 
from opposite banks, command the 
passage of the river, 75 miles below 
New Orleans. Beside these respect- 
able and regularly constructed fort- 
resses of brick and earth, abundantly 
supplied with smooth-bore 24 and 
32-pounders, and a few better guns, 
Lovell and his naval compatriots, 
after blocking up most of the water 
approaches to New Orleans from the 
Gulf with strongly-braced piles, green 
live-oaks, and other obstructions, and 

Digitized by 




caUing* on the Governor of Louisi- 
ana for 10,000 militia— receiving for 
answer that there were but 6,000, of 
whom half had just been sent to Ten- 
nessee, upon the requisition of Gen, 
Beauregard — and placing his de- 
partment under martial law,' turned 
their attention almost entirely to the 
lower Mississippi. It was high time. 
A great raft, or boom, composed 
of cypress-trees 40 feet long and 4 to 
5 feet through, standing 3 feet apart, 
and fastened to two great 2J-inch 
chain-cables, had been stretched 
across the river just under the guns 
of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and 
made fast to large trees, immense 
anchors, timbers, &c., imbedded as 
firmly as possible ; but the annual 
flood in the Mississippi, which com- 
mences early in the year, had, by the 
first of March, brought its surface 
considerably above the country out- 
side of its levees, and piled against 
the obstructions a large amount of 
drift-wood; softening the earth and 
strengthening the current, until the 
anchors and other hold-fasts gave 
way, and the raft, with its chains 
snapped and its timbers swept down 
stream, ceased to be an impediment. 
Bat for the delays and disappoint- 
ments which so sorely taxed Gen. 
Butler's patience, it is likely that our 
fleet would have found this their 
most formidable antagonist. Lovell 
at once sent down CoL Higgins to 
repair it, clothed with the amplest 
powers; but the Father -of Waters 
refused to recognize them. A new 
obstruction was patched up, com- 
posed of parts of the old raft, with 
flchooners anchored in the interstices, 
and all fastened together with such 
chains as could be procured ; but the 

net result was more formidable in 
appearance than in reality. And 
still the river kept on rising, until 
nearly all the adjacent country was 
submerged, becoming temporarily a 
pai*t of the Gulf of Mexico. Even 
the parade-plain and casemates of 
Fort Jackson were from 3 to 18 
inches under water, and its maga- 
zines were only kept dry by incessant 

Hollins had been superseded as 
naval commandant by Commodore 
Whittle, whose fleet consisted of the 
new iron-clad Louisiana, mounting 
16 guns, many of them large and ex- 
cellent, with Hollins^s ram Manassas 
and 13 gimboats — that is, commer- 
cial steamboats, impressed or lent for 
this service, and armed and manned 
as well as might be — with a number 
of old sailing craft fitted up as fire- 
ships, and very dangerous to wooden 
vessels attacking from below, by rea- 
son of the uniform strength of the 

Gen. J. K. Duncan, who had been 
appointed by Lovell to the command 
of the coast defenses, and had there- 
upon repaired'" to Fort Jackson, had 
been working the garrisons of both 
forts night and day, covering their 
main magazines with sand-bags; 
which had been barely completed 
when our fleet hove in sight. Two 
gunboats had appeared, reconnoiter- 
ing, four days before. 

Our naval force consisted of 47 arm- 
ed vessels, 8 of them large and power- 
ftil steam sloops-of-war ; 17 heavily 
armed steam gunboats, 2 sailing 
sloops-of-war, and 21 mortar-schoon- ^ 
ers, each throwing a 215-pound shell. 
The steam sloops carried from 9 to 
28 guns ; the gunboats, 5 to 6 guns 

•Feb. 25, 1862. 

* Maroh 16, 1862. 

" March 27. 

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each ; the whole number of gunB and 
mortars was 310, many of them very 
heavy and very good. Capt. Farra- 
gnt, our commander, had passed 52 
of his 63 years in the navy, having 
been a midshipman in the war of 
1812 ; a Tennessean, his loyalty was 
of that stem and sterling quality 
whereof the best examples were fur- 
nished by the South. His time, and 
that of his officers, had for weeks 
been well spent in providing and 
preparing every thing likely to be re- 
quired in the intended combat; so 
that when, on the day after our 
fleet reached the vicinity of the forts," 
and before it had opened fire, a 
Rebel flat-boat, piled with wood 
saturated with tar and turpentine, 
and then cut adrift, came rushing 
down the heady current — a crackling, 
roaring, flaming volcano— into the 
midst of our thickly clustering ves- 
sels, a few shells were thrown into it 
from the gunboat Mississippi, with- 
out the designed effect of exploding 
and sinking it; when a row-boat from 
the Iroquois quietly tackled it, fixed 
three grappling-irons in its bow, and 
towed it obliquely to the river bank, 
where it was permitted to bum itself 
harmlessly away, while the fleet pro- 
ceeded with its preparations for 
the morrow's bombardment. Axes, 
ropes, fire-buckets, and whatever else 
might be needed, were placed exactly 
where they would be at hand when 
wanted, and every thing made ready 
for business. 

At daylight next morning, each of 
the small steamers took four of the 
schooners in tow and drew them slow- 
ly up the river, their decks and yards 
covered with great branches of trees, 
whose green foliage rendered them 

undistinguishable, save by close ob- 
servation, from the dense woods that 
skirted the river. Fourteen of them 
were ranged in line close under the 
wooded bank, over which they were 
to throw their shells into Fort Jack- 
son, at distances of two to three 
miles. Six were stationed near the 
farther or eastern bank, in full view 
of both forts, but within range only 


Eoeplancaionn.—A^ B, 0, D, &c., are polDts on tibe left 
bank, and 1, 2, 8^4, Acl, polnte on the right bank of the 
river, selected fbr placing the gnnbooU and mortars In 
positluu. The position of the mortar-boats on the ISlh 
was as follows: 6 mortars on the left bank, between G 
and J, 8,900 to 4.500 yards fr»>m Fort Jackson; 14 mor- 
tars on the riffht bank, from 1 to &, distant 2,880 to 8,190 
yards iW)m Fort Jackson. On the 19th, they were all on 
the right bank, 8,010 to 4.100 yards from Fort Jackson, 
and remained nearly in the same position through the 
20th and 2l8t The large steamers and gunboats were 

S laced from i to 1 J miles below the mortar-boats. On the 
rst day, the small steam sloops and gunboats went up to 
abreast of the smoke-stack, wJaerethey engaged the forts 
and the enemy's steamers. 

"April 17. 

Digitized by 



of Jackson, distant 2^ to three miles ; 
all were under orders to concentrate 
their fire on Fort Jackson, that being 
the larger and more important work, 
whose fall necessarily involved that 

At 9 A. M., before our mortar vessels 
were ready, Fort Jackson opened fire ; 
but her balls struck the water 100 
yards short of our gunboat Owasco, 
which held the advance, and which 
was first to reply. Capt. Porter, who 
commanded the mortar fleet, watched 
through his glass the effect of our 
very deliberate fire, constantly giving 
new directions, founded on his ob- 
servations, as to the elevation of 
pieces, length of fuse, and weight of 
chaige. By 10 a. m., both parties 
had closed their experiments, and 
were firing steadily and heartily,'' 
though as yet with little visible 
effect, save that the fish in the river, 
stunned and killed by the tremendous 
concussions, had begun to float past 
our anchored vessels. Soon, three 
more rafts are seen sweeping down 
from the new barrier of chains and 
hulks, and, as they approach, are 
dealt with as their predecessor had 
been, without interrupting the tire 
of our guns. At 4 p. m.. Gen. But- 
ler's little dispatch steamer Saxon 
arrived, with news that the army 
was below, ready and waiting for ser- 
vice, and that the Monitor had dis- 
abled the Merrimac in Hampton 
Roads. At 5, flames were seen 
bursting from Fort Jackson, whose 
fire slackened ; and it was manifest 
that its wooden interior had been 
ignited, like that of Fort Sumter in 
the initial bombardment of the war. 
The Bebel forts ceased firing, as our 
boats did, an hour later, and the 
night passed silently ; the flames in 

Fort Jackson not being extinguished 
till 2 next morning. But its batteries 
opened as lively as ever at sunrise, 
and at 11:30 one of their rifled bolts 
crashed through one of our schooners, 
sinking her in 20 minutes ; while the 
Oneida, in our advance, was twice 
hit in the afternoon, two of her gun- 
carriages smashed, and 9 of her men 
wounded. The fort had evidently 
suffered by the day's work ; but the 
fathomless mud of ^ the Mississippi 
seemed exactly constituted to absorb 
our shells, with the least' possible 
harm to all around. Gen. Butler 
and staff arrived during that aft;er- 
noon, and went up in a small boat to 
take a look at the chain ; which, it 
had begun by this time to be under- 
stood, was badly in the way, and 
must be subjected to an operation. 

The bombardment having been 
continued through a third day with- 
out encouraging result, Capt. Farra- 
gut called a council of captains in 
the cabin of his flag-ship Hartford, 
and, having heard all opinions, de- 
cided on an attempt to force a pas- 
sage by the forts. To this end, it 
was essential that the cable should 
first be broken ; and to Capt. Bell, 
with the gunboats Pinola and Itasca, 
supported by the Iroquois, Kennebec, 
and Winona, was assigned the con- 
duct of this critical undertaking ; 
which, the night being dark, it was 
determined to attempt forthwith; 
and, at 10 p. m., the Pinola and 
Itasca had set out on their perilous 
errand ; Capt. Porter, so soon as they 
were out of range of his guns, open- 
ing upon Fort Jackson a tremendous 
fire from all his mortar-schooners, 
under which the Pinola ran up 
toward the cable near the western 
shore, directly under the guns of the 

Digitized by 




fort ; and, nearing one of the hulks, 
Mr. Kroehl, the inventor of a new 
and powerful petard, threw it on 
board; but it failed to explode, be- 
cause the Pinola, having stopped her 
engine a moment too soon, was 
whirled away on the rushing current, 
snapping the wire hitherto connected 
with the petard. The wind blowing 
fiercely from the north, it was half 
an hour before the Pinola was again 
minding her h^lm, with her bow to- 
ward the chain. 

Meanwhile, the Itasca, Captain 
Caldwell, had steamed up to the 
chain-supporting hulk next in order 
eastward, and, making fast to its 
side, her men, who had boarded 
the hulk, were studying in the dark- 
ness the economy of the cable. A 
rocket thrown up from Fort Jackson 
favored them with a fitful, transient 
light, to which a cannonade, instantly 
opened on them fi'om both forts, 
seemed to add very little ; but they 
steadily went on with their business ; 
and in half an hour the great chain, 
vigorously plied with sledge and 
chisel, had been cut; the cables 
by which the hulk was anchored 
had been slipped; and now the 
hulk, still chained to the nearer 
shore, was swept resistlessly round 
by flood and wind until it 
grounded in the mud of the bank, 
pulling the lashed Itasca along with 
it, and driving her fast aground 
directly in the range of both forts. 
By this time, however, the Pinola was 
ready to come to her rescue ; and, 
after an hour of earnest tugging, and 
parting two 5-inch hawsers, she 
finally grappled her with an 11-inch 
cable, and, by help of steam and cur- 
rent, dragged her again into deep 

water and down into the kindly 
darkness; each vessel entirely un- 
harmed : and the opening thus made 
in the barrier was speedily and con- 
stantly enlarged by the current, so 
that a boat's crew from the Itasca, 
pulling up in the thick darkness two 
nights later, found nothing to ob- 
struct the upward passage of our 
fleet. A new and grander fire-raft was 
sent down two hours after the chains 
were broken, only to be caught and 
served as her prcKlecessors had been. 

The bombardment was continued 
two days farther; in part, because 
two of our gunboats had been so 
much injured as to require assistance 
for their rapid repair. The morning 
of the 24th was fixed on for the grand 
attempt, of which the Rebel officers 
somehow had an intimation ; so that, 
throughout the preceding day, the 
forts were silently preparing for the 
eventful hour at hand, while our 
bombardment was little more than 
a formality. Meantime, Duncan re- 
ported from Fort Jackson that he 
had suffered very little, though 
25,000 13.inch shells had been fired 
at him, whereof 1,000 had fallen 
within the fort. (We had actually 
fired 5,000 only.) " God is certainly 
protecting us," was his assurance. 

Farragut's arrangements for pass- 
ing the forts were completed at sun- 
set." The mortar-boats, retaining 
their stations, were to cover the 
advance with their utmost possible 
fire. Six small steamers — ^the Har- 
riet Lane, Westfield, Owasco, Clin- 
ton, Miami, and Jackson, the last 
towing the Portsmouth — were to 
engage the water battery below Fort 
Jackson, but not attempt to pass. 
Capt. Farragut himself, with his 

'AprU 23. 

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three largest ships — the Hartford, 
Eichmond, and Brooklyn — was to 
keep near the western bank, fighting 
Fort Jackson; while Capt. Bailey, 
with the Cayuga, Pensacola, Missis- 
sippi, Oneida, Vamna, Katahdin, 
Kineo, and 'Wissahiekon, was to hug 
the eastern bank, exchanging com- 
pliments with Fort St. Philip. Capt. 
Bell, with the third division — con- 
sisting of the Scioto, Iroquois, Pinola, 
Winona, Itasca, and Kennebec — was 
to keep the middle of the river, and, 
disregarding the forts, to attack and 
vanquish the Eebel fleet in waiting 
above. lieut. Weitzel had wisely 
sn^ested that, as the guns of the 
forts had been fired at a high 
elevation in order to reach their re- 
mote assailants, and as the vessels 
would naturally be expected to keep 
the middle of the river, the Kebel 
gunners would be pretty sure to fire 
over them if they kept close to the 
respective shores. All being ready. 
Gen. Butler and his staff went on 
board the Saxon ; every naval officer 
was at his post ; and the silence was 
only broken by an occasional fire 
from the mortar-sloops. At 11 p. m., 
a signal firom the Itasca announced 
that the opening in the cable was 
stfll unclosed. The night was dark 
and heavy; the moon — what there 
was of it — ^wonld rise at 3 a. m. 

At 1," all hands were called, steam 
got up, the last preparations made, 
and at 2 the signal to weigh anchor 
was given from the flag-ship. Half 
an hour later, Farragut's division was 
ready. Capt. Bailey, a little slower, 
was farther away ; it was Si before 
the latter was fairly abreast of Far- 
mgut, when each division moved si- 
lently up stream. The current was 

so swift, the night so heavy, that the 
fleet advanced but four miles per 

The silence was broken by our mor- 
tars, whose gunners, prepared for the 
rapidest possible fire, at once filled 
the air with their shells, and roared 
out to the Rebels their warning that 
the hour had come. As our ships 
in their three lines closely followed 
each other, Capt. Bailey, in the Ca- 
yuga, was first observed and opened 
upon by both forts as he was passing 
through the breach in the barrier. 
He did not choose to give better di- 
rection to the enemy's fire by reply- 
ing; and, though their balls were 
abundant, they mainly passed over 
and around him. Approaching Fort 
St. Philip, he ran close under her 
guns, giving her broadsides of grape 
and canister as he passed ; the Pen- 
sacola, Mississippi, and Varuna, press- 
ing closely in his wake, followed his 
commendable example. All of his 
division passed the forts essentially 

Capt. Bell's division was less for- 
tunate. The Pinola, Scioto, and 
Iroquois, ran the gauntlet of the forts 
unharmed ; but the Itasca, when di- 
rectly opposite St. Philip, received a 
volley of balls, one of which pierc^ 
her boiler and compelled her to drift 
down the river. The Winona recoil- 
ed from that fire, and failed to pass. 
The Kennebec was caught in the 
cable ; and, when liberated, lost her 
way in the dense smoke ; finally re- 
turning to her former anchorage be- 
low the forts. 

Capt. Farragut, in the fore rigging 
of the Hartford, anxiously watching 
every visible movement tlirough his 
night-glass, had advanced within a 

" April 24. 

Digitized by 




mile and a quarter of Fort Jackson, 
when he was opened upon from that 
Fort and repeatedly struck. Still 
steaming directly for the fort, and re- 
plying only from his two forecastle 
guns, when within half a mile he 
sheered and gave them broadsides of 
grape and canister, which soon drove 
every man from their barbette guns ; 
but those in the casemates rendered 
full and quick returns for every vol- 
ley received. The Richmond, closely 
following, hurled grape and canister 
in profusion. The Brooklyn, bring- 
ing up the rear, ran over one of the 
hulks which had upheld the chain, 
during a hot fire from Fort St. Phil- 
ip. Hardly had she been freed from 
the hulk and her head turned up 
stream, when the ram Manafisas came 
butting into her starboard gangway, 
first opening her iron trap-door at 
ten feet distance and firing at the 
smoke-stack of the Brooklyn a heavy 
bolt, which was caught and stopped 
by the sand-bags protecting her 
steam-drum. A guard of chain 
armor, which had been woven over 
her sides, shielded her from destruc- 
tion by the ram, which soon slid off 
and disappeared in the darkness. A 
few minutes later, while still under a 
raking fire from Fort Jackson, the 
Brooklyn was attacked by a large 
Rebel steamer, to which she gave a 
broadside at 50 yards, setting it in- 
stantly on fire and putting an end to 
its career. Still groping onward in 
the thick darkness, Capt. Craven 
soon foimd himself abreast of Fort 
St. Philip, and so near that his leads- 
man reported 18 feet of water. Bring- 
ing all his guns to bear for a few mo- 
ments, he poured in grape and canis- 
ter so that the fort was completely 

silenced, and her garrison were seen 
by our men in the tops of the Brook- 
lyn, by the fitftd flashes of their 
bursting shrapnel, running like sheep 
to their coverts. Thus passing the 
upper fort, Capt. Craven engaged 
several of the Rebel gunboats, at 60 
to 100 yards. He was an hour and 
a half under fire, lost 8 killed and 26 
wounded, while his ship was badly 
cut up by shot and shell ; but she 
bore her full part in the attack on 
the Rebel batteries below New Or- 
leans next morning. 

The Cayuga, having saluted and 
passed Fort St. Philip at short range, 
still pushing on, encountered, when 
just out of fire of the fort, the entire 
Rebel flotilla, consisting of 18 gun- 
boats, including the Manassas and 
Louisiana. For a moment, her doom 
seemed certain, as no supporting ship 
was to be seen. By skiUful steering, 
however, Capt. Bailey avoided ^1 
their attempts to butt and board, 
and had already forced three of the 
less formidable to surrender, when 
the Yaruna and Oneida were seen 
coming to the rescue. At early 
dawn, perceiving a Rebel camp on 
the right bank of the river, Capt. 
Bailey anchored close beside it, and 
ordered the Rebels to pile their arms 
on the bank and come on board as 
prisoners, which was obeyed. The 
captives proved to be the Chalraette 
regiment. Col. Sysmanski. Their flag , 
tents, and camp equipage, formed a 
part of the spoils. 

The Varuna, having safely passed 
the forts, found herself " amid a nest 
of Rebel steamers," " into which she 
plunged, firing broadsides at each as 
she passed it, exploding the boiler 
of the first, which appeared to be 

" Commander Boggs's official report. 

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crowded with troops ; when it drifted 
ashore, a wreck. Three other ves- 
sels, one of them a gunboat, were 
likewise driven ashore and blown 
up. At 6 A. M., the Morgan, partially 
iron-clad, commanded by Beverly 
Kennon (late of our navy), attack- 
ed the Yaruna, giving her a raking 
fire along the port gangway, which 
killed 4 and wounded 9 of her crew, 
then butted her on the quarter and 
again on the starboard side, but with- 
out sinking or disabling her. Mean- 
while, the Varuna had planted three 
8-inch shells in her assailant, abaft 
her armor, with several shot from 
one of our rifled guns; when she 
drifted out of the fight, partially dis- 
abled. Ere this time, another Kebel 
iron-clad, with a beak under water, 
had struck the Varuna in the port 
gangway, doing considerable damage, 
while our shot glanced harmlessly 
from the armor of the Rebel boat. 
The enemy then backed off for an- 
other blow, and struck again in the 
same place, crushing in the Varuna's 
side ; but she being under full head- 
way, her enemy's beak for a moment 
stuck fast in her side, and the ram 
was drawn around nearly beside our 
steamer, which was thereby enabled 
to plow her with five 8-inch shells 
abs^ her armor. This finished her 
performance, and she drifted ashore, 
a burning wreck ; while the Varuna, 
now in a sinking condition, was run 
into the bank by her commander, 
her anchor let go, and her bow made 
fast to the trees ; her guns all the 
time at work crippling the Morgan, 
which was making feeble efforts to 
get up steam. When the water had 
risen over his gun-trucks. Commander 
Boggs turned his attention to getting 
the wounded and crew out of his ves- 

sel The Oneida, seeing her sinking, 
had rushed to her assistance; but 
Boggs waved her on to the Morgan, 
which, already in flames, surren- 
dered; she had lost over 50 of her 
crew killed and wounded, and was 
set on fire by her commander, who 
left his wounded to the flames. Fif- 
teen minutes after she struck, the 
Varuna was on the bottx)m, with 
only her top-gallant forecastle out of 
water. Her crew gained the shore, 
losing every thing but the clothes 
they stood in. 

Our loss in this desperate fight, 
not including 6 or 7 previously disa- 
bled on the mortar-boats, was re- 
ported as only 30 killed and 119 
wounded; the fieet surgeon adding 
that several vessels had not yet made 
their official return. The Brooklyn, 
Pensacola, and Iroquois, had suffered 
most severely. 

Gen. Lovell, who had witnessed 
the combat of our fleet with his forts 
and flotilla, and its triumph, hastened 
up to the city on horseback, narrowly 
escaping capture on the way, and 
gave orders to Gen. Smith, in com- 
mand of the land defenses, to make 
all possible resistance at the earth- 
works below the town ; but the high 
stage of water, causing the guns of 
our vessels to command the earth- 
works, rendered them untenable by 
infantry. An attempt was made to 
raise 1,000 desperate volunteers who 
would undertake to board and carry 
our vessels by assault ; but only 100 
could be found. In short. New Or- 
leans was lost when our fleet had 
passed the forts ; and all her intelli- 
gent Kebels knew it. 

Gen. Lovell, after consultation 
with the municipal authorities, began 

Digitized by 




at once to send off his munitions 
and provisions by steamboat and rail- 
road, while the greater part of his 
conscripted militia disbanded and 
dispersed. What was left worth tak- 
ing was sent off to Camp Moore, 78 
miles above, on the Jackson Rail- 

The Rebel flotilla having been 
mainly destroyed, Capt. Farragut, 
with his nine vessels that had safely 
run the gauntlet of Rebel forts, fire- 
ships, rams, and gunboats, while 
steaming slowly and cautiously up 
the river, had not yet reached New 
Orleans when he was met by ample 
evidence that the city was virtually 
in his hands. Cotton-loaded and 
other valuable ships came floating 
down the river wrapped in flames, the 
mute but vivid witnesses of the 
enemy's despair. " I never witnessed 
such Vandalism in my life," he re- 
ports, " as the destruction of prop- 
erty: all the shipping, steamboats, 
&c., were set on fire and consumed." 

On reaching" the English Turn, 
six or seven miles below the city, he 
descried the new earthworks on both 
banks, known as the Ohalmette bat- 
teries ; when, forming his fleet in two 
lines, and allotting to each its proper 

"At 10:30 A. M. on the 25th. 

" Pollard says: 

" No sooner had the Federal fleet turned the 
pomt, and come within sight of the city, than 
the work of destruction of property commenced. 
Vast columns of smoke ascended to the sky, 
darkening the face of heaven and obscuring the 
noon-day sun; for five miles along the levee, 
flerce flames darted through the lurid atmosphere, 
their baleful glare struggling in rivalry with 
the sunlight ; g^at ships and steamers, wrapped 
in fire, floated down the river, threatening the 
Federal vessels with destruction by their fiery 
contact In front of the various presses, and at 
other points along the levee, the cotton had 
been piled up and submitted to the torch. It 
was burned by order of the Governor of Louisi- 
ana and of the military commander of the Con- 
federate States. Fifteen thousand bales were 

work, he moved on. The Cayuga, 
not having observed the signal for 
close order, was considerably in ad- 
vance, and so for 20 minutes exposed 
alone to the fire of the Rebel bat- 
teries. But the Hartford now came 
up, dispensing liberal broadsides of 
shell, shrapnel, and grape, the first 
of which drove the Rebels on the 
right bank from their guns ; while the 
fire of the Pensacola, the Brooklyn, 
and the residue of the fleet, which 
came up in quick succession, very 
soon silenced the remaining forts, 
and set their gunners in rapid motion 
toward places of greater safety. Iso 
further obstacles nor perils but those 
presented by burning steamers, cot- 
ton-ships, rafts, &c., were encountered 
until, at 1 p. M., the squadron an- 
chored, during a violent thunder- 
storm, in front of New Orleans, 
whose levee for mUes afforded a mag- 
nificent but melancholy spectacle of 
burning cotton, sugar, and other 
staples of South-western commerce ; 
while the river in front was so full of 
burning ships that great vigilance 
and skill were required to avoid 

There was no attempt at resistance, 
but on shore anarchy and impotent 

consumed ; the value of which would have been 
about a million and a half of dollars. The to- 
bacco stored in the city, being all held by for- 
eign residents on foreign account, was not de- 
stroyed. The specieof the banks, to the amount 
of twelve or fifteen millions, was removed from 
the city and placed in a secure place ; so were 
nearly all the stores and movable property of 
the Confederate States. But other materials 
were embraced in the awful conflagration. 
About a dozen large river steamboats, twelve or 
fifteen ships, some of them laden with cotton, a 
great floating battery, several unfinished gun- 
boats, tlie immense ram, the Mississippi, and 
the dodcs on the other side of the river, were 
all enibraced in the fiery sacrifice. The Missis- 
sippi was an iron-clad frigate, a superior vessel 
of her class, and accounted to be by far the most 
important naval structure the Confederate Gov- 
ernment had vet undertaken.*' 

Digitized by 




rage strove for the mastery. As our 
squadron neared the levee, our sailors 
gave a cheer, to which some few in 
the adjacent crowd responded, pro- 
voking thereby pistol-shots from 
the irate Rebels surrounding them. 
After a brief delay, Capt. Bailey was 
sent ashore to demand the surrender 
of the city ; when the valorous mob 
received him with groans, hootings, 
and threats of violence, which did 
not prevent his proceeding, under the 
escort o^ more considerate citizens, to 
the Mayor's oflSce ; the mob that fol- 
lowed him contenting itself with 
assaults on such citizens as were sus- 
pected of Unionism. On reaching 
the CJity Hall, he made his demand, 
requiring that the Federal flag be 
displayed firontL the public edifices ; 
to which the Mayor responded, dis- 
claiming any authority to comply. 
A messenger was thereupon sent to 
Gen. Lovell, who informed Capt. 

Bailey that he had already evacuated 
the city, which he now formally 
turned over to the municipal autho- 
rities, leaving them to act as they 
should see fit. Capt. Bailey now re- 
turned to the fleet to await such 
action; and the Mayor, refusing to 
haul down the State flag from the 
City Hall, sent to the Common 
Council, which was in session, a mes- 
sage recommending that an answer 
be returned to Capt. Farragut, stat- 
ing that the city, being incapable of 
offering further resistance, yielded to 
physical force alone, without giving 
up its allegiance to the Confederate 
Government, while it had no au- 
thority over the Custom-House, Post- 
Office, and Mint, and would do 
nothing with regard to them. This 
undignified and ridiculous betrayal 
of spite and chagrin was reiterated 
by the Mayor in a letter*^ to Capt. 
Farragut, which was tersely and fitly 

" " Mayor's Optice, Cttt of New Orleans, 
"City Hall, April 26, 1862. 
'-Ftaj- Officer D. G. Farragut, United States 
jCagsh^ Hartford: 
**SiB — In pursuance of a resolution which we 
thought proper to take, out of regard for the 
liTes of the women and children who etlll crowd 
the metropolis. General Lovell has evacuated it 
with his troops, and restored back to me the ad- 
ministration of its goverament and the custody 
of its honor. I have, in council with the City 
Fathers, considered the demand you made of me 
yesterday of an unconditional surrender of the 
city, coupled with a requisition to hoist the flag 
of the United States on the public edifices, and 
haul down the flag tliat still floats upon the 
breexe from the dome of this Hall. It becomes 
my duty to transmit to you an answer which is 
thie onirersal sentiment of my constituents no 
leas than the promptings of my own heart on 
this sad and solemn occasion. The city is with- 
out the means of defense ; and is utterly destitute 
of the force and material that might enable it to 
resist an overpowering armament displayed in 
sight of it 

''I am no military man, and possess no au- 
thority beyond that of executing the municipal 
laws of the city of New Orleans. It would be 
pt«samptuoa<» in me to attempt to lead an army 
in the field, if I had one at command; and I 
know still le38 how to surrender an undefended 

place, held, as this is, at the mercy of your gun- 
ners and your mortars. To surrender such a place 
were an idle and unmeaning ceremony, 'llie 
city is yours by the power of brutal force, not 
by my choice or the consent of its inhabitants. 
It is for you to determine what will be the fate 
that awaits us here. As to hoisting any flag not 
of our own adoption and allegiance, let me say 
to you that the man lives not in our midst whose 
hand and heart would not be paralyzed at the 
mere thought of such an act; nor could I find in 
my entire constituency so desperate and wretched 
a renegade as would dare to profane with his 
hand the sacred emblem of our aspirations. 

" Sir, you liave manifested sentiments which 
would become oue engaged in a better cause 
than that to which you have devoted your 
sword. I doubt not that they spring from a no- 
ble though deluded nature ; and I know how to 
appreciate the emotions which iuspired them. 
You have a gallant people to administrate during 
your occupancy of this city — a people sensitive 
to all that can in the least afiect their dignity 
and self-respect. Pray, Sir, do not fail to regard 
their susceptibilities. The obligations which I 
shall assume in their name shall be religiously 
complied with. You may trust their honor, 
though you might not count on their submission 
to unmerited wronjr. 

" In conclusion, I beg you to understand that 
the people of New Orleans, while unable to re- 

Digitized by 




answered.'* The malevolent folly of 
the municipal authorities served only 
to expose their city to destruction. A 
force landed from the Pensacola had 
hoisted, unopposed, a Federal flag 
over the Mint, and left it there un- 
guarded. Ere it had thus remained 
many hours, a number of young 
Rebels mounted to the dome, tore it 
down, and dragged it through the 
streets. It would have been entirely 
justifiable and proper on the part of 
Farragut to have required of the au- 
thorities its immediate and respectful 
replacement, on penalty of the de- 
struction of their city; but he forbore ; 
and, even when he required them, 
two days afterward, to take down the 
flag of Louisiana, still floating over 
the City Hall, the Mayor positively 
reftised. Capt. F. finally closed" 
the absurd altercation by sending a 

force from his ships to take down the 
flag : a vast crowd looking sullenly 
on, or giving vent to their wrath only 
in idle curses. They failed to com- 
prehend their position; but they re- 
spected the two brass howitzers, well 
manned and supported, which stood 
in front of the City Hall while the 
operation was quietly and thorough- 
ly performed. 

Capt. Farragut had not waited to 
obtain formal possession of the city 
before moving up" to the f^o forte 
at Carrollton, eight miles above, 
where he was surprised to find the 
gun-carriages on fire and the guns 
spiked. The works were formidable, 
but constructed to resist an advance 
from above ; so that, being taken in 
reverse, they had been adjudged 

Gen. Butler, having witnessed fron^ 

sist your force, do not allow themselves to be in- 
sulted by the interference of such as have ren- 
dered themselves odious and contemptible by 
their dastardly desertion of our cause in the 
mighty struggle in which we are engaged, or 
audi as might remind them too forcibly that they 
are the conquered and you the conquerors. 
Peace and order may be preserved without re- 
sort to measures which I could not at this mo- 
ment prevent. Your occupying the city does 
not transfer allegiance from the government of 
tlieir choice to one which they have deliberately 
repudiated ; and they yield the obedience which 
the conqueror is entitled to extort from the con- 
quered. Respectfully, 

"John T. Monroe, Mayor." 

" " U. S. Flag-ship Habtpord, at anchor 
off the City of New Orleans, 

"AprU 28, 1862. 
** To His Honor ihe Mayor and City Council of 
the City of New Orleans : 

** Your communication of the 26th inst. has 
been received, together with that of the City 

"I deeply regret to see, both by their con- 
tents and the continued display of the flag of 
Louisiana on the Court-House, a determination 
on the part of the city authorities not to haul it 
down. Moreover, when my officers and men 
were sent on shore to communicate with the au- 
thorities, and to hoist the United States flag on 
the Custom-House, with the strictest order not 
to use their arms unless assailed, they were in- 
sulted in the grossest manner, and the flag 

which had been hoisted by my orders <5n the 
Mint was pulled down and dragged through the 
streets. All of which goes to show that the 
fire of this fleet may be drawn upon the city at 
any moment; and in such an event the levee 
would, in all probability, be cut by the shells, 
and an amount of distress ensue to the innocent 
popula.ion which I have hitherto endeavored to 
assure you that I desire by all means to avoid. 

" Tlie election, therefore, is with you. But it 
becomes my duty to notify you to remove the 
women and children from the city within 48 
hours, if I rightly understand your determina- 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
(Signed) " D. G. Farragut, 

" Flag-Officer Western Gulf 

Blockading Squadron."' 

It seems incredible, yet it is a fact, that Mon- 
roe sent a rejoinder to this letter; in which, 
amid bombastic and turgid babble about flagrant 
violation of those courtesies which prevail be- 
tween belligerents, and shells tearing up tlie 
graves of those who are so dear to them, he 
whimpered out : " Our women and children can- 
not escape from your shells, if it be your pleasure 
to murder them on a question of mere «ft- 
qtiette.'^ Even Pollard barely represses his dis- 
gust at the silly repetitions and vanity of liter- 
ary style protruded by this Bobadil of a Mayor. 
*» May 1. " Afternoon of April 26. 

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the Saxon the success of Farragut's 
attempt to pass the Rebel forts and 
barrier and destroy their fleet for- 
bidding approach to New Orleans, 
made haste to join his land forces 
below, and to conduct them, under 
WeitzeFs piloting, through the shal- 
low bays and bayous in the rear of 
Fort St. Philip, landing them from 
lis row-boats on the first firm ground 
that he reached above the fort; 
thence occupying the levee and 
throwing a detachment across the 
ri^er so as completely to isolate both 
forts and their garrisons. While he 
was eflTecting this. Commander Por- 
ter, with his mortar-fleet below, 
resumed and continued the bombard- 
ment, sending up'* a flag of truce to 
demand a surrender, which was re- 
fiised; but, next day, 250 of the 
garrison of Fort Jackson, having 
heard, or inferred from the blackened 
fragments floating down the river, 
that New Orleans was captured, re- 
fused to fight longer, and, spiking 
the guns on the upper side of the 
fort, sallied out and surrendered 
themselves to Gen. Butler's pickets. 
Lt.-CoL Higgins, who commanded 
the forts, seeing that all was lost, 
now made haste to accept the favor- 
able terms of capitulation previously 
offered by Commander Porter, before 
the latter should be made aware of 
Butler's position above and the 
mutiny and surrender of half the 
garrison. While the terms of capitu- 
lation were being reduced to writing, 
the Confederate naval officers just 

above the forts towed their ram 
Louisiana out into the current, set 
her on fire and abandoned her, with 
aU her guns shotted, expecting her 
to drift down upon and explode in 
the midst of Porter's fleet ; but, just 
as she was abreast of Fort St. Philip^ 
she blew up and sunk, injuring no 
one but a Rebel soldier in the fort,, 
who was killed by a fragment. Of 
the three remaining Eebel steamers, 
one had been scuttled; the others 
surrendered without resistance : their 
officers, with those of the Louisiana^ 
being sent North as close prisoners, 
because of their attempt to destroy 
our fleet while a capitulation was in 
progress. Commander Porter turned 
the forts and their contents imme- 
diately over to Gen. Phelps," and 
they were very soon being repaired 
and fitted for effective service ; while 
Gen. Butler, leaving Gen. Williams 
in command there, and having easily 
reduced Forts Pike and Wood, at 
the entrance of Lake Pontchartrain, 
brought his steamers around into the 
Mississippi, and, taking on board 
2,000 of his men, moved up to the 
city and took possession — Capt. Par- 
ragut very gladly relinquishing to 
him the difficult and disagreeable 
duty of bandying words with its 
spiteful, shuffling authoritie8,and deal- 
ing with its ferocious and ruffianly 
mob, who would have taken exquisite 
pleasure in making mince-meat of 
either of them. 

I In the conferences which ensued 
between the commanding General 

* April 2t. 

■ The Rebel lo«8 by the bombardment of Forts 
Jtckson and St Philip was reported bj them at 
11 killed and 39 wounded. The prisoners 
t^en by na at the surrender were 393b This does 
Mi indode about 300 captured with the last of 
VOL. IL — 7 

their gunboats, nor the Chahnette regiment en- 
camped on the levee, which surrendered to Capt. 
Bailey. Our total loss of men in the bombard* 
ment, running the batteries, destruction of the 
Rebel fleet, and capture of the city, was but 4Q< 
killed and 177 wounded. 

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and tlie municipality, Mayor Monroe 
was counseled and prompted by Hon. 
Pierre Soule, a gentleman whose 
ability and tact shone forth in strik- 
ing contrast with the pitiable exhibi- 
tion previously made of himself by 
the Mayor. In fact, if Soule had 
had 10 or 15 good regiments and as 
many batteries at his back, he might 
have argued Butler out of New 
Orleans. A wide diversity as to 
premises rendered the progress and 
results of these discussions quite un- 
satisfactory to the weaker party. In 
the contemplation of Gen. Butler, 
New Orleans was a city of the United 
States, wherein EebeUion had been 
temporarily dominant, but which had 
now been restored to its rightful and 
lawful allegiance, and wherein no 
authority must be asserted, no flag 
displayed, but those of the Union. 
Soul6, Monroe, and the mob, could 
not see the matter in that light ; but 
insisted on regarding our forces as 
intruders, who ought in simple de- 
cency to abscond; but who, since 
they refused to do this, should in all 
things consult the feelings and tastes 
of the patriotic and indomitable 
Southrons, who, from behind their 
barricades of women and children, 
delighted in hallooing, wherever 
Butler appeared or was expected, 
•" Where 's old cock-eye ?" " Let me 
see the damned rascal 1" "I see 
the ^ damned old villain," &c., &c., 
interspersed with " Hurrah for Jeff. 
Davis 1" "flurrah for Beauregard 1" 
" Go home, you damned Yankees V^ 
&c, &c. It was amid a tempest of 
such outcries from the throats of 
50,000 venomous Rebels, that the 
General, after vainly endeavoring to 
comply with a popular demand for 

" Picayune Butler," which none of 
his bands were able to play, and after 
having waited upon Capt. Farragut 
and heard his account of all that had 
occurred since our fleet first appeared 
before the city, ordered the imme- 
diate debarkation of his troops, which 
began at 4 o'clock that afternoon :" 
the crowd requiring to be slowly 
pressed back with the bayonet to ob- 
tain space on which our r^ments 
were thus enabled successively to 
land and form ; Gen. Butler and his 
staff — no horses having yet been 
landed — marching on foot at the 
head of the 31st Massachusetts and 
4th Wisconsin to the music of the 
" Star-Spangled Banner," variegated 
by nowise complimentary observa^ 
tions from the mob, along the levee 
to Poydras street, thence through 
St. Charles street and Canal street, 
to the vast, unfinished Custom-House, 
where our artillery was duly posted 
and the men fitly quartered ; while 
the General and his staff returned to 
his steamboat, and the 12th Connec- 
ticut, Col. Deming, bivouacked on 
the levee by its side. 

That evening. Gen. Butler finished 
his proclamation and sent it to the 
office of The True Delta to be printed, 
only to learn that the application was 
too late. Next morning, it was re- 
newed, and plumply reftised by the 
proprietor. Two hours later, a file 
of soldiers drew up before the build- 
ing, when half a dozen of their num- 
ber entered the printing office and 
proceeded inoffensively to print the 
obnoxious paper. The True Delta 
of next day commenting rebelliously 
on this performance, G^n. Butler sup- 
pressed it till ftirther orders : wliich 
brought the concern to reason. The 


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next day, its publication was re- 
sumed ; and on the 6th the proclama- 
tion duly appeared in its columns. 

The great St. Charles Hotel hav- 
ing been suddenly closed, Gen. But- 
ler reopened and made it his head- 
quarters, summoning the Mayor and 
Council to meet him there at 2 p. m. 
next day, which they did ; and, after 
considerable debate, were satisfied, 
first, that Gren. Butler was master of 
the situation; secondly, that he in- 
tended to remain so ; thirdly, that any 
who should undertake to dispute or 
defy his authority would certainly get 
into trouble ; and fourthly, that the 
mob, though it might hoot and howl 
with impunity, must stop short of ac- 
tual violence and mutiny, or their 
streets would be swept by grape and 
their gutters run red with blood. It 
took some time to impress these 
truths clearly on the average Eebel 
mind ; but the work was effectively 
done; and New Orleans ultimately 
confessed that she had not before in 
a generation been nearly so clean, so 
quiet, so orderly, so free from rob- 
bery, violence, outrage, and murder, 
as she was under the rule of ^ Beast 
Butler' in the year of grace 1862. 

Two conspicuous instances out of 
many must here serve as examples 
of his dealings with the spirit of 

The women of Kew Orleans — ^that 
portion of them who arrogated to 
themselves the designation of ladies, 
with a large majority of their sisters 
throughout the Confederacy — ^had ere 
this become most impassioned Reb- 
els. The aristocratic instinct being 
strongs in women than in men. 
Slavery, though it debauched the 
men and d^raded the women of the 
Sooth, had come to be r^arded by 

the latter — that is, by those of the 
ruling caste — as their patent of no- 
bility; and they clung to it, and 
stood ready to sacrifice and dare for 
it, as aristocrats are always ready to 
' stand by their order.' They talked 
loudly of shedding their blood, if 
need be, for the Confederacy; they 
acted so as to insure the shedding in 
that behalf of the blood of their male 
relatives and neighbors. To pro- 
claim a rigid non-intercourse with 
all young men who did not promptly 
enlist in the Confederate armies, and 
to exhort, entreat, and finally insult, 
those who hesitated to do so, was a 
very common exhibition of Southern 
female patriotism. To treat our offi- 
cers and soldiers at all times, and 
under all circumstances, with indica- 
tions of hatred, contempt, disgust, 
and loathing, was their still more 
natural and general practice. The 
display of a miniature Secession flag 
on their persons was a harmless, in- 
offensive exhibition of their feelings 
which was never objected to on our 
side. To vacate a church-pew, quit a 
street-car, or other public vehicle, 
upon the entrance of one of our offi- 
cers, was admissible ; to strum " The 
Bonny Blue Flag" on the piano 
whenever a Union officer entered the 
house, or a Union platoon marched 
by, could be endured; but when 
ladies, by breeding or brevet, saw fit 
to take several reefs in thei^respec- 
tive noses, to make an ostentatious 
display of drawing aside their dresses, 
to oblique into the middle of the 
street and then back again, in order 
to avoid the possibility of contact 
with a passing officer, or being over- 
shadowed by the American fiag ; still 
more, when, to contemptuous and in- 
sulting gestures, they added oppro- 

Djgitized by 





brious and venomous language, they 
passed the limits of any indulgence 
which may properly be accorded to 
even feminine malignity. In New 
Orleans, the climax of these cowardly 
insults was only reached when some- 
thing dressed like a lady saw fit to 
spit in the faces of two officers quietly 
passing along the street. It was this 
experiment on his forbearance which 
decided Qen. Butler to issue his 
famous Order No. 28. It reads as 
follows : 

<* Headquartebs, Department op the 
Gulf, New Orleans, May 15, 1862. 
" General Order No. 28 : 

** As the officers and soldiers of the Uni- 
ted States have been subjected to repeated 
insults from the women (calling themselves 
ladies) of New Orleans, in return for the 
most scrupulous non-interference and cour- 
tesy on our part, it is ordered that hereaf- 
ter, when any female shall, by word, ges- 
ture, or movement, insult or show contempt 
for any officer or soldier of the United 
States, she shall be regarded and held liable 
to be treated as a woman of the town ply- 
ing her avocation. 

" By command of M«g.-Gen. Butler. 
" Geo. 0. Strong, A. A. G., Chief of Staff." 

This order was subjected to the 
worst possible construction, first by 
Mayor Monroe and his secret prompt- 
ers ; next by the Rebel Governor of 
Louisiana and the Secessionists gen- 
erally ; and so on, until Lord Palmer^ 
ston, in the British House of Com- 
mons, took occasion to be astonished, 
to blush, and to proclaim his " deep- 
est indignation " at the tenor of that 
order ;^ Punch eagerly echoing his 
perversions. Gen. Butler was finally 
constrained, after too long enduring 
his palterings and equivocations, to 
send Mayor Monroe to prison, abol- 
ish his municipality, banish Pierre 
Soul6, and appoint Col. G. F. Shel- 
ley military commandant, to the sig- 
nal improvement of the government 
of New Orleans and the peace and 

security of its inhabitants; and all 
that need be added in explanation or 
in defense of the hated order is this : 
that no soldier under Gen. Butler's 
command ever acted upon the vile 
construction of that order which his 
enemies set up; and no woman in 
New Orleans ever pretended that she 
was anywise abused or insulted be- 
cause thereof; while its success in 
arresting the scandalous behavior at 
which it aimed was immediate and 

The other case, wherein Gen. But- 
ler especially displeased his enemies 
and those of his country, was that of 
Wm. B. Mumford, a New Orleans 
gambler, who had led the Rebel mob 
who tore down our; National flag 
from the roof of the Mint, where it 
had been hoisted by our sailors de- 
tailed for that duty by Capt. Morris, 
of tlie Pensacola, on the 27th, after 
Lovell had evacuated the city, and its 
Mayor and Common Council had offi- 
cially declared themselves incapable 
of making any resistance, and that, 
yielding to physical force alone, tliey 
would make none, to the forces of the 
United States. The outrage thus 
committed by Mumford and his 
backers, furtive and riotous as it was, 
drew a shot from the howitzers in the 
main-top of the Pensacola, and might 
have provoked and justified the de- 
struction of the city by our fleet ; 
since the authorities did not disclaim, 
while the mob vociferously applaud- 
ed and adopted it. So The Pich- 
yune of next morning eulogized its 
gallantry and patriotism, and pro- 
claimed it an act of the city, and a 
proof of her " imflinching determina- 
tion to sustain to the uttermost the 
righteous cause for which she has 
done so much and made such sacri- 

Digitized by 




fices.^ The city having been com- 
pletely occupied, and the National 
authority reestablished, Gen. Butler 
caused Mumford to be arrested, tried, 
and, he being convicted and sen- 
tenced to death by hanging, that sen- 
tence was duly executed," in the face 
of all New Orleans anxiously looking 
on, and in .defiance of the confident 
prediction of the Rebels that Butler 
would not dare to do it. They did 
not dare; he did. And his hold on 
the city was firmer and safer from 
that moment. 

About the same time,'* he pardon- 
ed and set at liberty six humbler 
Rebels, who, having been captured 
and paroled at the surrender of the 
forts, liad been induced secretly to 
reenlist in the Rebel service, conspir- 
ing to force or evade our pickets and 
hasten to join Beauregard's army in 
Mississippi. Their guilt was undoubt- 
ed ; their crime one that military law 
sternly punishes with death. 

The occupation of New Orleans, 
its defenses and approaches, having 
been completed and assured. Com- 
mander Porter, with a part of our 
fleet, returned to Ship Island ; a part 
was stationed near New Orleans to 
assist in its defense ; and the residue, 
under Capt. Craven, steamed up the 
river to extend our sway in that di- 
rection. Baton Rouge, the State 
capital, was captured without resist- 
ance.** The Mayor refusing to sur- 
render, Commander Palmer, of the 
Iroquois, landed and took possession 
of the tJ. S. Arsenal Capt. Farra- 
gut arrived soon afterward, and took 
measures to render our possession 
permanent. Katchez was in like 
manner given up to the Iroquois;" 

but, as the Confederates had not oc- 
cupied it as a military post, it was 
left unmolested. 

The advance of our squadron, im- 
der Commander S. P. Lee, encoun- 
tered no opposition until it reached 
Vicksburg," whence a summons to 
surrender was answered with de- 
fiance. Our force was inadequate 
to attack until the arrival, a few days 
later, of Capt. Farragut, accompa- 
nied by 4,000 soldiers under Gen. 
Thomas Williams. Vicksburg is 
naturally so strong, and was so firmly 
held, that it was not until after still 
further reenforcements had come up, 
including Conmiander Porter's mor- 
tar fleet, that a bombardment was 
opened." Not much impression was 
made on the elevated and formida- 
ble Rebel batteries by our fire ; but, 
at 3 A. M. of the 28th, Capt. Farra- 
gut, in the Hartford, with six more 
of his vessels, passed Vicksburg tri- 
umphantly, with a total loss of 15 
killed and 30 wounded, and exchang- 
ed cheers above with Capt. Davis's 
fleet of mortar and gun-boats, which 
had fought their way down from Cairo. 
Still, our forces were not strong 
enough for assault, and the bombard- 
ment remained ineffective; while 
Gen. Williams, who, on his way up 
from Baton Eouge, had been fired 
on from Grand Gulf, and had burn- 
ed that village in retaliation, was 
losing men daily by sickness, which 
ultimately reduced his effective force 
by more than half. He had under- 
taken to cut a canal, or water-course, 
across the peninsula opposite Vicks- 
burg, and had gathered some 1,200 
negroes from the adjacent planta- 
tions to assist in the work ; but it 
did not succeed. The soil to be ex- 

* Jane 7. 

"Maj 31. 

'May 7. 

' Mftj 12. 

• May 18. " Night of June 26. 

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cavated was aa exceedingly tenacious 
clay, in good part covered with 
large trees. The strong current ob- 
stinately kept to the old channel, 
and could not be attracted to the 
right bank. An expedition, started*' 
to go up the Yazoo, having unex- 
pectedly encountered, near the mouth 
of that river, and been worsted by, 
the Rebel ram Arkansas," Capt. Far- 
ragut, having no prospect of further 
usefulness above, determined to re- 
pass the frowning batteries, cutting 
out and destroying the Arkansas by 
the way. He succeeded in running 
by Vicksburg with little loss; but 
his designs upon the Arkansas were 
baffled by darkness. A few days 
later, Commander Porter, with the 
iron-clad Essex, and Lt.-Col. Ellet, 
with the ram Queen of the "West, 
made" another attempt to cut out 
the Arkansas, which was likewise 

The village of DonaldsonviUe, 
which had the bad habit of firing 
upon our weaker steamers, as they 
passed up or down the river, was 
bombarded therefor by Capt. Farra- 
gut, and partially destroyed. As the 
river was now falling fast, threaten- 
ing to greatly impair the efficiency 
of our fleet, the siege of Vicksburg 
was abandoned, under instruction^ 
from Washington, and Capt. Farra- 
gut dropped down the river, reaching 
New Orleans on the 28th, with the 
greater part of his fleet. 

Gen. Williams, with his soldiers, 
debarked on the way at Baton Rouge ; 
he resuming conmiand-^of that post. 
Bumors of a meditated attack in 
force by the enemy were soon cur- 
rent ; and hence the General had, on 

the afternoon" prior to its occurrence, 
warned his subordinates to be ready 
and watchful, so as not to be sur- 
prised next morning. The Rebels 
had been assured by their spies that 
our men were mostly sick in hospi- 
tal, which was measurably true ; but 
regiments that numbered but 150 on 
parade, counted 500 on the battle- 

The Rebel force had been oi^an- 
ized for this effort at Tangipahoa, 60 
miles north-eastward, and 78 N. N.W. 
of New Orleans. It consisted of 13 
regiments, and must have considera- 
bly outnumbered ours, which was 
composed of nine thinned r^ments 
in all. Each side, in its account of 
the action, made its own force 2,500, 
and that of its adversary twice or 
thrice as great. The Rebels were 
conmianded in chief by Maj.-Gen. 
John C. Breckinridge, with Brig.- 
Gen. Daniel Ruggles" leading their 
left wing, and Brig.-Gen. Charles 
Clarke their right. The attack was 
made at daylight," simultaneously 
and vigorously, by the entire Rebel 
force, on the two roads which lead 
from the south-west into Baton 
Rouge; and, as but three of our 
regiments — ^the 14th Maine, 21st In- 
diana, and 6th Wisconsin — ^were im- 
mediately engaged, these were soon 
compelled to fall back, barely saving 
their batteries, whereof two were for 
a few moments in the hands of the 
Rebels. A dense fog precluded a 
clear comprehension on our side of 
the position, and caused the 7th Ver- 
mont to fire into the 21st Indiana, 
mistaking it for a Rebel regiment. 
Our lines were formed nearly two 
miles back from the river, where our 

«• July 15. 
" Aug. 4. 

' See page 68. 

' July 22. 

^ From Massachusettfl ; formerly Lt.-OoL of 
the 5lh Regular Infantry. * Aug. S. 

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gunboats could give them little enp- 
port ; but, as the famous Rebel ram 
Arkansas, hitherto so successful, was 
counted on as a part of the attacking 
force, supported by two improvised 
gunboats, and as our front was wood- 
ed, with a cross-road and open fields 
just beyond it, G^n. Williams may 
fairly be supposed to have understood 
his business. The battle raged fierce- 
ly for two hours, during which the 
Rebel right was advanced across the 
lateral road, driving back the 14th 
Maine, pillaging and burning its 
camp ; and, while four successive as- 
saults were unsuccessfully made on 
our front, Glen. Clarke made a reso- 
lute effort to flank our left and estab- 
lish himself in its rear. Gen. Wil- 
Uams, anticipating this movement, 
had placed a battery, supported by 
two regiments, to resist it ; and the 
Rebels were repulsed with considera-* 
ble loss. Meanwhile, the 2l8t Indi- 
ana, posted at the crossing of the 
roads — ^whose Colonel, suffering from 
wounds previously received, had twice 
essayed to join it, and each time fallen 
from his horse — ^had lost its Lt.-Col., 
Keith, Maj. Hayes, and Adj. Latham 
— ^the two former severely wounded,- 
the latter killed — when Gen. Wil- 
liams, seeing Latham fall, exclaimed, 
"Indianians! your field-oflScers are 
all killed : I will lead you !'' and was 
that moment shot through the breast 
and fell dead ; the command devolv- 
ing on CoL T. W. Cahill, 9th Con- 

But the battle was abeady won. 
The Rebel attack had exhausted its 
vitality without achieving any deci- 
ded success ; while the Arkansas,fi*om 
which BO much had been expected, 
had failed to come to time. Leaving 

Vicksburg,"she had steamed leisurely 
down the river until within 15 miles 
of Baton Rouge, where her starboard 
engine broke down ; and it had been 
but partially repaired when the sound 
of his guns announced to her the 
opening of Breckinridge's attack. 
Coming down to within five miles 
of the city, she was cleared for ac- 
tion ; when her engine again broke 
down, and she drifted ashore on the 
right bank of the river. Her tenders, 
the Music and the Webb, were of no 
account without her; and now her 
strong armament of six 8-inch and 
four 50-pound guns, with 180 men, 
could not be brought into action ; and 
our gunboats, the Kineo and Katah- 
din below, and Essex, Cayuga, and 
Sumter above Baton Rouge, were 
enabled to devote their attention to 
the Rebels on land ; firing over the 
heads of our soldiers at the enemy, 
nearly two miles distant. It is not 
probable that their shells did any 
great harm to the Rebels, and they 
certainly annoyed and imperiled our 
own meti ; but they served Breckin- 
ridge as an excuse for ordering a re- 
treat, which a part of his men had 
already begun. By 10 a. m., his forces 
were all on the back track, having 
lost some 300 to 400 men, including 
-Gen. Clarke, mortallv wounded and 
left a prisoner; Cols. Allen, Boyd, 
and Jones, of Louisiana ; Cols. A. P. 
Thompson and T. II. Hunt, of Ken- 
tucky ; Col. J. W. Robertson, of Ala- 
bama, and other valuable officers. 
On our side, beside. Gen. Williams, 
and the entire staff of the 21st Indi- 
ana, we lost Col. Roberts, of the 7th 
Yermont ; Maj. Bickmore and Adj. 
Metcalfe, of the 14th Maine ; Capt. 
Eugene Kelty, 80th Massachusetts, 

' At 2 A. M., Aug. 3. 

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and from 200 to 800 others. We 
took about 100 prisoners, half of 
them wounded. Neither party had 
more cannon at the close than at the 
beginning of the battle; but the Reb- 
els boasted that they had destroyed 
Federal munitions and camp equi- 
page of very considerable value. 

Next morning, Commander Por- 
ter, with the Essex, 7 guns and 40 
men, accompanied by the Cayuga 
and Sumter, moved up in quest of 
the Arkansas, whose two consorts 
had already fled up the river. The 
ram at first made for the Essex, in- 
tending to run her down; but her 
remaining engine soon gave out, and 
she was headed toward the river 
bank, the Essex pursuing antl shelling 
her; the Arkansas replying feebly 
from her stern. When the Essex had 
approached within 400 yards, Lt. 
Stevens, of the ram, set her on fire 
and abandoned her, escaping with 
his crew to the shore. The Essex 
continued to shell her for an hour ; 
when her magazine was fired and she 
blew up. 

Commander Porter, having re- 
mained at Baton Rouge until it was 
Qvacuated by our troops — who were 
concentrated to repel a threatened 
attack on New Orleans — ^returned up 
the river'* to reconnoiter Rebel bat- 
teries that were said\o be in progress 
at Port Hudson. Ascending thence 
to coal at Bayou Sara, his boat's 
crew was there fired upon by guerril- 
las, whereupon some buildings M'ere 
burned in retaliation ; and, the fir- 
ing being repeated a few days after- 
ward, the remaining structures were 
in like manner destroyed. A boat's 
crew from the Essex was sent asliore, 
some days later, at Natchez, to pro- 

cure ice for our sick sailors, and was 
unexpectedly attacked by some 200 
armed civilians, who killed or 
wounded 7 of her crew. Porter 
thereupon opened fire on the town, 
bombarding it for an hour, and set- 
ting a number of its houses on fire, 
when the Mayor surrendered. On 
her way down the river, the Essex 
had a smart engagement with the 
rising batteries at Port Hudson." 

Gen. Butler's preparations having 
rendered the retaking of New Or- 
leans hopeless, the meditated attack 
on it was abandoned, and the forc^ 
collected for that purpose transferred 
to other service. An incursion into 
the rich district known as Lafourche, 
lying south-west of New Orleans, 
between that city and the Gulf, was 
thereupon projected, and General — 
late Lieut. — Weitzel, was sent with 
a brigade of infantry and the requisite 
artillery and cavalry, to reestablish 
there the authority of the Union. 
This was a section of great wealth : 
its industry being devoted mainly to 
the. production of sugar from cane, 
its population more than half slaves ; 
and its Whites, being entirely slave- 
holders and their dependents, had ere 
this been brought to at least a- sem- 
blance of unanimity in support of 
the Rebel cause ; but their military 
strength, always moderate, had in 
good part been draft;ed away for ser- 
vice elsewhere; so that Gen. Weitzel, 
with little difliculty and great expe- 
dition, made himself master of the 
entire region," after two or three 
collisions, in which he sustained little 
loss. But the wealthy Whites gen- 
erally fled from their homes at his 
approach ; while the negroes, joyful- 
ly hailing him as their liberator, 

' August 23. 

' Sept 7. 

•Oct 22-29. 

Digitized by 




speedily filled his camps with crowds 
of men, women, and children, desti- 
tnte of food, and fearing to go outside 
of his lines lest they should be re- 
duced again to Slavery. Gen. But- 
ler, after anxious consideration, felt 
obliged to subject the whole district 
to sequestration, in order to secure 
the cutting and grinding of the cane, 
80 as to save the remaining inhabit- 
ants from death by famine. Maj. 
Bell, Lt.-Col. Kinsman, and Capt. 
Fuller, were appointed a commission, 
who were to take charge of all per- 
sonal property, and either apply it to 
the use of the army or transport it to 
New Orleans and there sell it to the 
highest bidders, dispensing to loyal 
citizens and neutral foreigners their 
just share of the proceeds, and ap- 
plying the residue to the uses of the 
Federal service in this military de- 
partment* Thus were the negroes 
employed, paid, and subsisted, the 
crops saved, and a large sum turned 
over to the support of our armies, 
while the number of White loyalists 
in Lafourche was rapidly and largely 
increased. Two Congressional dis- 
tricts having thus been recovered, 
Messrs. Benjamin F. Flanders and 
Michael Habn were elected*' there- 
from to the Federal House of Repre- 
sentatives : the former recei\ing 2,370 
votes, to 173 for others, and the lat- 
ter 2,581, which was 144 more than 
were cast against him. The voting 
was confined to electors under the 
laws of Louisiana who had taken 
the Federal oath of alliance since 
the repossession of New Orleans; 
and the aggregate poll in that city 
outnumbered, it was stated, its total 
vote for Secession by about 1,000. 
When Gen. Butler first reached that 

city, there were not a hundred persons 
in Louisiana outside of our army and 
fleet who would have dared take the 
oath, however willing to do so. 

Toward the end of November, Gen. 
Butler's spies brought him informa- 
tion from the nearest Rebel camps 
that he had been superseded in his 
command, and that Gen. N. P. Banks 
either was or soon would be on his 
way to relieve him. Some days be- 
fore information of the purposed 
change reached our side, Secessionists 
in New Orleans were offering to bet 
a hundred to ten that Gen. Butler 
would be recalled before New Year's. 
The fact was known to Jefferson 
Davis before it was to Gen. Banks — 
long before it was communicated 
from Washington to Gen. Butler. 
It is probable that the French Min- 
ister, whose Government had not 
been pleased with Gen. Butler's 
management in New Orleans, was 
the immediate source of Rebel assur- 
ance on this point. Gen. Banks's 
assignment to the Department of the 
Gulf is dated November 9th, but was 
not made known to him till some 
weeks afterward. 

Gen. Banks reached New Orleans 
Dec. 14th, was received with every 
honor, and on the 16th formally as- 
sumed the high trust to which he 
had been appointed. On the 23d, 
Gen. Butler took personal leave of 
his many friends, ana next day issued 
his farewell address to the people of 
New Orleans ; leaving for New York, 
via Havana, by that day's boat. He 
was not then aware that he had been 
honored, the day previous, by a pro- 
cl^,mation from Jefferson Davis, de- 
claring him a felon, outlaw, and 
common enemy of mankind, and 

** Early in December. 

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directing any Confederate officer who 
should capture him to hang him 
without trial immediately ; and fur- 
ther directing that all commissioned 
officers in his command be regarded 
as robbers and criminals, deserving 
death ; and each of them, whenever 
captured, reserved for execution." 
Mr. Richard Yeadon, of Charleston, 
S. C, backed this proclamation by 
an oflfer " of $10,000 reward, payable 
in Confederate currency, for the cap- 
ture and delivery of the said Benja- 
min F. Butler, dead or alive, to any 
proper Confederate authority. 

Gen. Butler had taken 18,700 sol- 
diers from the North for the capture 
of New Orleans. He had received 
no reenforcements since ; and he now 
turned over to his successor 17,800 
drilled and disciplined men, includ- 
ing three regiments and two batteries 
of negroes. He sent home to the 
treasury the sum of $345,000 ; ex- 
pended $525,000 in feeding the poor 
of New Orleans ; and turned over 
about $200,000 to the Commissary 
and Quartermaster of his successor. 
He had collected, by taxation, assess- 
ments, fines, forfeitures, and confis- 
cations, an aggregate of $1,088,000, 

which he had faithfully applied to 

the public service. He had, of course, 

made himself very unpopular with 

the wealthy Eebels,whom he had, in 

proportion to their several volunteer 

contributions of money in aid of the 

Eebel cause, assessed for the support 

of the New Orleans poor, deprived 

of employment by the war ; and he 

was especially detested by that large 

body of influential foreigners who, 

having freely devoted their efforts 

and their means to the support of 

the Eebellion, were neither regarded 

nor treated by him as though they had 

been honestly neutral in the contest. 

In his farewell address to the people 

of New Orleans, he forcibly says : 

" I saw that this Rebellion was a war of 
the aristocrats against the middling men — 
of the rich against the poor ; a war of the 
land-owner against the laborer; that it was 
a struggle for the retention of power in the 
hands of the few against the many ; and I 
found no conclusion to it, save in the sub- 
jugation of the few and the disenthrallment 
of the many. I, therefore, felt no hesita- 
tion in taking the substance of the wealthy, 
who had caused the war, to feed the inno- 
cent poor, who had sutfered by the war. 
And I shall now leave you with the proud 
consciousness that I carry with me the bless- 
ings of the humble and loyal, under the roof 
of the cottage and in the cabin of the slave ; 
and so am quite content to incur the sneers 
of the sahn or the curses of the rich." 

** Mr. Davis*8 proclamation recites tHe hang- 
ing of Mumford ; the neglect of our OoyemmeDt 
to explain or disavow that act ; the imprison- 
ment of non-combatants ; Butler's woman order 
aforesaid ; his sequestration of estates in west- 
em Louisiana ; and t&e inciting to insurrection 
and arming of slaves on our side, as his justifi- 
cations for proclaiming — 

*' First That . all commissioned officers in the 
command of said Bei^amin F. Butler be declared 
not entitled to be considered as soldiers engaged 
in honorable warfare, but as robbers and crim- 
inals, deserving death ; and that they and each 
of them be, whenever captured, reserved for ex- 
ecution. • 

*' Second. That the private soldiers and non- 
commissioned officers m the army of said Butler 
be considered as only the instruments used for 
the commission of crimes perpetrated by his or* 

ders, and not as free agents ; that they, there- 
fore, be treated, when captured as prisoners of 
war, with kindness and humanity, and be sent 
home on the usual parole that they will in no 
manner aid or serve the United States in any ca- 
pacity during the continuance of this war, unless 
duly exchac^^. 

"Third. That all negro slaves captured in 
arms be at once delivered over to the executive 
authorities of the respective States to which they 
belong, to be dealt with according to the laws of 
said States. 

*' Fourth. That the like orders be executed in 
all cases with respect to all commissioned officers 
of the United States, when found serving in com- 
pany with said slaves in insurrection against the 
authorities of the different States of this Confed- 
[Signed and sealed at Richmond, Dec. 23, 1862. J 
"Jbffkbson Davis." 

*' Jan. 1, 1863. 

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Thb rooted inaction of the Army 
of the Potomac,' with the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad obstructed and 
broken up on its right, and the navi- 
gation of the Potomac precluded' by 
Rebel batteries on its left, was stub- 
bornly maintained, in spite of fit- 
ful, delusive promises of movement, 
throughout the Winter of 1861-2. 
Gen. McClellan, who, from his com- 
fortable house in "Washington, issued 
orders to all the niilitary forces of 
our country, retained likewise the 

immediate and especial command of 
this grand army of 200,000 men, ap- 
parently fatigued by the necessity of 
framing excuse after excuse for its 
inaction,' though the most of it re- 
mained under tents, exposed to the 
vicissitudes of a Winter which — 
though it had been remarkably dry 
and fine, with the roads in admirable 
condition, until Christmas — became 
stormy and inhospitable soon after- 
ward ; so that the since famous Stone- 
wall Jackson, who, fot eminent ser- 


* Capt Fox, As^stant Secretary of the Navy, 
as early as July 1st, 1861, notified the War De- 
partment that the Potomac would "soon be 
dofled by the batteries of the Rebels;" and 
Secretary Welles reiterated the warning on the 
20th of August 

*In October, 1861, the Navy Department 
igiin urged the matter upon the consideration 
of the War Department ♦ ♦ ♦ representing 
that the question was simply : Would the Army 
cooperate with the Navy in securing the unob- 
Btnicted navigation of the Potomac, or, by 
withholding that cooperation at that time, per- 
mit 80 important a channel of communication 
to be dosed r 

McClellan at last agreed to spare 4,000 men 
for the cooperative measure; but, when Capt 
Craven assembled his flotilla at the appomted 
time and place, the troops were not on hand. 
The General's excuse was that his engineers 
were of the opinion that so large a body of 
troops ooold not be landed at Matthias Point — 
the pfaK» agreed upon. Upon Capt Fox's as- 
surance that the Navy Department would at- 
tend to the landing of the troops, he (McClellan) 
agreed that they should be sent on the follow- 
ing nigfat Again the flotilla was in readiness ; 
again the troops were missing. No troops were 
then, nor ever, sent down for that purpose ; the 
ooly reason elicited from McClellan being that 
be feared it might bring on a general engage- 
BMit Capt Craven indignantly threw np his 
oommaod on the Potomac, and applied to be 
sent to aea— not wishing to lose his own reputa- 
tioQ, on account of non-odoperation on the part 
of ^army. 

(The foregoing note is condensed from the 
first Report of the Joint Committee of Congress 
on the Conduct of the War.) 

• Gen. John G. Barnard, Chief of Engineers to 
the Army of the Potomac, in a report to Gen. 
McClellan at the dose of the Peninsula cam- 
paign, says: 

" One of the prominent among tlio cau^s of 
ultimate failure was the inaction of eight months, 
from August, 1861, to April, 1862. More than 
any other wars, Rebellion demands rapid mea- 
sures. In November, 1861, the Army of the 
Potomac, if not fully supplied with all the ' ma- 
teriel,' was yet about as complete in numbers, 
discipline, and organization as it ever became. 
For four months, the great marine avenue to 
the capital of the nation was blockaded, and 
that capital kept in a partial state of siege, by a 
greatly inferior enemy, in face of a movable 
army of 150,000 men. 

"In the Wmter of 1861 and 1862, Norfolk 
could and should have been taken. The navy 
demanded it, the country demanded it, and the 
means were ample. By its capture, the career 
of the Merrimac, which proved so disastrous to 
our subsequent operations, would have been 
prevented. The preparation of this vessel was 
known, and the Navy Department was not with- 
out forebodings of the mischief it would do. 

" Though delay might mature more compre- 
hensive plans and promise grater results, it is 
not the first case in which it has been shown 
that successful war involves something more 
than abstract military principles. The true poli- 
cy was to seize the first practicable moment to 
satisfy the perhaps unreasonable but natural 
longing of an impatient nation for results to justi- 
fy its lavish confidence, and to take advantage 
of an undivided command and untrammeled 
liberty of action while they were possessed." 

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vices in the battle of Bull Kun, had, 
in September, been promoted to a 
Major-Generalship, and assigned to 
command at Winchester, and who 
had led* a strong force westward, 
expecting to surprise and capture our 
detachments holding Bath and Rom- 
ney, though he succeeded in taking 
both those places, driving out their 
garrisons, capturing a few prisoners, 
and destroying at Romney very con- 
siderable supplies, yet his unsheltered 
troops suffered so severely from storm 
and frost, while so many of his horses 
were disabled by falling on the icy 
roads, that his losses probably ex- 
ceeded the damage inflicted on us; 
and his blow was fairly countered by 
G^en. F. W. Lander, who led 4,000 
men southward from the Potomac,* 
and, bridging the Great Cacapon in 
the night, made a dash at Blooming 
Gap, which he surprised, killing 13 
and capturing 75 Rebels, including 
17 officers, with a loss of 2 men and 
6 horses. 

Gen. Simon Cameron had been 
succeeded * by Hon. Edwin M. Stan- 
ton — an eminent lawyer, without 
pi*etensions to military knowledge, 
and of limited experience in public 
affairs, but evincing a rough energy 
and zeal for decisive efforts, which 
the country hailed as of auspicious 
augury. Two weeks later,^ a War 
Order was issued by the President, 
commanding a general advance upon 
the enemy from every quarter on the 
22d of February proximo, and de- 
claring that " the Secretaries of War 
and of the Navy, with all their sub- 
ordinates, and the General-in-Chief, 
with all other commanders and sub- 
ordinates of land and naval forces, 
will severally be held to their strict 

and full responsibilities for the prompt 
execution of this order." Four days 
later, a 'Special "War Order No. 1' 
was likewise issued to Gen. McClel- 
lan, commanding him, on or before 
the 22d prox. aforesaid, to impel "all 
the disposable force of the Army of 
the Potomac," "for the immediate 
object of seizing and occupying a 
point upon the railroad south-west- 
ward of what is known as Manassas 
Junction." Though these orders are 
signed Abraham Lincoln, they doubt- 
less received their initial impulse from 
the new Secretary of War, who had 
already urged Gen. McClellan to take 
immediate steps to "secure thfe re- 
opening of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad, and free the banks of the 
lower Potomac from the Rebel bat- 
teries which annoyed passing ves- 
sels." ' Gen. M. had been previously 
urged by the President to organize 
his army into four or five distinct 
corps, under Generals of his own 
choice ; which he had declined, and 
still declined, to do; alleging that he 
wished first to test his officers in ac- 
tive service as division commanders, 
so that he " might be able to decide 
from actual trial who were best fit- 
ted to exercise those important com- 
mands." At length,* the President 
issued ^General War Order No. 2,' 
directing the organization of the 
Army of the Potomac into four 
corps, to be commanded by Gens. 
McDowell, Sumner, Heintzelman, 
and Keyes respectively, beside the 
forces to be left for the defense of 
Washington under Brig.-Gen. James 
S. Wadsworth, who should also be 
Military Governor of the District of 
Columbia, and a fifth, composed of 
the forces on the upper Potomac, to 

Jan. 1, 1862. • Feb. 13. • Jan. 13. ' Jan. 27. " Gen. McOlellan's Report. • March 8. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



be commanded by Gen. Nath'l P. 
Banks. Gen. McGlellan, '*in com- 
pliance with the President's War 
Order No. 2," made this disposi- 

Gen. McClellan's original plan con- 
templated an advance on Eichmond 
by way of the lower Rappahannock, 
landing at Urbana, and making a 
secondary base of West Point, at the 
head of York river ; and this would 
seem, whetlier r^arded abstractly or 
in the light of subsequent experience, 
to be far preferable to the route on 
which he ultimately decided, having 
its base at Fortress Monroe; but 
either of these, and indeed any ap- 
proach to Richmond otherwise than 
from the north, was exposed to the 
serious if not fatal objection that it 
involved a division and dispersion of 
onr forces, or left the National me- 
tropolis, with its enormous depots of 
anhs, munitions, and provisions, to 
say nothing of its educes and ar- 
chives, at the mercy of the Rebels, 
who could hardly fail to rush upon, 
sack, and bum it, if our grand army 
were transferred bodily to the base 
of the Virginian Peninsula. The 
Pr^ident, therefore, before giving 
\m assent to Gen. McClellan's pro- 
ject, addressed to him the following 
letter: * 

"Executive Mansiox, Washington, ) 
" Febniary 8, 1862. ( 

"My Dear Sib: You and I have distinct 
tod different plana for a movement of the 
Army of the Potomac ; yonrs to be done by 
the Chesapeake, up the Rappahannock to 
Urbana, and across lan^to the terminus of 
the railroad on the York river; mine to 
niove directly to a point on the railroad 
•oathwest of Manassas. 

" If you wiU give satisfactory answers to 
the following questions, I shall gladly yield 
my plan to yours : 

"Ist Does not your plan involve a 

greatly larger expenditure of time and 
money than mine ? 

*• 2d. Wherein is a victory more certain 
by your plan than mine? 

*' 8d. Wherein is a victory more valitahle 
by your plan than mine? 

*^ 4th. In fact, would it not be less valu- 
able in this : that it would break no great 
line of the enemy^s communications, while 
mine would ? 

^^5th. In case of disaster, would not a 
retreat be more difficult by your plan than 

" Yours, truly, 

" Abraham Lincoln." 

These inquiries seem not to liavc 
been directly answered; but, in a 
long letter of even date, to the Secre- 
tary of War, Gen. McClellan urges 
the strength of the Rebel position at 
and around Manassas Junction ; the 
reported fact that the fords of the 
Occoquan were watched by the 
Rebels and defended by concealed 
batteries on the heights in their rear, 
which were being strengthened by 
additional intrenchments ; that, dur- 
ing our advance from the Accotink 
to the Occoquan, our right flank be- 
comes exposed to an attack from 
Fairfax Station, Sangster's, and 
Union Mills ; that it would not do 
to divide our army by leaving a por- 
tion in front of Centerville while the 
rest crosses the Occoquan ; that the 
roads in this quarter were liable, for 
some time yet, to be obstructed by 
rains and snow, so that "it seems 
certain that many weeks may elapse 
before it is possible to commence the 
march ;" and that — 

" Assuming the success of this operation, 
and the defeat of the enemy as certain, the 
question at once arises as to the importance 
of the results gained. I think these results 
would be confined to the possession of the 
field of battle, the evacuation of the line of 
the upper Potomac by the enemy, and the 
moral eflfect of the victory ; important re- 
sults, it is true : but not decisive of the war, 
nor securing the destruction of the enemy^s 

"March 13. 

Digitized by 




maxa ftrmj; for he could fall back upon 
other positions, and fight us again and 
again, should the condition of his troops 
permit If he is in no condition to fight us 
again out of the range of the intrenchments 
at Richmond, we would find it a very diffi- 
cult and tedious matter to follow him up 
there; for he would destroy his railroad 
bridges and otherwise impede our progress, 
through a region where the roads are as 
bad as they well can be ; and we would 
probably find ourselves forced at last to 
change the whole theater of war, or to seek 
a shorter land route to Richmond, with a 
smaller available force, and at an expendi- 
ture of much more time than were we to 
adopt the short line at once. We would 
also have forced the enemy to concentrate 
his forces and perfect his defensive mea- 
sures, at the very points where it is desir- 
able to strike him when least prepared." 

On the other hand, Gen. McClel- 
lan urged in favor of an advance by 
the route he preferred, that — 

"It affords the shortest possible land- 
route to Richmond, and strikes directly at 
the heart of the enemy's power in the East. 

" The roads in that region are passable at 
all seasons of the year. 

"The country now alluded to is much 
more favorable for offensive operations than 
that in front of Washington (which is tery 
unfavorable), much more level, more cleared 
land, the woods less dense, the soil more 
sandy, and the Spring some two or three 
weeks earlier. A movement in force on 
that line obliges the enemy to abandon his 
intrenched position at Manassas, in order 
to hasten to cover Richmond and Norfolk. 
He must do this ; for, should he permit us 
to occupy Richmond, his destruction can be 
averted only by entirely defeating us in a 
battle, in which he mast be*the assailant. 
This movement, if successful, gives us the 
capital, the communications, the supplies of 
the Rebels; Norfolk would fall; all the 
waters of the Chesapeake would be ours ; 
all Virginia would be in our power, and the 
enemy forced to abandon Tennessee and 
North Carolina. The alternative presented 
to the enemy would be, to beat us in a 
position selected by ourselves, disperse, or 
pass beneath the Caudine Forks. 

"Should we be beaten in a battle, we 
have a perfectly secure retreat down the 
Peninsula upon Fortress Monroe, with our 
flanks perfectly covered by the fleet. 

"During the whole movement, our left 
flank is covered by the water. Our right 
is secure, for the reason that the enemy is 
too distant to reach us in time ; he can only 

oppose us in front; we bring onr fleet into 
fuU play." 

He farther urged, in favor of a 

landing at Urbana, that — 

" This noint is easily reached by vessels 
of heavy draught ; it is neither occupied nor 
observed by the enemy; it is but one march 
from West Point, the key of that region, 
and thence but two marches to Richmond. 
A rapid movement from Urbana would pro- 
bably cut off Magruder in the Peninsula, 
and enable us to occupy Richmond before 
it could be strongly reenforced. Should 
we fail in that, we could, with the coopera- 
tion of the navy, cross the James and show 
ourselves in rear of Richmond, thus forcing 
the enemy to come out and attack us ; for 
his position would be untenable with us on 
the southern bank of the river. Should 
circumstances render it not advisable to 
land at Urbana, we can use Mob Jack Bay ; 
or, the worst coming to the worst, we can 
take Fortress Monroe as a base, and operate 
with complete security — although with less 
celerity and brilliancy of results — ^up th^ 

The President deferred to these 
urgent representations, though they 
involved the necessity of a long delay 
and a heavy expense in procuring 
transportation by w^ter for so great 
an army. The duty of obtaining the 
requisite vessels was devolved on 
John Tucker, Assistant-Secretary of 
"War ; who, on the 5th of April, re- 
ported that he had chartered there- 
for 113 steamers, 188 schooners, and 
88 barges, and that these had — with- 
in 37 days from the time he first re- 
ceived the order, and most of it 
within 30 days — transported from 
Perryville, Alexandria, and "Wash- 
ington, to Fortress Monroe, 121,500 
men, 14,592 animals, 1,150 wagons, 
44 batteries, and 74 ambulances, be- 
side pontoon-bftdges, tel^raph ma- 
terials, and the enormous quantity of 
equipage, &c., required for such an 
army ; with a total loss of 9 barges 
and 8 mules : the former having been 
driven ashore in a gale when within 
a few miles of Fortress Monroe. He 

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S««c-Tk« •»•¥• Map 4m* BDt puto nd lo trac* Um ▼•riont waipn 
*mU tkst trnnvM — th iMtf VlrfinU, and tho* may be cUcniad im- 
»*fcc» ; b^Mj mmf that pwpu iieJ to fly iich roods wooU bamora 
dWj to dMlra thaa to mttghtao. Tk«>« ai« difbrMit rUw aa to 

wb«t conatltataa a road— the Virflnla eatlmato being remarkably 
UbenU. Roads abouod and radlata In every direction throa|{)ioat 
thii regloB : bat nine-tenths of them ranga, save in the dryer porttota 
of SwDDMr and Fall, from rery bad to lmpa«abla. 

Digitized by 


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Digitized by 


Digitized by 




command of all military departments 
but that of the Potomac ; extending 
Gen, Halleck's department in the 
West so as to include all the Missis- 
sippi Valley northward of the Gulf 
States and west of a north and south 
line drawn through Knox ville, Tenn. ; 
and creating a new * Mountain De- 
partment,' consisting of the country 
between McClellan's and Halleck's, 
to be commanded by Gen. Fremont. 

Undoubtedly, this order indicated 
a diminution, if not absolute failure, 
of the President's confidence in his 
senior General ; and, while it is very 
obvious that the commander of a 
great army operating from the Pen- 
insula against Bichmond could not 
properly and safely direct the move- 
ments of other armies, scattered all 
over the country, and with which his 
telegraphic communications would 
probably be often interrrupted, it is 
certain that all our movements 
should have been directed by a com- 
mon head, responsible for the proper 
distribution and concentration of our 
forces. A Secretary of War, how- 
ever able and fit, is perplexed by 
duties and anxieties too multifarious 
and distracting to permit of his serv- 
ing to advantage as Generalissimo. 

Two days later, at a council of 
corps conmianders at Fairfax Court 
House, it was decided — tor reasons 
not given and not apparent — to de- 
bark our army at Old Point Comfort, 
between the York and James rivers, 
instead of Urbana or Mob Jack Bay 
—a most unfortunate decision, though 
materially qualified by the following 

** Ist That the enemy's vessel Merrimac 
<^n be neutralized. 

''2d. That the means of transportation, 
•nffident for an immediate transfer of the 
fowe to its new base, can be ready at Wash- 
VOL. IL— 8 

ington and Alexandria to move down the 
Potomac; and 

*^ Sd. That a naval auxiliary force can be 
had to silence, or aid in silencing, the 
enemy's batteries on York river. 

" 4th. That the forces to be left to cover 
Washington shall be such as to give an en- 
tire feeling of security for its safety from 
menace. (Unanimous.) 

** If the foregoing can not be, the army 
should then be moved against the en- 
emy, behind the Rappahannock, at the 
earliest possible moment; and the means 
for reconstructing bridges, repairing rail- 
roads and stocking them with material suf- 
ficient for supplying the army, should at 
once be collected for both the Orange and 
Alexandria and Acquia and Richmond Rail- 
roads. (Unanimous.) 

" N. B. That with the forts on the right 
bank of the Potomac fully garrisoned, and 
those on the left bank occupied, a covering 
force in front of the Virginia line of 25,000 
men would suflBce. (Keyes, Ueintzelman 
and McDowell.) A total of 40,000 men for 
the defense of the city would suffice. (Sum- 

This decision, being communicated 
to the War Department, was prompt- 
ly responded to as follows : 

" Wab Dkpabtmknt, March 13, 1862. 
" To Miy.-Gen. Geo. B. McClellan : 

"The President, having considered the 
plan of operations agreed upon by yourself 
and the commanders of army corps, makes 
no objection to the same, but gives the fol- 
lowing directions as to its execution : 

" 1st. Leave such force at Manassas 
Junction as shall make it entirely certain 
that the enemy shall not repossess himself 
of that position and line of communication. 

"2d. Leave Washington entirely secure. 

"3d. Move the remainder of the force 
down the Potomac, choosing a new base at 
Fortress Monroe, or anywhere between 
here and there ; or, at all events, move such 
remainder of the army at once in pursuit 
of the enemy by some route. 

" Edwin M. Stanton, 

" Secretary of War." 

Gen. McClellan hereupon ordered 
Gen. Banks, with his corps, to move 
both his divisions down from the 
Shenandoah Valley to Manassas; 
there to intrench and rebuild the rail- 
roads and bridges, " occupy by grand 
guards "Warrenton Junction, or War- 
renton itself, and also some little 

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more advanced point on the Orange 
and Alexandria Railway," leaving 
but two regiments of cavalry to " oc- 
cupy "Winchester and thoroughly 
scour the country south of the rail- 
way and up the Shenandoah Valley." 
Gen. Banks had already thrown 
across the Potomac, at Harper's 
Ferry,*' the 28th Pennsylvania, Col. 
Gleary, following himself," taking 
possession of Bolivar and Loudon 
Heights, Leesburg, Charlestown," 
and Martinsburg,** and pushing back 
the Rebels to Winchester, which 
Stonewall Jackson evacuated " with- 
out a struggle. Gen. Shields, com- 
manding Lander's division," pursued 
Jackson to Newmarket,'* where he 
found him strongly posted and ready 
for action. He thereupon fell back 
rapidly to Winchester, pursued by 
Jackson's cavalry, under Turner 
Ashby. Gen. Banks, having dis- 
patched one division toward Center- 
ville," Jackson's spies assured him 
that Shields had but four regiments 
left, and might easily be captured or 
routed ; so Ashby drove in our pick- 
ets and pressed hard upon Shields, 
who kept the larger part of his force 
concealed until Jackson was induced 
to advance in force and attack. In 
the slight skirmish which occurred," 
Gen. Shields was struck by a frag- 
ment of shell which broke his arm, 
and so injured his shoulder and side 
that he fought next day's battle in 
bed. Jackson had 10 regiments of 
infantry, all Virginians, but reports 
their aggregate strength at only 3,087 
men, with 27 guns and 290 cavalry." 

Gen. Shields had 6,000 infantry, 760 
cavalry, and 24 guns, well posted 
some three miles south of Winchester, 
and half a mile north of the little 
village of Kernstown, covering the 
three principal roads which enter 
Winchester from the south-east, 
south, and south-west. 

Gen. Banks had remained with 
Shields until about 10 a. m. ;" when, 
a careful reconnoissance having dis- 
covered no enemy in front but 
Ashby's cavalry, he concluded that 
Jackson was too weak or too cautious 
to risk an attack, and departed for 
Washington via Harper's Ferry. Be- 
fore noon, however. Shields was ad- 
vised by Col. Kimball, on his left, 
that a Rebel battery had opened on 
his position, and appeared to be sup- 
ported by a considerable force of in- 
fantry. Thereupon, Sullivan's bri- 
gade was pushed forward to support 
Kimball, and our artillery opened 
simultaneously with one or two more 
Rebel batteries ; but at such distance 
as to do little harm. Soon, a still 
larger force of all arms was develop- 
ed by Jackson on his right, and an 
effort made to turn our left, which 
was gallantly resisted and foiled by 
Sullivan's brigade, supporting Jenks's 
artillery. Jackson then reenforced 
heavily his left, sending two addition- 
al batteries and his reserve to sup- 
port the movement; when Shields 
ordered up Tyler's brigade of 4 r^- 
ments to the support of Col. Kim- 
ball, commanding that wing, where- 
by the Rebels were outnumbered and 
hurled back upon their main body. 

» Feb. 24. » Feb. 26. " Feb. 28. 

"March 3. "March 11. 

"Gen. F. W. Lander, one of the bravest and 
best of our early oommandersi had died March 
2d, of congestion of the brain, caused bj hard- 
ship, exposure, and anxiety. 

"March 19. "March 22. 

"About sunset, March 22. 

" Pollard says the Confederate forces amount- 
ed to 6,000 men, with Oapt McLaughlin's bat- 
tery and CoL Ashby's cavalry. 

"Sunday, March 23. 

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strongly poeted behind a high and 
8olid stone wall, crossing a hill, 
where a desperate stand was made 
by Jackson's famons 'Stonewall Bri- 
gade,' and others, whose fire was for 
a few minutes rapid and deadly ; but 
their position was soon flanked and 
carried by our eager, determined ad- 
vance, and they retreated in disor^ 
der, leaving 2 guns, 4 caissons, and 
many small arms. Night now fell, 
and saved them, doubtless, from a 
heavier loss. Our men secured their 
prisoners, cared for their wounded — 
those of the Rebels having mostly 
been carried off by them prior to 
their retreat — and sank down to rest 
(m the battle-field. The Eebels re- 
treated a few miles, rapidly but in 
good order, ere they, too, rested for 
the night. 

Jackson attributes his defeat in 

part to Gen. R. B. Gramett^s error of 

judgment in repeatedly ordering his 

men to retreat, when he^should have 

held on and fought. It seems clear, 

however, that the capital mistake 

was his own in fighting at all, when 

his total force, according to his own 

estimate, was less than 5,000 men, 

and he estimates our infantry on the 

field at over 11,000. He makes his 

loss 80 killed, 342 wounded, and 269 

miesing, midnly prisoners ; total, 691 ; 

whfle Shields claims 300 prisoners, 

and estimates the Rebel loss in killed 

and wounded at 1,000 to 1,500." 

Onr own loss in this engagement was 

103 killed, including Col. Murray, 

of the 84th Pennsylvania; 441 

wonnded, and 24 missing. 

Gen. Shields, well aware that 

heavy reenforcements for Jackson 
were at hand, immediately sent an 
express after Williams's division— by 
this time well on its way to Harper's 
Ferry — desiringits immediate return ; 
but Gen. Banks, hearing of the bat- 
tle by telegraph fi^m Winchester, 
had already stopped at Harper's Fer- 
ry and anticipated this order ; him- 
self rejoining Shields early next day, 
and resuming command. He pur- 
sued Jackson vigorously up the Val- 
ley to Woodstock, but was unable to 
bring him to bay. 

We have seen that Gen. McClel- 
lan's council of corps commanders 
decided, on the 13th of March, to 
abandon his original plan of debark- 
ing at Urbana, on the Rappahan- 
nock, and advancing thence on Rich- 
mond by West Point, at the head of 
York river, making this a secondary 
base. This most unfortunate de- 
cision is rendered unaccountable by 
a destructive if not disastrous naval 
collision which had just occurred in 
Hampton Roads, and of which the 
results were weU known to the coun- 

Of our naval officers' most calami- 
tous, cowardly, disgraceful desertion 
of and flight fipom the Norfolk Navy 
Yard and Arsenal at the banning 
of the struggle, the revolting particu- 
lars have already been given.*^ 
Among the vessels there abandoned 
to the Rebels, after being fired, was 
the first-class 40-gun steam-ftigate 
•Merrimac, which, by Capt. McCau- 
ley's orders, had b^n scuttled and 
partly sunk, so that only her rig- 

*Shleld8*s official report Bajs : 

''The enemy's loss is more difficult to ascer- 
tun than oar own. Two hundred and seventy 
vwe found dead on the battle-field ; 40 were 
bniied by the inhabitants of the adjacent vil- 

lage ; and, by a calculation made by the num- 
ber of graves found on both sides of the Valley 
road between here and Strasburg, their loss in 
killed must have been about 500, and in wounded 
1,000." " See Vol L, p. 473-7. 

Digitized by 




ging and upper works were burned ; 
her hull being saved by a speedy 
submersion. Having thus fallen 
an easy prey to the Rebels, she 
was adopted by them as the basis of 
an iron-clad, whereof Lieut. John M. 
Brooke furnished the original plan, 
which Chief Engineer Williamson 
and Naval Constructor Porter, to- 
gether with Lt. Brooke, ultimately 
fashioned into the terrible engine of 
destruction known to us as the Mer- 
rimac, but designated by her rebuild- 
ers the Virginia. Messrs. Brooke, 
Williamson, and Porter, were all 
graduates from our navy, as was 
Commodore Franklin Buchanan, who 
became her commander. In prepar- 
ing her for her new service, the hull 
of the Merrimac was cut down near- 
ly to the water's edge, after she had 
been plugged, pumped out, and 
raised ; when a sloping roof of heavy 
timber, strongly and thoroughly 
plated with railroad iron, rose from 
two feet below the water-line to 
about ten feet above : the ends and 
sides being alike and thoroughly 
shielded. A light bulwark, or false 
bow, was added, designed to divide 
the water, and serve as a tank to reg- 
ulate the vessel's draft ; and beyond 
this projected a strong iron beak. 
Being thus rendered thoroughly shot- 
proof, she was armed with 10 heavy 
and most effective guns ; and so, hav- 
ing been largely refitted from the 
spoils of the deserted Navy Yard, 
became at once the cheapest and 
most formidable naval engine of de- 
struction that the world had ever 
seen. Whether she had or had not 
the ability to live in an opeii,* turbu- 
lent sea, was left undecided by her 
brief but memorable career. 
A little before noon, on Saturday, 

March 8th, a strange craft was de- 
scried from our vessels off Newport 
News, coming down the Elizabeth 
river from Norfolk, past Craney 
Island, attended by two unremarka- 
ble steam gunboats. Two other Rebel 
gunboats, which had, evidently by 
preconcert, dropped down the James 
from Richmond, had been discovered 
at anchor off Smithfield Point, some 
12 miles distant, about three hours 
before. The nondescript and her 
tenders gradually approached our 
war-ships awaiting her, and, passing 
across the bow of the Congress frig- 
ate, bore down on the Cumberland, 
in utter disdain of her rapid and 
well aimed but utterly ineffective 
shots, which glanced as harmless 
from the iron shield of the foe as 
though they had been peas. Not a 
gun was fired by the mysterious and 
terrible stranger until she struck the 
Cumberland with full force under her 
starboard fore-channels, at the same 
moment delivering a most destructive 
fire ; while her blow had opened such 
a chasm in the bow of the Cumber- 
land that her forward magazine was 
drowned in 30 minutes. Still, her 
fire was kept up until, at 3:35 p. m., 
the water had risen to the main 
hatchway, and the ship canted to 
port; when, giving a parting fire, 
Lt. Morris ordered every man to 
jump overboard and save himself if 
possible. The dead, and sick, and 
severely wounded, were unavoidably 
left in her bay and on her decks, to 
the number of at least 100 ; and she 
sank to tlie bottom in 54r-feet water, 
with her flag still flying from her 

Meanwhile, the Congress — which 
had exchanged broadsides with the 
Merrimac as she passed — was attacked 

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by the Bebel gunboats, and was bat- 
tling them to the best of her ability, 
until, seeing the fate of the Cumber- 
land, she set her jib and topsail, and, 
with the assistance of the gunboat 
Zouave, ran aground not far from 
our batteries at Newport News, 
where she was soon again assailed 
by the Merrimae, which, taking po- 
sition about 150 yards from her stem, 
raked her fore and afk with shell, 
while one of the smaller steamers 
from Norfolk kept up a fire on her 
starboard quarter ; while the Patrick 
Henry and Thomas Jefferson — ^Bebel 
steamers from up the James — ^like- 
wise poured in their broadsides with 
precision and effect. The. hapless 
Congress could only reply from her 
two stem guns, whereof one was soon 
dismounted and the other had its 
muzzle knocked off. Her command- 
er, Lt. Joseph B. Smith, Acting- 
Master Thomas Moore, and Pilot 
William Khodes, with nearly half 
her crew, having been killed or 
wounded, the ship on fire in seve- 
ral places, without a gun that could 
be brought to bear on her destroyers, 
Lt. Pendergrast, on whom the com- 
mand had devolved, at 4:30 p. m. 
hauled down our flag. She was soon 
boarded by an officer from the Mer- 
rimae, who took her in charge, but 
left shortly afterward ; when a small 
Rebel tug came alongside and de- 
manded that her crew should get out 
of the ship, as her captors intended 
to bum her inmiediately. But our 
soldiers on shore, who had not sur- 
rendered, and who regarded the Con- 
gress as now a Rebel vessel, opened 
so brisk a fire upon her that the tug 
and her crew suddenly departed ; 
when the Merrimae again opened on 
the luckless craft, though she had a 

white flag flying to intimate her sur- 
render. Having fired several shells 
into her, the Merrimae left her to en- 
gage the Minnesota, giving opportu- 
nity for her crew to escape to the 
shore in small boats, with their 
wounded. About dark, the Merri- 
mae returned and poured hot shot 
into the deserted hulk, until she was 
set on fire and utterly destroyed, her 
guns going off as they became heated 
— a shell from one of them striking 
a sloop at anchor at Newport News, 
and blowing her up. At midnight, 
the fire had reached her magazines, 
containing five tuns of powder, and 
she blew up with a tremendous ex- 
plosion. Of her crew of 434 men, 
218 answered to their names at roll- 
call at Newport News next morning. 
Capt. John Marston, of the steam- 
ship Roanoke, whereof the machinery 
was disabled, being off Fortress Mon- 
roe, was in command of our fleet, 
when, at 1 p. m., one of his look-out 
vessels reported by signal that the 
enemy was coming. Signaling the 
steam-frigate Minnesota to get under 
way, and slipping his cable, he had 
the Roanoke taken in tow by two 
tugs, and started for the scene of 
action ; but, before he reached it, he 
had the mortification of seeing the 
Minnesota hard aground. Continu- 
ing on his course, but unable to make 
tolerable headway, he came in sight 
of the Cumberland, only to find her 
virtually destroyed ; having soon 
after the further mortification of see- 
ing the Congress haul down her flag. 
Continuing to stand on, he was soon 
himself aground astern, in 3^ fathoms, 
and was obliged to be hauled off by 
one of his tugs ; when he decided to 
come to the relief of the stranded 
Minnesota, hoping with assistance to 

Digitized by 




pnll her off; but fonnd himself un- 
able to do so. Meantime, at 5 p. h., 
the frigate St. Lawrence, towed by 
the Cambridge, passed them, and 
soon also grounded, but was hauled 
off by the Cambridge, when she re- 
turned to the harbor of the fort 

The Minnesota, Capt. Van Brunt, 
having, in passing SeweU's Point, 
received and returned a fire from the 
Eebel battery, which crippled her 
mainmast, had approached within a 
mile and a luilf* of Newport News, 
when she gronnded, with an ebbing 
tide, and was still hard at work try- 
ing to get off, when, at 4 p. m., the 
Merrimac, Jamestown, and Patrick 
Henry, having finished their work at 
the News, bore down npon her. The 
shallowness of the water forbade the 
Merrimac to come within a mile of 
her, from which distance she fired 
for the next two or three hours, bnt 
once hulling the Minnesota by a shot 
through her bow. The Jamestown 
and the Patrick Henry, taking posi- 
tion on the port bow and stem of the 
Minnesota, where only her heavy 
pivot-gun could be brought to bear 
npon them, kept np a vigorous and 
effective fire on her, by which several 
of her crew were killed and wounded ; 
but they finally desisted and retired, 
one of them apparently crippled. 
At 7 p. M., the Merrimac hauled off 
also, and all three steamed toward 
Norfolk, leaving the Minne^ta deep- 
ly imbedded, by the fire of her broad- 
side gims, in the mud-bank on which 
she rested ; so that it was impossible, 
even at high tide, by the help of 
steam-tugs and hawsers, with all 
hands at work through the night, to 
haul her off. 

The prospect for the coming day 

was dark enough, until, at 10 p. m., 
the new iron-clad Monitor, 2 guns, 
Lt. John L. Worden, reached Fort- 
ress Monroe on her trial trip from 
New York, and was immediately 
dispatched to the aid of the Minne- 
sota, reporting to Capt. Van Brunt 
at 2 A. M." Though but a pigmy 
beside the Merrimac, and an entire 
novelty for either land or water — "a 
cheese-box on a raft" — ^the previous 
day's sore experience of the might 
and invulnerability of iron-clads in- 
sured her a hearty welcome. Never 
had there been a more signal example 
of the value of a friend in need. 

At 6 A. M., the Eebel fiotilla reap- 
peared, and the drums of the Min- 
nesota beat to quarters. But the 
enemy ran past, as if heading for 
Fortress Monroe, and came around 
in the channel by which the Minne- 
sota had reached her uncomfortable 
position. Again all hands were called 
to quarters, and the Minnesota, open- 
ing with her stem guns, signaled the 
Monitor to attack, when the un- 
daunted little cheese-box steamed 
down upon the Rebel ApoUyon and 
laid herself alongside, directly be- 
tween the Minnesota and her as- 
sailant. Gun after gun from the 
Monitor, responded to with whole 
broadsides from the Merrimac, seemed 
to produce no more impression than 
a hailstorm on a mountain-cliff; until, 
tired of thus wasting their ammuni- 
tion, they commenced maneuvering 
for the better position. In this, the 
Monitor, being lighter and far more 
manageable than her foe, had decid- 
edly the advantage ; and the Merri- 
mac, disgusted, renewed her atten- 
tions to the Minnesota, disregarding 
a broadside which would have sunk 

' Sunday, March 9. 

Digitized by 




any unplated ship on the globe, and 
pat a shell fit)m her rifled bow-gun 
through the Minnesota's side, which 
tore four of her rooms into one and 
set her on fire ; but the flames were 
promptly extinguished. The Merri- 
mac's next shot pierced the boiler of 
the tug-boat Dragon, which was 
made fast to the port side of the Min- 
nesota, to be ready to assist in tow- 
ing her off; killing or badly wound- 
ing 7 of her crew and setting her oiji 
fire. By this time, the Minnesota 
was raining iron upon her assailant ; 
at least 50 solid shot from her great 
gmis having struck the Rebel's side 
without apparent effect Now the 
little Monitor again interposed be- 
tween the larger combatants, com- 
pelling the Merrimac to change her 
position ; in doing which she ground- 
ed ; and again a broadside was poured 
upon her at close range from all the 
gons of the Minnesota that could be 
brought to bear. The Merrimac was 
soon afloat once more, and stood 
down the bay, chased by the Monitor; 
when suddenly the former turned and 
ran full speed into her pursuer, giving 
her a tremendous shock, but inflicting 
no serious damage. The Rebel's prow 
grated over the deck of the Moni- 
tor ; and was badly cut by it ; so that 
she was not inclined to repeat the 
experiment. The Monitor soon after- 
ward stood down the Roads toward 
Fortress Monroe ; but the Merrimac 
and her tenders did not see fit to 
pursue her, nor even to renew the 
attack on the now exposed Minne- 
sota ; on the contrary, they gave up 
the fight, which they were destined 
never to renew, and steamed back to 

Norfolk. The Minnesota, despite 
persistent efforts, was not fairly afloat 
until 2 o'clock next morning. 

In this memorable %ht, the turret 
of the Monitor was struck by Rebel 
bolts nine times, her side armor eight 
times, her deck thrice, and her pilot- 
house twice — the last being her 
only vulnerable point. One of these 
bolts struck her pilot-house squarely 
in front of the peep-hole through 
which Lt. Worden was watching his 
enemy, knocking off some cement 
into his face with such force as ut- 
terly to blind him for some days, and 
permanently to destroy his left eye. 
Three men standing in the turret 
when it was struck were knocked 
down, one of them being Chief En- 
gineer Alban C. Stimers, who man- 
aged the revolving of the turret. The 
Merrimac had her prow twisted in her 
collision with the Monitor, her anchor 
and flag-staff shot away, her smoke- 
stack and steam-pipe riddled, 2 of her 
crew killed and 8 wounded, includ- 
ing her commander, Buchanan. The 
Patrick Henry was disabled by a shot 
through one of her boilers, by which 4 
of her crew were killed and 3 wound- 
ed. The other Rebel gunboats report- 
ed an aggregate loss of only 6 men. 

The Merrimac was undoubtedly 
disabled *• in this two-days' conflict, 
or she would not have closed it as she 
did, or would have renewed it di- 
rectly afterward. 

Our total loss by this raid, beside 
the firigates Cimiberland and Con- 
gress, with all their armament, the 
tug Dragon, and the serious damage 
inflicted on the Minnesota, can hard- 
ly have fallen short of 400 men, includ- 

* A letter from Petersburg, March 10, to the 
Makigk Standard, sajs : "The Merrimac lost her 
ciKMiDotis iron beak in the jdnnge at the Erics- 

son, and damaged her machinery, and is leaking 
a little.'' It was probably this leak which con- 
strained her to abandon the fight as she did. 

Digitized by 




ing 23 taken from the CongreBS and 
carried oflF by the gunboat Beaufort. 

Gen. McClellan left Washington 
on the Ist of April, arriving next day 
at Fortress Monroe. Of his army, 
58,000 men and 100 guns were there 
before him, andnearly as many more 
on the way. Gen. "Wool's force, hold- 
ing the Fortress, is not included in 
these numbers. 

Gen. J. B. Magruder, at Torktown, 
watched this ominous gathering in 
his front at the head of a Kebel force 
officially reported by him at 11,000 
in all : 6,000 being required to gar- 
rison Gloucester Point, Yorktown, 
and Mulberry Island; leaving but 
5,000 available for the defense of a 
line of 18 miles. Gen. McClellan 
says his information placed Magru- 
der's command at 15,000 to 20,000 
men, aside from Gen. Huger's force 
at Norfolk, estimated by him at 
20,000. Feeling the importance of 
dealing decisively with Magruder 
before he could be reenforcedby 
Johnston, McClellan ordered an ad- 

vance on the morning of the 4:th; 
and, before evening of the next day, 
Gen. Heintzelman, in fix)nt of York- 
town, and Gen. Keyes, before Winn's 
Mill," on the Warwick, were brought 
to a halt by the fire of Rebel bat- 
teries." Gen. McClellan had been 
misled with regard to the topography 
of the country as well as the number 
of his foes. On his map, the War- 
wick was traced as heading in or very 
near Skiff's creek, directly up the 
Peninsula from its mouth, some six 
or eight miles west of Yorktown; 
whereas it actually heads within 
a mile of that post, running diag- 
onally and crookedly nearly across 
the Peninsula, while it was in 
good part navigable by Rebel gun- 
boats. His false information regard- 
ing it was furnished, he states, by 
Gen. Wool's topographical engineers ; 
though tliere must have been a hun- 
dred negroes about the Fortress, each 
of whom could and gladly would 
have corrected it. Our ships of war 
— what the Merrimac had left of 
them — were intently watching for 

"* Called bj Gen. Mcaellan, Lee's Mill. 

** Pollard sajs : 

" General Magruder, the hero of Bethel, and 
a oommander who was capable of much greater 
achievements, was left to confront the growing 
forces on the Peninsula, which dailj menaced 
him, with an armj of 7 500 men, while the 
great bulk of the Confederate forces were still in 
motion in the neighborhood of the Rappahan- 
nock and the Rapidan, and he had no assurance 
of reenforoements. The force of the enemy was 
ten times his own ; they had commenced a daily 
cannonading upon his lines ; and a council of 
general officers was convened, to consult whe- 
ther the little army of 7,500 men should main- 
tain its position in the face of tenfold odds, or 
retire before the enemy. The opinion of the 
council was unanimous for the latter alternative, 
with the exception of one officer, who declared 
that every man should die in the intrenchments 
before the little army should fall back. *By 
G — J it shall be so!' was the sudden exclamation 
of Gen. Magruder, in sympathy with the gallant 
suggestion. The resolution demonstrated a re- 
markable heroism and spirit Our little force 
was adroitly extended over a distance of several 

miles, reaching from Mulberry Island to Glou- 
cester Point, a regiment being posted here and 
there, in every gap plainly open to observation, 
and on other portions of the line the men being 
posted at long intervals, to give the appearance 
of numbers to the enemy. Had the weakness 
of Gen. Magruder at this time been known to 
the enemy, he might have suffered the conse- 
quences of his devoted and self-sacrificing cour- 
age ; but, as it was, he held his lines on the 
Peninsula imtil they were reenforoed by the 
most considerable portion of Gen. Johnston's 
forces, and made the situation of a contest upon 
which the attention of the public was unani- 
mously fixed as the most decisive of the war." 

CoL Fremantle, of the British Coldstream 
Guards, in his '* Three Months in the Southern 
States," says : 

" He [Magruder] told me the different dodges 
he resorted to to blind and deceive McClellan 
as to his strength ; and he spoke of the intense 
relief and amusement with which he at length 
saw that General, with his magnificent army> 
begin to break ground be/ore miserabk earthuxnis 
defended only by 8,000 men," 

Digitized by 




UiL^LELI^H ItBrOltPS TOll»Tntt-S% 

the reappearance down tLe Elizaljeth 
of that marine niouster and her three 
satellite gunboats ; and Com. Oolds- 
boroughdid not teel justified in de- 
taching a part of them to reduce the 
water batteries at Yorktown and 
Gloucester. Tlie Commfjdore does 
not seem tu have l>een asked to clear 
tibe Warwick river of Rebel gunboats 
— 1% indeed, any were there. Ma- 
gruder ee€m& wliolly nueonseious of 
eTfeT having had aiiy naval a&sistanee, 
McClellan felt of the Rebel lines 
atdifferont puints, but did not, though 

*' Oa emery porttou of my llna^ he attacked 
Ki» Willi ft furksua c&nDOu^m^ antl muskctrv, 
phidi wftji reppoQ^ed to with effoot by our iuit- 
tefies iod jTOopB pf ttie Imo. Hi* jskirroi.^ht'i-H 
pero also wfcll ttiTOwa (brwanl fj*n this and tVie 
*< « w e d ing daf, And enet^tballf felt our who\& 
tew; btit ww« werprhere repuls^jd hy the 

aware that time was precious, and 
that a fe\v davi? niii^ht greatly in- 
crease the number of liift foes, venture 
to order a detenu ined as^^ault."'' On 
the contrary, he i^at down before 
Miigruder's liues, began to throw up 
earthworks, and sent orders to Was^h- 
ington for siege-gun?;, Pres^i[ig too 
close to Yurkto^vn, the be^iegera 
wero repulsed by a sudden ehur^a* of 
two battalion.^ under C(rl, "Ward. 
On the HUh, a rer»nnioitii?auce in force 
by the 2d division nf the 4:tb eorps^ 
Gen. W. "F. Smith, wa^ made at Dam 

ateiidi ncH J^ of on r t nio| ^s. T 1 1 1 1 s, w i L ] t Ti j 1 00 m t- j !, 

iu elioak over 100H^^OO of the enem}, Kvery ywC"- 
paraiion waa mode in nntidpntiuii of nn other 
:J.ta<-k: by thy mutiny. T3ie mpn jjlept in tlio 
trpnchea and uwk-T jmiH j but, to my utter sur^ 
pris4.\ be fiormifkd day after diiy to ebpso with- 
out aij na.siudt/* 

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No. 1, on the "Warwick, which was 
to have been converted into a real 
attack if successful at the outset. 
Though gallantly made, it failed; 
our advance being driven back across 
the stream with the loss of 100 men. 
The Kebels lost about 76 men, in- 
cluding Col. K. M. McKinney, 15th 
North Carolina, killed. 

Gen. McClellan had been thirty 
days in front of Torktown, and was 
intending to open the siege in due 
form by the fire of breaching batteries 
on the morning of May 6th ; but he 
found, two days earlier, that Magru- 
der had abandoned his works, includ- 
ing Yorktown, during the preceding 
night, retreating up the Peninsula." 

The pursuit of the flying Eebels 
was prompt and energetic. It was 
led by Gen. George D. Stoneman, 
with 4 regiments and a squadron of 
cavalry, and 4 batteries of horse-artil- 
lery, followed, on the Yorktown road 
to Williamsburg, by Hooker's and 
Kearny's divisions, and on the Winn's 
Mill road by those of W. F. Smith, 
Couch, and Casey. Gen. McClellan 
remained at Yorktown to supervise 
the embarkation of Gen. Franklin's 
and other troops for West Point. 

Fort M^ruder, just in front of 
Williamsburg, at the junction of sev- 
eral roads, commanded, with its 13 
adjuncts, substantially all the roads 
leading farther up the Peninsula. 
Though not calculated to stand a 
siege, it was a lai^ and strong 
earthwork, with a wet ditch nine feet 
wide. Here Stoneman was stopped 
by a sharp and accurate cannonad- 
ing, which compelled him to recoil 
and await the arrival of infantry. 
G^n. Sumner, with Smith's division, 
came up at 5:80 p. m. A heavy rain 
soon set in, and continued through 
the night, making the roads nearly 
impassable. The several commands, 
marching on different roads, had in- 
terfered with and obstructed each 
other's progress at the junction of 
those roads as they concentered upon 
Williamsburg. Gen. Hooker, ad- 
vancing" on the direct road from 
Yorktown to Williamsburg, was 
stopped, five or six miles out, by 
finding Gen. Smith's division in his 
way, and compelled to wait some 
hours. Impatient at this delay, he 
sought and obtained of Gen. Heint- 
zelman permission to move over to 
the Hampton road on his left, on 

"G«n. John G. Barnard, Gen. McClellan'B 
chief engineer through the Peninsula campaign, 
in a report to his commander at the dose of that 
campaign, Bays: 

"At the time the Army of the Potomac landed 
on the Peninsula, the Rebel cause was at its 
lowest ebb. Its armies were demoralized by the 
defeats of Port Royal, Mill Spring, Fort Henry, 
Fort Donelson, Roanoke Island, and Pea Ridge ; 
and reduced by sickness, loss in battle, expira- 
tions of period of service, etc ; while the con- 
scription law was not yet even passed. It 
seemed as if it needed but one vigorous gripe to 
end forever this Rebellion, so nearly throttled. 
How, then, happened it, that the day of the ini- 
tiation of the campaign of this magnifioent Army 
of the Potomac was the day of the resuscitation 
of the Rebel cause, which seemed to grow pari 
passu with the slow progress of its operations ? 

"However I may be committed to any ex- 
pression of professional opinion to the contrary 

(I certainly did suggest it), my opinion now is that 
the lines of Yorktown should have been assault- 
ed. There is reason to believe that they were 
not held in strong force when our army appeared 
before them j and we know that they were far 
from complete. The prestige of power, the mo- 
rale, were on our side. It was due to ourselves 
to confirm and sustain it. We should probably 
have succeeded. But, if we. had failed, it may 
well be doubted whether the shock of an unsuc- 
cessful assault would be more demoralizing than 
the labors of a siege. 

" Our troops toiled a month m the trenches, 
or lay in the swamps of Warwick. We lost few 
men by the siege; but disease took a fearf\il 
hold of the army ; and toil and hardship, unre- 
deemed by the excitement of combat, impaired 
their morale. We did not carry with us fVom 
Yorktown so good an army as we took there. 
Of the bitter fruits of that month gained by the 
enemy, we have tasted to our heart's content," 

** May 4. 

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which he advanced through the rain 
and deep mud and the dense dark- 
ness till nearly midnight, when his 
troops were halted in the road, and 
rested as thej might until dawn ; 
then they pressed on until, emerg- 
ing from a forest, they came in sight, 
about 5:30 a. m., of the Eebel works 
before Williamsburg ; Fort Magruder 
in the center, at the junction of the 
Yorktown and Hampton roads, with 
its cordon of 13 redoubts, extending 
clear across the Peninsula^ hence 
widening quite rapidly and perma- 
nently just above the town. The 
ground had of course been chosen to 
give the greatest advantage to its 
defenders: the forest felled for a 
breadth of nearly half a mile, to ob- 
struct the advance of our infantry ; 
while a belt of open, level land, 600 
or 700 yards wide, dotted all over 
with rifle-pits, intervened between 
this tangled abatis and the fort and 
redoubts. Williamsburg lay in plain 
sight of Hooker's position, two miles 
distant. After a careful survey of 
the ground, knowing that there were 
30,000 of our troops within two miles, 
and the main body of our army with- 
in twelve, Hooker decided to attack, 
in order to hold the Rebel force en- 
gaged until the rest of our army 
could come up. Accordingly, send- 
ing the 1st Massachusetts into the 
felled timber on the left, and the 2d 
New Hampshire into that on the 
right, with directions to skirmish up 
to the fiirther edge of the abatis, and 
ordering the 11th Massachusetts and 
26th Pennsylvania to form on the 
right of the 2d New Hampshire and 
advance as skirmishers until they 
reached the Torktown road, he threw 
forward into the cleared field on the 
right of the road, barely 700 yards 

from Fort Magruder, Webber's bat- 
tery, which at once drew the fire of 
the Rebel batteries, whereby 4 of his 
cannoniers were shot down and the 
rest driven off before we had fired a 
gun; but their places were soon sup 
plied, and Bramhall's battery brought 
into action on the right of Webber's ; 
when, between them, Fort Magruder 
was silenced before 9 a. m. Patter* 
son's brigade, composed of the 6th, 
7th, and 8th New Jersey, was formed 
behind these batteries as their sup- 
port, and was soon desperately en- 
gaged with the Rebel infantry and 
sharp-shooters, who were found un- 
comfortably numerous; so that the' 
1st Massachusetts, 72d and 70th 
New York were sent to their aid, 
and, though fighting gallantly, found 
themselves still overmatched. Mean- 
while, our skirmishers on the right 
having reached the Yorktown road, 
the 11th Massachusetts and 26th 
Pennsylvania were sent down that 
road to press the enemy and estab- 
lish a connection with Heintzel- 
man's corps, supposed to be estab- 
lished upon it; Hooker, at 11:20 
A. M., sending a pressing message to 
Heintzelman for assistance, and not 
finding him. By 1 p. m., Hooker 
had sent in the 73d and 74th New 
York, his last regiments ; and, though 
his force was fighting gallantly, with 
varying success, he was losing men 
fast, yet making no headway. Three 
times he had repulsed Rebel charges 
upon his center, each made with 
fresh troops in increasing numbers 
and with more resolute purpo^. 
Soon, word came from the regiments 
thus engaged that their ammunition 
was giving out, while no supply-train 
had yet come up ; and it was found 
necessary to glean the cartridges 

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from the boxes of our fallen heroes, 
while our most advanced regiments 
were drawn back to a position whence 
they could guard our left, yet form a 
portion of our front. 

Gen. Longstreet's division of the 
Rebel main army — which army, 
under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston as 
commander-in-chief, had hastened ere 
this to the defense of Richmond from 
the side of the Peninsula — ^had passed 
through Williamsburg on the retreat, 
when it was recalled to aid in the 
defense." Having now arrived on 
the field, a fresh attempt was made 
to drive in our left, which, aft«r a 
protracted struggle, was repulsed 
with mutual slaughter; but a simul- 
taneous attack on our front, from the 
direction of Fort Magruder, was suc- 
cessful to the extent of capturing 4 
of our guns and making 200 or 300 

Thus, for nine hours, — ^from 7:30 
A. M. to 4:30 p. M., — Hooker's single 
division was pitted against substan- 
tially the whole Rebel army, with 
every advantage of a chosen and 
skillfully fortified position on their 
side. No division ever fought better ; 
and, though its General estimates the 
Rebel killed as double his own, he is 
doubtless mistaken. 

Gen. Heintzelman and staflT, but 
no troops, had arrived early in the 
afternoon. At 4:30 p. m., Gen. 
Kearny arrived, with his division, 
and pressed to the front; allowing 
Hooker's thinned regiments to with- 
draw from the fight and be held as a 
reserve. Kearny, under Gen. Ileint- 
zelman's orders, at once deployed 

Berry's brigade to the left of the 
"Williamsburg road, and Bimey's to 
the right, leading forward two com- 
panies of the 2d Michigan to beat 
back the enemy's skirmishers, now 
annoying our batteries; while Maj. 
Wainwright, Hooker's chief of artil- 
lery, collected his gunners and 
reopened a fire from his remaining 
pieces; whereupon the 5th New 
Jersey, though fearfully cut up, ral- 
lied promptly to their support. Our 
musketry ^e was renewed along the 
whole line, and our regiments began 
to gain ground. 

Finding that the heavy timber in 
his front defied all direct approach, 
Gen. Kearny ordered Col. Hobart 
Ward, with the 38th New York, to 
charge down the road and take the 
rifle-pits on the center of the abatis 
by their flank ; which was gallantly 
done, the regiment losing 9 of its 19 
officers during the brief hour of its 
engagement. The success of its 
charge not being perfect, the left 
wing of Col. Riley's 40th New York 
(Mozart) charged up to the open 
space, and, taking the rifle-pits in re- 
verse, drove out their occupants and 
held the ground. By this time. Gen. 
Jameson had brought up the rear 
brigade of the division ; whereby, 
under a severe fire, a second liqe was 
established, and two columns of r^- 
ments made disposable for further 
operations, when thick darkness 
closed in, and our soldiers rested, in 
rain and mire, on the field they had 
barely won. 

Gen. Heintzelman, who had at 
Yorktown been charged by Gen. 

** GeiL McClellan, in his report, says : 

" It is my opinion that the enemy opposed us 

here with only a portion of his army. When 

our cavalry first appeared, there was nothing 

but the enemy's rear-guard in Williamsburg: 

althougli troops were brought back during the 
niglit and the next day, to bold the works as 
long as possible, in order to gain time for the 
f mills, etc, r.l ready well on their way to Rich- 
mond, to make their escape.*' 

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McClellan with the direction of the 
pursuit, had this day been superseded 
by an order which placed Gen. Sum- 
ner in command at the front. To 
Sumner, accordingly, Hooker had 
sent, at different times throughout 
the afternoon, pressing applications 
for aid, but had received none ; and 
Hooker says in his report : 

" History will not be believed when it is 
told that the noble officers and men of my 
division were permitted to carry on this 
unequal straggle from morning until night 
unaided, in the presence of more than 
30,000 of their comrades with arms in their 
hands. Nevertheless, it is trae." 

Gen. Sumner explains that, before 
these applications reached him, he 
had dispatched Gen. Hancock, with 
his brigade, to the extreme right ; so 
that he had but about 3,000 infantry 
left, while cavalry was useless in that 
wooded and unknown r^ion ; hence, 
he was unable to give the assistance 

Gen. Hancock duly accomplished 
the flanking movement assigned him, 
and, by a brilliant bayonet charge, 
carried the Eebel works on our 
right, with a loss of less than 60 
men.** Soon, Gen. McOellan — after 
whom the Prince De Joinville and 
Gov. Sprague, of Rhode Island, had 
ridden post haste to Yorktown, where 
he was superintending the dispatch- 

ing of Franklin's division to West 
Point — ^was induced, after some de- 
lay, to ride to the front, reaching 
Hancock's position about 5 p. m. 
Before dark, several other divisions 
had arrived on the ground ; that of 
Gen. Couch, or a part of it, in season 
to claim the honor of having been 
engaged in the battle. 

Gen. McClellan, at 10 p. m., dis- 
patched to Washington the following 
account of this bloody affair, which 
proves that he was still quite in the 
dark respecting it : 

" After arranging for movement up York 
river, I was urgently sent for here. I find 
Joe Johnston in front of me in strong force, 
probably greater^ a good deal^ than my own^ 
and very strongly intrenched. Hancock has 
taken two redoubts, and repulsed Early's 
brigade by a real charge with the bayonet, 
taking one Colonel and 150 prisoners, kill- 
ing at least two Colonels and as many Lt.- 
Colonels, and many privates. His conduct 
was brilHant in the extreme. I do not know 
our exact loss, but fear Hooker has lost con- 
siderably on our left. I learn from prison- 
ers that they intend disputing every step to 
Richmond. I shall run the risk of at least 
holding them in check here, while I resume 
the original plan. My entire force m, un- 
doubtedly, considerably ir^erior to that of 
the RebelSy who still fight well ; but I will 
do all I can with the force at my disposal.'^ 

Had he supposed that the Eebels 

were at that moment evacuating 

"Williamsburg in such haste as to 

leave all their severely wounded, 700 

or 800 in number, to become prison- 

* Geo. McClellan, m his Report, says that he 
first heard, at 1 P. IL, that erery thing was not 
progressing favorably, when : 

** Completing the necessary arrangements, I 
returned to my camp without delay, rode rapidly 
to the front, a distance of some fourteen miles, 
through roads much obstructed by troops and 
wagons, and reached the field between 4 and 5 
p M., in time to take a rapid survey of the 
groand. I soon learned that there was no 
direct commonication between oar center and 
the left under Gen. Heintzelman. The center 
waa <diiefly in the nearer edge of the woods situ- 
ated between us and the enemy. As heavy 
firing was heard in the direction of Gen. Han- 
codrs command, I immediately ordered Gen. 
Smith to proceed with bis two remaming bri- 

gades to support that part of the line. Gen. 
Naglee, with his brigade, received similar or- 
ders. I then directed our center to advance 
to the further edge of the woods montioncd 
above, which was done, and attempted to open 
cooununication with Gen. Heintzelman, but was 
prevented by the marshy state of the g^und 
in the direction in which the attempt was made. 
Before (}ens. Smith and Naglee could reach the 
field of Gen. Hancock's operations, although they 
moved with gpreat rapidity, he had been con- 
fronted by a superior force. Feigning to re- 
treat slowly, he awaited their onset, and then 
turned upon them : after some terrific volleys of 
musketry, he charged them with the bayonet, 
routing and dispersing their whole force, killing, 
wounding, and capturing fk'om 500 to 600 men ; 
he himself losing only 31 men." 

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era, he mtiBt have written a very dif- 
ferent dispatch ; and it is not probar 
ble that they wonld have carried off, 
over the drenched and miry roads, 
more cannon than they could boast 
on the morning before the battle." 

Gen. Hooker reports a loss in 
this engagement of 3^8 killed, 902 
wounded, and 335 missing, who of 
course were prisoners. Gen. McClel- 
lan makes our total loss during the 
day 456 killed, 1,400 wounded, and 
372 missing; total, 2,228." Many of 
those prisoners, knowing that we had 
an overwhehning force just at hand, 
confidently looked for recapture dur- 
ing the night, and were sorely cha- 
grined to find themselves deliberately 
marching toward a Rebel prison next 

While the battle at Williamsburg 
was raging, Gen. Franklin's division, 

which had been kept on board the 
transports which brought it fipom 
Alexandria two or three weeks be- 
fore, had been preparing to move 
fipom Yorktown up York river to 
West Point ; where its 1st brigade, 
under Gen. Newton, landed unop- 
posed next day.** It debarked on a 
spacious, open plain on the west side 
of the York aud its south-western 
affluent, the Pamunkey; no enemy 
appearing till next day. Meantime, 
Gen. Dana had arrived with a part 
of G«n. Sedgwick's division, but not 
debarked. Our gunboats took quiet 
possession of the little village at the 
Point, and hoisted our flag over it; 
no white man appearing to greet 
their arrival. During the night, one 
of our vedettes was shot through the 
heart, from the wood that fringed the 
plain whereon our troops were en- 

" On waking, next morning, to find the Reb- 
els yan'ished and his forces in quiet possession 
of Williamsburg, Gen, McClellan forwarded the 
following more cheerful dispatches : 

"Headquaetees Army op thr Potomac, ) 
•' Williamsburg, Va,, >fay 6. ) 
"Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War: 

'^I have the pleasure to announce the occupa- 
tion of this place as the result of the hard-fought 
action of yesterday. The effect of Hancock's 
brilliant engagement yesterday afternoon was to 
turn the left of their line of works. He was 
strongly reenforced, and the enemy abandoned 
the entire position during the night, leaving all 
his sick and wounded in our hands. His loss 
yesterday was very severe. We have some 300 
uninjured prisoners, and more than a thousand 
wounded. Their loss in killed is heavy. The 
victory is complete. 

*• I have sent cavalry in pursuit ; but the roads 
are in such condition that I cannot move artil- 
lery nor supplies. I shall therefore push the 
other movement most energetically. The con- 
duct of our men has been excellent, with scarcely 
an exception. The enemy's works are very ex- 
tensive and exceedingly strong, both in respect 
to their position and the works themselves. Our 
loss was heavy in Hooker's division, but very 
little on other parts of the field. Hancock's 
success was g^ed with a loss of not over 20 
killed and wounded. Weather good to-day, but 
great difficulty in getting up food on account of 
the roads. Very few wagons have yet come up. 
Am I authorized to foUow the example of other 
Qenerals, and direct names of battles to be 

placed on the colors of regiments? We have 
other battles to fight before reaching Richmond. 
• "a. B. McOlellan, 

"M^'.-Gen. Ckimmandiog." 

" Hbadquarters Army of the Potomac, | 
"Williamsburg, May 6. J 
"Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War: 

"Every hour proves our victory more com- 
plete. The enemy^s loss is great, especially in 
officers. I have just heard of five more of their 
guns captured. Prisoners are constantly arriv- 
ing. G. B. McClellan, 
" M^'.-Gen. Commanding." 

* No official account of the Rebel losses in 
this engagement is at hand; but the Richmond 
Dispatch of May 8th has a buUetin, professedly 
based on an official dispatch from Gen. John- 
ston, which, claiming 11 cannon and 623 pns- 
oners captured, admits a Rebel loss of but 220 ; 
yet names Gen. Anderson, of North Carolina. 
CoL Mott, of Mississippi, CoL Ward, 4th Flor- 
ida, and Col. Wm. H. Palmer, 1st Virginia, as 
among the killed; and Gen. Early, Gen, Rains, 
CoL Kemper, 7th Virginia^ Col. Corse, iTih 
Virginia, and Col Garland, of Lynchburg, as 
wounded; adding: "The 1st Virginia was badly 
cut up. Out of 200 men in the fight, some 80 
or 90 are reported killed or wounded. Col. 
Kemper's regiment suffered terribly, though we 
have no account of the extent of the casualties.'* 
These items indicate a total loss of certainly not 
less than 1,000. "May 6. 

Digitized by 




camped, though no hostile force had 
i^peared. Next morning, however, 
a regiment or two of the enemy was 
descried and shelled from our gun- 
boats; whereupon Gten. Dana, by 
order of Qen. Slocum, hastened the 
landing of his men and horses ; while 
the 16th, 31st, and 32d New York, 
with the 95th and 96th Pennsylvania, 
were pushed forward into the woods 
in our front, with orders to drive out 
the few Rebel scouts who were sup- 
posed to be skulking there. They 
soon found themselves engaged with 
a iar larger force than they had 
expected, whereof Gten. "Whiting's 
Texan division and "Wade Hampton's 
Sonth Carolina L^on formed a part ; 
and who, with every advantage of 
position and knowledge of the 
ground, drove our men out in haste 
and disorder. Twice the attempt 
was renewed, with similar results; 
bnt at length, our batteries having 
been landed and posted, they, with the 
aid of the gunboats, easily silenced 
the single Eebel battery of small 
howitzers, which, from an elevated 
clearing in the woods, had assisted to 
repel the advance of our infantry ; 
and now that infantry pushed once 
more into the woods, and found no 
enemy to contest their possession. 
We lost in this affair 194 men, mainly 
of the 31st and 32d New York, in- 
dnding two Captains and two lieu- 
tenants ; while the Rebel loss was tri- 

Gen. Stoneman, with the advance 
of our main army, moved from Wil- 
liamsburg on the 8th to open com- 
munication with Gen. Franklin, fol- 
bwed by Smith's division on the 
direct road to Richmond. Kain fell 
frequently ; the roads were horrible ; 

so that Gten. McClellan's head- 
quarters only reached White House 
on the 16th, TunstalPs Station on 
the 19th, and Coal Harbor on the 
22d. Our advanced light troops had 
reached the Chickahominy at Bot- 
tom's Bridge two days before. 

The movement of our grand army 
up the Peninsula, in connection with 
Bumside's successes and captures in 
North Carolina,** had rendered the 
possession of Norfolk by the Rebels 
no longer tenable. To hold it by 
any force less than an army would be 
simply exposing that force to capture 
or destruction at the pleasure of our 
strategists. Gen. Wool, commanding 
at Fortress Monroe, having organized 
an expedition designed to reduce that 
important city, 1^ it thither on the 
10th ; finding the bridge over Tan- 
ner's creek on fire, but no enemy to 
dispute possession of Norfolk, which 
was quietly surrendered by its Mayor. 
The Navy Yard and Portsmouth 
were in like manner repossessed; 
the Rebels, ere they left, destroying 
every thing that would bum, partially 
blowing up the Dry Dock, and com- 
pletely destroying their famous iron- 
clad known to us as the Merrimac.*' 
They left about 200 cannon, in- 
cluding 39 of large caliber at Craney 
Island, and those in the Sewell's 
Point batteries, which, though spik- 
ed, were valuable; 29 pieces were 
found mounted on strong earthworks 
two miles from Norfolk, but deserted. 
In fact, it had been decided, at a 
council held at Norfolk some days 
before, that no attempt should be 
made to defend that city. The Mer- 
rimac, though she never fully re- 
covered from the effects of her strug- 

* See pages 73-81. 

*Ma7 11,5 a. m. 

Digitized by 




gle with the Monitor, had comedown 
the river and shown fight when onr 
vessels first undertook to shell out 
the Rebel batteries at SewelPs Point, 
three days before her self-destruc- 
tion." Two unfinished iron-elads 
were among the vessels fired by the 
Rebels ere they left. 

The serious difference between the 
Administration and Gen. McClellan 
respecting the strength of his army, 
and the detachment therefrom of 
McDowell's and other forces for ser- 
vice elsewhere, now demands our de- 
liberate consideration. Gen. McClel- 
lan, upon first assuming command" 
of the Army of the Potomac, had ad- 
dressed to the President a memoran- 
dum, wherein, in addition to the 
armies required to make " a strong 
movement on the Mississippi," to 
drive the Rebels " out of Missouri," 
to hold Kentucky, and sustain '^ a 
movement through that State into 
Eastern Tennessee," to guard secure- 
ly the passes into Western Virginia, 
"to protect and reopen the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad," to " gar- 

rison Baltimore and Fortress Mon- 
roe," and leave 20,000 "for the 
defense of Washington," he required 
for his "main army of operations" 
225,000 infantry, 25,600 cavaby, 
7,500 engineer troops, and 15,000 
artillery men, with 600 field guns ; 
in all, 273,000 men. Even this 
mighty army was deemed by him in- 
sufficient, unless aided by a strong 
naval force." 

Nearly three months later, in a 
letter to the Secretary of War, he so 
modified this demand as to evince a 
willingness to begin offensive opera- 
tions with a total effective force on 
the Potomac and in Maryland — but 
not including tlie garrison of Fortress 
Monroe— of 208,000 men and 488 
guns; but to secure this, he calcu- 
lated, would require an aggregate of 
240,000 men on his muster-rolls, in- 
cluding the sick and absent, while he 
had but 168,318, with 228 field guns, 
present, and 6 more batteries on the 
way from New York. Thus his 
army, which by December 1st had 
been swelled nearly to 300,000, and 
for the three months succeeding 

*'0om. Tatnall, in his official report of the loss 
of the Merrimac, lays the blame entirely on his 
pilots, who on the 7 th assured him that they 
could take her to within 40 miles of Richmond 
if her draft were lessened to 18 feet ; but, after 
five or six hours had been devoted to this work, 
and she had thus been disabled for action, they, 
for the first time, declared that, as the winds 
had for two days been westerly, the water in the 
James was too low, so that she could not now 
bo run above the Jamestown flats, up to which 
point each shore was occupied by our armies. 
He had now no alternative but to fire her, land 
his crew, and make the best of his way to Suf- 
folk. A Court of Inquiry, presided over by Capt 
French Forrest, after an investigation protracted 
from May 2 2d to June 11th, decided that her 
destruction was unnecessary, and that she might, 
after being lightened to a draft of 20 feet 6 
inches, have been taken up James river to Hog 

Island. Part of the blame, however, was laid 
on the hasty retreat from Norfolk of the military 
under Gten. Huger. 

♦•August 4, 186L 

** He says : 

" Its general line of operations should be so 
directed that water transportation can be availed 
of, from point to point, by means of the ocean 
aud the rivers emptying into it. An essential 
feature of the plan of operations will be the 
employment of a strong naval force, to protect 
the movements of a fleet of transports intended 
to convey a considerable body of troops from 
point to point of the enemy's sea-coast, thus 
either creating diversions, and rendering it neces- 
sary to detach largely from their main body in 
order to protect such of their cities as may be 
threatened, or else landing aod forming estab- 
lishments on their coast, at any favorable places 
that opportunity might offer. This naval force 
should sdso cdoperate with the main army, in its 
efforts to seize the important sea-board towns of 
the Rebels."— ifcCi^2^n'5 Offidai Memorandum, 

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averaged about 220,000 men,** wa6 
at no time large enough, according 
to his computation, to justify a deter- 
mined offensive, since he persisted in 
computing the Eebel army confront- 
ing him at no less than "150,000 
strong, well drilled and equipped, 
aUy commanded and strongly in- 
trenched." " 

Now, the movement jSrst contem- 
plated, by way of the Rappahannock 
and Urbana — still more, that ulti- 
mately decided on by way of Fortress 
Monroe and the Peninsula — ^involved 
a division of this army, and the reser- 
vation of a considerable part of it for 
the protection of Washington, as also 
the Beeuring of Maryland and the 
Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad from 
desolating raids down the Shenan- 
dodi Yalley. President Lincoln 
had reluctantly given his assent to 
this drcumlittoral advance, on these 
expressed conditions : 

"EXECUTIVE Mansion, Washington, ) 
"March 8, 1862. f 

** President's General War Order, No. 8 : 
" Ordered^ That no change of the base of 
<'peration8 of the Army of the Potomac 
ibtll be made without leaving in and about 
Washington such a force as, in the opinion 
of the General-in-Chief and the commanders 
of army corps, shall leave said city entirely 

"That no more than two army corps 
fabont 50,000 troops) of said Army of the 
Potomac shall be moyed en route for a new 
b«8e of operations until the navigation of 
the Potomac, from Washington to the 
Chesapeake Bay, shall be freed from the 
fiwniy's batteries, and other obstructions, 
or nntil the President shall hereafter give 
express permission. 

"That any movement as aforesaid, en 
'•«*« for a new base of operations, which 
Buy be ordered by the General-in-Chief, 
ud which may be intended to move upon 
^ Chesapeake Bay, shall begin to move 
5P<^ the bay as early as the 18th of March 
instant; and the General-in-Chief shall be 
f«ponsible that it so moves as early as that 

" Ordered^ That the army and navy co- 
operate in an immediate effort to capture 
the enemy's batteries upon the Potomac 
between Washington and the Chesapeake 
Bay. Abraham Lincoln, 

**L. Thomas, Adjutant- OeneraV* 

Gen. McClellan's chiefof spies had 
by this time reduced the force of the 
Eebels in Northern Virginia" to 
115,500 men, with 300 field and 26 
to 30 siege-guns — quite a formidable 
army, if its leader should conclude, 
after Ghen. McClellan's embarking 
the bulk of his forces for Fortress 
Monroe, to make a rush upon Wash- 
ington from behind the Rappahan- 
nock. Five days later. Secretary 
Stanton wrote, as we have already 
seen, to Gen. McClellan, that the 
President made no objection to his 
plan of operations, provided he 
would — 

*^ 1st. Leave snch force at Manassas Jnno- 
tion as shall make it entirely certain that 
the enemy shall not repossess himself of 
that position and line of commnnication. 

*' 2d. Leave Washington entirely secure. 

"3d. Move the remainder of the force 
down the Potomac— choosing a new base 
at Fortress Monroe, or anywhere between 
here and there ; or, at all events, move such 
remainder of the army at once in pursuit of 
the enemy by some route." 

Just before starting for the Penin- 
sula, Gen. McClellan received, " with 
surprise," the following note, involv- 
ing a subtraction, he estimates, of 
10,000 troops fipom the force which 
he expected to have transferred to 
the Peninsula : 

" ExEOUTFVB Mansion, "Washington, [ 
"March 81, 1862. f 

" Mtgor-General MoClellan : 

" Mt Deab Sib : This morning I felt con- 
strained to order Blenker's division to Fre- 
mont ; and I write this to assure you that I 
did so with great pain, understanding that 
you would wish it otherwise. If you could 
know the full pressure of the case, I am 
confident that you would justify it, even 

•I>ec. I, 198,213; Jan. 1, 219,707; Feb. 1, 
fi5,m; ICardi 1, 221,987. 
VOL. n. — 9 

*• Letter to the Secretary of War. 
*^ Beport to McClellan, March 8. 

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beyond the mere acknowledgment that the 
Commander-in-Chief may order what he 
pleases. Yoors, very truly, 

"A. Lincoln." 

Stonewall Jackson's advance to 
and fight at Winchester, indicating 
further pugnacity in that quarter, 
were soon found to interfere with 
Gen. McClellan's order" to Gen. 
Banks to move his division down to 
Manassas, leaving only two regi- 
ments of cavalry to " occupy Win- 
chester, and thoroughly scour the 
country south of the railway and up 
the Shenandoah Valley." 

Gen. McClellan, on embarking, 
calculated that he left behind, in- 
cluding Blenker's division, ordered 
to Fremont, and not including 
McDowell's corps, which he intended 
should follow him, no less than 
75,000 men. But, as Blenker's divi- 
sion was known to be ordered to 
Fremont, in West Virginia, they are 
improperly included. Even exclud- 
ing these, he computes the whole 
number available for the defense of 
Washington, including 35,467 under 
Banks in the Valley of the Shenan- 
doah, at 67,428 men, with 85 pieces 
of light artaiery. Yet he had barely 
departed when Gens. Hitchcock and 
L. Thomas, who had been instructed 
to investigate the matter, reported,** 
" that the requirement of the Presi- 
dent, that this city [Washington] 
shall be left entirely secure, has not 
been fully complied with." Gen. 
Wadsworth, Military Governor of 
Washington, and as brave a man as 
ever lived, submitted to the War De- 
partment a statement that the entire 
force left under his command for the 
defense of Washington amounted to 
20,477, of whom 19,022 were present 
for duty ; nearly all of them new and 

imperfectly disciplined, several of the 
r^ments in a very disorganized con- 
dition ; 2 heavy artillery and 1 infan- 
try regiment, which had been drilled 
for some months for artillery service, 
had been withdrawn from the forts 
on the south side of the Potomac; 
while he was at this time under 
orders from McClellan to detail 3 
regiments to join divisions on their 
way to the Peninsula, and another 
for service at Budd's Ferry ; while a 
further order directed him to send 
4,000 men to Manassas and Wan^i- 
ton to relieve Gen. Sumner, so as to 
enable him to embark for Torktown. 
Upon the report of Gens. Hitchcock 
and Thomas, the President gave 
orders** that either McDowell's or 
Sumner's corps should remain in 
front of Washington xmtil otherwise 

Gen. McClellan, from his camp in 
front of Yorktown, remonstrated;" 
saying : 

*' I am now of the opinion that I shall 
have to fight all the available force of the 
Rebels not far from here. Do not force me 
to do 80 with diminished numbers; boL 
whatever your decision may be, I will 
leave nothing undone to obtain success. If 
you cannot leave me the whole of the 1st 
corps, I urgently ask that I may not lose 
Franklin and his division." 

Two days later, he telegraphed to 
the War Department that : 

^^It seems clear that I shall have the 
whole force of the enemy on my hands^ 
probably not less than 100,000 men, and 
possibly more. In consequence of the loss 
of Blenker's division and the 1st corps, my 
force is possibly less than that of the 
enemy, while they have all the advanta^ 
of position." 

In a dispatch of even date to the 
President, he says: 

"Your telegram of yesterday received; 
In reply, I have the honor to state that my 

*• March 16. 



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entire force for dntj amounts to only about 
(85,000) eighty-five thousand men. Gen. 
Woors command, as you will observe from 
\he accompanying order, has been taken 
ODt of my control, although he has most 
dieerfoUy cooperated with me. The only 
use that can be made of his command is to 
protect my communications in rear of this 
point. At this time, only 63,000 men have 
joined me ; but they are coming up as rap- 
idly as my means of transportation will 
pennit Please refer to my dispatch to the 
Secretary of War to-night, for the details of 
oar present* situation." 

The President responded by this 


""Washington, April 9, 1862. 
"Mw.-Gen. MoOlellan : 

**MT Dbab Sib: Your dispatches, com- 
pl^ning that you are not properly sustained, 
while Qiey do not offend me, do pain me 
▼CTy much. Blenker^s division was with- 
drawn from you before you left here ; and 
you know the pressure under which I did 
it, and, as I thought, acquiesced in it — cer- 
tiiuly, not without reluctance. After you 
left, I ascertained that less than 20,000 un- 
organized men, without a single field-bat- 
tery, were all you designed to be left for the 
defense of Washington and Manassas Junc- 
tion; and part of this, even, was to go to 
Gen. Hooker^s old position. Gen. Banks^s 
corps, once designed for Manassas Junction, 
was diverted, and tied up on the line of 
Winchester and Strasburg, and could not 
leave it without again exposing the Upper 
Potomac and the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road. This presented (or would present, 
when McDowell and 8umner should be 
gone) a great temptation to the enemy to 
torn back from the Rappahannock and sack 
Washington. My explicit order that Wash- 
ington should, by the judgment of all the 
commanders of armv corps, be left entirely 
secure, had been neglected. It was precise- 
ly this that drove me to detain McDowell. 

^I do not forget that I was satisfied with 
year arrangement to leave Banks at Manas- 
aas Junction ; but, when that arrangement 
was broken up, and nothing was substi- 
tuted for it, of course I was constrained to 
nbedtote something for it myself; and al- 
few me to aok : Do you really think I should 
pomit the line from Richmond via Manas- 
sas Junction to this city to be entirely open, 
except what resistance could be presented 
bj less than 20,000 unorganized troops? 
This is a question which Uie country will 
not allow me to evade. 

"There is a curious mystery about the 
Bomber of troops now with yon. When I 
telegraphed you on the 6th, saying you had 
over a hundred thousand with you, I had 

just obtained from the Secretary of War a 
statement taken, as he said, from your own 
returns, making 108,000 then with you and 
en route to you. You now say you will 
have but 85,000 when all en route to you 
shall have reached you. How can the dis- 
crepancy of 23,000 be accounted for? 

" As to Gen. Wool's command, I under- 
stand it is doing for you precisely what a 
like number of your own would have to do 
if that command was away. 

"I suppose the whole force which has 
gone forward for you, is with you by this 
time ; and, if so, I think it is the precise time 
for you to strike a blow. By delay, the ene- 
my will relatively gain upon you ; that is, 
he will gain faster by fortifications and re- 
enforcements than you can by rSenforce- 
ments alone. And once more let me tell 
you, it is indispensable to you that you 
strike a blow. / am powerless to help this. 
You will do me the justice to remember I 
always insisted that going down the Bay in 
search of a field, instead of fighting at or 
near Manassas, was only shifting, and not 
surmounting, a diflSculty; that we would 
find the same enemy, and the same or equal 
intrenchments, at either place. The coun- 
try will not fail to note — ^is now noting — 
that the present hesitation to move upon 
an intrenched enemy is but the story of 
Manassas repeated. 

" I beg to assure you that I have never 
written you, or spoken to you, in greater 
kindness of feeling than now, nor with a 
fuller purpose to sustain you. so far as in my 
most anxious judgment I consistently can. 
But you must act. 

"Yours, very truly, A. Lincoln." 

The President's question as to the 
grave discrepancy between the 86,000 
men, admitted to be with or on their 
way to him by Gen. M., and the 
108,000 asserted by Secretary Stan- 
ton, was never answered, and proba- 
bly could not be ; since an official re- 
turn of the number of his army April 
30th, while it was still before York- 
town, makes its aggregate 130,378, 
whereof 112,392 were present and 
fit for duty; Franklin's division of 
12,448 men having in the mean time 
been sent to him. 

But, on another point, military men 
are not likely to agree with the Presi- 
dent Gen. Wool's command may 
very probably have been doing just 

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what an equal number of McOlel- 
lan's troops must have done " if that 
command was away;" but it is by 
no means the same thing to a com- 
mander in the field to have 10,000 
men holding an important post in 
his rear, but wholly independent of 
his authority, and having them sub- 
ject implicitly to his orders. Gen. 
McClellan was therefore manifestly 
right in not regarding Gten. Wool's 
10,000 as equivalent to a reenforce- 
ment of his army by that number ; 
and the order which detached this 
division from his command has not 
been justified. True, he had more 
men than he needed, had he pos- 
sessed the ability and the nerve to 
use them." But a General, in such 
a position as his then was, should 
eitiier be folly trusted or superseded. 

Stonewall Jackson, after his de- 
feat " by Shields at Kemstown, had 
retreated up the Valley, pursued by 
Gen. Banks, to the vicinity of Harri- 
sonburg, Jackson, after holding some 

days a strong position near Mount 
Jackson, crossed ** the South Fork of 
the Shenandoah and took position in 
Elk Run VaUey; but he was soon 
startled by tidings that Gen. Milroy, 
with the advance of Gen. Schenck's 
division of Fremont's West Virginia 
force, was threatening Staunton from 
the direction of Monterey. As a 
junction of Fremont's and Banks's 
commands would have involved the 
fall of Staunton, and the complete 
possession of the Valley by our troops, 
Jackson resolved to prevent it by 
striking a swift and hard blow at 
Fremont's advance. Leaving Ewell, 
whose division had recently joined 
him from Gordonsville, to observe 
and check Banks, Jackson moved 
rapidly to Staunton, being reenforced 
by the division of Gen. Edward 
Johnson, which he dispatched** in 
advance of his own, against Milroy; 
who, being decidedly overmatch^!, 
retreated westwardly across Shenan- 
doah Mountain, concentrating his 
command at MoDowell, and sending 

•■ When he had fairlj set down before York- 
town, he telegraphed to Washington as follows : 

" Hhadquabtbrs Abmy op the Potomac, ) 
"April 10. f 
"Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War: 

"The reconnoissance to-day proves that it is 
necessary to invest and attack Gloucester Point. 
Give me Franklin's and McCall's divisions, un- 
der command of Franklin, and I will at once 
undertake it. If circumstances of which I am 
not aware make it impossible for you to send 
me two divisions to carry out this final plan of 
campaign, I will run the risk, and hold mjrself 
responsible for the result, if you will give me 
Franklin's division. If you stiU confide iib my 
judgment, I entreat that you will grant this re- 
quest The fate of our cause- dfipends upon it 
Although willing, under the pressure of neces- 
sity, to carry this through with Franklin alone, 
I wish it to be distinctly understood that I think 
two divisions necessary. Franklin and his di- 
vision are indispensable to me. Gen. Barnard 
concurs in this view. I have determined on the 
point of attack, and am at this moment engaged 
in fixing the position of the batteries. 

"G. B. McOlbllan, Maj.-GeneraL" 

The prompt response was as follows r 

"War Department, April 11, 1862. 
" Maj.-Gen. G. B. McClellan, Gommcmdmg Ar- 
my ofPotomaCy Fortress Monroe^ Virginia: 
"By direction of the President, Franklin's di- 
vision has been ordered to march back to Alex- 
andria and immediately embark for Fort Monroe. 
"L. Thomas, A^jutant-Q^neraT' 

Which McClellan thus acknowledged: 
" Headquarters Army op the Potomac, ) 
''Near Yorkiown, April 12—12 M. ) 
" Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War: 

" Your dispatch received. I thank you most 
sincerely for the reenforoements sent to me. 
Franklin will attack on the other side. The 
moment I hear fh}m him, I will state point of 
rendezvous. I am confident as to results now. 
"G. B. MoClellan, Mi^-GeneraL" 

All this promise ended in no performance. 
Gloucester was not attacked. Franklin's divi- 
sion was not even debarked, but lay idle more 
than a fortnight in the transports which brought 
it to the Peninsula, until Magruder saw fit to 
evacuate Yorktown. 

"March 23. •* April 19. 

•• May 7. 

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to Sdienck for assistance. Schenck 
was at Franklin, 34 miles north, 
which distance he traversed, with his 
brigade, in 23 hours, joining Milroy 
at 10 A. H. of the 8th; but he 
brought only three regiments, reduced 
by details to less than 2,000 men; 
while Milroy's force was but very 
little stronger. Jackson's column 
was considerably the larger, though 
it is stated that but six regiments were 
actually engaged in the fight. 

The Rebels advanced to and posted 
themselves on the top of a ridge in 
the Bull Pasture Mountain, where it 
is traversed by the Staunton turn- 
pike, a mile or two west of McDow- 
elL Schenck saw that Milroy's posi- 
tion was untenable, being command- 
ed by hights in several directions; 
but he could not safely abandon it in 
broad daylight, and so decided to re- 
main. Some desultory skirmishing 
and cannonading followed ; until, at 
3 p. ic, upon information that the 
Rebels were trying to plant a bat- 
tery on the mountain, where it would 
command our whole encampment, 
Schenck directed Milroy, with the 
3d Vu^nia, 25th, 32d, and 82d 
Ohio, numbering a little over 2,000 
men, to advance and feel of the ene- 
my. Led by CoL N. 0. McLean, of 
the 75th Ohio, they charged up the 
mountain with great gallantry, defy- 
ing the fire of a superior force, whose 
heads only were visible, and were 
engaged at close range for an hour 
and a half, during which an attempt 
was made to turn the Rebel right, 
hot repulsed. The %ht did not 
wholly cease till 8 p. m., when our 
men were withdrawn by order, 
bringing in their dead and wounded, 
taking 4 prisoners and reporting but 

3 missing. Our total loss in this well 
contested action was 256, including 
145 slightly wounded. Gen. Jack- 
son's report admits a loss on his part 
of 461—71 killed, including 3 Co- 
lonels and 2 Majors, and 390 wound- 
ed, among whom was Gen. Johnson. 
Our troops retreated to Franklin 
during the night, carrying off their 
wounded, but burning a part of their 

Jackson pursued next day toward 
Franklin, but did not see fit to at- 
tack. Ketuming to McDowell," he 
recrossed the Shenandoah Moimtain 
to Lebanon White Sulphur Springs ; 
where he gave his troops a brief rest, 
and then resumed*^ his march to 
Harrisonburg, having ascertained 
that Banks had fallen back to Stras- 
burg. Being joined near Newmarket 
by EwelPs division, he moved via 
Luray upon Front Royal, keeping 
his advance carefully masked by 
Ashby's cavalry, so that he swooped 
down" almost unannounced on our 
small force holding that position, 
under CoL John R. Kenly, who 
nevertheless made a spirited resist- 
ance, but was soon driven out with 
loss by the enemy's overwhelming 
numbers. Kenly, after abandoning 
the town, attempted to make a stand 
on a ridge scarcely a mile in its rear ; 
but, his force being hardly a tenth of 
that assailing him, he was soon com- 
pelled to retreat across the river, a&er 
destroying his camp and stores. He 
tried to bum the bridge over the 
North Fork of the Shenandoah, but 
the Rebels were upon him and extin- 
guished the flames. A few miles 
farther on, he was overtaken by the 
Rebel cavaby under Ashby and 
Floumoy, and a fight ensued, in 

■May 14. 

'May 17. 

•May 23. 

Digitized by 




which Col. K. was severely wounded, 
his train captured, and his command 
nearly destroyed. Fully 700 prison- 
ers, a section of rifled 10-pounders, 
and a large amount of stores, were 
among the trophies of this Kebel 
triumph. Our men fought nobly; 
but they were 900 against 8,000. 

Gen. Banks remained quiet and 
unsuspecting at Strasburg, with no 
enemy in his front, and no sign of 
danger, until the evening of the 23d, 
when he was astounded by tidings of 
Kenly's disaster, and assurances that 
the Rebels, 15,000 to 20,000 strong, 
were pressing forward to Winchester, 
directly in his rear. Shields's divi- 
sion having been sent, by order from 
"Washington, to the Rappahannock, 
he had hardly 5,000 men at hand, 
with perhaps 2,000 or 3,000 more 
scattered through the Valley in his 
rear. Jackson's force must have ex- 
ceeded 20,000 men.** Banks had, 
on the first tidings of trouble at 
Front Royal, dispatched a small 
force to the aid of Kenly ; but this 
was now recalled, and our trains sent 
forward on the road to Winchester, 
escorted by Gen. Hatch, with our 
cavalry, and 6 pieces of artillery. 
At 9 A. M." our column was in mo- 
tion, and had hardly proceeded three 
miles when it was apprised that the 
train had been attacked, and that 
the Rebels held the road at Middle- 

town — a report soon confirmed by a 
disorderly rush of fugitives and 
wagons to the rear. The column 
was thereupon reorganized, with the 
train in the rear ; and, on reaching 
Middletown, Col. D. Donnelly, com- 
manding the vanguard, encountered 
a small force of Rebels, who were 
easily repulsed and driven back on 
the road to Front Royal. Col. Brod- 
head, 1st Michigan cavalry, now took 
the advance, and soon reported the 
road clear to Winchester. Before all 
our army had passed, the Rebels ad- 
vanced on the Front Royal road in 
such force as to occupy Middletown, 
compelling our rear-guard to fall back 
to Strasburg, making a circuit thence 
to the north, whereby the 1st Ver- 
mont, Col. Tompkins, was enabled 
to rejoin Banks at Winchester in 
season for the fight of next morning ; 
while the 5th New -York, Col. De 
Forrest, made its way through the 
mountains to the Potomac, bringing 
in a train of 32 wagons and many 
stragglers. There was some fighting 
with our rear-guard at StrasbuJ^, 
and again at Newtown, eight miles 
fi-om Winchester; but our men re- 
treated with moderate loss, and our 
infantry and artillery were again 
concentrated at Winchester by mid- 
night. Here they were allowed a 
rest of two or three hours, broken at 
brief intervals by the rattle of mus- 

*• Lt-Gkn. Jackson, in his official report^ saja : 

" My command at this time embraced Ashbj's 
cavaliy; the Ist brigade, under Gen. Winder; 
the 2d brigade, Goh Campbell commanding ; 3d 
brigade, OoL Fulkerson commanding ; the troops 
recently under command of Brig.-Gen. Edward 
Johnson ; and the division of G^n. Ewell, com- 
prising the brigades of Gens. Elzey, Taylor, 
Trimble, and the Maryland Line, consisting of 
the Ist Maryland regiment and Brockenbrough's 
battery, under Brig.-Gen. Geo. H. Stewart, and 
the 2d and 6th Yirginia cavalry, under Col 

On our side, Brig.-Q«n. Gordon, in bis official 
report, says: 

" From the testimony of our signal officers, 
and from a fair estimate of the number in Rebel 
lines drawn up on the bights, from fugitives 
and deserters, the number of regiments in the 
Rebel army opposite Winchester was 28, being 
Swell's division, Jackson^s and Johnson^s forces ; 
the whole being commanded by Gen. Jackson. 
These regiments were full, and could not have 
numbered less than 22,000 men, with a corre- 
sponding proportion of artillery." 


Digitized by 




ketry, as the Rebels closed around 
them, their artillery opening at day- 

Banks had now less than 7,000 
men,** opposed to more than 20,000, 
flushed with victory, and confident 
that the day would witness the cap- 
ture or destruction of our little army. 
CoL Geo. H. Gordon commanded 
our right ; Col. Dudley Donnelly our 
left. Gen. Hatch, who had been cut 
off at Middletown, had just rejoined 
with his cavalry. Facing the enemy 
boldly, our men held their ground for 
five hours, inflicting and suffering 
eonsiderable loss; until, Jackson's 
aitire army having by this time been 
brought up, it was manifest that 
further resistance was madness, and 
eould only result in our destruction. 
Our trains being by this time well on 
the road, the order to retreat was 
given, and our line of battle, under a 
withering fire of musketry fi^om left, 
right, and center, broke into column 
of march and moved rapidly through 
Winchester, amid the deafening yells 
rftheir exulting pursuers, which were 
echoed with delirious frenzy by the 
Winchester Eebels." The 2d Massa- 
chusetts, Lt.-Col. Andrews, which, 
with the 3d Wisconsin, Col. Ruger, 
formed our rear-guard, halted, undis- 
mayed by the hideous din, in a street 
of the town, to re-form its line, and 
then resumed its rapid but steady 
march, sharply followed, but not 
seriously annoyed, by the eager foe. 
Our troops moved in three parallel 

columns, each protected by an effi- 
cient rear-guard, and reached Mar- 
tinsburg, 22 miles distant, in the 
course of the afternoon. Here a halt 
of two and a half hours was taken, to 
rest and refresh ; our rear-guard leav- 
ing that town at 7 p. m., and reaching 
the Potomac, opposite Williamsport, 
12 miles farther, in the course of the 

Gen. Geo. H. Stewart, with the 
Bebel cavalry, pursued so far as 
Martinsburg ; but Jackson halted his 
infantry not far beyond Winchester; 
though he sent a brigade, three days 
later," to Charlestown, driving out a 
small Union force which held that 
place, and pursuing it to Halltown, 
which was occupied next day by the 
main body of his army. 

Gen. Banks admits a loss, in his 
hurried retreat for 53 miles, of 38 
kQled, 155 wounded, and 711 miss- 
ing ; total, 904: ; with 55 out of 500 
wagons, and no guns. This of course 
does not include the losses by Col. 
Kenly's rout at Front Koyal, nor the 
sick and woimded left in hospitals at 
Strasburg and Winchester. We lost 
also a large amount of quartermaster 
and commissary stores, most of which 
were destroyed. Jackson admits a 
total loss, including that at Front 
Eoyal, of 68 killed and 329 wounded ; 
and claims to have captured 2 guns, 
9,354 small arms, and about 3,050 
prisoners, including 750 sick and 
wounded, whom he paroled and left 
in the hospitals when he retreated. 

•* May 25. 

"GeiL Banks's official report sajs: 
" Mj own command consisted of 2 brigades of 
leai than 4,000 men, all told, with 900 cavalry, 
10 Farrott guns, and one battery of O-pounders, 
OBooth-bore cannon. To this should be added 
^ 10th Maine regiment of infantry, and 5 com- 
panies of Maryland cavalry, stationed at Win- 
cheater, which were engaged in the action." 

•' Gen. Gordon, in his official report, says : 
" My retreating column suffered serious loss 
in the streets of Winchester : males and females 
vied with each other iu increasing the cumber of 
their victims by firing fVom the houses, throwing 
hand-grenades, hot water, and missiles of every 

Yet Winchester was not burned when we re- 
took it •* May 28. 

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Bending some 3,300 np the Valley. 
He attribntes his failure to cmfih 
Banks entirely to the misconduct of 
Ashby's cavalry, who stopped to pil- 
lage our abandoned wagons between 
Middletown and Newtown, and could 
not thereafter be brought to the fi^nt 
till too late." 

Jackson, after menacing Harper's 
Ferry,** which was held by Gen. 
Ruftis Saxton, called in his detach- 
ments and commenced a rapid re- 
treat.*^ It was high time. Gen. 
Shields, whose division had been 
detached from Banks, and marched 
over a hundred miles to join Mc- 
Dowell at Fredericksburg, to replace 
the division of Gen. Franklin — al- 
ready sent to McClellan — and enable 
McDowell to move directly on Rich- 
mond, was now ordered ** from "Wash- 
ington to postpone this movement, 
and push 20,000 men rapidly to the 
Shenandoah, along the line of the 
Manassas Gap Railroad. Gen. Fre- 
mont, who had concentrated his little 

army at Franklin, Pendleton county, 
24 miles north of Monterey, was 
likewise ordered ** by telegraph from 
Washington to hasten across the 
main range of the Alle^anies to 
Harrisonburg, hardly 50 miles dis- 
tant, and thus intercept the retreat 
of Jackson up the valley, and coop- 
erate with McDowell and Shields to 
crush hiuL 

There is a direct road from Frank- 
lin to Harrisonbui^, not absolutely 
impassable by an army, though it 
crosses four distinct ranges of steep 
mountains ; but Gen. Fremont's 
trains were at Moorefield, 40 miles 
north by east, and to attempt cross- 
ing without them was to doom his 
army to starvation, there being little 
for man or beast to eat in those wild 
mountains. He therefore decided to 
go by Moorefield, which compelled 
him to go 20 miles farther north- 
east, to Wardensville, in order to 
find a practicable route across the 
mountains. Stripping his army as 

•* Speaking of our retreat from Winchester, 
he says : 

" The Federal forces, upon falling back into the 
town, preserved their organization remarkably 
well. In passmg through its streets, however, 
they were thrown into confusion; and, shortly 
after debouching into the plain and turnpike to 
Martinsburg, and after being fired upon by our 
artillery, they presented the aspect of a mass of 
disordered ftigitives. Never have I seen an op- 
portunity when it was in the power of cavalry to 
reap a richer harvest of the fhiits of victory." 

•• May 29 " May 30. 

" QexL McDowell, in his testimony before the 
Gonunittee on the Conduct of the War, states 
that Shields's division, 11,000 strong, raising his 
entire force— not including Franklin^s division, 
already sent to McClellan — ^to 41,000 men, joined 
him at or near Fredericksburg either on the 22d 
or 23d of May, but in want of artillery anununi- 
tion: that which they had having just been con- 
demned at Catlett's Station, and the new supply 
ordered from the Washington arsenal having got 
aground on the flats of the Potomac and thus 
been delayed. On Saturday, the 24th, the Presi- 
dent and Secretary of War came down to^confer 

with him, and found him not yet ready for the 
contemplated advance on Richmond, but that he 
would be that afternoon, and that Shields's di> 
vision could go on Sunday. He [McDowell] 
added, that he had once before moved on Sunday 
— alluding to the battle of Bull Run — and had 
been very much condemned for it all over the 
country, but that he was ready to do so again. 
The President therefore suggested that he might 
get a "good ready," and start on Monday, whicli 
was agreed on. Messrs. Lincoln and Stanton 
returned to Washington that night, and "had 
hardly left; before a telegram came announcing 
this raid of Jackson up [down] the Shenandoah 
Valley." This was soon followed by an order 
to send a division up after Jackson. McDowell 
adds: "I did so, although I replied that it was 
a crushing blow to us alL" The President or- 
dered another brigade to move up there, and 
then another brigade, and then another regi- 
ment. Two divisions were thus sent before 
McDowell, whose heart was set on the Rkli* 
mond movement, followed himself. 

' May 24. 

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naked as possible, lie left Franklin 
next morning," the soldiers discard- 
ing even their knapsacks, but taking 
five days' rations of hard bread ; and 
thns, through constant rain, and over 
monntain roads that could be made 
barelj passable, he crossed the Al- 
leghanies and descended into the 
VaDey, reaching and occupying Stras- 
bnig on the evening of June 1st, just 
in time to be too late to head Jack- 
son, who had retreated through that 
place a few hours before. Next 
morning, Gen* Bayard," with the 
cavalry advance of Shields's division, 
reached that point. 

Shields, however, pushed up the 
South Fork of the Shenandoah, on 
the other side of Massanutten Moim- 
tain, expecting to head Jackson at 
some point farther south ; while Fre- 
mont followed him directly down the 
North Fork, by Woodstock and 
Mount Jackson, to Harrisonburg. 
The advance of each was greatly em- 
barrassed by the many streams which 
make their way dovm from the moun- 
tains into either branch of the She- 
nandoah, and which were now swollen 
to raging torrents by the incessant 
rains ; Jackson of course burning or 
breaking down the bridges as he 
passed them, and sending cavalry 
across to destroy the more important 

of those in front of Shields, 
through Harrisonburg," Jackson di- 
verged from the great road leading 
southwardly to Staunton, moving 
south-easterly, with intent to cross 
the South Fork at Port Republic. 
His rear was bravely and ably pro- 
tected by the 2d and 6th Virginia 
cavalry. Gen. Turner Ashby, who 
that day repulsed a spirited charge 
of our cavalry in advance, capturing 
Col. Percy Wyndham and 63 men. 
Being still sharply pressed, Ashby 
called for an infantry support ; when 
the brigade of Gen. Geo. H. Stewart 
was promptly ordered up, and was 
soon hotly engaged with the Penn- 
sylvania Bucktails, whose comman- 
der, Lt.-CoL Kane, was wounded and 
taken prisoner. The Eebel loss in 
this affair was numerically less than 
ours, being but 20 killed and 60 
wounded ; but among the killed was 
Ashby liimself, whose loss was at 
least equal to that of a regiment. 
Always fighting at the head of his 
men, with the most reckless self-ex- 
posure, his fate was merely a ques- 
tion of time. For outpost and skir- 
mishing service, he left no equal 
behind him in either army. 

Being now within a few miles of 
Port Republic, where his trains and 
artillery must be taken over a 

"May 25. 

'* Gen. McDowen, in his testimonj aforesaid, 
Gen. Ord, commanding one of his divi- 
, for lack of energy in pushing it on from 
Froot Royal to Strasburg, and adds, that he sent 
forward Geo. Shields from Front Royal with 
express orders "to go on the direct road to 
StiBsburg, and not cross the North Fork of the 
fih ena D do ah until near that place.'* He adds : 

" After some time in getting Ord's, or rather 
Bieketts's, division together, I started out to the 
front I met one of Gen. Shields's aids^e- 
camp coming in from Front Royal, and asked him 
bow &r out bo had met G«l Shields. He said 

he had not met him at alL I told him he had 
started to go out, and he said he must have lost 
his way. Without stopping to see what had 
become of him, I took Bayard's cavalry brigade, 
the only one ready to move, and sent it forward 
by the direct road to Strasburg. I then went 
to see where Gen. Shields was, and found him 
over on the road toward Windiester. He had 
sent his troops on that road, instead of on the 
one I had ordered him to send them on. He 
said that he had received information from his 
aid-de-camp that Jackson had fallen back, and 
he had sent his troops this way. When I got 
up there, they were coming in. Well, it was 
too late to get ahead of Jackson then." 

'" Jime 5. 

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wooden bridge across the larger of 
the two Btreams into which the south 
branch again forks at this place, and 
over the other and smaller branch 
by a ford, Jackson was obliged to 
turn and fight in order to gain time. 
Accordingly, Maj.-Gten. Ewell, with 
the rear division of his army, halted " 
near Union Church, and took up a 
strong position along a ridge which 
here crosses the road, with his flanks 
well protected by timber. He had 
but 5,000 men directly in hand; but 
the residue of Jackson's army was 
between him and Port Eepublic, 4 
or 5 miles distant, ready to be sent 
up as required. 

Fremont pushed out of Harrison- 
burg at 6 o'clock next morning,'* and 
before 9 his advance was engaged 
near a little hamlet known as Cboss- 
Keys, some seven miles on. Ewell's 
three brigades, under Trimble, Elzey, 
and Stewart, ranged from right to 
left, with his artillery in the center. 
Oen. Dick Taylor, with a Louisiana, 
and Col. Patton, with a Virginia 
brigade, came to his aid when 

Oten. Fremont's order of battle, a 
mile and a half long, was formed 
with the 82d, 55th, 73d, 75th, and 
82d Ohio, under Brig.-Gen. Schenck, 
on the right, and the 2d, 3d, and 5th 
Virginia, with the 26th Ohio, under 
Oren. Milroy, in the center, with the 
8th, 41st, and 45th New York, and 
27th Pennsylvania, and what were 
left of the Bucktails, under Gen. 
Stahl, on the left, supported by Gen. 
Bohlen's brigade ; while the remain- 
der of Blenker's division was held in 
reserve. Col. Cluseret, with the 60th 
Ohio, 8th Virginia, and Garibaldi 
Guards, had held the advance 

through the morning, but had now 
fallen in between Schenck and Mil- 
roy. Thus formed, our army ad- 
vanced steadily and auccessfully, un- 
der a storm of shot and shell, losing 
heavily in men, but constantly gain- 
ing groimd, until after 3 o'clock; 
when Stahl's brigade, having passed 
through the wood in its front to a 
clover-field, which gradually ascend- 
ed to another wood filled with Bebele 
beyond, encountered a murderous 
fire, by which its ranks were fear- 
frdly thinned and its progress arrest- 
ed. Two of Bohlen's regiments were 
ordered up to its support ; but, before 
they could arrive, the brigade had re- 
coiled; understanding, it was said, 
that they were to give place to 
Bohlen's men, instead of being sus- 
tained by them. Up to this moment, 
Schenck, on our right, had been mak- 
ing slow but steady progress ; but he 
now halted by order, and finally re- 
ceded for a mile, finding that Milroy 
had moved toward the left, and that 
he must follow or be isolated. Two 
hours later, the Bebels cannonaded 
him in his new position, but were 
easily and quickly driven off by his 

Our total loss in this indecisive 
action was 664, two-thirds of it in 
Stahl's brigade ; and our troops slept 
on the battle-field, expecting to re- 
new the fight next morning. Gen. 
Ewell's report admits a total loss on 
their side of 329 ; but among their 
severely wounded were G^ns. Elzey 
and Stewart. During the night, 
Ewell silently moved off, carrying 
away all but his mortally wounded, 

Jackson had turned aside from his 
direct line of retreat, because he 
found that, with an army nearly or 

"June 7. 

'* June 8. 

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quite equal to his own pressing close- 
ly on his rear, lie must sometimes 
turn and fight, and thus permit the 
other hostile army, advancing on his 
flank, to gain on him. He was at 
Port Eepublic during the conflict at 
Crosft-Keys, preparing to cross, and 
watching for Shields, whose column, 
though delayed by burnt bridges and 
swollen streams, had reached Con- 
rad's Store, only 15 miles distant, 
and whose advance of cavalry and 
artillery, imder Col. Carroll, appear- 
ed that day." 

Carroll had been told that Jack- 
son's train was parked near Port Re- 
public, with a drove of beef cattle ; 
the whole guarded by some 200 or 
300 cavalry ; and he dashM into the 
village with his troopers and two 
guns, expecting to cross the bridge 
and make an easy capture of the 
aforesaid train and cattle. Had he 
comprehended the situation, he might 
have burned the bridge, and thereby 
exposed the enemy to serious loss, if 
not utter destruction. But Jackson 
was already there, with 2 infantry 
brigades and 3 batteries ; by the fire 
of which Carroll was driven out in 
20 minutes, falling back two miles 
and a half, upon Gen. Tyler's brig- 
ade of infentry, 2,000 strong. 

Tyler, who, on hearing of trouble 
ahead, had been rapidly hurrying to 
the rescue, ought now to have re- 
treated also ; instead of which, he 
sent his men to bivouac, and went 
forward with Carroll to reconnoiter. 
His vedettes, at i a. m.,'* reported 
that there had been no advance of 
the enemy across the bridge during 
the night, and that only their pickets 
were visible. Returning to his camp, 

Tyler received and replied to a 
dispatch from Shields; but, before 
finishing his answer, he was apprised 
that the Rebels were in his front, 
endeavoring to outflank his left. 

The struggle that ensued was short : 
the Rebel attack being resisted with 
great gaDantry by our men ; but they 
were 3,000 at most, while their as- 
sailants were 8,000, with more be- 
hind them. We were even success- 
ftd at first over "Winder on our right ; 
but to no purpose, since the odds 
against us were constantly increas- 
ing; and, at length, Dick Taylor's 
Louisiana brigade, which had fianked 
our left by an unobserved advance 
through the forest, made so sudden 
and overwhelming a dash at Col. 
Candy's battery on our left, that it 
was captured ; its horses having been 
killed or disabled. Exasperated ra- 
ther than dismayed by this loss, Col. 
Candy, with the 6th and 7th Ohio, 
made a spirited counter-charge, and 
retook his battery ; but was unable, 
for lack of horses, to bring it off," 
though he drove back the Rebel in- 
fantry and artiUery, and actually 
captured one of their guns, which, 
with 67 prisoners, was brought oflT 
in our retreat, which was admirably 
covered by Col. Carroll. The Rebels 
pnrsued about 5 miles, capturing 450 
prisoners and about 800 muskets. 
Disastrous as was its result, there is 
no battle whereof the soldiers of the 
Union have more reason to be proud 
than that of Port Republic. 

Fremont awoke that morning to 
find his enemy vanished, and to fol- 
low on his track to Port Republic ; 
arriving just in time to find the last 
Rebel safely across the river and the 

"Junes. "Junes. 

"" Jaduon'a official report says : *' Three times 

was this battery lost and won, in the desperate 
and determined efforts to capture and recover it" 

Digitized by 





bridge in flames. Some of Jackson's 
officers had been obliged to abandon 
their horses in order to make good 
their escape. 

Gen. Jackson makes his total loss 
these engagements, 133 killed, 
wounded, and 34 missing — in 
all, 1,096 ; or, since he left Winches- 
ter, 1,167, with 1 gun ; while he had 
captured, including wounded in hos- 
pital, 976 men and 7 guns. Con- 
sidering the perils he braved, and 
the odds which ought to have been, 
but were not, brought to bear against 
him, his campaign was one of the 
most brilliant of the war, and stamps 
him a true military genius.^* 

Both Fremont and Shields, being 
recalled by orders from Washington, 
here relinquished the pursuit and 
slowly retired; while Jackson, master 
of the situation, recrossed the South 
Fork on the 12th, and encamped at 
Weyer's Cave ; whence he was sum- 

moned on the 17th, with the bulk of 
his army, to Bichmond. 

On the same day" with JackBon'g 
demolition of Kenly at Front Royal, 
Gen. Heth, with 3 regiments of Vir- 
ginia Rebels, attacked at Lewisburg, 
in West Virginia, the 36th and 44th 
Ohio, Col. Geo. Crook, by whom he 
was quickly routed, though Heth 
seems to have had decidedly the ad- 
vantage in numbers. Before our a^ 
tillery could be brought into position, 
the Rebels were broken and flying, 
with a loss of 4 guns, 300 muskets, 
and 100 prisoners. Our loss was 11 
killed and 52 wounded, including 
Col. Crook in the foot. The Rebel 
loss is stated at 60 killed and 75 
wounded, part of whom were doub^ 
less included in the prisoners. Heth 
burnt the bridge over the Green- 
brier, three miles distant, and thus 
arrested the pursuit. 


The capture of Norfolk and the 
destruction of the Merrimac, alias 
Virginia, having opened James river 
to our navy. Commander John Rodg- 
ers, in the steamer Galena, backed by 
the Monitor, Aroostook, Port Royal, 
and Naugatuck, moved up that river 
unimpeded, save by the shallows on 
which they repeatedly grounded, to 
within eight miles of Richmond, 

where he found* the channel thor- 
oughly obstructed by two separate 
barriers of piles and vessels, the banks 
lined with sharp-shooters in rifle-pits, 
and a battery of heavy guns mounted 
on Drewry's Bluff^,' 200 feet above 
the surface of the water. The river 
was here so narrow as to compel him 
to come to anchor; which he did very 
near the lower barrier, and within 

^" Confidetitial letters, unpublished, from Lee 
and Jackson to Johnson iand Ewell, show that 
the movement was suggested, and in fact direct- 
ed, from Richmond: Jackson and Ewell being 
ordered to combine their forces and strike a 
blow at Banks or at McDowell, as circumstances 
should render advisable. The detachment of 

Shields from Banks, and sending the former to 
McDowell at Fredericksburg, in order to enable 
the latter to advance to the aid of McCleUan be- 
fore Richmond, determined the direction of Uie 

'• May 23. » May 16—7 a. m. 

* Called * Fort Darling' in some of our reports. 

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600 yards of the Kebel guns. He at 
once opened fire on the battery, and 
maintained a moet unequal contest 
for Si hours ; when, having exhaust- 
ed his ammunition, he desisted and 
fell down the river. The Galena had 
13 men killed and 11 wounded ; the 
Ifaueatuck 2, and the Port Eoyal 1 
wounded. The bursting of a 100- 
pound Parrott on the Naugatuck 
threatened a more serious disaster. 
Gapt. Farrand, commanding the 
Bebel battery, reports his loss at 7 
killed and 8 wounded. 

The first collision on the Chicka- 
hominy between the advance of Gen. 
McClellan's army and the Rebels oc- 
curred 'near New Bridge; where the 
44h Michigan, Col. Woodbury, waded 
the stream and assailed and drove 
off a superior Kebel force, losing but 
8 men in all, and taking 37 prisoners, 
of whom 15 were wounded. 

Directly afterward, Q«n. Fitz-John 
Porter, commanding the 5th corps, 
on our right, was ordered by Gen. 
McClellan to advance fi-om New 
Bridge, via Mechanicsville, to Hano- 
ver Court House, in order to facili- 
tate and render secure Gen. McDow- 
ell^s expected junction from Freder- 
icksburg. String at 3 A. h.,^ in a 
pouring rain, our cavalry advance, 
under Gen. W. H. Emory, had 
reached at noon a point two miles 
southward of the Court House, where 
the road forks to Ashland, and where 
the enemy were found in position to 
bar our farther progress. The 25th 
New York aud Berdan's sharp-shoot- 
ers speedily coming up, they were 
deployed by Gen. Emory, with a 
Beetion of Benson's battery, and thus 
advanced slowly toward the enemy 

until reenforced by Gen. D. C. But- 
terfield, with four regiments of his 
brigade, when the enemy was charged 
and quickly routed ; one of his guns 
being captured by Col. Lansing's 
17th New York. The cavalry, Ben- 
son's battery, and Gen. Morell's in- 
fantry and artillery, keenly pursued 
the fugitives ; while Martindale's bri- 
gade, with 'a section of artillery, ad- 
vanced on the Ashland road, push- 
ing back the enemy in his fi"ont, 
until ordered to reform his brigade 
and move up the railroad to the 
Court House. One regiment having 
taken that course, Gen. Martindale 
was left with but two and a half 
regiments and one section of Mar- 
tin's battery, when he was attacked 
by a superior force and compelled to 
maintain the unequal contest for an 

Meantime, Gen. Porter, at the 
Court House, learning that his rear 
was thus attacked, faced his whole 
column about and moved rapidly to 
the rescue, sending the 13th and 14th 
New York, with GriflSn's battery, di- 
rectly to Martindale's assistance,push- 
ing the 9th Massachusetts and 62d 
Pennsylvania through the woods on 
the right (west) to take the enemy 
in fiank ; while Butterfield, with the 
83d Pennsylvania and 16th Michi- 
gan, hastened through the woods still 
farther to the right, and completed 
the rout of the enemy. The 13th 
New York, of CoL G. K. Warren's 
brigade, which, having been delayed 
repairing bridges, had not hitherto 
been in action, now came up on our 
left ; and, the odds being too palpa- 
ble, the Confederates made a rapid 
retreat. Their loss is stated by Gen. 
McClellan at some 200 killed, Y30 

'May 24. 

-May 27 

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prisoners, including wounded, one 
12-pound howitzer, many small arms, 
two raiboad trains, and their camp 
at Hanover Court House captured 
and destroyed. "We lost 53 killed 
and 844 wounded. The Rebel force 
thus defeated consisted of Gen. L. 
O'B. Branch's division of North Caro- 
lina and Gteorgia troops, supposed by 
Gen. McClellan to be 9,000 strong. 

The Chickahominy, opposite Rich- 
mond, 20 to 30 miles from its mouth, 
is a sluggish, oozy mill-stream, three 
to four rods wide, often fordable, but 
traversing a swampy, miry bottom, 
generally wooded, half a mile to a 
mile wide, bordered by low, irregular 
blufis. All the bridges by which it 
was previously crossed were of course 
destroyed in their retreat by the Reb- 
els ; but Brig.-Gen. H. M. Naglee, of 
Casey's division, Keyes's (4th) corps, 
leading our advance on the left, 
crossed it near Bottom's Bridge* 
without diflSculty, wholly unopposed ; 
followed by the rest of the corps 
three days later, the bridge having 
meantime been rebuilt. During the 
three following days,' Naglee made a 
spirited reconnoissance toward Rich- 
mond, and to within two miles of the 
James, on our left ; Couch's division 
took up,* by order, a position some 
miles in advance, at a place known 
as the Seven Pines, on the direct 
road from Bottom's Bridge to Rich- 
mond; which he proceeded hastily 
to fortify with abatis, rifle-pits, etc., 
and by building and arming a small 
redoubt. Meantime, the remaining 
division (Casey's) of Keyes's corps 
was advanced to and encamped 
about the station known as Fair 
Oaks, on the Richmond and York 

River Railroad, to the right and 
rather in advance of Couch's posi- 
tion. Heintzelman's (3d) corps had 
crossed aft«r Keyes's, and been sta- 
tioned in his rear, but rather to the 
left, so as to observe the roads de- 
bouching on that side from White 
Oak Swamp, whereby we migjit be 
unexpectedly assailed in flank. Sum- 
ner's corps was still north of the 
Chickahominy, some miles higher up, 
ready to cross at command. Gen. 
McClellan was with Fitz-John Por- 
ter's and Franklin's corps, at and 
near New Bridge, nearly 10 miles 
above Bottom's Bridge. Heintzel- 
man, as senior Major-General, was in 
command on the left until Sunmer 

The enemy being seen in force 
barely a mile from our front, Casey's 
pickets were posted some half a mile 
in advance of his line. It rained 
heavily throughout the night of May 
30, swelling the Chickahominy to an 
extraordinary height, flooding its 
miry bottom, and setting afloat seve- 
ral of our new-made bridges. G^n. 
Jo. Johnston, who commanded the 
Rebel army, saw his opportunity, 
and resolved to profit by it. The 
roads of all that region center on 
Richmond, radiating thence like the 
folds of a fan, and affording a con- 
siderable advantage in manoeuvering 
to the combatant who holds the city. 
Informed by his scouts of the num- 
bers tod isolated position of Keyes's 
corps, Johnston resolved to assail 
and crush it before it could be ade- 
quately reenforced. To this end, he 
directed Maj.-Gen. Longstreet, with 
his own and Gen. D. H. Hill's divi- 
sion, the latter in advance, to pnsh 
out by the Williamsburg road and 

• May 20. 

• May 24, 25, 26. 

' May 28. 

Digitized by 




attack OUT positioii in fix)nt, while 
Gen. HiigePs, on his right, was to 
move down the Charles City road 
and come in on our left flank ; and 
Gen* Gnstavus W. Smith was to 
move out on the New Bridge road to 
Old Tavern, taking thence the Nine- 
mile road to Fair Oaks Station, and 

so come in on our right. The entire 
Rebel army defending Richmond — 
some 40,000 to 50,000 strong— was 
either engaged in or supporting this 
movement, with Jefferson Davis, 
Gen. Lee, and other magnates, ob- 
serving, directing, animating, and 
giving counsel. 

r. O^ ^^ Q^^T. CASEY'S^ 
., W/ CO c cO PECK'S 6WC 

■ 'V,\" 


The attacking columns were to 
move at day-break ;• but the tremen- 
dous ndns (rf the preceding afternoon 
and night had so flooded the earth 
as to render the moving of artillery 
exceedmgly difficult; the infantry 
oftcai wading through mud and water 
two or three feet deep. Huger's 
flank movement had not yet culmi- 

nated, when Hill, who had for some 
time waited impatiently in our im- 
mediate front, gave, at 1 p. h., the 
signal to his division to advance and 

Casey's division was surprised as 
well as largely outnumbered. Hav- 
ing been scarcely two days in this 
position, their defensive works were 

•May 31. 

Digitized by 




not of much account ; and even their 
commander did not consider the mat- 
ter serious until a vedette reported 
the enemy advancing in force, about 
the same moment that two shells 
came hissing over their heads ; when, 
dropping the axes and spades where- 
with they were felling trees for abatis 
and digging rifle-pits, our soldiers at 
the front hurriedly stood to their 
arms as our pickets came running 

Gen. Casey promptly sent forward 
Spratt's battery of 4 3-inch rifled 
guns to a position in front of his 
rifle-pits, and ordered up Gen. 
Naglee's infantry brigade, consisting 
of the 56th and 100th New York, 
11th Maine, and 104th Pennsylvania, 
to its support ; while he disposed his 
7 remaining regiments and 3 bat- 
teries on either side of a small re- 
doubt, which he had hastily con- 
structed, expecting to hold his ground 
until the arrival of reenforcements ; 
and ordered his artillery to open on 
the advancing enemy. 

But the odds were too great. The 
three brigades of Rhodes, Garland, 
and Anderson, were immediately in 
his front ; while that of Rains, by 
a flank movement, was coming in on 
his left. The 104th Pennsylvania, 
which he had sent forward to the 
support of his pickets, came rushing 
back in confusion, and went to the 
rear in disorder, having lost heavily 
by the Rebel fire ; and, though mus- 
ketry and artillery were doing fear- 
ful execution on either side, it was 
plain that we must soon be over- 

Seeing that the enemy were closing 
in on him on both wings, Q^n. Casey 
ordered Gen. Naglee, with what re- 
mained of his brigade, to charge bay- 

onets and drive them back; which 
was done, but under a musketry fire 
that mowed down our men by hun- 
dreds. Here fell Col. James M. 
Brown, of the 100th New York, and 
Col. Davis, of the 104th Pennsylva- 
nia, whose Major also was mortally 
wounded; and, our flanks being 
again enveloped. Rains having gained 
the rear of our redoubt, and firing 
thence on the flank of our infantry, 
Casey's division was driven back in 
disorderly retreat upon Couch, with 
the loss of 6 guns. CoL G. D. Bailey, 
Major Van Valkenburg, and Adjt. 
Ramsey, of the 1st New York artil- 
lery, were killed, while endeavoring 
to save the guns in the redoubt; 
which were the next moment seized 
by Rhodes, and turned upon our fly- 
ing columns. To the credit of tlds 
shattered division be it recorded, that, 
under a fearftd enfilading fire from 
Rains, in addition to that thundered 
on their rear from Rhodes, they 
brought off three-fourths of our guns. 
The storm of battle now fell upon 
the 93d Pennsylvania, Col. McCarter, 
65th New York, Lt.-Col. Thourot, 
23d Pennsylvania, Col. Neill, and 
61st, Col. Rippey, of Couch's divi- 
sion, who were sent forward by 
Keyes to the relief of Casey, on the 
•right, where they fought gallantly 
and lost heavily. The 7th Massa- 
chusetts, Col. Russell, and 62d New 
York, Col. J. L. Riker, were after- 
ward sent to reenforce them; but 
were pressed back upon Fair Oaks 
by the enemy's overpowering ad- 
vance, and there, uniting with the 
1st XJ. S. Chasseurs, Col. John Coch- 
rane, and Slst Pennsylvania, Col. 
Williams, held their ground until 
the advance of Gen. Sumner's corps, 
which had with great difficulty made 

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its waj across the swollen Chicka- 
hominy, checked the Kebel advance 
in that direction. 

Brig.-Gen. Peck, who held the left 
of Couch's position, had been divested 
of m(»t of his regiments aforesaid, 
which WQre successively ordered up 
to the front by Couch or Keyes, 
until, at 4 J p.m., he led the 102d 
Pennsylvania, Col. Rowley, and 93d, 
Col. McCarter, to the aid of our 
crumbling right, and was for half an 
hour sharply engaged with the tri- 
umphant enemy near Seven Pines, 
losing some ground, but encamping 
very near his field of conflict. 

Heintzelman was promptly sum- 
moned to the aid of Couch ; but there 
was an unaccounted-for delay in the 
reception of the message, and some 
of his regiments did not rush to 
the front quite so impetuously as a 
good portion of Couch's, especially 
the 55th ISew York (De Trobriand's 
Frenchmen), made tracks for the 
rear. It was a quarter past 3 o'clock 
before Heintzelman came fairly into 
the fight; Jamison's Maine and 
Berry's Michigan brigades eagerly 
poshing to the front. 

On the- Eebel left, Gen. Smith's 
attack was delayed by Johnston, 
who was there in person, until 4 
P. IL, listening for the sound of Long- 
street's musketry, which, for some 
atmospheric reason, he failed to hear. 
It was now too late for complete suc- 
cess, though his men fought desper- 
ately. The Eichmond and York 
Eiver Eailroad, near its crossing of 
the Nine-mile road, runs for a con- 
siderable distance on an embank- 
ment 4 or 6 feet high, forming an 
effective breastwork, behind which 
our men held stubbornly and fought 

VOL. II. — 10 • 

Gen. Abercrombie, with five regi- 
ments, was at Fair Oaks (the cross- 
ing aforesaid), instructed to hold the 
position at all hazards. Here fell 
Gen. C. Devens, severely wounded ; 
while of the 61st Pennsylvania, Col. 
Rippey, Lt..-Col. Spear, and Maj, 
Smith fell dead, and 27 of the line 
officers were either killed or wound- 
ed ; and near this pointy at sunset. 
Gen. Jo. Johnston, the Eebel Com- 
mander-in-chief, was struck in the 
side by a shell and badly wounded, 
breaking two riba in falling from his 
horse, so that he was disabled for 
service for several months. Gen» G. 
"W". Smith succeeded him in com- 
mand ; but he was very soon disabled 
by a paralytic stroke, and removed 
from th^ field. One of the last Eebel 
charges on this part of the field was 
led by Jefferson Davis in person. 

Hearing vaguely of trouble on the 
left, McClellan, still at New Bridge, 
had ordered Sumner, who had Sedg- 
wick's and Eichardson's divisions, to 
cross to the relief of Couch; and 
Sedgwick, with the advance, reached 
the field on our right an hour and a 
half before sunset, just as the trium- 
phant Eebels had turned Couch's 
left, interposing between him and 
Heintzelman (who, in coming up, 
had swayed to the right), with in- 
tent to sever and defeat our two corps 
on the south of the Chickahominy. 
But Sedgwick, advancing rapidly, 
interposed at the critical moment, 
and, forming in line of battle in the 
edge of a wood, with a large open 
field in his front, commenced a fire 
of canister from his 24 guns on the 
head of the enemy's advancing 
column, which staggered it; and 
then, moving forward his whole divi- 
sion in line of battle, he completely 

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swept the field, recovering much of 
the ground that had been lost. At 
nightfall, Eichardson's division, hav- 
ing also crossed over, came up on the 
left of Sedgwick, connecting with 
Bimey's brigade of Heintzelman's 
corps on his left; thus making all 
secure in that quarter. 

At 6 p. M., Abercrombie, farther 
to our right, still desperately fight- 
ing, had been compelled to give 
ground, and seemed about to be en- 
veloped by an overwhelming force ; 
when the long-expected succor ar- 
rived. Gorman's brigade, leading 
Sedgwick's division, deployed into 
line of battle along the crest of a hill 
in the rear of Fair Oaks, and ad- 
vanced down a gentle slope to the 
field where Col. Cochrane's U. S. 
Chasseurs and Neill's 23d Pennsyl- 
vania were fighting against heavy 
odds. At this moment, a furious 
enfilading fire of musketry was re- 
ceived on our right, indicating an 
effort to turn us on that fiank, and 
repeat the sharp lesson of Casey's 
disaster. Gen. Sedgwick instantly 
directed Gen. Bums to deploy the 
69th and 72d Pennsylvania to the 
right, himself holding the 71st and 
106th in support of Gorman. The 
Eebels attacked with great fury, 
stampeding two or three battery 
teams, so that for a moment our lines 

seemed to waver ; but Bnms's calm, 
ftdl-voiced order, "Steady, men, 
steady !" evoked a thundering cheer, 
followed by volley aft;er volley of 
musketry, under which the enemy 
advanced steadily, and were charg- 
ing Kirby's battery, when he poured 
into their close ranks a murderous 
fire of canister, which sent them 
rapidly to the woods in their rear. 

Meanwhile, Dana's brigade had 
come into line on Gorman's left, and 
the Eebels renewed, as darkness fell, 
their attempt to outfiank our right, 
extending their left farther and 
farther ; but in vain. Gens. Sumner, 
Sedgwick, Dana, whose horse was 
killed under him, Bums, and Gor- 
man, each exerted himself to the 
utmost to animate and en<9urage 
their men. Dana's wing was grad- 
ually advanced as the Rebels ex- 
tended their left, and the battle 
swayed more and more to our right, 
until our line was nearly at right 
angles with that on which we had 
been fighting two hours before. And 
thus the fight raged on until after 8 
o'clock; when lie Rebels desisted 
and fell back, leaving us in undis- 
puted possession of the ground 
whereon the final stru^le was made.* 

Sumner's heavier artillery had been 
left stalled in the swamps of the 
Chickahominy, as his infentry hur- 

*Geii. McOleUan, in his elaborate report ou 
this campaign, after relating G^n. Sumner*8 
arrival on the battle-field, with Sedgwick's divi- 
sion, says: 

'* The leading regiment (Ist Minnesota, CoL 
Sully) was immediately deployed to the right of 
Ck)uch to protect the flank, and the rest of the 
division formed in line of battle ; Kirby's battery 
near the center, in an angle of the woods. One 
of Gen. Couch's regiments was sent to open 
communication with Oen. Hemtzelman. No 
sooner were these dispositions made, than the 
enemy came on in strong force, and opened a 
heavy fire along the line. He made several 
charges, but was repulsed with great loss, by 

the steady fire of the infantry and the splendid 
practice of the battery. After sustaining the 
enemy's fire for a considerable time, Gen. Sum- 
ner ordered five regiments (the 34th New Yoric, 
CoL Smith, 82d New York, Lt-CoL Hudson, 
15th Massachusetts, Lt.-Col. Kimball, 20th Mas- 
sachusetts, Col. Lee, 1th Michigan, M^j. Rich- 
ardson, the three former of Gren. Gorman's bri- 
gade, the two latter of Gen. Dana's brigade) to 
advance and charge with bayonet This charge 
was executed in the most brilliant manner. Our 
troops, springing over two fences which were 
between them and the enemy, rushed upon his 
lines, and drove him in oonfiision from that part 
of the field. Darkness now ended the battle for 

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ried forward to the battle. It was 
extricated during the night, brought 
forward, and properly posted by 
morning ; when Qen, McClellan also 
had arrived ; but, alas ! without the 
corps of Fitz-John Porter and Frank- 
lin, which, could they but have come 
np on the New Bridge road during 
the night, might have converted 
Casey's demolition into a Rebel over- 
throw. It does not appear that even 

an attempt was made to bring them 

In the morning," McClellan await- 
ed an attack, which he says was made 
at 6 A. M., on the left of Sumner's 
corps, by Gen. Pickett, supported by 
Qen. Roger A. Pryor's brigade of 
Huger's division ; to which French's 
brigade, on our side, stood opposed- 
The fight between them was noisy, 
but not very bloody: due caution and 

" Gen. McClellaD, in his report, states that the 
stfll rising Chickahominy floated the log-way 
approaches to Gen. Sumner's brigade, after that 
officer had crossed his corps, so as to render 
them impassable; hence he [McClellan] was 
obliged to send his horse around by Bottom's 
Bridge, six miles below, in returning to his 
headquarters. He adds : 

The approaches to New and Mechantcsville 
bridges were also overflowed, and both of them 
were enfiladed by the enemy's batteries estab- 
lished opon commanding hights on the oppo- 
site side. These batteries were supported by 
strong forces of the enemy, having numerous 
rifle-ptts in their front, which would have made 
ttnecessaryf even had the approaches been in 
the best possible condition, to have fought a san- 
guinary battle, with but little prospect of suc- 
cess, before a passage could have been secured. 

"The only available means, therefore, of 
unitmg our forces at Fair Oaks, for an advance 
on Richmond soon after the battle, was to march 
the troops from Mechanicsville, and other points 
CO the left bank of the Chickahominy, down to 
Bottom's Bridge, and thence over the Williaras- 
borg road to the position near Fair Oaks, a dis- 
tance of about twenty-three (23) miles. In the 
condition of the roads at that time, this march 
could not have been made with artillery in less 
than two days ; by which time the enemy would 
hare been secure within his intrenchmonts 
around Richmond." 

It is hard for non-military readers to appre- 
ciate juimiringly the Generalship which con- 
fessedly exposes one wing of an army for two 
days to the entire force of its adversary, with- 
out assistance in any form fVom the other. If 
there be any military reason why Gen. McClel- 
lan should have thrown two corps across the 
Chickahominy on his left, within a few miles of 
R ir hm o nd , withoot simultaneously, or for five 
^ays thereafter, pushing over his right also, and 
■esiing the commanding hights which were en- 
filaded by the enemy's batteries, no indications 
<^ theia appear in his report; which, with ro- 
ferenoe to following up our advantage of the 1st, 
Mttvehr «ays: 

" An advance involving the separation of the 
two wings by the impassable Chickahominy 
would have exposed eadi to defeat in detaiL" 

That Gen. McClellan greatly over-estimated the 
strength of the Rebel batteries and their sup- 
ports opposite Fitz-John Porter and Franklin, 
and the difficulty of crossing there, is made plain 
by his dispatch, four days later, to the War De- 
partment, as follows : 

" Headquarters Abitt op thb Potomac, ) 
'' New Bridge, Jan« 5, 1862. \ 

" Rained most of the night; has now ceaseo, 
but is not clear. The river still very high and 
troublesome. Enemy opened with several bat- 
teries on our bridges near here this morning ; 
our batteries seem to have pretty much si- 
lenced them, though some firing still kept up. 
The rain forces us to remain in €tatu quo. With 
great difficulty, a division of infantry has been 
crossed this morning to support the troops on 
the other side, should the enemy renew attack. 
I felt obliged to do this, although it leaves us 
rather weak here. G. B. MoClbllak, 

*^ Major- General Commanding, 

" Hon. R M. Stanton, Secretary of War^ 

Gen. J. G. Barnard, chief engineer, in his re- 
port of the campaign, says : 

"The repulse of the Rebels at Fair Oaks 
should have been taken advantage of. It was 
one of those occasions which, if not seized, do 
not repeat themselves. We now Amow the state 
of disorganization and dismay in which the 
Rebel army retreated. We now know that it 
could have been followed into Richmond. Had 
it been so, there would have been no resistance 
to overcome to bring over our right wing. Al- 
though we did not then know all that we now 
do, it was obvious at that time that, when the 
Rebels struck the blow at our left wing, they 
did not leave any means in their hands unused 
to secure success. It was obvious enough that 
they struck with their whole force ; and yet we 
repulsed them in disorder with three-fifths of 
ours. We should have followed them up at tlie 
same .time that we brought over the other two- 

" June 1. 

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difitance being maintained on either 
Bide. Mahone's brigade was brought 
up to the aid of Pryor, and Howard's 
to that of French ; and finally 
Meagher's Irish regiments went to 
the front, and a desultory conflict was 
maintained for some two or three 
hours, during which Gen. Howard 
lost liis arm and had two of his staff 
wounded. The Rebels at length 
desisted, and retreated unpursued. 
Their reports assert that they made 
no attack, ])\it only repelled one. 

The Rebels remained through the 
day in quiet possession of Couch's 
and Casey's camps, sending off mus- 
kets, tents, and camp equipage to 
Richmond ; following themselves 
after nightfall. Johnston says that 
Smith did not renew his attack on 
our right, because of his discovery of 
strong intrenchments in that quarter, 
which he had not seen the night be- 
fore. It is certain that he was not 
disturbed by any demonstration on 
our part, and retired wholly unmo- 
lested. Ten days later, we had not 
recovered the ground held by Casey's 
advance on the morning of May 31. 

Johnston reports the loss in 
Smith's division at 1,233, and in 
Longstreet's " at "about" 3,000; 
total, 4,233 ; saying nothing of any 
loss sustained by Huger. Among 
his killed were G^n. Robert Hatton, 
of Tenn. ; Cols. Lomax, 3d Ala., 
Jones, 12th Ala., Giles, 5th S. C, 
and lightfoot, 22d N. C; while, be- 
side himself. Gens. Rhodes and Gar- 
land, with Cols. Goodwin, 9th Va., 
and Wade Hampton, S. C, were 
wounded. He also lost Gen. Petti- 

" Gen. McOlellan says that Hill estimates his 
loss at 2,500, and adds this number to the above 
total, making in all 6, 733 : but it is eyidont that 
Johnston includes Hill's loss in that of Long- 
street, who was in command of both divisions. 

grew and Col. C. Davis, of S. C, 
and Col. Long, taken prisoners. He 
claims to have taken 10 guns, 6,000 
muskets, and " several hundred " 
prisoners — an expression which the 
number of our wounded who fell 
into his hands must have fully justi- 
fied. He probably took few others, 
and no officer of distinction. 

Geii. McClellan reports our total 
loss at 6,739," whereof 890 were 
killed, 3,627 wounded, and 1,222 
missing : some of these probably 
dead, and others left on the field 
wounded, to fall into the hands of 
the enemy. Among our killed were 
Col. G. D. Bailey, Maj. Van Valken- 
burg, and Adjt. Ramsey, of the Ist 
N". Y. artillery ; Cols. J. L. Riker, 
62d, and James M. Brown, 100th 
N. Y., Rippey, 61st, and Miller, Slst 
Pa. Among our wounded were 
Gens. Naglee, Pa., Devens, Mass., 
O. O. Howard, Maine, and Wessells ; 
Col. E. E. Cross, 6th K H., and 
many other valuable officers. 

Considering that the bulk of the 
loss on either side fell on regiments 
which together brought less than 
15,000 men into the field, the admit- 
ted loss is quite heavy. Keyes's 
corps numbered about 12,000 men 
present ; of whom 4,000 were dead or 
wounded before 5 p. m. of the Slst, 
Perhaps as many had fled to the 
rear; yet Gen. McClellan's dispatch 
to the War Department, written so 
late as noon of the second day, in 
saying that "Casey's division gave 
way unaccountably and discredit- 
ably," is indiscriminate and unjust. 
A green division of less than 7,000 

*' But in a confidential dispatch of June 4th, 
to the War Department, he says : "^ The loaees 
in the battles of the Slst and 1st will amount to 
YyOOO." Though this may have been an esti- 
mate merely, it was yery near the truth. 

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men could not fairly be expected to 
arrest and repel a determined ad- 
vance of the entire Rebel army, 
whereof two choice divisions, num- 
bering 15,000 men, were hurled 
directly upon them. That some of 
our men behaved badly is true ; but 
the responsibility of their failure rests 
on the Generals by whom they were 
badly handled. They were sent up 
by brigades to confront Rebel divi- 
sions, and thus beaten in detail ; and, 
when at last the time came for fight- 
ing with the advantage of numbers 
on our side, the directing, impelling 
will was absent. 

Gen. Hooker, next morning,'* by 
Heintzelman's order, made a recon- 
noissance in force, advancing to with- 
in four miles of Richmond, unresisted 
save by pickets. Gen. McClellan, 
on learning this movement, ordered 
Hooker to be recalled to and take 
position at Fair Oaks. The General 
conunanding wrote this day to the 
Secretary of War : 

" The enemy attacked in force and with 
great spirit yesterday morning ; but are eve- 
rywhere most signally repulsed with great 
loM. Our troops charged frequently on 
both days, and uniformly broke tne enemy. 
The result is, that our left is within four 
miles of Richmond, d only wait for the 
river to fell to cross with the rest of the 
force and make a general attack. Should I 
find them holding firm in a very strong po- 
sition, I may wait for what troops I can 
bring up from Fortress Monroe. But the 
moraU of my troops is now such that I can 
venture much. 1 do not fear for odds 
against me. The victory is complete ; and 
all credit is due to the gallantry of our offi- 
cers and men." 

The President, on hearing of this 
bloody battle, placed the disposable 
troops at Fortress Monroe at the ser- 
vice of Qen. McClellan, sent five new 
Tcgiments from Baltimore by water 
to his aid, and notified him that Mc- 

Call's division of McDowell's corps 
should follow as speedily as might 
be. Gen. McClellan responded :'* 

" I am glad to learn that you are pressing 
forward reenforcements so vigorously. I 
shall be in perfect readiness to move for- 
ward and take Richmond the moment 
McCall reaches here, and the ground will 
admit the passage of artillery. I have ad- 
vanced my pickets about a mile to-day ; 
driving oflT the Rebel pickets, and securing 
a very advantageous position." 

He soon afterward" telegraphed : 

" I am completely checked by the weath- 
er. The roads and fields are literally im- 
passable for artillery — almost so for infan- 
try. The Ohickahominy is in a dreadful 
state. We have another rain-storm on our 
hands. I shall attack as soon as the 
weather and ground will permit ; but there 
will be a delay, the extent of which no 
one can foresee, for the season is alto- 
gether abnormal. In view of these cir- 
cumstances, I present for your considera- 
tion the propriety of detaching largely from 
Halleck^s army, to strengthen this; for it 
would seem that Ualleck has now no large 
organized force in front of him, while we 
have. If this cannot be done, or even in 
connection with it, allow me to suggest the 
movement of a heavy column from Dalton 
upon Atlanta. If but the one can be done, 
it would better conform to military princi- 
ples to strengthen this army. And, even 
although the reenforcements might not ar- 
rive in season to take part in the attack 
upon Richmond, the moral effect would be 
great, and they would furnish valuable as- 
sistance in ulterior movements. I wish to 
be distinctly understood that, whenever the 
weather .permits, I will attack with what- 
ever force I may have, although a larger 
force would enable me to gain much more 
decided results. I would be glad to have 
McCairs infantry sent forward by water at 
once, without waiting for his artillery and 

Secretary Stanton promptly re- 
sponded : " 

" Your dispatch of 8:80, yesterday, has 
been received. I am fully impressed with 
the difficulties mentioned, and which no art 
or skill can avoid, but only endure, and am 
striving to the uttermost to render you 
every aid in the power of the Government. 
Your suggestions will be immediately com- 
municated to Gen. Halleck, with a request 
that he shall conform to them. At last ad- 

** June 2. 

*• June 7. 

*• June 10. 

" June 11. 

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vice, be contemplated sending a colnmn to 
operate with Mitchel against Chattanooga, 
and thence npon East Tennessee. Buell re- 
ports Eentuckj and Tennessee to be in a 
critical conditio;), demanding immediate at- 
tention. Halleck says the main body of 
Beauregard's forces is with him at Okolo- 
na. McOalFs force was reported yesterday 
as having embarked, and on its way to join 
yon. It is intended to send the residue of 
McDowell's force also to join you as speed- 
ily as possible. 

"Fremont had a hard fight, day before 
yesterday, with Jackson's force at Union 
Church, eight miles from Harrisonburg. He 
claims the victory, but was badly handled. 
It is clear that a pretty strong force is op- 
erating with Jackson, for the purpose of de- 
taining the forces here from you. I am 
urging, as fast as possible, the new levies. 

"Be assured, General, that there never 
has been a moment when my desire has 
been otherwise than to aid you with my 
whole heart, mind, and strength, since the 
hour we first met; and, whatever others 
may say for their own purposes, you have 
never had, and never can have, any one 
more truly your friend, or more anxious to 
support you, or more joyful than I shall be 
at the success which I have no doubt will 
soon be achieved by your arms.'' 

Gen. McCall's division arrived by 
water during the two following 
days;'* on the last of which, Gen. J. 
E. B. Stuart, with 1,600 Eebel cavahy 
and 4 guns, attacked and dispersed 
two squadrons of the 5th U. S. caval- 
ry, Capt. Royall, near Hanover Old 
Church ; thence proceeding to make 
a rapid circuit of our grand army, via 
Tunstall's Station, seizing and burn- 
ing two schooners laden with forage, 
and 14 wagons ; capturing and taking 
off 165 prisoners, 260 mules and 
horses; halting three hours to rest 
at Talleysville, in the rear of our 
army ; resuming his march at mid- 
night; crossing the Chickahominy 
near Long Bridge, by hastily impro- 
vised bridges, next forenoon ; and 
reaching [Richmond unassailed next 
morning. This was the first of the 
notable cavalry raids of the war, 

tempting to many imitations, some 
of them brilliant in design and exe- 
cution ; some of them damaging to 
the adverse party ; others disastrous 
to their executors; but, on the whole, 
involving a squandering of horse- 
flesh and an amount of useless devas- 
tation which rendered them decidedly 
unprofitable, and hardly reconcilable 
with the legitimate ends of warfare. 
Gen. McClellan, at midnight on 
the 14th, telegraphed to the War 
Department as follows : 

^* Headquabtebs Army of the Potomac, \ 
" Camp Lincoln, June 14, 1862. ) 

" All (juiet in every direction. The stam- 
pede of last night has passed awaj. Ifea- 
ther now very favorable. I hope two days 
more will maJce the ground practicable. I 
shall advance as soon as the bridges are 
completed and the ground fit for artillery 
to move. At the same time, I would be 
glad to have whatever troops can be sent 
to roe. I can use several new regiments to 

"It ought to be distinctly understood 
that McDowell and his troops are com- 
pletely under my control. I received a 
telegram from him requesting that McCall^s 
division might be placed so as to join him 
immediately on his arrival. 

" That reouest does not breathe the pro- 
per spirit. Whatever troops come to me 
must be disposed of so as to do the most 
good. I do not feel that, in such circum- 
stances as those in which I am now placed, 
Gen. McDowell should wish the general in- 
terests to be sacri^ced for the purpose of 
increasing his command. 

" If I cannot fully control all his troops, I 
want none of them, but would prefer to 
fiffht the battle with what I have, and let 
others be responsible for the results. 

" The department lines should not be al- 
lowed to interfere with me ; but Gen. McD., 
and all other troops sent to me, should be 
placed completely at my disposal, to do 
with them as I think best. In no other 
way can they be of assistance to me. I 
therefore request that I may have entire 
and full control. The stake at issue is 
too great to allow personal considerations 
to be entertained; you know that I have 

"The indications are, from our balloon 
reconnoissances and from all other sources, 
that the enemy are intrenching, daily in- 

"June 12-13. 

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creasing in nnmbers, and determined to 
fight desperately.'' 

On the 20th, lie telegraphed to the 
President : 

"By to-morrow night, the defensive 
works, covering onr position on this side of 
the Ohickahominj, should he completed. 
I am forced to this by my inferiority of 
ninnbers, so that I may bring the greatest 
possible nnmbers into addon, and secure the 
armj against the consequences of nnfore- 
«een disaster." 

At this time, his returns to the 
Adjutant-General's oflSce give the 
following as the strength of his army 
on the Peninsula : Present for duty, 
115,102; special duty, sick, and in 
arrest, 12,226 ; absent, 29,511— total, 

Stonewall Jackson, having done 
us all the misduef he could in the 
Valley, arrested McDowell's overland 
march to join McClellan, and sent 
40,000 or 50,000 of our men on all 
manner of wild-goose chases, was 
now on his way in fiill force to Rich- 
mond ; hence, misleading reports of 
his movements were artfully circu- 
lated among our commanders. Gen. 
McClellan telegraphed" to the War 
Department that he had information 
from deserters that troops had left 
Richmond to reenforce Jackson, and 
that they were probably not less than 
10,000 men. To this the President 
responded, that he had similar infor- 
mation from Q^n. King at Fredericks- 
bm^ ; and added : '* K this is true, it 
is as good as a reenforcement to you." 
McClellan on that day telegraphed 
to the President : 

^^ A general engagement may take place 

at any hour. An advance by us involves a 

hattl© more or less decisive. The enemy 

exhibit at every point a readiness to meet 

^^ They certainly have great nnmbers 

yd extensive works. If ten or fifteen 

thousand men have left Biohmond to reen- 
force Jackson, it illustrates their strength 
and confidence. After to-morrow, we shall 
fight the Rebel army as soon as Providence 
will permit. We shall await only a favor- 
able condition of the earth and sky, and the 
completion of some necessary prelimina- 

To-morrow and to-morrow passed, 
and still our army did not advance ; 
until, on the 24di, a young man of 
suspicious character was brought in 
by XJen. McClellan's scouts from the 
direction of Hanover Court House, 
who, after some prevarication, con- 
fessed himself a deserter from Jack- 
son's command, which he had left 
near GordonsviUe on the 21st, mov- 
ing along the Virginia Central Kail- 
road to Frederickshall, with intent 
to turn our right and attack our rear 
on the 28th. To McClellan's dis- 
patch announcing this capture, and 
asking information of Jackson's posi- 
tion and movements. Secretary Stan- 
ton replied "" as follows : 

" We have no definite information as to 
the numbers or position of Jackson's force. 
Gen. King yesterday reported a deserter's 
statement, that Jackson's force was, nine 
days ago, 40,000 men. Some reports place 
10,000 Rebels under Jackson at Gordons- 
viUe ; others that his force is at Port Re- 
public, Harrisonburg, and Luray. Fremont 
yesterday reported rumors that Western 
Virginia was threatened ; and Gen. Kelly, 
that Ewell was advancing to New Creek, 
where Fremont has his ddp6ts. The last 
telegram from Fremont contradicts this 
rumor. The last telegram from Banks says 
the enemy's pickets are strong in advance 
at Luray. The people decline to give any 
information of his whereabouts. Within^ 
the last two days, the evidence is strong 
that, for some purpose, the enemy is circu- 
lating rumors of Jackson's advance in 
various directions, with a view to conceal 
the real point of attack. Neither McDowell, 
who is at Manassas, nor Banks and Fre-^ 
mont,who are at Middletown, appear to have 
any accurate knowledge on the subject. 

" A letter transmitted to the department 
yesterday, purporting to be dated Gordons- 
ville, on the 14th inst, stated that the ac- 
tual attack was designed for Washington. 

*• June 18. 

* June 26. 

Digitized by 




and Baltimore, as soon as you attacked 
Richmond ; but that the report was to be 
circulated that Jackson had gone to Rich- 
mond, in order to mislead. This letter 
looked verj much like a blind, and induces 
me to suspect that Jackson's real movement 
now is toward Richmond. It came from 
Alexandria, and is certainly designed, like 
tlie numerous rumors put afloat, to mislead. 
I think, therefore, that, while the warning 
of the deserter to you may also be a blind, 
that it could not safely be disregarded. I 
will transmit to you any further informa- 
tion on this subject that may be received 

That day, having his bridges cjom- 
pleted, Gen. McClellan ordered an 
advance of his picket-line on the left, 
preparatory to a general forward 
movement; and, during the day, 
Heintzelman's corps, with part of 
Keyes's and Sumner's, were pushed 
forward," he reports, through a 
swampy wood, though smartly re- 
sisted, with a loss on our side of 51 
killed, 401 wounded, a,nd 64 missing : 
total, 516. Returning from over- 
looking this affair. Gen. McClellan 
telegraphed to the "War Department 
as follows : 

" Several contrabands, just in, give infor- 
mation confirming the supposition that 
Jackson^s advance is at or near Hanover 
Court House, and that Beauregard arrived, 
with strong reenforcements, in Richmond 
yesterday. I incline to think that Jackson 
will attack my right and rear. The Rebel 
force is stated at 200,000, including Jackson 
and Beauregard. I shall have to contend 
against vastly superior odds, if these reports 
be true. But this army will do all in the 
power of men to hold their position and re- 
pulse any attack. I regret my great inferi- 
ority in numbers, but feel that I am in no 
way responsible for it, as I have not failed 
to represent repeatedly the necessity of re- 
enforcements ; that this was the decisive 

*»But Brig.-Gen. A. R. Wright, of Huger's di- 
vision, who opposed this movement, reports 
that he had 3,000 men in all, resisting not less 
than 8,000 or 10,000 on our side; and adds: 

" The object of the enemy was to drive us 
back from our picket-line, occupy it himself, 
and thereby enable him to advance his works 
several hundred yards nearer our lines. 
In this, he completely failed; and, although 

point, and that all the available means of 
the Government should be concentrated 
here. I will do all that a General can do 
with the splendid army I have the honor 
to command ; and, if it is destroyed by over- 
whelming numbers, can at least die with it 
and share its fate. But, if the result of the 
action, which will probably occur to-mor- 
row, or within a short time, is a disaster, 
the responsibility cannot be thrown on my 
shoulders ; it must rest where it belongs. 
Since I commenced this, I have received 
additional intelligence, confirming the sup- 
position in regard to Jackson's movements 
and Beauregard's arrival. I shall probably 
be attacked to-morrow, and now go to the 
other side of the Chickahominy to arrange 
for the defense on that side. I feel that 
there is no use in again asking for reen- 

The President responded as fol- 
lows :— 

" Washington, June 26, 1862 
" Your three dispatches of yesterday in 
relation to the affair, ending with the state- 
ment that you completely succeeded in 
making your point, are very gratifying. 
The later one, suggesting the probability 
of your being overwhelmed by 200,000 men, 
and talking of to whom the responsibility 
will belong, pains me very much. I give 
you all I can, and act on the presumption 
that you will do the best you can with what 
you have ; while you continue — ungene 
rously I think — to assume that I could give 
you more if I would. I have omitted — I 
shall omit — no opportunity to send you re- 
enforcements whenever I can." 

Gen. Eobert E. Lee, having suc- 
ceeded to the chief command of the 
Eebel army, had, in counsel with the 
master spirits of the Rebellion, at 
length resolved on striking a decisive 
blow. To this end, reenforcements 
had been quietly called in from all 
available quarters, swelling the Rebel 
Army of Virginia, including Jack- 

Gen. McClellan at night telegraphed, over his 
own signature, to the War office in Washington, 
that he had accomplished his object, bad driven 
me back for more than a mile, had silenced my 
batteries, and occupied our camps, Ihtre is not 
one ward of truth in the whale statement. When 
the fight ceased at dark, I occupied the very 
line my pickets had been driven from in the 
morning; and which I continued to hold until 
the totS rout of the Federal army on the 29th." 

Digitized by 




son's corps, summoned from the Val- 
ley, to not far from 70,000 men. In 
order to mask this concentration, 
AVTiiting's division, consisting of 
Hood's Texas brigade and his own, 
had been sent off from Richmond to 
Jackson ; to whom also the brigade 
of Lawton had been ordered up from 
the South. When all things were 
ripe, Jackson moved, by order, rapid- 
ly and secretly from the Valley to 
Ashland, facing our extreme right, 
whence he was directed to advance" 
so as to flank our right, holding Me- 
chanicsville. Moving on at 3 next 
morning,*' he was directed to connect 
with Gen. Branch, immediately south 
of tlie Chickahominy, who was to 
cross that stream and advance on 
Mechanicsville ; while Gen. A. P. 
Hill, lower down, was to cross near 
Meadow Bridge so soon as Branch's 
movement was discovered, and move 
directly upon Mechanicsville, where 
on the Rebel batteries on the south- 
ern bluffs of the Chickahominy were to 
open ; Longstreet's division following 
m support of Hill, while D. H. Hill's in 
like manner supported Jackson ; thus 
only Huger's and Magr uder's divisions 
were left in front of our left and cen- 
ter, immediately before Richmond. 

Jackson was unable to reach Ash- 
land quite so soon as had been anti- 
cipated ; 8o that A. P. Hill did not 
cross the stream to attack us till 3 
p. H." His advance had been dis- 
covered three hours before ; so that 
our pickets were called in before it, 
and the raiment and battery hold- 
ing Mechanicsville fell back, fighting, 
on a strong position across Beaver 
Dam creek. Here Gen. McCall's 
Pennsylvania Reserves, which had 
recently been sent down to reenforce 

McClellan, and had never till now 
been in action, were strongly posted 
on advantageous ground, supported 
by Morell's division and Sykes's 
regulars, the whole forming Fitz-John 
Porter's corps of about 27,000 men. 

\ -'1 

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I \ REBEL «. 


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ME^flANXcSVILLE j "-^.Ci^-^-'V^ 

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Advancing rapidly and resolutely, 
in the face of a destructive fire, which 
they could not effectively return, the 
leading brigades of A. P. Hill's, and 
ultimately of D. H. Hill's and Long- 
street's divisions, attacked our posi- 
tion and attempted to turn our left, 
but were repulsed with fearful car- 
nage. Jackson being vainly expect- 
ed to arrive and assail our right, it 
was not turned ; and night fell on a 
decided and animating success of our 
mainly green soldiers, though the 
fighting did not cease till after dark, 
and the Rebels remained in force not 
far from our front. Our total loss in 

B Jane 25. 

"June 26. 

••June 26. 

Digitized by 




this affair had been less than 400; 
while that of the Bebels must have 
been many times larger ; and when, 
near the close of the battle, fresh 
troops came up to relieve the exult- 
ing Eeserves, they refused to give 
place, but, replenishing their ammu- 
nition, lay down on their arms to 
await the encounter of the morrow. 

Before daylight," however, an or- 
der from Gen. McClellan (who had 
learned, meantime, that Jackson was 
approaching) directed the evacuation 
of their strong position, and a retreat 
to Gaines's Mill — an order easy of 
execution had it arrived three or four 
hours earlier, but very diflBicult now, 
as the Kebel attack was renewed a 
few minutes afterward. The Rebels 
were repulsed, however, though our 
men were retiring at the time ; 
Meade's, Griffin's, Reynolds's, and 
Morell's commands moving steadily 
off the field as if on parade ; our dead 
all buried, our wounded and arms 
brought away, with the loss of no 
caisson, hardly of a musket, by a lit- 
tle after 7 a. m. ; leaving the Rebels 
unaware for the moment that there 
was no longer an enemy before them. 
Before noon, each r^ment and bat- 
tery had taken up the new position 
assigned it, at Gaines's Mill, and 
was ready to receive the now eagerly 
advancing Rebels. Meantime, our 
trains and siege-guns had, by order, 
been sent off across the Chickahomi- 
ny during the night. 

Gen. McClellan had been** with 
Fitz-John Porter, behind the Me- 
chanicsville defenses, at 10 p. m. — an 
hour after the triumphant and san- 
guinary repulse of their assailants. 
Four hours later, he sent orders for 
their prompt evacuation. This he 

must have done under the correct 
impression that they were about to 
be overwhelmingly assailed in front 
by the Hills and Longstreet, and in 
flank by the yet fresh division of 
Jackson. In other words, it was 
now plain that the Rebel chiefs had 
resolved to precipitate the bulk of 
their force on our right wing, crush- 
ing it back on our center by the sheer 
momentum of their columns. 

This striking a great army on one 
end, and rolling it up on itself in inex- 
tricable conftision, carnage, and rout, 
is no novelty in warfare. The Allied 
Emperors tried it on Napoleon at 
Austerlitz ; mkr strat^sts attempted 
it on the Rebels at first Bull Run. 
It is a critical manoeuver; but likely 
to succeed, ^rowcferf your antagonist 
passively awaits its consummation. 
("Hunting the tiger, gentlemen," 
explained the returned East Indian 
to his associates at the ITnited Service 
Club, " is capital sport — capital — 
unless the tiger turns to hunt you ; 
when it becomes rather too exciting.") 

G^n. McClellan, as usual, believed 
tlie Rebels were assailing or threaten- 
ing him with twice as many men as 
they had, supposing them to have 
175,000 to 200,000 troops in his front ; 
when they never, from the beginning 
to the end of the war, had so many 
as 100,000 effectives concentrated in 
a single army, or within a day's 
march. Even had he been outnum- 
bered, as he supposed, by a Rebel 
force on either fiank nearly or quite 
equal to his whole army, he should 
have quietly and rapidly concen- 
trated, and struck one of those assail- 
ants before it could be supported by 
the other. Had he chosen thus to 
rush upon Richmond, on the morning 

* June 27. 

* June 26. 

Digitized by 




of the 36th, directing Porter to make 
as impoBing a demonstration and de- 
tain the enemy as long as he could, 
then to withdraw across the Chicka- 
hominjwith the least possible loss, 
born the bridges, and defend the pas- 
sage till night-fall, he might have 
gone right over the 25,000 Rebels 
between him and Bichmond, taken 
that city, and then turned in over- 
whelming force on the 50,000 Eebels 
in his rear, pressing Porter. But, 
deceived and faint-hearted, he stood 
perplexed and hesitating between 
the real and overwhelming attack 
on his right and the imposing biit 
hollow succession of feints and alarms 
on his left, letting two-thirds of Lee's 
entire force crush one-third of his 
own, whUe 60,000 good men and 
true stood idle between the Chicka- 
hominy and Richmond, watching 
and guarding against 25,000 Rebels. 
Only Slocum's division of Sumner's 
corps was seasonably sent to the aid 
of Porter, raising his total force to 
barely 35,000 men, who were to 
resist the desperate eflTorts of 50,000 
Eebek, directed by Lee, and led on 
to assault our position by Longstreet, 
the Hills, Stonewall Jackson, and 

Though the Rebels had quickly 
discerned and sharply pursued our 
withdrawal from the Mechanicsville 
defenses, arriving in front of our new 
position soon after noon,*' it was 
2 p. M. before A. P. Hill, who 
had been awaiting Jackson's arrival, 
advanced and opened the battle. 
The Rebels were received with heroic 
bravety by Sykes's r^ulars, who 
confronted them, by whose fire they 
were staggered and temporarily re- 
pulsed. Meantime, Longstreet, who 

had been ordered to make a feint on 
our left, had perceived the necessity 
of converting that feint into a deter- 
mined attack; but, before his dispo- 
sitions had been completed, Jackaon 
arrived and formed his division on 
Longstreet's left; while D. H, Hill, 
on the extreme Rebel left, had forced 
his way through a swamp and some 
abatis, driving out our skirmishers ; 
and now Ewell came into action on 
Jackson's right, and two of Jackson's 
brigades were s^nt to the relief of A. 
P. Hill,» who was being worsted. 
Lee's whole force being thus brought 
into action, a general advance from 
left to right was ordered and made, 
under a terrific fire of cannon and 
musketry from both sides. 

Porter had a strong position, on 
ground rising gradually from the 
ravine of an inconsiderable stream, 
screened in part by trees and under- 
brush, with Morell's and Sykes's 
divisions in front, and McCall's 
forming a second line behind them ; 
and his cavalry, under P. St. George 
Cooke, in the valley of the Chicka- 
hominy, watching for a Rebel ad- 
vance in that quarter. The siege- 
guns of Porter's corps, which had 
been withdrawn across the Chicka- 
hominy during the night, were 
planted in battery on the right bank 
of that stream, so as to check the ad- 
vance of the Rebel right, and prevent 
their turning our left. Porter was 
unaccountably in want of axes, where- 
with to cover his front and right with 
abatis ; his request for them to Gen. 
Barnard not reaching McClellan till 
too late. "When he next called, they 
were furnished, but without helves ; 
and, while these were being supplied, 
the opportunity for using axes was 

"June 27. 


Digitized by 




lost. His first call on McClellan for 
reenforcements likewise miscarried. 
His next was made at 2 p. m. ; when 
SlocUm's division, of the 6th corps, 
was ordered to his support, arriving 
on the field at 3:30, after our position 
had been assailed in force at every 
point, and after McCall's division had 
been ordered up to support our sorely 

pressed front. So urgent and instant 
was the pressure, that Slocum's divi- 
sion had to be divided and sent by 
brigades, and even regiments, to the 
points where the need of aid seemed 
greatest ; Bartlett's brigade going to 
the help of Sykes on our right, while 
a portion of Newton's was sent in 
between Morell and Sykes. 

\ / " 

\\ } /I 


a / N E wl CO ALHARBWtJ" ^ ^r^C^^^^ Civ A. 


^^^^ ^v/S-'-\ 

9 } MILES 2 .^^, . \J V . 



UPPER ^"-^^^^ 



[ A Bnttorfleld^s Brigade. 
MoreirsDlv.-i B Mortimlale's 

( C Griffin*8 

[ D G. 8. Warren's " 

Svkes's Dlv. -(EH. Chapman's ^, 

( P I. T. Buchonan'a " 

( K Meade's •* 

MoCall'sDlT.K L Seymour's ** 

( M Reynolds's ** 
N Cavalry. 

ArfL RpRPrvp < ^ Robertson's Battery. 
Art l^cserve. ^ p Tj^ii,^,,,^ 

Bartlett's brigade of Slocum's division. Franklin's 
«>rps In reserve; Taylor's and Newton's brigades being 
distributed on weak points of the liner 

First line was held as shown, from noon to 8 p. v^ 
when the Reserves were moved up to sustain it. Gen. 
Slocum's division arrived about 84 p. M. The whole 
lino retired to the high ground in the rear about 
7 p. It 

Gen. Reynolds, with one brigade 
of McCall's Pennsylvania Reserves, 
having reached the front and repelled 
the enemy immediately before him, 
hearing the noise of a terrific contest 
on his left, moved immediately to the 
point where his assistance seemed ne- 
cessary. And thus the battle raged 

for hours; repeated charges on our 
lines being repulsed ; but fresh brig- 
ades advancing promptly to replace 
those which had been hurled back, 
until our wasted regiments, having 
exhausted their ammunition, . were 
obliged to retire and replenish it. 
At 5 p. M.J Porter, though he had 

Digitized by 




lost little ground, telegraphed again 
to MeClellan that his position was 
critical, when French's and Meagher's 
brigades of the 2d corps were ordered 
to cross to his support. They moved 
promptly and rapidly; but, before 
they could reach the field, the 
Rebels, rallying all their forces, just 
at sunset, for a last desperate effort, 
had stormed our intrenchments both 
on the left and on the right, and 
driven back their defenders with 
mutual carnage, capturing several of 
our gnns. 

Porter, seeing his infantry beaten, 
now called into action all his reserved 
and remaining artillery, and thus 
hringing at once about 80 guns into 
action, was covering the retreat of 
his infantry and dealing fearful retri- 
hution on their assailants, whose ad- 
vance was suddenly checked ; when 
Gen. CJooke, without orders, under- 
took to charge, with a battalion of 
cavalry, the right flank of the Rebels 
advancing on our left, and still 
covered in good part by woods. This 
charge being met by a withering fire 
of musketry, amidst the roar of a 
hundred beldiing cannon, resulted in 
mstant rout : the frightened horses, 
whether with or without the consent 
of their riders, wheeling abruptly 
and crashing through our batteries ; 
leading our gunners to suppose, for 
the moment, that they were charged 
by regiments of Rebel horse. " To 
this alone," says Fitz-John Porter, 
in his report, "is to be attributed 
our failure to hold the field, and to 
bring off all our guns and wounded." 
In another moment, the cheering 
ahouts of French's and Meagher's men 
were heard, as they advanced rapidly 

Q^Q. J&cicBon officially reports the losses of 
^ corpa ia tbis battle at 589 kiUed, 2,671 

to the front. Eallying behind*these 
two fresh brigades, our wearied, 
decimated regiments advanced up 
the hill down whicj^ they had recgitly 
been driven, ready to meet a ftesh 
attack, had one been attempted. But 
the enemy, perceiving that they 
were confronted by fresh combatants, 
and not knowing our force, halted for 
the night on the field they had so 
hardly won. 

During that night, our forces were 
by order withdrawn, unmolested, 
across the Chickahominy, losing three 
guns, that were run off a bridge into 
the stream,, in addition to 19 that 
they had left on the battle-field. 

Our loss in this action, though not 
specifically reported, probably ex- 
ceeded 6,000 killed and wounded: 
among the former were Cols. Samuel 
W. Black, 62d Pa., McLean, of the 
83d, Gove, of the 22d Mass., Maj. N. 
B. Eossell, 3d regular infantry, and 
many other brave and valuable offi- 
cers. The 11th Pennsylvania Ke- 
serves. Col. Gallagher, and 4th N. J., 
Col. Simpson, while enveloped in 
the smoke of battle, having too long 
maintained their position in the far- 
thest front, found themselves at last 
completely enveloped by overwhelm- 
ing forces of the enemy, and com- 
pelled to surrender ; and Gen. John 
F. Reynolds, of the 1st brigade of 
Reserves, with his Adjutant, Capt. 
Charles Kingsbury, were taken pris- 
oners just at dark, riding into a 
Rebel regiment, which they supposed 
to be one of their own. Altogether, 
our losses in this desperate action 
were hardly less than 8,000 men; 
those of the Rebels being probably 
about two-thirds as many." 

wounded, and 24 missing: total, 3,284. The 
other division and corps commanders make no 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Gen. McClellan, during and after 
the close of the eventful 27th, tele- 
graphed to the War Department as 
foll<^ws : • 

" Headquabtebs Army of the Potomac, ) 
"June27— 10 a. M. \ 
"The night passed quietlj. During it, 
we brought all wagons, heavy guns, &c., to 
this side, and at daybreak drew in McCalFs 
division about three miles. This change of 
position was beautifully executed, under a 
sharp fire, with but little loss. The troops 
on the other side are now well in hand, and 
the whole army so concentrated that it can 
take advantage of the first mistake made by 
the enemy. White House yet undisturbed. 
Success of yesterday complete." 

" Headquabtebs Abmy of the Potomac, ) 
"Juife27— 12 m. f 
" My change of position on the other side 
just in time. Heavy attack now being 
made by Jackson and two divisions. Ex- 
pect attack also on this side." 

" Headquabtebs Abmy of the Potomac, ) 
"Savage's Station, > 

" June 28, 1862—12:20 a. m. ) 
" I now know the whole history of the 
day. On this side of the river — the right 
bank — we repulsed several strong attacks. 
On the left bank, our men did all that men 
could do, all that soldiers could accomplish ; 
but they were overwhelmed by vastly su- 
perior numbers soon after I brought my last 
reserves into action. The loss on both sides 
is terrible. I believe it will prove to be the 
most desperate battle of the war. The sad 
remnants of my men behave as men ; those 
battalions which fought most bravely, and 
suffered most, are still in the best order. 
My regulars were superb, and I count upon 
what are left to turn another battle in com- 
pany with their gallant comrades of the 
volunteers. Had I 20,000 or even 10,000 
fresh troops to use to-morrow, I could take 
Richmond; but I have not a man in re- 
serve, and shall be glad to cover my retreat 
and save the material and personnd of the 
army. If we have lost the day, we have 
yet preserved our honor, and no one need 
blush for the Army of the Potomac. I have 
lost this battle because my force was too 
small. I again repeat, that 1 am not respon- 
sible for this ; and I say it with the earnest- 
ness of a General who feels in his heart the 
loss of every brave man who has been need- 
lessly sacrificed to-day. I still hope to re- 

trieve our fortunes ; but to do this the Gov- 
ernment must view the matter in the same 
earnest light that I do. You must send me 
very large r^nforcements, and send them at 
once. I shall draw back to this side of the 
Chickahominy, and think 1 can withdraw 
all our material. Please understand that in 
tliis battle we have lost nothing but men, 
and those the best we have. In addition to 
what I have already said, I only wish to say 
to the President that I think he is wrong in 
regarding me as ungenerous when I said that 
my force was too weak. I merely reitera- 
ted a truth which to-day has been too plainly 
proved. If, at this instant, I could dispose 
of 10,000 fresh men, I could gain the victory 
to-morrow. I know that a few thousand 
more men would have changed this battle 
from a defeat to a victory. As it is, the 
Grovernment must not, and can not, hold me 
responsible for the result. I feel too earn- 
estly to-night — I have seen too many dead 
and wounded comrades to feel otherwise 
than that the Government has not sustained 
this army. If you do not do so now, the 
game is lost. If I save this army now, I 
tell you plainly that I owe no thanks to yon, 
or to any other persons in Washington. You 
have done your best to sacrifice this army. 

" G. B. McClellan, Mnj.-Gen. 
" To Hon. E. M. Stanton, 

"Secretary of War." 

To these reproachfiil missives, tl:e 
President thus responded : 

"Washington, June 28, 1862. 
" Save your army at all events. Will send 
rSenforcements as fast as we can. Of course, 
they can not reach you to-day, to-morrow, 
or next day. I have not said you were un- 
generous for saying you needed r&enforce- 
ments; I thought you were ungenerous in 
assuming that I did not send them as fast as 
I could. I feel any misfortune to you and 
your army quite as keenly as you feel it 
yourself. If you have had a drawn battle or 
a repulse, it is the price we pay for the ene- 
my not being in Washington. We protected 
Washington, and the enemy concentrated 
on you. Had we stripped Washington, he 
would have been upon us before the troops 
sent could have got to you. Less than a 
week ago, you notified us that rSenforce- 
ments were leaving Richmond to come in 
front of us. It is the nature of the case; 
and neither you nor the Government that 
is to blame. 

separate report of their losses in this action. 
Gen. C. M. Wilcox, 4th brigade, Longstreet's di- 
vision, states his losses at 684, out of a total of 
1,850. Among the Rebel killed were Cols. J. 

J. Woodward, 10th Ala.; S. T. Hale, 11th Ala.; 
John Marshall, 4th Texas ; among the severely 
wounded, Cols. Rainey, Ist Texas, and RobinsoD, 
5th Texas. 

Digitized by 




** Please tell at once the present condition 
or aspect of things/' 

Gen. McClellan's army had now 
been concentrated by the enemy in 
a very strong position, between the 
Chickahominy on one side, and our 
General's elaborate and powerful 
works facing Richmond on the oth- 
er. It was still more than 100,000 
strong; while, save in his imagina- 
tion, there were not nearly so many 
armed Rebels within a circuit of 
50 miles. Properly handled, it was 
abundantly able and willing to meet 
and beat Lee's entire forces in fair 
battle ; or it might have taken Rich- 
mond and the Rebel works below 
it," on the James; thus reopening its 
communications and receiving fresh 
supplies by that river, most eflSciently 
patroled by our gunboats. One thing 
it could not do without invoking dis- 
aster, and that was to remain cooped 
up in its intrenchments ; since Por- 
ter's defeat and retreat across the 
Chickahominy had severed its com- 
munication with its base of supplies 
at West Point ; Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, 
with the Rebel cavalry, supported 
by Ewell's infantry, striking and de- 
stroying the York River Railroad 
and severing the telegraph line at 
Dispatch Station next morning," and 
pushing thence down the road toward 
White House, meeting no serious op- 

• Gen. Magruder, in his official report of his 
pMticipatioii in the memorable Seven Days' 
•trugfgle, says 

•* From the t'me at which the enemy with- 
drew hia forces to this side of the Chicskahominy 
»nd destroyed the bridges, to the moment of his 
eracoaiion^-that is, from Friday night until Sun- 
day morning — I considered the situation of our 
«raiy as extremely critical and perilous. The 
Wger portion of it was on the opposite side of 
«e Chickahominy ; the bridges had been all de- 
"Jroyed; but one was rebuilt, the New Bridge, 
^■Tttch was commanded fully by the enemy's 
nna from GoWmg*s; and there were but 25,000 

position, but resting at TunstaU's Star 
tion for the night, which our force 
holding White House devoted to the 
destruction of the vast aggregate of 
munitions and provisions there stored. 
Nine large loaded barges, 5 locomo- 
tives, with great numbers of tents, 
wagons, cars, &c., were involved in 
this general destruction ; while our 
cavalry, under Stoneman and Emo- 
ry, fled down the Peninsula, leaving 
large quantities of forage and provi- 
sions to fall into the hands of the en- 
emy. Stuart arrived next morning," 
and found nothing prepared to dispute 
possession with him but a gunboat, 
which very soon crowded on all steam 
and hurried off in quest of safety. 

McClellan decided not to fight, but 
to fly. Assembling his corps com- 
manders on the evening after Porter's 
defeat, he told them that he had 
determined on a flank movement 
through White Oak Swamp to the 
James ; Gen. Keyes, with his corps, 
being directed to move at once across 
the Swamp in the advance, so as to 
seize and hold the debouches of the 
roads on the James river side of the 
Swamp, thus covering the passage of 
the other troops and trains. Our 
commander, during the night, re- 
moved his headquarters to Savage's 
Station, thence to superintend the 
movement of the corps and trains. 

men between his army of 100,000 and Rich- 

"Had McClellan massed his whole force in 
column, and advanced it against any point of 
our line of battle, as was done at Austerlitz, un- 
der similar circumstances, by the greatest Cap- 
tain of any age, thougii the head of his column 
would have suffered greatly, its momentum 
would have insured him success, and the oc- 
cupation of our works about Richmond; and 
consequently the city might have been his re- 
ward. His failure to do so is the best evidence 
that our wise commander fully understood the 
character of his opponent" 

* June 28. •• June 29. 

Digitized by 




The immense amouuts of provisions, 
munitions, and supplies of all kinds 
that could not be removed, were con- 
signed to destruction; while 2,500 
wounded, who were unable to walk, 
and for whom no ambulances could 
be aflTorded, were left in hospital, 
with surgeons and attendants, to fall 
into the hands of the enemy, 

Lee was evidently puzzled with 
regard to McClellan*s intentions, not 
believing that he could abandon his 
position and the siege without a bat- 
tle. He sent Ewell's infantry, as 
well as some cavalry, down the left 
bank of the Chickahominy, to watch 
the roads leading down the Peninsu- 
la; but, receiving no advices from 
Huger and Magruder, still between 
our army and Richmond, of any 
movement of our trains or forces to- 
ward the James, did not divine that 
movement till late in the afternoon." 
No serious attack or forward move- 
ment was made by the enemy during 
that day; though in the morning, 
perceiving that Gen. Franklin's corps 
were being withdrawn from their 
front at Qolding's farm, opposite 
"Woodbury's Bridge, the Rebels 
opened on them from Garrett's and 
Gaines's Ilill, and soon advanced two 
Georgia regiments to assault our 
works ; but they were easily repulsed 
by the 23d New York and 49th 
Pennsylvania, with a section of 
Mott's battery. 

McCall's weakened division was 
ordered to follow Porter across the 
Swamp during the ensuing night," 
while Sumner's and Heintzelman's 
corps and Smith's division were di- 
rected to take up a line of advance 
stretching eastward from Keyes's old 
intrenchments, and covering Savage's 

Station, which was held by Slocum'i^ 
division. This position they were to 
hold until dark,** so as to cover the 
withdrawal of the trains, and then 
fall back on the roads leading through 
the Swamp. 

Our line of movement — that is, of 
retreat — being now fiilly compre- 
hended by the enemy, Lee ordered 
Longstreet and A. P. Hill to recroes 
the Chickahominy at New Bridge 
and pursue and attack our rear; 
Jackson moving down on their left, 
but between them and the Chicka- 
hominy; while Magruder and Hu- 
ger, advancing from before Richmond 
on the Williamsburg and Charles 
City roads respectively, were to strike 
us in flank. 

Magruder, on the Williamsburg 
road, came in sight of our rear, near 
Savage's Station, about noon ; but, 
finding the business serious, halted 
and sent to Huger for reenforce- 
ments. Meantime, an attack in 
light force had been made, at 9 
A. M.," on Gen. Sumner's front ; but 
it was easily repulsed; and Gen. Slo- 
cum, pursuant to order, had fallen 
back from Savage's Station, and was 
crossing White Oak Swamp. At 4 
p. M., Magruder attacked in full 
force; and, though Gen. Heintzel- 
man, under a misapprehension of 
orders, had posted his corps so far in 
the rear as to leave a gap of three- 
fourths of a mile between Sumner 
and Franklin, Magruder's attack was 
gallantly repelled by Gen. Bums's 
brigade, supported by those of 
Brooks and Hancock, reenforced by 
two lines of reserves, and finally by 
the 69th New York ; Hazzard's, 
Pettit's, Osbom's, and Bramhall's 
batteries playing a most eiFective 

"June 28. 

* Of June 28. 

•♦Of the 29th. 

Digitized by 

* June 29. 




part in this struggle. By 9 p. m., the 
enemy had recoiled, without having 
gained the least advantage ; and our 
soldiers fell back, by order, upon 
White Oak Swamp : Gen. French's 
brigade, forming our rear-guard, be- 
inff in motion by midnight ; crossing 
ana destroying White Oak Swamp 
Bridge at 5 A. BL next morning." 

Jackson, who had been delayed by 
the necessity of rebuilding the Grape- 
vine Bridge over the Chickahominy, 
reached Savage's Station early this 
morning, and was ordered, with 
Longstreet and A. P. Hill, to follow 
inunediately on the track of our 
army, while Huger, supported by 
Magruder, pushed down on our 

McGlellan, with perhaps a third of 
our army, had already emerged from 
the Swamp, upon the high, open 
ground near Malvern Hill ; while 
Gen. Holmes, who had just brought 
part of a Rebel division across from 
the south side of James river to Rich- 
mond, moved down upon the river 
road, reenforced by Gen. "Wise, with 
part of his brigade. Coming in sight 
of our advance near Malvern, he was 
about to open with his artillery, 
when he found that \^e were far too 
strong for him, and recoiled, await- 
ing the advance of Magruder to his 

Jackson was to have deflected to- 
ward the CJhickahominy, so as to gain 
oor right flank and rear ; but his ad- 
vance was checked by the destruc- 
tion of the bridge in his front ; and 
on reaching, at noon. White Oak 
Swamp Bridge, he was confronted 
by Gen. Franklin, with Smith's divi- 
sion of his own corps, and Richard- 
son's, of Sumner's, and Naglee's brig- 

ade, by which all his efforts to cross 
during the day and evening were 
repelled and baffled. A heavy fire 
of artillery, directed by Capt. Ayres, 
was maintained throughout that day 
and evening; Capt. Hazzard's bat- 
tery being badly cut up and its com- 
mander mortally wounded ; but, 
though the enemy replied with equal 
spirit, and inflicted as well as suffered 
much loss, our position was too 
strong to be carried by assault ; and 
every attempt of the Rebels to cross 
the marsh and creek — the bridge 
having been destroyed — was worsted. 
During the night, our troops retired 
by order, leaving 350 sick and 
wounded, and some disabled guns, to 
fall an easy prey to the enemy, as he 
advanced unopposed next morning. 

But the main conflict of the day 
occurred at the crossing of the creek 
some two miles farther up, or to the 
right of Jackson, where Lee in person, 
with Jefferson Davis, accompanied 
Longstreet's advance, at the head of 
his own and A. P. Hill's divisions ; 
encountering no resistance until 
noon, when their advance descried 
our rear-guard, strongly posted upon 
the road leading from New Market 
to Long Bridge, and having; a small 
branch of the White Oak Swamp 
creek in their front. Seeing that we 
were in force, Longstreet waited till 
3 p. M. for the coming up of Huger, 
who was some 3 or 4 miles distant, 
on his right, or Jackson, who was 
still nearer, on his left; but, as 
neither arrived, he at length ordered 
his batteries to open and his infantry 
to charge, under cover of a shower of 

McCall, with his Pennsylvania 
Reserves, which hard fighting had 

vol*, n. — 11 

*June 30. 

Digitized by 




reduced from 10,000 to 6,000 strong, 
was immediately in their front, and 
his men for a tiitie held their ground 
gallantly ; but days of fighting, suc- 
ceeded by nights of marching — al- 
ways, alas ! in the wrong direction — 
had told upon the spirits as well as 
the numbers of these green troops, so 
suddenly transformed into veterans ; 
while the flushed and confident ene- 
my who assailed them were twice if 
not thrice their number. An attempt 
to crush their left by the Rebels was 
met by a charge of the 5th, 8th, 9th, 
and 10th regiments, led by Col. Sim- 
mons, of the 5th, which hurled the 
enemy back to the woods in their 
rear, leaving about 200 prisoners in 
our hands, who were triumphantly 
marched off the field. But here 
Simmons fell, mortally wounded; 
while hundreds of his soldiers strewed 
the field ; and the charging column, 
broken as it entered the woods, was 
unable to reform under the murder- 
ous fire of the enemy's infantry and 
artillery, and fell back in disorder to 
the woods behind its original posi- 
tion, which they held until night put 
an end to the contest. 

A succession of desperate struggles 
ensued : Ae Rebels rushing forward 
in charge after charge to capture our 
guns, which poured volleys of grape 
and canister, at short range, into 
their close masses, sweeping them 
down by hundreds and forcing them 
to recoil in dismay ; when our sup- 
porting laments would pour a 
leaden hail of musketry upon the 

flanks of the baffled column, hurling 
it back in confrision to the sheltering 
forest. Thus, for two hours, the des- 
perate conflict raged ; until Kems's 
battery, having fired its last cdiarge, 
was, by McCall's order, withdrawn 
from the field, and Col. Roberts's in- 
fantry, having just repulsed a ReW 
charge, was charged again on its 
left flank and driven from the field 
by a fi-esh force, which, rushing fdri- 
ously on Cooper's battery, drove off 
the gunners and captured the gong: 
A counter-chai^ was instantly made 
by the 9th, with parts of other regi- 
ments; and, after a desperate but 
brief struggle, the battery was re- 
covered, and the standard of the 10th 
Alabama taken. The Reserves still 
held the field, and not one of their 
guns had been lost, when, between 
sunset and dark, Meagher's Irish brig- 
ade, of Hooker's division, came up 
on our left, and, charging desperately 
across the open field, drove the 
Rebels back again into the woods. 

McCall's right, under Gen. Meade, 
had been likewise engaged with ove^ 
whelming numbers, by whom a final 
charge was made, just at dark, for 
the possession of Ilandall's battery; 
which was carried at the point of the 
bayonet, though at a fearftil cost 
Gens. McCall and Meade instantly 
rallied their infantry for its recapture, 
and a hand-to-hand struggle of un- 
surpassed ferocity ensued, wherein 
the Reserves were overpowered and 
driven back, though the Rebels had 
suffered" too severely to pursue 

" Brig.-Gen. Roger A. Pryor, 5th brigade of 
Longstreefs corps, says : 

" About 4 o*dock, I received an order firom 
Miy.-Gen. Longstreet to go into the fight At 
once, I moved in line toward the field ; but the 
wood and other obstructions forced me to form 
column and send mj regiments in successively. 
Arriving on the field, I discovered that the brig- 

ade on my right had been repulsed, and that my 
command were exposed to a destructive fire on 
the fiank as well as in fh>nt. Nevertbelees. 
they stood their ground, and sustained the un- 
equal combat untU reenforced by the brigade of 
Gren. Gregg. We did not return to our CMriginal 
position until the enemy had abandoned the field 
and surrendered his artillery into our posaessioD. 

Digitized by 




them« Even the guns, so severely 
contested, were not held by them ; 
the cheers of a New Jersey brigade, 
advancing in the dusk to the relief 
of McCall, impelling them to fall 
back in haste to the woods. In this 
closing struggle, Gen. Meade was 
eeverdy wounded in the arm and 
hip ; Gen. McCall, who had lost all 
his brigadiers, riding forward a short 
distance to reconnoiter the apparently 
deserted field, was suddenly con- 
fronted by the leveled muskets of 
Rebel infantry, and compelled to 
yield himself a prisoner ; and when 
Gen. Seymour, who had succeeded to 
the command, withdrew by order, at 
11 p. M., to share in or cover the 
general retreat, the batteries of the 
division, their horses long since 
tilled, their men worn out with 
desperate fighting, were left on the 
hard-fought field, where nearly one- 
fourth of the division had been killed 
or wounded. 

The noise of this vehement strug- 
gle had brought Hooker, from our 
left, and Bums's brigade, and Tay- 
lor's Ist New Jersey brigade, from 
Slocum's division, to the aid of 
tfeCaU; so that we were doubtless 
in force to have won the battle just 
after we had lost it, had any daylight 
remained. Gen. Sumner, speaking 
from hear-say, thus mistakenly re- 
ports it: 

''The battle of Glendale was the most 
•evere action since the battle of Fair Oaks. 
A boot tbree o'clock p. m., the action com- 

In this engagemept, my loss was uncommonly 
™«Tr in of&cera as well as men. The 14th 
Alabama, bearing the brunt of the struggle, 
^ neailj annihUated I crossed the Chicka- 
nominy on the 26th, with 1,400 men. In the 
flf^ta that followed, I suffered a loss of 849 
Utod and wounded, and 11 missing." 

OoL J. B. Strange, commanding 3d brigade, 2d 
^▼ision of Longstreet's corps, in his report of 

raenced ; and, after a furious contest, lasting 
till after dark, the enemy was routed at all 
points and driven from the field.'' 

Heintzelman, who was present 

after the battle, also very mistakenly 

reports that McCall was not attacked 

till 5 p. M., and that in less than an 

hour his division gave way ; adding : 

" General Hooker, being on his left, by 
moying to his right^ repulsed the Rebels 
in the handsomest manner, with great 
slaughter. Gen. Sumner, who was with 
Gen. Sedgwick in McOall's rear, also greatly 
aided with his artillery and infantry in driv- 
ing back the enemy. ,They now renewed 
their attack with vigor on Gen. Kearny's 
left, and were again repulsed with heavy 

Lee, more plausibly though not 

quite fairly, says : 

" The superiority of numbers and advan- 
tage of position were on the side of the ene- 
my. The battle raged furiously until 9 p. m. 
By that time, the enemy had been driven 
with great slaughter from every position but 
one, which he maintained until he was 
enabled to withdraw under cover of dark- 
ness. At the close of the struggle, nearly 
the entire field remained in our possession, 
covered with the enemy's dead and wound- 
ed. Many prisoners, including a General 
of division, were captured ; and several bat- 
teries, with some thousands of small arms, 
taken. Could the other commands have 
cooperated in the action, the result would 
have proved most disastrous to the enemy. 
Aft^r the engagement, Magruder was re- 
called to relieve the troops of Longstreet 
and Hill. His men, much fatigued by their 
long, hot march, arrived during the night." 

Fitz-John Porter, having been 
misled as well as delayed in his pas- 
sage through the Swamp, had only 
reached Maxvebn Hill at 9 a. m.," 
when he proceeded to post his troops, 
as they arrived, so as to command 

" The brigade carried into action 723 muskets ; 
and of this small number the loss was 228, in- 
cluding 4 officers killed and 13 wounded." 

Gen. C. M. Wilcox reports the loss of his Ala- 
bama brigade in this battls at 471. Among the 
Rebel wounded were Brig.-Gens. Anderson and 
Featherston. It is probable that the respective 
losses here were about equal 

"June 30. 

Digitized by 




all the approaches, but especially 
those from Kichmond and the 
Swamp. The last of our trains and 
our reserve artillery reached him 
about 4 p. M. of this day ; about the 
time that Holmes^s force, moving 
down the James, appeared on our 
left flank (our army having here 
faced about), and opened a fire of 
artillery on Warren's brigade, on our 
extreme left. He was at once aston- 
ished by a concentrated fire fi-om 30 
guns, and recoiled in haste, abandon- 
ing two of his cannon. 

The rear of our wasted, wayworn 
army reached the position assigned 
it, upon and around Malvern Hill, 
during the next forenoon," closely 
pursued by the converging columns 
of the Rebels. The anxious days 
and sleepless nights of the preceding 
week; the constant and resolute 
efforts required to force their 40 miles 
of guns and trains over the narrow, 
wretched roads which traverse White 
Oak Swamp ; their ignorance of the 
locality and exposure to be ambushed 

and assailed at every turn, rendered 
this retreat an ordeal for our men 
long to be remembered." Gen. Mc- 
Clellan had reached Malvern the pre- 
ceding day. Early this morning, 
leaving Gen. Barnard with directions 
for posting the troops as they arrived, 
he had gone down the river on the 
gunboat Galena fi-om Haxall's, to 
select a position whereon his retreat 
should definitively terminate. 

Jackson's corps, consisting of his 
own, with Whitmg's, D. H. Hiirs, 
and Ewell's divisions, came in the 
Rebel advance down the Quaker 
Road, whereon our army had mainly 
emerged from the Swamp; while 
Magruder, with most of Huger's 
division, advancing on the direct 
roads from Richmond, menaced and 
soon assailed our left. Longstreet's 
and A. P. Hill's divisions, having 
had the heaviest of the fighting thus 
far, and been badly cut up, were held 
in reserve by Lee in the rear of Jack- 
son, and were not brought into 
action. It is none the less true, how- 

" July 1. 

** Mr. Samuel Wilkeson, who shared in this ex- 
perience, wrote of it as follows to 2%e New York 

''Huddled among the wagons were 10,000 
stragglers — for the credit of the nation be it said 
that four-fifths of them were wounded, sick, or 
utterly exhausted, and could not have stirred 
but for dread of the tobacco warehouses of the 
South. The confusion of this herd of men and 
mules, wagons and wounded, men on horses, 
men on foot, men by the road-side, meu perched 
on wagons,, men' searching for water, men fam- 
ishing for food, men lame and bleeding, men with 
ghostly eyes, looking out between bloody band- 
ages, that hid the face — turn to some vivid ac- 
count of the most pitiful part of Napoleon's re- 
treat from Russia, and fill out the picture — the 
grim, gaunt, bloody picture of war in its most 
terrible features. 

"It was determined to move on during the 
night The distance to Turkey Island Bridge, 
the point on James river which was to be 
reached, by the direct road was six miles. But 
those vast numbers could not move over one 
narrow road in days; hence every by-road, no 

matter how circuitous, had been searched out by 
questioning prisoners and by cavalry eicursioiis. 
Every one was filled by one of the advandog 
columns. The whole ^ont was in motion by 
seven p. M., Gen. Keyes in command of the ad- 

" I rode with Gen. Howe's brigade of Couch's 
division, taking a wagon-track through dense 
woods and precipitous ravines winding sinuously 
far aroimd to the left, and striking the river 
some distance below Turkey Island. Commeno- 
ing at dusk, the march continued until daylight 
The night was dark and foarfuL Heavy thunder 
rolled in turn along each point of the heavens, and 
dark clouds overspread the entire canopy. We 
were forbidden to speak aloud; and, lest delight 
of a cigar should present a target for an am- 
bushed rifie, we were cautioned not to smoke. 
Ten miles of weary marching, with frequent 
halts, as some one of the hundred veliicles of 
the artillery train, in our center, by a slight de- 
viation, crashed against a tree, wore away the 
hours to dawn, when we debouched into a mag- 
nificent wheat-field, and the smoke-stack of the 
Gralena was in sight. Xonophon's remnant of 
the Ten Thousand, shoutmg, * The seal the seal* 
were not more glad than we." 

Digitized by 




erer, that the entire Army of Vir- 
ginia was present, engaged in or sup- 
porting the attack, and animated by 
a sanguine confidence that its re- 
sults could differ only in being more 
decisive from those of the recent 
bloody conflicts. But much time 
was consumed in getting into position 
and bringing up the artillery neces- 
sary to respond to our heavy and 
well-placed batteries, so as to cover 
the advance of assaulting columns of 

Jackson, at 3 p. k., pushed forward 
D. H. Hill's division on his right, 
and Whiting's on his left, with part 
of Ewell's in the center, holding his 
own division in reserve; Huger 
simultaneously advancing on their 
right, with Magruder's three divi- 
sions on his right, under general 
orders to break our lines by a con- 
centric fire of artillery, and then 
" charge with a yell" on our entire 
front with columns of infantry, 
which, however torn and thinned by 
our fire, should rush right over our 
defenses, as they did in the final as- 
sault at Gtiines's Mill, and drive our 
fugitive army into the James far more 
hurriedly than Porter's wing had been 
driven across the Chickahominy. 

The infantry attack, after a brief 
cannonade, was made accordingly, and 
for the most part with great intrepid- 
ity; and, though the carnage was fear- 
ful, some ground was gained by Ma- 
gruder on our left, where Kershaw's 
and Semmes's brigades, of McLaws's 
division, chai^d through a dense 
wood, nearly up to our guns ; as did 
those of Wright, Mahone, and An- 
derson, still farther to their right, 
and Barksdale, nearer to the center ; 
while D. H. Hill, with Jackson's fore- 
most division, charged on Couch's 

and Griffin's divisions, holding our 
advimee ua tlio right* Being iiii&up- 
purted, however, by tlie general ad- 
vanc«3 which liati been ordered. Hill 
was h lulled liat^k with heavy logs, 
tlioiigh Ewell'fi and Jackson's own 
di\ i scions had meantime been sent 
fonvard to Ijis aid ; as A. P. Hill's 
division was hrought up by Long- 
street to the aid of Magnider, 


A WRrren's briiifvJt? 
B Burhucian^it 
C l-hajtu tan's 

F ButtirflMlirs 

J HiMit,t*r'* 
K Sfilioclrk'fl 

M i^Tnltli'N 
K S:*hheuni'» 

o ^^c< Birt 

I* rBTJilirjr 

■ Pftrttf'a cordis. 



ri'intKe] nun's cur[>a. 


Porter, with Sykos's imd Hnrell's 
divisionti, held viir lei% with Coudrs 

Digitized by 




division next, then Kearny and Hook- 
er, forming Heintzelman's corps ; next 
to these^ Sedgwick and Kichardson, 
under Sumner ; with Smith and Slo- 
cum, under Franklin, on our right ; 
while McCall's shattered Pennsylva- 
nia Eeserves and our cavalry were 
posted in the rear, near the river. 
Batteries above batteries, along the 
brow of the hill, rendered the attack 
little less than madness, on any other 
presumption than that our men were 
cowards, who, if resolutely charged, 
would inevitably run. Apart from 
the great strength of our position, we 
had more men than the Rebels, and 
many more and heavier guns ; and 
then the battle opened too late in 
the day to justify a rational hope of 
success: the main assault being made, 
after a very considerable pause for 
preparation, so late as 6 p. m. ; yet it 
was made with such desperation — the 
sheltering woods enabling the Eebels 
to form their columns of assault with- 
in a few hundred yards of our bat- 
teries, emerging on a full run, and 
rushing upon our lines in utter reck- 
lessness of their withering fire — ^that 
Sickles's brigade of Hooker's division, 
and Meagher's, of Richardson's divis- 

ion, were ordered up to the 8Tq)port 
of Porter and Couch, who held our 
right front, which Jackson was charg- 
ing ; but not one of our guns wm 
even temporarily captured or seri- 
ously imperiled throughout the fight, 
wherein the losses of the Rebels must 
have been at least treble our own." 
Darkness closed this one-sided ca^ 
nage ; though our guns were not all 
silent till 9 o^clock, when the Rebels 
on our front had been fairly driven 
out of range; though on our left they 
sunk to rest in ravines and hollows 
somewhat in advance of the ground 
they had held when their artillery 
first opened. And still, as throngh- 
out the struggle, our gunboats con- 
tinued to throw their great nuBsiles 
clear over the left of our position, 
into the fields and woods occu- 
pied by the enemy, probably doing 
little positive execution, since that 
enemy was not in sight, but adding 
materially to the discomforts of his 
position. Gen. McClellan, who had 
been down to Harrison's Bar in the 
Galena, in the morning, landed to- 
ward night, and was on the field 
during the last desperate charge of 
the enemy." ^ 

** Jackson reports the loss of his corps (com- 
prising his own, Ewell*8, Whiting's^ and D. H. 
HiU's divisions) in this fight: 377 kUled, 1,746 
wounded, 39 missing; total, 2,162. Magruder 
thinks his loss wiU not exceed 2,900 lolled and 
wounded, out of 26,000 or 28,000 under his or- 
ders. Brig.-Gton. Ransom reports the losses in 
his brigade at 499, out of 3,000. Brig.-Gen. 
Mahone, of Huger's division, reports a total loss 
of 321, out of 1,226. Gen. A. R. Wright reports 
the loss of his already weakened brigade, in 
this fight, at 362. D. R. Jones reports the 
bsses in his division at 833. Among the 
wounded in this fight were Brig.-Gen. Jones, 
Va.; CJol. Ransom, 36th N. C.,* severely; and 
OoL Ramseur, 49th N. 0. 

Brig.-Gen. J. R Trimble, of Bwell's divis- 
ion, giving an account of the conduct of his bri- 
gade in this battle, says: 

" The next morning, by dawn, I went off to 
ask for orders ; when I found the whole army 
in the utmost disorder ; thousands of straggling 
men asking every passer-by for their regiment; 
ambulances, wagons, and artillery, obstructing 
every road ; and altogether, in a drenching rain, 
presenting a scene of the most woeful and dis- 
heartening confusion.^' 

^ There has been much unseemly controvert 
respecting McClellan's being or not being on a 
gunboat during this action ; the interest thereof 
being heightened by this passage in Gen. M.*s 
testimony before the Committee on the Conduct 
of the War: 

^^ Question: Were you down to the river, or on 
board the gunboats during any part of that day. 
between the time you left the field and your re- 
turn to it? 

^•Answer: I do not remember; it is possible I 
may have been, as my camp was directly on the 

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Our victorious army b^an at once 
to evacuate, by order," the strong 
poution wherein they had just 
achieved so decided and bloody a 
SQoeess, leaving their dead unburied 
and many of their wounded to fall 
into the hands of the enemy ; mak- 
ing a hurried and disorderly" night- 
march, over roads badly overcrowd- 
ed, to the next position selected by 
their commander, at Harrison's Bar, 
seven miles down the James. The 
movement was . covered by Keyes's 
corps, with the cavalry, which did 

not leave Malvern till after daylight 
of the 2d. The last of our wagons 
was not in place at the new position 
till the evening of the 3d, when the 
rear-guard moved into camp, and 
the army was at rest. A small 
Eebel force had followed our rear- 
guard, and this day threw a few 
shells; but was soon driven off by 
the response of our batteries and 

Gen. McClellan reports the aggre- 
gate losses of his army in the Seven 
Days' fighting and retreating, from 

Tbe foUowiDg extract from the Diary of Dr. 
K E. Van Grieson, then Surgeon of the gunboat 
Gtlena, of which tbe accuracy is not disputed, 
•eems to embody all the essential facts : 

"U. S. Stbameb Galbha, July 1, 1862. 
"9 A. x. McClellan has just come on board 

•* 10 A. M. Under way down the river, taking 
McClellan with us ; who, being considerably fa- 
tigued, has gone into the cabin for a little sleep. 
About noon, we came to Harrison^s Bar. 

** 12:30 p. If. Tug came alongside, and took 
McCleilan and Franklin to the encampment. In 
about an hour, McClellan returned, when we start- 
ed up the river. As we pass on up, we can hear 
heavy firing. Aiter passing Carter's Landing, it 
increases to a perfect roar. McClellan, though 
<Iiiietly smddng a cigar on the quarter-dedc, 
seems a little anxious, and looks now and then 
inquiringly at the signal officer, who is receiving 
a message from shore. After a while, the sig- 
nal officer reports * Heavy firing near Porter's 
Division!' Next came a message demanding his 
prosence (m shore. A boat is manned, and Mc- 
Cfeflan left. The firing still continues — nearer 
and louder than before. About 6 p. ic, we ran 
a little farther up, and threw in a few shell with 
good effect 

" 9 p. M. The firing has about ceased. News 
on shore — * Slaughter immense' — 'Enemy in 
fun retreat' 

" 10 p. iL McClellan has just returned with 
G«n. Marcy. Mac says *They took one gun 
from ufl yesterday ; but to-day we have taken 
nmaj of their guns and odors.' 

** * Tes,' said Marcy, * we whipped them like the 
devH to-day.' 

** 12 x. From what I can gather fh>m the 
eanrertation of McClellan, we may expect to see 
the magor part of the army at Harrison's Land- 
n^ to-morrow." 

Geo. KcCleUan, in his report, says: 

^ I left Haxall's for Malvern soon after day- 

tit'Mk. Aooompfluiied by several general officers, 

I onoe more made the entire circuit of the posi- 

tioti, and then retnmed to Haxall's, whence I 

n( with Capt Eodgers to s^ect the final loca- 

tion for the army and its dep6ts. I returned to 
Malvern before the serious fighting commenced ; 
and, after riding along the lines, and seeing most 
cause to feel anxious about the right, remained 
in that vicinity." 

The Rebels made no attack on our right, and 
it was at no time in action. 

**Even Fitz-John Porter's devotion to his 
chief was temporarily shaken by this order, 
which elicited his most indignant protest 

**Gen. Hooker, when examined before the 
Committee on the Conduct of the War, testified 
with regard to this afiahr as follows : 

" Ques. : Were you in the battle of Malvern ? 

^^ Answer: Yes, sir; and at that place we 
won a great victory. 

" Q. : Could you have gone into Richmond 
after that fight? 

"il.; I have no doubt we oould. The day 
before, I had had a fight at Glendale ; and, un- 
der the orders, 1 had to leave my wounded be- 
hind me, and I left two surgeons to take care of 
them. The enemy, in coming to Malvern, had 
to march right by my hospital. My surgeons 
afterward reported to me that, abou: 3 p. u. on 
the day of the battle of Malvern, the enemy 
commenced falling back, and kept it up dl 
night; that they were totally demoraUzed, 
many of the men going off into the woods and 
trying to conceal themselves from their officers; 
and that they were two days collecting their 
forces together. 

** Q. : Had the defeat of the enemy at Malvern 
been followed up by our whole force, what 
would have been the probable result 7 

^''A.: Richmond would have been ours be- 
yond a donbt 

" Q. : Instead of that, you fell back to Harri- 
son's Landing 7 

" A. : Yes, sir. We were ordered to retreat; 
and it was like the retreat of a whipped army. 
We retreated like a parcel of sheep ; everybody 
on the road at the same time; and a few shots 
from the Rebels would have panic-stricken the 
wlM^e Gonmumd." 

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Mechanicsville to Harrison's Bar, at 
1,582 killed, 7,709 wounded, and 
6,958 missing ; total, 15,249." This 
may or may not indude those aban- 
doned to the enemy in hospitals, 
most of whom are probably numbered 
among the wounded. Lee's report 
does not state the amount of his 
losses, but says it is contained in 
" the accompanying tables ;" which 
the Confederate authorities did not 
see fit to print with his report. He 
sxmiB up his trophies as follows : 

*^ The siege of Richmond was raised ; and 
the object of a campaign which had been 
prosecuted, after months of preparation, at 
an enormons expenditure of men and 
money, completely frustrated. More than 
10,000 prisoners, including officers of rank, 
52 pieces of artillery, and upwards of 85,000 
stand of small arms, were captured. The 
stores and supplies of every description, 
which fell into our hands, were great in 
amount and value, but small in comparison 
with those destroyed by the enemy. His 
losses in battle exceeded our own, as attest- 
ed by the thousands of dead and wounded 
left on every field; while his subsequent 
inaction shows in what condition the sur- 
vivors reached the protection to which they 

The " inaction" thus vaunted was 
mutual. Lee did not see fit to re- 
peat at Harrison's Bar his costly ex- 
periment at Malvern; but, after 
scrutinizing our hastily constructed 
defenses, and guessing at the num- 
bers and spirit of the men behind 
them, withdrew ** to Kichmond, leav- 
ing but a brigade of cavalry to watch 
and report any fresh evidences of ac- 
tivity on our side. None being af- 
forded, he sent Gen. French, with 43 
guns, to approach Harrison's Bar 
stealthily on the south side of the 

*• £4^t qfHUed, icoufuUd and miwinp in the Army of 
the Potomac, from the ifith of June to the l9t of 
July, 1962, inclueive. 

KUUd. Woun'd. MiM'g. Total 

1. McOall's division 258 1,240 1,581 8,074 

S. Sumner's c«>rp8 1«*7 1,076 B4S 2,111 

& Heintzelman's "^ 189 1,051 S8d 2,078 

i. Keyes* *♦ 69 607 201 777 

river, during the night," and open a 
fire on our camps and vessels, where- 
by we had 10 killed and 15 wounded, 
with some little damage to tenta, &c 
French desisted after half an hour's 
firing, or so soon as our guns were 
brought to bear upon him, and de- 
camped before daylight. Gkn. Mc- 
Clellan thereupon occupied and for- 
tified Coggin's Point, on that side of 
the river; and was no farther mo- 






\ -.A 



\ \ ■/ \ 

1 V -^ 



1 **<riBCHKLEY - 





V^./ ■ 




' / 

V^4 V^t )4 9 MILES 




Evep if we raise our actual losses 
of men in the Seven Days' to 20,000, 
it is doubtful that they much, if at all, 
exceeded those of the Rebels, whose 

JiLiiled. Woiin'd, Miw^g. Total 

6. Porter's corps 620 2,460 1,198 4.278 

a FraDklin's *• 245 lil8 1-17» 2,787 

Engineers. — 2 21 28 

Cavalry 19 60 97 176 



.1.58S 7,709 5,906 153«» 
« July 31. 

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recklesB attacks on onr strong posi- 
tions at Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mill, 
Glendale, and Malvern, being stoutly 
resisted, must have cost them very 
dearly. The official reports of two 
oorpe commanders show an aggre- 
gate of 9,336 killed, wounded, and 
miasing ;" while other ** subordinate 
reports indicate heavy losses in other 
divisions. On the whole, it is fair to 
estimate our total loss at 15,000 
killed and wounded, and 5,000 un- 
wounded prisoners; and the Kebel 
as at least equal to ours, minus the 
prisoners and the guns. 

Gen. McClellan had telegraphed 
the President from Haxall's, on the 
morning of this battle, that: "My 
men are completely exhausted, and I 
dread the result if we are attacked 
to^y by fresh troops." Next day 
(2d), he telegraphed from Harrison's 
Bar that, " As usual, we had a severe 
battle yesterday, and beat the enemy 
badly ; the men fighting even better 
than before." Next day (3d), he 
telegraphed again to the Secretary 
of War that he presumed he had not 
over "50,000 men left with their 
colors;" and that, "To accomplish 
the great task of capturing Eich- 
mond and putting an end to this Be- 
bellion, reenforcements should be sent 
to me rather much over than less 
than 100,000 men." The President 
had advised hira, the day before, that 

there were, in all, east of the Alle- 
ghanies, less than 75,000 men not 
already on the James, including 
those under Gen. "Wool at Fortress 
Monroe; so that to send him even 
50,000 was impossible. 

The President went down " to the 
Army at Harrison's Bar, and found 
86,000 men there. As 160,000 had 
gone into that Army on the Penin- 
sula, he wrote for an account of the 
residue. Gen. M. replied " that his 
force then " present for duty" num- 
bered 88,665; absent by authority, 
34,472; absent without authority, 
3,778 ; sick, 16,619 ; present and ab- 
sent, 144,407. Of those absent by 
authority, he says that one-half were 
probably fit for duty ; but, having got 
away on sick leave or otherwise, had 
failed to return. The Adjutant- 
General's oflSce reported (July 20th) 
Gen. McClellan's army as numbering 
— Present for duty, 101,691 ; on spe- 
cial duty, sick, or in arrest, 17,828 ; 
abse^t, 38,795 ; total, 158,314. This 
does not include Gen. Wool's nor 
Gen. Bumside's force, then at or 
near Fortress Monroe, 

Upon a suggestion" from Gen. 
Halleck at Washington that deserters 
had reported the Rebels moving 
southward of the James, leaving but 
a small force in Eichmond, Gen. 
McClellan ordered G^n. Hooker, 
with his own division and Pleasan- 

• KiU4d, WowCd. MMg. ToUil. 

JadtBon'8 »M 4,417 «8 6,446 

A.P. HUl's «19 Mn — 8,S90 

Total ..,.1,685 7,« 

68 9,886 

• Brig.-Geii. R S. Ripley, Rebel chief of ar- 
tOlerj, reports that his brigade entered into 
these fights 2,366 strong, including pioneers and 
ambolanoe corps, of whom 889 fell at Halvern, 
tnd 3 ont of 4 Colonels were Jellied. Brig.-Gen. 
GarlAod reports his loss in all the battles at 192 
kiUed, 637 wounded, 15 missing; total, 844. 

Howell Cobb reports that his brigade, of Ma- 
gruder*8 division, went into battle at Savage's 
Station 2,700 strong; whereof but 1,500 ap- 
peared on the battle-field of Malvern, where 
nearly 600 of them were killed and wounded. 
Among the Rebel officers killed during the 
Seven Days were Gten. Griffith, Miss. ; Ools. C. 
C. Pegues, 5th Ala., Allen, 2d Va, Fulkerson, 
commanding Texas brigade, and Lt-CoL Faiaon, 
3d N. C. 
•• July 7. " July 15. " July 30. 

Digitized by 




ton's cavalry, to advance upon and 
seize Malvern HilL Through the 
incompetency of his guides, Hooker's 
first attempt miscarried ; but it was 
renewed the next night," and, not- 
withstanding the ample notice of it 
given to the enemy, proved an easy 
success; Hooker driving the Rebels 
from Malvern with a loss of barely 
14, and taking 100 prisoners; Col. 
Averill, with part of Pleasanton's 
cavalry, pushing north to White Oak 
Swamp Bridge, driving thence the 
10th Virginia cavalry and capturing 
28 men and horses. This advance, 
promptly and vigorously followed up 
in force, would doubtless have placed 
McClellan in Richmond forthwith. 

But Gen. M. had already received 
an order " directing a withdrawal of 
his army by water to Acquia creek, 
to support a fresh demonstration on 
Richmond from the Rappahannock ; 
which order he began " most reluct- 
antly to obey; of course, recalling 
Gen . Hooker from Malvern. He was 
now eager to resume the offensive 
with far smaller reenforcements than 
he had recently pronounced indis- 
pensable, and suggested that, in ad- 
dition to Bumside's men, they might 
be spared him from Pope's army on 
the Rappahannock and from the 
West. Gen. Halleck — assuming the 
correctness of McClellan's own mis- 
taken assumption as to the strength 
of the Rebel Army of Virginia — ^re- 
plied ** with crushing cogency as fol- 

" Allow me to allade to a few of the facts 
in the case. 

" Yon and yonr officers at our interview 
estimated the enemy's forces in and around 
Richmond at 200,000 men. Since then, 
you and others report that they have re- 
ceived and are receiving large rCenforce- 

ments from the South. Gen. Pope's army, 
now covering Washington, is only about 
40,000. Your effective force is only about 
90,000. You are about thirty miles from 
Eichmond, and Gen. Pope eighty or ninety, 
with the enemy directly between yoo, 
ready to fall with his superior numbers 
upon one or the other, as he may elect; 
neither can rSenforce the other in case of 
such an attack. 

" If Gen. Pope's army be diminished to 
rSenforce you, Washington, Maryland, and 
Pennsylvania would be left uncovered and 
exposed. If your force be reduced to 
strengthen Pope, you would be too weak to 
even hold the position you now occupy, 
should the enemy turn around and attack 
you in full force. In other words, the old 
Army of the Potomac is split into two parts, 
with the entire force of the enemy directly 
between them. They cannot be united by 
land without exposing both to destruction ; 
and yet they must be united. To send 
Pope's forces by water to the Peninsula, is, 
under present circumstances, a military im- 
possibility. The only alternative is to send 
the forces on the Peninsula to some point 
by water — say Fredericksburg — where tJie 
two armies can be united. » * * 

" But, you will reply, why not rSenforce 
me here, so that I can strike Richmond 
from my present position ? To do this, you 
said at our interview, that you required 
80,000 additional troops. I told you that 
it was impossible to give you so many. 
You finally thought that you would have 
some chance of success with 20,000. But 
you afterward telegraphed me that you 
would require 85,000, as the enemy was 
being largely rSenforced. 

" If your estimate of the enemy's strength 
was correct, your requisition was perfectly 
reasonable ; but it was utterly impossible to 
fill it until new troops could be enlisted 
and organized ; which would require several 

" To keep your army in its present posi- 
tion until it could be so rfienforced, would 
almost destroy it in that climate. The 
months of August and September are al- 
most fatal to whites who live on that part 
of James river ; and, even after you receive 
the reenforcements asked for, you admitted 
that you must reduce Fort Barling and the 
river batteries before you could advance on 

" It is by no means certain that the re- 
duction of these fortifications would not re- 
quire considerable time — ^perhaps as much 
as those at Yorktown. 

" This delay might not only be fetal to 
the health of your army, but in the mean 

' August 4-5. 

' On the 4th, dated 3d. 

^ August 7. 

' August 6. 

Digitized by 




time Qen. Pope's forces would be exposed 
to the heavj blows of the enemy, without 
the slightest hope of assistance from yon. 

" In regard to the demoralizing effect of 
t withdrawal from the Peninsula to the 
Rappahannock, I must remark that a large 
number of your highest oflScers — indeed, a 
m^ority of those whose opinions have been 
reported to me — are decidedly in favor of 
the movement. Even several of those wbo 
originally advocated the line of the Penin- 
sola, now advise its abandonment.'* 

Gen. McClellan forthwith com- 
menced embarking his sick and 
five of his batteries, which had been 
assigned to Bnmside; who, having 
been ordered on the 1st to Acquia 
creek, had immediately reembarked 
his men, reaching his destination on 
the 3d, and promptly sending back 
his vessels to McClellan, who had 
been invested with complete control 
over the immense fleet of transports 
then in the Potomac, Hampton 
Roads, and the James. The latter 
commenced as if expecting to embark 
his entire force, including even the 
cavalry, at Harrison's Bar; but re- 
peated and urgent messages from 
Washington, announcing" that the 
Bebels were crossing the Bapidan in 
force, and pressing Pope, soon im- 
pelled him to move the bulk of his 
troops by land to Fortress Monroe ; 
the two leading corps (Porter's and 
Heintzelman's), preceded by AverilPs 

cavalry, taking that road on the 14:th, 
crossing the Chickahominyby a pon- 
toon-bridge at Barrett^s Ferry and 
at Jones's Bridge; and Gen. M., 
^vith the rear-guard, breaking camp 
and following the army on the 16th ; 
crossing and removing the pontoon- 
bridge on the morning of the 18th. 
The retreat was covered by Gen. 
Pleasanton with the remaining 

Gen. Porter was under orders to 
halt the advance at Williamsburg 
until the crossing was complete ; but, 
intercepting there a letter which ap- 
prised him that the enemy were con- 
centrating rapidly on Pope, with 
intent to crush him before he could 
be reenforced, he took the responsi- 
bility of pressing on to Newport 
News, which he reached on the 18th, 
having marched 60 miles in three 
days ; and on the 20th his corps had 
embarked and was on its way to 
Acquia creek. On that day, the last 
of the army had reached its prescrib- 
ed points of embarkation at York- 
town, Newport News, and Fortress 
Monroe.** Heintzelman embarked 
at Yorktown on the 21st ; Franklin 
at Fortress Monroe on the 22d; 
Keyes had been left at Yorktown to 
cover the embarkation, should any 

•^ August 10. 

•" Gen. Tktor Le Due, who entered the service 
m Cuptain and A. Q. M., and who acted as Di- 
Tirion QnarteTmaster throughout the retreat 
from before Richmond, and thence to Fortress 
Monroe, being promoted for eminent efflciency 
to be a Corps Quartermaster thereafter, thus 
loms up, in his priyate ditry, under date of Sept 
Ijt-ath, 1S62, the results of his experience and 
obserrntioii : 

" I am confident that there has been gross 
tmimanagement in this whole affair. With all 
the reeonrcee that Goremment places in the 
hands of ofBoers, the Army of the Potomac 
ihoold hare been transferred from the Peninsula 
to Acquia creek or Alexandria and landed, and 

in as good condition as when they embarked, all 
within two weeks. Each corps as a unit should 
have been embarked and landed by itself, and 
its transportation have accompanied it; and, 
with the two wharves at Newport News, incon- 
venient as they are, three days and nights was 
ample time in which to put the transportation 
on shipboard ; three days more would have been 
occupied in discharging it off and setting it up, 
and one day in transitu — seven days. Three 
corps could have shipped at the same time— one 
at Fortress Monroe, one at Newport News, and 
one at Yorktown. It has taken, in fact, nearly 
one month ; and will be an entire month before 
ail have arrived.*' 

This view assumes that sufficient transporta- 
tion was alwa3rs in readiness exactly where and 
when it was requued; which is unproved. 

Digitized by 




Rebel force be sent down the Penin- 
Bula on the track of our army ; but 
there was none, and our retreat was 
entirely unmolested — ^the attention 
and forces of the enemy being now 
absorbingly devoted to Pope. Gen. 
McClellan and staff embarked at 
Fortress Monroe on the 23d, and re- 
ported at Acquia creek next day; 
coming up to Alexandria, by Gen. 
Halleck's request, on the 26th. 

Thus ended the unfortunate Pen- 
insular campaign of the magnificent 
Army of the Potomac. Its xmsuc- 
cess was due to the fact that the 
enemy nearly always chose the time 
and place of combat; and, though 
uniformly inferior in aggregate num- 

bers, usually contrived to bring the 
larger force into action — ^fighting two- 
thirds to three-fourths of his entire 
strength against one-fourth to one- 
half of ours. Our commander, in- 
cessantly calling urgently for reen- 
forcements, never brought into action 
nearly all he already had, save that 
at Malvern the enemy forced a con- 
flict before our army could again be 
scattered, and thus incurred a sting- 
ing repulse, though a large portion 
of our men were, even then, not 
enabled to fire a shot. Never before 
did an army so constantly, pressingly 
need to be reenforced — not by a 
corps, but by a leader ; not by men, 
but by a man. 



Gen. John Pope, having been 
summoned from the West for the 
purpose, was selected by the Presi- 
dent, after consultation with Gen. 
Scott, for the command of a force to 
be designated the Army of Virginia, 
and to consist of all the troops then 
covering Washington or holding the 
lower end of the Shenandoah Valley. 
This army was to be composed of 
three corps, under Maj.-Gens. Fre- 
mont, Banks, and McDowell respec- 
tively; but Gen. Fremont was re- 
lieved, at his own request, from serv- 
ing under one whom he regarded as 
his junior, and the command of his 
corps assigned to Gen. Sigel. The 
entire strength of this newly organ- 
ized army was nearly 50,000 men, 
scattered from Fredericksburg to 

Winchester, of whom 40,000 might 
be considered disposable. To Gren. 
Pope was assigned the duty of cover- 
ing Washington and protecting Ma- 
ryland, with its great railroad, while 
threatening Kichmond from the north. 
He had at first intended and expected 
to advance to the neighborhood of 
Richmond, and there unite in the 
operations of McClellan against that 
city. But he was appointed on the 
very day * when Lee's designs against 
McClellan's right wing were devel- 
oped at Mechanicsville ; and, before 
he could concenttate his army, the re- 
treat through White Oak Swamp to 
Harrison's Landing, by exposing his 
meditated advance, unaided, to a 
succession of blows from the entire 
Rebel Army of Virginia, rendered 

» July 26. 

Digitized by 




Bach a movement simple madness. 
In order, however, to effect at least 
a diversion in favor of McClellan's 
worsted army, and to enable it to 
abandon the Peninsula without fur- 
ther loss, he drew Sigel from Middle- 
town, via Front Eoyal, to Sperry ville, 
on one of the sources of the Rappa- 
hannock, near the Blue Kidge ; while 
Banks, following nearly the same 
route from the Valley, came in a few 
miles £u*ther east; and Eicketts's 
division of Gen. McDowell's corps ad- 
vanced south-westwardly from Ma- 
nassas Junction to a point a little 
eastward of Banks. Pope wrote to 
Gen. McClellan, then on the Penin- 
sula, a letter proposing hearty coop- 
eration and soliciting suggestions, 
which elicited but a vague and by 
no means cordial response.* He had 
doubtless suggested to the President 
the appointment of a common mili- 
tary superior ; whereupon Maj.-Gen. 
Halleck was relieved of his command 
in the West and called' to Washing- 
ton as General-in-Chief, assuming 
command July 23d. 

Before quitting Washington* for 
the field, Pope had ordered Gen. 
King, at Fredericksburg, to push 
forward detachments of his cavalry 
to the Virginia Central Railroad and 
break it up at several points, so as to 
impede the enemy's communication 
between Richmond and the Valley ; 
which was effected. He had hke- 
wise directed Gen. Banks to advance 
an infantry brigade, with all his 
cavalry, to Culpepper Court House, 
thence pushing forward cavalry so 
as to threaten Gordonsville. The 
advance to Culpepper having been 
unresisted. Banks was next ordered * 
to send Hatch, with all his cavalry, 
to capture Gordonsville, destroy the 
railroad for 10 or 15 miles east of it, 
and thence push a detachment as far 
as Charlottesville, burning bridges 
and breaking up railroads as far as 
possible; but Hatch, taking along 
infantry, artillery, and heavy trains, 
was so impeded by bad roads that he 
had only reached Madison Court 
House on the 17th — a day after 
Ewell, with a division of Lee's army 

' McClellan and his lieutenants had of course 
road and resented Pope's addrestTto his army on 
taking the field, which thej, not unreasonably, 
interpreted as reflecting on their strategy, 
though Pope diselaims such an application. Its 
text is as follows : 

"WASHiNaTON, July 14, 1862. 
**lb (he Offiicers and Soldiers of the Army of 
"By special assignment of the President of 
the United States, I have assumed command of 
this army. I have spent two weeks in learning 
ycwr whereabouts, your condition, and your 
wants; in preparing you for active operations, 
and in placing you in positions from which you 
CMi act promptly and to the purpose. 

** I have come to you from the West, where 

w© have always seen the backs of our enemies 

— ftxma an army whose business it has been to 

■eek the adver^ry, and to beat him when found . 

—whose policy has been attack, and not defense. 

'*In but one instance has the enemy been 

•We to place our Western armies in a defensive 

^tade. I presume that I have been called 

hoe 10 purtiue the some system, and to lead you 

against the enemy. It is my purpose to do so; 
and that speedily. 

*^I am sure you long for an opportunity to 
win the distinction you are capable of achievmg. 
That opportunity I shall endeavor to give you. 

" Meantime, I desire you to dismiss from your 
minds certain phrases which I am sorry to find 
much in vog^e amongst you. 

" I hear constantly of taking strong positions 
and holding them— of lines of retreat and of bases 
of supplies. Let us discard such ideas. 

** The strongest position a soldier should de- 
sire to occupy is one from which he can most 
easily advance against the enemy. 

" Let us study the probable Unes of retreat of 
our opponents, and Idave our own to take care 
of themselves. Let us look before, and not be« 
hind. Success and glory are in the advance. 
Disaster and shame lurk in the rear. 

" Let us act on this understanding, and it is 
safe to predict that your banners shall be in- 
scribed with many a glorious deed, and that 
your names will be dear to your countrymen 
forever. John Pope, 

" Mm'.-Oen. Commanding." 

•July 11. « July 29. 'July 14. 

Digitized by 





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from Richmond, had reached Gor- 
donsville, rendering its capture by 
cavaty impossible. Pope at once 
ordered Hatch, through Banks, to 
move westwardly across the Blue 
Sidge from Madison, with 1,500 to 
2,000 picked men, and swoop down 
upon and destroy the railroad west- 
ward of that barrier. Hatch com- 
menced this movement; but, soon 
becoming discouraged, gave it up, 
and returned, via Sperryville, to 
Madison. Pope thereupon relieved 
him from command, appointing Gen. 
Buford, chief of artillery to Banks's 
corps, in his stead. 

At length, Pope, having joined 
his army, ordered * Banks to move 
forward to Hazel Run, while Gen. 
McDowell, with Ricketts's division, 
advanced from Waterloo Bridge to 
Culpepper, which Crawford's brigade 
of Banks's corps had already occu- 
pied for several days. Buford, with 
his cavalry, held Madison C. H., 
picketing tie upper fords of the Ra- 
pidan, and as low down as Bamett's 
Ford; while Bayard was posted on 
tiie Orange and Alexandria Raifroad, 
near the Rapidan river, picketing 
the fords from Bamett's as low down 
as RaccoottFord. The enemy cross- 
ing a considerable force in the 
vicinity of the junction of Buford's 
and Bayard's pickets, both Generals 
reported their advance; but it was 
some days before it was determined 
whether they were intending to ad- 
vance in force on Madison C. H., or 
toward Culpepper C. H. On the 
8th, the Rebels pressed Bayard's 
pickets, and his force fell back 
toward Culpepper C. H., followed by 
the enemy. 

Pope, under instructions to pre- 

serve his communications with Gen. 
King at Fredericksburg, ordered' a 
concentration of his infantry and 
artillery upon Culpepper, his head- 
quarters, and pushed forward Craw- 
ford's brigade toward Cedar (or 
rather Slaughter's) Mountain: an 
eminence commanding a wide pros- 
pect to the south and east, and which 
should have been occupied and forti^ 
fied by our forces some days before. 
Banks, by order, advanced promp^ 
ly from Hazel Run to Culpepper; 
but Sigel, still at Sperryville, instead 
of moving at once, sent to ascertain 
by which route he should come; 
thus losing several hours, and ar- 
riving too late to be of use. Gen. 
Banks, by order, moved forward next 
morning* toward Cedar Mountain, 
supporting, with the rest of his corps, 
the advance of Gen. Crawford, under 
verbal orders from Pope, which were 
reduced to writing by his Adjutant, 
in these words : 

" OuLPEPPEE, Aug. 9th — 9:46 a. m. 
"From Ool. Lewis Marshall: Gen. Banks 
will move to the front immediately, assume 
command of all the forces in the front, de- 
ploy his skirmishers if the enemy approach- 
es, and attack him immediately as soon as 
he approaches, and be r^enforced from 

Calling on Pope as he left Culpep- 
per, Banks asked if there were fur- 
ther orders, and was referred to Gen. 
Roberts, Pope's chief of staff, who 
was to accompany him and indicate 
the line he was to occupy ; which he 
took : Roberts saying to him repeat- 
edly before he left, " There must be 
no backing out this day;" words 
needing no interpretation, and hardly 
such as should be addressed by a 
Brigadier to a Major-General com- 
manding a corps. 

• August 1. 

^ August 8. 

• AusiistO. 

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Stonewall Jackson, with his own 
division, following lEwelPs, had 
reached GordonsviUe July 19th, 
and, sending thence for reenforce- 
ments, had received A. P. HilPs di- 
vision, increasing his force to some 
25,000 men; with which he ad- 
vanced,* driving back our cavalry 
and reaching Slaughter's or Cedar 
Mountain this day." From the 
splendid outlook afforded by this 
mountain, he saw his opportunity, 
and resolved to profit by it. Push- 
ing forward Ewell's division on the 
Culpepper road, and thence to the 
right along the western slope of the 
mountain, but keeping it thoroughly 
covered by woods which concealed 

its numbers, he advanced four gune 
to the front, and opened fire upon 
Crawford's batteries; his own divi- 
sion, under Winder, being thrown 
out to the left as it arrived, still 
under cover of the woods. Ewell'6 
batteries were successfully posted at 
the foot of the mountain, some 200 
feet above the valley, whence their 
fire was far more effective than 
ours. Meantime, Hill's division was 
arriving, and being sent in to the 
support of whatever portion of the 
Rebel line was weakest, until not 
less than 20,000 veterans, with every 
advantage of position and shelter, 
formed the Eebel line of battle; 
against which Banks's 6,000 or 8,000 

A Position of Gen. Banks^s corns both before and after 
his advance npon the enemy, on the afternoon of Aog. 9. 

B Farthest advance of Gen. Banks's corps, and place of 
severest fljrbtlnff. 

To AN '^Tir.v 

JSitplaruUions .* 

b Position of Bebel troops corresponding with posi- 
tion B. 

a Farthest advance of Rebels In the afternoon, from 
which point tbej were Oriven evening of Aug. 9. 

August 7. 

* August a 

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adyanced, at 5 p. m., across open fields 
and up gentle acdivities, thoronglily 
swept by the Bebel cannon and mus- 

Had victory been possible, they 
would have won it. Early's brigade 
of Ewell's division held the road, and 
was BO desperately charged in firont 
and on its right flank, that it held its 
ground only by the opportune arrival 
of Thomas's brigade of Hill's divi- 
sion; while the left of Jackson's di- 
vision, under Taliaferro, was so as- 
sailed in flank and rear tlAt one 
brigade was routed and the whole 
flank gave way, as did also Early's. 
But the odds were too heavy; and, 
though our men proved themselves 
heroes, tliey could not defeat three 
tunes their number, holding the foot 
of a mountain and covered by woods. 
The best blood of the Union was 
poured out like water, but in vain. 
Gen. Gteary, who, with five Ohio re- 
giments and the 28th Pennsylvania, 
made the most desperate charge of 
the day, was himself wounded, with 
most of his officers. G^n. Crawford's 
brigade came out of the fight a mere 
ikdeton. The 109th Pennsylvania, 
102d New York, and several other 
raiments, left half their number 
dead or wounded on that fatal field. 
Gens. Augur and Carroll were se- 
verely wounded ; as were Cols. Don- 
nelly, 46th Pa., Creighton, Tth Ohio, 
and Majors Savage, 2d Mass., Arm- 
strong, 5th Ohio, and Pelouze, 
Banks^s Adjutant Gen. Prince was 
taken prisoner after dark, by acci- 
dent, while passing from one part of 
bis conmiand to another. Our loss 
in killed and wounded could hardly 
have been less than 2,000 men. 
We were not so much beaten as fair- 
It crowded oflf the field ; where Jack- 
voL. n.— 12 

son claims to have taken 400 pris- 
oners, 1 gun, and 5,302 small arms, 
with a loss on his part of 223 killed, 
including Gen. C. S. Winder, 2 Lt.- 
Colonels, and a Major; with 1,060 
wounded: among tiiem Cols. Wil- 
liams and Sheffield, 3 Majors, and 31 
missing; total, 1,314. 

Gen. Pope had remained through- 
out the day at Culpepper, neither 
desiring nor expecting a serious en- 
gagement, and assured fix)m time to 
time that only skirmishing was going 
on at the front ; until the continuous 
roar of cannon assured him, soon 
after 5 o'clock, that the matter was 
grave. Ordering forward Eicketts's 
division, he arrived with it on the 
field just before dark, and directed 
Banks to draw in his right wing upon 
his center, so as to give room for 
Bicketts to come into the %ht ; but 
the Rebels, though victorious, ad- 
vanced with great caution, and, find- 
ing themselves confronted by fresh 
batteries, recoiled, after a sharp ar- 
tillery duel, and took shelter in the 
woods. Ricketts's guns continued 
vocal until midnight ; but of course 
to little purpose. Meantime, Sigel's 
corps began to arrive, and was sent 
to the fix)nt abreast of Eicketts's; 
Banks's corps being withdrawn two 
miles to the rear to rest and reorgan- 

But there was no more fighting. 
Jackson clung to his mountain and 
his woods till the night of the 11th ; 
when, aware that King's division had 
just come up from Fredericksburg, 
and that Pope was about to strike at 
his communications, and thus com- 
pel him to %ht on equal terms, he, 
leaving a part of his dead unburied, 
retreated rapidly across the Eapidan. 
Our cavalry pursued him to that 


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Btream, picking up a number of 

Gen. Keno, with 8,000 of Bum- 
side's corps, having joined" him, 
Cten. Pope advanced his infantry to 
Robertson's river and Raccoon Ford, 
with his center at and around Cedar 
Mountain, and began again to operate 
with his cavahy on the enemy's com- 
munications, until satisfied that the 
whole Rebel Army of Virginia was 
rapidly assembling to overwhelm 
him ; one of his cavalry expeditions 
having captured J. E. B. Stuart's 
Adjutant, bearing a letter from Gen. 
Lee," at Gordonsville, which clearly 
indicated that purpose. Holding his 
advanced position to the last, so as 
to aflfbrd time for the arrival of Mc- 
Clellan's army, he commenced " a re- 
treat across the Rappahannock, which 
was effected in two days without loss ; 
and, though the Rebels, of course, 
followed sharply with their cavalry, 
reaching the river on the morning of 
the 20th, they found the fords so 
guarded and fortified that they could 
not be forced without heavy loss; so, 
after three days of skirmishing and 
artillery-firing at Kelly's Ford and 
Rappahannock Station, they com- 
menced a movement up the stream, 
with intent to turn our right. 

Pope, still under orders to main- 
tain his communications with Fre- 
dericksburg, was unable to extend 
his right farther without too much 
weakening his center, and tele- 
graphed again and again to Wash- 
ington that he must be reenforced or 
retreat He was assured, on the 
2l8t, that, if he could hold on two 
days longer, he should be so amply 
strengthened as to enable him to as- 
sume the offensive ; yet, on the 25th, 

barely 7,000 men had reached him. 
He had resolved to recross the Rap- 
pahannock on the night of the 22d, 
and fall upon the flank and rear of 
the long Rebel column constantly 
passing up the river; but, during 
that night, a heavy rain set in, which, 
before morning, had drowned all the 
fords and carried away the bridges in 
his front, rendering his meditated 
blow impossible. 

During that night, Gen. J. E. B. 
Stuart, with 1,500 Rebel cavalry and 
2 guns^ having crossed the Rappa- 
hannock at Waterloo Bridge and 
Hart's Mill during the preceding day, 
pushed on unobserved to Warrenton, 
surprised Gen. Pope's headquarters- 
train near Catlett's Station, during the 
intense rain and darkness ; capturing 
Pope's field Quartermaster and his 
dispatch-book, with a quantity of uni- 
forms and personal baggage, burn- 
ing the wagons, and trying to bum 
the railroad bridge over Cedar Run ; 
but the tremendous rain then fall- 
ing defeated this design. Stuatt 
claims to have reached the Rap- 
pahannock at Warrenton Springs, on 
his return next day, with 300 pris- 
oners and many horses, here crossing 
unharmed, after a night's bivouac 
and a little skirmishing. Pope's' 
actual headquarters during this raid 
were near Rappahannock Station ; 
but our army trains were parked 
around Catlett's, and guarded by 
1,500 infantry and five companies of 
cavalry ; so tiiat Stuart's cheap suc- 
cess inflicted on us more disgrace 
than injury — a disgrace which the 
intense darkness and pouring rain 
explain, but do not excuse. 

Still, the enemy confronting us in 
ample force at Rappahannock Sta- 

»> August 14. 

''Dated August 15. 

'August 18. 

Digitized by 




tion, Sulphur Springs, and Waterloo 
Bridge, kept moving heavy columns 
up their side of the river, with evi- 
dent intent to flank and fall upon 
our right; and Pope, facing along 
the turnpike from Warrenton to 
Qtdnesville, resolved there to give 
battle. Meantime, Heintzelman's 
long-expected corps from McClellan's 
army had reached Warrenton Junc- 
tion," and Porter had reported from 
the neighborhood of Bealton Station ; 
while Sturgis, Cox, and- Franklin, 
were telegraphed from Washington 
to be just at hand. Pope, therefore, 
believed, and had a right to believe, 
that he was to be supported, in the 
struggle now imminent, by 40,000 to 
50,000 veterans from the Army of 
the Potomac, and had made disposi- 
tions and given orders accordingly. 
He requested Gen. Halleck to push 
Franklin with all speed to Gaines- 
villa; and sent orders 'to Manassas 
Junction that the first division which 
reached that point from Alexandria 
should halt and take post in the 
works at that place, pushing forward 
its cavalry toward Thoroughfare Gap 
to watch the enemy's movements in 
that quarter; while Gen. Sturgis, 
commanding at Alexandria, had al- 
ready been directed " by him to post 
strong guards along the railroad from 
Manassas Junction to Catlett's, per- 
sonally Bui)erintending the execution 
of this order. 

Sigel, who had slowly moved up 
the Rappahannock, and encountered** 
a Rebel force at Great Run, two 
miles below the Sulphur Springs, had 
easily driven it, but not till it had 
had time to destroy certain bridges ; 
and the great flood then prevailing 
compelled him to halt and rebuild 

them before advancing. Supported 
by Gens. Reno and Banks, he crossed 
Great Run next morning" and occu- 
pied Sulphur Springs under a heavy 
fire of artillery from the Rebel bat- 
teries over the Rappahannock, re- 
building the Sulphur Springs bridge, 
and pushing forward in the direction 
of Waterloo Bridge, which was oo» 
cupied by Gen. Buford's cavalry at 
noon of that day; Sigel's advance, 
under Milroy, arriving late in the 
afternoon: when our army may be 
said to have been concentrated, 
facing to the west, with SigePs corps 
and Buford's cavalry near the Rap- 
pahannock at Waterloo Bridge, with 
Banks's behind it; Reno's farther 
east, and very near Sulphur Springs ; 
McDowell, with Ricketts's and King's 
divisions, at Warrenton; Heintzel- 
man behind him at Warrenton Junc- 
tion, where Sturgis and Cox were 
hourly looked for; while Franklin 
was expected to come in on his right, 
and Porter to push forward and join 
Reno. But unsuccessftil fighting 
and constant marching had by this 
time reduced Sigel's corps to 9,000 
effectives; Banks's to 5,000; Mc- 
Dowell's, including Reynolds's divi- 
sion, to 15,500 ; and Reno's to 7,000 ; 
to which add 4,000 thoroughly used- 
up cavalry, and Pope's army proper 
could bring into action hardly 
40,000 men. Add to these the corps 
of Heintzelman and Porter, just ar- 
rived from McClellan's army, and it 
might be said that his whole com- 
mand numbered nearly 60,000 ; but 
Heintzelman had reached Warren- 
ton Junction by railroad, without 
artiUery or wagons, with only four 
rounds of ammunition to the man, 
and without horses even for his field 

" August 25. 

^Augost 22. 

' August 23. 

>^ August 24. 

Digitized by 




oflScere ; while Porter, at Warrenton 
Jimction, had a very small supply of 
provisions and barely 40 rounds of 
cartridges per man. 

Lee, who had by this time nearly 
his whole army on the Bappahan- 
nock, had abandoned the idea of 
forcing a passage of that river, in 
favor of an effort, by a long flank 
movement, to turn our right. To 
this end, Jackson was directed to 
take the advance, cross above Water- 
loo, and move around our army so 
as to strike the railroad in its rear ; 
while Longstreet, following, was to 
menace our front and fix Pope's at- 
tention until Jackson's hazardous 
movement should be accomplished. 

Jackson moved rapidly across" 
the Eappahannock at Hinson's Mill, 
four miles above Waterloo, and en- 
camped that night at Salem, behind 
the Bull Run Mountains, between 
Thoroughfare and Manassas Gaps. 
Starting early next morning, he 
passed through Thoroughfare Gap 
and moved south-easterly by Gaines- 
ville, where he was joined by Stuart 
with two cavalry brigades ; striking 
before dark" the Alexandria Bailroad 
at Bristow Station, thus placing him- 
self directly between Pope's far su- 
perior force and his base at Alexan- 
dria or Washington ; having encoun- 
tered no resistance. In fact. Pope 
seems to have been completely de- 
ceived,'* with his cavalry still watch- 
ing for a Rebel advance from the 
Rappahannock; as two trains of cars, 
moving northward from Warrenton, 

arrived at Bristow soon after Jack- 
son, to whom they fell an easy prey. 
So far, Jackson's success had been 
without flaw; but his position was 
critical, and there was obviously n<» 
time to be lost. Weary and foot- 
sore as were his men, he at once dis- 
patched Gen. Trimble, with the 2l6t 
North Carolina and 21st Georgia in- 
fantry, under Stuart — ^who took part 
of his cavalry — with orders to strike 
Manassas Junction, seven miles far- 
ther north*, carry it at all hazards, 
and capture the large amount of 
stores there collected. Stuart moved 
slowly, because of the darkness of 
the night, as well as the weariness 
of his command ; but, sending Col. 
Wickham, with the 4th Virginia cav- 
alry, to the rear of the Junction, he 
charged and carried it with his in- 
fantry before midnight, capturing 8 
gims, 300 prisoners, 175 horses, 200 
new tents, 1:0 locomotives, 7 trains 
loaded with provisions and muni- 
tions, and immense quantities of 
quartermaster and commissary stores. 
Our forces, consisting of the 11th 
New York battery and 4 or 5 com- 
panies of infantry, seem to have been 
taken by surprise; which is the more 
unaccoxmtable since a train, which 
had barely escaped capture at Bris- 
tow, had, some hours before, run by 
the Junction at full speed, rushing 
into a down train loaded with sol- 
diers, which was standing on the 
track at Bull Run bridge, four miles 
east of Manassas, completely demol- 
ishing 5 freight cars, killing 3 sol- 

» Aug. 26. "Aug. 26. 

* QexL Banks, from his podtion near the Rap- 
pahannock, reported to Pope at 11:25 a. m. on 
the 25th, that his Aid, Col Clark, in charge of 
the Signal Corps, had observed a general move- 
ment of the Rebel armj to the west and north. 
Banks adds : " It seems to be apparent that the en- 

emy is threatening, or moving up (he VaOey of (he 
Shenandoah^ via Front Royal, with designs upon 
the Potomac— possibly beyond." Pope, at War- 
renton Junction, at 9:30 that night, sent to Mc- 
Dowell at Warrenton, that, " I believe the whole 
force of the enemy has marched>br(^ Shenamdoah 
VaUey, by way of J-uray and Front Royal." 

Digitized by 




diere, and severely wounding othere ; 
the conductor and engineer of the 
fugitive train being themselves badly 
injured* A surprise at the Junction, 
whereby 4 of our guns were taken at 
the first dash of the Bebel cavalry, 
and an immense amount of property 
lost, which a well-oflBcered regiment 
might have saved, could never have 
occurred in any service but ours. 

Col. Scammon, with the 11th and 
12th Ohio, of Gen. Cox's division, 
recently from West Virginia, was sta- 
tioned at Union Mills, across Bull 
Run, whither a few of our routed 
handful at Manassas escaped, giving 
the alarm. He at once ordered an 
advance upon the Junction, which 
brought on, at daylight," a conflict ; 
wherein our men were worsted and 
driven back across Bull Bun Bridge, 
which Scammon attempted to hold ; 
but by noon he was fairly beaten off, 
retreating up the railroad toward 
Alexandria ; while part of the Rebel 
cavalry, justly elated with their tri- 
umph, pushed across and raided, 
burnt, and destroyed at will, at Fair- 
fax, and on to Burke^s Station. 

Meantime, Brig.-Gen. George W. 
Taylor, with the 1st, 2d, 3d, and 4th 
New Jersey infantry, of Franklin's 
division, had been sent forward by 
rail from Alexandria, and, debarking 
near Centerville, pushed eagerly for- 
ward to regain tiie lost fight; but 
by this time Jackson, who was quite 
aware that moments were precious, 
had brought up from Bristow his 
own and A. P. Hill's divisions, com- 
prising 10 brigades and 12 batteries : 
by which Taylor was quickly routed, 
himself losing a leg in the encoun- 
ter; the Rebels remaining com- 
pletely masters of the situation. 

Pope, considerably astonished, be- 
gan by this time to have a realizing 
sense of his condition. He had this 
morning* ordered McDowell, with 
Sigel and Reynolds, to move rapidly 
on Gtdnesville, so as to reach it that 
night; while Beno, followed by 
Kearny's division of Heintzelman's 
corps, was directed to move on 
parallel roads to Ghreenwich, and 
thence communicate at once with 
McDowell, supporting him if re- 
quired. Pope himself, with Hooker's 
division of Heintzelman's corps, 
moved directly up the railroad 
toward Manassas, ordering Porter 
to remain at Warrenton Junction 
until Banks should arrive from Fay- 
etteville, when he should march 
forthwith on Gttinesville, where a 
battle was anticipated. The trains 
were instructed to keep in the rear 
of Hooker, protected by the corps 
behind him from attack. 

Approaching Bristow Station that 
afternoon. Hooker encountered the 
division of Ewell, which had been 
left there by Jackson on his advance 
to Manassas; when a sharp fight 
occurred, in which Ewell was over- 
powered and driven, with a loss of 
some 300 on each side ; Ewell losing 
a part of his baggage, but burning 
the bridge and thoroughly destroying 
the railroad. He of course fell back 
on Jackson at Manassas; while 
Hooker, from want of ammunition, 
was unable vigorously to pursue him. 

Jackson, justly afraid of being as- 
sailed by Pope's entire army, was 
forced to evacuate Manassas, moving 
westward, in order to unite more 
readily with Longstreet, then known 
to be approaching; and compelled 
to bum some thousands of barrels of 

' Aug. 27. 

"August 27. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



flour, beef, pork, and bacon, whereof 
the Rebel army stood in greater need 
than did ours. McDowell, Kearny, 
and Beno reached, daring tiie night, 
the positions assigned tJiem by Pope. 

Longstreet had only started the 
day before from the south side of the 
Rappahannock, opposite Warrenton 
Springs, and had not yet entered 
Thoroughfare Gap. Could McDow- 
ell but block it effectually with a few 
regiments and batteries, while the 
rest of our army was hurled upon 
Jackson, our triumph must be cer- 
tain and decisive. Hence Pope, 
about dark, tout back explicit orders 
to Porter, at Warrenton Junction, to 
move forward at 1 a. m.," and report 
to headquarters at Bristow, 10 miles 
distant, during the night or early next 
morning. This order Porter failed to 
obey ; not moving till after daylight, 
and not reaching Bristow till 10 J a. m. 

McDowell was likewise ordered, 
at 9 p. M.," to press forward, at the 
very earliest dawn, toward Manassas 
Junction, resting his right on the 
Manassas Gap Railroad, while Reno 
advanced simultaneously from Green- 
wich upon Manassas, and Eeamy 
upon Bristow. Kearny reached Bris- 
tow at 8 A. M.,'* with Reno on his 
left, and was immediately pushed 
forward, followed by Hooker, on the 
track of Ewell. McDowell gave 
orders for the required movement at 

2 A. M. ; but Sigel, who held his ad- 
vance, had not fairly cleared Gaines- 
ville at 7i A. M. 

Meantime, Jackson, who was not 
easily caught napping, had com- 
menced his evacuation of Manassas at 

3 A. M., moving vi& Centerville ; and 
thus escaping the destruction which 
probably awaited him had he per- 

sisted in seeking a more immediate 
junction with Longstreet's advance. 
Pope reached Manassas, with Kear- 
ny's division and Reno's corps, about 
noon; Jackson having left with his 
rear-guard an hour earlier. Pope 
immediately pushed /orward all his 
forces in hand upon Centerville, 
ordered Porter to come up at once 
to Manassas, and McDowell to ad- 
vance toward Centerville. Mean- 
while, McDowell, unordered, had 
detached Ricketts's division and sent 
it toward Thoroughfare Gap ; so that 
it was no longer available for the 
directed movement on Centerville. 

Late in the afternoon, Kearny 
occupied Centerville ; Jackson's rear- 
guard retreating by Sudley Springs ; 
while part of his force took the War- 
renton turnpike toward Gainesville, 
impeding our advance on both roads 
by destroying the bridges over Bull 
Run and Cub Run. At 6 p. m., 
Jackson's advance, now moving 
toward Thoroughfare Gap, encoun- 
tered King's division of McDowell's 
corps, and a sanguinary combat en- 
sued, which was terminated by dark- 
ness, the advantage being on the side 
of the Rebels. The loss on both sides 
was heavy; and among the Rebel 
wounded were Maj.-Gen. Ewell and 
Brig.-Gen. Taliaferro; the former 

Pope, still at Centerville, was ap- 
prised of this collision at 10 p. m., 
and then felt that he had Jackson 
sure. Sending orders to McDowell 
and King to hold their ground at all 
hazards, and directing Kearny to 
push forward at 1 a m." from Cen- 
terville, along the Warrenton turn- 
pike, and to hug Jackson close, so as 
to pi^eveut his retreating northward 

'August 28. 

' August 27. 

* August 28. "August 29. 

Digitized by VjI^VjQIC 


toward Leeflbnig; and to Porter, 
whom he supposed to be now at 
Manaflsas Junction^ to move npon 
Centeirille at dawn, he confidently 
expected to have Jackson inclosed 
and early in the morning assailed by 
25,000 on either side, who were to 
crash him before Longstreet could 
possibly arrive. 

But he was reckoning without his 
host — or rather, without the other 
one. Gen. Longstreet's advance had 
reached Thoroughfare Gap at 3 
p. iL," and passed through it; but 
encountered on this side a superior 
force, strongly posted, by which it 
was easily repulsed. As there was 
no time to be lost, Gen. D. E. Jones, 
with two brigades, was sent in at 
once ; while Hood, with two others, 
following a mountain foot-path, at- 
tempted to turn our right ; and Wil- 
cox, with two more, making a circuit 
through Hopewell Gap, three miles 
north, was to come in on our rear. 

Eicketts's single division was of 
coarse unable to stand against Long- 
street's heavy corps, and was driven off 
with loss, commencing its retreat just 
at dark. Longstreet's whole force 
was pushed rapidly through the pass, 
and, early next day,** its van was in 
Gainesville, pressing on to the rescue 
of Jackson, its steps quickened by the 
roar of cannon, and meeting no re- 
sistance to the desired concentration ; 
McDowell and King having got out 
of the way during the night, retreat- 
ing on Manassas Junction. When 
Longstreet, before noon, came rapidly 
into action on the right of Jackson, 
already hotly engaged, the Eebel 
army was once more reunited, and 
felt itself invincible. 

Pope, apprised, just before morn- 

ing, of King's abandonment of the 
Gainesville road, had sent orders to 
Sigel, at Groveton, to advance and 
attack vigorously at daylight, sup- 
ported by Eeynolds ; while Heintzel- 
man, with Hooker's and Kearny's 
divisions, was to push forwiard from 
Centerville toward Gainesville ; Eeno 
following, with orders to attack 
promptly and vigorously. Ktz-John 
Porter, with his own corps and King's 
division, was to move from Manassas 
upon the Gainesville road with all 
speed, with intent to turn Jackson's 
flank at the intersection of the War- 
renton turnpike. 

Sigel, who was nearest the enemy, 
with the division of Schurz forming 
his right, that of Schenck his left, 
and 'the brigade of Milroy between 
them, advanced, by order, at 5 a. m., 
and was fully engaged before 7; 
gaining ground by hard fighting till 
half past 10, when Milroy and 
Schurz had advanced a mile, and 
Schenck two miles, though obstinately 
resisted by the enemy. But the 
Eebel strength in their front was 
constantly increasing, and now as- 
sumed the offensive, hurling heavy 
masses of infantry against our right ; 
which held its ground firmly by the 
aid of its batteries, but not without 

Schenck, being now ordered by 
Sigel to strike the Eebel assailants 
in flank and rear, was soon briskly 
engaged; the enemy attempting to 
flank him in turn. At this moment. 
Gen. Kearny's division of Heintzel- 
man's corps arrived on the field, by 
the Sudley Springs road, and went 
in on Sigel's right; while Eeno, com- 
ing up by the Gainesville turnpike, 
supported our center ; and Eeynolds, 

August 28. 

" August 29. 

Digitized by 








AA—(aiTOw-heftds>— Indicate the ronte pamied by 
Jmckaon^B forees, rlz.: to Maimaans Jnnetlon, Aug. 27; 
▼la CentorrlUe to OroTeton and Sudley Springs on the 
28th, and on the 1st of September to near Qermantewn. 

TJie position at Hooker^s and EwelFs forces In their 
engagement on the 27th, near Brlstow, Is shown ; while 
the position of the commands at McDowell and Sigel, at 
Oatnesvllle, and Reno and Kearny, at Greenwich, as held 
that night, are also shown, being indicated by the reepee- 
tire initials, viz.: 

M— MoDowelL 8— SIg6L 

R— Beno. K— Kearny. 

The positions of Gens. McDowell and Slgel were some* 
what ftrther advanced toward Centenrille, at the time 
of their collision with Jaekson*s advance on the 28th. 

A, B, C, represent the lines formed by the commands 
•of Heintzelinan, Slgel, and Beynolds, afterward r^en- 

foreed by McDowell and Beno, and eonflnonted by Jack* 
son (a, by c\ who was afterward rfienforoed by Long- 
street, Ang. 29. 

The same position snbstantlally, bat extending frrtber 
to the left, was held on the 80th, by Helntxelman, Beno^ 
Porter, Slgel, and Beynolds (named in order ftom right 
to left), supported by MeDowelL 

No attempt is made to represent the changes of post* 
tlon which occurred daring the two days of severe fight- 

The position at the several commands at Centervtlle 
on the dlst Aogast, and near Germantown on the Ist 
September, are indicated by initials, where the ftall i 
does not occur, viz. : 

P— Porter. H—Heintielman. 

F— Franklin. 8— Slgel. 

B— Beno. M— MoDowelL 

Digitized by 



with the Pennsylvania Reserves, 
came into position, at noon, on our 
extreme left. About 2 p. m., Qten. 
Hooker, with Heintzelman's remain- 
ing division, came down the Sudley 
Springs road on our extreme right ; 
and his troops immediately went in 
to the aid of the wasted and hungry 
commands of Schurz and Milroy, 
who were thus enabled to refill their 
cartridge boxes and obtain some 
much needed food and rest. 

The fighting thence till 4 p. m. 
-was desultory — a succession of heavy 
skirmishes from point to point along 
the front ; either General being intent 
on his approaching reenforcements, 
and trusting to time as his friend. 
At 4J, McDowell being announced 
as at hand, Pope sent a peremptory 
order to Porter to go into action on 
the enemy's right, turning it if pos- 
sible ; and, an hour later, presuming 
this order obeyed, directed Heintzel- 
man and Eeno to attack the enemy 
in front ; which order was gallantly 

And now, though Fitz- John Por- 
ter was still missing, and King's di- 
vision did not reach the field till near 
snnset, our army was for once supe- 
rior in numbers ; Kearny's and Hook- 
er's fi-esh raiments pressing forward 
and crowding back the enemy's left, 
which had been skiUftilly disposed for 
a good part of the day behind the 
embankment of an abandoned rail- 
road, which served most effectively 
as a breast- work. At 5 p. m., Kear- 
ny, bringing up nearly his entire 
division, and changing his front to 

* Pope, in his oflSoial report, says : 
^ In this attack, Grorer's brigade of Hooker^s 
fiyiwmwas particularij distinguished by a deter- 
mined ha3ronetKdiarge, breaking two of the ene- 
my's linM, and penetrating to the third before it 
could be checked.'^ 

the left, advanced by order, charged 
the enemy's left and swept back his 
first line, rolling it up on his center 
and right. King's division was sent 
into the %ht about sunset, and ad- 
vanced considerably beyond our gen- 
eral line of battle ; bu^ soon finding 
itself confronted by a heavier force 
of the enemy, was brought to a stand. 
Meantime, Hood charged in turn, 
with a fi-esh division of Longstreet's 
corps, which had marched through 
the Gap that day and been sent by 
Lee to the relief of Jackson, now 
clearly outnumbered. Hood's famous 
Texas brigade and that of Law rushed 
forward with great intrepidity, re- 
pulsing Kearny's most advanced re- 
giments, taking 1 gun, 4 fiags, and 
100 prisoners. Darkness arrested the 
confiict, either army resting on the 
field of battle ; but Pope, with some 
reason, claiming the advantage, in 
that he held some ground which had 
been wrested from the enemy during 
the day. The losses on either side 
were probably not far from 7,000 

But Pope was really beaten, though 
he did not yet know it. His aim had 
been to overwhelm Jackson before 
Lee, with Longstreet, could come to 
his assistance; and in this he had 
conspicuously failed. Had his entire 
army been in hand and in line of 
battle by 9 o'clock that morning, his 
success would have been certain and 
easy; but, dropping in by brigades 
and divisions throughout the day, 
and Porter not even getting into ac- 
tion at all,** he had barely held his 

""Pope, in his official report, says: 
" About 8 p. H^ the greater portion or the field 
of battle was occupied by our army. Nothing 
was heard of Gren. Porter up to that time ; and 
his forces took no part whatever in the action ; 
but were suffered by him to he idle on their 


Digitized by 




own ; and now his opportunity had 
vanished. Longstreet's corps had 
been arriving throughout the day, 
and was now all present — ^much of it 
perfectly fresh, 8# far as fighting was 
concerned, and ready for most effec- 
tive service on the morrow. 

Pope, so often disappointed and 
baffled, found his fighting force re- 
duced by casualties and by strag- 
gling, on the morning of that event- 
ful morrow, to about 40,000 men." 
These had had a surfeit of marching 
and fighting, with very little eating, 
for the two preceding days; while 
his artillery and cavalry horses had 
been ten days in harness, and two 
days without food. To his appeal of 
the 28th to Gen. Halleck for rations, 
for forage, and fresh horses, he had 
that morning at daylight" received 
an answer from Gen. Franklin, writ- 
ten by direction of Gen. McOlellan, 
and dated 8 p. m. of the 29th, inform- 

ing him that rations would be loaded 
in the available wagons and cars at 
Alexandria ao soon as he vxyuld send 
hack a cavalry escort to bring otU the 
trains. If cavalry had been ever so 
necessary to the guarding of raib*oad 
trains, he had probably not then a 
regiment that could have gone to 
Alexandria and back within 48 
hours. He had received no reen- 
forcements or supplies since the 26th, 
and had no assurance that any were 
on the way. To retreat was diffi- 
cult ; to stand still and famish unad- 
visable; so he ordered Porter, sup- 
ported by King, to advance down 
the "Warrenton turnpike and attack ; 
while Heintzehnan and Beno, sup- 
ported by Eicketts's division, were 
to assail and turn the enemy's left. 

Porter's attack was feeble ; and not 
xmreasonably so, since he encoim- 
tered the enemy in greatly superior 
numbers, and was speedily thrown 

arms, withiD sight and sound of the battle during 
the whole day. So far as I know, he made no 
effort whatever to comply with my orders or to 
take any part in the action. I do not hesitate to 
say that, if he had discharged his duty as be- 
came a soldier under the circumstances, and had 
made a vigorous attack on the enemy, as he was 
expected and directed to do, at any time up to 
8 o^dock that night, we should have utterly 
crushed or captured the larger portion of Jack- 
son's force before he could have been by any 
possibility sufficiently reenforced to have made 
an effective resistance. I did not myself feel for 
a moment that it was necessary for me, having 
given Gen. Porter an order to march toward the 
enemy, in a particular direction, to send him in 
addition specific orders to attack ; it being his 
dear duty, and in accordance with every military 
precept, to have brought his forces into action 
wherever he encountered the enemy, when a 
furious battle with that enemy was raging during 
the whole day in his immediate presence. I be- 
lieve — in fact, I am positive— that at 5 o'clock on 
the afternoon of the 29th, Gen. Porter had in 
his front no considerable body of the enemy. I 
believed then, as I am very sure now, that it was 
easily practicable for him to have turned the 
right flank of Jackson, and to have &llen upon 
his rear; that, if he had done so, we should have 
gained a decisive victory over the army under 
Jackson before he could have been joined by 
any of the forces of Longstreet; and that the 
army of Gen. Lee would iStve been so crippled 

and checked by the destruction of this large 
force as to have been no longer in condition to 
prosecute further operations of an aggressive 

'* In his offidal report, he says: 

"At that time, my effective force, greatly re- 
duced by losses in killed, wounded, missing, and 
broken-down men, during the severe operations 
of the two or three days and nights previous; 
the sharp actions of Hooker, King, and Ricketts 
on the 27th and 28th, and the furious battle on the 
29th, were estimated by me and others as follows : 
McDowell's corps, indudmg Reynolds's division, 
12,000 men; Sigel's corps, 7,000 ; Reno's corps, 
7,000; Heintzelman's corps, 7,000; Porter's corps, 
which had been in no engagement, and was, or 
ought to have been, perfectly fresh, I estimated at 
about 12,000 men, induding the brigade of Piatt, 
which formed a part of Sturgis's division, and 
the only portion that ever joined me. But of 
this force the brigades of Piatt and Griffin, num- 
bering, as I understood, about 6,000 m^ had 
been suffered to march off at daylight on the 
30th for Centerville, and were not available for 
operations on that day. This reduced Porter^s 
effective force in the Add to about 7,000 men; 
which gave me a total force of 40,000 men. 
Banks's corps, about 5,000 strong, was at Bris- 
tow Station, in charge of the railroad trains, and 
of a portion of the wagon trains of the army, 
still at that place." 

" Aug. 80 

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back in confiifiioii ; the Confederates 
pursuing eagerly and joining battle 
along the entire front, but struggling 
especially to overwhelm and turn 
our left, where Schenck, Milroy, and 
Reynolds, soon reenforced by Rick- 
etts, maintained the unequal contest 
throughout the afternoon ; while Por- 
ter's weakened corps was rallied, re- 
formed, and pushed up to their sup- 
port; rendering good service, espe- 
ciaDy the brigade of regulars under 
CoL Buchanan. Oten. Tower led his 
brigade, of Ricketts's division, into 
action, in support of Reynolds, with 
eminent skill and gallantry ; its con- 
duct being such as to elicit enthusi- 
astic cheers fit)m our entire left wing, 
Eeno's corps, also, being withdrawn 
from our right center, was thrown 
into action on our left, and displayed 
conspicuous gallantry. 

But the fates were against us. 
The enemy was aware of his ad- 
vant^, and resolved to press it to 
the utmost. Our attack on his left, 
under Jackson, for a time promised 
success ; until our advancing troops 
were mowed down by the cross-fire 
of 4 batteries from Longstreet's left, 
which decimated and drove them 
back in confusion. Jackson, seeing 
them recoil, immediately ordered an 
advance ; which Longstreet supported 
by pushing forward his whole com- 
mand against our center and left. 

* Lee^ in his official report, b&yb: 

**The obecuritf of night and the uncertainty 
of the fords of BuU Run rendered it necessary 
to suspeod operations untU morning; when the 
ctTilrj, being pushed forward, discovered that 
the enemj had escaped to the strong position of 
OeaterriUe, about four miles beyond BuU Run. 
The preralenoe of a heavy rain, which began 
Mikg the nigh^ threatened to render BuU Bun 
ispaenble, and impeded our movements. 
Longstreet remained on the battle-field toen- 
p^e Uie attention of the enemy, and cover the 
bnrial of the dead and the removal of the 
voonded ; while Jackson proceeded by Sudley^s 
Ford to the little Biver turnpike, to turn the 

Hood's two brigades again led the 
charge, followed by the divisions of 
Evans, E. H. Anderson, and Wilcox, 
sustained by those of Kemper and 
D. R Jones; the Eebel artillery 
doing fearftd execution on our dis- 
ordered and recoiling infantry. At 
dark, our left had been forced back 
considerably, but still stood firm and 
xmbroken, and still covered the turn- 
pike which was our only safe line of 
retreat. At 8 p. m.. Pope sent writ- 
ten instructions to his corps com- 
manders to withdraw deliberately 
toward Centerville, designating the 
route of each, and the position he 
was to take ; while Reno was ordered 
to cover the retreat ; which was made 
slowly, quietly, and in good order : 
no pursuit across Bull Run being 

Franklin's corps, from McOlellan's 
army, reported 8,000 strong, was, 
unknown to Pope, throughout this 
moumftd day, a little east of Center- 
ville." Pope reached that point be- 
tween 9 and 10 p. m., and at once 
made his dispositions for resisting a ' 
Rebel attack. But none was at- 
tempted. Sumner, as well as Frank- 
lin, from McClellan's army, joined 
him here, raising his total force to 
fully 60,000 men ; which was proba- 
bly more than the enemy could now 
bring against him. 

Pope evidently expected to be at- 

enemy's right and intercept his retreat to Wash- 
ington. Jackson^s progress was retarded by 
the inclemency of the weather and the fatigue 
of his troops ; who, in addition to their arduous 
marches, had fought three severe enf^agements 
in as many days. He reached Little River turn- 
pike in the evening, and the next day, Septem- 
ber 1st, advanced by that road toward Fairfax 
Court House." 

•• Pope, in his official report, says : 

*' About 6 p. iL, I heard accideniaUy that 
Franklin's corps had arrived at a point about 
four miles east of Centerville, and 12 miles in our 
rear, and that it was only about 8,000 strong." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



tacked next morning in this strong 
position ; bnt Lee, not unmindful of 
the Btill recent and sore experience 
of Malvern Heights, was too good a 
General to repeat his own blunders. 
Aware that a demoralized army un- 
der an inapt commander may be 
most safely and surely assailed on its 
flank and rear — ^by blows that threat- 
en to cut off its line of supply and 
retreat — ^he started Jackson north- 
ward, with his own and Ewell's divi- 
sions, at an early hour next morn- 
ing," with instructions to turn and 
assail our right. Crossing Bull Run 
at Sudley Ford, Jackson took a conn- 
try road thence to Little River turn- 
pike, on which, turning sharply to 
the right, he moved down toward 
Fairfax C. H. ; and, toward evening 
of the next day,** when nearing the 
little village of Germantown, a mile 
or two from Fairfax C. H., he found 
his advance resisted. Pope, not even 
threatened with a front attack, had 
ere this suspected the Rebels of a 
fresh attempt to flank his right, and 
had directed Gen. Sumner to push 
forward two brigades toward the 
turnpike, while Gen. Hooker was 
that afternoon dispatched to Fairfax 
C. H. to support the movement. 

Skirmishing commenced at 5 p. m. 
Gen. Reno, near Chantilly, with the 
remains of two divisions, poorly sup- 
plied with ammunition, found him- 
self confronted by Jackson's far su- 
perior numbers, but composed wholly 
of infantry ; the rapidity of his march 
having left his artillery behind on 
the road. Gen. Isaac J. Stevens, 
commanding Reno's 2d or left divi- 

sion, at once ordered a charge, and 
was shot dead while leading it, 
by a bullet through his head. His 
command thereupon fell back in dis- 
order, imcovering the flank of Reno's 
other division, which thereupon fell 
back also. 

Gen. Phil. Kearny, with his diri- 
sion of Heintzelman's corps, now ad- 
vanced and renewed the action, in 
the midst of a thunder-storm bo 
ftirious that anmiunition could with 
great difficulty be kept serviceable ; 
while the roar of cannon was utterly 
unheard at Centerville, barely three 
miles distant. Riding forward too 
recklessly, Kearny, about sunset, was 
shot dead, when almost within the 
Rebel lines, and the command of his 
division devolved on G^n. Bimey, 
who promptly ordered a bayonet- 
charge by his own brigade, consist- 
ing of the Ist, 38th, and 40th New 
York. The order was executed by 
Col. Egan with great gallantry, and 
the enemy's advance driven back 
considerably; Gen. Bimey holding 
the field of conflict through the night, 
burying our dead and removing our 
wounded. Our total loss here can- 
not have exceeded 600 men ; but 
among them were G^ns. Kearny and 
Stevens, and Maj. Tilden, 38th New 
York, who fell in the closing bayonet- 

Jackson's flanking movement and 
attack, though wisely conceived and 
vigorously made, had failed to 
achieve any material results. His 
report claims no prisoners nor arms 

Pope's retreat from Centerville 

••August 31. ••Sept.l. 

" He says : 

^ Early next morning, Sept Ist, we moved 
forward; and, late in the evening, aJfter reaching 
Ox HiU, came in contact with Uie enemy, who 

were in position on our right and fWmt, cover- 
ing his line of retreat from Centerville to Fair- 
fax Ck>nrt House. Our line of battle was 
formed— Gen. Hill's division on the right; 
Ewell's division, G^en. Lawton commanding, in 

Digitized by 




had in effect oommenced on the Ist, 
when he found himself flanked by 
Jackson ; and was continued through- 
out that and the following day, with- 
out ftirther annoyance from the 
enemy, imtil his whole army was 
drawn back within the intrench- 
ments which, along the south bank 
of the Potomac, cover the approaches 
to Washington; when he resigned 
his conmiand, and was succeeded by 
Gen. McClellan. 

Gen. Lee officially claims to have 
captured, during his campaign 
against Pope, more than 7,000 pris- 
oners, beside 2,000 of our wounded 
left in his hands, with 80 pieces of 
artillery, and 20,000 small arms; 
while our losses of railroad cars, 
munitions, tents, and camp equipage, 
must have been inmiense. Lee's 
Medical Director makes the Bebel 
losses in the two days' fighting on 
Manassas Plains, 1,090 killed, 6,154 
wounded : total, 7,244. Longstreet 
reports his losses from the 23d to the 
30th of August, inclusive, at 4,725. 
A. P. Hill reports the losses in his 
division, from the 24th to the 31st, 
at 1,548. Probably the entire Rebel 
loss irom Cedar Mountain to Chan- 
tilly did not fall short of 15,000 men ; 
while Pope's, if we include that by 
stragglers who never rejoined their 
regiments, must have been Mly 
double that number. Among our 

killed, beside those already named, 
were Cols. Fletcher Webster, son of 
the great Daniel, Roberts, Ist Mich., 
O'Connor, 2d Wise., Koltes, 73d 
Pa., conmianding a brigade. Cant- 
well, 82d Ohio, and Brown, 20th 
Ind. Among our wounded on the 
30th, were Maj.-Gen. Robert C. 
Schenck and CoL Hardin, of the 
Pa. Reserves. Among the Rebels 
wounded in these fights, were Brig.- 
Gens. Field and Trimble, and Cols. 
Fomo and Baylor, commanding brig- 

How far Pope's disasters are justly 
attributable to his own incapacity, 
and how far to the failure or with- 
holding of support on which he had 
a right to calculate, it is time now to 
consider. Li his report, he says : 

^*' It seems proper for me, since so much 
misrepresentation has been put into circula- 
tion as to the support I received from the 
Army of the Potomac, to state precisely 
what forces of that army came under my 
command, and were at any time engaged in 
the active operations of the campaign. 
Reynolds^s division of Pennsylvania Re- 
serves, about 2,500, joined me on the 23d 
of August, at Rappahannock Station. The 
corps of Heintzelman and Porter, about 
18,000 strong, joined me on the 26th and 
and 27th of August, at Warrenton Junction. 
The Pennsylvania Reserves, under Rey- 
nolds, and Heintzelman^s corps, consisting 
of the divisions of Hooker and Kearny, 
rendered most gallant and efficient service 
in all the operations which occurred after 
they had reported to me. Porter's corps, 
from unnecessary and unusual delays, and 
frequent and flagrant disregard of my 
orders, took no part whatever except in 

tike center, and Jackson^s diviaioo, Qen. Starke 
comrnanding^ on the left — all on the right of the 
torapike road. Artillery was posted on an emi- 
neaee to the left of the road. The brigades of 
Branch and Field, CoL Brockenbrough com- 
BaQ£ng the latter, were sent forward to feel 
and engage the enemy. A cold and drenching 
thoader-^wer swept over the field at this 
toM, striking directly into the faces of our 
tm^ Theae two brigades gallantly engaged 
the eoemy ; bat so severe was the fire in front 
ml flank of Branch's brigade as to produce in 
Itaone disorder and falling back. The brigades 

of Gregg, Thomas, and Pender were then 
thrown into the fight Soon, a portion of 
Swell's division became engaged. The oonfiict 
now raged with gpreat fhry ; the enemy obsti- 
nately and desperately contesting the ground un- 
til their Oens. Kearny and Stevens fell in front 
of Thomas's brigade; after which, they retired 
firom the field. By the following morning, the 
Federal army had entirely disappeared from our 
view ; and it soon appeared, by a report from 
Gen. Stuart, that it had passed Fairfax Court 
House and had moved in itie direction of Wash- 
ington city." 

Digitized by 




the action of the 80th of August. This 
small fraction of 20,500 men was all of the 
91,000 veteran troops from Harrison^s 
Landing which ever drew trigger under 
my command, or in any way took part in 
that campfugn. By the time the corps of 
Franklin and Sumner, 19,000 strong, joined 
me at Centerville, the original Army of Vir- 
ginia, as well as the corps of Heintzelman, 
and the division of Reynolds, had been so 
much cut up in the severe actions in which 
they had been engaged, and were so much 
broken down and diminished in numbers by 
the constant and excessive duties they had 
performed, that they were in little condition 
for any effective service whatever, and re- 
quired, and should have had, some days of 
rest to put them into anything like condition 
to perform their duties in the field.^' 

Gen. McClellan, we have seen, 
was ordered on the 3d of August to 
withdraw his army from the Penin- 
sula. He hesitated, and remon- 
strated; but the orders were reite- 
rated more peremptorily ; and he left 
Harrison's Bar with his rear-guard 
on the 16th of August. Having 
embarked and dispatched his corps 
successively at and near Fortress 
Monroe, heleft.that post on the 23d, 
arriving at Acquia creek on the 24th, 
removing to Alexandria on the 27th ; 
on which day Halleck telegraphed 

"Porter reports a general battle immi- 
nent Franklin^s corps should move out by 
forced marches, carrymg three or four days* 
provisions, and to be supplied, as far as 
possible, by railroad. Perhaps yon may 
prefer some other road than to Oenterville." 

To this, he replied, at 10:20 a. m. : 

" I have sent orders to Franklin to pre- 
pare to march with his corps at once, and to 
repair here in person to inform me as to his 
means of transportation.*^ 

At 1:15 p. M., he again tele- 
graphed Gen. Halleck as follows : 

" Franklin*s artillery has no horses except 
for four guns without caissons. I can pick up 
no cavalry. In view of these facts, will it 
not be well to push Sumner's corps here by 
water as rapidly as possible, to make imme- 
diate arrangements for placing the works in 
front of Washington in an efScient condition 
of defense ? I have no means of knowing 

the enemy's force between Pope and onr- 
selves. Can Franklin, without his artiUery 
or cavalry, effect any useful purpose in 
front? Should not Bumside at once take 
steps to evacuate Falmouth and Acqnia, at 
the same time covering the retreat of any 
of Pope's troops who may fall back in that 
direction ? I do not see that we have force 
enough in hand to form a connexion with 
Pope, whose exact position we do not 
know. Are we safe in the direotioa of the 

Half an hour later, he tel^raphed : 

" I think our policy now is to make these 
works perfectly safe, and mobilize a couple 
of corps as soon as possible ; but not to ad- 
vance them until they can have their artil- 
lery and cavalry." 

An hour later, he telegraphed 
again : 

" I still think that we should first provide 
for the immediate defense of Washington 
on both sides of the Potomac. 

" I am not responsible for the past, and 
cannot be for the future, unless I receive 
authority to dispose of the available troops 
according to my judgment. Please inform 
me at once what my position is. I do not 
wish to act in the dark." 

At 6 P. M., he tel^raphed again : 

" 1 have just received the copy of a dis- 
patch from General Pope to you, dated 10 
A. M., this morning, in which he says : ' All 
forces now sent forward should be sent to 
my right at Gainesville.' 

" I now have at my disposal here about 
10,000 men of Franklin's corps, about 2,800 
of Gen. Tyler's brigade, and Ool. Tyler's 
1st Connecticut Artillery, which I recom- 
mend should be held in hand for the defense 
of Washington. 

" If you wish me to order any part of 
this force to the front, it is in readiness to 
march at a moment's notice to any point 
you may indicate. 

" In view of the existing state of things in 
our front, I have deemed it best to order 
Gen. Casey to hold his men for f from] York- 
town in readiness to move, but not to send 
them off till further orders." 

At 4:40 p. M. next day, Aug. 28th, 
he tel^raphed Gen. Halleck : 

" Gen. Franklin is with me here. I will 
know in a few minutes the condition of ar- 
tillery and cavalry. We are not yet in con- 
dition to move; may be by to-morrow 
morning. Pope must cut through to-day, 
or adopt the plan I suggested. I have 
ordered troops to garrison the works at 
Qpton's Hill. They must be held at any 

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90st. Ab soon as I can see the waj to spare 
tbem, I will send a good corps of troops 
there. It is the key to Washington, which 
oonnot be seriously menaced so long as it is 

At 4:45 p. M., he telegraphed 


"Yonr dispatch received. Neither Frank- 
fin^s nor Snmner^s corps is now in condition 
to move and fight a battle. It wonld be a 
sacrifice to send them out now. I have 
sent aids to ascertain the condition of the 
commands of Cox and Tyler ; but I still 
think that a premature movement in small 
force will accomplish nothing bat the de- 
stmction of the troops sent ont. I repeat 
that I will lose no time in preparing the 
troops now here for the field; and that 
whatever orders yon may give, after hear- 
ing what I have to say, will be carried ont.^^ 

To these dispatches, Gen. Halleck, 
at 8:40 p. m., responded as follows : 

*^ There must be no farther delay in 
moving Franklin^s corps toward Manassas. 
They mnst go to-morrow morning, ready 
or not ready. If we delay too long to get 
ready, there will be no necessity to go at 
aU ; for Pope will either be defeated or vio- 
torions without our aid. If there is a want 
of wagons, th^ men must carry provisions 
with uiem till the wagons can come to their 

At 10:30 of the following day"*— 
the day of Pope's first indecisive 
battle at Gainesville or Groveton — 
McClellan telegraphed to Gen. Hal- 
leek as follows : 

*^ Franklin^s corps is in motion ; started 
about 6 A. M. I can give him but two 
squadrons of cavalry. I propose moving 
G^ Cox to Upton's Hill, to hold that im- 
portant point with its works, and to push 
cavalry scouts to Vienna, via Freedom Hill 
and Hunter's Lane. Cox has two squadrons 
of cavalry. Please answer at once whether 
tliis meets your approval I have directed 
Woodbury, with the Engineer brigade, to 
hold Fort Lyon, however. Detailed last 
night two regiments to the vicinity of Forts 
Ethan Allen and Marcy. Meagher's brigade 
U sdll at Acquia. if he moves in support 
of Franklin, it leaves us without any reliable 
troops in and near Wasliington. Yet Frank- 
lin is too weak alone. What shall be done ? 
No more cavalry arrived ; have but three 
squadrons. Franklin has but forty rounds 
of ammunition, and no wagons to move 
more. I do not think Franklin is hi condi- 

tion to accomplisli much, if he meets with 
serious resistance. I should not have moved 
him but for your pressing order of last 
night What have you from Vienna and 

At noon, he telegraphed again : 

" Your telegram received. Do you wish 
the movement of Franklin's corps to con- 
tinue ? He is without reserve ammunition 
and without transportation. Would it meet 
yonv views to post the rest of Sumner's 
corps between Arlington and Fort Corcoran, 
where they can either support Oox, Frank- 
lin, or Chain Bridge, and even Tenally- 

" Franklin has only between 10,000 and 
11,000 ready for duty. How far do you 
wish this force to advance ?" 

Gen. McClellan had already di- 
rected Franklin to halt his command 
near Anandale ; and, at 1 p. m. this 
day, he telegraphed Gen. Halleck as 
follows : 

" I shall endeavor to hold a line in ad- 
vance of Forts Allen and Marcy, at least 
with strong advanced guards. I wish to 
hold the line through Prospect Hill, Mack- 
all's, Minor's, and Hall's Hill. This will 
give us timely warning. Shall I do as seems 
best to me with all the troops in this vi- 
einity, including Franklin, who, I really 
think, ought not, under present circum- 
stances, to advance beyond Anandale f " 

Halleck, at 3 p. m., replied : 

" I want Franklin's corps to go far 
enough to find ont something about the 
enemy. Perhaps he may get such informa- 
tion at Anandale as to prevent his going 
farther. Otherwise, he will push on toward 
Fairfax. Try to get somethmg from direc- 
tion of Manassas, either by telegram or 
through Franklin's scouts. Our people 
mttst move more actively, and find out 
where the enemy is. I am tired of guesses." 

Fifteen minutes before, McClellan 
had telegraphed the President as fol- 

"I am clear that one of two courses 
should be adopted : 1st. To concentrate all 
our available forces to open communication 
with Pope ; 2d. To leave Pope to get out of 
his scrape, and at once use all our means to 
make the Capital perfectly safe. 

"No middle ground will now answer. 
Tell me what you wish me to do, and I will 
do all in my power to accomplish it. I wish 

' August 29. 

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to know what my orders and authority are. 
I ask for nothing, but will obey whatever 
•rders yon give. I only ask a prompt deci- 
•ion, that I may at once give the necessary 
orders. It will not do to delay longer." 

To which the President, at 4:10 

p. M., responded as follows : 

" Yonrs of to-day just received. I think 
yonr first alternative — ^to wit: * to concen- 
trate all oar available forces to open com- 
mnnication with Pope' — is the right one. 
But I wish not to control. That I now leave 
to Gen. Halleck, aided by yonr connsels. 
" A. Lincoln." 

But McClellan had already not 
only arrested Franklin's inarch at 
Anandale, but sent Sumner's corps 
northward toward Arlington and 
Chain Bridge, instead of toward the 
enemy. At 7:50 p. m., Halleck tele- 
graphed him thus : 

" You will immediately send constmction 
train and guards to repair railroad to Ma- 
nassas. Let there be no delay in this. I 
have JQst been told that Franklin^s corps 
stopped at Anandale, and that he was this 
evening in Alexandria. This is all contrary 
to my orders. Investigate and report the 
fact of this disobedience. That corps must 
posh forward, as I directed, to protect the 
railroad and open our communications with 

McClellan, at 8 p. m., telegraphed 

to Halleck : 

" It was not safe for Franklin to move 
beyond Anandale, under the circumstances, 
until we knew what was at Vienna. Gen. 
Franklin remained here until about 1 p. m., 
endeavoring to arrange for supplies for his 
command. I am responsible for both these 
circumstances, and do not see that either 
was in disobedience to your orders. Please 
give distinct orders in reference to Frank- 
lin's movements of to-morrow." 

At 10 P. M., Gen. McClellan tele- 
graphed again : 

^^Kot hearing from you, I have sent 
orders to Gen. Franklin to place himself in 
communication with Gkn. Pope by advanc- 
ing, as soon as possible, and, at the same 
time, cover the transit of Pope's supplies. 
Orders have been given for railway and 

wagon trains to move to Pope with the loast 
possible delay." 

Gen. Eblleck, at 9:40 a. m. on the 
fatal 80th, telegraphed McClellan : 

^* I am by no means satisfied with Gen. 
Franklin's march of yesterday, considering 
the circumstances of the case. He was very 
wrong in stopping at Anandale. Moreover, 
I learned last night that the quartermaster's 
department would have given him plenty of 
transportation if he had applied for it any 
time since his arrival at Aiezandria. He 
knew the importance of opening communi- 
cation with Gen. Pope's army, and should 
have acted more promptly." 

At 11 A. M., McClellan responded : 
*^Have ordered Sumner to leave one 
brigade in the vicinity of Ohain Bridge, and 
to move the rest, via Columbia pike, on 
Anandale and Fairfax Court House, if this 
is the route you wish them to take. He 
and Franklin are both instructed to join 
Pope as promptly as possible. Shall Couch 
move also when he arrives ?" 

To which Halleck, at 12:20 p. m., 
responded as follows : 

*^ I think Couch should land at Alexan> 
driaand be immediately pushed out to Pope. 
Send the troops where the fighting is. Let 
me know when Couch arrives." 

Franklin's and Sumner's corps 
were now actually pushed forward, 
and found Pope without difficulty, 
defeated and driven back on Center- 
ville. Had they been there two days 
earlier, and had Porter now and then 
condescended to obey an order, that 
defeat might have been transformed 
into a victory. It seems clear that 
neither McClellan, nor any of his 
devoted lieutenants, was anxious that 
victory, under such auspices, should 
be achieved. Pope's appointment to 
the command, and his address to his 
army on opening the campaign,* had 
been understood by them as reflecting 
on the strategy of tiie Peninsular cam- 
paign ; and this was their mode of 
resenting the indignity. 

* See page 173. 

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Gen. McClellan had already* 
been verbally charged with the com- 
mand of the defenses of Washington ; 
and was, upon fuller advices of Pope's 
disasters, invested" by the President 
and Gen. Halleck with the entire 
control, not only of those fortifica- 
tions, bnt of " all the troops for the 
defense of the capital," in obedience 
to the imperious demand of a lai^e 
majority of the surviving oflScers and 
soldiers. Pope's original army had 
in great part been demolished; while 
that brought from the Peninsula by 
McClellan had been tanght to attrib- 
ute the general ill-fortune not to the 
tardiness and heartlessness wherewith 
Pope had been reenforced and sup- 
ported by their leaders, but to his 
own incapacity, presumption, and 
foDy. McCMellan at once ordered a 
concentration of his forces within the 
defenses of Washington ; where they 
were soon prepared to resist the ene- 
my, but whither Lee had no idea of 
following them. Having been joined* 
by D. EL Hill's fresh division, from 
fiichmond, he sent that division at 
once in the van of his army to Lees- 
burg; thence crossing the Potomac 
and moving on Frederick. Jackson 
foDowed with a heavy corps, consist- 
ing of A. P. Hill's, Ewell's, and his 
own divisions, embracing 14 brigades, 
crossing* at White's Ford and mov- 
ing on Frederick, which was occu- 
pied on the 6th, without resistance. 
Gen. Lee, with the rest of his army, 
rapidly followed, concentrating at 
Frederick ; whence he issued the fol- 
lowing seductive address : 

" Hbadquabtbbs Akmt of Nokthbbw ) 


"Sept. 8,1862. ) 
" To the People of Maryland : 

"It is right that you should know the 
purpose that has hrought the armjr under 
my command within the limits of your 
State, so far as that purpose concerns your- 

"The people of the Confederate States 
have long watched with the deepest sym- 
pathy the wrongs and outrages that have 
been inflicted upon the citizens of a Com- 
monwealth allied to the States of the South 
by tlie strongest social, political, and com- 
mercial ties, and reduced to the condition 
of a conquered province. 

"Under the pretense of supporting the 
Constitution, but in violation of its most 
valuable provisions, your citizens have been 
arrested and imprisoned, upon no charge, 
and contrary to all the forms of law. 

"A faithful and manly protest against 
this outrage, made by a venerable and illus- 
trious Marylander,* to whom in better days 
no citizen appealed for right in vain, was 
treated with scorn and contempt. 

"The government of your chief city has 
been usurped by armed strangers; your 
Legislature has been dissolved by the un- 
lawful arrest of its members; freedom of 
the press and of speech has been sup- 
pressed ; words have been declared offenses 
by an arbitrary decree of the Federal Exec- 
utive ; and citizens ordered to be tried by 
military commissions for what they may 
dare to speak. 

" Believing that the people of Maryland 
possess a spirit too lofty to submit to sticli 
a Government, the people of the South have 
long wished to aid you in throwing off this 
foreign yoke, to enable you again to eiyoy 
the inalienable rights of ^eemen, and restore 
the independence and sovereignty of your 

" In obedience to this wish, our army has 
come among you, and is prepared to assist 
you with the power of its arms in regaining 
the rights of which you have been so un- 
justly despoiled. 

" This, citizens of Maryland, is our mis- 
sion, so far as you are concerned. No re- 
straint upon your free will is intended— no 
intimidation will be allowed within the lim- 
its of this army at least. Marylanders shall 
once more eiyoy their ancient freedom of 
thought and speech. We know no enemies 

' Sept 1. ' Sept 2. 

VOL. n. — 13 

■ Sept. 2. * Sept 5. • Roger B. Taney, to wit 

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among you, and will protect all of you in 
every opinion. 

"It is for you to decide your destiny 
freely and without constraint. This army 
will respect your choice, whatever it may 
be; and, while the Southern people will 
rejoice to welcome you to your natural po- 
sition among tbem, they will only welcome 
you when you come of your own free will. 
" B. E. Lee, General Commanding.*' 

The fond expectations which had 
prompted this address were never 
realized. The Marylanders had no 
gluttonous appetite for %hting on 
the side of the Union ; still less for 
risking their lives in support of the 
Confederacy. All who were inclined 
to fighting on that side had found 
their way into the Eebel lines long 
before; there being little difficulty 
in stealing across the Potomac, and 
none at all in crossing by night to 
Virginia from the intensely disloyal, 
slaveholding counties of south-west- 
em Maryland. In vain was Gen. 
Bradley T. Johnson — ^who had left 
Frederick at the outset of the war to 
serve in the Kebel army — ^made Pro- 
vost-Marshal of that town, recruit- 
ing offices opened, and all man- 
ner of solicitations to enlistment set 
forth. The number of recruits won 
to the Eebel standard while it floated 
over Maryland probably just about 
equaled its loss by deserters — say from 
200 to 300. 

The conduct of the Eebel soldiery 
was in the main exemplary. Hun- 
gry, ragged, and shoeless, as they 
often were, they rarely entered a 
house except by order, and never 
abused women; but cattle, horses, 
and everything that might contribute 
to the subsistence or efficiency of an 
army, were seized by wholesale, not 
only for present use, but thousands 
of animals were driven across the Po- 

tomac to replenish their wasted and 
inadequate resources. 

Qen. McClellan was early ap- 
prised • of the disappearance of the 
Eebels from his front, and soon ad- 
vised that they were crossing into 
Maryland. His several corps were 
accordingly brought across the Poto- 
mac and posted on the north of 
Washington; which city he left* in 
command of Gen. Banks, making his 
headquarters that night with the 6th 
corps, at Eockville. He moved slow- 
ly, because uncertain, as were his 
superiors, that the Rebel movement 
across the Potomac was not a feint 
But his advance, after a brisk skir- 
mish, on the 12th entered Frederick, 
whidi the Eebels had evacuated, 
moving westward, during the two 
preceding days, and through which 
his main body passed next day. 
Here he was so lucky as to obtain a 
copy of Lee's general order, only 
four days old, developing his pro- 
spective movements, as follows : 

" Headquartebs Abmy op Nobthkrh I 
" ViKoiNiA, September 9, 1862. \ 

"The army will resume its march to- 
morrow, taking the Hagerstown road. Gen. 
Jackson's command will form the advance ; 
and, after passing Middletown, with sach 
portion as he may select, take the ronte to- 
ward Sharpsbnrg, cross the Potomac at the 
most convenient point, and, by Friday night, 
take possession of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad, capture such of the enemy as may 
be at Martinsburg, and intercept such as 
may attempt to escape from Harper's Ferry. 

" Gen. Ix)ngstreet's command will pursue 
the same road as far as Boonsborough, 
where it will halt with the reserve, supply, 
and baggage trains of the army. 

"Gen. McLaws, with his own divinon 
and that of Gen. R. H. Anderson, will fol- 
low Gen. Longstreet ; on reaching Middle- 
town, he will take the route to Harper's 
Ferry, and, by Friday morning, possess him- 
self of the Maryland Heights, and endeavor 
to capture the enemy at Harper's Ferry and 

" Gen. Walker, with his division, after 


'Sept 7. 

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iocomplishing the object in which he is now 
engaged, will cross the Potomac at Cheek's 
Ford, ascend its right bank to Lovettsville, 
take possession of London Heights, if prac- 
ticable, by Fridaj morning ; Key's Ford on 
his left, and the road between the end of 
the mountain and the Potomac on his right. 
He will, as far as practicable, cooperate 
with Gen. McLaws and Gen. Jackson in in- 
tercepting the retreat of the enemy. 

"Gen. D. H. HilFs division will form the 
rear gnard of the army, pursuing the road 
taken by the main body. The reserve ar- 
tillery, ordnance and supply trains, &c., 
▼HI precede Gen. UilL 

" Gen. Stuart will detach a squadron of 
cavalry to accompany the commands of 
Gens. Longstreet, Jackson, and McLaws, 
and, with the main body of the cavalry, will 
cover the route of the army, and bring up all 
stragglers that may have been left behind. 

" The commands of G^ns. Jackson, Mc- 
Laws, and Walker, after accomplishing the 
objects for which they have been detached, 
wUl join the main body of the army at 
Boonsborough or Hagerstown. 

"Each regiment on the march will habit- 
naUy carry its axes in the regimental ord- 
nance wagons, for use of the men at their 
encampments, to procure wood, &c 

" By command of Gren. R. E. Leb. 
"R. H. Chilton, 
** Assistant Adjutant-Greneral. 

"Mnj.-Gen. D. H. HIL^ Com'ding Div." 

McClellan had thns, hj a rare 
stroke of good fortune, become pos- 
sessed of his adversary's designs, 
when it was too late to change them, 
and when it could not be known to 
that adversary, at least until devel- 
oped by counteracting movements, 
that he had this knowledge, and was 
actuig upon it. Lee had ventured 
the hazardous maneuver of dividing 
bis army in a hostile country, and 
placing a considerable and treacher- 
ous, though fordable, river between 
its parts, while an enemy superior in 
nmnbers to the whole of it hung 
closely upon its rear. Such strategy 
must have been dictated by an in- 
eflGible contempt either for the capa- 
city of his antagonist or for the most 
obvious rules of war. 

The order above given rendered it 

clear not only that Harper's Ferry 
was Lee's object, and that Jackson's 
corps and Walker's division were ere 
this across the Potomac in eager 
quest of it, but that only McLaws's 
corps — 20,000 men at the utmost — 
was now between our whole army 
and the coveted prize. Our corps 
happened then to be mainly concen- 
trated around Frederick ; but Frank- 
lin's division — ^nearly 17,000 strong 
— was some miles southward, and 
thus nearer to Harper's Ferry, and 
in front of McLaws. Had McClellan 
instantly put his whole army in mo- 
tion, marching by the left flank on 
parallel roads leading directly toward 
the Potomac and the Ferry, and 
sending orders to Franklin to ad- 
vance and either force his way to the 
Ferry or engage whomsoever might 
attempt to resist him, assured that 
corps after corps would follow swift- 
ly his advance and second his at- 
tacks, McLaws must have been 
utterly crushed before sunset of the 
14th, and Harper's Ferry relieved by 
midnight at farthest. That, instead 
of this, McClellan should have ad- 
vanced his main body on the road 
tending rather north of west, through 
Turner's Gap to Boonsborough and 
Hagerstown, rather than on roads 
leading to Crampton's Gap and to 
the Potomac, is unexplained and in- 

The * South Mountain' range of 
hills, which stretch north-eastwardly 
from the Potomac across Maryland, 
are a modified continuation of Vir- 
ginia's ' Blue Eidge,' as the less con- 
siderable Catoctin range, near Fred- 
erick, are an extension of the ^ Bull 
Eun' range. Between them is the 
valley of Catoctin creek, some ten 
miles wide at the Potomac, but nar- 

Digitized by 




rowing to a point at its head Seve- 
ral roads cross both ranges ; the best 
being the National Boad from Balti- 
more through Frederick and Middle- 
town (the chief village of the Catoc- 
tin Valley)^ to Hagerstown and Cum- 

Lee, having divided his army in 
order to swoop down on Harper's 
Ferry, was compelled by McClellan's 
quickened and assured pursuit, based 
on the captured order aforesaid, to 
fight all our army with half of his 
own — ^reversing the strategy usual in 
this quarter ; for, if McClellan's ad- 
vance were not impeded. Harper's 
Ferry would be relieved. So, Gen. 
Pleasanton, leading our cavalry ad- 
vance on the road to Hagerstown, 
encountered some resistance* at the 
crossing of Catoctin creek in Middle- 
town ; but, skirmishing occasionally 
with Stuart's cavalry, pressed on, 
backed by Cox's division of Bum- 
side's corps, to find the enemy in 
force before Tubnee's Gap of South 
Mountain, a few miles beyond. 

This gap is about 400 feet high ; 
the crests on either side rising some 
600 feet higher ; the old Hagerstown 
and Sharpsburg roads, half a mile to 
a mile distant, on either side, rising 
higher than the National Boad, and 
materially increasing the difficulty of 
holding the pass against a largely 
superior force, 

Lee, in his eagerness to grasp the 
prize whereon he was intent, and in 
his confident assurance that McClel- 
lan would continue the cautious and 
hesitating movement of six or seven 
miles a day by which he had hither- 
to advanced from Washington, had 
pushed Longstreet forward on Jack- 
son's track to Hagerstown,* whence 

six of his brigades, under Anderson, 
had been sent to cooperate with Mc- 
Laws against Maryland Heights and 
Harper's Ferry. This left only D. 
H. Hill's division of five brigades to 
hold Turner's Gtip and the adjacent 
passes, with such help as might be 
afforded by Stuart's cavalry ; Stuart 
having reported to Hill, on tiie 13th, 
that only two brigades were pursu- 
ing them. He was undeceived, how- 
ever, when, at 7 A. M. next morning, 
Cox's division of Bumside's corps 
advanced up the turnpike from Mid- 
dletown, preceded by Pleasanton's 
cavalry and a battery, and opened 
on that defending the Gap ; while by 
far the larger portion of the Army of 
the Potomac could be seen, by the 
aid of a good field-glass, from a fa- 
vorable position on the mountain, 
either advancing across the valley or 
winding down the opposite heights 
into it. 

Hill reports his division as but 
5,000 strong; and even this small 
force had been somewhat dispersed 
in pursuance of the orders of Lee 
and the erroneous information of 
Stuart. The brigade of Gen. Gar- 
land, which was first pushed forward 
to meet our advance, was instantly 
and badly cut up, its conmiander be- 
ing killed ; when it retired in disorder, 
and was replaced by that of Ander- 
son, supported by those of Bhodes 
and Bipley, who held the pass firmly 
for hours against the most gallant ef- 
forts of Cox's Ohio regiments. But, 
meanwhile, our superior numbers, 
backed by desperate fighting, enabled 
us steadily to gain ground on either 
side, until the crest of the heights on 
the left of the pass was fairly ours, 
though one of our batteries had 

•Sept 13. 

•Sept 11. 

Digitized by 




meantime been all bnt lost ; its gun- 
ners having been shot down or dri- 
ven oSj and its guns saved from cap- 
tare only by a determined charge of 
the 23d Ohio, 100th Pennsylvania, 
and 45th Ifew York. 


The rattle of musketry ceased at 
noon, and for two hours only the 
roar of cannon was heard ; the com- 
batants on either side awaiting the 
arrival of reenforcements. Hitherto, 

only Beno's division on our side, and 
Hill's on that of the Eebels, had 
been engaged. But, at 2 p. m., Hook- 
er's corps came up on our side, and 
took the old Hagerstown road, lead- 
ing away from the turnpike on our 
right, with intent to flank and crush 
the Bebel left. At 3 p. h., our line 
of battle was formed, with Eicketts's 
division on the right ; King's, com- 
manded by Hatch, in the center, 
with its right resting on the turn- 
pike, and Keno's on the left ; and a 
general advance commenced, under 
a heavy fire of artillery. 

Meantime, Hill had sent pressing 
messages to Longstreet, at Hagers- 
town, for help; and two brigades 
had already arrived; as Longstreet 
himself, with seven more brigades, 
did very soon afterward ; raising the 
Kebel force in action thereafter to 
some 26,000 or 30,000 men. Long- 
street, ranking Hill, of course took 
command ; little to the satisfaction 
of Hill, who evidently thinks he could 
have done much better." 

The enemy's advantage in position 
was still very great, every movement 
on our part being plainly visible to 
them ; while we could know nothing 
of their positions nor their strength, 
except from their fire and its effect. 
Our men were constantly struggling 
up rocky steeps, mainly wooded, 
where every wall, or fence, or in- 
equality of groimd, favors the com- 
batants who stand on the defensive. 
The disparity in numbers between 
those actually engaged was not very 
great — ^possibly three to two — ^but 
then, our men were inspirited by the 

"Bin, in hifl official report, sajs : 

"Ua}.-GeiL Longstreet came up about 4 
o'clock, with the conunands of Brig. -Gens. 
EnnsaDa D. R. Jones. I had now become fa- 
nuliar with the ground, and knew all the vital 

points ; and, had these troops reported to me, 
the result might have been different As it 
was, they took wrong positions : and, in theif 
exhausted condition after a long march, they 
were broken and scattered." 

Digitized by 




conscioasnesB that a great army stood 
behind them. 

Still, the ground was stubbornly 
contested, foot by foot ; Gen. Hatch, 
commanding the Ist division, being 
disabled by a wound, and succeeded 
by Gen. A. Doubleday. Col. Wain- 
wright, 76th New York, who now 
took command of Doubleday's brig- 
ade, was likewise woimded. But 
Hooker steadily advanced ; and had 
fairly flanked and worsted the Eebel 
left, when darkness put an end to the 

The struggle on our left com- 
menced later, and was signalized by 
similar gallantry on both sides ; but 
numbers prevailed over desperation, 
and the Rebels were steadily forced 
back until the crest of the mountain 
was won. Here fell, about sunset, 
Maj.-Gen. Jesse L. Reno, mortally 
wounded by a musket-ball, while, at 
the head of his division, he was 
watching through a glass the enemy's 

Gen. Meade, with the Pennsyl- 
vania Reserves, had followed Hooker 
from Catoctin creek up the old 
Hagerstown road, so far as Mount 
Tabor church. He went into action 
on the right of Hatch's division, and 
was soon heavily engaged ; his brig- 
ades being admirably handled by 
Gen. Seymour and Cols. Magilton 
and Gallagher, the last of whom was 
wounded. It had not fully reached 
the summit in its front, when dark- 

ness arrested the conflict. Qen. 
Duryea's brigade of Rickettsia divi- 
sion, which had been ordered to its 
support, was just then coming into 

Our advance up the turnpike in 
the center, being contingent on suc- 
cess at either side, was made last, by 
Gibbon's brigade of Hatch'^s, and 
HMtsuflTs of Ricketts's division; 
the artillery fighting its way up the 
road, with the infantry supporting 
on either side. The struggle here 
was obstinate, and protracted till 9 
o'clock, when Gibbon's brigade had 
nearly treached the top of the pass, 
and had exhausted every cartridge ; 
suffering, of course, severely. At 
midnight, it was relieved by Gor- 
man's brigade of Sumner's corps, 
which, with Williams's, had reached 
the foot of the mountain a little after 
dark. Richardson's division had also 
arrived, and taken position in the 
rear of Hooker ; while Sykes's divi- 
sion of regulars and the artillery re- 
serve had halted for the night at Mid- 
dletown; so that McClellan had most 
of his army in hand, ready to renew 
the action next morning. 

But Lee, who was also present, and 
whose end had been secured by the 
precious hours here gained for his 
Harper's Ferry operations, withdrew 
his forces during the night ; so that, 
when our skirmishers advanced next 
morning, they encoimtered only the 
dead and the desperately wounded." 

"Gen. McClellan sent four Bnccessive dis- 
patches to Gen. Halleck concerning this affair ; 
whereof the following is the latest and most 
erroneoos : 

**Hbadquabteb8 Army of the Potomao, ) 
"BoLiVAB Sept 15—10 A. M. ) 
" To H. W. Halleck, General-in-Chief: 

"Information this moment received completely 
oonfinns the rout and demoralization of the 
Rebel army. Gen. Lee is reported wounded 

and Grarland killed. Gen. Hooker alone has 
over a thousand more prisoners; 100 having 
been sent to Frederick. It is stated that Lee 
gives his loss sa fifteen thousand. We are follow- 
ing as rapidly as the men can move. 

" Geoboe B. McClellak, Major-OeD.*" 

McClellan seems here to suppose that he had 

fought and beaten the main body of the Bebel 

army; yet how could he think so wiih Lee^s 

order of the 9th before him? 

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McClellan states his losses in this 
afiair at 312 killed, 1,234 wounded, 
and 22 missing : total, 1,568 ; claims 
about 1,500 prisoners — ^no guns — and 
says: "The loss to the enemy in 
killed was much greater than our 
own, and probably also in wounded." 
This is hardly credible; since the 
Eebels fought with every advantage 
of position and shelter, and were 
nowhere so driveu as to lose heavily 
by a fire upon huddled, disorganized 
masses, when retreating in disorder." 

Maj.-Gen* Franklin, with the 6th 
corps, composed of his own. Couch's, 
and Sykes's divisions, forming the 
left wing of McClellan's army, had 
advanced cautiously up the north 
bank of the Potomac, through Tenal- 
lytown, Damestown, and Poolesville 
—his right passing through Rock- 
ville— until McClellan's discovery 
that Lee had divided his army in 
order to clutch Harper's Ferry in- 
duced a general quickening of move- 
ment on our side. Still advancing, 
he approached, at noon on the 14th, 
the pass through Cbampton's Gap in 
the South Mountain, just beyond 
Borkettsville, several miles south- 
westward of that at which Bumside, 
leading our main advance, had, some 
hours earlier, found his march ob- 
structed by Hill. Before him was 
Howell Cobb, with two or three brig- 
ades of McLaws's division, whereof 
the larger portion was some miles 
fiurther on, operating against Mary- 
land Heights and Harper's Ferry. 
The Gap afforded good positions for 
defense ; but the disparity of num- 
bers was decisive ; and Cobb — who. 

of course, had orders to hold on at any 
cost — was finally driven out, after a 
smart contest of four or five hours, 
wherein his force was badly cut up. 
Our loss here was 116 killed and 418 
wounded ; our trophies, 400 prison- 
ers, one gun, and 700 small arms. 
Could Franklin but have realized 
how precious were the moments, he 
was still in time to have relieved 
Harper's Ferry; whence, following 
up his advantage with moderate vig- 
or, he was but six miles distant when 
it surrendered at 8 next morning. 

Stonewall Jackson, leaving Fred- 
erick on the 10th, had pushed swiftly 
through Middletown and Boonsbo- 
rough to Williamsport, where he re- 
crossed the Potomac next day ; strik- 
ing thence at Martinsburg, which 
was held by Gen. Julius White, with 
some 2,000 Unionists. But White, 
warned of Jackson's approach in 
overwhelming strength, fled during 
the night of the 11th to Harper's 
Ferry; where he found Col. D. S. 
Miles, of Bull Kun. dishonor, in com- 
mand of some 10,000 men, partly 
withdrawn from Winchester and 
other points up the Valley, but in 
good part composed of green regi- 
ments, hastily levied on tidings of 
the Chickahominy disasters, and offi- 
cered by local politicians, who had 
never yet seen a shot fired at a line 
of armed men. White ranked Miles, 
and should have taken command ; but 
he waived his right in deference to 
Miles's experience as an old army 
officer, and offered to serve under 
him ; which was accepted. 

Jackson, who had cheaply acquired 

"Hni says that Gen. Rhodes, commanding 
<Ae of his brigades, estimates his loss at 422 
out of 1,200 taken into action. Col. Qayle, 12th 

Alabama, was among his killed; and Col. 
CNeal, 24th, and Lt-GoL Pickens, 12th Ala- 
bama, were severely woimded. 

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a good supply of proyisionfi and mnni- 
tions at Martinsbnrg, did not allow 
himself to be detained by them ; but, 
hurrying on, was before Harper's Fer- 
ry at 11 A. M. of the 13th. Waiting 
only to ascertain that McLaws, who 
was to cooperate on the other side 
of the Potomac, and Walker, who 
was dispatched simultaneously from 
Frederick, with orders to cross the 
Potomac at Point of Rocks and come 
up on the south, so as to shut in 
and assail our garrison from that side 
of the Shenandoah, were already in 
position, he ordered A. P. Hill, with 
his division, to move down the north 
bank of the Shenandoah into Harper's 
Ferry ; while Lawton, with Ewell's, 
and J. E. Jones, with Jackson's own 
division, were to advance upon and 
threaten the beleaguered Unionists 
farther and farther to their right. 

Harper's Ferry is little more than 
a deep ravine or gorge, commanded 
on three sides by steep mountains, 
and of course defensible only from 
one or more of these. A commander 
who was neither a fool nor a traitor, 
seeing enemies swarming against him 
from every side, would either have 
evacuated in haste, and tried to make 
his way out of the trap, or concentra- 
ted his force on one of the adjacent 
heights, and here held out, until time 
had been afforded for his relief. 
Miles did neither. He posted " the 
32d Ohio, Col. T. H. Ford, on Mary- 
land Heights ; where they were reen- 
forced" by the 39th and 126th New 
York, and next day by the 115th 
New York and part of a Maryland 
regiment. Ford's requisition for axes 
and spades was not filled; and the 
only 10 axes that could be obtained 
were used in constructing** a slight 

breastwork of trees near the crest, 
with an abatis in its front ; where Mc- 
Laws's advance appeared and com- 
menced skirmishing the same day. 


An attack in force was made, early 
next morning,** and was repulsed; 
but was followed at 9 o'clock by an- 
other and more determined, when — 
Ck)l. E. Sherrill, 126th New York, 
being severely wounded — ^his r^- 
ment broke and fled in utter rout, 
and the remaining regiments soon 
followed the example, alleging an 
order to retreat from Maj. Hewitt, 
who denied having given it. Our 
men were rallied after running a 
short distance, and reoccupied part 
of the ground they had so culpably 
abandoned, but did not regain their 
breastwork; and of course left the 
enemy in a commanding position. 
At 2 o'clock next morning," Ford, 
without being further assailed, aban- 
doned the Heights, so far as we still 
retained them, spiking his guns : 4 of 
which, at a later hour in the morn- 
ing, were brought off by four com- 
panies, under Maj. Wood, who went 
over on a reconnoissance and encoun- 
tered no opposition. 

McLaws, with his own and Ander- 
son's divisions, leaving Frederick on 
the 10th, had entered Pleasant Valley, 

" Sept 5. 

' Sept. 12. 

' Sept 12. 

• Sept. 13. 

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" Sept. 14. 




via Bnrkettsville, on the llth ; and, 
perceiving at once that Maryland 
Heights was the key of the position, 
had sent" Kershaw, with his own 
and Barksdale's brigades, np a rag- 
ged monntain road, impracticable 
for artillery, to the crest of the Elk 
Mountains, two or three miles north- 
ward of Maryland Heights, with or- 
ders to follow along that crest, and 
80 approach and carry our position ; 
while Wright's brigade, with 2 guns, 
was to take post on the southern face 
of South Mountain, and so command 
all the approaches along the Poto- 
mac. Meanwhile, McLaws, with the 
rest of his force, saye the brigades 
holdingCrampton's Gap, moved down 
Pleasant Valley to the river. 

Kershaw advanced according to or- 
der, through dense woods and over 
very rough ground, until he encoun- 
tered and worsted Ford's command on 
the Heights, as we have seen ; while 
Wright and Anderson took, unop- 
posed, the positions assigned them, 
and McLaws advanced to Sandy 
Hook, barring all egress from Har- 
per's Ferry down the Potomac. 

The morning of the 14th was spent 
by McLaws in cutting a road practi- 
cable for artillery to the crest of 
Maryland Heights, whence fire was 
opened fix>m 4 guns at 2 p. m. ; not 
<Hily shelling our forces at the Ferry, 
but conmianding our position on 
Bolivar Heights, beyond it Before 
night, Walker's guns opened like- 
wise from Loudon Heights, and 
Jackson's batteries were playing 
from several points, some of tiiem 
enfilading our batteries on Bolivar 
Heists; whOe shots from others 
, reached our helpless and huddled 
n»n in timr rear. During the night, 

CoL Orutchfield, Jackson's chief of 
artillery, fei*ried 10 of Ewell's guns 
across the Shenandoah, and estab- 
lished them where they could take 
in reverse our best intrenchments on 
Bolivar Heights; soon compelling 
their evacuation and our retreat to an 
inferior position, considerably nearer 
the Ferry, and of course more ex- 
posed to and commanded by Mc- 
Laws's guns on Maryland Heights. 

At 9 p. M.," our cavalry, some 
2,000 strong, under Col. Davis, 12th 
Hlinois, made their escape from the 
Ferry, across the pontoon-bridge, to 
the Maryland bank ; passing up the 
Potomac unassailed, through a re- 
gion swarming with enemies, to the 
mouth of the Antietam, thence stri- 
king northward across Maryland, 
reaching Greencastle, Pa., next morn- 
ing ; having captured by the way the 
ammunition train of Gen. Longstreet, 
consisting of 60 to 60 wagons. Miles 
assented to this escape ; but refused 
permission to infantry officers who 
asked leave to cut their way out : say- 
ing he was ordered to hold the Ferry 
to the last extremity. 

Next morning at daybreak," the 
Rebel batteries reopened from seven 
commanding points, directing their 
fire principally at our batteries on 
Bolivar Heights. At 7 a. m.. Miles 
stated to Gen. White that a surrender 
was inevitable, his artilleiy anmiu- 
nition being all but exhausted ; when 
the brigade conmianders were called 
together and assented. A white flag 
was thereupon raised ; but the Bebel^ 
not perceiving it, continued their 
fire some 30 to 40 minutes, whereby 
Miles was mortally woimded. Jack- 
son was just impelling a general in- 
fantry attack, when informed that the 

» Sept 12. 

* Sept 14. 

'Sept. 15. 

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white flag had been raised on the de- 
fenses. At 8 A. M., a capitulation 
was agreed to, under which 11,583 
men were passed over to the enemy 
— about half of them New Yorkers ; 
the residue mainly from Ohio and 
Maryland. Nearly all were raw 
levies ; some of them militia, called 
out for three months. Among the 
spoils were 73 guns, ranging from 
excellent to worthless ; 13,000 small 
arms, 200 wagons, and a large quan- 
tity of tents and camp-equipage. Of 
horses, provisions, and munitions, the 
captures were of small account. 

Jackson, whose appreciation of the 
value of time was unsurpassed, did 
not wait to receive the surrender ; 
but, leaving that duty to Hill, hur- 
ried off the mass of his followers to 
rejoin Gen. Lee ; and, by marching 
day and night, reached the Antietam 
next morning.'* 

It is impossible to resist the con- 
clusion that Miles, in this affair, 
acted the part of a traitor. He had 
been ordered, one month before 
his surrender, to fortify Maryland 
Heights; which he totally neglected 
to do. He reftised or neglected to 
send the axes and spades required by 
Col. Ford, giving no reason therefor. 
He paroled, on the 13th, 16 Rebel 
prisoners, authorizing them to pass 
out of our lines into those of the 
enemy ; thus giving the Rebel com- 
manders the ftdlest knowledge of all 
wherewith ours should have wished 
to keep them ignorant. Another 
Rebel, an officer named Rouse, who 
bad been captured and had escaped, 
being retaken, was allowed a private 
interview by Miles, and thereupon 
paroled to go without our lines. He, 
still under parole, appeared in arms 

at the head of his men, among the 
first to enter our lines after the sur- 

As to Gen. McClellan, his most 
glaring fault in the premises would 
seem to have been his designation" 
of Col. Miles, aft;er his shameful be- 
havior at Bull Run, to the command 
of a post so important as Harper's 
Ferry. It is easy now to reproach 
him with the slowness of his advance 
from Washington to Frederick ; but 
it must be borne in mind that his 
force consisted of the remains of two 
beaten armies — ^his own and Pope's 
— ^not so much strengthened as 
swelled by raw troops, hastily levied 
for an emergency ; while opposed to 
him was an army of veterans, inferior 
indeed in numbers, but boasting of a 
succession of victories frx>m first Bull 
Run onward, and proudly r^arding 
itself as invincible. Perplexed as to ' 
Lee's intentions, and hampered by 
the necessity of covering at once 
Washington and Baltimore, McClel- 
lan moved slowly, indeed ; but only 
a great military genius, or a rash^ 
headstrong fool, would have ventured 
to do otherwise. After he learned 
at Frederick that Lee had divided 
his army, in his eagerness to clutch 
the tempting prize, McClellan blun- 
dered sadly in not hurling his army 
at once on McLaws, and thus cutting 
his way swiftly to the Ferry ; yet, 
with all his mistakes, he moved vig- 
orously enough to have seasonably 
relieved Miles, had that officer 
evinced loyalty and decent fitness 
for his position, or had Ford defend- 
ed Maryland Heights with vigor and 

Halleck's insisting that Harper's , 
Ferry should be held, aft»r he faiew 

"Sept 16. 

"March 29. 

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that the Bebel army had crossed into 
Maryland, is one of those puzzles so 
frequently exhibited in the strategy 
of that Generalissimo, which must 
find their solution in some higher, 
subtler, and more leisurely existence. 

Gen. McClellan, at 3 a. m. of the 
15th, was aware — ^for he telegraphed 
to Halleck — that he had been fight- 
ing the forces of D. H. Hill and 
Longstreet; that they had disap- 
peared from his front; and that 
Franklin had likewise been com- 
pletely successful at Crampton's Gap, 
on his left. He says in this dispatch : 
" The enemy disappeared during the 
night ; our troops are now advancing 
in pursuit." At 8 a. m., he tele- 
graphed again — still from Bolivar, at 
the foot of Turner's Gtip : 

" I have just learned from Gren. Hooker, 
In the advance — who states that the infor- 
mation is perfectly reliable — that the enemy 
i3 making for the river in a perfect panic ; 
tad Gen. Lee last night stated publicly that 
he must admit they had been shockingly 
whipped. I am harrying every thing for- 
ward to endeavor to press their retreat to 
the utmost.'' 

Had even the last sentence of this 
dispatch been literally true, Lee's 
destruction was imminent and cer- 

It was now too late to save Har- 
per's Ferry — for it had this moment 
fidlen — ^but not too late to superbly 
avenge it. With Lee's order in his 
hand, McClellan must have known 
that the forces fix>m which he and 
Franklin had just wrested the passes 
of the South Mountain were all that 
Lee had to depend upon, save those 
which he had detached and sent — 
mainly by long circuits — ^to reduce 
Harper's Ferry, and which must now 
be mainly on the other side of the 

Potomac. Precious hours had been 
lost by massing on his right instead 
of his left, and fighting for Turner's 
Gap, when he should only by a feint 
have kept as many Eebels there as 
possible, while he poured the great 
body of his army, in overwhelming 
strength and with the utmost celer- 
ity, through Crampton's Gap, crush- 
ing McLaws and relieving Ilarper's 
Ferry. But there was still time, if 
not to retrieve the error, at least to 
amend it. Our soldiers, flushed with 
unwonted victory, and full in the 
faith that they had just wrested two 
strong mountain-passes from the en- 
tire Rebel army, were ready for any 
effort, any peril. To press forward 
with the utmost rapidity, and so re- 
lieve Harper's Ferry, if that naight 
still be, but at all events to crush 
that portion of the Eebel army still 
north of the Potomac, if it should 
stand at bay, and rout and shatter it 
should it attempt to ford the river ; 
at the very worst, to interpose be- 
tween it and the other half, under 
Jackson and Walker, should it at- 
tempt to escape westward by Hagers- 
town and WUliamsport, and thus be 
in position to assail and overwhelm 
either half before it could unite with 
the other, was the course which seems 
to have been as obvious to Mc- 
Clellan as it must be to every one 

The advance was again led by 
Gen. Pleasanton's cavalry, who over- 
took at Boonsborough the Eebel cav- 
alry rear-guard, charged it with spirit, 
and routed it, capturing 250 prison- 
ers and 2 guns. Eichardson's divi- 
sion, of Sumner's corps, followed ; 
pressing eagerly on that afternoon ; " 
and, after a march of 10 or 12 miles, 

• Sept. 15. 

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descried the Bebels posted in force 
across Antietam Cbeek, in front of 
the little village of Shabpsbubg. 
Richardson halted and deployed on 
the right of the road from Keedys- 
ville to Sharpsbnrg ; Sykes, with his 
division of regulars, following closely 
after, came np and deployed on the 
left of that road. Gen. McClellan 
himself, with three corps in allj came 
up during the evening. 

Lee had of course chosen a strong 
position ; but delay could only serve 
to strengthen it, while giving oppor- 
tunity for the arrival of Jackson, 
Walker, and McLaws, from Harper's 
Ferry ; which McClellan now knew 
had fallen that morning: Franklin 
having apprised him of the hour 
when the sound of guns from that 
quarter ceased. Had McClellan then 
resolved to attack at daylight next 
morning," he might before noon have 
hurled 60,000 gallant troops against 
not more than half their number of 
Rebels ; for, though Jackson arrived 
with his overmarched men that morn- 
ing, he left A. P. Hill behind at 
the Ferry, while McLaws, still con- 
fronting Franklin in Pleasant Val- 
ley, was obliged to cross the Potomac 
at Harper's Ferry, and recross it at 
Shepherdstown, in order to come up 
at all ; and did not arrive until the 
morning of the 17th. Walker, clear- 
ing Loudon Heights and crossing the 
Shenandoah on the 15th, had fol- 
lowed Jackson during the night, and 

arrived at Shepherdstown early on 
the morning of the 16th; crossing 
and reporting to Lee at Sharpsbnrg 
by noon." 

Lee, aware that every hour's delay 
was an inestimable advantage to him, 
made as great a display of force as 
possible throughout the 15th and 
16th, though he thereby exposed his 
infantry — ^it seemed wantonly — ^to the 
fire of our artillery. But, on the 
morning of the 17th, when our col- 
umns advanced to the attack, and the 
battle began in earnest, his whole 
army, save A. P. Hill's division, be- 
ing on hand, the regiments and brig- 
ades hitherto so ostentatiously para- 
ded seemed to have sunk into the 
earth; and nothing but grim and 
frowning batteries were seen cover- 
ing each hill-crest and trained on 
every stretch of open ground where- 
by our soldiers might attempt to 
scale those rugged steeps. 

The struggle was inaugurated on 
the afl;emoon of the 16th, by our old 
familiar maneuver: Hooker, on our 
right, being directed to flank and 
beat the enemy's left;, backed by 
Sumner, Franklin, and Mansfield, 
who were to come into action suc- 
cessively, somewhat nearer the ene- 
my's center. It would have been 
a serious objection, ten hours before, 
to this sixat^y, that it tended, even 
if successftil, to concentrate the ene- 
my, by driving him back on his divi- 
sions arriving or expected fix)m Har- 

•• Sept. 16. 

" McClellan, in hia report, says : 

"It had been hoped to engage the enemy 
during the 16th;" but, *' after a rapid examina- 
tion of the position, I found that it was too late 
to attack that day, and at once directed the plac- 
ing of the batteries in position in the center, 
and indicated the bivouacs for the different 
corps, massing them near and on both sides of 
the Sharpsburg turnpike. The corps were not 

all in their positions until the next morning after 

George W. Smalley, correspondent of The 
IHbuM, writes fh)m the battle-lield on the 17 th 
as follows : 

"After the brilliant victory near Middletown, 
Gen. McClellan pushed forward his army rapidly, 
and reached Keedysville with three corps on 
Monday night. On the day following, the two 
armies faced each other idly imtil night" 

Digitized by 




par's Ferry, rather than to interpose 
between him and them. 

Hooker moved at 4 p. m. ; and, 
making a long detonr, crossed the 
Antietam ont of sight and range 
of the Bebel batteries. Turning at 
length sharply to the left, he came 
to an open field, with woods in front 
«nd on either side, whence our skir- 
mishers were sainted by scattering 

shots, followed by volleys of musketry 
from the left and front. Here Hooker 
— ^reconnoitering in the advance, as 
usual — ^halted and formed his lines ; 
Eicketts's division on the left ; Meade, 
with the Pennsylvania Keserves, in 
the center; while Doubleday, on the 
right, planting his guns on a hill, 
opened at once on a Eebel battery 
that had begun to enfilade our cen- 

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ter. By this time, it was dark, and 
the firing soon ceased; the hostile 
infantry lying down for the night at 
points within half musket-shot of 
each other. 

At daylight next morning, '• the 
battle was commenced in earnest: 
the left of Meade's and the right of 
Ricketts's line becoming engaged at 
nearly the same moment, the former 
with artillery, the latter with infan- 
try ; while a battery was pushed for- 
ward beyond the woods directly in 
Hooker's front, across a plowed field, 
to the edge of a corn-field beyond it, 
destined before night to be soaked 
with blood. 

Hood's thin division, which had 
confronted us at evening, had been 
withdrawn during the night, and re- 
placed byLawton's and Trimble's brig- 
ades of Ewell's division, under Law- 
ton, with Jackson's own division, un- 
der D. R. Jones, on its left, supported 
by the remaining brigades of Ewell. 
Jackson was in chief command on 
this wing, and here was substantially 
his old corps around him. Against 
these iron soldiers. Hooker's corps 
hurled itself, and, being superior in 
numbers, compelled them to give 
ground; but not until Jones and 
Lawton had been wounded, with 
many more field officers, and Starke, 
who succeeded Jones in command, 
killed. Early, who succeeded Law- 
ton, was ordered by Jackson to re- 
place Jackson's own division, which 
had suffered so severely and was 
so nearly out of anmiunition that 
it had to be temporarily withdrawn 
from the combat. By this time, 
Ricketts and Meade had pushed 
the Rebel line back across the corn- 
field and the road, into the woods 

beyond, and was following with 
eager, exulting cheers. 

But Hood's division, somewhat re- 
freshed, had by this time returned to 
the front, backed by the brigades of 
Ripley, Colquitt, Garland (now under 
Col. McRae), and D. R. Jones, by 
whom the equilibrium of the fight 
was restored ; our men being hurled 
back by terrible volleys from the 
woods, followed by a charge across 
the corn-field in heavy force. Hook- 
er called up his nearest brigade ; but 
it was not strong enough, and he sent 
at once to Doubleday: "Give me 
your best brigade instantly !" That 
brigade came down the hill on our 
right at double-quick, and was led 
by Hartsuff into the corn-field, and 
steadily- up the slope beyond it, form- 
ing on the crest of the ridge, under a 
hurricane of shot and shell, and fir- 
ing steadily and rapidly at the Rebel 
masses just before them. They held 
their position half an hour, unsup- 
ported, though many fell; among 
them their leader, Hartsuff^, wounded 
severely ; until for a second time the 
enemy was driven out of the corn- 
field into the woods. 

Meantime, both sides were strength- 
ening this wing. Ricketts's division, 
having attempted to advance and 
failed, had fallen back. Part of 
Mansfield's corps had gone in to their 
aid, and been driven back likewise, 
with their General mortally wound- 
ed. Doubleday's guns were still 
bu^ on our extreme right, and had 
silenced a Rebel battery which for 
half an hour had enfiladed Hooker's 
center. Ricketts sent word that he 
could not advance, but could hold 
his ground. Hooker, with Craw- 
ford's and Gordon's fi-esh brigades of 

' Sept 17. 

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Mansfield's corps, came up to his 
support, determined again to advance 
and carry the woods to the right of 
and beyond the corn-field. Going 
forward to reconnoiter on foot. Hook- 
er satisfied himself as to the nature 
of the ground, returned and re- 
mounted amid a shower of Kebel 
bullets, which he had all the morning 
disregarded ; but the next moment a 
musket-ball went through his foot, in- 
flicting a severe and intensely pain- 
fiil wound; which compelled hira, 
after giving his orders fully and de- 
liberately, to leave the field at 9 a. m. 
Sumner, arriving at this moment, 
assumed command, sending forward 
Sedgwick's division of his own corps 
to support Crawford and Gordon; 
while Bichardson and French, with 
his two remaining divisions, went for- 
ward farther to the left; Sedgwick 
again adrancing in line through the 
corn-field already won and lost. 

But by this time McLaws — who, 
by marching all night, had reached 
Shepherdstown fix)m Harper's Ferry 
that morning, and instantly crossed 
— had been sent forward by Lee to 
the aid of Jackson ; while Walker's 
division had been hurried across from 
their as yet unassailed right. Again 
Hood's brigade was withdrawn from 
the front, while the ft-esh forces un- 
der Walker and McLaws advanced 
with desperate energy, seconded by 
Early on their left. Sedgwick was 
thrice badly wounded, and compelled 
to retire ; G^ns. Dana and Crawford 
were likewise wounded. The 34th 
New York— which had broken at a 
critical moment, while attempting a 
maneuver imder a terrible fire — was 
nearly cut to pieces; and the 15th 
Maasachnsetts, which went into action 
600 strong, was speedily reduced to 

134. Q^n. Howard, who took com- 
mand of Sedgwick's division, was 
unable to restore its formation, and 
Sumner himself had no better success. 
Again the center of our right gave ' 
back, and the corn-field was j^taken 
by the enemy. 

But the attempt of the Rebels to 
advance beyond it, under the fire of 
our batteries, was repelled with 
heavy loss on their part ; Col. Man- 
ning, who led Walker's own brigade, 
being severely wounded, and his 
brigade driven back. Doubleday, on 
our farther right, held firmly ; and it 
seemed settled that, while either 
party could repel a charge on this 
part of the line, neither could afford 
to make ona 

But now Franklin had come up 
with his fresh corps, and formed on 
the left ; Slocum, commanding one of 
his divisions, was sent forward to- 
wai'd the center ; while Smith, with 
the other, was ordered to retake the 
ground that had been so long and so 
hotly contested. 

It was no sooner said than done. 
Smith's regiments, cheering, went 
forward on a run, swept through the 
corn-field and the woods, cleared 
them in ten minutes, and held them. 
Their rush was so sudden and unex- 
pected that their loss was compara- 
tively small ; and the ground thus 
retaken was not again lost. 

Nearer the center, French's divi- 
sion of Sumner's corps had attempted 
to carry the line of heights whereon 
the Rebels were posted, and had 
made some progress, repulsing a 
countercharge and capturing a num- 
ber of prisoners, with some fiags. 
Attempts successively to turn his 
right and then his left were foiled ; 
but, after a bloody combat of four 

Digitized by 



hours, French paused, considerably 
in advance of the position on which 
the fight had commenced, but with- 
out having carried the heights. 

Richardson's division of Sumner's 
corps ^vanced on the left of French, 
crossing the Antietam at 9| a.m., 
and going steadily forward under a 
heavy artillery fire, halfway up from 
the creek to Sharpsburg, over very 
rugged ground, much of it covered 
with growing com, and intersected 
by stone walls, which afforded every 
advantage to the defensive. The 
musketry fire on both sides was se- 
vere; but our men steadily gained 
ground; Caldwell's and Meagher's 
(Irish) brigade vieing with each other 
in steadiness and gallantry. Here 
Col. Francis C. Barlow, of Caldwell's 
brigade, signalized himself by seizing 
an opportunity to advance the 61st 
and 64th New York on the left, and 
take in flank a Bebel force, which, 
sheltered by a sunken road, was at- 
tempting to enfilade our line, captur- 
ing over 300 prisoners and 8 flags. 

The left of this division being now 
well advanced, the enemy, maneu- 
vering behind a ridge, attempted to 
take it in flank and rear, but was 
signally defeated ; the 6th New 
Hampshire and the 81st Pennsylvania 
facing to the left and meeting their 
charge by a countercharge, which 
was entirely successful. Some pris- 
oners and the colors of the 4th North 
Carolina remained in our hands. 
The enemy next assailed the right of 
this division ; but Col. Barlow, again 
advancing his two New York regi- 
ments, aided by Kimball's brigade 
on the right, easily repulsed it. Next, 
a charge was made directly on Rich- 
ardson's front, which was defeated as 
before, and our line still farther ad- 

vanced as &r as Dr. Piper's house, 
very near to Sharpsburg,- and about 
the center of the Bebel army at the 
beginning of the battle. Here artil- 
lery was brought up— this division 
having thus far fought without it — 
and, while personally directing the 
fire of Capt. Graham's battery, 1st 
TJ. S. Artillery, Bichardson fell mor- 
tally wounded, and was succeeded 
by Hancock. Qen. Meagher had 
fallen some time before: the com- 
mand of his brigade devolving on 
Col. Burke, of the 63d New York. 
One or two more attempts or 
menaces were made on this part of 
our line, but not in great force ; and, 
though its advance was drawn back 
a little to avoid an enfilading fire 
from Bebel batteries, to which it 
could not respond, it held its well 
advanced position when night doaed 
the battle. 

Porter's corps, in our center, hold- 
ing the roads from Sharpsbui^ to 
Middletown and Boonsborough, re- 
mained imengaged, east of the An- 
tietam, until late in the afternoon ; 
when two brigades of it were sent by 
McClellan to support our right; 
while six battalions of Sykes's reg- 
ulars were thrown across the bridge 
on the main road to repel Bebel 
sharp-shooters, who were annoying 
Pleasanton's horse-batteries at that 
point. Warren's brigade was de- 
tached and sent to the right and rear 
of Bumside, leaving but little over 
3,000 men with Porter. 

Bumside's corps held our extreme 
left, opposite the lowest of the three 
bridges crossing the Antietam, He 
was ordered, at 8 a. h., to cross this 
one, which was held by Gten. B. 
Toomb6,with the 2d and 20th Georgia, 
backed by some sharp-shooters and 

Digitized by 




the batteries of Gen. D. R Jones, on 
LoDgstreet's right wing. Several fee- 
ble attempts to execnte this order hav- 
ing been successively repnlsed, Bum- 
ride was further ordered to carry not 
only the bridge but the heights be- 
yond, and advance along their crest 
upon Sharpsburg; but it was not till 
1 p. M. that the bridge was actually 
taken, by a charge of the 51st New 
York and the 51st Pennsylvania ; the 
enemy making no serious resistance, 
and retreating to the heights as our 
troops came over in force. More 
hours passed idly ; and it was after 
3 p. M. before Bumside, under peremp- 
tory orders, chained up the heights, 
carrying them handsomely ; some of 
his troops reaching even the outskirts 
of Sharpsburg. 

It was an easy but a short-lived 
triumph ; for, thus fer, Lee had been 
able to spare but about 3,000 men, 
under D. B. Jones, to hold this flank 
of his position. Had this success 
been obtained hours earlier, it might 
have proved decisive. The Rebel 
forces throughout the greater part of 
the day had abundant occupation on 
oar right, so that Lee was unable to 
spare sufficient troops to resist a de- 
termined advance by our left; but 
now, just as victory seemed to smile 
upon our arms, A. P. HilPs division 
—which had only been ordered fix)m 
Harper's Ferry that morning, and 
Btarted at 7j^ o'clock — came on the 
ground, and, covered by a heavy fire 
of artfllery, charged our extreme left, 
when disordered by charging and 
^iting, and drove it back in stUl 
greater confusion. Gten. Bodman, 
who commanded it, was mortally 
wounded; and the enemy, rallying 
with sfiiit and redoubling the fire of 

his artillery, charged in front and 
fiank, and drove our men in confu- 
sion down the hill toward the Antie- 
tam, pursuing imtU checked by the 
fire of our batteries across the river. 
Gen. L. O'B. Branch, of N. C, was 
killed in this charge. Our reserves 
on the left bank now advancing, while 
our batteries redoubled their fire, the 
Bebels wisely desisted, without at- 
tempting to carry the bridge, and re- 
tired to their lines on the heights, as 
darkness put an end to the fray. 

Jackson, during the afternoon, had 
been ordered by Lee to turn our right 
and attack it in fiank and rear ; but, 
on reconnoitering for this purpose, 
he found our line extended nearly to 
the Potomac, and so strongly defend- 
ed with artillery that to carry it was 
impossible ; so he declined to make 
the attempt. 

So closed, indecisively, the bloodi- 
est day that America ever saw. 

Gen. McClellan states his strength 
— no doubt truly — in this battle at 
87,164, including 4,320 cavalry, which 
was of small account on such ground 
and in such a struggle. General 
Couch's division, 6,000 strong, had 
been sent away toward Harper's Fer- 
ry—evidently through some misap- 
prehension — and only arrived at a 
late hour next morning;" as did 
Humphrey's division of raw recruits, 
which had left Frederick— 23 miles dis- 
tant—at 4Jp.m. of the sanguinary 17th. 

McClellan estimates Lee's strength 
at 97,445, including 6,000 artillery 
(400 guns), 6,400 cavalry, and mak- 
ing Jackson's corps number 24,778 
— all far too high. Lee says he had 
" under 40,000 men ;" which proba- 
bly includes neither cavalry nor A. 
P. Hill's division ; and perhaps not 

VOL. n. — 14 

'Sept 18. 

Digitized by 




McLaws's. Tke Rich/mond Enquirer 
of the 23d (four days after the battle) 
says it has " authentic particulars" of 
the battle ; and that " the ball was 
opened on Tuesday evening about 6 
o'clock, by all of our available force, 
60,000 strong, commanded by Gen. 
Robert E. Lee in person." -Ajid this 
seems to be the more probable aggre- 

Pollard, in his " Southern History 
of the War," says of this battle : " It 
was fought for half the day with 
46,000 men on the Confederate side ; 
and for the remaining half with no 
more than an aggregate of 70,000 

Gen. McClellan makes his entire 
loss in this battle 12,469: 2,010 
killed, 9,416 wounded, and 1,043 miss- 
ing ; and says his army counted and 
buried " about 2,700" of the enemy, 
beside those buried by themselves: 
whence he estimates their total loss 
as "much greater" than ours. As 
the Rebels fought mainly on the de- 
fensive, under shelter of woods, and 
on ground commanded by their ar- 
tillery, this might seem improbable. 
But Lee (writing his report on the 6th 
of March following) is silent as to his 
losses, while the account of them given 
as complete in the official publication 
of "Reports of the Operations of 
the Army of Virginia, from June, 
1862, to Dec. 13th, 1862," is palpably 
and purposely an under-statement. 
That account makes the total Rebel 
loss in the Maryland battles only 
10,291 : viz., killed, 1,567; wounded, 
8,724 ; and says nothing of missing ; 
while McCleUan gives details of con- 
siderable captures on several occa- 
sions, and sums up as follows : 

"Thirteen guns, 89 colors, npward of 



Longs treet's.. 

. -964 


Jackson's. . . . . 

. 8B1 


D. H-Hiirs.... 

. 464 


A.P. Hiirs". 

. 68 


15,000 stand of small arms, and more than 
6,000 prisoners, were the trophies which 
attest the success of our arms in the hattles 
of South Mountain, Crampton's Gap, and 
Antietam. Not a single gun or color was 
lost by our army during these battles." 

And the reports of Lee's corps or 
division commanders give the follow- 
ing aggregates: 

MbrfoB. TotoL 

1,810 7,508 

6T 2,488 

925 8,241 

— 846 

Total 1^8^ 9,899 S,993 18,668 

D. H. HiU reports 3,241 disabled, 
including 4 Colonels, out of less than 
6,000; and Lawton's brigade lost 
654 out of 1,150. 

Among the Rebel killed were 
Maj.-Gen. Starke, of Miss., Brig.- 
Gens. L. O'B. Branch, of N. C, and 
G. B. Anderson ; Cols. Douglass (com- 
manding Lawton's brigade), liddell, 
11th Miss., Tew, 2d N. C, Barnes, 
12th S. C, Mulligan, 15th Ga., Bar- 
clay, 23d do., and Smith, 27th do. 
Among their wounded were Maj.- 
Gen. R. H. Anderson, Brig.TG^ns. 
Lawton, Rhodes, Ripley, Armistead, 
Gregg, of S. C., R. Toombs and 
Wright, of Ga. 

Lee, of course, did not care to re- 
new the battle on the morrow of such 
a day ; and McClellan, though reen- 
forced that morning by about 14,000 
men, stood still also. He says he 
purposed to renew the combat the 
next morning ;" but, when his cav- 
alry advance reached the river, they 
discovered that Lee had quietly 
moved off across the Potomac dur- 
ing the night, leaving us only his 
dead and some 2,000 of his despe- 
rately wounded. . 

Lee having posted 8 batteries on 
the Virginia bluffs of the Potomac, 
supported by 600 infantry under Pen- 

". Jackson ezpresslj states that A« P. Hill's losses were not induded in his return. ** Sept 19. 

Digitized by 




dleton, to cover his crossing, Gen. 
Porter, at dark,** sent across Gen. 
Griffin, with his own and Barnes's 
brigades, to carry them. This was 
gallantly done, under the fire of 
those batteries, and 4 guns taken; 
but a reconnoissance in force, made 
by part of Porter's division next 
morning," was ambushed by A. P. 
Hill, a mile from the ford, and driven 
pell-mell into the river, with consid- 
erable loss, after a brief struggle ; the 
Rebels taking 200 prisoners. They 
held that bank thenceforth unmo- 
lested until next day, and then qui- 
etly disappeared. 

Lee moved westward, with the 
bulk of his army, to the Opequan 
creek, near Martinsburg; his cav- 
alry, under Stuart, recrossing the 
Potomac to Williamsport, whence he 
escaped on the approach of Gen. 
Couch's division. The Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad was now pretty thor- 
oughly destroyed for some distance 
by the Bebels — ^neither for the first 
nor the last time. Gen. McClellan 
sent forward Gen. Williams on his 
left to retake Maryland Heights, 
which he did" without opposition; 
as Gen. Sumner, two days later, oc- 
cupied Harper's Ferry. 

Lee soon retired to the vicinity 
of Bunker Hill and Winchester; 
whence, seeing that he was not pur- 
sued nor imperiled by McClellan, he 
dispatched ** Stuart, with 1,800 cav- 
alry, on a bold raid into Pennsylva- 
nia. Crossing the Potomac above 
Williamsport, Stuart pushed on rap- 
idly to Chambersburg, where he de- 
stroyed a large amount of supplies ; 
and, retiring as hurriedly as he 
came, he made a second circuit of 
McClellan's army, recrossing without 

loss into Virginia at White's Ford, 
below Harper's Ferry. McClellan, 
hearing he had gone on this raid, 
felt entirely confident that he could 
not escape destruction, and made ex- 
tensive preparations to insure it ; but 
bis plans, were foiled by lack of en- 
ergy and zeal. Stuart paroled at 
Chambersburg 276 sick and wound- 
ed, whom he foimd there in hospital ; 
burned the railroad d^pot, machine- 
shops, and several trains of loaded 
cars, destroying 5,000 muskets and 
large amounts of army clothing. 
Perhaps these paid the Eebels for 
their inevitable waste of horse-flesh, 
and perhaps not. 

Here ensued a renewal of the old 
game of cross-purposes — McClellan 
calling loudly and frequently for re- 
enforcements, horses, clothing, shoes, 
and supplies of all kinds, which were 
readily promised, but not always so 
promptly supplied ; Halleck sending 
orders to advance, which were not 
obeyed with alacrity, if at all. A dis- 
temper among the horses threw 4,000 
out of service, in addition to the 
heavy losses by Rebel bullets and 
by over-work. Halleck states that 
McClellan's army had 31,000 horses 
on the 14th of October; McClellan 
responds that 10,980 were required 
to move ten days' provisions lor that 
army, now swelled to 110,000 men, 
beside 12,000 tdamsters, &c. ; and 
that, after picketing the line of the 
Potomac, he had not 1,000 desirable 
cavalry. His entire cavalry force 
was 5,046 ; his artillery horses, 6,836 ; 
he needed 17,832 animals to draw his 
forage; so that he was still 10,000 
short of the number actually required 
for an advance. 

At length, Gen. McClellan crossed 

'Sept 19. 

" Sept 20. 

" Sept 20. 

" Oct 10. 

Digitized by 




tiie Potomac, between the 26th of 
October and the 2d of November ; 
and, moving unopposed down the 
east side of the Blue Eidge (Lee's 
army being stUl in the Valley, but 
moving parallel with ours), occupied 
Snicker's Gap and Mana^as; and 

had advanced to Warrenton, when 
he was relieved from command," 
directed to turn it over to G^n. 
Bumside, and report by letter from 
Trenton, N. J. ; which he proceeded 
forthwith to do. Thus ended his 
active participation in the war. 



The comatose condition into which 
the war on the Tennessee had fallen, 
after the removal of Mitchel to the 
South, was fitfiiUy broken by patter- 
ings of Eebel enterprise far in the 
rear of our main army. While Bu- 
ell, at or near Huntsville, Ala., was 
deliberately reorganizing and disci- 
plining his forces, schooling them 
to an imwonted deference for Kebel 
rights of property— especially of prop- 
erty in men — guerrilla raids and at- 
tacks became increasingly and disa- 
greeably frequent throughout Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee — the Confed- 
erate leaders, especially those of cav- 
alry regiments, on finding that they 
were not needed in our front, trans- 
ferring their assiduous and vehement 
attentions to our flanks and rear. 
The names of Forrest and John 
Morgan began to be decidedly noto- 
rious. Horse-stealing — ^in fact, steal- 
ing in general — in the name and be- 
half of Liberty and Patriotism, is apt 
to increase in popularity so long as 
it is practiced with impunity; and 
the horses of Kentucky are eminently 
calcxdated to inflame the love of 
country glowing in the breast of 

every cavalier. Burning bridges, 
and clutching whatever property 
could be made useful in war, had 
been for some time current; when 
at length a bolder blow was struck 
in the capture* of Lebanon, Ky. [not 
Tenn.], and almost simxdtaneously 
of Murfi-eesboro^ Tenn., which For- 
rest surprised ; making prisoners of 
Brig.-Gens. DuflSeld and Crittenden, 
of Lid., with the 9th Michigan, Sd 
Minnesota, 4 companies of the 4th 
Ky^ cavalry, and 3 companies of the 
7th Pa. cavalry, after a spirited but 
brief resistance. Henderson, Ky., on 
the Ohio, was likewise seized by a 
guerrilla band, who clutched a large 
amount of hospital stores ; and, being 
piloted across by some Indiana trai- 
tors, captmi^d a hospital also at Kew- 
burg, Ind., and paroled its helpless in- 
mates. Col. John Morgan likewise 
captured* Cynthiana,in north-eastern 
Kentucky; but was run off directly 
by a superior cavalry force under 
Gen. Green Clay Smith. Morgan 
claims in his report to have captured 
and paroled 1,200 Union soldiers 
during this raid, with a total loss 
of but 90 of his men. Large quan- 

•« Nov. 7. 

» July 6, 1862. 

•July 2. 

Digitized by 




titles of plunder were thus obtained, 
while property of much greater value 
was destroyed ; and enough recruits 
were doubtless gathered to offeet the 
waste of war. Still, military opera- 
tions, without a base and without 
r^ular supplies, seldom produce sub- 
stantial, enduring results; and the 
Confederate guerrillas either soon 
abandoned Kentucky or concealed 
themselves and lay quiet therein. 
The leaders, with most of their fol- 
lowers, retired into Tennessee, where 
they captured Clarksville * and pos- 
sessed themselves of ample military 
stores ; and a sharp cavalry fight at 
Granatin resulted in a Union defeat, 
with a loss of 30 killed, 50 wounded, 
and 75 prisoners. 

Gen. Buell had left Corinth in 
June, moving eastward, as if intent 
on Chattanooga; but Gen. Bragg — 
who had succeeded to the chief com- 
mand of the Rebels confronting him 
— ^had thereupon moved more rapid- 
ly, on parallel roads, from Tupelo, 
Miss., through northern Alabama 
and Georgia, to Chattanooga, which 
he reached ahead of Buell's van- 
guard. Bragg's army had been 
swelled by conscription to some 
45,000 men, organized in three 
corps, under Hardee, Bishop Polk, 
and Kirby Smith respectively, where- 
of the last was sent to Knoxville, 
while the two former sufficed to hold 
Chattanooga against any effort which 
Buell was likely to make. 

McClellan's Kichmond campaign 
having proved abortive, while con- 
scription had largely replenished the 
Rebel ranks, Bragg was impelled to 
try a bold stroke for the recovery of 
Tennessee and the 'liberation' of 
Kentucky. As with Lee's kindred 

advance into Maryland, the increas- 
ing scarcity of food was the more 
immediate, whUe fond expectations 
of a general rising in support of the 
Confederate cause, afforded the re- 
moter incitement to this step. Louis- 
ville, with its immense resources, 
was the immediate object of this 
gigantic raid, though Cincinnati was 
thought to be also within its pur- 
view. Crossing* the Tennessee at 
Harrison, a few miles above Chatta- 
nooga, with 36 regiments of infan- 
try, 5 of cavalry, and 40 guns, Bragg 
traversed the rugged mountain ridges 
which hem in the Sequatchie Val- 
ley, passing through Dunlap,* Pike- 
viUe,* Crossville,^ masking his move- 
ment by a feint with cavalry on Mo- 
Minnville, but rapidly withdrawing 
this when its purpose was accom- 
plished, and pressing hurriedly north- 
ward, to Kentucky; which he en- 
tered on the 6th. 

Kirby Smith, with his division, 
from Knoxville, advanced by Jack- 
sonborough' across the Cumberland 
range, through Big Creek Gap, mov- 
ing as rapidly as possible, with a very 
light train ; his men subsisting mainly 
on green com — which is scarce enough 
in that poor, thinly-peopled region — 
his hungry, foot-sore, dusty followers 
buoyed up with the assurance of 
plenty and comfort ahead. His cav- 
alry advance, 900 strong, under CoL 
J. S. Scott, moving* from Kingston, 
Tenn., passed through Montgomery 
and Jamestown, Tenn., and Monti- 
cello and Somerset, Ky., to London, 
where it surprised" and routed a 
battalion of Union cavalry, inflicting 
a loss of 30 killed and wounded and 
111 pris(mers; thence pushing on, 
making additional captures by the 

• Ang. 19. * Aug. 24. • Aug. 27. • Aug. 30. ' Sept 1. • Aug. 22. • Aug. 13. "Aug. 17. 

Digitized by 




way, to Richmond, Ky. ; thence fall- 
ing back to rejoin Smith, who had 
not yet come up. 

The Cmnberland Mountains are 
a broad range of table-land, some 
2,000 feet in average height, de- 
scending sharply to the upper waters 
of the Tennessee and Cumberland 
on either hand, and pierced by a 
single considerable pass — the Cum- 
berland Gap — ^which had been for 
some time quietly held by a Union 
force under Gen. Geo. W. Morgan ; 
who, on learning that he had thus 
been flanked, blew up his works and 
commenced" a precipitate race for 
the Ohio, which he in due time 
reached, having been constantly har- 
assed, for most of the way, by John 
Morgan with 700 Eebel cavalry. 

Moving rapidly northward, Smith 
found himself confronted" at Rich- 
mond, Ky., by a green Union force, 
nearly equal in numbers to his own, 
under command of Brig.-Gen. M. D. 
Manson, who immediately pushed 
forward to engage him, taking posi- 
tion on a range of hills, a mile or 
two south of the town, which was 
otherwise indefensible. Here he had 
a smart skirmish with the Rebel 
advance, and drove it back ; which 
prompted him to quit his strong po- 
sition for one still farther advanced, 
at Rogersville, where his men slept 
on their arms that night. Next 
morning, he advanced half a mile 
farther, and here engaged Smith's 
entire command, with no chance of 
success. His force was quite equal 
in numbers and in guns to Smith's, 
but in nothing else. He attempted 
to flank the Rebel right, but was 
defeated with loss by Col. Preston 
Smith's brigade ; when his right was 

successfdlly turned by the Rebel left, 
Gen. T. J. Churchill, and routed in 
a daring charge; whereupon our 
whole line gave way and retreated. 
The Rebel Gen.Pat. Cleburne, after- 
ward so distinguished, was here badly 
wounded in the face, and succeeded 
in his command by Col. Smith. 

Gen. Cruft, with the 95th Ohio, 
had reached the field just before, and 
shared in this defeat; but he had 
three more regiments coming up as 
our line gave way. Using two of 
these as a rear-guard, Manson at- 
tempted to halt and reform just be- 
yond Rogersville ; but soon saw that 
this would not answer, and again re- 
tired to the position wherefrom he had 
commenced the fight the evening be- 
fore, and which he ought not to have 
left. Here, at 12^ p. m., he received, 
just as the battle was recommencing, 
an order from Gen. Nelson, who was 
coming up, to retreat on Lancaster, 
if menaced by the enemy in force — 
an order which came entirely too late : 
the exultant Rebels being close upon 
him, and opening fire along their 
whole line within five minutes after- 

The fight beyond Rogersville had 
been maintained through three hours ; 
here an hour sufficed to end it. Again 
our right was charged and routed, 
compelling a general retreat; and 
again — ^having been driven back to 
his camp — ^Manson was trying to re- 
form and make head, when. Gen. 
Nelson having reached the ground, 
the command was turned over to 
him, and another stand made near 
the town and cemetery, which was 
converted into a total rout in, less 
than half an hour ; Gen. Nelson be- 
ing here wounded, as Cols. Link, 

"Aug. 17. 

■Aug. 29. 

Digitized by 




12th Indiana, McMillan, 95th Ohio, 
and other valnable officers, had al- 
ready been. Lt-Col. Topping and 
Maj. Conkling, 7l8t Indiana, had 
been killed. 

The rout was now total and com- 
plete ; and, to make the most of it, 
Smith had, hours before, sent Scott, 
with his cavalry, around to our rear, 
with instructions to prepare for and 
intercept the expected fugitives. 
Manson, who had resumed command 
when Nelson fell, had formed a new 
rear-guard, which was keeping the 
Eebel pursuit within bounds ; when, 
four miles from Kichmond, the flee- 
ing rabble were halted by a body of 
Eebel horse. Manson, hurrying up, 
attempted to form a vanguard ; but 
only 100 responded to his call, who 
were speedily cut up by a fire from 
a force of Rebels hidden in a corn- 
field on the left of the road, whereby 
Lt-Col. Wolfe and 41 others were 
killed or wounded. The road was 
here choked with wounded horses 
and other debris of a shattered army ; 
it was growing dusk (7 p. m.), and 
the remains of our thoroughly beaten 
force scattered through the fields; 
every one attempting to save himself 
as he could. Gren. Manson, with other 
officers, attempting escape by flight, 
was fired on by a squadron of Scott's 
cavalry; his horse, mortally wounded, 
fell on him, injuring him severely, and 
he was taken prisoner ; as were many 
if not most of his compatriots in dis- 

Hanson's report says that his en- 
tire force this day " did not exceed 
6,500," of whom not over 2,500 were 
engaged at once — a sad commentary 
on his generalship— and he adds: 
" The enemy say they had 12,000 in- 

fantry, 4,000 cavalry, and 15 guns" 
— which they don't. He estimates 
his loss at 200 killed, TOO wounded, 
and 2,000 prisoners. Kirby Smith, 
on the contrary, makes our force 
fiilly 10,000— his own but 5,000; 
and states his total loss at 400, and 
ours at 1,000 killed and wounded, 
5,000 prisoners, 9 guns, 10,000 small 
arms, and large spoil of munitions 
and provisions. It is quite probable 
that his story, though exaggerated, 
is nearer the truth than Manson's. 

Smith set forward directly** for 
Lexington, which he entered in tri- 
umph three days afterward, amid the 
frantic acclamations of the numerous 
Eebel sympathizers of that intensely 
pro-Slavery region. He moved on 
'through Paris to Cynthiana, within 
striking distance of either Cincinnati 
or Louisville, which seemed for a few 
days to lie at his mercy ; though con- 
siderable numbers, mainly of militia 
and very green volunteers, had been 
hastily gathered for the defense of 
the former, and were busily em- 
ployed in erecting defenses covering 
the Kentucky approaches to that 
city, at some distance back from the 

Gen. Bragg had now completely 
flanked Buell's left, and passed be- 
hind him, without a struggle and 
without loss, keeping well eastward 
of Nashville, and advancing by Car- 
thage, Tenn., and Glasgow, Ky. ; first 
striking the Louisville and Nashville 
Kailroad — ^which was our main line 
of supply and reenforcement — after 
he entered Kentucky.** His advance, 
under Gen. J. K. Chalmers, first en- 
countered" a considerable force at 
MuNPOEDSViLLE, whcre the railroad 
crosses Green river, and where Col. 


" Sept 5. 

' Sept 13. 

Digitized by 




J. T. Wilder, with about 2,100 men, 
had assmned command five days be- 
fore, by order of Gen. J. T. Boyle, 
commanding in Kentucky, and had 
hastily thrown up fortifications, with 
intent to dispute the passage of the 
river. Chalmers had already sent 
a mounted force to the north of 
Munfordsville, by which a first de- 
mand for surrender was made at 8 
p. M. The demand being repelled, 
an assault was made at daylight next 
morning, but speedily repulsed with 
loss. At 9 A. M., Wilder was reen- 
forced by six companies of the 60th 
Indiana, Col. C. L. Dunham, who, 
being his senior, after hesitating, as- 
smned command; but was superse- 
ded soon afterward by an order fix)m 
Boyle, and Wilder restored. 

The Eebels, after their first re- 
pulse, kept mainly out of sight, know- 
ing that their ultimate success was 
inevitable, and allowed two more 
raiments and six guns to make their 
way into the town ; assured that all 
who were there would soon fall into 
their hands. At length, at 9^ a. m. 
on Tuesday," Bragg, having brought 
up his main body and surrounded the 
place with not less than 25,000 men, 
renewed the attack. Advancing cau- 
tiously, keeping his men well cov- 
ered, but crowding up on the weak 
and exposed points of our defenses 
in such numbers as absolutely to 
compel the gradual contraction of 
our lines, he, about sunset, sent in a 
flag of truce, demanding a surrender. 
As Buell was not at hand, nor likely 
to be, and as there was no hope of 
relief from any quarter, and no ade- 
quate reason for sacrificing the lives 
of his men, Wilder, at 2 a. m. next 
day," after the fullest consultation 

with his officers, surrendered ; being 
allowed to march out with drums- 
beating and colors fiying, take four 
days' rations, and set forth immedi- 
ately, under parole, for Louisville. 
He says in his report that his entire 
loss was 37 killed and wounded, 
"while the enemy admit a loss of 
714 on Sunday aJone." Bragg, on 
the contrary, says, "Our [Rebel] loss 
was about 60 killed and wounded ;'' 
and claims 4,000 prisoners and as 
many muskets, beside guns and mu- 

Bragg now issued the following 
address to the people of Kentucky, 
which, read backward, will indicate 
the objects and motives of his inva- 

"Glasgow, Kt., Sept. 18, 18«2. 

" Kentuckians : I have eqtered your 
State with the Confederate Army of the 
West, and offer you au opportunity to free 
yourselves from the tyranny of a despotic 
ruler. We come, not as conquerors or de- 
spoilers, hut to restore to you the liberties 
of which you have been deprived by a cruel 
and relentless foe. We come to guarantee 
to all the sanctity of their homes and altars ; 
to punish with a rod of iron the desp oilers 
of your peace, and to avenge the cowardly 
insults to your women. With all non-com- 
batants, the past shtdl be forgotten. Need- 
ful supplies must be had for my army ; but 
they shall be paid for at fair and remunera- 
ting prices. 

" Believing that the heart of Kentucky is 
with us in our great struggle for Constitu- 
tional Freedom, we have transferred from 
our own soil to yours, not a band of marau- 
ders, but a powerful and well-disciplined 
army. Your gallant Buckner leads the van. 
Marshall is on the right; while Breckin- 
ridge, dear to us as to you, is advancing 
with Kentucky's valiant sons, to receive 
the honor and applause due to their hero- 
ism. The strong hands which in part have 
sent Shiloh down to history, and the nerved 
arms which have kept at bay from our own 
homes the boastful army of the enemy, are 
here to assist, to sustain, to liberate you. 
Will you remain indifferent to our call? or 
will you not rather vindicate the fair fame 
of your once free and envied State ? We 
believe that you will ; and that the memory 

» gept 16. 

"Sept 17. 

Digitized by 




of joor gallant dead who fell at Shiloh, 
their fac^ tamed homeward, will ronse 
you to a manly effort for yourselves and 

^^KentQckiansI we have come with joy- 
ous hopes. Let ns not depart in sorrow, as 
we shall if we find yon wedded in your 
choice to your present lot If yon prefer 
Federal rule, show it hy your frowns, and 
we shall return whence we came. If you 
choose rather to come within the folds of 
ear brotherhood, then cheer us with the 
smiles of your women, and lend your will- 
ing hands to secure you in your heritage of 

"Women of Kentucky! your persecu- 
tions and heroic bearing have reached our 
car. Banish henceforth, forever, from your 
minds the fear of loathsome prisons or in- 
sulting visitations. Let your enthusiasm 
have free rein. Buckle on the armor of 
jonr kindred, your husbands, sons, and 
brothers, and scoff with shame him who 
would prove recreant in his duty to you, 
his country, and his God. 

"Bbaxton Bbaoo, 

"Gen. Commanding.^' 

It was not the fault of the General 
commanding that his army must ne- 
cessarily have subsisted on the re- 
gion of Kentucky it traversed ; but, 
when it is considered that he swept 
off in his retreat all the abundant 
horses and cattle that came within 
his reach, with whatever else he 
conld carry, and that he did not and 
could not pay for any thing, it seems 
that the mockery of his promise of 
payment might wisely have been for- 

From Munfordsville, Bragg con- 
tinued his unresisted march north- 
ward, through Bardstown, to Frank- 
fort," the State capital, where Smith 
had preceded him, and where Eich- 
ard Hawes," a weak old man, was 
inaugurated" "Provisional Governor 
of Kentucky/' " This ceremony," 
says Pollard, "was scarcely more 
than a pretentioas farce : hardly was 
it completed when the Yankees 
threatened Frankfort ; and the new- 

ly installed Governor had to flee 
from their approach." 

Q^n. Buell, after leaving Nash- 
ville" strongly garrisoned, had 
marched directly for LouisviUe, 170 
miles; where his army arrived be- 
tween the 25th and 29th, It had by 
this time been swelled by reenforce- 
ments, mainly raw, to nearly 100,000 
men ; but it was not, in his judgment, 
yet in condition to fight Bragg's far 
inferior numbers. Hence, time was 
taken to reorganize and supply it; 
while the Eebel cavalry galloped at 
will over the plenteous central dis- 
tricts of the State, collecting lai^ 
quantities of cattle and hogs not 
only, but of serviceable fabrics and 
other manufactures as well. BuelPs 
delays, synchronizing with McClel- 
lan's last, were so distasteful at Wash- 
ington, that an order relieving him 
from command was issued; but its 
execution was suspended on the em- 
phatic remonstrance of his subordi- 
nate commanders. The hint being a 
pretty strong one, Buell set his face 
toward the enemy ; " moving in five 
columns: his left on Frankfort, his 
right on Shepardsville, intending to 
concentrate on Bardstown, where 
Bragg, with his main body, was sup- 
posed to be ; skirmishing by the way 
with small parties of Rebel cavalry 
and artillery. Thus advancing stead- 
ily, though not rapidly, he passed 
through Bardstown, and thence to 
Springfield," 62 miles fremi Louis- 
ville ; Bragg slowly retreating before 
him, harassing rather than resisting 
his advance, so as to gain time for 
the escape of his now immense trains, 
consisting mainly of captured Fed- 
eral army wagons, heavily laden with 
the spoils of Kentucky. Here Buell 

" Oct 1. • Formerly a member of Congress. * Oct. 4. •» Sept 15. " Oct. 1. ** Oct. 6. 

Digitized by 




learned that Kirby Smith had crossed 
the Kentucky, and that Bragg was 
moving to concentrate his forces 
either at Harrodsburg or Pebry- 
viLLE. His own movement was 
therefore directed toward Perry- 
ville ; three miles in front of which, 
moving with his 3d or central corps, 
he encountered, on the afternoon of 
the 7th, a considerable Eebel force, 
drawn up in order of battle; but 
which his advance pressed back a 
mile or so without much fighting; 
when he, expecting a battle, sent 
orders to McCook and Crittenden, 
commanding his flank corps, to ad- 
vance on his right and left at 3 next 

McCook did not receive the order 
till 2i A, M., and he marched at 5 ; 
but Crittenden, unable to find water 
for his corps at the place where Buell 
had expected it to encamp for the 
night, had moved off the road in 
quest of it, and was sLx miles farther 
away than he otherwise would have 
been; so that the order to advance 
was not duly received, and his arri- 
val at PerryviUe was delayed several 

A great drouth then prevailing in 
Kentucky, causing severe privation 
and suffering to men and animals, 
the fight commenced early next morn- 
ing, by an attempt of the enemy to 
repel the brigade of Col. D. McCook, 
which had been pushed forward by 
Buell OBT his immediate front to 
cover some hollows in the bed of 
Doctor's creek, whence a little bad 
water was obtained. This attempt 
was defeated by sending up the di- 
visions of Gens. Mitchell and Sheri- 
dan, to hold the ground until our 
two flank corps should arrive ; which 
the left, Gen. A. D. McCook, did 

between 10 and 11 a. m.; and the 
batteries of his advance division were 
sharply engaged with the enemy not 
long afterward. 

Bragg was present in person ; but 
his forces were conmianded more im- 
mediately by Maj.-Gen. Bishop Polk, 
who had in hand five divisions — ^two 
under Hardee, and those of Patton 
Anderson, Cheatham, and Buckner 
— that of Withers having been sent 
by Bragg, the day before, to support 
Smith, who was retreating farther to 
the east, and was deemed in danger 
of being enveloped and cut off. 
Bragg gives no other reason for 
fighting before concentrating his en- 
tire command than that the enemy 
were pressing heavily on his rear; 
but it is clear that he had deliber- 
ately resolved to turn and fight at 

Maj.-Gen. McCook, having reached 
the position assigned him with but 
two of his three divisions — ^that of 
Gen. SiU having been detached and 
sent to Frankfort — ^liad directed the 
posting of his troops and formation 
of his line of battle — Gen. Bousseau's 
division on the right, in line with lie 
left of Gilbert's corps, and Gen. Jack- 
son's on the left, near the little ham- 
let of Maxwell, on the Harrodsburg 
road — ^rode off and reported in per- 
son to Gen. BueU, 2| miles distant, 
in the rear of his right ; and received 
verbal orders to make a reconnois- 
sance in front of his position to Chap- 
lin creek. Returning to his com- 
mand, and finding nothing in pro- 
gress but mutual artillery practice, 
to little purpose, he ordered his bat- 
teries to save their ammunition, 
while he made the directed reconnois- 
sance; at the same time advancing 
his skirmishers and extending his 

Digitized by 



left, in order to obtain a more advan- 
tageons position, and enable his men 
to procure from the creek the water 
for which they were suflTering. So 
mach being accomplighed, and no 
enemy in sight save some cavahy on 
the bluffs across the creek, he pro- 
ceeded, at li p. M., to the left of his 
Kne ; in no apprehension of an attack 
until he. should see fit to make one. 


He was grievously mistaken. 
Hardly had he been half an hour 
away from liis fix)nt, when his left, 
composed mainly of green soldiers, 
under a brave but inexperienced com- 
mander, and not fully formed in order 
of battle, was suddenly and vehe- 
mently assailed in front and flank by 

rapidly charging masses of infantry 
and wiiillery, hitherto concealed in 
woods and hollows, but which seemed 
as if magically evoked from the 

Cheatham's division, which had 
been silently moved from the Kebel 
left to their right, led this assault, 
responding with terrific yells and 
more hurried step to the fire of our 
batteries, until within short musket- 
range, when, at their very first vol- 
ley, Maj.-Gen. James S. Jackson" 
fell dead. His fall disorganized the 
raw and over-matched brigade of 
Gen. Terrill, which he was desper- 
ately exerting himself to steady, and 
it gave way in utter panic; Gen. 
Terrill himself following his chiefs 
example and sharing his fate not long 
afterward ; as did, at a later hour. 
Col. George Webster, 98th Ohio, com- 
manding a brigade. 

TerrilPs brigade being thus instan- 
taneously routed, with the loss of 
Parsons's battery, the whole force of 
the Rebel charge fell upon Rousseau, 
who was ready to receive it. An at- 
tempt to flank and crush his left was 
promptly met by new dispositions : 
Starkweather's brigade, with Stone's 
and Bush's batteries, being faced to 
that flank, and recei\dng the enemy 
with volley after volley, which tore 
his ranks and arrested his momentum 
for two or three hours, until our am- 
munition was exhausted, and Bush's 
battery had lost 36 horses ; when our 
guns were drawn back a short dis- 
tance, and our infantry retired to re- 
plenish their cartridge-boxes; then 
resuming their position in line. 

Rousseau's center and right were 
held respectively by the brigades of 

"Union Member of Congress from the 
lid district of Kentucky; elected in 1861, 

by 9,281 votes, to 3,364 for Bunch, "State 
Rights," L e., semi-Rebel. 

Digitized by 




Hams and Ly tie, who fought bravely, 
but lost ground, in consequence of 
the disaster on our farther left. Fi- 
nally, a desperate charge was made 
upon Lytle's front and right, favored 
by irregularities of ground, which 
covered and concealed it, and his 
brigade was hurled back ; Lytle him- 
self falling at this moment, and, be- 
lieving his wound mortal, refusing 
to be carried off the field. 

The charging Eebels now struck 
the left flank of Gilbert's corps, held 
by E. B. Mitchell and Sheridan, 
which had been for some little time 
engaged along its front. The key of 
its position was held — and of course 
well held — ^by Brig.-Gen. Philip H. 
Sheridan, who had been engaged in 
the morning, but had driven the 
enemy back out of sight, after a 
short but sharp contest, and had just 
repelled another assault on his front ; 
advancing his line as his assailants 
retired, and then turning his guns 
upon the force which had just driven 
Rousseau's right. And now Gen. 
Mitchell pushed forward the 81st 
brigade. Col. Carlin, on Sheridan's 
right, and charged at double-quick, 
breaking and driving the enemy into 
and through Perryville, to the pro- 
tection of two batteries on the bluffs 
beyond, capturing 15 heavily laden 
ammunition wagons, 2 caissons \vith 
their horses, and a train-guard of 140 ; 
retiring amid the Rebel conftision to 
this side of the town, and thence 
opening fire with his battery as dark- 
ness came on. 

Meantime, the 30th brigade. Col. 
Gooding, which had been sent by 
Gilbert to the aid of McCook, had 
formed on our extreme left, confront- 
ing the division of the Rebel Gen. 

Wood, and here fought desperately 
for two hours against superior num- 
bers. A lull occurring in the fusil- 
lade, Gooding rode forward, about 
dark, to ascertain the Rebel position ; 
when his horse was shot under him 
and he made prisoner. His brigade^* 
then fell back, having lost 649 men 
out of 1,423 ; taking position in line 
with McCook. There was some ran- 
dom artillery firing afterward ; but 
darkness substantially closed the bat- 

Gen. Buell did not learn until 4 
p. M. that any serious conflict was in 
progress. He now heard with as- 
tonishment from McCook that he had 
been two hours hotly engaged ; that 
both the right and the left of his 
corps were turned, or being turned ; 
and that he was severely pressed on 
every hand. Reenforcements were 
immediately ordered to McCook from 
the center, and orders sent to Crit- 
tenden — who was advancing with 
our right division — ^to push forward 
and attack the enemy's left; but 
Crittenden's advance only reached 
the field at nightfall, when a single 
brigade (Wagner's) went into action 
on the right of Mitchell's division, 
just before the battle was terminated 
by darkness. 

At 6 A. M. next day," Gilbert's 
corps advanced by order to assail the 
Rebel front, while Crittenden struck 
hard on his left fiank ; but they found 
no enemy to dispute their progress. 
Bragg had decamped during the 
night, marching on Harrodsburg; 
where he was joined by Kirby Smith 
and Withers ; retreating thence south- 
ward by Bryantsville to Camp Dick 
Robinson, near Danville. 

Bragg admits a total loss in this 

"Oct. 9. 

Digitized by 



battle of not less than 2,500 ; includ- 
ing Brig.-Glens. Wood, Cleburne, and 
Brown, wounded ; and claims to have 
driven us two miles, captured 15 
guns, 400 prisoners, and inflicted a 
total loss of 4,000. Buell's report 
admits a loss on our part of 4,348 — 
916 killed, 2,943 wounded, and 489 
miflsing ; but as to guns, he concedes 
a loss of but ten, whereof all but two 
were left on the ground, with more 
than 1,000 of their wounded, by the 

Gen. Buell officially reports his 
effective force which advanced on 
Perryville at 58,000 ; whereof 22,000 
were raw troops, who had received 
little or no instruction. He estimates 
the Rebel army in Kentucky at 
55,000 to 66,000 men ; but of this 
aggr^te not more than two-thirds 
were present. As the fighting of 
all but the raw troops in tihis battle, 
on cor side, was remarkably good, 
that of the Rebels present must have 
been still better, since they inflicted 
the greater loss, gained the more 
ground, and captured some cannon ; 
yet it is plain that Bragg obtained 
here all the fighting he was anxious 
for; since he abandoned some 1,200 
of his sick and wounded at Harrods- 
burg, and 25,000 barrels of pork, 
with other stores, at various points; 
making no stand even at Camp Dick 
Bobinson — a very strong position, 
behind the perpendicular bluifs of 
Dick's river — ^but retreated precipi- 
tately by Crab Orchard, Mount Ver- 
UiMi, London, and Barboursville, to 
Cumberland Gap, and thus into East 
Tennessee ; burning even large quan- 
tities of cloths and other precious 
g<X)d8, for which transportation over 
the rough mountain roads necessarily 
tnvened was not to be had. 

The retreat was conducted by 
Bishop Polk, and covered by Wheel- 
er's cavalry. And, though Kentucky 
was minus many thousands of ani- 
mals, with other spoils of all kinds, 
by reason of this gigantic raid, it is 
not probable, in view of the inevi- 
table suffering and loss of animals on 
their long, hurried, famished flight 
through the rugged, sterile, thinly 
peopled moimtain region, that all the 
Bebels took back into East Tennessee 
was equal in value to the outfit with 
which they had set forth on this ad- 

Sill's division — ^whichhad followed 
Kirby Smith from Frankfort, and 
had had a little fight with his rear- 
guard near Lawrenceburg — ^reached 
Perryville at nightfall on the 11th ; 
up to which time Buell had made no 
decided advance. Pushing forward 
a strong reconnoissance next day to 
Dick's river, he found no enemy this 
side ; and he learned at Danville, two 
days later, that Bragg was in full re- 
treat. He sent forward in pursuit at 
midnight "Wood's division, followed 
by the rest of Crittenden's and then 
by McCook's corps, while Gilbert's 
marched on the Lancaster road to the 
left. Wood struck the Eebel rear- 
guard next morning at Stanford, but 
to little purpose ; the enemy retiring 
when assailed in force, felling trees 
across the road behind him, and con- 
suming all the forage of the region 
he traversed, rendering extended pur- 
suit impossible. McCook's and Gil- 
bert's divisions were halted at Crab 
Orchard; while Crittenden kept on 
to London, whence he was recalled 
by Buell ; farther pursuit being evi- 
dently useless. The Government, 
deeply dissatisfied with this impotent 
conclusion of the campaign, now re- 

Digitized by 



lieved" Buell from command, ap- 
pointing Maj.-Gen. Eosecrans in liis 

If the disappointment on our side 
at the escape of Bragg with his plim- 
der was great, the chagrin of the 
Rebels was even greater. They had 
so loudly and boastingly proclaimed 
that they entered Kentucky to stay, 
that they had incited their partisans 
throughout the State to compromise 
themselves by demonstrations which 
were now shown to have been rash 
and useless ; so that thousands of the 
more prominent were impelled to fly 
with Bragg, who embarrassed his 
march and devoured his scanty sup- 
plies, yet were of no value to the 
cause when they had together en- 
tered — not in triumph — ^their beloved 
Dixie. Bragg's invasion had demon- 
strated afresh the antagonism of at 
least two-thirds of the Kentuckians 
to the Rebellion — a demonstration 
more conclusive than that uniformly 
afforded by her elections, because 
there could now be no pretense that 
the people were overawed or their 
verdict corrupted. For weeks, a gal- 
lant, formidable, triumphant Rebel 
army had held undisputed possession 
of the heart of the State ; its cavalry 
had traversed two-thirds of it, afford- 
ing opportunity and solicitation to 
all who were inclined to enter the 
Confederate service ; their cause had 
enjoyed the prestige of several bril- 
liant and profitable successes, while 
the Union forces everywhere fled be- 

fore them, or made a stand only to be 
routed; yet the number of recruits 
to their standard was confessedly 
moderate. Excepting in a few of 
the rich slaveholding counties around 
Lexington, and in that south-western 
portion of the State which Bragg 
failed to reach, those in sympathy 
with the Rebellion were everywhere 
a decided and in many counties an 
inconsiderable minority." 

The transfer of Gen. Halleck to 
Washington had left Gen. Grant in 
command of the district of West Ten- 
nessee, with his headquarters at Jack- 
son or at Bolivar, while Gen. Eose- 
crans was left in comitiand in north- 
em Mississippi and Alabama, when 
Gen. Buell, taking" two of his divi- 
sions, moved northward in pursuit of 
Bragg. Eosecrans was at Tuscum- 
bia when advised,** by tel^ram from 
Gen. Grant, that a considerable Rebel 
force was moving northward between 
them, and that its cavalry had al- 
ready attacked Bolivar, and cut the 
line of railroad between that post and 
Jackson. Hereupon, leaving luka in 
charge of Col. E. C. Murphy, 8th 
Wisconsin, Eosecrans moved east- 
ward with Stanley's division to his 
old encampment at Clear creek, sev- 
en miles from Corinth. Murphy pre- 
cipitately abandoned his post on the 
approach of the Eebel cavalry, allow- 
ing a large amount of stores, with 680 
barrels of flour, to fall into the hands 
of the enemy. A reconnoissance in 

"•Oct 30. 

" PoUard says: 

" It ia to be admitted that the South was bit- 
terly disappointed in the manifestations of pub- 
lic sentiment in Kentucky; that the exhibitions 
of sympathy in this State were meager and senti- 
mental, and amounted to but little practical aid 
of our cause. Indeed, no subject was at once 
more dispiriting and perplexing to the South 
than the cautious and immanly reception given 

to our annies both in Kentucky and Maryland. 
The references we have made to the sentiment 
of each of these States leaves but little room to 
doubt the general oondusion, that the dread of 
Yankee veng^eance and love of property were 
too powerful to make them take risks against 
these in favor of a cause for which their people 
had a mere preference, without any attadjmaents 
to it higher than those of selfish calculation.'* 
" Aug. 20. » About Sept L 

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force, under Col. Mower, having eat- 
isfiea Rosecrans that the Eebel army 
under Gen. Price now occupied luka, 
he BO advised Gen. Grant ; who there- 
upon resolved on a combined attack, 
sending down Gen. Ord, with some 
5,000 men, to Bnmsville, seven miles 
west of Inka, and following from 
Bolivar with such troops as could be 
spared to reenforce him. Ord was 
to move on luka from the north ; 
while Rosecrans, with Stanley's, was 
to rejoin his remaining division, un- 
der Hamilton, at Jacinto, nine miles 
south of Bumsville, thence advancing 
on Price from the south. This con- 
centration was duly effected;" and 
Gen. Grant, who had now reached 
Bumsville, was advised that Rose- 
crans woidd attack luka, 19} miles 

from Jacinto, between 2i and 4} 
p. M. next day. 

Rosecrans moved accordingly, at 
3 A. M," in light marching order, 
duly advising Gen. Grant ; and was 
within 7i miles of luka at noon, hav- 
ing been driving in the enemy's skir- 
mishers for the last two miles. Dis- 
appointed in hearing no guns from 
Ord's column, he did not choose to 
push his four brigades agf inst the 
more numerous army in their front 
on separate roads, which precluded 
their reciprocal support, but advanced 
slowly — Hamilton's division in front 
— up to a point two miles from luka, 
where a cross-road connected that 
from Jacinto, on which he was mov- 
ing, with the road leading south-east- 
ward from luka to Fulton; where, 

' Sept. 18. 

" Sept 19. 

Digitized by 




at 4 P. M., the Bebels were found 
drawn up in force, holding a strong 
position along a deep ravine croBsing 
the main road, and behind the crest 
of a hill. Here our skirmishers were 
driven back on the head of the col- 
umn in advance, which was suddenly 
saluted with a heavy fire of musketry, 
grape, canister, and shell, under which 
the 11th Ohio battery was with diffi- 
culty brought into position, with the 
5th Iowa, Col. Matthias, and 26th 
Missouri, Col. Boomer, supporting it; 
the 48th Indiana, Col. Eddy, posted 
a little in advance of the battery, on 
the left of the road, holding their 
ground under a terrible fire; while 
the 4th Minnesota, Capt. Le Gro, 
and 16th Iowa, Col. Chambers, were 
hurried up to their support. The 
nature of the ground forbidding any 
extension of our front, the battle was 
thus maintained by a single brigade, 
against at least three times their 
numbers, until Col. Eddy was killed; 
when the remnant of his regiment 
was hurled back in disorder and our 
advanced battery clutched by the 
Rebels ; but not till its every horse 
had been disabled and every officer 
killed or wounded. A charge was 
instantly made to recover it, and the 
guns were repeatedly taken and re- 
taken ; but they were finally dragged 
off the field by the Eebels, only to be 
abandoned in their fiight from luka. 
Stanley's division had meantime 
come up, pushing forward the 11th 
Missouri to the front ; where, uniting 
with the 5th Iowa and 26th Missouri, 
it first checked the Bebel advance 
and then drove it back to the shelter 
of the ravine; while Col. Perczel, 
with the 10th Iowa and a section of 
Immell's battery, repulsed a Bebel 

attempt to turn our left. Col. 
Boomer fell, severely woimded, and 
darkness at length closed the battle: 
our men lying down on their arms, 
expecting to renew the struggle next 
morning ; Gen. Stanley himself being 
at the front, along with Brig.-Gen. 
Sullivan and Col. J. B. Sanborn, 
who had bravely and skillftQly 
directed the movements of Hamil- 
ton's two brigades ; but not a regi- 
ment of Stanley's division, save the 
11th Missouri, had been enabled to 
participate in the action ; and not a 
shot had been fired ftx)m the direc- 
tion whence Ord's advance had been 
confidently expected — ^the excuse for 
this being that Ord had only ex- 
pected to attack after hearing the 
sound of Bosecrans's guns; and these 
a high wind from the north-west pre- 
vented his hearing at alL 

Ord had been watching a Eebel 
demonstration from the south and 
west upon Corinth — ^which proved a 
mere feint — ^but had returned to 
Bumsville at 4 p. M.," when h8 was 
directed by Grant to move his entire 
force — which had been swelled by 
the arrival of Ross's division — to 
within four miles of luka, and there 
await the soimd of Eosecrans's guns. 
Boss, in his advance, reported to him 
a dense smoke arising from the direc- 
tion of luka; whence he inferred 
that Price was burning his stores 
and preparing to retreat. Next 
morning, hearing guns in his fi^ont, 
Ord moved rapidly into luka, but 
found no enemy there ; Price having 
retreated on the Fulton road during 
the night. Ord, le&ving Crocker's 
brigade to garrison luka, returned 
directly, by order, to Corinth ; while 
Bosecrans — ^having first sent Stan- 

»Sept 19 

Digitized- by 




ley's division into luka and found 
it abandoned — turned on the trail of 
the Bebels, and followed until night ; 
but found they had too much start to 
be overtaken. 

Hamilton reports that, in this affair 
of luka, not more than 2,800 men 
on our side were actually engaged, 
against a Eebel force of 11,000, hold- 
ing a chosen and very strong posi- 
tion. Eosecrans reports our total 
loss in this battle at 782—144 killed, 
598 wounded, and 40 missing ; and 
that we buried on the field 265 
Rebels, while 120 more died in hos- 
pital of wounds here received ; 342 
more were left wounded in hospital 
by the Rebels, and 361 were made 
prisoners. He estimates that they 
carried off 350 more of their less 
severely wounded; making their 
total loss 1,438. He states that he 
captured 1,629 stand of arms, 18,000 
rounds of ammunition, beside large 
quantities of equipments and stores. 
Pollard says that the Rebel loss " was 
probably 800 in killed and wounded." 

Price retreated to Ripley, Miss., 
where he united with a still stronger 
Kebel force, under Van Dom, who 
had been menacing Corinth during 
the conflict at luka, but had retreated 
after its close, and who now assumed 
command, and, marching northward, 
struck the Memphis Railroad at 
Pocahontas, considerably westward 
of Corinth, thence pushing " rapidly 
down the road to Chewalla, widi 
intent to surprise, or at least storm, 
Corinth next day. Rosecrans — who 
had received" his promotion to a 
Major-Generalship directly after the 
afiidr at luka — ^had been left in chief 
command at Corinth by Grant, who 

had returned to his own headquarters 
at Jackson, withdrawing Ord's divi- 
sion to Bolivar. Rosecrans had in and 
about Corinth not far jGpom 20,000 
men — too few to man the extensive 
works constructed around it by Beau- 
regard, when he held that position 
against Halleck's besieging army. 
Realizing this, Rosecrans had hastily 
constructed an inner line of fortifica- 
tions, covering Corinth, especially 
toward the west, at distances of a 
mile or so fi*om the center of the 
village. Promptly advised by his 
cavalry of the formidable Rebel 
movement northward, until it struck 
the line of his communications with 
Grant, he supposed its ol^ject to be 
Bolivar or Jackso^, and that only a 
feint would be made on Corinth ; but 
he was prepared for any emergency, 
having his forces well in hand and 
thrown out westward, into and 
beyond Beauregard's fortifications 
already mentioned. Hamilton held 
the right, with Davies in the center, 
and McKean on the left ; while three 
regiments, under Col. Oliver, were 
thrown out in advance on the Che- 
walla road, down which the Rebels 
were advancing. 

Van Dom moved at an early hour, 
and, forming in order of battle at a 
distance from our outworks, his 
right, under Gen. Mansfield Lovell, 
encountered, at 7i a. m.," our left 
advance, under Col. Oliver, holding 
a hill which afforded a strong posi- 
tion, and a broad and extensive view 
of the coxmtry beyond it. He had 
orders to hold it pretty firmly, so as 
to compel the enemy to develop his 

Rosecrans, still distrusting that this 
attack was more than a feint, de- 


VOL. n. — 15 

'Sept 20. 

"Oct 3. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



signed to cover a movement on Boli- 
var and Jackson, at 9 o'clock sent 
Gen. McArthur to the front, who 
reported widespread but slack skir- 
mishing, and said the hill was of 
great value to test the strength of our 
assailants. McArthur, finding him- 
self hotly assailed, called up . four 
more regiments from McKean's divi- 
sion, and continued what by this time 
had become a serious engagement, 
until a determined Eebel charge, in- 
terposing between his right and the 
left of Gen. Davies, forced him 
rapidly back from the hill, with the 
loss of 2 heavy guns ; thus compel- 
ling a slight recoil of Davies also. 

By 1 p. M., it had become evident 
that the attack was no feint, but 
meant the capture of Corinth, with 
its immense stores ; and that success 
was to be struggled for right here. 
Accordingly, McKean's division, on 

our left, was drawn back to the ridge 
next beyond our inner intrenchments, 
and ordered to close with his right 
on Davies's left ; Hamilton's division 
was moved down until its left 
touched Davies's right ; while Stan- 
ley, moving northward and eastward, 
was to stand in close echelon with 
McKean, but nearer Corinth. These 
dispositions had scarcely been com- 
pleted, under a most determined 
pressure on our center by the Rebels, 
which compelled Dayies to give 
ground and call upon Stanley for aid, 
when night compelled a pause in the 
engagement; Col. Mower, with one 
of Stanley's brigades, having just 
come into the fight ; while Hamilton, 
working his way through an imprac- 
ticable thicket, was just swinging in 
on the enemy's left. Van Dom, sup- 
posing Corinth virtually his own, 
sent off to Richmond an electrifying 

Digitized by 




dispatcli, claiming a great victory, 
and rested for the night on his lau- 

At 3 A. M.," the fight was reopened 
by the fire of a Eebel battery which 
had been planted during the night in 
front and but 200 yards distant from 
Fort Robinett, in our center, cover- 
ing the road W.N.W. firom Corinth 
to Chewalla. Shell were thrown into 
Corinth, exploding in streets and 
houses, and causing a sudden stam- 
pede of teamsters, sutlers, and non- 
combatants generally. No reply was 
made by our batteries till fair day- 
light ; when Capt. Williams opened 
from. Fort Williams with his 20-pound 
Parrotts, and in three minutes si- 
lenced the unseasonable disturber; 
two of whose guns were dragged off, 
while the third, being deserted, was 
taken and brought within our lines. 
By this time, the skirmishers of both 
sides had wormed their way into the 
swampy thickets separating the hos- 
tile forces; and their shots, at first 
scattering, came thicker and faster. 
Occasionally, there would be a lull 
in this fusillade, swiftly followed by 
considerable volleys. Batteries on 
both sides now came into full play, 
and shells were falling and bursting 
everywhere; but no Rebel masses, nor 
even lines of infentry, were visible ; 
nntil suddenly, about 9^ a. m., a vast 
column of gleaming bayonets flashed 
out from the woods east of the rail- 
road, and moved sternly up the Boli- 
var road. Says the witnessing cor- 
respondent of the Cincinnati Com- 
mtrcial : 

** A prodigious mass, with gleaming bayo- 
nets, saddenly loomed out, dark and threat- 
eoing, on the east of the railroad, moving 
sternly op tlie Bolivar road in column by 
divisions. Directly, it opened out in the 

shape of a monstrous wedge, and drove for- 
ward impetuously toward the heart of Cor- 
inth. It was a splendid target for our bat- 
teries, and it was soon perforated. Hideous 
gaps were rent in it, but those massive lines 
were closed almost as soon as they were torn 
open. At this period, the skillful manage- 
ment of Gen. Rosecrans began to develop. 
It was discovered that the enemy had been 
enticed to attack precisely at the point 
where the artillery could sweep them with 
direct, cross, and enfilading fire. He had pre- 
pared for such an occasion. Our shell swept 
through the mass with awful effect; but the 
brave Rebels pressed onward inflexibly. Di- 
rectly, the wedge opened and spread out 
magnificently, right and left, like great 
wings, seeming to swoop over the whole 
field before them. But there was a fearful 
march in front. A broad, turfy glacis, slo- 
ping upward at an angle of thirty degrees 
to a crest fringed with determined, disci- 
plined soldiers, and clad with terrible bat- 
teries, frowned upon them. There were a 
few obstructions — fallen timber — which dis- 
ordered their lines a little. But every break 
was instantly welded. Our whole line open- 
ed fire ; but the enemy, seemingly insensible 
to fear, or infuriated by passion, bent their 
necks downward and marched steadily to 
death, with their fdces averted like men striv- 
ing to protect themselves against a driving 
storm of hail. The Yates and Burgess 
sharp-shooters, lying snugly behind their 
rude breastworks, poured in a destructive 
fire ; but it seemed no more effectual than 
if they had been firing potato-balls, except- 
ing that somebody was killed. The enemy 
still pressed onward undismayed. At last, 
they reached the crest of the hill in front 
and to the right of Fort Richardson, and 
Gen. Davies's division gave way. It began 
to fall back in disorder. Gen. Rosecrans, 
who had been watching the conflict with 
eagle eye, and who is described as having 
expressed his delight at the trap into which 
Gen. Price was blindly plunging, discovered 
the break, and dashed to the front, inflamed 
with indignation. He rallied the men by 
his splendid example in the thickest of the 
fight. Before the line was demoralized, he 
succeeded in restoring it, and the men, brave 
when bravely led, fought again. But it had 
yielded much space ; and the loss of Fort 
Richardson was certain. Price's right moved 
swiftly to the headquarters of Gen. Rose- 
crans, took possession of it, and posted 
themselves under cover of the portico of 
the house, and behind its corners, whence 
they opened fire upon our troops on the op- 
posite side of the public square. Seven Reb- 
els were killed within the little inclosure in 

• Saturday, Oct 4. 

Digitized by 



front of the General's cottage. The struc- 
ture is a sort of sieve now — bullets have 
punctured it so well. But the desperadoes 
got no farther into town. 

** Battle was raging about Fort Richard- 
son. Gallant Richardson, for whom it was 
named, fought his battery well. Had his sup- 
ports fought as his artillerymen did, the rec- 
ord would have been different. The Rebels 
gained tlie crest of the hill, swarmed around 
the little redoubt, and were swept away 
from it as a breath will dissipate smoke. 
Again they swarmed like infuriated tigers. 
At last, a desperate dash, with a yell. Rich- 
ardson goes down to rise no more. Ilis 
supports are not on hand. The foe shouts 
triumphantly and seizes the guns. The 
horses are fifty yards down the hill toward 
Corinth. A score of Rebels seize them. 
The 66th Illinois suddenly rises from cover 
in the ravine. One terrible volley, and 
there are sixteen dead artillery horses and a 
dozen dead Rebels. Illinois shouts, charges 
up the hill, across the plateau into the bat- 
tery. The Rebels fly out through embra- 
sures and around the wings. The 56th yells 
agmn and pursues. 

** The Rebels do not stop. Hamilton's vet- 
erans, meantime, have been working quietly 
— no lung-work, but gun-work enough. A 
steady stream of fire tore the Rebel ranks 
to pieces. When Davies broke, it was ne- 
cessary for all to fall back. Gen. Rosecrans 
thought it well enough to get Price in 
deeply. A Rebel soldier says Van Dorn 
sat on his horse grimly and saw it all. 
* That's Rosecrans's trick,' said he; *he's 
got Price where he must suffer.' Maybe 
this is one of the apocrypha of battle. A 
Rebel soldier says it's truth. But Ham- 
ilton's division receded under orders — at 
backward step ; slowly, grimly, face to the 
foe, and firing. But when the 56th Il- 
linois charged, this was changed. Da- 
vies's misfortune had been remedied. The 
whole line advanced. The Rebel host was 
broken. A destroying Nemesis pursued 
them. Arms were flung away wildly. 
They ran to the woods. They fled into 
the forests. Oh I what a shout of triumph 
and yrh&t a gleaming line of steel followed 
them. It is strange, but true. Our men 
do not often shout before battle. Heavens ! 
what thunder there is in their throats after 
victory I * They ' report that such a shout 
was never before heard in Corinth. Price's 
once * invincible ' now invisible legions were 
broken, demoralized, fugitive, and remorse- 
lessly pursued down the hill, into the 
swamps, through the thickets, into the for- 
ests. Newly disturbed earth shows where 
they fell, and how very often. 

"Gen. Van Dorn's attack was to have 
been simultaneous with that of Price. The 

Generals had arranged to carry Corinth by 
one grand assault. In their reconnoissance 
Friday evening, they had found no fort where 
Fort Richardson was, and they overlooked 
Fort Robinett. Ugly obstacles. When they 
drove their wedge toward Corinth, one 
flange on the Bolivar road, the other on a 
branch of the Cliowalla, they intended both 
wings should extend together. Topographi- 
cal and artificial obstructions interrupted 
Van Dorn. He was obliged to sweep over 
a rugged ravine, through dense thickets, up 
hill, over a heavy abatis, with his left; it 
was necessary for his center to dip down 
hill under the fire of Fort Williams, Capt. 
Gau's siege-guns in the rear of the town, 
and under heavy musketry, while his right 
had to girdle a ridge and move over almost 
insurmountable abatis under a point-blank 
fire of both Fort Williams and Fort Robin- 
ett, supported by a splendid division of 
veteran troops. The latter fort had 10- 
pounder Parrotts, three of them — the for- 
mer 30-pounder Parrotts, which devour 
men. It was a task to be accomplished, or 
a terrible failure to be recorded. Price had 
comparatively plain sailing, and lost no time. 
Van Dorn was seven or eight minutes be- 
hind time. During that precious seven min- 
utes. Price was overwhelmed, and Van Dorn 
was left with a feat of desperation to be ac- 
complished. He tried it audaciously. His 
men obeyed magnificently. Evidently, he 
relied chiefly on Texas and Mississippi ; for 
the troops of those States were in front. 
The wings were sorely distressed in the en- 
tanglement on either side. Two girdles of 
bristling steel glistened on the waist of the 
ridge. Two brigades, one supporting the 
front at close distance, moved up solidly to- 
ward the face of the fort. The Parrotts of 
both redoubts were pouring shot, and shell, 
and grape, and canister, into them from the 
moment of command—* Forward — Charge I' 
shouted clearly from the brave Col. Rogers 
(acting Brigadier) of Texas. They tell me 
it was a noble exhibition of desperate dar- 
ing. At every discharge, great gaps were 
cut through their ranks. No faltering, but 
the ranks were closed, and they moved stead- 
ily to the front, bending their heads to the 
storm. Dozens were slaughtered while 
thrusting themselves through the rugged 
timber, but no man wavered. Onward, on- 
ward, steady and unyielding as fate, their 
General in front. At last, they reach the 
ditch. It is an awful moment. They pause 
to take breath for a surge — a fatal pause. 
Texas Rogers, with the Rebel flag in his 
left, revolver in his right, advanced firing, 
leaped the ditch, scaled the parapet, waved 
his banner aloft, and tumbled headlong into 
the ditch. A patriot's bullet had killed him 
in the moment of triumph. Five Texan s 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


who followed pitched forward through the 
embrasares like logs, and fell into the fort. 

" But we anticipate. Remember that the 
two redoubts are on the same ridge : Fort 
Williams commanding Fort Robinett, which 
is in front Had the Rebels taken the latter, 
the guns of the former would have destroyed 
them. They were separated by a space not 
exceeding one hundred and fifty yards. The 
Ohio brigade, commanded by Col. Fuller, 
was formed behind the ridge, on the right 
of the redoubts. The left of the 63d Ohio 
rested on Fort Robinett, its right joining 
the left of the 27th Ohio; the 39th was 
behind the 27th, supporting it; the right 
of the 43d joined the left of the 63d, form- 
ing a right angle with ft, and extending to 
Fort WiUiaras, behind the crest of the ridge. 
The 11th Missouri, Col. Mower (U. S. A.), 
was formed behind the 63d Ohio, its left in 
the angle, and the regiment faced obliquely 
to the right of the 63d. The positions of 
these gallant regiments should be described, 
bec»ise their actions are memorable. 

" Col. Fuller, perfectly collected, required 
his brigade to lie flat on their faces when 
not engaged. While the enemy was steadily 
approaching, he warned tliem to wait till 
they could see the whites of their eyes, then 
fire coolly. It was at the moment the Tex- 
an Rogers was flaunting his flag on our 
parapet, that the 63d was ordered to fire. 
I>ead Capt. McFadden gave the first com- 
mand of his life to fire on the field of battle, 
and he fell mortally wounded. There were 
only 250 of the 63d in the conflict; but 
their volley was fearful. It is said flfty Reb- 
eb fell at once. Six volleys were flred, and 
the Rebels were gone. The 63d again lay 
down. Directly, the supporting brigade of 
the Rebels advanced. The 63d was ordered 
to make a half left wheel to sweep the front 
of the redoubt, and the maneuver was hand- 
somely executed. The 11th Missouri moved 
on the left into line into the vacant space ; 
the 43d moved by the right of companies 
to the left, and the 27th half-faced to the 
left. Suddenly, the enemy appeared ; and a 
fnrious storm of lead and grape was launclied 
at them. The 63d fired five or six volleys, 
and the Rebels rushed upon them. A ter- 
rific hand-to-hand combat ensued. The 
rage of the combatants was fnrious and the 
nproar hideous. It lasted hardly a minute, 
but the carnage was dreadfoL Bayonets 
were used, muskets clubbed, and men were 
felled with brawny fists. Oup noble fellows 
were victors, but at sickening cost. Of 
the 250 of the splendid 63d, 125 lay there 
on the field, wounded, dead, or dying. The 
last final struggle terminated with a howl 
of rage and dismny. The foe fiung away 
their arms and fled like frightened stags to 
the abatis and forests. The batteries were 

still vomiting destruction. With the enemy 
plunging in upon him, brave Robinett, with 
his faithful gunners of the 1st United States 
Artillery, had double-shotted his guns and 
belched death upon the infuriate enemy ; and 
now he sent the iron hail after the fugitives 
with relentless fiiry. The abatis was full of 
them, but they were subdued. Directly, 
they began to wave their handkerchiefs 
upon sticks in token of submission, shout- 
ing to spare them * for God*s sake.' Over 
two hundred of them were taken within an 
area of a hundred yards, and more than two 
hundred of them fell in that frightful assault 
upon Fort Robinett. Fifty-six dead Reb- 
els were heaped up together in front of 
that redoubt, most of whom were of the 
2d Texas and 4th Mississippi. They were 
buried in one pit ; but their brave General 
sleeps alone: our own nob)e fellows tes- 
tifying their respect by rounding his grave 
smoothly and marking his resting-place. 

" A great shout went up all over Corinth. 
The battle was a shock. It really began at 
half-past 9 o'clock, and pursuit was com- 
menced at 11 o^clock. The pursuit of the 
beaten foe was terrible. Sheets of flame 
blazed through the forest. Huge trunks 
were shattered by crashing shells. You 
may track the flying conflict for miles by 
scarified trees, broken branches, twisted gun- 
barrels and shattered stocks, blood-stained 
garments and mats of human hair, which lie 
on the ground where men died; hillocks 
which mark ditches where dead Rebels were 
covered, and smoothly rounded graves where 
slaughtered patriots were tenderly buried." 

Gen. Bosecrans's official report 

"When Price's left bore down on our 
center in gallant style, their force was so 
overpowering that our wearied and jaded 
troops yielded and fell back, scattering 
among the houses. I had the personal mor- 
tification of witnessing this untoward and 
untimely stampede. 

" Riddled and scattered, the ragged head 
of Price's right storming columns advanced 
to near the house, north side of the square, 
in front of Gen. Halleck's former headquar- 
ters; when it was greeted by a storm of 
grape from a section of Immell's battery, 
soon r6enforced by the 10th Ohio, which 
sent them whirling back, pursued by the 6th 
Minnesota, which advanced on them from 
their position near the d6p6t. 

" Gen. Sullivan was ordered and promptly 
advanced to support Gen. Davies*s center. 
His right rallied and retook battery Powell, 
into which a few of the storming column 
had penetrated; while Hamilton, having 
played upon tiie Rebels on bis right, over 

Digitized by 




the open space effectively swept by his ar- 
tillery, advanced on them, and tliey fled. 
The battle was over on the right. 

"During all this, the skirmishers of the 
left were moving in our front A line of 
battle was formed on the ridge. About 
twenty minutes after the attack on the 
right, the enemy advanced in four columns 
on battery Robinett, and were treated to 
grape and canister until within fifty yards ; 
when the Ohio brigade arose and gave them 
a murderous fire of musketry, before which 
they reeled and fell back to the woods. 
They, however, gallantly reformed and ad- 
vanced again to the chaise, led by Col. 
Rogers, of the 2d Texas. This titne, they 
reached the edge of the ditch ; but the dead- 
ly musketry fire of the Ohio brigade again 
broke them ; and, at the word charge, the 
11th Missouri and 27th Ohio sprang up and 
forward at them, chasing their broken frag- 
ments back to the woods. Thus by noon 
ended the battle of the 4th of October." 

In his testimony before the Com- 
mittee on the Conduct of the War, 
he says : 

" Between 8i and 4 o'clock a. m., the enemy 
opened his batteries ftiriously from a point 
in front of battery Robinett; but in the 
course of an hour he was silenced and driv- 
en from his position. Our troops, thus 
aroused from their brief rest, which could 
scarcely be called slumber, nerved them- 
selves for the coming fight ; the brunt of 
which came on about 10 o'clock, when, the 
enemy charging our right center, Davies^s 
division gave way, but speedily rallied, and, 
with the aid of Hamilton's division and a 
cross-fire from battery Robinett, poured in 
a fire so destructive that the enemy were 
thrown into confusion and finally driven 
from this part of the field ; at the same time, 
he also charged battery Robinett ; but was 
thoroughly repulsed, after two or three ef- 
forts, and retired to the woods. With our 
inferior numbers of exhausted troops, we 
stood on the defensive, sending skirmishers 
to the front and expecting another charge 
from the enemy, till about 8 o^clock p. m. ; 
when, finding that their skirmishers yielded 
to ours, we began to push them, and by 4 
o'clock became satisfied that they intended 
to retire from our immediate front ; but so 
superior was their strength that I could not 
believe they would altogether abandon the 
operation. By 6 p. m., our skirmishers had 
pushed them back five miles." 

Onr soldiers,, having now been 
marching and %htmg;8om0 48 honrs, 

with very little rest, Gen. Bosecrans 
ordered all but those on the skirmish 
line to lie down, while five days' 
rations should be issued to them, and 
that they should start in pursuit of the 
enemy early next morning ; but, just 
before sunset. Gen. McPherson ar- 
rived, with five fresh regiments from 
Gen. Grant, and was given the ad- 
vance on the trail of the flying 
enemy, whom he followed 15 miles 
next day ; " having a skirmish with 
his rear-guard that night. 

Meantime, another division, which 
Gen. Grant had pushed forward from 
Bolivar, at 3 a. m. of the eventful 
4:th, under Gen. Hurlbut, to the re- 
lief of Corinth, had struck the head 
of the. enemy's retreating forces and 
skirmished with it considerably dur- 
ing the afternoon. Hurlbut was 
joined and ranked, next morning, by 
Ord. The Kebel advance, having 
crossed the Hatchie river at Davis's 
bridge, were encountered by Ord and 
driven back so precipitately that they 
were unable to bum the bridge, los- 
ing 2 batteries and 300 prisoners. 
Ord, being in inferior nimibers, did 
not pursue across the river, but 
gathered up 900 small arms which 
the Eebels had thrown away. He 
reports that his losses in killed and 
wounded during that day's pursuit 
were several hundreds — ^probably ex- 
ceeding those of the enemy, who 
fought only under dense cover, with 
every advantage of ground, compel- 
ling our men to advance across open 
fields and up hills against them. 
Gen. Veatch was among our wounded. 

Van Dom crossed the Hatchie 
that night at Crunmi's Mill, 12 miles 
farther south, burning the bridge be- 
hind him. McPherson rebuilt the 

" Oct. 5. 

Digitized by 




bridge and crossed next day ; " con- 
, tinning the pursnit to Eipley, fol- 
lowed by Rosecrans with most of his 
army, gathering np deserters and 
stra^lers by the way. Rosecrans 
was anxiously eager to continue the 
pursuit, and telegraphed to Grant for 
permission to do so," believing the 
Rebel army utterly demoralized and 
incapable of resistance ; but he was 
directed to desist and return to 
Corinth. Nine days after his return, 
he was relieved from his command at 
Corinth, and ordered to report at 
Cincinnati; where he found a dis- 
patch directing him to supersede 
Gen. Buell in command of the Army 
of the Ohio and Department of the 
Cumberland, including aU of Tennes- 
see east of the Tennessee river. 

Gen. Rosecrans reports his total 
loss at Corinth and in the pursnit at 
2,359—315 killed, 1,812 wounded, 
and 232 missing ; and says that the 
Rebel loss in killed alone was 1,423, 

with 2,248 prisoners." He estimated 
their loss in wounded at 5,692. He 
says the prisoners represented 53 regi- 
ments of infantry, 16 of cavalry, 13 
batteries, and 7 battalions ; and that 
their numbers engaged were nearly 
double his own," which he makes less 
than 20,000 in all." Among his tro- 
phies were 14 flags, 2 guns, 3,300 
small arms, &c. ; while the Rebels, in 
their retreat, blew up many ammu- 
nition and other wagons, and left the 
ground strewn with tents, accouter- 
ments, &c. Among onr killed were 
Gen. Pleasant A. Hackleman," Col. 
Thomas Kilby Smith, 43d Ohio, and 
Cols. Thrush, Baker, and Miles; 
while Gen. Richard J. Oglesby," 
Adjt.-Gen. Clark, of Rosecrans's 
staff; and Col. Mower, 11th Missouri, 
were among the severely wounded. 
On the Rebel side. Acting Brigadiers 
Rogers, Johnston, and Martin were 
killed, and Cols. Pritchard, Daily, 
and McClain were wounded. 


• He gives these reasons for his eagerness, 
in bis testimony before the Committee on the 
Conduct of the War: 

" Mississippi was in our hands. The enemy 
had concentrated all Ids available force for an 
offensive movement, had been thoroughly beaten 
at Corinth, and had then retreated, blowing up 
his ammuuition wagons and caissons ; their men 
throwing away their camp and garrison equi- 
page in the flight The weather was cool ; the 
rofluis were dry, and likely to be so for a month 
to come. • Com was ripe, and, as yet, untouched. 
We had 3,000,000 of rations in Corinth, and 
ammunition for six months. There was but one 
bridge injured on the Mobile and Ohio road ; and 
it could be put in running order by a regiment 
in half a day. The enemy were so alarmed that, 
when Hamilton sent a reconnoissanoe to Black- 
land, they vacated Tupelo, burning even the 
bAcon wlUch they could not take away on the 
Arst train. I had eighty wagon-loads of as- 
sorted rations which had reached me that night 
at Ripley, and had ordered the 30,000 from 
Chewalla to Hurlbut" 

*• Pollard — who rarely or never finds the Reb- 
el losses the greater — says: 

" Our loss in all the three days' engagements 
was probably quite double that of the enemy. 
In kUled and wounded, it exceeded 3,000 ; and 
it was estimated, beside, that we had left more 
than 1,500 prisoners in the hands of the ene- 

*^ He says, in his official report : 

"We fought the combined Rebel force of 
Mississippi, commanded by Van Dorn, Price, 
Lovell, YiUipigue, and Rust in person; number- 
ing, according to their own authority, 38,000 

** He says, in his testimony before the Com- 
mittee on the Conduct of the War: 

"Our own force in the fight was about 15,700 
infantry and artillery, and about 2,500 effective 

** Repeatedly a Whig candidate for Congress 
in the Franklin district, Indiana. 

** Since elected Governor of Illinois. 

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The Federal Constitution was 
framed in General Convention, and 
carried in the several State Conven- 
tions, by the aid of adroit and politic 
evasions and reserves on the part of 
its framers and champions. The 
existing necessity for a stronger cen- 
tral authority, which had been devel- 
oped during the painftil experiences 
of our preceding years of indepen- 
dence, were most keenly felt by the 
mercantile and mechanical or manu- 
facturing classes, who were conse- 
quently zealous advocates of a " more 
perfect Union." The rural districts, 
on the other hand, were far less 
seriously affected by commercial em- 
barrassment and currency dilapida- 
tion, and wercr naturally jealous of a 
distant and unfamiliar power. Hence 
the reticence, if not ambiguity, of the 
text with regard to what has recently 
been termed " coercion," or the right 
of the Federal Government to subdue 
by arms the forcible resistance of a 
State, or of several States, to its legit- 
imate authority — a reticence which 
was imitated by the most prominent 
advocates of ratification, whether in 
The Federalist or in the several State 
Conventions. So with regard to 
Slavery as well. It is plain that the 
General Convention would have 
utterly and instantly prohibited the 
Foreign Slave-Trade, but for the pro- 
claimed fact that this would insure 
the rejection of their handiwork by 
the still slave-hungry States of South 
Carolina and Georgia, if not of North 
Carolina also; though Virginia was 
among the most earnest advocates of 

the prohibition. Hence, when the 
State Conventions were assembled to 
ratify or reject it, with such eminent 
Revolutionary patriots as Patrick 
Henry, Jolm Hancock, Samuel 
Adams, George Clinton, and Luther 
Martin, leading in the opposition, 
the clauses affecting Slavery were 
vigilantly, and not unsuccessfully, 
scrutinized for grounds of attack — 
the provision concerning the African 
Slave-Trade being assailed in some 
States from the side of Slavery, in 
others from that of anti-Slavery, with 
vigor and effect. In the North, 
these assaults were parried by point- 
ing to the power conferred on Con- 
gress to abolish the traflSc after twen- 
ty years, as so much clear gain : to 
reject the Constitution would not 
arrest the traflSc now, but would 
destroy the power to prohibit it here- 
after. On the other hand, the Fed- 
eralists in the Southern Conventions 
met their adversaries by pointing to 
the privilege secured to the slave- 
holders of hunting their fugitive 
chattels in other States than their 
own — a privilege hitherto non-exist- 
ent — and asked them what was to be 
gained by rejecting that In fact, 
the Constitution was essentially a 
matter of compromise and mutual 
concession — a proceeding wherein 
Thrift is apt to gain at the cost of 
Principle. Perhaps the majority in 
no State obtained exactly what they 
wanted, but were satisfied that, on 
the whole, they were better with the 
Constitution than without it. 

Patrick Henry alone, in opposing 

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ratification, assailed the Constitution 
as a measure of thorough, undis- 
guised, all-absorbing consolidation, 
andj though himself a professed con- 
temner of Slavery, sought to arouse 
the fears of the Virginia slaveholders 
as follows : 

"Among ten ^onsand implied powers 
which they may assume, they may, if we be 
engaged in war, liberate every one of your 
slaves, if they please; and this must and 
will be done by men, a majority of whom 
have not a common interest with you. 
They will, therefore, have no feeling of your 
interests. It has been repeatedly said here, 
that the great object of a National Govern- 
ment was national defense. That power, 
which is said to be intended for security 
and safety, may be rendered detestable and 
oppressive. If they give power to the 
General Government to provide for the 
general defense, the means must be com- 
mensurate to the end. All the means in the 
possession of the people must be given to 
the Gkivernment which is intrusted with the 
public defense. In this State, there are 
236,000 Blacks; and there are many in 
several other States : but there are few or 
none in the Northern States; and yet, if the 
Northern States shall be of opinion that our 
slaves are numberless, they may call forth 
every national resource. May Congress not 
say that every Black man must fight t Bid 
we not see a little of this last war ? Wo 
were not so hard pushed as to make eman- 
cipation general; but acts of Assembly 
passed, that every slave who would go to 
the army should be free. Another thing 
will contribute to bring this event about : 
Slavery is detested ; we feel its fatal effects ; 
we deplore it with all the pity of humanity. 
Let all these consideratibns, at some future 
period, press with full force on the minds of 
Congress — let that urbanity, which I trust 
will distinguish America, and the necessity 
of national defense — ^let all these things 
operate on their minds: they will search 
that paper, and see if they have the power of 
mannmission. And have they not. Sir? 
Have they not power to provide for the 
general defense and welfare? May they 
not think that these call for the abolition of 
Slavery? May they not pronounce all 
slaves free? and will they not be warranted 

by that power? There is no ambiguous 
implication or logical deduction. The 
paper speaks to the point. They have the 
power, in clear, unequivocal terms, and will 
clearly and certainly exercise it. As much 
as I deplore Slavery, I see that prudence 
forbids its abolition. I deny that the 
General Government ought to set them 
free, because a decided majority of the 
States have not the ties of sympathy and 
fellow-feeling for those whose interest 
would be affected by their emancipation. 
The m^ority of Congress is to the North, 
and the slaves are to the South.'' 

Gov. Edmund Randolph — who be- 
came Washington's Attorney-Gene- 
ral — answered Mr. Henry : denying 
most strenuously that there is any 
power of abolition given to Congress 
by the Constitution ; but not alluding 
to what Henry had urged with re- 
gard to the War power and the right 
of Congress to summon every slave 
to the military defense of the coun- 
try. Nor does this view of the sub- 
ject appear to have attracted much 
attention elsewhere — at least, it does 
not appear to have been anywhere 

In 1836,' Mr. John Quincy Adams, 

having been required to vote Yea or 

Nay, in the House, on a proposition 

reported by Mr. H. L. Pinckney, of 

South Carolina, in these words — 

^^Eesohed, That Congress possesses no 
constitutional power to interfere in any way 
with the institution of Slavery in any of 
the States of this confederacy" — 

voted Nay, in company with but 
eight others ; and, obtaining the floor 
in Committee soon afterward, on a 
proposition that rations be distributed 
from the public stores to citizens of 
Georgia and Alabama who have been 
driven from their homes by Indian 

* In dosing the argument in favor of ratifying 
the Federal Constitution, Mr. Zachariah John- 
aoa said: 

^They tell us that they see a progressive 
danger of bringing about emancipation. The 
pniiciple has begun since the BAvointion. Let 

us do what we will, it will come around. Slav- 
ery has been the foundation of that impiety and 
dissipation, which have been so much dissemin- 
ated among our countrymen. If it were totally 
abolished, it would do much good.'' 

•May 25, 

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depredations, proceeded to show that 
such distribution (which he advocat- 
ed) was justifiable only under the con- 
stitutional power of Congress " to pro- 
mote the general welfare," which 
Southern statesmen habitually repu- 
diated, or under the still more sweep- 
ing War power. In the course of 
his argument, he said : 

" Sir, in the authority given to Congress by 
the Constitation of the United States to de- 
clare war, all the powers incidental to war 
are, by necessary implication, conferred npon 
the Government of the United States. Now, 
the powers incidental to war are derived, 
not from their internal municipal source, 
hut from the laws and vsages of nations. 
♦ * * There are, then, Mr. Chairman, 
in the authority of Congress and of the 
Executive, two classes of powers, altogether 
diiFerent in their nature, and often incom- 
patible with each other — the War power 
and the Peace power. The Peace power is 
limited by regulations, and restricted by 
provisions, prescribed within the Constitu- 
tion itself. The War power is limited only 
by the laws and usages of nations. This 
power is tremendous ; it is strictly constitu- 
tional ; but it breaks down every barrier so 
anxiously erected for the protection of lib- 
erty, of property, and of life. This, Sir, is 
the power which authorizes you to pass the 
resolution now before you ; and, in my opin- 
ion, there is no other. * * * There are, 
indeed, powers of Peace conferred upon Con- 
gress which also come within the scope and 
jurisdiction of the laws of nations ; such as 
the negotiation of treaties of amity and 
commerce ; the interchange of public minis- 
ters and consuls ; and all the personal and 
social intercourse between the individual 
inhabitants of the United States and foreign 
nations, and the Indian tribes, which re- 
quire the interposition of any law. But 
.the powers of War are all regulated by 
the laws of nations, and are subject to no 
other limitation. * ♦ * it -vras upon 
this principle that I voted a^gainst the reso- 
lution reported by the Slavery Committee, 
Uhat Congress possesses no constitutional 
authority to interfere, in any way, with the 
institution of Slavery in any of the States 
of this confederacy;' to which resolution 
most of those with whom I usually concur, 
and even my own colleagues in this House, 
gave their assent. I do not admit that 
there is, even among the Peace powers of 
Congress, no such authority; but in war, 
there are many ways by which Congress 
not only have the authority, lut are hound, 

to interfere with the institution of Slavery 
in the States. The existing law prohibiting 
the importation of slaves into the United 
States from foreign countries is itself an in- 
terference with the institution of Slavery in 
the States. It was so considered by the 
founders of the Constitution of the United 
States, in which it was stipulated that Con- 
gress should not interfere, in that way, with 
the institution, prior to the year 1808. 

" During the war with Great Britain, the 
military and naval commanders of that na- 
tion issued proclamations inviting the slaves 
to repair to their standard, with promises 
of freedom and of settlement in some of the 
British colonial establishments. This, sure- 
ly, was an interference with the institution 
of Slavery in the States. By the treaty of 
peace. Great Britain stipulated to evacuate 
all the forts and places in the United States, 
without carrying away any slaves. If the 
Government of the United States had no 
power to interfere, in any way, with the 
mstitution of Slavery in the States, they 
would not have had the authority to require 
this stipulation. It is well known that this 
engagement was not fulfilled by the British 
naval and military commanders ; that, on 
the contrary, they did carry away all the 
slaves whom they had induced to join them ; 
and that the British Government inflexibly 
refused to restore any of them to their mas- 
ters; that a claim of indemnity was conse- 
quently instituted in behalf of the owners 
of the slaves, and was successfully main- 
tained. All that series of transactions was 
an interference by Congress with the insti- 
tution of Slavery in the States in one way 
— in the way of protection and support. It 
was by the institution of Slavery alone that 
the restitution of slaves, enticed by procla- 
mations into the British service, could be 
claimed as property. But for the institu- 
tion of Slavery, the British commanders 
could neither have allured them to their 
standard, nor restored them, otherwise than 
as liberated prisoners of war. But for the 
institution of Slavery, there could have been 
no stipulation that they should not be carried 
away as property, nor any claim of indemni- 
ty for the violation of that engagement. 

" But the War power of Congress over 
the institution of Slavery in the States Is 
yet far more extensive. Suppose the case 
of a servile war, complicated, to some ex- 
teflt — as it is even now — with an Indian 
war ; suppose Congress were caUed to raise 
armies, to supply money from the whole 
Union to suppress a servile insurrection: 
would they have no authority to interfere 
with the institution of Slavery ? The issue 
of a servile war may be disastrous ; it may 
become necessary for the master of the 
slave to recognize his emancipation b^ a 

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treaty of peace : can it, for an instant, be 
pretended that Congress, in such a contin- 
gency, would have no authority to interfere 
with the institution of Slavery, in any toat/^ 
in the States? Why, it would be equiva- 
lent to saying that Congress has no con- 
stitutional authority to make peace." 

Mr. Adams proceeded to show that 
Texas was then [prior to her annex- 
ation] the arena of a war concerning 
Slavery — a war based on an effort to 
reestablish Slavery where it had been 
abolished by Mexico; and that our 
country was powerfully incited' to 
take part directly therein, on the 
side of Slavery; and might yet be 
impelled to do so. In view of this 
probability, he asked — 

** Do you imagine that while, in the very 
nature of things, your own Southern and 
South-western States must be the battle-field 
upon which the last great conflict must be 
fought between Slavery and Emancipation 
—do you imagine that your Congress will 
have no constitutional authority to interfere 
with the institution of Slavery in any way^ 
in the States of this confederacy ? Sir, they 
must and will interfere with it — ^perhaps 
to soatain it by war ; perhaps to abolish it 
by treaties of peace : and they will not only 
possess the constitutional power so to inter- 
fere, but they will be bound in duty to do 
it, by the express provisions of the Consti- 
tution itself. From the instant that your 
slaveholding States become the theater of 
war — civil, servile, or foreign — from that 
instant, the War powers of Congress extend 
to interference with the institution of Slav- 
ery in every way by which it can be inter- 
fered with, from a claim of indemnity for 
slaves taken or destroyed, to the cession of 
the State burdened with Slavery to a for- 
iegn power." 

In 1842,' when the prospective 
annexation of Texas, and a conse- 
quent war with Mexico, first loomed 
above the horizon, Mr. Adams re- 
tamed to the subject ; and, with ref- 
erence to certain anti-Slavery resolves 
recently offered by Mr Giddings, of 
Ohio, and the action of the House 
thereupon, said : 

** What I am now to say, I say with great 
rductanoe an<) with great pain. I am well 

aware that it is touching upon a sore place ; 
and I would gladly get over it if I could. 
It has been my effort, so far as was in my 
power, to avoid any allusion whatever to 
that question which the gentleman from 
Virginia tells us that the most Iamb-like dis- 
position in the South never can approach 
without anger and indignation. Sir, that is 
my sorrow. I admit that the fact is so. 
We can not touch that subject without rais- 
ing, throughout the whole South, a mass of 
violence and passion, with which one might 
as well reason as with a hurricane. That, I 
know, is the fact in the South ; and that is 
the fact in this House. And it is the reason 
why members coming from a Free State are 
silenced as soon as they rise on this floor ; 
why they are pronounced out of order; 
made to sit down ; and, if they proceed, are 
censured and expelled. But in behalf of 
the South and of Southern institutions, a 
man may get up in this House and expatiate 
for weeks together. On this point, I do 
complain; and I must say I have been 
rather disappointed that I have not been 
put down already, as speaking out of order. 
What I say is involuntary, because the sub- 
ject has been brought into the House from 
another quarter, as the gentleman himself 
admits. 1 would leave that institution to 
the exclusive consideration and nianage- 
ment of the States more peculiarly inter- 
ested in it, just so long as they can keep it 
within their own bounds. So far, I admit 
that Congress has no power to meddle with 
it. So long as they do not step out of their 
own bounds, and do not put the question to 
the people of the United States, whose peace, 
welfare, and happiness, are all at stake, so 
long I will agree to leave them to them- 
selves. But when a member from a Free 
State brings forward certain resolutions, for 
which, instead of reasoning to disprove his 
positions, you vote a censure upon him — and 
that without hearing — it is quite another 
affair. At the time this was done, I said 
that, so far as I could understand the reso- 
lutions proposed by the gentleman from 
Ohio [Mr. Giddings], there were some of 
them for which I was ready to vote, and 
some which I must vote against ; and I will 
now tell this House, my constituents, and 
the world of mankind, that the resolution 
against which I would have voted was that 
in which he declares that what are called 
the Slave States have the exclusive right of 
consultation on the subject of Slavery. For 
that resolution, I never would vote; be- 
cause I believe that it is not just, and does 
not contain constitutional doctrine. I be- 
lieve that, so long as the Slave States are 
able to sustain their institutions, without 
going abroad or callinj^ upon other parts of 

■April 15. 

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the Union to aid them or act on the sub- 
ject, so long I will consent never to inter- 
fere. I have said this; and I repeat it: 
bat, if they come to the Free States and say 
to them, * You must help us to keep down 
our slaves ; you must aid us in an insurrec- 
tion and a civil war;' then I say that, with 
that call, comes a full and plenary power 
to this House and to the Senate over the 
whole subject. It is a War power. I say it is 
a War power; and when your country is ac- 
tually in war, whether it be a war of invasion 
or a war of insurrection, Congress has power 
to carry on the war, and must carry it on ac- 
cording to the laws of war ; and, by the laws 
of war, an invaded country has all its laws and 
municipal institutions swept by the board, 
and martial law takes the place of them. 

"This power in Congress has, perhaps, 
never been called into exercise under the 
present Constitution of the United States. 
But, when the laws of war are in force, 
what, I ask, is one of those laws? It is 
this; that when a country is invaded, and 
two hostile armies are set in martial array, 
the commanders of both armies have power 
to emancipate all the slaves in the invaded 
territory. Nor is this a mere theoretic 
statement. The history of South America 
shows that the doctrine has been carried 
into practical execution within the last 
thirty years. Slavery was abolished in 
Colombia, first by the Spanish General 
Murillo ; and, secondly, by the American 
General Bolivar. It was abolished by virtue 
of a military command, given at the head of 
the army ; and its abolition continues to be 
law to this day. It was abolished by the 
laws of war, and not by municipal enact- 
ments. The power was exercised by mili- 
tary commanders, under instructions, of 
course, from their respective Governments. 

" And here I recur again to the example 
of Gen. Jackson. What are you now about 
in Congress ? You are about passing a grant 
to refund to Gen. Jackson the amount of a 
certain fine imposed upon him by a judge 
under the laws of the State of Louisiana. 
You are going to reftind him the money, 
with interest ; and this you are going to do, 
because the imposition of the fine was un- 
just. And why was it unjust? Because 
Gen. Jackson was acting under the laws of 
war ; and because, the moment you place a 
military commander in a district which is 
the theater of war, the laws of war apply to 
that district. * * ♦ I might furnish a 
thousand proofs to show that the preten- 
sions of gentlemen to the sanctity of their 
municipal institutions, under a state of actual 
invasion and of actual war, whether servile, 
civil, or foreign, is wholly unfounded; and 
that the laws of war do, in all such cases, 
take precedence. I lay* this down as the 

law of nations. I say that the military 
authority takes, for the time, the place of 
all municipal institutions, and of Slavery 
among the rest ; and that, under that state 
of things, so far from its being true that the 
States where Slavery exists have the exclu- 
sive management' of the subject, not only 
the President of the United States, but the 
commander of the army, has power to order 
the universal emancipation of the slaves. I 
have given here more in detail a principle 
which I have asserted on this floor before 
now, and of which I have no more doubt 
than that you, Sir, occupy that chair. I 
give it in its development, in order that any 
gentleman from any part of the Union may, 
if he think proper, deny the truth of the 
position, and may mmntain his denial— not 
by indignation, not by passion and fury, but 
by sound and sober reasoning from the laws 
of nations and the laws of war. And, if my 
position can be answered, and refiited, I 
shall receive the refutation with pleasure ; I 
shall be glad to listen to reason, aside, as I 
say, from indignation and passion. And if, 
by the force of reasoning, my understanding 
can be convinced, I here pledge myself to 
recant what I have asserted. 

" Let my position be answered ; let me be 
told, let my constituents be told, let the peo- 
ple of my State be told — ^a State whose soil 
tolerates not the foot of a slave — that 
they are bound by the Constitution to 
a long and toilsome march under burning 
Summer suns and a deadly Southern clime, 
for the suppression of a servile war ; that 
they are bound to leave their bodies to rot 
upon the sands of Carolina — to leave their 
wives widows and their children orphans — 
that those who can not march are bonnd to 
pour out their treasure, while their sons or 
brothers are pouring out their blood, to sup- 
press a servile, combined with a civil or a 
foreign war ; and yet that there exists no 
power, beyond the limits of the Slave State 
where such war is raging, to emancipate the 
slaves 1 I say, let this be proved — I am 
open to conviction ; but, till that conviction 
comes, I put it forth not as a dictate of feel- 
ing, but as a settled maxim of the laws of na- 
tions, that in such a case the military super- 
sedes the civil power ; and on this account 
I should have been obliged to vote, as I have 
said, against one of the resolutions of my ex- 
cellent friend from Ohio [Mr. Giddings], or 
should at least have required that it be 
amended in conformity with the Oonstitn- 
tion of the United States." 

Hon. Joshua R. Giddings, while a 
member of the House of Represen- 
tatives, thirteen years prior to the 
appearance of Mr. Lincoln's Procla- 

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tnation of Freedom, ia reply to slave- 
holding threats of a dissolution of 
the Union, said : 

" When that contest shall come; when the 
thander shall roll and the lightnings flash ; 
when the slaves of the South shall rise in 
the spirit of Freedom, actuated by the soul- 
stirring emotion that they are men, destined 
to immortality, entitled to the rights which 
God bestowed upon them ; when the mas- 
ters shall turn pale and tremble ; when their 
dwellings shall smoke, and dismay sit on each 
countenance ; then, Sir, I do not say we will 
laugh at your calamity, and mock when 
your fear cometh, but I do say, the lover of 
our rcice will then stand forth and exert the 
legitimate powers of this Government of 
freedom. We shall then have constitutional 
power to act for the good of our country^ 
and to do justice to the slave. We will 


LIMBS. The Government will then have 
power to act between Slaverp and Freedom ; 
and it can best make peace by giving liberty 
to the slaves. And let me tell you, Mr. 
Speaker, that time hastens; the President 
is exerting a power that will hurry it on ; 
and I shall hail it as the approaching dawn 
of that Milleunium which I know must come 
upon the earth.^' 

Our great Civil War was opened 
on the part of the Union, not 
only with an anxions desire, bnt 
with a general expectation, that it 
woold be prosecuted to a successful 
issue without seriously disturbing the 
foundations and buttresses of Slav- 

Mr. Lincoln's solicitude on this 
head, as evinced in his Inaugural Ad- 
drees,* was deepened by the dubious, 
vacillating attitude of the Border 
Slave States, especially of his native 
Kentucky, which he was particularly 
anxious to attach firmly to the cause 
of the Union, while she seemed fran- 
tically wedded to Slavery. 

Gov. Seward, in his elaborate ini- 
tial dispatch * to Mr. Dayton, our new 
Minister to the Court of France, ap- 
proaching the topic of Slavery with 

unfeigned reluctance, in a paper 
designed to modify the ideas and in- 
fluence the action of a foreign Gov- 
ernment — indeed, of all foreign gov- 
ernments — argued that the Rebellion 
had no pretext that did not grow out 
of Slavery, and that it was causeless, 
objectless, irrational, even in view of 
Slavery, because of the " incontesta- 
ble " fact set forth by him, as follows : 

" Moral and physical causes have deter- 
mined inflexibly the character of each one 
of the Territories over which the dispute 
has arisen ; and both parties, after the elec- 
tion [of Lincoln to the Presidency], harmo- 
niously agreed on all the Federal laws 
required for their organization. The Ter- 
ritories will remain in all respects the same, 
whether the revolution shall succeed or fail. 
The condition of Slavery in the several 
States will remain just the same, whether it 
succeed or fail. There is not even a pretext 
for the complaint that the disaffected States 
are to be conquered by the United Statea, 
if the revolution fail ; but the rights of the 
States, and the condition of every human 
being in them, will remain subject to the 
same laws and forms of administration, 
whether the revolution shall succeed or 
whether it shall foil. In the one case, the 
States would be federally connected with 
the new confederacy; in the other, they 
would, as now, be members of the United 
States; but their constitutions and laws, 
customs, habits, and institutions, will in 
cither case remain the same." 

Our regular Army officers, educa- 
ted at West Point in a faith that 
identified devotion to Slavery with 
loyalty to the Federal Constitution 
and Government, were of course im- 
bued with a like spirit. Gen. Mc- 
Dowell, in his General Order • gov- 
erning the first advance from the 
Potomac into Virginia, was as pro- 
foundly silent respecting Slavery and 
slaves as if the latter had no modem 
existence ; while Gen. McClellan, on 
making a like advance into Western 
Virginia, issued ' an address to the 
people thereof, wherein he said : 

* Yd I., pp. 422-6. • Dated April 22, 1861. • June 20. See Vol L, pp. 634-6. ^ May 26' 

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" I have ordered troops to cross the river. 
They come as your friends and your broth- 
ers — as enemies only to armed Rebels who 
are preying upon you. Your homes, your 
families, and your property, are safe under 
our protection. All your rights shall be 
relijfiously respected. 

" Notwithstanding all that has been said by 
the traitors to induce you to believe that our 
advent among you will be signalized by in- 
terference with your slaves, understand one 
thing clearly — not only will we abstain from 
all such interference, hut we will, on the 
contrary, with an iron hand, crush any at- 
tempt at insurrection on their part.^' 

Those volunteer officers, however, 
who had not been blessed with a 
West Point training, did not always 
view the matter in precisely this 
light. Directly after* Gen. Butler's 
accession to command at Fortress 
Monroe, three negro slaves came 
within his lines from the Rebel lines 
adjacent ; stating that they were held 
as property by Col. Mallory, of the 
Confederate forces in his front, who 
was about to send them to the North 
Carolina seaboard, to work on the 
Rebel fortifications there in progress, 
intended to bar that coast against 
our arms. Gen. Butler heard their 
stofy, was satisfied of its truth, and 
said: " These men are contraband of 
war:* set them at work." He was, 
very soon afterward, invited to a con- 
fsrence by Maj. Carey, commanding 
opposite; and accordingly met the 
Major (in whom he recognized an 
old political compatriot) a mile from 
the fort. Maj. Carey, as agent of his 
absent friend Mallory, demanded a 
return of those negroes ; which Gen. 
Butler courteously but firmly de- 

• May 22, 1861. 

• "In this matter, he [Gen. Butler] has struck 
this Southern iDSurrection in a place which is 
as vulnerable as the heel of Achilles ; and we 
dare say tliat, in receiving and seizing the slaves 
of Rebels as contraband of war. this Southern 
Confederacy will be substantially suppressed 
with the pacification of Virginia." — N. 7, Herald, 
May 31, 1861. 

clined; and, after due debate, the con- 
ference terminated fruitlessly. Very 
naturally, the transit of negroes from 
Slavery to Fortress Monroe was 
thenceforth almost continuous. 

Gen. Butler wrote" forthwith to 
Lt-Gen. Scott, soliciting advice and 
direction. In this letter, he said : 

" Since I wrote ray last, the question in 
regard to slave property is becoming one of 
very serious magnitude. The inhabitants 
of Virginia are using their negroes in the 
batteries, and are preparing to send their 
women and children south. The escapes 
from them are very numerons ; and a squad 
has come in this morning," and my 
pickets are bringing in their women and 
children. Of course, these can not be dealt 
with upon the theory on which I designed 
to treat the services of able-bodied men and 
women who might come witliin ray lines, 
and of which I gave you a detailed account 
in ray last dispatch. 

" I am in the utmost doubt what to do 
witli this species of property. Up to this 
time, I have had come within ray lines men 
and women, with their children — entire 
families— each family belonging to the same 
owner. I have, therefore, determined to 
employ — as I can do very profitably — the 
able-bodied persons in the party, issuing 
proper food for the support of all ; charging 
agamst their services the expense of care 
and sustenance of the non-laborers ; keep- 
ing a strict and accurate account, as well 
of the services as of the expenditures, hav- 
ing the worth of the services and the cost 
of the expenditure determined by a hoard 
of survey hereafter to be detailed. I know 
of no other manner in which to dispose of 
this subject, and the questions connected 
therewith. As a matter of property, to the 
insurgents it will be of very great moment 
— the number that I now have amounting, 
as I am informed, to what in good times 
would be of the value of $60,000. 

" Twelve of these negroes, I am informed, 
have escaped from the erection of the bat- 
teries on Se well's Point, which fired upon 
ray expedition as it passed by out of range. 
As a raeans of offense, therefore, in the ene- 

» May 27, 1861. 

" "These fugitive slaves, at this rate, will soon 
prove more powerfhl in suffocating this Southern 
White insurrection than all the annies of Gen. 
Scott. This man Butler, in this thing, has 
proved himself the greatest lawyer we have be- 
tween a pair of epaulets." — K, T, Herald, June 
28, 1861. 

Digitized by 




iny's hands, these negroes, when able-bod- 
ied, are of great importance. Without them, 
the batteries could not have been erected ; 
at least, for many weeks. As a military- 
question, it would seem to be a measure of 
necessity, and deprives their masters of their 

"How can this be done? As a political 
question, and a question of humanity, can I 
receive the services of a father and a mother 
and not take the children ? Of the humani- 
tarian aspect, I have no doubt ; of the po- 
litical one, I have no right to judge. I 
therefore submit all this to your better 
judgment; and, as tliese questions have *a 
political aspect, I have ventured — and I 
trust I am not Yrrong in so doing — to dupli- 
cate the parts of my dispatch relating to this 
sulyect, and forward them to the Secretary 
of War. Your obedient servant, 

"Bbnj. F. Bdtleb. 

"Lt-General SooTT." 

He was answered by the head of 
the War Department as follows : 

"Sib: — Your action in respect to the 
negroes who came within your lines, from 
the service of the Rebels, is approved. The 
Department is sensible of the embarrass- 
ments which must surround officers con- 
ducting military operations in a State, by 
the laws of which Slavery is sanctioned. 
The Government can not recognize the re- 
jection by any State of its Federal obliga- 
tions, resting upon itself. Among these Fed- 
eral obligations, however, no one can be 
more important than that of suppressing 
and dispersing any combination of the 
former for the purpose of overthrowing 
its whole constitutional authority. While, 
therefore, you will permit no interference, 
by persons under your command, with the 
relations of persons held to service under 
the laws of any State, you will, on the 
other hand, so long as any State within 
which your military operations are conduct- 
ed remains under the control of such armed 
combinations, refrain from surrendering to 
alleged masters any persons who come with- 
in yoar lines. You will employ such persons 
in the services to which they will be best 
adapted ; keeping an account of the labor 
by them performed, of the value of it, and 
the expenses of their maintenance. The 
question of their final disposition will be re- 
served for future determination. 

" Simon Cameron, Secretary of War. 
"ToMiy.-Gen. Butleb." 

Time passed. Boll Eun had been 
fought and lost ; the called session of 
Con^rress had been held ; public opin- 

ion on the Slavery question had made 
very considerable strides; when Gen. 
Fremont, on assuming civil as well 
as military control of the State of 
Missouri, issued the memorable Gen- 
eral Order," wherein he proclaimed 
that " The property, real and person- 
al, of all persons in the State of Mis- 
souri who shall take up arms against 
the United States, or shall be direct- 
ly proven to have taken active part 
with their enemies in the field, is de- 
clared to be confiscated to the public 
use ; and their slaves, if any they have, 
are hereby declared free men." 

This position was in advance of 
any that had yet been sanctioned at 
Washington ; and, though it was very 
generally sustained or acquiesced in 
by the journals supporting the War, 
President Lincoln wrote Gen. Fre- 
mont that he must withdraw or mod- 
ify it. This, Gen. F. declined to do, 
unless openly directed by his superior ; 
hence the following order : 

" Washington, D. C, Sept. 11, 1861. 
" M^j.-Gen. John 0. Fremont : 

"Sir: — Yours of the 8th, in answer to 
mine of the 2d inst, is just received. As- 
sured that you, upon the ground, could 
better judge of the necessities of your posi- 
tion than I could at this distance, on seeing 
your proclamation of August 80, 1 perceived 
no general objection to it; the particular 
clause, however, in relation to the confisca- 
tion of property and the liberation of slaves, 
appeared to me to be objectionable in its 
non-conformity to the Act of Congress, 
passed the 6th of last August, upon the 
same subjects ; and hence I wrote you ex- 
pressing my wish that that clause should 
be modified accordingly. Your answer, just 
received, expresses the preference on your 
part that I should make an open order 
for the modification ; which I very cheer- 
fully do. It is, therefore, ordered that the 
said clause of said proclamation be so modi- 
fied, held, and construed, as to conform 
with, and not to transcend, the provisions 
on the same subject contained in the Act 
of Congress entitled * An act to confiscate 
property used for insurrectionary purposes,* 

" See it in full. Vol. I., p. 585. 

Digitized by 




approved August 6, 1861 ; and that tlie said 
act be publislied at length with tliis order. 
Your obedient servant, A. Lincoln." 

In view of the sailing from Fort- 
ress Monroe of the Port Royal expe- 
dition against the Sea Islands and 
coast of South Carolina, General In- 
structions were issued " to its military 
chief, whereof the gist is as follows : 

"You will, in general, avail yourself of 
the services of any persons, wliether fugi- 
tives from labor or not, who may offer them 
to the National Government ; you will em- 
ploy such persons in such service as they 
may be fitted for, either as ordinary em- 
ployes, or, if special circumstances seem to 
require it, in any other capacity, with such 
organization, in squads, companies, or other- 
wise, as you deem most beneficial to the 
service. This, however, not to mean a gen- 
eral arming of them for military service.^* 
You will assure all loyal masters that Con- 
gress will provide just compensation to them 
for the loss of the services of the persons so 
employed. It is believed that the course 
thus indicated will best secure the substan- 
tial rights of loyal masters, and the benefits 
to the United States of the services of all 
disposed to support the Government, while 
it avoids all interference with the social 
systems or local institutions of every State, 
beyond that which insurrection makes un- 
avoidable, and which a restoration of peace- 
ful relations to the Union, under the Con- 
stitution, will immediately remove. 

" Simon Camebon, Secretary of War." 

Gen. T. W. Sherman," having oc- 
cupied the forts guarding the entrance 
to Port Boyal, and firmly established 
himself on that and the adjacent 
islands, issued a proclamation to the 
people of South Carolina, wherein he 

" In obedience to the orders of the Presi- 
dent of these United States of America, I 
have landed on your shores with a small 
force of National troops. The dictates of a 
duty which, under the Constitution, I owe 
to a great sovereign State, and to a proud 
and hospitable people, among whom I have 
passed some of the pleasantest days of my 
life, prompt me to proclaim that we have 
come among you with no feelings of per- 

sonal animosity; no desire to harm your 
citizens, destroy your property, or interfere 
with any of your lawful rights, or your so- 
cial and local institutions, beyond what tlie 
causes herein briefly alluded to may render 

All in vain. None of the Whites 
on the adjacent mainland could be 
induced even to accept a copy of this 
document — those who were brought 
to parley insisting that there were tio 
" loyal persons " (in Gen. Sherman's 
sense) — that is, no loyal Whites — 
within their knowledge. And no 
South Carolina journal intimated 
that Gen. Sherman's virtual pledge 
not to intermeddle with Slavery ren- 
dered his presence on their coast one 
whit less unwelcome than it would 
otherwise have been. If any White 
native of South Carolina came over 
to us, or evinced a desire to do so, 
thenceforth till near the end of tlie 
Rebellion, his name has not been 
given to the public. 

Maj.-Gen. Wool, who succeeded 
Gen. Butler in command at Fortress 
Monroe, issued*' an order directing 
that " all colored persons called con- 
trabands '' employed by officers or 
others within his command, must be 
furnished with subsistence by their 
employers, and paid, if males, not 
less than $8 ; if females, not less than 
$4 per month; and that "all able- 
bodied colored persons, not employed 
as aforesaid," will be immediately 
put to work in the Engineer's or the 
Quartennaster's Department. By a 
subsequent order," he directed that 
the compensation of 'contrabands' 
working for the Government should 
be $5 to $10 per month, with soldiers' 

"Oct 14, 1861. 

'^It 18 weU understood that this sentence was 
inserted by the President in reyising the order. 

'^Not William T., who became so famoiia» 
but an old army officer, formerly 6th Artillery. 
"Oct 14, 1861. *^Noy. 1,1861. 

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Maj.-G«n. Dix, being about to take 
pofisession of the counties of Accomac 
and Northampton, Va., on the east- 
em shore of Chesapeake Bay, issued ** 
a Proclamation, which says: 

"The military forces of the United States 
are abont to enter your counties as a part 
of the Union. They will go among you as 
friends, and with the earnest hope that 
they may not, by your own acts, be forced 
to become your enemies. They will invade 
no riglits of person or property. On the 
contrary, your laws, your institutions, your 
usages, will be scrupulously respected. 
There need be no fear tnat the quietude of 
any fireside will be disturbed, unless the 
disturbance is caused by yourselves. 

^^ Special directions have been given not 
to interfere with the condition of any person 
held to domestic service ; and, in order that 
there may be no ground for mistake or pre- 
text for misrepresentation, commanders of 
regiments and corps have been instructed 
not to permit any such persons to come 
within their lines." 

Maj.-Gen. Halleck, soon after suc- 
ceeding Gen. Fremont in command 
in Missonri, issued his famous ' Order 
No. 3,' which sets forth that 

" It has been represented that important 
infcvmation, respecting the number and con- 
dition of our forces, is conveyed to the 
enemy by means of fugitive slaves who are 
admitted within our lines. In order to 
remedy this evil, it is directed that no such 
persons be hereafter permitted to enter the' 
lines of any camp, or of any forces on the 
inarch ; and that any now within such lines 
be immediately excluded therefrom." 

Gen. Halleck afterward, in a letter 
to F. P. Blair, explained and justified 
this order, as follows : 

" Order No. 8 was, in my mind, clearly a 
military necessity. Unauthorized persons. 
Black or White, free or slave, must be kept 
out of our camps, unless we are willing to 
publish to the enemy every thing we do or 
intend to do. It was a military^ and not a 
political order. 

'^ I am ready to carry out any lawful in- 
structions in regard to fugitive slaves which 
my superiors may give me, and. to enforce 
any law which Congress may pass. But I 
tan not make law, and will not violate it. 
You know my private opinion on the policy 
of confiscating the slave property of Kebels 

in arms. If Congress shall pass it, you may 
be certain that I shall enforce it. Perhaps 
my policy as to the treatment of Rebels and 
their property is as well set out in Older 
No. 18, issued the day your letter was writ- 
ten, as I could now describe it." 

That deserters fipom the enemy, 
entering the lines or camp of an army 
in time of war, are " xmauthorized 
persons," is quite obvious ; that they 
very often give false information, and 
are in fact spies, deserting back again 
at the first fair opportunity, is well 
known. Yet no commander prior to 
Gen. Halleck ever directed deserters 
to be repelled from his front and 
thrown back on the enemy ; on the 
contrary, the risks of dissimnlation^ 
falsehood, and treachery, are pre- 
sumed to be far overbalanced by the 
chance of thus obtaining valuable in- 
formation and aid. That the Whites 
of Missouri were far more likely than 
the Blacks to be traitors at heart, 
and infinitely more apt to steal away 
to the Rebels with important infor- 
mation, was as palpable as noonday ; 
yet G^en. Halleck's No. 3 repelled 
Blacks only; 

Gten. HaUeck's order No. 13 sheds 
no further light on this subject ; but, 
in a subsequent order," he says : 

*^ It does not belong to the military to 
decide upon the relation of master and 
slave. Such questions must be settled by 
the civil courts. No fugitive slaves will, 
therefore, be admitted within our lines or 
camps, except when specially ordered by 
the General commanding/' 

Never was a "therefore" more 

misplaced. How were the persons 

presenting themselves adjudged to 

be or known as " fiigitive slaves " ? 

Plainly, by the color of their skins, 

and that only. The sole end of this 

r^ulation was the remanding of all 

slaves to their masters — seven-eighths 

of whom were most envenomed, im- 

•Nov. 13, 1861. 

VOL. n. — 16 

• Feb. 23, 1862. 

Digitized by 



placable Rebels — ^by depriving them 
of refuge within our lines from those 
masters' power. 

Gen. Cameron, the Secretary of 
War, had already become an ardent 
and open convert to the policy of re- 
cognizing Slavery as the Union's real 
assailant, and fighting her accord- 
ingly. In his Annual Report** to the 
President of the operations of his 
Department, he said : 

" It has become a grave question for de- 
termination what shall be done with the 
slaves abandoned by their owners on the 
advance of our troops into Southern terri- 
tory, as in the Beaufort district of South 
Carolina. The whole White population 
therein is six thousand, while the number 
of negroes exceeds thirty-two thousand. 
The panic which drove their masters in wild 
confusion from their homes leaves them in 
undisputed possession of the soil. Shall 
they, armed by their masters, be placed in 
the neld to fight against us ? or shall their 
labor be continually employed in repro- 
ducing the means for supporting the armies 
.of rebellion? 

"The war into which this Government 
has been forced by rebellious traitors is 
carried on for the purpose of repossessing 
the property violently and treacherously 
seized upon by the enemies of the Govern- 
ment, and to reestablish the authority and 
laws of the United States in the places 
where they are opposed or overthrown by 
armed insurrection and rebellion. Its pur- 
pose is to recover and defend what is justly 
Its own. 

" War, even between independent nations, 
is made to subdue the enemy, and all that 
belongs to that enemy, by occupying the 
hostile country, and exercising dominion 
over all the men and things within its ter- 
ritory. This being true in respect to inde- 
pendent nations at Vrar with each other, it 
follows that Rebels, who are laboring by 
force of arms to overthrow a Government, 
justly bring upon themselves all the conse- 
quences of war, and provoke the destruc- 
tion merited by the worst of crimes. That 
Government would be false to national 
trust, and would justly excite the ridicule 
of the civilized world, that would abstain 
from the use of any efficient means to pre- 
serve its own existence, or to overcome a 
rebellious and traitorous enemy, by sparing 

or protecting the property of those who 
are waging war against it. 

" The principal wealth and power of the 
Rebel States is a peculiar sp^ies of proper- 
ty, consisting of the service or labor of 
African slaves, or the descendants of Afri- 
cans. This property has been variously es* 
timated at the value of from seven hundred 
million to one thousand million dollars. 

"Why should this property be exempt 
from the hazards and consequences of a re- 
bellious war ? 

" It was the boast of the leader of the Re- 
bellion, while he yet had a seat in the Sen- 
ate of the United States, that the Southern 
States would be comparatively safe and free 
from the burdens of war, if it should be 
brought on by the contemplated Rebellion ; 
and that boast was accompanied by the 
savage threat that 'Northern towns and 
cities would become the victims of rapine 
and military spoil,' and that ' Northern men 
should smell Southern gunpowder and feel 
Southern steel.' No one doubts the disposi- 
tion of the Rebels to carry that threat into 
execution. The wealth of Northern towns 
and cities, the produce of Northern farms. 
Northern workshops and manufactories, 
would certainly be seized, destroyed, or ap- 
propriated as military spoil. No property in 
the North would be spared from the hands 
of the Rebels; and their rapine would be de- 
fended under the laws of war. While tli© 
loyal States tlius have all their property 
and possessions at stake, are the insurgent 
Rebels to carry on warfare against the Gov- 
ernment in peace and security to their own 
property ? 

" Reason and justice and self-preservation 
.forbid that such should be the policy of tliis 
Government, but demand, on the contrary, 
that, being forced by traitors and Rebels to 
the extremity of war, all the rights and 
powers of war should be exercised to bring 
it to a speedy end. 

"Those who war against the Govern- 
ment justly forfeit all rights of property, 
privilege, or security, derived from the Con- 
stitution and laws, against which they are 
in armed rebellion ; and, as the labor and 
service of their slaves constitute the chief 
property of the Rebels, such property should 
share the common fate of war to which 
they have devoted the property of loyal 

" While it is plain that the slave property 
of the South is justly subjected to all the 
consequences of this rebellious war, and 
that the Government would be untrue to 
its trust in not employing all the riglits and 
powers of war to bring it to a speedy close, 
the details of the plan for doing so, like all 

' Dea r, 1861. 

Digitized by 




other military measures, must, m a great 
degree, be left to be determined by particu- 
lar exigencies. The disposition of otiier 
property belonging to the Rebels that be- 
comes subject to our arms is governed by 
the circumstances of the case. The Gov- 
ernment has no power to hold slaves, none 
to restrain a slave of his liberty, or to ex- 
act his service. It has a right, however, to 
use the voluntary sennce of slaves liberated 
by war from their Rebel masters, like any 
other property of the Rebels, in whatever 
mode may be most efficient for the defense 
of the Government, the prosecutiim of the 
war, and the suppression of rebellion. It 
is as clearly a right of the Government to 
arm slaves when it may become necessary 
as it is to take gunpowder from the enemy. 
Whether it is expedient to do so, is purely a 
military question. The right is unquestion- 
able by the laws of war. The expediency 
must be determined by circumstances, keep- 
ing in view the great object of overcoming 
the Rebels, reestablishing the laws, and re- 
storing peace to the nation. 

** It is vain and idle for the Government to 
carry on this war, or hope to maintain its 
existence against rebellious force, without 
employing all the rights and powers of war. 
As has been said, the right to deprive the 
Rebels of their property in slaves and slave 
labor is as clear and absolute as the right 
to take forage from the field, or cotton from 
the warehouse, or powder and arms from 
the magazine. To leave the enemy in the 
possession of such property as forage, and 
cotton, and military stores, and the means 
of constantly reproducing them, would be 
madness. It is, therefore, equal madness 
to leave them in peaceful and secure posses- 
sion of slave property, more valuable and 
efficient to them for war than forage, cot- 
ton, and military stores. Such policy would 
be national suicide. What to do with that 
species of property is a question that time 
and circumstances will solve, and need not 
be anticipated, further than to repeat that 
they can not be held by the Government as 
slaves. It would be useless to keep them 
as prisoners of war ; and self-preservation, 
the highest duty of a Gk>vernment, or of in- 
dividuals, demands that they should be dis- 
posed of or employed in the most effective 
manner that will tend most speedily to sup- 
press the insurrection and restore the* au- 
thority of the Govehiment If it shall be 
found that the men who have been held by 
the Rebels as slaves are capable of bearing 
arms and performing efficient military ser- 
vice, it is the right, and may become the 
duty, of this Government to arm and equip 
them, and employ their services against the 
Rebels, under proper military regulations, 
disdpliiie, and command. 

" But, in whatever manner they may be 
used by the Government, it is plain that, 
once liberated by the rebellious act of their 
masters, they should never again be restored 
to bondage. By the master^s treason and 
rebellion, he forfeits all right to the labor 
and service of his slave ; and the slave of 
the rebellious master, by his service to the 
Government, becomes justly entitled to free- 
dom and protection. 

" The disposition to be made of the slaves 
of Rebels, after the close of the war, can be 
safely left to the wisdom and patriotism of 
Congress. The representatives of the peo- 
ple will unquestionably secure to the loyal 
slaveholders every right to which they are 
entitled under the Constitution of the 

Mr. Lincoln struck out and sup- 
pressed this portion of Gen. Came- 
ron's Report, inserting in its stead the 
following : 

" It is already a grave question what shall 
be done with those slaves who were aban- 
doned by their owners on the advance of 
our troops into Southern territory, as at 
Beaufort district, in South Carolina, The 
number left within our control at that point 
is very considerable ; and similar cases will 
probably occur. What shall be done with 
them ? Can we afford to send them forward 
to their masters, to be by them armed 
against us, or used in producing supplies to 
sustain the Rebellion? Their labor may be 
useful to us ; withheld from the enemy, it 
lessens his military resources ; a^ withhold- 
ing them has no tendency to induce the hor- 
rors of insurrection, even in the Rebel com- 
munities. They constitute a military re- 
source ; and, being such, that they should 
not be turned over to the enemy is too plain 
to discuss. Why deprive him of supplies by 
a blockade, and voluntarily give him men to 
produce them ? 

*^ The disposition to be made of the slaves 
of Rebels, after the close of the war, can be 
safely left to the wisdom and patriotism of 
Congress. The Representatives of the peo- 
ple will unquestionably secure to the loyal 
slaveholders every right to which they are 
entitled under the Constitution of the coun- 
try. Simon Cameron, 

"Secretary of War.'» 

The abuse of negroes who had 
escaped from Kebel masters in Vir- 
ginia and taken shelter within the 
lines of the Army of the Potomac^ 
elicited the following: 

Digitized by 




**Dbpartment of State, / 

" Washington, Deo. 4, 1861. ( 
" To Miy.-Geii. Geo. B. MoClellan : 

" General: I am directed by the Presi- 
dent to call yoar attention to the following 
subject : 

*' Persons claimed to be held to service or 
labor under the laws of the State of Vir- 
ginia, and actually employed in hostile ser- 
vice against the Government of the United 
States, frcijuently escape from the lines of 
the enemy's forces, and are received within 
the lines of the Army of the Potomac. 

^^This Department understands that such 
persons, afterward coining into the city of 
Washington, are liable to be arrested by the 
city police, upon the presumption, arising 
from color, that they are fugitives from ser- 
vice or labor. 

*' By the 4th section of the Act of Con- 
gress approved August 6, 1861, entitled 
*An act to confiscate property used for 
insurrectionary purposes,^ such hostile em- 
ployment is made a full and sufficient 
answer to any further claim to service or 
labor. Persons thus employed and escaping 
are received into the military protection of 
the United States ; and their arrest as fugi- 
tives from service or labor should be imme- 
diately foUowed by the military arrest of 
the parties making the seizure. 

"Copies of this communication will be 
sent to the Mayor of the City of Washington 
and to the Marshal of the District of Colum- 
bia, that any collision between the civil and 
military authorities may be avoided. 

** I am, General, yo«r very obedient, 

" William H. Sewabd." 

Maj.-Gen. Bumside, having estab- 
lished himself on Eoauoke Island, 
issued,** conjointly with Com. Golds- 
borough, a Proclamation, in which 
he said : 

'^ The Government asks only that its au- 
thority may be recognized ; and we repeat, 
in no manner or way does it desire to inter- 
fere with your laws, constitutionally estab- 
lished, your institutions of any kind .what- 
ever, your property of any sort, or your 
usages in any respect" 

Maj.-Gten. Buell, soon after estab- 
lishing himself at Nashville, Tenn., 
thus demonstrated his undoubted 
devotion to the "constitutional 
guaranties;" making no distinction 
between Kebels and loyal citizens : 

*^ Heaik^uastebs Depastmbnt ^ 

OF THE Ohio, > 

♦* Nashville, March 6, 1862. ) 

** Deab Sib : I have had the honor to re- 
ceive your communication of the Ist instant, 
on the subject of fugitive slaves in the camps 
of the army. 

^^ It has come to my knowledge that 
slaves sometimes make their way improp- 
erly into our lines ; and in some instances 
they may be enticed there ; but I think the 
number has been magnified by report. 
Several applications have been made to me 
by persons whose servants have been found 
in our camps ; and, in every instance that I 
know of, the master has recovered his ser- 
vant and taken him away. 

'* I need hardly remind you that there 
will always be found some lawless and mis- 
chievous persons in every army ; but I as- 
sure you that the mass of this army is law- 
abiding, and that it is neither its disposition 
nor its policy to violate law or the rights of 
individuals in any particular. 

" With great respect, your obedient ser- 
vant, D. C Buell, 

" Briir.-Gen. Commanding Department. 
" Hon. J. R. Undebwood, Chairman Military 
Committee, Frankfort, Ky." 

Gten. Joseph Hooker, commanding 
on the Upper Potomac, issued ** the 
following order : 

" To Brigade and Regimmtal Commander$ 
of this Division : 
"Messrs. Nally, Gray, Dunnington, Dent, 
Adams, Speake, Price, Posey, and Cobey, 
citizens of Maryland, have negroes supposed 
to be with some of the regiments of this 
division: the Brigadier-General command- 
ing directs that they be i>ermitted to visit 
all the camps of his command, in search 
of their property ; and, if found, that they 
be allowed to take possession of the same, 
without any interference whatever. Should 
any obstacle be thrown in their way by any 
officer or soldier in the division, he will 
be at once reported by the regimental com- 
mander to these headquarters.^' 

Hereupon, some fifteen mounted 
civilians rode up to the camp of 
Brig.-Gen. SicUes's Excelsior Brig- 
ade, having just fired two pistol-shots, 
with evident intent to kill, at a n^ro 
running off; and thus created no lit- 
tle excitement among the soldiers; 
who, though generally enlisted with 

"Feb. 18, 1862. 

" March 26, 1862. 

Digitized by 



strong anti-negro prejudices, quite 
commonly experienced a gradual 
change, under the discipline of ser- 
vice at the front, where they found 
every Black their ready, active, zeal- 
ous friend, and nearly every slave- 
holder or overseer their quiet but 
deadly, implacable foe. Maj. Tolen, 
commanding the 2d regiment, find- 
ing the order to direct the admission 
of but nine persons, ordered the resi- 
due to remain without the lines ; and 
— the repugnance of the soldiers to 
slave-hunting threatening to break 
out into open violence — Gen. Sickles, 
who arrived soon afterward, ordered 
the nine out of ^ camp likewise ; so 
that the fugitives, if such were there, 
were not there captured. 

In the West, especially within the 
conMnands of Gens. Halleck and 
Buell, slave-hunters fared much bet- 
ter ; as one of their number about this 
time admiringly reported to a Nash- 
\-iIle journal, as follows : 

•' He visited tlie camp of Gen. McCook, in 
Maury county, in quest of a fugitive > and 
tliat officer, instead of throwing obstacles in 
the way, afforded him every facility for the 
sacoessful prosecution of his search. That 
Gener^ treated him in the most courteous 
and gentlemanly manner ; as also did Gen. 
Johnson and Oapt. Blake, the brigade Pro- 
vost-Marshal. Their conduct toward him 
was in all respects that of high-toned gen- 
tlemen, desirous of discharging their duties 
promptly and honorably. It is impossible 
for the army to prevent slaves from follow- 
ing them ; but, whenever the fugitives come 
into the lines of Gen. McCook, they are se- 
cured, and a record made of their names and 
the names of their owners. All the owner 
has to do is to apply, either in person or 
through an agent, examine the record, or 
look at the slaves : and, if he finds any that 
belong to him, take them away." 

In no case does it appear that any 
of our pro-Slavery commanders ever 
inquired into or eared for the loyalty 
of either slaveholders or slave-hunt- 

ers, nor asked whether the persons 
claimed as fugitives had given im- 
portant information, or rendered 
other service to the cause of the 

In the same spirit, Gen. Buell's 
Provost-Marshal, Dent, at Louisville, 
Ky., issued an order to his (mounted) 
provost-guard to flog all Blacks, free 
or slave, whom they should find in 
the streets after dark ; and for weeks 
the spectacle was exhibited, to the 
admiration of the thousands of active 
and passive Rebels in that city, of 
this chivalric provost-guard, wearing 
the national uniform, chasing scores 
of unquestionably loyal and harm- 
less persons at nightfall through the 
streets, over the pavements, and down 
the lanes and alleys, of that city; 
cutting and slashing them with cow- 
hide and cat, while their screams of 
fright and agony made merry music 
for traitors of every degree. Many 
were lashed unmercifiiUy ; but with 
no obvious advantage to the national 
cause, nor even to the improvement 
of the dubious loyalty of those whom 
the exhibition most delighted and 

Gen. Abner Doubleday, being 
placed in command of the defenses of 
Washington, answered," through his 
Adjutant, to an inquiry on the sub- 
ject, as follows : 

" SiE : — I am directed hy Gen. Doubleday 
to say, in answer to your letter of the 2d 
instant, that all negroes coming into the 
lines of any of the camps or forts under his 
command are to be treated as persons, and 
not as chattels. 

" Under no circumstances, has the com- 
mander of a fort or camp the power of sur- 
rendering persons claimed as fugitive slaves ; 
as it can not be done without determining 
their character. 

" The additional article of war recently 
passed by Congress positively prohibits this. 

" The question has been asked, whether 

'Aprils, 1862. 

Digitized by 




it would not be better to exclude negroes 
idtogelher from the lines. The General is 
of the opinion that they bring much valu- 
able information, which can not be obtained 
from any other source. They are acquaint- 
ed with all the roads, paths, fords, and 
other natural features, of the country ; and 
they make excellent guides. They also 
know, and frequently have exposed, the 
haunts of Secession spies and traitors and 
the existence of Rebel organizations. They 
will not, therefore, be excluded " 

The following order was issued by 

a Brigadier in the Department of the 


^' In consequence ot the demoralizing and 
disorganizing tendencies to the troops of 
harboring runaway negroes, it is hereby 
ordered that the respective commanders of 
the camps and garrisons of the several re- 
giments, 2d brigade, turn all such fugitives 
in their camps or garrisons out beyond the 
limits of their respective guards and senti- 
nels. By order of 

" Brig.-Gen. T. Whxiams." 

Col. Halbert E. Paine,*' ith Wis- 
consin, declining to obey this order, 
as " a violation of law for the pur- 
pose of returning fugitives to Rebels," 
was arrested and deprived of his com- 

Lt.-Col. D. R. Anthony, 7th Kan- 
sas, was likewise arrested and de- 
prived of his command in Tennessee, 
for issuing " an order, which said : 

" The impudence and impertinence of the 
open and armed Rebels, traitors. Secession- 
ists, and Southern-rights men of this section 
of the State of Tennessee, in arrogantly de- 
manding the right to search our camp for 
fugitive slaves, has become a nuisance, and 
wUl no longer be tolerated. Officers will 
see that this class of men, who visit our 
camp for this purpose, are excluded from our 

" Should any such person be found within 
our lines, he will be arrested and sent to 

" Any officer or soldier of this command, 
who shall arrest and deliver to his master a 
fugitive slave, shall be summarily and se- 
verely punished, according to the laws rela- 
tive to such crimes." 

Maj.-Gen. David Hunter, having 
succeeded" to command at Hilton 
Head, issued the following : ^ 

" Headquarters Dep't op the South, > 
Hilton Head, S. C, May 9, 1862. J 
*' General Order, No. 11. 

"The three States of Georgia, Florida, 
and South Carolina, comprising the Military 
Department of the South, having deliberate- 
ly declared themselves no longer under the' 
United States of America, and having taken 
up arms agafust the United States, it be- 
comes a military necessity to declare them 
under martial law. 

" This was accordingly done on the 25th 
day of April, 1862. Slavery and martial law 
in a free country are altogether incompati- 
ble. The persons in these States — Georgia, 
Florida, and South Carolina — heretofore 
held as slaves, are therefore declared for- 
ever free." 

This order was rescinded or an- 
nulled by President Lincoln, in a 
Proclamation " which recites it and 

''^ And, whereas, the same is producing 
some excitement and misunderstanding, 
therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of 
the United States, proclaim and declare 
that the Government of the United States 
had no knowledge or belief of an intention 
on the part of Gen. Hunter to issue such 
proclamation, nor has it yet any authentic 
information that the document is genuine : 
and, ftirther, that neither Gen. Hunter nor 
any other commander or person has been 
authorized by the Government of the Unit- 
ed States to make proclamation declaring 
the slaves of any State free ; and that the 
supposed proclamation now in question, 
whether genuine or false, is altogether void, 
so far as respects such declaration. I fur- 
ther midce known that, whether it be com- 
petent for me, as Commander-in-Chief of 
the Army and Navy, to declare the slaves 
of any State or States free ; and whether at 
any time, or in any case, it shall have be- 
come a necessity indispensable to the main- 
tenance of the Government to exercise 
such supposed power, are questions which, 
under my responsibility, I reserve to my- 
self, and which I can not feel justified in 
leaving to the decision of commanders in 
the field. 

"Those are totally difierent questions 
from those of police regulations in armies 
or in camps. 

" On the sixth day of March last, by a 

^Elected to the XXXIXth Congress (House) 
as a Unionist, from the Milwaukee District 

'June 18, 1862. 

» March 81. 

May 19. 

Digitized by 




special Message, I recommended to (Con- 
gress tlie adoption of a joint resolution, to 
be substantially as follows : 

"■ * B0§ohsd^ That the United StAtos onght to c<k>p«r- 
•te with any State which mav adopt gndnal abolish* 
ment of Slarery, giving to sacn State peouniary aid, to 
be osed bj anch State in ita diBcretion^to compensate for 
the inoonveniencea, pabUcand private, produced by such 
change of system.* 

"The resolution, in the language above 
quoted, was adopted by large nugorities in 
both branches of Congress, and now stands 
an authentic, definite, and solemn proposal 
of the Nation to the States and people 
most interested in the subject-matter. To 
the people of these States now, I mostly ap- 
peal. I do not argue — I beseech you to 
make the arguments for yourselves. You 
can not, if you would, be blind to the signs 
of the times. 

^' I beg of you a calm and enlarged con- 
sideration of them, ranging, if it may be, far 
above partisan and personal politics. 

" This proposal makes common cause for 
a common object, casting no reproaches 
upon any. It acts not the Pharisee. The 
change it contemplates would come gently 
as the dews of Heaven, not rending or 
wrecking any thing. Will you not embrace 
it ? So mudi good has not been done by 
one effort in aU past time, as, in the Provi- 
dence of God, it is now your high privilege 
to do. May the vast future not nave to 
lament that you have neglected it I 

" In witness whereof, I have hereunto set 
my hand and caused the seal of the United 
States to be hereunto affixed. 

**Done at the city of Washington this 

19th day of May, in the year of our 

Lord 1862, and of the independence of 

the United States the eighty -sixth. 

" (Signed) Abrauam Lincoln. 

"By the President: 

" W, H. Sbward, Secretary of State." 

C!ontrary to a very general impres- 
sion, Gren. McClellfiui was among the 
first not only to perceive, T)ut to as- 
sert, that the KebeUion was essential- 
ly a slaveholders' enterprise, and 
that it might be effectively assailed 
through Slavery, Thus, in his Mem- 
orandum privately addressed to the 
President, Aug. ith, 1861, when he 
had but just taken command of the 
Army of the Potomac, he says : 

** In this contest, it has become necessary 
to cmsli a population sufficiently numerous, 
intelligent, and warlike, to constitute a na- 
tion. We have not only to defeat their arm- 

ed and organized forces in the field, but to 
display such an overwhelming strength as 
will convince all our antagonists, especially 
those of the governing aristocratic class, of 
the utter impossibility of resistance. Our 
late reverses make this course imperative. 
Had we been successful in the recent battle 
[first Bull Run], it is possible that we 
might have been spared the labor and ex- 
pense of a great effort ; now, we have no 
alternative. Their success will enable the 
political leaders of the Rebels to convince 
the mass of their people that we are in- 
ferior to them in force and courage, and to 
command all their resources. The contest 
began with a class ; now it is with a people ; 
our military success can alone restore the 
former issue." 

After suggesting various military 

movements, including one down the 

Mississippi, as required to constitute a 

general advance upon the strongholds 

of the Rebellion, he proceeds : 

"There is another independent move- 
ment which has often been suggested, and 
which has always recommended itself to 
my judgment. I refer to a movement from 
Kansas and Nebraska, through the Indian 
Territory, upon Red river and western 
Texas, for the purpose of protecting and 
developing the latent Union and Free-State 
sentiment, well known to predominate in 
western Texas; and which, like a similar 
sentiment in Western Virginia, will, if pro- 
tected, ultimately organize that section into 
a Free State." 

In view of these sensible and per- 
tinent suggestions, it is impossible 
not to feel that Gen. McClellan's 
naturally fair though not brilliant 
mind was subjected, during his long 
sojourn thereafter in Washington, to 
sinister political influences and the 
whispered appeals and tempting sug- 
gestions of a selfish and sordid ambi- 
tion. During that Fall and Winter, 
his house T^as thronged with partisans 
of the extreme " Peace " wing of the 
Democratic party, who must have 
held out to him the golden lure of 
the Presidency as the reward of a for- 
bearing, temporizing, procrastinating 
policy, which would exhaust the re- 
sources and chill the ardor of the 

Digitized by 




North, in enormous preparations and 
fipuitless undertakings, until the con- 
joint pressure of Conscription and 
Taxation, the impossibility of further 
borrowing, and the heart-sickness of 
hope deferred, should impel a major- 
ity to acquiesce in any adjustment or 
compromise that woidd restore Peace 
to the country. Such seems the only 
plausible explanation of his timid 
and dawdlii^ military policy, his 
habitual doubling or trebling of the 
Rebel force confronting him, and of 
the signal incoherence and incon- 
sequence, especially with regard to 
Slavery and negroes, of the lecture 
which, directly after his retreat from 
the Chickahominy to the James had 
been consummated, he found time to 
indite — or at least to transcribe and 
dispatch — ^to his perplexed and sore- 
ly tried superior. It is as follows : 

" Heaik^uarters Abmy op the Potomac, 
Camp near Habrison^b Landing, Va 
July 7, 1862. 
** Mr. President : You have been fully in- 
formed that the Rebel army is in the front, 
with the purpose of overwhelming us by 
attacking our position or reducing us by 
blocking our river communications. I can 
not but regard our condition as critical ; and 
I earnestly desire, in view of possible con- 
tingencies, to lay before your excellency, for 
your private consideration, my general 
views concerning the existing state of the 
Rebellion, although they do not strictly re- 
late to the situation of this army, or strictly 
come within the scope of my official duties. 
These views amount to convictions, and are 
deeply impressed upon my mind and heart. 
Our cause must never be abandoned ; it is 
the cause of free institutions and self-gov- 
ernment. The Constitution and the Union 
must be preserved, whatever may be the 
cost in time, treasure, and blood. If Seces- 
sion is successful, other dissolutions are 
clearly to be seen in the ftiture. Let neither 
military dbaeter, political faction, nor for- 
eign war, shake your settled purpose to en- 
force the equal operation of the laws of the 
United States upon the people of every State. 
" The time has come when the Govern- 
ment must determine upon a civil and mili- 
tary policy, covering the whole ground of 
oar nation d trouble. 


" The responsibility of determining, de- 
claring, and supporting such civil and mili- 
tary policy, and of directing the whole 
course of national affairs in regard to the 
Rebellion, must now be assumed and exer- 
cised by you, or our cause will be lost. The 
Constitution gives you power, even for the 
present terrible exigency. 

" This Rebellion has assumed the charac- 
ter of a war ; as such it should be regarded ; 
and it should be conducted upon the highest 
principles known to Christian civilization. 
It should not be a war looking to the subju- 
gation of the people of any State, in any 
event. It should not be at all a war upon 
populations but against armed forces and 
political organizations. Neither confisca- 
tion of property, political executions of per- 
sons, territorial organization of States, nor 
forcible abolition of Slavery, should be con- 
templated for a moment. 

" In prosecuting the war, all private prop- 
erty and unarmed persons should be strictly 
protected, subject only to the necessity of 
military operations; all private property 
taken for military use should be paid or re- 
ceipted for; pillage and waste should be 
treated as high crimes ; all unnecessary tres- 
pass sternly prohibited, and offensive de- 
meanor by the military toward citizens 
promptly rebuked. Military arrests should 
not be tolerated, except in places where 
active hostilities exist; and oaths, not re- 
quired by enactments, constitutionally made, 
should He neither demanded nor received. 

** Military government should be confined 
to the preservation of public order and the 
protection of political right. Military pow- 
er should not be allowed to interfere with 
the relations of servitude, either by sup- 
porting or impairing the authority of the 
master, except fur repressing dis*)rder, as 
in other cases. Slaves, contraband, under 
the act of Congress, seeking military pro- 
tection, should receive it The right of the 
Government to appropriate permanently to 
its own service claims to slave labor should 
be asserted, and the right of the owner to 
compensation therefor should be recognized. 
This principle might be extended, upon 
grounds of military necessity and 8e(writy, 
to all the slaves of a particular State, thus 
working manumission in such State ; and in 
Missouri, perhaps in Western Virginia also, 
and possibly even in Maryland, the expe- 
diency of such a measure is only a question 
of time. A system of policy thus constitu- 
tional, and pervaded by tlie influences of 
Christianity and freedom, would receive 
the support of almost all truly loyal men, 
would deeply impress the Rebel masses and 
all foreign nations, and it might be humbly 
hoped that it would commend itself to the 
favor of the Almighty. 

Digitized by 




" Unless the principles governing tlie fu- 
ture conduct of our struggle shall be made 
known and approved, the effort to obtain 
requisite forces will be ahnost hopeless. A 
declaration of radical views, especially upon 
Slavery, will rapidly disintegrate our pres- 
ent armies. The policy of the Government 
must be supported by concentration of mili- 
t:iry power. The national forces should not 
be dispersed in expeditions, posts o'f occupa- 
tion, and numerous armies, but should be 
mainly collected into masses, and brought 
to bear upon the armies of the Confederate 
States. Those armies thoroughly defeated, 
the political structure whicli they support 
would soon cease to exist 

'•In carrying out any system of policy 
which you may form, you will require a 
commander-in-chief of the army, one who 
possesses your confidence, understands your 
views, and who is competent to execute 
y4>ur orders, by directing the military forces 
of the nation to the accomplishment of the 
objects by you projwsed. I do not ask tliat 
j»lace for myself. I am willing to serve you 
in such position as you may assign me, 
and I will do so as faithfully as ever subor- 
dinate served superior. 

*• I may be on tlie brink of eternity ; and, 
as I hope forgiveness from my Maker, I 
liave written this letter with sincerity to- 
ward you and from love for my country. 

" Very respectfully, 

** Your obedient servant, 

** Georob B. MoClellan, 
"Mig.-Gen. Commanding. 

" His Excellency A. Lincoln, President." 

If Gen. M. had been asked to re- 
concile the precepts of this letter re- 
garding Slavery — how "the relations 
of servitude," for example, could be 
preserved in a district subject to 
" military power," without a distinct 
recognition and support of those "re- 
lations" by the military authority 
there dominant ; or in what manner 
he would have " disorder" repressed, 
when it was caused by the slave's as- 
serting his right to control his own 
actions and the master's resisting it 
— he might have answered ingen- 
iously, but to what purpose ? Mani- 
festly, the ruling authority, whether 
civil or military, must either support 
the slaveholder's claim of property in 

and power over his slaves, or it wUl 
be seriously impaired — nay, utterly 
defied and overthrown. In "re- 
pressing" the "disorder" certain to 
arise in the premises, the commander 
must inevitably decide which to sup- 
port — the master's assertion of au- 
thority, or the slave's claim to liberty. 
"Political rights" can receive "pro- 
tection " only when it has been de- 
termined where the right lies. The 
" manumission," which Gen. M. fore- 
shadowed in Missouri, West Virginia, 
and Maryland, was not merely "a 
question of time." It was a* ques- 
tion of power as well ; since he plain- 
ly contemplated its achievement, not 
by popular action, but by military 
force. Paying the " owner " might, 
indeed, modify his wrath ; but could 
not affect the fundamental question 
of authority and right. 

A letter addressed" to the Presi- 
dent some weeks after this, entitled 
" The Prayer of Twenty Millions," 
and exhorting Mr. Lincoln — ^not to 
proclaim all the slaves in our country 
free, but to execute the laws of the 
land which operated to free large 
classes of the slaves of Rebels — eo&- 
cludes as follows : 

" On the face of this wide earth, Mr. Presi- 
dent, there is not one disinterested, deter- 
mined, intelligent champion of the Union 
cause who does not feel that all attempts to 
put down the Rebellion, and at tlie same 
tmie uphold its inciting cause, are prepos- 
terous and futile — that the Rebellion, if 
crushed out to-morrow, would be renewed 
within a year if Slavery were left in full 
vigor — that army officers, who remain to 
this day devoted to Slavery, can at best be 
but half-way loyal to the Union — and that 
every hour of deference to Slavery is an 
hour of added and deepened peril to the 
Union. I appeal to the testimony of your 
Embassadors in Europe. It is freely at 
your service, not mine. Ask them to tell 
you candidly whether the seeming subser- 

• Aug. 19, 18G2. 

Digitized by 







viency of yonr policy to the slaveholding, 
Slavery -upholding interest, is not the per- 
plexity, the despair, of statesmen of all par- 
ties; and be admonished by the general 

^^ I close as 1 began, with the statement 
that what an immense mtgority of the loyal 
millions of your countrymen reauire of you 
is a frank, declared, unqualified, ungrudg- 
ing execution of the laws of the land, more 
especially of the Confiscation Act. That 
act gives freedom to the slaves of Rebels 
coming within our lines, or whom those 
lines may at any time inclose^ — we ask you 
to render it due obedience by publicly re- 
quiring all your subordinates to recognize 
and obey it. The Rebels are everywhere 
using the late anti-negro riots in the North 
— as they have long used your oflBcers' 
treatment of negroes in the South — to con- 
vince the slaves that they have nothing to 
hope from a Union success — that we mean 
in that case to sell them into a bitter bond- 
age to defray the cost of the war. Let 
them impress this as a truth on the great 
mass of their ignorant and credulous bond- 
men, and the Union will never be restored 
— never. We can not conquer ten millions 
of people united in solid phalanx against 
us, powerfully aided by ^Northern sympa- 
thizers and European allies. We must have 
scouts, guides, spies, cooks, teamsters, dig- 
gers, and choppers, from the Blacks of the 
South — whether we allow them to fight for 
us or not— or we shall be baffled and re- 
pelled. As one of the millions who would 
gladly have avoided this struggle at any 
sacrifice but that of principle and honor, 
but who now feel that the triumph of the 
Union is indispensable not only to the ex- 
istence of our country, but to the well-being 
oj mankind, I entreat you to render a hearty 
and unequivocal obedience to the law of the 
land. Tours, Hobaos Gbeblby.^' 

The President — very unexpected- 
ly — replied to this appeal by tele- 
graph : in order, doubtless, to place 
before the public matter deemed by 
him important, and which had prob- 
ably been prepared for issue before 
the receipt of the letter to which he 
thus obliquely responded : 

" ExEouTiTE Mansion, Washinoton, ) 
Aug. 22, 1862. J 
" Hon. Horace Greelet : 

" Dear Sib : I have just read yours of the 
Idth instant, addressed to myself through 
The Neic York Tribune. 

" If there be in it any statements or as- 
sumptions of fact which I may know to be 

erroneous, I do not now and here contro- 
vert them. 

" If there be any inferences which I may 
believe to be falsely drawn, I do not now 
and here argue against them. 

** If there be perceptible in it an impatient 
and dictatorial tone, I waive it in deference 
to an old friend whose heart I have always 
supposed to be right. 

"As to the policy I *seem to be pursu- 
ing,' as you say, I have not meant to leave 
any one in doubt. I would save the Union. 
I wonld save it in the shortest way under 
the Constitution. 

" The sooner the national authority can 
be restored, the nearer the Union will be 
the Union as it was. 

" If there be those who would not save 
the Union unless they could at the same 
time save Slavery, I do not agree with 

" If there be those who would not save 
the Union unless they could at the same 
time destroy Slavery, I do not agree with 

^^ My paramount object is to saxe the 
Union, and not either to save or destroy 

" If 1 could save the Union without free- 
ing any slave, I would do it — if I could save 
it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it — 
and if I could do it by freeing some and 
leaving others alone, I would also do that 

"What I do about Slavery and the 
Colored Race, I do because I believe it 
helps to save this Union ; and what I for- 
bear, I forbear because I do not believe it 
would help to save the Union. 

" I shall do less whenever I shall believe 
what I am doing hurts the cause; and I 
shall do more whenever I believe doing 
more will help the cause. 

" I shall try to correct errors when shown 
to be errors ; and I shall adopt new views 
so fast as they shall appear to be true views. 

" I have here stated my purpose accord- 
ing to my views of official duty ; and I in- 
tend no modification of my oft-expressed 
personal wish that all men everywhere could 
be free. Yours, A. Lincoln." 

Many others called on or wrote to 
the President about this time, urging 
him to action in the spirit of Mr. 
Greeley's letter. He heard all with 
courtesy, suggesting objections that 
were not intended for conclusions, 
but rather to indicate and enforce 
the grave importance of the topic, 
the peril of making a mistake upon 
it, and the diflSculty of reaching the 

Digitized by 




Blacks with any proffer of Freedom. 
The slaveholders — especially those in 
the loyal States — ^would all hear of it 
forthwith, and be influenced by it; 
the slaves in the disloyal States would 
receive all tidings of it through hos- 
tile channels — from those interested 
in deceiving and misleading them 
with regard to it. Even if correctly 
and promptly advised, what could 
they do ? Bayonets glittered on eve- 
ry side ; arms were borne by nearly 
every able-bodied White ; while the 
Blacks could oppose to these but their 
empty (and shackled) hands. What 
good, then, could be secured by an 
Abolition policy? "It is a Pope's 
bull against the comet,'* suggested the 
President. " It will unite the South 
and divide the North," fiercely clam- 
ored the entire Opposition. So the 
President — ^habitually cautious, dil- 
atory, reticent — ^hesitated, and de- 
murred, and resisted — ^possibly after 
he had silently resolved that the step 
must finally be taken. 

Mr. Lincoln was soon visited," 
among others, by a deputation from 
the various Protestant denominations 
of Chicago, Illinois, charged with the 
duty of urging on him the adoption 
of a more decided and vigorous policy 
of Emancipation. He listened to the 
reading of their memorial, and re- 
sponded in substance as follows: 

" The subject Js difficult, and good men 
do not agree. For instance : the other day, 
four gentlemen of standing and intelligence 
from New York called as a delegation on 
business connected with the war; but be- 
fore leaving two of them earnestly besought 
me to proclaim general Emancipation ; upon 
which the other two at onc^ attacked them. 
You know also that the last session of Con- 
gress had a decided minority of anti-Slavery 
men, yet they could not unite on this policy. 
And the same is true of the religious people. 
Why, the Rebel soldiers are praying with a 

great deal more earnestness, I fear, than our 
own troops, and expecting Grod to favor their 
side : for one of our soldiers, who had been 
taken prisoner, told Senator Wilson a few 
days since that he met nothing so discourag- 
ing as the evident sincerity of those he was 
among in their prayers. But we will ta^ 
over the merits of the case. 

" What good would a proclamation of 
Emancipation from me do, especially as we 
are now situated ? I do not want to issue a 
document that the whole world will see must 
necessarily be inoperative, like the Pope's 
bull against the comet. Would my word free 
the slaves, when I can not even enforce the 
Constitution in the Rebel States? Is there a 
single court, or magistrate, or individual, that 
would be influenced by it there ? And what 
reason is there to think it would have any 
greater effect upon the slaves than the late law 
of Congress, which I approved, and which 
offers protection and freedom to the slaves 
of Rebel masters who come within our 
lines ? Yet I can not learn that that law has 
caused a single slave to come over to us. 
And, suppose they could be induced by a 
proclamation of freedom from me to throw 
themselves upon us, what should we do with 
them ? How can we feed and care for such 
a multitude ? Gen. Butler wrote me a few 
days since that he was issuing more rations 
to the slaves who have rushed to him than 
to all the White troops under his command. 
They eat, and that is all ; thongh it is true 
Gen. Butler is feeding the Whites also by 
the thousand; for it nearly amounts to a 
famine there. If, now, the pressure of the 
war should call off our forces from New 
Orleans to defend some other point, what is 
to prevent the masters from reducing the 
Blacks to Slavery again; fori am told that 
whenever the Rebels take any Black prison- 
ers, free or slave, they immediately auction 
them off I They did so with those they 
took from a boat that was aground in the 
Tennessee river a few days ago. And then 
I am very ungenerously attacked for it I 
For instance, when, after the late battles at 
and near Bull Run, an expedition went ^nt 
from Washington, under a flag of truce, to 
bury the dead and bring in the wounded, 
and the Rebels seized the Blacks who went 
along to help, and sent them into Slavery, 
Horace Greeley said in his paper that the 
Government would probably do nothing 
about it. What could I do ? 

" Now, then, tell me, if you please, what 
possible result of good would follow the 
issuing of such a proclamation ds you desire ? 
Understand : I raise no objections against it 
on legal or constitutional grounds ; for, as 
Commander-in-chief of the army and navy 

* Sept. 13. 

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in time of war, I suppose I have a right to 
take any measure which may best sabdne 
the enemy ; nor do I urge objections of a 
moral nature, in view of possible conse- 
quences of insurrection and massacre at the 
South. I view this matter as a practical 
war measure, to be decided on according to 
the advantages or disadvantages it may offer 
to the suppression of the Rebellion." 

The deputation responded, urging 
that an Emancipation policy would 
greatly strengthen us in Europe, and 
would justify us in appealing to the 
God of the oppressed and down-trod- 
den for His blessing on our future 
efforts to crush the Rebellion. The 
President rejoined : 

" I admit that Slavery is at the root of the 
Rebellion, or at least its sine qud non. The 
ambition of politicians may have instigated 
them to act; but they would have been im- 

r)terit without Slavery as their instrument, 
will also concede that Emancipation would 
help us in Europe, and convince them that 
we are incited by something more than am- 
bition. I grant, further, that it would help 
somewhat at the North, though not so much, 
I fear, as you and those you represent im- 
agine. Still, some additional strength would 
be added in that way to the war ; and then, 
unquestionably, it would weaken the Rebels 
by drawing off their laborers, which is of 
great importance ; but I am not so sure wo 
could do much with the Bhicks. If we were 
to arm them, I fear that in a few weeks the 
arras would be in the hands of the Rebels ; 
and, indeed, thus far, we have not had arms 
* enough to equip our White troops. I will 
mention another thing, though it meet only 
your scorn and contempt. There are 50,000 
bayonets in the Union army from the Border 
Slave States. It would be a serious matter 
if, in consequence of a proclamation such as 
you desire, they should go over to the 
Rebels. I do not think they all would — not 
so many, indeed, as a year ago, or as six 
months ago — not so many to-day as yester- 
day. Every day increases their Union feel- 
ing. They are also getting their pride en- 
listed, and want to beat the Rebels. Let me 
say one thing more : I think you should 
admit that we already have an important 
principle to rally and unite the people, in 
the fact that constitutional government is 
at stake. This is a fundamental idea, going 
down about as deep as any thing." 

The deputation again developed 
and enforced their views; and the 

President closed the conference with 

these pregnant words : 

^^Do not misunderstand me because I 
have mentioned these objections. They 
indicate the difficulties that have thus far 
prevented my action in some such way as 
you desire. I have not decided against a 
proclamation of liberty to the slaves, but 
hold the matter under advisement. And I 
can assure you that the subject is on my 
mind, by day and by night, more than any 
other. Whatever shall appear to be God^s 
will, I will do. I trust that, in the freedom 
with which I have canvassed your views, I 
have not in any res^iect injured your feel- 

The deputation had scarcely re- 
turned to Chicago and reported to 
their constituents, when the great 
body of the President's supporters 
were electrified, while his opponents 
in general were only still farther 
alienated, by the unheralded appear- 
ance of the following proclamation : 

"I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the 
United States of America, and Commander- 
in-chief of the Army and Navy thereof, do 
hereby proclaim and declare that hereafter, 
as heretofore, the war will be prosecuted 
for the object of practically restoring the 
constitutional relation between the United 
States and each of the States, and the 
people thereof, in which States that rela- 
tion is or may be suspended or disturbed. 

"That it is my purpose, upon the next 
meeting of Congress, to again recommend 
the adoption of a practical measure tender- 
ing pecuniary aid to the free acceptance or 
rejection of all Slave States, so called, the 
people whereof may not then be in rebel- 
lion against the United States, and which 
States may then have voluntarily adopted, 
or thereafter may voluntarily adopt, imme- 
diate or gradual abolishment of Slavery 
within their respective limits ; and that the 
effort to colonize persons of African des^^ent, 
with their consent, upon this continent or 
elsewhere, with the previously obtained 
consent of the governments existing tliere, 
will be continued. 

"That, on the first day of January, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-three, all persons held 
as slaves within any State, or designated 
part of a State, the people whereof shall 
then be in rebellion against the United 
States, shall be then, thenceforward, and 
forever free; and the Executive Govern- 
ment of the United States, inolnding the 

Digitized by 



militaiy and naval anthority thereof, will 
recognize and maintain the freedom of such 
persons, and will do no act or acts to re- 
press such persons, or any of them, in any 
efforts they may make for their actual free- 

"That the Executive will, on the Ist 
day of January aforesaid, hy proclamation, 
designate the States and parts of States, if 
any, in which the people thereof respect- 
ively shall then be in rebellion against the 
United States ; and the fact that any State, 
or the people thereof, shall on that day be 
in good faith represented in the Congress 
of the United States, by members chosen 
thereto at elections wherein a minority of 
the qualified voters of such State shall have 
participated, shall^ in the absence of strong 
countervailing testimony, be deemed con- 
clusive evidence that such State, and the 
people thereof, are not then in rebellion 
against the United States. 

"That attention is hereby called to an 
act of Congress entitled *An Act to make 
an additional Article of War,' approved 
March 13th, 1862 ; and which act is in the 
words and figures following : 

**'BeH enacted bv the Senate and ITome of Repre- 
untatiee* (if the United SUatee </ America in Congreea 
aetiembML, That hereafter the following shall be promal- 
gated as an addidonal article of war for the goveroment 
of the Armf of the United Statea, and shall be obeyed 
and obserred as such : 

•**SiccnoH 1. All officers or persons in the militarj 
or naral serrice of the United States are prohibited ttom 
employing any of the forces under their respective com- 
mands for the purpose of retoming fugitives trvm service 
or labor who may have escaped fW>m any persons to 
whom such service or labor is claimed to be due; and 
any officer who shall be found ffuilty by a court-martial 
of violating this artide shall De dismissed Arom the 

"^'SBalL And he Ufwrlher enacted. That this act 
shall take effect fh>m and after iu passage.^ 

" Also, to the ninth and tenth sections of 
an act entitled ^ An Act to Suppress Insur- 
rection, to Punish Treason and Rebellion, 
to Seize and Confiscate Property of Rebels, 
and for other Purposes,' approved July 16, 
1862; and which sections are in the words 
and figures following: 

^^^Sml 9. And he it further enacted. That all skves 
of persons who shall hereafter be engaged in rebellion 
against the Oovemment of the United States, or who 
aoall in any way give aid or comfort thereto, escaping 
from soeh persons and taking ref^ within the lines of 
the army: and all slaves captured from such perstms, or 
deserted by them and coming under the control of the 
Oovemment of the United States; and all slaves of such 

Krsons found on Tori being within anv place occupied 
Rebel f»roea and slterwanl occupied bv fbroes or the 
Cnited States, shall be deemed captives or war, and shall 
btf forever tne of their servitude, and not again held as 

** * Ssc. IQl And he it fkrther enacted. That no slave 
escaping into any State, Territory, or the District of 
Cblumlua, fh>m any other State, shall he delivered np, or 
in any way impeded or hindered of his liberty, except 
for crfflM. or some offense against the laws, unleas the 
person claiming snid fbgitive shall first make oath that 
the person to whom the labor <»■ service of such fugitive 
Is alleged to be due Is his lawful owner, and has not 
I against the United States in the present 

Bebelllon, nor In any waydven aid and «omfort thereto; 
and no person engaged in ue military or naval service of 
the United States shall, under any pretense whatever, 
assume to decide on the validitv of the claim of any 
person to the service or labor of any other person, or 
surrender up any such person to the claimant, on pain 
of being dismissed from the service.^ 

" And I do hereby enjoin upon and order 
all persons engaged in the military and 
naval service of the United States to ob- 
serve, obey, and enforce, within their re- 
spective spheres of service, the act and 
sections above recited. 

"And the Executive will in due time 
recommend that all citizens of the United 
States, who shall have remained loyal there- 
to throughout the Rebellion, shall (upon the 
restoration of the constitutional relation 
between the United States and their re- 
spective States and people, if that relation 
shall have been suspended or disturbed) be 
compensated for all losses by acts of the 
United States, including the loss of slaves. 

" In witness whereof, I have hereunto set 
my hand and caused the seal of the United 
States to be affixed. 

"Done at the City of Washington, 
this twenty-second day of Septem- 
ber, in the year of our Lord one 
[l. 8.] thousand eight hundred and sixty- 
two, and of the independence 
of the United Suites the eighty- 

"Abraham Lincoln. 
"By the President: 
"WiLUAM II. Sewabd, Secretary of State." 

It has been alleged that the ap- 
pearance of this document was hast- 
ened by confidential representations 
from our Embassadors at the Courts 
of "Western Europe, that a recogni- 
tion of the Conf^eracy was immi- 
nent, and could hardly be averted 
otherwise than by a policy of Eman- 
cipation. The then Attomey-Gten- 
evdl " has been quoted as authority 
for this statement ; but it is still gen- 
erally regarded as apocryphal. It has 
been likewise asserted that the Presi- 
dent had fully decided on resorting 
to this policy some weeks before the 
Proclamation appeared, and that he 
only withheld it till the military 
situation should assume a brighter 
aspect. Eemarks made long after- 
ward in Congress render highly 

"fidward Bates, of Missouri. 

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probable the assumption that its 
appearance was somewhat delayed, 
awaiting the issue of the struggle in 
Maryland, which terminated with 
the battle of Antietam." 

Whether the open adhesion of the 
President at last to the policy of 
Emancipation did or did not contri- 
bute to the general defeat of his sup- 
porters in the State Elections which 
soon followed, is still fairly disput- 
able. By those elections, Horatio 
Seymour was made Governor of New 
York and Joel Parker of New Jersey : 
supplanting Governors Morgan and 
Olden; while Pennsylvania, Ohio, In- 
diana, and Illinois, also gave Opposi- 
tion majorities ; and Michigan, Wis- 
consin, and most other Western 
States, showed a decided falling off in 
Administration strength. The gene- 
ral result of those elections is summed 
up in the following table : 

1800— Prksidkite. 18<»— Ck)T. OB Co^<:t. r-A 

SkUM. LixooLir. AUothtTB. Admin. f'^-yp. 

New York.... 862,«6 812,510 29^897 :H^"..ik9 

New Jersey... 68,824 62,801 4«,710 «n«l7 

Pennsylvania.. 268,080 208,419 21&,616 'JEl>.l40 

Ohio 281,610 210,881 178,7» lM;tg2 

Indiana 189.088 188,110 118,517 Vi-^.xm 

Illinois 172,161 160,215 120,116 l:«-.<J4i2 

Michigan 68,480 66,267 68,716 iVi.ii^ 

Wisconsin.... 86,110 66.070 66,801 t-.j^5 

Iowa 70,409 67,922 »«66,014 Mi ^1*8 

Minnesota.... 22,009 12,668 15,764 nj42 

10 States 1,498,872 1,290,806 1,192,896 1,228,677 

1860— Lincoln's moj— 208,066. 1862— Opp. nuj.— 85,781. 

The Kepresentatives in Congress 
chosen from these States were politi- 
cally classified as follows : 

I860. 1S62. 

Rkpub. Dem.. Admin. Opp. 

New York 28 10^ 14 17 

New Jersey 2 8 14 

Pennsylvania 18 7 12 12 

Ohio 18 8 5 14 

Indiana 7 4 4 7 

Illinois 4 5 5 9 

Michigan 4 6 1 

Wisconsin ; 8 8 8 

I"wa 2 6 

Minnesota 2 2 

ToUl, 10 States 78 87 67 67 

1860— Lincoln mtv).— 4L 1862— Opposition nmj., 10. 
NoTK.— A new apportionment under the Census of 1$60 
changed materially, between 1860 and 1362, the number 
of Representati%*es ftv>m several of the States. 

" Fought Sept. 17th— Prodamauon of Free- 
dom, dated 22d. 
"Soldieps' vote: Admn^ 14,874; Opp., 4,115. 

There were some counterbalancing 
changes in the States of Delaware, 
Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri, 
as also in that of California, where 
the larger share of the Douglas vote 
of 1860 was in '62 cast for the Union 
tickets ; but it was clear, at the close 
of the State Elections of that year, 
that the general ill success of the 
War for the Union, the wide-spread 
and increasing repugnance to Con- 
scription, Taxation, a depreciated 
Currency, and high-priced Fabrics, 
were arraying Public Sentiment 
against the further prosecution of the 
contest. Of course, the Opposition 
inveighed against the management 
of the War and of the Finances, the 
treatment of Gten. McClellan, and the 
general ineflSciency and incapacity of 
the Administration ; but the strength 
of that Opposition inhered in popu- 
lar repugnance to the sacrifices ex- 
acted by and the perils involved in a 
prosecution of the struggle, though 
its most general and taking clamor 
deprecated only "The perversion of 
the War for the Union into a War 
for the Negro." Ignoring the sol- 
diers battling for the Union — of 
whom at least three-fourths voted 
Kepublican at each election wherein 
they were allowed to vote at all ; but 
who had not yet been enabled to vote 
in the field, while their absence cre- 
ated a chasm in the Administration 
vote at home — it is quite probable 
that, had a popular election been 
held at any time during the year fol- 
lowing the Fourth of July, 1862, on 
the question of continuing the War 
or arresting it on the best attainable 
terms, a majority would have voted 
for Peace ; while it is highly proba- 

Wisconsin Soldiers^ Vote: Admn., 8,373; Opp., 
2,046. No other States had yet authorized their 
soldiers in the field to rote. 

Digitized by 



ble that a still larger majority would 
have voted against Emancipation. 
From an early hour of the struggle, 
the public mind slowly and steadily 
gravitated toward the conclusion that 
the Rebellion was vulnerable only or 
mainly through Slavery; but that 
conclusion was scarcely reached by a 
majority before the occurrence of the 
New York Riots, in July, 1863. The 
President, though widely reproached 
with tardiness and reluctance in tak- 
ing up the gage plainly thrown down 
by the Slave Power, was probably 
ahead of a majority of the people of 
the loyal States in definitively accept- 
ing the issue of Emancipation or Dis- 

Having taken a long step in the 
right direction, he never retracted nor 
seemed to regret it ; though he some- 
times observed that the beneficial re- 
sults of the Emancipation policy were 
neither so signal nor so promptly 
realized as its sanguine promoters 
had anticipated. Nevertheless, on the 
day appointed, he issued his absolute 
Proclamation of Freedom, as follows : 

** Whereas^ on the 22d day of September, 
in the year of our Lord 1862, a proclamation 
was issued by the President of the United 
States, containing, among other tilings, the 
following, to wit : 

** * That on the Ist dar of January, In the jear of oxxf 
Lord 1*»6S, all persons held as slaves within any State 
or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall 
then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be 
then, theneeforward, and forever free : and the Executive 
Government of the United States, including the military 
and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain 
the fireedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts 
to repress sach persons, or any of them, in any efforts 
they may make for their actual freedom/ 

** * "Hiat the Executive will, on the first day of January 
afiiresald, bv proclamation, designate the States and ports 
iif States, if any, in which the people thereof respecUvely 
shsll then bo in rebellion against the United States; and 
th« fitct that any Statei, or the people thereof; shall on 
tl»t day be in good fiUth represented in the Congress of 
the United States, by members chosen thereto at elec- 
tions wherein a nuyjority of the qualified voters of soch 
Sute shall have iiarticlpated, shall. In the absence of 
stmag conotervalling testimony, be deemed conelosive 
eridenee that such btate, and tne people thereof^ are not 
then in rebellion against the United States.' 

** Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, 
President of the United States, by virtue of 
the power in me vested as Commander-in- 
chief of the Army and Navy of the United 

States in time of actual armed rebellion 
against the authority and Government of 
the Unite|l States, and as a fit and necessary 
war meaJire for suppressing said rebellion, 
do, on this first day of January, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-three, and in accordance with my pur- 
pose so to do, publicly proclaimed for the 
full period of one hundred days from the 
day first above mentioned, order and des- 
ignate as the States and parts of States 
wherein the people thereof respectively are 
this day in rebellion against the United 
States, the following : to wit : 

'* Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except the 
parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemine, Jeffer- 
son, St. John, St. Charles, St. James, Ascen- 
sion, Assumption, Terre Bonne, Lafourche, 
St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including 
the city of New Orleans), Mississippi, Alaba- 
ma, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North 
Carolina, and Virginia (except the forty-eight 
counties designated as West Virginia, and 
also the counties of Berkeley, Accomac, 
Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Prin- 
cess Anne, and Norfolk, including the cities 
of Norfolk and Portsmouth), and which ex- 
cepted parts are, for the present, left precise- 
ly as if this proclamation were not issued. 

** And, by virtue of the power and for the 
purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare 
that all persons held as slaves within said 
designated States and pcerts of States are 
and henceforward shall be free; and that 
the Executive Government of the United 
States, including the military and naval au- 
thorities thereof, will recognize and main- 
tain the freedom of said persons. 

*' And I hereby eryoin upon the people so 
declared to be free to abstain from all vio- 
lence, unless in necessary self-defense; and 
I recommend to them that, in all cases 
when allowed, they labor faithfully for rea- 
sonable wages. 

'* And I further declare and make known 
that such persons, of suitable condition, will 
be received into the armed service of the 
United States to garrison forts, positions, 
stations, and other places, and to man ves-^ 
sels of all sorts in said service. 

" And upon this act, sincerely believed to 
be an act of justice, warranted by the Con- 
stitution upon military necessity, I invoke 
the considerate judgment of mankind, and 
the gracious favor of Almighty God. 

"In testimony whereof, I have hereunto 
set my name, and caused the seal of the 
United States to be aflixed. 

"Done at the city of Washington, this 

1st day of January, in the year of our 

[l. 8.] Lord 1863, and of the independence 

of the United States the 87th. 

" By the President : Abraham Lincoln. 

" WiLUAM H. Sewabd, Secretary of State." 

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On the abstract question of the 
right of the Government to proclaim 
and enforce Emancipation, Edward 
Everett, in a speech in Faneuil Hall, 
Boston, October, 1864, forcibly said : 

" It is very doubtful whether aoy act of 
the Government of the United States was 
necessary to liberate the slaves in a State 
which is in rebellion. There is much reason 
for the opinion that, by the simple act of 
levying war against the United States, the 
relation of Slavery was terminated ; certain- 
ly, so far as concerns the duty of the United 
States to recognize it, or to refrain from 
interfering with it. Not being founded on 
the law of nature, and resting solely on posi- 
tive local law — and that not of the United 
States — as soon as it becomes either the 
motive or pretext of an unjust war against 

the Union — an eflBcient instrument in the 
hands of the Rebels for carrying on the war 
— a source of military strength to the Rebel- 
lion, and of danger to the Government at 
home and abroad, with the additional cer- 
tainty that, in any event but its abandon- 
ment, it will continue in all future time t<i 
work these mischiefs, who can suppose it is 
the duty of the United States to continue to 
recognize it ? To maintain this would be a 
contradiction in terms. It would be to re- 
cognize a right in a Rebel master to employ 
his slave in acts of rebellion and treason, 
and the duty of the slave to aid and abet 
his master in the commission of the greatest 
crime known to the law. No such absurdity 
can be admitted ; and any citizen of the Uni- 
ted States, from the President down, who 
should, by any overt act, recognize the duty 
of a slave to obey a Rebel master in a hos- 
tile operation, would himself be giving aid 
and comfort 16 the enemy." 


Thb XXXVIIth Congress, as we 
have seen* — while endeavoring to 
evade or to avert its eyes from the 
fact that it was Slavery which was^ 
wltging deadly war on the Union — 
did yet give fair notice, through the 
guarded but decisive language of 
some of the more conservative Re- 
publicans, that, if the Rebellion were 
persisted in, it must inevitably result 
in the overthrow of Slavery. And 
the action of that Congress, even at 

the extra session, evinced a steadi- 
ly growing consciousness — steadily 
growing in the legislative as well as 
the popular " mind — that Slavery had 
closed with the Union in mortal 
strife — a struggle which both could 
not survive.* 

Still, President Lincoln hesitated 
and held back; anxious that tlie 
Union should retain its hold on the 
Border Slave States, especially on 
Kentucky; and apparently hoping 

. »VoLI., pp. 564-8. 

'On the day after the Bull Bun rout, the 
writer first heard this conviction openly de- 
clared. The credit of the avowal belongs to 
Gen. John Cochrane. 

* Hon. Eliaha R. Potter, of Rhode Island— 
who may be fairly styled the hereditary chief of 
the Democratic party of that State— made a 
speech on the War to the Senate thereof on the 
10th of Augast, 1861. After distributing the 
blame of inciting the War between the Northern 
and the Southern * ultras,* dilating on the re- 
sources of the South, and eluoidatlng the no- 
fighting, anaoonda' mode of warfare proposed 

by Gen. Scott, and apparently acceded to by the 
Cabinet, he proceeds : 

" I have said that the war may assume anoth- 
er aspect, and be a short and bloody one. And 
to such a war — an anU-Slavery war — it seems 
to me we are inevitably drifting. It seems to 
me hardly in the power of human wisdom to 
prevent it We may commence the war without 
meaning to interfere with Slavery; but let us 
have one or two battles, and get our blood exci- 
ted, and we shall not only not restore any more 
slaves, but shall proclaim freedom wherever we 
go. And it seems to me almost judicial blind- 
ness on the part of the South that they do not 
see that this must be the inevitable result, if 
the contest is prolonged.** 

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that the alternative of conceded Dis- 
nnion or conBtrained Emancipation 
might yet be avoided. His first An- 
nual Message ^ cautiously avoided the 
subject; but proposed a systematic 
colonization — in some territory to be 
acquired outside of the present limits 
of our country — of those Blacks who 
had already, or might thereafter, be- 
come free in consequence of the war. 
He coolly added : 

"It might be well to consider, too, 
whether the free colored people already in 
the United States could not, so far as indi- 
▼idoala m&j desire, be included in such colo- 

Congress acceded to this, so far as 
to appropriate $100,000 in aid of the 
colonization as aforesaid of the freed- 
men of the District of Columbia; 
which sum, or most of it, was duly 
squandered — to the satisfaction of cer- 
tain speculators, and the intense, pro- 
tracted misery of a few deluded 
Blacks, who were taken to a wretch- 
ed sand-spit, known as Cow Island, 
on the coast of Hayti, and kept there 
so long as they could be : and this was 
the practical finale of the Coloniza- 
tion project. 

The XXXVUth Congress having 
convened * for its second (or first reg- 
ular) session. Gen. "Wilson, of Mass., 
gave* notice in Senate of a bill to 
punish oflScers and privates of our 
armies for arresting, detaining, or de- 
livering persons claimed as fugitive 
slaves ; and Mr. O. Lovejoy, of 111., 
wmultaneously introduc^ a bill of 
like tenor in the House. Mr. Wilson 
sabmitted his bill on the 23d ; a re- 
solve to the same effect having been 
submitted by Mr. Sumner six days 
before; as one of like nature was 
this day laid before the House by 

Mr. James F. Wilson, of Iowa. Mr. 
Wilson, of Mass., soon reported^ his 
bill ; of which he pressed the consid- 
eration ten days afterward; but it 
was resisted with great ingenuity and 
earnestness by all the Opposition and 
by a few of the more conservative 
Administration Senators. Other bills 
having obtained precedence in the 
Senate, Mr. F. P. Blair reported ■ to 
the House from its Military Commit- 
tee, an additional Article of War, as 
follows : 

" All officers are prohibited from employ- 
ing any of the forces under their respective 
commands for the purpose of returning fu- 
gitives from service or labor who may have 
escaped from any persons to whom such ser- 
vice or labor is claimed to be due. Any 
oflScer who shall be found guilty by court- 
martial of violating this article i^all be dis- 
missed from the service." 

This bill was strenuously opposed 
by Messrs. Mallory and Wickliffe, 
of Kentucky, as also by Mr. Val- 
landigham, of Ohio, while ably 
advocated by Mr. Bitogham, of Ohio 
and passed by a (substantially) party 
vote: Teas 83; Nays 44. Having 
been received by the Senate and re- 
ferred to its Military Committee, it 
was duly reported* therefrom by Mr. 
H. Wilson ; vehemently opposed by 
Messrt. Garret Davis, of Ky., Carlile, 
of Va., Saulsbury, of Del., and sup- 
ported by Messrs. Wilson, of Mass., 
Howard, of Michigan, Sherman, of 
Ohio, McDougall, of Cal., and An- 
thony, of R. I., and passed :** Teas 
29 ; Nays 9 — a party vote, save that 
Mr. McDougall, of Cal., voted Tea. 
The bill thus enacted was approved 
by the President, March 13th, 1862. 

Gen. Wilson, upon evidence that 
the above act was inadequate to re- 
strain the negro-catching propensities 
of some officers in the service, pro- 

•Dw.3,1861. •Dec. 2, 1861. 

VOL. n. — 17 

• Dec. 4. ' Jan. 6, 1862. • Feb. 25. • March 4. " March 10. 

Digitized by 




posed" fiirther action to the same 

end ; and the Senate considered " his 

resolution of inqniry. Mr. Grimes, 

of Iowa, in supporting it, made a 

statement as follows : 

"In the month of February last, an 
officer of the 8d regiment of Iowa infantry, 
stationed at a small town in Missonri, suc- 
ceeded in capturing several Rebel bridge- 
burners, and some recruiting officers be- 
longing to Price's army. The information 
that 1^ to their capture was furnished by 
two or three remarkably shrewd and intelli- 
sent slaves, claimed by a Lt-Colonel in the 
Rebel army. Shortly afterward, the master 
dispatched an agent, with instructions to 
seize the slaves, and convey them within 
the Rebel lines: whereupon, the Iowa officer 
seized them, and reported the circumstances 
to headquarters. The slaves, soon under- 
standing the full import of Gen. Halleck's 
celebrated Order No. 8, two of them attempt- 
ed an escape. This was regarded as an unpar- 
donable sin. The Iowa officer was imme- 
diately placed under arrest ; and a detach- 
ment of the Missouri State Militia — men in 
the pay of this Government, and under the 
command of Gen. Halleck — were sent in pur- 
suit of the fugitives. The hunt was successful. 
The slaves were caught, and returned to 
their traitor master ; but not until one of 
them had been slyt by order of the soldier 
in command of the pursuing party." 

Mr. Sumner followed in an able 
speech in advocacy ; but the subject 
was overlaid by others deemed more 
ui^nt ; and the bill was not conclu- 
sively acted on. 

At an early period " of the session, 
Gten. Wilson had proposed a refer- 
ence of all laws relating to persons of 
color in the District of Columbia, 
and to the arrest of fugitives from 
labor, to the Standing Committee on 
said District, with instructions that 
they consider the expediency of a 
compensated Abolition of Slavery 
therein; and he soon afterward in- 
troduced " a bill of like purport ; 
which was read twice and referred " 
to the Committee aforesaid. Mr. 
Morrill, of Maine, duly reported** 
from said Committee Gen. Wilson's 

bill; which provided for the Aboli- 
tion of Slavery in the District, and 
the payment to the masters from the 
Treasury of an average compensation 
of $300 each for the slaves thus 
manumitted. The bill was so amended 
as to abolish also the Black Laws of 
said District. Mr. 6. Davis, of Ky., 
bitterly opposed the bill ; proposing 
so to amend it as to send out of the 
country all persons freed thereby ; 
which was ardently supported by 
Mr. Saulsbury, of Del. Mr. Doolittle 
(Repub.), of Wise., favored coloniz- 
ing the freedmen, but moved to add 
" with their own consent ;" which 
prevailed — Yeas 23; Nays 16 — and 
Mr. Davis's proposition, as thus 
amended, was lost by a tie vote — 19 
to 19; and the emancipating bill — 
after having been ably supported by 
Messrs. Wilmot, of Pa., Hale, of 
N. H., Pomeroy, of Kansas (against 
paying the masters). King, of N. T., 
Wilson, of Mass., Harlan, of Iowa, 
Wilkinson, of Minn., Sumner, of 
Mass., Fessenden, of Maine, Brown- 
ing, of 111., and Morrill, of Maine, 
and further opposed by Messrs. 
Wright (Union), of Ind., WiUey, of 
West Va. (who wished tie question 
of Emancipation submitted to a pop- 
ular vote of the District), Kennedy, 
of Md., McDougall, of Cal., and 
Bayard, of Del. — was passed :" Yeas 
29 ; Nays 14 — as follows : 

Yeas — Messrs. Anthony, Browning, 
Chandler, Clark, Collamer, Dixon, Doolit- 
tle, Fessenden, Foot, Foster, Grimes, Hale, 
Harlan, Harris, Howard, Howe, King, Lane, 
of Ind., Lane, of Kansas, Morrill, Pomeroy, 
Sherman, Sumner, Ten Eyck, Trumbull, 
Wade, Wilkinson, Wilmot, and Wilson, of 
Mass.— 29. 

Nats — Messrs. Bayard, Carlile, Davis, 
Henderson, Kennedy, Latham, McDougall, 
Nesmlth, Powell, Saulsbury, Stark, Willey, 
Wilson, of Mo., and Wright— 14. 

" Apia 3. " April U. » Dec. 14. ^ Dec. 16. " Poc. 22. »• Feb. 13. " April i 

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This bill having reached the 
Hoiisey Mr. Stevens, of Pa., in Com- 
mittee of the Whole, moved" the 
laying aside successively of each bill 
preceding it on the calendar, and 
thns reached this one; which was 
taken up and debated by Judge 
Thomas, of Mass., and Mr. Crittenden, 
of Ky., in opposition. Mr. Stevens 
tried to close the debate next day, 
but failed ; and the bill was advoca- 
ted by Messrs. F. P. Blair, of Mo., 
Bingham, Blake, Kiddle, Ashley, and 
Hutchins, of Ohio, Eollins, of N. H., 
and Van Horn, of N. Y. Mr. Ste- 
vens at length induced the Commit- 
tee to rise and report the bill ; when 
the measure was further opposcid by 
Messrs. H. B. Wright, of Pa., Wads- 
worth, Harding, Menzies, and Wick- 
liflTe, of Ky., and supported by Messrs. 
Hickman, of Pa., Train, of Mass., 
Lovejoy, of 111., Dunn, of Ind., Cox 
and Vallandigham, of Ohio; and 
passed under the Previous Question : 
Teas 92 ; Nays 39. [Messrs. G. H. 
Browne, of R. L, English, of Conn., 
Haight and Odell,of K Y., Sheffield, 
of R. I., and B. F. Thomas, of Mass., 
voted Tea with the Republicans ; 
while Messrs. J. B. Blair and Wm. 
G. Brown, of Va., James S. Rollins, 
of Mo., and Francis Thomas, of Md., 
voted Nay with the Democrats and 
Kentuckians.] The bill, thus passed 
on the 11th, was signed by the Presi- 
dent on the 16th of April, 1862." 

President Lincoln made his first 
overt, yet cautious, demonstration 

against Slavery as the main cause of 
our subsisting troubles in a Special 
Message," which proposed that the 
Houses of Congress should unite in 
adopting this joint resolution : 

''Hesohed, That the United States, in or- 
der to cooperate with any State which may 
adopt gradual abolition of Slavery, givfe to 
such State pecuniary aid, to be used by such 
State, in its discretion, to compensate it for 
the inconyenience, public and private, pro- 
duced by such change of system." 

. This proposition he commended in 
these guarded and deferential terms : 

^^ If the proposition contained in the reso- 
lution does not meet the approval of Con- 
gress and the country, there is an end of it. 
But, if it does command such approval, I 
deem it of importance that the States and 
people immediately interested should be at 
once distinctly notified of the fact, so that 
they may begin to consider whether to 
accept or reject it 

"The Federal Government would find 
its highest interest in such a measure, as 
one of the most important means of self- 

S reservation. The leaders of the existing 
Rebellion entertain the hope that this Gov- 
ernment will ultimately be forced to ac- 
knowledge the independence of some part 
of the disafifected region, and that all the 
Slave States north of such part will then 
say, ' The Union for which we have strug- 
gled being already gone, we now choose to 
go with the Southern section.* To deprive 
them of this hope substantially ends the 
Rebellion; and the initiation of Emancipa- 
tion deprives them of it, and of all the States 
initiating it 

" The point is not that all the States tol- 
erating Slavery would very soon, if at idl, 
initiate Emancipation ; but, while the offer 
is eaually made to all, the more Northern 
shall, by such initiation, make it certain to 
the more Southern that in no event will the 
former ever join the latter in their proposed 
Confederacy. * * * While it is true that 
the adoption of the proposed resolution 
would be merely initiatory, and not within 
itself a practical measure, it is recommended 
in the hope that it would soon lead to im- 
portant practical results. In full view of 
my great responsibility to my God and to 

"•April 10. 

" Some of the anomalies of the ^veholding 
sjtHem were brought to light in the execution 
of this measure. For instance: while it had 
long been uanal for White men to sell their 
parti-cokyred children, there were no known 
precedents for a like thrifty procedure on the 

part of Blacks; but XL S. Treasurer Spinner 
was'waited on l)y a District negro (free), who 
had bought and paid for his (slave) wife, and 
whe required payment not only for her but for 
their half-dozen children — alljiis legal and saU^ 
ble chattels — and the daam could not be disa) 
tewed, » Mardi 6, 1862. 

Digitized by 




my country, I earnestly beg the attention 
of Oongress and the people to the sub- 

Mr. Stevens, of Pa., having moved 
and carried a reference of liis Mes- 
sage by the House to a Committee of 
the Whole on the State of the Union, 
and Mr. R. Conkling, of N. Y., hav- 
ing moved" the resolve above recom- 
mended, a debate sprung up thereon ; 
which is notable only as developing 
the repugnance of the Unionists of the 
Border Slave States, with that of the 
Democrats of all the States, to com- 
pensated or any other Emancipation. 
Messrs. Wadsworth, Mallory, Wick- 
liflfe, and Crittenden, of Ky ., and Cris- 
field, of Md., spoke for the former ; 
Messrs. Richardson, of 111., Voorhees, 
of Ind., Biddle, of Pa., for the lat- 
ter. All the Eepublicans who spoke 
supported the proposition; though 
Messrs. Stevens and Hickman, of Pa., 
characterized it as timid, temporizing, 
and of small account. It parsed the 
House" by 89 Yeas (Republicans, 
"West Virginians, and a few others 
not strictly partisans) to 31 Nays (in- 
cluding Crisfield, Leary, and Francis 
Thomas, of Md., with Crittenden, 
Dunlap, Harding, Wadsworth, and 
Wickliffe, of Ky. — the rest Demo- 

The resolve having reached the 
Senate and been duly referred, Mr. 
Trumbull, of 111., reported" it favo- 
rably from the Judiciary Committee ; 
when, on its coming up," it was 
fiercely assailed by Mr. Saulsbury, 
of Delaware, and more temperately 
opposed by Messrs. Willey, of Va., 
McDougall and Latham, of Cal., and 
Powell,, of Ky. Mr. Henderson, of 
Mo., supported it, and thenceforward 
acted as an emancipationist. Messrs. 

Sherman, of Ohio, DooUttle, of 
"Wise., Browning, of IlL, §aid Mor- 
rill, of Maine, also advocated the 
measure; and it passed" — Yeas 32 
(including Davis, of Ky., Henderson, 
of Mo., Thomson [Dem.], of N. J., 
and Willey, of Va.) ; Nays — Messrs. 
Bayard and Saulsbury, of Del., Ken- 
nedy, of Md., Carlile, of Va., Powell, 
of Ky., Wilson, of Mo., Wright, of 
N. J., Latham, of Cal., Nesmith and 
Stark, of Oregon. It is noteworthy 
that a majority of these Nays were 
the votes of Senators from Border 
States, to which it proffered compen- 
sation for their slaves, all whom have 
since been freed without compensa- 
tion. The President of course ap- 
proved " the measure ; but no single 
Slave State ever claimed its benefits ; 
and its only use inhered in its demon- 
stration of the willingness of the 
Unionists to increase their already 
heavy burdens to pay for the slaves 
of the Border States — a willingness 
which the infatuation of the ruling 
clfifis in those States rendered abor- 
tive, save in its inevitable tendency 
to soften prejudice and reconcile the 
minds of loyal slaveholders to a social 
revolution fast becoming inevitable. 

Mr. Wilson, of Mass., having giv- 
en notice " of a joint resolve granting 
aid to the States of Delaware and 
Maryland to emancipate their slaves, 
Mr. Saulsbury, of Del., objected to 
its consideration; and it lay over. 
When called up," he declared Ids in- 
fiexible hostility to it, and his pur- 
pose to interpose every available 
obstacle to its passage. It was intro- 
duced, however, and had its first read- 
ing; but was not again taken up. 
Soon, however, Mr. White, of Ind,, 

"Mar. 10. "Mar. 11. "Mar. 20. "Mar. 24. "Apr. 2. "Apr. 10. «' Mar. 7, 1862. "Mar.ia 

Digitized by 




proposed •• a more comprehensive 
measure; contemplating the gradual 
extinguishment, at the National cost, 
of Slavery in all the Border Slave 
States, and moved its reference to a 
Select Committee of nine. . Mr. Mal- 
lory, of Ky., moved that this propo- 
sition do lie on the table; which 
failed: Yeas 51 ; Nays 68; and it then 
prevailed : Yeas 67 ; Nays 52. 

The Committee having been ap- 
pointed,** Mr. White reported " there- 
firom a bill offering $300 per head 
from the Treasury for the legal eman- 
cipation of the slaves of Delaware, 
Maryland, Vii^inia, Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, and Missouri, or either of 
them. The bill was committed, but 
not acted on ; having been reported 
too near the dose of the Session. 
Next winter, Mr. Henderson," in the 
Senate, and Mr. Noell," in the House, 
submitted bills of similar tenor, pro- 
viding for compensated emancipation 
in Missouri alone. Each encountered 
a bitter opposition from the Demo- 
cratic and most of the Border-State 
Members; but Mr. Noell's finally 
passed " the House — ^Yeaa 73 ; Nays 
46. The Senate acted on Mr. Hen- 
derson's bill, which provided only for 
very Gradual Emancipation — ^he de- 
claring that if Congress should offer 
his State $10,000,000 for an act of 
Immediate Abolition, he would op- 
pose its acceptance. The Senate de- 
bated hotly and tediously the rival 
advantages of Immediate and Grad- 
ual Emancipation: the Democrats 
opposing both, but inclining the scale 
in favor of the latter; which pre- 
vailed — 26 to 11 — and in this shape 
the bill passed : " Yeas 23 ; Nays 18. 
On reaching the House, it was re- 

• April 7. 

"April 14. 

"July 16. 
••Jan. 6» 1863. 

ferred — Yeas 81; Nays 61 — ^to the 
Select Committee aforesaid; which 
was only enabled to perfect it on the 
last •• day of the session ; when the 
House refused — ^Yeas 63 ; Nays 67 — 
to suspend the rules in favor of its 
immediate consideration, which re- 
quired a vote of two- thirds. So per- 
ished the last effort to compensate the 
loyal States for the Emancipation of 
their Slaves — ^the Democrats and all 
the Border-State members who were 
not fiiends of the Administration 
unanimously resisting it in every 
shape and to the extent of their pow- 


We have seen " that the XXXVIth 
Congress, after it had become Re- 
publican through the withdrawal of 
the representatives of the Gulf 
States, organized the new Territories 
of Colorado, Nevada, and Dakotah, 
by acts which maintained a profound 
silence with regard to Slavery. The 
hope of thus winning a portion of the 
slaveholding interest to active loyalty 
in the approaching struggle having 
been disappointed, Mr. Arnold, of 
111., submitted " to the next House a 
bill abolishing and prohibiting Slav- 
erj^ in every Territory of the Union ; 
which Mr. Lovejoy, of 111., duly re- 
ported '• and pressed to a vote ; ulti- 
mately modifying the bill so as to 
read as follows : 

** An Act to secure freedom to all noraons within the 
TeiTitorioe of the United States; 

" To the end that freedom may be and 
remain forever the fundamental law of the 
land in all places whatsoever, so far as it 
lies within the power or depends upon the 
action of the Government of the United 
States to make it so, therefore — 

*' Be it enacted^ &c., That Slavery or in- 
voluntary servitude, in all cases whatsoever 
(other than in the punishment of crime, 
whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed), shall henceforth cease, and be pro- 

* Feb. 12, 1863. *» March 3. " VoL L, p. 888. 
" March 24, 1862. "• May 1. 

Digitized by 



hibited forever, in all the Territories of the 
United States now existing, or hereafter to 
be formed or acquired in any way." 

No measure of the session was more 
yehemently opposed, not only by the 
Democrats without exception, but by 
the Border-State Unionists with equal 
zeal and unanimity ; even Mr. Fish- 
er, of Del., denouncing it, though he 
did not vote on the final passage. 
Mr. Cox, of Ohio, stigmatized it in 
debate as ^^ a bill for the benefit of 
Secession and Jeff. Davis." Mr. 
Crisfield, of Md., characterized it as 
" a palpable violation of the rights of 
the States, and an unwarrantable in- 
terference with private property — a 
fraud upon the States which have 
made cessions of land to this Govern- 
ment, a violation of the Constitution, 
and a breach of the pledges which 
brought the dominant [Kepublican] 
party into power " — " a usurpation " 
— " destructive of the good of the 
country," &c., &c. Judge Thomas, 
of Mass., held that Congress could 
not warrantablypass this act without 
providing compensation for slave- 
holders in the Territories. Messrs. 
Bingham, of Ohio, Stevens and Kel- 
ley, of Pa., R. Conkling and Diven, 
of N. T., Arnold and Lovejoy, of 111., 
and others, defended the bill, and it 
passed," under the Previous Question: 
Teas,85 (aU Republicans but Sheffield, 
of R. I., and Judge Thomas, of Mass. 
— ^to meet whose objections the origi- 
nal bill had been modified) : Nays, 60 : 
composed of all the Democrats and 
Border-State Uniomsts who voted, 
including Messrs. Calvert, Crisfield, 
Leary, Francis Thomas, and Webster, 
of Md., J. B. Blair, Wm. G. Brown, 
and Segar, of Va,, Casey, Crittenden, 
Dunlap, Grider, Harding, Mallory, 

Menzies, "Wadsworth, andWickliffe, of 

Ky.jClements and Maynard,of Tenn., 

Hall,NoeU, and J. S. Phelps, of Mo.— 

22 of the 60 from Border Slave States. 

The bill having reached the Senate, 

it was reported" by Mr. Browning, 

of niinois, substituting for the terms 

above cited the following : 

"That, from and after the passage of this 
act, there shall be neither Slavery nor in- 
voluntary servitude in any of the Territories 
of the United States now existing, or which 
may at any time hereafter be formed or ac- 
quired by the United States, otherwise than 
in punishment of crime, whereof the party 
shall have been duly convicted." 

In this shape it passed : " Teas 28 
(all Republicans) ; Nays 10 (all Op- 
position) ; and the House concurred " 
in the Senate's amendment — Yeas 
72 ; xS ays 38 — and the biU, being ap- 
proved" by the President, became 
henceforth and evermore the law of 
the land, 

ITie policy of confiscating or eman- 
cipating the slaves of those engaged 
in the Eebellion was very cautioqBly 
and timidly approached at the first** 
or extra session of this Congress. 
Very early in the ensuing session, it 
was again suggested in the Senate by 
Mr. Trumbull," of Illinois, and in the 
House by Mr. Eliot,** of Mass. 

At the former session. Congress 
had ventured only to direct the con- 
fiscation of the right or property 
of masters in such slaves as those 
masters permitted or directed to la- 
bor on fortifications or other works 
designed to aid the KebeUion; but 
now, a bolder and more sweeping 
measure was deemed requisite. Mr. 
Eliot's joint resolve — after disclaim- 
ing all right to interfere with the in- 
ternal affairs and institutions of loyal 
States in peace — aflSrmed that the ex- 

» May 12. " May 15. « June 9. 

" Juno 17. ** June 19. 

** See Vol I., chap, xxxrv., particularly page 
669-70. *• Dec. 5, 1861. *' Dec. 2, 1861. 

Digitized by 




isting war must be prosecuted ac- 
cording to the laws of war, and 

"Th^ therefore, we do hereby declare 
that the President, as the Commander-in- 
chief of our army, and the officers in com- 
mand under him, have the right to eman- 
cipate all persons held as ^aves in any 
military district in a state of insurrection 
against the National Government; and that 
we respectfully advise that such order of 
Emancipation be issued, whenever the same 
will avail to weaken the power of the Reb- 
els in arms, or to strengthen the military 
l>ower of the loyal forces." 

Mr. Trumbull proposed to enact 
that the slaves of all persons who 
shall take up arms against the Uni- 
ted States, or in any manner aid or 
abet the existing Rebellion, shall 
thereupon be discharged from service 
or labor, and become thenceforth for- 
ever free ; any existing law to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

These propositions, with various 
modifications, were vehemently dis- 
cussed in either House, not continu- 
ously, but^ alternately with other 
measures, nearly to the end of that 
long and excited session. By friend 
and foe, they were debated as though 
their success or failure would decide 
the issue of Union or Disunion. By 
all the anti-Eepublicans, and by some 
of the mpre conservative Republicans, 
they were denounced as utterly, glar- 
ingly, in antagonism to the Federal 
Constitution, and as calculated to ex- 
tinguish the last vestige of Unionism 
in the Slave States, but especially in 
those that had seceded. Said Senator 
Cowan," of Pennsylvania : 

" Pass this bQl, and the same messenger 
who carries it to the South will come back 
to hb with the news of their complete con- 
solidation as one man. We shall then have 
done that which treason could not do : we 
oorselTes shall then have dissolved the 
Union ; we shall have rent its sacred char- 
ter, and extinguished the last vestige of affec- 
tion for it in the Slave States by our blind 
and passionate folly/ ^ 

In the same spirit, but more tem- 
perately, the bill was opposed by 
Messrs. Browning, of 111., Willey, of 
Va., Henderson, of Mo., and Col- 
lamer, of Vt. (the first and last Ee- 
publicans; the others very decided 
Unionists), as well as more unspar- 
ingly by Messrs. Grarret Davis and 
Powell, of Ky., Saulsbury, of Del., 
Carlile, of Va., and others of the 
Opposition ; while it was supported 
by Messrs. Trumbull, of 111., Wilson 
and Sumner, of Mass., Howard, of 
Mich., Wade and Sherman, of Ohio, 
Morrill and Fessenden, of Maine, 
Clark and Hale, of N . H., and nearly 
all the more decided Eepublicans. 
So intense and formidable was the 
resistance that the Senate at length** 
referred the bill to a Select Commit- 
tee of seven — ^Mr. Clark, of N. H., 
chairman — ^who duly reported there- 
from " A bill to suppress Insurrec- 
tion, and punish Treason and Eebel- 
lion;" which merely authorized the 
President, at his discretion, to pro- 
claim free aU slaves of persons who 
shall be found in arms against the 
United States thirty days after the 
issue of such proclamation. On this 
bill being taken up,** Mr. Davis, of 
Ky., tried to have it so amended 
that the said slaves, instead of being 
freed, should be sold and the pro- 
ceeds put into the Treasury; but 
only seven Senators were found suffi- 
ciently Democratic to sustain that 
proposition. He next proposed that 
no slave should be emancipated 
under this act, until he should be on 
his way to be colonized at some 
point outside of the United States : 
which proposition received but six 
votes. Here the Senate bill, was 
dropped, in deference to the action 

' Elected as a Republican in 1861. 

' Hay 6, 1862. 

' May 16. 

Digitized by 




of the House; in which, after a long, 
arduous, doubtful struggle, during 
which Mr. Eliot's resolve was refer- 
red to the Judiciary Committee and 
reported against " by Mr. Hickman, 
of Pa., its Chairman — " because the 
President has all power now" — it had 
been referred" to a Select Committee 
of seven, whereof Mr. Sedgwick, of 
N. T., was Chairman ; whence Mr. 
Eliot, of Mass., reported *' two bills, 
one providing for confiscating the 
property, the other for emancipating 
the slaves, of persistent Eebels; 
whereupon debate was renewed and 
continued for days— every Democrat 
and nearly every Border-State mem- 
ber resisting Emancipation as ruinous 
to the National cause. Said Mr. W. 
S. Holman, of Ind. (one of the most 
loyal and non-partisan of those elected 
as Democrats) : 

" I have supported, Sir, and will still sup- 
port, every just measure of this Administra- 
tion to restore the Union. No partisan in- 
terest shall control me when the Republic is 
in danger. I place the interest of my coun- 
try far above every other interest. I will 
make any sacrifice to uphold the Govern- 
ment ; but I will not be deterred from con- 
demning, at this time, this or any other 
series of measures — ^the offspring of mis- 
guided zeal and passion, or of want of faith 
in our people — which tends to defeat the 
hope of a restoration of the Union. The 
citizen soldier, stricken down in battle or 
worn out by the weary march, falls a will- 
ing sacrifice for the Constitution of his coun- 
try, and his dying eyes light up with hope 
as they catch the gleam of its starry sym- 
bol ; while we deliberate on measures which 
would overthrow the one, and blot out the 
stars from the other.*' 

Said Judge Thomas (Conservative), 
of Massachusetts: 

** That the bills before the House are in 
violation of the law of nations, and of the 
Constitution, I can not — I say it with all 
deference to others — I can not entertain a 
doubt. My path of duty is plain. The duty 
of obedience to that Constitution was never 
more imperative than now. I am not dis- 
posed to deny that I have for it a supersti- 

tious reverence. I have ' worshiped it from 
my forefathers.' In the school of rigid dis- 
cipline by which we were prepared for it, in 
the struggles out of which it was born, the 
seven years of bitter conflict, and the seven 
darker years in which that conflict seemed 
to be fruitless of good ; in the wisdom with 
which it was constructed and first adminis- 
tered and set in motion ; in the beneficent 
Government it has secured for more than 
two generations; in the blessed influences 
it has exerts upon the cause of Freedom 
and Humanity the world over, I can not fiail 
to recognize the hand of a guiding and lov- 
ing Providence. But not for the blessed 
memories of the past only do I cling to it. 
He must be blinded ' with excess of light,' 
or with the want of it, who does not see 
that to this nation, trembling on the verge 
of dissolution, it is the only possible bond of 

Mr. Samuel S. Cox, of Ohio, asked! 

" Must these Northern fanatics be sated 
with negroes, taxes, and blood, with division 
North and devastation South, and peril to 
constitutional liberty everywhere, before re- 
lief shall come? They will not halt until 
their darling schemes are consummated. 
History tells us that such zealots do not and 
can not go backward." 

Said Mr. John Law, of Indiana : 

"The man who dreams of closing the 
present unhappy contest by reconstructing 
this Union upon any other basis than that 
prescribed by our fathers, in the compact 
formed by them, is a madman — ay, worse, 
a traitor — and should be hung as high as 
Haman. Sir, pass these acts, confiscate un- 
der these bills the property of these men, 
emancipate their negroes, place arms in the 
hands of these human gorillas, to murder 
their masters and violate their wives and 
daughters, and you will have a war such as 
was never witnessed in the worst days of 
the French Revolution, and horrors never 
exceeded in St. Domingo, for the balance 
of this century at least." 

Mr. EHot closed the debate** in 
an able speech for the bills ; and the 
Confiscation bill was passed — Yeas 
82; Nays 68. 

The Emancipation bill was next 
taken up ; when, after rejecting seve- 
ral amendments, the vote was taken 
on its passage, and it was defeated : 
Teas 74 (all Republicans) ; Nays 78 — 
fifteen members elected as Repub- 

" March 20, 1862. 

* April 23. 

•April 30. 

' May 26. 

Digitized by 




licans voting Nay, with all the Demo- 
crats and all the Border-State men. 
The Eepublicans voting Nay were 
Messrs. Dawes and Delano, of Mass., 
Diven, of N. Y., Dunn, of Ind., Fish- 
er, of Del., Horton, of Ohio, Wm. 
Kellogg, of HI., Killinger, of Pa., 
Mitchell, of Ind., Nixon, of N. J., 
Norton, of 111., Porter, of Ind., A. H. 
Bice, of Mass., Stratton, of N. J., 
and Train, of Mass. 

Mr. Porter, of Ind., now moved " 
a reconsideration; which narrowly 
escaped defeat, on a motion by Mr. 
Holman that it do lie on the table : 
Teas 69 ; Nays 73. The reconsidera- 
tion prevailed : Yeas 84 ; Nays 64 : 
and the bill was recommitted, with 
instructions to report a substitute al- 
ready proposed by Mr. P., which pre- 
vailed — Yeas 84 ; Nays 66 : and Mr. 
Eliot again reported " a bill eman- 
cipating the slaves of certain specified 
classes of prominent Bebels, and also 
of all persons who shall continue in 
armed rebellion sixty days after the 
President shall have issued his proc- 
lamation requiring them to desist 
therefrom. The bill thus modified 
passed the House : Yeas 82 ; Nays 64. 

The House Confiscation bill afore- 
said was taken up in the Senate '" 
and, after debate, so amended," on 
motion of Mr. Clark, of N. H., as to 
recombine Emancipation therewith ; 
when it was passed : Yeas 28 ; Nays 
13. The House non-concurred'* in 
this action : Yeas 8 ; Nays 124 ; where- 
upon, the Senate insisted, and asked 
a committee of conference; which 
was granted ; and the Committee ** 
reported a bill which was in sub- 
stance Mr. Clark's, providing for 
both Confiscation and Emancipa- 

•• May 27. 

•• June 28. 

•• June 17. 

^ June 23. 
••July 11. 

tion. Its purport is that all slaves 
of persons who shall give aid or com- 
fort to the Rebellion, who shall take 
refuge within the lines of the army ; 
all slaves captured from such persons, 
or deserted by them, and coming un- 
der the control of the Government ; 
and all slaves of such persons found 
or being within any place occupied 
by Eebel forces, and afterward occu- 
pied by the forces of the United. 
States---shall be deemed captives of 
war, and shall be for ever fi-ee, 
and not again held as slaves; that 
ftigitive slaves shall not be surren- 
dered to persons who have given aid 
and comfort to the EebeUion ; that 
no person engaged in the military or 
naval service shall surrender fi^tive 
slaves, on pain of being dismissed 
from the service ; that the President 
may employ persons of African de- 
scent for the suppression of the Re- 
bellion, and organize and use them 
in such manner as he may judge best 
for the public welfare. 

This bill passed the House by the 
decisive majority of 82 Yeas to 42 
Nays ; also the Senate, by 27 Yeas to 
12 Nays ; and, being approved by the 
President," became liie law of the 

President Lincoln having recom- 
mended, in his first Annual Mes- 
sage," the establishment of Diplo- 
matic intercourse with the republics 
of Hayti and Liberia, Mr. Sumner 
reported" to the Senate, from its Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations, a bill 
for that purpose ; which in due time 
was taken up," supported by its 
author, oppos^" by Mr. G. Davis, 
of Ky., who proclaimed his dis- 
gust at the continued " introduction 

' July 17. •" Dec. 3, 1862. " Feb. 4, '63. 
••April 22. ••April 24. 

Digitized by 




of the subject of slaves and Slavery 
into this chamber;" though no one 
but himself had mentioned either in 
connection with this measure. He 
drew a ludicrous picture of "a big 
negro fellow," fantastically arrayed, 
being presented as Minister from 
Hayti. Mr. Sumner rejoined ; and 
Mr. Davis's substitute, providing for 
consular relations only with the re- 
publics aforesaid, was voted down — 
Teas 8 ; Nays 31 — and then the bill 
passed : Teas 32 ; Nays 7. On reachr 
ing the House, it was referred to its 
Committee on Foreign Affairs ; which 
Committee was discharged" from its 
further consideration, on motion of 
Mr. Gooch, of Mass., who ably and 
temperately advocated its passage. 
Mr. Cox, of Ohio, replied, a la Davis ; 
and, after further debate by Messrs. 
Fessenden, of Maine, Eliot, of Mass., 
McKnight and KeUey, of Pa., and 
Maynard, of Tenn., in favor, and 
Messrs. Biddle, of Pa., and Critten- 
den, of Ky., in opposition, it was 
passed — Teas 86; Nays 37 — and, 
being signed " by the President, be- 
came the law of the land. 

Previous to the triumph of Eman- 
cipation in the Federal District, there 
was no public provision for the edu- 
cation of the Blacks, whether bond 
or free ; and very few, even of the 
latter, received any schooling what- 
ever. The great obstacle to improve- 
ment having been swept away, Mr. 
Grimes, of Iowa, submitted " to the 
Senate a bill providing for the edu- 
cation of colored children in the city 
of "Washington ; prefacing it by a 
statement that, whereas the number 
of those children was in 1860 no less 
than 3,172, and while the Free Blacks 

of the District were taxed $36,000 
per annum, whereof a tenth was ap- 
propriated to the support of schools, 
not one of their children was per- 
mitted to enter those schools or to 
receive any benefit whatever from the 
money thus wrested from them by 
law for the education of the children 
of the Whites, many of whom paid 
no tax whatever. His bill proposed 
simply that the city revenue raised 
for schools by the taxation of Blacks 
should be devoted to the education 
of their own children, and not those 
of the Whites. 

This bill having been referred to 
and reported " from the District Com- 
mittee, it was taken up,'* on motion 
of Mr. Grimes; and certain non- 
essential amendments of the Com- 
mittee agreed to. Mr. Wilson, of 
Mass., then moved to add a new sec- 
tion, as follows : 

" That all persons of color in the District 
of Columbia, or within the corporate limits 
of the cities of Washington and George- 
town, shall he subject and amenable to the 
same laws and ordinances to which firee 
White persons are or may be subject or 
amenable ; that they shall be tried for any 
offenses against the laws in the same man- 
ner as free White persons are or may be 
tried for the same offenses ; and that, upon 
being legally convicted of any crime or 
offense against any law or ordinance, snch 
persons of color shall be liable to such 
penalty or punishment, and only such, as 
would be imposed or inflicted upon free 
White persons for the same crime or offense : 
and all acts, or parts of acts, inconsistent 
with the prorisions of this act, are hereby 

This important amendment pre- 
vailed ; and the bill, thus improved, 
passed :" Teas 29 ; Nays 7. Reach- 
ing the House, it was tiiere referred 
to its District Committee ; reported" 
therefrom without amendment, by 
Mr. Rollins, of N. H., and, on hia 
motion, passed, under the Previous 

••June 2. •' June 5. ••April 29. 

•April 80. 


^MayS. 'May 15. 

Digitized by 




Question, without a call of the Yeas 
and Nays. It received the President's 
signature on the 21st. Bills making 
further and better provision for the 
education of colored children were 
matured and enacted in the course of 
that and the two following sessions. 

A treaty between the Great Pow- 
ers of Western Europe, intended to 
provide for the more effectual sup- 
pression of the African Slave-Trade, 
was matured and signed at Paris in 
1 841 . It necessarily accorded a qual- 
ified reciprocal right to search sus- 
pected cruisers to the National ves- 
sels of the subscribing parties. Gen. 
Cass, then our Envoy at Paris, and a 
prospective candidate for President, 
r^isted and defeated the accession of 
our Government to this most right- 
eous and necessary increase of power 
to the international police of the 
ocean, and earned thereby the quali- 
fied approbation of the Slave Power ; 
as was evinced in the Presidential elec- 
tion of 1848. A similar treaty was 
now n^otiated between the United 
States and Great Britain ; and a bill 
designed to give effect to its provisions 
was reported '■ to the Senate by Mr. 
Sumner, considered, and passed:'* 
Yeas 34 ; Nays 4. The House con- 
curred;'* and the bill became a 

The first proposition looking to a 
repeal of the Fugitive Slave act of 
1850 by the XXXVIIth Congress 
was made" by Mr. Howe, of "Wis- 
consin, to the Senate; whereby it 
was read twice, referred to the Ju- 
diciary Committee, and reported" 
against by Mr. Ten Eyck, of New 

Jersey. That report killed it. But 
Mr. Wilmot, of Pa., soon revived" 
the proposition, by a bill which re- 
quired every person, who should ap- 
ply for the legal process required for 
the arrest of a fugitive slave, to take 
a stringent oath of loyalty. The 
bill further provided that each al- 
leged fugitive shall have compulsory 
process against witnesses deemed es- 
sential to his defense, and that such 
witnesses should be sworn and heard, 
irrespective of their color. Mr. Wade 
promptly reported** this bill ; but it 
shared the fate of its predecessor. 

Mr. Wilson, of Mass., proposed*' 
to amend the bill of 1850 aforesaid, 
so as to secure to every one claimed 
as a fugitive slave a trial by jury ; 
which,* though once taken up" — 
Yeas 25; Nays 10 — failed to com- 
mand the attention of the Senate. 

Soon after the meeting of the next 
Congress, Mr. Stevens, of Pa., sub- 
mitted" to the House a bill contem- 
plating an absolute repeal, not only 
of the act of 1850, but ako of the 
Fugitive Slave act of 1793. Messrs. 
Ashley, of Ohio, and Julian, of Ind., 
introduced bills of like tenor. Mr. 
Julian ftullier proposed that the Ju- 
diciary Committee be instructed to 
report a biU to repeal the most ob- 
noxious provisions of the acts in 
question; but this was, on motion 
of Mr. Holman, of Ind., laid on the 
table: Teas 82; Nays 78. 

In the Senate, Mr. Sumner next 
introduced" a biU sweeping away 
all slave-catching by statute ; which 
was referred to a Select Committee 
of seven,' whereof he was Chairman, 
which had been raised to consider all 
propositions affecting Slavery. He 

" Jane 1 2, 1862. '« June 16. '• July 7. 
'•J0I7II. "Dea26,1861. "Feb. 11, 1862. 

'• May 23. 

" June 10. 

~ May 27. 
» Dec. 14, 1863. 

Digitized by 

" May 24. 
•Feb. 8, 1864. 




soon reported" his bill, with ample 
reasons for its passage — ^Mr. Bucka- 
lew, of Pa., making a minority report 
in opposition. Mr. Sumner persist- 
ently and snecessfiilly pressed the 
consideration of his bill, offering not 
to debate it ; and, after some discus- 
sion, the Senate adopted" an amend- 
ment proposed by Mr. Sherman, of 
Ohio, excepting the act of 1798 from 
the contemplated repeal: Teas 24; 
Nays 17. The debate was still fur- 
ther continued; but no final action 
was had on the bill. 

Mr. Morris, of N. T., reported" 
from the Judiciary Committee a bill 
repealing all acts and parts of acts 
contemplating the rendition of fugi- 
tive slaves ; which was debated with 
great spirit by a score of memT^ers — 
Messrs. Mallory, of Ky., Cox, of Ohio, 
and others, opposing it as equivalent 
to annulling the Constitution. Mr. 
Mallory observed that the majority 
had already crushed out the Union- 
ism of the revolted States, and were 
now extending the process to that of 
the Border Slave States, and impres- 
sively warned the House to forbear. 
Finally, after having once moved and 
withdrawn thePrevious Question, Mr. 
Morris moved it again ;" when it pre- 
vailed, and the bill passed under it : 
Teas 88 ; Nays 57. 

Mr. Sumner demanded *• the consid- 
eration of this bill in Senate ; and it 
was, after a fiery debate, ordered : 
Yeas 25 ; Nays 17. Mr. Johnson, of 
Md., endeavored to save the act of 
1793 ; but the Senate refused : Yeas 
17; Nays 22. The bill, after being 
laid over one day to enable Mr. Da- 
vis, of Ky,, to make a speech against 
it, was passed :" Yeas 27 ; Nays 12 
— ^Messrs. Cowan, of Pa., and Van 

Winkle and Willey, of West Va., 
voting with the Opposition. The 
President's signature, five days there- 
afl;er, made it a law of the land, abol- 
ishing for ever the least creditable 
and most disagreeable function of the 
marshals of our Federal Courts. 

The District of Columbia had been 
governed mainly by the laws of the 
States which ceded it; and those 
laws were framed in the interest of 
slave-holding. They presumed eve- 
ry colored person a slave who could 
not produce White evidence of his 
freedom ; and there had grown up in 
Washington a practice, highly lucra- 
tive to her Federal Marshal, but 
most disgraceful to the city and Na- 
tion, of seizing Blacks on the streets, 
immuring them in the jail, advertis- 
ing them, and waiting for masters to 
appear, prove property, pay charges, 
and take the human chattels away. 
Mr. Lincoln's Marshal, Col. Ward H. 
Lamon, came with him from Illinois, 
but was a Virginian by birth, and did 
not revolt at the abundant and profi- 
table custom brought to his shop by 
the practice just depicted. Gen. 
Wilson, of Mass., early" called the 
attention of the Senate to this pain- 
ful subject ; saying that he had " vis- 
ited the jail; and such a scene of 
degradation and inhumanity he had 
never witnessed. There were per- 
sons almost entirely naked; some 
of them without a shirt. Some of 
those persons were free ; most of them 
had run away from disloyal masters, 
or had been sent there by disloyal 
persons, for safe keeping until the 
war is over." He thereupon propos- 
ed a discharge by joint resolve of all 
persons confined in the District jail 

" Feb. 29. » Mar. 19. " June 6. ** June 13. « June 21. •• June 23, 1864. •» Dec. 4, 1861. 

Digitized by 




as fugitive slaves. In the debate 
which ensued, Mr. Wilson stated 
that the French legation had recent- 
ly taken to that jail gentlemen who 
had traversed the world inspecting 
prisons, with a view to their im- 
provement ; and that, after examin- 
ing this, they observed to the jailer 
that they had never before seen but 
one so bad ; and that was in Austria. 
Mr. Grimes, of Iowa, remaf-ked that 
he believed there was never a jail so 
bad as this, save the French Bastile, 
and some of the dungeons of Venice. 
When he visited it, a few days be- 
fore, he found among the prisoners a 
boy who claimed to be free-bom, yet 
who had been confined there thirteen 
months and four days on suspicion of 
being a runaway slave. He further 
stated that Marshal Lamon had for- 
bidden Members of Congress access 
to the prison without his written per- 

Messrs. Powell, of Kentucky, 
Pearce, of Maryland, and Carlile, of 
Virginia, opposed the resolve ; but it 
was warmly supported and passed :" 
Yeas 31 ; Nays 4. 

A similar resolve had already" 
l)een submitted to the House. No 
action was taken, however, upon this, 
nor upon the Senate's kindred meas- 
ure ; because the President, through 
Secretary Seward, addressed " an or- 
der to Marshal Lamon, directing him 
not to receive into custody any per- 
sons caught up as fugitives from Sla- 
very, but to discharge, ten days there- 

after, all such persons now in his jail. 
This put a stop to one of the most 
flagrant and glaring iniquities habit- 
ually perpettated in a Christian and 
civilized community. 

A bill reported " by Mr. Sumner, 
from the Select Committee on Slave- 
ry and Freedom, to prohibit the hold- 
ing of slaves on National vessels, 
and also the coastwise Slave-Trade, 
was lost" — ^Yeas 13; Nays 20 — ^but 
he again moved a prohibition of the 
coastwise Slave-Trade, and of all 
laws sanctioning and regulating the 
same, as an amendment to the Civil 
Appropriation bill ; and it was adopt- 
ed : Teas 23 ; Nays 14. Thus fast- 
ened to a necessary measure, the 
proposition was duly enacted, and 
received the President's signature on 
the 2d of July, 1864. 

Mr. Sumner proposed" another 
Amendment to this bill, providing 
that " in the Courts of the United 
States, there shall be no exclusion of 
any witness on account of color." 
Mr. Buckalew moved to add, " or be- 
cause he is a party to or interested in 
the issue tried." This was agreed 
to ; and Mr. Sumner's amendment, 
thus amended, was adopted: Teas 
22 ; Nays 16 ; and the bill passed, as 
already stated ; making it the law of 
the land that no person shall hence- 
forth be precluded from giving testi- 
mony either because of his color or 
because he is interested in the pend- 
ing issue. 

■ Jul 14, 1862. •■ Dec. 9, 1861. •* Jan. 25, 1862. •• March 23, 1864. •• June 24. " June 25. 

Digitized by 






Gen. Rosecrans, on assuming' 
command of Buell's Army of the 
Ohio, found it seriously depleted 
and demoralized by the exhaustive 
marches and indecisive conflicts of 
the last six months. With a strength 
fully adequate to the rout and de- 
struction of all the forces led into 
Kentucky by Bragg and Kirby 
Smith, it had seen that State ravaged 
throughout by that locust horde, 
which had in due time recrossed the 
Cumberland Mountains unassailed, 
returning to East Tennessee as if in 
triumph. Of the 100,000 men for- 
merly borne on its muster-rolls, he 
found, on examination, no less than 
26,482 "absent by authority"— most, 
but not nearly all of them, doubtless, 
in hospitals — sick or wounded; while 
6,484 more were "absent without 
authority" — in other words, had de- 
serted. His effective force was thus 
reduced to about 65,000 men ; while 
his cavalry was so inferior in nimi- 
bers and efficiency that the troopers 
of Forrest and John Morgan rode 
around us at will, striking at posts 
and supply trains, and compelling 
enormous and constantly increasing, 
exhausting details to keep open our 
communications and preserve our 
army from starvation. 

The railroad from Louisville to 
Nashville had been reopened to and 
across Green river; so that, though 
there was no considerable force of 
the enemy in its front — Bragg's 
army being still on its tedious, toil- 
some, circuitous retreat through East 

Tennessee — our army was clustered 
around Bowling Green, whence it 
could advance only so fast as the re- 
pair of its sole line of supply should 
be perfected. Its designation had 
been changed to " Fourteenth Army 
Corps ;" the Department having been 
curtailed, and rechristened that of 
the Cumberland. It was now or- 
ganized into three grand divisions: 
the Eight, under Maj.-Gen. McCook, 
with Brig.-Gens. J. W. Sill, Phil. H. 
Sheridan, and Col. W. E. Woodruff 
at the head of its subordinate divi- 
sions respectively ; the Center, under 
Maj.-Gen. G^o. H. Thomas, with its 
subordinate divisions led by Maj.- 
Gen. L. H. Bousseau, Brig.-Q^ns. 
Negley, Palmer, Dumont, and Fry : 
whereof Dumont and Fry were 8or»n 
relieved, and Palmer transferred to 
the Left Wing, of which Maj.-G^en. 
T. L. Crittenden had command, and 
which consisted of the sub-divisions 
of Brig.-Gens. T. J. Wood, H. P. 
Van Cleve, and W. S. Smith. Eose- 
crans assigned the chief command of 
his dilapidated cavalry to Maj.-Gen. 
D. S. Stanley ; while Lt.-Col. Julius 
P. Garesch6 — an officer of rare capa- 
city and merit — was placed at the 
head of his staff, with Capt. J. St. 
Clair Morton as Chief Engineer, 
and Col. Wm. Truesdail as Chief of 
Army Police. 

The railroad having been rendered 
serviceable, Rosecrans left * Bowling 
Green by special train for Mitchells- 
ville ; where he took horse and pro- 
ceeded to Nashville, whose garrison, 

> Oct. 30, 1862. 

* Nov. 1«. 

Digitized by 




commanded by Gen. Negley, he re- 
viewed next day. His divisions, as 
they arrived, were thrown out in 
jfront of the city, covering the roads 
leading southward ; the command of 
the Right here devolving on Gen. 
Jeff. C. Davis ; Gen. R. B. Mitchell 
relieved Negley as commandant at 
Nashville, enabling him to go to the 
front ; while Dumont's division was 
merged : a new one being created, 
and Brig.-Gen. J. J. Reynolds as- 
signed to its command. Until the 
raiboad was fully reopened • hence to 
Louisville, our men only lived from 
hand to mouth, rendering a farther 
advance impossible ; so that Bragg's 
army had time to conclude its long 
inarch and reappear in our front at 
MuRFBEESBOBouGH, before Rosecrans 
was prepared to assume the offensive. 
Meantime, Morgan had been ex- 
hibiting his audacity and vigor as a 
leader of cavalry. Several daring 
dashes on our supply trains below 
Mitchellsville had resulted in the 
capture of a number of our wagons 
and at least 150 men ; Lt. Beals and 
20 men of the 4th Michigan cavalry 
had been picked up* near Stone 
river; but Gen. Stanley, reporting 
for duty about this time, soon drove 
the Rebel raiders from our rear ; and, 
in several partisan affairs occurring 
directly afterward, the advantage 
was with us — a Texas regiment 
being chased * by Col. L. M. Kennett 
some 15 miles down the Franklin 
turnpike; while Brig.-Gen. E. N. 
Kirk that day drove Wheeler out of 
Lavergne — Wheeler himself being 
wonnded. Phil. Sheridan, on ano- 
ther road, pressed the enemy back to 
Kolensville, without loss on our part ; 
and Col. Roberts, 42d Illinois, sur- 

prised and captured Capt. Portch 
and a small squad of Morgan^s men ;. 
bringing in their arms and horses. 
A Rebel force having, about this 
time, dashed across the Cmnberiand 
near Hartsville, capturing a forage 
train and its escort. Major Hill, 
2d Indiana, chased the captors 18 
miles, recovering all we had lost, and 
killing some 18 or 20 Rebels — for 
which he was publicly complimented 
by Rosecrans; who, finding that 
some of his soldiers were base enough 
to surrender wantonly to the enemy, 
in order to be paroled and sent home, 
had fifty of the caitiflfe dressed up 
in ridiculous night-caps,* and thus 
paraded, before their jeering com- 
rades, through Nashville, to the 
music of the Rogue's March; after 
which, they were forwarded to the 
parole camp in Indiana. The lesson 
did not require repetition. 

Gen. Thomas having thrown for- 
ward on our left a brigade — nearly 
2,000 strong — ^to Hartsville, its com- 
mand fell to Col. A. B. Moore, 104th 
Illinois, who allowed himself to be 
surprised^ by Morgan, at the head of 
1,600 cavalry and mounted infantry, 
and most disgracefully captured; 
though the residue of Gen. Dumont's 
division was at Castilian Springs, 
only nine miles distant. Moore had 
neglected to fortify or even intrench 
himself; his vedettes were surprised 
and picked up; Morgan advanced on 
him at 7 a. m., in broad daylight, 
having previously gained his rear 
without exciting an alarm; when 
Moore, who had hastily taken post on 
a hill, and who soon contrived to 
evince every species of incapacity, 
cowardice inclusive, surrendered, 
and was hurried off with about 1,500 

•Nov. 26. 

* Nov. 13. 

• Nov. 27. 

• Nov. 28. 

Dec. 7. 

Digitized by 




of his men ; the residue escaping and 
giving the alarm at the Springs; 
whence Col. Harlan's brigade arrived 
just in time to throw a few shells 
after the escaping Rebels, scaring 
them from some of their plunder and 
taking a few prisoners. Moore's men 
were first hurried to Murfi^eesboro', 
stripped by the way of their blankets 
and over-coats, and thence marched 
directly up to our lines to be there 
exchanged — contrary to the cartel 
agreed on by the military chiefs of 
the belligerents. Gen. Kosecrans ex- 
changed them ; but gave notice that 
he would do so no more. In the 
Hartsville disgrace, some 150 on 
either side were killed or wounded.® 

Two days later, Wheeler, with a 
large force of mounted infantry and 
cavalry, attacked a brigade of our 
infantry, under Col. Stanley Mat- 
thews, which was foraging between 
the two armies; but was received 
with determined spirit, and driven 
oflF, with a loss of 100 to our 40. 
Matthews returned in trimnph, bring- 
ing in his train ; and was publioly 
thanked by Eosecrana 

Gen. Stanley, having received and 
distributed among his best horsemen 
some 2,000 revolving rifles, resolved 
to test their efficiency. Pushing 
down the turnpike leading to Frank- 
lin, he rode into * that town, driving 
the Rebel vedettes before him, taking 
a few prisoners, gaining important 
intelligence, and returning to his 
camp in triumph. 

At length — two months' provisions 

having been accumulated at Nash- 
ville, and a good part of the Rebel 
cavaby having been dispatched to 
"West Tennessee and to Kentucky, to 
operate on our lines of supjiy — 
Rosecrans determined to advance. 

His disposable force had been 
reduced by details and by casualties 
to 46,910 men : of whom 41,421 were 
infantry, 2,223 artillery, and 3,266 
cavalry — ^much of the cavalry very 
raw. The Right Wing, under Me- 
CJook, numbered 15,933 ; the Center, 
under Thomas, 13.395; the Left, 
under Crittenden, 13,288; beside 
Morton's brigade of Engineers, num- 
bering 1,700. This army was essen- 
tially weakened by its division— -or 
rather dispersion — into no less than 
110 infantry and 10 cavalry regi- 
menl^; its artillerymen serving no 
less than 24 batteries, or 150 guns. 

Our army, now well concentrated 
in front of Nashville, commenced its 
advance at daylight, Dec. 26 ; Rose- 
crans and staff riding out of Nash- 
ville "to join it, several hours after- 
ward. The three grand divisions 
covered all the roads leading south 
and south-west from that city. Of 
coxu^e, it rained heavily, as usual 
when our Generals attempted an im- 
portant movement in "Winter; and 
McCook, on our right, was soon en- 
veloped in a fog so dense as to bring 
him to a halt. Within two miles 
afler passing our picket-line, our ad- 
vance was resisted by heavy bodies 
of cavalry, well backed by infantry 
and artillery ; who skirmished sharply 

• Moore says he had but 1,200 men in the 
fight, and that he " was hemmed in on all sides 
by an overwhelming force of fiye or six to one." 
Bragg says Morgan had "not more than 1,200 
in acHon^^^ and that he took " 1,800 prisoners," 
with two guns and*2,000 small arms. T?^ ReM 
Banner (Murfreesboro', Dec. 1 1) says : " All 

told, our forces were about 1,300." Moore says 
the Rebel loss in killed and wounded was " about 
400 :" Bragg says their loss in killed and wounded 
was 125, and ours 500. Moore lays his defeat at 
the door of the' 106th Ohio, OoL TaflBe, whom he 
charges with intense cowardice. 
• Dec. 12. 

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and constantly, taking advantage of 
the continually increasing ronghness 
of tte country, which is in good part 
heavily wooded with forests of oak 
and dense thickets of cedar, render- 
ing the movement slow and by no 
means bloodless. McCook, with our 
right, rested that night at Nolens- 
ville, and the next at Triune; Crit- 
tenden, with our left, advanced the 
first day to Lavergne, and the next 
to Stewart's creek, where Kosecrans 
seems to have expected that the 
Bebels might give him battle. The 
third day, being Sunday, our troops 
mainly rested. Next morning, Mc- 
Cook pressed on to Wilkinson's 
Cross-Soads, six miles from Mur- 
freesboro'; while Crittenden, with 
. Palmer's division in advance, moved 
on the main Murfreesboro' pike to 
Stone River ; finding the Kebel army 
in position along the blufe across that 
stream. Palmer, observing an ap- 
parently retrogade movement on the 
part of the enemy, erroneously re- 
ported to headquarters that they 
were retreating ; and Crittenden was 
thereupon ordered to push across a 
division and occupy Murfreesboro'. 
Barker's brigade was accordingly 
sent across — the stream being almost 
everywhere fordable — and drove a 
Eebel regiment back upon ^eir 
main body in some conftision; but 
prisoners thus captured reporting 
that Breckinridge's entire corps was 
there present, Crittenden wisely took 
the responsibility of disobeying Rose- 
crans's order, and, favored by night- 
fiJl, withdrew Harker across the river 
without serious loss. 

Next day," McCook fought his way 
down nearly to Stone river, some- 
what west of Murfreesboro' ; and be- 

fore night our army was nearly all in 
position along a line stretching ir- 
regularly from north to south, a dis- 
tance of some three or four miles : 
Crittenden on the left, Thomas in the 
center, and McCook on the right; 
and, at 9 p. m., the three met, by in- 
vitation, at Eosecrans's headquarters, 
and received their orders for the 

It being now certain that Bragg 
had deliberately chosen this as his 
ground whereon to stand and %ht, 
and that he had concentrated here 
his forces, while his cavalry so stub- 
bornly contested and impeded our 
advance, Rosecrans proposed at day- 
light to throw forward his left and 
center, crushing Breckinridge, who 
held the Rebel right, and then, wheel- 
ing rapidly, fall with overwhelm- 
ing force in front and flank on their 
center, sweeping through Murfrees- 
boro' and gaining the rear of the 
enemy's center and left, pushing 
them off their natural line of retreat, 
and so cutting up and destroying 
their entire army. In pursuance of 
this plan. Van Cleve's division, on 
our extreme left, advanced soon after 
daylight ; Wood's being ready to sup- 
port and follow him, 

Bragg, however, had already de- 
cided to fight his own battle, and 
not Rosecrans's. To this end, he had 
concentrated heavily on his left, 
where Hardee was in command, 
with orders to attack McCook at 
daylight." Bishop Polk, in his center, 
strengthened by McCown's division, 
was directed to second and support 
Hardee's attack ; the two corps mov- 
ing by a constant right wheel, and 
crushing back our routed right upon 
our center, seizing first the Wilkin- 

VOL. IL — 18 

'Dec. 31. 

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fion and then tbe Xashville turnpike ; ' 
interposing between oar mrmj and 
its BopplT-trains, whenever they 
shoold have flanked our right and ^ 
gained oar rear. i 

According to Kosecrans's plan, 
McCook, however etronglv assailed, 
was to hold his position for three 
hoars, receding — if attacked in over- 
whelming force— ^very slowly, and 
fighting desperately; which he had 
undertaken to do. But there was 
a serious mistake in the ealcula- ' 
tion. Before 7 a. m., Hardee's corps ' 
burst from the thickets in McCo(^'s ' 
front and on his right ; CldHime's ; 
four brigades charging vehemently 
its extreme right, Cheatham's and 
McCown's divisions striking it more 
directly in front, hurling back our 
skirmishers at once on our lines, and 
crumbling these into a fleeing mob 
within a few minutes. Of the two 
brigade commanders in Jdmson's 
division, holding our extreme right, 
Gen. Kirk was severely wounded at 
the first fire ; while Gren. Willich had 
his horse killed and was himself cap- 
tured. So sudden and unexpected 
was the attack, that a portion of our 
battery horses had been unhitched 
from the guns and sent off to drink, 
a few minutes before. The guns, of 
course, were lost. 

McCook attempted to reform in 
the woods behind his first position; 
but his right was too thoroughly 
routed, and was chased rapidly back 
toward our center. A large part 
of this (Johnson's) division was 
gathered up as prisoners by the Eebel 
cavalry ; the rest was of little account 
during the remainder of the fight. 

McCook's remaining divisions, 
under Jeff. C. Davis and Sheri- 
dan, had repulsed several resolute 

attacks on thdr fr^mt, when the dis- 
appearance of J(dmson*s division en- 
abled the Bebeb to come in on their 
flank, compelling them also to give 
ground ; and, though repeated efforts 
were made by Davis and his subor- 
dinates to bring their men again up 
to the work, their fighting did not 
amount to much thereafter. 

Sheridan's division fought longer 
and better ; but of his brigade com- 
manders. Gen. J. V. Sill was killed 
early in the day, while leading a suc- 
ces^ul charge, and Cols. Boberts and 
Shaeffer at later periods — each fiEdling 
dead at the head of lus brigade, while 
charging or being charged. This 
division fought well throughout ; but 
was pushed back nearly or quite to 
the NashviUe turnpike, with the 
loss of Houghtaling's and a section 
of Bush's battery. 

By 11 A. M., the day was appa- 
rently lost. McCook's corps — a fiiU 
third of our army — ^was practically 
demolished, and the Bebel cavalry 
in our rear working its wicked will 
upon our supply trains and strag- 
glers. Nearly half the ground held 
by our army at daylight had been 
won by the triumphant enemy, who 
had now several batteries in position, 
playing upon our center, where ^eg- 
ley's division of Thomas's corps was 
desperately engaged, with its ammu- 
nition nearly expended, its artillery 
horses disabled, and a heavy Bebel 
column pushing in between it and 
what was left of McCook's corps, 
with intent to surround and capture 
it. This compelled N^ley to re- 
coil ; when Gen. Bousseau, pusliing 
up his reserve division to ihe fix^nt, 
sent Maj. Bing's battalion of regulars 
to Negley's assistance. The r^ulars 
made a most gallant and effective 

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charge, loeing heavily, but rendering 
admirable service. 

The weight of the Eebel attack 
had by this time fallen wholly on 
Thomas, commanding our center; 
Sheridan, entirely out of ammuni- 
tion, falling still farther to the rear, 
and the triumphant Bebels pressing 
on until they had reached a position 
which gave them a concentric cross- 
fire at short-range on Negley's and 
Bousseau's divisions. This compelled 
Thomas to withdraw them from the 
cedar woods to more open and &vor. 
able ground ; his artillery holding a 
ridge on the right (south) of the 
Nashville turnpike. In executing 
this movement, the regulars, Lt.-CoL 
Shepherd, were brought under a mur- 
derous fire, by which they lost 530 
men. But the ground now taken 
was held ; our batteries here concen- 
trated, and the Rebels' progress finally 
arrested ; their repeated attempts to 
advance out of the cedar thicket on 
our right and front being defeated 
with great slaughter. 

Palmer's division, holding the right 
of our left wing, had advanced, at 8 
A. M., to support Negley's movement, 
covering his left; but had not pro- 
ceeded far when Palmer found his 
safety compromised by a Kebel ad- 
vance on his rear. Halting Cruft's 
brigade, and ordering Col. Grose to 
face to tiie rear, he opened fire on the 
Bebels, and quickly repulsed them; 
while CoL Hazen, falling back a short 
distance, occupied the crest of a low, 
wooded hill, between the Nashville 
turnpike and railroad, and held it 
firmly until Grose, having driven the 
enemy from his rear, came up to his 
assistance ; as did two or three other 
r^ments. Again and again was his 
position assailed; but each attack 

was repulsed; and the fight closed on 
this part of the field with our troops 
entirely successfuL 

Bragg had brought all his army 
across the creek to overwhelm our 
right and center, save that Breckin- 
ridge, with his division, remained op- 
posite our left^ At 10^^ a. m., he, too, 
received an order to advance and at- 
tack ; but he had only moved half a 
mile, when a new order came to de- 
tach one or two brigades to the sup- 
port of Polk, in the center ; and he 
sent two brigades accordingly. He 
soon received a still further order to 
advance and attack, and then 6ne to 
report to Polk with all but Hanson's 
brigade. Moving his remaining brig- 
ades, under Preston and Palmer, by 
the left fiank, he crossed the creek 
and reported to Polk and Bragg just 
in season to see the brigades of Jack- 
son and Adams, which he had previ- 
ously sent, recoil from an assault on 
our lines; Adams being among the 
wounded. Breckinridge was now or- 
dered to charge with Preston's and 
Palmer's brigades, and did so ; gain- 
ing some ground, but losing consid- 
erably, and finally desisting, as night 
fell, because the position in his front 
was too strong to be carried by his 
force. During the night, he was or- 
dered back, with Palmer's brigade, 
to his old position t)n the Rebel right 

Gen. Wood, who was in command 
of our division thus assailed, was 
wounded in the foot at 10 a. m. ; but 
remained in the saddle till evening, 
when he turned over his command to 
Gen. M. S. Hascall. Though he had 
been obliged, early in ihe fight, to 
spare Hascall's and Barker's brigades 
to the relief of the center and right, 
he held his ground nobly througli the 
day; his batteries replying forcibly 

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to those with which the enemy an 
noyed ns from the heights South of 
the river, and his infantry repelling 
every charge made by the enemy. 
Before night, Estep's battery, which, 
with Cox'sjhad been splendidly served 
throughout, had lost so heavily that 
a detail of infantry was required to 
aid in working its guns. Bradley's 
6th Ohio battery at one time lost two 
of its guns; but they were subse- 
quently recaptured by the 13th Michi- 

Night fell on our army successful 
against every attempt which had for 
some hours been made to drive it; 
but with little reason for exultation. 
It had lost, since daylight, including 
stragglers, at least one-fourth of its 
numbers, with an equal proportion 
of its guns. It had lost half the 
ground on which it was encamped 
in the morning ; and the Kebel cav- 
ahy were on its line of communica- 
tions, making free with its baggage 
and supplies. Almost any General 
but Eosecrans would have supposed 
that there was but one point now to be 
considered : how to get back to Nash- 
ville with the least additional loss. 
But Rosecrans took, stock of his am- 
munition, and found that there was 
enough left for another battle ; so he 
resolved to stay. His guns were now 
well posted, and had the range of the 
ground in their front; and it had 
been fairly proved that the enemy 
could not take them, even with the 
help of the 28 we had lost So, giv- 
ing orders for the issue of all the re- 
maining ammunition, drawing in his 
left a few rods, so that it might rest 

advantageously on the creek, and 
welcoming and posting the brigades 
of Starkweather and Walker, which 
had come up as night fell, he lay 
down with his army to await such a 
New Tear's Day as it should please 
God to send them. Ammunition be- 
ing rather scanty, and fresh supplies 
expected, he proposed to keep the 
holiday in quiet, unless Bragg should 
decide otherwise. 

On a calm review of this day's 
desperate and doubtful carnage, there 
can not be a doubt that the battle 
was saved after it had been lost ; and 
that the man who saved it was 
William S. Rosecrans. Thousands 
had done nobly — Thomas, Sheridan, 
Wood, Rousseau, Palmer, Van Oleve, 
and othere, eminently so — ^but the 
day might have been saved without 
any of them ; while without Rose- 
crans it must have been lost. It was 
he who, when apprised too late of 
the sudden and utter demolition of 
his right wing, instantly pushed up 
Rousseau from his center to its re- 
lief, and hurried across Van Clove's 
and other divisions from the left to 
stay the tide of Rebel success ; it was 
he who — Van Cleve having just 
fallen — led the charge by a part of 
his division, which finally arrested 
the Rebels and repelled their ad- 
vance on our right — Rousseau forth- 
with emulating his example, charging 
desperately the enemy in his front, 
and hurling them back into the 
cedars with fearful loss on both sides, 
but with prisoners taken by ours 
only." And when, later in the day, 
the storm of battle rolled around to 

"Rousseau, in his official report, says : 

" As the enemj emerged from the woods in 

^reat force, sboutiDg and cheering, the batteries 

of Loomts