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Full text of "American cookery"

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'OTATOES TO THE RESCUE — SAVE WHEAT 

AMERICAN 
COOKERY 



rOR,M.ERLY 



THE BOSTON 
:(DKING SCHOOLMAGAZINE 

F CULINARY- SCIENCLand DOMESTIC • ECONOMICS 




«»|,, JUNE-JULY, 1918 

fW^$r:hmM€f:^yMf,w\ vol. xxiii no. i IW"| 



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PUBLISHED 
BY 

THE BOSTON C(©KING 
5CHQDL MAGAZINE C^ 

221 C0LUMBU5, AVE, 
BOSTON MASS 









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A \ 




The Second Helping 

The real test of home-baking comes when the biscuits 
reach the table. How will the family like them? 

The appetizing oven-odor, the sweet, nutty flavor , the crisp, 
tender crust and white, fluffv hearts of biscuits raised with 




^urriford 



THE WHOLESOME 

BAKING POWDER 

are sure to please and satisfy the family. Rumford is a 
master-leavener for small-breads, waffles and cake. It 
makes them light, easy to digest, and restores nutritive 
elements which white flour loses in milling. Rumford is 
efficient and economical— a favorite with many home- 
cooks, because so uniform in strength, so dependable in 
results, and makes the most of their favorite recipes. 

Rumfo?-d Baki?ig Powder stands for purityy efficiency and economy. 

Every housewife should have a copy of ' ' Rumford Dainties and 

Household Helps. ' ' We will be pleased to send it Free upon request. 

RUMFORD COMPANY, Providence, R. I. 



American Cookery 



FORMERLY 



The Boston Cooking-School Magazine 



OF 



Culinary Science and Domestic Economics 

Volume XXIII ^ ^ ^ ^ 

June-July, 1918— May, 1919 




Published by 

THE BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL MAGAZINE COMPANY 

Pope Bldg., 221 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. 



Copyrighted, 1918, 1919, by The Bos-^on Cooking-School Magazine ] Co. 



'd::^- . 

* 2 '*■' -t '■> •.■■» ■*■»'» -> • 



COMPLETE INDEX, VOLUME XXIII 

June -July, 1918-May, 1919 



Th 



Altar,_The . . . . . ._ . . . 

American Bean Helping to Win the War, 
Art of Keeping Well. The .... 

At Market Prices 

Audrey's Back Trail 

Aunt Anna's Trick of Taking Pains 

Avoid Meal Monotony 

Birth of the Sandwich, The 

Black Minorcas 648 

Blueberry Heights 18 

Box Luncheons for Office or School . . 721 

Busy Bee in War Time. The .... 101 

Camouflage 678 

Camouflage Cookery 734 

Camouflage Luncheon, The .... 278 

Camp Cookery 95 

Candlelight, A War-time Conservation . 323 

Canning without Cooking 48 

Children of Dreams 762 

Christmas in Denmark 337 

Christmas Spirit, The 326 

Christmas Sweets without Sugar . . . 339 

Collaborating a Cuisine 516 

Cooking by Electricity ...... 421 

Co-operative Cooking 183 

Couple of One-Dish Dinners. A ... 210 

Cream Cheese a la Isigny 187 

Delicious Prune Dishes 679 

Dickens Supper, A 501 

Don't Neglect the Flower Garden . . . 486 

Door-yard Shopping 127 



Fine Art 
110, 190. 



262, 342, 422, 502, 



676 

582 



Druagery as a 
Editorials, 30, 
662, 742 

Egg, The . . 577 

Evening Schools and Classes .... 500 

Feeding the Human Machine . . . . 258 

Few Good Spanish Dishes, A . . . . 206 

First Aid in House-Cleaning .... 600 

Fitting Monument, A 492 

Food Notes .... 45, 203, 276, 356, ISS 

French Food with a Southern i\ccent . . 11 

Friendly Fire, The 599 

From the Front in 1778, 1862, 1899, and 1916 261 

Futurist Cook, A 680 

Garden and Its Herbaceous Border, The . 723 

Going Back to Tramworth 643 

Green Leaves as Food 739 



Harmony in the Breakfast-room 

Have Some Macaroni 

Her Neighbor 

Home Ideas and Economies, 51, 129, 211, 

362, 445, 522, 602, 682, 762 
How My Family Saved Fats .... 
How to Secure a Better City Milk Supply 

Idols 

Immortal May 

Innocents 

Kin 

Kingship 

Little Kitchen on Wheels, The .... 



Little Things 43 



PAGE PAGE 

647 Making Candles in the Home .... 567 

s 16 Making of a War Bride, The .... 249 

573 Making the Dark Room Cheerful . . 360 

580 Meals; By Me 22 

411 Menus, 42, 44, 122, 123, 201, 202, 274, 275, 321, 

419 354, 355, 434, 435, 481, 513, 514, 561, 593. 
757 594, 674, 675, 753, 754 

439 Message of the Hour, The 436 

Milk and Its Products 656 

Misfits 252 

Morning and a Garden 728 

My Bit in Food Economy 126 

My Service Flag 359 

New Books ... 62, 294, 372, 612. 692 

Old-time Methods of Yeast Making . . 520 

Old-time Settle, The 563 

Once Cpon a Time 100 

One-Plate Dinners 278 

Oriental Recipes Worth Making . . . 518 

Original Designs in Cookery .... 575 

Partners 570 

Passing of the Year, The ..... 414 

Patriotism of Prevention, The .... 498 

Possibilities of Cheese, The 28 

Potatoes to the Rescue 25 

Practical Uses of Rocks 483 

Problem of YIeat-Buying, The .... 595 

Prudent Housewife and Her Linen, The . 414 
Psychological Boarding House in War 

Time, A 179 

R Stands for Oysters 440 

Sandwiches College Girls Make . . . 361 

Service Flag, The 366 

Silver Lining, The, 68, 142, 222. 300, 378, 532, 
614,698 

Some Spicy Zephyrs . 652 

Something for Supper 597 

Some Lses of Canned Goods . . . . 737 

Song of Home Things, A ..... 569 

Song of the Housewives 106 

Study of Ylother-in-laws, The .... 334 

Suggestions to Shorten Hours in the Kitchen 515 

Sunday Night Supper 107 

Tart that Tamed the Tiger, The . . . 489. 

Those Litmus-Paper Doughnuts . . . 730 

Tinkle of Ice, The 760 

Trays of Yesterday and Toda}' . . . 403 

Up-to-Date Curtains for Your Home . . 650 

Vacation . . 94 

View points 277 

War Bread and Wheat Substitutes on the 

Pacific Coast ........ 128 

War Days in a French Riviera Hotel . . 327 

What Dehydration Means to the Farmer 442 
What I Learned Last Year from Vegetable 

Canning 47 

What the North Shore is Doing in War 

Work 171 

When the Children Went to the Shore . . 280 

When You Do Up Your Curtains . . . 185 

Who is Me.? ._ 336 

! Will Peace Banish High Cost of Living.' . 255 

720a 



91 

103 
176 
281, 

496 
494 
175 
730 
660 
407 
661 
332 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Winds of Gods, The 

Witch of the Gem Pan, The . . ' . . 

Without Eggs 

Women and the War of Steel .... 

Seasonable and Tested Recipes 

Almonds, Salted 

Apple, Snow 

Apple Dessert Dish, Hot. Ill 

Apples, Jellied. Ill ' . 

Apples to Serve with Sausage .... 

Apricot Whip 

Asparagus, Spanish Style 

Asparagus, Vinaigrette Sauce. 111. 
Asparagus with Thousand Island Dressing 

Atlantics. Ill 

Baba. Ill . 

Balls. Spinach, for Soup . . . . 
Bananas, Compote of. 111. . . . 351, 

Bananas, Fried 

Beans, Baked with Sausage .... 
Beans, Canned String, Italian Style 
Beans, Dried Lima, with Ham .... 

Beef, Pressed Corned 

Berries, Sun Preserved 

Biscuit, Barley, for Cheese. III. 

Biscuit, Bran 

Biscuit, Oat Flour-and-Wheat . . . ^ 
Blancmange, Cornstarch. 111. . 351, 

Blueberries, Canned 

Bluefish, Broiled 

Bread, Boston Brown 

Bread, Oatmeal Graham 

Bread, Rye 

Broth, Chicken, with Spinach Bal's 

Brussels Sprouts, Butiered 

Buns, Hot Cross 

Cake, Barley Flour Sponge 

Cake, Cocoanut. Ill 

Cake, Dessert Apple 

Cake, Everyday 

Cake, Sponge ^1 , 

Cake, Oatmeal Cracker. 11! 

Cake, One-Egg 

Cakes, Hamburg 

Cakes, Rice Afternoon Tea 

Cakes, Sour Milk 

Canapes, Finished and in Preparation. 111. 

Carrots, Dried 41, 

Carrots, Flemish 

Cauliflower, Creamed, Conservation Style 
"Cauliflower with Cheese Sauce. 111. 
Charlotte Russe, Banana. 111. 

Chartreuse, Surprise. Ill 

Cheese, Cottage 132, 

Cheese, Cottage for Piping. 111. 
Cheese, Sunday Night. 111. ... 36, 
Chicken, Lamb or Veal, Creole Style . 
Chicken, Fricassee of, with Savory Rice. 111. 
Chicken, Panned, with Corn Fritters. 111. 

Chicken, Roast. Ill 

Chili Con Carne. Ill 

Chou Paste 

Chou Paste for Eclairs 

Chou Paste for Tart 

Chowder de Luxe, Corn 

Chowder, Oyster • 

Cocktail, Banana. Ill 

Cod or Haddock, Fresh, Saute .... 



331 

98 

358 

204 



752 
351 
432 
510 
348 
751 
748 
747 
748 
510 
120 
505 
432 
508 
269 
429 
427 
668 

41 
117 
589 
195 
432 

41 
745 
121 
132 
116 
505 
270 
670 

37 
592 
509 
271 
198 
272 
353 
508 
119 
121 
265 
121 
270 
433 
196 
350 
426 
197 
198 
117 
746 
193 
266 
267 
195 
590 
512 

39 
345 
266 
745 
347 



page 

Codfish Balls, Sunday Morning . . . 585 
Cookies, Chocolate Nut. 111. . . . 511 

Cookies, Honey Peanut. Ill 119 

Cookies, Maple Buckwheat. 111. ... 200 
Cookies, Alolasses 121 



Cookies, Sour Cream Maple 
Cookies, Spiceless and Eggless . 
Corncake, Spider. 111. . 
Cream, Maple Bavarian 
Cream, Prune Bavarian. 111. . 
Croquettes, Banana . . . . 
Croquettes, Green Corn 
Croquettes, Rice and Ham. 111. 



. 118 

. 119 

. 116 

. 199 

272, 591 

. 670 

. 114 

. 586 



Cup, Christmas Fruit 352 

Custard, Baked 121 

Custard, Chocolate. Ill 349, 350 

Custard, Mexican Style, Canned Corn . 428 

Custard, Onion 115 

Delicata, in Brown Sauce 433 

Dessert, Sponge Jelly Roll 752 

Dinner, Vegetable, with Eggs. 111. . . 507 

Doughnuts, Best Potato. Ill 671 

Dressing, Cottage Cheese Salad. 111. . . 196 

Dressing, French 749 

Dressing, Thousand Island Salad . . . 748 

Dressing for Sundae, Japanese Lucy . . 118 

Duckling, Panned 193 

Eclairs. Ill 512 

Egg Plant with Rice. Ill 114 

Eggs, Grand Due. Ill 588 

Eggs, Scrambled with Dried Beef . . 587 

Eggs, Shirred with Tomato .... I'^l 

Filling, for Pumpkin Pie 271 

Fish, Fried S lit, with Potato Diamonds. IlL 506 

Fish, Turba IS of, with Oysters or Shrin.ps. 666 

Flummery, Rice-flour 40 

Fowl Cook_'d with Vegetables .194 

Fritters, Canned Corn 428 

Fritters, Parsnip 428 670 

Frosting, Reliable Marshmallow. 111. 511 

Gingerbread, Aunt Delia's 198 

Gingerbread, Barley Cheese .... 38 

Griddlecakes, Cornflake. Ill 590 

Griddlecakes, Cornmeal and Rice ... 33 

Halibut, Planked, St. Valentine Style. III. 665 

Ham. Baked, ill 268 

Ham, Modern Style 586 

Ham Fricadelles. 111. ...... 268 

Hamburg Cakes with Macaroni and Bananas 507 

Hoecake, Missouri 34 

Hors D'oeuvres. Ill 265 

Ice Cream, Fig 273 

Ice Cream, Vanilla 512 

Icing, Chocolate Butter 273 

Jelly, Apple Mint 41, 121 

Jelly, Blueberry 41 

Jelly, Coffee 752 

Jelly, Rhubarb and Raisin 673 

Jelly Roll, Cream 509 

Jumbles, Lemon. Ill .511 

Kisses, Honey Molasses 273 

Leeks, Buttered, on Toast 750 

Loaf, Baked Bean 113 

Loaf, Cottage Cheese-and-Peanut . . . 194 

Loaf, iMeat 587 

Loaf, Canned or Left-over Salmon . . 746 

Loaf, Spinach-and-Cheese. 111. . . . 428 

Lobster, Broiled Live 665 

Macaroni, Sauce for 508 



720b 



COMPLETE INDEX 



PAGE 

Macaroons, Best. Ill 670 

IMacaroons, Cornflake . ; . . . 198 

Mackerel, Baked _ 746 

Meat, Cold, with Chinese Lettuce. I". 668 

Meat, Rechauffee with Poached Egg 111. 668 

Meringues, Egg-shaped, for Ice Cream. 111. 672 

Muffins, Cornmeal. Ill 508 

Muffins, Eggless 121 

Muffins, Hominy and Barley .... 33 

Muffins, Oatmeal and Cornmeal , . . 116 

Muffins, Potato Flour 353 

Muffins, Rice 270 

Omelet, Asparagus 747, 748 

Omelet, Rice, with Peas. Ill 35 

Onions, Peanut Butter Sauce .... 353 

Onions, Stuffed 588 

Ox-tails, Stewed 586 

Oysters, Creamed, in Timbale Cases . 667 

Oysters, Dry Stew of 506 

Oysters, Florentine Style. 111. . . 348, 426 

Parfait, Maple 752 

Pastry, Flaky, Plain 590 

Pastry, Rye-and-Oat Flour 199 

Pastry for Cherry Pie 38 

Pastry for Pumpkin Pie 271 

Peach Dessert, Canned, Supreme. 111. 433 

Peaches, Canned, Cold Pack .... 40 

Peas and Carrots 588 

Petite Marmite. Ill 585 

Pie Cherry. Ill 38 

Pie, Cottage Cheese. Ill 199 

Pie, English Pineapple 38 

Pie, A Layer Fish. Ill 346 

Pie, Lemon Cheese 121 

Pie, Meat. Ill 34 

Pie, Pork ... 266 

Pie, Rhubarb, Two Crusts. 111. , . . 752 

Pie. Pumpkin 271 

Pie, Squash. Ill 509 

Pie, Vegetable, Milwaukee Style, 111. . 429 

Pop Overs, Barley. Ill 34 

Pork, Roast Ribs of. Ill 348 

Potato Diamonds with Peas .... 506 

Potatoes Cooked in Broth 269 

Potatoes, Hongroise Style 36 

Potatoes, Southern Sweet 198 

Potatoes with Mint 588 

Prunes Stuffed with Nuts 673 

Pudding, Barley Cottage 118 

Pudding, Canned Corn, Nantucket Style 750 

Pudding, Maple Rice 270 

Pudding, Peach, Delmonico Style . . . 750 

Pudding, Vanilla Rice. 111. . . . . 750 

Puffs, Hominy or Rice 33,118 

Puffs, Luncheon 590 

Rabbit, Peanut Butter 353 

Raspberries, Canned without Cooking . 41 

Rice with Apple Compote. Ill 510 

Risotto Air Artigiana 349 

Roast, Boston 195 

Roe, Broiled Mackerel 746 

Rolls, Samboy 353 

Salad, Asparagus-and-Carrot. 111. . . 430 

Salad, Stuffed Beet 433 

Salad, Butterfly. Ill 430, 673 

Salad, Canned Brussels Sprouts . . . 673 

Salad, Cabbage and Beet. 111. ... 117 

Salad, Christmas Fruit 351 

Salad, Cucumber-and-Pimiento ... 36 



Salad, Fresh Fish .... 

Salad, Italian 

Salad, Jellied Date and Banana. 

Salad, Lobster. Ill 

Salad, Orange, Nut and Cress. 111. 
Salad, Pear-and-Nut, Cheese Dressing. 111. 



111. 



PAGE 

433 
431 
589 
749 
589 
196 

Salad, Pekin 752 

Salad, Pineapple-and-Strawberry ... 37 

Salad, Potato and Carrot. 111. . . . 116 

Salad, Potato, with Maine Sardines. 111. 507 

Salad, Prune-and-Cottage Cheese . . . 352 

Salad, Romaine, Date-and-Cottage Cheese. 197 

Salad, Salmon-and-Green Peas. 111. . . 749 

Salad, Tomato Jelly. _ 111 430 

Salad, Tomato-and-Pineapple .... 752 

Salad, Vanderbilt. Ill 589 

Sandwiches, Cottage Cheese . . . . 116 

Sandwiches, Hot Meat. Ill 196 

Sandwiches, Olive and Celery .... 509 

Sauce, Cider Apple 271 

Sauce, Apricot, for Baba. Ill 120 

Sauce, Drawn Butter, for Chartreuse . . 426 

Sauce, Chocolate, for Ice Cream, Eclairs. 512 

Sauce, Foamy Cream 751 

Sauce, Hollandaise 666 

Sauce, Mock Hollandaise 666 

Sauce, Lombarda . 431 

Sauce, Maple Syrup 118 

Sauce, Mint 668 

Sauce, Brown Mushroom 747 

Sauce, Raspberry 118 

Sauce, Thick Tomato 431 

Sausage, Mashed Potato, Apples, etc. 111. 348 

Shortcake, Apple, with Honey. 111. . . 349 

Shortcake, Strawberry 38, 752 

Shrimps, Creamed, Au Gratin. 111. . . 586 

Souffle, Chicken and Rice ..... 34 

Souffle, Codfish (salt) and Potato ... 586 

Souffle, Green Corn and Cheese . . . 114 

Souffle, Rice and Cheese 113 

Soup, Bean, Italian Style 265 

Soup, Black Bean 33 

Soup, Belgian 345 

Soup, Chicken-and-Tomato .... 745 

Soup, Chicken Giblet-and-Tomato . . 425 

Soup, Cream of Corn. Ill 425 

Soup, Cream of Canned Pea .... 506 

Sponge, Banana . 752 

Steak, Hamburg, with Brussels Sprouts . 269 

Steak, Rump, Neapolitan Style . . . 426 

Steak. Planked Sirloin. Ill 669 

Steak, Swiss 746 

Stew, Milk-and-Oyster 506 

Stew, Vegetable 346 

Strawberries and Raspberries, Canned . 41 

Stuffing, Bread for Chicken . .'^. . 268 

Sweetmeat, Nut, Date and Chocolate. 111. 353 

Sweets, Sugar-Saving 273 

Tapioca, Cherry. Ill 39 

Tart, French Apricot. Ill 590 

Tart, Strawberry. Ill 39 

Tarts, Jelly. Ill 671 

Timbales, Ham, with Brussels Sprouts.jj 111. 347 

Timbales, Lima Bean 113 

Timbales, Rice, Creole Style .... 673 

Toast, Cottage Cheese 197 

Tomatoes and Corn, Scalloped . . . 115 

Tomatoes, Corn and Onions, Scalloped , 508 



720c 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Turnovers, Strawberry Jam. 111. 
Waffles, Cornmeal , . . . 



PAGE PAGE 

751 ]\Iacaroons, Oatmeal Fruit 368 

36 Marmalade, Apple ' 220 



Queries and Answers 

Beef Juice 

Biscuit, Graham 

Bread, Graham 

Bread, Height of Loaf When Baked 

Bread, Potato 

Bread, Sponge, To Determine Lightness 

Bread, Starter 

Bread, Vienna 

Bread, When Baked 

Bread, When Readv to Bake .... 

Bread, With Thin Crust 

Cake, Moist 

Cake, Plain Chocolate 

Cake, White 

Cakes, Barley drop 

Celery, Spiced 

Chicken a la King 

Cocktails, Oyster, Crab Flake, Crab Meat, 

Conserve, Grape, Pineapple 

Cookies, Chocolate Nut 

Cookies, Oatmeal 134, 

Cookies, Peanut, Buckwheat, Molasses, 

Sour Cream 

Cookies, Peanut Butter 

Cookies, To Keep Moist 

Cookies, With Substitutes 

Cream, Spanish 

Diet for Loss of Flesh Through Worry 
Dishes for Southern School .... 
Doughnuts, Quantity of Baking Powder in 
Doughnuts, Why Light on One Side . 
Dressing, Japanese Suey, for 15 Sundae 

Eggs in Water Glass 

Eggs, Taste in Water Glass .... 
Entertainments to Raise Money 

Filling, Chocolate 

Filling Cocoanut, for Cake 

Filling, Marshmallow 

Flour, Potato 

Flour, General Rules for Substitution in . 

Flour, Ratio between \A'heat and Substitutes 

Food Values of Cream, Olive Oil and Butter 

Fowl, Fricassee of, Sa^-ory Rice 

Fritters, Banana 

Frosting, Chocolate . 

Frosting, Firm Marshmallow 

Frosting, Maple .... 

Frosting, Maple, Honey and Coi 

Frosting, Smooth, Glossy 

Frosting, To Harden Boi'ed 

Frostings for Rainbow Cakes 

Ginger Snaps, Conservation 

Gingerbread, Moist Spongy 

Gnocchi a la Romaine 

Grape Juice, Canned 

Grease Spots, Removal of 

Griddle Cakes, Bread crumb 

Griddle Cakes, Cornmeal and Rice 

Griddle Cakes, Cream of Maize 

Griddle Cakes, Sour Milk 

Ham., Baked 

Jelly-Making, Degrees on Thermometer in 
Jumbles. Orange Cocoanut . 
Luncheons, Light, for Auto Parties 



Syrup 



770 
606 
526 
287 
287 
287 
688 
527 
287 
287 
287 
135 
134 
135 
134 
370 
610 
450 
610 
690 
218 

368 
216 
767 
368 
767 
216 
765 
526 
526 
285 
607 
767 
290 

58 
606 
370 
3 70 

54 

55 
766 
216 
607 
133 
526 
135 
218 
690 
286 
767 
218 
133 
215 

60 
686 
451 
216 
220 
451 
606 
216 
136 
133 



285 
. 607 
. 603 

. 28 S 

. 136 

. 767 

. 218 

. 688 

. 768 

58 

. 770 

136 

58 

. 60S 

. 136 

. 135 

. 610 

450, 610 

285 

606 

686 

285 

216 

58 

690 

451 



jMenus, 50 per day, for Men 

A'leringue for Pies 

]\Ieringues 

Alousse of Vegetable Macedoine 
Mousse, Trouble with Maple 

Muffins, Bran 

Muffins, Cream of Maize 
Muffins, Toasted English 
Noodles, Gum Gluten .... 

Orangeade 

Parfait, Caramel 

Parfait, with Egg-Whites. Maple 
Pastry, Flours for Flaky 

Pastry, French 

Patty Shells, Regarding .... 

Pie, Elderberry 

Pie Raisin 

Pie-Melon 

Potash, How Put Up and Where Obtained 

Potatoes, French Fried 

Preserves, Cumquat 

Pudding, Baked Indian, with Beef Suet 

Cottage 

" Cornstarch 

Rice Glace 

" To Lighten a Date ... 

Puff-Paste 55, 608 

Queens, Lemon 136 

Refreshments for Afternoon Parties . 766 

Relish, Beet and Horseradish .... 370 

" Celery 368 

" Jellied Philadelphia ... 56 

Rice Flour, Uses for 135, 136 

Rolls, French 527 

Rolls, Quick Ryemeal 526 

Salad, Alligator Pear .... 

Jellied Cabbage .... 

Peach . 

Salads, Inexpensive 

Sandwiches, Cucumber, 'I'omato, et( 

'' Toasted Cheese 

Sauce, Butter Scotch .... 
■' Brown Color of ... . 

Chocolate .... 

Currant Jell}' 

Alarshmallow ... 
Service Plates, Use of ... . 
Sherbet, Peach or Plum 
Soap of Substitute Fats 

Soap, Hard 

Souffle, Spinach 

Spices, Uses of 

Sponge, Pineapple Tapioca 
Squash. Canned Hubbard 



60 

56 
367 
135 

56 
527 
451 
367 

58 
607 

54 
690 
367 
690 

56 
288 

55 

58 
451 



Steak, Salisbur}- 215 

Sticks, Cornbread 134 

Suppers, Church, for 50 .... 370 

Syrup for Canning 60 

Table, On Laying the 449 

Tarts, Strawberry .55 

Timbales, Spinach 288 

Vegetable Alacedoine, Molded with Spinach 288 

Waffles, Sour Milk 608 

Water, Salted for Cooking \"egetables . 450 
Watermelon, Preserved Heart of . . . 686 
Yeast, Potato 215, 688 



720d 



Choice Wheatless Breads for June - July 

Baking Powder Loaf Bread 

RIce-and-Cornmeal Griddle Cakes 

Cornmeal Waffles 

Cornmeal Sticks 

Hominy Puffs 

Rice Puffs 

Hominy-and-Barley Muffins 

Barley-and-Rice Flour Baking Powder Biscuit 

Cornmeal, Barley-and-Rice Flour Breakfast Cake 




Courtesy of Photo-Era 



"LICKIN' THE PLATE' 



Maclay Lyon 



American Cookery 



VOL. XXIII 



JUNE-JULY, 1918 



No. 1 



French Food With a Southern Accent 

Marseilles and Its Specious Variety of Restaurants 

New Variations of Sea Food 

Cuisine 
a la broche 
a I'huile 
a la casserole 

By Blanche McManus 



THE best food I have eaten in 
France has been here in the 
restaurants of Marseilles, 
though it is not at all like the French food 
we hear about at home." So said one of 
our American soldier boys who has been 
doing his bit and his bite, as he expressed 
it, in most parts of la helle France, the 
land of good cooks as well as the land of 
good soldiers. 

I suspect that, when our boys come 
marching home with glory, they will 
be experts not only in the arts of war as 
practiced in France, but also in the art 
of French cookery, and would be glad to 
have again some of their favorite dishes 
a la Francaise. These lines will suggest 
what the food of the Midi of France is, 
called "the best in the country" by the 
authority above quoted. 

The great distinction of Marseilles, 
next to being the chief port of the Medi- 
terranean, and the second city of France, 
is its restaurants. They are worthy a 
visit, for their boards are spread with an 
abundance and a variety not otherwise 
known in culinary circles. Largely this 
is because of their vari-colored, sea-food 
specialties, though their menus are full 
of novelties, from soup to nuts. 

The restaurants with world-wide repu- 



tations are grouped around the "Old 
Port," where Dumas' hero, Edmond 
Dantes, first put foot on shore, as he 
landed, in the first chapters of Monte 
Cristo — and there are reminiscences of 
him hereabouts today, legendary though 
some of them doubtless are. The most 
characterful of all is Pascal's. 

It was to Pascal's that I took my Amer- 
ican for his first taste of Marseilles res- 
taurants. Here I chaperoned him 
through the mazes of a Marseilles menu. 
To reach it you cross queer little canals 
and drawbridges, and wend your way 
along quays piled high with merchandise 
of many kinds, unladen from the quaint 
craft of the Old Port, ranging from lateen- 
sailed fishing boats to camouflaged tramp 
steamers. All the cosmopolitan Mediter- 
ranean people these quays — Greeks, 
Moroccans, Arabs, Maltese and Corsic- 
ans, as well as the uniforms of all the 
allied soldiery in Europe. Pascal's has 
a reputation almost as old as that of 
Marseilles, though the latter goes back to 
the Phoenicians. It is housed on the 
ground floor of an ancient stone building, 
which was old before the Revolution 
began, which made France the Republic 
that it is today. Its vaulted roofs and 
deep cellars one day gave shelter to 



11 



12 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



smuggler bands, perhaps pirates; in- 
deed, it is one of the legends of Pascal's 
that this is so. 

In pleasant French fashion one may 
dine out of doors, and this even in winter, 
in this sunny land. If it rains, the big 
"store," or tent, comes down to the rail- 
ing that cuts off the terrace from the 
street, and if there is the chill of a mis- 
tral, or north wind, in the air, a great 
brazier heats up all out-doors. Such are 
some of the unique features of Pascal's, 
which others have tried in vain to copy 
with success. 

The first act of the mondain comedy 
is to pay a visit to the kitchens, though 
they are very real, and have no trick 
scenery about them. They do not need 
it, — they are picturesque enough in them- 
selves. The cuisine is a great vaulted 
room with walls a couple of yards thick — 
a veritable bomb-proof shelter, had 
Marseilles to suffer from such things as 
Paris is suffering these days. Here in 
the great hooded fireplace, roasts and 
fowls and "little birds" are cooked to 



perfection on the old-fashioned clock- 
turned broche, or spit, the fire being usu- 
ally a braize of old grape-vine stems, 
which give a peculiar and altogether ap- 
pealing perfume to the cookery; consid- 
ered, also, the best possible, because of its 
rapid and easily kept up brilliant glow 
that lights the whole place like a bon- 
fire. 

"We are in luck," I said to my young 
friend from America. "This being Fri- 
day, you may have codfish cooked in al- 
most any fashion." It is curious how all 
the Mediterranean peoples love codfish, 
both salted and fresh. It is a staple on 
the menus. The grocers keep it in bar- 
rels before their doors ready for immediate 
use; sometimes, too, it floats around in 
luxurious marble tanks; also it is rela- 
tively high-priced, as compared with that 
at home. Here in France it is cooked in 
a dozen different ways, all of them good. 
It is most delicately prepared, as a cold 
dish — brandade, with a foundation of 
mayonaise of olive oil of the virgin forests 
of oliviers of Provence, plentifully in- 




PASCAL'S 



FRENCH FOOD WITH A SOUTHERN ACCENT 



13 



terspersed with pips of garlic, which have 
been bruised and mixed in a big stone, or 
marble, mortar, pounded with a pestle 
with a handle as long as that of a broom. 
It is thus worked up into a paste, which 
is almost white and almost of the con- 
sistency of putty. 

Into this mayonnaise is stirred the 
finely shredded, boiled codfish, which, in 
turn, is patted out or kneaded on a long 
shallow platter, on which it is served. In 
its more dressy form it is sprinkled with 
the choicest varieties of hard, black 
truffles, another specialty of Old Prov- 
ence; these are sliced thin, and, at once, 
you have the chic and fashionable black 
and white color-scheme, which is the 
vogue of the times in all things. It may 
be garnished with minced, hard-boiled 
eggs and green herbs, making a variation 
in the color-scheme that approaches 
the compositions of the cubists, which the 
chef is not, though he is an artist. 

There is also morue, saute aux olives^ 
which is codfish cut into tiny cubes and 
cooked by simmering in an earthen cas- 
serole, with a liberal addition of olive 
oil highly seasoned with aromatic herbs. 
It makes an ideal entree, with a baked po- 
tato as a side partner, or perhaps a patate, 
which is the nearest thing to our sweet 
potato, and which is seldom seen in 
France except in these parts. 

Another specialty is a cod ragout, 
stewed up with young burr-artichokes, 
which thrown into the skillet and cooked 
to tenderness can be eaten entire. Cod 
steak fried in olive oil, with a sauce of 
much pepper and fresh tomatoes, is per- 
haps the art of bringing this popular fish 
to the highest degree of culinary perfec- 
tion. I say fresh tomatoes, because the 
dried variety is much used here in the 
south in the form of a paste, which is 
prepared simply by passing the pulp 
through a collander and drying it out 
afterwards in the hot sun of the south- 
land, then to be stored away in crocks to 
be used as wanted. Tomato sauce, as 
such, is almost unknown, and is never 
seen as a condiment. 




MAKING AIOLI 

The most popular form of codfish re- 
past is that which is eaten in conjunction 
with aioli, the classic sauce of Provencal 
France. It is the conventional Friday 
dish on tables of all ranks — just plain, 
boiled cod with a copious dish of garlic- 
mayonnaise with boiled potatoes and 
boiled carrots on the side. The pungent, 
powerful odor of the aioli, which is simply 
essence of garlic arrived at in the same 
mortar and pestle fills the streets of all 
the southland around midday. As my 
American said: "It will swamp German 
mustard gas, if they could only get it on 
the front." But we all learn to eat and 
to love it, regardless of its effect on the 
olfactory nerves of newcomers, though 
one should really retire into seclusion for 
the round of the clock, after eating it. 
French boiled cod with a sauce bechamel, 
the traditional white sauce of the classic 
French chef, is constantly on the menus, 



14 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



even in competition with the numerous 
members of the finny tribes of the fresh 
fish of the Mediterranean, which run all 
the way from sole to sea bass. 

The fowl par excellence of southern 
France is the pintard, merely the guinea- 
hen. As one gets it at Pascal's, cooked 
on the broche, it is what the French call a 
reve, which is something far different from 
a nightmare. I believe it is coming, also, 
into deserved favor in America. I con- 
sider it far superior in flavor to the much 
reputed pheasant. The Midi chefs never 
stuff it; indeed, they rarely stuff any 
fowl, and they cook it, head and legs, and 
serve it garnished with croutons and per- 
haps a puree of chestnuts, usually, also, 
with the accompaniment of an escarolle 
salad. There is, also, a sort of wild duck, 
known as a becasse, rather strong be- 
cause it feeds on the fish of the lagoons, 
but succulent withal. The marcassin is 
a young wild boar, to go from fowls to 
animals, and mentioned here because 
they are often confused by those not in 
the know. 

The southern "game-bird" that the 
bon Provencal adores more than all others 



is the tiny grive — call it a thrush, though 
it is a bit different — which is the crown- 
ing delicacy of all southern French re- 
pasts. A recherche Marseilles dejeuner 
starts with a bouillabaisse and finishes, 
for its solid plats, with the grive, called 
vaguely petits oiseaux, for they are usu- 
ally served in pairs. The process of 
cooking them is seen at its best at Pascal's, 
their heads bobbing pathetically as they 
slowly revolve on the spit; pathetic it is, 
too, to see these, and other, song birds 
devoured by the gourmet as they are, — 
more pathetic even to know that they 
are trapped in their nests at night. There 
is no bigger game hunted just now, save 
on the fighting front. 

The bouillabaisse of Marseilles would 
need a book to do it justice. It is better 
in the restaurants than elsewhere, in- 
deed, it forms the corner stone of their 
attractions. I introduced the American 
to it at Basso's, though Pascal does it 
equally well. It is, however, the vogue 
to go to Basso's and eat it on the gallery 
overlooking the newly named Quai des 
Beiges, fronting the Vieux Port, with its 
ships of many seas. There are others 




BASSO'S GRAND RESTAURANT 



FRENCH FOOD WITH A SOUTHERN ACCENT 



15 



which go to form a battery of restaurants 
on the quay, but Basso's takes the palm, 
with its festoon of fish-stalls and oyster 
counters and dining rooms hung, peril- 
ously, like the Hanging Gardens of 
Babylon. 

Here is the most amusing outlook in all 
Marseilles, an admirable interlude to in- 
troduce into the middle of a meal. It is 
a sort of glorified fish-market restaurant, 
which has extended itself into a feeding 
place for sea-food specialties almost ex- 
clusively. There are three stories of lux- 
uriously appointed dining rooms, with 
paintings of the Mediterranean sea and 
shores decorating the walls, and with 
much glass and gilding. One may eat even 
on the sidewalk with only a paling like 
that around a New England garden be- 
tween one and the hurrying crowd and 
fakirs, who will reach over and offer their 
wares, which run all the way from Teddy 
bears to picture post cards, seashells and 
monkeys from Ceuta on the African 
Coast. 

Before one tackles the bouillabaisse, 
one dips into the coquillages, or shellfish, 
which are numerous and varied, and form 
the hors d^ceuvre of the midday repast of 
the Marseillais. These are edible curiosi- 
ties, somewhat resembling our clams and 
oysters, but largely they are of the nature 
of mussels and grubby things, which live 
in palmers' shells, all tasting salt as of the 
sea, and some having a peculiar aroma of 
their own, which has to be experimented 
with before one decides as to whether 
they are likeable or not. My American 
told me that people at home were begin- 
ning to acquire a taste for monies, or 
mussels, though I did not know this. 
Violette de mer is the peculiar name of 
another of these sea-food specialties, 
which my friend said looked like a trench 
grenade, only it was pulpy. They are 
extremely mushy, and not at all to the 
taste of Americans. The our sins, or 
pincushions of the sea, are better, but 
there is little to eat inside them to warrant 
the trouble of opening with a miniature 
pair of scissors. The crevettes, or prawns, 



brought across the Mediterranean from 
the Lake of Tunis, are better and are 
much like those of Barataria in Louisiana. 
Here they are eaten raw, or rather plain 
boiled, and are not worked up into a salad, 
as they might be, for they are fat and 
luscious. Of oysters there is much to be 
said. Here they are of two varieties, 
which are all that need to answer to the 
roll-call — the Portugaise, rough and big 
and coppery, and the Marennes, rather 
finer in texture and more expensive. 
There is no cocktail served with them, and 
they are never cooked, nor served as a 
garnish for other dishes, save, perhaps, 
that they will be cut up, in the absence 
of mussels, and poured over a fileted sole. 

Basso's and the others of the Old Port 
battery of restaurants display all these 
wares on stalls out in the open, and one 
may choose the variety, or the size, of 
the particular breed he may wish cooked 
and served. The openers and the fish- 
monger experts will discuss your choice 
with you like a fitter in a dressmaker's 
before the waiter carries off your fish 
to the cook. It is all very ceremonious, 
though happy-go-lucky and familiar, at 
the same time. And it takes time to 
carry the operation through to the end; 
nothing is hurried, nothing is left to 
chance. 

I told my American he would either 
love or hate bouillabaisse, as he would the 
black olives, the raw burr-artichokes and 
preserved tunny fish. I have known 
Americans to eat bouillabaisse every day 
for luncheon for weeks on end, as I have 
known others who, at the mere sight and 
smell of it, would turn as yellow as its 
saffron sauce. 

The receipt is not. complicated, but 
you must have the specious Mediter- 
ranean fish to have the real flavor. First, 
the various sorts of fish of its composition 
are boiled, and their juice used as a base 
for the sauce, which has added to it 
onions, smelly herbs — thyme and bay 
leaves, made hot with red pepper and 
colored generously with saffron, the latter 

{Concluded on page so) 



The American Bean Helping to Win the War 

By Robert H. Moulton 



THE humble bean is helping to win 
the war. But the bean is no 
longer cheap. For planting, they 
cost the farmer this season from 310 to 
312 a bushel. The food price at retail 
is considerably higher. Therefore, it 
becomes no man to refer irreverently to 
the bean, whether it be red, white, black 
or mottled, or whether it be baked, boiled 
or made into soup. 

The exigencies of the war have brought 
into prominence a comparatively ob- 
scure type of bean — pintos, dry-land 
grown. They are becoming known. They 
are gaining a reputation. The war is 
making them, and they are now being 
grown where none were grown before. 
Colorado had 35,000 acres of pintos in 
1916. Last year she harvested 175,000 
acres, an increase of 500 per cent. New 
Mexico, long the home of the pinto bean, 
has 300,000 acres, an increase of about 
600 per cent over last year, while western 
Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming to- 
gether cultivated some 25,000 acres of 



what was practically a new crop for these 
states. 

A total of 500,000 acres for six states is 
rather a remarkable showing, in view of 
the fact that this is a new country, and 
that the beans were raised by inexper- 
ienced growers, many of them bankers, 
school teachers, business men, railroad 
men. These growers are well satisfied 
with their efforts, for prices are good, and 
they have the satisfaction of knowing 
that they have brought to successful 
harvest a great food crop, raised under 
semi-arid conditions, where navies and 
other varieties of beans will not flourish. 
What is of equal importance, it means a 
big addition to the food supplies of the 
United States and its allies, for these 
beans are not perishable, are easily stored 
and handled, are very nutritious, and 
form a highly concentrated and valuable 
food for the use of the army. 

Early threshing returns in the South- 
west, this season, indicated a yield in the 
neighborhood of 400 pounds per acre 




VIEW OF A FIELD OF PIXTO BEAXS 

16 



THE AMERICAN BEAN 



17 



on dry land, or a total of approximately 
200,000,000 pounds in the six states 
referred to. A careful survey of produc- 
tion along the Burlington line in this 
section shows that fully 3,000 carloads 
will be shipped to market. That this 
enormous production will be utilized is 
certain, since the pinto has been officially 
recognized by the War and Navy De- 
partments. In fact, it has been placed 
on an equal basis with the navy and 
California pink beans for army use. 
Only a few weeks ago the Food Com- 
mission placed an order for 720,000 
pounds of Colorado pintos at 7f cents a 
pound. This is a good start, but com- 
pared with other food products pintos 
are cheap at this figure. 

In the past the pinto has been unjustly 
discriminated against, and it has not had 
a fair chance to climb to the place it de- 
serves as a food product. Its origin is 
obscure, and its name has been against 
it, the word pinto meaning "spotted." 
Because of its color and markings it has 
always sold on the market at a less price 
than white beans. Yet its type is as 
well fixed as the navy bean, and it breeds 
true to type. When baked, the spots 
vanish, and the bean turns a beautiful 
brown, while in nutriment, flavor and 
palatableness it is without a superior. 
The trouble would seem to be all kinds 
of nondescript beans — yellow, red, 
brown, black, pink — have been sold as 
pintos, and the majority of people do 
not know that this bean is an estabhshed 
variety of great merit. The true pinto 
is slightly larger than the navy bean, being 
about the same size and shape as the 
kidney bean, with a buif-colored body 
splashed with dark brown flecks. 

While a staple product of the South- 
west, the pinto bean is practically un- 
known in the North and East, where the 
navy bean has been the popular favorite. 
Yet, according to the Colorado Experi- 
ment Station, in food value it is practi- 
cally identical with the navy, but being 
more tender in flesh it cooks more easily. 
Chemical analysis shows that in the total 



calories, or fuel value per pound, the pinto 
exceeds other beans, having 1,695 units, 
compared to 1,625 for the lima and. 1,605 
for the navy. 

The pinto, being rich in protein, is an 
excellent substitute for meat. A com- 
parison of nutritive values of common 
foods shows one pound of pintos at twelve 
cents to be equal to the following: 
4.4 pounds raw potatoes at 3| cents per 

pound .= 15.44 cents. 
1.63 pounds sirloin steak at 30 cents per 

pound = 45.64 cents. 

2.01 pounds round steak at 23 cents per 
pound = 46.23 cents. 

18.6 pounds eggs at 35 cents per doz. = 
54.25 cents. 

5.2 pounds (5 pints) milk at 5 cents per 
pint = 25 cents. 

Grown on the great sun-flooded plains 
of the West, and drawing its moisture and 
plant food from far below the surface of 
virgin soil, the pinto obtains a natural 
flavor unsurpassed by any other bean. 
To get the best out of it, however, it 
needs to be thoroughly cooked. It is an 
especially good baking bean. For an 
ordinary meal two cups of pintos should 
be soaked overnight. In the morning 
drain, add fresh water to cover and one- 
half teaspoonful of soda, and then put 
on to boil. As soon as they come to a 
boil, drain and pour cold water over them, 
rinsing thoroughly. This gives them a 
firmness that keeps them from getting 
mushy. Lay a thin slice of pork or bacon 
in the bottom of a pan, or baking dish, cut 
up a small onion fine, add this to the 
beans, and pour all into the pan or dish. 
Next take a few more slices of pork or 
bacon and press them down into the 
beans, adding a little salt, a pinch of 
ground mustard and a tablespoonful of 
molasses. Finally cover with water, set in a 
slow oven and bake from six to eight hours. 
As the water boils out, add more, being sure 
that it is boiling water, since cold water 
added retards the cooking and toughens 
the beans. When thoroughly cooked they 
will mash at the slightest touch, being 
a beautiful brown, moist and tender. 



Blueberry Heights 

By Mary L. Gordon 



SOMETIME in July, after the ex- 
citement of the Fourth has passed, 
you will meet, on our country 
roads, teams of various description, sug- 
gesting, by sundry baskets, pails, and 
bags of hay, a mobilization of some sort, 
industrial or pleasure-seeking. A team, 
it should be explained, means in New Eng- 
land anything from a one-horse buggy to 
a four-in-hand, and in this connection 
will, more often than not, consist of one 
horse and a two-seated surrey, or beach 
wagon. 

Passing these leisurely travelers with 
friendly nods and greetings, come auto- 
mobiles frequently "manned" entirely 
by women, but bound apparently on 
similar errands, or possibly pursuing the 
same business on more extended lines. 
For our remotest wilds are no longer safe 
from the ubiquitous motor car that brings 
distant mountain summits within the 
limit of a day's excursion. However di- 
verse their points of destination, the 
object of all these parties is the same. 
They are going blueberrying. 

For more than a week blueberries have 
been ripe along the railroad track among 
the wild strawberries, and by degrees the 
pine plains, far and wide, especially on 
recent "cuts" or "burns," the shores of 
isolated little ponds, the gravelly, rock- 
strewn gashes, where road material has 
been taken out, offer tempting fields to 
the picker. Best of all is that rounded 
hill rising some six hundred feet south of 
the railroad, a short half-mile or so 
away. 

It is high noon of a hot July day. 
Above our heads arches a sky of intense, 
illimitable blue, — blue that is neither 
cobalt nor sapphire nor turquoise, but 
a blending and fusing of all three in a 
living blue beyond translation into words, 
still more beyond the painter's brush. 
In place of that deep, or rather lofty dome 



of the semi-tropics, our northern land- 
scape has a shallow dome, which varies 
in apparent height from time to time. 
A sun of tropical ardor pours without 
stint its rays of heat and light upon the 
world of nature that accepts so grate- 
fully, and on the world of men that so 
often turns an ungracious back, closing 
blinds and drawing down window shades 
against the heavenly messenger. Every 
feature of the landscape wears a smile 
today, from tiny blade of grass to moun- 
tain ledge, blinking and quivering in the 
dazzle, reflecting light and heat with all 
its joyful might. Sand bank and road 
are shimmering yellow-white, gold ochre, 
indescribable tones, while even the tarvia 
highway forgets, in a measure, its doleful 
hideousness. Greens everywhere are ju- 
bilant; bluish and silver of white pine, 
duller green of red pine, yellow-green of 
pitch pine, emerald of lawn and field and 
intervale, dignified green of elm and 
maple, locust and ash, daring green of 
white birch, subtle green of poplar, greens 
of every class and order proclaim the 
glad news of summer. 

In shady levels of the first rise, as well 
as in the little grove beside the track, 
horses stand hitched among the trees, 
contentedly eating hay, or munching 
oats from a feed-bag. They are staid 
family roadsters, well past their flighty 
youth. Under the wagon seats ten- 
quart pails, and big baskets w4th white 
cloth tied securely over the top, testify 
to the success of a forenoon's picking. 
On a little ledge farther up an elderly 
couple are eating lutnch; evidently this 
is a holiday for them, a respite from the 
dull monotony of the small farm. 

Those two white-haired men, bending 
industriously over their work, are clergy- 
men enjoying the physical effort after 
labors mental and spiritual. Just beyond 
them we pass two pianists and an artist 



18 



BLUEBERRY HEIGHTS 



19 



from the city, who take recreation in this 
form. The majority, however, are pick- 
ing berries for profit rather than pastime, 
as good fruit commands a sure market, 
both at home and in nearby cities. 
Some pick directly into baskets, which 
are packed in crates and carried down all 
ready for shipping, thus saving both 
time and waste of fruit by handling. 

But the blueberry itself is of vastly 
more significance than the manner of its 
gathering. Gray's Botany defines the 
whortleberry family as — " known by 
having the tube of the calyx adherent to 
the ovary, on which the monopetalous 
corolla and the stamens are therefore 
mounted. All are shrubs, with scaly 
buds. Fruit a berry, or berry-like." 
While few, perhaps, of its countless 
hunters would recognize this description, 
or know the berry by its generic name, 
vaccinium, all children know at sight the 
low bush with its dense, small-leaved 
foliage, green-white flower clusters, and 
the summer fruit, "blue or black, with 
a bloom." 

Like almost all the heaths the blue- 
berry is a pioneer, loving the wild, free 
places of earth, bleak hillsides, lonely 
mountain tops, cold bogs and swampy 
levels, rocky pastures, clearings, burned 
districts of the plain. Wherever fire and 
the axe have laid waste, there you will 
find the blueberry following, as the Red 
Cross follows the smoke of battle, labor- 
ing with sweet fern and scrub oak to re- 
deem the land until maple and oak, and 
birch and poplar, can replace the pines 
that went up in smoke. It is the natural 
agent of reclamation; a repairer of the 
breach; a binder up of wounds; spread- 
ing over the fields of ruin a delicate 
mantle of protection, veiling their deso- 
lation from sight, healing burns and 
bruises, dressing battle scars with aseptic 
covering. At the same time, from those 
very scars, the shrub itself draws new 
vigor, putting forth leaf and blossom and 
fruit in fresh luxuriance. For three 
seasons after a fire one usually finds an 
abundant crop of berries, — provided 



frosts have not killed the blossoms, then 
the yield diminishes, dies out. 

Of our common varieties, some are 
black, or purplish, mistaken often for 
huckleberries, but the typical blueberry 
is of that exquisite blue, deep and vivid, 
yet soft, which, under various aliases, 
remains a favorite of fashion. On the 
plain or small hill sweet fern is an in- 
separable companion. One finds rasp- 
berry and blackberry friendly neigh- 
bors, also the purple flowering raspberry, 
with its purple-crimson petals.* Dog- 
woods and mountain maple, striped maple 
and hobble-bush are interspersed with 
the young birch and poplar of the hill, 
where sad, fire-scarred pines still sway in 
solitary state above ledges that bear, 
through all vicissitude of fire and storm 
and passing ages, the scratchings of for- 
gotten glaciers. Around these scattered 
boulders and blackened stumps you find 
some of the best picking, great clusters 
of plump berries hiding away under 
bushes and tall grass. 

Not so many years ago this hill slope 
was virgin forest, pine and hardwood, 
with one narrow trail leading to the top, 
where one tied a handkerchief on the 
big oak at its right to make sure of find- 
ing the trail again. Now, since the lum- 
berman passed over, followed by the 
inevitable fire, we face a panorama un- 
equaled for peaceful beauty. Mountain 
ranges, broad intervales, winding river,, 
for the dominant features, enhanced by 
lesser details of ponds and hills set down 
as by haphazard, to vary the flood-plain, 
which holds our village and neighboring 
settlements. A typical New England 
landscape, softened by tree masses of elm 
and maple and pine. As the eye roams 
over this outspreading tranquility, all 
aglow with sunlight; as we bask in life- 
giving warmth, absorbing immediately 
the solar energy, for which our souls and 
bodies have been starving through long 
months of cold; as we plod along at our 
simple task among the sweet, growing 
things of earth, it is difficult to believe 
in a world of evil and strife and misery, 



20 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



a world wherein nations are battling to 
the death with deadly hate or deadly 
fear as the motive power. Up here is 
"God's country" of unspoiled natural 
forces, a country for the soul to grow in, 
until it rises above material interests, 
sordid ambitions. As we harvest, quart 
by quart, the free stores of nature, we 
come to closer communion with Nature 
herself, as we do not in other ways, even 
in so-called "nature study." 

By August mountain berries will be 
ripe, arud, if we are so fortunate as to 
possess friends with motor cars, we make 
an excursion to that rambling, solitary 
height guarding, as a lone sentinel, the 
eastern plains. There are, you will ob- 
serve, two excuses which the New Eng- 
lander holds legitimate for roaming 
afield: "Mayflowering," and "Berry- 
ing"; for the former, the first bloom after 
our long and rigorous winter is its own 
sufficient excuse; for the latter exist 
reasons of practical import. For blue- 
berries, raspberries, blackberries have 
definite commercial value in dollars and 
cents. They fill an important place on 
our home diet list; for are not pies, short- 
cakes, muffins, pickles, jams, jellies, and 
sauce time-honored worthies ? — to say 
nothing of the fresh fruit. To spend 
summer days in their acquisition is, there- 
fore, commendable enterprise; while to 
go off for a mere holiday, hunting Labra- 
dor tea, or the showy lady's slipper, is 
to invite mild censure from one's more 
thrifty neighbors. The universal growth 
of nature study has broadened, to some 
extent, the popular outlook, but to the 
genuine Yankee such practice still savors 
of idle frivolity. 

Who that has ever climbed a mountain, 
small or great, does not recall that pe- 
culiar thrill of anticipation at starting 
upward into the shroud of mist which, 
even in the fairest weather, so often en- 
velops our mountains in early morning.? 
Up through dewy pastures, where horses 
or cattle cast an appraising eye upon our 
haversacks, perhaps to follow with in- 
quiring sniffs; under apple trees and 



through swinging gates, crossing a noisy, 
stony, mountain brook, into the well- 
worn trail that makes three miles of two 
thousand feet elevation. 

This height has none of those tokens 
of fire ravaging, so common in this region, 
only clean, vigorous second growth, where 
original forest is not yet standing. Slen- 
der gray boles of beech and maple shoot 
straight above us, picked out with white 
of birch, or yellow-gray of poplar, and 
offset by solemn masses of the ever- 
greens, spruce and fir and hemlock, with 
pine always largely in evidence. Hobble- 
bush berries are turning orange-red, and, 
close to the dead-leaf carpet beside the 
trail, yellows and orange and brilliant 
reds are repeated among the mushrooms, 
toned here and there by pallid amanita, 
or plump white puff-balls. The leisurely 
road follows a ravine that divides the 
North and Middle peaks, at least for the 
greater part of the ascent, and all along 
that deep-down, gurgling music of rush- 
ing water accompanies our upward 
march. — Just a word in regard to clothes. 
All experienced trampers will, of course, 
come in short skirts of lightweight cloth 
or khaki, cotton blouses, and stout boots 
or shoes. If one has not rubber soles, a 
pair of old rubbers will be invaluable for 
slippery ledges and the badly washed, 
boulder-strewn road, where early rains 
have played havoc. Thin cotton dresses, 
such as are sometimes worn for plains 
berrying, are wholly unsuited for climb- 
ing. When, after seemingly endless miles 
of heavy growth, in which none but the 
most meager glimpses of the top have 
been obtained, we come finally to sunny 
opening, dry and airy and breezy, the 
transition is most welcome. 

Here are the first blueberries! How 
grateful is the warm earth on which we 
kneel, burrowing into rank little bushes 
after the juicy clusters, drawing deep 
breaths of relief from the weight of knap- 
sack or haversack, with its burden of 
luncheon. For on siich trips one must 
look well to provisions, including water 
or lemonade, tea or coffee. For berry- 



BLUEBERRY HEIGHTS 



21 



picking, a strong basket with a stationary 
handle is much better than pails, being 
light, steady, easily carried, less inclined 
to accidents. Noon comes all too quickly 
for the work, but none too soon for our 
appetites, or our zeal for a view from the 
actual summit of open ledge, barren now, 
but once crowned by a house and the 
scene of much summer festivity. 

What royal table can equal a mountain 
top in the full blaze of a summer noon.? 
Or what perfume of kings' gardens is to 
be compared with these.? Incense of 
pine and fir, breath of sweet fern, blue- 
berry and checkerberry, the indefinable 
fragrance of the free out-of-doors. The 
sun is very hot, but so clear and pure and 
dry is the atmosphere that one feels ex- 
hilaration instead of oppression. Surely 
no banquet can surpass the sandwiches 
and hard-boiled eggs and pickles one 
consumes while gazing out over a summer 
world. Feasting the eye no less than the 
palate. 

On these mountain expeditions one has 
always the exciting possibility of un- 
earthing a Maine gem. For our hills 
guard other treasures beside blueberries 
and timber. Tourmaline, amethyst, 
topaz, aqua marine, are mined on several 
Maine mountains, while garnets are rather 
common. This particular mountain shel- 
ters an amethyst pocket of unknown 
value, from which have been taken gems 
of wondrous color and brilliancy; but the 
mine is on a private estate and not ac- 
cessible to the public. 

Yet, to the nature-lover, no rock crys- 
tal out-values that gem so freely out- 
spread for all, the country which lies 
like a map north, east, south, west, soft- 
ened and blurred by yellowish haze be- 
yond the immediate townships at our 
feet. River and lake and modest pond, 
phantom peak and nearer hill, village 
and farm and tree-dotted plain, the land- 
scape might hold one for hours. Or 
these little flower gems massed about the 
ledges' nooks and corners, pearly ever- 
lasting, and dainty violet-blue Scotch 



harebell, which is found on rare summits. 
Today recalls the superlative degree of 
blueberry that rewarded our climb of an 
austere peak some forty or fifty miles 
north, a wild trackless forest for three 
solid hours, straight up and up, with no 
trail except fragmentary bear-paths; 
where every rod must be back-blazed for 
the return, and we clamber over boulders 
and fallen trees to emerge upon the first 
ledge into sunlight — and blueberries. 
And such berries! Bigger, bluer, firmer 
than any others, with a flavor peculiar 
to themselves. On such elevations we 
find the blueberry growing in company 
with mountain cranberry — deep-red, 
acid, and delicious when cooked, on low 
bushes close against the ground — and 
the dark, bitter little bearberry. A little 
further on a bog of deep sphagnum moss 
produces real bog cranberries, and all on 
the brink of a sheer precipice. While 
before and behind — an invincible gar- 
rison — stand ranks of the formidable 
dwarf spruce through which one squirms 
or crawls to heights above. 

'^ Excelsior! ^^ is the blueberry's motto, 
increasing its vigor and efficiency with the 
rising altitude. If its more showy rela- 
tives, mayflower and mountain laurel, 
are pioneers of beauty, the blueberry is 
a pioneer of use, — or as such it appears 
to our sordid perception, which recog- 
nizes ^' fruit" as something good to eat. 
Intimate association with the blueberry 
on its native heath reveals a subtle af- 
finity between this hardy climber and its 
human neighbor. It is not altogether 
financial or food value that draws reap- 
ers by the hundred to its harvest. Un- 
conscious, but deeply rooted, lies a sense 
of kinship with this Puritan of the plant 
world; the same love of freedom and 
conquest over difficulties; the same reso- 
lute persistence in definite aims; the 
same fine scorn of ease and idleness. 
Pioneers of two kingdoms, the bond unit- 
ing plant and human kind might ap- 
propriately make the blueberry the 
emblem of our New England people. 



Meals: By Me 

By I. R. Fargo 



I ABHOR housecleaning. That is, 
while not in the slightest objecting 
to a sanitary abiding place, I object 
to the strenuous methods by which this 
result is achieved. But, being merely a 
man, I resign myself to the inevitable; 
I conjure up the same fortitude commonly 
employed to stiffen my limbering verte- 
brae before a seance with my dentist. 

Recently, however, fate, in the shape 
of a wrenched patella, sentenced me to 
an extended stay remote from my be- 
loved and insatiable office. More; she 
did it at a season when housecleaning 
already cast its coming shadow; did it, 
I verily believe, "a-purpose," and with a 
chuckle up her sleeve. But my wife, al- 
ways generous, postponed the feminine 
semi-annual orgy; I had begun to hobble 
somewhat, with the aid of a capable 
hickory cane, when she affably an- 
nounced: 

"Timothy, we'll begin housecleaning 
tomorrow." 

We did. Thereafter we ate on the 
titchen table — breakfast, lunch, supper. 
Dinner was taboo. We ate a hodge- 
podge hauled from the pantry many 
minutes past gong-time and deposited 
helter-skelterly on the oilcloth. I grum- 
bled. My disabled patella had in no 
wise impaired my natural instinct for 
food. 

"I'll turn cook myself," threatened 
J, rashly. 

^'Do," cheered my wife quickly. "It 
"Will take up your mind, and — we can 
clean the kitchen last." 

Maribelle had called my bluff. (She 
never forgot that in the days of my youth 
I had once acted as second cook at a 
•college club.) I ought to have known 
tetter; besides, I was not sure that I 
•wanted my mind taken up. As to clean- 
ing the kitchen last — I cast a suspicious 
glance across the oilcloth, but my help- 



mate's countenance was as sweet and 
devoid of sarcasm as a rose in bloom. 
I was in for it. 

"Very well," I accepted. 

"You might begin on supper," sugarly 
suggested Maribelle. 

"Very well," I reiterated glumly. 
"You won't get much." 

"We won't expect much." 

Had I not known that Maribelle was 
positively incapable of innuendo — Nev- 
ertheless. Oh hum! 

I sat down and considered. There- 
after I did considerable considering. 
But I purposed to accomplish my task in 
blissful isolation. To this end I placarded 
the dining-room side of the kitchen door: 

"Callers Can't Come: 
Oh-Lookers Stay Out: 

Mealtime Loiterers Eat the Leavings." 

Then I began to make hay. That 
night we had something Maribelle's new- 
est cook book called French Toast; but 
which my grandmother, I remember, 
dubbed Fried Bread. 

"One egg to one cup milk, season with 
salt. Beat well. Dip stale bread in the 
mixture and fry to a golden brown." 

So it ran. I only burned up one skillet 
full. Billy Bumps, next door, encouraged 
by the promise of a penny, brightened on 
my trouser leg, made a quick-time trip 
to the bakery for me. I learned that 
stale bread sold reasonably cheap, also 
that brown bread made most perfect 
French toast. 

"Too good for an amateur, Timothy," 
complimented my wife after supper, 
putting back the cover to the preserve 
jar — we're Hooverizing on butter. With 
a certain poignancy, I wondered if I had 
made any such comforting comment ten 
years ago, about the time Maribelle gave 
up a good office position merely to cook 
meals for me. 

"Potato Puree." I found this in one 



22 



MEALS: BY ME 



23 



of Maribelle's Household Magazines, and it 
looked easy; though, if I'd done the nam- 
ing, 'twould have been plain potato soup. 

"Four large potatoes; parboil, drain 
and cover with fresh hot water. Add 
salt to season, and a tablespoonful of 
chopped parsley. When tender put 
through a puree sieve, add one pint good 
milk. Reheat, serve hot with toast." 

"Hot potato puree — with parsley!" 
sighed Maribelle contentedly. "Timo- 
thy, I'm proud of you." (To tell the 
truth, I was proud of myself.) 

"Bean Chowder. One cup beans 
soaked over night; add one cup fried 
onions, one cup thickened soup stock, 
salt to season, simmer till tender. Then 
add one pint small boiled potatoes, and 
one cup cooked macaroni." 

It was good, the above. "My dear, 
for a plain chowder, what do you think 
of that.'"' I chuckled. In fact, I was so 
gratified I forgot to give credit to Kitchen 
Kookery. Perhaps, because I had been 
in the habit of looking upon Kitchen 
Kookery with disdain, and more than 
once had I advised Maribelle to throw 
the thing away, and read the Literary 
Outpost, a more dignified and educa- 
tional magazine. I had really considered 
my wife's taste in magazines not quite — 
Hum — . I've a shelf full Of trade jour- 
nals, myself, down at the office. Before 
that housecleaning orgy was over K.K. 
began to crowd the L. O. pretty hard for 
first place in my affection. 

In the days of my youth my grand- 
father used to send me to mill for a sack 
of shorts to feed the cow, but my grand- 
mother always scooped out a pailful first 
to make biscuits. Why could not I 
essay shorts biscuit. I could; I would. 
Maribelle said they were the best ever. 

"Shorts Biscuit. Two cups shorts, 
two cups flour, one teaspoonful salt, two 
large teaspoonfuls baking powder, sift. 
Stir up with buttermilk sweetened with 
a bit of baking soda. Turn out on a well- 
floured breadboard, mix till the dough is 
smooth and firm. Roll out, cut, and 
bake." 



After that I aspired to dumplings. 
Also of shorts. 

"Shorts Dumplings. One-half cup 
shorts, one-half cup flour, one-half tea- 
spoonful salt, one teaspoonful baking 
powder. Sift. One-half cup buttermilk 
sweetened with a small bit of cooking 
soda; stir into dry ingredients. The 
dough should be very stiff. Drop by 
spoonfuls over a boiling stew (mostly 
vegetables), cook fifteen minutes without 
disturbing. Serve hot. 

"Dumplings," approved Maribelle, 
"and light as a feather!" 

Somewhere, sometime, I once heard 
my wife explain to somebody that, if 
dumpling dough was stirred very stiff, 
not crowded in the pot, and not dis- 
turbed till done, it would never fall. At 
exactly the opportune moment this bit 
of information popped up and poked its 
head out of some hidden cranny in my 
cranium. I merely made use of it. I 
had not known it was there. I do not 
know how long it had been there. I 
could not but reflect upon the marvelous 
mechanism of the human brain. 

After dumplings, meat pie was easy. 
The crust was merely more dumpling 
dough dropped over more stew, and baked 
rather than boiled. But after all it made 
quite a different dish. Maribelle has 
been reflecting sagely on the possibilities 
of simply shorts. "Why, Timothy," she 
extolled, "you say it's only two cents a 
pound. And flour is five. Why, Tim- 
othy!" 

My ambitions, having once become 
aeronautical, swooped into experiment. 
I might explain that Maribelle had a 
habit of cooking up certain staples during 
the breakfast-getting period, and tucking 
them away in the refrigerator. A some- 
thing-in-case-of-emergency, I suppose. 
(Maribelle continued to get breakfast; 
luncheon and supper being all my mascu- 
line mind could encompass.) A collec- 
tion of cupfuls seemed to have collected 
in this same refrigerator. I brought 
them all out, one by one, and arrayed 
them in a row on the kitchen table. The 



24 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



result my wife pronounced," Mock Turkey 
Dressing." Myself, I had not named it. 

"Mock T. D. One cup uncooked 
sausage, one cup cold, cooked rice, one 
cup cooked strained tomatoes, one cup 
cold boiled beans, one cup bread crumbs, 
one cup finely chopped potatoes, one egg, 
salt and pepper to season, one-half tea- 
spoonful sage or enough to season highly. 
Bake in a moderate oven till brown, bast- 
ing with hot water and oil if needed." 

But, perhaps, my buttermilk sauce, 
served about toasted half-biscuits with 
poached eggs, puzzled Maribelle the 
most. (In my inside pocket is a clip- 
ping from a column called "Household 
Helps." I found it in one of my wife's 
magazines. When I abdicate the kitchen, 
I'll show it to Maribelle — she will 
puzzle less.) 

"Buttermilk Sauce. Heat and strain 
one cup of soup stock. Sweeten one cup 
of buttermilk with a bit of cooking soda, 
not too much. Add the buttermilk to 
the stock, season, heat to the boiling 
point, and thicken with a little rice flour, 
stirred smooth in one-half cup water. 
Strain, removing any froth that may 
appear." 

Personally, I am very fond of mashed 
potatoes and gravy; but my wife in- 
formed me that we must not have meat, 
or anything made of meat, on meatless 
Tuesdays. Hence, my vegetable gravies, 
of which I am most proud, the following 
being a reliable sample: 

"Onion Gravy. Put one cup boiled 
onions through the potato ricer, season, 
add two cups skim milk, heat, thicken 
with a little flour stirred up in one-third 
cup of cold water. (On wheatless days 
use rice flour.)" 

But all good things come to an end — 
as well as all others. The housecleaning 
orgy neared a close — I think it had never 
expired in so brief a period before. Mari- 
belle looked at me mistily across the 
oilcloth. 

"Timothy, this has been a a 

treat," she vowed. "Oh, I know " 

she caught her breath, for she knew that 



I knew, and knew that she knew, that 
my meals were quite makeshift compared 
to the delectable dishes she daily con- 
cocted. Besides, she had caught my 
wholly reproachful and coyly suspicious 
glance. She giggled, and took a new 
start. "But you can cook perfectly 
splendidly!" — Maribelle is nothing if 
not loyal. — "Besides, to be hungry, and 
so tired that one don't know one is hungry, 
and then to come down here and find 
something all ready, steaming hot, and 
appetizing, and nothing to do but wash 
one's hands and sit down and eat it. Oh, 
Timothy! Don't you see.'' And then, 
the surprise of it all, Timothy! Not to 
know, beforehand, what is going to be 
served. And not to have to serve it. 
Just to relax — and eat. Oh, Timothy, 
dear, it has been perfectly wonderful." 

(I began to wonder, uncomfortably, 
if I had, in past days. But a squirming 
conscience is quite as bad as a scratching 
cat; I consigned it bodily to a bandbox, 
clamped down the cover, and pasted the 
label: "For Future Consideration.") 

It was the evening of my last culinary 
effort. And it was — plain CORN 
MEAL MUSH. Big blue bowls, with 
cream and sugar. Maribelle considered 
it inquiringly, then contentedly, then 
wonderingly, and passed her bowl for 
more. 

"Timothy, what have you done to it.^" 
she insisted. 

"Done to what.^" I murmured in- 
nocently. 

"You know perfectly well what I'm 
talking about," admonished Maribelle. 
"This mush. It is sweet, and delicious, 
like corn on the cob. I thought I didn't 
care for corn meal mush — but, I do. 
I do. Yes, — I — do." 

"Come, my dear, and see." I led 
Maribelle back of the big screen, filched 
from the dining room, which hid the sink 
and my general operations. "There/' 
said I, pointing. "And the corn I got 
from a farmer. Shelled it myself. The 
meal is ab-so-lute-ly fresh. That's all." 

My partner-in-happiness gave a de- 



POTATOES TO THE RESCUE 



25 



lighted little squeal. "A hand mill!" 
she blarneyed. "I've wanted one so! 
But I thought we couldn't afford it. 
You're a perfect darling!" (She may 
have meant the mill.) But some time 
later she turned to me, blandly, eyes 



a-tv/inkle, evidently effervescing with a 
happy idea. 

"Timothy," explained. my wife Mari- 
belle, "when next we clean house, please 
consider yourself requisitioned, once and 
for all, for 'Kitchen Place.'" 



Potatoes to the Rescue 

Wheat-Saving Indispensable in the Meal 



There are five bushels of potatoes for everybody 
this year. Are you eating your five bushels.^ 

U. S. Food Administration 



WE must send wheat to the Allies. 
That fact stands out above all 
others. It can be neither ig- 
nored nor denied. Wheat must be sent. 
All that is left us is to determine how to do. 
it. Not how to do it from the viewpoint 
of the shipper alone, but how to do it 
from the standpoint of our own kitchens 
and dining-rooms. 

It is impossible to talk too much about 
saving wheat, or about what to use in 
its stead. There must be something that 
we can eat in place of wheat; something 
that would satisfy us as much as bread. 
There is such a thing, — -the Irish potato. 

One of the best practical substitutes 
in the world for a slice of bread is a 
potato. Try this experiment: Instead 
of eating a slice of bread and a potato, 
eat two potatoes. Is it not just as satisfy- 
ing.? There is a reason for this. 

The chief value of bread lies in its 
starch content. The same amount of 
starch is furnished by one potato as by 
one slice of bread. To be perfectly fair, 
there is more body-building material in 
a slice of bread than in a potato. But 
again, the body material contained in the 
potato is a very high-powered sort of 
body-building material, twice as valuable 
as the kind found in the bread. The 
salts of the potato are valuable in build- 
ing body tissues. 



The two growth determinants are 
found in potatoes, so that in winter, when 
vegetable foods may be hard to obtain, 
nobody should neglect the potato part of 
his meals. 

The potato crop last year was estimated 
to be 467 million bushels, about five 
bushels apiece for every man, woman and 
child. Five bushels of a very valuable 
food are yours at a reasonable cost, to 
help you save the wheat that must be 
shipped. 

If potatoes are so valuable, and we have 
so many of them, why don't we ship 
them "over there".? 

Because potatoes are a perishable prod- 
uct, and, because this is true, we must 
eat them now while they are in good con- 
dition. They also take up a great deal 
of valuable shipping space. 

But though you may be convinced that 
you should use potatoes generously, from 
the standpoint of winning the war, it will 
be in vain, as was said in the beginning, 
unless you are now persuaded to use them 
instead of wheat, unless you are definitely 
going to put them in your diet in place 
of wheat. 

Potato Balls 



3 cups mashed potato 
1 teaspoonful salt 



J teaspoonful white 

pepper 
1 e^g beaten slightly 



26 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Beat the potato, salt, pepper and three- 
quarters of the egg together. Measure 
in tablespoonfuls, dip each in flour and 
roll either in the form of balls or in cylin- 
ders; place in an oiled baking dish, brush 
the surface of each ball with the re- 
mainder of the egg mixed with an equal 
amount of milk. Brown in a hot oven 
twenty minutes. 

Julienne Potato with Savory Sauce 



2 tablespoonfuls flour 

1 pint milk 

2 teaspoonfuls salt 
^ teaspoonful pepper 



3 cups potato cut m 

strings 
2 small onions, 

chopped 

2 teaspoonfuls mixed herbs 
2 tablespoonfuls fat 

Cut the raw, peeled potatoes into 
strings the size of macaroni. Cook them 
in boiling salted water twenty minutes. 
Brown the chopped onion and the herbs 
in the fat. Add the flour, stirring thor- 
oughly; add the milk, salt and pepper, 
and cook in a double boiler twenty min- 
utes. Strain and pour over the cooked 
potato. Sprinkle with grated cheese and 
serve. 

Potato Souffle 



1 teaspoonful salt 
J teaspoonful pepper 
Yolks of eggs 
Whites of 2 eggs beaten 
stiff 



4 cups hot mashed 
potato 

1 tablespoonful melted 

fat 

2 tablespoonfuls milk 

Mix all but the whites of the eggs in 
the order given; beat thoroughly, fold in 
the stiffly beaten whites, pile in a baking 
dish and cook until the mixture puffs and 
is brown on the top. 

Franconia Potatoes 

Select small (2 or 3 ounce) potatoes. 
Peel; place around the roast in the bak- 
ing dish thirty to forty-five minutes before 
the meat will be cooked. The potatoes 
should be a golden brown in color and 
tender when served. 

Armenian Potatoes 



J cup oil 

1 quart of raw diced 

potato 
I cup tomato pulp 
^ cjip water 
1| teaspoonfuls salt 
1 teaspoonful paprika, 

or white pepper 



1 garlic, separated into 
cloves, and each 
clove peeled and 
sliced 

1 bunch parsley, or 1 
tablespoonful dried 
parsley 



Mix in the order given and bake in a 
covered dish, in a slow oven, forty minutes. 

Stuffed Potatoes 

Select medium-sized, smooth-skinned, 
oval potatoes. Bake in a hot oven until 
tender, being careful not to over-brown 
the skin. Cut the potatoes in two, 
lengthwise, remove the potato pulp, being 
careful to leave shells unbroken. Mash 
the hot potato; add either milk or cream 
as for mashed potato. 

Season as follows: To each cup of po- 
tato add one-half saltspoonful salt and 
one-eighth saltspoonful of pepper. Fill 
the shells with this mixture, rounding the 
surface so that it is the shape of the origi- 
nal potato. Bake for ten minutes in a 
hot oven. 

Variations: Fold into the two cups of 
seasoned potato-pulp the beaten white 
of an egg; pile lightly in the potato shells 
and bake. Grated cheese one-half cup- 
ful to two cups of potato pulp should be 
used. 

There are even potato dishes that can 
be used as both wheat and meat sub- 
stitutes. 

Potato O'Brien 



1 tablespoonful fat 
1 tablespoonful flour 
\ cup skimmed milk 
1 teaspoonful salt 
\ teaspoonful pepper 



2 cups diced, cooked 

potato 
1 green pepper, cooked 

and chopped 
^ cup grated American 

cheese 



Make the sauce, 
milk and seasoning. 



using the fat, flour. 
Mix the potato and 
the green pepper with the white sauce and 
cheese. Put in a baking dish and brown 
in a hot oven. Note: Canned red pepper' 
can be used in place of green pepper. 

Pittsburg Potatoes 



2 cups white sauce 
\ pound milk cheese 



1 quart potato cut 

in cubes 
1 onion ^ teaspoonful salt 

I can pimentos 

Cook potato cubes and onion, finely 
chopped, in boiling salted water five min- 
utes. Add pimientos cut in small pieces 
and cook seven minutes; then drain. 
Turn into oiled baking dish and pour over 
white sauce mixed with cheese and salt. 



POTATOES TO THE RESCUE 



27 



Bake in moderate oven until potatoes are 
soft. 

Shepherd's Pie 



I teaspoonful pepper 

1 cup soup broth 
(beef) 

2 cups mashed potato 



2 cups cooked flaked 

fish 
1 tablespoonful fat 
1 tablespoonful flour 
^ teaspoonful salt 

Put diced or flaked fish in baking dish. 
Add sauce made of the fat, flour, season- 
ing and broth. Cover top with mashed 
potato, brush with fat or cream and brown 
in a hot oven. 

Potato Peanut Loaf 



1 pint mashed potato 
1 cup ground peanuts 
cup peanut 



I teaspoonful pepper 

1 cup milk 

2 tablespoonfuls fat 
2 eggs 



butter 
2 teaspoonfuls salt 

Beat the entire mixture together and 

place in greased baking dish; set in a 

second pan containing hot water and 

bake in the oven until firm. Serve with 



tomato sauce. 



Potato Fish Loaf 



1 pint mashed potato 
I'cup chopped cooked 

fish 

2 teaspoonfuls salt 



^ teaspoonful pepper 
^ cup milk 
2 tablespoonfuls fat 
2 eggs 



Beat the entire mixture together and 
place in greased baking dish; set in a 
second pan containing hot water and bake 
in the oven until firm. Serve with tomato 



sauce. 



Potato-and-Lima Bean Loaf 

1 1-3 cups cooked 1-3 teaspoonful sage 
Lima beans (put 2 cups riced potato 
through sieve) j cup milk 

2 tablespoonfuls fat ^ teaspoonful fat 

J cup milk f teaspoonful fat for 
1 teaspoonful salt brushing 



Mix first five ingredients and place 
in bottom of an oiled dish. Whip to- 
gether the hot potato and the remaining 
ingredients. Place this mixture on top. 
Bake in quick oven. Serve with tomato 
sauce. 

Potato Puffs 

2 cups mashed potato I | cup milk 
2 eggs I 1 teaspoonful salt 

1 cup grated cheese 

Add the milk to the potato and beat 
until thoroughly blended. Add the 
beaten egg and salt, gradually adding the 
grated cheese. Bake in buttered tins or 
ramekins in a slow oven. 

When it comes to desserts, there are 
some surprises in store for you. This 
pudding is surprisingly good, and not a 
bit of wheat flour in it! 

Potato Pudding 



Ij cups mashed po- 
tatoes 
4 tablespoonfuls fat 
2 eggs, well beaten 
I cup milk 



J teaspoonful salt 
I lemon (juice and 

rind) 
1 tablespoonful sugar 
^ cup raisins and nut 
meats 

Boil potatoes, mash and add fat, eggs, 
milk, lemon juice, grated peel and sugar. 
Beat all ingredients together and bake 
in greased dish three-fourths an hour or 
longer. Serve with top milk. 

Potatoes certainly offer us something 
with infinite variety of preparations as 
a substitute for wheat. Hardly any com- 
munity is without them. In fact, they 
are so plentiful in some states that a 
special dispensation has been granted 
whereby one pound of wheat flour may 
be sold with four pounds of potatoes, a 
temporary interpretation of the "50-50" 
order. 



The Stuff to Cook 



Your pages and your recipes 
Would surely any mortal please, 
But for one thing in vain I look — 
Where shall I get the stuff to cook.'' 

For cornmeal forty different ways 
Of cooking ^- worthy of all praise; 
I read them all, and still I lack 
The wherewithal to buy a sack. 



I read of butter, eggs and flour — 
Avaunt! for these are angel's dower! 
For me no fair, concocted dreams, 
But rather dandelion greens. 

I would try all your recipes, 
If I could only raise the breeze; 
Please, some one, write for me a book, 
Where shall I get the stuff to cook? 

— G. W. Tuttle. 



The Possibilities of Cheese 

By Kurt Heppe 



WITH all the discussions that have 
filled newspapers and maga- 
zines, advising conservation, and 
readjusting views about what to retain 
in the United States, and what to ship 
to our Allies, I have not once seen a direc- 
tion on how to prepare cheese in the 
American home. 

And yet the art of cheese-making is not 
only simple, but one of the most interest- 
ing branches of food manufacture. 

Just like breadmaking, it offers un- 
dreamed possibilities. 

But why is it that sour milk can no- 
where be obtained in our large cities.? 

What is done with the milk which sours 
in transit, during deposit in our stores 
and in the homes.? 

I can understand what is being done 
with sour milk in the country; but I can- 
not understand what is being done with 
it in the city.? 

The farmer, if he happens to be too 
busy, or too lazy to make cheese, feeds 
it to his stock. But the city-man, the 
dairy-manager, the householder and the 
grocer clerk, what do they do with their 
sour milk.? 

There may be some use for it, but if 
there is I have never heard of it. 

Certain it is that I have never seen it 
used. 

I have seen housewives buy cottage 
cheese in the delicatessen store, but this 
cheese was either made by the delicates- 
sen man, or else it came from the country; 
and yet the same housewife would, with 
the greatest nonchalance, throw out sour 
milk with which she could have made that 
same cheese at home in two minutes. 

Cheese-making is a very simple art. 

And when I say "Cheese," I do not 
only mean cottage cheese (for which a 
great many people do not care), no! I 
mean every kind of cheese that is to be 
found in our markets today. 



In order to understand what cheese 
really is, we must first look at the fol- 
lowing facts: 

Cheese is made mostly of cow's milk. 

It is made from either full or skim 
milk; or from full milk with some kind 
of fat added, or from skim milk with some 
kind of fat added. 

It can also be made from cream alone. 
It is usually salted. 

There are two ways of making cheese; 
one is to let the substance sour in the 
natural way (which is not a good way), 
and the other is to produce the splitting 
of the curd from the whey in an arti- 
ficial manner. This prevents any un- 
desirable bacteria or spores entering the 
product. 

These bacteria and spores would in- 
fluence the taste of the cheese to a large 
extent. 

(Here belongs the remark that ap- 
parently insignificant diff"erences in hand- 
ling the curd have produced, quite un- 
intentionally I am sure, the extraordinary 
variety of cheeses which are to be found 
in the markets today.) 

And this phase of cheese-making is very 
little understood as yet. There is con- 
sequently every chance for the amateur 
to make new discoveries. 

It goes without saying that fat cheeses 
are made from full milk, or even from full 
milk with some kind of extra fat added, 
while lean cheeses are made from skim 
milk. 

Then there are hard, medium-hard and 
soft cheeses. These degrees of hardness 
are produced by the degree of pressure 
exercised in the manufacture of the 
cheese. 

All cheese is made from curd; and all 
curd must ripen in order to become a real 
delicacy; all ripening must proceed in a 
moist place. 

If cheese were ripened in a dry place. 



28 



THE POSSIBILITIES OF CHEESE 



29 



the resultant product would be brittle 
and insipid. 

Consequently, when there is no moist 
place available, it must be artificially 
created; that is, the cheese must be moist- 
ened from time to time. 

The artificial curdling of the substance 
is produced industrially with "rennet," 
that is a membrane of the fourth stomach 
of the calf. 

The same result can be achieved with 
lemon juice, vinegar, or a bouillon cube, 
etc., etc. 

This process produces a sweet curd 
(apparently an anomaly) from what is 
associated in the mind with a sour 
product. 

When the milk is curdled, it is heated to 
a certain degree, to produce the solidi- 
fication of the curd. 

The curd is cut, mixed with salt (or 
with whatever is to give the cheese its 
especial character), is put into fine cheese- 
cloths and is pressed into forms. 

Hard cheeses are much pressed, while 
soft cheeses are little pressed, or not 
pressed at all. 

After this process has been attended 
to, the cheese is stored in moist cellars, 
or caves, and is left there to ripen. 

Most cheeses are from time to time 
inspected, and are treated in certain 
specific ways (some, for instance, are 
sprinkled with salt to keep them moist 
and free from insects, and others are 
entirely immersed in brine). 

When the cheese is ripe, that is, when 
it has assumed a uniform aspect, through 
and through, it is packed and made ready 
for the market. In order to find whether 
the cheese is ripe, a special tool is em- 
ployed, which consists of a round, thin, 
steel cylinder, with a sharp cutting edge. 
This cylinder is thrust into the cheese, 
right down to the center, and on being 
retrieved brings out a small stock of 
cheese, which gives a perfect analysis 
of the inside condition of the cheese. 
This cylinder is pushed back into place, 
and is later detected by the consumer as 
a round, removable part of his slice of 



cheese, and it makes him wonder what new 
kind of fake has again been sprung on him. 

But any of these varieties of cheese can 
be produced in the home, and with a mini- 
mum of effort; all that is necessary is 
that the milk be curdled, the curd heated 
to solidify it,- then broken, pressed, salted 
and formed, and when inclosed in its 
cloth placed in the mould, and put where 
it can ripen. If there is no moist place, 
put a cover on the mould, set it in closet, 
moisten the cloth from time to time, and, 
when you have nothing else to do, inspect 
it as to its development. You will be 
very agreeably surprised to find that you 
are a most talented cheese-maker. And 
not only that, but even you, as an ama- 
teur, may some day stumble across a new 
variety, which will immortalize your name 
in the annals of cheese-lore. 

Now to the varieties of cheese at pres- 
ent in our markets (and which the Ameri- 
can housewife will undoubtedly soon 
greatly enlarge and improve upon); I 
will give a short review of their especial 
characteristics and manufacture: 

Roquefort (probably the most in- 
teresting of all cheeses) is made from 
sheep's milk, and is ripened in deep-rock 
caverns. To produce it, half whole and 
half skim milk is used, with an addition 
of mouldy bread, prepared from wheat 
and barley, with lots of sour dough. The 
fungus thus introduced grows and de- 
velops, and gives the taste and coloring 
for which Roquefort is famous. But the 
American housewife can make an excel- 
lent imitation in her kitchen, or even in a 
furnished room. 

Some cheeses are mixed (before being 
put into form) with such substances as 
grated onions, shallots, chives, tarragon, 
parsley, etc. 

Others are refined by being ripened in 
sour beer or brewer's draff, or are covered 
with moist hops, or moist straw. 

Some are being hard-ironed, while 
others are being smoked; some are 
rubbed with brandy, while others are 
being dyed. 

{Concluded on page 70) 



30 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



AMERICAN COOKERY 

FORMERLY THE 

BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL 
MAGAZINE 

OF 

Culinary Science and Domestic Economics 

Subscription $L50per Year, Single Copies 15c 
Foreign Postage: To Canada, 20c per Year 
To OTHER Foreign Countries, 40c per Year 

TO SUBSCRIBERS 

The date stamped on the wrapper is the date 
on which your subscription expires; it is, also, an 
acknowledgment that a subscription, or a renewal 
of the same, has been received. 

Please renew on receipt of the colored blank 
enclosed for this purpose. 

In sending notice to renew a subscription or 
change of address, please give the old address 
as well as the new. 

In referring to an original entry, we must know 
the name as it was formerly given, together with 
the Post-office, County, State, Post-office Box, 
or Street Number. 

Statement of ownership and management as required by 
the Act of Congress of August 24, IQ12 

Editor: Janet M. Hill 

Business Managers: R. B. Hill, B. M. Hill 

Owners: 

B. M. Hill, Janet M. Hill, R. B. Hill 

221 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. 

published ten times a year by 

The Boston Cooking-School Magazine Co. 

221 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me — a notary public — 
the 29th day of March, 1917. 

(Signed) HERBERT B. BAILEY. 

My commission expires August 30, 1923. 

Entered at Boston Post-office as Second-class Matter 



The Borrowed Day 

This day God gave to me, 
From His eternity. 
Its little hours can hold 
So much of gross or gold. 

This is my earnest prayer, 
That it may bravely bear 
The gold of kind deeds done, 
Joy's fruits by labor won. 

Then when I give it back, 
Of good it shall not lack, 
But show with meaning true, 
What humble hands can do. 

Arthur Wallace Peach. 



COOKERY 

IT resteth now that I proceed unto 
cookery itself, which is the dressing and 
ordering of meat, in good and wholesome 
manner, to which, when our housewife 
shall address herself, she shall well under- 
stand, that these qualities must ever 
accompany it: First, she must be cleanly 
both in body and garments; she must 
have a quick eye, a curious nose, a per- 
fect taste and ready ear; she must not 
be butter-fingered, sweet-toothed, nor 
faint-hearted, for, the first will let every- 
thing fall; the second will consume what 
it should increase; and the last will lose 
time with too much niceness. — 
From ''''The English Housewife^^ by G. 
Mark ham, Lo7ido?i, i6i^. 

A TLMELY NOTICE 

THIS is the first number of a new vol- 
ume, the Twenty-third of continuous 
publication of this periodical. The occa- 
sion, we suggest, is appropriate to begin 
new subscriptions to Americax Cookery, 
as each volume of eight hundred pages 
is made complete with a title page and 
full index, thus rendering it of great value 
as a cook book of reference. Act wisely, 
and subscribe now, for conservation of food 
and wartime cookery will be the leading 
features in every issue of volume Twenty- 
three. Will it not be difficult to find 
so much timely and reliable matter else- 
where, or can you well afford to do with- 
out American Cookery for the present 
year.^ 

QUALITY OF SERVICE 

UNDOUBTEDLY our readers are not 
looking for observations or opinions 
pertaining to the war in the pages of a 
culinary publication; they are in contact 
with a full supply of this matter from 
other sources. ^Ve agree with them and 
propose to confine our efforts strictly 
to culinary matters adapted to the ever- 
changing conditions and needs of the 
day. At the same time we wish to 
manifest our steadfast loyalty to govern- 



EDITORIALS 



31 



ment and our hearty disapproval of 
pacifistism as the most unfortunate and 
mischievous kind of disloyalty to the 
same government. We believe that re- 
ligion and patriotism cannot well be 
separated and the blessings of liberty 
and the home be maintained. When 
these are menaced and openly attacked, 
the only reasonable method of procedure, 
it seems to us, is to meet force with force. 
We are all working for the cause of free- 
dom and the homes of mankind. Would 
that freedom, our freedom, had no foes! 

WHAT IS PATRIOTISM.? 

THE other day Boston streets were 
banked with throngs of people, while 
thousands of young men who had lately 
donned the uniforms of the army and 
navy streamed by like a river. Most 
of the massed populace could see only 
the peaked army hats or the white caps 
of cadets — many, indeed, nothing but 
the points of serried bayonets and the 
mounted officers. We chanced to stand 
on the Common where the uniformed 
men could be seen only when they 
emerged from the multitude along Boyls- 
ton Street as the column swung into 
Park Square. Presently a flag came 
floating along in full view above the 
throng. It seemed a living presence — 
a radiant embodiment visualizing the 
impelling cause of the unseen array. 
Men and boys bared their heads. "Why 
don't women find some way to salute 
that flag.?" a feminine voice was heard 
to ask, somewhere amid the shoulders 
round about our own. 

As the marchers wheeled into view in 
Park Square, "that flag" seemed to 
float on the billowed sea of their man- 
hood — a trustfully hovering presence 
above those stalwart men. It was a 
striking spectacle as the column pushed 
its way out Columbus Avenue. Every 
youth in that sturdy array had given 
up home comforts, school and business 
advantages, personal delights with friends 
and loved ones — had turned from all 
these to the rigors of camp and training 



station — had subordinated himself to 
orders that must be obeyed without 
demur — had set himself to face terrific 
perils overseas and lay down his life if 
he must — all for that flag! Hammer- 
ton was right when he wrote; "The 
two most powerful mental stimulants — 
since they overcome the fear of death — 
are unquestionably religion and patri- 
otism." 

While pondering this demonstration 
of what patriotism means, we noticed 
that a stranger at our side was endeavor- 
ing to say something to us. His head 
had been bared for long. His voice, 
broken by emotion, was low and quiet. 
"I have just heard," said he, pointing to 
the scene out Columbus Avenue, "I have 
just heard that my boy died three days 
ago for that flag." W^ho would not 
listen to such words! "That means," 
he added, "that it's my flag now as 
never before — my blood is in its red." 
We offer this stranger's brave words as 
an example of patriotism without alloy. 
— The Boston Herald. 

SAVE 

EVIDENTLY a shortage of food and 
fuel must exist as long as the w^ar lasts. 
Meat, wheat and fat must be shipped 
abroad; accordingly we must get along 
with less of these items and provide other 
foodstuffs in the place of them. The 
avoidance of all waste seems to us the most 
obvious thing to do. Let naught be 
wasted. In order that money or any 
other thing may be on hand, it must 
first be earned or produced and then 
saved. To produce and save, then, is 
the order of the day. Everything must 
be made to go as far and last as long as 
possible. Under the circumstances we 
can do no less; we are called upon to do 
no more. The least that many of us 
can do now is to save in food, in fuel, in 
dress and in other ways, and loan our 
savings to the Government, and this is, 
in no wise, a sacrifice, or give them to the 
Red Cross and Y. M. C. A., — estab- 
lished and well organized institutions 



32 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



that are rendering active service at home 
and abroad of inestimable importance 
and value. 

THE SUMA4ER SCHOOL 

THE editor's Summer School of Cook- 
ery at South Chatham, New Hamp- 
shire, this season, offers an unusual opportu- 
nity for gaining practical acquaintance with 
conservation work and wartime cookery. 
A special course of work is planned on 
the use of substitutes as directed by 
the U. S. Food Administration. The 
conservation of food, new methods of 
canning, preserving and drying fruits 
and vegetables, are likely to become, 
at no distant day, subjects of more than 
passing interest and consideration. The 
instruction given at this school is unique 
in that it affords a way of learning how 
to do by the practical application of 
the means and methods of doing. In 
brief, the school is designed to provide 
an occasion for genuine individual work 
and, at the same time, outdoor recreation 
entirely free from outside distraction. 

WE EAT TOO MUCH FAT 

MR. HOOVER is telling us that we 
eat too much fat. The average 
American eats more than four ounces of 
fat a day. This is at least one-half more 
than he needs. Too much fat hinders 
digestion and loads the body with a dead 
weight which lowers efficiency and short- 
ens life. 

If the whole country will promptly 
adopt and adhere to Mr. Hoover's plan, 
not only during the war, but also after the 
conflict is over, the result will be a na- 
tional uplift; but the doctors will suffer 
a great loss of business. The gain will 
be an improved well-being of us all. 

DOING GOOD 

A WITTY member of Parliament 
lately remarked that the people 
who wish to leave the world better than 
they found it cannot be made to see that 
the best way to leave the world better 
than thev found it would be to leave the 



world at once. Those who think this 
sacrificing appreciation of philanthropy 
to the pleasure of saying a clever thing 
must not stop thinking at this point. The 
object of doing good in the world is to get 
the good done. It is not the gratification 
of self-esteem or pride of accomplishment. 
It is not the exposure of imperfection and 
human folly. It is not meddlesome be- 
nevolence, forcing on a person the ideas 
and merits of the one proposing it. Vanity 
is not unknown among altruists. Self- 
conscious purpose vitiates even the best 
intentions. An angel trying to form 
every one on one model, and that the 
angel's, would not do as much good as an 
ordinary human being who did the best 
he could with himself. Reforming other 
people inverts the natural order; and it 
sets other people against the business. 
''One person," said Stevenson, "I have 
to make good: myself." The puzzle 
about people who want to help other 
people is that they are so often intoler- 
able. They are insensible to the fact 
that the task is rarely to be undertaken; 
and never except with extreme delicacy. 
— The Christian Register. 



Our Privilege 

In life's universal garden 
We have each to hoe our row. 
And to make life worth the living 
We must hoe, hoe, hoe. 
And in place of sulky weeds 
Grow the very best of seeds — 
Principles of right and justice, 
Thoughtfulness for other's needs! 

When the War God weed, arising 
\^'ith its devastating oower. 
Threatens LIBERTY and COUNTRY 
Every precious, fleeting hour; — 
Whether on the sea or land, 
With a gun or hoe in hand — 
Then we'll stand a patriotic. 
All efficient, willing band! 

And wherever we may tarry, 
We will hoe our little row 
For Democracy's sweet freedom 
With a Thrift Stamp, Bond or hoe; 
Sacrificing of our best — 
Hooverizing with a zest, — _ 
Meeting Kaiser William's KULTUR 
With a FAITH that stands the test! 

Caroline Louise Suvi7ier 




SOME FOODS PLENTIFUL IN JUNE AND JULY 

Seasonable and Tested Recipes 

By Janet M. Hill 

IN ALL recipes where flour is used, unless otherwise stated, the flour is measured after sifting once. 
Where flour is measured by cups, the cup is filled with a spoon, and a level cupful is meant. A 
tablespoonful or teaspoonful of any designated material is a LEVEL spoonful. In flour mixtures 
where yeast is called for, use bread flour; in all other flour mixtures, use cake or pastry flour. 



Hominy or Rice Puffs 

TO one cup of boiled hominy or rice 
(preferably hot) add half a teaspoon- 
ful of salt, one tablespoonful of fat and 
two egg-yolks beaten until thick and light 
colored; then fold in the whites of two 
eggs beaten very light. Drop by table- 
spoonfuls on a greased baking tin and 
bake in a quick oven. 

Cornmeal-and-Rice Griddlecakes 

Sift together half a cup, each, of corn- 
meal and barley flour, two teaspoonfuls 
of baking powder and one teaspoonful of 
salt; add one cup of boiled rice (grains 
distinct) and the beaten yolks of two eggs 
mixed with one cup of milk; add the 
whites of the eggs beaten very light, at 
the last. Bake at once on a hot well- 
greased griddle. 



Hominy-and-Barley Muffins 

Pour boiling water over half a cup of 
hominy (fine), drain in a fine sieve, rins- 
ing in cold water meanwhile. Set to 
cook in two cups of boiling water and 
half a teaspoonful of salt. Cook an hour 
or longer. This will make two cups of 
thin hominy. 



1 cup cooked hominy 
f cup hot milk 

2 tablespoonfuls 
shortening 

^ teaspoonful salt 

2 tablespoonfuls sugar 



egg beaten light 
cup barley flour 
cup cornmeal flour 
teaspoonfuls baking 
powder 



The hominy may be hot or cold; mix 
the milk through it evenly; add the 
shortening, salt and sugar, the egg, and 
the flour and meal sifted with the baking 
powder. This makes one dozen muffins. 
Rice may be used in place of the hominy. 



33 



34 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Missouri Hoe Cake 

Pass through a sieve, together, two cups 
of cornmeal and half a teaspoonful, each, 
of salt and baking powder; add one 
tablespoonful of melted fat and stir in 
water to make a soft dough. Make into 
small cakes about half an inch thick and 
bake on a hot, greased griddle until well 
browned on both sides. 

Barley Pop-Overs 

Beat two eggs, one cup of barley flour, 
one teaspoonful of sugar, half a teaspoon- 
ful of salt and one cup of milk until very 



of broth and stir until boiling. Stir into 
this the meat, cut in thin slices and freed 
of all unedible portions. Let the meat 
stand on the stove to become hot through- 
out while the crust is being made. 

Crust for Meat Pie 



1 cup barley flour 
§ cup rice flour 
3 teaspoonfuls baking 
powder 



I teaspoonful salt 
3 tablespoonfuls short- 
ening 
Milk for a soft dough 



Sift the dry ingredients together; cut 
in the shortening and add milk gradually 
while mixing to a dough. The dough 
should be mixed quite soft, as it thickens 




BARLEY POP-OVERS 



smooth. Use a Dover egg beater. Bake 
about forty minutes in a hot, well- 
greased iron pan. The pop-overs are 
good, but will not puff quite as high as 
when made with wheat flour. One- 
fourth a cup of rice flour may replace half 
a cup of the barley flour. 

Meat Pie 

This may be made of any tender left 
over meat. Boiled forequarter of lamb, 
left over, was used in the dish shown in 
the illustration. The broth left from the 
meat was used for the sauce. For rather 
more than a pint of meat prepare a pint 
of sauce. Melt four tablespoonfuls of 
fat; in it cook four tablespoonfuls of flour 
and half a teaspoonful of salt; add a pint 



after first mixing. Turn on a floured 
board, to coat lightly, knead, and roll 
into a sheet to fit the top of the baking 
dish. Make a slit at the center, grease 
the edge of the dish and set in place. 
Bake about twenty minutes. This mix- 
ture makes good baking powder biscuit. 

Chicken-and-Rice Souffle 

Melt two tablespoonfuls of fat; in it 
cook two tablespoonfuls of rice flour, half 
a teaspoonful of salt and half a teaspoon- 
ful of paprika; add one cup of chicken 
broth and one cup of tomato puree and 
stir and cook until boiling; add one cup 
of boiled rice. The rice may be hot or 
cold but the grains must be distinct when 
it is stirred through the sauce. Add also 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



35 




MEAT PIE 



one cup and a half of chopped chicken 
and the beaten yolks of three eggs; fold 
in the whites of three eggs beaten very 
light, and turn into a well-greased baking 
dish. Let cook in a pan of boiling water, 
in the oven, until firm in the center. 
Serve the instant it is taken from the 
oven with a sauce made of one-fourth a 
cup, each, of fat and rice flour, one cup, 
each, of chicken broth and tomato puree 
and half a teaspoonful, each, of salt and 
pepper. 

Rice Omelet with Peas 

This may be made with peas "left 
over"; if there is less than a cup of peas, 
they might be stirred through a cup of 
cream sauce to make them "go further." 
Season the peas, made hot, with salt. 



pepper, a teaspoonful of sugar and a 
tablespoonful of butter. For the omelet, 
the rice may be hot or cold, but the grains 
must be distinct and, preferably, they 
should be hot. Beat the whites of two 
eggs very light and the yolks until thick. 
Mix a cup of rice and half a teaspoonful 
of salt through the yolks, then fold in the 
whites. Melt a tablespoonful of fat in a 
hot omelet pan; turn in the rice and tgg 
mixture, and make smooth on the top. 
Let cook in a moderate oven until no 
uncooked egg adheres to a knife thrust 
into the center. Score across the top 
at right angles to the handle of the pan. 
Sprinkle a few peas over the top and fold 
at the scoring. Turn on a hot platter 
and pour the hot peas around it. Serve 
at once. 




RICE OMELET WITH PEAS 



36 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Sunday Night Cheese 

Alelt two tablespoonfuls butter sub- 
stitute; in it cook two tablespoonfuls of 
flour, and one-fourth a teaspoonful of 
salt; add one cup of milk or one cup of 
tomato puree and stir until boiling; beat 
in one egg, beaten light; when cooked stir 
in one package of snappy cheese, and when 
smooth turn into an earthen bowl and 
set aside until ready to use. Have ready 
any variety of Liberty biscuit, rolled very 
thin before cutting, or they may be rolled 
thicker and split for use. Spread the 
biscuit with the cheese mixture, dredge 
on a little paprika and set into the oven 



cup of wheat and one of barley flour, 
one-fourth a teaspoonful of soda and two 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder and beat 
in to the first mixture; beat in two egg- 
yolks beaten light, and, lastly, two egg- 
whites beaten very light. Bake at once 
on a hot, well-greased waffle iron. The 
mixture will fill the iron five or six times. 

Potatoes, Hongroise Style 

Chop fine a small mild onion and let 
cook in three tablespoonfuls of vegetable 
oil or clarified fat until softened and yel- 
lowed. Do not allow either the butter or 
the onion to brown. Add half a teaspoon- 
ful of paprika, a cup of tomato pulp. 




CORXMEAL WAFFLES 



to become very hot. If preferred, this 
may be made at time of serving and served 
on crackers or toast as any cheese rabbit. 
The egg may then be omitted. 

Cornmeal Waffles 

Put two cups of water and a teaspoon- 
ful of salt over the fire to boil; gradually 
stir one cup of cornmeal mixed with one 
cup of cold water into the boiling water. 
Keep the mixture boiling constantly 
while the meal is being added, then cover 
and let cook over boiling water, stirring 
occasionally, one hour. Beat in one- 
fourth a cup of shortening and pour into 
a bowl. When cooled a little, beat in 
half a cup of sour cream or buttermilk and 
two-thirds a cup of sweet milk; sift to- 
gether two cups of wheat flour, or one 



freed of seeds and cut in thin slices or 
bits, and a quart of cooked potatoes, cut 
into rounds or slices one-fourth an inch 
in thickness. Mix all together thor- 
oughly, then add consomme or broth 
nearly to cover the potatoes; cover and 
let cook very gently until the liquid is 
much reduced. 

Cucumber-and-Pimiento Salad 

Pare a chilled cucumber and cut it into 
julienne pieces (like a match, but shorter). 
Remove pimientos from a can, rinse in 
cold water, dry on a cloth and cut in 
shreds, the same size and shape as the 
cucumbers. Use equal measures of each. 
Dress each separately with French dress- 
ing made of three measures of olive or 
other vegetable oil to one of vinegar and 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



37 



•^ 


E 




f^^^tt " "*^E" 


■ .^. 


^ 


■ ' wT^ 


BxJB^^H 




- ^ ._,.iL^ 


-:^2fcSfc^^*5? 


-^^- 



PINEAPPLE-AND-STRAWBERRY SALAD 



a little grated or scraped onion. Dis- 
pose, separately or mixed together, in a 
salad bowl. Serve with fish. 

Pineapple-and-Strawberry Salad 

Use fresh or canned pineapple. The 
pineapple may be picked from the core 
with a silver fork or a strawberry huller, 
or it may be cut in slices and the hard 
center removed with an apple corer or a 
small, round cutter. Cut in slices, the 
slices may be cut in small pieces after 
disposal on the serving dish in such a 
manner that the whole slice is kept in 
position. On the slices set strawberries 
cut in halves. Edge the dish with heart- 
leaves of lettuce. Mix the juice from a 
fresh pineapple with as many table- 
spoonfuls of olive or other vegetable oil 
as slices of pineapple; add for four table- 
spoonfuls of oil, two tablespoonfuls of 
honey, two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice, 
and one- fourth a teaspoonful of salt; mix 
thoroughly and pour over the fruit. 
Serve at once. 



- Barley-Flour Sponge Cake 

Beat the yolks of five eggs very light; 
gradually beat in one cup of granulated 
sugar, then the grated rind and juice of 
half a lemon. Fold in one cup of sifted 
barley flour and the whites of five eggs 
beaten very light. Bake in a tube pan 
about fifty minutes. Half a cup of po- 
tato or corn flour may be used in place 
of the barley flour. 

Rolled Sponge Cake, Potato Flour 

2 eggs, beaten without 2 tablespoonfuls butter 

separating whites substitute 

and yolks i cup hot water 

I a cup sugar | cup potato flour 

Grating lemon rind or ^ teaspoonful salt 

^ teaspoonful lemon 1| teaspoonfuls baking 
extract [ powder 

Gradually beat the sugar into the eggs ; 
add the flavoring, the fat melted in the 
water and, lastly, the flour sifted with 
the salt and baking powder. Bake in a 
shallow pan lined with a thin, greased 
paper about flfteen minutes. Turn on 





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ROLLED SPONGE CAKE (POTATO FLOUR) 



38 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



a cloth wrung out of warm water, re- 
move the paper, trim off the crisp edges 
and spread with fruit jelly. Keep the 
damp cloth between the hands and cake 
in rolling. Remove from the cloth as 
soon as rolled. One cup of barley flour 
or half a cup of corn flour may be used 
in place of the potato flour. 

Barley Strawberry Short Cake 

Sift together one cup and a half of 
barley flour, half a cup of rice or potato 
flour, half a teaspoonful or more of salt 
and four level teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder. Cut in about five tablespoon- 
fuls of shortening, and with milk mix to a 
soft dough. Grease two tins seven inches 



melted, add this mixture to the dry in- 
gredients, alternately, with the water. 
Bake as any gingerbread. 

English Pineapple Pie 

Drain and heat the juice from a two- 
pound can of sliced pineapple. Mix 
three-fourths a cup of sugar with three 
tablespoonfuls of flour and stir into the 
hot juice. Continue to stir until the 
mixture thickens, then let cook over hot 
water about ten minutes. Beat the yolks 
of two eggs and stir through the mixture; 
add two tablespoonfuls of butter sub- 
stitute and five slices of pineapple cut 
into bits. Have ready a pastry shell 
(baked over an inverted plate) and fill it 



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BARLEY STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE 



in diameter with straight sides. Spread 
the dough in the tins evenly, as thick on 
the edges as at the center. Bake about 
twelve minutes. Hull, wash and slice 
a large basket of berries and mix them 
with a cup of sugar. Spread the hot 
crusts with butter and dispose the berries 
between and above them. 

Barley Cheese Gingerbread 

1 teaspoonful soda 
\ teaspoonful salt 
\ teaspoonful cinna- 
mon 
\\ teaspoonfuls ginger 

Heat the molasses and cheese in a 
double boiler. Sift all the dry ingre- 
dients together. When the cheese is 



1 cup molasses 
f cup grated cheese 
\\ cups barley flour 
\ cup rice flour 
\ cup water 



with the mixture. Beat the whites of 
two eggs very stiff; gradually beat in one- 
fourth a cup of sugar and spread over the 
filling. Bake in a very moderate oven 
about ten minutes. 

Cherry Pie 

Line a pie plate with pastry; prepare 
about a pint of stoned cherries. Mix 
two tablespoonfuls of potato flour, one 
cup of sugar and half a teaspoonful of 
salt and mix through the cherries and 
juice; dot with a teaspoonful of butter, 
brush the edge with cold water and set 
a second piece of pastry over the cherries, 
pressing the edges together. Bake about 
half an hour. 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



39 




CHERRY PIE 



Pastry for Cherry Pie 

Sift together one cup and a half of 
barley flour, half a cup of rice flour, half 
a teaspoonful of salt and half a teaspoon- 
ful of baking powder. Cut in a scant 
half-cup. of shortening, and adding cold 
water, gradually mix to a paste. This 
will make a pie and a round for a straw- 
berry tart to hold a basket of berries. 

Cherry Tapioca 

Put one cup of cherry juice, one cup of 
cherries, half a cup of sugar and half a 
cup of water over the fire in a double 
boiler; stir in four level tablespoonfuls of 
quick-cooking tapioca, cover and let 
cook, stirring occasionally, half an hour. 
Beat the white of one egg very light; 
gradually beat in two tablespoonfuls of 
sugar. Shape between two tablespoon- 
fuls into "eggs"; push these into a dish 
of boiling water and let cook, without 
boiling the water, about twenty minutes. 



Serve the tapioca in glass dishes with a 
"snow Ggg'^ above the mixture in each 
dish. 

Strawberry Tart 

For a basket of berries cut out a round 
of paste, rolled as for one crust of a pie, 
eight inches in diameter. Set it on a 
baking sheet and prick all over with a 
fork; pipe chou-paste on the edge and 
let bake until done. It will take about 
eighteen minutes. When ready to serve, 
reheat in the oven and fill with a basket 
of berries, hulled, washed, drained, cut 
in halves and mixed with sugar to taste. 

Chou-Paste for Tart 

Melt four tablespoonfuls of fat in half 
a cup of boiling water; when again boil- 
ing, stir in half a cup of wheat or barley 
flour and two tablespoonfuls of corn 
flour and continue to cook and stir until 
the mixture clings together; turn into a 
cold dish and beat in either the white'or 




CHERRY TAPIOCA 



40 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




STRAWBERRY TART 



the yolk of an tgg; then beat in one whole 
egg. When smooth the mixture is ready 
to use. There will be enough paste for 
the tart and three cream cakes or eclairs. 

Rice Flour Flummery 

Scald two cups of milk with two inches 
of cinnamon bark or the thin yellow^ rind 
of half a lemon. Stir half a cup of rice- 
flour, half a teaspoonful of salt and one- 
fourth a cup of sugar with half a cup of 
cold milk; dilute with some of the hot 
milk, and when smooth pour into the 
rest of the milk and stir and .cook until 
the whole is thick and smooth; cover 
and let cook twenty minutes. Remove 
the cinnamon or lemon and beat in the 
white of one egg, beaten very light and 
let cook about three minutes. Serve hot 
or cold with fruit jelly, canned fruit, 
boiled custard or top milk and sugar. 
The egg-white may be omitted. In the 
illustration cherries cooked with sugar 
were set into a cup with a little of the 
syrup, a spoonful of the cold rice mixture 



was set above the cherries and above this 
more cherries and syrup. 

Canned Peaches, Cold-Pack 
Method 

For home canning, remove the skins 
by paring. Cut the peaches in halves, 
then remove the skins and stones. Crack 
a few stones and add a few of the kernels 
to the peaches in the can. Let the pre- 
pared fruit stand in cold water, to which 
a tablespoonful of salt has been added, 
until a jarful is ready. Thoroughly 
wash and rinse in hot water jars and 
covers. Fill the hot jar or jars with 
peaches, and set them in place in the 
canning receptacle. For the syrup allow 
four cups of water to five cups of sugar; 
heat enough to melt the sugar and to 
boil up once; pour in syrup to fill the 
jars to overflow, adjust the new^ rubbers 
and covers, first dipping the rubbers in 
boiling water and taking the covers from 
w^ater actually boiling; put one w^re of 
the clamp in place and let cook from five 




RICE FLOUR FLUMMERY 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



41 



to sixteen minutes, according to the style 
of cooker. Using a wash boiler or similar 
receptacle, let the water cover the cans 
to the depth of an inch; cook sixteen 
minutes after the water boils vigorously. 
Remove from the water and fasten se- 
curely. In filling the cooker use water 
at the temperature of the filled jar, and 
bring quickly to the boiling point. 

Canned Blueberries 

(Without Sugar) 
Prepare three cans of berries, discard- 
ing any berries that are over-ripe and re- 
moving all leaves and stems. Use a 
pressure canner or steam cooker. Set 
the covers beside the jars. Cook about 
fifteen minutes. Use one can to fill the 
other two. Dip the rubbers in boiling 
water and set in place. Do not touch the 
under side of the cover; lift by the edges 
to set in place, and adjust one wire of the 
clamp; let cook five minutes; remove 
from the cooker and adjust the second 
wire of the clamp. 

Blueberry Jelly 

Put the fruit in a saucepan, crush with 
a pestle and let heat slowly; when hot 
and soft throughout, drain in • a bag. 
Allow one cup of sugar to each cup of 
juice. Heat the sugar in the oven and 
boil the juice six minutes; heat quickly 
and count the time after boiling begins; 
add the sugar, let boil two minutes and 
turn into glasses. Have the glasses near- 
by filled with boiling water. Turn out 
the water and fill without delay, as the 
jelly forms quickly. 

Blueberry Jelly 

(Second Extraction) 
Turn the residue left after draining the 
juice from blueberries into a saucepan; 
add water (hot or cold) to cover, mix 
thoroughly and let simmer ten or twelve 
minutes. Drain in a bag, pressing out all 
the juice possible. Allow half a cup of 
sugar to each cup of juice. Boil the 
juice ten minutes, add the sugar, made hot 
in the oven, and let boil till the syrup 



drops in beads from a spoon lifted from 
it. Turn into hot glasses as usual. 

Canned Strawberries and 
Raspberries 

Fill hot, sterilized jars with hulled, 
washed and drained berries, putting in 
as many as convenient. Have ready 
syrup made by melting five cups of sugar 
in four cups of boiling water heated just 
to the boiling point. Pour in syrup to 
fill the jars to overflow. Seal the jars, 
dipping the rubbers in boiling water, with 
sterilized covers. Set the jars on a rack 
in a saucepan of boiling water. The 
boiling water must come over the jars. 
Let remain in the water until cold. 

Raspberries Canned without 
Cooking 

Wash and drain the berries. Add an 
equal weight of sugar. Crush the berries 
with the sugar, and mix them well. Allow 
the berries to stand for twenty-four hours, 
stirring them occasionally until the sugar 
is dissolved. Seal them in glass jars, and 
keep the jars in a cool dark place. Straw- 
berries and raspberries canned in this 
way are excellent for shortcake. Red 
currants may be canned in the same 
manner. 

Sun-Preserved Berries 

Fruits that lend themselves especially 
well to the following method of preserv- 
ing are strawberries, cherries, white cur- 
rants, and raspberries. Use a pound of 
sugar to each pound of fruit. Put a layer 
of fruit in the bottom of a preserving 
kettle and add one or two tablespoonfuls 
of water. Alternate the layers of sugar 
and fruit. Heat the mixture carefully 
until the sugar is dissolved; avoid crush- 
ing the fruit if possible. Boil the mixture 
for from five to seven minutes, pour it in 
thin layers onto large platters, and set 
it in the sun for a day. It should thicken 
or jelly on the platter. After it has cooled 
and thickened, transfer it from the platter 
to sterilized jars, and seal or cover them 
with paraffin. 



Well-Balanced Family Menus, June 



Breakfast 

Puffed Rice, Milk 

Eggs Cooked in the Shell 

Rice-and-Cornmeal Griddle Cakes 

Orange-and-Dried Apricot Marmalade 

Coffee Cocoa 

Dinner 

Chicken Pie, Barley-and-Rice Flour Crust 

Lettuce-and-Cress Salad 

Savory or Scalloped Potatoes 

Bermuda Onions, Boiled 

Strawberry Ice Cream Sponge Cake 

Supper 

Snappy Cheese Rabbit on Oatflour Crackers 

Pineapple 

Boiled Cream Hominy, Whole Milk 

Cocoa Tea 



Breakfast 

White Cornmeal Mush, Whole Milk 

(grated cheese, adults) 

Creamed Asparagus on W^ar Bread Toast 

Potato Doughnuts 

Coffee Cocoa 

Dinner 

Lamb Stew with 

Barley-and-Rice Flour Biscuit 

(carrots, onions, potatoes) 

Lettuce, French Dressing 

Stewed Prunes, Cottage Cheese 

Toasted Wheatless Crackers 

Supper 

Lettuce-and-Sliced Egg Salad 

Baking Powder War Bread 

Strawberries 

Hot Water Sponge Cake Tea 



Breakfast 

Oatmeal, Sliced Bananas, Milk 
Rice Omelet with Bechamel Sauce 

(Chicken broth and top milk) 
Grilled Potatoes Spider Corncake 
Coffee Cocoa 

Dinner 

Mock Bisque Soup, Educator Crackers 

Rizzoletti 

(remnants of chicken with rice, etc.) 

Green Peas Radishes 

New Potatoes, Baked 

Floating Island 

(conservation custard, sponge cake) 

Supper 

Potato Salad 

Cold Boiled Tongue, Sliced Thin 

Oatmeal Bannock 

Strawberries Tea 



Breakfast 

Broiled Fresh Mackerel 

or 

Small Fresh Fish, Saute 

Creamed Potatoes 

Radishes 

Cornmeal Breakfast Cake 

Milk Coffee 

Dinner 

Hamburg Steak 
Mashed Potatoes 

Asparagus 
Canned Apple Pie 

Supper 

Cream of Asparagus Soup 

Wheatless Crackers 

Baking Powder War Bread 

Strawberries 

Tea 



Breakfast 

Baltimore Samp, Maple Syrup, Whole Milk 

Tongue-and-Potato Hash 

Barley Flour-and-Cornmeal Muffins 

Coffee Cocoa 

Dinner 

Egg Croquettes, Italian Style 
Green Peas Spinach 

Strawberry Shortcake 
(barley-and-rice flour crust) 

Supper 

String Bean Salad 

Barley-and-Rice Flour Biscuit 

Loganberr}^ Jiffy-Jell 

Cookies 



Breakfast 

Oatmeal, Top Milk 

Eggs Shirred with Creamed Asparagus 

Cornmeal Breakfast Cake, Reheated 

Cocoa Coffee 

Dinner 

Fresh Fish, Baked with Tomato and Onion 

Mashed Potatoes, Browned in Oven 

Lettuce and Cold Asparagus, French Dressing 

Strawberry Tart 

Supper 

Hot Spinach, Sliced Eggs 

Baking Powder War Bread 

Boston Cream Puffs 

Strawberries 

Tea 



Breakfast 

Baltimore Samp, Maple Syrup, 

Milk 

Creamed Fresh Fish (left over) 

Small Baked Potatoes 

Oatmeal Bannock 

Coffee Cocoa 



Dinner 

Corned Beef, Boiled Potatoes 

Boiled Onions 

Beet Greens 

New Carrots, Buttered 

Rhubarb and Raisin Pie 

Half Cups Coffee 

42 



Supper 

Dried Lima Bean-and-Canned 

Corn Succotash (chop the corn) 

Baking Powder War Bread 

Strawberries 

Tea 



Well-Balanced Family Menus, July 



¥ 



Breakfast 

Puffed Rice, Blueberries, Milk 

Cornmeal Waffles 

Coffee Cocoa 

Dinner 

Fricassee of Fowl, Savory Rice 

Barley-and-Rice-flour Biscuit 

Green Peas Apple Jelly 

Lettuce and Cress, French Dressing 

Cherry Pie 

Cream Cheese 

Supper 

Potato Salad 

Sardines 

Baking Powder War Bread 

Fresh Raspberries or 

Dried Peaches, Stewed 



Milk 



Tea 



Breakfast 

Barley Grits, Berries, Whole Milk 

Dried Beef, Frizzled 

White Hashed Potatoes 

Fried Mush, Maple Syrup 



Coffee 



Cocoa 



Dinner 

Corned Tongue, Boiled 

New Cabbage, Scalloped 

Boiled Potatoes Cucumbers 

New Carrots Tossed in Butter 

Rice Pudding, Delmonico Style 

(with cornstarch, egg yolks and meringue) 

Peanut Butter Cookies 

Supper 

Clam or Fish Chowder 

Wheatless Crackers 

Lemon Jiffy-Jell Ginger Cakes 

Tea 



Breakfast 

Oatmeal, Stewed Peaches, Whole Milk 

Scrambled Eggs 

White Hashed Potatoes 

Hominy Crisps 



Cocoa 



Coffee 



Dinner 



Fowl Souffle 

Green Peas New Potatoes Baked 

Lettuce-and-Radish Salad 

Vanilla Ice Cream, Chocolate Sauce 

Cornflour Sponge Cake 

Supper 

Eggs a la Golden Rod 

(on rounds of mashed potatoes) 

Hominy and Barley Muffins 

Berries Oatmeal Fruit Macaroons 

Tea Milk 



Breakfast 

Oatmeal, Sliced Bananas, Whole Milk 

Spanish Omelet 

Quick Buckwheat Griddle Cakes 

Coffee Cocoa 

Dinner 

Cream of String Bean Soup 

Tongue, Potato-and-Carrot Hash 

Boiled Beet Greens or Chard 

Raspberry Shortcake 

Supper 

Stewed Lima Beans 

Cornmeal-and-Barley Flour Muffins 

Cottage Cheese 

Orange-and-Apricot Marmalade 

Tea Milk 



Breakfast 

White Cornmeal Mush, Blueberries, Milk 

Creamed Asparagus on Toast 

New Potatoes Baked 

Barley Popovers 

Coffee Cocoa 

Dinner 

Sword Fish, Saute 

Old Potatoes, Mashed String Beans 

Beet Greens or Dandelions 

Cottage Pudding (barley or oat flour) 

Raspberry Hard Sauce 

Supper 

Cheese Souffle 

Dried Apricots, Stewed 

Baking Powder Loaf Bread 

Rice Cakes, Saute 

Peanut Butter Cookies 

Breakfast 

Barley Grits, Whole Milk 
Fresh-water Pickerel or Pan 

Fish, Saute 

Baked Potato Cakes (left over) 

Radishes 

Oatmeal Bannock, Toasted 

Coffee Cocoa 



Breakfast 

Boiled Rice, Berries, Whole Milk 

Broiled Tripe 

Hashed Brown Potatoes 

Boston Brown Bread, Toasted 

Coffee Cocoa 

Dinner 

Mock Bisque Soup, Wheatless Crackers 

Broiled Bluefish 

Buttered Beets Cucumbers 

Old Potatoes, Mashed 

Lemon Milk Sherbet 

Oatmeal Macaroons 

Supper 

Snappy Cheese Rabbit on 

Boston Brown Bread Toast 

Stewed Blueberries 

Gingercakes 



Tea 



Dinner 

Lamb Chops, Fore Quar- 
ter, Steamed and Sauted 
Scalloped Potatoes 

Summer Squash 

Creamed Kohl Rabi 

Cornstarch Pudding, 

Raspberry Sauce 

43 



Milk 

Supper 

Baking Powder Bread 

Blueberries 

Milk 

Tea 



Well - Balanced Menus for Boys' Summer Camp (July) 

{Boys Eight to Sixteen Years). 



Breakfast 

Oatmeal, Blueberries, Whole Milk 

Salt Codfish or Finnan Haddie 

and Potato Hash (baked) Tomato Catsup 

Spider Corncake 

Milk Cocoa 

Dinner 

Fowl Steamed and Baked, Giblet Sauce 

Mashed Potatoes 

Sweet Pickled Melon Rind 

Virginia Spoon Corn Bread 

Lettuce and Garden Cress, French Dressing 

Maple Ice Cream 

Buckwheat Cookies or 

Potato Flour Sponge Cake 

Supper 

Baked Potatoes 

Gnocchi a la Romaine (cornflour, cheese, etc.) 

Stewed Prunes Oatmeal Bannock 

Cocoa Milk 



Breakfast 

Fish-and-Potato Cakes 

(Baked or Saute) 

Fried Cornmeal Mush, Syrup 

Oatmeal Bannock 

Cocoa Milk 

Dinner 

Roast Leg of Lamb, Mint JifiFy-Jell 

Franconia Potatoes, Brown Sauce 

String Beans or Green Peas 

Baked Bananas 

Baked Rice Pudding with Raisins 

Supper 

Mock Bisque Soup, Crackers 

Virginia Spoon Corn Bread 

Dried Apricots, Stewed 

Cookies 



Breakfast 

Barley Grits, Whole Milk 

Remnants of Chicken in Omelet 

Barley Biscuit (barley and rice flour) 

Marmalade 

Cocoa Milk 

Dinner 

Hamburg Steak 

Mashed Potatoes (with milk) 

String Beans 

Lettuce and Garden Cress, French Dressing 

Barley Biscuit (reheated) 

Pineapple Tapioca Sponge 

Supper 

Baked Potatoes, Smoked Fish in Cream Sauce 

Puffed Rice, Milk 

Dried Peaches Stewed 

Chocolate Cake 



Breakfast 

Boiled Rice, Milk, Blueberries 

Boston Brown Bread, Cream Toast 

Frizzled Dried Beef 

Small Baked Potatoes or 

White Hashed Potatoes 

Cocoa Milk 

Dinner 

Lamb-and-Rice Souffle 

Stewed Tomatoes 

Scalloped Potatoes 

Hominy Crisps 

Junket Ice Cream, Chocolate Sauce 

Gingerbread 

Supper 

Fish or Clam Chowder 

Peanut Butter Crackers Cold Slaw 

Raspberries Cookies 



Breakfast 

Cornmeal Mush, Milk 

(Cooked all night in Fireless) 

Rice Omelet with Tomato Sauce 

Ryemeal-and-Barley Flour Muflfins 

Butter Marmalade 

Cocoa Milk 

Dinner 

Boiled Fresh Fish, Egg Sauce 

Boiled Potatoes, Boiled Onions 

Boiled Spinach or Beet Greens 

Boston Brown Bread 

Blueberry Pie (barley-and-rice flour crust) 

Supper 

Scalloped Potatoes and Eggs (Oak-Hill eggs) 

Barley, Rice flour-and- Wheat Bread 

Stewed Prunes Cream Cheese 

Oatmeal-fruit Macaroons 

Milk to Drink 



Breakfast 

Oatmeal, Sliced Bananas, Whole Milk 

Salt Codfish Balls, Catsup 

Breakfast Corn Cake 

Cocoa Milk 

Dinner 

Broiled Bluefish, or 

Sword Fish, Saute 

Mashed Potatoes 

Boiled Beets 

Hominy and Barley Muffins 

Cherry Pie 

(barley and rice flour crust) 

Supper 

Lamb-and-Tomato Soup 

Crackers 

Creamed Baltimore Samp with Cheese 

Raspberries 

Oatmeal Cookies 



Breakfast 

Baltimore Samp, Syrup 

Whole Milk 

Corned Beef-and-Potato Hash 

Pickled Beets 

Rice-and-Cornmeal Griddle Cakes 

Cocoa Milk 



Dinner 

Chicken Pie, Barley Crust 

Savory Potatoes 

Summer Squash 

Swiss Chard as Greens 

Rice flour Flummery with 

Canned Fruit 

44 



Supper 

Boston Baked Beans, Catsup 

Boston Brown Bread 

Savory Rice 

Raspberries 

Gingerbread Milk 



Food Suggestions for June-July 

By Janet M. Hill 



AS we make up this number of 
American Cookery, the U. S. 
Food Administration is urging 
housekeepers to make, for the present, 
potatoes rather than bread the staple, 
article of our diet. The crop of potatoes 
was large last year, and this supply 
should be utilized before it goes to waste. 
For many uses old potatoes are preferable 
to new. The very early crop is often 
sent to market before it is fully matured, 
and such potatoes never give a mealy 
and truly delectable dish. Then, too, 
even if ripe, they will not give a dish of 
fluify mashed potato so much enjoyed 
by everyone. 

The ways of using mashed potatoes 
are almost endless; but first of all look 
out for the little details that will surely 
make or mar the dish. During storage 
the potatoes lose water by evaporation, 
and this should be, in part, restored to 
them before cooking. Pare and let 
stand in cold water to cover, at least, 
an hour before cooking. Set to cook in 
boiling, salted water and keep boiling 
till done; drain and press at once through 
a potato-ricer, into a hot dish. Add 
salt, hot milk and some form of fat and 
beat with a slitted wooden spoon until 
white and fluffy. To enjoy in perfection 
eat at once. 

Either fresh-made or left-over mashed 
potatoes may be used as a case for eggs 
or creamed meat, fish or vegetables. 
Press the potato in a greased dish to 
leave an open center; break in an egg 



or fill with the creamed article. In the 
first case, cook until the egg is of the 
consistency desired. The creamed dish 
may be covered with buttered crumbs 
and the cooking is completed when the 
crumbs are browned. 

Getting along without wheat flour is 
really less of a privation than it was, at 
first, thought. Barley, rye, oatmeal, 
corn, potato and rice flours give good 
results in cake and pastry. 

Yeast bread is the one item for which 
wheat flour seems absolutely necessary, 
and many of us will gladly use the 
various baking powder forms of bread 
as a temporary expedient. Some of 
these will prove so satisfactory that, 
hereafter, they will be given a lasting 
place in our bills of fare. 

Yeast bread may be made with rye 
flour without the use of any wheat. 
The dough should be mixed quite stiff; 
as the dough is sticky, use rice flour 
on the board for kneading. Use milk 
rather than water in mixing; this item 
means much, when rye flour is used. 
By the use of milk the quality and tex- 
ture of the bread is much improved. 

The recipe for baking powder bread, 
given on another page, gives a loaf that 
may be sliced when cold. For many 
the sugar is an objection, but it helps to 
lighten the bread. A cup of chopped 
nuts may be used in place of the shorten- 
ing. This bread dries out quickly. 

In a meal in which potatoes and other 
vegetables replace bread, the dessert 



45 



46 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



may often appear as a shortcake; straw- 
berries, raspberries, Loganberries, canned 
apricots, blackberries and peaches form 
a succession of good things eminently 
appropriate for shortcakes. The crust 
made of barley and rice flour is recom- 
mended, though a sponge cake made of 
potato flour will be preferred by some. 

Keep in mind that fruit may be canned 
just as successfully — as far as preserva- 
tion is concerned — without sugar as 
with it. It is a matter of convenience 
to be able to open a can of fruit ready 
for the table; also the appearance of 
some fruit, as peaches and pears, would 
not be improved by reheating with sugar 
at time of serving; thus, if convenient, 
sugar might be used in canning these 
fruits. Berries and early apples will 
taste much more like fresh fruit if they 
be canned without sugar, and then be 
reheated and sugar be added at time of 
use. 

Extract fruit juice for jelly in the usual 
manner; heat to the boiling point and 
store in sterilized jars, as in all canning 
with the open kettle. When sugar is 
available and jelly is desired, the final 
work may be done in less than half an 
hour. Fresh-made jelly is certainly pref- 



erable to that which has been stored for 
some time; the fruit flavor is higher. 

We feel that the presentation — at 
this time — of a recipe for cake frosting 
requires an apology. We give the recipe 
because it is so simple and never fails. 
It may be made with one tablespoonful 
of Karo and six tablespoonfuls of honey 
in place of the sugar. The recipe is well 
worth holding on to for use when con- 
ditions change. One or two ounces of 
melted chocolate may be beaten in at 
.the last moment. 



Time-Saving Frosting 

(Mrs. Crafts) 

Put seven-eighths of a cup of granu- 
lated sugar, three tablespoonfuls of water 
and the white of one egg in a small double 
boiler. Let water in the lower part of 
the boiler be boiling rapidly; set the 
upper part holding the ingredients in 
place, and beat constantly seven minutes, 
when a boiled frosting that will remain 
in place will be ready for use. The water 
in the lowei receptacle must be boiling 
rapidly throughout the seven minutes. 
Use a Dover egg beater. 



Baking Powder Loaf Bread 



1^ cups barley flour 

1 cup rye meal 

I cup rice flour 

6 teaspoonfuls baking powder 

1 teaspoonful salt 



§ cup sugar 

4 tablespoonfuls shortening 

1 egg beaten light 

1 cup milk 



Pass together all the dry ingredients through a sieve into a bowl and work in 
the shortening with two knives. Add the milk to the egg and use in mixing the 
dry ingredients to a dough. Turn into a greased bread pan. Let stand 15 minutes- 
Bake 45 minutes. One cup of oat flour or very fine meal may replace the rye 
meal. 



What I Learned from Vegetable Canning 

Last Year 

By Emma Gary Wallace 



EXPERIENCE doesn't amount to 
very much unless we use it to safe- 
guard our future actions, or employ the 
knowledge gained to save others from 
disappointment. 

In company with a number of other 
patriotic American women, I canned, last 
year, everything cannable, as fruits and 
vegetables made their appearance. 

Having canned fruits for a great many 
years, I had some experience in this line, 
and so met with no disappointment what- 
ever. I was particular, of course, that 
cans and tops were properly matched, 
that rubbers were new and sound, that 
fruit was at its best, and, as a rule, used 
the method of packing my fruit in the 
can raw, covering with sterilized hot 
syrup, and then cooking the fruit in the 
. can in a water bath long enough to steril- 
ize, following government tables for the 
time to subject each kind of fruit to the 
heat. 

My only disappointment was with 
strawberries. The first of these were done 
exactly according to directions of canning 
experts, — that is, the syrup was made, 
poured over the fruit, and the can closed 
and the contents cooked the given 
length of time. The fruit shrunk so as to 
leave an air space at the top. Consulta- 
tion with one of the State Food Agents 
reassured me, for the time, as she de- 
clared that this was a vacuum and the 
fruit would be all right; but, somehow, 
I was not easy about it, and set those first 
batches by themselves. Later batches 
I did differently. 

I kept some of the syrup in reserve, pro- 
ceeded exactly as before, only when the 
fruit was sufficiently cooked, I took off 
the top, filled up the can with the boiling 
syrup, and closed it quickly. During 
the winter I was able to compare results. 
The cans that had a space at the top de- 



veloped a growth of mould and the fruit 
faded badly. When it was opened the 
mould could be removed in a layer, and 
there was no hint of fermentation, but 
the fruit was not as solid as desired. The 
cans that were filled up to overflow with 
the hot syrup came through much better. 
They didn't have a particle of mould, the 
fruit was much more solid, and the color 
and the flavor were better. 

I also learned some things about vegeta- 
ble canning, which I trust will save dis- 
appointment this year. This canning 
was nearly all done by the cold-pack, in- 
termittent method, so widely recom- 
mended last summer. Some of my veget- 
able canning, however, was done by the 
open-kettle method, vegetables being 
prepared, cooked, and canned boiling 
hot. These groups canned in different 
ways were kept apart. Some of both of 
them spoiled. The majority of both of 
them kept. I am sure I know the reason, 
and this year I do not believe I will have 
any disappointment, no matter which 
method I use. 

Part of my cans were washed and pre- 
sumably sterilized by an excellent maid, 
who had kept house more years than I 
had, but at the time I was a little doubt- 
ful as to the thoroughness of her work. 
This was not to be surprised at, as her 
training along lines of sanitation and her 
knowledge of bacteria were not exten- 
sive. This year I shall see to^the proper 
cleaning and sterilizing of every can 
myself, and this is the way I am going to 
do it. 

Cans are washed and dried, and the 
covers put on, and the cans set away when 
emptied. I am particular that the cover 
goes with the right can, so as to save the 
tiresome task of matching them up on a 
busy, hot, canning day. When I get 
ready to use my cans, I shall take them 



47 



48 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



down, wash them in clear water, bring 
them to the boihng point in a solution of 
washing soda and water, using a table- 
spoonful of washing soda to each two 
quarts of water. This, with the boiling 
water, will sweeten and kill any mould 
spores. These cans will then be washed 
in soap suds, rinsed in clear water, and 
scalded. The covers, of course, will be 
treated in the same way. 

I had some cans develop "flat-sour," 
even though every precaution was taken 
that I knew then. I have since learned 
that cans of fruit or vegetables should not 



be left in a warm kitchen to cool, but 
should be set in a cooler room out of a 
draught, so as to avoid cracking, but the 
temperature reduced as fast as is con- 
sistent with the safety of the glass. The 
prolonging of the "warm period" en- 
courages the development of this unknown 
flat-sour, which our chemical laboratories 
have not yet determined the nature of. 

I shall spend no time putting up any- 
thing in fruit or vegetables that is not 
at its best. Good materials, surgically 
clean utensils, and careful methods will 
insure satisfactory results. 



Canning Without Cooking 

By May Belle Brooks 



COOKING destroys the flavor of 
most fruits and vegetables, and if 
there is any safe method of preserving 
foods without subjecting them to heat, it 
should be used. All kinds of berries, 
peaches, grapes, rhubarb and tomatoes 
have been successfully canned by the 
cold process. To can berries, pour over 
them an equal amount of sugar, set in a 
cool place and let stand twelve hours, 
stirring them several times. Pack in 
sterilized and cool jars and leave uncov- 
ered several hours, stirring occasionally. 
If this precaution is not observed, the 
fruit will not keep, as the fermentation 
produces gas, which should be thrown off 
before they are sealed. Put on the rub- 
bers and tops and fasten secure. 

Cherries, currants and the berries will 
keep excellently if washed as soon as 
picked and packed into sterilized jars, 
which are then filled up with a boiling 
syrup made of one quart of sugar and a 
quart of water cooked together about 
twenty minutes. Fill to overflow and ad- 
just the rubber and cap at once. Peaches 
and grapes will also be good treated in 
this fashion, and will taste as nearly like 
the fresh fruit as it is possible for any pre- 



served food to do. Over-ripe fruit will 
not keep so well canned without heat. 

To can rhubarb in cold water, wash and 
cut into small pieces without peeling it. 
Pack into a jar, place a rubber and fill to 
overflow with cold water and seal. At 
the end of twenty-four hours, drain all 
the water from the jars and re-fill to 
overflow with fresh, and re-seal. Let 
stand another twenty-four hours, pour off 
all the water again and fill with fresh, 
after which the jar is ready to be sealed 
permanently. 

Tomatoes require a slightly different 
treatment. See that they are not the 
least over-ripe; scald and peel, being care- 
ful to remove all the green center or blos- 
som end. When thoroughly cold, pack 
in jars, and to each quart add one-half a 
teaspoonful of salt and one teaspoonful 
of sugar. Cover with cold water, seal 
and let stand upside down for two days. 
Whole tomatoes for salads may be kept 
in stone jars and covered with a weakened 
vinegar, sweetened and spiced as for 
sweet pickles. 

For currant jelly without cooking, press 
the juice from the currants and strain it. 
To each pint allow one pound of sugar, 



CANNING WITHOUT COOKING 



49 



mixing them together until the sugar is 
dissolved. Pour in jars, seal, then ex- 
pose them to the hot sun for three 
days. 

Beet Relish. — Of course the beets for 
this must be previously boiled. Chop one 
quart, each, of the beets and cabbage; 
add one cup of grated horse-radish, one 
cup of sugar, one-half teaspoonful of 
cayenne pepper and cover with cold 
vinegar. 

Oil Pickles. — Slice, without paring, 
thirty medium-sized cucumbers and mix 
with four onions sliced. Cover with 
salted water and let stand four hours. 
Drain and pour over one quart of vinegar 
and one-half cup of olive oil. 

Pickles for Immediate Use. — Wash and 
wipe the cucumbers and place in a two- 
gallon jar containing one gallon of strong 
cider vinegar, one cup of salt, one table- 
spoonful of powdered alum and a small 
bag of mixed spices. Put a plate over 
the pickles to keep them under the vine- 
gar, and add more cucumbers at any time, 
being careful not to crowd them. These 
may be eaten the next day after prepar- 
ing, if desired. 

Sweet Pickled Onions. — Use the small 
button onions, or large ones sliced. Cover 
with brine strong enough to float an ^gg 
or a potato. At the end of twenty-four 
hours, remove the brine and cover the 
onions with sweetened vinegar in the 
proportion of two pounds of sugar to one- 
half gallon of vinegar. Add mustard 
seed, celery seed or other spices to suit 
the taste. Green tomatoes or cauli- 



flower may be added, if desired, and they 
need not be sealed air-tight, a stone crock 
will suffice. 

Chili Sauce. — Scald and peel four 
quarts of tomatoes; chop and place in the 
colander to drain for two hours. Re- 
move from the colander and pour one 
quart of vinegar over them. Mix to- 
gether one cup of minced onion, one cup, 
each, of sugar and salt, half a cup of 
grated horse-radish, the same of mustard 
seed, two tablespoonfuls of black pepper, 
two small red peppers, chopped, two tea- 
spoonfuls of celery seed, two tablespoon- 
fuls of ground allspice, one teaspoonful of 
mace, one cup of nasturtium seed, one 
tablespoonful of cinnamon and two or 
three heads of celery, chopped. Com- 
bine with the tomato and vinegar and 
bottle without cooking. 

Cold Catsup. — Chop one peck of ripe 
tomatoes and press through a sieve. 
Add one-half cup of grated horse-radish, 
one-fourth cup of salt, one cup of white 
mustard seed, two large peppers, two 
bunches of celery, chopped fine, one cup 
of minced onions, one cup of brown sugar, 
one teaspoonful, each, of black pepper and 
cinnamon, and one quart of vinegar. 
Bottle and seal without cooking. 

Cucumber Relish. — Chop three quarts 
of peeled-and-sliced cucumbers, removing 
all seeds, two quarts of onions and two 
pints of green peppers. Sprinkle with 
salt, cover and let stand overnight. Add 
six teaspoonfuls of celery seed, one tea- 
spoonful of pepper and sufficient vinegar 
to cover. 



Cornmeal, Barley-and-Rice Flour Breakfast Cake 



\ cup shortening 

§ cup sugar 

2 eggs, beaten light 

I cup milk 

1 teaspoonful salt 



1| cups barley flour 

J cup rice flour 

1 cup cornmeal 

4 teaspoonfuls baking powder 



Cream the shortening; beat half the sugar into the shortening and half into the 
eggs and beat the two mixtures together. Sift the dry ingredients into a bowl to- 
gether; add to the first mixture, alternately, with the milk. Bake in a dripping pan. 
Good reheated. 



French Food With a Southern Accent 

{Concluded from page 75) 



adding that rich golden tint, with a pun- 
gency all its own. The fish is served after 
boiling in its casserole^ not a kettle, on a 
platter, over which some of the sauce is 
poured, the greater part being reserved 
for pouring over slices of bread, which 
are served apart in a bowl. The secret 
of this wonderful fish stew, whose praises 
have often been sung, is that it must be 
made of the Fish of the Mediterranean, 
spiney and wonderful as to coloring, rock- 
fish from the coves and calanques of the 
coast — rascasse, dorade, rouget and the 
poisson de Saint Pierre, which seems to 
have no other name. 

Sometimes langouste, sl sort of feminized 
lobster, is added to bouillabaisse, but this 
is an interpolation. One defect of the 
present war rationing of bread for the 
Marseillais is that it does not give him 
sufficient bread for his bouillabaisse, and 
furthermore, war-bread of itself does not 
lend itself readily to the function, being 
too heavy and compact. 

The sea abounds in simple, but luscious 
fish, though it has often been said that 
those of the Mediterranean could be ex- 
pected to have none of the qualities of 
those of northern waters. This is not so, 
and their cooking adds to their charm 
when carried out with old southern 
French tradition. The loup de vier is a 
fish of white delicate meat, which can be 
cut up into steaks and planked, and is one 
of the finest fishes I have ever eaten. It 
is about the only fish that ever is planked 
and served whole, though in all Mar- 
seilles restaurants of pretentions, the 
finny one is first brought in uncooked for 
the guest to pass upon. Oil is the prime 
ingredient of southern French fish-cook- 
ery; nothing answers so well as this 
medium. Olive oil is used for the sauces 
and condimental fixings, but for the 
actual frying, nothing is said to be so good 
as our own cotton-seed oil, whose in- 
ception is due to the Marseilles oil pressers, 
though now known to all the world. 



Desserts are lacking here, as on most 
French menus. A flan, or sort of custard, 
is occasionally served, one suspects for 
traveling Americans and English, and 
always may be had a nougat, or sort of 
petrified Turkish delight, while for the 
rest, it is apt to be made up of fresh fruit 
— figs, oranges, or thin-shelled almonds, 
oranges and mandarines in season. 

Marseilles has other restaurants more 
conventional, and still others not a bit 
more so, and with a character all their 
own. Many are hidden away in the 
winding streets, spreading out occasion- 
ally on to the sidewalks of a shady Cours, 
or avenue. Isnard's Restaurant des Pho- 
ceens is perhaps the finest, most recherche 
cuisine of all the indigenous Marseilles 
restaurants, but is less amusing, less fre- 
quented, and less attractively located than 
those given. It has a specialty, too, in 
canned bouillabaisse which it ships off" to 
the four corners of the earth, or would, 
or did, before the war. Something even 
more splendid is Marseilles' Hotel de la 
Reserve on the famous Corniche Road, 
which skirts the sea. It sits amid a little 
group of pines on a promontory over- 
looking the water, its wide verandahs the 
scene of many gay parties. Its sea-food 
specialties are of the best, and of the 
freshest, for it fishes them from its own 
cisterns, built in the Mediterranean itself, 
at the foot of the hill, but its bouillabaisse 
lacks a certain atmosphere of local color, 
which Marseilles quayside restaurants 
alone can give, and this, in spite of the 
glorious site and the really chic appoint- 
ments — and prices — of "La Reserve." 

The opening words of this article were 
my American's parting words, after we 
had made a round of Marseilles' alto- 
gether local-color restaurants. When the 
American invasion makes its return trip 
from France, its members may be clamor- 
ing for French food with a southern 
accent; if so the above outlines some of 
its charms. 



50 




i(H«?^}l3^£^ 




Contributions to this department will be gladly received. Accepted items will be 

paid for at reasonable rates. 



City Helps for Country 
Housewives 

10 country housewives,' especially 
those not within easy shopping dis- 
tance of large cities, a serious drawback 
to an otherwise preferable location is the 
[inability to obtain those little helps in 
lousekeeping so plentiful in the cities. 

Oh, for a dustless duster such as 
.ousin Amelia has!" sighs the country 
:ousin despairingly. "Or a polishing 
;loth for silver — but they never keep any- 
thing like that at the general store here." 
Of course they do not, generally. But 
[they often keep the raw materials, from 
which to make these modern helps, if 
but the country housewife knew their 
secret. And this is often simpler than 
[the manufacturers would have us believe! 
Silver Polishing Cloths, for instance, 
''hich will not scratch silver, yet will pre- 
serve their cleaning qualities indefinitely, 
|may be made from materials which your 
[grocer or druggist may easily procure for 
^ou, and at half the price which your city 
:ousin pays for the advertised article. 

For several of these you will require 
>ne pound of whiting, and one-quarter 
)unce of oleic acid, blended smoothly 
ith one-half gallon of gasoline. In this 
:ompound soak soft, old flannel cloths 
[of suitable size, then dry thoroughly some- 
where away from fire. Keep those not in 
immediate use in a tight box, or wrapped 
[in waxed paper. 

A Sweeping Compound is helpful in 
homes lacking vacuum cleaners. One 
that will serve the purpose admirably con- 



sists of a quantity of corn meal (coarse 
salt, if preferred) saturated with just 
enough kerosene oil to moisten. It will 
not grease the rugs. 

A compound closely resembling the 
proprietary article is made from one-half 
pint of paraffin oil and two ounces of 
eucalyptus oil, mixed with two ounces of 
melted paraffin wax in a warm room so 
that it will blend well. Have ready ten 
pounds of dry sawdust, and one-half 
pound of coarse salt, also slightly warm. 
Over this pour the blended oils and wax, 
stirring thoroughly until the dry in- 
gredients are saturated, then add four 
pounds of sea sand. Color, if desired, 
with any of the aniline dyes. This makes 
a large quantity of the compound and at 
less price than you would pay for half of 
the same in the city. 

A Wood Stain for the kitchen floor may 
be made from Permanganate of Potash. 
Mix in the proportion of one-quarter 
ounce to the quart of water, dissolving 
thoroughly. Apply with a brush freely 
and swiftly to the cleaned, dry floor. 
One coat is sufficient unless a very dark 
floor is desired. When first applied, the 
color will be a bright magenta, changing 
immediately to a dark, rich brown, that 
will not wash away. When dry, oil with 
linseed oil, and clean your floor by merely 
wiping with warm water. 

A Floor Wax for dulled varnish will re- 
sult from blending half a pound of com- 
mon beeswax in half a pint of turpen- 
tine. Shave the wax and heat in a double 
boiler until melted, then add the oil to- 
gether with half a pint of drier. 



51 



:>! 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



If the beeswax is not obtainable, paraf- 
fin wax may be substituted. This is 
cheaper, soft and easy to apply, but less 
durable. Rub well into the floor with a 
rag, polishing w4th dry flannel. 

A Crack Filler is made from one pound 
of flour rubbed smoothly in a little water. 
Add three quarts of boiling water and 
set on stove. Stir in one tablespoonful 
of powdered alum, together with bits of 
torn newspapers, and cook until the mass 
is smooth and thick as putty. 

A Carpet Cleaning Fluid is made from 
four ounces of good, white soap dissolved 
in four ounces of boiling water. When 
cool add five ounces of ammonia, two and 
a half, each, of alcohol and glycerine, with 
tw^o ounces of ether or chloroform. To 
use, shake well and use in proportion of 
one tablespoonful to a pail of warm 
water. 

A Dust Mop for wiping hardwood floor- 
borders requires only the general-store 
variety of mop, and twenty cents' worth 
of paraffin oil. Soak the mop in the oil 
until thoroughly saturated, dry, and use 
four or five months, then wash and oil 
again. 

Dustless Dusters are quickly made by 
sprinkling hemmed cheesecloth squares 
with any good furniture oil, rolling 
tightly over night. 

Better dusters, having the advantage 
of not soiling the hands, and of retaining 
the dust until w^orn to tatters, result from 
mixing one-eighth an ounce of oxalic acid 
and one-half pound of whiting in one 
quart of gasoline. Blend well, saturate 
soft cloths with the compound and hang 
in the open air to dry. You can make 
several of these for the price of one in the 
city. 

While about it make yourself a small 
dust mop, to take the place of the now 
ostracized feather duster, by saturating 
a dish mop with the foregoing mixture. 
Lacking the dish mop, old stocking legs 
cut in strips and fastened to a short 
handle will do. This sort of duster will 
enable you to flick dust from high or low 
places as readily as by a feather duster, 



and without the risk of setting it loose 
again in the air. 

A Polish for Furniture and woodwork 
may be made from equal parts of turpen- 
tine, kerosene and vinegar, well blended. 
This is not only cheap and getable, but 
as good as can be purchased. 

A Wall Paper Cleaner which will clean 
a room equal to any proprietary article, 
may be made in ten minutes for about as 
many cents. Sift one heaping cup of 
flour with one tablespoonful of. salt. 
Have ready a mixture of one tablespoon- 
ful of coal oil, two of vinegar and two of 
ammonia, with one-half cup of warm 
water. Blend with the flour and salt, 
and cook until the flour is thoroughly 
scalded and all the moisture used up, 
stirring constantly. Knead as you would 
bread dough, until smooth. Break off 
pieces, roll into balls convenient to handle, 
and rub the soiled paper with it. as though 
it were a rubber eraser. 

A Washing Fluid which has the advan- 
tage of not fading colored- clothes, while 
at the same time whitening white goods 
by the simple process of removing every 
particle of dirt, is simply made. Dis- 
solve one pound of potash in one gallon 
of boiling water; let cool, and add two 
ounces, each, of washing ammonia, sal soda 
and borax, and one ounce of salts of tartar. 
Mix thoroughly and keep in a corked jug. 
Use one-half teacup to a boilerful of 
clothes; or its equivalent in the washing 
machine, and they will need no boiling. 

In the boudoir, too, the modern helps 
are as much appreciated by the country 
housewife as by her city cousin. 

A Cleaning Ball for removing spots 
from garments is not only quick, but 
cleanly in its action. Mix together one 
ounce of powdered French chalk and five 
ounces of powdered pipe clay; to which 
add two ounces of spirits of wine. Mix 
into a smooth paste, form into small balls 
and let harden. To use, moisten the 
soiled spots with warm water and rub 
them well with one of the balls. Let 
dry and brush off the cleaner, when the 
spot will vanish with it. 



HOME IDEAS AND ECONOMIES 



53 



I 



A Cleaning Fluid, In which articles 
may be soaked and cleaned with impun- 
ity, is readily made from ingredients that 
may be found at any country drug store. 
Use one and one-half drams of sulphuric 
ether, three drams of alcohol and one and 
one-half drams of chloroform to one pint 
of naphtha. Keep tightly corked, and 
use as freely as desired on even the most 
delicate materials and colors. This is 
said to be also an excellent cleaner for 
ostrich feathers. 

A Glove-Cleaning Paste, having the ad- 
vantage over other glove-cleaning prep- 
arations, in that it may be used while 
dressed for the street, is very simple in 
the making. Shave thin one square 
inch of any good, white soap into a pint 
or more of soft water, and warm slowly 
until the soap is thoroughly dissolved. 
Put away in jars to use as needed. It 
should be like a thick cream or jelly. 
Apply with a soft cloth, wiping the gloves 
with dry, clean cloths. This prepara- 
tion will leave the leather as soft and 
pliable as when new. 



M. E .S. H. 



• A Fuel Saver 

LAST winter we had our furnace and 
all the pipes conveying hot air, 
wrapped with asbestos sheets. This, of 
course, is a common practice for conserv- 
ing the heat, causing the heated air to be 
delivered to the rooms where it is wanted, 
and incidently reducing the coal bill. 

The asbestos, with which the pipes were 
covered, was similar to blotting paper, 
thick enough to be strong, but still fairly 
pliable. 

After the completion of this work, sev- 
eral sheets were left over. I conceived 
the idea, that if this asbestos would hold 
heat in the pipes and in the furnace, that 
there would probably be other places 
where I might put it to use. 

Accordingly, I took one of these strips 
and made it into a conic-shaped roll', 
about nine inches in diameter at the 
bottom, and about seven at the top, the 



roll being fifteen inches high. This I 
place over the coffee pot, or other similar 
utensil for boiling on my gas stove. Thus 
directing to the pot heat which otherwise 
would be radiated out into the room. 
Formerly it took me fifteen minutes to 
make our coifee, but with this instrument, 
we can make it in about ten minutes; in 
other words, it saves about one-third the 
gas formerly used in this operation. 

I would suggest, that if one of these is 
made, it be constructed large enough at 
the bottom to extend around the flame, 
and, at least, an inch larger in diameter 
than the coffee-pot. 

It can be made for a few cents, and will 
save its cost many times in gas alone, to 
say nothing of the time. 

It might be added that this is in line 
with the present policy of conservation, 
and "waste not, want not." c. m. s. 



Currant Jelly 

Editor of American Cookery: 

Last December something was written 
in your magazine about making' currant 
jelly with water. I would like to give 
my recipe which I have used successfully 
for many years. 

To four quarts of currants on the stem, 
add one quart of water, boil half an hour, 
strain and measure. Measure one pound 
of sugar to one pint of juice; put the sugar 
where it will heat; boil the juice fifteen 
minutes longer; add the hot sugar and 
remove from the fire as soon as thor- 
oughly dissolved. It should be active 
boiling, not simply simmering. The jelly 
is very nice and I have never known the 
recipe to fail. 

Last summer I tried an experiment in 
jam making, which was very successful. 

I crushed uncooked raspberries, adding 
sugar as usual, a pound to a pint, and 
covered the glasses with paraffine, as 
usual. The jam kept perfectly, and was 
delicious, tasting exactly like the fresh 
fruit. I shall try strawberries the same 
way next summer. r. s. N. 




N/ 



o^,^^^ curia 




THIS department Is for the benefit and free use of our subscribers. Questions relating to recipes 
and those pertaining to culinary science and domestic economics in general, will be cheerfully- 
answered by the editor. Communications for this department must reach us before the first of the 
month preceding that in which the answers are expected to appear. In letters requesting answers 
by mail, please enclose address and stamped envelope. For menus, remit $1.00. Address queries 
to Janet M. Hill, Editor. American Cookery, 221 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. 



Query No. 3952. — "Recipe for Marshmal- 
low Sauce to serve with hot ginger bread." 

Marshmallow Sauce 

BOIL three-fourths a cup of sugar and 
one-third a cup of boiHng water, as 
for boiled frosting, only do not boil as 
long. 230° F. on the sugar thermometer 
is a high enough degree. Pour in a fine 
stream on the white of one ^%%^ beaten 
light, beating constantly meanwhile; then 
beat in a ten-cent package of marsh- 
mallows, cut in four pieces each. 



biscuit, mufhns, etc., the addition of a 
little more liquid is easily made. 



Query No. 3953. — "Will you give some gen- 
eral rules for substituting other flours in recipes 
calling for wheat flour." 

General Rules for Substitution in 
Flours 

Standardization of the newer flours has 
not been, as yet, very generally carried 
out. One must learn by experience the 
changes in quantity that are best adapted 
to the various uses to which a flour is 
put. In cake making, a cup of barley 
flour may make a loaf of less delicate 
texture than a cup of wheat flour; one 
or two tablespoonfuls less of barley flour 
may give better results than a full cup. 
Still the article may be edible, and on 
another trial you can improve it. When 
a recipe calls for one cup of wheat flour, 
half a cup of potato flour or corn flour 
is all that is required. A given measure 
of buckwheat flour thickens more than 
the same measure of wheat flour; but 
in dishes where buckwheat flour is used, 



Query No. 3954. — "The Substitutes in my 
store closet increase and the Wheat flour dis- 
appears. Most bread recipes call for two-thirds 
flour to one-third substitute. What are we to 

do.?" 

How Keep the Ratio between 
Wheat Flour and Substitutes? 

Use less yeast bread. Quick breads 
can be made without any wheat flour. 
Use one cup of any variety of meal (corn, 
rye, oats), with one cup flour (barley, 
rye, corn, buckwheat), with the usual 
milk, shortening, etc., for mufflns. Look 
over the list of uses for "substitutes" 
given in the April number of American 
Cookery. There are many families, es- 
pecially at this time, who buy no wheat 
products, and find no trouble in using all 
the substitutes they can get. Do not 
order a large quantity of any one article, 
but get two or three pounds, each, of 
several articles. At the same time, why 
not cut down on cereals and see how many 
different ways you can evolve for serving 
potatoes, onions, spinach, etc. Carry 
over no products from grains. Take this 
time to clean out your store room, and 
air the receptacles in which flour and meal 
are usually stored. New crops of grain 
will soon be harvested. 



Query No. 3955. — "Is there any ingredient 
which can be added to Chou-Paste mixture, 
when making cream puflts, so that they will re- 
tain their crispness when cold?" 



54 



QUERIES AND ANSWERS 



55 



Crisp Cream PuifFs 

Beat the mixture very thoroughly and 
use fresh eggs. Do not have the mixture 
spread too thick. The thinner the fin- 
ished product (the more the paste ex- 
pands in cooking), the crisper it will be. 
Remove at once from the pan to a wire 
cooler; let each puff stand apart from 
all others that it may not be softened by 
"sweating." Use the full measure of 
shortening. 

Query No. 3956. — "Recipe for flaky Puff 
Paste for Napoleons, Lady Locks, etc." 

Where Recipe for Puff Paste may 
be Found 

If "An Appreciative Reader" will send 
for the November Number of Vol. XVIII, 
American Cookery, she can secure a re- 
liable recipe for puff paste. Puff paste 
may be made at home just as success- 
fully as in hotels, etc. However, at the 
present time such pastry is not made in 
hotels or private houses, and is not likely 
to be made for some time to come. On 
this account we do not think it advisable 
to give up our space to the recipe, which, 
in detail, is lengthy. Recipes may also 
be found in "Practical Cooking and Serv- 
ing" and "The Book of Entrees." 



Query No. 3957. — "Will you publish a list 
of Spices and give the foods with which each may 
be satisfactorily combined." 

Uses of Spices 

Cinnamon is used with fruit, as apples, 
bananas, peaches and pears; in cakes, 
pies, puddings, candies, pickles and yeast 
rolls. -The flavor of cinnamon and of 
cloves is very agreeable in any mixture 
in which chocolate is used. 

Cloves are used in the same combina- 
tions as cinnamon, save yeast rolls. 
They are also used, occasionally, in soup, 
especially with onions and tomatoes, and 
whole cloves are often pressed into a 
baked ham, near the end of the cooking. 

Ginger is agreeable with fruit, and in 
cakes, pies, puddings, pickles and candy. 
Ginger is the favorite spice for pumpkin 



pies and Indian (cornmeal) puddings. 
It is often used in these dishes with cin- 
namon. 

Mace and Nutmeg. — Mace is the outer 
husk of the nutmeg, and in flavor differs 
but little from nutmeg. The French use 
a dash, or grating, of nutmeg in many 
meat and fish dishes. Mace is sold in 
powdered form, and in "blades" or 
shreds. The shreds are used in soup. 
Both nutmeg and mace are used in cakes, 
pies, puddings, custards, vegetables and 
pickles. 

Mustard is used in sauces, and salad 
dressings, with beans, cheese, fish, meats 
and pickles. 

Pepper (black, paprika, cayenne) may 
be used in all dishes of vegetables, cheese, 
eggs, fish or meat; also in soups, salads 
and pickles. Black pepper is usually 
preferred with vegetables and paprika 
with cheese. 



Query No. 3958. — "Recipe for Fresh Straw- 
berry Tarts with Rich Syrup." 

Strawberry Tarts 

Make pastry, using one cup and a half 
of barley flour, and half a cup of rice or 
potato flour, half a cup of shortening, half 
a teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of 
baking powder and cold water as needed. 
Roll into a thin sheet and cut into rounds; 
set the rounds on a baking sheet; pipe 
a narrow ring of chou paste on the edge 
of the rounds; prick the paste in the 
center with a fork. Bake about twenty 
minutes. Weigh the berries you wish to 
use; hull and wash them. Take the 
same weight of sugar, add a few spoonfuls 
of boiling water, just enough to dissolve 
the sugar. Cover and let boil; add the 
berries, and let boil two or three minutes. 
Skim out the berries; reduce the syrup 
by boiling until quite thick; in it re- 
heat the berries. Skim them to the tarts; 
reduce the syrup again till thick, and 
pour over the berries. A little gelatine, 
— a teaspoonful to a pint, — may be 
softened in a tablespoonful of cold water 
and dissolved in the hot syrup. Use the 
syrup when it begins to "set." 



56 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Query No. 3959. — "Recipe for Jellied Cab- 
bage Salad." 

Jellied Cabbage Salad 

Beat the yolks of three eggs with half 
a teaspoonful of prepared mustard, and 
one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of salt 
and paprika; add one-third a cup of 
vinegar and cook over hot water until 
slightly thickened; remove from the fire 
and beat in three tablespoonfuls of butter. 
Soften a scant tablespoonful of granulated 
gelatine in four tablespoonfuls ^ of cold 
water, and stir through the dressing. 
Let cool, but not stiffen; stir in one cup 
and a half of cabbage, shredded very fine, 
made crisp in cold water and dried thor- 
oughly on a cloth. Add also a green or 
red pepper shredded very fine. Turn 
into a mold and let chill. Serve un- 
molded with or without lettuce or cress. 

Jellied Philadelphia Relish 

2 cups chopped 

cabbage 
^ a green or red 

pepper 
J cup brown sugar 
^ teaspoonful white 

mustard seed 

Chop the cabbage and pepper to- 
gether; add the other ingredients. To 
jelly, soften one tablespoonful of granu- 
lated gelatine in one-fourth cup of cold 
water, and dissolve by setting the dish 
in hot water, cool a little and add the 
other articles. 



I teaspoonful celery 
seed 

J cup vinegar 

1 tablespoonful gela- 
tine 

J cup cold water 



Query No. 3960. 
for kitchen use." 



Recipe for Hard Soap 



Hard Soap 



3 tablespoonfuls borax 

1 cup ammonia 

2 tablespoonfuls sugar 
1 teaspoonful salt 



5 pounds lukewarm 

melted grease 
1 can (pound) lye 
1 quart cold water 
i cup cold water 

Dissolve the lye in the quart of cold 
water, and let stand until cool; add the 
fat slowly, stirring constantly. Mix all 
the other ingredients together, and stir 
into the first mixture. Continue to stir 
until the whole is thick and light colored. 
Line a wooden box or a pan with two 
strips of cloth, the ends hanging over the 



opposite sides. Pour in the soap. Be- 
fore the soap becomes hard, mark into 
pieces of the desired size. Break the 
pieces apart and pile them to insure a 
free circulation of air about them. 



Query No. 3961. — "Recipes for Cucumber 
and Tomato Sandwiches." 

Cucumber Sandwiches 

Cut rounds from thin slices of any var- 
iety of bread; spread lightly with butter. 
Cover close till ready to serve the sand- 
wiches. Pare, slice and cover with cold 
water the cucumbers to be used. Have 
ready French dressing made with a little 
scraped onion pulp and fine-chopped 
parsley. Dry the cucumbers on a cloth, 
stir in dressing and set a slice between two 
pieces of the prepared bread. Serve at 
once in a sandwich basket or tray. Gar- 
nish with parsley branches. 

Tomato Sandwiches (1) 

Use thin slices of ripe tomato in the 
same manner as the cucumbers. 

Tomato Sandwiches (2) 

Have ready Sauce Tartare (mayonnaise 
dressing to one cup of which two table- 
spoonfuls, each, of chopped parsley, onion, 
gherkins, capers, and olives have been 
added), spread the bread with the sauce, 
and set the slices of tomato between each 
two slices. Use rye or other dark bread. 

Milwaukee Sandwich 



2 slices white bread 

1 slice rye bread 

4 large oysters broiled 
or fried 

2 thin slices chicken 
breast 

2 slices crisp bacon 

Toast the bread. 



Horseradish 

Lettuce 

4 small gherkins 

(sweet) 
4 small radishes 
1 tomato 
Sauce tartare 

Set one slice of toast 



on a plate over heart leaves of lettuce; on 
this set the oysters, a little horse-radish 
on each; cover with the rye toast, on 
this lay the chicken with dressing above; 
add the bacon and cover with the last 
slice of toast; on this dispose the pickles 
and radishes. Remove the skin and hard 
center from the tomato, fill it with sauce 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Potato Biscuits 

"These are Delicious" 
writes a Teacher of Do- 
mestic Science, 

IK cupfuls pastry flour 
3 teaspoonfuls baking 

powder 
1 teaspoonful salt 
1 cupful mashed potato 
K cupful Crisco 
About K cupful milk 
(Use accurate level measurements) 

Sift together the flour, bak- 
ing-powder and salt; add 
the potato pressed through 
a ricer, cut in the Crisco, 
then use milk, as needed, to 
mix to a dough that cleans 
the bowl. Turn on a floured 
board with the knife to coat 
with flour; knead slightly 
then pat and roll into a 
sheet. Cut in rounds and 
bake about fifteen minutes 
in a quick oven. 



t^ 






This recipe has 
been tested 
and approved 
by Good House- 
keeping Insti- 
tute , Mildred 
Maddocks, Di- 
rector. 




Potato Biscuits — to try them 
is to liJ^e them 

THESE are days of cooking surprises. Left-overs, once 
wasted, now appear as new foods pleasing to the taste 
and nourishing as well. Frequently Crisco helps in the trans- 
formation. 

Mashed potatoes, not needed at dinner, may be made into 
potato biscuits. Crisco makes them invitingly tender. They 
will help you save flour, too. 



(RISCO 

^L for Frying -For Shortening 
^^-^ For Cake Making 



Crisco is wholly vegetable, the solid cream of edible oil, taste- 
less and odorless — a wholesome shortening always of the same 
dependable high quality. 

Crisco takes its delicate richness into all foods. It makes 
the use of butter in cooking unnecessary. Put Crisco to the test 
in some recipe in which you have considered butter essential. 

You at once will understand why in homes, both large and small, 
housewives depend wholly upon this economical cooking fat. 

Tempting Foods Prepared Without Butter 

This is one of over 100 new recipes for economical, appetizing foods re- 
quiring no butter given in "Whys of Cooking". Every woman needs 
this book of vital household helps by Janet McKenzie Hill of the Boston 
Cooking School. It is illustrated in color and gives the interesting Story 
of Crisco. Published to sell for 25 cents, we will send you a copy for 10 
cents in stamps. Address Dept. A-6, The Procter 8b Gamble Company, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 




Buy advertised Goods 



- Do not accept substitutes 
57 



58 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



tartare and dispose on a lettuce leaf be- 
side the sandwich. 



Query No. 3963. — "Recipes for Cornstarch 
Pudding with Chocolate Sauce and Chocolate 
Fillings for Cake." 



Query No. 3961. — "Do you know of a com- 
bination of wheat and some other flour that will 
make a light and Flaky Pastry?" 

Combination of Flours for Flaky 
Pastry 

Our experiments in pastry making with 
flour combinations are limited in number; 
and we cannot say what combination will 
give the most flaky pastry. However, 
we think the flakiness of the pastry de- 
pends quite as much on the handling of it 
as on the flour used. Wheat with rye, 
barley, corn or rice flour makes good pas- 
try. Most excellent tasting pastry may 
be made of barley and rice flour without 
any wheat flour. The recipe given on 
another page (Seasonable Recipes) is 
commended, though it is for plain rather 
than flaky pastry. 



Query No. 3962. — "Recipes for Pineapple 
Tapioca Sponge and Orangeade made with 
oranges and lemons." 

Pineapple Tapioca Sponge 

Heat one pint of grated (canned) pine- 
apple in a double boiler; add half a cup 
of boiling water and one-fourth a tea- 
spoonful of salt, then stir in half a cup of 
fine, quick-cooking tapioca. Stir oc- 
casionally and let cook twenty miniites 
or until the tapioca is transparent, stir 
in half a cup of sugar and the juice of half 
a lemon, then fold in the whites of two or 
three eggs beaten very light. Serve hot 
with top milk and sugar. 

Orangeade 

4 cups boiling water I 6 oranges 
2 cups sugar ' 2 lemons 

Melt the sugar in the water and let 
boil, covered, three minutes; let cool, 
then add the juice of the fruit. Store in 
fruit jars, closed, in the refrigerator until 
thoroughly chilled. A beverage should 
not be over sweet, but tastes differ in this 
respect. More water or fruit juice can 
easily be added. Or, if not sweet enough, 
the ne'!xt time the syrup may be boiled 
longer. 



Cornstarch Pudding* 



1 teaspoonful sa 

2 eggs 

J cup sugar 



dt 



1 quart milk 

f cup cornstarch 

J cup sugar 

Reserve a little of the milk to mix with 
the cornstarch and scald the rest in a 
double boiler. When the milk is hot, stir 
in the cornstarch mixed with the cold 
milk; add the sugar and salt and stir 
until the mixture thickens, then cover and 
let cook twenty minutes; beat the eggs, 
beat in the second quantity of sugar, and 
stir into the hot mixture f cover and let 
cook, stirring occasionally, about five 
minutes or until the egg is set. Serve 
with rich milk and sugar or with 

Chocolate Sauce 



1^ cups granulated 

sugar 
I cup cocoa 



1 cup boiling water 
I teaspoonful vanilla 
extract 



Mix together the sugar and cocoa, add 
the boiling water, and stir and cook until 
the mixture boils; let boil five or six min- 
utes. Use hot or cold. Flavor just be- 
fore using. This sauce is good on ice 
cream, boiled rice, cottage pudding, etc. 

Chocolate Sauce 



1 cup boiling water 
1 cup sugar 
1 level tablespoonful 
flour 



2 squares chocolate 
^ teaspoonful vanilla 

extract 
1 egg yolk, beaten light 

Mix and sift together the flour and 
sugar, pour on the boiling water and stir 
and cook until boiling. Add the choco- 
late and let cook over boiling water ten 
minutes. Beat in the egg and add the 
vanilla. 

Chocolate Filling I 

(For Cream Pie, Cream Puffs, etc.) 

1 or 2 ounces chocolate 2 tablespoonfuls sugar 

1 cup double cream 

Melt the chocolate, add the sugar and 
two tablespoonfuls of the cream, and stir 
until smooth and boiling; add to the rest 
of the cream and let chill thoroughly, then 
beat until firm. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




^ 



RYZON MUFFINS 

{Page 20, RYZON Baking Book) 

4 level teaspoonfuls Ryzon. 
iVi level cupfuls (6 ounces) flour. 
2 level tablespoonfuls (1 ounce) 
sugar. 

1 level teaspoonful salt. 

% cupful (scant V2 pint) milk. 

2 tablespoonfuls (1 ounce) butter. 

Sift flour once, measure, add 
Ryzon, salt and sugar and sift four 
times, add milk gradually while 
stirring constantly. When smooth 
and free from lumps add butter, 
melted, mix, add Qgg, beaten until 
thick and light colored, beat well, 
and pour into well-greased hot 
gem pans. Bake twenty minutes 
in a hot oven. 

Sufficient for twelve muffins. 



RYZON WAR-TIME 
MUFFINS 



as revisea 



4 level teaspoonfuls Ryzon. 
Vi cupful barley flour. 
/4 cup (1 oz.) rice or corn flour. 
1 cupful corn syrup. 

1 level teaspoonful salt. 
1V4 cupfuls milk and water. 

2 tablespoonfuls butter substitute. 
1 ^gg- 



HOW RYZON RECIPES CAN 
BE REVISED TO MEET PRES- 
ENT 'DAY REQUIREMENTS. 

THE Ryzon recipes can be made wholly or 
partly wheatless without difficulty. Using 
the Ryzon Muffin recipe and its adaptation as 
examples, you can alter other Ryzon recipes 
yourself, following these proportions. 

Ryzon is the economical baking powder — 
economical in price, economical in that it insures 
uniform results and eliminates waste. 

The Ryzon Baking Book, containing 250 
tested recipes, may be obtained by following the 
instructions on the user's certificate packed with 
the one pound tin of Ryzon. 

A pound tin of Ryzon and a copy of the Ryzon 
Baking Book will be sent free, postpaid, to any 
Domestic Science teacher who writes us on 
school stationery, giving official position. 




GENERALCHEMICALCa 

FOOD DEPARTMENT 
NEW YORK 



Buy advertised Goods 



- Do not accept substitutes 
59 



60 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Chocolate Filling II 



1| cups hot milk 

I cup flour 

J cup cold milk 



^ teaspoonful vanilla 

2 eggs 

f cup sugar 



f teaspoonful salt 

Mix the flour and salt with the cold 
milk and stir into the hot milk; continue 
stirring until the mixture thickens, then 
cover and let cook fifteen minutes. Beat 
the yolks of the eggs, add the sugar and 
beat again, then stir into the hot mixture; 
continue to cook until the Ggg is "set," 
then fold in the whites of the eggs, beaten 
dry; when the white is "set," remove 
from the fire and beat occasionally until 
cold, then add the vanilla. 

Chocolate Filling III 

i cup butter or butter 

substitute 
2 cups confectioner's 

sugar 

§ teaspoonful vanilla 

Cream the butter, gradually beat in the 

sugar, chocolate and other ingredients. 



2 squares chocolate, 
melted 

J teaspoonful cinna- 
mon 



Query No. 3964. — "Recipe for syrup to be 
used in canning various fruit." 

Light Syrup for Canning 
Raspberries, Apples, etc. 

Four cups water and 2 cups sugar; heat 
enough to dissolve the sugar. 

Medium Syrup for Canning 
Sweet Plums and Cherries 

Four cups water and 3 cups sugar; heat 
to dissolve sugar. 

Thick Syrup for Peaches, 
Pineapples, etc. 

Four cups water and 5 cups sugar; heat 
to dissolve sugar. 

Rich Syrup for Strawberries, 
Currants, Sour Cherries 

Four cups water and 5 cups sugar 
boiled to soft-ball degree. 



Canned Grape Juice 

Crush the grapes; add one cup of water 
to each four quarts of grapes and let heat 
in a double boiler or over boiling water. 
When the skins are tender, drain in a jelly 
bag over night. Pour off the clear juice 
from the sediment and turn mto sterilized 
fruit jars, filling them to overflow; adjust 
the rubbers, dipped into boiling water, 
and sterilized covers, and set into wash 
boiler, steamer or canner to remain until 
hot throughout. In a wash boiler, the 
water should come to within an inch of i he 
top of the bottles; heat the water gradu- 
ally to the boiling point and let boil about 
one hour. Less time is needed in pint 
jars or bottles. Return the grape pulp 
in the bag to a saucepan, cover with water 
and let simmer from twenty to thirty 
Cainutes. Drain and store at the boiling 
point as in canning in the open kettle for 
making jelly. Other extractions may be 
made in the same manner; as the last ex- 
tractions are rather dilute, the jelly is 
better if mixed with the second extraction 
or with the first extraction of apple juice. 



Query No. 3965. 
Grape Juice." 



"Recipe for Canning 



Query No. 3966. — " Recipe for Alligator Pear 
Salad without wine." 

Alligator Pear Salad 

Cut the *' pears" in halves, discard the 
seeds and remove the pulp from the skin 
with a teaspoon; dispose on a bed of 
heart leaves of lettuce. Mix a dressing 
in the proportion of two tablespoonfuls 
of lemon juice to two of oil and one- 
fourth a teaspoonful, each, of salt and 
paprika. Pour over the pulp and serve 
at once. The fruit discolors very quickly 
and should not be made ready until 
needed. The lemon juice may be poured 
over the fruit, and then the oil added with 
the salt and paprika. The pulp is often 
served with tomatoes, when a little onion 
juice is mixed in the dressing. The fruit 
contains a large proportion of fat. On 
this account mayonnaise is not often 
served with it and, in making French 
dressing for it, equal measures of oil and 
acid are quite generally employed. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Puffed Rice Dishes for 

Lilac Time 

About lilac time the demand for Puffed Rice reaches zenith. Don't miss 
it for a day. 

Every dish of berries calls for these crisp, flaky bubbles. Without them 
it's like shortcake minus crust. 

Every bowl of milk, at noon or night, needs these airy, toasted globules. 
Nothing else has half of their delights. 

Just Grain Puffs — Nothing Added 

Puffed Grains are so flavory, so enticing, that they hardly seem like grain 
foods. But they are. 

Puffed Rice is simply whole rice steam-exploded — puffed to eight times 
normal size. Its flavor is due to a fearful heat — its flimsiness to puffing. 

It meatis a whole-grain food, easily digestible. Every food cell is ex- 
ploded. 

No riceless meals or riceless days are called for. So Puffed Rice — also 
Corn Puffs — can be daily delights. 

Let children and 
grownups enjoy them to y^^^^^^^- yf^j^^ 
the full. It's the ideal ^^^^^^Tl^ J^ 
form of grain food and the ^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
form which they prefer. 
In summertime serve 




them in abundance. 




MIX WITH BERRIES 



FLOAT IN MILK 



Puffed Corn 


Puffed 


Rice Puffs 


Wheat 


Each 15c Except in 


Far West 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
61 



New Books 



Caroline King^s Cook Book. By Caro- 
line B. King. Cloth, §1.50 net. 
Little, B^own & Co., Publishers, 
Boston. 
Here are the simple recipes for making 
bread, cake, pastry, soups, sauces, salad 
dressing, omelettes, etc., and the rules 
for roasting, baking, frying and preserv- 
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rules and cooking becomes easy. A single 
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every variety of bread known — from the 
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This is the plan of the author, and some- 
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the housewife should learn the rudiments 
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Everyday Foods in War Time. By AIary 
SwARTZ Rose. Price, $0.80. The 
MacMillan Company, 66 Fifth Ave., 
New York. 
This little book has been written in 
response to a request for a war message 
about food. To change one's menu is often 
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strength makes adjustment doubly diffi- 
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The principles discussed by the author 
in these pages are scientifically correct; 
the advice given to housewives 's ex- 
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cooking should be to please the family 
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from these pages, and applies it in the 
conduct of her household, cannot go far 
astray. 

Everywoman^ s Canning Book. By Mary 
B. Hughes. Cloth, $0.75 net; postage 
extra. Whitcomb & Barrows, Pub- 
lishers, Boston, Mass. 
Economic conditions make it impera- 
tive that we, as a nation, produce and 
conserve more food. A most practical 



62 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




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- Do not accept substitutes 
63 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Qfirift and 
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1 LAIN, simple "thrift- 
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way to conserve foods is to can or dry 
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are abundant and foodstuffs are low in 
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book was prepared. It not only tells 
just what is necessary to obtain right re- 
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** Food in War and Peace '* 

THE United States Food Administra- 
tion, in co-operation with the De- 
partment of Agriculture and the Woman's 
Committee of the Council of National 
Defense, has issued a pamphlet contain- 
ing a series of lessons for the special use 
of clubs and neighborhood groups, show- 
ing what the nation is asked to do about 
the food supply, and why. The lessons 
have been prepared in response to many 
requests for a simple and brief statement 
of the kind and quantity of food needed 
for health, and of the ways in which 
changes may safely be made, so that the 
requests of the Food Administration for 
saving, substituting, and using the various 
foods may be intelligently, rather than 
arbitrarily, obeyed. 

Each lesson has been prepared by a 
specialist whose authority is unques- 
tioned. United States Food Adminis- 
trator Hoover has explained the present 
situation in his discussion of ''Food and 
the War"; Dr. Graham Lusk, of the 
advisory committee on food utilization of 
the Food Administration, has told us 
what food we should use for a day, and 
has explained "calories" and other puz- 
zling terms; Dr. Alonzo E. Taylor, who 
is associated with the Food Administra- 
tion and with the War Trade Board, and 
who has spent much time abroad since 
the war began, has told us about wheat, 
why we should save it and how to use 
it. Other lessons have been written by 
Dr. C. F. Langworthy and Miss Caroline 
Hunt of the Office of Home Economics, 
and Dr. Charles J. Brand of the United 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
64 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



r^ 




'.^^ 



\' 






Penny Saver 

Receipt given in Conservation 
Cook Book 










'^f 



Minute Tapioca Makes 
Meat Go Further 

It's called Penny Saver — ^this appetizing dish. 
Wouldn't you like to try it? It's one of the ways 
in which Minute Tapioca may be used as a meat 
extender — ^to make the left-over bits of meat 
or fish assume family proportions. 
Andwith no lack of nourish- 
ment for the family 
either. 

Minute 
Tapioca is a 
basic food: It should be 
used as an important part of our 
country's food supply to make the scarce 
and costly foods go further. Use it in soups, 
gravies, and with meats, to save wheat flour. 

Send for our free Conservation Cook Book, which gives new 
economical receipts for Minute Tapioca and Minute Gelatine. 

Buy Minute Tapioca. 
Look for the Minute 
Man on the package. 



MINUTE TAPIOCA 
COMPANY 

,36 N. MAIN STREET 
GI^NGE - - MASS. 



MINUTE TAPIOCA COMPANY 

36 North Main Street, Orange, Mass. 
Send me your Conservation Cook Book. -,„ 

Name 

Address 

Grocer's Name 



Buy advertised Goods 



Do not accept substitutes 
65 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



ff 



—have you 
received jour 
copy of 

Mrs. Knox's 

war-time 

book on 

"Food 

Econoimr? 



THIS litle book contains 138 pracfli- 
cal recipes for delicious foods like 
the one given below, most of them 
made from "left-overs" of meat, vege- 
tables and fruits that are ordinarily wasted 
— all of them approved by the leaders 
of the food conservation movement. 

It will help you to meet your patriotic 
duty in saving the foods needed by our 
Soldiers and our Allies. Send for a free 
copy. A post card will bring it if you 
mention your dealer's name and address. 

Charles B. Knox Gelatine Co., Inc. 
7 Knox Avenue Johnstown, N- Y. 

KNOX 

SPARKLING 

LATIN E 






Fruit Jelly 

A cup of fruit juice left over from fresh 
fruit (or canned) may be used for P jelly 
dessert. Heat fruit juices, add a table- 
spoonful Knox Sparkling Gelatine .first 
softened in one-half cup cold water, juice 
of one-half lemon, and sweeten to taste. 
For a dessert serve with a little top cream 
or sweetened milk, or for a salad serve on 
lettuce leaves with or without mayonnaise 
dressing. A sliced banana or any fruit 
may be added when it.begins to thicken, 
or at serving- time, jelly may be sur- 
rounded with some seasonable fruit. 



States Office of Markets, Department of 
Agriculturej by Dr. E. V. McCollum of 
Johns Hopkins, Dr. Lafayette B. Mendel 
of Yale, and Dr. Ruth Wheeler of the 
University of Illinois. Miss Ida M. 
Tarbell has written the introduction to 
the lessons. 

A number of practical suggestions and 
some recipes have been added by the 
editors to each of these papers, as well 
as a few references, and a list of lantern 
slides. 

The lessons may be obtained in each 
state from the Federal Food Administra- 
tor. A limited free edition has been 
issued. Arrangements may also be made 
with the Federal Food Administrator for 
the use of the lantern slides. 



How Canning Widens Food Use 

Canning is not only a means of pre- 
serving food, but of making available 
to the public articles which would other- 
wise be consumed only in limited quanti- 
•ties. An instance is sauerkraut, the 
canning process being directly responsible 
for a tremendous increase in consumption 
of kraut, .which could be widely distrib- 
uted in no other form. The packing of 
beans in cans has brought about an 
even greater increase in their consump- 
tion. It has multiplied the demand 
many times. Hominy is eaten today in 
tens of thousands of households, which 
scarcely would have so much as heard of 
the existence of this most wholesome,, 
nourishing, and economical food product. 
People are enabled, by the canning busi- 
ness, to have pumpkin pies the year 
around. 

The moral is plain. Large numbers 
of -our people must eat no wheat whatever 
for three months, or this great task we 
have undertaken is doomed to igno- 
minious failure. Already the great hotels 
have taken the pledge. Men and women 
of independent means have fallen into 
line. Which would you rather — eat 
wheat bread lavishly and live in a world 
tributary to Germany, or eat no wheat 
until next harvest and be free.^ 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
66 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



NESNAH FROZEN DESSERTS 

Raspberry Nesnah Milk Sherbet 
For 1 Gallon 3 quarts milk 3 packages Nesnah 

Heat three quarts of milk lukewarm (remove from stove), drop into it three packages of Rasp- 
berry Nesnah and stir quickly for one-half minute to dissolve. Pour into the ice-cream can and 
allow it to stand undisturbed ten or fifteen minutes or until set. Pack with ice and salt and freeze 
in the usual way. 

CHOCOLATE NESNAH ICE CREAM 

For 1 gallon ice cream 

1 pint cream 3 packages of Nesnah 

Heat two quarts of milk lukewarm (remove from stove), drop the 
Chocolate Nesnah into it and dissolve by stirring for one-half minute. 
Pour mixture into ice-cream can and let it stand undisturbed ten or 
fifteen minutes until set; pack with ice and salt; freeze to a thick mush 
before adding cream, plain or whipped, then continue freezing. 

Crushed and sweetened fruit can be added with the cream when 
desired. 

There is no better conservation than the liberal use of milk as a 
food. Varied and attractive ways of serving milk dishes are made pos- 
sible by the use of Nesnah. 

One ten-cent package makes a quart 

Six pure natural flavors 

Chocolate Raspberry Lemon Orange Almond Vanilla 

A post card will bring you a sample package and a Nesnah cook booklet 

Chr. Hansen's Laboratory, Inc. 

The Junket Folks 
Box 2507 LITTLE FALLS, N. Y. 




IT SERVES YOUR HOME AND SAVES YOUR TIME 
THAT IS PRACTICAL ECONOMY 

Double Drawer — Double Handles ^^ 

—Large Deep Undershelves — "Scientifically Silent" 

Rubber Tired Swivel Wheels 

A high grade piece of furniture surpassing anything yet attempted 
for GENERAL UTILITY, ease of action, and absolute noiselessness 
Write NOW for a Descriptive Pamphlet and Dealer's Name. 

COMBINATION PRODUCTS COo 106 Tower BIdg., Chicago, Hi. 


Cream Whipping Made 
Easy and Inexpensive 

riREMo-yEsco 

Whips Thin Cream 

or Half Heavy Cream and Milk 

or Top of the Milk Bottle 

It whips up as easily as heavy cream 

and retains its stiffness. 

Every caterer and housekeeper 

wants CREMO-VESCO. 

Send for a bottle today. 


Housekeeper's size, 1 §oz. , .30 prepaid 








Caterer's size, 1 6oz., $1.00 




TKe Secret o£ Good Cooking 

Colburn^s 
Spices 

"A"2ie<i JLal>el Braxxd 
The A.Colburn Co., PhiladelpKm,U.SA 


(With full directions.) 




Cremo-Vesco Company 

631 EAST 23rd ST., BROOKLYN, N. Y. 









Buy advertised Goods 



Do not accept substitutes 
67 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




attempt ''Cold Pack'' 
canning with old- 
fashioned ''Hot Pack'' 
Rubbers. 

Wten you reverse the jar to test 
the seal and a jet of hot liquid 
spurts out, there is only one thing 
to do — get a better ring and re- 
sterilize the jar. The best remedy 
for this trying accident is to pro- 
vide vourself in the first place with 

GOOD LUCK 

The Origmal COLD PACK Jar Rubbers 

"WTien properly adjusted they unfailingly 
give a perfect seal. They are ^o thick and 
elastic that every cre^dce between the jar 
and the cap is filled. 
Canning experts use Good Luck Red 
Rubbers in teaching the new Cold Pack 
method of canning for fruit and vegetables. 
Good Luck Rubbers are also used and 
recommended by culinary authorities all 
over the country. 

GOOD LUCK RUBBERS ar^ standard equipment on 
Ball Ideal, Atlas E-Z Seal, Putnam Lightning, Smallej's 
E]»reka and other light jars. 

The new edition of our booklet, ' GOOD LUCK IN 
PRESERVING," teaches you the Cold Pack method and 
gives many delidous recipes. Send a 3 cent stamp for 
it today. If your grocer doesn't keep GOOD LUCK 
RINGS, send 15 cents in stamps for a sample dozen 
or 25 cents for two dozen. 



BOSTON WOVEN HOSE 
& RUBBER CO, 

27 Hampshire Street, Cambridge, 3Iass. 




The Silver Lining 

Bre(a)d to the Colors 

Before the war, I used to think 

No meal could be complete 
Unless the welcome loaf of bread 

Were made of snowy wheat; 
But now I've tried so many kinds, 

Of bread, I have no choice. 
I've learned to like them all so well, 

I equally rejoice 



At 



Corn bread, graham bread, 

Bread made out of oats; 
Barley bread, and bran bread 

I once thought but for goats. 

I try each recipe, of course, 

A person recommends. 
You'd be surprised to know the sum 

Of these from all my friends. 
And when I seek the kitchen realm, 

The cook, good, old black Hannah, 
Says, "Bress de Lord! I nebber saw 

So many kinds ob manna!" 

There's 

Rice bread, potato bread. 

Buckwheat bread — O, my! 
The staff of life I'm leaning on 

While coming through the rye' 

And when the war is over, why, 

I'll miss the camouflage 
Of war-time breads that gave the x^,\ 

To my entire menage. 
I'll miss the tints and deepei .-hac^e 

Of morsels that I bite. 
I shall not be content to have 

The color-scheme plain white. 



But 



Black bread, brown bread, 
Yellow, gray, and tan — 

No less than khaki hue, will do 
To fill the inner man! 

— Blayiche Elizabeth JVadc 



Thankful for His Braces 

It was Christmas Eve in camp, and 
very cold at that. There was a certain 
amount of confusion, owing to the Christ- 
mas festivities, and leave and so forth, 
and one man was unable to find any of 
his outer garments. He wandered about 
shivering, and asking all his mates if 
they knew where they were. 

"Has any one seen my b-b-blanket.^" 
he demanded, and was told that no one 
had. 

"Has any one seen my t-t-trousers.^" 
No answer. 

{Continued on page 72) 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
68 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




The Celebrated, World Famous 

Faust Coffee and Tea 

Now Also in the Instant Form 



NO POT- NO GROUNDS - NO LEAVES - NO 
BOILING OR COOKING-NO STRAINING 



Simply Put Soluble Powder in Cup and 
Add Hot Water 

That's all you have to do for the most delicious 
coffee or tea you ever tasted. You can't make it 
wrong. It will be the same every time — wonderful 
in flavor, healthful instead of harmful — economical, 
convenient, instant. 



Purchase FAUST INSTANT COFFEE OR TEA from your grocer today. If he 

does not carry send dealer's name and 30c. (foreign 40c.) for Coffee or Tea. 

Dealers supplied direct or by any jobber. JOBBERS — WRITE US. 



liniiiiiHiiiiiiiflihiiiinrhiTrhMiiTTrRiTtf^^ 



H jSSZ M'U ' ' J±' J M I j II I M I I 1 1 I » I 1 1 I n I i j I' I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I I I I i j I r I ' I > I ■ M I ■ I I I I I I I ■ ■ > . . ■ I ! n ■ ■ i i ' ■ L "i: 

liPBINiriNMMiliEapH 

ii:Ml.,.^i3-j.. ) ■■ i TTi i irt i r - TiTii 1 1 1 III 1 1 i T i I hiT i l | i ti i ti ii TTr i 1 1 1 Ui i rnn i ' n i _ ' ■ i n i ii 1 1 fi i 1 1 1 i-l M:M--" 

^^^4^4U444ffi:H4l iminiiliiH i n 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
69 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




Ask your Grocer for 
SLADE'S Spices and 
Specialties, for these 
will surely please you 




BREAD BOARD 

Eleven-inch turned maple bread board. The edge of this 
board is undercut like a dinner plate making a finished and 
attractive article. Sent, prepaid, to any present subscriber 
for securing and sending us one (1) new yearly subscrip- 
tion for American Cookery. Cash price, 75 cents. 

The Boston Cooking-School Magazine Co. 

Boston, Mass. 



WHEATLESS - MEATLESS MEALS 

84 Menus, 124 Recipes, directions for preparing each meal, food 
values, substitutes, timely suggestions, etc. 10c or FREE for 
four names of friend; interested in Domestic Science. 
Am. School Home Economics, 503 W. 69th St., Chicago, IH. 



The Possibilities of Cheese 

{Concluded from page 2q) 

Hard, green cheese (sage cheese) is 
made from skim and buttermilk, mixed 
with thoroughly sour goat curd, and is 
then heated to boiling point; the curd 
is put into sacks and weighted down with 
stones to ferment for from three to six 
weeks. Then it is grated, mixed with 
powder of melilotus- clover and salt, 
pressed into forms, kept so for one week, 
and is then dried on scaffoldings for from 
two to six months. 

In order to secure a superior product, 
one should not store cheese in a mouldy 
place, and should rub the outside from 
time to time with salt, rum or wine. The 
rum kills the cheese mite. (This mite is 
frequently found in hard cheeses; it is 
the product of the cheese fly; it turns the 
cheese into a dry powder. 

In ripening the cheese, low tempera- 
tures produce mild cheeses, while high' 
temperatures produce snappy cheeses. 

Cheese is one of the most thankful 
foods in the body chemistry, ninety-six 
per cent being exploited by the juices of 
the stomach and of the intestinal tract. 

But while cheese is cheap compared 
with meat, and ranks high as a food prod- 
uct, yet it is not to be recommended for 
consumption by children, nor is it to be 
urged on those who suffer from skin 
diseases, or who are aifected with poor 
digestion. 

If cheese is added to corn meal, it 
produces a greater utilization of the corn 
meal constituents, and, as an economical 
measure, it should always be served with 
cornbread. 

In American Cheddar-cheese the curd 
is first permitted to sour, and that is 
what gives to this product its particular 
flavor. 

Canadian and Club House cheeses are 
made from Cheddar cheese, grated, 
mixed with cream and flavoring material, 
and are then filled into jars. 

One pint of milk gives two and one- 
half ounces of fat, soft cheese (not 
pressed), such as Camembert, Brie, etc. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
70 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Tn0 Ue^/»»r Waommwm 



THE thousands of housewives now using Hebe know it for a 
pure, wholesome food product which is not only economical 
but gives full satisfaction in every day use. It has been 
fully tested and recommended as follows: 



for 



Coffee 
Hebe gives coffee a tempt- 
ing, golden-brown color 



and enhances its flavor. 
Hebe helps to make deli- 
cious cocoa and choco- 
late. 



^•"^^ooking 



for 



Dilute Hebe with pure 
water to the richness de- 
sired. Use it in all recipes 
for soups, oyster stews, 
gravies, sauces, creaming 
vegetables and fish, mak- 
ing custard, cookies, pud- 
dings, desserts, etc. 



Cereals 
Pour Hebe diluted, or 
diluted if preferred, over 



corn flakes, wheat flakes, 
puffed grains, porridge, 
oatmeal, etc. Cereals 
cooked with Hebe are 
most appetizing. 



Hebe combines the proteins and other healthful properties of evaporated 
skimmed milk with the highly refined nutritious fat of the cocoanut. 

You may live in a section where Hebe cannot now be obtained. As pro- 
, duction increases the needs of your section will be supplied through your 
local retail grocer. 

THE HEBE COMPANY, CHICAGO AND SEATTLE, U. S. A. 



G u arajyt^M?! to t^ P^^^ ^ <^ whole s otn e 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
71 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



BIG SAVING ON FUEL WITH MY 

^€^^8^ Fireless Cooker 




Be sure to get my special low factory 
price. Saving in fuel is now every 
^\ Oman's duty and my Rapid saves 
two -thirds fuel cost. Saves on food. 
Better living. 

3 O Days' Trial Free 

Test my Rapid thoroughly. Money 
back if not satisfactory. Alu- 
minum-lined throughout. Full 
set of aluminum utensils. Ask 
for free book of recipes. 

William Campbell Co. 
Dept. 7 3, Detroit, Mich. 



RECIPES TO CONSERVE WHEAT 

as well as 

Sugar and Fats 

Our newest booklet contains these. 



Write for a Free Copy. 



THE FLEISCHMANN CO. 

701 Washington Street, New York City 



Domestic Science 

HOME-STUDY COURSES 

Food, Health, Housekeeping, Clothing, Children. 
Courses for Homemakers , Teachers, Dietitians, 
Managers, Home Demonstrators, Nurses, etc. 

"THE PROFESSION OF HOME-MAKING." 100 

page handbook, FREE. Bulletins: "Free Hand 
Cooking," 10 cents. "Food Values," 10 cents. 
"Five Cent Meals," 10 cents. 

AM. SCHOOL HOME ECONOMICS, 503 W. 69th St., CHICAGO 




The unfortunate Tommy scratched his 
head for a moment. 

"Well, I'm jolly g-g-glad I have got a 
n-nice w-w-warm pair of b-b-braces!" 

— Tid-Bits. 



The amenities of trade are sometimes 
sorely tried. "What's the dispute 
about .? " demanded the shopkeeper. " Re- 
member, in this store the customer^ is 
always right." "He says you're an old 
shark," explained the clerk briefly. 

— Louisville Courier- Journal. 



A bell-hop, says a college wit, passed 
through the hall of the hotel, whistling 
loudly. "Young man," said the manager, 
sternly, "you should know that it is 
against the rules of this hotel for an em- 
ployee to whistle while on duty." "I am 
not whistling, sir," replied the boy, "I'm 
paging Mrs. Jones's dog." 



Recently there has been placed upon 
the market a combination table-wagon 
surpassing anything yet attempted in this 
line. 

It is fitted with two large, deep under- 
shelves, a double drawer, and a handsome 
glass serving tray. 

This article of furniture fills all the 
requirements of any wheeled tray, and 
is so substantially made that it answers 
as wxll for a writing table, serving table 
or card table. 

One must use this table to fully ap- 
preciate its convenience, and how it 
saves steps. The wheels are rubber tired, 
large enough to work easily and do so 
without noise. 

For an illustrated circular, more fully 
describing these tables, write to The Com- 
bination Products Co., Steger Bldg., 
Chicago, 111. 



WAGNER Manufacturing Co. 

SIDNEY, OHIO. 



An Indignant Inquiry 

One broiling August day an aged "cul- 
lud gemman" who was pushing a barrow 
of bricks paused to dash the sweat from 
his dusky brow; then, shaking his fist 
at the sun, he apostrophized it thus: 

"Fo' the Lawd's sake, war wuz yuh 
last Janooary.f*" — Everybody's Magazine. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
72 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



One Socket -Two Uses 



When 

you simply \ 

must finish 

that ironing 

—and it's al- 
ready dark 

— and there's only 
one socket for both 
light and iron 

—then you'll be 
thankful you have a 



T W C>¥ W iA^>f^ 



P»8-*UCi 












^.1 / 



It makes one socket do double 

duty. You get both heat and 

light where before you had only 

one or the other. Ask for 

Benjamin Two -Way Plugs today. 

Sold by electric light companies and 
all dealers in electrical goods at 



$'i 00 



EACH 






^ -hi 






Double Service From iilectricity 

The Benjamin Two -Way Plug provides power for any 
home electric appliance as well as light from the same socket. 

Benjamin Electric iVIanufacturing Co. 

CHICAGO 



New York 




San Francisco 



rpr<! 




Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
73 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



■SAVEI 



by adopting 



llllillillllllilllllllllllllllllllllilllillllilllillllllllllilllllllllllllliilillllllllilillllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll^ 



food 



time - effort 



FOOD PREPARATION 

I A Laboratory Guide and Note-Book for High School Classes = 

I in Domestic Science ^ 

I By BETH WARNER JOSSERAND | 

I This book makes possible more and better work with less time and effort. It s 

I enables the student to proceed without the necessity of blackboard or dictation work, s 

I It raises the standard in the teaching of food and food preparation. It is scientific ^ 

I and yet thoroughly practical. No additional text is required. = 

I It has already proved its value by successful use in many schools throughout the ^ 

I country. Published in two parts: I for elementary classes and II for advanced classes, s 

I Price, postpaid, $1.25 per part. Discount in quantities % 

I THE MANUAL ARTS PRESS PEORIA, ILL. | 

liiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii^ 



IRING YOUR WAR-TIMF. 



BUSINESS PROBLEMS 



Talk them ov2r with 

other business men, whose 

problems are much like yours. 

Come, help advertising help win the 

war. Meet with other alert men at 

San Francisco 
JULY 7 to 11 

Every Business Man is invited to attend this 
convention of advertising men. The Gov- 
ernment calls for co-operation. Come. 
For information, please address: 
P. S. FLOREA, Exec. Mgr. 
Merchants Bank BIdg. 
TmW^^ Indianapolis, Ind. ^^K^l 



MORRIS CANOES 



For seJety, steadiness, speed cind 
genuine value, none can compare 
with them. 

Send for new catalogue. 

MORRIS CANOE COMPANY 

145 State Street VEAZIE, ME. 



^^ ^^^ Tfxla Mart Eeglfltered. 



40<b GLUTEN 



mi 



Guaranteed to comply in all respects to 

standard requirements of U. S. Dept. of 

Agriculture. 

Manufactured by 

FARWELL & RHINES 

Watertown. N. Y. 



^ 



^ 



SEVEN-CENT MEALS 'Jf pe?,".:"'!' 

meals with recipes and directions for preparing each. 10c 

or FREE for names of four friends interested in Domestic 

Science. 

Am. School Home Economics, 503 W. 69th St., Chicago 



Help the Nation Conserve the Food Supply 



.;^ 






and have plenty of delicious fruits and vegetables 
in your home next winter by using the 

MuDGE Patent Canner 



Fully ripe fruits easily canned, keeping natural form, 
color and flavor. Quicker and cheaper than preserving — 
sugar unnecessary. Vegetables also quickly canned. Used 
on any stove. Endorsed by highest authorities — book of 
directions one-period cold-pack method. Simple to ope- 
rate. Write today for descriptive circular and price list. 

BIDDLE-GAUMER COMPANY 

3846 B. Lancaster Avenue - Philadelphia 




Used on Any Stove 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 

74 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




'Wasn't it lucky we had 
ham for dinner!" 



**We invited the Huntingtons for 
dinner, and they never appeared 
till bedtime! Their motor broke 
down, of course — miles from a 
telephone or anything. 

**I was sorry about dinner — ^ Tom 
Huntington is so fond of baked 
ham that we had one especially 
for him. 

**But in a few minutes Mary and 
I had thin-sliced sandwiches ready 



and steaming coffee, and Tom 
said if there was one thing he likefd 
better than baked ham it was ham 
sandwiches ! 



**That*s because it was Swift's 
Premium! Now that we have a 
whole ham only on special occa- 
sions, since signing the food pledge, 
I'm always particular to get a 
Swift's Premium Ham — it has 
such a wonderful, sweet flavor. 



Swift & Company, U. S. A. 

Swiffs Premium Ham 



vV Jx J 



"■•-.-.^..>^^ 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
75 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Experience has shown that the most satisfactory way 

to enlarge the subscription list of American Cookery is through its present subscri- 
bers, who personally can vouch for the value of the publication. To make it an 
object for subscribers to secure new subscribers, we offer the following premiums; 

CONDITIONS • Premiums are not given with a subscription or for a renewal, but only 
— ' * to present subscribers, for securing and sending to us new yearly sub- 
scriptions at $1.50 each. The number of new subscriptions required to secure each premium is clearly 
stated below the description of each premium. 

Transportation is or is not paid as stated. 



INDIVIDUAL INITIAL JELLY MOULDS 

Serve Eggs, Fish and Meats in Aspic; 

Coffee and Fruit Jelly; Pudding and other 

desserts with your initial letter raised on 

the top. Latest and daintiest novelty for 

the up-to-date hostess. To remove jelly 

take a needle and run it around inside of 

mould, then immerse in warm water; jelly 

will then come out in perfect condition. 

Be the first in your town to have these. 

^, . , ^, - „ X J c .^ ij You cannot purchase them at the stores. 

Inis shows the jelly turned irom the mould 

Set of six (6), any initial, sent postpaid for (1) new subscription. Cash Price 





"PATTY IRONS' 




As illustrated, are used to make dainty, flaky 
pates or timbales; delicate pastry cups for serv- 
ing hot or frozen dainties, creamed vegetables, 
salads, shell fish, ices, etc. Each set comes 
securely packed in an attractive box with recipes 
and full directions for use. Sent, postpaid, for 
one (1) new subscription. Cash price, 75 cents. 



AN EGG SLICER SAVES TIME 
AND EGGS 

Does the work 
quicker and bet- 
ter than it can 
be done in any 
other way. One 
will be sent post- 
paid to any 
present subscri- 
ber as a premium 
for securing and 
sending us one 
(1) new yearly 
subscription. Cash price, 75 cents. 




FRENCH ROLL BREAD PAN 




R'^'St quality blued steel. 6 inches wide by 13 
long, fwo pans sent, prepaid, fcr one (1) new 
subscription. Cash price, 75 cents for two pans. 

SEAMLESS VIENNA BREAD PAN 




:l_^. 



Two of these pans sent, postpaid for one (1) 
new subscription. Cash price, 75 cents for two 
pans. 




HEAVY TIN BORDER MOULD 

Imported, Round, 6 inch 

Sent, prepaid, for one (1) new subscription. 
Cash price, 75 cents. 



THE BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL MAGAZINE CO. 



Boston, Mass. 



Buy advertised Goods 



- Do not accept substitutes 
76 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



labfQ 



Tall 
Cooking 




ever^inoal 



Mortons 

IT is so much easier and more accurate 
than the old "pinch o' salt" way — simply 
to pour Morton's direct from the package. 
Morton's is real salt, as most good house- 
keepers know — uniform, full-strength and 
free-running in all weather. 



'^f^EE RUNNING 

Salt 



^XPQlJBf) 



^^MT^^^ 



When it rains 



IT PDUR5 



Per Package 10c; West of Rockies 12^c 

Send for the Morton Salt Booklet- 
more than 100 valuable uses 

MORTON SALT COMPANY 

80 E. Jackson Bouleveird Chicago, Illinois 




Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
71 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Summer School of Cookery 

A ND VACATION OUTING COMBINED= 

Mrs. HilFs Summer School of Cookery at "Topo Pino" South Chatham, N. H. 
Opens Wednesday, July 3rd, for the Fifteenth Season 

First Lesson of the Session is given Thursday Morning, July 4th 

The school is for beginners in 
cooking, for housekeepers, college 
girls, for teachers who are desirous of 
adding to their knowledge of cookery 
and dietetics, and for women taking 
up Tea Room work. 

Special attention will be given 
to canning fruit and vegetables, mak- 
ing marmalade and jelly and the use 
of other grains than wheat. 

Instruction is given in the art of 
giving demonstrations in cooking, 
and opportunity is offered for the 
actual giving of demonstrations by 
the pupils. 

A well-filled ice house, a plenti- 
ful supply of milk, fresh eggs and 
berries, renders work in all varieties of frozen dishes a possibility for each day of the season. 
Every woman is called upon to do her full share in the present crisis. 
Come to Chatham and make yourself more efficient to meet the exigencies of wartime. 
Pupils may specialize in work on Food Conservation, with demonstrations. 
For circular of terms and other information, apply in person or by lette/* to 

The Boston Cooking-School Magazine Co. ^^ boston, ^mLsT^ 




AS NEVER BEFORE YOU NEED A 
COPY OF 

CANNING, PRESERVING 
AND JELLY MAKING 

By JANET McKENZIE HILL 

The economic condition of the times 
demands that all surplus vegetables and 
fruit be carefully preserved for future 
use. Modern methods of canning and 
jelly making have simplified and short- 
ened preserving processes. In this book 
the latest ideas in canning, preserving 
and jelly making are presented. 

We will send a copy of this book, postpaid, on receipt 
of price, $1.00. 

We will send a copy of this book, postpaid, and renew 
vour subscription for American Cookery one year, both 
for $2.25 

We will send a copy of this book, postpaid, to any 
present subscriber sendin? her renewal at $1.50 and one 
new subscriber for American Cookery at $1.50 and 25 
cents additional ($3.25 in all). 

Address 

The Boston Cooking-School Magazine Co. 
Boston, Mass. 




"Patty 
Irons" 



have almost doubled in price. 

BUT, until our present stock 
is used up, we will send a set 
postpaid, to any present sub- 
scriber, as a premium for secur- 
ing and sending us one (1 ) new 
yearly subscription for Ameri- 
can Cookery at $1.50 (cash 
price of Patty Irons IS cents.) 

Patty Irons are used to make dainty, 
flaky pates or timbales; delicate pastry 
cups for serving hot or frozen dainties, 
creamed vegetables, salads, shell fish, 
ices, etc. Each set comes securely 
packed in an attractive box with re- 
cipes and full directions for use. 

ADDRESS 

The Boston Cooking School Magazine Go. 

BOSTON, MASS. 



Buv advertised Goods 



- Do not accept substitutes 

78 



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AMERICAN COOKERY 




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80 




Courtesy of American Photography "THEY ARE GOOD, MAMA' 



James Allan 



A 



Cook 



merican \^ooKery 

VOL. XXIII AUGUST-SEPTEMBER, 1918 

Harmony in the Breakfast Room 

By Mary Harrod Northend 



X) 2 



WHEN breakfast rooms first came 
into fashion it is hard to deter- 
mine, but it is an innovation 
which should be worked out in every 
home. We gather around the table on 
this, the first meal of the day, informally, 
which makes it possible that the fur- 
nishings and settings should correspond. 
Here, unlike the dining-room, heavy fur- 
niture does not meet the demands, — • 
rather should we use wicker or painted 
pieces, finished with bright cushions and 
back pads. 

The sun parlor, now a feature in both 
summer and winter homes, provides a 



suitable place for its setting. Let it be 
situated, if possible, where it catches the 
morning sun, great care being taken to 
space the windows so that they frame the 
landscape, giving views of flower gardens, 
smoothly clipped lawns, or a background 
of trees. 

No difficulty is found in heating it, as 
it is so closely connected with the house 
that steam pipes can easily be laid under 
the flooring. The radiators, concealed 
by a lattice-work covering, forms a place 
for plant setting, adding a conservatory 
atmosphere. ^ 

The use of tile is much better than hard 




WILLOW IS THE PREDOMINATING NOTE IN THIS ROOM 
91 



92 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




RAFFIA AGAIN' IX THIS ROOM 



wood, as they are easily kept clean. They 
are found today in a full line of colors, 
and thus fall in with the color-scheme of 
the room. 

Rugs are a necessity, and vary in style, 
ranging from the Crex to the imported 
Japanese matting. 

A restful atmosphere should be thought 
out, both in decoration and furnishing. 
Sometimes the use of lattice is effective, 
for it can be painted to match the tone of 
the room. Flowers and plants do much 
to brighten and give it a touch of good 
cheer, hanging baskets, lined with moss and 
filled with bright blossoming plants and 
trailing vines, are very effective when hung 
from the window frame nearest the ceiling. 

Fountains are occasionally introduced, 
the musical tinkle of the water, as it falls 
into the basin below, produces a soothing 
effect that is in keeping with the nature 
of the room. For furnishing, the painted 
Italian pieces, especially those made by 
the peasants, are admirably suited for 



use, as is the William and Mary type, 
purchasable in either oak, American wal- 
nut, or mahogany. For less expensive 
line there come charming pieces of cane 
and rattan, whose decorative value are 
most effective. There is a cool look to 
willow or rattan furniture that lends it- 
self to any color-scheme, as it should be 
finished with bright decorative chair seats 
and back pads, made either of chintz or 
printed linen. This furniture can be left 
in the natural state to darken with age, 
or it can be painted in tone with the walls 
and the rugs. 

Do not attempt to purchase a piece 
just because you like it, rather should you 
stop and consider as to whether it works 
in with the decorative scheme you have 
planned. 

The revival of the Italian renaissance 
has put on the market many exquisite 
bits, decorative and painted in like colors 
that correspond with the style necessary 
to make this a home-like, livable room. 



HARMONY IN THE BREAKFAST ROOM 



93 



Sometimes we find that it is too small 
for the using of a matched set of furni- 
ture, — this consists of table, chairs, and 
serving table. There is a very pleasing 
way to work out this situation, through 
the use of interesting and unusual com- 
bination; that is, the gathering together 
of harmonious pieces that are really not 
all of the same pattern. 

Tea-wagons or carts have grown to be 
indispensable, and with their popularity 
has come the designing of a great many 
different types, thus saving monotony in 
furnishing. One of the most popular of 
these is a modified William and Mary 
finished in mahogany and topped with a 
glass-covered tray. The daintiest of 
them all shows a white or ivory enameled 
finish, often decorated to combine with the 
painted furniture; sometimes, however, we 
come across them with a black ground on 
which has been shown bright flowers, then, 
again, a deep, vermilion, red coloring makes 
an effective note that is distinctive. 

Hangings are very important. In some 
breakfast rooms all that is needed is a 



shade to keep out the sunlight; still even 
that should correspond with the furnish- 
ing and the wall finish. Printed linen is 
very fashionable today and is most ef- 
fective, yet sometimes a white muslin or 
plain ivory filet net is more suitable. 
These are much more picturesque in 
effect if they have an overhanging of thin, 
unlined silk. Many people like to change 
the color note in hangings, table linen, and 
cushions with the seasons; as, for in- 
stance, during the summer months, they 
use light, delicate shades, and in the 
winter, rich coloring. This saves a same- 
ness all the year round, and makes the 
room in harmony with the seasons. 

Lighting varies, in some cases in- 
direct fixtures are more pleasable, but in 
cases such as this they should be sup- 
plemented by side lights. These are 
much more attractive, if they match the 
color-scheme, and are unusual in shape. 
A very unique idea, where the breakfast 
room was black and white, was to repre- 
sent flower pots with colored flowers as 
side lights. 




IHE BREAKFAST TABLE IS USED FOR A PLANT 



94 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



The ceiling should correspond, not only 
with the period of the room, but with its 
treatment. If it is finished in limestone 
flooring, creamy plaster, and light blue 
furniture, a ceiling of cream latticed 
off with blue is very effective, but be sure 
to get the right shade, for this color is not 



always happy under artificial light, which 
means you should try it at all times of the 
day, to be sure you get the right effect. 
We should strive for a livable atmosphere, 
which is the keynote to a successful room, 
in which the informal meal of the day is 
partaken. 




GREEX TILES^OX FLOOR. HAXGIXGS, LIGHT GREEX. FURNITURE IX HARMOXY 




Vacation 



Full pleasant is some far-off, green retreat. 
Among the hills, beside a gleaming lake. 

Glorious to wake 
Where each new day creates ihe world anew, 
Your world, bounded by sunlight and clear blue. 
Far from the city's toil and deadening heat. 
Sweet Is the morning-, and "^he dusk is sweet. 



And oh, the golden hours are wondrous fleet. 
Fiee as the wandering wind you go your way. 

Till close of day 
Brings you a sense of something human missed, 
Lonely, regretful — Oh! some broken tryst. 
Listen! Fa'r-olf, the tramp of little feet; 
The cries of children in a city street. 

— Mary Brinsmade. 



Camp Cookery 

By H. B. Stevens 



IN the first place, let me say that I 
have camped since I was an infant 
in arms. Among my earliest recol- 
lections is the bustle and delightful con- 
fusion of an early-morning start in the 
half-light, with much heaving up of 
bundles, stumbling over me, rattling of 
harness, and finally a "Gee Up!" and 
the glamour of finding myself, sleepy- 
eyed, actually riding atop a roll of mat- 
tresses bound on that most wonderful of 
all expeditions known as Going Camping. 
And to wake next morning in a tent, in 
piney woods somewhere! Paradise holds 
no joys greater than that for a small child. 
I am still a child, when it comes to the 
flare of a bonfire and something sizzling 
in a pan outdoors. I have camped high 
in Montana Mountains, where, in mid- 
summer, one may awake to find an inch 
of snow on the ground, and where one 
may come across Bruin in a huckleberry 
patch, shoveling berries into a capacious 
mouth, and lumbering off slowly at 
shrieks of fright. I have camped in the 
comparative permanence of a log cabin, 



and the luxury of an electric-lighted sum- 
mer-home-with-bath; also, I have 
"roughed it" in and about the Grand 
Canyon of the Colorado, traveling all 
day and pitching a new camp each night. 
Therefore, I maintain that what I sug- 
gest here in the way of camp cookery is 
not hearsay, but the result of trial and 
varied experience. The last three sum- 
mers I have taken a crowd of girls camp- 
ing, and have brought them back, not 
only well-fed and happy, but on good 
terms with each other and me. How to 
do the latter is an art in itself, — ■ but of 
that, another time. 

Some one has said that the only per- 
manent recollections any one ever has of 
a camping trip are the two smells of burn- 
ing wood and browning grease. Be that 
as it may, the culinary end of camping 
certainly looms into an importance un- 
believable by the conventional dweller 
in cities. One's stomach clamors health- 
ily and continuously for food; dinner is 
the greatest ceremony of the day. Man- 
kind, indeed, reverts, to great extent, 




DINNER THE GREATEST CEREMONY OF THE DAY 
95 



96 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



back to the primitive, and is content to 
eat, hunt food, eat, and sleep. No won- 
der, then, that to campers unsavory food 
becomes a tragedy, and well-ordered 
meals nectar and ambrosia. 

The wise time to consider the food 
question is before you leave home. If 
inexperienced, you may slight the prob- 
lem and think, "anything will taste 
good." But it won't, unless you are a 
seasoned mountaineer, especially during 
the first few days while you have still 
your jaded city appetite; and that few 
days is enough to put every one on edge 
and "queer" the trip. It doesn't do to 
depend too much on the iish and game 
that the men are going to get, for all 
sorts of things may happen, — storms, 
bad luck, etc., and campers restricted in 
diet as to variety or quantity get "sore- 
headed" as bears. Also, don't judge 
amounts by the size of appetites at home; 
for how you will eat after a week or sol 

In general, things which do not take 
a long time to cook are best. Such 
things as rice, raw beans, tapioca, unless 
your cooking facilities are unusually good, 
are apt to be carried back untouched; 
when meal-times come, everybody is, as 
a rule, in a hurry for "something to eat 
quick." So canned vegetables are a 
standby. I am presuming that you will 
be away from the source of fresh vege- 
tables and green stuff. Ham and bacon 
are staple and always good. Soups I have 
found not popular, because hard to get 
served up hot in the out-of-doors. Eggs 
carry well in bran or salt. 

Specially to be looked out for is material 
to make toothsome sandwiches; most 
days, all or some of the party will be 
wanting to carry lunch-baskets to the 
woods. So I advise plenty of potted 
meats, sardines, prepared cheese. In an 
emergency, canned beans crushed to a 
smooth paste and mixed with a little 
mustard or pickle make good samdwiches. 

The commissary may, of course, vary 
to suit individual tastes and facilities. 
For instance, in taking my crowds of girls 
to a permanent camp, I stock up with 



that seemingly impractical dessert, pre- 
pared gelatine. How the neighboring 
boys did scoff at that! Yet nothing'} is 
more easily prepared; it is quickly cooled 
in a mountain spring, is delicious with 
or without pineapple added, and looks 
dainty and enticing, thus making a link 
with what the girls are used to at home. 
We noticed that the boys, with the scoffs 
still on their lips, devoured the quivering 
jelly hungrily. 

On the same principle it doesn't hurt 
to have a supply^of pickles, and little 
cakes in packages. 

In taking cake, try to take the kind 
which improves with keeping, as fruit or 
nut loaf; then your cake need not be 
eaten up the first days, when one really 
would not miss its absence. 

The one food, which camps are apt to 
be short of, is the sweet. And there is 
nothing more craved after a little. Some- 
thing about life in the open seems to 
create an appetite for sweets. On one 
trip where we had nothing of the sort 
except two cans of corn syrup, we ate 
that ravenously with table spoons the 
first ten days and had to go without for 
the rest of the time. Honey, syrup, 
dates and raisins will meet this need, as 
well as save sugar. 

It gives pleasing variety to have each 
member bring a glass of jam or jelly from 
home; this minimizes trouble. 

I am not mentioning the things any 
one would naturally think of, as coffee, 
tea, cocoa, canned milk, pan-cake flour; 
but it pays to go over one's list with 
imagination, to be sure that a necessity 
has not been overlooked. 

I have some special camping dishes 
which never fail to be eaten with approval. 
Some of them have sprung from that 
necessity which spurs invention. For in- 
stance, finding myself with much dried 
bread on hand, I dipped the slices in milk, 
then in beaten egg, fried them to a golden 
brown, and served with jelly: "French 
toast," I dare swear, was never before 
greeted with such acclaim, and became an 
institution in camp. Another popular 



CAMP COOKERY 



97 



breakfast dish, after the conventional ones 
pall, is scrambled eggs with minced ham. 
For this, cut ham fine, and brown in pan. 
Without pouring off any grease, add eggs 
and let them set slightly before stirring. 
Serve before eggs are cooked too dry. 

A group of dishes, we call inclusively 
if not accurately, *' Wiggles"; meaning 
by that, any mixture served hot on crack- 
ers. We love to have a late supper 
around fireplace or bonfire, at which each 
gets his plate and crackers and the frying 
pan circulates generously. The basis of 
one kind of "wiggle" is cream sauce, 
made by melting butter or drippings in 
the frying pan, creaming with it fiour until 
smooth, and adding milk, stirring till 
the mixture thickens. Add then shrimps, 
cut up, and a can of peas; or canned 
oysters; or minced clams and peas; or 
crab, or lobster; or chipped beef cut in 
squares. Another "wiggle" is based on 
tomatoes. Put tomatoes in frying pan, 
add salt and pepper generously, butter, 
bread or cracker crumbs to thicken, and 
if liked, cheese. Or canned salmon may 
be added to the tomatoes, seasoned as 
before. Other "wiggles" may be con- 
cocted by a fertile brain, according to 
what is on the shelves. 

I cannot leave the subject of special 
dishes without paying my compliments to 
a wonderful Mulligan stew, prepared 
down Grand Canyon by a famous guide 
of North Arizona. We had been away all 
day, and he had stayed to tend camp and 
horses. When we had ridden in and 
*' washed up," he directed us to a large 
iron kettle hung from three sticks over 
the fire. Each took a plate and dipped 
for himself from the steaming pot. Such 
a savoury smell, such luscious flavors I 
With "Ohs" and "Ahs" we sampled and 
•devoured. Analyzed, the stew consisted 
of a ham bone, a bit of diced bacon, a 
little "jerked" (dried) beef, cut fine. 



diced potatoes, diced carrots, a few beans; 
all cooked over a slow fire for several 
hours. 

Where there is no stove, possibilities 
in camp cookery are necessarily limited. 
But a Dutch Oven, — that is, a closely 
covered iron pot of any kind, — is a fair 
substitute for cooking different hot breads, 
biscuits, muffins, etc. To manage a 
Dutch Oven successfully, let your fire 
burn down to glowing coals, first. Then 
put oven and lid on separately to heat. 
When both are very hot, lay in biscuits, 
or pour in muffin batter, cover, and sur- 
round with hot coals. You will thus 
get an even heat. 

Another device for stoveless cooking is 
a corn-popper to which you have affixed 
a very long handle. Toast may be made 
in this over bonfire coals without ap- 
proaching to scorching distance. 

Two more items let me add from my 
camping lore: First, how to clean a 
greasy frying pan. Get the pan very 
hot over fire, then pour into it cold water, 
and empty quickly. You will be sur- 
prised to find your pan perfectly clean. 
Second, how to start your camp meals 
auspiciously. As a rule, a party arrives 
in camp toward dark, or at any rate, 
tired out, and in no mood to cook; to 
avoid having to dig into supplies first 
thing, when nobody knows exactly where 
anything is, have ready a picnic dinner 
packed in a basket, all cooked and appe- 
tizing; it will have a marvelous effect in 
reviving the spirits of all. 

Camping is a fine art. To a real de- 
votee, no discomfort can take away its 
charm. With its discomforts minimized, 
most campers will take home with them 
only pleasant recollections, — memories 
of golden mornings, starry nights, and 
not by any means least, the inimitable 
odor from crackling wood and sputtering 
frying pan. 



The Witch of the Gem Pan 



By Mabel S. Merrill 



NIGKY SWAIN edged up to the 
back kitchen door, which opened 
directly into the lane behind the 
house. He was cautious about it, be- 
cause he remembered that Cousin Maria 
Bliss was coming this afternoon to help 
Lillian cook for the company. And 
Cousin Maria, it was said, objected to 
boys. But when he peeped in at the 
door nobody was there but Lilian herself, 
crumpled up in a chair with her apron 
over her face. 

"What's up, Lil.?" whispered Nick, 
edging in at the door and surveying his 
sister with boyish uneasiness. He had 
caught the sound of a sob. 

Lilian dropped the apron to point 
tragically at an array of objects on the 
table. They bore some resemblance to 
loaves, but they were the color of lead, 
and looked as heavy as so many blocks of 
granite. Nicky regarded the array with 
puzzled eyes. 

"Gee," he said, "a goat couldn't eat 
that! Is it supposed to be victuals.^" 

"It's bread!" wailed his sister, "all 
there is in the house, and I can hear the 
folks now, prowling around the dining- 
room door sniffing for their supper. 
Mother has been laid up all day with one 
of her dreadful sick headaches, so we sent 
for Cousin Maria Bliss and thought what 
a mercy it was she was staying at Aunt 
Nancy's, because everybody's always said 
she was such a notable housekeeper. 
And everything she has made this after- 
noon looks just about like : that bread! 
She says she isn't used to all the new stuff 
you have to cook with these days." 

The girl receded into the apron again 
as she added: "I wouldn't mind so much 
if it was just a common occasion. But 
it isn't every day we have a famous lady 
coming to supper with us from two thou- 
sand miles off. And I don't want to be 



accused of murdering a poet, even if she 
wasn't relation to us!" 

"Is that who you're worrying about 
— Cousin Allison Bliss that wrote some 
kind of a hot-air book — ' Zephyrs from 
the South,' or something like that.'^ Well 
maybe she won't come." 

"Why, you little goose, the party is for 
her, because all the aunts and uncles and 
cousins are wild to see her — and so am 
I. Her book is lovely — a thing to dream 
about. I should be in the seventh 
heaven at the thought of having her here 
if it wasn't for that!" Lilian cast away 
her apron to glare at the bread. 

"Aw, say, she never can tell the dif- 
ference. Don't you know what literary 
folks are.f"' Nick spoke as from the depths 
of a long experience. "They go moon- 
ing around with their heads in a fog 
and they eat whatever you shove to 'em, 
and don't know whether it's made of 
sugar or sawdust." 

"I guess they'd find it out if 'twas 
made of feldspar or lumps of old iron!" 
retorted Lilian. "Go away, Nick; you're 
nothing but a simpleton and you can't do 
a thing." 

Nick got as far as the door and stopped. 
"Take it easy, Lil," he advised. "Here 
comes the woman that's moved into the 
brown house down the lane. I like her 
eye. Why don't vou ask her to lend you 
a hand.?" 

"Oh, Nick, she's a perfect stranger — 
but then she u a neighbor." 

Lilian came to peep out over her 
brother's shoulder at the approaching 
figure. "She does look pleasant, and 
with mother sick in bed and everything 
in such a mess I don't know as it would 
be very cheeky to ask her. Only, there 
isn't time to do anything." 

Lilian was lapsing into dispair again 
as she heard another peal at the front 



98 



THE WITCH OF THE GEM PAN 



99 



door bell. The lady in the lane, however, 
was now just opposite the open door, and 
she stopped to scan with friendly eyes 
the tear-stained face of the girl in the 
doorway. 

"What's the matter, young people.^" 
she inquired briskly, "and what can an 
outsider do.^*" 

"Oh, Mrs. Palmer," burst out Lilian, 
"it's mean to ask you when you've only 
just moved in — but mother is down sick 
and daddy's trying to take care of the 
company, and he couldn't help, anyway; 
and just you look here!" 

In two minutes their new friend was in 
possession of the awful facts. In five 
she had finished mending the kitchen fire 
and was lighting the gas oven, while 
Lilian and Nick revolved around her like 
devoted satellites. 

"It won't hurt them to wait a bit for 
their supper," she averred, "but they 
won't have to wait long." 

With marvelous speed and sureness she 
began to measure and beat, all the while 
giving directions to Lilian about mixing 
the salad and garnishing it in an attrac- 
tive fashion the girl had never seen before. 

"The looks of a dish can add to, or 
subtract from, its value a whole lot," 
observed the new cook. "What are you 
going to do with those, my dear?" 

Lilian was taking from the refrigerator 
two large dishes filled, one with a white, 
the other with a yellow mixture. 

"Cousin Maria Bliss said it was velvet 
cream-something." Lilian eyed it du- 
biously. "You put it together, she said, 
just before you serve it. I don't think 
it looks very inviting, myself." The girl 
had lost all faith in Cousin Maria's 
cooking. 

"It's all right," the head cook sampled 
it expertly. "Use those pretty glass 
dishes and put in, first, a good layer of the 
yellow, then heap the white on top. Have 
you any jelly.'' — good!" as Lilian pro- 
duced two glasses of a clear ruby red. 
"Dot the heap of white all over with bits 
of jelly — so! there, isn't that pretty.^" 

"It's exquisite! Oh, Mrs. Palmer, 



you do things just like a conjuror. I 
shall be so proud of these glass dishes. 
But the bread — " 

"Don't fret, child, I'm making gems. 
See.?" The pan came from the gas oven 
with twelve crisp, brown cakelets puffed 
light and high above the tin. 

"Gorry!" breathed Nick. "I bet 
Cousin Maria Bliss would fall over back- 
wards if she should set her eye on a sight 
Hke that! Anyhow, she ought to after 
perpetrating those hunks of melted lead 
there on the table." 

The cheerful neighbor threw an amused 
glance at the grim array of loaves. "Are 
those the work of your Cousin Maria.? 
Well, I can tell you just what is the m.atter 
with them — she didn't put in any imag- 
ination! The new kinds -of material 
need alert handling, and I'll warrant 
she's one of those housekeepers v\^ho run 
in grooves and can't — or think they 
can't — adapt themselves to any new 
conditions. Bundle them off the old 
track and they have no more go-ahead 
than a locomotive in a ditch. I like to 
try different things myself and every 
latest wrinkle in cooking is interesting 
to me.". 

She began rapidly filling another gem 
pan as she added: 

"You children musn't miss the supper- 
party. You run along now and help 
your poor father with the company,, 
while I stay here and take care of the 
kitchen end. Have you anybody to help 
wait on table.?" 

"Yes, we borrowed two nice little 
girls from the minister's house. They 
have been^ busy answering the doorbell^ 
but they can come out here now." 

Hastily Lilian and Nick slipped into 
their best clothes and went to the rescue 
of their father who was trying to talk 
fast enough to keep nine cousins and 
sundry uncles and aunts from wondering 
where the supper was coming in. ;The 
entrance of Lilian soon put things to 
rights and presently the smiling company 
was gathered around the dining-table, ^ 
where the hot plates of cream-of-celery 



100 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



soup — • the one thing Lilian could make 
to perfection — were bespeaking their 
attention. 

The salad was good and the dishes of 
velvet cream custard so alluring as to 
cover the almost total absence of cake. 
But the gems were the great hit of the 
evening. They came hot from the 
kitchen, borne in by the two little wait- 
tresses, whose nimble feet, and willing 
hands could scarcely move fast enough. 

"I shan't ever call our new neighbor 
Mrs. Palmer," Lilian said under her 
breath to Nick. "It's far too common- 
place. I have entitled her the Witch of 
the Gem Pan." 

"She's a dandy," assented Nick. "Say, 
Lil, the wandering Zephyr lady isn't here. 
Aunt Elinor' said she went mooning off 
and didn't get back in time. What'd I 
tell you about lit'ry folks.? I've always 
heard about 'em. You make a business 
appointment with 'em and when they 
don't come you go and find 'em leaning 
on a bridge at midnight and murmuring 
hexameters to the frogs. That's what 
Cousin Allison Bliss is up to this minute, 
bet you half a cent." 

"Aunt Elinor thinks she'll come later 
in the evening," rejoined Lilian, "and 
you'll be sorry you made fun of her when 
you're grown up enough to know what it 



means to have a real famous poet in the 
family." 

Allison Bliss did come later in the even- 
ing. There was an interested flutter when 
her name was announced by a cousin who 
had answered the bell. The poet's home 
was in a far distant state, and many of 
the relatives present had not seen her 
since she was a little girl. Aunt Elinor, 
at whose house she was visiting, ushered 
her in proudly. 

"Here's our famous stray," announced 
Aunt Elinor, "and she says she didn't 
mean to be gone so long. She just walked 
out to take a look round the old town." 

Lilian and Nick caught hold of each 
other as they stared at Allison Bliss. 
The poet, Nick's Wandering Zephyr lady, 
was nobody in the world but the cheerful 
person whom they had taken for Mrs. 
Palmer, and whom they had left in the 
kitchen baking gems. Small wonder 
that she couldn't come to the supper 
party. 

She laid hold of Nick and Lilian, one 
with each hand, declaring that she had 
already adopted these two young cousins. 

"And my dears," added the Witch of 
the Gem Pan, "don't look so amazed. 
When you are older you will understand 
that poetry and cookery are much nearer 
related than is generally supposed." 



Once Upon A Time 



Long and long and long ago, 

Once upon a time! 
Every lass had beauty rare, 
Nut brown curls or golden hair. 
Oh, the world was very fair, 

Once upon a time! 

Long and long and long ago. 

Once upon a time! 
When the world was very new 
Every knight was brave and true, 
And the skies were always blue, 

Once upon a time! 



Long and long and long ago, 

Once upon a time! 
Every shepherd piped his lay, 
Old and young alike were gay 
Every one had time to play, 

Once upon a time! 

Long and long and long ago, 

Once upon a time! 
Every man had gold to spare, 
Every heart was free from care. 
Don't you wish that we'd been there? 

Once upon a time! 

— Christina Kerr Davis. 



The Busy Bee in War Time 

By Alice Urquhart Fewell 



WE are all busy doing our bit to 
help win the war, but no one is 
busier these days than the bee, 
who must work early and late to supply 
the honey which is needed in every home, 
while we are saving sugar to send to France. 

In the days of our forefathers bees 
were kept in every yard, and honey had 
the place of sugar on the table. Bee 
culture has fallen into more or less disuse, 
but it is about to be revived, and it may 
not be long before we are all raising bees 
in the back yard, just as we raise chickens 
or vegetables. Bee culture, in this coun- 
try, can be largely and easily extended. 
We have abundant flowers, fruit trees, 
and grasses of every kind, and all we 
lack is the bees to gather the honey. 
The harvest stands ready, but where are 
the laborers to gather it.^ We shall soon 
have them, for steps are being taken 
everywhere to extend our bee industry. 
California, which has more flowers and 
fruit trees than perhaps any other state, 
produces only about one tenth the honey 
she should. California abounds with 
wild sage and orange blossoms, and soon 
the bees will be busy there gathering 
honey with which to flood the market. 
With the prospect of a large honey crop 
this year, and with a scarcity of sugar, 
the housewife is deeply interested in all 
methods for the use of honey in cookery. 

Honey will find new uses both on the 
table and as a means of sweetening many 
articles of our diet. No new set of re- 
cipes is required for the use of honey in 
cookery. We can still employ our old 
recipes, substituting honey for sugar in 
the correct proportions. Before we can 
do this successfully, however, we must 
know something of the composition of 
honey, and the way in which it act^ under 
given conditions. Honey is composed of 
water and a combination of sugars; 



namely, cane sugar, grape sugar, and 
fruit sugar. It contains lime, iron and 
other minerals in very small quantities, 
and has an acid reaction. The flavor is 
due to a volatile oil. Honey burns easily 
and is apt to boil over rather quickly if 
not carefully watched. 

Knowing the above facts about honey, 
we are now able to make certain rules 
which will govern its use in nearly all 
cases. Honey must be considered, in a 
general way, as a mixture of sugar and 
water. In substituting honey for sugar 
in any recipe, the same amount of honey 
as sugar called for should be used, but 
for every cup of honey one-fourth a cup 
less of liquid must be used in the recipe. 
For instance, when cake is made calling 
for one c up of suga r, one cup of honey may 
be substituted but one-fourth a cup of 
the milk in the recipe must be omitted. 
When using small quantities of honey, as 
in a recipe calling for four tablespoonfuls 
of honey, one tablespoonful less of liquid 
is used, etc. In other words, one cup of 
honey is equal to one cup of sugar plus 
one-fourth a cup of water. 

Honey may be substituted in recipes 
calling for molasses, and since honey has 
an acid reaction, soda must also be used. 
Honey is not as acid as molasses, and 
therefore less soda is required in combina- 
tion with it. Honeys differ in acidity, 
but a little more than half as much soda 
as would be required for molasses A^ill 
give good results in the majority of cases. 
As the flavor in honey is due to a vola- 
tile oil, it will lose some of its good flavor 
if cooked too long or at too high a temper- 
ature. An asbestos mat under the sauce- 
pan will keep honey from burning, and 
careful watching will keep it from boiling 
over. 

Bread, cakes and cookies made with 
honey will keep fresh and soft much 
101 



102 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



longer than those made with sugar. 
Cake frosting made with honey will keep 
moist and soft almost indefinitely, and 
it has been found to be in perfect condi- 
tion and still moist at the end of eight 
or ten months. Honey is more quickly 
and easily digested than sugar. The bee 
produces certain changes in the honey 
sugar which correspond to the changes 
made in the early stages of the process of 
digestion. Honey is not an expensive 
article of diet when we consider its high 
nutritive value. Seven ounces of honey 
are equal in food value to ten eggs, one 
quart of milk, or five bananas. Strained 
honey, which can be bought in buckets 
weighing from 2J to 10 pounds, is the 
best to use for cookery. It is cheaper 
than comb honey, and costs considerably 
less when bought in the larger quantities. 
Honey can be raised at home at a mini- 
mum cost. 

Honey may be successfully used in 
making bread, cake, cookies, sauces, 
desserts, ice cream, and in canning and 
preserving fruit. In bread making it is 
substituted for the sugar. Potato yeast 
made with honey will keep longer than 
that made with sugar. Cake and cookies 
of various kinds are improved by using 
honey or by using half honey and half 
sugar. Most of the cookie recipes re- 
quire soda. A delicious war sponge cake 
can be made by substituting honey for 
sugar, and barley flour for wheat flour in 
any ordinary sponge-cake recipe. If 
made with half honey and half sugar, the 
honey and sugar should be boiled to- 
gether until it spins a hair, and then al- 
lowed to cool before it is added to the 
egg-yolks. The cakes and cookies keep 
fresh and moist a long time, and should 
be allowed to ripen for a few days, as the 
flavor is improved by standing. This 
does not apply to sponge cake, however. 
The flavorings which seem to go best with 
honey are lemon, orange, cinnamon, 
ginger, aniseed, and bitter almond. 

Frosting and cake fillings are excellent 
made with honey, four tablespoonfuls of 
honey to one egg-white being used. The 



honey should be boiled until a soft ball 
will form when dropped in cold water, 
and should then be poured over the 
stiffly beaten egg-white and the whole 
whipped until cool. This makes a very 
creamy filling for a cake, but is almost too 
soft to use on top, unless a coating of 
confectioner's chocolate is put over it to 
form a hard surface. This filling keeps 
indefinitely, and can be made in large 
quantities and kept in a glass jar ready 
for use. 

Desserts of every known variety can be 
sweetened with honey, and a very deli- 
cate flavor is produced in most cases 
where it is used. It is especially good in 
combination with gelatine desserts and 
frozen desserts. Rice pudding, corn- 
starch pudding, baked and boiled custard, 
tapioca pudding, and many others too 
numerous to mention, are very delicate 
sweetened with honey instead of sugar. 
Any ice cream or mousse may be made 
with honey; and a delicious ice cream is 
made by mixing one quart of thin cream 
with one cup of honey and freezing. 
Raisin pie and mince pie are improved 
when made with honey, and the mince 
pie has good keeping properties. Pudding 
sauces of various kinds, and boiled custard, 
used as a sauce, are especially adapted to 
the use of honey. Whipped cream or 
Charlotte Russe may be sweetened with it, 
and a very delicate flavor is produced. 
Salad dressings, especially those used for 
fruit salad, may have the sugar replaced 
with honey. 

Canning and preserving is accomplished 
very successfully with honey instead of 
sugar, the same amount of honey being 
substituted. Fruit preserved in this man- 
ner has a splendid flavor, and has long- 
keeping properties. The honey should 
not be boiled with the fruit, but added 
just before it is removed from the stove, 
since some of the good flavor is lost by 
long boiling. 

Aside from the many uses in cookery 
described above, honey can be used on 
the table in a number of ways. We can 
save sugar by using honey on our break- 



HONEY IN WAR TIME 



103 



fast cereal, and on fresh fruit. Even dry 
bran is good when served with honey. It 
flavors grapefruit deliciously, and some 
of the other fruits, which are good in com- 
bination with it, are strawberries, rasp- 
berries, currents, peaches and stewed 
gooseberries. A mixture of fresh fruit 
flavored with honey and lemon juice 
makes a very attractive summer dessert. 
Brown bread sandwiches may be filled 
with honey and chopped walnuts, honey 



and cream cheese, or a mixture of all 
three. War candy for the children is 
made by boiling honey until thick and 
then mixing with popcorn and rolling into 
balls as it cools. 

When we know something of the many 
uses of honey in the home, we no longer 
wonder the bee is working overtime these 
days to supply our need, and help win the. 
war. 



H 



ave oome 



M 



acaroni 



By Emma Gary Wallace 



WHILE we are trying to conserve 
food, that our soldier boys and 
our Allies may have those 
things which they need in the food line, 
and which may be easily transported, we 
must not overlook macaroni and the 
many good things that may be made 
from it. 

This is one of those singularly adapta- 
ble products which can be prepared in a 
variety of ways, — served as a vegetable, 
combined with protein foods such as 
cheese, used as a meat substitute, or even 
prepared with fruits as a dessert. 

In reality, macaroni comes of a very 
ancient and honorable lineage. It is . 
claimed that it was first made and used 
in Asia centuries ago. The Asiatic prod- 
uct is still spelled makaroni. In 'the 
course of time travelers told of this nour- 
ishing food dish, and doubtless some 
moved "West" who knew how to prepare 
it, for Italy took up its manufacture and 
became famous for the excellence and 
variety of the different kinds it prepared 
and exported. It is claimed that the 
best Italian macaroni is made in Grog- 
nano and Terre del Annunziata. In 
time the French people came to appre- 
ciate macaroni and its many uses, and 
entered into the manufacture of it quite 
extensively. 

For many years our own macaroni was 
imported, and it was commonly thought 



that this must of necessity be superior 
to any we could make at home, and so for 
a long time immense quantities of maca- 
roni, from 500,000 to 700,000 boxes, came 
into this country from abroad; but Amer- 
ican ingenuity and resourcefulness was 
not to be kept in abeyance always, and 
so macaroni manufacturers began to 
produce the Made-in-America product, 
which has proven to be equal to the best. 
The foreign product always comes packed 
in large wooden boxes which, when 
opened, permit the entrance of dust and 
bacteria, unless kept carefully closed. 
Most of our American macaroni is put 
up in the popular sealed packages, which 
are so much more sanitary. 

There is some difference in the manu- 
facture, also. The foreign factories are 
nearly all small, home factories operated 
by a man, his wife, his older children, and 
perhaps a couple of laborers. Of neces- 
sity the) equipment is crude, the room 
devoted to the preparation is quite likely 
to be in the cellar or an unused room in 
the house, while the strands are hung on 
poles to dry, many times over the street 
or near the street. Of course, there are 
some factories with more modern equip- 
ment, but the home factories still manu- 
facture quite a large percentage of the 
product. 

In our own country food manufactur- 
ers of all kinds must come under sanitary 



104 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



regulations of State and Federal Govern- 
ment, and so the conditions have to be 
regulated along thoroughly approved lines. 

It is interesting to know something 
about how macaroni is made, for most of 
us have accepted it without question, as 
if it grew like an apple or potato. The 
wheat required for the making of maca- 
roni must contain a large percentage of 
gluten, and that grown in the semi-arid 
regions of our own western states is ex- 
cellent for the purpose, and is much like 
the wheat grown in Russia and mixed 
with the Italian wheat for use in making 
the foreign article. Wheat of the durum 
variety is especially adapted to macaroni 
making, and is not valued for milling 
purposes, so when we use macaroni we 
are not lessening bread-making materials, 
although it is a wheat product. This is 
an important point, as it shows our pa- 
triotic duty. 

The selected wheat is ground into a 
coarse meal, and the bran is removed and 
saved. In this state it is known as 
semola or semolina. The semola is mixed 
into a paste with hot water and worked 
into the right consistency of dough by 
mechanical means. When it has be- 
come a thoroughly homogeneous mass, it 
is put into cylinders of brass eight or nine 
inches in diameter. The bottom of these 
cylinders are perforated with holes of 
the desired size for macaroni, vermicelli, 
and spaghetti. Great pistons, which just 
fit into the cylinders, are then slowly 
pressed down by machinery and the 
dough is squeezed through the tubes. In 
case the macaroni is to be hollow, a 
cleverly adjusted blade does the work. 
At first, the tube of macaroni has a slit 
where the knife has cut it, but this closes 
quickly. The sticks are cut into lengths 
about three feet, and skillfully dried. 

The drying process requires experience. 
First the moisture is partly allowed to 
evaporate in a current ot air. Then the 
macaroni is placed in a damp atmosphere, 
which causes it to grow limp again. 
After that it is dried in just the right 
temperature for from eight to twenty-four 



days. All this process gives it the horny- 
like character, which permits it to be 
packed and shipped without shelling and 
breaking. 

Many people think that macaroni is of 
one kind only, although they know that 
it comes in different sized tubes and 
shapes, as the letter and elbow macaroni, 
but as a matter of fact there are many 
other kinds. Most of these are still 
made abroad, and are used, when im- 
ported, by our foreign population, al- 
though our own macaroni manufactur- 
ers turn out a somewhat varied product. 

There is Whole Wheat Macaroni, of a 
brownish color, which is very nourishing. 

Buckwheat Macaroni is made in Cherry 
Blossom Land, where push carts go about 
selling the steaming buckwheat dish at 
less than a penny. This is not so strange, 
when we remember our own waffle lunch 
carts. 

Bean Macaroni is made in both Japan 
and Korea. The paste is rolled out very 
thin, and, as it breaks easily, is difficult to 
shape. 

Rice Macaroni is made in China, and 
the glistening strands are of pearly 
beauty. 

Turkish Macaroni is not dried as thor- 
oughly as that made in other countries, 
and so would soon dissolve into a mass 
like pap if put into hot water. For this 
reason it is braised in oil. 

The Chinese have another macaroni 
made of the pith of a tree. This is rolled 
out in sheets and cut into pieces like 
wafers. 

Then, there is Sea Weed Macaroni, 
which, being of a gelatinous nature, dis- 
solves readily, and so earns its name of 
Disappearing Macaroni. The ItaHans 
have a type, which they value at home, 
made of milk curd. It dissolves in hot 
liquid. 

Egg Macaroni is particularly delicious, 
but, if you purchase it and the water in 
which it boils is of a bright yellow color, 
you may be sure that its richness of ap- 
pearance is derived from saffron or coal- 
tar dye and not from eggs. 



HAVE SOME MACARONI 



105 



The housewives of the Old World are 
said to look upon macaroni much as our 
women do upon a hairpin, — that is, 
they use it for all sorts of unexpected pur- 
poses. A tube of it serves as a straw 
through which to take hot or cold liquids, 
or for a feeding tube for the baby, through 
it they blow powder into cracks to dis- 
lodge bugs, or if they are short of bread 
flour, they roll it out with the rolling 
pin, treating it as a sort of preserved flour. 

A food of this nature, which depends 
wholly upon its native flavor, which is not 
especially marked, can be used in many 
more ways than a food of a strong and 
characteristic taste, yet it should not be 
forgotten that the deliciousness of maca- 
roni dishes depends very largely upon the 
excellence of the cooking, the skill of com- 
binations, and the good judgment used 
in seasoning. 

Macaroni has a very high food value. 
According to Professor Sherman of Co- 
lumbia University, the average macaroni 
product of good grade contains about 
1,625 calories per pound; thus it will be 
seen that, when we mix macaroni with a 
rich white sauce, with cheese, oysters, dried 
beef, chicken, or similar foods, we have a 
dish which presents a square meal in itself. 

To cook macaroni successfully is not 
difficult. Break into short lengths. If 
it comes from a sealed package, it does 
not need washing; if it is "loose," it 
should be rinsed in cold water. Drop into 
boiling salted water, adding a level table- 
spoonful of salt to a quart. Stir to pre- 
vent sticking, but be careful not to break 
the pieces. If the dish is greased before 
the hot water and macaroni are put in, it 
will not stick so readily. Cook until 
tender, then toss the macaroni into a col- 
ander and let cold water run through it. 
This process is called blanching, and is to 
prevent it sticking together. 

Well-cooked macaroni or spaghetti, 
and a good white cream sauce, gives the 
foundation for many dishes. 

White Cream Sauce 

Melt four tablespoonfuls of fat in a 



saucepan; stir in four tablespoonfuls of 
flour and cook until bubbly all over; add 
salt and pepper to season, and gradually 
one quart of scalding hot milk. Stir con- 
stantly until cooked and smooth. 

If for any reason you want the sauce 
thicker, add an extra tablespoonful of 
flour and butter substitute; if you want 
it thinner, use a tablespoonful less. 

Scalloped Macaroni with Oysters 

Allow one pint of cooked macaroni, one 
pint of white cream sauce, and one pint 
of cleaned, drained oysters. Grease a 
baking dish and put in alternate layers- 
of macaroni, oysters, and cream sauce. 
Two layers of oysters and three of maca- 
roni will bake best. Finish with a top- 
ping of buttered crumbs. Bake about 
forty minutes until crumbs are brown. 
Many prefer a' seasoning of onion salt 
in this. 

Scalloped Chicken 

Prepare exactly as above, only sub- 
stituting a pint of cold, cooked chicken^ 
cut in small pieces, for the oysters, and 
use celery salt for seasoning. 

Baked Macaroni with Cheese 

To each pint of cooked macaroni allow 
one cup of grated cheese and one pint of 
white sauce. Alternate in layers, finish 
with buttered crumbs, and a sprinkling^ 
of the grated cheese. Bake. This dish 
can be served in a casserole or in ramekins. 

Macaroni with Dried Beef 

For each pint of white sauce allow one 
cup of cooked macaroni, and one-fourth 
of a pound of dried beef torn into small 
pieces. Heat together and garnish the 
dish with a hard-boiled tgg, cut into- 
slices. Or, this can be served on rounds 
of toast, or in little wells of mashed potato. 

If you wish to serve macaroni as a 
vegetable, you can do so very nicely by 
boiling it and simply seasoning with 
butter, salt, and a little paprika. If you 
wish to vary this, you can add a sprink- 
ling of grated cheese, or half a cup of 
white cream sauce and a teaspoonful of 



106 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



chopped parsley, ex for a pint of maca- 
roni, half a cup of strained, thickened 
tomato sauce. 

Celestial Spaghetti 

Prepare one pint of cooked spaghetti. 
Make a sauce by melting four tablespoon- 
fuls of butter substitute and cooking with 
two .tablespoonfuls of barley, rice, or 
wheat flour. Add one cup of strained 
meat stock and one cup of strained 
cooked tomato. Blend until smooth and 
thick. Season with salt and pepper. 
Add one minced onion and simmer on the 
back of the stove twenty or thirty min- 
utes. Add two tablespoonfuls of Par- 
mesan cheese. Drop the spaghetti into 
this sauce and re-heat thoroughly. If 
you wish, you can use more spaghetti, 
just coating the tubes with the sauce. 



Macaroni Pudding 

Break the macaroni into quite long 
pieces, about four inches. Cook in boil- 
ing salt water until tender. Blanche. 
Remove to a board and cut into one- 
fourth inch lengths, or so each piece will 
be like a large bead. Cover one-half 
pound of figs with hot water and cook 
slowly with one-half cup of brown sugar 
until every fig is plump. Add the grated 
rind of one lemon and the strained juice 
of half of it. Cook until the syrup is 
quite thick. Serve a dish of macaroni 
with one or two figs on top and enough 
of the rich syrup to moisten it nicely. If 
you wish to make this dish positively 
festive, put a teaspoonful of whipped 
cream on top and garnish with a mara- 
schino cherrv. 



Song of the Housewives 

(Tune: Marching Through Georgia) 



Ring the good old dinner-bell, 

We'll Hooverize again. 
Sound the chorus loud and well 

Our duty making plain; 
To all men this message tell 

And work with might and main, 
"Save, Save and Send to our soldiers." 

Hurrah! hurrah! we'll help to save the wheat! 
Hurrah! hurrah! we'll send the Allies meat! 

Save the sugar, till the soil, 

And Garfieldize on heat! 
Save, Save and Send to our soldiers! 

We're content to live on greens, 

On cabbage, beets and peas: 
We will raise our hills of beans, 

Food scarcity to ease. 
Raising food by ev'ry means, 

Get busy, if you please. 
Save, Save and Send to our soldiers! 



Hurrah! hurrah! the day's work has begun! 
Hurrah! hurrah! we'll toil till set of sun! 

Strong and sturdily we'll stand 

United 'gainst the Hun! 
Save, Save and Send to our soldiers! 

.Come now, put your wits to work; 

Your "eatings" plan with care; 
Women, you will never shirk 

The common task to share! 
Wheat-meat-sweet-less meals may irk, 

But use the coarser fare. 
Save, Save and Send to our soldiers! 

Hurrah! hurrah! we'll help to win the fight! 
Hurrah! hurrah! we'll battle for the right! 

Hearts and hands and stomachs, too, 
Oppose the Kaiser's might, 

Save, Save and Send to our soldiers! 

— V. M. Carleton, 



Sunday Night Supper 

By Helen Forrest 



YES, indeed. Do come over, I'll 
be in all the afternoon." 
Bessie's voice rang hopefully 
into the telephone; quickened a little be- 
cause the instrument was in the living 
room, in which favored sanctum the 
family had gathered after a satisfying 
Sunday dinner had been disposed of. 

Bessie's cheeks were pink; she smiled 
into the unresponsive telephone. She 
even hastily adjusted a tumbled lock of 
blonde hair. The deep voice at the other 
end of the wire seemed to be a compelling 
and visible presence. 

She listened once more, then spoke with 
evident tremor, the child note that had 
always remained in spite of her twenty 
years. 

"Oh, is it tonight.^ I've wanted to 
hear that harpist. Oh, yes, thank you; 
I'd love to go." 

She turned in hurried, pleading silence 
to the critical, amused little group, her 
difficult audience. With the 'phone cov- 
ered by one small hand she whispered her 
question: "Supper.^" 

Lightning glances, a shrug from her 
younger brother, open encouragement 
from her mother, doubtful planning evi- 
dent on her sister's part, then a consensus 
of nodding heads and Bessie's voice after 
the moment of indecision. 
■ "And, Mr. Brown, won't you stay for 
supper with us before we go to the Ora- 
torio.^ We shall be quite by ourselves 
and most informal." 

An instant of glowing silence on 
Bessie's part, then: 

"Oh, that's very nice; I'll expect you 
about four." 

Replacing the 'phone, her pretty as- 
surance gone, turned to apology, Bessie 
faced her family: "Really, I hadn't any 
idea of asking him!" 

" He had every idea of being asked ! " — 
(this from brother Sam.) 



"You see, he wants to take me down 
to the Oratorio at the Episcopal Church," 
went on Bessie. "He was coming to 
call anyway, and I don't see how I could 
have got out of it." 

"I should think not," — this very com- 
placently from her mother. "The idea 
of the man going back to the hotel for 
supper and then returning to take you 
to church. You did just the right thing!" 

"You all told me to!" Bessie was mak- 
ing peace openly with her older sister, 
upon whom the burden of supper in this 
maidless household must fall with blue- 
eyed Bessie entertaining her friend in the 
parlor. 

The practical Louise at last voiced her 
approval: "Oh, it's all right; you had to 
ask him, but what are we going to have 
for supper.^ Cold beans and chocolate 
cake may be all right in the bosom of the 
family." 

"But the Superintendent of the Electric 
Company must be fed higher — " this 
savagely from brother Sam, who disliked 
supper guests and the resulting formality. 

"Precisely, Sammy," went on Louise, 
patronizing in maddening fashion her 
eighteen-year old brother, "and because 
you are grown so nice and tall you shall 
help sister lift down all the best dishes 
that grow high on the pantry shelf. 
We'll have a nice supper anyway, and 
you'll like that." 

"It's three o'clock, and he'll be here in 
an hour." Bessie's mounting color 
proved her nervousness. "What can I 
do before I change my. dress.'* I hate to 
spoil everybody's nice Sunday afternoon." 

"You rest a little, child," said her 
mother approvingly. "Louise and I will 
have plenty of time to get things ready 
for your nice Mr. Brown. I imagine a 
home supper will be a real treat for him 
after that boarding house — it's absurd 
to call it a hotel!" 



107 



108 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



"I'll put on the lace doilies and set the 
table, that will help some," said Bessie, 
plainly feeling responsible for a general 
upset. "I'll work half an hour, and then 
go up stairs and get dressed. Come in, 
some of you, and see Mr. Brown before 
supper and — say, what are we going to 
give him to eat?" 

It was finally agreed that the chicken 
remaining from dinner be creamed and 
served with the cold baked beans; a tin 
of Tuna fish with some hard-boiled eggs 
sliced should be made into a salad. 
Louise should make hot biscuit; and some 
preserved peaches will go with the choc- 
olate cake. 

Mr. Brown, dark, broad-shouldered 
and vigorous, looked approvingly at the 
prettily decked table — the silver and 
cut glass shining in the candle light. It 
was distinctly festive. 

"I'm afraid I've made you a great deal 
of trouble," he protested. 

"Not at all," returned Louise cheer- 
fully, though flushed by the baking of her 
hot biscuits; "you see we have supper 
even when we haven't a guest." 

"You can't think how I enjoy this sort 
of thing." Mr. Brown was noticeably ex- 
panding under the genial influence of the 
well-cooked little meal. 

"I haven't lived at home for ten years; 
first school, then college, and now busi- 
ness have kept me away. There's noth- 
ing like a touch of home after the eternal 
sameness of boarding." 

"You must surely come again, and 
soon" — this from Bessie's mother to the 
very eligible guest. 

Mr. William Brown's success in busi- 
ness was due, perhaps, to a certain qual- 
ity of persistence, a hopeful activity; and 
his intercourse with Bessie's family was 
hallmarked with these vigorous methods. 

The father of the household was pleas- 
antly surprised by a magazine with a 
marked article on a subject they had dis- 
cussed; the mother, whose approaching 
birthday had been mentioned, was much 
touched by a bouquet of roses, an event 
in her sober anniversary. Frequent calls, 



summons to the telephone, books and 
violets kept pretty Bessie expectant, and 
gave fresh zest to an unusually fetching 
winter wardrobe. Some weeks after the 
first occasion Bessie made another appeal. 
"I really ought to ask Will Brown for 
supper. I know he'd love it. He's com- 
ing to call Sunday night." 

"I know what that Sunday night busi- 
ness leads to," said brother Sam gloomily. 
"I see what he's after, all right." 

"Oh, nonsense! Haven't your friends 
been fed here at all hours.?" Louise was 
rallying to Bessie's support. "Invite 
him, of course. We'll manage all right."" 

"He says," remarked Bessie from the 
telephone, as she hung up the instru- 
ment, "that he'll be delighted to come, if 
only we won't put ourselves out. He 
wants to feel that he isn't making any 
trouble." 

"There you are," and Sam, the de- 
pressed, made a final rush for liberty. 
"Louise says my friends eat here any 
time. They don't get a table trimmed up 
like a birthday cake, all candles and 
frills; they'd run at the sight of it, and 
the family isn't half killed getting ready 
for 'em, too." He finished in a burst of 
eloquence. 

"You are a good boy, Sammy, but you 
don't understand entertaining," answered 
Louise, quite the older sister. "Mr. 
Brown comes from a very nice home, and 
we want to do our best when he is here. 
You won't have to do the work, so don't 
fret!" 

Sam drifted out protesting on a wave 
of voices that babbled of lobster new- 
burg, tomato bisque, cheese souffle, and 
called from the door: "I tell you, no 
fellow alive likes all that fuss; and don't 
cut out the Sunday night beans. If 
Brown is going to come into this family, 
he might as well get used to Boston 
baked beans!" 

" I rather agree with the boy, — oh, I 
mean about changing the menu." The 
father's hasty explanation was due to a 
blushing protest from Bessie. "Have it 
your own way, of course, but I think that 



SUNDAY NIGHT SUPPER 



109 



Brown, or any other man, would enjoy 
better our simple Sunday night meal than 
all this fuss of changing plates and a 
grand stir-up. I thought he looked 
plain worried, at times, when he was 
here before." 

The winter wore on. Mr. Brown, now 
shyly quoted by Bessie as "Will," had 
become a frequent visitor. His calls had 
long since lost their formal character; he 
was given to "dropping in." "Gee! he 
acts like a long-lost brother," was Sam's 
frequent comment. 

The winter had been of strenuous oc- 
casions for Louise and her mother. Sup- 
per invitations had followed punctili- 
ously upon Mr. Brown's frequent at- 
tentions to Bessie; every call made by the 
devoted young man was the occasion for 
.a light luncheon, for the preparation of 
which the chief cooks left their comforta- 
ble chairs and evening papers to steal 
stealthily kitchenward, leaving Bessie un- 
comfortably at leisure to entertain her Will. 

"I wish they wouldn't do so much," 
the guest protested honestly. "You 
know I'm a good trencher man, and 
you're wonderful cooks over here, but 
I wish they would stay and let me get 
acquainted with them; your father is the 
only one of your family I really know, 
though Sam and I are making some 
progress." 

One Sunday night, some months after 
Mr. Brown's first supper with them, a 
•comfortable, big tray was deposited on 
the dining room table at Bessie's home. 
It was loaded with sandwiches, cups and 
.saucers, a huge pot of chocolate, and a 
plate of new sugared doughnuts. On the 
table was a pot of beans and a pile of 
plates. 

Just as they were sitting down at the 
table, the sound of the door bell brought 
Bessie hurriedly to her feet. 

"That's never Will Brown," whispered 
Louise; "he was here Friday night." 

"Don't fool yourself," answered Sam. 
And a familiar voice from the hall was 
.heard to say: "Oh, Bessie, how mighty 



fine you are looking! I brought you that 
book I spoke of. But see, now, I be- 
lieve I happened on your supper hour, 
and I must be off." 

"I should say not," called out Bessie's 
father from the head of the table. "You 
better come right in and have a bite with 
us." 

To the credit of Bessie's family be it 
said, that no one embarrassed their guest 
with apologies. Told to sit anywhere, he 
naturally drew up a chair at Bessie's 
side. There was no addition to the menu 
apparent, when Louise asked, innocently, 
if every one had forgotten the snappy 
cheese, which she produced from the 
pantry with a pot of jam. 

"Why, this is great!" exclaimed their 
visitor delightedly, as he dipped into the 
honest bean jar. "It seems just like home ! 
We do just this sort of thing every Sun- 
day night." A friendly, informal spirit 
seemed to have entered with the every- 
day dishes and the blue and white table 
cover. Mr. Brown was one of the family, 
and he plainly enjoyed his position. 

At the end of the meal, with an ease 
born of much practice, Sam gathered up 
the pile of dishes before him and started 
for the kitchen. 

"Do let me help, Sam!" begged their 
guest. "Many's the time I've done it, 
and I'd like to get my hand in again." 
Sam's thinly veiled hostility melted away. 
"That's right. Bill," he answered gen- 
ially. "Lend a hand if you want to. 
It's my regular Sunday night stunt." 

That evening, sometime between sup- 
per and half past ten o'clock, Mr. Brown 
measured Bessie's finger for an important 
ring which he proposed to buy. 

When he emerged triumphant from 
The Den, bringing with him the blushing 
Bessie, to declare his plan of action to her 
' family, he said: 

"Why, I feel as If you were my people 
already. I've wanted for weeks to ask 
you for Bessie, but not till tonight did 
I dare. It seemed as If that jolly little 
supper sort of got us all together." 



110 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



AMERICAN COOKERY 

FORMERLY THE 

BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL 
MAGAZINE 

OF 

Culinary Science and Domestic Economics 

Subscription$1.50per Year, Single Copies ISc 
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To OTHER Foreign Countries, 40c per Year 

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The date stamped on the wrapper is the date 
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Please renew^ on receipt of the colored blank 
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Trains That Pass 

One for the Atlantic tide, 

One for the Pacific wide, 

They were standing side by side, 

One Eastward sent, 

One Westward bent. 

Those in khaki filled the one, 
Going forth to fight the Hun, 
These were seeking in the sun 

To find a place. 

So, face to face, 
Each the other greetings gave. 
Those so stalwart, eager, brave, 
To the tourists, smiling, wave. 

Across the way 

A lilac spray 
Was tossed and deftly caught, 
Then his eyes the maidens sought, 
"God bless you, as He ought," 

She softly said, 

And quickly sped 
Into the train, the flowers prest 
Unto her lips. While the rest, 
Bent upon their pleasure quest, 

The scene forget; 

A deep regret 
O'erflows the restless heart 
Of the maid. Was it her part 
The sun to seek, while they depart 

To darkest night. 

For her to fight? 

— Hattie H. d' Autre monU 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

FORMER President Roosevelt con- 
tinues to preach his doctrine of 
the English language only in our schools, 
for the unification of our people; other- 
wise we shall be, he says, another Balkan 
Peninsula." 

The preachments of our former presi- 
dent are lucid statements of plain truths. 
In connection with matters pertaining to 
the present w^ar, he seems to be one of the 
few Americans who has been right first, 
last and all the time. Certain it is, no 
reason or excuse can be given for teaching 
any other living language than our own 
English in the public schools of America. 
For what has been done along this line 
in the past we can only feel regret; but 
let us now stop short, turn right about 
and face the truth. Whereas once we 
were blind, now we can see. The teach- 
ing of languages, and especially the 
classics, in our higher schools and colleges 
is quite a different matter. The dis- 
ciplinary value, for instance, of the study 
of the classics can in no wise be gainsaid.. 
The literary style and habit is an acquired 
attainment. It rises to any considerable 
degree of perfection only through culti- 
vation. The classics afford the best 
comparative study of languages. 

JUSTICE AND RIGHTEOUSNESS 

WHAT we want here on this earth 
more than anything else is justice.. 
A wrong deed is painful; it stings the 
conscience and calls for repentance and 
restitution on the part of the wrongdoer.. 
Constitutions are admirable instruments 
of government; laws are most essential 
to our welfare and should be strictly ob- 
served and executed, but, unless these 
afford us real justice and security in life, 
they fail fully to accomplish their purpose 
and satisfy human needs. 

A great deal is being said at present 
about peace, than which nothing can "be 
more desirable or longed for. A great 
deal is said, too, about loving even our 
enemies, for which they seem inclined to 
give us no opportunity. Much of all this- 



EDITORIALS 



111 



talk Is idle speaking, for peace, without 
justice done, can neither be satisfactory 
nor abiding. 

There is a higher law than that to be 
found in legal codes and written docu- 
ments, which should actuate the conduct 
of men and nations in their dealings with 
each other. This law is indelibly stamped 
on the consciences of mankind. 

" It is an attribute to God himself, 

And earthly power doth then show likest God's, 

When mercy seasons justice." 

For ages this law has been pointed out 
and exalted; quite recently we saw it 
stated thus: "to do justice, to love mercy 
and to walk humbly before our God," or, 
in other words, "to establish eternal right- 
eousness among the nations and give 
freedom and liberty to the world." This 
means that every people and nation on 
earth shall have the right to choose its 
► own form of government and live under 
it free from invidious molestation. ''Fiat 
justitia, mat ccelum.^^ Let justice be 
done, though the heavens should fall. 

THE MESSAGE FROM 
NEUILLY-LA-POTERIE 

IT is not too much to see a message from 
our men in France in the recent news 
item to the effect that they went into the 
battle line at Neuilly-la-Poterie with 
poppies in their helmets — just snatched 
common poppies from the fields as they 
moved on to their grim task, and tucked 
'em in their hard steel headpieces. Thus 
they strode forward to gallant battle! 
It is a dull mind that can see only a trifling 
bit of soldier capering in such an act. 

By all that we know of American man- 
hood it doubtless rose to something far 
richer and finer. The present insistence 
that we know and face the facts in this 
huge war business is of the greatest 
benefit. But let us face all the facts ■ — 
poppies in the warrior helmets along with, 
the shrapnel bursting round them. Are 
not those poppies facts? And are they 
not of very practical significance amid 
flying shrapnel.^ Morale is a great es- 
sential in munitions. 



By that spontaneous byplay those 
American men betokened the victory of 
the cheerful, against all odds, in their 
own staunch breasts. Why, anxious 
hearts here at home, as you picture them 
going forward thus bedecked, can't you 
almost hear their voices calling in mascu- 
line chorus, "Are we downhearted? 
No-o-o-o!" — can't you see their merry 
faces? And aren't you thankful that 
the glow of cheer is on "him" amid the 
hardships and perils "over there"? 

But there is something else quite as 
certain. No doubt many a man in those 
khaki-clad columns breathed a dear name 
and envisaged a far away face as he 
plucked a poppy, thrust it into his hel- 
met, and jauntily swung into the stride 
of his fellows again. "There's not a 
bonnie flower that springs, but minds me 
o' my Jean," you know. Who can doubt 
that such men cherished the thought that 
this unusual act of theirs might be cabled 
back to the newspapers in America, or at 
least, felt that it would, somehow, carry 
to you by love's mystic telepathy? And 
why? That smiles might brighten the 
far away faces the flowers made so clear 
— • smiles awakened by the radiance of 
courage like their own. 

Receive, then, the message from 
Neuilly-la-Poterie. Let it brighten the 
days and the nights — banishing weak- 
gloom from your face and voice, nerving 
you to do your duty here as "he" is doing 
his over there. Match your men at the 
front who can thrust gay poppies into 
their helmets on the way to battle. See 
to it that your letters show like spirit, 
that your war-work is done with cheer- 
ful zeal, that you are unflinching as you 
undergo the privations and anxieties of 
war-time. This is the message to all 
hearts at home. — The Boston Herald. 

PROHIBITION IN ENGLAND 

IN England the Scientific Advisory 
Committee to the British Liquor Con- 
trol made a report recently that "in some 
respects deserves to be called, as it has 
been, the, most important pronouncement 



112 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



yet on the physiological action of alcohol." 
The report may be summarized as 
follows : 

"These conclusions are that for human 
beings alcohol is neither necessary nor 
useful in any conditions of peace or war — ■ 
that it does not give a man warmth when 
he is cold, that it does not cure or help 
him when he is ill, that it does not give 
him courage when he is afraid, and that 
always, whether in large quantities or 
small, it decreases his efficiency, his 
trustworthiness, his intelligence, and his 
worth as a social unit." 

ARE WE GUILTY? 

ONE who is obliged to patronize public 
eating-places knows perfectly well 
that there are great numbers of persons 
who in no wise are helping to win the war 
by saving food. The disregard for Mr. 
Hoover and his Food Administration in 
public is disgraceful. What is it in pri- 
vate.^ It is disquieting to surmise what 
is being done in innumerable American 
homes. Put this down for truth: The 
husband or the housewife who is going on 
in the same old way, having what they 
want when they want it, is a near-traitor. 
What kind of bread comes on your table .^ 
And meat, — is there the prescribed two 
pounds per person a week, and not an 
ounce more.^ No mercy of allowance for 
what you say you have done for the 
Liberty Loan. You know that is a gilt- 
edged investment. For the Red Cross .^ 
Only a brute-miser could withstand the 
appeal. The Y. M. C. A. and kindred 
workers among our men? Your boy or 
a friend's over there moves you to give. 
The question is, what are you doing in 
your kitchen? You nor any one else 
because you have plenty can afford to do 
what you please. This is your war, and 
they are your substitutes, a million, two 
million of them, already in arms. Give 
them what they've got to have. 

— • The Christian Register. 

He will not fail nor be discouraged, 
till he have set justice in the earth; and 
the isles shall wait for his law. I the 



Lord have called thee in righteousness, 
and will hold thine hand, and will keep 
thee, and give thee for a covenant of the 
people, for a light unto the nations; to 
open the blind eyes, to bring out the 
prisoners from the dungeon, and them 
that sit in darkness from the prison- 
house. — From Isaiah xlii. 



FOOD AND FUEL 

THE homes of our New England 
States, it seems, are more likely to 
suffer from a shortage of fuel than food 
the coming winter. The dearth of fuel- 
arises largely from the lack of means of 
transportation. People have placed their 
orders for coal, but their orders have not, 
or cannot, be filled. 

Nothing causes more bitter regret than 
negligence; that is, failure to seize op- 
portunities and make the most of them. 
The years we lingered in futile neutrality, 
we might have well spent in improving 
and enlarging our railroad systems, and 
in building up our merchant marine, in 
full confidence that the result, no matter 
what the issue of the war, could not be 
otherwise than immensely advantageous 
and profitable to America. Now this 
work must be done at tremendous cost. 

The problem of transportation is most 
serious; it calls for foresight and wisdom. 
No branch of the public service is less 
likely to be overdone than this; for upon 
its strength and capacity depend the com- 
fort and prosperity of the entire people. 

PRACTICAL PATRIOTISM 

Patriotism of the proper kind is demon- 
strated in the manner in which the heads 
of large industrial organizations are sup- 
porting the government in its war work. 
There are still, of course, a few persons 
who are either too selfish, or too ignorant 
of the fundamentals of economics, to give 
that support so much needed by the 
government in this grave crisis. 

Your part in the war is to produce as 
much as possible, consume as little as 
necessary, and loan your savings to the 
government. Are you facing your task as 
cheerfully as our fighting men face theirs? 











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SEASONABLE VEGETABLES 



Seasonable and Tested Recipes 

By Janet M. Hill 

TN ALL recipes where flour is used, unless otherwise stated, the flour is measured after sifting once. 
Where flour is measured by cups, the cup is filled with a spoon, and a level cupful is meant. A 
tablespoonful or teaspoonful of any designated material is a LEVEL spoonful. In flour mixtures 
where yeast is called for, use bread flour; in all other flour mixtures, use cake or pastry flour. 



Rice-and-Cheese Souffle 

Melt two tablespoonfuls of fat; in it 
cook two tablespoonfuls of flour and one- 
fourth a teaspoonful, each, of salt and 
paprika; add one cup of milk and stir 
until boiling; stir in one cup of cooked 
rice (grains distinct), then beat in the 
yolks of three eggs, beaten very light, and 
half a cup or more of grated cheese; fold 
in the whites of three eggs, beaten very 
light, and turn into a greased dish. Bake 
in a pan of water in a moderate oven about 
25 minutes, or until well puffed and firm 
in the center. The water should not 
boil during the cooking. Half a cup of 
fine-chopped (left over) ham, smoked 
beef or fish may replace the cheese, giving 
rice and ham or beef souffle. 

Lima Bean Timbales 

Press cooked lima beans through a 



sieve (use a pestle). To two cups of 
pulp, add two eggs, beaten without sep- 
arating the whites and yolks, one generous 
teaspoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of 
scraped onion pulp, and one-fourth a tea- 
spoonful of black pepper. Mix thor- 
oughly and turn into well-greased timbale 
molds. Cook on many folds of paper, 
in a dish of boiling water, until firm in the 
center. Turn from the molds. Serve 
with cream or tomato sauce. The water 
should not boil during the cooking, but 
be kept just below that point. About 
twenty minutes of cooking is required. 

Baked Bean Loaf 

Use two cups of cold Boston baked 
beans; crush the beans through a col- 
ander with a pestle or leave them whole; 
add one well-beaten ^'g<g^ two tablespoon- 
fuls of tomato catsup, one cup of soft 
(sifted) bread crumbs, one tablespoonful 



113 



114 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



of chopped or scraped onion with salt and 
pepper to season; mix all together thor- 
oughly, then shape into a loaf. Set in a 
greased dish, with a slice of bacon or fat 
salt pork on the top of the loaf. Bake 
about twenty-five minutes. Serve hot 
in the baking dish. 

Green Corn-and-Cheese Souffle 

Melt three tablespoonfuls of fat; in it 
cook three tablespoonfuls of flour and 
one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of salt 
and black pepper; add one cup of milk, 
and stir until boiling; stir in one cup of 
corn pulp. To get the pulp, with a thin, 
sharp knife cut down through the kernels 
in each row, and with the back of the 
knife press out all the pulp, leaving the 



simmer very gently, stirring occasionally 
until softened and yellowed; add one- 
third a cup of corn or barley flour, half 
a teaspoonful of salt and one-fourth a 
teaspoonful of black pepper, and stir 
until well blended; add one cup of milk 
and stir until boiling; add one cup of 
thick corn pulp (score the kernels length- 
wise of the ear, and with the back of a 
knife press out the pulp, leaving the hulls 
on the cob), and let boil all over; turn 
on a greased plate and when cold shape 
into croquettes; dip in a beaten tgg di- 
luted with milk, roll in soft, sifted. Victory 
bread crumbs, and fry in deep fat. 

Egg Plant with Rice 

This dish may be made with any form of 




CORNED BEEF (FAN'CY BRISKET), BOILED NEW CABBAGE AND BEETS. DRIED CARROTS, BOILED 



hulls on the cob; beat in half a cup of 
grated cheese and the yolks of three eggs 
beaten very light, with one-fourth a tea- 
spoonful, each, of salt and black pepper; 
fold in the whites of three eggs, beaten 
firm, and turn into a greased baking dish, 
suitable for the table. Bake in a pan of 
hot water (boiling when turned into the 
dish) until firm in the center. Serve as 
the main dish of the meal. If green peas, 
string beans or a green salad are not pro- 
vided at the same meal, serve the souffle 
with a pint of cream or tomato sauce. 

Green Corn Croquettes 

Chop fine, a thin slice of mild onion, 
and one-fourth a green pepper; add to 
four tablespoonfuls of hot fat and let 



paste (noodles, spaghetti, etc.) that one 
happens to have, or with rice or bread 
crumbs. The macaroni or rice should 
first be cooked in the usual manner until 
tender. For one egg plant allow one 
cup of uncooked macaroni, or half a cup 
of rice. Cut the egg plant in slices; pare 
and cut in cubes (three-fourths of an 
inch). Cover with boiling water and let 
cook about twenty minutes and drain in 
a colander. Melt two tablespoonfuls of 
fat in a sauce pan; add one large onion 
peeled and chopped fine, also half or 
more of a green pepper, cut in fine shreds, 
cover and let cook very slowly, stirring 
often, until yellowed and softened a 
little; add the egg plant, the rice, 
half a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



115 




MASHED POTATO, DRIED BEEF, CHOPPED IN MEAT CHOPPER, CREAMED, GARNISH SLICED EGGS 



paprika, a cup of grated cheese and about 
a cup and a half of fresh or canned to- 
matoes, cut in pieces; stir until hot 
throughout; turn into a greased baking 
dish, cover with three-fourths a cup of 
wheatless cracker crumbs, mixed with 
three tablespoonfuls of melted fat and 
let cook in the oven until the crumbs are 
browned. Delicata and other varieties 
of summer squash are good cooked in this 
way. Squash will not require so long 
cooking at the start. The cubes should 
be j whole yet tender. Without green 
pepper use more paprika. 

Onion Custard 

Peel and cook four to six medium-sized 
onions in water until tender. Set them 
in a greased casserole. Make a white 
sauce of one-fourth a cup, each, of fat and 
flour, half a teaspoonful of salt, one- 
fourth a teaspoonful of pepper, and two 
cups of milk. Beat two eggs until well 



mixed; dilute with a little of the sauce, 
and turn into the rest of the sauce; mix 
and pour over the onions. Let cook in 
the oven in a dish of hot water until 
firm. Serve hot as the main dish of 
luncheon or supper. 

Stewed Tomatoes and Corn 

Peel six tomatoes, cut them in pieces 
and set over the fire in a saucepan; cut 
the tips of the kernels from eight or ten 
ears of sweet corn, and press out all the 
pulp possible, leaving the lower part of 
the hulls on the cob; add the tips and the 
pulp to the tomatoes with a teaspoonful 
of salt and half a teaspoonful of black 
pepper and let simmer twenty minutes; 
add a tablespoonful of sugar and two 
tablespoonfuls of fat, and let cook one 
minute. 

Scalloped Tomatoes and Corn 

Turn stewed tomatoes and corn (cooked 




INGREDIENTS FOR EGG PLANT WITH RICE 



116 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



as in the preceding recipe) into a greased 
baking dish; mix half a cup of cracker 
crumbs with three tablespoonfuls of 
melted fat and spread over the top of the 
mixture. Bake until the crumbs are 
browned. Shredded onion and green 
pepper, raw, or previously cooked in a 
little fat until softened and yellowed, may 
be added to either dish when first set to 
cook. 

Rye Bread 

(Made in morning) 

Scald two cups of milk (or half milk and 
half water); add two tablespoonfuls of 
shortening, two tablespoonfuls of sugar 
or molasses and one teaspoonful of salt; 
when lukewarm stir in one cake (or more) 
of compressed yeast, mixed through half 



one-fourth a cup of sugar, and stir into 
the first mixture; bake in a hot, well- 
greased iron muffin pan about twenty-five 
minutes. 

Spider Corn Cake 
Put three-fourths a cup of cornmeal into 
a cup, then add flour, barley or buck- 
wheat, to fill the cup; to the meal and 
flour add half a teaspoonful, each, of soda 
and salt, and four tablespoonfuls of sugar 
and sift into a bowl; add one egg, beaten 
light, and half a cup, each, of thick sour 
milk and sweet milk. Stir thoroughly. 
Melt two tablespoonfuls of fat in a spider 
or agate pie plate; turn in the mixture, 
then pour on half a cup of sweet milk and 
bake without stirring it in. Serve J^cut 
as a pie. 



i: 




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m 


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LIGHT LUNCHEOX FOR TWO 
COOKED LEAVES OF SWISS CHARD. CHOPPED AND iMOLDED, SLICED EGG, FRENCH DRESSING, 

SPIDER CORNCAKE 



a cup of lukewarm water, one cup and a 
half of wheat flour, and enough rye flour 
to make a batter; beat thoroughly, cover 
and let stand, out of drafts, to become 
light. Add rye flour for a dough that 
may be kneaded. Knead thoroughly, 
cover and set aside to become light. 
Shape into loaves, and when again light 
bake nearly one hour. 

Oatmeal-and-Cornmeal Muffins 

(18 muffins) 
Melt two tablespoonfuls of shortening 
in one cup of hot, cooked oatmeal (left 
over) ; add one teaspoonful of salt, an egg, 
beaten light, and three-fourths a cup of 
milk. Mix all together thoroughly. Mix 
and sift together two cups of cornmeal, 
four teaspoonfuls of baking powder, and 



Cottage Cheese Sandwiches 

To a cup of cottage cheese add half a 
teaspoonful of paprika, one teaspoonful 
of mixed mustard and a tablespoonful of 
tomato catsup or chili sauce. Have 
ready oatmeal bread or biscuits, made of 
one cup and a half of barley flour to half 
a cup of rice flour. Have the biscuit 
dough rolled thin. Split the biscuit, 
spread with the cheese mixture, and press 
corresponding halves together. 

Potato-and-Carrot Salad, 
Tomato Garnish 

Cut cold, cooked potatoes in small cubes 
and slices of carrots in quarters. For a 
quart of vegetables, chop fine half a 
mild onion, a few leaves of chives, six 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



117 




POTATO-AND-CARROT SALAD, TOMATO-AND-CARROT GARNISH 



branches of parsley, three oUves, a table- 
spoonful of mustard pickle, and mix 
through the potato and carrots. Mix six 
tablespoonsfuls of vegetable oil, three 
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, one teaspoon- 
ful of salt and half a teaspoonful of pap- 
rika, and turn over the whole; mix thor- 
oughly with spoon and fork; turn on a 
chilled dish, garnish with slices of tomato 
and cooked carrot. 

Cabbage-and-Beet Salad 

Cut the cabbage in quarters, and use 
one or two quarters, according to the 
number to be served; cut out the hard 
stalk at center, then shave the cabbage as 
fine as possible. Cut small, cooked beets 
in thin slices, or larger beets in small 
cubes. Make French dressing, using the 
following proportions: three tablespoon- 
fuls oil, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar 
one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of mustard 
(mixed), salt and paprika, one teaspoon- 
ful of scraped onion pulp. This quantity 
of dressing will season one pint of ma- 
terial. Mix the cabbage and beets sep- 



arately with dressing. Set the beets in 
the center of a ring of cabbage. 

Sunday Night Cheese 

Melt two tablespoonfuls of butter sub- 
stitute; in it cook two tablespoonfuls of 
flour, and one-fourth a teaspoonful of 
salt; add one cup of milk or one cup of 
tomato puree and stir until boiling; beat 
in one egg, beaten light; when cooked stir 
in one package of snappy cheese, and when 
smooth turn into an earthen bowl and 
set aside until ready to use. Spread the 
biscuit, hot or reheated, with the cheese 
mixture, dredge on a little paprika, and 
set into the oven to become very hot. 

Barley Biscuit for Sunday 
Night Cheese 

Sift together one cup and a half of 
barley flour, half a cup of rice flour, half 
a teaspoonful of salt and four teaspoon- 
fuls of baking powder; cut in three or 
four tablespoonfuls of shortening and 
mix to a dough with milk. Turn on a 
floured board to coat lightly with flour. 




CABBAGE-AND-BEET SALAD 



118 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



knead a little, roll into a thin sheet, cut 
irfto rounds and bake in a quick oven. 
Rye flour may be used in place of the 
barley. 

Hominy or Rice Puffs 

To one cup of boiled hominy or rice 
(preferably hot) add half a teaspoonful 
of salt, one tablespoonful of fat and two 
egg-yolks beaten until thick and light 
colored; then fold in the whites of two 
eggs, beaten very light. Drop by table- 
spoonfuls on a greased baking tin and 
bake in a quick oven. 

Japanese Suey Dressing for 
Sundae 

(To serve about 100) 
Chop separately and very fine half a 



(half sugar and half syrup may be used) 
and egg-yolks; add the milk, alternately, 
with the flour and baking powder, sifted 
together, and, lastly, the egg-whites. 
Bake in a sheet about twenty-five min- 
utes. Serve hot, cut in squares, with 
raspberry or 

Maple Syrup Sauce 

Boil half a cup of maple sugar and one 
tablespoonful of corn syrup to quite a 
thick syrup, not quite to the soft-ball 
degree. Pour in a fine stream on the 
white of an egg, beaten very light, beat- 
ing constantly meanwhile. Let cool a 
little, then beat in half a cup of cream, 
beaten very light, or use the same quan- 
tity of top milk without beating. 




SUNDAY-NIGHT CHEESE, BARLEY BISCUIT 



pound, each, of figs, raisins, mixed pecan 
and walnut meats, dates, and blanched- 
and-browned (in oven) almonds; add 
one cup of maple syrup and two quarts 
of marshmallow paste; mix thoroughly, 
cover and let stand over night to ripen. 
Serve over ice cream made rather less 
sweet than usual. 

Barley Cottage Pudding 



3 1 tablespoonfuls 

shortening 
f cup sugar 
2 egg-yolks 
I cup milk 



1 cup barley flour 
2-3 cups rice flour 

2J teaspoonfuls baking 
powder 

2 egg-whites 



Cream the shortening, beat in the sugar 



Raspberry Sauce 

Heat two cups of raspberries in a double 
boiler, and press through a sieve .fine 
enough to keep back the seeds, pressing 
through all the pulp possible. Add half 
as much sugar as juice and let simmer five 
minutes. Blackberries may be used for 
the sauce. 

Sour Cream Maple Cookies 

Cream half a cup of shortening; beat 
in three-fourths a cup of maple syrup, 
one Qgg, beaten light, two tablespoonfuls 
of sour cream or buttermilk. Sift to- 
gether one cup and one-fourth of barley 
flour, half a cup of rice flour, one tea- 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



119 




A LIGHT LUNCHEON 
SLICES BOSTON BROWN BREAD, THIN SLICES CHEESE MADE HOT IN OVEN, STEWED PLUMS 



spoonful and a half of baking powder, 
one-fourth a teaspoonful of salt, half a 
teaspoonful of nutmeg and stir into the 
first mixture. With a teaspoonful drop 
and shape the mixture on greased baking 
pans. Bake in a quick oven. 

Rice Afternoon Tea Cakes 

Cream one-fourth a cup of shortening; 
beat in a scant half cup of sugar, one 
egg-yolk, grating of lemon rind, one- 
fourth a teaspoonful of almond, and half 
a teaspoonful of vanilla extracts. Sift 
together half a cup and two level table- 
spoonfuls of rice flour and half a tea- 
spoonful baking powder, and add to the 
first mixture, alternately, with one- 
fourth a cup of cold water; lastly, beat 
in the whites of two eggs, beaten very 
light. Bake in small greased tins about 
ten minutes. If Brownie tins are used, 
the mixture will make about eighteen 
little cakes. 

Spiceless-and-Eggless Oatmeal 
Cookies 

Cream half a cup of shortening; beat 



in half a cup of sugar, and half a cup of 
maple or other syrup, one cup of chopped 
raisins, one cup of cocoanut, five table- 
spoonfuls of thick sour milk, one cup of 
oatmeal, one cup of barley flour, and one- 
half cup of corn or rice flour, sifted with 
one teaspoonful of soda. Drop by tea- 
spoonfuls on a greased tin. Bake inja 
quick oven. 

Honey Peanut Cookies 

Cream four tablespoonfuls of short- 
ening; beat in half a cup of honey, two 
tablespoonfuls of corn syrup, and one 
egg, beaten light. The recipe makes 24 
cookies. Reserve four halves of peanut 
meat for each cookie, and chop fine the 
rest of the peanuts in a pint (in shells), 
add the chopped nuts to the first mixture, 
then stir in one cup and a half of barley 
flour, half a cup of rice flour, half a tea- 
spoonful of soda, one teaspoonful of 
cinnamon and one-fourth a teaspoonful 
of cloves, sifted together. Drop on a 
greased baking sheet and shape in smooth 
rounds with a teaspoon; set the whole. 




A LIGHT SUPPER 
RICE PUFFS AND SLICED PEACHES 



120 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




HONEY PEANUT COOKIES 



pieces of nuts in place; dredge with a few 
grains of granulated sugar, and bake in a 
quick oven. Add one or two tablespoon- 
fuls of flour or syrup if consistency is 
not as desired. 

Baba 

(Rye flour) 
Sift one cup and three-fourths of rye 
flour into a mixing bowl. Mix one cake 
of compressed yeast through one-fourth 
a cup of lukewarm water, stir in one- 
fourth a cup of wheat flour, then work in 
as much of the rye flour in the bowl as is 
needed to make a dough that can be 
kneaded. Knead until smooth; cut half 
way through the little ball of dough 
twice, letting the cuts form a cross on the 
top. Set the dough in a bowl of luke- 
warm water. When it rises to the top 
of the water, and is very light and porous, 
remove with a skimmer to the flour in the 
bowl; add half a cup and two tablespoon- 



fuls (5 ozs.) of shortening, half a teaspoon- 
ful of salt and two eggs, and beat until 
thoroughly blended; add two more eggs, 
one at a time, beating in the first Qgg 
before the second is added. At the last, 
beat very thoroughly and turn into a well- 
greased Turk's head mold that holds one 
quart. When the dough fills the mold to 
within half an inch of the top, bake about 
twenty-five minutes. Have ready sauce 
made of canned apricots; turn it hot over 
the hot baba; baste the cake with the 
sauce until it has taken up as much as 
possible. Serve hot or cold, preferably 
hot. 

Apricot Sauce for Baba 

Press about three-fourths of the apri- 
cots in a can through a sieve; add the 
syrup from the can in proper proportion, 
and half a cup of honey. Let cook about 
five minutes. 




BABA (RYE FLOUR) 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



121 



Apple Mint Jelly 

Slightly unripe apples make the best 
jelly. Secure the apple juice in the usual 
manner. The mint leaves may be boiled 
in the juice and removed before the sugar 
is added, or wash the leaves, cover a cup 
of leaves, well pressed down with a cup 
of boiling water and let steep on the back 
of the stove about an hour. Pour leaves 
and water into a bag and press out all the 
liquid possible. To each cup of apple 
juice add two tablespoonfuls of the mint 
liquid; let boil twenty minutes; add, 
for each cup of juice taken, three-fourths 
a cup of sugar and let boil to 218° F., or 
until the mixture drops from the spoon in 
beads. 

Dried Carrots 

When thinning young carrots, pull out 
the largest, scrub and rinse, and then 
throw into boiling water. Remove in 
six minutes and cover with cold water, 
scrape or push off the skin, then rinse in 
cold water, dry on a cloth and cut in thin 
slices. Spread the slices on aluminum 
plates or trays, if convenient, and set 
them in the warming oven of the range, 
or on the shelf of the stove. If the heat 
be kept up during the afternoon, the 
carrots will be dry and ready for storing 
by five o'clock. 

Lemon Cheese Pie 



Molasses Cookies 



2-3 cup milk 

2-3 cup honey or f 
corn syrup 

2 tablespoonfuls corn- 
starch 



1 egg-yolk, beaten light 
1 cup cottage cheese 
1 lemon, grated »rind 

and juice 
J teaspoonful salt 



Scald the milk, mix the sweetening and 
cornstarch, stir and cook in the hot milk 
until the mixture thickens; cover and 
let cook ten minutes, stirring occasionally. 
Add the tgg and stir until it is cooked. 
Add the cheese, lemon and salt. Pour 
the mixture into a well-baked pastry 
shell (baked over an inverted plate) 
cover with a meringue made of the egg- 
white and two tablespoonfuls of sugar or 
honey. . Let cook in a very moderate 
oven about six minu es. 



^ cup vegetable oil 
1 cup molasses 
^ teaspoonful salt 



2 teaspoonfuls ginger 

3 cups rye flour 
1 teaspoonful soda 

Combine materials and chill dough. 
Take heaping teaspoonfuls and roll in 
the floured hands. Pat once or twice, 
place on greased baking sheets and bake 
twenty minutes in a moderate oven. 
These will not spread very much. These 
cookies will be crisp. If desired softer, 
allow them to be exposed to the air sev- 
eral hours, or place an apple or a piece of 
bread in the box with them. (30 to 36 
cookies.) 

Sour Milk Cakes 



1 cup graham flour 
1 cup buckwheat flour 
1 teaspoonful salt 



1 teaspoonful soda 

2 cups sour milk 



Cook on a hot griddle. If the mixture 
is too thick, thin with sweet milk or 
water. 

Boston Brown Bread 

(Revised to meet local conditions) 



1 cup cornmeal 

1 cup rolled oats, 

ground 
1 cup rye flour 



2-3 cup molasses 
2 cups thick sour milk 
2 teaspoonfuls soda 
1 teaspoonful salt 



Mix all together thoroughly. Steam 
three hours. Use three pound-size bak- 
ing powder boxes. 

Eggless Muffins 



1 cup cornmeal 

1 cup ground rolled 

oats 
1 teaspoonful salt 



4 teaspoonfuls baking 

powder 
3 teaspoonfuls oil 
Milk to make a soft 

drop batter 



Muffins are very tender. 

Baked Custard 



1 ^ss 

1 cup milk 

Few grains nutmeg 



2 teaspoonfuls honey 

or corn syrup 
Few grains salt 



Beat the egg slightly and add other 
ingredients. Bake in a cup set in a pan 
of water in a moderate oven. 



Menus for Family of Four One Week. August 

(Eight Pounds Meat. Very Little Wheat) 



Breakfast 

Cornmeal Mush, Blueberries, Milk 

Barley Pop Overs 

Creamed Dried Beef (|lb.) 

Small Potatoes, Baked Milk or Cocoa, Coffee 

Dinner 

Planked Fresh Fish, Drawn Butter Sauce 

Cucumbers, French Dressing 

Mashed Potatoes, New Carrots, New Beets 

(on plank) 

Barley or Rye Yeast Bread 

Cherry Pie Cottage Cheese 

Supper 

Rice Cooked with Tomato aud Cheese 

Lettuce and Garden Cress French Dressing 

Rice Tea Cakes 

Junket with Crushed Raspberry Sauce 

Tea 



Breakfast 

Broiled Tripe (lib.) Potatoes Cooked in Milk 

Fried Hominy Mush 

Toasted Muffins (left over) 

Coffee, Cocoa or Milk 

Dinner 

Cream of Dried Lima Bean Soup 

Broiled Bluefish, Cucumbers 

Scalloped Potatoes String Beans 

Blueberry Pie (barley crust) Cottage Cheese 

Supper 

Gnocchi a la Romaine 

(cornmeal, cheese, etc., — reheated 

at supper time) 

New Carrots (1 pint) 

(1 tablesp. butter, 1 teasp. sugar) 

Baking-powder Loaf-bread 

Stewed Cherries Tea 



Breakfast 

Fish-and-Potato Hash Broiled Tomatoes 

Fried Cornmeal Mush 

Molasses or Maple Syrup 

Coffee, Cocoa or Milk 

Dinner 

Hamburg Steak (Ij lbs. top round) 

Old Potatoes, Mashed 

New Cabbage, Boiled 

Raspberry Shortcake 

(barley-and-rice flour crust) 

Supper 

Rice-and-Cheese Souffle, Tomato Sauce 

or Sliced Tomatoes, French Dressing 

Boston Brown Bread 

Barley Cookies Tea 



Breakfast 

Barley Meal Mush, Top Milk 

Bluefish and Potato Cakes 

Spider Corncake Berries 

Coffee, Cocoa or Milk 

Dinner 

Cold Corned Beef, Sliced Thin 

Mustard 

Baked Paprika Potatoes 

Kohl Rabi, Creamed 

New Beets, Buttered 

Barley Flour Apple Dumplings 

Supper 

Green Corn Souffle 

New Rye Bread New Apple Sauce 

Tea 



Breakfast 

Farina, Top Milk 

Salt Codfish Creamed, with an Egg 

Molasses Corncake 

Blueberries 

Coffee, Cocoa or Milk 

Dinner 

Corned Beef (4 lbs.). Mustard 

Beet Greens New Potatoes 

Kohl Rabi 

Baked Indian Pudding, Top Milk 

Cottage Cheese 

Supper 

Beet Greens, Molded with Sliced Egg 

French Dressing 

Oatmeal-and-Cornmeal Muffins 

Berries 

Barley Chocolate Gingerbread 

Tea 



Breakfast 

Baked Astrachan Apples, Sugar 

Puffed Rice, Top Milk , 

Green Corn Griddle Cakes 

or Delicate Cornmeal Griddle Cakes 

Coffee Cocoa 

Dinner 

Boiled Fresh Fish, Egg Sauce 

Boiled Potatoes 

Tomatoes Stuffed with Rice and Nuts 

Summer Squash, Fried 

Barley Crackers, Toasted 

Celery and Apple Salad 

Cottage Cheese 

Supper 

Succotash 

(new lima beans and corn) 

Rice Flour and Wheat Bread 

Honey Peanut Cookies 

Stewed Pears or Sliced Peaches 

Tea 



Breakfast 

Oatmeal Mush, Whole Milk 

Corned Beef and Potato Hash 

Sweet Pickled Melon Rind 

Dry Toast 

Coffee, Cocoa or Milk 



Dinner 

Roast Filet of Beef (2| lbs.) 

Brown Sauce 

Franconia Potatoes 

Egg Plant with Rice, etc. 

Romaine and Tomatoes, 

French Dressing 
Peach Shortcake (barley crust) 
122 



Supper 

Boston Baked Beans 

Tomato Catsup 

Oatmeal-and-Cornmeal Muffins 

Riceflour Cakes 

Blackberries 

Tea 



Well -Balanced Menus for One Week in Sept., Family of 5 

(Meat Ten Pounds as Purchased. Very Little Wheat or Sugar) 



Breakfast 

Barley Meal Mush 

Sweet Apples, Baked, Top Milk 

Rice Omelet 

Cornmeal Breakfast Cake 

Coffee, Cocoa or Milk 

Dinner 

Melons 

Roast Leg of Lamb (6f lbs.) 

Spiced Ripe Cucumber Pickles 

New Potatoes, Boiled 

Cream Sauce and Parsley 

Fall Spinach with Sliced Egg 

Peach Sherbet 

Honey Drop Cookies 

Supper 

Mexican Rabbit 

(cheese, tomatoes, corn) 

Sliced Peaches 

Barley Gingerbread Tea 



Breakfast 

Oatmeal, Dates, Top Milk 
Fish and Potato Hash 

Broiled Tomatoes 
Boston Brown Bread 

(reheated) 
Coffee, Cocoa or Milk 

Dinner 

Lamb Stew with Vegetables 
Romaine and Celery Salad 

Barley Biscuit 

Baba with Apricot Sauce 

(reheated) 

Supper 

Shell Beans, Stewed 

New Rye Bread 

Baked Apples 

Milk Tea 





Breakfast 


Breakfast 




Barley Mush, Fried, Syrup 


Oatmeal, Grated Cheese 




Eggs Cooked in Shell 


Beauregard Eggs 




Brown Hashed Potatoes 


(mashed potato in place of toast) 




Cornmeal Breakfast Cake (reheated) 


Rice Griddle Cakes 




Coffee, Cocoa or Milk 


Coffee Cocoa 


^ 


Dinner 


Dinner 


< 


Cold Roast Lamb, Sliced Thin 


Fowl, Fricassee 


Q 


Creamed Potatoes 


Cauliflower Scalloped Potatoes 


O 


Scalloped Tomatoes and Onions 


Tomatoes or Lettuce, French Dressing 


Apple Pie, Barley Pastry 


Barley Cottage Pudding 


Cottage Cheese 


Maple Sauce 




Supper 


Supper 




Egg Plant Cooked with Rice, etc. 


Shell Beans, Stewed 




Ryemeal Muffins 


Boston Brown Bread 




Eggless Oatmeal Cookies 


(reheated with Cheese) 




Apple Sauce 


Stewed Plums 




Tea 


Tea 



Breakfast 

Puffed Rice, Berries, Top Milk 

Eggs Scrambled with Dried Beef (4 ozs.) 

Small Potatoes Baked 

Hominy Mush, Fried 

Coffee, Cocoa or Milk 

Dinner 

Filets of Fish Baked with Oysters 

Potato Cubes, Maitre d'Hotel 

Boiled Onions 

Pickled Beets 

Baba (ryeflour) Canned 

Apricot Sauce 

Supper 

Cream of Corn Soup, Wheatless Crackers 

Barley Ginger Cakes 

Tea 



Breakfast 

Corn Puffs, Berries, Whole Milk 

Eggs Scrambled with Cheese 

Rice Crusts 

Coffee, Cocoa or Milk 

Dinner 

Fresh Fish Chowder 

Wheatless Crackers 

Mustard Pickles 

Squash Pie (barley crust) 

Cottage Cheese 

Supper 

Lima Bean Salad 
Boston Brown Bread 



Baked Pears 



Breakfast 

Cornmeal Mush, Whole Milk 
Eggs Shirred with bits of 

Chicken and Cream Sauce 
Oatmeal Griddle Cakes 
Coffee, Cocoa or Milk 



Dinner 

Corn-and-Cheese Souffle 
Kohl Rabi, Creamed 
Baked Potatoes 
Sliced Tomatoes 

French Dressing 
Peach Pie, Barley Pastry 
123 



Honey Drop Cookies 
Tea 

Supper 

Boston Baked Beans 
Spider Corn Cake 

Sliced Peaches 

Wheatless Crackers 

Tea 



Food Suggestions for August-September 

By Janet M. Hill 



AS we prepare copy for the August- 
September number of American 
Cookery, the word from the 
United States Food Administration is, 
"limit the meat (including chicken) for 
each individual in your family to two 
pounds per week. This two pounds is the 
weight of the meat or fowl as purchased 
and thus includes bones and other refuse; 
limit the consumption of sugar to three 
pounds per month for each individual and 
wheat flour, if it be eaten at all, to six 
pounds per month. If possible cut out 
all use of wheat flour till the new crop 
is harvested." 

In some sections, at least, rye is har- 
vested in August and rye flour is available 
soon after. In New England many fam- 
ilies for generations have made bread 
from new rye late in August and early 
in September. The rye, ground be- 
tween huge stones in a mill run by water 
power, was used with little or no admix- 
ture of wheat, and was thought to be the 
sweetest tasting bread that could be 
made. Mixed at noon with yeast from 
the "distillery," the bread was baked 
and cooled in time for the six o'clock 
supper, where it appeared with berries, 
smoked fish or cottage cheese. We are 
inclined to think that even now, with dif- 
ferent facilities for grinding the grain and 
leavening the loaf, that rye bread might 
be made successfully without wheat, save 
for flouring the board during molding, if 
the quantity of yeast be increased enough 
to insure quick rising, i. e., a full cake to 
two cups of liquid, the bread being mixed 
in the morning. 



We have given Baba among the Season- 
able Recipes. Baba — a cake or pudding 
as you will — • originated in Poland, and 
was made originally of rye flour. It 
makes a hearty, satisfying dessert. One 
loaf will serve eight or ten individuals. 
Any left over is good reheated. 

Most households have, by now, so or- 
dered their meals that no inconvenience 
is experienced in curtailing the meat 
supply. The articles substituted for 
meat will vary with the occupation, but, 
in any event, too much cannot be said of 
the importance of keeping up the milk 
supply. Vegetables and fruit, so plenti- 
ful and valuable at this time, need to be 
supplemented by some form of food rich 
in protein, to provide a balanced meal; 
cheese is but milk in another form; com- 
bine milk, cheese and eggs with corn, 
onions, spinach, cauliflower in souffles, 
timbales and custards and satisfaction will 
surely follow; for the cycle is complete, 
and the meal is balanced. The com- 
plaint is made that "made dishes" do 
not "stand by one." Everything de- 
pends on the composition of those "made 
dishes." If food is to "stand by one," 
it must contain some proportion of pro- 
tein to be digested in the stomach. Milk, 
cheese and eggs are among the choicest 
forms of protein, and in comparison with 
meat are not as expensive as a casual 
glance would seem to indicate. 

Formerly most housekeepers planned 
their meals a day at a time. With the 
existing food regulations in force, plan- 
ning the meals for a week at a time sim- 
plifies the work and enables one to make 



124 



FOOD SUGGESTIONS FOR AUGUST-SEPTEMBER 



125 



the supplies last through the week. Sit 
down with pencil and paper and multiply 
the number of pounds, each, of meat, 
sugar and flour to which each person is 
entitled for the week by the number of 
persons in the family; deduct the quan- 
tity of sugar that must be reserved for 
tea, coffee, cereals and fruit, meanwhile 
thinking up ways in which this quantity 
may be lessened • — (cheese, dates, figs, 
etc., with cereal; fried cereal, mush with 
molasses or syrup, etc.), then plan to use 
the rest of the sugar in the way most 
satisfactory to your family. Plan out 
these ways and adhere to them, unless 
improrement suggests itself. 

Vary the selection of meat from week 
to week; at least once in a month choose 
leg of lamb (yearling), this in a family of 
four or five persons will furnish nearly all 
the meat allowable in the week, but it 



"spends well," and half a cup, chopped 
or cut in thin bits, and added with broth 
from the bones to a dish of squash or 
egg-plant, cooked with onions, tomat®es, 
cheese and rice (cook the rice in the 
broth) will furnish one hearty meal of one 
dish. (See Egg-plant with Rice, Season- 
able Recipes). Liver, tripe, tongue, 
heart and kidneys may be used outside 
of the stipulated allowance. Thus with 
fresh fish, eggs, cheese and milk to fall 
back upon, keeping within the meat al- 
lowance should not phase any one. Re- 
member that it takes more effort on your 
part to feed your family now than it did 
a few years ago. If you are not spending 
more time in your kitchen than formerly, 
and, especially, if you have children, and 
are not using more milk than formerly, 
you must take care lest your family be 
not nourished adequately. 



Do You Eat Patriotically? 



IT is a patriotic duty to eat properly, 
according to Mrs. Alice Peloubet 
Norton. This means eating regularly, 
slowly, and cheerfully, with emphasis on 
the smile that accepts all forms of war 
bread and sweetless desserts without 
grumbling. 

"Eat properly; that is a patriotic 
duty. Let only an emergency interfere, 
and don't let that emergency occur often. 
We ought to boast that we can accom- 
plish our work so that we have time for 
our meals, and if we take time for our 
meals we can accomplish more work. 
It seems to me that there has never been 
a time when it is so necessary for every 
one to be at his best, mentally and physi- 
cally, and to have poise both of mind and 
of body. Half eaten, hurried meals do 
not make for poise. 

"Today one of the things we need is 
speed, but we get more speed when we 
can think clearly, and we think clearly 
when our bodies are well. It is only the 
genius who can keep busy every minute, 
without meals and proper rest, and still 



work effectively. Many persons set such 
a pace that by the end of the day they 
are excited and hysterical. When an 
emergency comes they cannot meet it. 
They fail when they are most needed. 
Their nerves may break down under the 
strain they have imposed upon them- 
selves. In America we often say, 'I am? 
so busy.' We say so much about it that 
we make ourselves feel hurried Just by 
talking. And after all, the 'busy' is very 
much in our own attitude. 

"It is worth while occasionally even 
to sit still and hold one's hands. We 
need more of the serenity and peace that 
come with quiet. Instead of speeding 
up, we actually lose time if we don't get 
a certain amount of recreation. Even. 
President Wilson goes golfing. 

"Smile while you eat. Don't grum- 
ble about the food. The mental and 
spiritual attitude counts for digesti- 
bility. If you go to a lunch room and 
complain about the food, or go home and' 
complain about the food, that whole 
spirit is unfavorable to digestion." 



My Bit in Food Economy 



By Mrs. J. Brooks 



1AM trying to do my little bit in Food 
Economy by — 

Serving no butter when we have gravy 
or plenty of sauce. The children prefer 
the latter to butter on baked or boiled 
potatoes. 

Using a spatula to scrape every vestige 
of food from the cooking utensils. 

Boiling potatoes, carrots and similar 
vegetables in their jackets and peeling 
them afterwards. 

Using a potato knife, a round blade 
with a sharpened slit, which may be pur- 
chased for a dime, and which enables one 
to pare apples or vegetables with great 
speed, yet have the paring always of the 
same thinness. 

Serving no sweets at any of my little 
parties, substituting sandwiches or wafers 
made of graham bread or other grains 
beside wheat. 

Serving celery-leaf soup as often as we 
have celery. To make it, cut with a pair 
of scissors all the leaves from two stalks 
of celery. Add to it any leftover mashed 
or riced .potato, or three raw ones diced, 
and three diced onions. Cover with 
water and simmer until tender. Thicken 
with two tablespoonfuls of flour and one 
pint of milk and season with salt, pepper 
and oleomargarine. 

In Fuel Economy by — 

Cooking things in quantities to last 
several meals. Sauces, soups, vegetables, 
and many kinds of meat come under this 
class. 

Using the steam cooker as much as pos- 
sible, thereby saving food as well as fuel. 
A whole meal may be cooked over one 
burner without any loss of food value, and 
odds and ends of things may be canned 
while the meal is being cooked. It is a 
boon to the small householder with a 
little garden, where the surplus for can- 
ning is only a quart or two at a time. It 
saves dishwashing, too, as the food may 



be cooked in the serving dishes — and 
then one has a little more time for Red 
Cross sewing. 

Introducing moisture into the roomys 
adjacent to the kitchen by means of a 
kettle of water kept boiling on the range. 
Less coal is required to heat the rooms and 
there is always hot water on hand for 
starting the steamer or other purposes 
without the waste of heating it. 

Weighing the oil lamps that are not 
transparent as I fill them, thereby saving 
quarts of oil each year, as I invariably 
run them over in the old way. I set 
the lamp on the scales and watch the 
hand, having previously ascertained the 
weight of the filled lamp. 

Other little Economies in needed things: 

The use of sewing scraps, or old rags, 
in the kitchen, instead of the paper towels 
I formerly kept hanging above the sink for 
wiping greasy dishes before consigning 
them to the dishwater or wiping up any- 
thing spilled. I made a gingham bag to 
match my kitchen curtains, shaping it 
like a bucket with a stiff round bottom 
and large open top easy of access, and 
into it are thrown all bits of tissue paper 
and cloth that are of no further use. 

Baling all waste paper and saving it for 
the rag-man. Wer cover the inside of a 
soap box with heavy paper or an old 
cloth, then lay long stout cords both 
lengthwise and crosswise of the box, 
leaving the ends long enough to tie over 
the top when the box is filled. 

Making soft soap for shampoos and 
all sorts of cleaning. I throw all scraps 
and thin cakes of soap into bags to dry 
out — toilet soaps in one and kitchen 
soaps in another. When filled I take a 
mallet and pound them, then boil the 
powder with twice as much water, pour- 
ing the toilet jelly into cold cream jars 
and the other into a large jar that sits on 
the sink. 



126 



Door- Yard Shopping 

By Alice E. Whitaker 



I 



ALA-BAM, Ala-bam, hyars yer 
Alabamy man," comes the sing- 
song, yet melodious cry through the hot 
summer air. I look out to see the incon- 
gruous cart poking its way among the 
motor cars and trucks in the city street 
just to note what the dusky collector of 
odds and ends had managed to bargain 
for at basement doors. Piles of news- 
papers, the skeleton of an old range, and 
some worn straw matting were the sole 
burden of the slowly moving vehicle. 

It is queer how thoughts will run back 
on even your busiest day. I was a tiny 
little girl again and the red cart of the 
itinerant tin-peddler had driven into the 
yard of a New England village home. 
Mother brought two bags of rags from 
the attic stairway, where they had hung 
on their respective nails for months. The 
white rags had all been washed before 
storing in the long narrow bag, while the 
colored scraps that were in the short wide 
bag were just as clean; New England 
housekeeping was honest even to the 
depths of the rag bag. 

Grandmother, with her fine-sewing 
spectacles raised hastily over her fore- 
head, was hurrying to sort some belated 
rags, but the tin-peddler was in no rush. 
He had the harmless gossip of the farming 
section to relate, and was eager to get 
village news to take further along when 
the trading should be completed. Out 
from the front of the cart he brought the 
steelyards (prounounced stilyds) and care- 
fully weighed the bags and their contents, 
then he weighed each bag alone. After 

tmuch figuring he arrived at the sum due, 
which, if the white rags predominated, 
would generally make an amount suffi- 
cient to add a good bit to the kitchen 
furnishings. 
Now came the time for which I had 
waited. Each side of the cart was lifted 
and fastened up; little cupboards and 



drawers were disclosed that would be the 
envy of the modern kitchenette cook. 
Wooden pails, tubs and mop handles were 
hung here and there, brooms stood at- 
tention at the back, some bulky articles 
swung below, others rested on top, and 
were kept from falling off by a little rail. 
The wonder was that the old white horse 
could draw the whole affair over the 
rough, hilly roads, but then one remem- 
bered that he had long respites, while the 
bartering of rags for utensils went on. 
It took a deal of thought to make the ex- 
change without the help of a few copper 
cents from one party or the other. 

I was lifted up to look within the wagon 
and see the shining milk pans, dinner pails 
with covers, oil cans and the tapering tin 
kettles with bails that could be set well 
down in the stove. For some reason 
these were called camp kettles, and were 
a great improvement over the iron dinner 
pot, then in general use. There were 
leaf cookie cutters and mixing spoons, 
lamp wicks and candlesticks, tin rattles 
for the babies, and red and blue drinking 
cups in the long, narrow boxes on the 
sides, which were indeed miniature ten 
cent stores. In another compartment 
were a few thick glass tumblers and lamp 
chimneys that the worst jolting could 
never break. 

When the trade was finished, if there 
had been a fairly large transaction, a tin 
teaspoon, or a small scalloped tin was 
likely to be given to me as a sort of lag- 
niappe. Then came the closing of various 
lids and doors of the van, the last ex- 
change of pleasantries and weather pre- 
dictions and the equipage went rattling 
out of the yard with all the pomp of a 
coach and four. 

The telephone rings and a voice asks, if 
I am ready to push that war-on-waste 
work in the club, and do I know, if house- 



127 



128 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



keepers saved their rags now, who would 
buy them. I nearly replied, "You know 
Mr. Smith does not come for another 
six months," but realized that this is an- 
other day, just in time to say that we 



should have to consult the list of junk 
dealers in the city directory. 

The red cart with its jolly, but shrewd 
driver will never come our way again. 
The times have changed. 



War Bread and Wheat Substitutes on the 

Pacific Coast 

By H. A. Crafts 



1WENT to my friend the miller and 
found him in a complacent, if not 
cheerful mood. 

Of course, the first question was the 
wheat question; the next was that of 
wheat substitutes. 

As to the wheat supplj, present and 
future, he spoke with confidence. 

On the Pacific Coast, at least, there 
seemed no danger of a shortage. 

The wheat crop on the coast, as well as 
all over the country, promised well. 

There appeared to be a good chance of 
harvesting that billion bushels which 
has been the hope of the nation. 

At our back door stands Australia, with 
three years' crops of wheat unmarketed. 

It is only a question of ships to bring 
it here to obtain unlimited supplies from 
that quarter. 

Big ship loads are arriving almost 
daily from that far country, and are being 
milled here for general distribution. 

My friend, the miller, informed me that 
wheat substitutes were playing a strong 
part in the conservation game. 

Whole-wheat flour is the only pure 
wheat flour being milled today on the 
Pacific Coast. 

The popular substitutes being used were 
barley, rice, Indian corn, Egyptian corn, 
millo maize, etc. 

Of barley, California alone produces 
annually between 35,000,000 and 45,- 
000,000 bushels. So here is a substitute 
of no small importance. 

California also raises more than five 
million bushels of rice each year, which 
comes in handy just at this time. 

Now the millers are not only turning 



out flour combines, but are making 
straight brands of other cereals than 
wheat. 

Pure barley flour is a common product. 

A new flour is one made of white Indian 
corn, and this is being absorbed in liberal 
quantities, both for family and manufac- 
turing purposes. 

One Oakland pie manufacturer has dis- 
covered the fact that white corn flour 
makes excellent pie crust, and now he is 
using it altogether in his business. He 
says that the new flour makes sweeter 
and more crisp pie crust than pure wheat 
flour; and it don't require so much fat 
for shortening. 

War bread is becoming quite popular 
in California. Barley flour is the general 
substitute employed; and while the 
bread is somewhat darker, it is of a finer 
and closer texture than pure wheat bread. 

Then it is more moist and has a better 
keeping quality; also it has a stronger 
flavor, which the people are coming to 
like. They further declare that the new 
bread is more healthful and nourishing. 

I went to my friend the baker, and he 
also appeared to be in a very cheerful 
frame of mind. 

He informed me that in all his bread 
he was using 30 per cent substitutes for 
wheat flour. 

In all pastry he was using 50 per cent 
substitutes, which were of the same varie- 
ties as those used in making bread. 

The only fault he had to find was that 
all of the substitutes were higher in cost 
than pure wheat flour; and he thought 
that they should be brought down to the 
same level in justice to the baking trade. 



Contributions to this department will be gladly received. Accepted items will be 

paid for at reasonable rates. 



A Suburbanite's Substitute 



IN these days when so much thought is 
given to the matter of floral decora- 
tion in the home, we Americans are copy- 
ing, more and more, the artistic ways of 
our dainty and fascinating Japanese 
brethren. The art of the arrangement of 
flowers in low flat dishes is becoming so 
popular as to amount to a fad. 

Our Japanese neighbors have taught 
us that the use of some sort of holder, 
placed in the center of the flat dish, is in- 
dispensable as a means whereby the most 
natural, as well as the most unique, effects 
of flower-arranging can be attained. For 
instance, how much more artistic, be- 
cause natural, the effect of an iris blossom 
or two with a few of the sword-like 
leaves, when stuck into the small holes 
of some unobtrusive holder in the bottom 
of the low bowl, than when placed, how- 
ever gracefully, in the most beautiful or 
in the most simple of vases, where the 
flowers and leaves depend upon the sides 
of the vase itself for the support neces- 
sary. I have seen even the most or- 
dinary handful of grasses so placed, and 
so manipulated by the deft hand of a 
gifted Japanese butler, as to convey the 
idea of wind blowing gently across them; 
and this in hot, sultry, summer weather, 
when no breeze was stirring through the 
open windows. It was refreshing as a 
simple center-piece at a beautifully- 
appointed dinner-table, and was accom- 
plished by means of the inexpensive, and 
almost invisible, metal holder consisting 
of nothing more than a cluster of holes. 



as it were, with, of course, the artistic 
sense and skill of the Japanese himself. 

Upon the occasion of a shopping trip 
from my suburban home to the metropo- 
lis, one day, I had made up my mind to 
take back with me a flower-holder, but 
I forgot the flower-holder until I was well 
on the homeward way. 

Nasturtiums were in blossom, and we 
had hosts of them. I was arranging 
some for the luncheon table the next day, 
and trying not to regret the holder I had 
not thought to buy. I had a dark blue 
bowl, and was trying not to make just a 
huddled up mass of blossoms boil out 
over its edges, when a sudden idea came 
to me. I thought I could give each 
flower room to show itself in entirety, at 
least. I took a piece of white typewriter 
paper and the shears; cut a circle from 
the paper exactly the size to slip inside 
easily; then with a punch, I began to 
make holes in the paper, first folding the 
paper so that one grip of the punch made 
a number of holes. Then, opening my 
punched circle, I slipped it inside of the 
bowl, the water being below the paper, 
and it was an easy matter to stick the 
nasturtiums into the holes of the circle in 
such a way that, instead of a disorderly 
mass of flowers, I had each blossom 
standing out by itself with plenty of 
elbow-room. When filled, the paper 
circle was hidden- from sight, and my 
guests wondered how I had arranged the 
blossoms so as to make them stand out so 
beautifully. 



129 



130 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Encouraged by the success of my nastur- 
tium holder, I ventured on an attempt at 
a flower-holder for a beautiful, low dish, 
given me for a present recently — the 
dish for which the flower-holder I had 
forgotten to buy would have been the 
very thing. I took a thick piece of card- 
board — • so thick that the hand punch 
would make no impression — • and with 
hammer and workman's punch, made 
holes in the cardboard. . My strip was 
narrow, and when I had bent each end 
down for it to stand upon — like a toy 
bench — it was about four and a half 
inches long. A stone in the middle of it, 
kept it stationary in the water, and into 
the holes I stuck my flowers — • a few 
sprays of pink snapdragon. My card- 
board being dark of color, was incon- 
spicuous, and tough, was not soaked to 
pieces by the water during the hours for 
which I wished the special flower-arrange- 
ment. It was as successful as my paper 
nasturtium-holder had been. ' My ad- 
miring guests praised my substitute for 
the real article, but when my next shop- 
ping trip is due, the first item on the list 
this time will be the genuine holder, one 
of which useful things I think should be 
in every family. 

Whoever cannot get such a conven- 
ience for flower-arranging readily, how- 
ever, may be glad to profit by my own 
experience. An ingenious mind will be 
able to improve upon the home-made 

device. b. e. w. 

* * * 

Ripening Pears ** Out of Season " 
By Hothouse Methods 

IT is not at all unusual, at this day and 
age, to get tomatoes, strawberries and 
other vegetables and small fruits out of 
season, since these hothouse products are 
now so common on the market. 

We would be surprised, however, to 
hear of any one forcing pears on a com- 
mercial scale by hothouse methods. Yet, 
this is what the French horticulturist has 
been practising during comparatively 
recent years. 



This is how he does it. Long, fairly 
deep and wide trenches are dug and lined 
with concrete. Steam pipes connected 
with a large central heating plant are laid 
in the bottom of the trenches. The 
trenches are then filled with earth and 
the pear trees planted therein. 

When the trees are in bearing, heat is 
applied to the roots by means of the steam 
pipes, thus causing the pears to ripen 
much earlier than they would under natu- 
,ral conditions. The grower applies the 
heat so as to ripen the fruit at the time 
the market for pears is at the highest point. 

The French lead the world in the science 
of fruit growing and plant breeding, and 
are conceded to be the most skilful horti- 
culturists of today. 



W. R. N 



Little Ways of Saving Fats 

USE bread and butter plates — yes, 
even if you do your own dishes. 
Every bit of left-over butter or margarine 
can be saved this way. It can't be, or 
isn't always if put on the dinner plate. 

"Taboo all recipes which say 'fry in 
deep fat'." 

Save rinds from bacon, ham and other 
meats and try them out. 

Before washing butter jar, or any other 
dish that has held fat, set it on the stove. 
Particles clinging to sides and bottom will 
melt and can be poured off. 

When you use nuts in any way, con- 
sider them fats and don't duplicate with 
other fats. 

Don't grease your pancake griddle. 
Cakes can be baked without fat on just an 
ordinary griddle if it is the right heat. 

When serving gravy with mashed po- 
tato, don't put any butter in potatoes. 
Simply beat them up light with milk. 

Don't serve gravies and meat soups too 
rich. Skim off some of the fat for another 
day. 

Don't put butter or other fat in dressing 
for poultry. If it is a fowl worth buying, 
it has fat enough of its own to season 
dressing. 



HOME IDEAS AND ECONOMIES 



131 



Save oiled wrappers around bread, 

butter, etc., and use them to line cake and 

cooky tins. f. l. c. 

* * * 

Pickled Peppers 

1 peck peppers 

2 quarts vinegar 
1 scant cup salt 

Bring salt and vinegar to a scald. Do 
not get vinegar too hot, as it softens the 
peppers. 

Scald vinegar and salt three successive 
days and pour over the peppers. Then 
pack in glass jars. One quart of the un- 
cooked peppers makes one pint of the 
pickled. 

Cottage Cheese 

When making cottage cheese from sour 
milk the whey which drains from it can 
be used in any recipe that calls for sour 
milk in the place of the milk. I have 
used it for chocolate cake, corn muffins, 
gingerbread, and so on, where it seems 
to be just as good as sour milk. For 
doughnuts it is better than thick sour 
milk. E. c. R. 



Cucumber Pickles 



1 gal. very best vinegar 

2 cups granulated or 
brown sugar 

1 cup hest mustard 



\ cup salt 

1 small handful of 
laurel leaves 



Method: pick the cucumbers from the 
vines, wash and wipe dry. Place the 
above mixture in a large, clean crock and 
stir till the ingredients are dissolved. 
Then put in the cucumbers, prepared as 
above. To insure success, prepare cu- 
cumbers as soon as picked, and place at 
once in the liquid. Cucumbers can be 
added, from day to day, until the crock 
is full. Then cover with a plate and 
put on a weight. It takes several weeks 
for the mixture to impregnate the cu- 
cumbers, but when thoroughly soured 
they are ready to use. 

We have no regard to size. Small 
ones, one and one-half inches long and 
one-half inch in diameter, as well as 



large ones three inches long and an inch 
in diameter, are put in together and in the 
end are equally excellent. 

For all that the recipe calls for so large 
a quantity of mustard, they are in no 
sense mustard pickles, and do not taste 
of mustard. 

They are green, crisp and of the finest 
flavor. The last of March they will be as 
nice, firm and tasty as when first prepared. 

Only since discovering this easy and 
satisfactory method of preparing pickles, 
have we had all we want. 

I am most enthusiastic over these 

pickles. They are a real find and I have 

the greatest pleasure in passing on so 

valuable a method. f. m. c. 

* * * 

Mint Chutney 

Mint can be found almost anywhere 
at this time of year, few people ever find- 
ing any use for it. Mint sauce is de- 
licious, and is very easily made. Chop 
the leaves, pour over them a half-cup of 
boiling water and add two tablespoonfuls 
of sugar. Cover and set in refrigerator 
for an hour or two, then add a quarter a 
teaspoonful of salt, a dash of paprika, and 
four teaspoonfuls of vinegar. Mix thor- 
oughly and serve with meat. 

Another Mint Chutney 

This is delicious. To one cup of nice, 
clean mint leaves add a cup of seeded 
raisins, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, one 
of tomato catsup and a half spoonful of 
salt. Mash and stir until all ingredients 
are thoroughly united, then serve with 
cold meats. j. d. 



Oatmeal-Graham Bread 



4 cups oatmeal 

(ground) 
4 cups white flour 
3 cups liquid, includ- 
ing yeast dissolved 



2 cups mashed potato 

3 tablespoonfuls sugar 

1 tablespoonful salt 

2 tablespoonfuls short- 
ening 



1 cake compressed yeast 

Molasses may be added if desired. The 
oatmeal is ground through the finest knife 



132 



AAIERICAN COOKERY 



of a food chopper, which makes it similar 
to graham flour. 

This flour may be used for gems, pan- 
cakes, cookies, pie crust. e. d, 
* * * 

Maple Walnut Custard 

4 eggs 

I teaspoonful salt 



I 2-3 cup maple sugar, 
I shaved 
2| cups milk 



Pour into custard cups and bake 
slowly, surrounded with hot water, until 
firm in the center. When cold, turn out 
on individual plates, pour over a little 
maple syrup and sprinkle with chopped 
walnuts. 

Oatmeal Cookies 

Cream f cup shortening with 7-8 cup sugar 
beat in 1 egg. 

Sift 2 cups barley flour again, with 

1 teaspoonful salt 
f teaspoonful soda 

2 teaspoonfuls cinnamon 

Add flour mixture, alternately, with one- 
half cup milk, add one cup chopped dates 
or raisins, two cups of rolled oats. 

Drop by teaspoonfuls, and bake in 
moderate oven. m. a. c. 



Cottage Cheese by Government 

Method 

Take one gallon of sweet skim milk; 
add three-fourths of a cup of clean, sour 
milk and stir as it is put in. Raise the 
temperature in hot water to 75 degrees 
Fahrenheit, using a dairy thermometer. 
Remove from heat and place where it 
is to remain until set. Add one-eighth of 
a junket tablet thoroughly dissolved in 
four tablespoonsfuls of cold water; stir 
while adding. Cover with cloth and 
leave from 12 to 16 hours in even tempera- 
ture, about 75 degrees Fahrenheit. There 
should be a slight whey on the top, and 
when pomred out the curd should cleave 
sharply. Drain through cotton cloth, 
not cheese cloth. When whey has been 
drained out, work in one or two teaspoon- 
fuls of salt to the cheese, according to 
taste; 1| to 2 pounds of cheese should be 
obtained from a gallon of milk. 



Add Different Fish to the 
Family Diet 

Fresh Fish 

YOU should be able to get these in 
season in your locality: 

New- England. — ^ Alewife, cod, cusk^ 
flounder, goosefish, grayfish, haddock^ 
hake, halibut, herring, mackerel, mullet,, 
pollock, salmon, scup, sea trout, shad,, 
smelt, squeteague, sword fish, tilefish, 
whiting. 

Middle Atlantic. — Alewife, bass, blue- 
fish, butteriish, carp, catfish, cod, floun- 
der, goosefish, halibut, mackerel, perch^ 
rock, salmon, shad, smelt, spot, tilefish,. 
weakfish, whiting. 

South Atlantic. — ■ Alewife, bass, blue- 
fish, carp, catfish, drumfish, mullet, perch^ 
shad, Spanish mackerel, spot, squeteague. 

Pacific Coast. — • Barracuda, bass, floun- 
der, grayfish, halibut, herring, pike, rock- 
fish, sable fish, salmon, smelt, trout. 

Mississippi Valley. — Black bass, bow- 
fin, buffalo, burbot, carp, catfish, crappie^ 
drumfish, pike, red snapper, rock bass,, 
sturgeon, sucker. 

Great Lakes. — Bass, bowfin, burbot, 
carp, catfish, drumfish, lake herring, lake 
trout, perch, pike, sturgeon. 

Gulf. — Barracuda, buffalo, carp, cat- 
fish, croaker, drumfish, mullet, Spanish, 
mackerel, squeteague, sturgeon. 

Salt, Smoked, and Canned Fish 

These may be had the year round and 
deserve to be used more extensively. 
Ask your grocer if he has these kinds for 
sale: 

Dried Salt Fish. — Barracuda, burbot,, 
channel bass, cod, haddock, hake, pollock,, 
shark, whiting. 

Brine Salted Fish. — Herring, mackerel,, 
mullet, sable fish, salmon, shad. 

Smoked Fish. — • Carp, catfish, eel, fin- 
nan haddie, hake, halibut, lake trout^ 
pollock, salmon, sturgeon, whitefish. 

Canned Fish. — Cod, grayfish, had- 
dock, herring, mackerel, salmon, sardine,, 
tuna fish. u. s. f. a.. 




N/- 








THIS department is for the benefit and free use of our subscribers. Questions relating to recipes 
and those pertaining to culinary science and domestic economics in general, will be cheerfully 
4inswered by the editor. Communications for this department must reach us before the first of the 
month preceding that in which the answers are expected to appear. In letters requesting answers 
by mail, please enclose address and stamped envelope. For menus, remit $1.00. Address queries 
to Janet M. Hill, Editor. American Cookery, 221 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. 



Query No. 3967. — "Recipe for Moist, 
Spongy Gingerbread, finished with a chocolate 
icing. The gingerbread is particularly moist, 
sometimes contains nuts and sometimes fruit." 

Moist Spongy Gingerbread 

1^ cups wheat flour 



\\ cups barley flour 
2 teaspoonfuls soda 
\ teaspoonful salt 
1 tablespoonful ginger 



1-3 cup shortening 
1 cup molasses 
1 &%%, beaten light 
1 cup thick sour milk 
or 1 cup whey 

1 cup nut meats, broken fine 

or 
1 cup currants or raisins cut in halves 

Mix in the order enumerated; sprinkle 
on the fruit or nuts after the mixture is 
in the baking pan. Bake in two bread 
pans, about fifty minutes, or in a dripping 
pan about thirty minutes. If preferred, 
the fruit and nuts may be mixed through 
the dough, and the top of the gingerbread 
finished with a chocolate frosting. This 
makes a moist, light gingerbread, but 
has no features out of the ordinary. 

Chocolate Frosting for 
Gingerbread 



3 tablespoonfuls cocoa 

(powdered) 
3 tablespoonfuls coffee 

(liquid) 



\ teaspoonful vanilla 
1 1-3 cups confection- 
er's sugar (about) 



Query No. 3968. — "Please give menus for 
Light Luncheons for Motor Parties — not box 
luncheons, but served at small tables." 

Light Luncheons for Auto 
Parties 

{Quickly prepared) 

I 

Joints Boiled Fowl, Saute 

(rolled in cornmeal) 

Hominy or Rice Puffs 

(page 33, June-July, '18) 



Potatoes Hashed in Milk 

Lettuce and Tomatoes, French Dressing 

Toasted Crackers 

Cottage Cheese 

Coffee 

II 

Mexican Rabbit on Barley Biscuit 

(cheese, green corn, tomatoes, egg-yolks) 

Fresh Cucumbers, French Dressing 

Sliced Peaches 

Cornflour Sponge Cake 

Coffee 

III 

Eggs a la King 

Fifty-Fifty Biscuits 

(reheated) 

Sliced Tomatoes, French Dressing 

Prune Whip, Thin Cream 

Coffee 

IV 

Cream of Corn Soup 

Oysterettes 

Lettuce, Tomato-and-Sliced Egg Salad 

Oatmeal Bread 

Tea 



Mock Bisque Soup 

Blueberry Pie 

Cottage Cheese 

Coffee 

VI 

Breaded Filets of Fresh Fish, Saute 

Potatoes Cooked in Milk 

Cucumbers, French Dressing 

Coffee Jelly, Whipped Cream 

VII 

Spanish Omelet 

White Hashed Potatoes 

Lettuce, Pear and Cheese Salad 

Toasted Crackers 

Coffee 

VIII 

Cold Boiled Tongue, Sliced Thin 

Potato Salad 

Raspberry or Blackberry Shortcake 

Coffee 



133 



134 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Query No. 3969. — "Recipe for Cornbread 
Sticks without eggs or baking powder." 

Cornbread Sticks 

All sorts of cornmeal muffin mixtures 
may be baked in breadstick pans. Hoe 
cake, or cornmeal and salt, with boiling 
water to mix to a stiff batter, is probably 
the recipe you have in mind. Set the 
mixture into the well-greased pans neatly. 
Do not fill the pans too full. The fin- 
ished stick should be largely crust. 



add to the first mixture alternately with 
the water. Beat thoroughly. Bake in 
small tins, or drop from a spoon in greased 
biscuit pans. 

Oatmeal Cookies 



1 egg, beaten light 

I cup sugar 

J cup melted shorten- 
ing 

1 1-3 cups ground 
rolled oats 

I cup cocoanut 



J cup barley flour 
J cup rice flour, or 

cornstarch 
1 teaspoonful baking 

powder 
I teaspoonful salt 



Query No. 3970. — "Recipes for Inexpensive 
Cakes and Salads for an ice-cream parlor, serving 
tea and light luncheons." 

Plain Chocolate Cake 



J cup butter 

1 egg, beaten light 

1^ cups sugar 

3 ounces chocolate, 

melted 
3 teaspoonfuls sugar 
^ cup boiling water 



1 cup milk 

1 cup wheat or barley- 
flour 

^ cup rice flour 

3 teaspoonfuls baking 
powder 

1 teaspoonful cinnamon 



^ teaspoonful salt 

Cream the butter; beat half the sugar 
into the butter, the other half into the 
egg, and beat the two together; beat in 
the melted chocolate; to the chocolate 
left in the dish add the three teaspoonfuls 
of sugar and the boiling water, and stir 
until smooth and boiling; let chill. Add 
the milk to the first mixture, alternately 
with the flour sifted with the baking 
powder, cinnamon and salt, and beat in 
the cooled chocolate mixture. Bake in a 
papered and buttered pan, 7J x 11 inches, 
about thirty minutes. 

Barley Drop Cakes 

^ teaspoonful salt 

2 teaspoonfuls baking 

powder 
1 teaspoonful cinna- 
mon 
J teaspoonful clove 
^ cup water 



1 egg, beaten light 

2 tablespoonfuls 
melted shortening 

I cup brown sugar 
^ cup cocoanut 
^ cup rice flour, or 

cornstarch 
1 cup barley flour 



To the beaten egg, add the shortening, 
sugar and cocoanut. Sift together the 
flour, salt, baking powder and spices; 



To the egg, beat in the sugar, shorten- 
ing, oats and cocoanut; add the flour, 
baking powder and salt, sifted together, 
and beat thoroughly. Drop from a tea- 
spoon on a greased tin. Bake in a mod- 
erate oven about ten minutes. 



White Cake 



^ cup shortening 
7-8 cup sugar 
^ cup milk 
1 cup wheat flour 
I cup rice flour 



3 teaspoonfuls baking 

powder 
^ teaspoonful salt, if 

shortening unsalted 
3 egg-whites, beaten 

very light 



Mix in the usual manner; bake in loaf, 
layers or little cakes. One cup of barley 
flour may replace the wheat flour by 
changing the name of the cake. 

Moist Cake 



4 tablespoonfuls short- 
ening 
1 1-3 cups sugar 
4 egg-yolks 
7-8 cup milk 



1 cup wheat or barley 

flour 
J cup rice or corn flour 
1| teaspoonfuls baking 

powder 



3 egg-whites 

Mix in the usual manner. Bake in a 
large biscuit pan. Cover with Maple 
Frosting. 

Maple Frosting 

I cup maple syrup 1 egg-white 

1 tablespoonful corn 
syrup 

Cook all the ingredients together seven 
minutes, in a double boiler, over actively 
boiling water, beating constantly, mean- 
while, with a Dover egg-beater. 



QUERIES AND ANSWERS 



135 



Inexpensive Salads 

French dressing is probably the most 
satisfactory dressing that can be made. 
For variety have about a cup of dressing 
made with scraped onion-pulp, fine- 
chopped parsley and paprika, stored in a 
fruit jar. Use considerable onion, pap- 
rika and parsley. If onion flavor is 
agreeable to the patrons you are serving, 
add one or two tablespoonfuls of this 
dressing to such portion of plain French 
dressing as you are to serve. Or add 
one, or two tablespoonfuls of tomato 
catsup, or chili sauce, to the French dress- 
ing. Crisp heart-leaves of lettuce make 
the most satisfactory foundation pos- 
sible for any variety of vegetable or fruit 
salad. With the lettuce use: beets 
stuffed with chopped cucumber, string 
beans, lima beans (fresh or dried), molded 
Swiss chard leaves, spinach, beet greens, 
with or without hard-cooked eggs. 

For special salads, try halves of raw, 
very ripe (or canned) pears, with cottage 
cheese, or cubes of Young America, or 
similar cheese, with mayonnaise dressing, 
made with mustard, paprika and a Httle 
chili sauce; or lengthwise slices of lightly 
cooked prunes and pecan nut meats, with 
French dressing, or a dressing made of 
whipped cream and lemon juice. 



Query No. 3971. — "Recipe for Elderberry 
Pie, using both fresh and canned berries." 

Elderberry Pie 

To a pint of berries, picked from the 
stem (or canned), add one cup of sugar, 
two crackers rolled fine, half a teaspoon- 
ful of salt, and the juice of half a lemon 
or half a teaspoonful of cloves or cinna- 
mon, or a mixture of these. Mix thor- 
oughly and bake with two crusts about 
twenty-five minutes. 



Query No. 3972. 
Flour may be used.' 



Kindly advise how Rice 



Uses for Rice Flour 

One loaf of most excellent yeast bread, 
white, light and puffy, may be made by 
the following formula. 



1 cup liquid 
1 tablespoonful short- 
ening 
1 tablespoonful sugar 

i tpa cnririnfn 1 c^lt 



f to 1 whole cake com- 
pressed yeast 
I cup lukewarm liquid 

1 cup rice flour 

2 cups wheat flour 



Rice Flour in Cake 

In any favorite recipe for cake, use 
half a cup of rice flour for one cup of the 
wheat flour designated in the recipe. For 
a white cake retain the rest of the wheat 
flour. 

If one's desire to serve her country is 
of more importance than the color of the 
cake served, use barley or rye flour to 
replace the wheat flour. Keep the usual 
proportions of all the other ingredients. 
The cake will not be quite as large as 
when made of wheat flour, but will be 
light and of good texture. 

Other Uses for Rice Flour 

Pastry, biscuits, etc., made of barley 
flour, are thought to be a little better 
when about one-third of the content is 
rice flour. For use in thickening sauces, 
soups, etc., a small bowlful sifted several 
times of one-third rice and two-thirds 
wheat, barley or rye flour works all right; 
in use we fill the spoon rather more than 
level of the last mixture. 



Query No. 3973. — ;' Recipe for Patty Shells 
for serving creamed chicken, etc." 

Regarding Patty Shells 

At this time the shortage of fats is too 
great to warrant the making of patty 
shells. We can account for the several 
calls for them at this time only on the 
ground that "blessings brighten as they 
take their flight." Plain pastry made of 
barley and rice flour with chicken or other 
obtainable fat as shortening may be 
baked on small inverted tins and used for 
holding creamed chicken, fish-, vegetables, 
etc. However, much more appropriate 
and really good and attractive patties 
may be made of mashed potato, by the 
recipe given on page 578 of the March 
number of American Cookery. 



136 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Query No. 3974. — "Why am I not successful 
in making Maple Mousse with 1 cup milk, 4 egg- 
yolks, 1 cup maple syrup and 1 pint thick cream. 
I always have four or five cups of liquid in the 
bottom of the can." 

Trouble with Maple Mousse 

In making any mousse or parfait two 
mixtures of about the same density are 
combined. One of these is whipped 
cream and the other mixture, usually the 
one which gives the name to the dish, 
must be of about the same solidity, so that 
the two will not separate before freezing 
is accomplished. We see no reason why 
the ingredients mentioned might not be 
made into a satisfactory mousse; at the 
same time there is more liquid than is 
needed. If the milk is used, the syrup 
will have to be boiled to the soft-ball 
stage. The simplest way is to leave out 
the milk; cook the yolks in the hot syrup 
as in making a custard; beat occasionally 
until cold, then fold in the beaten cream. 
We append another recipe in which by 
using egg-whites the quantity of cream 
may be cut down a little. 

Maple Parfait, with Egg- Whites 

Boil one cup and a fourth of maple 
syrup to 236° F. on the sugar ther- 
mometer, or until a soft ball may be 
formed of a little of the syrup dropped 
into cold water; pour in a fine stream on 
the whites of two eggs, beaten very light, 
beating constantly meanwhile. Set the 
dish into ice water and beat the meringue 
occasionally until cold; then fold into it 
one cup and a half of cream, beaten very 
light, but not dry. Chill a quart mold in 
equal measures of salt and crushed ice, 
pour in the mixture to fill the mold to 
overflow; spread a paper over the top, 
press the cover over it, then cover with 
salt and crushed ice, using equal measures 
of each. 

This is a delicate parfait, less rich than 
when made with egg-yolks. When these 
are selected, the number must be in- 
creased to four. 



Lemon Queens 



Ij cups pastry flour 
J teaspoonful soda 
4 egg-whites, beaten 

light 
or to adjust to present 

needs use 
Salt as needed 



I cup butter 

1 cup sugar 

4 egg-yolks 

i lemon, grated rind 

and juice 
I cup butter substitute 
1 cup barley flour 
i cup rice flour 

Cream the shortening, beat in the sugar, 
yolks, grated rind and juice (there should 
be two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice), 
flour sifted with the soda, and, lastly, the 
egg-whites. Bake in fourteen small cup 
cake tins. Use f cup pastry and i-cup 
rice or corn flour. 

Orange Cocoanut Jumbles 

^ cup butter 
1 cup sugar 
Grated rind 1 orange 
1 egg, beaten light 



i cup orange juice 
2^ cups barley flour 
4 teaspoonfuls baking 
powder 



Cocoanut and sugar 

Mix in the order enumerated. More 
flour may be required. Roll into a thin 
sheet, cut into circles with a doughnut 
cutter; set these a little distance apart 
in buttered baking pans. Brush the top 
of each cake with slightly beaten egg- 
white or cold water, cover with prepared 
cocoanut, and dredge with granulated 
sugar. Bake to a delicate color in a 
rather quick oven. 



Query No. 3975. — " Recipe for Lemon Queen 
Cakes, and Orange Cocoanut Jumbles." 



Query No. 3976. — "Should fruit jars be 
sterilized before use in canning fruit by the 'cold- 
pack' process?" 

Sterlizing Jars for ** Cold- Pack " 
Canning 

In canning by the "cold-pack" process, 
if the jars are washed thoroughly and 
rinsed in hot water, no further attention 
is required, for the same heat that ster- 
ilizes the product canned will sterilize 
the jar. 

Query No. 3977. — "Recipe for bread made 
with potatoes." 

Potato Bread 

For two loaves of bread pare, cut in 
halves lengthw* - -^nd wash, two or three 
potatoes; let t i just enough water 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Oat Meal Drop Cakes — Wheatless Dainties 

Any one in this country who can get along with less wheat and is not doing 
so is helping the German cause. — United States Food Administrcation. 

^^ATMEAL drop cakes are savory little 
^^ morsels. The blend of oatmeal and barley 
flour gives them an unusually gratifying flavor. 
They are shortened with Crisco instead of butter 
and therefore measure up fixlly to the war time 
demand that we use vegetable fats. 



Crisco 

^L For Frtying -Fop Shortening 
^^^ For Cake Making 

Crisco is wholly vegetable, a rich cooking fat, 
which, having neither odor nor taste, gives only 
delicacy to foods. It is the solid cream of edible 
oil, sweet and wholesome. 

It is so pure and of such high quality that house- 
wives find it a satisfactory economy to discard 
butter in all cooking and depend wholly on Crisco. 

Crisco comes in one-pound, air tight, sanitary 
cans. Try it the next time you order a cooking 
fat. You will understand why milkons demand it. 



Oat Meal Drop Cakes 

A recipe tested and approved by Good House- 
keeping Institute. 

— Mildred Maddocks, Director. 
yi cupful Crisco' 
M cupful sugar 
M cupful raisins • 
/4 cupful nut meats 
I cupful rolled oats 
I egg and i yolk 
/i cupful sweet milk 
1 cupful barley flour 
yi teaspoonfiil soda 
M teaspoonful salt 
(Use accurate level measurements) 

Cream the Crisco. beat in the sugar, the 
raisins and the nut meats chopped together 
and the rolled oats; beat the egg and yolk, 
add the milk, and stir into the first mix- 
ture, alternately, with the barley flour 
mixed and sifted thoroughly with the soda 
and salt. Drop by teaspoonfiils onto a 
Criscoed pan, allowing one and one-half 
inches between each cake, make smooth 
and bake in a quick oven. 



A Cook Book for all Seasons 

"Oatmeal Cookies" are recommended by Janet 
McKenzie Hill in "Balemced Daily Diet", as 
deserving a place among midsummer foods. This 
book, by the editor of American Cookery and 
head of the Boston Cooking School, contains 
hvmdreds of other recipes that requice no butter 
and many that require no wheat flour. They are 
carefully chosen to build for physical strength 
and mental activity. The book is illustrated in 
color and contains the interesting Story of Crisco. 
Published to sell for 25 cents, we will send you 
a copy for ten cents in stamps. Address Dept. A-8, 
The Procter 8C Gamble Co., Cincinnati, O. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
137 



138 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



to cover, until tender. Remove the 
potatoes, add to the water left from cook- 
ing, enough scalded milk to make two 
cups and one half of liquid; in it dis- 
solve one or two tablespoonfuls of short- 
ening and add one tablespoonful of sugar 
or syrup, one teaspoonful of salt, and 
one cup of the potato, pressed through 
a sieve or ricer. When lukewarm, take 
out half a cup of the liquid, crumble into 
it from one-third to a whole cake of com- 
pressed yeast (one-third at night, the 
whole cake if mixed in the morning), mix 
and return to the rest of the ingredients; 
again mix, then stir in half a cup of barley 
flour with wheat flour for a dough that 
may be kneaded. Knead until smooth. 
Cover and let become light. Shape into 
two loaves. When again light bake about 
one hour. 



Query No. 397^. — "Recipes for putting up 
Damson plums in several ways, and canning 
Bartlet pears." 



Damson Plum Jelly 

Wipe the plums, cover them with cold 
water, cover the dish and let cook until 
soft throughout. Drain in a bag, pressing 
out all the juice at the last. 

If the juice is to be canned and made 
into jelly when needed, heat the juice to 
the boiling point, and pour into jars taken 
from boiling water. Fill the jars to 
overflow, then adjust the rings and covers, 
dipping the rings in boiling water and 
taking the covers from the water in which 
they have been sterilized. To make 
into jelly, boil the juice fifteen minutes, 
add, for one quart of juice, three cups 
of sugar, made hot in the oven, and let 
boil till the syrup "beads" when dripping 
from the spoon, or to about 218° F. 

Damson Plum-and-Apple Jelly 

Cook equal measures of apples and 
plums. Wipe the apples, cut in quarters, 
discarding all imperfect portions, then 
finish as Damson plum jelly. 



Canned Damson Plums 

Wipe the plums, prick each plum in 
several places, to keep the skin from 
bursting. Make a syrup by dissolving five 
cups of sugar in four cups of water; in 
this cook as many plums as the syrup will 
cover. Cook the plums about six min- 
utes, covering the saucepan, but re- 
moving the cover often to gently push 
the plums below the syrup. Have the 
jars and covers sterilized, and standing in 
hot water; skim plums into a jar, put- 
ting in as many as possible; fill to over- 
flow with the boiling syrup; dip the 
rubber ring in boiling water, and set it 
in place; adjust the cover and seal at 
once. Cook no more plums than will 
fill one or two jars at a time. 



PI 



um 



1 lemon 

1 orange 

2 pints cold water 

4 lbs. Damson plums 



Conserve 

1 lb. seeded raisins 
1 cup sugar 
^ cup honey 
f cup sliced pecan 
meats 



Cut the lemon and orange in quarters, 
then shred as fine as possible; add the 
water and let stand over night. Set over 
the fire, and let cook until the fruit is 
nearly tender and the water is evaporated; 
add the plums, sliced from the stones, 
and the raisins, heat to the boiling point; 
add the sugar and honey, and let cook 
until thick, add the nut meats, cook five 
minutes longer and store in sterilized 
glasses. 

Plum Jam 

After draining the juice from plums for 
jelly, without pressing the bag for the 
last of the juice, turn the cooked plums 
into a sieve or colander, and through it 
press the pulp to remove skins and stones. 
Measure the pulp, heat it to the boiling 
point, and after boiling fifteen minutes 
(use an asbestos mat and stir often), add 
three-fourths of a cup of sugar for each 
cup of pulp. Have the sugar hot when 
added. Let cook until the mixture does 



ADVERTISEMENTS 






J¥^ 



One Joy 

That Need Never be 
Restricted 



Puffed Grains seem to children like confec- 
tions. 

They are bubbles, thin and flaky, with a 
taste like toasted nuts. 

Corn Puffs in particular have a most ex- 
quisite flavor. 

A child at first will eat them one by one. 
He wants to make them last. 

But these are goodies which, at any hour, 
need never be forbidden. And you never need 
say, "That's enough." 

For these are simply grain foods puffed by 
steam explosions. Two are whole grains — 
Wheat and Rice. Corn Puffs are pellets of 
hominy puffed. 

Every food cell is exploded, so they easily 
digest. By no other process are these grains 
half so well prepared. 

They never tax the stomach, yet every atom 
feeds. 

Prof. Anderson invented Puffed Grains to 
ma,ke ideal night foods for children. But all 
day long now children revel in them. 

At meals and between meals, let children 
eat all thev will. 




Puffed 
Rice 

Puffed 
Wheat 

Corn 
Puffs 

All Bubble 
Grains 

Each 15c Except 
in Far West 




Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
139 



140 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



not separate, when a spoonful is tested 
on a cold dish. Store as jelly. A mix- 
ture of various fruit pulps, or even just 
apple and plum, makes particularly good 
jam. 

Canned Bartlet Pears (Cold-Pack) 

The pears should be firm but ripe; 
cut in halves, lengthwise, remove the 
cores, then pare. Drop into water con- 
taining salt, a tablespoonful to a gallon, 
to keep from discoloring, or rub over with 
a lemon, cut in halves. Allow about ten 
pears to a quart jar. Pack in sterilized 
jars; have ready a syrup made by heat- 
ing five cups of sugar in four cups of water 
until the sugar is dissolved. Pour syrup 
over the fruit to fill to overflow; put 
rubber ring, taken from boiling water, in 
place; set the sterilized cover in place; 
fasten one clamp, and let cook twenty 
minutes in wash boiler, eight minutes 
under steam pressure. Count the time 
after the water begins to boil. 

Canned Bartlet Pears 
(Open Kettle) 

Sterilize the jars, make the syrup as 
above; when boiling put in the pears, 
cover and let cook, watchiTig closely, until 
tender. Pour the water from a jar, re- 
move the pears with a sterilized silver 
fork to a jar standing in a cloth, wrung 
out of boiling water; reheat the syrup to 
boiling; fill the jar to overflow, adjust the 
rubber ring taken from boiling water and 
the sterilized cover, and seal at once. 



Honey in Ice Cream 

An ice cream concern in Spokane, 
Wash., has effected marked savings in 
sugar by using six pounds of strained 
honey and three pounds of sugar to forty- 
six pounds of milk and cream in its mix. 
While honey costs a little more than sugar, 
it makes a fine grade of ice cream, this 
concern reports, and the saving in sugar 
justifies a little extra outlay for the sub- 
stitute sweetener. 



Potato Flour in Iceland 

Iceland will make a new departure this 
year in the matter of using potato flour. 
Already representatives of that govern- 
ment are sending out propaganda looking 
to the general and extensive planting of 
potatoes this year. Since the summer 
season is so short in Iceland and other 
Arctic countries, the raising of grain is 
not possible, but its climate is adapted to 
the raising of potatoes. Plans are being 
made for the installation of potato milling 
machinery, so that in a measure Ice- 
land will, in the future, be a little more 
independent of outsiders for its fari- 
naceous foods. Shortage of shipping, 
with a consequent curtailment of imports, 
has made it impossible to maintain Ice- 
land's wheat supplies. 

Short production of fresh fish last year 
was largely due to the draft of vessels and 
recruiting of men for the Navy. Trawler 
production has now been materially in- 
creased by free admission of Canadian 
trawlers, and by new construction. 

Wholesale prices are now down to com- 
paratively low levels and should remain 
on this basis for the rest of the season, ex- 
cept that temporary fluctuations may 
follow storms and climatic changes that ' 
would result in decreased production. 
Until next December there should not be 
a day that some of the many varieties of 
salt-water fish will not be available in all 
markets along the Atlantic Coast. At no 
time should there fail to be at least one 
variety of palatable fish that could be 
sold at retail for 10 cents a pound or less. 
The Food Administration has announced 
that dealers who do not offer at least one 
variety of fish at this price are not pa- 
triotically co-operating with the Food 
Administration or with their customers. 
Of course, the particular variety available 
at that price will vary from day to day. 

With the approach of next winter, the 
Food Administration is confident, deep- 
sea fishing and winter production of 
ground fish should be restored to normal. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



A Real "Money Back" Guarantee 



OUR unconditional guarantee of 
quality and satisfaction means 
exactly what it says. If the 
quality of any of our Certified Brand 
canned foods does not prove to be the 



very finest obtainable, our dealers will 
at once return your money to you. 
You are the judge. Our label and the 
guarantee upon it are our pledge and 
promise to you personally. 




OUR GUARANTEE 

IF YOU ARE NOT SATISFIED 
THAT THE CONTENTS OF THIS 
CAN IS OF THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE 
QUALITY, YOUR DEALER WILL 

REFUND THE PURCHASE PRICE. 



Wilson & Co, 



A partial list of Wilson* s Wk 
certified food products 



lorn lit tfHash 
<K lon.ue 
Lunch Tongue 
Veal Loaf 
Sweet Com 
Green Peas 
Tomatoes 
String Beans 
Beets 

Pork and Beans 
Pnmpkin 
Leaf Spinach 
Asparagus Tips 
Apricots 
Cherries 
Blackberries 



Blueberries 

Gooseberries 

Loganberries 

Raspberries 

Strawberries 

Plums 

Catsup 

Chili Sauce 

Pineapple 

Peaeh Butter 

Jellies 

Jams 

Peaches 

9Iince Meat 

Olives 

Sardines 



^^'^^CO, ILL.,0.^;^j*ip©il 



«re 



■fev 




THE WILSON LABEL PROTECTS VOUR TABLE 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
141 



THE SILVER LINING 



Consairvation 



On Monday Meg is fashed tae bake, 

What she ca's airmy bread, 
A nnxture o' sad buns and cake. 

An' heavier than lead. 
Then whan wi' Meg 1 take my place, 

On hamely fare tae dine, 
Wi' unco girn upo' my face, 

I swear the bread is fine. 

On Tuesday Meg makes up a dish, 

Frae some new recipe. 
But, losh man, be it fowl or fish 

Is quite unkenned by m*^. 
I am compelled tae eat wi' zest, 

O' ony kind o' food. 
An' then the truth mak' manifest. 

By sayin' "Man, its good." 

On Wednesday meals are sma' an' few, 

Frae mornin' till the nicht, 
The best we hae are scones an' stew. 

Accepted wi' delight! 
The stuff therein I dinna ken, 

But wondrous tae relate, 
I eat it doon wi' zest, an' then, 

I say the food is great. 




Active Little Folks 

need the comfortable security given by 




OBLONG RUBBER BUTTON 

HOSE SUPPORTER 

Sold Everjrwhere 

Child's sample pair (give age) 20c. postpaid. 
For Infants — "The Baby Midget Velvet Grip 
Hose Supporter," Silk 15c; Lisle 10c. 

GEORGE FROST CO. - Makers - Boston 



On Thursday, man, I canna tell. 

The kind o' food we get. 
But this I ken, it tastes like — well — 

I'm snowkin o' it yet. 
I think Meg ca's it French ragout, 

Nae maitter what the name, 
I say, "The best men ever knew, 

A' glory tae its fame." 

On Friday noo we hae nae meat, 

By ancient custom led, 
An" then tae help thae Huns defeat, 

Losh, man, we eat nae bread. 
We place the dishes on the board, 

Ca' doon the smile divine, 
An' then frae Meg's plethoric hoard, 

On imagery we dine. 

On Saturday I brak mae fast, 

On oatmeal porridge fed. 
So ye ken hoo, thae days are passed. 

At noon 1 gang tae bed. 
I rise each mornin' wi' the sun, 

In sic a donsie mood, 
I'd lo'e tae eat the toughest Hun, 

An' drink his varra bluid. 

— R. H. Langjord. 



Pertinent Question 

Senator Smith of Georgia said at an 
Atlanta luncheon: 

"German militarism set out to overrun 
the world. Before the disasters that have 
befallen it, however, German miUtarism 
must now be feeling a good deal like Cal 
Clay. 

"Calhoun Clay of Paint Rock was 
fishing for tarpon in Florida, and he 
hooked such a big one that it pulled him 
overboard. 

"As Cal went over the side of the boat 
and tore through the water in the tarpon's 
wake, he said: 

" 'Wot Ah wants to know is dis — is 
dis niggah a-fishin', or is dis fish a- 
niggerin 



'?" 



Shifting the Responsibiht^^ 

Bessie had a new^ dime, says the Chris- 
tian Herald, and she announced her inten- 
tion of investing it in ice cream soda. 

"Why don't you give your dime to the 
missions.^" asked the minister, who was 
calling. 



142 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Ox Tongue 

^^K I R E D appetites of mid- 
^^X summer will welcome this 
zestful food delight. It is 
delightfully delicious; ready to use 
on a moment's notice. Superb 
for home luncheons or on outings. 



Send for a complimentary copy of our new recipe book, written 
by Mrs, Ida C. Bailey Allen. This latest edition features many 
ways to make meats go further. Free to those who give dealer's 
name and address. 



John Morrell <S2 Co. 

OTTUMWA, IOWA 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
143 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




Plain Foods 
Made Delicious 




eep your food pledge and 
with this rich flavor give 
exquisite taste to plain des- 
serts, cakes, fillings, dainties. 



MAPLEINE 

The Golden Flavor ^ 

makes substitutes tempting. Not 
for desserts and syrup only, but 
in soup and meat savoring. It- 
self unsweetened, it season^ — 
and savors many dishes. 

Grocers sell it 
2 oz bottle 35c 
(in Canada SOc) 

4c stamps and trade mark bring 
Recipe Book. Crescent Alfg Co., 
Dept. C, Seattle, Wash. (M-250) 




^ 




CMaking Qjfirifi 
^afataSk 

I here's genius at work in many, 
many kitchens today — to make | 
plain dishes interesting, to make j 
deliciousness go hand in hand with | 
thrift. And Burnett's Vanilla is 
helping. Its rich yet mellow flavor 
^.^^^^..^ gives just that needed touch 
(TheHeartj ^hich makcs thrift appetiz- 

V of the / .'^ 
Vpessert/ l^g- 

Burnett's 

Vanilla 



"I thought about that," replied Bessie, 
"but I think I'll buy the ice cream and let 
the druggist give the dime to the mis- 



sions. 



A Camp Meeting, Not a Camp 

Old Caesar, according to the Columbia 
State^ thought he knew something about 
the tented field, having followed his 
master as body servant through the war 
between the states, but Camp Jackson 
was a revelation to him. 

"Yer mean, Maus' Jeems," he cross- 
examined his young maussa, "dat dese 
young gem'n can't drink nothin' 
stronger'n spring water .^" 

"That's all." 

"And no frolickin' wid de gals.^" 

"None whatever." 

"An' no swearin' at de mules.'" 

"Against regulations." 

"Lor', Maus' Jeems, disher ain't no 
camp. Disher's a camp meetin'!" 



Experienced 

During an Episcopal convention i;i 
Boston, one of the bishops had an ex- 
perience he will long remember. He was 
a portly man, weighing over three hun- 
dred pounds. One afternoon while walk- 
ing through Boston Common he sat down 
on one of the benches to rest. When he 
attempted to get up he failed in the 
effort. He tried again and failed. About 
this time a little girl, poorly clad, came 
along and was attracted by the struggles 
of the bishop. Stepping up to him. she 
exclaimed: 

"Don't vou want me to give vou a 
hft.?" 

The bishop gazed at her in amazement 
and exclaimed: 

" Whv, vou can't help me. You are too 
little.'^ ' 

"No, I am not," she replied. "I have 
helped my pa get up many times when 
he was drunker than you are." 

— Homiletic Review. 



Maloney, Jr. — The teacher told us 
about breathing oxygen into our lungs 
and breathing carbonic acid gas out. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitute: 
144 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




How he enjoys 
the home meal again 



How delighted he is to be home 
■ — with his mother and old Mary 
making so much of him. They give 
him his favorite meal^ — the bacon he 
has loved from boyhood — and beam 
to see the relish with which he 
eats it. 

It is Swift's Premium Bacon. His 
mother never served any other kind. 
She kno'ws that this bacon has always 
the same even mixture of fat and lean. 



that cooks into almost-brittle curls of 
juiciness. She knows that only in 
Swift's Premium can she get that 
delicate, mellow flavor. For Swift's 
Premium Bacon is given a special cure 
that brings out all its deliciousness — 
until its very heart is mild, sweet 
and flavory. 

Whenever you buy bacon, always 
look for the Swift's Premium brand 
which distinguishes 'his finer bacon. 



Swift & Company, U. S. A 

Swift's Premium Bacon 



Comes in three convenient 
forms; in the strip; sliced in the 
box; or sliced in glass Jars 




Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
145 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



-you'll enjcy 

these 

delicious 

low CO A 

hot weather 

dishes by 

Mrs. Knox 




Ham, Chicken or Meat Loaf 



"tevc 

velope Knox Sparkfing Gelatine soften- 
ed in one-halt cup cold water. When 
mixture begins to stiflfen, add two cups 
of any cold chopped meat at hand (veal, 
ham, beef or chicken) well seasoned. 
Also mold In a Httle red or green pepper, 
celery, onion if desired, or parsley. Turn 
into a mold first dipped in cold water and 
chill. Remove from mold and cut in 
slices for serving. 



Just because we live in days that call 
for strictest food economy is no reason 
for serving less nutritious or less appetiz- 
ing meals. Many dishes that are the 
pride of the most famous chefs can be 
made right in your own kitchen at 
very little expense from left-overs of 
meat, vegetables and fruit with the use 
of Knox Sparkling Gelatine. 

Mrs. Knox's *'Food Economy" book 
was prepared to help you. It contains 
many recipes for delightful, inexpensive 
war-time dishes and it is free. Send for 
a copy. Mention your dealer's name 
and address. 

Charles B. Knox Gelatine Co., Inc. 



7 Knox Avenue 



Johnstown, N.Y. 



KNOX 

SPARKLING 

GELATINE 



Mrs.' Maloney — Shure, 'tis all roight 
for ye young people to learn thim things, 
but oi've been breathing air both ways 
too long to change. — Puck. 

There was an error in the recipe for 
" Ryzon War-Time Muffins " printed in 
the " Ryzon " advertisement in the June 
number of American Cookery. As this 
is a particularly good recipe, we repeat it 
here in the corrected form. 

RYZON WAR-TIME MUFFINS 

{as revised) 

4 level teaspoonfuls RYZON 
I cupful barley flour 
1 level cupful corn flour 
3 tablespoonfuls corn syrup 

1 level teaspoonful salt 

2 level tablespoonfuls shortening 
\\ cupfuls milk and water 

1 egg 

Bragged Too Much 

A farmer the other day took a plow- 
share to the blacksmith's to be sharp- 
ened, and while the blacksmith worked 
the farmer chuckled and bragged about 
a sale of hogs he had just made. 

"Them hogs was only eight months 
old," he said, "and none too fat, nuther, 
but I seen that the buyer was at his wits' 
end, and by skilful jugglin' I boosted up 
the price on him just 300 per cent. Yes, 
by gum, I got three times more for them 
hogs than I uster get before the war-" 

The plowshare being done, the farmer 
handed the smith 50 cents. 

"Hold on," said the smith, "I charge 
31.50 for that job now." 

"You scandalous rascal!" yelled the 
farmer. "What do you mean by trebling 
your price on me? What have vou done 
it for.?" 

"I've done it," said the blacksmith, 
"so's I'll be able to eat some of that 
high-priced pork of yours this winter." 

Little Elizabeth and her mother were 
having luncheon together, and the mother, 
who always tried to impress facts upon 
her young daughter, said, "These little 
sardines, Elizabeth, are sometimes eaten 
by the larger fish." Elizabeth gazed at 
the sardines in wonder and then asked, 
"But, mother, how do the large fish get 
the cans open.?" 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
146 



ADVERTTSKMENTS 




Get ike - 

iieallaste 
of Fruits & 
\^gptables 




HE housewife who uses 
a Wagner Cast Alumi- 
num Kettle in her can- 
ning and preserving this season 
will have every reason to feel 
proud of the flavor and whole- 
som^ness of her fruit and vege- 
tab'-^is. 



/j 



N^ 



CAST ALUMINUM 



H 



War, 

PRESERVING KETTLES 

"From Generation to Generation'* 

Wagner Kettles are not affected by acids. They 
never scale. They cannot crack. Therefore they 
are free from chips and grit. Having no rivets to 
pull out or catch dirt, they are durable and the 
perfection of cleanliness. Because they are cast (not stamped) in just the 
right thickness to prevent scorching and burning, you are sure of the real 
flavors of fruits and vegetables. Eleven sizes, from 2 quart to 24 quart, 
either with or without cover. 

SEND FOR THIS BOOK 
To give you an idea of the beauty and strength of Wagner Ware, we will send 
our 1 1 j/^-inch Wagner Preserving Ladle, postpaid for 50c, together with a 
copy of Kate Brew Vaughn's new book, "The Art of Preserving and 
Canning". This work of an expert contains many valuable recipes 
for marmalades, jellies, fruits, vegetables, preserves, jams, 
condiments, etc., and general 



directions that will make your 
canning and preserving more 
successful than ever. Book 
alone, 1 cents. 




The Wagner Mf g.Co., Sidney.O 
Genilemen-— Enclosed find 50c 
Send me postpaid your Wagner Cast Aluminum Ladle 
housewife's book, "The Art of Preserving emd Canning". Book alone, I'Jc 

Name 

Street or Rural Route 

City or Town State 




60 Years of leadersKip 

ColburiVs 
Spices 

"A" .Red JL^bel Bi-anxd 
The AColburn Co., PhilaclelpKla.,U.S.A 



^^^^ TrftdeMarkBeglstered 

/^(^luten Flour. 



40% GLUTEN 



5^ 



Guaranteed to comply in all respects to 

standard requirements of U. S. Dept. of 

Agriculture. 

Manufactured by 

FARWELL & RHINES 

Watertown. N. Y. 



^ 



^ 



Buy advertised Goods 



- Do not accept substitutes 
147 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




DON'T attempt 'Told 
Pack'' canning without 
Good Luck Rubbers 

Ordinary composition rings are in- 
tended for "Hot Pack," and are not 
made to stand the long boiling 
and intense heat of sterilization by 
"Cold Pack" process. Canning 
experts teaching the "Cold Pack" 
method insist on having only 

GOOD LUCK 

The Original COLD PACK Jar Rubbers 

because they are made especially for "Cold 
Pack" canning, with plenty of new live 
rubber which makes them strong, firm and 
tough. GOOD LUCK RUBBERS are used 
at cianning demonstrations because they in- 
sure perfect products. Don't take chances 
^\dth other kinds and insist on having only 
rubbers in boxes marked Good Luck. T/iese 
rings are never sold under any other brand 

GOOD LUCK RUBBERS are standard equip- 
ment on Ball Ideal, Atlas E-Z Seal, Putnam 
Lightning, Smalley's Eureka and otherfruit jars 

The new edition of our booklet, "GOOD LUCK IN 
PRESERVING," teaches you the "Cold Pack" method 
and gives many delicious recipes. Send a 3c stamp for 
it today. If your grocer doesn't keep GOOD LUCK 
RINGS, send 15 cents in stamps for a sample dozen 



or 25 cents for two dozen. 



Boston Woven Hose & Rubber Co. 

27 Hampshire Street, Cambridge, Mass. 



Mrs. Emmeline PankhuivSt, of England, 
arrived in Washington, D. C, the middle 
of May. 

Mrs. Pankhurst has come to the United 
States, she announced, to aid in es- 
tablishing a stronger and more sympa- 
thetic link between the women of Great 
Britain and the women of this country. 
She states that her time is not spent tour- 
ing industrial plants ''helping to combat 
German propaganda by keeping the 
working people sound on our cause in this 
war." She recommended this as the 
special duty of American women at this 
time. 

In regard to the latest development of 
women's work she named agriculture as 
receiving the greatest attention. Through 
this "back to the soil" movement, in 
which the women of England are joining, 
she declared, England has rediscovered 
her own land. She said: 

" We have found that our soil is all right, 
that we have plenty of room for crops. 
Soon we shall be growing our own food 
within our own boundaries, and after 
the war we shall continue to do so. 

"You should see the wonderful re- 
cruiting parades of women farmers. The 
girls have evolved a charming uniform 
of brown corduroy knickerbockers with 
a colored cotton blouse. They are beau- 
tiful with their red cheeks and fine strong, 
bar arms. All come with enthusiasm, and 
many with intelligent, trained knowledge 
of the work. Country homes have been 
turned into club-houses for these workers' 
in the districts where they are employed. 

"There were two agricultural colleges, 
in England, from which women had 
graduated. People rather lifted their 
eyebrows and shrugged their shoulders 
when a woman chose the vocation of 
farming. Now the country is filled with 
training facilities. 

"In agriculture, as in the other in- 
dustries, the great strength is in the fact 
that your intelligent woman and your 
unintelligent woman, the trained and 
untrained, are working as one force. The 
outstanding feature is patriotic loyalty. 
The educated women are the organizers, 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
148 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




The Celebrated, World Famous 

Faust Coffee and Tea 

Now Also in the Instant Form 



NO POT- NO GROUNDS -NO LEAVES -NO 
BOILING OR COOKING-NO STRAINING 



Simply Put Soluble Powder in Cup and 
Add Hot Water 

That's all you have to do for the most delicious 
coffee or tea you ever tasted. You can't make it 
wrong. It will be the same every time — wonderful 
in flavor, healthful instead of harmful --economical, 
convenient, instant. 



Purchase FAUST INSTANT COFFEE OR TEA from your grocer today. If he 

does not carry send dealer's name and 30c. (foreign 40c,) for Coffee or Tea. 

Dealers supplied direct or by any jobber. JOBBERS — WRITE US. 



' I I ■ 1 1 1 1 1 rr 



1' 1 I'l U ' T' J J^l ) M I I I I I I I I I I I I « I I I I I 'I ' J I I I I I I I I I I I I M I I I I I I Ill-Il l ■ I 1 ■ ■ I I I I I ' I ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ I I I I I I I I 

J HSBBii ilMi aiBEME 

■ ■ n IT ■■i TTiiirr i I - TlTi i Ml i M I I iT 1 1 iiiTi i I' ll ip uTrri n i T i.i iri i LL! ' n -i ■ j+-h-i- Xli i:f ~t±--nrm 



m 



i - tT I r : Ttti I m1 i T i 1 1 iTi I iii 'fi I I i Ti ip u TTTi n i t ^ - i irntX i ' n i -j - i n i f i i i R -i-t 



Em 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
149 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




Ask your Grocer for 
SLADE'S Spices and 
SpecialtieSi for these 
will surely please you 




/ 




BREAD BOARD 

Eleven-inch turned maple bread board. The edge of this 
board is undercut like a dinner plate making a finished and 
attractive article. Sent, prepaid, to any oresent subscriber 
for securing and sending us one (1) new yearly subscrip- 
tion for American Cookery. Cash price, 75 cents. 

The Boston Cooking-Schoc^ Magazine Co. 

Boston. Mass. 



WHEATLESS - MEATLESS MEALS 

84 Menus, 124 Recipes, directions for preparing each meal, food 
values, substitutes, timely suggestions, etc. 10c or FREE for 
four names of friend: interested in Domestic Science. 

Am. School Home Economics, 503 W. 69th St., Chicago, 111. 



and the most beautiful thing in it all is 
the wonderful feeling between the leaders 
and the rank and file. That will outlast 
this war. We stand for cl^ss co-opera- 
tion and then class distinction will dis- 
appear. We do not believe in class war. 
Hundreds of women, who before the war 
were in sedentary positions, with poor 
pay and long hours, have entered the 
farming work to find themselves growing 
healthy and contented." 

Mrs. Pankhurst told how even the 
famous Kensington Garden and Hyde 
Park of London are cut up now into 
allotments for war gardens. It is a 
common thing to see a man and his 
entire family pulling weeds in the public 
parks in the early morning, or after 
working hours. There are no flower 
gardens left. Her own rose beds have 
been torn up, and instead, there are 
beans and carrots grown for the summer, 
and Jerusa'^m artichokes for the winter 
season. 



Historic Lessons in Food 
Conservation 

Four thousand years ago Food Com- 
missioner Joseph in the land of Egypt 
commandeered one-fifth of the wheat 
crop of Egypt, each year, for seven years, 
and stored it in the cities nearest the 
wheat fields. His drastic action, at that 
time, saved tbj world from starvation. 

Two thousand five hundred years ago 
Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, in- 
structed that certain men whom he- 
wished to have attached to his court be 
fed on king's food and wine to give them 
a well-nourished look. One of these n^iu, 
named Daniel, persuaded his caterer chat 
himself and friends could be better nour- 
ished on pulse and water, and requested 
that he make a test covering a sufficient- 
length of time; the others to be fed on 
king's food and wine. The test showed 
that those who lived on pulse (lentils) 
and water were better nourished than 
those fed on king's food (luxuries) and 
wine. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
150 



ADVERTISEiVlENTS 



Pure MUk 



4 



W 



f 



Fill your pitcher with 

Carnation Milk 



'.4.41 



r^OOKS everywhere show their appreciation for Carnation. They fill 
their cream pitchers with Carnation Milk because it is clean, sweet, 
pure and wholesome. It answers ** yes '* to every milk question. 



It is Pure and Safe 

Its purity cannot be questioned. Carnation 
Milk is just cow's milk, evaporated to the 
consistency of cream and sterilized. 

It is Convenient 

Its convenience and economy will be 
quickly demonstrated by a trial. Carnation 
keeps indefinitely (in a cool, dry place) 
until opened, and for several days thereafter. 

It is Economical 

As little or as much as is required can be 
used and the remainder will stay sweet 
several days. There is no waste. 



It is Practical 

you would use 



Use Carnation Milk wherever 
ordinary milk. It is the prac- 
tical milk supply for your home 

Free Recipe Book 

Gives practical recipes for plain 
and fancy dishes — many suit 
ed to meatless and wheatless 
days. Send for it Today f 



Carnation 
Milk Products Co. 

858 Stuart BIcJr. 
Seattle, U. S. A. 




Baby Size Can 






c 

n ^ i mil ' i jn ii i i 



^¥ix>m Contented Cc 



§ 



mmm 



B RAN D 



'''■ ^n5' ^P'UifC EVAPORATE 






Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
151 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




RECIPES 

that conserve 
wheat, sugar and 
fats, yet provide 
tempting food and 
generous nourish- 
ment. 

FREE ON REQUEST 



THE FLEISGHMANN CO., 

701 Washington Street, New York City 



Cream Whipping Made 
Easy and Inexpensive 

^ REMO- y ESCO 

Whips Thin Cream 

or Half Heavy Cream and Milk 

or Top of the Milk Bottle 

It whips up as easily as heavy cream 

and retains its stiffness. 

Every caterer and housekeeper 

wants CREMO-VESCO. 

Send for a bottle today. 



Housekeeper's size, 1 ^oz., .30 prepaid 
Caterer's size, 16oz., $1.00 
(With full directions.) 



Cremo-Vesco Company 

631 EAST 23rd ST.. BROOKLYN. N. Y. 



Domestic Science 

HOME-STUDY COURSES 

Food, Health, Housekeeping, Clothing, Children. 
Courses for Homemakers, Teachers, Dietitians, 
Managers, Home Demonstrators, Nurses, etc, 
"THE PROFESSION OF HOME-MAKING." 100 

page handbook, FREE. Bulletins: "Free Hand 
Cooking," 10 cents. "Food Values," 10 cents. 
"Five Cent Meals," 10 cents. 

AM. SCHOOL HOME ECONOMICS, 503 W. 69th St., CHICAGO 



Two thousand years ago Bible history 
records the miracle of feeding five thou- 
sand with a few barley loaves and fishes. 
The people were commanded to sit in 
rows of fifty to the rOw, and the servers 
passed before each and gave to every one 
his portion, so that all were served. It 
was an instance where a little food went 
a long way, and the fragments that re- 
mained were gathered up so that no food 
was wasted. 



Kindness pays. — "Boiled potatoes," 
says an authority of culinary matters, 
"are ever so much better if they are 
gently boiled." 



^^ America, My Country,''^ is said to be the great' 
est -patriotic song-poem of the war. Some have 
hailed it as the new National Anthem. It re-' 
ceived the applause of Congress, when Hon. Isaac 
Siegel of New York quoted it in his patriotic 
speech at one of the tensest moments in American 
history, on the day war was declared. The Na- 
tional Editorial Association sang it at Red Wing 
and Minneapolis. Men have enlisted because of 
it.'' 

America, My Country 

America, my country, I come at thy call; 
I plight thee my troth and I give thee my all; 
In peace or in war I am wed to thy weal — 
I'll carry thy flag through the fire and the steel. 
Unsullied it floats o'er our peace-loving race, 
On sea nor on land shall it suffer disgrace; 
In rev'rence I kneel at sweet liberty's shrine: 
America, my country, command, I am thine! 

America, my country, brave souls gave thee 
birth — 

They yearned for a haven of freedom on earth; 

And when thy proud flag to the winds was un- 
furled,. 

There came to thy shores the oppressed of the 
world. 

Thy milk and thy honey flow freely for all — 

Who takes of thy bounty shall come at thy call; 

Who quaffs of thy nectar of freedom shall say: 

America, my country, command, I obey! 

America, my country, now come is thy hour — 
The Lord of hostt counts on thy courage and 

power; 
Humanity pleads for the strength of thy hand. 
Lest liberty perish on sea and on land. 
Thou guardian of freedom, thou keeper of right, 
When liberty bleeds we may trust in thy might. 
Divine right of kings or our freedom must fall — 
America, my country, I come at thy call! 

Chorus 
America, my country, I answer thy call, 
That freedom may live and that tyrants may fall; 
I owe thee my all and my all will I give — 
I do and I die that America may live. 

— /. K. Grondahl, Editor Red Wing Republican. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not, accept substitutes 
152 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



■■Z 



I'll 



Enjoy the Convenience 

of Two Outlets 
from Any One Socket 

You can enjoy the comforts of your 
electric fan even though the electric 
socket is already in use And you 
don't have to bother unscrewing a 
light bulb every time you want to use 
the fan or some other appliance. 



— — ^^ 



V^VZKIC 



gives any single socket two uses at a 
time. Makes any electrical conven- 
ience easier to use — with light, if 
necessary. „,,^^„,,^ 

BENJAMIN ELECTRIC MFG. CO. 

Chicago New York San Francisco 

Benjamin No. 2450 shade 
holder enables you to use 
any shade with your Two- 
Way Plug. 

Benjamin No. 903 Swivel 
Attachment Plug- screws 
into the socket without 
twisting the cord. 



At 

Electrical 

Stores 



rAMJH^ 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
153 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




The Choice of the Finest Hotels 

Experienced chefs in the largest hotels bring their culinary creations to 
perfection with equipment supplied by The Walker and Pratt foundry. 
This is the foundry which makes 

neces 



They fulfil definitely the varied requirements 
of kitchens large or small, because of the ap- 
plication of these exclusive Crawford featiires: 

A convenient gas end oven, equipped with new and improved gas 
broiler. This broiler is instantly adjustable to hold the food at any 
required distance from the flame without touching the pan, without 
bending over. It folds away when not in use. 

Two separate ovens, both large and roomy — one for gas the other 
for coal — both are perfect. 

Five center heat gas burners of a new and effi- 
cient type bring the heat directly under the center 
of utensils without watting gas. 

Guarded gas cocks which eliminate danger of 
accidental opening 

Perfection of design and finish, long service and 
utility, distinguish Crawford coal ranges — or gas 
combinations. 



Sold by leading dealers 
WALKER & PRATT MFG. CO., Boston, U.S.A 



Makers of Highest Quality Ranges, Furnaces and Boiler* 




SAVEI 

food 

BY ADOPTING 



time - effort 



FOOD PREPARATION 

A Laboratory Guide and Xoze-Book for High School Classes = 

ill Domesiic Science ^ 

By BETH WARNER JOSSERAND | 

This book makes possible more and better work with less time and effort. It ^ 

enables the student to proceed without the necessity of blackboard or dictation work. ^ 

It raises the standard in the teaching of food and food preparation. It is scientific ^ 

and yet thoroughly practical. No additional text is required. = 

It has already proved its value by successful use in many schools throughout the ^ 

country. Published in two parts: I for elementarj' classes and II for advanced classes. ^ 

Price, postpaid, $1.25 per part. Discount in quantities ^ 

THE MANUAL ARTS PRESS PEORIA, ILL. | 

llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllin!!lllllllll!IIHIIIIIIIIIlllIlllllllll!lll!llllllllllll!lllllllllllllllllllllll!llllllllllllllllllllin^^^^^^^ 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
154 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



Y 



'■- '^^ 




TI ~'^^j5£?^^' '^^^S^7^^' ^"^^^^^'^.y 




Two eggs 
do the work of four 

I'm so glad to know how to make this 
Minute Tapioca omelet," said the young 
housewife who made the one illustrated 
here. '' My family likes it better than any 
other kind, and it is so economical." 

This is but one of dozens of ways in \vhich Minute 
Tapioca may be used in combination with other 
foods -which are now costly and scarce. 

Not a dessert only. Use Minute Tapioca for 
thickening soups and gravies, as an extender with 
left-over meat and fish. It is a basic food ele- 
ment. It saves wheat and is a valuable addition 
to our country's now limited food supply. Get 
Minute Tapioca. You will know it by the Blue 
Band and the Minute Man on the package. 




'f 



T 



Minute Tapioca Company 

«39 North Main Street Orange, Mass. 



MINUTE TAPIOCA COMPANY 

39 North Main Street, Orange, Mass. 
Kindly send your Conservation Cook Book. 

Name 

Address 

State 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
155 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



ECONOMICAL WAR TIME COOK BOOK 

By Janet McKenzie Hill 

is a book of 64 large pages full of timely information and recipes : Seven Commandments for 
War Time Conservation ; Substitutes for Wheat and How to Use Them; Victory Bread; 
Wheatless Quick Breads; Meat Substitutes ; Dessert Dishes, Sugarless and Near Sugar- 
less; Canning, Cold Pack and Open Kettle; etc., etc. 

Undoubtedly the best and most helpful War Cookery Book yet published. What every 
housekeeper needs. This book will bring her cooking right up to the times. 

We have published this book that clubs and patriotic societies might have a practical and 
concise treatise on the new conservation war cookery for sale or distribution among their members. 
Prices, prepaid — 10 copies $2.25 50 copies $9.25 

20 ** 4.25 75 ** 13.50 

30 ** 6.00 100 '* 16.00 

Send 25 cents for a sample copy. 
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ADVERTISEMENTS 




WHITE HOUSE 




An Open Letter 

Q'O many people of so many states in the 
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The Stamp of Approval 






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Nesnah Milk Sherbet is refreshing and economical; many say that it is better than the aver- 
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AMERICAN COOKERY 



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ADVERTISEMENTS 



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AMERICAN COOKERY 





HERE is a sweetness about clothes washed with Ivory Soap that reminds 
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Ivory's rich, copious, bubbling, lively lather cleans them thoroughly. 

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Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
160 



Sugarless Desserts 



Dessert dishes preferably made, or served, without sugar. 
(Sweet fruits, honey, maple syrup or conservation syrup or molasses 
used in place of sugar.) 

Conservation Syrup a Substitute for Sugar 

2 pounds (2^ cups) honey 

1^ pounds (2 cups) maple syrup 

1 pound (13^ cups) corn syrup 

Mix the honey, maple and corn syrup together thoroughly. Use 
one scant cup of this syrup in any recipe (except cakes) in which one cup 
of sugar is called for. 

HONEY, MAPLE SYRUP OR CONSERVATION SYRUP CUSTARD 

(baked or boiled) 

ANY VARIETY OF RICE PUDDING 

APPLE PIE 

PUMPKIN PIE 

^ SQUASH PIE 

PRUNE PIE 

BAKED INDIAN PUDDING 

APPLE DUMPLINGS (honey or syrup and milk) 

TAPIOCA CUSTARD 

PRUNE JELLY 

LEMON JELLY (honey or conservation syrup) 

COTTAGE PUDDING (barley or rye) MAPLE SAUCE, FOAMY, etc. 

APPLES BAKED WITH DATES 
PARED-AND-CORED APPLES COOKED IN SYRUP AND WATER 
LEMON MILK SHERBET 
ICE CREAM (honey, maple or conservation syrup) 
FIG ICE CREAM (figs cooked in syrup added when half frozen) 
DATE ICE CREAM 
PEACH SHERBET 

If cups conservation syrup 2 cups peach pulp 

1 quart water boiled 20 minutes Juice 1 lemon 

STEWED FIGS, CREAM 
LETTUCE, APPLE-AND-DATE SALAD, FRENCH DRESSING 
CREAM CHEESE, PRUNES LONG COOKED, WHEATLESS 

CRACKERS 
BAKED SWEET APPLES, THIN CREAM 



American Cookery 



VOL. XXIII 



OCTOBER, 1918 



No 3 



What the North Shore Is Doing In War Work 

By Mary H. Northend 



THE Evolution of Village Improve- 
ment, combined with war work, 
which is so evident along the 
North Shore, owed its origin, as does 
many movements, to the energetic efforts 
of a few women, and this before they 
have entered so prominently into the 
nation's demands. The progress of trans- 
forming the small town of Hamilton, 
Massachusetts, now so popular as a resi- 
dential district for summer guests, has 
been gradual but effective. 

Years ago, before the tide had turned 
improvementward, a meeting was held 
in the parlor of one of the all-year-round 
residents to consider the bringing of the 
community up to a spotless town, able 
to take its place among the leading small 
towns in New England. As a fund, each 



member was assessed a very small sum 
of money, which was used for the pur- 
chase of young trees; these were planted 
here and there along the highways, great 
care being taken to choose needed spots 
where, when fully grown, they would 
afford right shade. 

There was no help given by the fathers 
and brothers, who were not far-sighted 
enough to realize what the end would be; 
but the energetic women pressed on, 
fully determined to work out their ends. 
Before the trees had well started, the 
sidewalks were attacked, and instead 
of scraggly, grass-grown sides decked 
with burdocks, narrow borders, evenly 
trimmed, replaced those that had been 
an eyesore to the town. The sidewalks 
with fresh gravel gave evidence of what 




WHERE THE VILLAGE IMPROVEMENT SOCIETY MEETS 

171 



172 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




INSIDE THE TABBY CAT TEA-ROOM 



the result was to be; it also awakened a 
slight interest in the men folks, who 
began to feel curious to see whether the 
movement would hold out. 

Next the children, the coming men and 
women of the town, were interested in 
little gardens, for which seeds were pro- 
vided, and to the plots laid out in school- 
house yards during term-time they gave 
much attention, for there was a pleasant 
rivalry as to who would obtain the best 
results. With ambition thus awakened, 
the younger members of the household, 
with eyes open to the situation, realized 
for the first time that, while their fathers 
and brothers were giving time to back- 
yards and ground culture, the front-door 
part of the house had been neglected. 

Soon these tireless little workers carried 
their efforts farther afield, and instead of 
carelessly kept front yards smoothly 
shaven lawns appeared, broken here and 
there by little flower plots, carefully at- 



tended by the youngsters of the house- 
hold; this fact shamed the men folks 
into putting the fences that outlined the 
boundary lines into good condition, and 
treating them with a coat of paint, that 
they might be in harmony with the 
children's work inside. 

Visitors to the Town House, (the 
grounds of which had been used hitherto 
as a depository for ashes during the winter 
months, but which now, under the hands 
of the members who had formed them- 
selves into a Village Improvement Society, 
gradually came to miss the accumulation 
of ashes) felt a secret glow of satisfaction 
as they viewed velvety lawns and well- 
kept gravel paths, giving to the town 
building a proper air of dignity; for 
where should cleanliness be in evidence 
more than where our townspeople make 
the laws.^ 

Thus one bit of work led to another, 
and the streets, hubbly and uncared for. 



VILLAGE WAR WORK 



173 



awakened interest in both the men and 
the energetic women, and before long 
smoothly rolled roads, filled in with good 
gravel, replaced the rutty ones that 
formerly connected the town of Beverly 
with Ipswich. Good roads suggested 
good sign posts, and a realizing sense that 
the illegible sign boards, wrongly marked 
according to mileage, were a disgrace. 
Soon in their place were shown sightly 
and distinctly marked boards, placed 
cornerwise on a post, giving proper in- 
formation as to where the meeting roads 
led. 

At the intersection of the roads was a 
triangle of unkempt grass land, now it 
meets the village improvement scheme by 
being a credit rather than a disgrace 
to the town. With the added cares 
came a demand for a permanent fund, 
and the citizens, who through their united 
efforts had changed from unfamiliar 
folks to a united community, decided 
to choose a place near the main road, 
easy of access to neighbors and motor 



cars, and establish here a tea-house and 
exchange. 

Unlike most of its kind, it was, and 
has been from the first, supported in a 
great measure by the all-year-round 
guests; handicraft, preserves and cake 
offered for sale have found a ready market 
and a weekly gathering for tea of not 
only the members of the Village Improve- 
ment Society, but of husbands and 
brothers as well, these having combined to 
give it a unique place in the tea-house 
industry. It was only a harness shop 
remodeled to meet necessary conditions; 
but from the first it was a great success. 
Today, enlarged and on grounds of its 
own, the tea-house, a charming colonial 
building with its setting of sward, stands 
a well-deserved memorial of what the 
women have done to make good. 

While not a part of the Village Im- 
provement work, yet, in a way, it should 
be included in it, is the canning work, 
which is done at the community garage, 
donated for the purpose by Mrs. E. B. 



SM:'.,., 











THE FARMERETTES AT WORK 



174 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




MAKING JELLY AT COMMUXITY CAXXERY 



Cole, to whose energy much of the work 
owes its success. The cannery was 
started last year on the upper floor of 
the garage, and invitations to patronize 
were sent to every member of the summer 
contingent and the all-year-round citi- 
zens; they were asked to bring their 
surplus vegetables and fruit, for pre- 
serving which no time could be given 
in the many busy households, to this 
station, with the reservation that they 
must be brought and taken away by 
the owners. 

Then the cost was not prohibitive; a 
thousand jars were donated, to be paid 
for as money came in, people bringing 
their surplus were given bills which 
covered simply the amount of cost; this 
included the services of three high-school 
girls, who under an expert supervisor 
attended to the canning, the packing in 
carboys, and the bookkeeping. Orders 
flowed in, making it a great success, 
and, in addition, classes were formed 



that cooks could attend, thereby receiv- 
ing valuable information concerning the 
latest methods in the work. Two days 
were devoted to the Beverly Hospital, 
everything being donated, and the large 
amount sent as a gift proved its advisa- 
bility. 

This year the North Shore Farmerettes, 
a band of girls who give up society re- 
quirements for a certain number of hours 
a week, are seen every day working on 
the grounds, which have been donated 
for the purpose by Mrs. Dudley L. 
Pickman, of Beverly Cove. They are 
trying to help along the conservation 
plan and to supply the Beverly Hospital, 
where later on invalid boys in khaki 
may be sent for medical attention, with 
a sufficient supply of fresh vegetables to 
meet demands. 

Canning classes have been formed, 
meeting at the Community Garage, where 
these same girls are doing their bit in 
saving surplus food supplies for winter 



VILLAGE WAR WORK 



175 



use at the hospital. What the North 
Shore is thus doing, every other town 
and city in the state is able to undertake 



and carry out, in suitable measure and 
degree. The cause and the occasion 
call for the united efforts of everybody. 




A PICNIC LUNCHEON AMONG THE WORKERS 



Idols 

Myria Louise Is minus some toes, 

One arm hangs by her side, 
The tip is gone from her little pink nose; 

And yet she's our darling's pride. 

Myria Louise is a broken doll 

To ev'ry one but our child; 
To her the wreck is all in all — 

How easily some are beguiled. 

Many an idol Is shattered and torn, 
To all but some worshipper's eyes; 

And is like a god by that worshipper borne, 
While the rest of the world will despise. 

No doubt 'tis well that some worship blind. 

Ne'er seeing a blemish or scar; 
Else often the world would seem so unkind 

To most of the idols there are. 

Donald F. R. MacGregor. 



Her Neighbor 

By Alix Thorn 



MRS. WEDLAKE frankly ac- 
knowledged that she was inter- 
ested in her new neighbors, 
who, two weeks before, on the fatal First 
of May, had moved into the freshly 
painted, freshly papered little house next 
door, where an elderly pair had formerly 
lived, and now it seemed that youth and 
springtime had joyously slipped through 
the varnished doors. Newly-weds they 
certainly were, strangers in the little 
suburb, but even moving and settling 
seemed not to check their flow of spirits. 
She had heard that Stewart w^as their 
name, and she planned to call later when 
they should be well settled, she told 
herself. The young wife, a slim girl, 
pink-cheeked, whose shining brown hair 
was gathered into a low knot above her 
smart smock, never failed to meet her 
broad-shouldered youthful husband each 
evening at the opening in the hedge, and 
tucking her arm in his would lead him 
into the house, chatting happily of, evi- 
dently, the day's experiences. They had 
no maid, that was plain, only a colored 
woman, by the day, several times a week, 
who ponderously came and went, usually 
arriving a little late. 

Mrs. Wedlake, for thirty years a 
capable housekeeper and for twenty 
years a widow, used to her well-trained 
Irish Mary, wondered sometimes whether 
the children next door — she thought of 
them as children — got along with their 
housekeeping, and decided that Mrs. 
Stewart had probably taken a course in 
Domestic Science, since the commuter 
husband looked plump and contented. 

The following Sunday afternoon Maria 
Wedlake watched her Mary, clad in all 
her rather alarming finery, disappearing 
down the street, and, picking up a 
magazine, she chose a comfortable chair 
and settled down on the side piazza out 
of the sun for a peaceful hour. She was 



deep in an account of a reclaimed French 
village, when the persistent honk, honk 
of an automobile horn made her look 
up • — 'a large car had stopped before her 
house, and a well-bred voice from the 
rear seat inquired: "Can you tell us 
where a family named Stewart live.? 
I've quite forgotten their number, but 
I know they have recently moved into 
this neighborhood." 

"In the house next door," and Mrs. 
Wedlake surveyed the car and its occu- 
pants placidly, noting the elderly pair in 
the back and the younger woman in 
front with the chauffeur. 

"Thanks very much," was the re- 
joinder. Again the chauffeur sounded 
his raucous note, and this time it brought 
the young husband hurrying out to meet 
his guests. 

"We would have warned you, Tom," 
began the impressive* looking dowager, 
her voice floated clearly over to the soli- 
tary occupant of the next piazza — 
"but we could not tell when we could 
come; Bella said it wouldn't make any 
difference anyway, as suburbanites always 
expect to be descended upon fine Sun- 
days." 

"Yes," broke in a high voice, "Mildred 
will get used to sudden arrivals; it's 
one of the penalties of being a newly- 
wed; oh, here's Mildred now; where is 
that bag of mine, I'm always mislaying 
it — oh, hello, dear, we've come!" 

"How lovely to see you!" was Mil- 
dred's reply as she took their wraps 
from them and escorted their guests 
up the walk. "Yes, we love to keep 
open house, don't we, Tom.?" but Mrs. 
Wedlake, motherly and sympathetic, 
noted the troubled flush and the quick 
glance that passed between the Stewarts. 

The tall clock just inside the Wedlake 
parlor struck five metallic strokes and 
Maria Wedlake, as if reproving her 



176 



HER NEIGHBOR 



177 



ancient timepiece, announced oracularly: 
"Company to supper and I wager that 
that girl isn't prepared for 'em either. 
Poor dear, how worried she looked, 
though she tried to smile all right." 

She opened the magazine, read a few 
paragraphs and then looked up and off, 
her eyes fixed upon some spreading elm 
trees in the back yard, foliaged in the 
warm green of June, but what she 
visioned was a memory picture vivid 
as though it were yesterday; a young 
wife, this one brown-haired, too, standing 
by her strong, tall husband, who bore 
small resemblance to a rather stern- 
faced, middle-aged gentleman who from 
his oval frame at this moment looked 
down on the darkened parlor, but who 
was, nevertheless, her John of the long 
ago; and she and he were gazing help- 
lessly at each other in the seclusion of 
the kitchen, wondering how they should 
feed sudden company who had driven 
over to see the new home in the country, 
— interested relatives, one and all, and, 
as the vision faded,»Mrs. Wedlake closed 
her magazine with decision, and with 
firm step walked to the refrigerator, 
just as firmly opened the door and sur- 
veyed the contents. A bowl of baked 
beans first met her eyes, bounded on 
one side by a generous saucer of cooked 
peas, and on the other, one of sliced 
beets. On the shelf above were four 
boiled potatoes and a bowl pf cooked 
oatmeal. A quick glance at the ice- 
chamber disclosed a pint of milk — • so 
far so good. The closet held a pound 
of American cheese, ordered yesterday, 
and not far away stood a chocolate 
layer-cake, dark and perfect, with even 
layers, in unconscious dignity, a cake to 
be proud of. 

Mrs. Wedlake sighed, but not as one 
without hope — far from it; it was a sigh 
of satisfaction ■ — • she had all that she 
needed. 

A moment of hesitation and Maria 
Wedlake sought the telephone, took up 
the receiver • — • 512-M — she announced 
steadily, then waited, with a smile on her 



usually sober countenance, for the voice 
at the other end. 

"Yes," came over the wire, a rather 
dejected yes, "this is Mrs. Stewart." 

"I'm your neighbor next door," an- 
nounced Mrs. Wedlake a bit hurriedly, 
"haven't called because I thought you 
might not be ready, but I see that other 
folks weren't so considerate. Couldn't 
help seeing that you had company, and 
late Sunday afternoon, too." 

"Yes, oh, yes, and you know sometimes 
one is not as well prepared as at others;" 
there was almost a break in the fresh 
young voice. 

"So I thought, and now be a sensible 
girl, and don't think that I'm a meddling 
older woman! I was a young house- 
keeper myself once, and I really want 
you to let me help you out, will you.^" 

"Why — why — •" and Mrs. Stewart 
stopped as if at a loss to know what was 
coming. 

"It's just this way," began Mrs. Wed- 
lake, and there was no stopping her 
flood of eloquence now — ^^"I'm a good 
cook if I do say it; 'I've plenty to work 
with in my refrigerator, luckily; let me 
get supper for you; I'd enjoy it; my 
girl's away and I'm all alone with nothing 
to do. Set your table, put on your 
pretty new doilies — ■ I know all brides 
have 'em — and your wedding china; 
and by seven o'clock sharp I'll hand the 
food across the hedge, ready to set on 
the table. Now it's all settled, isn't it.? 

"Oh, oh!" and Mrs. Stewart paused, 
then went bravely on, "if- — -if — • you 
will; it's too wonderful! You see, I feel 
pretty helpless — • I'm so far away from 
Mother ■ — why, why, I'll make it up 
to you later, if I can. Do you know, I 
had only a half-loaf of bread, a box of 
strawberries, a small can of sardines 
and a box of little sweet crackers. I 
went to town yesterday and forgot, I 
confess, to order enough for Sunday, 
and then my husband's cousins came. 
They live awfully well, and I'd like to 
make a good impression for his sake — 
you understand." 



178 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



"Guess I do understand," Mrs. Wed- 
lake's voice was grim over the phone; 
"had made up my mind to that, and 
that's why I called you up. Hull your 
berries and just make tea about ten 
minutes to seven," and she put up the 
receiver ■ — ■ " an hour and a half to do it 
all in." 

Mrs. Wedlake spread out her pro- 
vender upon the kitchen table; the 
light of conquest was in her eyes — 
"I'll make a bean rarebit out of these 
cold baked beans, one-half cup of milk 
and a cup of cheese and generous season- 
ing — where's my Worcestershire sauce 
bottle — must pour the rarebit over 
saltines instead of toast, for I'm a little 
pushed for time. Out of the boiled 
potatoes, the cold beets and peas I'll 
make a vegetable salad, adding a few of 
my pickled nasturtium seeds, just to 
give a nip. I'm glad the lettuce in the 
garden will do; I'll shred up some of the 
small leaves, and stir them in, too, then 
I'll make some oatmeal bread, using 
that cold oatmeal, corn meal and a cup 
of wheat flour, aft'er the new recipe; 
hot bread is always good for supper. 
The chocolate cake will go well with her 
strawberries, "^ — • her cheeks were flushed 
with the joy of the chase, and enveloping 
her ample figure in a motherly looking 
checked apron she settled down to her 
self-appointed task. 

Exactly at seven little Mrs. Stewart, 
radiant in a frilly pink frock, appeared 
at the hedge and held out sHm hands 
for the well-loaded tray that Mrs. Wed- 
lake proffered, and, as she took it, pressed 
a pink cheek to the older woman's, 
whispering: "I can't say all I feel, but 
I'll come over tomorrow and tell you 
how it all goes and return the dishes." 



"Come along, I want to hear all about 
it," and Mrs. Stewart's neighbor pattered 
home to her solitary supper, chuckling 
to herself between sips of hot tea. 

"Here are the dishes; here is the tray 
and here are some chocolates to munch, 
while I describe to you, your, our sup- 
per," cried Mrs. Stewart next morning, 
as she tapped on the window, and put- 
ting down her burden impulsively seized 
her new friend's hand. 

"It was the wonderfulest supper, the 
most successful supper you ever knew 
or heard of, and, oh, how they did eat. 
Second cousin Jane must have been 
starved; third cousin Bella asked for my 
recipes, saying their cook must make 
that rarebit, and as for the oatmeal 
bread, why, they were shameless in 
the way they ate it. I could not look 
at Tom when I said I would send the 
rarebit recipe. 

" Second cousin Egbert adored the 
salad — for that matter they all did, 
and as for that pictyre cake, Tom ate 
two pieces, and the rest large sections — 
but, oh, if they come again they will 
see a great and sickening change." 

"No, they won't, child," Mrs. Wedlake 
talked a bit thickly, as she had just 
bitten into a large caramel, "you shall 
learn how to cook the rarebit and the 
rest, and, if you really like to, we'll have 
some nice housekeeping confabs together, 
just you and I." 

"I'd adore to • — 'let's begin any time!" 
Young Mrs. Stewart flung glad young 
arms around her companion — "I never 
knew before," said she, "the meaning 
of that blessed verse, *Thou shalt love 
thy neighbor as thyself.' *' 




A Psychological Boarding House — in War Times 

By Phoebe D. Rulon 



BEFORE Jane Glover signed the 
Federal Administration pledge, or 
hung its card in her window, she 
held a meeting of her boarders. The 
pros and cons of meatless and wheatless 
days, the lessening of sweet desserts, the 
elimination of butter from the dinner 
table, were thoroughly talked over. She 
put the matter entirely on a patriotic 
basis, emphasizing her willingness to go 
on in the old way as long as food-stuffs 
held out, if the family so elected. They 
must decide the case. 

Mr. Dodd demurred considerably on 
the meat question, seeking refuge behind 
the fact that he was the poorest sort of a 
vegetarian. Potatoes, green peas and 
asparagus were the only ones he really 
relished. Mr. Judson thought it was 
asking a good deal of a man of sixty to 
change his eating habits and "go light" 
on both roast beef and his cherished 
Yorkshire pudding. Poor Miss Stanley 
had a decidedly pained expression on her 
face, when the discussion of corn meal 
as a wheat substitute was progressing. 
She had been reared in a part of the 
country where some of the tight-fisted 
farmers' wives had sprinkled their tins 
with corn meal instead of using pie crust 
in making pumpkin pies, and further- 
more some of them had so mutilated the 
original Johnny cake recipe as to produce 
such an edible result that Miss Stanley's 
prejudice was accumulative from child- 
hood up regarding corn meal as a proper 
food for humans. "Whisper it not in 
Gath," but she took a second helping 
of it for breakfast one crisp, cold morning 
in November, after said corn meal had 
spent a night in the fireless, with its cell 
walls so broken down by the long, slow 
cooking, that she never for one moment 
suspected that the smooth, velvety cereal 
was her old-time bugbear. Elsie Rogers 
had a similar dislike for oatmeal, but at 



this period in her life history she had 
never tasted Jane Glover's oatmeal bread 
or toasted bannocks. 

Now Mrs. Dodd, without defining it 
specifically, had long felt that she was 
doing the martyr act by resolutely limit- 
ing her breakfasts to one orange, two 
slices of well-browned toast and one cup 
of clear coffee. This she had done for 
twenty years. Now when Mr. Hoover 
can show a better record than that, she 
declared, I will consider joining his ranks. 

All the while Mrs. Glover sat quietly 
by making many mental notes. When 
the discussion reached the butter stage, 
there was a great variety of opinions ex- 
pressed, with the result that they all 
finally agreed to begin conserving by 
giving up butter entirely at dinner. Up 
to this point the hall-room boys had said 
very little. Patriotism is a vital matter 
with the normal boy of today, and his 
eating habits are still flexible. To them 
a few less pounds of meat and bread 
seemed a small matter especially, as Joe 
Maxwell put it, "so long as Jane Glover 
wields the saucepan." " Count us in on 
anything that will assure better food for 
the boys at the front," Joe further re- 
marked. This was an entering wedge, 
and it was decided, finally, to let Mrs. 
Glover enroll her household as loyal 
members of the Food Conservation. 

Jane knew that the. consent of the 
governed is a dynamic force, and with 
such a lever behind her she had no fears 
but that she could rely upon the cordial 
co-operation of every boarder. 

So much for her psychology, so much 
for her generalship in fortifying a strategic 
point. When Jane Glover enlisted in a 
cause, she gave herself to it, body and 
soul. Furthermore this cause appealed to 
her as vital and of far-reaching impor- 
tance. She looked upon it as a patriotic 
service belonging inherently to women. 



179 



180 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Looking facts squarely in the face, she 
reaHzed at the start that old methods 
of cooking must be adapted to new food- 
supplies and that the preparation of sub- 
stitutes could not safely be left to the 
ordinary servant. As soon expect a 
novice to mix colors for a Raphael as 
the rank and file of hired help to handle 
the new food combinations with the 
touch of genius that the present crisis 
calls for. Accordingly Jane Glover's 
first act as a loyal soldier was to appoint 
herself chief cook, with a full conscious- 
ness that this would mean hard work 
and plenty of it, but she was no weak- 
kneed patriot. The rather, she gloried 
in the effort she must make. 

To avoid, however, becoming an abso- 
lute kitchen drudge, Mrs. Glover knew 
she must have competent help. Long 
ago she had learned that competent help 
is not a matter of barter to be secured 
at employment bureaus and reckoned in 
dollars and dimes. Here, again, psy- 
chology saved the day. Mrs. Rooney 
was a widow of forty, and Jamie, her 
only child, had gone to the front. To be 
sure, Mary Rooney was hopelessly un-' 
skilled in the excellencies of household 
craft, but Mary's heart was aflame, and 
Jane Glover knew a quick heart beat can 
move a slow brain and hand. After the 
first month of training, real team work 
went on in Jane Glover's kitchen. Mary 
prepared all the meats and vegetables 
ready for cooking, — • gradually learned 
how to manage a coal range in the most 
economical way, — kept the kitchen and 
closets so scrupulously clean and orderly 
as to vie with any well-kept laboratory. 
Mary so far anticipated Mrs. Glover's 
needs that everything was ready when 
she came in to prepare a meal. 

Such is the magic of the personal touch 
that as soon as Mary fully realized that 
the care and economy she practised In 
Jane Glover's kitchen meant a fuller and 
better ration for Jamie — • her own Jamie 
— in the trenches, there was no need for 
tiresome arguments about scraping new 
potatoes or paring old ones thin. No 



nagging about throwing good food in the 
garbage pail. As team work progressed 
drudgery receded. Mary's interest was 
awakened; her patriotism was aroused. 
These were expressed in terms of Jamie, 
to be sure, but so genuinely genuine were 
they that they transformed the humblest 
tasks into acts of telling service. 

Reinforced in this way, Jane Glover 
found the burden of cooking wonderfully 
lightened and the pleasure of it corre- 
spondingly increased. Thus again did 
psychology save the day! But this was 
solving but one of the many problems 
that confronted Jane. She saw at the 
start that her table supply must be 
attractive to look at, palatable to taste 
and satisfying for body needs. It did 
not take her long to conclude that the 
only way out was to handle common 
foods in uncommon ways. Not glorified 
dishes with foolish adornments, but the 
ordinary foodstuff's well cooked, well 
seasoned and acceptably served. In 
this last particular Jane's fine sense of 
color was a great help, for while she 
had no toleration for color-scheme meals, 
she recognized the dietetic value of color 
harmony in food. Nay, more, she found 
that many an unpopular and untried 
dish became a favorite at her table, 
because it came dressed in a bit of color. 
For instance, many a luncheon was re- 
inforced by the addition of a delicious 
cream soup made from some left-over 
vegetable that owed its acceptance en- 
tirely to Mrs. Glover's clever way of 
giving it color-tone. This she did by 
adding tiny slivers of pimiento, green 
peppers, chopped parsley, or grated, hard- 
cooked egg-yolk, at the moment of serv- 
ing. 

One of Jane's first purchases, after 
"signing up," was a bulletin board for 
her kitchen, and as soon as the Federal 
Food Administration began publishing 
literature she hung all the leaflets on it 
in plain sight. She knew exactly the 
per-capita ration of meat, wheat and 
sugar her family of loyalists should have. 
It was her problem to keep within 



A PSYCHOLOGICAL BOARDING HOUSE 



181 



bounds. Realizing that a man's palate 
cannot be reorganized over night, she 
began on less meat rather than meatless 
days. She made it a study to extend 
meat flavors in very ingenious ways, so 
that no one would leave her table with 
a *' beef-steak hankering." The bones, 
sent home with the Sunday roast, were 
made into such delicious meaty tasting 
soup for Monday's dinner that even 
Mr. Judson accepted a helping from the 
casserole of cauliflower, liberally cheesed, 
without a murmur, and better still, with- 
out being conscious that he was having 
a meat substitute worked on him. Vege- 
tables for stews were so carefully browned 
in sweet and wholesome animal fats as 
to carry the flavor of meat in astonishing 
ways, and the finished product so satis- 
fying both in taste and nutritive content, 
no apology was needed or given. Be 
sure Jane Glover gave of her very best 
in the preparation of her stews, for not 
only must they look good and taste good, 
but they must be shorn of a certain 
plebeian ranking. This she partly ac- 
complished by clever and varied ways 
of serving. She found at the china 
shops attractive, rimmed platters in 
metal stands, which she saw at a glance 
would lend dignity to 'any food placed 
on them. This was one of Jane's levers 
for raising her stews into "best society." 
These platters were capacious enough to 
give much latitude for borders. Now a 
stew in an attractive border is like a 
poor family moving in a good neighbor- 
hood — its value is raised. So thought 
Jane. Sometimes it was a border of 
perfectly cooked rice tossed up with a 
few spoonfuls of cream and dotted with 
tiny bits of pimiento. Or, again, the 
border was made of potatoes, sliced, 
cooked slowly in salted water, drained 
and flavored with a little sweet bacon 
fat and sprinkled generously with fine- 
chopped parsley. Another festive air 
was given to her stews in tomato season 
by making a border around the platter 
of carefully baked tomatoes. 

The possibilities of meat pies were also 



tested in Mrs. Glover's kitchen and voted 
acceptable in the dining-room. By dint 
of good cooking, intelligent planning and 
clever manoeuvering she finally reduced 
the meat ration of her family to one roast 
a week with a lessening, also, of both 
chops and steaks. Chicken helped out 
wonderfully, and she made use of it in 
manifold ways. Indeed, it was Jane's 
surprise meals that saved the day and 
kept her boarders well nourished and 
happy. Just in proportion as the meat 
supply for her household decreased, meat 
flavors increased. Every bit of bone 
and every tiny tough piece were called 
upon to do duty as seasoning, and the 
bland foods, like macaroni, rice, hominy 
and potatoes, were used as extenders 
for these flavors. 

Fish was by no means a universal 
favorite at Mrs. Glover's table. This 
was a fact to be reckoned with, not 
ignored. Elsie Rogers and Joe Maxwell 
were the dissenting members, but this 
was before they had tasted one of Jane's 
fish salads served in a nest of heart 
lettuce, sliced cucumber and tomato, 
all so thoroughly chilled that the lettuce 
and cucumber almost snapped. When 
they were induced to taste it on a swelter- 
ing night in August, they both unhesi- 
tatingly declared it to be "a thing of 
beauty and a joy forever." Such is the 
enthusiasm of youth! Next, she tried 
them on a New England fish chowder. 
This happened on a cold, rainy night in 
late September, when Elsie had come 
home from the stcrre "wet through," as 
she put it. The grateful warmth of the 
delicious smoking chowder made her un- 
mindful that she was eating fish at all, 
and she unblushingly asked for a second 
helping. From that time on se: food 
had its place in the weekly menu. 

Jane Glover found the problem of 
"wheatless" rather harder to solve, for 
good bread and butter had been one of 
her foundation stones, and, at first, she 
felt she could hardly go on with her 
boarding business without home-made 
wheat bread. But as a loyal soldier 



182 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



her watchword was "can," and she set 
to work. She made herself famihar with 
all the flour substitutes on the market, 
but wisely began experimenting on one 
at a time. Potato flour soon became her 
standby for all sauces, gravies and sponge 
cake. Rye bread made entirely with 
skim milk and manipulated, when shaping 
into loaves, with buttered hands, soon 
held its own with the family, in place of 
the time-honored wheat predecessor. The 
leaflets issued by the Department of 
Agriculture at Washington helped her 
along the "wheatless" path. During the 
cold weather griddle cakes appeared at 
most breakfasts, but they always carried 
a portion of some cooked cereal in their 
content so that their easy digestibility was 
assured. Good old-fashioned "Johnny" 
cake suffered no innovations, and when 
it came on the second morning split and 
toasted "to the Queen's taste," even 
Mrs. Dodd accepted it graciously and 
forgot her wheat toast. Jane aimed to 
keep her wheat substitutions as simple 
as possible, and avoided culinary gym- 
nastics. When she found that barley 
flour made good muffins, she let the 
matter rest there and began her research 
work in some other line. She felt that 
there was quite as grave a danger in too 
many flours in the batter as too many 
cooks at the broth. 

She gathered all the information pos- 
sible on southern corn-meal cookery, 
until her corn pone and spoon bread vied 
in goodness with what "Mammy used 
to make." 

Jane Glover not only cooked well, but 
she read intelligently things relating to 
the art of nourishing a family, and as she 
read she learned that certain dietetic 
authorities claimed that bread should 
never accompany a meat dinner. In- 
stead of bread there should be salad 
greens and green vegetables. She knew 
this custom held in many European 
countries and she believed in it. Further- 
more, she believed this to be a time to 
preach the doctrine of elimination, as well 
as substitution, to our lavish, luxurious 



American people. But with Jane Glover 
there was no form of preaching so effective 
as practice, hence she tried this bread 
elimination on her family and there was 
not a murmur, not even from Joe Maxwell, 
who had always before been a "three 
slicer." Jane's heaping dishes of per- 
fectly mashed-and-seasoned potatoes, 
coupled with Joe's ardent desire to help 
in the cause, were quite filling enough. 

There was a special meeting of the 
family called to take final action on the 
dessert question. With the sugar ration 
down to two pounds per month per 
capita, and flour and fat in increasing 
demand, what stand should they take in 
regard to the continuance of cakes, pies 
and puddings during the period of the 
war. It takes fortitude to give up sweets, 
and Mrs. Glover's family had the normal 
sweet tooth, so naturally the matter 
had a careful weighingjbefore a decision 
was rendered. During the progress of 
the discussion Mrs. Dodd voiced a truism 
that had its effect. "I consider a cake 
ceases to be a cake when it is made of 
any kind of fat, any kind of flour and 
any kind of sweetening, and I believe 
we are begging the whole question in our 
frantic attempt at cake substitutes." 
"And what is pie, unless it is real pie," 
remarked Mr. Judson. As consistent 
loyalists. Miss Stanley thought it was 
time to stop pandering to the palate. 
True to their type, the hall-room boys 
revelled in layer cake, pumpkin and apple 
pie, and to face a famine of these took 
patriotism of the gritty kind, but half 
an hour later when Joe Maxwell knocked 
at the kitchen door it was to tell her the 
family had decided to "cut 'em all out," 
"but only for the period of the war, Mrs. 
Glover." 

This did not hinder Jane from serving 
all kinds of berries and fruits in season. 
Never were her baked apples surpassed 
in excellence at any table, and her trans- 
formation of the despised prune into a 
coveted tidbit became the acme of culi- 
nary art. She took special delight in 
surprising her family, now and again, 



CO-OPERATIVE COOKING 



183 



with various sorts of milk puddings that 
called for neither fat nor flour. During 
the late fall and winter nuts and raisins 
"topped off" many 4 rather lean dinner, 
and, in between times, the canned and 
preserved fruits that Jane had rescued 
from waste during the summer found a 
ready acceptance. 

So carefully had Mrs. Glover planned 



and conserved, and so cordially had every 
boarder co-operated, that when the holi- 
days came there came with them a batch 
of mince pies and a plum pudding as 
dividends on the family's "no desserts" 
investment. 

And this was the way a "Psychologi- 
cal Boarding House" met the Food Con- 
servation issue. 



Co-Operative Cooking 

By Ladd Plumley 



A FEW months ago American 
Cookery published an article 
prepared by the writer on the 
subject of community kitchens. At that 
time the facts concerning a community 
kitchen which was started by the British 
Ministry of Food had not been made 
generally known; in fact, the first 
kitchen had just been put into operation. 
At this time of war, and here in America, 
the subject is of such importance to 
housewives, and particularly the house- 
wives of the wage-earning classes, and 
of the great middle classes, that it should 
be given the widest possible publicity, 
that community kitchens and co-operative 
cookery is at present in operation on a 
scale hitherto not attempted, and has 
proved all and even more than has been 
prophesied of the plan. 

Alderman Spencer, Controller of Eng- 
land's first National Kitchen, in an 
article recently published in the Pall Mall 
Gazette^ writes as follows of what is some- 
times called the "Poplar experiment." 

"The Poplar experiment undoubtedly 
owes its success to the high quality of 
fare provided. But what has been done 
here can be done all over the country. 
In my opinion there are five essentials: 
To begin with, the kitchen must be in a 
good position, not in a back street or 
underground. The interior must be 
bright and attractive. It should be one 
of the first aims of the kitchen to set a 



high standard of respectability. Not 
long ago I was asked to get priority for 
a ton of sawdust for the floor of a national 
kitchen. Needless to say, the request 
was not complied with. If the kitchens 
aim at a high ideal, there is not the slight- 
est doubt the patrons will regulate their 
conduct to their surroundings, no matter 
what their past habits may have been. 

"Naturally, the plant and equipment 
must be as modern and .efficient as the 
appointment of the place in other re- 
spects. Any collection of old gas stoves 
will not do for the ideal kitchen I have 
in mind. Then the cooks and officials 
must be dressed in clean, attractive and 
suitable attire. Last, but not least, the 
menu must be varied constantly, the 
food used must be of excellent quality, 
and the dishes produced by experienced 
cooks who get the best out of the ma- 
terials, not only in flavor and attractive- 
ness, but also with regard to their 
nutritive value. 

"Granted that these five conditions 
prevail — and the Poplar experiment 
has proved that any local authority can 
establish them — • at least four distinct 
profits may result: A national profit in 
saving food and fuel, a municipal profit 
to be applied in giving additional quan- 
tities of food, a health profit in better 
food for the people, and an individual 
profit in saving to the patron. 

"All these advantages are wanted now 



184 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



in the national interest; but there is 
still one left which cannot be ignored. 
Lord Rhondda has aptly described the 
national kitchen as a form of insurance. 
An insurance against what.^ The ill 
effects of any severe food shortage. Let 
us hope that such a shortage will not 
arise; but in such times as these we must 
look ahead and provide against as many 
contingencies as imagination reveals. 
Local authorities and their officials have 
rendered much service of national and 
public importance, and many demands 
may yet be made upon their time and 
energies; but the additional service, 
which Lord Rhondda has called upon 
them to provide in establishing national 
kitchens, is one of an importance at the 
present juncture that local authorities 
in the interests of the people, whose local 
affairs they administer, cannot overlook. 
That they will handle it at once with the 
expedition, enthusiasm and business 
acumen, which the councils have dis- 
played in so many matters during this 
time of national call to duty, I do not 
doubt for one moment." 

The Poplar Kitchen of London referred 
to was started only a few months ago. 
But changes in the life of families and 
nations in war time rush to a conclusion 
at a tremendous speed, and within the 
first three months the so-called "experi- 
ment" is no longer an experiment. Let 
us see some things that the Poplar 
Kitchen has accomplished. And it 
should be understood that, although this 
public kitchen is no longer an experi- 
ment, the plan has really only passed 
beyond the cradle stage. It can be 
said to be but toddling to its feet. That 
it will develop into a vast giant cannot 
be doubted, indeed it is a giant infant 
that in three months has emerged from 
the cradle. 

The record of one week at the end of 
the first three months makes you gasp. 
Twenty-three hundred portions of food 
were served, and the customers included 
mothers, children, school teachers, clerks, 
mechanics and artisans in general. A 



portion of soup is sold for two cents per 
half-pint, cooked meat at eight cents per 
portion (one and one-half ounces), fish 
at four cents per portion, vegetables at 
two cents, with a portion of "sweets" 
at three cents. A restaurant is included 
as a part of the kitchen, and in London 
in these war times a meal can be had at 
what seems absurdly small prices. 

Not the lea'st significant statement 
made concerning the kitchen is that the 
health of customers has improved greatly. 
Aside from the effects of the good quality 
of the food served, this is to be expected. 
For cookery, and the smells of cookery, 
in small apartments cannot be otherwise 
than injurious to health, particularly 
in a densely populated portion of a vast 
city. 

The London housewife who lives near 
the Poplar Kitchen can go herself, or 
send one of her children and obtain 
healthful food at very low prices, which 
has been cooked by expert cooks and is 
kept heated in proper receptacles, ready 
to place on the table for the family meal. 
The cumulative waste, all labor of cook- 
ing, and all fuel needed in family cookery, 
are done away with. No need for a 
cooking range, no trips back and forth 
from butcher shop, fish market and green 
grocer, and only the actual need of the 
household to be considered. If a member 
is unexpectedly away, the waste of that 
portion is eliminated. Indeed, it is 
impossible, in a short article, to more than 
hint at the savings where a community 
kitchen is available. 

And let us briefly examine what the 
Poplar "experiment" has proved relative 
to the capital employed in a community 
kitchen and in co-operative cookery. 

It is shown that since this single 
kitchen was started, and buying provi- 
sions in relatively small quantities, and 
notwithstanding the very low prices 
charged for cooked food, that there has 
been a commercial profit for every week 
since the inauguration of the plan. The 
record for the week ending the first 
three months is as follows: After making 



WHEN YOU DO UP YOUR CURTAINS 



185 



provision for proper rent of building, 
after paying all labor charges, after 
providing for interest at a low rate on 
the capital invested, after allowing for 
a sinking fund for the entire redemption 
of capital within the period of three 
years, there remains a profit which is 
equal to 26 per cent on all capital ex- 
penditure. Arranging the figures in a 
different manner, after making due 
allowance for depreciation of cooking 
devices and all plant, and considering 
that the capital employed is a permanent 
investment, the profit on such capital is 
about 47 per cent. 

This brief summary of what has been 
already accomplished in co-operative 
cooking in London would not be complete 



without a suggestion that such a plan, 
and on a vast scale, should be started 
in America. Is there not a Boston or a 
New York capitalist who is ready to 
inaugurate a public kitchen merely as 
an investment.? Or, better, will not 
one of our great American cities start 
public kitchens on a scale commensurate 
with the importance of the plan.? The 
savings in fuel, in grains, in meat, in 
labor, in everything that is used in 
preparing food in a multitude of separate 
family kitchens, and in only one great 
city of our land, could be so great that 
the daylight-saving scheme, and, indeed, 
all other saving schemes, whatever, that 
have been proposed or put into operation, 
would dwindle into relative insignificance. 



When You Do Up Your Curtains 

Emma Gary Wallace 



SHEER, beautiful draperies at the 
windows mean so much in making 
a home attractive, both inside and 
out, and as curtains, like everything else, 
have "gone up" since the opening of 
the war, it befits the housewife to consider 
just how they may be laundered to best 
advantage. 

Almost every woman who keeps house 
thinks that her own particular way of 
"doing up" curtains is the best, and yet 
an expert who makes her entire living, 
and a good living at that, doing fine 
curtains, declares that quite as often as 
not curtains are improperly washed, 
starched and dried, quite spoiling their 
filmy beauty. 

Surrounded by about a hundred pairs 
of curtains she had just finished launder- 
ing, she was able to point -out how some 
of them were a much better color than 
others, because they had not been grayed 
by previous improper methods of wash- 
ing. It is her opinion, also, that properly 
washed and dried curtains will wear 
much longer than those done by less 



intelligent methods, and, of course, econ- 
omy in curtains, as well as foods and other 
furnishings, is necessary in the present 
crisis of affairs. 

The rules laid down by this expert 
curtain laundress are those learned in 
the school of experience, and among the 
patrons who trust her with their draperies 
are those who have paid fabulous prices 
for rare lace which now could probably 
not be duplicated at all. 

First of all, our expert laundress gently 
shakes the loose dust from the net, scrim, 
or lace hangings. If the fabric Is at all 
tender, she does not take hold of a single 
edge, but folds the curtain four times, 
turning it when one side Is shaken. 

The next step is to fold the curtains 
again into a smaller but smooth surface 
and to lay them into a tub of perfectly 
clear, cold water. She emphasizes the 
importance of having the water cold rather 
than hot or lukewarm. The warm water 
sets the brown tint of sunburn and the 
dust-grey caused by atmospheric action 
upon the fabric and its content of starch. 



186 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



If the curtains are very dusty, she 
changes this cold water two or three times, 
not rubbing the curtains, but merely 
beating them lightly under the water 
with her hands. She is careful not even 
to turn them unless the fabric is stout, 
because wet curtains are heavy and the 
weight is liable to tear them where they 
are not strong. 

After this cold rinsing process has 
been continued until the water is clear, 
she makes a nice warm suds, using a pure 
white soap. This time she pats them, 
one by one, in her hands, turning them 
gently but never rubbing them. The 
first sudsing water will show much soil, 
and the curtains are gently squeezed but 
never wrung. A second clean suds is 
ready and the curtains are put through 
this, only one at a time being taken, if 
the draperies are fine and choice. 

A perfectly clean, bright boiler, without 
a particle of rust upon it, is prepared with 
water of the same temperature as the 
sudsing water, and a tablespoonful of 
borax is added to each gallon. The cur- 
tains have now been squeezed from the 
second sudsing water, laid upon a clean 
table, and soaped gently, paying par- 
ticular attention to any darkened places. 
They are folded, soaped, laid into the 
boiler, and covered with water; a little 
borax is added, the boiler cover put in 
place, and the curtains are permitted to 
come to the boiling point. This is an 
important step in the bleaching process. 

Great care must be taken now, as the 
cotton or linen fibre will have been greatly 
softened by the action of the soap and 
the hot water, and any attempt at haste 
will be disastrous. Two ways are pos- 
sible to remove the curtains from the 
boiler without injury, — one is to have 
laid them in a cheese-cloth hammock in 
the boiler and to lift the ends out now, 
letting the water drain through; the other 
way is to permit them to remain in the 
boiling water until it cools sufficiently 
to handle them gently. Never fish them 
out with a stick or dipper. 

Rinse, one- by one, through two clear. 



warm waters, making the second cooler 
than the first. Have ready a pail of 
boiled starch, tinted with either bluing or 
strained coffee, according to the shade 
desired. It is a mistake to do curtains 
up with too little starch, as they do not 
shed the dust and soon grow very limp 
and soiled. They should be starched just 
to the degree of new curtains that have 
considerable body. Divide the pail of 
starch into as many howls as you have 
curtains, for if one after another is dipped 
into the pail, the first will be very stiff 
and the last very limp. Do not attempt 
to finish all the curtains at once. Take 
them, one by one, rinse, starch and put 
on the frames. 

Now, the preparation of the frames is 
exceedingly important. Before the cur- 
tains are wet at all, they should be 
measured and the curtain frames set to 
that size, or if the curtains are tender, 
to an inch or an inch and a half smaller 
each way. This prevents the need of 
stretching, and to stretch wet, delicate 
net or lace is to leave yawning holes 
somewhere oh the surface. 

If the curtains are scrim, muslin or 
substantial material, they may be put 
upon the frames, one by one, without any 
further ceremony, but if they are of 
delicate texture, the frames should first 
have a "backer" or foundation of cheese- 
cloth or cotton the exact size of the 
curtain frame, and fastened over the 
pins. This backer supports the heavy, 
wet lace and prevents it tearing. In 
fact, it serves the same purpose as did 
the floor, when our grandmothers fastened 
a sheet upon the spare-room carpet and 
pinned down their lace curtains upon it 
at spring house-cleaning time. 

Of course, the pins are properly spaced, 
and in buying frames the housewife 
should be particular to purchase those 
having aluminum or non-rustable pins. 
She will now set her frames in the sun, 
properly supported from beneath, or if 
of the easel type, from the back. Our 
expert laundress prefers those which rest 
horizontally during the drying process. 



CREAM CHEESE A LA ISIGNY 



187 



and she has done curtains successfully 
by this method that represented hundreds 
of dollars per set. 

She is very particular, however, never 
to do sheer lace curtains on a hot or 
windy day, preferring to select her 
weather so that they will not dry faster 
than she can put them upon the frames. 
She keeps at hand a bowl of thin starch 
with which to dampen them, should 
they dry, but prefers not to have to 
resort to this means. 

When the draperies are nicely dried, 
she removes them, one by one, if possible, 
having someone assist her at the opposite 
side of the frame. She has already a 
clean, padded ironing board, a bowl of 
warm water, and a clean cloth, and she 
takes each curtain and dampens the edge 
where the pin-marks show, gently press- 
ing the points or scallops or lace, as the 
case may be, until the edge looks exactly 
as it did when the article was new. She 



now folds her curtains, but does not press 
any folds into them, being careful to have 
a method in folding so that all have 
creases in exactly the same places. Some- 
times she spreads them all out and folds 
them together, to be sure of this. They 
are now put in boxes and delivered to 
their owners. 

To look about the finishing room of 
our expert laundress is to understand 
why she is proud of her work and why 
her greatest trouble is keeping up with 
the orders that come to her. Her prices 
are considerably higher than those of 
women on either side of her who also 
specialize in curtain laundering, but her 
work is well worth the price she asks, and 
once the curtains are hung at the windows, 
they are a joy to behold. There are no 
crooked edges and no pouchy places. In 
fact, they are just right, — quite as you and 
I can do them, if we take sufficient 
pains. 



Cream Cheese a la Isigny 

By Kurt Heppe 



IN France, and particularly in Paris, 
many ladies make an income by 
1 acquiring a route. A cheese route! 
Hark, ye, and wonder. I said a cheese 
route! 

As we have with us here, in these United 
States, damsels who put up preserves 
and make a reputation and an income 
with it, so we have, over there, people 
who specialize in cheese. 

They collect cream from farmers and 
from stores, and use it in what is called 
" Fromage creme d'Isigny." 

► Stores, and also farmers, are often 
glad to get an acceptable price for cream 
which has turned sour in transit. De- 
mand is not very large for it and, if they 
could not sell it to the cheese lady, it 
would be handled at a loss. 

The cheese lady collects the cream, 
heats it, solidifies the curd, presses it, 



and shapes it Into loaves. The loaves 
are the size of a child's arm. 

From this loaf pieces three inches long 
and one and a quarter inch in diameter 
are cut. They are wrapped into parch- 
ment paper and sold on the route. 

Little earthenware pots, with double 
thick cream, are sold at the same time. 

The Parisian and other "fine bouches" 
mix the cheese with the sweet cream 
and sugar, and, with that delectable 
French bread, they make a feast of it. 

This could be done here, too. Only 
the people do not know of it. Or rather, 
"ALL" the people do not know of it. 



In large American hotels, where French- 
men officiate, very delectable desserts 
are often served, prepared from sweet 
cream cheese. 

For this dish cream is curdled arti- 



188 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



PAPER BAG 




TRIANGULAR PIECE OF WRAPPING PAPER AND 
METHOD OF FOLDING IT 




No3 



BAG READY TO FILL 




Noa 



N04- 




BAG FOLDED 



BAG READY FOR USE 



CREAM CHEESE A LA ISIGNY 



189 




ficially. It can be done with a drop of 
fruit juice, or vinegar. 

In quantity it is best done with rennet. 



BAG IN OPERATION 




To make a very attractive' dessert 
one uses the pastry bag, or, faute de 
mieux, the paper bag. 

The sweet cream cheese is mixed with 
pastry sugar and whipped cream. It is 
pressed through the pastry bag onto a 
dessert plate in fancy little rings. 

The top of the ring is garnished with 
tufts of whipped cream, also from the 
pastry bag. 

The center of the ring is filled with 
fruit jelly — preferably red currant, or, 
if one wants to be perfectly " comme il 
faut," with red " Bar-le-Duc." 
^With such cheese hot toasted Bent's 
crackers and saltines should be served. 
This makes a delightful summer dish. 



To make Philadelphia cream cheese 
one uses both milk and cream. The curd 
is hard pressed, shaped into handy 
squares, wrapped in parchment paper 
and tinfoil. 

Philadelphia cream cheese is a very 
simple preparation. Sweet cream cheese 
is, however, infinitely more exquisite, 
also more expensive. 

Cream cheeses are not in any way 
ripened, are not salted, and are best the 
fresher they are. 

When they ripen, they change their 
character entirely. Every nuance of 
temperature, moisture and difference of 
handling them produces an entirely 
different cheese. k. h. 



THESE are the gifts I ask 
Of thee, Spirit serene: 
Strength for the daily task, 
Courage to face the road, 

Good cheer to help me bear the traveler's load. 
And, for the hours of rest that come between, 
An inward joy in all things heard and seen. 

These are the things I prize 
And hold of dearest worth: 



Light of the sapphire skies, 

Peace of the silent hills. 
Shelter of woods and comfort of the grass, 
Music of birds, murmur of little rills, 
Shadow of clouds that swiftly pass. 

And after showers the smell of flowers 

And of the good brown earth. 
And, best of all, along the way friendship and 
mirth. 

— Henry Far. Dyke. 



190 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



AMERICAN COOKERY 

FORMERLY THE 

BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL 
MAGAZINE 

OF 

Culinary Science and Domestic Economics 

Subscription $1.50 perYeaRjSingle Copies 15c 
Foreign Postage: To Canada, 20c per Year 
To other Foreign Countries, 40c per Year 

TO SUBSCRIBERS 

The date stamped on the wrapper is the date 
on which your subscription expires; it is, also, an 
acknowledgment that a subscription, or a renewal 
of the same, has been received. 

Please renew on receipt of the colored blank 
enclosed for this purpose. 

In sending notice to renew a subscription or 
change of address, please give the old address 
as well as the new. 

In referring to an original entry, we must know 
the name as it was formerly given, together with 
the Post-ofhce, County, State, Post-office Box, 
or Street' Number. 

Entered at Boston Post-office as Second-class Matter 



NEAR AND FAR 

(After a letter written from France by a six- 
teen year old girl, extract from which appeared 
in American Cookery for May, 1918.) 



A river there is in La Belle France, 
Like a silver ribbon narrow, 

With a single sweep of his wings across. 
Flies gayly the little sparrow. 



Across it you and your love could talk, 

As you wander on either side. 
Now armies great on these self-same banks 

Facing each other abide. 



As far apart as the stars above, 
As far as is wrong from the right, 

Are those armies two awaiting there. 
To wage their bitter fight. 



An ocean great there is that's so wide. 

If to cross it the sea gull tries, 
He must find, if he can, some resting place, 

Ere o'er it he safely flies. 



On either side there are nations great, 
So close their hearts touch each other, 

So near and so dear these nations are. 
They claim each other as brother. 

Hattie H. d'Autremont. 



THE GOOD WOMAN 

THE good woman is a good house- 
keeper. Whatever other accom- 
pHshments a young woman may attain, 
she must become a good home maker or 
fail in her real mission. No matter how 
many exceptions be taken to the rule, 
no matter in what form you put the case, 
the precept was so stated long ago in 
sacred writ, and it remains true to this 
day 

The good woman "looketh well to the 
ways of her household, and eateth not the 
bread of idleness." 

The mother who allows a daughter to 
come to maturity without adequate, 
fitting knowledge of domestic science, 
and some measure of explicit training in 
practical housekeeping, commits a most 
egregious blunder that cannot be well 
repaired. 

The tendency of all educational and 
industrial thought today is towards equal 
rights, equal opportunities, equality in all 
things for mankind. At the same time 
that other wise precept holds good: 
"Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do 
it with thy might," and it applies alike to 
the artisan, the breadwinner and the 
housekeeper. Domestic science and 
household arts were never more in evi- 
dence, never were given a more prominent 
place in the economic welfare of mankind 
than they hold today. Food and its con- 
servation, ever regarded the chief factor 
in the progress and development of races, 
has now swiftly become of paramount 
importance the world over. The occu- 
pation of the housekeeper is secondary 
to none other. 



HOUSEWIVES RELEASED 
FROM WHEATLESS PLEDGE 

HOUSEWIVES throughout the coun- 
try who patriotically put their homes 
on a wheatless basis last spring have been 
released from their pledges to the Food 
Administration to go absolutely without 
wheat. This release was merely from 
the voluntary pledge to go entirely with- 



EDITORIALS 



191 



i 



I 



out wheat until the new harvest. House- 
wives will continue to purchase the re- 
quired amount of wheat substitutes with 
their wheat flour. Bakers are still 
obliged to make Victory Bread, which 
must contain at least 25 per cent wheat 
substitute. 

This release of housewives follows close 
upon like action in case of hotels, res- 
taurants, clubs, and dining-car services. 

Coming in of the new wheat crop has 
made it possible for the Nation to go 
back partially to its old habits of .eating. 
But the uncertainties of war and the 
necessity for building up a food reserve 
are incentives to caution, even in the face 
of a good crop. 

The response of the American house- 
wife last spring, when the country's 
wheat reserves were exhausted and only 
the wheat saved by abstinence could be 
s^t abroad in response to the life-and- 
death appeals of the allies, is regarded by 
the Food Administration as one of the 
finest manifestations of patriotic spirit 
since America entered the war. Hun- 
dreds of thousands of homes went partly 
or wholly on a wheatless basis. 

SAVE ON SUGAR 

THE people of the United States in 
wheat saving have shown what a 
democracy can do. For several months 
the household consumption of wheat 
has been less than 50 per cent of normal, 
while in the immediate past the whole 
country has been content to do with 
only about 35 or 40 per cent of normal 
wheat requirements. The result has been 
that we were able to export 141,000,000 
bushels of wheat, much of it as flour, 
that otherwise, in the face of a short 
harvest, we would not have been able to 
send overseas. This wheat was the 
salvation of the allies, and each individual 
who helped to attain this result may 
have in some degree the same conscious- 
ness of duty well done and of actual 
achievement as have the soldiers in the 
trenches. 

What has been done with wheat can 



be done with sugar. It is up to the 
individual American! 



The sugar campaign comes on us 
suddenly. Revised accounts of losses 
and resources and new statement of 
needs, which we are in honor bound to 
meet, compel a sharp change in program. 
We must act quickly — what is not well 
begun in the next six weeks will not be 
done at all. 

The success of this program rests on the 
honor and co-operation of the American 
people. What are they doing now.^ We 
hear of people going from store to store, 
trying to double their portion over and 
over. They don't realize they are trying 
to beat the game. That is failure of the 
program. 

How was it in the wheat campaign? 
People everywhere vieing with one an- 
other in zeal to play the game. That was 
success. 

Our success in the wheat campaign 
literally held the allies together through 
the spring and summer. It did more 
than any other thing to give them comfort 
and courage until the tide turned last 
month. It did more than any other 
performance of ours to establish Ameri- 
can credit until the splendid part our 
troops took in the second Marne battle. 

Again we are called upon to share with 
those who sit at the common table. Jt 
is a challenge of war conditions to our 
humanity, our chivalry and our worth. 
This time we are required not to employ 
a substitute for necessary food, but to 
give up an indulgence. 

Shall we succeed.^ Ask yourselves. 
Would we do it, if it was to share with a 
sick family next door instead of stricken 
neighbors across the sea.? 

We can if we will. We will if we 
realize. But the time is short. The 
background of the wheat campaign was 
six months building, but the sugar cam- 
paign must be put through in six weeks — 
or fail. It is the second large test of the 
twelve million Food Administration mem- 
bership. They look to you — they trust 



192 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



you. Get the situation home to them 
and they will play the game. 

We claim the right to share with the 
allies. Let us give Mr. Hoover, now 
sitting in the allied food council, fresh 
warrant to assure the nations that 
America will make good. Let us send 
by every ship substantial tokens of 
support to our boys over there from an 
America worth dying for. 

The Food Administration appeals with 
confidence to you. U. S. F. A. 

. PLAY FAIR WITH UNCLE SAM 

THEY have learned how to use coal 
economically in Europe — through 
having to pay all the way from twenty to 
ninety dollars a ton for it. The man who 
is paying that does not need any fuel ad- 
ministration to urge him, on patriotic 
grounds, to stop wasting coal. He de- 
velops the keenest interest in that subject 
without prompting; and he saves the 
coal. 

If our Government took its hand off 
the fuel situation today, there would be no 
wasting of coal next winter. The price 
would go to such a height that every man 
who burned a ton of coal would make it 
his personal business to see it was burned 
to the best advantage. 

The Government will not take its 
hand off. It wants poor people to have 
a chance at fuel, too. It gives the people 
the benefit of a not exorbitant price. 
They ought to show their appreciation by 
using the coal just as carefully as though 
they were paying the European price. 

— Saturday Evemng Post. 

DAYLIGHT SAVING 

DAYLIGHT saving, from Sunday, 
March 31, to Sunday, October 27, 
1918, was established by Congress in 
March, 1918, as an effective method of 
conserving the health, the wealth, and 
the mineral resources of the nation. All 
clocks in the country were moved forward 
one hour, at 2 A.M., March 31. 

Estimates of the saving in coal that will 
be effected in 1918 in the United States, 



under the present daylight saving plan, 
vary from 1,000,000 tons to 1,500,000 
tons. 

The amount of coal used in this coun- 
try during the summer months in the 
generation of heat and light is insigni- 
ficant, however, when compared with the 
amount consumed during the other sea- 
sons of the year. 

Great Britain and Northern European 
countries have restricted the use of the 
daylight-saving plan to the summer 
months, because the hours of daylight 
during the remainder of the year are so 
few as to render the plan impracticable. 

Practically all of Europe lies north of 
the average latitude of the United States, 
and the northern boundary of this coun- 
try is farther south than the greater 
portion of Europe. In every portion of 
the United States there are much more 
than eight hours of daylight on even the 
shortest day of the year. Daylight sav- 
ing, therefore, would be practicable con- 
tinuously in this country, and the saving 
effected would be very much greater in the 
winter than in the summer. 

Two changes of time each year will 
subject the railroads, and every other 
common carrier, to an inconvenience 
which would be obviated by the per- 
manent adoption of the present standard 
of time. 



To Quentin Roosevelt 

Courageous, fearless hero of the air, 
Revered and loved by all who knew thee well. 
To whom within the foeland's gates befell 
The supreme test of loyalty — we bare 
Our saddened hearts to thee! Proud that out 

there 
Thou proved the mettle of a nation's trust 
And parent's honor in combating lust 
That threatens TRUTH AND FREEDOM 

everywhere! 

'Twas not in vain thou left us in thy prime. 
For thy brave spirit breathes the call abroad, 
"Do thou thy best and trust to God the rest!" 
Thou lived in deeds, not years — and passing 

time 
Will cherish thy heroic efforts! Laud 
Thy sacrifice as manhood's crucial test! 

Caroline L. Sumner. 




BLACK DUCK 



Seasonable and Tested Recipes 

By Janet M. Hill 

TN ALL recipes where flour Is used, unless otherwise stated, the flour Is measured after sifting once. 
Where flour Is measured by cups, the cup Is filled with a spoon, and a level cupful Is meant. A 
tablespoonful or teaspoonful of any designated material Is a LEVEL spoonful. In flour mixtures 
where yeast Is called for, use bread flour; In all other flour mixtures, use cake or pastry flour. 



Panned Duckling 

DRAW and singe a young duck, cut 
it down through the back, and 
wipe with a damp cloth; cut off 
the wings. Rub over with lemon juice 
(half a lemon) and vegetable oil and sea- 
son lightly with salt; run two skewers 
through the breast to keep the duck flat. 
Let stand in a cool place about two hours. 
Tie two or three branches of thyme and 
two cloves in three branches of parsley; 
set these in a frying pan, and over them 
set the duck, skin side down; pour on a 
tablespoonful of vegetable oil, cover close 
with a paper spread with oil and let cook 
in a quick oven about thirty-five minutes, 
basting four or five times with oil. Re- 
turn the paper each time after basting. . 
While cooking the duck, have ready the 
neck, wings, liver, etc., chopped small; let 
cook directly over the fire in two or three 

193 



tablespoonfuls of oil, stirring constantly 
until an amber shade; add two table- 
spoonfuls of flour and stir until browned; 
add two cups of veal or beef broth and 
stir until boiling; let simmer until the 
duck is done; stir it into the pan in which 
the duck was cooked; add the juice of 
half an orange and let simmer about six 
minutes; season with salt and pepper, 
skim off all fat (use tissue paper if needed 
to remove the last of the fat), strain and 
serve with the duck. 

Fricassee of Chicken, Savory Rice 

Separate a fowl at the joints into pieces 
for serving. Cover with boiling water, 
let boil six or seven minutes, then cook 
at a gentle simmer until tender, probably 
about three hours. When done remove 
with a skimmer to a serving dish and 
dispose on it, in symmetrical shape, the 
pieces of breast in the center. Into the 



194 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



broth (for a quart) stir half a cup of flour, 
a teaspoonful of salt and one-fourth a 
teaspoonful of black pepper, mixed with 
cold water to a consistency to pour into 
the broth; stir until boiling, then let sim- 
mer ten or fifteen minutes. Serve in a 
bowl. Serve cooked rice around the 
chicken. 

Savory Rice for Chicken, Etc. 

Put one cup of rice over a quick fire, 
with a quart or more of cold water. Stir 
with a fork while heating quickly to the 
boiling point, let boil two or three min- 
utes, drain on a sieve and rinse with cold 
water. Return the rice to the fire with 
two tablespoonfuls of chicken fat or 
butter and an onion cut in halves, cross- 



close and let cook in the oven, turning 
often and taking care that the fat does not 
get too brown. When the fowl is browned 
add a cup of boiling water; parboil five 
or six onions of medium size, and put 
them into the dish with the fowl, adding, 
if needed, another cup of boiling water; 
keep covered close, turning the chicken 
two or three times. When the chicken 
is nearly tender, add a cauliflower, broken 
in pieces for serving, and half a dozen 
small carrots, or two or three of larger size, 
scraped and cut in quarters. Let cook 
until the vegetables are tender. Serve 
the fowl in the center of a dish, the vege- 
tables around it. Skim the fat from the 
broth, thicken with flour smoothed in 
water, and serve in a bowl. 





^ i 


K^a^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l 







FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN, SAVORY RICE 



wise, Stir and cook until the fat is ab- 
sorbed; then add two cups of chicken 
broth, two cups of tomato pulp, a tea- 
spoonful of salt, half a green pepper, cut 
in shreds, or half a teaspoonful of paprika, 
and let cook (on an asbestos mat), shaking 
the pan often till the rice is tender and 
the liquid is absorbed. Add half a cup of 
grated cheese, mix with a fork and turn 
about the chicken on the dish. The 
cheese may be omitted. Good, also, with 
warmed over lamb or veal. 

Fowl Cooked with Vegetables 

Truss a fowl as for roasting, and dredge 
it with rye or oat flour; put about four 
tablespoonfuls of fat in a covered dish 
(not too large), set in the fowl and cover 



Cottage Cheese and Peanut Loaf 

Mix together, thoroughly, one cup ol 
cooked cereal, one cup of fine bread 
crumbs, two tablespoonfuls of peanut 
butter, half a cup of chopped nuts, one 
tablespoonful of vegetable oil or cream, 
one teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful 
of paprika, one-fourth a teaspoonful of 
soda mixed with the cream, and such sea- 
soning as is desired; half a teaspoonful of 
onion juice, half a teaspoonful of pow- 
dered thyme, one tablespoonful of 
powdered or chopped celery leaves, or a 
teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce, one 
or more may be used. Mix all into a 
compact loaf; or line a small Charlotte 
mold with two strips of parchment paper; 
butter the mold thoroughly and pack the 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



195 



mixture into the mold. Let bake in a 
pan of boiling water (do not let the water 
boil after the dish is in the oven) about 
half an hour, or until well browned. 
Serve hot with a brown or a tomato 
sauce and a green salad. 

Boston Roast 

Soak two cups of dried Lima or kidney 
beans over night. Drain, and set to cook 
in boiling water. When tender drain 
again and retain the liquid. Press the 
beans through a sieve; add two cups of 
pecan or English walnut meats, chopped 
fine, half a cup of young America or other 
cheese, grated or cut fine, half a cup of 
soft bread crumbs, half a cup of celery, 
chopped exceedingly fine, one teaspoonful 
of salt, one teaspoonful of grated or 
scraped onion pulp, half a teaspoonful (or 
less) of pepper, one egg beaten light, and 
enough of the water from the beans to 
mix into a compact loaf. Grease a tin 
sheet, turn the loaf on it, and set into a 
baking pan, with a spoonful of vegetable 
oil poured over the top. Bake about 
half an hour in a moderate oven, basting 
four times with oil or hot water. Serve 
with a tomato or brown sauce made of 
the fat in the pan. Green beans may 
be used. 

Chili Con Carne 

This dish may be made with green, 
dried or canned beans. Canned kidney 
beans give a very satisfactory dish. Use 
about a pint of beans without liquid. 
Cut one pound of round steak in strips 
one inch long and one-fourth an inch 




CHILI CON CARNE WITH EDGE OF 
MASHED POTATO 

wide. Let brown in fat in a frying pan. 
Skim out the meat, add to the fat two 
onions of fair size, cut up fine, and stir 
and cook until softened and yellowed. 
Add a can of tomatoes and heat to the boil- 
ing point; add the beans (no liquid), a tea- 
spoonful of salt and half a teaspoonful 
of paprika, and pour over the meat (an 
earthen casserole is a convenient utensil). 
Simmer gently three hours. Twenty 
minutes before serving, add half a green 
pepper, cut in shreds, and more salt and 
pepper if needed. Serve in the dish 
with a narrow border of boiled rice or 
mashed potato around the edge of the 
dish. If preferable, a saucepan may be 
used for cooking and a platter for serving. 

Oat Flour and Wheat Biscuit 

(Fifty-fifty Biscuit) 

Sift together one cup, each, of oat flour 
and wheat flour, half a teaspoonful of 
salt and four teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder; add the oat flour that does not 
pass the sieve to the sifted material; cut 




HOT MEAT SANDWICHES 



196 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



in two tablespoonfuls of shortening and 
mix to a soft dough with skim milk. 
About two-thirds of a cup will be needed. 
Turn with a knife on ailoured board, to 
coat lightly with flour and get into a 
compact shape; pat and roll into a sheet 
with the rolhng pin; cut into rounds; 
bake in a quick oven. 

Hot Meat Sandwiches 

Prepare the recipe for oat flour and 
wheat biscuit. Roll it into a thin, rect- 
angular sheet. Have ready any variety 
or two varieties of tender cooked meat, 
chopped fine. If cold roast meat be 
used, it must be cooked tender and all 
inedible portions removed before chop- 
ping. Moisten the meat with a very little 



tablespoonfuls, each, of butter and flour, 
one fourth a teaspoonful, each, of salt 
and paprika, and a generous cup of rich 
milk. Stir in one-fourth a cup of grated 
cheese and pour over the cauliflower. 
Sprinkle a little grated cheese over the 
sauce and serve at once. If there be 
delay in serving, keep the cauliflower 
hot, but do not color the cheese. Use this 
recipe for kohl-rabi^ turnip, cabbage, etc. 

Pear-and-Nut Salad, Cottage 
Cheese Dressing 

Cut three-fourths a cup of halves of 
English walnut meats in lengthwise slices. 
Pare, quarter, core and cut in slices six 
ripe, juicy pears. Sprinkle the pears^with 
lemon juice, or let lie in salted water 




CAULIFLOWER WITH CHEESE SAUCE 



cold sauce and spread it over the dough. 
Do not use too much. Roll like a jelly- 
roll; cut into six pieces, and set these 
on end in a greased baking pan, with a bit 
of butter above each. Bake about 
tw^enty-five minutes. Serve at once with 
plenty of brown or cream sauce, accord- 
ing to the variety of meat. Corned beef 
with cream sauce is good. Chicken and 
ham with bechamel sauce (chicken broth 
and rich milk) is another good combina- 
tion. 

CauHflower with Cheese Sauce 

Boil cauliflower in salted boiling water 
until tender, about fifteen minutes. Drain 
and separate into flowerets. Set these 
in individual dishes. To serve four, 
prepare a cup of cream sauce, using two 



about two minutes, then drain and dry. 
Set the pears on a nest of Romaine or 
other lettuce, sprinkle over the nuts and 
pour the dressing over the whole. 

Cottage Cheese Dressing 

Mix together two teaspoonfuls of 
flour, one teaspoonful, each, of salt, mus- 
tard and paprika; add three tablespoon- 
fuls of milk and mix to a smooth paste, 
pour on five tablespoonfuls of hot milk, 
stir until smooth, then stir and cook over 
boiling water until the mixture thickens; 
cover and let cook ten minutes. Beat 
one egg; add a tablespoonful of honey, 
and mix and stir into the hot mixture; 
when the egg is cooked, gradually beat 
in the juice of one lemon or four table- 
spoonfuls of vinegar; remove from the 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



197 




PEAR-AND-NUT SALAD, COTTAGE CHEESE DRESSING 



fire and beat in two tablespoonfuls of 
butter. When cold and ready to use, 
beat in one cup of cottage cheese, pressed 
through a ricer and fold in one cup of 
cream beaten firm. 

Romaine, Date-and-Cottage- 
Cheese Salad 

Roll cottage cheese in balls; roll the 
balls in chopped nut meats (pecan, wal- 
nut or peanut). Pour boiling water 
over the dates in a package, mix through 
the water and skim to an agate plate; 
let dry an instant in the oven, then cut 
each into quarters lengthwise, discarding 
the seeds. Chill the dates and cheese 
balls. Dispose crisp chilled center leaves 
of romaine on a serving dish, set the 
dates in the center, and the cheese balls 
around them. Serve with French dress- 
ing. 

Cottage Cheese Molded with 
Olives 

Cut, lengthwise, pieces from three or 
four olives, discarding the stones; line 
a small charlotte mold with two strips 



of parchment paper, letting the ends 
hang out on the four sides. With a 
larding or trussing needle set the olive 
filets in the bottom of the mold, on the 
paper, in some symmetrical fashion; 
press cottage cheese, seasoned slightly 
with salt, paprika and cream or melted 
butter, above the olives, sprinkle in a 
few slices of olives and finish filling the 
mold with cheese. Make the cheese by 
any of the recipes previously given in the 
pages of this magazine. The r-ecipe 
given in the August-September number, 
with junket, makes a rather firm cheese. 

Cottage Cheese Toast 

Prepare four slices of toast, using 
Victory bread, and one cup of cream 
sauce. For the sauce take two table- 
spoonfuls, each, of butter and flour, one- 
fourth a teaspoonful, each, of salt and 
paprika, and a generous cup of milk. 
Gradually beat half a cup, or more, of 
cottage cheese, pressed through a ricer 
into the sauce. Dip the edges of the toast 
in salted boiling water and set them on a 
hot plate. Pour the sauce above. Bos- 




ROMAINE, DATE-AND-COTTAGE CHEESE SALAD 



198 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



ton brown bread is good prepared in this 
way. Young America cheese, grated, 
may be used in place of the cottage 

cheese. 

Cottage Cheese for Piping 

Press cottage cheese through a "ricer" 
or vegetable press. Season to taste with 
salt, or salt, paprika and mustard; beat 
in heavy cream (nearly the same bulk as 
of cheese), or fold in the same quantity 
of cream (sweet or sour), beaten very 
firm. Press through bag with tube in 
the same manner as mashed potato or 
whipped cream. To serve with marma- 
lade, apple sauce, baked apples, prunes, 
etc., omit paprika and mustard; use 
these when the cheese is to be served 
with tomatoes, lettuce or other green 
salad. 



beaten light and mixed with half a cup 
of sour milk, then stir in one cup and a 
half of sifted flour, sifted again with one 
teaspoonful of soda and half a teaspoonful, 
each, of cloves, cinnamon and ginger. 
Bake in a sheet fifteen to twenty minutes, 
in a loaf about twenty-five minutes. 
This recipe is sent by a friend of ex- 
president Taft's Aunt Delia. It is found 
most excellent when made with one cup 
of rye or barley flour and half a cup of 
wheat flour. Without doubt the wheat 
flour might be replaced with one cup 
of rye or barley flour and one-fourth 
cup of rice flour. 

Cornflake Macaroons 

Put one cup of shredded cocoanut and 
two tablespoonfuls of corn syrup in a 
double boiler: let cook until the cocoanut 




COTTAGE CHEESE PIPED ON CRACKERS. MARMALADE 



Southern Sweet Potatoes 

Parboil the potatoes ten minutes, peel 
and cut in slices, crosswise. Dispose 
the slices in a buttered baking dish in 
layers, dotting each layer with a little 
sugar and bits of butter. Add a few 
drops of vanilla to enough milk nearly to 
cover the potatoes; pour the milk over 
the potatoes and let bake in a moderate 
oven until done. 

Aunt Delia's Gingerbread 

Cream one-fourth a cup of butter (or 
substitute); beat in half a cup of sugar 
and half a cup of molasses. Add one egg. 



is softened, fifteen minutes or longer. 
Mix through half a cup of sugar and four 
cups of cornflakes, then work in the 
whites of three eggs, beaten very light. 
Drop by teaspoonfuls in greased tins, and 
shape into rounds. Bake in a slow oven 
until stiffened slightly. One-third a cup 
of honey may replace the half cup of 
sugar. 

Honey Sponge Cake 

Boil three-fourths a cup of honey to 
about 240 F. or until it forms a soft ball, 
when tested in cold water; pour in a fine 
stream on the yolks of five eggs, beaten 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



199 



very light, beating constantly mean- 
while; beat in the grated rind and juice 
of half a lemon; fold in half a cup of 
potato flour and the whites of five eggs 
beaten very light. Bake in an ungreased 
tube pan, in a very moderate oven, about 
fifty minutes. Let cool in the inverted 
tin. This recipe was given in the April 
number, but with half a cup, each, of 
honey and sugar. Three-fourths a cup 
of honey makes a cake of just as good 
texture and one perfectly satisfactory in 
every way. 

Cottage Cheese Pie 

Melt two tablespoonfuls of butter; in 
it cook two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch 
and half a teaspoonful of salt; add two- 
thirds of a cup of milk and stir until boil- 
ing; add two-thirds a cup of honey or 
three-fourths a cup of conservation syrup, 
one cup of cottage cheese, pressed through 
a ricer, the yolks of three eggs, beaten 
light, and the grated rind of one lemon 
or orange; mix all together thoroughly 
and turn into a plate lined with pastry 
in the same manner as for a custard pie. 
Bake until the mixture is firm. Beat 
the whites of three eggs very light; grad- 
ually beat in one-fourth a cup of honey 
and spread the meringue over the pie. 
Dredge on a teaspoonful of granulated 
sugar. Let cook in a very moderate oven 
until the meringue is tinted dehcately. 
Serve'^the pie the day it is made. 

Rye-and-Oat Flour Pastry 

Sift together three-fourths a cup, each, 
of rye and oat flour, half a teaspoonful 
of salt and one-fourth a teaspoonful of 




COTTAGE CHEESE PIE 

baking powder. Look over the coarse 
oat flour in the sieve to remove extran- 
eous particles, and add the rest to the 
sifted flour. Cut in five tablespoonfuls of 
shortening and mix to a soft dough with 
cold water. The pastry may be used at 
once, but it is handled more easily, if it be 
set aside in a covered bowl, in a cool 
place, over night. 



Maple Bavarian Cream 
Charlotte Russe 



and 



Soften one and a half tablespoonfuls of 
granulated gelatine in one-third a cup of 
cold water and dissolve by setting the 
dish of gelatine in hot water; add three- 
fourths a cup of maple syrup and stir in a 
dish of ice and water until the mixture 
begins to stiffen a little, then fold in one 
cup and a half of cream, beaten very light 
but not dry. Turn in a mold for Bavar- 
ian cream; or for Charlotte Russe line 
the mold with lady fingers or thin slices 
of sponge cake before turning the cream 
into it. To serve a larger number, boil 
the syrup about six minutes, then pour 
in a fine stream on the white of an tgg, 
beaten very light, beating constantly 
meanwhile; then add the gelatine and 




COTTAGE CHEESE PIE, PIECE REMOVED 



200 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




MAPLE BUCKWHEAT COOKIES 



when cold^and beginning to set fold in the 
cream and finish as before. 

Maple-Buckwheat Cookies 

Cream half a cup of shortening (if un- 
salted add half a teaspoonful of salt) ; beat 
in three-fourths a cup of heavy maple 
syrup (boil until thick if necessary), two 
eggs, beaten light, and two cups of buck- 
wheat flour, sifted again with two tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder. Knead 
slightly, roll into a sheet (part at a time) 
and cut into rounds; brush over with egg- 
white, sprinkle with chopped nut-meats 
and a little granulated sugar. Bake in a 
moderate oven. 

Victory-Chimes Fruit-Food 

Victory-Chimes Fruit-Food is a fruit- 



food prepared at 614 Milwaukee Street, 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, for the boys 
"over there" and "over here." All 
profits from its sale are to be used for the 
erection of the Victory Chimes at Wash- 
ington, D. C. The confection, which 
comes wrapped in waxed paper, and 
packed in an attractive box, resembles 
rich fruit cake containing nuts. It may 
be served cold as cake, or hot with a 
sauce as a pudding. 

Victory-Chimes Fruit-Food 
Sundae 

Set a slice of hot steamed Victory- 
Chimes Fruit-Food on a small serving 
plate; above dispose a small cone-shape 
of ice cream; over the whole pour two or 
three tablespoonfuls of maple syrup. 




VICTORY-CHIMES, FRUIT-FOOD SUNDAE. WITH FOOD FROM WHICH SLICE WAS CUT AND CONTAINER 



Well-Balanced Menus Without Sugar. 

One Week in October. 



Breakfast (Wheatless) 

Hulled Corn, Maple Syrup, Top Milk 

Small Potatoes, Baked 

Bacon Broiled in Oven 

Coffee Oatmeal Bannocks Cocoa 

Dinner 

Fricassee of Fowl, Savory Rice 

Tomatoes and Romaine, French Dressing 

Cauliflower, Hollandaise Sauce 

Sweet Potatoes, Southern Style (Maple Syrup) 

Lemon Sherbet (Conservation Syrup) 

Sponge Cake (honey, potato flour) 

Supper 

Tomato Rabbit on Wheatless Biscuit 
Cold Cauliflower, French Dressing 
Apples Baked with Figs, Top Milk 

Aunt Delia's Gingerbread 
(Maple Sugar or Karo) Tea 



Breakfast 

Cornflakes 
Sweet Apples, Baked, Top Milk 
Victory Toast (oatmeal bread) 
Coffee Potato Doughnuts Cocoa 

Luncheon 

Emergency Soup 
Cheese Timbales, Cream Sauce 
Sliced Tomatoes, French Dressing 
Rye or Barley-and-Rice-flour Biscuit 
Grapes 

Dinner 

Fresh or Canned Salmon, Boiled (made 

hot in can, boiling water, turned out whole) 

Egg Sauce Boiled Potatoes 

Buttered Beets Peach Ice Cream 

(Conservation Syrup) 

Cornflake Macaroons 



Breakfast 

Fried Hominy Mush, Maple Syrup 

Broiled Tripe Potatoes Cooked in Milk 

Rye-meal and Oat-flour Muffins 

Coffee Cocoa 

Luncheon 

Cream of Tomato Soup 

Slices Victory Bread with Young America 

Cheese (made hot in oven) 

Baked Indian Pudding, Top Milk 

Dinner 

Rice-and-Chicken Souffle 
Buttered Shell Beans, Bechamel or Mush- 
room Sauce 
Tomatoes Stuffed with Mayonnaise of Celery 
Hot Boston Brown Bread (wheatless) 
Apple Tapioca Pudding, Maple Syrup 



Breakfast 

Hominy, Sliced Bananas, Top MiJk 

Eggs Cooked in Shell 

Potatoes, Saute 

Oat Flour Muffins 

Coffee Cocoa 

Dinner 

Round Steak en Casserole 

(onions, carrots, potatoes) 

Celery Hearts 

Lemon Pie 

(barley or oat flour pastry, honey for sugar) 

Supper 

Lettuce, Date-and- Apple Salad 

Cottage Cheese 

Rice Bread and Butter 

Tea or Cocoa Honey Cookies 



I 



Breakfast 


Breakfast 




Barley Meal Mush, Top Milk 


Hulled Corn, Syrup, Top Milk 




Tripe rolled in Cornmeal, Fried 


Fresh Fish Cakes, Saute, or 




Fried Bananas 


Fish-and- Potato Hash 




Sweet Potatoes, Baked 


Pickled Beets 




Breakfast Corncake 


Muffins, Toasted 




Coffee Cocoa 


Coffee Cocoa 




Luncheon 


Dinner 


*tI 


Grapes 


Fresh Fish Chowder 


w 


Creamed Celery with Poached Eggs 


Mustard Pickles or Sliced Tomatoes 


1— 1 


Baked Potatoes, Belgian Style 


Wheatless Crackers 


> 


Apple Dumpling, Syrup, Butter 


Prune Bavarian Cream 


^ 


Tea 


Honey Cookies 




Dinner 


Supper 




Boston Roast, Tomato Sauce 


Cheese Croquettes 




Celery Hearts 


Cabbage Salad 




Sweet Potatoes, Baked 


Spider Corncake 




Maple Rice Pudding with Raisins 


Left-over Gingerbread 




Half-Cups Coffee 


Tea 





Breakfast 

Barley Meal Mush, Hot Dates, 

Top Milk 

Rice Omelet 

Potato Doughnuts 

Coffee Cocoa 



Luncheon 

Cream of Celery Soup 

Fried Hominy Balls, Cheese 

Sauce 

Sliced Tomatoes 

Quick Barley or .Rye Biscuit 

Grapes 

201 



Dinner 

Boston Baked Beans 
Boston Brown Bread 

Dill or Mustard Pickles or 
Pickled String Beans 

Prune Jelly, Conservation 
Custard 



Company Luncheons of Two Courses 


(SUGARLESS) 


I 


V 


Baked Turbans of Fresh Fish, Bechamel 


Halibut a la King 


Sauce 


Cucumbers, French Dressing 


Potato Balls Parisienne 


Victory Bread (oatmeal) 


(Butter and Parsley) 


Individual Cottage Cheese^Pies 


Rye Meal Biscuit 


Half Cups Coffee 


Lettuce and Tomatoes, French Dressing 




Peach or Lemon Sherbet 


VI 


(Conservation Syrup) 


Spanish Omelet 


Half Cups Coffee 


Oat Flour Muffins 




Conservation Cream Puffs 




Cocoa 


II - 






VII 


Cauliflower, Cheese Sauce 




Rye Popovers 


Spinach or Swiss Chard Souffle, Cream 


Lettuce, French Dressing 


Sauce 


Baked Maple Custard 


Rice Flour Bread 


Honey Cookies 


Mayonnaise of Eggs and Lettuce 


Half Cups Coffee 


Half Cups Coffee 




VIII 


III 


Tomatoes Stuffed with Mayonnaise of 


Celery and Chicken 


Cream of Corn Soup, St. Germain 


Breadcrust Bread 


(corn timbales in soup) 


Frozen Apricots (conservation syrup) 


Rye Meal Bread Sticks 


Half Cups Coffee 


Celery 


IX 


Romaine, Dates, Nuts and Cottage 




Cheese Salad 


Egg Croquettes, Italian Style 


Half Cups Coffee 


Lettuce and Tomatoes, French Dressing 




Apples Baked with Almonds 




(porcupine style, conservation syrup) 




Honey Cookies 


IV 


Half Cups Coffee 


Cheese (Young America) Croquettes 


X 


Romaine, French Dressing 




Barley-and-Rice Flour Biscuit 


Cheese Pudding 


Prune Souffle, Boiled Custard 


Apple Sauce (maple syrup) 


(honey or conservation syrup) 


Squash Pie (rye pastry) 


Cornflake Macaroons 


Half Cups Coffee 



202 



Food Notes for October 

By Janet M. Hill 



OF wheat flour and wheat products, 
If possible, use none; not over six 
pounds per person per month. 

Victory mixed flour, 80 per cent wheat, 
20 per cent substitute, may be bought 
without substitutes. 

Four pounds of wheat flour may be 
bought with one pound of substitute. 

Pure rye flour or meal may be sold as 
a substitute; two pounds with three 
pounds of wheat. 

Rye products may^be used freely. 

Sugar ration, two pounds per month, 
per person, or thirty-two ounces in 
thirty days, or (approximately) one 
ounce, two and one-half level tablespoon- 
fuls, or six level teaspoonfuls per day. 

As this number of American Cookery 
goes to its readers, the end of the in- 
tensive sugar campaign is nearing com- 
pletion. That the full quantity of sugar 
desired for exportation has been sent for- 
ward is the wish of every patriotic house- 
keeper. Each claims the privilege of 
sharing whatever she has with her sisters 
across the sea and our boys, wherever 
they may be. The time in which we had 
opportunity to cut down so drastically 
on this luxury was short. The necessity 
was not apparent till the last moment; 
discussion of reasons was practically out 
of the question. Let us hope that 
through the daily press the rank and file 
of housekeepers were advised in time, 
and that each outgoing ship, in the last 
six weeks, has carried overseas a sub- 
stantial addition to the sugar supply so 
necessary to the energy and endurance 



of our army at this time. 

In accordance with the demands of the 
hour this number has been made practi- 
cally sugarless; with conservation of 
wheat, meat and fats about the same as 
the practice since we entered the war. 

With figs, dates, honey, maple sugar 
and syrup and good molasses, even in 
somewhat limited quantity, no depriva- 
tion of sugar is noticeable. We simply 
change our habits of eating a little, and 
in most cases to the advantage of health. 

Go without sugar on your cereal a few 
mornings, and you will relish it just as 
well as with sugar. Coffee and tea are 
quite as stimulating when taken without 
sugar and cream, and certainly it agrees 
with one better when so taken. 

When substitute flours were first put 
on the market, skill in milling them had 
not been acquired. Often the grain had 
not been stored with proper care, and the 
flour and meal were not always of choice 
quality. Now all this is changed for the 
better, and the restrictions against the 
free use of white flour products should no 
longer be a matter even of annoyance. 

There are certain varieties of bread 
containing even more "substitute" in 
composition than the "Victory" loaf of 
the baker, that will always be given a 
place on our tables. One of them is oat- 
flour bread, made with two cups of oat- 
flour to a pint of liquid (preferably milk), 
and wheat, or whole wheat, two loaves 
are produced with which no one will find 
fault. In New England, rye may now 
be bought without restriction, and used 



203 



204 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



freely. As far as possible each house- 
keeper should use the flour and meal 
grown in her own locality. 

Corn or rice flour in combination with 
rye or barley flour make excellent ginger- 
bread, ginger snaps or chocolate cake. 
Rye and barley flour may be used to re- 
place an equal measure of wheat; corn 
and rice flours have about double the 
thickening power, though not all thicken 
the same. It is advisable when buying 
a fresh quantity of these flours to test 
them with ginger snaps, or some similar 
mixture that may be tested, and a little 
more flour added if necessary. 

Any of the substitute flours make good 
pastry and biscuit. Pastry and biscuit 
should be mixed softer than when wheat 
is used. The board should be dredged 
freely with flour, and the dough handled 



as little as possible. The pastry breaks 
easily, but, being soft, is not injured in 
appearance when pressed back in place 
with the fingers. Such pastry cannot be 
handled if rolled as thin as pastry made 
with wheat flour. For a large pie w^th 
two crusts take two cups of flour; no 
paste left over need be wasted, two or 
three apple tarts, or a few cheese straws 
will certainly be appreciated by some one. 

After rolling out the paste, dredge light- 
ly with flour and fold one half the paste 
over the other half to lift it to the plate. 

Not all housekeepers have milk for 
cottage cheese, but if living in the coun- 
try where the expense incident to its de- 
livery is confined to the producer, and the 
milk is procurable for 7| or 8 cents per 
quart, cottage cheese is the cheapest form 
of protein that can be procured. 



Women and the War of Steel 

Prepared for American Cookery by the United States Fuel 

Administration 



A GIANT ship freighted with sol- 
diers; a bucketful of coal beside 
the kitchen range: Which would 
an artist choose if he were painting a 
picture ''Fuel and the War.?" 

The woman who thoughtfully cooks 
dinner and supper at the same time, iii 
order that a bucketful of coal may be 
saved, can call the man her comrade who 
directs victorious armies. What would 
his armies be without the coal that pro- 
vides them with steel weapons.? How 
would that coal be supplied, fully, if every 
person in the United States did not join 
the conservation forces.? 

This is a war of resources. More than 
that, it is a war which depends on coal re- 
sources. There must be coal to manu- 
facture supplies and ammunition on a 
vast scale, coal to transport millions of 
men, both in this country and across the 
water, coal for the Allies, coal to trans- 
port coal, coal to keep industries going. 



coal to keep the home fires burning. 

We must bear ceaselessly in mind the 
gigantic fuel demands of America. To 
our noimal demands of peace times are 
added the enormous requirements that 
shall keep ships and industries going, day 
after day. To that, add the fact that our 
Allies have had their sources of coal badly 
impaired. We must help to make up 
their deficit. 

Increased production cannot fill the 
entire demand. Although 700,000 miners 
in the United States are working at well 
nigh maximum capacity, and transporta- 
tion agencies are moving fuel with in- 
creasing speed and skill, the excess de- 
mand cannot be met by these means 
alone. 

These excess demands for fuel this 
winter have made it impei alive that we 
economize rigidly on coal. The un- 
adorned truth is not that we should save 
fuel for patriotic reasons; it is that we 



WOMEN AND THE WAR OF STEEL 



205 



must save fuel if we are to fight a vic- 
torious fight. 

Shifting the burden from '*we" to 
**they" is cowardly. This is no time to 
say, "Why. do they not mine more?" 
The time has come when we must decide 
what "we" can do. "They" are mining 
coal with all their might; "we" must 
save coal at the same rate. The two 
7 powerful allies in the home trenches are 
" they " who produce, and " we " who save. 

Sixteen solid trains of gondola cars 
loaded with coal, occupying sixteen tracks 
from New York to San Francisco! It 
sounds like a fairy tale to state that so 
vast a railroad yard of cars stretching all 
the way across the continent is necessary 
to take care of merely the increase of coal 
transportation demanded, this year, of the 
railroads. The amount of coal trans- 
ported through the country in peace 
times was enormous; now that 200,000,- 
000 additional tons must be transported 
from the mines to the fire-boxes, the coal 
business, in its physical proportions, 
passes almost beyond conception. 

The woman who is able to relieve this 
vast demand on shipping and the coal 
supply only by turning out a light here, 
putting on a storm window there, re- 
ducing the temperature of a room, or 
cooking in a way that will use the least 
amount of coal, may feel, desparingly, 
that her efforts can be of no avail. To 
her it may seem like the hopeless task of 
an ant trying to move a binful of wheat, 
kernel by kernel. Still one can imagine 
an army of ants large enough to move the 
wheat in a short time. So, too, the army 
of twenty million American women, the 
chief inspiration of twenty million fam- 
ilies, have it within their power to supply 
fifteen million tons of coal, the amount 
which the United States Fuel Adminis- 
tration reckons as the annual fuel waste 
of American homes. 

We women in our homes like to think 
and act in concrete terms. We envy the 
officer who orders a charge, then views 
the ground he has gained. There is en- 
couragement in feeling the thrill of suc- 



cess. Our war tasks are the tasks of 
saving. We see no immediate results, 
and our hearts grow heavy, believing our 
labors are futile. 

Perhaps, if we put some of our tasks into 
concrete terms, we shall understand that 
we are taking an actual part in the war 
game. We are members of the fuel army, 
the greatest army on this side of the 
Atlantic. We may be only privates in 
that army, with few chances to compre- 
hend the big gains in our sector, but we 
gain daily victories which should give us 
thrills of encouragement. 

Imagine your son without the protec- 
tion of the steel which stands between 
him and death. Every ton of finished 
and transported steel requires five tons 
of coal to complete it. If your family 
saves a ton of coal, you are instrumental 
in producing 400 pounds of steel. That 
may mean definite protection for your son. 

When you save a ton of coal, estimate 
how much money you have earned, for 
" a penny saved is a penny gained." How 
many bandages, sweaters or socks will that 
money buy for the Red Cross.? By this 
means, also, your fuel saving may stand 
between your boy and death. 

When you write to him in the trenches 
do you say, "They are asking us to save 
fuel, but we use so little here at home, 
anyhow, our bit would make no dif- 
ference.?" 

What would he think to know that his 
family was not heart and soul behind the 
government.? You must save fuel if for 
no other reason than to let him know you 
are with him to the last ditch. The 
thrill of any war worker, whether it be a 
general or a housewife, who sifts ashes 
for stray pieces of coal, is the joy of a 
victorious battle. Our housewives' vic- 
tories are the victories of conservation. 

How then, shall we begin this great 
campaign of fuel conservation.? The 
ways are many, and you already know 
them in part: 

1. Cook many dishes at once; fill up 
the oven to its greatest capacity; steam 
one dish while boiling another; use a 



206 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



fireless cooker; do without food which 
requires all-day cooking. 

2. Dress warmly; do not let vanity 
be your stumbling block. 

3. Turn off all the lights that are not 
needed; use as few lights as you can. 

4. See that your furnace is run by one 
who knows it, and knows it well. 

5. Stop up the air leaks in your house 
by weather stripping and storm windows. 

6. Don't heat all the house. Are you 



helping the enemy by heating the un- 
used bedrooms and parlors.^ 

7. Don't overheat your rooms. Ex- 
perts assure us that 68 degrees, or even 
60 to 64 degrees — ■ if a high degree of 
humidity is maintained — is the best 
temperature for health. Suppose you 
even suffer chilliness now and again. '^IHe 
who is across the seas is vigorous ^and 
smiling, though there is not even a wall 
between him and the wind. 



. A Few Good Spanish Dishes 

By Mary E. Stickney 



WHAT we recognize as Spanish 
cookery might be more properly 
credited to .Mexico, since its 
principal dishes have been developed in 
that country, and are characterized by 
its conditions. The humid heat of the 
tropics tends to make fresh meat spoil 
quickly, hence an animal slaughtered 
for food there finds its way to the market 
without waiting to hang and ripen to the 
degree of tenderness demanded in a 
cooler climate. And so the peon cook 
has learned to conquer tough fibre by 
long, slow cooking, and how to abridge 
the process of simmering by cutting the 
meat into small bits, as in chile con came, 
or aid digestion by turning it into hashes 
of varying sorts, as in tamales and al- 
bondigas, while she counterbalances its 
lack of flavor by a clever blending of 
seasoning that is far from being all 
pepper. Moreover, in a land where 
poverty iis always epidemic, and good 
meat is treated with respect, she has 
become an adept in making a little go a 
long way. For all of these reasons, and 
particularly because new ways of making 
palatable the cheaper cuts of meat should 
be especially welcome in these days of 
soaring prices, the housekeeper who is 
sighing for "something different," which 
may yet conform to war conditions. 



might well turn to Spanish dishes now 
and then. 

It would seem a waste of words, how- 
ever, to ask an up-to-date American, 
housekeeper, and still less to demand of 
the modern maid, that she follow in exact 
detail the methods of old Mexico, where 
labor is plentiful and cheap and time is 
considered of no account; where cooking 
equipment is commonly of most primitive 
sort, and a listless conservatism holds 
all classes more or less back from troub- 
lous ways of progress and improvement. 
For instance, the peon cook of today 
prepares her corn meal — ■ always the 
favored cereal of Mexico — just as her 
grandmother did, and the whole line 
of grandmothers who came before her. 
She can imagine no way to be compared 
with that of soaking the corn in a solution 
of lye until she may rub off the hulls 
between her bare hands. And then, when 
the corn has been dried again to the right 
degree, she will patiently pound it to 
meal between stones, in the old-time 
contrivance known as a metate. As thus 
prepared the meal is almost as coarse 
as our ground hominy, and it must be 
admitted that it possesses a certain nutty 
sweetness that may be, to some extent, 
lacking in the product of the mills. But 
who in this land of ours, and particularly 



A FEW GOOD SPANISH DISHES 



207 



in these busy days, has time to spare 
for such labor as this? And why should 
time and strength be so sacrificed, when 
a meal may be bought in cartons espe- 
cially designed for tamales and the like? 
or when, if that may not be obtained, 
any good unbolted meal may answer the 
purpose, even if not as good as that hand- 
made meal of Mexico, still good enough. 
Again in preparing her ubiquitous chile^ 
the peon cook spares neither time nor 
labor; but a prepared chile powder may 
now be obtained at any first-class grocery, 
giving to chile con came, or whatever 
the dish may be, just the right zip and 
flavor, at the cost of no trouble at all 
beyond dipping it out with a spoon. 

The formulae given below are all 
Americanized to the extent of using the 
chile powder and ordinary corn meal, 
where such Ingredients are demanded; 
the processes are further simplified in 
certain small details, while, yet, the char- 
acteristic flavor and proper appearance 
of the dish is retained. Seasoning may, 
of course, be modified to taste, and one 
who has a mind to try them will put 
upon her table dishes that will be found 
appetizing and also economical. 

Chile Con Carne 

Cut into strips the size of one's thumb, 
and then into two-inch lengths, a pound 
of lean beef, preferably from the flank. 
Slice a large onion and mince two cloves 
of garlic. Put two tablespoonfuls of good 
cottonseed oil, or any preferred fat, in an 
iron kettle, or deep granite-ware sauce- 
pan, and when hot, put in meat, onions 
and garlic, frying until the meat is deli- 
cately brown, turning constantly and 
seeing to it that the onions do not burn. 
Add three tablespoonfuls of chile powder 
and a quart of water and let the stew 
simmer gently for two hours. Add then 
two large tomatoes, peeled and cut in 
quarters, or an equal quantity of canned 
tomato, with salt to taste. Continue 
the slow cooking until the meat is very 
tender, but not boiled to shreds. Just 
before sending to the table thicken 



slightly with a little flour rubbed to a 
smooth, thin paste in cold water. 

A very good chile con carne may be 
made from scraps of any leftover meat; 
but the cooked meat naturally requires 
much less cooking than the raw, and 
so less water is demanded, although, as 
to vegetables and seasoning, the formula 
may be the same. 

In Mexico a few frijoles^ their beloved 
pink beans, may be added occasionally 
to the stew, but they more commonly 
accompany it to the table as a separate 
dish. 

Frijoles, Spanish Style 

Soak over night in cold water two cups 
of the Mexican pink beans. In the 
morning drain, add a quart of fresh water 
and a teaspoonful of soda, and parboil 
five minutes. Drain again, add another 
quart of fresh water and put back to 
boil with a teaspoonful and a half of salt, 
a tablespoonful of brown sugar, and three 
tablespoonfuls of chile powder and a 
couple of green peppers, from which 
seeds and tough fibre have been removed, 
the remainder shredded fine. The Mexi- 
can cook would now add half a cup of 
lard or salad oil, but American taste 
may prefer an approximate quantity 
of salt pork or bacon cut in tiny cubes. 
Boil gently for an hour and a half. Add, 
then, two large onions and three cloves 
of garlic, all chopped fine, with three 
large tomatoes, peeled and sliced, or an 
equal quantity of canned tomato. Con- 
tinue the cooking until the beans are 
done, the time depending upon how old 
and dry they may be to begin with. 
Water may be added from time to time 
as required, and if an unsalted fat is 
used, an extra dash of salt may be re- 
quired. The frijoles when served should 
have the consistency of a thick stew. 

Tamales 

As the old recipe for stewed hare began 

"First catch your hare," so in beginning 

directions for making tamales we must 

say, first procure your corn husks, which 



208 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



in all places, and at all seasons, may 
not be an easy thing to do, unless one 
has caught the habit of the thrifty Mexi- 
can housewife, who will carefully dry and 
save every good corn husk that comes 
from her table in the season of green corn. 
In many cities, however, particularly 
in the West and South where "Hot 
Tamales" are established in favor, the 
corn husks can generally be obtained 
without trouble, while in some places 
an imitation husk may be found, made 
of a sort of fibre paper. This last, how- 
ever, while it may serve the night venders, 
is hardly to be recommended, as it 
naturally fails to impart the delicate 
flavor that comes from the husk of the 
sweet corn even after it has been a long 
time dried. 

The husks obtained, either fresh or 
dried, put them to soak and soften in 
warm water. 

Slice thin one large onion and two 
cloves of garlic and fry until well cooked, 
but not browned, in a tablespoonful of 
lard or drippings. Add then a cup and 
a half of any cooked meat, minced fine, 
with a tablespoonful of chile powder 
and enough soup stock or gravy to 
moisten to the consistency of a dough. 
Let the mixture cook for a minute or 
two, stirring constantly, then set aside 
while preparing the meal. 

Put two cups of soup stock in a sauce- 
pan and bring to a boil; add a scant 
teaspoonful of salt, two teaspoonfuls of 
chile powder, a tablespoonful of fat 
skimmed from the soup stock, and a 
cup of meal, stirring constantly until it 
is cooked to a thick mush. 

Dry the husks with a towel and spread 
on each a thin pat of mush, making it 
about three inches long, while it should 
stop a little short on either side of the 
husk. On about a fifth of the number 
drop in the middle of the mush a gener- 
ous spoonful of the meat mixture, press- 
ing into each portion an olive or two, 
either the gre.en or ripe, as may be pre- 
ferred, with a scattering of seeded raisins. 
Then over the husks with the meat 



mixture turn one with the plain mush, 
pressing together to completely envelop 
the meat. On either side of these two 
fold one of the mush-spread husks, while 
one or more others may be added, until 
the roll is of about the diameter of an 
ordinary ear of corn, although still no 
more than three inches long. Tie at 
either end with ribbons of corn husks to 
confine the contents, and trim ends 
evenly with scissors. Place the tamales 
in a steamer and cook three-quarters 
of an hour, taking care that the water 
underneath is kept constantly boiling. 
Tamales may be warmed over a second, 
or even a third time, and seem as good 
as when freshly made. 

For chicken tamales joint a chicken 
as for a fricassee and stew gently until 
tender, adding salt to taste, and also 
a dash of celery salt, when about half 
done. Use the broth from the stew in 
making the mush, omitting chile. Spread 
the husks with the mush, and on about 
one-fifth of the number place a nice 
piece of the cooked chicken — a leg, 
first joint, or piece of breast — adding to 
that an olive or two, half a dozen raisins 
and a teaspoonful of chile sauce that has 
been thickened almost to the consistency 
of jelly. Enfold with mush-spread husks 
and finish like ordinary tamales. 

Chile Sauce Useful in Many 
Spanish Dishes 

Slice thin two large onions; chop fine 
two cloves of garlic, and fry these in two 
tablespoonfuls of butter, drippings or 
lard, the latter almost invariably the 
choice of the Mexican cook. When 
cooked done, but not browned, add two or 
three good-sized tomatoes, peeled and 
sliced, or an equal amount of canned 
tomato, three teaspoonfuls of chile 
powder, a teaspoonful of salt, a teaspoon- 
ful of sugar and a cup of water. Boil 
gently until vegetables are cooked soft. 
Press through a strainer, return to the fire 
and thicken with flour or corn starch 
rubbed to a thin paste, free from lumps, 
in a little cold water. Taste and add 



A FEW GOOD SPANISH DISHES 



209 



I 



more salt or more chile if called for, no 
certain rule being possible because of 
differing sizes of onions and tomatoes. 
The thickening must also be left to the 
judgment of the cook, a sauce of differing 
consistency demanded for different dishes. 

Spanish Macaroni 

Make a chile sauce as above in sufficient 
amount to cover fully the de§ired quantity 
of macaroni, which has been broken to 
inch-pieces, boiled twenty-five minutes 
in salted water and well drained. Cooked 
meat may be minced and added if desired, 
in which case macaroni, meat and sauce 
should go into the dish alternately, taking 
care that it be very moist with the sauce. 
Sprinkle the top with crumbs, or with 
cheese grated, or run through a meat 
chopper, and bake half an hour in an 
oven hot enough just to delicately brown 
the top. 

Spanish rice is prepared in the same 
way, merely substituting cooked rice 
for the macaroni. 

Albondigas 

Take half a pound, each, of lean beef 
and fresh pork and run through the meat 
grinder. Add half a teaspoonful of salt, 
two teaspoonfuls of chile powder, and a 
raw egg, slightly beaten. Blend with it 
enough fine bread crumbs to make a 
mass which may hold its shape. Form 
into small balls with one quarter of a 
hard-boiled egg in the center of each. 

Make a chile sauce, and, before thicken- 
ing has been added and while it is boiling 
hot, drop in the meat balls and let them 
simmer gently about half an hour, adding 
a little more water, from time to time, if 
sauce boils away too^much. Just before 
serving thicken the sauce slightly with 
flour or corn starch. Arrange the balls 
on a platter, pour the sauce around them, 
and garnish with parsley. 

Enchiladas 

The first requisite for th^e is the 
tortilla, the corn-meal cake, which in 
Mexico serves as bread, and often in lieu 



of plate or spoon. The peon cook pre- 
pares it by a simple mixture of her coarse 
meal and water, patting each cake into 
shape between her hands, then it 
is cooked and turned like a griddle-cake 
on a smooth hot ^tone, or plate of coarse 
earthenware, although sometimes an iron 
griddle serves. As she makes them, the 
cakes are so thin, and at the same time 
so flexible, and of such consistency, that 
the peon thinks nothing of bending a bit 
of tortilla into a scoop to convey from 
the common dish to his mouth portions 
of chile con came or frijoles, the appetizing 
spoon a part of each mouthful. But for 
unpractised hands to pat the dough to 
proper thinness, and especially with our 
corn meal, would seem to be nearly im- 
possible, while, moreover, it is hard for 
the novice to make a cake that will be 
sufficiently flexible of meal alone. And 
so the inexperienced housewife who would 
try enchiladas (and they are well worth 
trying), is advised to make an American- 
ized torilla by the following rule: 

Have in a saucepan a cup and a half of 
boiling water with three-fourths a tea- 
spoonful of salt; sprinkle into it three- 
fourths a cup of unbolted corn meal, 
stirring constantly while it cooks to a 
thick mush. Beat into it then half a 
cup of sifted flour and thin with water 
until it is just slightly thicker than 
ordinary griddle-cake batter. Fry like 
ordinary griddle cakes on a greased 
griddle, making each cake about four 
inches in diameter. Have cooked meat 
minced and prepared as for tamales, and 
place in the center of each cake a generous 
sausage-shaped portion, turning the sides 
over and pinning edges together with 
wooden toothpicks to make sausage- 
shaped rolls. When cakes with meat 
filling are all ready, drop them into a 
saucepan of hot chile sauce and cook 
a few minutes, just long enough to heat 
them through thoroughly. Arrange on 
a platter, remove the toothpicks, press 
an olive in the center of each and sprinkle 
the tops with grated cheese. Pour the 
sauce around them and garnish the dish 



210 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



with a border of lettuce leaves or parsley. 
When enchiladas are served on individual 
plates, each one should be placed on a 
lettuce leaf with a generous quantity of 
the sauce poured around it. 

Spanish Omelet 

Prepare a chile sauce, thickened to the 
consistency of gruel, and add either a can 
of drained mushrooms, or shrimps, as may 



be preferred. Place where sauce will be 
kept hot until wanted. 

Make an omelet of the size desired and 
when half-cooked pour into the center a 
few spoonfuls of the sauce. Finish 
cooking, fold and slip to a hot platter. 
Pour the remainder of the hot sauce 
around it and garnish top of omelet with 
diamond-shaped pieces cut from canned 
pimientos and a sprinkling of minced 
parsley. 



A Couple of One-Dish Dinners 
By E. G. W. 



SOMETIMES it is advantageous to 
plan and prepare the main dinner 
dish in a single container. Not only 
is heat saved, but extra work as well. 
Some day when you want something extra 
good try 

Mexican Ham 

Take a slice of ham cut about twice 
as thick as for ordinary frying purposes. 
Rub a small teaspoonful of mustard into 
the surface and a tablespoonful of brown 
sugar. Lay this in the bottom of a large 
casserole or baking pan. Pare and slice 
potatoes thin, preparing sufficient sliced 
potatoes for the family, and to cover the 
ham to a depth of two or three inches. 
Dot with a few bits of butter substitute, 
unless the ham has a good deal of fat 
about the edges. Sprinkle with a little 
pepper and cover with milk, much as you 
would for scalloped potatoes. Set into 
the oven and bake in a moderate heat for 
two hours. The ham will be tender and 



delicious, and can be cut with a fork, and 
the potatoes will be seasoned to a turn. 

If the family is small, this dish will do 
two days nicely for dinner, being just as 
good when reheated the second day, and 
making the expense of the dish, which is 
the ham, really very moderate. 

Another delicious dish is 

Spanish Steak 

Take a slice of round steak two inches 
thick. Grease a baking pan or casserole 
and place in the bottom of the dish. 
Slice onions to a depth of an inch, or an 
inch and a half over the steak. Finish 
with two or two and a half inches deep 
of peeled, thin-sliced potatoes. Dot with 
bits of butter substitute, add salt and 
pepper, and cover with milk. Bake in a 
moderate oven two hours. This makes 
a savory and toothsome dish at a moder- 
ate expense, as a rather cheap cut of meat 
may be used. It 'will be satisfactorily 
tender for even the most fastidious. 




Contributions to this department will be gladly received. Accepted items will be 
fpaid for at reasonable rates. 

Cocktails 

THEIR PLACE IN THE DAILY MENU 
By Grace P. T. Knudson 



THE presiding genius of the American 
kitchen — since the days of colonial 
ancestors — has been famed for her gen- 
erous, and even prodigal, preparation 
of food, both for her own immediate 
family and for her invited guests. I 
have known a French housekeeper to 
exclaim in actual horror at, what seemed 
to her, a terrible waste of tidbits. She 
would have taken the bits in question, 
and, with a touch of something savory 
and green here, a pinch of spiciness 
there, and, over all, a marvelously 
blended sauce — ■ the ingredients of which 
would baffle the taste of the veriest 
epicure — made of them a dish nourish- 
ing, appetizing, and good to look upon. 
The possibilities of the American cock- 
tail, in its development, would delight 
this same small French woman. 

Time was when pepper and salt and 
garden herbs were considered the only 
necessary seasonings upon the pantry 
shelves. We are bound to live more 
simply because of the experiences we are 
now passing through, and because we 
cannot help but carry into the future an 
impress of our present efforts at conserva- 
tion, in a reaching after more economical 
effects in our living. This simplicity and 
these effects may be gained — for the 
table — in two ways : By dropping all 
unnecessary courses, and by a judicious 
and intelligent use of some of the newer 
food ingredients, which, themselves, may 



have been brought to the front in a 
feverish competition for something novel. 
So, let us revive the garden herbs, but 
add to these old-time seasonings paprika, 
ketchup, grape juice, kitchen bouquet, 
and the like, to help this generation make 
of home-cooking a simple art. 

We have, heretofore, had the so-called 
"cocktail" served us at formal luncheons 
or dinners, or we may, ourselves, have 
served it upon state occasions, but it is 
as worthy of development and elabora- 
tion for the daily menu as is time-old 
soup. Indeed, the cocktail can put for- 
ward four claims to worthiness : 

First, it will render appetizing and 
attractive many an odd or end; second, 
it will fill the places of hors-d'ceuvres, 
soup, and fish — since it may combine 
elements of all three courses, thus simpli- 
fying service and conserving the meat of 
soup stock; third, for a luncheon, It will 
slip into place of salad, when green stuff 
is hard to get; fourth, to the maidless 
housewife, entertaining guests, it will 
prove a real friend, as it may be so easily 
prepared beforehand and placed on the 
table at a moment's notice — no dis- 
concerting, flushed face, caused by leaning 
over the hot stove, no curdling or other- 
wise spoiling from waiting. 

The cocktail may be created from fish, 
fruit or vegetables; be served properly 
during all seasons, or for any meal. 
Dainty in appearance, appetizing in in- 



211 



212 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



gredients, nourishing of content — it 
cannot help but please. 

The proof of the cocktail, however, lies 
in the sauce. 

Sauce for Lobster Cocktail 

J teaspoonful salt 
I teaspoonful paprika, 

or dash of Cayenne 
J teaspoonful sugar 
J teaspoonful kitchen 

boquet 



4 tablespoonfuls to- 
mato catsup 

2| tablespoonfuls 
white grape juice 

1 tablespoonful lemon 
juice 

1 teaspoonful vinegar 



Allow one-fourth cup of boiled lobster 
meat, cut in pieces, for each cocktail, and 
the sauce above will make four. Chill 
thoroughly, both sauce and meat, and 
serve together in cocktail glasses. 

If in lettuce season, arrange the lobster 
by itself on a bed of lettuce, at one side 
of a soup plate of cracked ice, with the 
sauce in a glass at the other side. 

This sauce may be used also with crab, 
shrimp or scallops in the same manner 
as with lobster. 



serve in cocktail glasses with sauce 
poured over it. If tinned fruit is used, 
substitute an equal amount of the juice 
in the tin for the white grape juice in the 
sauce recipe. 

Mixed Fruit Cocktail 

Remove pulp from grape fruit, and mix 
with diced pineapple and sliced banana. 
Allow one-half cup of mixture to each 
serving. Chill thoroughly, add cocktail 
sauce, also chilled, and serve in grape 
fruit skins, or in glasses. 

Vegetable Cocktail 

Prepare by boiling vegetables in salted 
water, dice, or cut in small pieces, and 
chill thoroughly. Serve in cocktail 
glasses, with sauce the same as for lobster. 
The following vegetable^ make the best 
cocktails: Beets, combination of string 
beans and beets, cabbage, carrots, po- 
tato with shreds of raw onion, squash, 
sweet potato. 



Sauce for Oyster Cocktail 



4 tablespoonfuls to- 
mato catsup 

2| tablespoonfuls 
white grape juice 

1 teaspoonful lemon 
juice 



J teaspoonful salt 
4 drops Tobasco 

sauce 
1 teaspoonful grated 

horseradish 



For four cocktails allow seven small 
raw oysters to each person; mix ingredi- 
ents, chill, and serve in cocktail glasses. 
If desired, garnish with a sprinkling of 
finely chopped celery. 

This aauce blends well with little neck 
clams, or with cold boiled salmon, hali- 
but, or any firm fish. 

Sauce for Fruit Cocktail 



4 tablespoonfuls to- 
mato catsup 

4 tablespoonfuls 
white grape juice 

1 tablespoonful lemon 
juice 

1 tablespoonful orange 
juice 



J teaspoonful salt 
I teaspoonful paprika 
or dash of Cayenne 
I teaspoonful sugar 
I teaspoonful clove 
I teaspoonful cinna- 
mon 



Pear or Peach Cocktail 

Peel fruit, and cut in eighths; chill, and 



The Busy Woman's Flower 

PERHAPS more than half of the 
living rooms into which we are 
ushered are finished and furnished in 
browns and tans. Dull shades pre- 
dominate. Commonly the woodwork is 
stained with sienna; or, it may be, umber. 
Such rooms are delightfully restful, and 
easily cared for, but they do need a touch 
of brightness — such brightness as a bit 
of brass will give; or something in pottery, 
glowingly decorated; or, better than 
anything else, a bunch of yellow flowers. 
Such rooms were made to be decorated 
with yellow flowers, — and their owners 
put into them pink, or blue, or red! — 
when yellow might be at hand all sum- 
mer and fall, if the owner but knew the 
glory of the golden coreopsis. 

Coreopsis, long-stemmed and graceful; 
flowering freely, withering slowly, keep- 
ing in water for weeks; a perennial — 
once planted, planted "for keeps." Once 
started, it grows easily, in sun or shade, 
a^d blooms from early spring till after 



HOME IDEAS AND ECONOMIES 



213 



frost. It seldom winter-kills. And one 
may cut — and cut — and cut — and 
come again, there seems to be no limit 
to its blooming possibilities. The more 
one gathers, the more there seems to be 
to bloom. But for best results, the plant 
should not be allowed to run to seed. . . . 
Coreopsis, it is indeed a busy woman's 
flower — -just as a brown room is a busy 
woman's room; and the two go best 
together. A bowl of these "golden sun- 
shines" (the common name) will brighten 
a . dull-seeming room as nothing else 
can. . . . And they do not self-sow to 
'any great extent, even when allowed to 
seed; they do not become a pest, as is the 
case with some easily-grown flowers like 
French pinks that ruin the wheat fields 
in the far west. . . . Coreopsis, in a big 
green bowl, a bit of sunshine on the 
dullest day, the flower of all flowers for 
the busy woman! And for the brown 

I. R. F. 



room! 



* * 



A Forgotten Festivity 

SPECIAL embassies from many coun- 
tries are visiting us in these war 
times, and the shadow of Mr. Hoover is 
over most of the entertainments given 
for them. But, without a war to modify 
our habits, a banquet of today would be 
far simpler than this one of 1871, and 
even the printer of the menu would 
hardly use so many commas. 

The guest of honor, the Grand Duke 
Alexis, born in 1850, was the uncle of 
the late Nicholas Romanoff, and died 
unmarried in Paris (that paradise of 
Grand Dukes) in 1908. 

The menu is two cards tied together 
with faded ribbons, yellow, black and 
red. Above is the Russian coat of arms, 
with laurels on either side. Below is 
printed in gold: 

COMPLIMENTARY DINNER 

TO 

H. I. H. THE GRAND DUKE ALEXIS, 

AT THE 

REVERE HOUSE 
Boston, December 9th, 1871 



This is the menu: 

Mtnn 

POTAGES 

Green Turtle 



Julienne 



POISSONS 
Halibut au Gratin Cusk a la Creme 

ROTS 
Perdreaux braises farcies aux Truffes 

Boeuf a la Mode, a la Fran^aise 
Chapon, bouilli Oie, rotie 

HORS D'OEUVRES 
Galantine de Dindon en Belleveu 

Terrine de Foies gras de Strasbourg 
Cailles farcies a la Perigord 

Canards en plumes sur socle 
Pate de Foie aux Truffes 

ENTREES 
Riz de Veau aux Petits Pois 

Vol-au-vent a la Financiere 

Terrapin saute au Vin de Madere 
Huitres au gratin en Coquilies 
Macaroni au Parmesan 

GIBIER 

Canards Sauvages, Canvasback and Black 
Cailles Poulets des Prairies Becasses Pluviers 

SUCREES 

Omelette Soufflee Charlotte Russe 

Bonbons Meringues a la Creme Gelees 



DESSERT 



Cafe 



Liqueurs 



On the other card is the generous 
assortment of wines. 



VINS 
Xeres 



Cabinet 



V. V. S. Gold 



Sauterne 
Latour Blanche Chateau Yquem 

Champagne 
Roederer Carte Blanche 

Moet and Chandon Dry Imperial 
Moet and Chandon Extra Superior 

Bordeaux et Bourgogne 

Grand Vin Chateau Lafitte 

Grand Vin Pontet Canet 

Chambertin, 1834 

Romance, 1834 

Prince Metternich Johannisberger 

Steinberger, 1846 

Liqueurs 

Cognac Vierge Cura^oa Kummel 

Maraschin Creme de Noyau 



214 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



There is certainly a plentiful choice of 
wines, but no mention of the now popular 
cocktail. And there are no raw oysters, 
but scalloped oysters come among the 
entrees. Cusk was then much used for 
formal dinners, and an attempt has 
recently been made to bring it into more 
common use. A rule for Cusk a la 
Creme, copied in 1863, calls for one 
quart of cream for the sauce, which is 
poured over it. Then the beaten whites 
of six eggs are spread over the top, and 
it is baked. 

What would a modern chef think of 
the choice of hors d'oeuvres.? And what 
would a food conservationist of 1918 
say of the lack of vegetables.? The only 
one mentioned is served with the sweet- 
bread. There probably were others, 
although it w^as not necessary to specify 
them to make the menu longer, and there 
may have been a salad served with the 
game. But where is our national ice 
cream, unless it is included in the dessert, 
which was more probably nuts and raisins. 

While this may not have been a 
festive occasion, it must have been a 
filling one. m. h. g. 



Sugar-Saving Sweets 

Candied Fruits and Vegetables 

1. Select products of uniform size and 

ripeness. 

2. Wash. 

3. Cut fruits in halves, quarters, or 

smaller sections; cut vegetables in 
narrow strips about 2^ inches in 
length. 

4. Drop in a syrup cooked until it spins a 

thread. To prepare a spiced syrup, 
boil whole cloves and whole cinna- 
mon in i cup of water 15 minutes. 
Strain out spices. Add to strained 
spiced water 1 cup corn syrup and 
2 teaspoonfuls vinegar. Cook un- 
til it spins a thread. To prepare 
ginger syrup, add a few pieces of 
dried ginger root, which can be pur- 
chased from a grocery or a drug 



store, to the syrup In which the 
fruit is cooked. 

5. Allow to cook until transparent. 

6. Drain. 

7. Dry in slow oven; finish drying over 

kitchen range. 

8. Roll in minimum amount of granu- 

lated sugar. (May be omitted for 
fruits.) 

Sugar-Saving Canning 

Jams and Butters 

1. Cook the prepared fruits with enough 

water to prevent sticking. 

2. Stir to keep from burning. 

3. Cook gently until the mass begins to 

thicken. 

4. Use less sugar than is called for in the 

recipes and cook longer. Very 
satisfactory results can be ob- 
tained by the use of sugar substi- 
tutes, corn syrups, honey, etc. 
The addition also of small amounts 
of mixed ground spices, vinegar, or 
crystallized ginger improves the 
flavor. 

5. Continue cooking until the desired 

consistency is reached. 

6. Pour into hot glasses or jars. 

7. Put on sterilized covers. 

8. Place in steamer for fifteen minutes. 

This will avoid the necessity of 
using paraffin. 

9. Remove carefully; set aside to cool; 

store. 
Cook longer for jam than fruit butter. 
« « * 

Made in America 

"Made in America" will be a slogan 
and purchasing guide most faithfully fol- 
lowed in this country after the War. 
Whether it is a paper of pins, pen knife, 
silk hat or carton of sugar, the purchaser 
will look for the copyrighted trade-mark 
or brand for identification. Label, sealed 
carton, stamp or plate, or whatever may 
be appropriately used to carry evidence 
of origination, will be used wherever 
possible. 








THIS department is for the benefit and free use of our subscribers. Questions relating to recipes 
and those pertaining to culinary science and domestic economics in general, will be cheerfully 
answered by the editor. Communications for this department must reach us before the first of the 
month preceding that in which the answers are expected to appear. In letters requesting answers 
by mail, please- enclose address and stamped envelope. For menus, remit ^1.00. Address queries 
to Janet M. Hill, Editor. American Cookery, 221 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. 



Query No. 3979. — " Recipe for Salisbury 
Steak given in December, 1916." 

Salisbury Steak 

FOR this steak choicer meat than 
that used in Hamburg steak is 
desirable. In hotels where many 
filets of beef (beef tenderloins) are cut 
into steaks or trimmed for roasting, the 
ends and trimmings are used for Salisbury 
steak. For home use the choicest cuts 
from the top of the round are more 
commonly used. The meat should be 
chopped exceedingly fine, or, better still, 
the pulp be scraped from the fibers, first 
on one side and then on the other. For 
each pound of prepared meat take one- 
quarter pound of beef marrow; crush 
the marrow and mix it evenly through 
the meat, then for each pound of prepared 
beef mix in very gradually half a cup of 
cold water. Press into shape; cakes are 
most easily handled; do not press to- 
gether too compactly, and keep the edge as 
thick as the center, that the edge may not 
become overcooked while the center is 
not cooked enough. Broil over coals 
or in gas oven, or pan-broil in an ex- 
ceedingly hot frying pan. Let the meat 
cook on one side till a drop of meat juice 
appears on the top, then turn at once to 
cook the other side. Serve with broiled 
bacon and French fried potatoes. 



I 



Query No. 3980. — "We live in the country 
and cannot get Compressed Yeast. We have 
been using dry yeast, but would be glad to 
know of yeast that could be used in its place." 



Potato Yeast 

4 or 5 medium pota- j \ cup salt 
toes I f cup sugar 

2 quarts boiling water 

2 cups yeast or 1 cake compressed yeast with 
§ cup water 

Pare and grate the potatoes, stirring 
them as grated into the boiling water; let 
cook about ten minutes after all the potato 
is stirred into the water; stir in the salt 
and sugar and let cool to about 68° F., 
then stir in the yeast. Let stand in a 
temperature of about 68° F. twenty-four 
hours, stirring down as the mixture be- 
comes light and frothy. Store in fruit 
jars closed securely with rubber ring 
and clamps. Preferably store in each 
jar the quantity needed for one baking. 
Half a cup of this yeast is sufficient for 
use with two cups of liquid or for two 
loaves of bread. 



Query No. 3981. — "Recipes for 'Gnocchi 
a la Romaine,' 'Fricassee of Fowl with Savory 
Rice.' 'Rice and Corn Meal Griddle Cakes,' 
'Peanut Butter Cookies,' 'Cottage Pudding' 
(substitute flour), 'Hominy Crisps.' " 

Gnocchi a la Romaine 

Measure out two cups of milk, three 
tablespoonfuls of corn meal and four 
tablespoonfuls of cornstarch. To the 
corn meal and the cornstarch add half a 
teaspoonful, each, of salt and paprika and 
enough of the milk to mix the whole to 
a smooth consistency. Scald the rest 
of the milk in a double boiler then stir 
in the other ingredients. Continue to 



215 



216 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



stir until the mixture thickens a little, 
then cover and let cook half an hour, 
stirring occasionally. Longer cooking 
will do no harm. Beat two tablespoon- 
fuls of butter to a cream; gradually beat 
in the beaten yolks of two eggs and beat 
into the hot mixture. Beat in half a 
cup or more of grated cheese. Cover 
and let cook until the cheese melts and 
the mixture puffs a little, then spread 
in a buttered dish to make a layer half 
an inch thick. When cold, cut in 
squares or rounds and set in a buttered 
baking dish suitable for the table; 
sprinkle with grated cheese, then set 
other squares or rounds above and 
sprinkle these with grated cheese. Set 
into a hot oven to melt the cheese and 
make the whole very hot. Serve in the 
baking dish. Do not overheat or the 
"shapes" will be spoiled. 

Fricassee of Fowl, Savory Rice 

(See Seasonable Recipes, page 193.) 

Corn Meal and Rice Griddle-cakes 

Sift together half a cup, each, of corn 
meal and barley flour, two teaspoonfuls' 
of baking powder and one teaspoonful of 
salt; add one cup of boiled rice (grains 
distinct) and the beaten yolks of two eggs 
mixed with one cup of milk; add the 
whites of the eggs beaten very light, at 
the last. Bake at once on a hot, well- 
greased griddle. 

Peanut Butter Cookies 



1 cup peanut butter 

2 tablespoonfuls but- 

ter substitute 
I cup granulated 

sugar 
I cup corn or maple 

syrup 
i teaspoonful salt 



1 egg beaten light 

§ cup milk 

1 cup rye or barley 

flour 
1 cup wheat flour 
4 teaspoonfuls baking 

powder 



Cream the shortening; beat in the 
sugar, syrup and salt; add the egg and 
milk, then the flour and baking powder 
and mix to a dough; more flour may be 
required. Take part at a time on a 
floured board; knead slightly, roll into a 



sheet and cut into rounds; bake in a 
quick oven. 

Cottage Pudding 



3 1 tablespoonfuls 
shortening 

1 cup sugar 

2 egg-yolks 
I cup milk 



1 cup barley flour 
2-3 cups rice flour 

2| teaspoonfuls bak- 
ing powder, 

2 egg-whites' 



Cream the shortening; beat in the 
sugar (half sugar and half syrup may be 
used) and egg-yolks; add the milk, alter- 
nately, with the flour and baking powder, 
sifted together, and, lastly, the egg- 
whites. Bake in a sheet about twenty- 
five minutes. Serve hot, cut in squares, 
with any pudding sauce. 



Query No. 3982. — "To what Degree on the 
sugar thermometer is Fruit Juice and Sugar 
boiled for Jelly?" 

Degree on Thermometer 

in Jelly Making 

A sugar thermometer is useful when 
an amateur makes jelly. Usually the 
mixture is ready to pour into glasses, 
when the thermometer registers 218° F., 
but we have seen both jelly and marma- 
lade too firm, and also too thin, when 
boiled to that degree. The dropping of 
the mixture from the spoon in beads is an 
indication that the proper point is 
reached, and might be used in connection 
with the thermometer. Jellies thicken 
on cooling. If too thin cover with a pane 
of window glass and let stand in a sunny 
window a day or two. To be at Its best 
jelly should just hold its shape, but no 
more. 



Query No. 3983. — "Give a Diet for a man 
who has lost flesh from business troubles and 
worry. 

Diet for Loss of Flesh Through 
Worry 

The age and general occupation (seden- 
tary or active) of the one for whom the 
diet is intended should have been given. 
Still, under any conditions, care should be 
taken to make all food attractive in 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




•O' realize how dainty and delicious ham croquettes can be 
use Crisco in their making and their frying as this conservation 
recipe directs. They are light and tender and of an unusually 
fine flavor. Just now when American housewives are asked to save beef, this is a most ap- 
petizing way to use odds and ends of ham and vary your menu. 

Crisco is a cooking fat that gives good results in all frying. It is wholly vegetable, the solid 
cream of sweet, rich, edible oil. Without taste or odor, it enables you to bring out all the 
real food flavors. There cannot be a greasy taste to foods fried in Crisco. 



(RISCO 

^. For Frying -For Shortening 
^^^ For Cake MaJcin§ 



Crisco is the most economical fat to use for frying, because there is little absorption and therefore very little 
waste. Then you can take the fat left over from your ham croquettes and use it for frying eggs or potatoes 
or even as a shortening, for Crisco absorbs no flavors. Simply strain it. 

Crisco comes to you in air-tight, sanitary packages, one pound and upward, net weight, and it costs about the 
same as fats sold in bulk, not safe-guarded. 

Ham Croquettes 

This Recipe is Tested and Approved by Good Housekeeping Institute, 
Mildred Maddocks, Director. 

% cupful Crisco IM cupfuls rich milk 

6 tablespoonfuls corn flour 1 cupful boiled rice 

Yi teaspoonful salt 1 cupful chopped ham 

K teaspoonful paprika 1 egg, beaten light 

(Use accurate level measurements) 

To make the white sauce, melt the Crisco, add the flour and seasoning, and cook till bubbling; add the milk 
gradually, stirring constantly, and cook until the mixture thickens; then stir in the beaten egg. To this 
sauce add the rice and ham (cooked). Mix thoroughly and turn on a dish to become cold. Form into balls, 
cones or cylinder shapes, roll in dry, sifted bread crumbs. Fry in deep Crisco. Serve with peas, stewed 
tomatoes, or tomato salad. 




You Need "War Time Recipes** 

Janet McKenzie Hill has sendered valuable ser- 
vice in dedicating this new book to the American 
Woman. It is a timely volume of household in- 
formation, illustrated in colors. The founder of 
the Boston Cooking School tells how to use suc- 
cessfully all the flours substituted for wheat. She 
gives over 300 recipes for economical and appetiz- 
ing war foods. Published to sell for 25 cents, we 
will send you a copy for 10 cents in stamps. Ad- 
, dress Department A- 10, The Procter & Gamble 
Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Bay advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
217 



218 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



I cup shortening 
^ cup honey or ^ cup 
maple syrup 

1 cup raisins, seeded 
and cut fine 

2 tablespoonfuls sweet 

milk 



1 cup oatmeal or flour 

1 cup wheat or barley 
flour 

1 teaspoonful baking 
powder 

^ teaspoonful cinna- 
mon 



appearance; it should be cooked with Sugarless Oatmeal Cookies 

great care, that all nutritive properties 
be retained. Business matters should 
not be discussed at the table; without 
any apparent effort the conversation 
should be made bright, even gay; an air 
of cheerfulness should permeate the 
atmosphere at meal times. Food easily 
assimilated, and, in general, favorite 
dishes should be selected. Cream, but- 
ter, salad dressings, sweets and starchy 
foods occasion the taking on of flesh, 
but the main thing is to eat enough and 
enjoy the eating. There is no reason 
why conservation of certain foods should 
interfere with one's appetite, or result 
in an unattractive table. Honey, maple 
syrup, figs and dates may be so used as 
to provide abundant sweet dishes for 
even an epicure, and the dark flours will 
never in the future be relegated to the 
place they held before their good quali- 
ties were known. Eggs, fish and cheese 
are just as nourishing and valuable now 
as five years ago. 



Cream the shortening, beat in the 
honey or syrup, then the raisins and the 
other ingredients. The dough should be 
quite thick. Drop from a spoon on a 
well-greased tin in smooth rounds. Bake 
about fifteen minutes. Use half a tea- 
spoonful of salt if the shortening be un- 
salted. 



Query No. 3984. — "Recipe for Ginger Snaps 
and Oatmeal or other Cookies made without 
sugar, or with very little sugar and no wheat 
flour." 



Conservation Ginger Snaps] 



1 cup shortening 

1 cup molasses 

I cup corn or mapie 

syrup 
^ cup sugar 
1 egg, beaten light 



1^ cups cornflour 
1 tablespoonful ginger 
f teaspoonful salt 
1 teaspoonful soda 
Oat, rye or barley flour 
as needed 



Boil the shortening, molasses, syrup 
and sugar over a quick fire about seven 
minutes; let cool a little, then add the 
Qgg, corn flour (or rice flour), sifted again 
with the ginger, salt and soda, and as 
much more flour as is required. Knead 
slightly, roll into a thin sheet and cut 
into rounds; bake in a moderate oven. 
These are crisp, light and good-tasting 
ginger snaps. Probably, as the sugar is 
melted before the flour is added, the cakes 
would be just as light if syrup replaced 
the half cup of sugar. 



Query No. 3985. — "Recipe for Cake Frosting 
made without sugar." 

Cake Frosting Without Sugar 

[(Maple Syrup) 

Put two-thirds a cup of maple syrup 
and the white of one tgg into the upper 
part of a double boiler. Wait until the 
water in the lower part is boiling rapidly; 
set the syrup and egg in place; beat and 
cook continuously, with water boiling 
rapidly eight minutes. Remove from 
the fire, and beat until cool enough to use. 

Honey Frosting 

Same as Maple Syrup but use one 
tablespoonful less of honey. 

Corn Syrup Frosting 

Same as Maple Frosting; finish with 
from one-fourth to one-half pound of 
chopped dates or figs, and half a tea- 
spoonful of vanilla extract. These frost- 
ings do not crust over as quickly as a 
frosting made with sugar. j|f 



Query No. 3986 
of Maize."! 



'Recipes for use ofJCream 

Cream of Maize Muffins ^ 



1| cups cream of maize 

1 cup oat flour 

^ cup rye flour 

6 teaspoonfuls baking 

powder 
f teaspoonful salt 



1 egg, beaten Hght^^^ 

2 tablespoonfuls corn 
syrup 

2 tablespoonfuls melted 

shortening 
1^ cups milk 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



PRICE PER 1000 CALORIES 





Quaker Oats 5<: 

Round Steak 37c 

Ijk Leg of Lamb 52c 

^^ VeaJ Cutlets 44c 


Stewing Hen 
BroiJers 

E«g8 

Fish 


!34c 
70c 
43c 


1 


1 




1 


M 


r>r 




'A 



Buy Foods 

By Calories — Not By Pounds 

Compare food cost by calories, and you'll use more Quaker Oats. The calory is the energy 
unit used by governments to measure food. 

On this basis, at prices current at this writing 



Meats Average 8 Times as Much. 

Eggs, Fish and Fowl 
Cost 8 to 10 Times Quaker Oats 



That is, for the same calory value. Yet these are all major foods. 

Pound for pound, Quaker Oats has twice the calories of round steak. Every cupful contains 
280 calories — as much as four eggs. 

Every dollar you spend for Quaker Oats saves at least $1 if used to displace meat, measured 
by the calory basis. 

You have known the oat as the marvel food, well balanced, rich in minerals. But its wealth 
of nutriment makes it also the money-saving food. 

Make Quaker Oats your breakfast. Mix it also with your flour foods. Use it to save money, 
to save wheat and meat, to add flavor and nutrition. 

It is one of the greatest foods you have. 





The Best One-Third of Oats 



We used just the queen grains — big, rich and flavory 
in making Quaker Oats. 

We get but ten pounds from a bushel. 



Thus you get oat flavor at its best. You get it with- 
out extra price. All oat foods are made doubly inviting 
when you use this premier grade. 



12 to 13c and 30 to 32c Per Package 

Except in Far West and South 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not acceptjsubstitutes 
219 



220 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Put the maize Into a bowl, sift In the 
other dry Ingredients, add the liquid and 
mix thoroughly. Bake In a hot, well- 
greased. Iron muffin pan, about twenty- 
five minutes. This makes 18 muffins. 

Cream of Maize Muffins 

1 cup cream of maize 
1 cup rye or barley 

flour 
4 teaspoonfuls baking 

powder 
^ teaspoonful salt 



1 egg, beaten light 
1 tablespoonful corn 

syrup 
f cup milk (about) 
1| tablespoonfuls 

shortening 



Mix and bake as above. The recipe 
makes 12 muffins. 

Cream of Maize Griddle Cakes 



I teaspoonful salt 
1 egg beaten very light 
1 cup sour cream or 
1 cup whey and 2 

tablespoonful melted 

shortening 



1 cup cream of maize 

J cup corn flour 

I cup rye or barley 

flour 
§ teaspoonful soda 
1 teaspoonful baking 

powder 

Put the maize In a bowl, put the flour, 
soda, salt and baking powder Into a sieve 
together and sift them over the maize. 
When ready to bake, add the liquid In- 
gredients and mix thoroughly. Bake on 
a hot, well-greased griddle. 

Query No. 3987. — "Recipe for Apple Mar- 
malade made with but little sugar." 

Apple Marmalade 

Quarter the apples and remove Imper- 
fections, but retain sound cores and skin; 
add a very little boiling water, just 
enough to avoid burning, cover and cook 
over a quick fire, stirring occasionally, 
until soft. Press the pulp (with a 
wooden pestle) through a sieve. To 
each pound of pulp (pint) add from half 
to three-fourths a pound of sweetening, 
the thin yellow rind, and the juice of half 
a lemon. Let cook until the mixture 
beads from the spoon. Do not boil too 
long, as the marmalade thickens consid- 
erably on cooHng. Of three and one-half 
pounds of apple pulp very fine marmalade 
was recently made, using one pound of 
sugar and one-half pound, each, of honey 
and corn syrup. 



English Munition Workers 
Produce Food 

One of the great munition works In the 
Midlands of England has achieved re- 
markable success in the cultivation of the 
waste land surrounding the factory build- 
ings and sheds. This land, which pre- 
vious to the war would have been ne- 
glected as waste, and unsightly with 
refuse heaps, by means of an intensive 
system of cultivation. Is producing great 
quantities of potatoes, and all kinds of 
vegetables, which fully supply the re- 
quirements of thousands of work-people. 
This season pig and poultry rearing and 
breeding have widened the scope of the 
scheme, and Immensely added to Its food- 
producing value. One hundred acres are 
under cultivation, and It Is expected that 
the factory will be entirely self-supporting 
as regards vegetables. As the employees 
number about 12,000 people a great sav- 
ing of foodstuffs is secured. 



Selling Eggs by the Pound 

For several years the plan of selling 
eggs by the pound instead of by the dozen 
has been agitated among the Canadian 
grocers, and in some towns the system 
has already been put in practice. A trade 
journal, which called upon a large number 
of dealers for an expression of opinion of 
this point, states that the weight of 
opinion was in favor of the movement. 
The only obstacle in the way of a unani- 
mous indorsement of the plan is that the 
"public has not been educated to buy in 
this way." As refuting this objection. 
It is pointed out that in view of the wide 
variation In the size of eggs, the con- 
sumer would quickly realize that the 
system offers a fair and just basis of 
charge. 



Mr. Hoover warns that the people are 
eating too much bread and not enough 
vegetables. This is a good time . to re- 
member that man cannot, or at least 
should not, live by bread alone. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




The Ryzon 
Kitchen 



I 



THIS is where the Ryzon Service Staff develops 
new recipes and revises others to meet today's 
requirements. 

Experiments have been made with Corn, Barley, Oats, 
Rice and Potatoes and successful recipes for delicious 
breads, cakes and pastries have resulted. 

These recipes have been approved by the United 

States Food Administration and a copy of " Ryzon 

Conservation Recipes" will be mailed you without 
charge, upon request. 



Ryzon is 40c a pound. The nenu Ryzon 
Baking Book (original price Si -00) con- 
taining 250 practical recipes, many of 
conservation <value^ and others easily 
adapted to present day needs^ nxjill he 
mailed postpaid upon receipt of 30c in 



stamps or coin, except in Canada. A 
pound tin of Ryzon and a copy of the 
Ryzon Baking Book njjill be sent free, 
postpaid, to any domestic science teacher 
'vho'Tjjrites us on school stationery, gi'v- 
ing official position. 



GENERALCHEMICALCQ 

FOOD DEPARTMENT 

NEW VORK 



I uv advertised Goods 



— Do^^not accept substitutes 
221 



THE SILVER LINING 



Gooless Days 

Mother went to the baker's to get us some food, 
She bought five eclairs 'cause he said tbey were 

good, 
But the baker had feared he might go to the wall. 
And in those eclairs he'd put no "goo" at all. 

When father had bit one, he shook his gray head, 
"There are better desserts I have tasted," he said. 
"The outside is tough and the inside is small. 
And in the inside there is no 'goo' at all." 

Crustacia, my sister — a fair maid is she, 
Who has a sweet tooth that is sweet as can be, 
Just spat out her mouthful and started to bawl. 
Said she hated eclairs when they'd no 'goo' 
at all. 

Then up spake my brother, a bright lad is he, 
And he loves his dear land of the brave and the 

free. 
"Shame on you! When Hoover has issued a call 
That chocolate eclairs shall have no 'goo' at all." 

Herman Ellis Nichols. 




Active Little Folks 

need the comfortable security given by 




OBLONG RUBBER BUTTON 

HOSE SUPPORTER 

Sold Everywhere 

Child's sample pair (give age) 20c. postpaid. 
For hifants — "The Baby Midget Velvet Grip 
Hose Supporter," Silk 15c; Lisle lOc. 

GEORGE FROST CO. - Makers - Boston 



A Story oi the Front 

The hobo knocked at the back door, 
and the woman of the house appeared. 

"Lady, I was at the front — " 

"Poor man!" she interrupted. "Wait 
till I give you some food, and then you 
shall tell me your story." After she had 
given him a hearty meal she anxiously 
inquired, "What brave deed did you do 
at the front.?" 

"I knocked," he replied, meekly, "but 
couldn't make nobody hear, so I came 
around to the back." — Harper's. 



"Can you tell me," said the court, ad- 
dressing Enrico Ufuzzi, under examina- 
tion at Union Hill, N. J., as to his quali- 
fications for citizenship, "the difference 
between the powers and prerogatives of 
the King of England and those of the 
President of the United States.?" 

"Yezzir," spoke up Ufuzzi, promptly. 
"King, he got steady job." 

— New York Morning Telegraph . 



An example of how they maintain the 
censorship inviolate, so that no one may 
know what must be kept secret,, is given 
by the New York Sun, which quotes an 
unnamed New York paper. "Yesterday 
a large transport arrived at a certain At- 
lantic port. As the boat proceeded up 
the harbor a war-weary veteran leaning 
over the rail exclaimed, *Gee! but the 
Statue of Liberty never looked so good 
to me!'" 



A Western man tells ol a weather- 
beaten woman, somewhat over six feet in 
height, with shoulders proportionately 
broad, who appeared at a house in his 
town and asked for light housework, ex- 
plaining that she was convalescing from 
typhoid fever. "W^here did you come 
from, and where have you been.?" she 
was asked. 



222 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Table Delicacies 




"Iowa's Pride" Ham 

eSTABLISHED more than 90 
years ago, the house of John 
Morrell & Co. has developed formulas 
for curing and recipes for preparing 
their many table treats that have 
made them unsurpassed for delicious- 
ness of flavor and excellence of 
quality. 

Send your name and your dealer's name and address now for a free copy 
of Morrell's " Iowa's Pride " Ham and Bacon Recipe Book, a masterpiece, 
written by Mrs. Ida C. Bailey Allen. It contains 1 1 1 ways of serving these 
food delights and making them go further. 

John Morrell <S2 Co. 

•OTTUMWA, IOWA 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
223 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Q)elicious — 
and QTirifc^joo 



\ 71" ANY simple, wholesome pud- 
IVl dings and cakes can be as 
delicious as in more extravagant 
days — if the flavor is wisely chosen 
and wisely used. 

The rich, appetizing delicacy of Burnett's 
Vanilla lends a charm to desserts which 
makes them seem like old times. Do 
not risk spoiling precious materials by 
trying to save a fraction of a cent on 
the flavor you use — that is not thrift. 
But the use of Burnett's Vanilla is. 



Burnett's 

Vanilla 




VANILLA NESNAH 

(Made in a Jiffy) 

Serve Vanilla Nesnah with your 
cereal. It may be made in the cereal 
saucers the night before or about a half 
hour before breakfast, place cereal, 
cooked or uncooked, on top and await 
the verdict of the family. ^Moreover, 
no sugar is needed when Nesnah is 
eaten with cereal. 

Six Pure Natural Flavors 

Vanilla Orange Raspberry 

Almond Lemon Chocolate 

A postcard will bring you samples and a 
cook booklet. 



Write to 

Chr. Hansen's Laboratory, Inc. 

THE JUNKET FOLKS 

Box 2570 Little Falls, N. Y- 



"I've been out on a ranch in Wy- 
oming," she explained, "diggin' post- 
holes while I was gettin' my strength 

back." — Harper's Magazine, 

The Cure for Care 

''Why is it, Sam, that one never hears 
of a darky committing suicide.^" in- 
quired the Northerner. 

"Well, you see, it's disaway, boss: 
When a white pusson has any trouble he 
sets down an' gets to studyin' 'bout it an' 
a-worryin'. Then firs' thing you know 
he's done killed hisse'f. But when a 
nigger sets down to think 'bout his trou- 
bles, why, he jes' nacherly goes to sleep!" 

— Life, 



A sergeant was trying to drill a lot of 
raw recruits, and after working hard for 
three hours he thought they seemed to be 
getting into some sort of shape, so de- 
cided to test them. "Right turn!" he 
cried. Then, before they had ceased to 
move, came another order, "Left turn!" 
One man left the ranks and started off 
toward the barracks-room. "Here, you!" 
yelled the angry sergeant, "Where are 
you going?" 

"I've had enough," replied the recruit 

in a disgusted tone. "You don't know 

your own mind for two minutes runnin'!" 

— Harper's Magazine, 



The youth seated himself in the den- 
tist's chair. He wore a wonderful striped 
shirt, and a more wonderful checked suit, 
and had the vacant stare that goes with 
both. The dentist looked at his assis- 
tant. "I am afraid to give him gas,"|^he 
said. 

"Why.^" asked the assistant. 

"Well," said the dentist, "how can I 
tell when he's unconscious.^" 



Mother: "I don't Hke the looks of that 
little boy you were playing with on the 
street today. You musn't play with bad 
little boys, you know^" 



luv advertised Goods 



— Do not accept substitutes 
224 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



diiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiNiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

The Wilson Domestic Science 
Department is at your service 

WITH a large, modern experimental laboratory 
at its disposal, with first-hand knowledge of 
the food situation, with special facilities for research 
work, our Domestic Science Department is a val- 
uable help to the Domestic Science Teacher or Ex- 
tension Worker, as well as to every housewife in 
America. 

Our facilities in this respect are gladly placed at 
your disposal. 

Miss Eleanor Lee Wright, in charge of our Domes- 
tic Science Department, gives her personal attention 
to all communications and requests. 

Under her direction we issue special weekly bulle- 
tins, special recipes, and other information of unusual 
interest. For the Domestic Science Teacher or 
Extension Worker we also provide slides and motion 
picture films illustrating the preparation of special 
recipes. These we take pleasure in lending on request. 




"^hiomcuK 



K\ /A /7 



WILSON & Ga 



\ftnin. (^o^upotee'" 



The Wilson Label Protects Your Table 




Our Special 
Booklet 



"Economy in the Buy- 
ing and Preparation of 
Meats" is a complete text- 
book on this important sub- 
ject. It illustrates the differ- 
ent cuts of beef, pork, mutton, etc., in their 
natural colors and really teaches how to 
select meats as well as how to cook them 
most economically. We will mail a copy 
to any address on receipt of 10 cents in 
stamps. 

Use the coupon to secure any one or all of 
the five special pamphlets, which we send 
without charge. 



r 
I 
I 
I 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



Domestic Science Dept. 11, Wilson & Co., 

41st St. and Ashland Ave., Chicago 

Send me the pamphlets marked with an X. 

( ) Six Wartime Recipes— Half a dozen appe- 
tizing dishes that are inexpensive. 

( ) Economical Dinner Menus— Five well- 
balanced.-economical meals. 

( ) Lesson on Oleomargarine— Valuable bul- 
letin for domestic science teachers. 

( ) Common-sense Kitchen Efficency— How 
to run the "office" of the home. 

( ) "It Protects Your Table" _ Something 
about our own big kitchen. 

( ) I enclose 10c for "Economy in the Buying and 



N< 



Preparation of Meats.' 



Address. 



FniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiininiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiin 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
225 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



ENLIST FOR WAR SERVICE 

WITH its twenty-three million homes, 
housekeeping is our country's big- 
gest industry. To win the War, economy 
and efficiency in the home is an imperative 
necessity. 

Your Country Is Calling You 
To save food, save fuel and save all materials 

used in the home; 
To organize your work so that you will have 

more time and strength for War Relief 

Work; 
To make your home a safer, more healthful 

place to live in, to bring up children in; 
To make your home more worth fighting 

for, more worth this awful sacrifice. 

To meet this call fully — ■ become a 
trained expert in your home management 
(or for outside service). Enlist NOW for 
home-service. Send for the *' Profession 
of Home Making" to American School of 
Home Economics, 503 W. 69th St., 
Chicago. 



IT SERVES YOUR HOME AND SAVES YOUR TIME 
THAT IS PRACTICAL ECONOMY 




Large Broad Wide Table 

Removable Glass Service Tra'y- 

Double Drawer — Double Hsmdles 

— Large Deep Undershelves — *' Scientifically Silent" 

Rubber Tired Swivel Wheels 

A high grade piece of furniture surpassing anything yet attempted 

for GENERAL UTILITY, ease of action, and absolute noiselessness 

Write NOW for a Descriptive Pamphlet and Dealer's Name. 

COMBINATION PRODUCTS CO. 1 1u Tower BIdg., Chicago. IIU 



SEVEN-CENT MEALS 



$1.50 per week 
per person: 42 

meals with recipes and directions for preparing each. 10c 

or FREE for names of four friends interested in Domestic 

Science. 

Am. School Home Economics, 503 W. 69th St., Chicago 



Tirtxe Economy calls for 

Colburn's 
Spices 

The A.Colburn Co., PhiladclpKia,U.S.A 



Son: ^'Oh, but he isn't a bad little boy, 
mamma. He's a good little boy. He's 
been to a reformatory twice, and they've 
let him out each time on account of good 
behavior." — New York Glebe. 



The hot retorts of refusal to the 
younger Mr. Rockefeller's proposal of a 
liberal and broad church that will eschew 
the bigotries and archaisms that now 
plague the sects reminds a readei of the 
following: An Atlanta address attacked 
bigotry. "But dear friends," concluded 
a bishop, "the best setback the bigot ever 
got was at the hands of old Cal Clay. 
Cal was asked one day by a missionary 
what denomination he belonged to, and 
the old fellow's reply was this: 'Bress 
ye, sah, dah's fo' roads leadin' f'om hyah 
ter town, — de long road, de hill road, de 
sho' road, and de swamp road, — but 
when Ah goes ter town wid er load er 
grain dey don't say ter me, * Uncle Cal- 
houn, which road did yo' come in by.'*" 
but "Cal, is yo' wheat good.'*' " 



Willie: "What's a substitute, father.?" 
Crabshaw! "Anything that costs more 
than the real article." — Life. 



"I never saw a woman so full of en- 
ergy." 

"Nor I. Why. merely correcting her 
mistakes keeps two men busy." — Life. 



"The Germans may repent some day," 
said Uncle Ezra, "but ef they don't hurry 
up, that fatted calf'll be gittin' leaner and 
leaner." 



"And what reward was Joseph given 
for saving the Egyptians from starva- 
tion.?" 

"Please, Miss, he was made food con- 
troller." — Judge. 



A Sunday-school teacher in a Unitarian 
church remarked to her class that in the 
burial custom of the ancient Egyptians 
the people were buried in their aesopha- 
guses! 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
226 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Cocoanut Shells 
Needed For 
Gas Masks 



The carbon from charred cocoanut shells is the best absorbent 
of poisonous gases yet discovered. Hundreds of tons of cocoanut 
shells a day are needed by the Government for the manufacture 
of gas masks. 

Only manufacturers of cocoanut products are permitted to re- 
ceive importations of whole nuts and all the shells are turned over 
for the manufacture of gas masks. 

The more cocoanut American housewives use, the more shells 
ara turned over and hence the more gas masks can be produced. 

The food value of cocoanut is just beginning to be appreci- 
ated. Pound for pound it is richer in nourishment than bread, 
eggs or steak. 

Dromedary Cocoanut can be used in a number of ways to add 
food value, flavor and variety to timely conservation dishes. 

Dromedary Cocoanut is the universal favorite because it is so 
delicious in corn muffins, waffles and griddle cakes, cookies, gela- 
tines, rice and bread puddings and fruit desserts, and as sugarless 
frost'ng for coffee cakes and war cakes. 

Dromedary Cocoanut is Economical 

It is safe to buy Dromedary Cocoanut in large quantities 
because there is no waste. The cover of the *' Ever- Sealed" 
package nay be replaced, thus keeping the unused portion fresh, 
moist and full flavored. 

Write today for our new book "Dromedary War-time Recipes" 
which gives many appetizing suggestions for patriotic housewives. 

The HILLS BROTHERS Co. 

Dept. G, 375 Washington St., New York 

Add Dromedary Cocoanut to Your Favorite Recipe for Corn Muffins 




Buy advertised Goods 



— Do not accept substitutes 
227 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




RECIPES 

that conserve 
wheat, sugar and 
fats, yet provide 
tempting food and 
generous nourish- 
ment. 



FREE ON REQUEST 

THE FLEISGHMANN CO., 

701 Washington Street, Nevv^ York City 



Housekeeper's size, 1 |oz., .30 prepaid 
Caterer's size, 16oz., $1.00 
(With full directions.) 



Cremo-Vesco Company 

631 EAST 23rd ST., BROOKLYN. N. Y. 




Wagner Manufacturing Co. 

SIDNEY, OHIO. 



Cream Whipping Made 
Easy and Inexpensive 

^ REMO- y ESCO 

Whips Thin Cream 

or Half Heavy Cream and Milk 

or Top of the Milk Bottle 

It whips up as easily as heavy cieeim 

and retains its stiffness- 

Every caterer and housekeeper 

wants CREMC VESCO. 

Send for a bottle today. 



In a certain small western town the 
various denominations work side by side 
in complete harmony, arranging their ser- 
vices so as to conflict as little as possible. 
One evening a church bell was^ heard ring- 
ing vigorously. The family seated around 
the supper-table looked up in surprise. 
"What bell is that.?" they asked. No 
one seemed to know, until at last one ex- 
claimed: "Oh, I remember now! That 
is the- Episcopal bell ringing for the Bap- 
tist revival that begins at the Presbyterian 
Church tonight!" 

- — New York Evening Post. 

Lysander, a farm hand, was recounting 
his troubles to a neighbor. He said of the 
wife of the farmer who employed him: 
"This very morning she asked me, * Ly- 
sander, do you know how many pancakes 
you have et this mornin'.?' I said, *No, 
ma'am. I ain't had no occasion to count 
'em.' *Well,' says she, 'that last one 
was the twenty-sixth.' And it made me 
so mad I jest got up from the table and 
went to work without my breakfast!" 

— Everybody's Magazine. 

A clergyman was grieved to find his ser- 
vices for men were poorly attended. He 
expressed his regret to the verger one 
evening, when, as usual, there were the 
only two at the meeting. " I really think 
they ought to come," he said sadly. 
"That's jest what I've zed to 'em over 
an' over again," said the verger, consol- 
ingly. '"I sez to 'em: 'Look at me,' I 
sez; 'look at me. I goes to all them ser- 
vices,' I sez, 'an' wat 'arm does they do 
me?" — The Presbyterian Advance. 



A youthful lawyer had a case in which 
he wished to make a hit, and to that end 
he looked up authorities that took him 
back to the days of Julius Caesar. At the 
end of an hour and a half it was plain the 
judge was not appreciating the fine points 
of his arguments. "Your Honor," said 
he, pausing in his plea and turning to the 
bench, "I beg your pardon, but are you 
following me?" "I have so far," an- 
swered the judge, "but if I thought I 
could find my way back I would quit 
right here." — Argonaut. 



Buy advertised Goods 



— Do not accept substitutes 
228 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Not dry— but fresh' 
grated and canned 
in its oii-'n coconut 
milk. 






lW 



\ 



\ 



Jd 



^ 



^ 



Fresh coconut is of course deli- 
cious. But it' s also highly nutritious 
— more so than wheat, for instance. 
Let it help you gain variety on food- 
saving days — and let the rich coco- 
nut milk save part of your shortening 
too. Baker's Canned Coconut makes 
the use of fresh coconut so easy. It is 
fresh coconut ready-grated, and canned in 
its ov^'n delicious milk. There are many 
new coconut-ways in our pretty recipe 
booklet 

Send a post card for your free copy. If 
your grocer hasn't Baker's Canned Coconut 
on hand, send us his name and 15^ in stamps 
for a full-size can 

The Franklin Baker Cc. Phila., Pa. 

Manufacturers also of Baier's Shreddea Coconut, in carf.v. 



1 




Here^s a really nourish- 
ing salad — delicious: 




Coconut Pepper Salad 

Original and very nourishing 

1 can Baker's Fresh-Grated Coco- 
nut 
6 green peppers 

6 tablespoons ripe olives, pitted 
Ss It— Paprika— Mayonnaise 
Optional: 1 pkt. cream cheese (1-4 
lb.) or cottage cheese. 

Drain milk from coconut, as 
shown. Cut slice off tops of pep- 
pers, scoop out insides. Cut olives 
into small pieces and mix with 
3-4 of the drained coconut and the 
cheese. Add seasoning. Fill pep- 
per shells with mixture; 1 table- 
spoon mayonnaise on top of each- 
Serve on crisp lettuce; sprinkle 
remaining coconut over top, and 
a dash of paprika. Save the milk: 
rich enough for baking or cook- 
ing. 



COCONUT 



Canned — in its own milk — fresh 



Buy advertised Goods 



— Do not accept substitutes 
229 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



FOOD AND THE WAR 

Prepared under the direction of the 
United States Food Administration, 
with the co-operation of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and the Bureau of 
Education. 

379 PP' Cloth binding. 80 cents postpaid 

Part I of this volume gives in clear, 
compact form just the information in 
regard to the composition and functions 
of food, and the body fuel requirements 
which every woman should have in 
order to carry on, not only the work of 
food conservation, but of intelligent 
food preparation. Part II deals with 
the principles of cooking. For illus- 
tration a few typical receipts are in- 
cluded. 

The book was prepared for use in 
study courses organized in response to 
Mr. Hoover's suggestions. 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 

Boston - New York - Chicago 




BREAD BOARD 

Eleven-inch turned maple bread board. The edge of this 
board is undercut like a dinner plate making a finished and 
attractive article. Sent, prepaid, to any present subscriber 
for securing and sending us one (1) new yearly subscrip- 
tion for American Cookery. Cash price, 75 cents. 

The Boston Cooking-School Magazine Co. 

Boston, Mass. 



WHEATLESS- MEATLESS MEALS 

84 Menus, 124 Recipes, directions for preparing each meal, food 
values, substitutes, timely suggestions, etc. 10c or FREE for 
four names of friendt interested in Domestic Science. 
Am. School Home Economics, 503 W. 69th St., Chicago, III. 



This happened in a village not far from 
Boston. A little girl about five years 
old was out in her yard when some work- 
men, whom she called her "friends," 
were going by. She asked them, "Where 
do you expect to go to when you die.^" 
One of them answered, "I don't exactly 
know where I shall go." "Well," she 
answered, "you'd better know, for if 
you don't go to heaven you'll have to 
go to New York." c. 



"I want to live in the country next 
summer," said the stranger. "That's a 
laudable ambition," replied Farmer Corn- 
tossel. "You see, I'm a painter. Can 
I get board with you.?" "It depends, 
friend, on what yru paint. If It's pic- 
tures, I don't see much chance of makin* 
room for you. But if it's fences an' 
roofs, we'll board you an' pay wages 
besides." — Washington Star. 



"Waiter," said the indignant customer, 
"what does this mean.-* Yesterday I was 
served for the same price with a portion 
of chicken twice the size of this." "Yes, 
sir," answered the waiter. "Where did 
you sit.?" "Over by the window." 
"Then that accounts for it. We al- 
ways give people who sit by the windows 
large portions. It's an advertisement!" 
— New York Evening Post. 



A reader of the London Spectator sends 
the following: Many years ago the fol- 
lowing was on an alms-box in Milan 
Cathedral: "To the Charitables. — The 
Brothers so-called of Mercy ask slender 
Arms for their Hospital. They harbour 
all kinds of diseases and have no respect 
of religion." 



After-dinner Speaker: "Gentlemen, I 
have come prepared tonight to speak on 
the war." 

Guest: "It's all right, old man. We've 
come prepared to listen to you."^ — Life. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
230 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




A New War- Time Product 

The familiar red and blue package has a new reading. The product, 
too, has been changed to meet the stress of war-time conditions. It 
is now a combination of tapioca and other nutritious flours. But 
the food value of Minute Tapioca remains the same in Minute Tapioca 
Substitute. 

Our country needed ships to carry men, food and ammunition. To 
supply these needs the ships which brought tapioca half-around-the-world 
had to be released. 

Our Government needed a food with the energy-producing value of 
tapioca. Therefore, we offer you this Minute Tapioca Substitute with 
pride, for we realize that we are supplying the country's needs over here 
and over there. 

Your war-time table economy may be continued by using the same 
receipts which call for Minute Tapioca. Use this new war-time product, 
not only because you want to be patriotic, but because it is a real food. 
It's the old familiar package with the Minute Man and the Blue Band. 

MINUTE TAPIOCA CO., 310 North Main St., Orange, Mass. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
235 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




For OuT-DOOR Folk 

THOSE who brave all weathers for health's sake 
are among the most enthusiastic owners of 
the Sealy Sanitary Tuftless Mattress. 
Folk who become genuinely tired desire a yielding, 
soothing, balmy mattress. The Sealy is ''a pillow 
for the body/' 

With all its responsiveness to bodily position the 
Sealy is firm and enduring. It retains its shapliness 
and smoothness thru all the years. It never needs 
re-makiog. 

There is a peculiar bloom and character to the 
appearance of the Sealy which comes of being air- 
woven from the finest quality of long-fibre cotton. 
Samples of exclusive smart Sealy coverings, a book- 
let on health and sleep and the names of dealers 
who sell the Sealy Mattress in your locality will be 
sent you on request 




MATTRESS 
COMPANY 

Sugar Land, Texas 




FileM.O 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
236 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




One of the Big 
Little Things 
Every Woman 
Can Afford 



For 

Successful 

Dinners 

A SUCCESSFUL dinner depends as much 
upon the little things as upon the food 
itself. If the salt shakers are clogged, your 
guests will go without salt, and you will be 
embarrassed. Everyone will m delighted 
if you use 

Mortons Salt 



When It Rains — I 



IT POUR? 



:i^l 



j:r— 




A cube - crystal, salty salt. No dust — no 
powder. The package is dust and damp 
proof and has a handy aluminum spout. Its 
convenience for cooking as well as table 
use appeals to all good housekeepers. 

Per Package 10c— West of the Rockies, 12y2C 

MORTON SALT COMPANY 

80 East Jackson Blvd. Chicago, Illinois 

If your dealer happens to be out of Morton's Salt send us his name 
and address. We will see that he is supplied. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
237 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




lejBspoon of aaJt, 1 <-easpoon FausI 
CKii* Pow^er^ Add 4 tabiespoortfuls of 
olive or saJai^ oil, Btii or beat thoroughly, 
then add 3 tablespoonfuls of vmegar and 
stir at beat until thoroughly Congealed, y- 




Prize- Winning Chile Con-Ca 

1^2 lbs. beef off round, ground 
fine; 2 large onions, 2 teaspoonluls salt; 
large tablespoons Bianke's Chile Powderj 
1 heaping tablespoon lard; 1 pint Mexican 
chile Beans or 1 pint red kidney beans; 
pint hot water. Soak beans in water' ar 
boil until done; cut onions in small bits and 
fry in the lard; add to this the ground be 
which has been sprinkled with a little flouij 
and salt;, stir until seared, then add one pii 
hot water, the cotiked beans and Chii 
Powder. Stir and kt cook slowly 30 minutesii 




FausI Chile Spaghetti Au Gratiii 



Cook a half pound of spaghetti until done, 
put in a baking dish, put two tablespoons of 
bacon grease, add a pint of tomatoes, put on 
a taWespoontul of Chile Powder mixed well 
together, and salt to suit, put on lop 
sprmkling of grated cheese, place in ovenj 
to slowly bake. When the top is bro 
will be ready to serve. 



/, 



«^. 



MAKE THE BEST 
DISHES BETTER 



FAUST CHILE POWDER is a 
"different" seasoning. You use it 
instead of pepper, spices, etc. It's 
a combination of all cf them, except 
salt. For salad dressings, meats, gravies, 
stews, soups, there's 
nothing quite so good. 
Sold by most dealers in 
lOc, 25c. and 50c. 
cans. If your dealer 
hasn't it, send 15c. for 
iM-oz. can and Recipe 
Pamphlet prepared by 
Henry Dietz, famous 
chef of the historic Faust 
Cafe and Bevo Mill. 

DEALERS, Ask Your Jobber. 
JOBBERS, Write Us. 

C. F* Blanke Tea & 
Coffee Co., ST. LOUIS, mo. 

Manufacturers of the vrorld-fjunous 
Faust Instant Coffee & Tea. Faust 
Instant Coffee is now in the service 
of the Government and this product 
will therefore be unobtainable until 
victory crowns our arms. Faust Instant 
Tea, however, is still available at 30c., 
from dealers or by mail. 




Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
238 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



LIBERTY RECIPES 

By Amelia Doddridge, 

Head of Home Economics Department, JVooster College 

These recipes show how war-time foods, 
which effect a large saving, can be made de- 
hcious and appetizing — at the same time 
giving suggestions for the conservation of 
wheat, meats, fats and sugar. Chapters on 
Breads, Meatless Dishes, Salads, Desserts, 
Cakes, Cookies and Pastries. 

The book offers an unusual opportunity for 
an easy choice in planning menus. 
Elaborately illustrated. With artistic cover jacket in 
Jour colors. NET $1.25. On Sale at All Bookstores or 

PTcmiDT 9. vinn on publishers and bookseuers, 
STEWART & MUU bU. Cincinnati, u. s. a. 




HEAVY TIN BORDER MOULD 

Round, 6 inch 

We will send, postpaid, one of these border 
moulds to any present subscriber, as a premium 
for securing and sending us one (1) new yearly 
subscription for American Cookery at $1.50. 

Cash Price of Mould 7$ cents. 
ADDRESS 

The Boston Cooking-School Magazine Go, 

BOSTON, MASS. 



SERVICE BUREAU 



... OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON 
PUBLIC INFORMATION 



Fifteenth and G Streets 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Information available as to Officials, Functions, 
and Location of all Government Departments. 



"y ^^^ Trade Mark Begiatered. 

JXs5'lu*^>^ Flour. 



40% GLUTEN 






Guaranteed to comply in all respects to 

standard requirements of U. S. Dept. of 

Agriculture. 

Manufactured by 

FARWELL &. RHINES 

Watertown, N. Y. 



^ 



m 



Salt Mackerel 

CODFISH, FRESH LOBSTER 

RIGHT FROM THE FISHING BOATS TO YOU 




FAMILIES who are fond of FISH can be supplied DIRECT 
i from GLOUCESTER, MASS., bv the FRANK E. DAVIS 
I COMPANY, with newly caught KEEPABLE OCEAN FISH, 

j choicer than any inland dealer could poss'blv furnish. 
i We sell ONLY TO THE CONSUMER DIRECT, sending 
by EXPRESS RIGHT TO YOUR HOME. We PREPAY 

j express on all orders east of Kansas. Our fish are pure, appe- 
tizing and economical and we want YOU to try some, payment 
subject to your approval. 

SALT MACKEREL, fat, meaty, juicy fish, are delicious for 
breakfast. They are freshly packed in brine and will not spoil 
on your hands. 

CODFISH, as we salt it, is white, boneless and ready for 
instant use. It makes a substantial meal, a fine change from 
meat, at a much lower cost. 

FRESH LOBSTER is the best thing known for salads. 
Right fresh from the water, our lobsters simplv are boiled and 
packed in PARCHMENT-LINED CANS. "They come to 
you as the purest and safest lobsters you can buy and the meat 
is as crisp and natural as if you took it from the shell yourself. 

FRIED CLAMS is a relishable, hearty dish, that yoiar whole 
family will enjoy. No other flavor is just like that of clams, 
whether fried or in a chowder. 

FRESH MACKEREL, perfect for frving, SHRIMP to 
cream on toast, CRABMEAT Mr Newburg oTr deviled, SAL- 
MON ready to serve, SARDII VjlS of all kinds, TUNNY for 
salad, SANDWICH FILLINGS and every good thing packed 
here or abroad you can get direct from us and keep right on 
your pantry shelf for regular or emergency use. 

With every order we send BOOK OF RECIPES for 
preparing all our products. Write for it. Our list .---'' 
tells how each kind of fish is put up, with the ..-'' 

delivered price so you can choose just what .-■'' 

you will enjoy most. Send the coupon for it ---'' 

^°^- Frank E. 

Davis Co. , 



FRANK E. DAVIS CO 

2 Central Wharf, 

Gloucester, 

Mass. 



2 Central Wharf, 
Gloucester, Mass. 

Please send me your latest 
Fish Price List. 



Name . 



Street 



City . 



State . 



Domestic Science 

HOME-STUDY COURSES 

Food, Health, Housekeeping, Clothing, Children. 
Courses for Homemakers, Teachers, Dietitians, 
Managers, Home Demonstrators, Nurses, etc. 
"THE PROFESSION OF HOME-MAKING." 100 

page handbook, FREE. Bulletins: "Free Hand 
CooKixG," 10 cents. "Food Values," 10 cents. 
"Five Cent Meals," 10 cents. 

AM. SCHOOL HOME ECONOMICS, 503 W. 69th St.,CHIGAGO 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
239 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




nil 

flu 

I If I 
I #11 

lii 

4A 



Ifll 

iii 

li 



E PBCCTE" 4 GAMBLE CO , 



WHENEVER you do not know the best waj^ to brighten up some- 
thing that seldom has to be cleaned, a good rule is to use Ivory Soap. 

For thirty-seven years housekeepers have depended upon Ivory Soap to 
take the place of expert knowledge in the solution of a hundred and one 
cleaning problems. It never has disappointed them. Its copious lather 
enables it to dissolve any dirt that soap can move. Its purity and mildness 
make it entirely harmless. 

Know just this — that water will not injure the article — and you can de- 
pend on Ivory Soap to make it look like new. 



IVORY SOAP. 



.99.fo^ PURE 



m 



%\ 



Factories at Ivory dale, Ohio ; Port Ivory, New York f Kansas City, Kansas ; Hamilton, Canada 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
240 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



Fuels of the Household. Marian White. $ .75 
Furnishing a Modest Home. Daniels 1.00 
Golden Rule Cook Book (600 Recipes 

for Meatless Dishes). Sharpe 2.00 

Guide to Modern Cookery. M. Escoffier 4.00 
Handbook of Home Economics. Flagg .75 
Handbook of Hospitality for Town 

and Country. Florence H. Hall . . . 1.50 
Handbook of Invalid Cooking. Mary 

A. Boland 2.00 

Handbook on Sanitation. G. M. Price, 

M. D 1.50 

Healthful Farm House, The. Dodd .60 
Home Candy Making. Mrs. Rorer ... .50 

Home Economics. Maria Parloa 1.50 

Home Economics Movement 75 

Home Furnishings. Hunter 2.00 

Home Furnishings, Practical and Art- 
istic. Kellogg 1.60 

Home Nursing. Harrison 1.00 

Home Problems from a New Stand- 
point 1.00 

Home Science Cook Book. Anna Bar- 
rows and Mary J. Lincoln 1.00 

Homes and Their Decoration. French 3.00 

Hot Weather Dishes. Mrs. Rorer 50 

House Furnishing and Decoration. 

McClure and Eberlein 1.50 

House Sanitation. Talbot 80 

Household Bacteriology. Buchanan.. 2.40 
Household Economics. Helen Campbell 1.50 
Household Physics. Alfred M. Butler. 1.30 

Household Textiles. Gibbs 1.25 

How to Cook in Casserole Dishes. 

Neil 1.00 

How To Cook for the Sick and Con- 
valescent. H. V. Sachse 1.50 

How To Feed Children. Hogan 1.00 

How to Use a Chafing Dish. Mrs. 

Rorer 50 

Human Foods. Snyder 1.25 

Ice Cream, Water Ices, etc. Rorer . . .75 

I Go A Marketing. Sowle 1.50 

Institution Recipes. Smedley 1.25 

Interior Decorations. Parsons 3.50 

International Cook Book. Filippini.. 1.50 
Key to Simple Cookery. Mrs. Rorer.. 1.25 

Kitchen Companion. Parloa 2.50 

Laboratory Handbook for Dietetics. 

Rose 1.10 

Lessons in Cooking Through Prepara- 
tion of Meals 2.00 

Lessons in Elementary Cooking. Mary 

C. Jones 1.00 

Like Mother Used to Make. Herrick 1.25 

Luncheons. Mary Roland 1.40 

A cook's picture book; 200 illustrations. 

Made-over Dishes. Mrs. Rorer 50 

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— Do not accept substitutes 
247 




m 



A FRENCH CHEF AND ASSISTANTS, NOW FEEDING SUFFERERS FROM TUBERCULOSIS 



I 



American Cookery 



VOL. XXIII 



NOVEMBER, 1918 

The Making of a War Bride 

By Helen Forrest 



No. 4 



w 



'ELL, of all the crazy-mad 
things I ever heard of! My 
dear, I am devoured with curi- 
osity! When I read it among the marri- 
age notices of The Times, I thought it was 
a joke; when I read your note, I nearly 
fainted!" 

"It's sober earnest," and the short- 
story writer faced the Editor of The 
Children's Page. " I realized that when I 
bid my Major goodbye three hours ago. 
But your surprise is quite justifiable. 
Fifteen years ago last June you and I 
graduated from Smith's, and behold me, 
at years of discretion, detached suddenly 
from my literary labors and joined to the 
ranks of the short-skirted, flapperish, ro- 
mantic war brides." 

"Your skirt is shorter," her friend grew 
sharply observant, "and, save us, a soli- 
taire set in platinum beside the regulation 
wedding ring!" 

"Oh, I picked up a gown or two before 
the wedding, and I helped the Major 
choose those rings at Tiffany's — rather 
a record, that, even for a war bride, an 
engagement and a wedding ring in the 
same day — " and the bride's eyes grew 
dreamily reminiscent. 

"I'm sorry you weren't at the cere- 
mony, but, you know, you were in Boston, 
and there wasn't much time." 

" How long since you first met him t " the 
Editorofthe Children's Page was struggling 
hard for light on this amazing marriage. 

"Nineteen years," answered the writer 
of short stories, "in my Freshman year; 
he was in West Point; I was up there for 
a football game." 

"And you have kept up ever since at 
long range.?" 



"Short range sometimes," smiled the 
Major's wife, "when his sailing orders 
came, everything seemed suddenly 
changed. He wanted a home feeling, 
somebody to come back to," and the 
bride wiped her eyes. 

" Oh, an Interlude ! Put it in a story ! " 
exclaimed the Editor hurriedly, dismayed 
by her friend's tears; "the Major is on 
the briny deep, and you are back in your 
comfortable bachelor apartments. Let's 
go out for some lunch — then I recom- 
mend to you an afternoon of work on 
your new story. I saw the start as you 
left it on the typewriter, and it seemed to 
me distinctly hopeful." 

The bride had opened a suit case and 
shaken out a blue charmeuse gown, and 
the memory of fragrant tobacco sur- 
prised the feminine atmosphere. A 
match box rattled sharply against the 
cover of her typewriter. It seemed to the 
Editor that a vigorous and alien per- 
sonality dominated the familiar little 
room. 

"Prepare yourself for a shock, my 
friend," said the Major's wife solemnly — 
her brown eyes grown black with her 
quick emotion; " this war bride of a week 
is done with bachelor apartments, with 
hotel dining rooms — yes, for the present, 
at least, with the writing of short stories." 

Her friend gasped, but the steady voice 
went on. "I've accepted some things, 
Jane, my Jimmy's name, his bank ac- 
count, and fortunate it is, when an army 
officer has a private income beside his 
pay. Best of all I've accepted my Major 
himself. Now be good and tell me some- 
thing nice. What would a man admire 



m m.t: 



249 



250 



AMERICAN COOKERY. 



"You?" exclaimed the Editor, "why, 
your cleverness, your smart look, your 
literary ability." 

"Jane, Jane, bless you, but you're off 
the track; for none of those pleasing rea- 
sons attained I my present elevated posi- 
tion in military and domestic circles. 
Jane, Jimmy married me for what small 
claim to good looks are mine; but, don't 
laugh, first and foremost he chose me 
because he wanted a pleasing, home-lov- 
ing, domestic wife. Mind you, he has 
never told me so, but it is my firm belief 
that for my cleverness, my ability as a 
writer (we thank you, Jane), he cares not 
at all." 

The Editor subsided helplessly into a 
chair, "You poor thing, cast for an im- 
possible role, and I had half envied you 
your luck!" 

"Impossible, not so," the bride's cheeks 
flushed warmly, "domestic possibilities 
are latent in every woman, and, worse 
luck, I have some lonesome time for a try 
out. My soldier, bless him, is doing his 
bit, and this is mine, to realize his ideals, 
just as far as I can and transform Mar- 
garet Brown, writer, into Mrs. Jimmy, 
domestic character, before his return." 

The Editor glanced critically around her 
friend's habitat — the little living room, 
with a few good pictures, its simple, severe 
furniture, its big desk and typewriter, was 
really a work shop. Here books, manu- 
scripts, publishers' letters, neatly dock- 
eted, spoke of a laboriously attained busi- 
ness side, which had made of practical 
value a modest literary gift. 

Only one suggestion of the new incarna- 
tion of the short-story writer was to be 
seen. On the foot of the narrow brass 
bedstead, in the sleeping room beyond, 
hung a pink chiffon negligee. 

Gloomily, arid with a sense of impend- 
ing loss, the Editor pointed to the bit of 
frilly pink: "Take it with you, Margaret, 
and leave everything else when you go to 
your suburban home, it's the only pro- 
vision that will fit your new scheme of 
life." 

"Suburban, never, come out and help 



me find my up-town apartment. In an . 
interval of my brief honeymoon I wrote 
to Cousin Mary Brown, who lives a 
hundred miles or so 'up state,' and who is 
the greatest homemaker that I ever knew. 
Dear soul! I'll give her a. cheerful winter 
away from her bumptious daughter-in- 
law. Jimmy wanted me to have her to 
keep me company, but I'll sit at her feet, 
yes, and cook at her elbow, and knit out 
of her bag. She is an expert along my 
chosen line, the path of Jimmy's unex- 
pressed, but evident ideals. My first 
thought was to learn from some domestic 
member of his family connection, but I 
was afraid to disclose the depths of ignor- 
ance from which I must rise. I can trust 
Cousin Mary." 

Three weeks later, on an autumn after- 
noon, the Editor of the Children's Page. 
her head throbbing from a long and fruit- 
less survey of a pile of hopefully sub- 
mitted manuscripts, presented herself at 
the door of a big, sunny, up-town apart- . 
ment. She held at arm's length her 
friend, the Major's wife, who opened the 
door. She must have time to grasp the 
situation. 

The bride's hair proclaimed the touch 
of the professional waver of tresses; her 
soft white gown, and strictly unpractical 
shoes, breathed an " in-for-the-afternoon " 
condition. Beyond her stretched an un- 
familiar setting, a large living room with 
big, lazy looking chairs, a wide couch with 
many pillows, a tea wagon with a silver 
equipment of obvious newness, with an 
accompanying well-stocked "curate." A 
wide center table littered comfortably 
with magazines and books, but graced by 
a soft-toned reading light, and a big 
spilly jar of roses. By the largest and 
deepest of the chairs was a strong little 
table holding pipes, tobacco and ash 
tray. 

"Give me time! give me time!" ex- 
claimed the Editor, "I am suddenly con- 
scious of unshined shoes and inky fingers. 
Before I view this newly-wed place, let 
me see the inspiration for this miracle," 
and the visitor stepped in the direction of 



THE MAKING OF A WAR BRIDE 



251 



a photograph in a heavy silver frame. 

"Strong of face and thin of hair, rob- 
ber of my best friend," she apostro- 
phized it, but the bride threatened her 
with the tea pot. 

"Stop that and have some tea out of 
my latest wedding present. Do you 
know I'm being quite overwhelmed with 
gifts, in spite of a private ceremony in the 
chantry of St. James. I made these little 
cakes," this last with complacency un- 
bounded. 

The Editor turned savagely on her 
hostess: "Margaret, you sleek pussy cat, 
you frilly bride, you make me sick! Where 
are your ambitions.^ Have you written 
anything lately.?" 

The bride sat up very straight: "Oh, 
Jane, my poor, misguided friend! I 
have ambitions in plenty, and am working 
hard to realize them, but they lie along 
the line of home. As for writing, I have 
no time except for letters, and I do them 
long hand." 

The Editor shook her head: "What 
do you do with your day.?" 

Full of enthusiasm the Major's lady 
set down her untasted cup of tea and 
clasped her newly-ringed hands. 

"Why, first we get breakfast, Cousin 
Mary and I, no maids for me until 'the 
missus' learns enough to give orders in- 
telligently; and as for breakfast, my 
good Jane, I looked on for a week at what 
a big, hungry man eats for his morning 
meal, and I'm cooking accordingly. Later 
on I mean to do some of it decoratively 
on the table, electric toaster and all that, 
but just now it's the kitchen species, dou- 
ble boiler, sauce pan and the rest that is 
being included in my course. The Major 
has an appetite, if you like; the toast, 
marmalade and coffee, with which you 
and I fed our literary ambitions of a 
morning, would serve only as an accom- 
paniment to his matin meal. Jane, 
I'm cooking cereals, oatmeal, hominy and 
the like. I have attained muffins and 
corn bread, loftily I aspire to ham ome- 
lette, to corned beef hash. 

" Our house being set in order, and 



where does all the dust come from.? We 
lunch outside, wherever it happens, and 
how dear Cousin Mary enjoys her play- 
time, and so do I. Not since I came to 
this big, wonderful New York have I had 
time to enjoy it until now." 

Shadows were gathering in the home- 
like room as they left their empty tea 
cups, and the bride led the way to the 
dining room. "I'm furnishing by de- 
grees," she said, "but the dining room 
happened spontaneously by reason of our 
wedding presents." 

She touched the drop light over the 
table and a golden glow filled the room 
like sunlight, shining on a cabinet of cut 
glass, the silver-laden sideboard and the 
polished dining table. 

"I have my happiest hours just here," 
she declared, "for every night part, at 
least, of our supper is cooked in the 
chafing dish. My most reckless buying 
has been to dress up the table for such 
little suppers, and I almost see my Jimmy 
in the chair opposite me, beaming his ap- 
proval of my efforts for his comfort. Stay 
for supper, do, it's creamed lobster in my 
chafing dish, hash browned potatoes, 
even now ready for the oven, and a nice, 
cool little salad of my own making to 
follow. I bought the French pastry," 
she added with honesty, "for though I 
mean to learn pie crust, my efforts aren't 
crowned with success." 

Three months later the Editor, a duly 
invited dinner guest, sat at her friend's 
table facing Cousin Mary, the placid and 
capable instructor of domestic lore. A 
trim, white-capped maid served the 
dainty meal. 

"You see," explained Margaret, when 
soup had been set before them and they 
were alone, "I have learned enough to 
give directions, or at least suggestions, 
hence, that capable creature in the 
kitchen, and in Cousin Mary behold my 
reference library. We are now rehears- 
ing, having been assigned our roles in the 
domestic drama, and we are ready, any 
time, to have the curtain raised, when, 
'Lo, the Conquering Hero comes'." 



252 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Over their coffee, served in the Living 
Room, the Editor turned questioning 
eyes upon her former associate. "Mar- 
garet, I find you a strangely diverting 
study; your house, your gowns and your 
talk of harmonious furnishings and bal- 
anced menus. If your tailor-made, busy 
life with me was your choice, isn't this 
new and never-changing role likely to be- 
come wearing and tiresome?" 

"Jane, dear," and the bride grasped her 
friend's hand, sadly endangering the 
coffee cup she was holding, "this isn't 
make believe, it is my real self; my lit- 
erary labors were an answer to a vacuum 
of purpose and pocket book. Speaking 



as your chaperone, my friend, and not as 
your fellow writer, I strongly advise you 
to drop your pen and follow my ex- 
ample." 

Six months after his wedding day, lib- 
erated from a base hospital for the com- 
fortable period of convalescence, 'the 
Major stepped from a mundane taxi-cab 
into the realization of his dreams. ' Tall, 
brown and surprisingly thin, his eyes 
grown wise and sad with the sight of war, 
filled with a world of content, as he puffed 
a meditative pipe. 

"What a place to get well in; a house 
of my own, and most of all, you, Mar- 
garet, the spirit of home." 



Misfits 

By (Mrs.) Hazel B. Stevens 



W 



•ELL, I'm fired!" Marjorie 
made the announcement to her 
room-mate defiantly, as she 
stalked into their tiny room and flounced 
down upon the bed with an elaborate — 
too elaborate — "don't care" yawn. 
"I've a good enough voice, the manager 
says, but no stage presence. I can see 
he's right: I'm as stiff and awkward, after 
six months, as I was that first awful day. 
And if I can't hold down a place, even 
in the chorus — Well, I'm through, that's 
all!" She swung one foot, kicking the 
bed post listlessly. 

"Marje, look here." Marjorie's room- 
mate spoke in a low voice. She was 
sitting on a stool by the one window, and 
had kept her face half averted; but now 
she wheeled on her stool, and handed 
Marjorie a typewritten letter, which the 
other took and glanced at indifferently, 
then gave a smothered exclamation and 
read in frowning haste. 

"Dearie Girl, that's tough! I'm 
sorry!" She got up quickly, went over 
and put her arms around her friend. "I 
never once thought that your job was in 
danger, Mildred. I'm jo sorry!" 



Mildred looked up at her with a pecu- 
liar expression, and answered, in a queer 
suppressed tone: "The strange part of it 
is that I'm glad, glad, glad! I loathe 
teaching, I knew I wasn't good at it, but 
I'd never have had the courage to quit, 
myself. And now — "she indicated the 
letter, and shrugged whimsically, but 
there was a radiance about her sensitive, 
small featured face, as she looked up, 
bright-eyed, at her friend. 

"Why, you good old sport, you! I 
believe you are glad!" Marjorie stood 
off with elbows on hips and surveyed this 
new Mildred. 

"Listen, Marjorie: the Principal said 
my training was good, and that I un- 
doubtedly understood cooking. He was 
very kind. He praised the school cafe- 
taria — you know how I've enjoyed doing 
that — and the little dinners I've given. 
But, my classes were unruly. I shudder 
when I think of that kitchen-full of 
hoodlum girls. And to think that I'll 
never again have to face thirty of them^ 
at once." 

"There is something in that," chuckled 
Marjorie. "Now you suggest it, little 



MISFITS 



253 



one, I can get some joy out of not having 
to face an ogre down front every night, 
that claps and rustles, and laughs at the 
wrong places!" 

"Marjorie! You know how I've al- 
ways loved to plan parties, church socials, 
and that sort of thing?" 

"Sure, Girl, and you were always fine 
at it." 

"Do you know a dream I've always 
had?" 

"Why, no! Out with it." 

"A little tea-room somewhere. A 
dainty little place where I could plan 
and manage everything. I know I could 
do it. I wouldn't be a misfit there." 

"I believe you could, all right, dear." 
Marjorie regarded her friend for a mo- 
ment in silence; then added wistfully, 
"I don't suppose there'd be a corner for 
me in it? Room for another misfit?" 

"I've been thinking about that, ever 
since you came home. And there zvould 
be a place, if you'd like it. You're a 
home girl, dearie, as much as I am, in 
spite of the newly acquired chorus-girl 
slang. And we'll have a 'homey' kind of 
tea-room. I teach to the end of the 
term, you know, and in the meanwhile 
we can be planning, and you can be doing 
the running around." 

"The money, Mildred?" 

"We'll begin small. You remember 
I've been teaching and saving for three 
years; goodness knows I've 'sweat 
blood ' for the money, but now ' 'twill do, 
'twill serve'." 

"I've an uncle that might lend, if we 
get in a tight place." 

"Good! But I think we won't. Write 
and ask, though; it'll give us confidence." 

The two months till the end of school 
were busy and happy ones for the pros- 
pective business women. Reports from 
Marjorie, animated discussions, and plans 
for Marjorie's next day were the features 
of each evening, in the little bedroom. 

"I've found just the thing!" was Mar- 
jorie's greeting, as she met Mildred at the 
door one afternoon a week before the end 
of school. Don't take off your things. 



but come along. It's a ducky place!" 
and off they went, like happy school girls 
on a "lark." 

A few days later it was Mildred's turn 
to burst in with enthusiastically bright 
cheeks: "I've told them all, and they're 
all going to help, teachers, and the super- 
intendent, and the youngsters, too. They 
were so sweet about it. The high school 
girls were wild about the scheme, inter- 
ested in every little detail; you know 
they entertain a lot. They've been dear 
to me all day. I couldn't believe they 
were the same girls I've been disliking so! 
Mr. Blackwell, that's the Principal, you 
know, says he shall come often." 

Three weeks more found the tea-room 
ready for business. The "ducky" place 
was a little brown bungalow toward the 
end of a popular boulevard. It had 
pansies and nasturtiums blooming in 
front. Over the steps hung an unob- 
trusive sign in burnt wood," The Hearth- 
Fire." 

The door opened directly into a living 
room, the full width of the house, with a 
large brick fireplace opposite, rather 
dominating the room. French windows 
opened upon porches. Built-in book- 
cases were well filled. A few good pic- 
tures were on the walls; "Home Keeping 
Hearts Are Happiest" hung over the 
cheery fire. A grand piano stood in one 
corner. All had the air of quiet home 
cheer, and the few brown stained tables, 
holding low bowls of nasturtiums or pan- 
sies, did not disturb that air. 

The girls had sent out simple announce- 
ments to people of a select list supplied 
them by their interested "backers." 
Early on the opening day automobiles 
began stopping, bringing, first, eager 
high school enthusiasts, with mother and 
father, or aunt, or an older friend. A 
most unprofessional-looking, home body, 
with quiet, well-poised manners and very 
pink cheeks, met them at the door, wel- 
comed them to a table and gave them a 
choice between tea and coffee. With the 
tea or coffee, in fragile cups, were served 
tiny iced cakes in a brown basket. " Dee- 



254 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



licious!" murmured the first young en- 
thusiast under her breath. 

At a pause in the bright chatter of the 
guests, a pretty girl, in a simple empire 
dress and hair loosely gathered in an 
empire knot, took her place at the piano, 
began playing softly, and sang sweetly 
several songs, ballads and playful little 
things; then slipped as quietly away. 

That the tea-room was to be a success 
was evident from the first. Soon they 
had to have more help, and in no time the 
tables overflowed to the porch, then to the 
lawn. But always the girls kept the same 
atmosphere of a quiet home-place, and 
served the same simple things. Extra 
tables were concealed somewhere in the 
rear and brought out only when needed; 
so you could go for an early morning spin, 
drop in for a bite, and have it cosily before 
the grate or in a secluded corner of the 
porch, quite as if you were honored and 
only guests. 

During warm days, iced tea, iced coffee, 
and iced chocolate were served, and the 
last two soon became famous; sandwiches 
were added, for the benefit of hungry 
autoists. Flowers varied with the season, 
but were always of the simple garden 
variety. A large bunch of golden glow 
or sunflowers or barberry bush replaced 
the fire in the grate. 

"The Hearth Fire" appealed especially 



to those who were tired of the conven- 
tional "ice-cream parlor," and were will- 
ing to pay well for dainty beauty in ser- 
vice and surroundings. Many of these 
people sought out the friendship of the 
girls who had created this delightful spot. 

On an evening late that fall, the two 
sat in their own cozy, little sitting room of 
the bungalow, and "took stock" of their 
venture. 

"Are we such misfits after alLf*" 
laughed Mildred, with pencil poised 
from totaling very satisfactory accounts. 

A ring at the bell interrupted. 

"Surely not a tea-drinker this time of 
night," said Marjorie, rising to answer. 
She came back bearing a florist's box, 
which she handed to Mildred, and 
watched her teasingly while she opened 
upon a wealth of pink roses, and glanced 
with heightened color at the card within. 

"Mr. Blackwell has certainly devel- 
oped an awful appetite for tea this sum- 
mer!" teased Marjorie. "You're not a 
Misfit at 'The Hearth Fire,' but Some- 
one evidently thinks you haven't found 
your absolutely right niche." 

"And you.?" Mildred glanced signifi- 
cantly at the picture of a handsome 
lieutenant on Marjorie's dressing table. 

" It's been awfully good trainingfor a per- 
manent job!" murmured Marjorie softly. 



The Fairy Dance 



In the shade of a blossoming sloe bush, 

As white as the winter's first snow, 

I once saw a wee fiddler sitting 

And scraping his bit of a bow. 

And says he then, "The top av the morning, 

Yer honor, and what do yiz say. 

To shakin' yer fut to the music 

Av the merry tune I'll play?" 



Then he laughed like the wind when it's stirring 

The shamrocks that grow on the hill, 

And he lifted his little brown fiddle. 

And the feet of me wouldn't be still. 

So before you could think I was dancing, 

And who should be dancing with me. 

But the prettiest bit of a coleen. 

That ever a mortal did see. 



And so light was our feet at the dancing, 

It seemed but a moment of play. 

But we might have been at it, they tell me, 

For the space of a year and a day. 

And the wind that blows over the shamrocks, 

Keeps whispering and calling to me 

As soft as the voice of the coleen. 

That never again may I see. 

And woe is my heart for the coleen. 

That never again may I see! 

Christine Kerr Davis. 



Will Peace Banish High Cost of Living 



By Robert H. Moulton 



WILL the present high cost of liv- 
ing be abated after the war, or is 
it a situation that has come to 
stay? This question is being asked by 
every householder, every manufacturer, 
and every business man. A reassuring 
answer is given by the Federal Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, whose 
experts have conducted an investigation 
in Europe, in South America, and in this 
country. 

According to the reports of these in- 
vestigators, it may safely be predicted 
that the close of the war will witness a 
marked decline in the cost of such neces- 
sities as food and clothing, the latter in- 
cluding wool, cotton, silk and leather 
manufactures. But for some time to 
come there will be little or no drop in the 
prices of lumber and timber products, and 
of structural steel and cement. 

It is fair to assume, say those who are 
best able to judge, that within a com- 
paratively short time after peace has been 
declared, there will be a pronounced drop 
in the prices of such commodities as 
wheat, corn, barley and sugar. Large 
quantities of these staples are available 
In Argentine, Uruguay, Australia and 
Java. The supplies will probably be in 
fairly good condition at the close of the 
war, and will be available for consump- 
tion as soon as ships can be found to move 
them. With our present rate of ship con- 
struction maintained, there seems noth- 
ing to fear in that direction. 

As to after-the-war prices of lumber and 
timber products, it is probable that there 
will be comparatively little or no decline 
for a period of two or three years. Since 
the outbreak of the war in Europe, our 
exports of lumber have been greatly re- 
stricted by lack of bottoms and by high 
ocean freight rates. Thus, even the or- 
dinary lumber requirements of Europe 
have been imperfectly supplied during 



the last four years. To catch up with 
this deficiency, alone, will require great 
activity on the part of American lumber 
manufacturers, but there will be addi- 
tional supply to make up. The demand 
for lumber for reconstruction purposes in 
France and Belgium will be tremendous. 
Moreover, the demand at home will 
probably be grater than it has been 
within the last year, as building opera- 
tions have been greatly restricted since 
we entered the war. 

The prices of other building materials, 
such as structural steel, sheet iron and 
cement, will probably rule high for a con- 
siderable period after the war. In the 
matter of iron and steel products, other 
than structural steel, there will be, in all 
probability, a gradual decline, during the 
period immediately following the war. 
Upon the declaration of peace, the United 
States Government and the allied powers, 
which are taking the greater part of the 
iron and steel production of the country,, 
will be almost entirely out of the market,, 
and very few new contracts will be made, 
on government account, for a number of 
months, except, perhaps, in the matter of 
ship plates, boilers, engines and other 
iron and steel necessary for ship con- 
struction. 

As soon as government orders for iron 
and steel fall off, there will be a marked 
decline In the quotations for all such 
products. A part of the present product 
tion, however, will be absorbed by private 
interests, who have been out of the market 
for a number of months. While it is 
probable that there will be a considerable 
demand for iron and steel in South Amer- 
ica and the Far East, yet, even if our 
manufacturers get all of this foreign busi- 
ness, it will hardly be sufficient to keep 
them working at the present rate of 
production. 

As to the prices for electrical machin- 



255 



256 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



ery, machine tools, engines, boilers and 
other machinery, there is reason to be- 
lieve that the close of the war will see a 
slow and steady decline from the present 
level. The call for this class of machin- 
ery at present is extraordinary, because 
of the great demand, not only in naval 
and merchant ship construction and 
munition plants of all sorts, but also in 
practically all lines of industry, which are 
now being operated at top speed. 

For machinery of this sort there will 
be, on the other hand, a great demand in 
France and Belgium, to rehabilitate the 
manufacturing industries of those coun- 
tries; but, as some authorities have 
pointed out, the great quantities of ma- 
chine tools and factory equipment, which 
the United States Government is in- 
stalling in its war plants in France, can 
be used to very good advantage by the 
French industries after the war, and will 
help to fill a substantial portion of their 
requirements. 

The prices of textiles and other fibres 
will, in the majority of cases, undoubtedly 
see a decline. The price of American 
cotton, it is fair to assume, will not de- 
cline greatly for a period of six or eight 
months after the war, since stocks on 
hand, in Great Britain, France, Italy and 
Spain, as well as Holland and the Scan- 
dinavian countries, are abnormally small, 
while those of the Central Powers must 
be practically exhausted. 

Germany, in particular, will make 
strenuous efforts to acquire large supplies 
of cotton, in order to enable her great 
cotton textile industry to resume opera- 
tions, on a large scale, at the earliest pos- 
sible moment. There is some doubt, 
however, as to the extent to which Ger- 
many will be able to purchase raw cotton, 
sioice her purchasing power in foreign 
markets will doubtless be greatly cur- 
tailed by lack of credit. 

The price of the better grades of wool 
will probably decline, as far as the Ameri- 
can market is concerned, much more than 
the price of cotton, since this country im- 
ports large quantities of wool, on which. 



within the last two years, it has been pay- 
ing extraordinary freight rates. More- 
over, the demand for wool for the use of 
our army and navy will be practically 
nil, and the biggest buying factor will 
thereby be removed. 

It is believed that Germany has al- 
ready acquired large stocks of wool in the 
Argentine, which have been purchased, 
not only to provide material for German 
manufacturers after the war, but also to 
bid up the prices, which the allied govern- 
ments must pay for the wool needed dur- 
ing the war. From information gathered 
by Mr. Jones, during his stay in Buenos 
Aires, it appears that the reckless com- 
petition of allied wool buyers, also, has 
had a marked effect in forcing up the 
price of wool. With the close of the war, 
this buying will, no doubt, proceed along 
more conservative lines. 

With regard to the textile fabrics, the 
prospect is that there will be a considera- 
ble decline in prices within a compara- 
tively short time after peace has been 
declared, with the release of thousands of 
looms that are now engaged in making 
uniform cloths, blankets, tents, etc., for 
the armies and navies of the warring 
nations. Then the competition of the 
textile industries of England and France 
will begin to be felt, and as soon as the 
mills of Germany get adequate supplies 
of raw materials, they will probably make 
strenuous efforts to export their goods to 
American markets. Our textile manu- 
facturers will also find strenuous competi- 
tion in the foreign markets, which they 
have been serving since August, 1914. 

The elimination of the United States 
Government as a buyer of boots and 
shoes, saddles and other leather products 
must have an important effect on the 
prices of these commodities after the war. 

It is unnecessary to specify in detail all 
the lines of commodities, but it is safe to 
assume that every line in which, not only 
the United States Government, but the 
governments of the other warring nations 
have been active buyers, will feel, within 
a comparatively short time, after the 



WILL PEACE BANISH HIGH COST OF LIVING 



257 



close of the war, the effect of the loss of 
this trade. In the opinion of experts, 
the loss of government business will offset 
any increase in purely civilian business, 
and will tend to reduce prices. 

Probably the chief influence on present 
prices is the great demand of our govern- 
ment for the products of practically every 
important industry in the country. It 
is difficult to think of an important in- 
dustry of whose products our government 
is not the largest purchaser. These de- 
mands of the government have been so 
urgent that there has been insufficient 
time to buy closely, and the result has 
been a great advance in prices, not only 
of the things which the government has 
bought for itself, but also, because of the 
restricted surplus available, in the prices of 
things available for the civilian population. 

Present prices have been affected, to a 
large degree, also, by the withdrawal of 
more than 2,000,000 men from the pro- 
ductive industries of the country to fill 
the ranks of our fighting forces. In ad- 
dition, there has been a great shifting of 
the remaining workers, who have been 
attracted from the lower-paying to the 
higher-paying industries. This has re- 
sulted in a bidding up of wages, which in 
many lines reached high levels. 

At periods of great prosperity, during 
ordinary peace times, this country could 
count on a heavy influx of immigrants, 
from whose ranks could be recruited the 
great mass of unskilled labor, which forms 
a majority in the great army of industrial 
workers. In some of the more prosperous 
years, before the war, this country has 
received upwards of a million immigrants, 
but for the years 1915, 1916 and 1917 the 
average annual number of immigrants was 
only a little more than 300,000. 

Present prices are affected, too, by 



the great curtailment of shipping tonnage 
as a result of ship sinkings by submarines 
and mines. Scores of valuable cargoes 
have gone down in these ships. Not only 
that, but the ships themselves have been 
sunk at a faster rate than they could be 
built. Shipping services have been 
greatly curtailed and in some cases 
wholly suspended. What the loss of one 
ship means was brought vividly home to 
us a short time ago, when we heard that 
one vessel sunk off the Jersey Coast, by a 
German submarine, had a cargo of 12,- 
000,000 pounds of sugar, or more than 
sufficient to feed the entire city of Wash- 
ington for a period of three or four months. 
Yet that was only one ship. Scores of 
ships loaded with grain, meat products 
and other provisions, as well as raw ma- 
terials for manufacture, have been sunk 
as they neared the British, French and 
Italian coasts. 

Special attention should be called to the 
fact that curtailment of shipping has 
prevented the allied nations from trans- 
porting much needed foodstuffs and raw 
materials, that are to be had in large 
volume in the more remote countries of 
the world. The Prime Minister of Aus- 
tralia stated in New York, lately, that 
there were, at least, 6,000,000 tons of 
grain in Australia awaiting shipment. 
The recent harvest of wheat and other 
cereals in Argentina was one of the largest 
on record, in fact, the first good crop in 
several years. A few months ago it was 
learned that some of the big meat-packing 
plants in Montevideo had their freezers 
so full of beef, and so little prospect of 
shipping it, that they refused to buy 
Uruguayan cattle at very low prices. 
This gives only an idea of the flood of 
foodstuffs that we may expect loosed 
when peace has been declared. 



"^:rT^^' 



Feeding the Human Machine 



By W. A. Freehoff 



WITH butter sixty cents a pound 
in many cities, with milk from 
twelve to sixteen cents a quart, 
and with cheese at least thirty-five cents 
a pound, It was but natural that the 
housewife used as little butter, cheese, 
and milk as possible. In the place of 
butter she began to use the various veg- 
etable and animal oleomargarines, the 
milk order was cut as sharply as possible, 
and in some instances cancelled entirely, 
while cheese practically disappeared from 
her table. 

This tendency was accelerated by the 
early attitude of the food administration. 
We were told to save fats, and, therefore, 
not to use butter for cooking, and we were 
allowed to believe that oleomargarine 
was the equivalent of butter for all pur- 
poses. The bakers were ordered not to 
use milk. Mr. Hoover did, however, urge 
the free use of dairy products for children, 
but did not explain why. 

As the farmers themselves believed that 
there would be a serious shortage of milk 
and dairy products, the food administra- 
tion cannot be altogether blamed for 
trying to conserve our dairy stocks. It 
so happened, however, that at this writ- 
ing, June, there was a great surplus of 
milk in the country. Not only had the 
number of dairy cattle increased, but ex- 
ports were reduced because of lack of 
ships, and consumption had been re- 
duced because of the effort at economy, 
and the work of the food administration. 

Whenever there is a surplus of any 
perishable food product, the market is 
held steady only with the greatest of 
difficulty. Consequently, the dairy in- 
dustry is, today, facing the greatest crisis 
of its history. Feed is high, labor is high 
and scarce, and the market for milk is 
not of the best. Thousands of dairy 
farmers are seriously considering the ad- 
visability of going- into other lines of 



farming where the market is steadier, and 
the chances of profit greater. 

The natural inference on the part of the 
housewife is, why not let him do so.^ If 
there is too much milk produced, why 
wouldn't it be better for some farmers to 
produce more wheat and other crops, now 
greatly in demand, and of which there is 
an actual shortage.^ Would not every- 
body be benefited all around.^ 

This sounds reasonable, and ordin- 
arily would settle the difficulty. There 
happen to be two great reasons, however, 
why the dairy industry should not only 
be protected, but fostered. One has to 
do with the welfare of the people in the 
cities, and the country also, and the other 
has to do with the permanent welfare of 
American agriculture. First, we will 
touch briefly upon this latter phase. 

It is well understood that no farmer can 
take wheat, or any other crop from his 
land, year after year, and maintain the 
productivity of the farm without adding 
fertilizers. A well-conducted system of 
dairy farming enables the farmer to main- 
tain the fertility of his holdings, and for 
this reason the dairy industry should be 
maintained at a high level in this coun- 
try. When the American farms begin to 
wear out, it will not be long before food 
stuffs of all kinds will rise sharply in 
price. 

The second reason, and the most im- 
portant one, is the fact that milk and its 
products supply an element absolutely es- 
sential to good health, and nothing else 
will supply that element. Were the dairy 
industry to die out in this country, there 
would be an immediate deterioration of 
the race. 

This may appear a grossly exaggerated 
statement, but its truth has been rec- 
ognized by scientists for a number of 
years. Possibly the greatest authority 
in the world on this question is Dr. E. V. 



258 



FEEDING THE HUMAN MACHINE 



259 



McCollum of Johns Hopkins University. 
Dr. McCollum is at present engaged in an 
active campaign to arouse the nation to 
the seriousness of its dairy problem, both 
from the standpoint of the farmer and the 
consumer. He tells why milk and all 
dairy products are so absolutely essen- 
tial in our daily diet, and he also is trying 
to arouse the farmers to a realization of 
their task in preserving this great in- 
dustry. 

Dr. McCollum points out that there 
are certain diseases peculiar to a faulty 
diet. Among these are beri-beri, scurvy, 
rickets, pellagra, and even tuberculosis. 
We in America have not had to cope with 
many of these diseases, for this has been 
a land of plenty, with great stores of 
cereals, meats, and dairy products avail- 
able, at moderate prices. Accordingly, 
our diet has been so liberal and so varied 
that we are well nourished, even if by 
accident rather than design. In the 
Orient, however, where meats and dairy 
products are few, and the people are 
restricted to a diet of cereals and leaves, 
not only are the diseases just mentioned 
a dreadful scourge, but the whole vitality 
and stamina of the various races have 
suffered. 

We are just beginning to come up 
against this problem in our own country. 
In 10 years, 165,000 cases of pellagra have 
developed. In some of the tenement 
districts of the large cities, rickets, with 
all its accompaniment of deformed bones, 
has overtaken practically 100 percent of 
the children of these sections. Tuber- 
culosis of a dietery origin is scourging cer- 
tain cities, notably the black belt of 
Baltimore. We are coming face to face 
with the very problem, only in a more 
minute degree, that has afflicted the 
Orient for centuries. 

Naturally, our congested centers of 
population are the first to suffer. The 
people In our slums are wretchedly poor; 
they cannot afford to buy a liberal variety 
of foodstuffs; and they have not the 
necessary culinary knowledge to prepare 
properly what they do buy. But as this 



war is progressing, there seems to be an 
increasing tendency, on the part of the 
middle classes, to economize at the table, 
not wisely, but too well. 

So long as this economizing takes the 
form of eating less, the health of the 
nation will improve, for we have un- 
doubtedly been too liberally fed for our 
own good, especially with meats. We 
have been wasteful, and thrown large 
portions into the garbage can. 

But a very distinct effort has been made 
In every large city to keep down the 
price of milk, butter, and cheese. Very 
little murmuring was done when other 
items of food advanced in price, but as 
soon as milk went beyond 10 cents a 
quart, the daily press began a clamor, 
which was taken up by housewives leagues 
and other agencies. The farmer was 
pilloried as a robber, who wished to take 
an unfair advantage of the war to boost 
his profits. 

Now, all men familiar with dairy farm- 
ing know that it takes a heavier Invest- 
ment, longer working hours, presents a 
graver labor problem, and is operated at 
a lower margin of profit than cash-crop 
farming. The only reason farmers have 
been able to stay In the dairy business, at 
all, is due to the fact that they were able 
to raise hay, corn, and other feed at less 
than market price. But the cost of pro- 
ducing this feed has gone up more rapidly 
than the price of milk, and the dairy far- 
mer of this country is becoming very 
much discouraged. When a misinformed 
public accuses him of being a profiteer, he 
is so disgusted that he doesn't care 
whether he stays in the business or not. 

But aside from the effect this unin- 
telligent treatment of the milk situation 
has upon the dairy industry, it has an 
equally serious effect upon the health of 
the cities. It has been conclusively 
proved by Dr. McCollum and his col- 
leagues, that there are two elements 
which must be present In the food we eat 
in order that we may be correctly nour- 
ished. The presence of these elements 
cannot be determined by chemical analy- 



260 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



sis, for animals have been fed on rations 
that were chemically balanced, and were 
exactly alike, as far as analysis was con- 
cerned, and yet slowly starved to death. 

The story of how these unknown ele- 
ments were discovered is a long one, and 
out of place in this article. But by a 
series of feeding experiments, extending 
over a period of many years, it was dis- 
covered that livestock of all kinds, and 
laboratory animals, like guinea pigs and 
the domestic white rat, would do well on 
certain feeds, and die on others that 
analyzed alike. By a series of careful 
eliminations, it was finally determined 
that there were, at least, two elements 
that were essential to growth and normal 
health. 

Dr. McCollum prefers to give these 
elements no name at all, until more is 
known about them. He does this be- 
cause the names in chemistry are always 
given in such a manner that the name 
tells something about the property of the 
object named, and not enough is known 
about the physical property of vitamines 
to give them an accurate name. There- 
fore Dr. McCollum calls them merely 
fat-soluble A and water-soluble B. 

Fat-soluble A is so called because it is 
found almost exclusively in whole milk, 
cheese, butter, and cream, and to a 
lesser extent in the yolk of eggs, and in 
liver fat and in kidney fat. About the 
only way we get fat-soluble A in our diet 
is by the use of milk and dairy products, 
as it is not found in any vegetable fat, 
with one or two rare exceptions. The 
absence of this unknown substance will 
not make so much difference with the 
adult, but it is absolutely essential for 
the well being of the growing child. Thus 
those parents who, by reasons of eco- 
nomy, or because they have allowed them- 
selves to boycott milk and butter, reduce 
the amount of milk given to their children, 
and replace butter with one of the many 
brands of vegetable or animal oleomar- 
garines, are in grave danger of doing their 
children irreparable physical harm. Rick- 
ets, sore eyes, impaired eye sight, and 



stunted growth are only a few of the pos- 
sible effects. 

Even skim milk will not supply this fat- 
soluble A, as has been proved by the ex- 
perience of Denmark. Because of the 
high price of butter fat, many of the 
dairymen of Denmark were tempted to 
substitute skim milk for whole milk. Very 
soon the children receiving this skim milk 
had serious eye trouble: the eyelids 
became swollen, there was more or less 
hemorrhage around the eyes, and blind- 
ness gradually set in. As soon as these 
children were put on a whole milk diet, 
this eye trouble quickly disappeared. 

Originally, of course, this fat-soluble 
A is found in the leaves of plants. It is 
not practical, however, for a human being 
to eat enough leaves and similar "rough- 
age," because his stomach and digestive 
tract is not fitted to handle such a bulky 
diet. The cow, however, which lives 
very largely upon the leaves of plants, 
has a digestive system capable of assimi- 
lating vast quantities of rough feeds. 
Now, as this fat-soluble A has the pecu- 
liar property of dissolving in butter fat, 
it becomes at once apparent how im- 
portant a part the diary industry plays 
in keeping up the health of the nation. 

In other words, milk and its by-prod- 
ucts, is the first great "protective" food 
v^c have. The word protective is used 
to indicate that the deficiencies found in 
lean meat, cereals, tubers, and roots, all 
articles of universal diet, are corrected. 
Milk is the greatest of all protective foods. 

The second great class of protective 
foods is the leaves of plants, and in them 
is found water-soluble B. This class is 
of vital importance, but to a lesser degree 
than fat-soluble A. The human system 
obtains its water-soluble B in lettuce, 
spinach, in fruit to some extent, and the 
various leaves and greens that are upon 
the market. A very large quantity of 
these articles are not necessary, the main 
requirement being that our diet is kept 
varied by the use of fruits, vegetables, and 
greens. 

In making out the best diet for human 



FROM THE FRONT IN 1778, 1862, 1899 AND 1916 



261 



beings, it is necessary, therefore, to bear 
in mind that mere chemical analysis is not 
sufficient. So many calories of protein, 
so many of carbohydrates, and so many 
of fats are necessary, it is true, but in 
addition there must be fat-soluble A, 
and water soluble B. But that is not 
enough. 

Unless there are enough mineral ele- 
ments in the diet, the system cannot 
thrive. Just three minerals are essen- 
tial. One of these is calcium, the prop- 
erty that gives hardness to the bone. 
The other two are sodium and chlorine. 
Calcium is supplied largely in vegetables 
and the leaves of plants, and not so lib- 
erally in cereals. 



This article is not supposed to be a 
chart of correct eating. In as non-tech- 
nical language as possible the writer has 
endeavored to explain the broad outlines 
of the food problem that these United 
States of America are up against, not only 
now during the war, but in the years to 
come as our centers of population be- 
come more and more congested. 

Farmer and city-man, alike, must com- 
bine for the protection and fostering of 
the dairy industry. The best way of 
doing this is another story, a complicated 
one, and one which has been made more 
difficult by angry recriminations, mis- 
understandings, and mutual distrust 
based on misinformation. 



From the Front 

In 1778, 1862, 1899 and 1916 
By Kate Hudson 



COMPARED with the age of the 
world, the few centuries filled by 
United States and our own partic- 
ular making of history, seem but a span; 
and yet how much, even of that short 
time, has been spent in war and fighting! 
So it seems, at least, to Mrs. Critch 
whenever she tucks away the last missive 
from "Somewhere in France," where her 
own boy is doing his share. Neatly and 
reverently she folds away the thin, closely- 
written sheets, for who knows whether 
there will ever be another! — in the old 
Japanned despatch box (a relic of our 
Civil War), which already holds other 
mementoes of wars, in which her for- 
bears have taken part. And it's from 
this very little collection that we've se- 
lected the four letters which prove that, 
whatever the cause and the climate, 
whatever the time and the temperature, 
pluck, patience, and human nature gen- 
erally, together with wind, rain and an 
overabundance of mud, played much the 
same part then as now. 

Of the writers, all bright, young and 
hopeful, one lived long and happily with 



the "Nancy" to whom the first letter is 
written, and another returned from the 
other side of the world to settle down as a 
prosperous physician in the middle West; 
one fell before Fredericksburg while 
defending the Colors he had so loyally 
guarded through three previous engage- 
ments, and the fourth is still in the very 
thick of things in battle- torn France; 
whence, let us hope, he^ also, may return 
to marry the. girl of his choice, as did the 
young train-band captain, who writes as 
follows : 

In Camp on Rhode Island, 
Oct. 14, 1778 
My dearest Nancy: 

I sit down amid the noise and clamor of 
war, just to inform you that we are well 
and in good spirits. We landed on the 
Island Sunday morning and marched 
about four miles towards Newport, where 
we encamped. We should have marched 
towards the enemy's works on Wednes- 
day morning, but we had a very tedious 
storm which prevented us. We shall go 
forward as soon as weather permits, I sup- 
Continued on page 2go 



262 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



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AMERICAN COOKERY, published monthly 
except July and September, at Boston, Mass., 
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Publis'hers: 

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this 
A, 


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, W. BLAKE, 

Notary Public. 



Efficiency ! 

Efficiency, the magic word 
Which should hold dominating sway 
On pulsing industry to-day. 
If LOYALTY can be averred! 

Our nation's honor will be blurred 
If petty differences delay 
Efficiency! 

O may our hearts be keenly stirred 
To sense that lurking dangers may 
O'erwhelm us if we disobey 
The dictates of that magic word. 
Efficiency! 

Caroline Louise Sumner. 



THE SITUATION 

AMERICAN COOKERY is doing its 
level best to adapt itself to the 
rules of the Food Administration, and 
the exigencies of present conditions. The 
difficulties to be faced on every hand are 
most formidable. We believe diet is a 
matter of rapidly growing concern every- 
where. We believe that the food-ques- 
tion and health are subjects of endless 
comparative study and interest. We are 
trying to serve our readers and patrons to 
the best of our ability. Come over and 
help us. 

A NEW ERA 

NOTHING can be more futile than 
the attempt to predict what will 
take place in the future. And yet, what- 
ever be the issues of the war, whatever 
the terms of peace that may be con- 
cluded, it is plain the conditions of life 
can never again be as in the past. The 
old order changeth, yielding place to new. 

It must be evident to us all, the earth 
is passing through a revolution such as it 
has experienced at no time in the past. 
The horrors of war have reached and . 
affected every quarter of the globe. The 
respective races and peoples of the earth 
have come to know and understand each 
other. No longer can it be asked, who 
is my neighbor.^ Life can never be again 
as it has been. As President Hopkins of 
Dartmouth College said recently: 

*' During the years within which we live, 
life will never be again as leisurely and 
care-free as it has been. The magnitude 
and importance of the problems of re- 
construction of the world's torn mental 
and material fabric are too great for 
genial toleration in the future, as in the 
past, of the mental shirk or the spend- 
thrift of time, and there will be no such 
toleration. 

"The great necessity of the immediate 
period is adjustment." All things which 
are done must be such as act directly to 
empower civilization to demonstrate its 
ability to protect itself. 



EDITORIALS 



263 



"A new statecraft is to be devised, a 
new industrial code is to be set up, social 
relations are to be radically revised; and 
for the people who would contribute most 
helpfully herein, time will be the essence." 

To inaugurate a new era in the world's 
history are we ready to contribute our 
mite and help to our utmost? 

Let us then be up and doing. 

With a heart for any fate, 
. Still achieving, still pursuing, 

Learn to labor and to wait. 



DROPPING GERMAN 

THE teacher of German, who has not 
some other line of work to fall back 
on, has occasion for worry these days. 
German threatens to become a dead lan- 
guage in this country, for an indefinite 
period, and with none of the respect that 
the educational world, at least, has for 
the ancient languages commonly called 
*'dead." No fewer than 14 states have 
abolished absolutely the teaching of Ger- 
man in their public schools, and in at 
least 16 others campaigns to the same end 
are under way, with every prospect of 
success. Already many cities in the 
latter group of states have definitely put 
German in the discard — New York, 
Philadelphia, Washington, Louisville, Jer- 
sey City and Portland, Ore., among them. 
The states that have not taken up in 
earnest, the discussion, which is leading 
in every case to the same conclusion, are 
mainly those of the South, where German 
figures very little in the public schools — 
though the list also includes three New 
England states, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire and Vermont. In Connecti- 
cut a proclamation by the governor has 
barred the use of German "for instruction 
or purposes of administration in public 
or private schools after July 1, 1918.'' 
That appears to put the ban on German 
schools rather than on the teaching of 
German, but it amounts to the same thing 
there at present. Maine reports that 
only about 20 high schools have been 
teaching German, and that "at present 
it is practically wiped out." Of course 



the controversy gains special significance 
and stirs much feeling in such states as 
Missouri and Wisconsin and in general 
through the middle states. 

It is very clear to us where the line 
should be drawn. The compulsory use 
in the conduct of classes of German in the 
schools of a district at the behest of a 
majority of the parents, as some of the 
western states have permitted, is an in- 
tolerable situation. We should straight- 
way end it. It has been a device for 
making American children grow up in- 
tellectually tributary to German kultur 
and the German crown. 

But the study of German as a broaden- 
ing of one's own linguistic attainments, 
just as one studies French, Spanish and 
Italian, is in the highest degree desirable, 
and should be continued. Nothing has 
happened in this war which should dis- 
courage the study of German in our higher 
institutions of learning and in prepara- 
tion therefor. Everything has happened 
to put an end to its dominance in the 
common schools of any American com- 
munity. — The Boston Herald. 

IN SPIRIT AND IN TRUTH 
"^ I ^HE spiritual element is the predom- 

A inating force in this war." No 
one can note and consider the events that 
have transpired in the past four years 
without sure conviction that spiritual 
forces are at work in the nations of the 
earth as never before. Unlicensed self- 
ishness is everlastingly wrong. Might 
is not necessarily right. Thou shalt not 
pass, "reveal the spirit of consecration 
and faith that animates the young sol- 
diery of France, England and America." 

"The Faith of France" is the title of 
a book recently translated and published 
in this country. The author is a dis- 
tinguished writer and member of the 
French Academy. According to a recent 
review of the book, " he has made a study 
of the spiritual differences and the deeper 
unity of France. They were Catholics, 
Protestants, Jews, etc., but on August 4, 
1914, all differences disappeared, and 



264 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



every Frenchman was defending France 
and all that was most precious in his own 
faith. 

" Throughout the pages of his work the 
author emphasizes two things: The holy 
union, which emerges with such strength 
and reality out of the divine versatility of 
France, and the spiritual element in the 
conflict. He believes that France has 
achieved a deep-seated unity, which 
shall never pass away; for the national 
soul, he says, has become converted." 



TWO LETTERS TO A MOTHER 

Contrast Between Words of Lincoln 
AND THE Kaiser Typifies Dif- 
ference Between Democracy 
AND Autocracy 

SELDOM has the difference between 
the causes for which America and 
Germany are fighting been illustrated 
more forcibly than in two letters to moth- 
ers who sacrificed their sons to their 
country. 

Abraham Lincoln's letter of sympathy 
and condolence to the widow Bixby, who 
gave five sons to the Nation's cause in the 
Civil War, is known wherever the Eng- 
lish language is spoken. It speaks from 
the great heart of the martyred President, 
and breathes democracy in every line. 

A contrast appears in a letter from the 
Kaiser to a German woman, Mrs. Meter, 
of Delmenhorst, Oldenburg, who has lost 
nine sons in the present war. The two 
letters speak for themselves: 

The Kaiser's Letter 

"His Majesty the Kaiser hears that 
you have sacrificed nine sons in defense 
of the Fatherland in the present war. 
His Majesty is immensely gratified by the 
fact, and in recognition is pleased to send 
his photograph, with frame and auto- 
graph signature." 

Lincoln's Letter 
Dear Madam: I have been shown in 
the files of the War Department a state- 
ment of the adjutant general of Massa- 
chusetts that you are the mother of five 
sons who have died gloriously on the field 



of battle. I feel how weak and fruitless 
must be any words of mine which should 
attempt to beguile you from the grief of 
a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot 
refrain from tendering to you the con- 
solation that may be found in the thanks; 
of the Republic they died to save. I 
pray that our Heavenly Father may as- 
suage the anguish of your bereavement, 
and leave you only the cherished memory 
of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride 
that must be yours to have laid so costly 
a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom. 



CLOSE upon the passage of the Man- 
Power bill and the completion of the 
preparations for the registration of the 
entire manhood of the country between 
the ages of eighteen and forty-five, it was 
announced at Washington that the utiliza- 
tion of women in war industries would be 
undertaken on a much larger scale than 
any hitherto contemplated. It is rec- 
ognized that American womanhood had 
responded magnificently to the summons 
of the crisis since its inception; but the 
government is perfecting its plans for a 
much wider appeal to women, which will 
place the woman-power of America as 
completely at the service of the country 
as its man-power. It is probably in 
anticipation of such a mobilization of 
woman's labor that the President has been 
emphasizing the urgency of the Federal 
suffrage resolution, passed by the House,, 
and now pending in the Senate. 

— The Christian Register. 



For this commandment which I com- 
mand thee this day, it is not too hard for 
thee, neither is it far off. It is not in 
heaven, that thou shouldest say. Who 
shall go up for us to heaven, and bring 
it unto us, and make us to hear it, that 
we may do it.^ Neither is it beyond the 
sea, that thou shouldest say. Who shall 
go over the sea for us, and bring it unto 
us, and make us to hear it, that we may 
do it.? But the word is very nigh thee, 
in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou 
mayest do it. — Deuteronomy xxx. 11—14... 




BAKED HAM, CRESS AND COOKED EGG 

Seasonable and Tested Recipes 

By Janet M. Hill 

IN ALL recipes where flour is used, unless otherwise stated, the flour is measured after sifting once 
Where flour is measured by cups, the cup is filled with a spoon, and a level cupful is meant. A 
tablespoonful or teaspoonful of any designated material is a LEVEL spoonful. In flour mixtures 
where yeast is called for, use bread flour; in all other flour mixtures, use cake or pastry flour. 



A Dish of Appetizers (Hors 
D'Oeuvre) 

CUT tunny fish in thin slices and 
dispose, one slice overlapping an- 
other, down the center of a dish, 
a figure cut from a slice of trufHe on each. 
Set rows of pickled beet, in slices, on 
either side of the tunny, with lengthwise 
slices of egg and stuffed pickled peppers 
beyond. Cut the peppers in quarters, 
then set them back in the original shape. 
An oyster fork and small plates should be 
provided for eating these. 

Dressed Hors D'Oeuvres 

Cut any variety of stale, close-grained 
bread in slices, a scant quarter of an inch 
in thickness; from these stamp out 
shapes as desired. Melt a little butter 
on a pan, and in it turn the shapes to 
coat with butter; cut them nearly 
through that each piece, or section, when 



taken with an oyster fork, may be easily 
separated from the others and eaten. 
Let brown delicately in the oven, then 
cool. 

Beat a little butter to a cream; gradu- 
ally beat into it chopped-and-pounded 
ham, flesh of sardines, anchovies, 
chicken, egg-yolks, capers or parsley, one 
or more as is suitable; when the mixture 
is smooth, press it through a sieve and 
season with paprika, tabasco, mustard 
or curry, then use to spread the prepared 
bread. Press into the mixture on the 
bread figures cut from beet, white of 
cooked &gg, truffles, tunny fish, or filets 
of anchovies or sardines, or use caviare, 
seasoned with a few drops of lemon juice 
and onion juice. Serve one, each, on 
small plates as the first course or begin- 
ning of a meal. 

Bean Soup, Italian Style 

Soak one pound of white pea beans in 



265 



266 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



cold water overnight. Wash, drain and 
set to cook in plenty of fresh cold water. 
After boiling begins, let simmer gently 
three hours, adding water meanwhile if 
needed. Chop two slices of bacon (or 
two sausages), an onion, a clove of garlic 
(if desired), three or four parsley branches, 
one or two stalks of celery and half a cup 
of dried mushrooms (soaked in cold 
water), very fine, put over the fire in one 
or two tablespoonfuls of vegetable oil, 
and stir and cook until yellowed through- 
out. When the beans are tender, press 
them through a sieve; add the chopped 



is yellowed and softened; add two cups 
of boiling water and let simmer twenty 
minutes or longer. Add two cups of 
sliced potatoes and let cook until the 
potatoes are done; add three cups of hot 
milk or white sauce and one quart of 
oysters, and let cook until the oysters 
ruffie on the edge. Season as needed 
with salt and pepper. Serve at once. 
Two stalks of celery, cut in bits, may be 
added with the onion. 

Pork Pie 

This is a New England dish of colonial 




TUNNY FISH, BEETS. STUFFED PEPPERS 



material, rinsing out the pan with some 
of the liquid from the beans, to secure all 
the flavor; add also a cup of thick to- 
mato puree (cooked tomatoes pressed 
through a sieve, and reduced, by slow 
cooking, to a thick consistency). Season 
with salt and pepper, and serve as an 
ordinary soup. Or, about half an hour 
before serving, add three potatoes, sliced 
thin, a cup of fine-shredded cabbage and 
one-fourth a cup of blanched rice; cook 
until the vegetables are done and serve 
as the main dish of the meal. 

Oyster Chowder 

Cut four ounces of fat salt pork into 
tiny cubes, and let cook over a slow fire 
until the fat is well extracted; add one 
onion, peeled and cut in shreds, and stir 
and let cook very slowly until the onion 



times. Line a baking dish with pastry 
or biscuit dough; interline the paste with 
fat salt pork, cut in exceedingly thin 
slices; fill the dish with apples, pared, 
quartered, cored, and cut in slices, 
sprinkle w^ith cinnamon, and add a few 
spoonfuls of molasses. Or, use sugar 
and nutmeg. Cover with thin slices of 
pork and then with pastry or biscuit 
dough. Let bake in a moderate oven 
about one hour and a half. Serve hot as 
the main dish at luncheon or dinner. 
This is also made with thin slices of lean, 
fresh pork. 

Panned Chicken with Corn 
Fritters 

Separate a young chicken into pieces 
at the joints; set into a baking pan, pour 
over a cup of broth, cover and let cook 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



267 




BREAD CUT FOR CAXAPES, FINISHED CANAPES 



about an hour and a half, basting each 
ten minutes with broth or hot fat. When 
tender, remove to a hot serving dish, and 
use the liquid in the pan in making a 
sauce. Skim the fat from the liquid; add 
to it enough fat to make one-fourth a cup; 
in it cook one-fourth a cup of flour and 
half a teaspoonful, each, of salt and black 
pepper; add two cups of broth and stir 
until boiling. Serve the chicken on a 
dish surrounded by the fritters, and the 
sauce in a bowl. To make the broth, 
simmer the skinned feet, the giblets, neck 
and pinions in water to cover about two 
hours. 

Corn Fritters 

Beat two egg-yolks; beat in one cup of 
canned corn (chopped if the kernels were 
retained). Add half a teaspoonful of 
salt and one-fourth a teaspoonful of 
black pepper, one teaspoonful and a half 
of baking powder, and one cup of oat or 
rye flour sifted together. Lastly, beat 



in the whites of two eggs, beaten very 
light. Take up the mixture in a table- 
spoon and with a second spoon scrape it, 
in a compact mass, into hot fat; turn 
often while frying; drain on soft paper. 

Roast Chicken 

Without cutting the skin, remove the 
neck of the fowl (turkey, goose, chicken, 
etc.) on a line with the top of the wings. 
Turn the skin down over the back and 
the pinions backwards, then hold these 
in place over the skin with a thread (in 
a trussing needle) run through the 
chicken from one wing to another and 
out again where the thread went in, 
leaving a stitch about an inch long in the 
second wing, and tieing a knot in the first 
wing. Fill the body of the chicken with 
stuffing; press the legs close to the body, 
and run twine from the trussing needle 
through the legs and body, taking a 
stitch an inch long in the second leg, and 




A CHICKEN CUT IN JOINTS FOR PANNED CHICKEN, ETC. FEET CLEANED FOR COOKING 



268 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



tieing a knot an inch from where the 
string went through the first leg. When 
cooked, cut the stitches and pull out the 
threads by the knots. Baste the chicken 
with hot fat each fifteen minutes during 
cooking, and dredge with flour after each 
basting. Cook until the joints separate 
easily. A four-pound chicken needs to 
cook two hours. A twelve-pound turkey, 
about three hours. If a fowl of any kind 
is tough and dry, the fault probably 
lies with the cook. We go on the sup- 
position that no one is expected to cook. 



range in cold water to cover; heat slowly 
to the boiling point, then let simmer until 
nearly tender, five or six hours. Remove 
to a baking dish. Several inches from 
the shin bone, cut the skin in points and 
remove the skin from the rounding end. 
Sprinkle the fat, from which the skin was 
taken, with fine bread or cracker crumbs 
mixed with brown sugar, and set into the 
oven (not too hot) to cook slowly about 
an hour, when considerable fat will have 
been drawn out, and the crumbs be 
browned. The ham in the illustration 




FOWL TRUSSED FOR ROASTING, SURROUNDED WITH BRUSSELS SPROUTS 
TRUSSING NEEDLE, THREADED 



even a "fresh-killed fowl" that has not 
been hung six or seven days in a dry, cool 
place. 

Bread Stuffing for Fowl, etc. 

Mix two cups of fine, soft bread crumbs 
with half a cup of melted fat, half a tea- 
spoonful of salt, one-fourth a teaspoonful 
of black pepper and one teaspoonful of 
powdered thyme or savory or poultry 
seasoning. Liquid of any kind makes a 
soggy stuffing. 

Baked Ham 

Scrub the ham and set to cook on the 



was sliced while hot. Cold 
better than that which is hot. 



lam slices 



Ham Fricadelles 

Crumble bread to fill a cup lightly; let 
soak in milk till the bread is soft and the 
milk, absorbed; add one cup of cold, 
boiled ham, chopped very fine, and such 
seasoning as is desired; chopped parsley, 
onion juice, chopped celery leaves, poul- 
try seasoning, tabasco sauce, chili sauce, 
salt and pepper are among the seasonings 
most desirable. Mix with one egg, 
beaten very light, and shape into small 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



269 











^ 


^S 


I 


t 










"'"" 



HAM FRICADELLES, CONES OF MASHED POTATO (WHITE AND SWEET) AND SPINACH 



cakes. Pat the flat sides of the cake in 
flour or meal and saute in hot fat, first 
on one side and then on the other, until 
well browned. Serve around a mound 
of mashed sweet or white potato. In 
preparing the white potato, thick tomato 
puree may be used in place of milk. 
Serve brown sauce, made in the pan after 
frying the fricadelles, in a bowl. Fresh 
pork or veal may be used in place of all, 
or a part of, the ham. Also, as in illus- 
tration, serve the fricadelles with cones 
of hot mashed, sweet and white potatoes, 
and spinach or Swiss chard. Shape the 
cones in the utensil used for dishing ice 
cream. 

Hamburg Steak with Brussels 
Sprouts 

To one pound of steak, from the top of 
the round, chopped in food chopper, add 
half a cup of cold water, and a scant half 
teaspoonful of salt; mix thoroughly and 
shape into small, flat cakes (about six). 
Rub over a hot, iron frying pan with a 
bit of fat (from the edge of the meat), 
and set in the cakes. When juice is seen 
on the top of the cakes, turn at once to 
cook that side. Leave rare or cook thor- 
oughly, according to taste. Have ready 
a consistent brown sauce. In making the 
broth for the sauce, cook in it a little 
ham and one-fourth a cup (or less) of 
dried mushrooms. Also, have cooked, 
tender, some Brussels sprouts. Drain off 
the water from the sprouts; add salt, 
pepper and a piece of butter, and shake 
the saucepan over the fire till the sprouts 



have taken up the seasonings and butter. 
Set the sprouts in the center of a hot 
platter, the steak around them, and pour 
the sauce around the steak. 

Beans Baked with Sausage 

Soak one pint of pea beans overnight. 
Wash, drain, rinse and set over the fire 
in cold water to cover. Let heat slowly 
to the boiling point, drain and rinse 
again; let cook in a fresh supply of water 
until tender, but not broken in the least. 
Stir in a teaspoonful of soda; when the 
effervescence ceases, let boil two minutes; 
drain, rinse and drain again. Put the 
beans into a baking dish with half a 
pound or more of sausage, in links or 
cakes, mixed through them here and 
there. Dissolve a teaspoonful of salt 
and a teaspoonful of mustard in a quart 
of boiling water, and pour over the beans 
in the dish; cover and let bake five or six 
hours. Set into the oven at 7 o'clock, 
they are ready to serve at noon. Bake 
the last hour without the cover. Boiling 
water may be added during the first of 
the baking, but the beans should be dry 
when done. Being cooked tender before 
baking, but little water is needed after 
setting into the oven. Left-over beans 
and sausage may be pressed firmly into a 
mold, it will slice like cheese when cold. 

Potatoes Cooked in Broth 

Potatoes cut in balls with a French 
cutter are usually taken for this dish, but 
the potatoes are just as satisfactory when 
cut in cubes, or in shapes like those pre- 
pared for French-fried potatoes. Cover 



270 



AMERICAN COOKERY 







i9Rs>"' 






i«g__i^^»mi^_i^^^i^^_i^^^^^^^^2^^^^ 



CANNED SWISS CHARD, SUMMER SQUASH, BRUSSELS SPROUTS, CORN ON COB, CAULIFLOWER, 

VEAL SWEETBREADS, KOHL RABI, 



the potatoes with boiHng, salted water, 
and let boil five minutes; drain and set 
to cook in beef broth. When tender 
drain and sprinkle with salt and fine- 
chopped parsley. This dish is relished 
by every one, but is appreciated most by 
those who are allowed broths — no solid 
meat. 

Flemish Carrots 

Winter carrots or canned summer car- 
rots may be used. The carrots should be 
cut in thin slices or narrow strips and 
cooked tender, if they have not been pre- 
viously cooked. For a pint of carrots, 
melt one tablespoonful of butter, or sub- 
stitute, in a saucepan; add one-fourth a 
cup of chopped onion, and half a tea- 
spoonful of sugar. Cover and let cook 
very slowly (on an asbestos mat) till 
yellowed a little; add one cup of beef 
broth, and let simmer until the onion is 
tender; add the carrots and let stand 
over hot water twenty minutes or longer. 
Sprinkle with a tablespoonful of fine- 
chopped parsley before serving. 

Brussels Sprouts, Buttered 

Remove imperfect leaves from the 
sprouts. Let the sprouts stand an hour 
or longer in cold water to which a tea- 
spoonful of salt has been added. Skim 
from the water and let cook in boiling 



water until tender (fifteen to twenty 
minutes); drain, add a little salt and a 
piece of butter and shake over the stove 
until the butter is absorbed. 

Rice Muffins 

Put one cup of cooked rice (grains dis- 
tinct) into a mixing bowl; mix through it 
one tgg, beaten light, and three table- 
spoonfuls of melted shortening. Add one 
cup of oat flour, half a cup of fine, white 
cornmeal, five teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder, half a teaspoonful of salt and 
two or three tablespoonfuls of sugar, 
sifted together, and about one cup of 
milk. Mix thoroughly. Bake in a hot, 
well-greased muffin pan about twenty-five 
minutes. The recipe makes about eight- 
een small muffins. 

Maple Rice Pudding 

Boil one-fourth a cup of rice tender; 
scald two cups of milk in a double boiler; 
stir one tablespoonful and a half of corn- 
starch, smooth, in half a cup of maple 
syrup and stir into the hot milk; when 
the mixture thickens, cover and let cook 
fifteen minutes; add the rice, dry, but 
with grains distinct, and beat in the yolks 
of two eggs, beaten light. Turn into a 
baking dish. Beat the whites of two eggs 
very light, then gradually beat in one- 
fourth a cup of maple syrup and spread 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



271 



over the pudding. Let cook about 
twelve minutes In a very moderate oven, 
when the meringue should be lightly 
colored. 

Cider Apple Sauce 

Boll sweet cider until reduced nearly 
one-third In quantity; add sweet apples, 
pared, quartered and cored, and let cook, 
uncovered, until the apples are tender. 
Turn the apples occasionally, but keep 
the pieces unbroken. A little sugar may 
be added If desired. 

Pumpkin Pie 

Line a pie plate with oat or rye-flour 
pastry; pour In the pumpkin mixture. 
Set the pie Into a rather hot oven, and 
let bake about forty minutes, or until 
firm throughout. Decrease the heat of 
the oven as soon as the paste begins to 
cook, and before the filling boils. 

Filling for Pumpkin Pie 

For a large pie beat one egg and the 
yolk of another; beat in half a cup of 
syrup and one-fourth a cup of molasses, 
one teaspoonful of ginger, half a tea- 



spoonful of cinnamon, half a teaspoonful 
or more of salt, one cup and a half of 
cooked-and-strained pumpkin, and one 
cup and a half of milk. Two crackers 
(Uneeda biscuit) rolled fine may take the 
place of the eggs. 

Pastry for Pumpkin Pies 

Sift together one cup, each, of oat and 
rye or barley flour, half a teaspoonful of 
salt, and one-fourth a teaspoonful of bak- 
ing powder; cut in a scant half-cup of 
shortening and work to a paste with cold 
water. There will be pastry for two pies, 
and for two small tarts. Any filling other 
than mince is suitable for Thanksgiving 
tarts. Reserve mince meat for Christ- 
mas. Whole wheat flour may be used in 
place of the rye or barley flour; thus made, 
the pastry is easily handled. 

Everyday Cake 

Beat one-fourth a cup (four tablespoon- 
fuls) of shortening to a cream; beat in 
half a cup of sugar, half a cup of chopped 
raisins or nuts, cwo egg-yolks, beaten 
light, one-fourth cup, each, of maple and 
corn syrup, half a cup of milk; add one 
cup of rye or barley flour, three-fourths 




CANNED AND FRESH PUMPKIN 



272 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




PRUNE BAVARIAN CREAM 



a cup of wheat flour, a slightly rounding 
teaspoonful of cream of tartar, half a 
level teaspoonful of soda, half a teaspoon- 
ful of salt, and half a teaspoonful of mace, 
sifted together. Lastly, beat in the 
whites of two eggs, beaten light, and turn 
into a bread pan, or a shallow biscuit pan. 
Sprinkle chopped raisins or nuts over the 
top, and dredge with a teaspoonful of 
sugar. Bake about one hour in the bread 
pan, twenty to thirty minutes, according 
to depth of batter, in the biscuit pan. 

Prune Bavarian Cream 

Soften one tablespoonful and one half 
of granulated gelatine in one-third a cup 
of cold water and dissolve in one-half cup 
of hot prune juice; add one-third a cup of 
honey and one cup of cooked prunes, 
cut into small pieces. Stir in ice and 
water until the mixture begins to jelly, 
then fold in one cup and a half of cream, 
beaten very light (but not dry). When 
the mixture is firm enough to "hold its 
shape," — continue the folding until this 
condition is reached — dispose it, by 



large spoonfuls, in a mold decorated with 
lengthwise quarters of cooked prunes. 
Half a pound of prunes are needed for 
the dish. The mold should hold five 
cups. The juice and grated rind of half 
a lemon may be added at pleasure. 

Oatmeal Cracker Cake 

Beat half a cup of shortening to a 
cream; gradually beat in two-thirds a 
cup of honey, or one-third a cup of sugar 
and one-third a cup of honey. Add the 
yolks of two eggs, beaten light, one cup 
of milk, two-thirds a pound of oatmeal 
crackers, rolled and sifted (two and seven- 
eighths cups fine crumbs), and mixed with 
three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, half 
a teaspoonful of cinnamon, and one- 
fourth a teaspoonful of salt. Lastly, 
beat in the whites of two eggs, beaten 
very light. Bake in two, well-greased, 
layer-cake pans about eighteen minutes. 
Put the layers together with jam or jelly. 
Cover the top and sides with chocolate 
butter icing, and pipe more icing above. 




OATMEAL CRACKER CAKE 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



273 



Chocolate Butter Icing 

Beat half a cup of butter to a cream; 
gradually beat in half a cup of honey. 
one cup of sifted confectioner's suga^^ aiid 
two ounces of chocolate, melted over hot 
water. This icing may be made en- 
tirely of honey or of syrup. 

Fig Ice Cream 

Scald one quart of milk; mix three level 
teaspoonfuls of cornstarch with cold milk 
and stir into the hot milk; continue to 
stir until the mixture thickens, then cover 
and let cook fifteen minutes, stirring oc- 
casionally. Beat the yolks of four eggs; 
add half a teaspoonful of salt and half a 
cup of conservation syrup (October num- 
ber) or honey or maple syrup and beat 
again, then stir into the hot mixture; 
stir constantly until the egg is set; add 
two cups of hot cream, mix thoroughly 
(if desired, the cream may be put into the 
boiler at first with the milk), and let chill; 
add one tablespoonful of vanilla extract, 
and begin to freeze; when half frozen add 
from one-fourth to one-half pound of figs, 
cooked tender in a little boiling water, 
chopped fine and mixed with half a cup of 
honey, maple or conservation syrup; then 
finish freezing. 

Fig Ice Cream, Junket 

Mix one quart of milk, one cup of cream 
And one can of sweetened condensed milk; 
stir in one tablespoonful of vanilla extract 
and one junket tablet, crushed and mixed 
with one tablespoonful of cold water, and 
turn into the can of the freezer. Let 
stand in a warm place (not over 90 degrees 
F.) till jellied; let cool, then when partly 
frozen, add half a pound of figs, cooked. 



chopped and mixed with half a cup of 
syrup, and finish freezing. 

Honey Molasses Kisses 

Set one cup of molasses, three table- 
spoonfuls of honey, three tablespoonfuls 
of sugar, one tablespoonful of corn syrup, 
two tablespoonfuls of butter and one- 
fourth cup of water over the fire. Stir 
until the sugar melts, then cook until, 
when tested, it forms a hard ball in cold 
water, or to 260 degrees F. on the sugar 
thermometer. Turn on to a greased 
marble or platter. When cooled a little, 
pull as long as possible, cut into inch 
lengths with scissors, and wrap each piece, 
separately, in parchment paper. 

Sugar-Saving Sweets 

Fruit Pastes 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 
L Select fruit; wash; prepare. 

2. Cook until soft; stir. 

3. Add minimum amount of sugar, or 
sugar substitutes, as corn syrup, honey, 
etc., to sweeten. 

4. Continue cooking until very thick. 

5. Spread by spoonfuls out flat on 
oiled paper. 

6. Dry in slow oven; finish drying 
over kitchen range. 

7. Turn, from time to time, like 
griddle cakes. 

Nuts of all kinds can be dried in these 
cakes, which may be left whole, or cut in 
strips with scissors. Fruit pastes may be 
made into bars or used as fillings for sand- 
wiches. They may, also, be brought back 
with water and used for pie-filling or 
sauce. 

These pastes are particularly good made 
of apples, pears, peaches, plums and figs. 




Well-Balanced Menus One Week in November 

(Last of Month) 

A varied diet will not promote health, resistance to diseases or efficiency and longevity in the 
same degree as a diet containing liberal amounts of milk and leafy vegetables. — McCollum. 



Breakfast 

Hulled Corn, Syrup, Whole Milk 

White Hashed Potatoes 

Pig's Sweetbreads and Liver, Saute 

Baked Sweet Apples 

Ryemeal Muffins 

Coffee Cocoa Milk 

Dinner 

Roast Spare Ribs of Pork, Brown Sauce 

Mashed Potatoes 

Mashed Turnips 

Cole Slaw or Apple Sauce 

Canned Corn Fritters, Maple Syrup 

Supper 

Oyster Chowder 
Wheatless Crackers 

Dill Pickles 
Stewed Crabapples 



Breakfast 

Barley Mush with Dates, Top Milk 

Tongue-and-Potato Hash (green pepper) 

Cornflour and Ryemeal Muffins 

Coffee Cocoa Milk 

Luncheon 

Fresh Codfish Creamed, au Gratin 

Baked Potatoes 

Lettuce, French Dressing 

Rye or Barley and Rice Flour Biscuit 

Grapes 

Dinner 

Roast Ribs of Beef, Brown Sauce 

(Young beef) 

Franconia Potatoes 

Squash 

Celery 

Maple Rice Pudding with Raisins 



Breakfast 

Baked Potatoes 
Creamed Salt Codfish 
Fried Cornmeal Mush, Syrup 
Coffee Cocoa Milk 

Luncheon 

Cream of Dried Lima Bean Soup 

Cheese Croutons 

Apple Dumpling 

Tea 

Dinner 

Cold Roast Pork, Hot Baked Apples 

Baked Squash 

Scalloped Potatoes 

Hot Boiled Rice, Butter.. Syrup 



Breakfast 

Cold Barley Mush.. Fried 

Syrup or Molasses 

Bacon Potatoes Cooked in Milk 

Oat Flour Bread, Toasted 

Coffee Cocoa Milk 

Luncheon 

Canned Corn Chowder 

Wheatless Crackers 

Apple Butter 

Oat Flour Biscuit 

Cottage Cheese 

Tea 

Dinner 

Cold Roast Ribs of Beef, Hot Brown Sauce 

Mashed Potatoes 

Baked Squash 

Apple Shortcake, Honey 



Breakfast 

Corn Puffs, Top Milk 
Cold Boiled Tongue, Sliced 

Creamed Potatoes 

Rice Griddle-cakes, Syrup 

Coffee Cocoa 



Luncheon 

Hominy Croquettes 

Waldorf Salad 

Spider Corncake 

Tea 



Cheese Sauce 



Dinner 

Boiled Shoulder of Cod, 

Drawn Butter Sauce 

Boiled Potatoes 

Sliced Tomatoes 

(ripened in paper) 

Jellied (gelatine) Raspberries 

(canned without sugar) 



Breakfast 

Hulled Corn, Syrup, Top Milk 

Creamed Finnan Haddie 

Small Baked Potatoes* 

Toast Doughnuts 

Coffee Cocoa Milk 

Luncheon 

Cheese Custard 

Canned Beets 

Buckwheat and Cornmeal Muffins 

Apples Baked with Almonds 

or Dates 

Cornflake Macaroons 

Dinner 

Fried Fillets of Fresh Fish, 

Sauce Tartare 
Mashed Potatoes, Cauliflower, Cheese Sauce 
Pumpkin Pie 
Half Cups Coffee 



Breakfast 

Cream of Wheat, Top Milk 

Haddock-and-Potato Hash 

Pickled Beets 

Cornmeal Griddle-cakes 

Coffee Cocoa Milk 



Luncheon 

Beans Baked with Sausage 

Homemade Pickles 

Boston Brown Bread 

Baked Tapioca Pudding, 

Vanilla Sauce 

274 



Dinner 

Hamburg Steak with Sprouts 
Baked Sweet Potatoes 

Celery 

Oatmeal Cracker Cake 

Stewed Figs 



Menus for Thanksgiving Dinner 



I 

Oyster Soup 

Celery Mustard Pickles 

Baked Ham 

Mashed Potatoes 

Sweet Potatoes, Southern Style 

Brussels Sprouts, Buttered 

Cider Apple Sauce 

Quick Ryemeal Rolls (yeast) 

Pumpkin Pie 

Cottage Cheese Balls 

(rolled in chopped nuts) 

Coffee 



II 

Lamb-and-Tomato Soup (not thickened) 

Wheatless Crackers 

Celery Olives 

Roast Chicken, Bread Dressing, 

Giblet Sauce 

Mashed Potatoes 

Squash 

Sweet Pickled Peaches or Pears 

Cranberry Tarts 

Fig Ice Cream 

Coffee 



III 

Bouillon 

Panned Chicken 

Corn Fritters 

Sweet Potatoes, Southern Style 

Lettuceana Sliced Oranges, or Pineapple, 

French Dressing 

Pumpkin Pie 

Young America Cheese 

Coffee 



IV 

Oyster Chowder 

Mayonnaise of Chicken and_.Celery 

Quick Ryemeal Rolls (reheated) 

Maple Parfait 

Macaroons 

Dates Stuffed with Nuts 

Coffee 



Fresh Fruit Cocktail 

(grapefruit, white grapes, pineapple) 

Oyster Croquettes 

Celery and Cabbage Salad 

Roast Turkey, Chestnut Stuffing 

Cranberry Sauce 

Mashed Potatoes 

Boiled Onions, Buttered 

Baked Indian Pudding, 

Vanilla Ice Cream 
Raisins Nuts Coffee 

VI 

Sardine Canapes 

Roast Chicken 

Mashed Potatoes 

■ Onions Stuffed with Ham 

Cranberry Jelly 

Celery-and-Green Pepper Salad 

Squash Pie 

Cottage Cheese 

Salted Butternuts or Black Walnuts 

Coffee 

VII 

Clam Broth 
Spare Rib of Pork, Roasted, 

Bread Dressing 

Apple Sauce 

Potatoes Scalloped with Peppers 

Squash Onions 

Cranberry Pie 

Dates Stuffed with Nuts 

Coffee 



275 



The Housekeeper's Notes for November 

By Janet M. Hill 



IN wandering about the country a 
little, one comes across the most piti- 
ful attempts at cooking. To be re- 
stricted, somewhat, in the use of fine flour 
is no excuse for poor bread. Certainly 
one should be able to make some form of 
bread, largely of substitutes if necessary, 
that the family will really enjoy. Boston 
brown bread is seen in various public 
places, on dining cars, even at hotels and 
on the tables in private homes, so heavy 
and unpalatable that even the pangs of 
hunger do not force one to partake of it. 
This same kind of bread we have seen 
turned out in such a manner that, set on 
a table, side by side, with a perfect loaf of 
fine white flour, no white bread would 
be eaten so long as a slice of the 
dark bread remained on the plate. Sour 
milk, or whey, is the first essential to a 
good loaf of this variety of bread. Two 
cups of meal (one, each, of corn and rye), 
with one cup of any flour, save potato, is 
probably as good a mixture as can readily 
be secured. Rye meal gives a sweetish 
tasting loaf. Individually, we have never 
tasted any but good, sweet rye meal, 
but there are cooks who find it bitter. 
Let them try buying meal of another 
grocer, for bitter rye meal is the ex- 
ception, and not the rule. 

When making yeast bread with sub- 
stitutes try using a little more yeast than 
is commonly employed, and if part meal 
enters into the loaf, mix it a little less 
stiff than usual. 

In New England there has been a 
great increase in the number of pigs kept; 
in country places they have roamed in 



wide, inclosed pastures; kept well-fed 
and clean the flesh cannot fail to be sweet 
and wholesome. Most of the boys who 
joined "pig clubs" have brought their 
venture to a successful issue, and can 
show pigs of fair size and weight. With 
the usual November weather, the pig's 
supply of green food from the garden 
being exhausted, the boys of the "pig 
clubs" will quite generally consider the 
advisability of transforming pig into pork. 
If possible, it would be well for the boys 
to carry their venture still further along, 
exchanging care and feeding of pigs to 
care and cooking of pork; for it is true 
that, under normal conditions, that in- 
dividual is happiest who knows how to do 
the largest number of things well. 

To be wholesome, pork must be thor- 
oughly cooked; on this account searing 
over the outside of a roast is largely dis- 
pensed with, lest the heat do not pene- 
trate to the very center of the joint. 
Long, slow cooking of these carefully 
reared pigs will give dishes tender as 
chicken and juicier than most turkeys; 
they are well worth a place as the central 
figure on any Thanksgiving table. 

The flavor of chicken may be extended 
to all sorts of cheaper foods, to enrich 
them and make them more desirable. 
The bones of a roast fowl, and the tiny 
"left-over" bits of flesh are full of pos- 
sibilities for another meal. By all means 
look out for the chicken feet; throw them 
into boiling water, let stand a minute, 
then rinse in cold water and peel off the 
skin and nails; now they are in good con- 
dition to add to other material for stock. 



276 



THE HOUSEKEEPER'S NOTES FOR NOVEMBER 



277 



Stock thus flavored will improve any 
cream soup, as celery, spinach, corn, 
cauliflower or carrot, or will give richness 
to a dish of rice, macaroni, etc. 

Purees and cream soups are too sub- 
stantial for the beginning of a dinner. 
They are quite well adapted to figure as 
the hearty, or main dish at luncheon or 
supper. A soup, with a meat founda- 
tion, can scarcely be called patriotic at 
this time. Why is not the present a most 
favorable time to experiment a little with 
appetizers in the form of sardines, an- 
chovies or tunny or even canapes of 
smoked tongue, eggs or a combination 
of several tidbits.? 

If the quantity offered be very small, 
the appetizer might simply whet the 
appetite for what is to follow; if made a 
trifle larger, it might serve to take off 
the keen edge of the appetite, and render 
a smaller service of the chief and more 
expensive dish of the meal sufficient. 
These appetizers need not cost much in 
hioney, but time is quite an essential 
item in their preparation. Tunny fish 
is now canned in this country; it is put 
up in oil. The flesh is firm, similar to 
that of the cod; the flavor is delicate; as 
purchased it resembles cooked veal. It 
is most excellent as an appetizer. After 
being marinated in French dressing, it 
is drained and served, cut in slices with 
a few capers, or as shown in the illus- 
tration in Seasonable Recipes. It is also 
served hot in tiny, individual, souffle cases 
or papers. Cheese is usually added 
(grated) to the body of the souffle, or 



with buttered crumbs to the top of the 
dish. 

Now is the time to dry all superfluous 
celery leaves for use in those months 
when fresh celery is unobtainable. 

To be true to tradition, pumpkin pie 
must form a part of the Thanksgiving 
dinner. It takes a long time to cook 
pumpkin properly. Squash, especially 
if it be of good quality (dry and mealy), 
will cook in half an hour, or even less, but 
pumpkin, being of a watery nature, calls 
for long, slow cooking. When done, all 
the water should have been absorbed; to 
discard this is to lose the valuable part 
and leave the fibres, only, for eating. 
Whole wheat flour, with barley or rye 
flour, half and half, will make good pas- 
try, and one as easily handled as that 
made entirely of fine, white flour. 

When cooking pumpkin for the Thanks- 
giving pie, it is a saving of time and fuel 
to cook the whole pumpkin. This may 
be done in a fireless cooker, or, if a fire 
is necessary the whole day, on an as- 
bestos mat on the back of the range. 
Store such portion as will not be re- 
quired for a week in cans; adjust the 
rubber rings, partially seal and let cook 
in canner, steam cooker or other boiler, 
as in "cold-pack" canning, nearly an 
hour, then finish sealing. If a can of 
pumpkin be left over till next June or 
July, when products from the home 
garden are limited to lettuce, radishes, 
peas, asparagus and strawberries, a pump- 
kin pie will prove an unexpected and 
welcome addition to the family table. 



Viewpoints! 



Awful, deplorable, terrible, sad, 
Stupid, uncivilized, people gone mad! 
Wail the poor Pacifists, shaking their heads, 
Tearing the nation's fair honor to shreds. 
Why should we try to adjust any scores, 
Till the dread foe really reaches our shores? 



What a fine world this would be, to be sure^ 
If all the robbers and thieves could allure 
Us to believe they were doing their "BIT" 
To better the world by the crimes they commit! 
You may believe it, for some people will. 
Some think the world's made of green cheese 
still! 



Selfish, unreasonable, blind as a bat, 
Clearly refusing to see where we're at. 
Liberty threatened and principles, too, 
Still they insist on their own point of view! 
But the majority, loyal and true. 
Back Mr. President. I do — do you? 

Caroline Louise Sumner: 



One Plate Dinners 






WHILE these one-plate dinners may be served as a full meal, in most cases the 
dinner would be more complete and satisfactory, or better balanced, if it were 
accompanied by a green vegetable or raw fruit, and usually with some form 

of bread. 

BOSTON BAKED BEANS 
BEANS BAKED WITH SAUSAGE 
FRESH FISH CHOWDER 

OYSTER CHOWDER 

CORN (Canned) CHOWDER 

PORK PIE 

SUCCOTASH (salt pork, corn, beans) 

BEAN LOAF 

NUT LOAF 

ROUND STEAK EN CASSEROLE 

NECK OF VEAL, OR LAMB EN CASSEROLE 

FOWL EN CASSEROLE 

PLANKED FISH 

PLANKED STEAK 

PLANKED CHICKEN 

CHILI CON CARNE 

MEAT STEW (veal, lamb, beef or chicken) WITH DUMPLING*^ 

MACARONI A LA MILANAISE 

RISOTTO ALL' ARTIGIANA 

(rice, meat, onion, celery, carrot, sausage, etc.) 

MEXICAN HAM 

SPANISH STEAK 



The Camouflage Luncheon 

By Carolyn Munser 

OH dear, what shall I do?" poor originality at school, and you should not 

Janet Danvers wailed as she smile at me in that way," she expostu- 

looked about at her well-as- lated. "I won my honors on my exactness 

sorted collection of substitutes. and class-room brilliancy, but that does 

Janethad been married thirteen months, not seem to help me in this dilemma." 
and two months before her marriage had Miss Knoles nodded her head thought- 
received her diploma, with honors, at the fully and replied, "All that may be very 
Shelton School of Domestic Science. true, but you should have acquired 
Her appeal of anguish was addressed to enough originality to have used some of 
her favorite teacher of S. S. D. S., and these substitutes." 

brought a smile of mild reproach to the "Well, you see Ned just hates con- 
face that beamed with boundless re- glomerate dishes, and he said to just use 
sourcefulness and humor. the wheat and we would give the sub- 
"You know I was never any good at stitutes to some poor people, or to Jennie'? 

278 



THE CAMOUFLAGE LUNCHEON 



279 



hens, but that seemed wasteful to me, and 
now here they are, and we shall soon be 
without wheat at all, and I have not been 
willing to use part substitutes ! Dear me, 
you just must help me out," and she 
burst into tears. 

"I imagine there are many people like 
you, but you should have been patriotic 
enough to foresee the outcome and meet 
the situation, but that is not the question; 
I cannot stay longer than a week, and 
we must make haste while I am here." 

"What a shortsighted, unpatriotic, edu- 
cated fool I have been," Janet expostu- 
lated. "Pm so ashamed, and we thought 
we were so patriotic, buying Liberty 
Bonds and Thrift Stamps and giving to 
the Red Cross and knitting; and now 
I can see that this was not enough, for 
the wheat we have eaten can never be 
reclaimed, and we have been helping 
Kaiser William all the time; for our in- 
fluence has not been in the direction of 
Hooverizing!" 

"Hindsight is usually better than fore- 
sight, or the government would have 
heeded injunctions to prepare for war 
years ago, but if you can speed up in 
using substitutes as well as the govern- 
ment has done, you may ease your con- 
science somewhat," comforted Miss 
Knoles. 

"I suppose there is no use crying over 
spilled milk or used wheat, but I am truly 
ashamed of myself, and now you must fast 
on wheat, when we might have had a 
little to use, if I had not been so greedy." 

"Well, to return to the point, as profes- 
sor Gregg used to say in chemistry, what 
are you going to have for luncheon.^" 
Miss Knoles questioned. 

"Well, if I could have my own choice 
of dishes, those that Ned likes best, I 
would say, cream of asparagus soup, 
wheat muffins, omelet, olives, straw- 
berries and angel food, but that means 
wheat, wheat, wheat, and will never do." 

"Why not.?" and Miss Knoles deftly 
fingered the substitutes, "here is rice 
flour to thicken the soup with; barley 
flour for muffins and potato flour for angel 



food; let us get to work. Where are the 
eggs.?" 

"But suppose Ned does not like the 
dishes, and not a bit of wheat in any- 
thing.?" Janet hesitatingly questioned. 

"He's a soldier and might as well suc- 
cumb to substitutes one time as another; 
don't mention substitutes to him, and see 
if he makes any comments on the Hoover 
luncheon." 

Janet caught the enthusiasm of her in- 
structor and hurried to the ice box for the 
eggs. 

"Here's some cooked rice Ned spurned 
yesterday; it's too starchy, he said." 

"Good, bring it here; if that is his com- 
plaint always cook it in plenty of water, 
and drain off the water and the rice will 
be nice and flaky." 

"But that seems a waste of starch 
water," Janet offered. 

"Why not use the rice water for hasty 
pudding; cook it all day in the fireless, and 
see if the result is not satisfactory; but 
this rice will do for the omelet, and make 
it possible to use less eggs." 

"Won't it be too starchy.?" Janet 
asked. 

"The flaky rice would be better, and 
this could be nicely used in making 
bread;" she looked at the clock, "sup- 
pose we cook some fresh rice for the 
omelet, there is plenty of time." 

"And I'll make the hasty pudding for 
luncheon tomorrow, but we'll have to 
have some substitutes, for Ned will never 
eat more than a tablespoonful of it; but 
is there time to cook and cool the rice.?" 

"The rice is better cooked in plenty of 
water for a long time, as you know, but 
in an emergency we can cook it rapidly 
and watch it carefully," Miss Knoles ad- 
vised. 

Fingers and tongues flew as teacher and 
pupil prepared the luncheon dishes. Janet 
learned many things about cooking that 
the war conditions had compelled Alma 
Mater to heed in their practical work of 
the class-room. 

At just one o'clock Janet, Ned and 
their honored guest sat down to the care- 



280 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



fully planned repast, and Janet noted that 
each dish was greeted by her better half 
with a keen relish. She exchanged know- 
ing glances with Miss Knoles, as they were 
about to arise from the table, and at the 
same moment Ned exclaimed, "Well, 
that was the best luncheon ever, and 
probably about the last wheat luncheon, 
girlie, as the papers say no more wheat; 
what now?" and he sighed rather un- 
patriotically. 

''Did you really like our Camouflage 
luncheon, a la Hoover?" inquired Janet 
sweetly.* 

"What do you mean? I had enough 
to eat, and you never introduced any sub- 
stitutes into these delectable dishes, I 
know!" and he shook his head with mas- 
culine decisiveness. 

"Ask Miss Knoles, she is responsible 
for the 'camouflage,' but remember this 
is not the last of its kind, for I have 
learned lots this morning, and we are 
going to be patriots in real earnest now; 
three meals a day and between meals, 
amen!" and Janet spoke with an eager 
decisiveness that could not be surpassed 
by her husband, and which made Miss 
Knoles feel inwardly that there was no 
" camouflage " in its earnestness. 



P. S. — Would you like to try the re- 
cipes? Here they are. 

Cream of Asparagus Soup 

One-half cup cooked asparagus. One 
naif cup of the asparagus water, and one 
and one-half cups of rich milk, heated and 
thickened with two level tablespoonfuls 
rice flour. Salt to taste, and add a small 
piece of butter when ready to serve. 

Barley Muffins 

One tgg, one-fourth cup brown sugar 
(less can be used). One-half cup milk. 
Salt, one cup barley flour sifted; bake in 
muffin tins. This amount will make six 
muffins. 

Rice Omelet 

Two eggs, beaten well, whites and yolks 
separately; pinch salt; one-half cup 
cooked rice. Beat yolks into whites with 
wire egg-beater, and then fold in the rice, 
and cook in omelet pan until set. 

War Angel Food 

Whites of six eggs, thoroughly beaten; 
three-fourths cup sugar, added gradually, 
pinch salt and four drops vanilla; one- 
half cup potato flour, folded in last; bake 
in fireless cooker one hour. 



When the Children Went to the Shore 



I missed our next door children 
When they were at the shore, 

I missed their voices and their play, — 
The yard was quite a bore. 

One day I went into their house, 

Upon an errand bound, — 
O, every thing was strangely still, 

You could not hear a sound. 

I came home through the big, back hal 
And there, on pegs quite low, 

I saw the children's old play coats — 
All hanging in a row. 



Molly's old brown corduroy, 

Betty's faded blue, 
Jean's and Martha's chubby coats, 

An(- Jack's gray ulster, too! 

They looked so wondrously at home, 

So friendly and so dear, 
I patted each and ran away — 

My throat a-feeling queer. 

Our next door children love the shore, 

The water and the boats, 
But I was glad when they came home, 

To wear their old play coats. 

Clara Seaman Chase. 



Contributions to this department will be gladly received. Accepted items will be 

paid for at reasonable rates. 



The Pleasure of Mutual 
Dependence 

WHEN a country woman came to 
my door offering to sell jars of 
fruit she had canned, I recognized here 
was one who had hit upon the right thing. 
She had to have money, made by her own 
hands in her own kitchen, and she had 
brought us city women what we had to 
have. She brought us what we wanted 
— for the home-canned peach, for in- 
stance, is quite another thing from the 
factory-canned. 

Consider a woman who must prepare 
the breakfast, get her husband off to busi- 
ness, and then be ready to take the eight 
o'clock car for her own office, where she 
must remain all day. What time, or 
chance, has she to preserve or conserve, 
or serve in any way, but the way ap- 
pointed by her profession.^ For her 
another woman must can and dry and 
pickle and preserve, and provide against 
winter's need. And how it warms the 
heart to think of it! — the one with brain 
taxed to its highest tension, comforted, 
when she remembers, by the thought of 
the other busy in her country kitchen, 
using utmost care and skill, that the work 
she turns out be as perfect as she can 
make it, when it shall be delivered. What 
arrangement could be lovelier.? It brings 
such a pleasant feeling on the one hand, 
of having the home interests taken care 
of, and on the other, of a little independ- 
ence. It is so friendly and neighborly — 
business woman and country home-maker 
brought to help each other, and to the 
exchange of personality a little mutual 
dependence brings about. 



She who has her residence in an up- 
town apartment is supposed to be able 
to command the best of any market. 
Yes — but there is a "homey-ness" 
about the things canned in a country 
kitchen, and a difference of taste and 
flavor; and a something the heart, with 
the home-making instinct, craves and 
finds gratified in the jar of sweetmeat for 
supper taken from among the rows on the 
pantry shelves. With what a friendly 
touch it is brought forth and opened, 
with thought of the hand whose work it 
was! 

And the matter of glass jars is one we 
must not forget, — they cost more than 
they ever did, and are harder to get. 
Emptied, they are of no use to us — why 
not turn them right back, as the contents 
are taken out.? Or, at least, as promptly 
as may be, that they may be ready for 
use again. So many people are careless 
about fruit jars and jelly glasses, and 
seem not to remember that what is use- 
less now to them will be necessary a little 
later on to those who can, — and to 
themselves, in time, as they will come 
back. Thoughtfulness or thoughtless- 
ness, as the case may be, means a good 
deal more than, in our busy absorption, we 
realize, perhaps. 

One woman I have the good fortune 
to call friend, whose skill in conserving 
exceeds her facility for catching and 
holding, sends me always, at Thanks- 
giving, a very excellent fine-ground mixed 
pickle — it comes one year in a Heinz 
pickle jar, another in a salad bottle 
of some kind, again in some sort of wide- 
mouthed jar, that may have held pre- 



281 



282 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



served ginger, — but always something 
different. Whiqh suggests to me that all 
the usable bottles, ' that accumulate in 
my pantry, can be used again by my 
friend; and if by her, then by others. 

And I say to myself what I think others 
must be saying to themselves — • These 
friends, who are doing for us what we 
cannot do for ourselves, let us be as 
thoughtful for them as we can; and be 
on time with our thoughtfulness. Let 
them have the jars and the jelly glasses, 
and the big, wide bottles, as we are 
through with them — • spare them the 
anxiety for their depleted stock, and let 
them have betimes the satisfaction of 
knowing that when the season opens again 
they are ready for business. f. l. t. 
* * * 

Canning Pimientos 

PERHAPS no member of the numerous 
pepper family has come more rapidly 
into favor within the past few years, than 
the pimiento — shortened to pimento by 
our impatient English tongues. 

A field of pimientos is a beautiful sight, 
as there are white blossoms, green and 
ripe fruit all on the same plant. Near 
Garden Grove, California, a thousand 
acres of these trim plants, with their 
glossy green foliage and beautiful crimson 
fruit, are grown, and pimiento culture 
seems to be rapidly spreading to meet an 
ever increasing demand. 

The pimiento is about the size and 
shape of the Bell pepper, but is smooth 
surfaced, and without the Bell pepper's 
deep convolutions. 

Two or three crops can be gathered 
from the plants during the season, which 
ordinarily lasts from September until 
December in southern California. 

Recently, I visited a factory at Santa 
Ana, California, where only pimientos 
were being canned, and this one estab- 
lishment is turning out an average of 
fifty thousand cans per day. The peppers 
are hauled to the factory in wagon loads 
and car lots, and the large output is very 
good evidence of the growing popularity 



of this condiment. 

The process of canning is a rather sim- 
ple, though interesting, one. The pi- 
mientos are first put through a weak solu- 
tion of caustic soda, which can be heated 
much hotter than water before reaching 
the boiling point. Down goes a steady 
stream of crimson peppers into this vat, 
and are brought up again by the con- 
veyors to be dumped into another vat of 
cold water. This process loosens the skin, 
and from this bath the peppers travel on 
the seemingly endless carriers to the next 
stopping place, where the women workers 
remove the skin and seeds. The skin 
slips off like a loose glove, and the ends 
are cut out and the seeds removed with 
one dexterous movement of the worker's 
sharp knives. 

The peppers then journey on to the 
place where they receive their first cook- 
ing. They are now ready to be packed 
into the cans, a process that requires some 
skill in tucking the thick fleshed, slippery 
things neatly and compactly into their 
receptacles. 

The next stage is having the lids 
clamped down on the tins by a machine 
for that purpose, and they are now ready 
to be lowered into great vats of boiling 
water for the final cooking. When cool 
the cans are carefully inspected, to see if 
any are not properly sealed, and then 
they pass through the labeling machine, 
which is the last stage of the game. d. p. 
* * * 

A Pretty Dinner 

Cooked and Served by a Young 
Housewife 

CUCUMBER cups, holding crab salad, 
set on sliced tomato in ring of 
shredded lettuce; French dressing. 

Creamed sole in green pepper cases. 

Meat balls, the size of very large mar- 
bles; garnished on platter. 

Two whole cauliflower, mounded in 
center of another platter with ring of 
carrots, cut in fine straws. These were 
boiled separately, and when arranged 



HOME IDEAS AND ECONOMIES 



283 



were covered with cream sauce, and the 
cauliflower sprinkled with fine-chopped 
parsley. This makes an ornamental dish 
and also two vegetables are easily served. 

Dessert 

A silver basket of peaches, pears, ba- 
nanas, and grapes. 

Black coffee 

The cucumber rinds were pared in 
strips to give a pretty effect. 

The sole cost only seven cents a pound, 
if the skin was left on, and fifteen if 
skinned and filleted. The young house- 
keeper decided to buy at seven cents, and 
creamed the fish instead of frying it. To 
keep the pepper cases in shape, she set 
them in muffin pans to cook after filling. 

It was Friday, hence both crab salad 
and a fish course. 

A Sugar-saving Confection 

STONE some prunes, if very dry, either 
steam or soak them before stoning. 
Cook in the oven with a bit of butter on 
each, and a little vanilla. A sprinkling of 
sugar is an improvement, but must be 
omitted in war time. 

After cooking a short time, in a moder- 
ate oven, remove from the oven; let cool 
and roll in shredded cocoanut. 

Serve these at the table, or pack in 
boxes for a pleasing present. Use dates 
in the same manner. j. d. c. 

* * * 

AFTER making the molasses hermits 
in the November, 1917, issue of 
American Cookery, I had, always, one 
egg-white left over, which had to be used 
in some way. At last I conceived the 
idea of using it in either one of these two 
recipes, and, also, conserved the heat of 
the oven. 

1 St Way — Cocoanut Drop Cookies 



2 tablespoonfuls Cot- 

tolene or Crisco 
I teaspoonful salt 
^ cup sugar 



1 teaspoonful vanilla 
1 egg-white, beaten 

stiff and added last 
I cup milk 



2nd Way — Jelly Meringue 
Crackers 

Beat the white stiff and add one table- 
spoonful of sugar. Spread rather thick 
on common crackers, and drop in the 
center of the meringue one-half teaspoon- 
ful jelly or jam. Brown in a moderate 
oven. 

I inclose, also, a recipe for 

Peanut Butter Cookies 



5 teaspoonful salt 
2 tablespoonfuls milk 



f cup peanut butter 
§ cup sugar 

I cup pastry flour 1 sifted with 2 teaspoonfuls 
I cup barley f^our / baking powder q y. s. 



^ cup pastry flour 1 sifted with 2 teaspoonfuls 
^ cup barley flour/ baking powder 



For Thanksgiving 

A CARD, on which was written the 
following questions, was placed at 
each plate at a Thanksgiving home dinner, 
and was found very amusing: 

1. By what part of me could I be called 
had I a name.? 
What part of me foretells your for- 
tune .? 

3. What part of me was specially prized 

by your great-grandmother .f* 

4. What part was only less prized.'^ 

5. What part of me is that never seen of 

a soldier in battle.? 
What part of me is wanting in man at 

Thanksgiving.? 
What part of me suggests martial 

music? 
What part of me is highly esteemed 

by the epicure.? 
What part of me is the divine right 

of the chosen.? 
10. What have I that is possessed by no 

other creature.? 

Answers 

1. Bill. 

2. Wishbone. 

3. Tail (turkey tail fan). 

4. Wing (duster). 

5. Back. 

6. Heart. 



284 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



7. Drumstick. 

8. Liver. 

9. Breast. 
10. Gobble. 

Tlie card should bear the picture of a 
turkey. f. l. t. 

* * * 

Buying Daily Food for the Family 

The following "Rules to follow when 
War Prices prevail" are issued by the 
United States Food Administration, 
Washington : 

MILK 

L Set aside enough money to buy one 
quart of milk a day for each child and one- 
third quart of milk daily for each grown 
person. 

Cheese will do for grown people in 
place of milk — a scant two ounces 
of cheese for one-third quart of milk. 
Skim milk has nourishment for 
grown people; it is not so good fare 
for children, but one-half the child's 
daily quart may be skim milk if 
necessary. 

If any one has to go without milk, 
it must not be the children. 

FAT 

2. Buy two to three ounces of some 
fat for each grown person. 

Children who are getting a quart 
of whole milk, daily, do not need as 
much other fat. 

Butter is the best fat, especially for 
little children. 

SUGAR 

3. Buy only sugar enough to make the 
meals palatable; it is not needed for food. 

One and a half ounces, or about 
three level tablespoonfuls daily of 
sugar, honey, molasses, or syrup for 
each person is enough. Not more 
than one ounce of this should be in 
the form of sugar. 

Spending more than necessary for 
sugar, when the purse is low, cuts off 
the family from other food more 
nourishing. 



FRESH VEGETABLES 

4. Buy each day potatoes and one 
other vegetable — cabbage, onions, car- 
rots, turnips, beets, or the like. 

Children may have daily two or 
three medium-sized potatoes, and 
one-fourth pound or more of some 
other vegetable. 

Grown persons can eat daily six 
to eight medium potatoes and one- 
half pound or more of other vege- 
tables. 

CEREALS 

5. Buy no more wheat than the Food 
Administration directs. For other cereals 
use rolled oats, pinhead oatmeal, corn 
meal, hominy, barley, rice, and buck- 
wheat. 

Flours, meals, and breakfast foods 
made from the entire grain are more 
desirable than the others. These in- 
clude water-ground corn meal, rolled 
oats or oatmeal, and cracked wheat. 

Dried peas and beans and plenty 
of potatoes make less bread neces- 
sary. 

FRUITS 

6. Give every member of the family a 
little fruit every day. 

Apples, fresh or dried, dried 
prunes, and raisins are among the 
cheapest fruits. 

VARIED DIET 

7. All that is necessary to keep the 
family alive and well is told in the above 
list of foods; if more is spent, it may give 
variety and better flavor to the meals. 

If the family purse allows, — 

Fish may be added. 

Meat may be added. 

Eggs may be added. 

More may be spent for milk, cream, 

butter, cheese, fruits, vegetables, 

fats, and sweets. 
The first six rules provide a plain, but 
safe diet for the family; additions may be 
pleasing, but are no more wholesome. 




/" 








THIS department is for the benefit and free use of our subscribers. Questions relating to recipea 
and those pertaining to culinary science and domestic economics in general, will be cheerfully 
answered by the editor. Communications for this department must reach us before the first of the 
month preceding that in which the answers are expected to appear. In letters requesting answers 
by mail, please enclose address and stamped envelope. For menus, remit $1.00. Address queries 
to Janet M. Hill, Editor. American Cookery, 221 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. 



Query No. 3988. — "Recipe for an old-fash- 
ioned Baked Indian Pudding, made without eggs, 
^nd enriched with beef suet." 

Baked Indian Pudding with 
Beef Suet 

Scald one quart of milk in a double 
boiler. Mix half a cup of Indian meal 
with a teaspoonful of salt and one cup of 
cold milk, and stir into the hot milk; con- 
tinue to stir until the mixture thickens, 
cover and let cook ten minutes; add one 
cup of molasses, half a cup of fine-chopped 
suet, half a teaspoonful of ground ginger, 
one teaspoonful of ground cinnamon, and 
one cup of cold milk; mix and turn into 
a baking dish. Let bake in a slow oven 
half an hour; add two cups of cold milk, 
and let bake half an hour; again add two 
cups of milk, stirring it in well; after half 
an hour, a third time, stir in two cups of 
cold milk, then let bake undisturbed three 
hours longer. Serve hot or cold with 
plain cream or ice cream. The recipe 
calls for three quarts of milk in all. 



Query No. 3989. — "Proportions of the in- 
gredients mentioned in recipe for Japanese Suey- 
Dressing for 'Sundae,' to serve fifteen people." 

Japanese Suey-Dressing for 
15 Sundae 

2 ounces dates 

2 ounces figs 

2 ounces raisins 

2 ounces nut meats (| 

cup) pecans or walnuts 

Chop each article, separately, very fine; 



2 ounces almonds 
\ cup maple syrup 
1 cup marshmallow 
paste 



blanch the almonds before chopping. Mix 
all the ingredients together, and let stand 
overnight to ripen. 



Query No. 3990. — " On page 52 of the Amer- 
ican Cookery for June-July, in referring to a 
'Washing Fluid,' potash is called for. Just 
what is meant by potash, and in what sort of a 
store may it be obtained?" 

Potash, What It Is and 
Where Obtained 

Potash or lye for household use is put 
up in tin cans holding a pound. It is 
usually to be found at any store where 
groceries are obtained. The washing 
fluid, as compounded by the recipe, must 
make a very strong preparation. The 
quantity of potash given with five pounds 
of grease would make quite a large box of 
soap. We think this washing fluid should 
be used with great caution. It should 
not be poured on the clothes, but into the 
water, and be mixed thoroughly through 
the water before the clothes are added. 
We should not be willing to guarantee that 
it would not jade colored clothes. We see 
no reason for the use of anything as strong 
as this compound when laundering col- 
ored clothes. 



Query No. 3991. — "Menus composed of 
good substantial food, for Men, costing 50 cents 
per day, per man." 

Menus for Men 50c Per Day 

Breakfast 

Oatmeal, Milk 

Salt Pork, rolled in flour, Browned Slowly 

Potatoes Cooked in Milk 



285 



286 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Doughnuts or Johnny Cake 
Coffee 

Dinner 

Beef Stew 

(onions, carrots, potatoes) 

Bread 

Pumpkin or Apple Pie 

Cheese 

Tea 

Supper 

Boston Baked Beans 

Boston Brown Bread 

Homemade Pickles 

Gingerbread 

Tea 

Breakfast 

Salt Codfish Cakes 

Bread Oleomargarine 

Cornmeal Mush, Fried 

Molasses 

Coffee 

Dinner 

Boiled Corned Beef 

Boiled Potatoes, Turnips 

%^ Boiled Cabbage 

Baked Indian Pudding 

Coffee 

Supper 

Cream of Celery Soup 

Potato-and-Carrot Salad 

Rye Bread 

Apple Sauce 

Ginger Cookies 

Tea 

Breakfast 

Oatmeal Milk 

Corned Beef-and- Vegetable Hash 

Pickled Beets 

Hot Breakfast Corncake Cold Bread 

Coffee 

Dinner 

Boiled Fresh Codfish 

Drawn Butter Sauce 

Boiled Potatoes 

Creamed Cabbage Baked with Cheese 

Homemade Pickles 

Baking Powder Biscuit (50-50) 

Coffee 

Supper 

Canned Corn Chowder 

Boston Brown Bread 

Hot Gingerbread 

Cottage Cheese 

Tea 

Breakfast 

Hot Cornmeal Mush, Grated Cheese 
Fresh Fish and Potato Hash 

Tomato Catsup 
Graham Mufl&ns 
Coffee 

Dinner 

Tripe Fried in Crumbs or Batter 



Scalloped Potatoes 

Squash 

Apple Dumpling, Molasses 

Tea 

Supper 

Potato-and-Onion Hash 

(omelet style) 

Oatmeal Bread, Peanut Butter 

Apple Sauce 

Cottage Cheese 

Tea 



Regarding Preceding Fifty Cent 
Menus 

Prices vary so much in different sec- 
tions of the country, that money goes 
farther in some sections than in others. 
Cost of labor is not included in the menus 
suggested. In most places, if one food 
product is high in price, some other prod- 
uct is sold less than the average price. In 
the country milk, eggs and country beef 
may be bought at first hand, and are thus 
cheaper than in the city. More depends 
on the skill of the cook than on the money 
expended. Let each woman employed in 
feeding a group of people make a busi- 
ness matter of her work; let it engross her 
attention. To run an engine success- 
fully, some one "stays by It" all of the 
time, oiling here, wiping there, regulating 
the intake of fuel, etc. To make the food 
output of a kitchen a success, the one in 
charge must be scalding this article, dry- 
ing another, extracting fat from left-over 
scraps, watching the paring of apples and 
potatoes, regulating the fire to the needs 
of the various articles that are being sub- 
jected to it, and, with all this, keeping a 
level head. 



Query No. 3992. — "Can the usual Boiled 
Frosting, when sticky, be treated in any way to 
make it dry on top?" 

To Harden Boiled Frosting 

Try boiling the syrup longer before 
pouring it on the egg-white. When fin- 
ished and cooled somewhat, if the frosting 
shows no tendency to crust over, return 
it to the fire in a double boiler, the water 
in the lower part of which is boiling 
rapidly. Turn the frosting over and over 



QUERIES AND ANSWERS 



287 



until it is very hot throughout and thick- 
ened perceptably. The method of mak- 
ing boiled frosting, given on page 46, 
("Time-Saving Frosting"), of the June- 
July number, 1918, is well worth trying. 
Syrup of any variety or honey may re- 
place the sugar; in using syrup or honey 
use a scant two-thirds a cup and no water. 
Syrup or honey will not, however, give a 
frosting with a crusty exterior. After a 
frosting has been put on a cake we know of 
no way to stiffen it. 



Query No. 3993. — "In Bread Making, how 
may one know when Sponge is light enough for 
the addition of flour, etc.^"' 

To Determine Lightness of Sponge 

A sponge made with yeast is light 
enough to use when it is full of bubbles, 
or well puffed on the edge. Its ap- 
pearance varies with its density. A thin 
sponge, when light, shows bubbles; a 
sponge made with more flour will look 
puffy, and will be porous when cut down 
into. The bakers say a sponge is ready 
to use when it is "on the drop." That 
is, the batter has risen as high as it can 
(no more flpur to be acted on by the yeast 
plants), and is ready to drop or fall at the 
center, possibly has dropped a little. 



Query No. 3994. — "How may one deter- 
mine when Bread Dough, shaped into loaves, is 
ready to bake?" 

Bread Ready to Bake 

Bread dough is ready to bake when the 
dough in the pans has nearly doubled In 
bulk. 



Query No. 3995. — "How can one decide 
that a Loaf of Bread is Baked.?" 

When Bread is Baked 

A loaf of bread, made with one cup and 
a quarter of liquid, and set to bake in the 
ordinary brick-shaped pan, should re- 
main in the oven from fifty to sixty min- 
utes. It cannot be baked properly in less 
time. When baked. It will not stick to 



the pan, but shrink from it. It will feel 
light when taken up in the hand. If a 
loaf is shaped in two pieces, it may be 
broken apart and tested; if done, the 
crumb will fly back in place when pressed 
upon with the finger. 



Query No. 3996. — "How may a Loaf ot 
Bread be Baked to insure a thin crust.?" 

How to Secure Bread with Thin 
Crust 

Too much heat will occasion a thick 
crust. At the end of the first fifteen min- 
utes of cooking the loaf should be crusted 
over just enough to stop further rising. 
If It be browned over during this time, 
the crust will be thick. 



Query No. 3997. — "How high should a Loai 
of Bread rise after being set into the oven.?" 

Height of Bread When Baked 

At Its highest point a loaf of white 
(wheat) bread is often as high above the 
edge of the pan as the bottom is below it. 
Bread containing substitutes does not 
yield so puffy and high a loaf. The 
bubbles of the crumb of any variety of 
bread should be uniform In size and 
small. 



Query No. 3998. 
with Potatoes. " 



"Recipe for Bread made 



Potato Bread 



2 cups scalded milk 
(or pan water) 

1 tablespoonful syrup 

2 tablespoonfuls short- 

ening 
1 teaspoonful salt 



2 cups boiled and riced 

potatoes 
1 cake compressed 

yeast 
^ cup lukewarm water 

or milk 
about 6 cups wheat 

flour 



To the scalded milk add the syrup, 
shortening, salt and potato; when luke- 
warm add the yeast mixed with the half- 
cup of lukewarm liquid and stir in the 
flour; knead until smooth and elastic, 
cover and set aside to become light, — 
shape Into two loaves. When again light 
bake about one hour. 



288 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Query No. 3999. — "Recipe for Spinach 
served in a mold, and give dishes to be served 
with it." 



Mold of Vegetable Macedoine 
With Spinach (Cold) 



Spinach Timbales 



1 cup dry spinach 
puree 

1-3 cup grated bread 
crumbs 

2 whole eggs 
1 egg-yolk 



^ teaspoonful salt 

1 teaspoonful pepper 

2 tablespoonfuls 
melted butter 

I cup milk 



Drain the cooked spinach, then press 
through a sieve; add the butter, the eggs, 
beaten without separating the whites and 
yolks, and the other ingredients. Turn 
into buttered molds and bake as usual. 
Serve with cream, drawn butter, tomato 
or Hollandaise sauce. This will make 
eight timbales. Butter the timbale molds 
thoroughly; put little rounds of paper in 
the bottom of each mold and butter them; 
the paper will adhere to the mixture, and 
insure unmolding in good shape. Serve 
as an entree after any fish or meat dish at 
dinner, or with rolls as a luncheon dish. 

Timbales of Spinach, Filippini 

Remove coarse stalks and waste matter 
from two quarts of spinach; wash thor- 
oughly, changing the water many times. 
Add salt and let boil ten minutes. Boil- 
ing water may be added when the spinach 
is set to cook, or it may be cooked in the 
water that clings to it by turning the 
spinach over frequently; drain in a col- 
ander, pressing out all of the water. 
Chop very fine; add half a teaspoonful of 
salt, half a teaspoonful of sugar, half a 
teaspoonful of white pepper, one-fourth a 
teaspoonful of grated nutmeg and three 
yolks of eggs; set over the fire and stir 
constantly, while the mixture heats a 
little. Turn into buttered timbale molds 
(a tiny round of paper should be set in the 
bottom of the molds before they are 
buttered), set the molds in a pan of boil- 
ing water, and let cook about ten min- 
utes. Serve with rich brown sauce, to 
which a tablespoonful of liquid from a 
mushroom or truffle bottle has been 
added. 



1 cup liquid aspic 

2 hard-cooked eggs 

2 cups spinach puree 
^ cup Bechamel Sauce 
1 tablespoonful granu- 
lated gelatine 



J cup broth 
I teaspoonful salt 
I teaspoonful pepper 
1 teaspoonful lemon 

juice 
^ cup macedoine of 

vegetables 



Decorate a mold with the eggs. As- 
paragus tips, truffles, or figures cut from 
slices of carrot may be used with the eggs. 
The eggs may be cut in slices, or in halves, 
crosswise, and these halves cut in triangu- 
lar shapes. Before decorating the mold, 
chill part of the aspic in the bottom and 
use the rest to hold the decorations in 
place. Soften the gelatine in the broth, 
and dissolve in the sauce (made hot). 
Add the other ingredients, stir till begin- 
ning to set, then use to fill the mold. 
Serve with lettuce and French dressing. 
Less spinach puree may be used, and then 
a more delicate dishi is made. Rolls or 
sandwiches accompany the dish served at 
luncheon. 

Cold Mousse of Vegetable 
Macedoine with Spinach 

When the above mixture begins to set, 
fold in from half to a full cu*p of cream, 
beaten firm, and turn into a mold. 

Spinach Souffle 

Melt* three tablespoonfuls of butter in a 
small saucepan, and stir in three table- 
spoonfuls of flour, one-fourth a teaspoon- 
ful, each, of salt and pepper, and, gradu- 
ally, one cup of cream or rich milk. Add 
one cup of cooked spinach, pressed dry 
and passed through a sieve, and the yolks 
of three eggs, beaten until thick. Then 
fold in half a cup of grated cheese, Par- 
mesan preferred, and the whites of three 
eggs, beaten dry. Bake in a buttered 
dish, standing in hot water, about twenty- 
five minutes, or in individual dishes about 
twelve minutes. Half a cup of soft, 
sifted bread crumbs and a tablespoonful 
of grated cheese, stirred into one-fourth 
a cup, or less, of melted butter, may be 
spread upon the top before baking. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinnsiitiiiHnfiiiiiniii 



The Thanksgiving Dessert 

MAKE steamed oat flour pudding your dessert for the feast 
of the home-coming day and you will give the boys a 
dessert worthy of them and of you. Light and spicy, 
with a creamy sauce as delicious as nectar; yet the recipe 
strictly conforms to the Government's conservation plans. 
In its making Crisco has a most important part. The direc- 
tions are found nowhere else. Clip them for your Cook Book. 



(risco 



^ Crisco is a wholly vegetable product, the solid cream of sweet, edible 

oil. It is tasteless and odorless. It is so rich and delicate that you 
cannot go amiss in using it in all puddings and sauces in which you have been accustomed 
to use butter. Airtight, sanitary packages, one pound and upward, net weight. Costs about 
the same as fat sold in bulk, unprotected from impurities. Try it. 



Steamed Oat Flour Pudding 



A New Recipe Tested and Approved by Good Housekeeping Institute, Mildred Maddocks, Director. 



cupful Crisco 
■/2 cupful molasses 

1 egg, beaten light 
cupful milk 

2 cupfuls oat flour 



1 teaspoonful salt 

2 teaspoonfuls baking 

powder 
teaspoonful mixed spices 
1 cupful raisins 



4 tablespoonfuls cold water 
1 cupful boiling water 
1 teaspoonful vanilla or 
orange extract 



Use accurate level measurements 

Cream the Crisco, add the molasses, egg and milk. 
Sift together the dry ingredients and stir into the 
first mixture, add the raisins. Steam in a Criscoed 
mold two and one-half hours. Serve with Cream 
Pudding Sauce. A mixture of Crisco and flour 
gives a perfect medium for oiling molds or pans. 
It is a method that insures even distribution of oil 
and flour. 



Cream Pudding Sauce 

3 cupful Crisco 

cupful sugar 
2 teaspoonfuls com 
flour 

teaspoonful salt 

Use accurate level measurements 

Cream the Crisco and beat in the sugar; stir the flour 
and salt with the cold water to a smooth paste; pour 
on the boiling water, stirring constantly meanwhile; 
continue to stir until the sauce boils; let boil ten min- 
utes, keep hot till ready to serve, then with a wire 
whisk gradually beat into the Crisco and sugar; add 
the flavoring and serve. 



Send for War - Time Recipes 

No American woman should neglect to take advantage 
of this invitation to secure a copy of Janet McKenzie 
Hill's new and timely cook book. It tells how to use 
all war flours successfully. It contains over 300 new 
conservation recipes, all tested by the founder of the 
Boston Cooking School. Published to sell for 25 cents, 
we will send you a copy for a dime. Address Depart- 
ment A-11, The Procter 8e Gamble Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 




'>uy advertised Goods 



— Do not accept substitutes 
289 



290 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Serve with Veloute, Cream, or half-glaze 
sauce. Serve as an entree at dinner, or 
with rolls as main dish at luncheon. 



Query No. 4000. — "What sort of an Enter- 
tainment could our club give to raise money for 
the Red Cross.?" 

Entertainment to Raise Money 

Why not have a "Hoover Tea".? A 
subscriber wrote us not long ago 
of a "Hoover Tea," at which she as- 
sisted, all the products sold and the 
refreshments served were such as would 
be approved by the United States Food 
Administration. The hour was six o'clock 
P. M., so that the food served might 
answer for the evening meal. 

The "tea" was given by a club, — one 
of the churches had given a similar "tea" 
the preceding week. A small admission 
fee was charged. Tea, cocoa, sandwiches 
(Liberty breads were used with cheese, 
egg-salad, olives, pimientos and nuts for 
fillings), wheatless muffins and biscuit, 
with salads and wheatless cakes were 
served. Hulled corn, home-canned veget- 
ables and fruit, pickles, jams, jellies, corn- 
mush, ready for frying, and wheatless 
muffins, biscuits and cakes, were among 
the articles sold. Refreshments were 
served at any time after six o'clock; but 
after the rush was over, there was in- 
strumental and vocal music, and talks on 
conservation and patriotism. 

The tables, at which food was sold, 
were presided over by attendants in blue 
chambray apron-dresses made with white 
pique collar and deep cuffs. White lawn 
and pique caps, with Hoover emblems on 
cap and sleeve, finished a very effective 
costume. The young women waiting on 
the patrons of the tea-tables wore the 
same costume. 

These "teas" should prove quite suc- 
cessful. There is so much work to do for 
the Red Cross that women have no in- 
clination or time to entertain at home; 
a "tea" of this kind provides an oppor- 
tunity to meet socially at no great ex- 
pense, and at the same time take home 
some good well-prepared food. 



From the Front 

{Concluded from Page 261) 

pose, and make a stand without the works 
of the enemy, who are all now retreated 
within those works. We hope we shall 
Burgoyne them all soon. The French 
fleet sailed on Monday, in pursuit of some 
English ships; but we do not know what 
success they have met with. 

Oh, I wish you could peep into our 
den and see how we live, five or six of us 
in a tent, about eight-foot square; lying 
on the ground with a canteen for a pillow. 
Night before last our tents all blew down, 
and we were obliged to take shelter wher- 
ever we could find it. Life would be 
pretty tolerable if it were fair weather all 
the time; but these "ozonberg" houses are 
not so clever in rainy weather. Who 
wouldn't be a soldier! I should write 
more fully, but I am called away, so must 
conclude; praying that I may have 
health and fortitude to do proper through 
the campaign and when it is over — you 
know what! My dear girl I am, 

Your Friend Henry H. 

Who could, but for the date and the 
countries at war, and for some of the 
old-time, quaint expressions, tell above 
letter from many another letter from 
our sons and brothers in any of our many 
training camps today. 

The second letter, enclosed in one of 
the flimsy flag-decorated envelopes of the 
Rebellion, is from an older man and a 
more experienced soldier; one fully alive 
to risks, and to his own particular danger 
as color-guard. He also, however, takes 
his heavier hardships lightly and cheer- 
fully. 

Harewood Hospital, 
Sept. 19th, 1862. 
Dear Brother: 

My wound is nearly closed, but the 
bone has not yet joined, so it will be 
some time yet before I once more can 
handle a musket. My position as color- 
guard is a desirable one, when not fight- 
ing, no guard nor fatigue duty, and drill 
or not just as I please; nothing to dobut 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



Try Butter on 
Puffed Rice 



Many homes serve melted butter with 
Puffed Grains at breakfast. That in place 
of sugar and cream. 

Some add a little butter first, then milk or 
cream. No sugar. 

That's a good way to save sugar. And 
few confections are more enticing than these 
toasted bubbles buttered. 

So for hungry children after school. They 
eat them like peanuts or popcorn. There 
was never a tidbit so nut-like and flavory, 
yet so easy to digest. 

Remember that. In Puffed Grains, every 
food cell is exploded. Every atom feeds. 



Make Pears Taste 
Like Shortcake 

Mix Puffed Grains with your fruit. 
Puffed Rice or Corn Puffs is best suited 
for this purpose. 

These airy, flimsy morsels add to 
fruit what crust adds to a shortcake. 
But never was a crust so flaky, so flavory. 

Fruit without Puffed Grains is like pie without crust. Both stewed fruit 
and fresh fruit need them. Fruit goes farther this way. It tastes vastly bet- 
ter. And it doesn't require so much sugar. 

Scatter Puffed Grains, also, on every dish of ice cream, as a fragile nut-like 
garnish. 





Puffed 


Puffed 


Corn 


Rice 


Wheat 


Puffs 


All Bubble Grains 




Each 15c Except in Far West 



Buv advertised Goods — Dc not accept substitutes 
291 



292 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



to keep my equipments bright and follow 
the Colors when ordered out. But in 
action I am in front of our Flag, an ex- 
cellent place to get shot in. I did not 
leave my post at Bull Run till I was or- 
dered out to see the surgeon. 

Only once, on a night march from the 
Rappahannock, when it had been raining 
for two days, and we marched on stiff, 
lame legs in the pitch darkness along a 
Virginia road, with the clay above our 
ankles, slipping and sliding at every step, 
until two o'clock next morning, did I ever 
regret being a soldier in the Cause of my 
Country! Two-thirds of our regiment 
fell exhausted and lay till morning in the 
mud where they fell; it was three days 
before we had our regiment together 
again. 

With love to you and all my dear friends 
at home. 

Edwin. 

Though separated from the last letter 
by thirty-seven years, and nearly twelve 
thousand miles, the next letter tells of 
similar weather and marching condi- 
tions, and minds the enemy far less than 
the rain and the mud. 

El Depositas, 
Nov. 25, 1899. 
Dear Ed. 

Keep on addressing my letters to Man- 
ila, as. they will be forwarded. We are 
not very far from that city, but still only 
on the outposts. We marched from Mara- 
guina to this camp in a pouring rain, and 
with our packs on our backs. The road 
was knee-deep in mud and water; the 
mud got into our shoes and was ground 
into our socks. We had rain for several 
days, and were in leaky tents with no 
chance to dry any of our belongings. 

We sleep in all our clothes, and have a 
loaded gun ready to pick up for a night 
alarm. I think the worst of the war just 
here is over, but there will still be some 
fighting; one bother is that we can't go 
anywhere without rifle and gun. We go 
to swim in a creek, but some have to stay 
on guard over us for there may be bolo- 
men with knives among the bushes. I 



am sending some five-cent stamps marked 
"Philippines," for Arthur's collection. 

With love to you all, 

Roger H. 

Like the three preceding letters the 
last one, from "Somewhere in France," 
shows a brave disregard for hardship and 
danger, and a cheery making-the-best- 
of-it. 

The Trenches, 
Jan. 5. 
Dearest: 

You will have received mine of mid- 
December. I reached on the 18th 

and had a company handed over to me 
immediately. So you see I've once more 
arrived just in the very nick of time! 
The company and I celebrated quite a 
merry Christmas, and since then the 
trenches have been quieter. 

We are well cared for, are in good con- 
dition, and in excellent spirits, though we 
don't like to wait much longer for our 
great advance. All of us feel sure we are 
moving towards a satisfactory ending 
in spite of great hardships and dangers 
still ahead of us. My very warmest 
good wishes for your birthday and may 
we all celebrate the next one together in 
universal peace and harmony. 

With love and greetings, 

Ernest. 

To which last sentence a loud and fer- 
vent Amen! 



Sir Douglas Haig, the Scottish com- 
mander-in-chief of the British armies, tells 
this: "A Scot bored his English friends 
by boasting about Scotland. 'Why did 
you leave Scotland,' a Londoner asked, 
'since you liked the place so much.^' The 
Scot chuckled. 'It was like this,' he 
said. 'In Scotland everybody was as 
clever as myself, but here I'm gettin' along 
verra week' " 

— Pittsburgh Chronicle-Telegraph. 



■'Remember, my son," said his mother as she 
bade him good-by, "when you get to camp, try 
to be punctual in the mornings, so as not to keep 
breakfast waiting." — Lite. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




^^v- 'm^'^ymi'- ' a^ ' ^^^^" - " 'mw ^ 



t 



itt 



THE PERFECT BAKING POWDER 



/^, 





EVEN with our bumper wheat crop, the wise course is to continue the 
use of the substitute flours to a great extent. This will protect the 
nation against the possibility of a depletion next season, should crops fail. 

RYZON, the Perfect Baking Powder, has proved itself well adapted to the 
use of coarser flours, and the RyzON recipes are steadily increasing in 
popularity. 

The new edition of the RyzON Baking Book contains the Conservation 
Recipes prepared by the RyzoN Service Staff and approved by the United 
States Food Administration. 

RYZON is 40c per pound. The RyzON Baking Book (original price $1.00) 
will be sent upon receipt of 30c in stamps or coin except in Canada. 

A pound tin of RyzON and a copy of the RyzoN Baking Book will be 
sent free, postpaid, to any Domestic Science teacher who writefe us on school 
stationery, giving official position. 



GENERALCHEMICAL^a 

FOOD DEPARTMENT 
NEW YORK 



iBMBa 




Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
293 



New Books 



The Story of Cheese. By J. D. Frederik- 
son. Price, 25 cents. The Mo- 
hawk Book Company, Little Falls, 
N. Y. 

The following pages are from Chapter 
III of a book to be published shortly, en- 
titled THE STORY OF MILK, a manual 
for the domestic science student, and a 
guide for the housewife, and all who de- 
sire to know something about the handling 
and use of milk and its products. 

The present chapter is issued in advance 
to meet an urgent demand for a brief out- 
line of the art of cheese-making. 

Cheese may be classified into that made 
with rennet, and that made without. Of 
cheese made with rennet some is what is 
called hard, some soft. 

The English and American Cheddar — 
the common American cheese — the 
Dutch Gouda and Edam, the Swiss Gruy- 




Active Little Folks 

need the comfortable security given by 




OBLONG RUBBER BUTTON 

HOSE SUPPORTER 

Sold Everywhere 

Child's sample pair (give age) 20c. postpaid. 
For Infants — "The Baby Midget Velvet Grip 
Hose Supporter," Silk 15c; Lisle 10c. 

GEORGE FROST CO. - Makers - Boston 



ere, and the Italian Parmesan are all hard 
cheese made with rennet. As examples 
of the soft varieties may be mentioned the 
French Camembeft and Brie, Cream and 
Neufchatel Cheese. In a class by them- 
selves are such cheeses as the French 
Roquefort, the English Stilton, and the 
Italian Gorgonzola, their peculiar flavors 
being derived from molds implanted in 
the curd. 

When cheese is made without rennet, 
the milk is allowed to curdle by natural 
acidity, or it is in some other way made 
acid. Among the varieties made by this 
method the common Cottage Cheese is the 
best known. 

Evidently this booklet is the work of 
an expert — one who knows. 

The illustrations are excellent, ap- 
propriate and instructive. We are sur- 
prised to learn that more than thirty 
kinds of cheese are made in the state of 
Wisconsin. 

Cookery U^ider Rations. By M. M. 
Mitchell. Price, 75 cents net. Long- 
mans, Green & Co., New York. 
This is a booklet somewhat preten- 
tious in make-up and contents. It has 
65 pages and over 200 war-time recipes. 
The author is English, and cookery, from 
the English point of view, may be noted 
in the contents. The object in writing 
war-time recipes is to help those who find 
great difficulty in adapting themselves to 
the present condition • — also to enable 
the housewife to adapt many well-known 
recipes to present requirements. The 
work, therefore, may be regarded as a 
supplement to a good cook-book. 

Economy in Food. By Mabel Thacher 
Wellman. Cloth, Price, 30 cents 
net. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. 
Economy in buying, storing and serv- 
ing food are briefly treated. Economy 
also in planning meals is given more prom- 
inence. In short, no little information, 
and many useful suggestions, are packed 



294 



ADVERTISEMENTS 





his ham 

makes pot luck, luck indeed! 



"XATHEN your husband brings "Bill" home for dinner 
and tells him he will have to take "pot luck," it is 
luck indeed, if you happen to be serving a baked Swift's 
Premium Ham. 

How genial everybody feels when the steamingly fragrant ham is 
brought in! Ham, oven-browned and still faintly sputtering, with 
spicy cloves stuck thickly in the soft, juicy fat. 

In the slow, special Premium cure and in the fragrant smoke cf 
smoldering wood fires, this fine ham becomes mellower in flavor, 
more delicate, more piquant. 

Look for the Swift's Premium brand on the ham you buy — so that 
you may be sure of always getting this ham of finest flavor. Ask 
your dealer to show you the brand. 

Swift & Company, U. S. A. 



Swift's Premium Ham 




Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
295 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



cJ help for 
economical 
housewives 

WITH the rich, yet deli- 
cate flavor of Burnett's 
Vanilla added, many a simple 
dessert becomes delicious. 
Thrift: brings satisfaction in- 
stead of deprivation when you 
use Burnett's. Try it and your 
family will thank you. 



The Heart 

oi the 
kDessert 



JOSEPH BURNETT CO. 

Dept. D 
36 India Street, Boston, Mass. 



Burnett's 

Vanilla 



\^ 



Send 5 c for Book of 
War-time recipes, 
using very little flour 
or supar. 




BREAD BOARD 

Eleven-inch turned maple bread board. The edge of this 
board is undercut like a dinner plate making a finished and 
attractive article. Sent, prepaid, to any oresent subscriber 
for securing and sending us one (1) new yearly subscrip- 
tion for American Cookery. Cash price, 75 cents. 

The Boston Cooking-School Magazine Co. 

Boston, Mass. 



WHEATLESS- MEATLESS MEALS 

84 Menus, 124 Recipes, directions for preparing each meal, food 
values, substitutes, timely suggestions, etc. 10c or FREE for 
four names of friend; interested in Domestic Science. 
Am. School Home Economics, 503 W. 69th St., Chicago, III. 



into these thirty-six pages. "The war is 
making us realize, as never before, how 
wasteful we have been in our use of food 
materials. Here are some of the points 
we have found need of emphasizing." 
War Bread. By Alonzo E. Taylor. 
Price, 60 cents. The AlacMillan 
Company, New York. 

Just what the wheat problem is, and its 
importance in the winning of the war, is 
the subject of this little book. Dr. Tay- 
lor looks at the matter more particularly 
from the American point of view, dealing 
with the necessity of conserving wheat in 
this country, though the way in which the 
crisis touches our allies, and the part that 
wheat conserv^ation plays in the great 
world program are also dwelt upon. 

It is plainly the duty of every American 
to be informed of this vital issue; here 
an unquestioned authority puts into vig- 
orous, plain form, facts which should be 
commonly understood. 

This is not a book of recipes, but a plain 
statement of important facts. The war 
problem of bread is so entangled in factors 
of industry and trade, that it demands 
and deserves careful consideration. It 
has now become the concern of every 
town, state and nation; it is the great 
international problem. 



Wheat and Rye Gluten 

Bread owes its porosity to the presence 
of gluten, but it is the quality, rather 
than the quantity of gluten, that counts, 
says the American Miller. Rye bread, 
for instance, has a fatty crumb, and the 
holes caused by carbonic acid gas are 
small, while the partitions dividing them 
are thick. The bread is somewhat like 
the dough from which it is made. . A 
slice of rye bread placed in contact with 
water will not sw^ell for some time, while 
a slice of wheat bread will commence to 
swell immediately. It is apparent, there- 
fore, that there is a great difference in the 
gluten of rye and wheat. The gluten of 
the latter, obtained by washing out the 
flour under a stream of water, is yellow 
and elastic. Rye gluten, obtained by 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
296 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



Salt Mackerel 



Direct from the Fishing 
Boats to You 




Your pail is ready — fat, meaty, juicy mackerel 
— send no money — try the fish first. 

{:^ayyiJ{ S. ^a/yU> President 



It's thirty-four years, come next September, since I began 
supplying the choicest of Gloucester's famous mackerel direct 
to the homes of families throughout the country. 

Our Own Home Kind 

People here in Gloucester, the leading fish port of America, 
laughed at me when I began to sell mackerel by mail. They 
didn't realize how hard it is for other people to get good fish. 
But I did. So I decided to make it easy for everybody, every- 
where, to have full-flavored, wholesome fish, 
the kind we pick for our own eating here at 
Gloucester. 85,000 families are buying from 
us today. 



Fishmen for Generations 

You see, I know fish. My folks 'way back, 
have always been fishmen. They helped 
found Gloucester in 1623. My boyhood days 
were spent aboard fishing boats. Catching 
fish, knowing the choicest and picking them 
out, cleaning and curing them the right way, 
has been my life's job. 

Thirty Years* Development 

Today our business is housed in a modern, 
four-story, concrete building, with 20,000 square feet of floor 
space; fitted with the most improved and sanitary equip- 
ment for cleaning and packing fish. Standing at the water's 
edge, the fishermen's catches are brought right into the build- 
ing. They go to your table with "the tang of the sea" in 
them. 



Such a Good Breakfast 



A fat, tender, juicy Davis' 
Mackerel broiled to a siz- 
zling brown, some butter 
a sprinkling of pepper, a 
touch of lemon, if you wish 
— how good it smells, how 
tempting it looks, how it 
tickles the palate, and, oh, 
how it satisfies! — the favor- 
ite breakfast dish of thou- 
sands. 




Fall Mackerel, Fat and Tender 

Most of the fish your dealer can buy are Spring fish, thin, 
dry, and tasteless. What I've selected for you are Fall fish, 
juicy and fat with the true salty-sea mackerel flavor. We clean 
and wash them before weighing. You pay only for net weight. 
No heads and no tails. Just the white, thick, meaty portions 
— the parts that make the most delicious meal imaginable. 
You probably have never tasted salt mackerel as good as mine. 

Send No Cash-Try the Mackerel First 

I want you to know before you pay that my 
fish will please you. If there is any possibility 
of a risk, I want it to be at my expense. Just 
mail the coupon today, and I'll ship at once 
a pail of my mackerel containing 10 fish, each 
fish sufficient for 3 or 4 people, all charges pre- 
paid, so that your family can have a real 
Gloucester treat Sunday morning. 

Then — if my mackerel are not better than 
any you have ever tasted, send back the rest 
at my expense. 

If you are pleased with them — and I'm 
sure you will be — send me $4.90, and at the 
same time ask for "Descriptive List of Davis' 
Fish," sold only direct, never to dealers. Re- 
member: Meat, flour, potatoes, everything, has gone 'way 
up in price. In comparison, Davis' mackerel is low. An eco- 
nomical food — so good to eat, so nutritious! The "Sea Food 
Cook Book" that goes with the fish will tell you just how to 
prepare them. 
Mail the coupon now with your busi- 
ness card, letterhead or reference. 

Frank E. Davis Co. 

71 Central Wharf, Gloucester, Mass. 

The Frank E. Davis Company is prepar- ,.-■'' — , _, 

ed to supply, at interesting prices, its ,.■■'' _. .'^5*^ ^» 

product to boarding schools, hotels, ..•■'' uayis \^o,y 

institutions, clubs and hospi- ,.--''' 71 Central Wharf, 

teds. Write for special ,,--■'' Gloucester, Mass. 

list. _,.-••' Without obligation please send 

.''''^ -^hJ^^ charges prepaid, a pail of 
■'« \. 7t-^- Mack erel-to contain 10 fish, each 
fish sufficient for 3 or 4 people. I agree to 



Name. 
Street 



remit $4.90 in ten days or return the fish. 



City. 



State 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
297 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Jones, McDuffee & Stratton Co. 

Table Crockery, 
China and Glass 

For Thanksgiving 




DINNER SETS or CHINA DINNER WARE 

of all grades taken from our large assortment 
of Stock patterns enable the purchaser to select 
just the articles desired without being obliged 
to purchase the articles not required at the 
time, with the added advantage of being able 
to obtain matchings or additional pieces of 
the same pattern later on. 

Pyrex Cooking Glassware 

Clean, transparent Glass to bake in ! 
Ware that oven heat cannot break ! 



Casseroles 
Bread Pans 



Ramekins 



Pie Plates 
Bakers, etc. 



Pyrex Gift Set — consisting of eleven items for $6.00, 
packed in a neat box, is especially attractive. 




TURKEY PLATTERS 

Large and extraordinarily large platters, on which 
to serve the national bird or joint of beef; also plates 
with same border as platter and game centers. 

Jones, McDuffee & Stratton Co. 

CROCKERY, CHINA and GLASS 
33 Franklin Street - - Boston 

Xear Washington and Summer Streets 



means of a sieve and water, is dark and 
different in structure from wheat gluten. 
Instead of being elastic, like wheat gluten, 
it breaks when one attempts to draw it 
out. 

It is the absence or low percentage of 
gliadin and glutenin in the gluten of rye 
flour that causes the difference in the 
breadmaking qualities of rye and wheat 
flour. In the gluten of wheat flour there 
is frequently present from 60 to 82 per 
cent of gliadin, while in rye flour the 
percentage runs from 5 to 8 per cent. 
The gliadin in wheat gluten keeps the 
particles together, while its absence, or 
small percentage, in rye gluten causes the 
rye flour to slip from the hands when 
washed under a stream of water. Wheat 
flour gives the best results when the ration 
of gliadin to glutenin is 3 to 1. Such a 
ratio is never found in rye flour, or, rather, 
an amount of glutenin to make the hand- 
ling of the dough satisfactory is never 
found in rye flour. 

Rulings for Purchase of Flour 
for 1919 

The list of authorized flour substi- 
tutes has been reduced to cornmeal, corn 
flour, barley flour, pure rye flour and, 
at the customer's option, rice flour, potato 
floui*, buckwheat flour and a few other 
flours. No other cereals than the above 
are now allowed to be sold as substitutes. 
Hominy, corn grits, cornstarch, rolled 
oats, oatmeal and rice have been stricken 
from the list. 

The proportion of substitutes required 
to be sold has been changed from "50-50" 
to ''80-20," except in the case of rye 
flour, of which two pounds must be sold 
to three pounds of straight wheat flour. 
That is, the retailer must now sell to the 
consumer at least one pound of cornmeal, 
corn flour, barley flour, or of the other 
permitted substitutes, with each three 
pounds of straight wheat flour sold; or 
two pounds of pure rye flour with each 
three pounds of wheat flour sold. 

The same rules apply to sales to public 
eating houses, clubs and boarding houses, 
as to sales to individual consumers. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
298 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Simmer for 10 minutes -4 can toma- 
toes, spray parsley, 3 cloves, 6 pep- 
percorns and tablespoon chopped 
onion; rub through fine sieve, bring to 
a boil and add 4 heaping tablespoons 
Minute Tapioca Suostitute ; cook 15 
minutes, remove to back of stove, 
season v?ith salt and paprica, and 
add tablespoon tarragon vinegar;pour 
into vpet mould. Turn out, when set, 
onto crisp lettuce leaves and serve 
with flaked lobsteror crab meat mixed 
with French dressing. Garnish with 
capers. 





For Our Army and Our Allies 

Ships were needed for our Army and our Allies, 
To release those ships which had sailed half around 
the world to bring us tapioca for so many years, it 
was necessary to produce Minute Tapioca Substitute. 

This substitute is a careful blending of native flours 
w^ith tapioca to give the same nutrition and flavor 
as Minute Tapioca. It may be used with your usual 
Minute Tapioca receipts. War-time dishes, which 
will become all-time favorites, are easily and quickly 
prepared with this delicious food. 

Though the contents and label of the familiar red 
and blue package have been slightly changed, the 
taste and nutritive value are exactly the same. 

Send for our Conservation Cook Book 
which is mailed free upon request, 

MINUTE TAPIOCA CO. 311 N. Main St., Orange, Mass. 



Buy adveriiseJ GojJ- 



- Do .1 't accept s. 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




RECIPES 



that conserve 
wheat, sugar and 
fats, yet provide 
tempting food and 
generous nourish- 
ment. 



. FREE ON REQUEST 

THE FLEISCHMANN CO., 

701 Washington Street, Nev*^ York City 



Housekeeper's size, 1 |oz., .30 prepaid 
Caterer's size, 16oz-, $1.00 
(With <^ull directions.) 



Cremo-Vesco Company 

631 EAST 23rd ST.. BROOKLYN, N. Y. 




WAGNEfl MANUFACTUniHG Co. 
SIDNEY, OHIO. 



Cream Whipping Made 
Easy and Inexpensive 

^^ REMO- y ESCO 

Whips Thin Cream 

or Half Heavy Cream and Milk 

or Top of the Milk Bottle 

It whips up as easily as heavy cream 

and retains its stiffness 

Every caterer and housekeeper 

wants CREMO VESCO. 

Send for a bottle today. 



THE SILVER LINING 
Fair Exchange 

A man who had purchased some cur- 
rant buns at a bakery was distressed on 
starting to eat one to find it contained a 
fly. Returning to the bakery, he made 
an indignant complaint, demanding an- 
other bun in place of the inhabited one. 

"I'm sorry, sir," said the saleswoman, 
"I can't give you another bun, but if you 
will bring back the fly I will exchange it 
for a currant." 

— Pittsburgh Chronicle-Telegraph, 



"Say, wait a minute! I'm beginning 
to feel terribly groggy," said the aviator's 
guest in the air. "Oh, that's all right, 
my boy! Just three more loops, a tail- 
spin, and a spiral swoop and we're all 
through ! " — La BaionneUe. 



^A fleet of fishing-boats was coming into 
harbor, and with them a yacht named 
Psyche. An old salt stood on the wharf. 
As he saw Miss Psyche he removed his 
pipe and muttered, "Wall, ef that ain't 
the most outlandish way to spell feesh I 
ever seen!" 



Shortly after the reconstruction period 
began, an old Southern planter met one of 
his negroes whom he had not seen since 
the latter's liberation. "Well, well," said 
the planter; "what are you doing now, 
Uncle Josh.^" "I'se a-preachin' ob de 
Gospel." "What! You preaching.?" 
"Yassay, marster, I'se a-preachin'." 
"Well, well! do you use notes.?" "Nossuh. 
At de fust I use notes, but now I de- 
mands de cash.*' 



Mrs. Smith: "Really, Mr. Giles, your 
prices are getting exorbitant." 

Farmer Giles: "Well, mum, it's this 
way: When a chap 'as to know the botan- 
ical name of wat 'e grows, an' the zoolo- 
gical name of the hinsect wot eats it, an' 
the chemical name of wat kills the hin- 
sect, some one's got to pay for it!" 

— Passing Show, 



Buy advertised Goods 



— Do not accept substitutes 
300 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



C^titfttf^l/w 



»t»><^/j;/W»^^i^N^^»i<W(/ W »^»^p<»^ii*i*^^W<f^ 



Food Flavoring 



is an art that all housekeepers should study. Soups, Stews, 
Pot Roasts properly spiced with SLADE'S Spices quickly 
become more popular than the more expensive steaks, chops 
and roasts, and are more nourishing. 

Apple Pie when flavored with 
SLADE'S Cinnamon and SLADE'S 
extract of Lemon is delicious. 

Squash Pie properly spiced with 
SLADE'S Ginger and Cinnamon 
makes one's mouth water in joyous 
anticipation. 

Ask Grocers for SLADE'S and .et the Best and^St,^on.est Sp^^^^^ COOK 

D. & L. SLADE CO.. BOSTON, MASS., U. S. A. 





k 



HESm 




(Made in a jiffy) 

Serve Vanilla Nesnah with cereal. It may be made in the cereal saucers the 
night before, or about a half hour before breakfast; place cereal, cooked or un- 
cooked, on top and await the verdict of the family. Moreover, no sugar is 
needed when Nesnah is eaten with cereal. 

Then, too, for a luncheon dish or as a dessert, there's nothing more nourish- 
ing or more easily made than Nesnah. 

One ten-cent package makes a quart. 

RASPBERRY NESNAH 
1 qt. milk One 10c pkg. Raspberry Nesnah 

Heat milk lukewarm, remove from stove, add Nesnah, stirring one-half minute. 
into individual cups and allow it to set. Place in refrigerator — serve well chilled. 



Pour 



Six Pure Natural Flavors 

ORANGE 
LEMON 

The Junket Folks will send you a free sample and a booklet of 
recipes on request. 



VANILLA 
ALMOND 



RASPBERRY 
CHOCOLATE 



CHR. HANSEN'S LABORATORY, Inc, 

THE JUNKET FOLKS, 
Box 2570 - Little Falls, N. Y. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
301 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Are You Nervous? 

Then Stop Drinking Coffee! 



r— - 



nffll 



L healths' 

BlenO 

A COFFEE SUBSTlTUte 







coffee"'^ 
(? 
J, Manufactured BY -, 

If 'NICHOLS Coffee OompaHY .: 

Ii» ^ CHICAGO, U.S.A. ^ ^i 




DRINK HEALTH BLEND 
It's Different 

Not Coffee— But Tastes Like It 

If you have a case of "nerves" or are run 
down, if you are Sleepless, have that Tired 
Feeling, Brain Fag, Drowsiness. Coffee 
Kills Nerve Force. Health Blend is a Re- 
freshing, Palatable, Invigorating drink. A 
Combination of Cereals with fine Coffee 
Flavor. Try it. You will always drink it. 
It is cheaper than any other substitute. 
Send lo Cents for sample or 50 Cents 
For one Pound to the Manufacturer, 
NICHOLS COFFEE COMPANY 
15 E. 23rd St. Chicago. U. S. A. 

ENLIST FOR WAR SERVICE 

WITH its twenty-three million homes, 
housekeeping is our country's big- 
gest industry. To win the War, economy 
and efficiency in the home is an imperative 
necessity. 

Your Country Is Calling You . 
To save food, save fuel and save all materials 

used in the home; 
To organize your work so that you will have 

more time and strength for War Relief 

Work; 
To make your home a safer, more healthful 

place to live in, to bring up children in; 
To make your home more worth fighting 

for, more worth this awful sacrifice. 

To meet this call fully — ■ become a 
trained expert in your home management 
(or for outside service). Enlist NOW for 
home-service. Send for the "Profession 
of Home Making" to American School of 
Home Economics, 503 W. 69th St., 
Chicago. 



Better Than No War at All 

Major Lanchlan Maclean Watts, in 
his book, "The Heart of a Soldier," tells 
the following story: "A friend of mine, 
going one night along the trenches, al- 
most thigh-deep in mud, came upon a 
grizzled Irishman, O'Hara, cowering in 
the rain. 'Isn't this a damnable war, 
O'Hara .f^' said he. 'Thrue, for you, sir,' 
was the unexpected reply, *but, sure, 
isn't it better than having no war at all t ' " 



Waiter: "All right, sir,''all right. You'll 
get served in time." 

Diner: "I daresay I shall; but I'm 
anxious to get through this meal before 
the prices rise again!" — ^Passing Show. 



For four consecutive nights the hotel 
man had watched his fair, timid quest fill 
her pitcher at the water-cooler. "Ma- 
dame," he said on the fifth night, "if you 
would ring, this would be done for you." 
"But where is my bell.^" asked the lady. 
"The bell is beside your bed," replied the 
proprietor. "That the bell!" she ex- 
claimed. "Why, the boy told me that 
was the fire alarm, and that I was not to 
touch it on any account!" 



"What are they moving the church 
for.^" "Well, stranger, I'm mayor of 
these diggin's, an' I'm fer law enforce- 
ment. We've got an ordinance what 
says no saloon shall be nearer than three 
hundredjfeet from a church. I give 'em 
three days to move the^church." — Grit. 



"You see, the trouble about Bill is that 
'e's alius afore the time." "Wot's 'e 
done.^" "Well, 'e went away to look for 
work, an' 'e found there's a strike on. 
So 'e joins the strikers afore 'e 's got the 
job." — Ideas. 



"What will you have, sir.^" "Oh, 
bring me an assortment of 800 calories of 
proteins, fats, and carbohydrates." And 
the ready waiter muttered, "Meta- 
bolism." 



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302 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




There's a Tycos or Tay/orThermovneter for Every Purpose 



ECONOMICAL WAR TIME COOK BOOK 

By Janet McKenzie Hill 

is a book of 64 large pages full of timely information and recipes : Seven Commandments for 
War Time Conservation; Substitutes for Wheat and Howr to Use Them; Victory Bread ; 
Wheatless Quick Breads; Meat Substitutes ; Dessert Dishes, Sugarless and Near Sugar- 
less; Canning, Cold Pack and Open Kettle; etc., etc. 

Undoubtedly the best and most helpful War Cookery Book yet published. What every 
housekeeper needs. This book will bring her cooking right up to the times. 

We have published this book that clubs and patriotic societies might have a practical and 
concise treatise on the new conservation war cookery for sale or distribution among their members. 
Prices, prepaid — 10 copies $2.25 50 copies $9.25 
20 ** 4.25 75 ** 13.50 
30 *' 6.00 100 ** 16.00 
Send 25 cents for a sample copy. 
BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL MAGAZINE CO. - - BOSTON, MASS. 








Practical Binders for American Cookery 

We have had made a number of binders in green, red and ecru buckram, 
appropriately lettered. They are neat, attractive and practical. Each holds 
conveniently from one to ten copies (a full year) of the magazine. 

As there is published in the last number (May) of each volume a com- 
plete index, by preserving the magazines in a binder one will have at the 
end of the year a complete book on cooking and household science always 
handy for reference. 

Sent postpaid .^or one (1) new subscription to American Cookery. Cask Price 50c 

The Boston Cooking School Magazine Co. STi?." 







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pleased mth a year's subscription to AMERICAN COOKERY than with any other 
thing of equal cost you could send them? 

Following closely the recommendations of The Food Administration, and telling 
in a simple, practical and helpful way, just how to 
carry out The Government's wishes as to food con- 
servation, this magazine will be of practical use to 
the recipient 365 days in the year, and a constant 
and pleasant reminder of the donor. 

To make this gift more complete, we will send 
the December number so as to be received the day 
before Christmas, together vnth a card reading as 'per cut herewith. 

This card is printed in two colors on heavy stock and makes a handsome souvenir. 

As a token of our appreciation, we will mail to each one sending a gift subscrip- 
tion, a complimentary copy of ^'Economical War Time Cook Book.'* That is, 
your friend will receive American Cookery for a year, and you will receive the War 
Time Cook Book, both for $1.50. 

"Economical War Time Cook Book," by Janet McKenzie Hill, is a book of 64 
large pages full of timely information and recipes: Seven Commandments for 
War Time Conservation; Substitutes for Wheat and How to Use Them; 
Victory Bread; Wheatless Quick Breads ; Meat Substitutes; Dessert Dishes, 
Sugarless and Near Sugarless; Canning, Cold Pack and Open Kettle; etc., 
etc. Price 25 cents. 

THE BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL MAGAZINE CO., BOSTON, MASS. 



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AMERICAN COOKERY 



Experience has shown that the most satisfactory way 

to enlarge the subscription list of American Cookery is through its present subscri- 
bers, who personally can vouch for the value of the publication. To make it an 
object for subscribers to secure new subscribers, we offer the following premiums: 

dONDITIONS • Premiums are not given with a subscription or for a renewal, but only 
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stated below the description of each premium. 

Transportation is or is not paid as stated. 



INDIVIDUAL INITIAL JELLY MOULDS 

Serve Eggs, Fish and Meats in Aspic; 

Coffee and Fruit Jelly; Pudding and other 

desserts with your initial letter raised on 

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take a needle and run it around inside of 

mould, then immerse in warm water; jelly 

will then come out in perfect condition. 

Be the first in your town to have these. 

^, . , ,, . „ , J i. ,, ,j You cannot purchase them at the stores. 

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Bet of six (6), any initial, sent postpaid for (1) new subscription. Cash Price 75 cents. 





This shows mould 
(upside down) 



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As illustrated, are used to make dainty, flaky 
pates or timbales; delicate pastry cups for serv- 
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salads, shell fish, ices, etc.^ Each set comes 
securely packed in an attractive box with recipes 
and full directions^ for use. Sent, postpaid, for 
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^e-st quality blued steel. 6 Inches wide by 13 
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SEAMLESS VIENNA BREAD PAN 




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new subscription. Cash price, 75 cents for two 

pans. ' 




HEAVY TIN BORDER MOULD 

Imported, Round, 6 inch 

Sent, prepaid, for one (1) new subscription. 
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:: Boston, Mass. 



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Every one who has received one of 

these Chafing Dishes has been 

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and surprised how easily the necessary sub- 
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FOR BROWNIES OR 
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BROWNIES 

I cup of Butter 1 Egg, well beaten 

J cup of Sugar 1 cup of Flour 

J cup of Molasses 1 cup of Nuts, Pecan or 

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Mix in the usual manner, but without separating 
the egg. Bake in small, fancy shaped tins. Press 
half a nut meat into the top of each cake. 



A SET OF 24 TINS 

Sent, postpaid, for one (1) new subscription. 
C:ish Price, 75 cents. 

FRENCH 
BUTTER CURLER 

Unique and Convenient 

The easiest way to serve butter. 
Full directions with each curler. 

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scription. Cash Price, 75 cents. 




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for Pastry Boards and Rolling Pin; chemically 
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materials being cut. 

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Cash Price 75 cents. 



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Conservation Menus for Christmas 

Dinners 



I 

White Grape, Grape Fruit-and-Canned Peach Cockta 

Roast Chickens, Giblet Sauce 

Savory Rice Croquettes 

Mashed Potato 

Boiled Onions 

Brussels Sprouts 

Celery 

Sweet Pickle Jelly 

Mince Pie 

Raisins, Nuts 

Half Cups Coffee 

II 

Halves of Grape Fruit 

Roast Loin of Venison 

Currant Jelly 

Potatoes Cooked in Pan with Meat 

Squash 

Lettuce, Celery and Cress, French Dressing 

Pineapple-and-Pear Sherbet 

(grated pineapple, pear sifted 

conservation syrup) 

Poinsettia Crisps 

III 

Orange-and-Banana Cocktail 

Domestic Ducks, Roasted 

Quince-Apple-Cranberry Jelly 

Plain Rice Croquettes 

Mashed Potatoes 

Celery 

Steamed Carrot Pudding 

Native Nuts, Raisins 

IV 

Sardine, Egg-and-Beet Canapes 

Domestic Gocse, Roasted, Potato-and-Onion Dressing 

Apple Sauce 

(maple syrup) 

Sweet Potatoes, Southern Style 

Cauliflower and Turnips, Creamed 

Celery 

Frozen Custard 

Maple Bonbons 

Half Cups Coffee 



321 



American Cookery 

VOL. XXIII DECEMBER, 1918 

Candlelight, a War Conservation 

By Mary H. Northend 



No. 5 



THE solving of the lighting problem 
through the use of candles, to con- 
serve both gas and electricity, has 
proved one of the most satisfactory meth- 
ods among the many that we are con- 
stantly called upon to meet; for today 
it holds a prominent place in our rooms, 
as it is considered as much a part of the 
decorative scheme as the choice of wall 
papers and draperies. We had realized 
its value before government's decree, and 
had introduced the use of candlelight at 
our dinner-table, as the softening rays 
that radiated from them were impressive. 
In addition to the single candle or groups 
of candles placed at either end of the 
table, the branch candlestick came into 
vogue as a center piece. 

The prevailing tendency in modern 
lighting is to discard over-head illu- 
mination, depending entirely upon the 
table and wall features; but to obtain 
more brilliant effects, a chandelier, from 
a decorative point of view, has no equal. 
This is especially true concerning antiques 
of Italian workmanship, designed with 
garlands of rock crystal cut in rosettes, 
and introducing, here and there, gems 
whose bright colors sparkle in the sun- 
light, sending shafts of rainbow hues 
dancing across the walls and furnishings. 

The ban on importation has caused 
many a designer to reproduce genuine 
antiques; but often he varies their decora- 
tion. The use of candles dates back to 
the days of ancient Rome; during the 
Elizabethan period they were in general 
use, and many of the candlesticks were 
made of hammered gold. Fortunate, in- 
deed, is he who has, through inheritance, 
become the possessor of an old pair of 

323 



lustres, which are bringing the highest 
market prices, both on account of their 
beauty and their rareness. 

The choice of material in candlesticks 
is unlimited, as they are found in metal, 
wood, glass, pewter, or pottery, ranging 
in design from those suitable for the draw- 
ing room, to the charming little ones 
adaptable for nursery use. Then, too, 
the color must play an important part, 
as it is essential that they harmonize with 
the interior decorations. Let us choose 
the brass candlesticks, which were in evi- 




A GIRANDOLE ABOUT A CENTURY OLD 



324 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



dence in our grandmother's day; heir- 
looms of their Enghsh ancestors, they are 
suitable for any room, but are much more 
desirable in the library, as they match 
the brass of the fender and fire-set, and 
lighten the dark tones of the paneled 
walls. While the majority of brass 
candlesticks are Colonial in design, there 
are many interesting specimens shown 
of the same material, reproductions of 
Polish workmanship, differing in type 
from the English ones in that they are 
much more ornamental and taller. 

Lustre candlesticks are very fashiona- 
ble today, coming in many colors; but 
the more recent ones are mulberry, blue 
and yellow glass, the latter being a re- 
production in coloring of the old sand- 
wich glass so rarely found. The shape, 
however, differs, for the square stems have 
been eliminated and replaced by slender 
supports in harmony with the period. 
This type is used extensively on dinner- 
tables, as against the polished surface, 
they seemingly stand out like bits of 
brilliant jewelry. 



On the mantle in great grandmother's 
kitchen stood rows of pewter, prominent 
among which were odd candlesticks. It 
was the delight of the children to be al- 
lowed to carry them to their chambers, 
and now, women grown, they are still 
hunting for similar pieces. In the re- 
productions they miss the mellow touches 
and the sheen of the antiques, but find 
the new fashions artistic in design, il- 
lustrating odd features, such as the tulip 
with the bloom of the flower forming the 
cup. Italy gives to us exquisite bits of 
soft, gray pewter, known as Majolica, or 
Tirralia, livened with red decorations, 
tall and slender, balanced with handles 
on either side, a charming foil for the 
yellow or cream pewter with twisted 
stand, both of which surpass the old 
designs in their uniqueness. 

One is almost bewildered by the many 
types to select from, because every metal 
has been utilized for this purpose, even 
copper and tin have been decorated with 
dashing bits of color that lend a distinc- 
tive individualitv. 




ADAMS CANDLESTICK. WEDGEWOOD STAXD WITH CAMEO MINIATURE 



CANDLELIGHT 



325 



How charming are the painted tin 
candlesticks, ranging from ivory white 
to odd shades of rose, blue, pink, and 
lavender, relieved by gayly-painted deco- 
rations, and their backs serving as a re- 
flector, protecting the light from drafts, 
— particularly convenient for bedrooms, 
where, if one wishes to relieve the dark- 
ness of night, he can simply reverse it, 
thus eliminating the steady flow that 
would otherwise cause wakefulness. Di- 
minutive designs of this same idea are 
shown in the children's lights, alluring 
the little ones through the transforma- 
tion of the plain background into studies 
of nursery rhymes. Particularly novel 
is the smiling Kewpie, who sportively 
holds his candle aloft. These delight the 
little ones to such an extent that they for- 
get their great dislike for the Sandman's 
nightly visit. 

Arts-and-crafts shops have modeled 
'wonderful realistic emblems, some repre- 
senting the symbolic, seven-branch, 
Greek candlestick, and these appear 
either glazed or unglazed, and are often 
enlivened with raised figures, painted 
scenery, oriental designs, and hunting 
scenes, the latter being admissible for a 
man's room. 

The introduction of a lacquer candle- 
stick often lightens an otherwise somber 
room, as they make charming mantle 
decorations, and are admissible for the 
center-table, more particularly in living 
rooms, for many of them are so brilliant 
in tone that they create an essential color 
value. For the large hall or music room, 
torcheres are coming into vogue, but they 
are in reality only a development of the 
oldtime candlestands, adapted to modern- 
day use. Altar candles, on account of 
their size, are practical, as they shed a 
bright light, and why not embellish their 
bronze and wrought-iron stands with 
hand paintings. The wooden ones, deco- 
rative in themselves, do not need further 
adornment. 

Decorative iron has recently increased 
in popularity, although it has always 
maintained a distinctive place in fashion. 




A PEWTER CANDLESTICK, A RARE SPECIMEN 

for the reason that it retains its original 
form much longer than any other ma- 
terial. Twentieth century bits can be 
hammered out by an expert ironmaker, 
often equaling the delicacy and grace of 
an antique. They show a distinctive 




CANDLE OF BAYBERRY FORMED TO LOOK LIKE 
A LOG, SET IN A BRASS CANDLEHOLDER 



326 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



quality, their beauty lying in the in- 
dividual hammer blows, by which the 
work is formulated, as it is left in the 
rough, for when smooth it loses its charm. 
Since our entrance into the war it has 
been almost impossible to ship antiques 
to this country, which accounts for its 
extreme rarity; the best pieces, there- 
fore, bring exorbitant prices. In its 
arrangement not every room is adapted 
for its use, as it is entirely out of sym- 



pathy with Sheraton or Adams furniture. 
There is a great danger, through ignor- 
ance, of promiscuous use and wrong 
placement, therefore great thought 
should be given to proper antiques, won- 
derful bits that have found their way into 
our country; but the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth Italian Renaissance types are the 
most artistic, with baluster stems formed 
by four-pointed leaves; others rest on 
tripods of wrought-iron filigree work. 




A SHELF OF CANDLESTICKS 



The Christmas Spirit 



It is not given me to spread the feast 

Of viands rare and sumptuously fine — 
Rich fruits, musk-hearted, from the ancient East, 

And crystal flagons, mellow-dark with wine; 
Nor mine, from widely-open hand, to fling 

The overflowings of a lavish store, 
In lightly-given Yuletide offering, 

To poor and needy ones who pass my door. 

For Want, in dull and meager garb arrayed, 

Hath ofttimes hailed me, as a comrade may, 
And, entering my cottage, unafraid, 

Hath sat beside my hearth on many a day. 
And from her I have gleaned a truth I hold — 

That scores of those unfavored ones we see 
Are yearning, not for ready gift of gold, 

But for companionship and sympathy. 



That generously, largely, I may share 

With some heart-hungry pilgrim of the earth 
The wholesome bounty of my simple fare, 

The tonic-draft of healthful Christmas mirth. 
And, in the gem-entangled glory spun 

By flaming cedar bough and blazing cone. 
An hour of happiness may give to one 

Who hath no ingle-corner of his own. 

And this I pray: Oh. let me never know 

The greed of hoarding for a selfish end 
The homely blessings that I may bestow 

On stranger-wayfarer or lonely friend — 
The loving-cup of kinship and of cheer. 

The ungrudged welcome to my fireside; 
So let me keep, dear Lord, for all the year. 

The gracious spirit of the Christmastide. 

— Harriet JVhitney Synionds. 



War Days in a French Riviera Hotel 



THE THREE MILESTONES OF THE DAY — "PETIT 
DEJEUNER, DEJEUNER, DINER" 

Changes and Economies that Entail No Real Hardships on Guests 

By Blanche McManus 



OFFICIALLY the French Riviera, 
or Cote d'Azur, has been put 
within bounds and has become a 
rest, health and convalescence station for 
American officers and men, for pretty 
much its entire length. Relatives and 
friends, overseas, of many of those who will 
come here may be glad to know what are 
the wartime conditions of comfort and 
life along this de luxe coast of blue. 

For several months I have been staying 
at one of the smaller, but, perhaps, the 
most chic and exclusive of all these Rivi- 
era resorts. It is composed of charming 
elements, ornate gardens and villas al- 
most oriental in their cachet, a back- 



ground of mountains and spicy pine for- 
ests, a foreground of the tideless blue 
Mediterranean, with a shore bulevard 
fringed with palms. An ideal restplace 
for our boys' convalescence, for whose 
accommodation two large hotels have 
already been taken. 

I once had a villa here, but the exigen- 
cies of wartime housekeeping took me to 
a hotel, a modern structure of perhaps 
a hundred rooms. Its clientele is now 
largely French officers and their families, 
and, in spite of certain economies inevita- 
ble in wartime, life moves agreeably and 
comfortably, much as it did in the old 
days of touring pleasure, although with a 




VIEW FROM A RIVIERA HOTEL IN FRANCE 

327 



328 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



sedateness once very foreign to these bril- 
liant shores. 

We are, in the first place, in the "Zone 
de Guerre," though something more than 
half a thousand miles away from the 
fighting front. The reason is because of 
prowling submarines, which, however, 
have never nosed in here. Still it means 
restrictions, and our electric lights all 
throw out a ghastly pallor under blue 
paper shades and black cloth hoods. But 
for this and the innumerable officers one 
might forget that there is such a blight as 
war. 

On arrival we are supposed to be 
equipped with our "Alimentation Card," 
on which we draw our allowance of bread, 
sugar, coal oil and alcohol. Without this 
document it would be like traveling with- 
out luggage. 

The most notable changes are in the 
matter of the personnel. Women, or 



rather girls, have here, as everywhere, 
taken on the labors once largely per- 
formed by men and boys. Women run 
the entire hotel, and do it well. The one 
man is the porter, a reforme, or wounded 
soldier. In spite of this he carries trunks 
on his back five flights of stairs, the eleva- 
tor having been shut down to economize 
fuel. Life in the trenches must have been 
easier for him, but a ten or twenty cent 
tip, at the outside, for moving a whole 
roomful of stuff, makes him happy. That 
there is hot water running through the 
house only on Saturdays and Sundays 
proves that there is another economy at 
work here. 

As to the vital question of food. It is 
both good and plentiful, even if a bit lack- 
ing in variety, though the "little break- 
fast" of the morning has become even 
more attenuated than it ever was before 
the war. It was never anything but cafe- 




THE DINING-ROOM WIXG 



WAR DAYS IN A FRENCH RIVIERA HOTEL 



329 



au-lait and rolls and butter — now the 
petits pains are replaced by a hunk (ho 
more refined expression will describe it) 
of bread of the war variety, good if 
toasted and buttered, but the French 
cuisine does not yet know the art of toast- 
ing, and as for butter it is absolutely pro- 
hibited in hotels and restaurants. So 
strict is this ruling that most Riviera 
hotels object to guests furnishing their 
own butter. Of course, an occasional 
guest does sneak some on to the table, but 
it places the hotel in the uncomfortable 
position of being called up for a contra- 
vention, which carries with it a fine. 

Another regulation is that breakfast 
must be served before nine, in that milk 
may not be served after this hour. So 
far the hotels of the region have been able 
to furnish milk. It was always a bever- 
age rare and costly on these southern 
slopes of grassless mountains, and today 
has almost trebled in cost. 

Sugar the guest furnishes himself or 
herself. The local newspaper announces 
the day of each month that sugar will be 
allowed by the local grocers, and a coupon 
of your Carte d'Alimentation presented 
to the young woman at the town hall, 
who attends to this between the stitches 
of her fancy work, is exchanged for a 
" Bon," which entitles you to 500 grammes 
of sugar, your monthly allowance. With 
sugar trebled in price and hard to get, 
one accommodates oneself, and the aver- 
age of the cost of living is on the whole 
considerably lower than is commonly 
thought. 

The slimness of the breakfast is more 
than compensated for by the fact that one 
takes it at a Httle table on the open ter- 
race, with glimpses of the crystal blue 
Mediterranean and amethyst-tinted 
mountains seen through palm trees. We 
few Americans do this; French folk al- 
most invariably breakfast in their rooms. 
It is served on a little napkined tray, the 
coffee in a pitcher, as well as the milk, and 
you make your own melange. The cup 
is placed always on the left side, flanked 
by a tablespoon, with whose aid you are 




OUR FISHERMAN 

supposed to fish up the mcrsels of bread, 
which you crumble into your cafe-au-Unt.' 
Quite a la Francaise this! 

Luncheon, or dejeuner, may be served 
only between half past eleven and half 
past two, according to war regulations, 
and no food can be sold, under any pre- 
text, out of these hours, except at railway 
stations. You are conscious of many 
little economies, but no hardships. The 
carte du jour is posted at the dining-room 
door, that one may read the regulations 
and the menu at the same time. There 
are rules for guests and the hotel keeper, 
and penalties for infractions. 

The salle a manger faces on the garden 
and has the same beautiful view out over 
the sea^ the windows shuttered with Vene- 
tian bHnds to keep out the flies; by keep- 
ing the rooms in darkness is the only way 
the French know of keeping down flies, 
screens being unknown. 

Dejeuner is invariably the principal 
meal of the day in France, whether in 
country or city, and usually has more 
courses in its makeup-than has dinner. 
This i* the.naturaliresult of beginning the 



330 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



day practically breakfastless. Before the 
war dejeuner usually consisted of a num- 
ber of hors d''ceuvres, perhaps as many as 
eight or ten, a fish or a pate, an entree, a 
grillade or a roti, two vegetables, a cheese, 
a dessert and a fruit. Now the hors 
(Toeuvres is abolished, one of the first 
courses cut out, and, as a great departure 
from French tradition, — done because it 
produces an economy in service, — • the two 
vegetables are served with the meat dish. 
There is practically only one kind of 
cheese to be had out of the dozen varie- 
ties of before the war; cream cheeses, 
above all, not being allowed to be fab- 
ricated. There was once a heaped-up 
basket of fruit of many sorts, now one is 
apportioned but a single peach or pear. 

These are the luncheon economies of 
a Riviera hotel. In spite of which we 
fare well. The Riviera finds the food 
question more difficult than it is in other 
parts of France, for the reason that it only 
occupied itself, before the war., with two 
de luxe businesses, catering for tourists, 
and growing of flowers for the northern 
markets and the making into perfumes. 
Its sole condescension towards prosaic 
food was a limited culture of early spring 







THE FIG MARKET-WOMAN 



vegetables and fruits, which the war has 
almost obliterated. So when it was 
thrown upon its neighborhood resources, 
on account of the difficulties of transpor- 
tation, the problem of making out daily 
menus with variety was quite a tax upon 
the ingenuity of the hotel proprietor and 
the kitchen staff. 

There is this to say: the food is good 
and the portions ample. After four years 
of pleine guerre the following reads al- 
most like the menu of a feast. 

DEJEUNER 

Timbale de Riz Aubergines Frites 

Boeuf Froid avec mayonnaise 

Salade de Laitue 

Fromage des Alpes 

Fruits de Saison 

The timbale de riz is a favorite south- 
ern dish in Europe, rice, usually cooked 
in its individual casserole, always with 
grated cheese, sometimes with chopped 
livers or veal, and sometimes with mussels 
or lobster, when it changes its name, but 
is quite nearly the same thing. Olive oil 
and garlic and saffron give it a zest and 
a tinge of greenish gold. 

The aubergines are eggplant, usually 
fried in oil, and oil permeates most of the 
cookery here. It has gone up greatly in 
price, from twenty odd cents a quart to 
a dollar, but still it is the best and most 
effectual fat ingredient for use in the 
southern France kitchen, and is kept in 
great Arabian Nights jars, from which it 
is scooped up in ladlefuls. The cold 
roast beef also has its accompaniment in 
oil ingredient in the golden mayonnaise. 
The fromage des Alpes is a sort of gruyere, 
the kind with holes in it. For fruits there 
are the local grapes, melons and the Httle 
mandarin oranges grown on the hillsides 
sloping up from the shores of the Medi- 
terranean, and for a brief season there are 
the white and purple figs, also a 
local product. 

Another day's menu was as follows: 

DEJEUNER 

Sardines grilles 

Tournedos Bercy 

Pommes Rissoles 

Fromage de Roquefort 

Fruit 



THE WINDS OF GOD 



331 



French sardines from the off-shore 
waters, grilled, are one of the most deli- 
cate fish plats imaginable. Fish of any 
kind is scarce in spite of this being the 
seaside. Next to sugar it is about the 
scarcest thing on the table. There is no 
night fishing, which accounts for the 
shortage to no little extent. The Na- 
tional Defence regulations forbid that 
fishermen should go out after sundown, 
and it was at night that they used to make 
their biggest hauls. Sardines are a real 
oasis in a watery desert. The tournedos 
is a bit of tenderloin, as near as the French 
way of cutting meat allows one to de- 
scribe it. The rissole, potatoes are first 
cut thin, and then puffed up in alternate 
plunges in boiling oil and cold water. 
We were in luck to have potatoes, for the 
potato crop of France is this year only 
about a third of normal, but the hotel 
proprietor had the forethought to plant 
out beds of potatoes between the rows of 
palm trees of the garden, and so harvests 
his own crop, which, providentially, was 
ample. 

A sample dinner menu is as follows: 
DINER 

Potage Oeufs Dures aux Epinards 

Gigot de Mouton Tomates Provencale 

Courgettes en beignet 

Pommes au Four 

The soups seasaw between vegetable 
and consomme, plain or with vermicelli, 
always spoken of, in all its forms, as pate, 
but this is rationed to the individual to 
the hundred and twenty-five gramme a 



month scale, a little more than a quarter 
of a pound. For this it is not often on the 
menu, though with the water-absorbing 
qualities, a quarter of a pound is still a 
good deal, when served in soup. 

A peculiarity of the French dinner 
menu is that eggs are served always as a 
course by themselves, and potatoes 
rarely, and then usually as a puree with 
roast beef. The mutton, or gigot, is al- 
ways with hearts of garlic, much or little, 
according to the fancy of the chef, or his 
regard for his clientele. Fowls have 
practically disappeared from the hotel 
tables. It is said that American and 
British troops, by buying up chickens and 
fowls, at what the French deem fantastic 
prices, have brought about a national 
shortage. Their place is taken by rabbit, 
wild or pen-fed, the latter to be preferred. 

A bon bouche is the tomate provencal, 
more garlic interspersed with the halved, 
or perhaps stewed up tomato. The 
courgette en beignet is a species of squash 
fried in batter. It is the standby vegeta- 
ble of the summer and autumn in these 
parts. 

Pomme aufour is merely a baked apple, 
but baked with wine poured over it, mak- 
ing a syrup with the natural sugar of the 
apple, the only sweetening it gets. 

These are a few samples of our menus, 
just to show that American soldier visi- 
tors to the Riviera, during their "oc- 
cupation, " will find the food problem well 
handled, indeed. And this during these 
days of war. 



The Winds of God 



Oh, mighty winds, 
Oh, winds of God, 

Blow East, blow West, 
Where men have trod. 

Dissolve the clouds 
That hide the Hght,| 

Remove the shrouds 
Of darkest night, 

Blow East, blow West, 
Oh, winds of God. 



Oh, mighty winds, 

Oh, winds of God, 
Blow North, blow South, 

Where men have trod. 

The grain winnow, 

The years sweep clean, 
A harvest meet 

The world may glean. 
Blow North, blow South, 

Oh, winds of God, 

— Hattie H. d' Autre mont. 



The Little Kitchen on Wheels 



By Ida S. Harrington 

Home Economics Director For Rhode Island 



w 



'HAT is extension work? To 
me it suggests geographic 
surveys!" 

Questions like this, to the mirth of the 
well-informed, are not unknown. War 
conditions have demonstrated the mean- 
ing of terms hitherto unfamiliar, but even 
now extension work suggests to many 
minds the covering of extensive territory. 
Extension workers themselves, if they 
come from the larger states, smile in- 
dulgently, as they report the number of 
mileage books consumed by them, at the 
idea of doing extension work in a small 
state. As the man of a thousand acres 
regards the intensive cultivation of a 
ten-by- twelve, so do workers in full- 
grown states look upon the activities of 
little Rhode Island. 

It is all in the point of view. Intensive 
extension work is not necessarily a con- 
tradictory term. Ideas percolate slowly 
in places where the superlative of adven- 
ture and the year's one outing are repre- 
sented by the county fair. 

There are still such places in Rhode 
Island, not far in miles from the roads 
that glide so smoothly out of Massachu- 
■setts and into Connecticut, but mentally 
just awaking to a sense of ownership in 
the state that is doing its little best so 
nobly in the world war. 

These are the places that the food con- 
servation worker longs to reach, and to 
reach often enough to break down the 
wall of reserve that surrounds them. For 
just as the collector of old furniture finds 
the choicest gems in remote places, so the 
teacher, whose work it is to revive half- 
forgotten practices of old-time thrift, 
looks for her best help in households that 
have never learned extravagance. 

But getting into such households is an- 
other matter. To persuade a housewife 
that you have come to enlist co-operation, 



and not to cram instruction, requires not 
merely the "tongues of angels" but a 
visible common interest. "Putting our 
feet under the same table" is one means; 
washing dishes together is another; in- 
viting a woman into your kitchen to see 
you cook is, perhaps, the best of all, unless 
that kitchen is so overequipped as to sug- 
gest unwelcome contrasts. Rhode Is- 
land's little kitchen on wheels, a Ford 
truck of unheroic proportions, has been 
an asset, not only in its ability to " ramble 
right along" through every manner of 
by-way, but even more in the evident 
limitations that stamped it as "not too 
fair and good for human nature's daily 
food." It appealed to people who could 
never have been beguiled into a formal 
meeting place. 

When the little kitchen appeared at 
country fairs, the combination was a par- 
ticularly happy one. It was, therefore, 
fitting that its last public appearance, 
before retiring for the winter, should have 
been at the Fiskeville Country (not 
County) Fair, an institution deserving a 
write-up of its own, because there are 
few like it. Started by a Sunday-school 
class, and managed by women, it has 
grown into a community gathering of 
young and old to compare progress in the 
growing of better stock and better crops, 
of more wholesome cooking and more ex- 
pert canning. No side shows nor gam- 
bling devices spoil the picture. This year 
a Hoover tent served conservation 
lunches, and the usual three-story layer- 
cake exhibit was replaced by less decora- 
tive, but more timely, loaves of war 
bread. Verily, a place worth reaching, 
even under difficulties, as Fate evidently 
intended to demonstrate, for she saw to 
it that difficulties were not wanting. 

It would seem impossible that a day 
should dawn when, in the entire city of 



332 



THE LITTLE KITCHEN ON WHEELS 



33} 



Providence, there was not a man availa- 
ble who could drive a Ford truck. But 
on this particular morning, the demon- 
strator, keyed to a dramatic progress in 
her work-shop on wheels, was facing, in- 
stead, the anticlimax of a devious trolley 
trip, and the probable anticlimax of a 
kitchenless, stoveless, foodless demon- 
stration. For still the Guardian of the 
Hoover Hut sought vainly (like a philos- 
opher of another day) for "an honest 
man." 

The demonstrator, boarding her car 
with the resolve to use the "traveler's 
long leisure" of a single!-track trip as a 
reconstruction period for her subject 
matter, learned once more that in ex- 
tension work it is always the unexpected 
that happens. 

"Are you a reporter.?" inquired a voice 
behind her, and out of the corner of her 
eye the demonstrator beheld a Dick- 
ensesque scarf and chin, while her ear was 
regaled with a Dickensesque flow of lan- 
guage, calculated to enrich the life of an 
unabstracted listener. So much for re- 
constructive leisure! 

Meantime, there entered the Hoover 
Hut in Providence a sailor, ostensibly to 
write letters there, but evidently eager 
for an antidote to the tedium of a recent 
hospital sojourn. Said the inspired Guar- 
dian to him: "Can you run a Ford.?" 
Here was a chance for one to whom life 
had but just now seemed stale and un- 
profitable: to drive a peripatetic kitchen, 
flying the flags of Uncle Sam and Hoover, 
in company with two bewitching Hoover 
girls in costume, to the scene where "the 
outfit" was to be the center of attraction! 
"Lead me to it!" breathed the youth, 
but his hopeful smile vanished at the next 
query: "Have you a license.?" Once 
more the trip seemed doomed, but the 
Guardian was resourceful. "I know a 
man with a license, but he can't drive a 
Ford. Why not employ two specialists, 
one to drive and one to legalize the 
driving.?" 

In the joyous setting forth thus made 
possible, the city limits were in sight, 



when some one groaned: ^^ Where are the 
supplies for the demonstration.?" A 
much-subdued little kitchen retraced its 
progress, and a basket of supplies was 
gathered in. To be sure, a few essentials 
such as an oven, a bread-board, and a 
rolling-pin were forgotten, but what 
seasoned demonstrator is appalled by such 
trifles.? Surely not the vastly relieved 
woman who gathered the little kitchen, 
metaphorically, into her arms on its safe 
arrival in time for the program! 

Paper is always a possible makeshift, 
when no bread-board is forthcoming, a 
bottle does duty for a rolling-pin; as to 
the oven, well, there were the keepers of 
that blessed Hoover tent, and their readi- 
ness to lend their all to a fellow-worker in 
distress. 

And now a dinner-bell swung in the 
competent hands of an agricultural dig- 
nitary summoned the crowd. There is 
something infinitely convincing in the 
sound of a dinner-bell. The ground was 
still wet from the previous day's down- 
pour, the wind blew lustily, the sun's rays 
were piercing. Nevertheless young and 
old came. Perhaps many thought that 
they were to see and hear only of things 
culinary, that humdrum industry, from 
which, for a day, they were taking holi- 
day. But straightway a different note 
was struck. A young nurse, just back 
fron. ' ~-'^- there," spoke to the people of 
what she - ^d s^en, making them forget 
themselves ai:d her, except as helps or 
hindrances in the great cause. 

Very humbly the demonstrator fol- 
lowed her. O, for the ability to raise the 
"how" of conservation to as high a plane 
as the "why" which this inspired girl had 
demonstrated! 

But Fate, all day in sportive mood, 
willed it that, before the sublime too 
greatly darkened the holiday mood, the 
ridiculous should tread on its heels. 
Just as the first course of the "war din- 
ner" had found its haven in the borrowed 
oven; just as the demonstrator had 
started on a new division of her subject 
matter, and a new dish for her meal, there 



334 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



occurred what might be termed an in- 
voluntary intermission. With drum and 
fife and streaming banners there marched, 
from a remote section of the fair grounds, 
the local fire company, eager to be present 
at "the cooking," and oblivious of the 
effect of their emphatic entrance. No 
sooner had they taken their places, than 
another band burst into responsive har- 
mony, and for ten minutes the demon- 
strator "hovered" her oven, which was 
rocking in the gale, smiled reassuringly at 
the harrassed women who wanted the 
band stopped, and waited. In due time, 
a second and third dish reached the oven 
stage, and it became evident that no self- 
respecting stove would work under such 
scoffing blasts of wind. But though the 
stove might be a slacker, food still could 
win the war by a masterly retreat, oven 
and all, to the shelter and stove of the 
Hoover tent. 

There followed the closing words of the 
demonstration, and the feeding of the 



multitude. Then, as the little kitchen 
was girding itself for the return trip, came 
its crowning triumph. 

"The cattle parade is just forming, 
won't you take part in it.?" Could any 
one decline such an honor.? 

Down the road came the prize-winners, 
sleek Ayrshires, demure Jerseys, high-bred 
sires indignantly protesting, calm and 
stately oxen, frisky ponies, lastly, a soli- 
tary goat. And at the word of command, 
with a joyous toot of its horn, the little 
kitchen scuttled to position, at its helm 
the sailor who could drive, and the man 
who held a license; perched on camp 
stools, like plates on a plate-rail, the 
Hoover girls and the demonstrator. 
Amid cheers and farewells, the little 
kitchen finally turned toward home in the 
twilight. And in a secluded bit of road a 
Hoover girl reached for the dish that had 
lately held portions of the war dinner, and 
remarked, as she meditatively scraped 
and tasted, "Food will win the war." 



The Study of Mother-in-laws 

By L. M. Thornton 



M 



'Y mother-in-law is coming, is 
coming, is coming," laughed 
pretty Mrs. George Page, danc- 
ing about in a way which .quite mystified 
her friend and neighbor to whose home 
the coming of husband's mother was apt 
to prove anything but a cause for laughter; 
"and she's going to stay two weeks," con- 
tinued the rejoicer, and by the time she 
goes George will eat out of my hand and 
buy me an extra Liberty Bond. He's 
been getting a little uneasy of late, and he 
sniffed when he smelled the burned pota- 
toes last night, but two weeks of mother, 
oh joy, oh joy, where do we go from here." 
"But I don't understand," Mrs. 
Bigsby's big blue eyes looked troubled. 
"John's mother is an excellent cook, he is 
always telling me about her cakes and 



pies, and the way she fried potatoes, and 
when she comes, oh! my most trusted 
recipes fail me and I know John tells her, 
as they sit waiting for the meals that seem 
always to be late, how he wishes his wife 
could give him such stews as he used to 
come home to when a boy. She has 
written that we can look for her almost 
any day now, and I hadn't told you for 
the same reason that one keeps bad news 
until the last possible moment from any 
one they like." 

"You poor little mouse," Mrs. George 
was laughing again, "some one ought to 
write a book on how to manage a mother- 
in-law. I'm going to tell you my plan, 
although, of course, you mustn't breath a 
word of it even to John,— you see you might 
want to use it yourself sometime. First, 



THE STUDY OF MOTHER-IN-LAWS 



335 



the moment George comes in I'll show him 
this letter, and I'll tell him how glad I am 
that we are to have two weeks of real 
cooking. He'll begin to tell me about his 
mother's doughnuts, and I'll write dough- 
nuts on a slip of paper, and mince pies 
out of mince meat that she alone knows 
how to make, and clam chowder. Do you 
begin to see, dear.? Not yet; then listen. 
The moment she arrives I'll begin telling 
her about how George has anticipated her 
coming. I'll give her every morning a 
list of the things he has been wanting 
cooked, as no one but mother can cook 
them, and she'll fall into the trap, as only 
a mother-in-law can. She'll puff out like 
a pigeon, and all I'll have to do will be to 
keep out of the kitchen and let George pay 
the bills. When I am cook, I pay for 
everything as I get it, but when George's 
mother comes, I will tell her to order any- 
thing she wants, and it will go on the bill. 
After her last visit George doubled my 
allowance, and said he didn't see how I'd 
ever gotten along on what I had. His 
mother extravagant! there isn't a man in 
the world who would think that." 

"I begin to see," the demure little 
neighbor's face was dimpling, *'but how 
do you take her out to matinees and shows 
and through the stores. Oh, that is the 
thing I dread, and yet I have to do it, or 
else she would think me ashamed of her, 
and John would remind me, in that coldly 
sarcastic way of his, that he wondered he 
was good enough to go out with me if his 
mother wasn't." 

"Oh, wake up," Mrs. George was danc- 
ing again, "you forget the chowder and 
the home-made mince meat and the salt- 
rising bread. No woman can go to shows. 
and lectures and through stores, and watch 
a bean pot. George remembers his 
mother as a woman who staid at home and 
cooked for six lusty boys, and she don't 
dare tell him that she has changed; that 
she had rather look in at millinery windows 
than stay in the kitchen and bake cookies. 
She rejoices over every word that he says 
about the modern, gad-about woman, and 
makes crullers." 



" But George .? Aren't you afraid to risk 
the comparison. Don't you have to stay 
in after she has visited you and make 
tedious, messy things for fear he'll wish 
he had his mother all the time instead of 
an up-to-date wife, who uses a fireless.?" 
The question was asked timidly, yet 
hopefully. 

"Not at all; last time I put on my very 
prettiest hat and coat and met him down 
town. He was like a lover again, and I 
told him I was afraid we'd get too hungry 
and couldn't digest the dinner she was 
getting up for us. He took the hint and 
we dined, tete-a-tete, in the dearest little 
restaurant, and it was like old times. 
That night he had indigestion and I 
gently suggested that I call his mother 
down to do something for him. 

"You should have heard him beg me not 
to let her know of his illness. You see, 
on a former visit he had a little stomach 
trouble and she insisted upon vomiting 
him with lukewarm mustard water, giving 
him soda in allopathic doses, and the mus- 
tard plaster she made out of real mustard 
and wheat flour, no prepared plasters for 
her, burned a blister where she applied it 
over the pit of his stomach, and he had to 
wear suspenders instead of his belt for a 
week." 

During the next three days there were 
frequent conferences, and when two 
mothers unstrapped ample suit cases at 
the Page and Bigsby homes the following 
week, each was met by a smilijig daughter- 
in-law. Mrs. Bigsby was especially 
pleased with the change in John's wife. 
Instead of giving her a book to look at 
and shutting herself into the kitchen, she 
suggested that mother fix the cabbage in 
the way John used to like and make the 
gravy. That night, quite by accident(?) 
the subject of mother's cooking came up, 
and after Mrs. Bigsby Sr. had heard her 
cakes and cookies and roasts praised to 
her heart's delight, she could not be 
other than flattered when daughter Alice 
declared she was going to keep right out 
of the kitchen and let John have the treat 
of meals such as he remembered from 



336 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



boyhood days. His mother looked a 
little surprised, but the next morning 
donned an apron and baked cakes just as 
she had in her son's school days, bring- 
ing them in hot from the griddle, while 
Alice and John ate and praised. 

At the end of two weeks, by a strange 
coincidence, Mrs. Page and Mrs. Bigsby 
found themselves seat-mates on a train 
taking them toward their homes, each 
living, however, in a different town. 

"It will seem good to get home/' said 
Mrs. Page. " I always like to go and visit 
George, a week of real home-cooking 
seems to do him so much good, but their 
stove is more than I can manage. My 
cakes wouldn't bake as they ought, and 
were always heavy, and pie crusts were 
just as apt to be soggy on the bottom. I 
couldn't help telling George, just before 
I left, that if I was Bertha I'd insist upon 
his buying a new range and some deeper 
pie-tins, and a bread-mixer, and a wooden 
chopping bowl, and a pancake turner, and 
a good many other things that I've al- 
ways had in my kitchen, and that his 
father'd never have expected me to get 
along without." 

Before tidying up the house Mrs. John 
Jr. ran over to her neighbor's. "It 
worked," she exclaimed triumphantly, 
"and I've never had such a really restful 
week. The best of it is the good it has 
done John. Being a man he don't exact- 
ly understand what the trouble is, but last 



night he told me he'd be glad when we 
settled down again to regular living, for 
he guessed he's lost his appetite for sau- 
sage, and potato^stew and home-made 
head-cheese, and a lot of things that he 
used to think fit for a king. Some way 
they didn't taste the same now, and I 
had better plan to get out my Cooking 
School magazines, for he wanted a real 
dinner with soup and dessert and one of 
my fruit salads and all the other goodies 
I've been spoiling him with all these years, 
the very moment his mother got out of 
sight." 

" I told you so," laughed her neighbor, 
** and just you wait until he compares the 
bills for the last two weeks with those of 
the two weeks previous. Don't let him 
miss doing that; suggest that the grocer 
or the butcher must have overcharged 
you, and while he's comparing prices and 
hunting for that overcharge that every 
male householder likes to ferret out, he'll 
wake up to the fact that wife's conserva- 
tion ideas not only conserve for the boys 
'over there,' but keep the sides of his 
pocket book from flapping against each 
other." 

"There is nothing like the visit of a 
mother-in-law to oil the domestic ma- 
chinery, if daughter-in-law knows how to 
manage," said Mrs. Page. 

"Let's pass the idea along," replied 
Mrs. Bigsby. "We'll do it,"said both 
together. "Happiness likes company." 



Who is Me? 



'Twas I he called his lady-love, 
And hence the reverie; 

If lady-love is who I am, 
Who is it that is me? 

'Twas I he called his lady-fair, 
What strange perplexity! 

Do ladies-fair sew buttons on, 
Or who is this that's me? 



'Twas I he called his lady-dear, 
And who could then foresee 

That ladies-dear must cooking do? 
I wonder who is me. 

His lady-love, his lady-fair. 

His lady-dear, a.ll three — 
And as I wash the dishes up, 

He says that I am^me. 

— Mrs. Lewis Chase. 



Christmas in Denmark 



By F. M. Christiansen 



WHEN the time comes to say 
Glaedelig Ju]e, the Danish way 
of saying Merry Christmas, there 
is ushered in two weeks of merrymaking. 

Nobody does other than the most nec- 
essary work. Farmers, with their fam- 
ilies, vist from farm to farm, and the time 
is given up to sleighing, skating, hunting, 
and all sorts of outdoor and indoor merri- 
ment. 

Christmas Eve, or Jule Aften, is a festival 
sacred to the family, and every member is 
expected to be home on that night of 
nights to dance about the Christmas 
Tree. In every home is a window, 
through which you can see the grand tree 
blossoming with light and gifts for each 
member of the family. 

Quite early each fall, just about the 
time the storks go away, there comes to 
Denmark, from the north, or Jutland, as 
the peninsula is called, large boats 
loaded with coarse brown crockery in the 
shape of pigs. The youngsters board the 
boats and prefer their request; they wish 
to buy a "Yule pig." These images have 
•a slit in the back and are just a bank for 
the children's pennies, against Christ- 
mas time, when the "pig" is broken. 

Just before this gala season, beeves and 
porkers are killed to provide the annual 
meat supply, and a great quantity of 
candles are prepared for the Christmas 
illumination, and. some of these are col- 
ored and flavored with spices, and so give 
out a pleasant odor when burning. 

The Danish children have no Santa 
Claus, but lavish their affections on 
"Nisse" or Brownies. These are diminu- 
tive men no higher than a man's knee, 
having long beards and dressed in gray 
with bright scarlet caps. They are sup- 
posed to live underground, except at 
Christmas; 

If you happen to be out and about early 
in the morning after Christmas Eve, you'll 



see on the doorsteps porringers of porridge 
standing on each stoop for the Nisse. All 
the littl-e Danes feast their Brownie. 

Sheaves of wheat are always put out on 
the roofs, or fastened to the window- 
shutters, so as to be ready for The Bird's 
Banquet on Christmas Day. 

The tree is lit on Christmas Eve, and all 
the family meet together then. The older 
people get their presents on their plate, 
at table, but the children's are on the 
tree. 

Much merriment is provoked when a 
large, imposing-looking parcel is handed 
to a youngster, and he begins to undo the 
wrapping and, at the end of his toil, finds 
ensconced in a little box a small doll or a 
pen knife! 

The mother is the super-being in the 
home, and her gentleness and solicitude 
are proverbial. She stamps her impress 
upon all the activities in the home, and 
shares in the work and play in such a way 
that the Dane always longs to get back 
home,and Christmas and all the interval till 
New Year's is a season of family reunions 
and good fellowship, which cement firm 
the chain of relationship. 

The Danes have a joke. A turkey is 
not a good table bird, as it is a little too 
much for one Dane, but not enough for 
two. So they eat roast goose instead 
for their Christmas Dinner, and have 
apple fritters in lieu of plum pudding. 

The wife excels in cookery, and the 
Danes require the best and an abundance 
of everything. 

The Danes, in common with other old- 
country nations, are very superstitious 
and believe that at midnight on Christ- 
mas Eve the cattle in the stables rise and 
low in salutation. 

Fairies, or nisse and trolls, as they are 
to the Danes, are supposed to do all sorts 
of funny and mischievous tricks on the 
farm! 



337 



338 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



The children love to watch the sky as 
they travel after starlight, and they be- 
lieve that, if you are quick enough to wish 
out your wish before the shooting star 
falls, you'll have your wish. 

The mistletoe is held sacred to their 
goddess, Freya, the Scandinavian goddess 
of peace and fertility, and so it is believed 
that the maid who is not kissed under the 
mistletoe at Christmas will not be married 
before the next Christmas. A berry should 
be plucked for each kiss. 
"Yet why should this holy festival mirth 

In the reign of old Christmastide only 
be found.? 
Hang up love's mistletoe over the earth, 

And let us kiss under it all the year 
round." 



shaking off any surplus and press the corn 
into balls and set away to harden. 



Pepper Nuts 



1 egg 

I cup granulated 

sugar 
I cup butter 



1 teaspoonful baking 
powder 

|- teaspoonful ground 
white pepper 



Work in enough sifted flour to make a 
soft dough. Roll out the dough to the 
thickness of one-fourth an inch; and cut 
into blocks one-half inch in size, and 
bake a rich brown in a quick oven. 

In view of the scarcity of nuts, you will 
find this a pleasant substitute among the 
kiddies' Christmas confections. 

These ,pepper nuts are delicious, have 
a delightfully mild warmth about them, 
and crunch on the teeth in the manner of 
good cookie paste, when well baked. 

Popcorn Balls Made With Honey 

Put one pint of granulated sugar, and 
five large tablespoonfuls of clover honey 
on the stove to cook, in a granite sauce- 
pan. Let boil until it gets brittle, when 
put in cold water. 

Have fresh popped corn ready in a large 
pan, and get another person to pour a 
little of the boiling hot syrup on the corn, 
while you stir and toss it in the pan, doing 
just two or three balls at a time, since it 
hardens so rapidly. 

Dip your hands in very cold water, 



Honey Cake 



2 eggs 

I cup butter 
1 cup milk 
1 cup honey 



bak- 



2 teaspoonfuls 
ing powder 

A good pinch of salt 

3 cups flour 

Cream the butter and gradually beat 
in the honey. 

Beat eggs and stir into the cream. 
Sift the baking powder with the flour; 
add the milk to the creamed honey and 
butter, and beat in the flour. Bake a 
rich brown in a moderate oven. Time 
about one hour. 

In the Old Land, when any of our elders 
went to the Fairs, they always brought 
home a fairing for each child in the shape 
of a honey cake. There never can be just 
such another cake! It was delicious to 
the last crumb! You can never get 
enough of them! 

They were always so soft and moist, 
yet never soggy, and such a rich appetiz- 
ing brown. Honey cakes are famous in 
the Old Land and deservedly so. 

A Household Vinegar Plant 

Every housewife can make a supply of 
vinegar for her own use. This is our 
method and we are never out. 

We keep seven or eight two-quart glass 
jars on "The Vinegar Shelf." Jars hav- 
ing a nick in the top will do. 

Into these we put all sweetened juice, 
e.g.^ anything having alcohol in it. A 
little syrup left over^ a little fruit juice, a 
spoonful of honey, or anything that will 
make sweetened water, we fill into the 
jars, and put a tablespoonful of yeast into 
each jar when we start it. Then, from 
time to time, we add the rinsings from 
fruit jars, etc. The solution will be weak 
to start, but that hastens the souring, and 
then, as it begins to sour, you can add more 
molasses, sugar, cider, etc., till the vinegar 
is as strong as you wish. 

Give the vinegar lots of air and warmth, 
especially if you want to make vinegar 
quickly. 



Christmas Sweets Without Sugar 

By Alice Urquhart Fewell 



AS Christmas draws near the little 
folks are beginning to wonder how 
Santa Claus will manage this year to fill 
the stockings with candy from his "two- 
pound sugar ration," for Santa Claus, 
like all other patriotic people, is saving 
sugar to help win the war. The "grown- 
up folks," too, are beginning to wonder 
about plum puddings and Christmas 
cakes, for the sugar regulations were never 
made to include the sweets which are a 
part of Christmas in every American 
family. 

The children need not be disappointed, 
and we may have simple puddings and 
cakes for Christmas by using sugar-sub- 
stitutes. We have not only one sub- 
stitute but many to choose from, and 
when properly used, they will produce 
most excellent results. 

When making Christmas puddings and 
cakes we have the conservation of three 
food-products to consider: sugar, wheat, 
and butter. In place of cane sugar we 
may use molasses, honey, maple sugar, 
maple syrup, or corn syrup. Victory 
flour may be used, or a mixture, made in 
the home, of wheat flour, and at least 
20 per cent of some wheat substitute. 
Entirely wheatless cake and puddings can 
be made by using barley, rye, or corn 
flour, and when mixed and used in the 
right proportion, these substitutes will 
give good results. Butter may be re- 
placed by any of the good, firm, vegetable 
fats, or by beef drippings. Clarified 
chicken fat is excellent for cake, and 
among the vegetable fats, Crisco will be 
found good. A variety of Christmas 
candies can be made from honey, maple 
sugar, maple syrup, or corn syrup. Fon- 
dant, made from maple syrup, is de- 
licious, and forms a foundation for many 
candies. 

The following recipes show a wide range 



for the use of sugar-substitutes in making 
Christmas sweets. 

(Use level measurements, and a stand- 
ard measuring cup. Sift all flour before 
measuring.) 

Rich Plum Pudding 



I pound stale bread 

crumbs 
f cup scalded milk 
5 cup honey or maple 

syrup 
3 eggs 

I pound seeded raisins 
i pound chopped dates 
J pound currants 
1 apple, chopped fine 



^ glass orange mar- 
malade 
I pound chopped suet 
or half vegetable fat 
I cup grape juice 
i teaspoonful clove 
I teaspoonful mace 
J teaspoonful nutmeg 
^ teaspoonful cinna- 
mon 



1 teaspoonful salt 
Soak bread crumbs in scalded milk, and 
allow to cool. Cut fruit fine and dredge 
with rye or barley flour. Add honey, 
beaten yolks of eggs, and fruit to milk 
and bread crumbs; add orange mar- 
malade. Cream the chopped suet, and 
add it together with the grape juice, 
spices and salt. Mix well and add whites 
of eggs, beaten until stiff. Citron and 
candied orange peel may be substituted 
for the orange marmalade, and three- 
fourths to one cup of corn syrup used in- 
stead of the honey or maple syrup. When 
the corn syrup is used, decrease, slightly, 
the quantity of milk. The mixture 
should be very stiff, so that it is difficult 
to stir, and if the bread crumbs are very 
stale, more milk may be required. Turn 
mixture into a greased mould, fasten cover 
tight, and steam five hours or longer. If 
small individual puddings are made^ two 
and one-half to three hours are sufficient 
for the steaming. Serve with the fol- 
lowing sauce. 

Plum Pudding Sauce 



1 cup white corn syrup 

2 teaspoonfuls corn 
starch 

1 cup boiling water 
I tablespoonful lemon 
juice 



Grated rind of ^ 

lemon 
2 tablespoonfuls grape 

juice 
Few grains salt 



339 



340 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Alix cornstarch to a paste with a little 
cold water; add to corn syrup and boil 
five minutes. Remove from fire, and add 
remaining ingredients. 

Christmas Pudding 



3 tablespoonfuls vege- 
table fat or clarified 
drippings 
^ cup molasses 
I cup milk 
1§ cups Victory flour 
f teaspoonful salt 
^ teaspoonful soda 



I teaspoonful nutmeg 
J teaspoonful clove 
I teaspoonful cinna- 
mon 
1 cup raisins 
^ cup figs or dates 
I cup chopped wal- 
nuts 



Melt the fat; add the molasses and 
milk. Cut the fruit fine and dredge it 
with a few tablespoonfuls of the flour. 
Mix and sift dry ingredients, and add 
them to the first mixture; add fruit and 
chopped nuts. Turn into a greased 
mold, and steam two and one-half hours. 
Serve with Plum Pudding Sauce. If a 
wheatless pudding is desired, substitute 
one cup of barley flour and one-half cup 
rye flour for the Victory flour. 

Fruit Cake 



I cup firm vegetable 
fat, or clarified 
chicken fat 

1 cup honey, or Ij 
cups molasses 

5 eggs 

2 cups Victory flour 

1 teaspoonful cinna- 
mon 
I teaspoonful nutmeg 
§ teaspoonful allspice 
I teaspoonful mace 
i teaspoonful clove 
I cup grape juice 



f teaspoonful soda 
^ pound currants 
1 pound seeded raisins 
^ pound citron, cut 
fine 

1 pound chopped 
dates 

^ glass orange marma- 
lade, or I pound 
chopped figs 

J pound almonds, 
blanched and 
chopped 

2 squares chocolate 



Cream the fat and add the honey or 
molasses gradually. Separate the eggs 
and add the yolks, well beaten. Add 
whites of eggs, beaten until stiff and dry. 
Reserve one-fourth cup flour to dredge 
fruit; add spices and soda to remainder 
of flour, and sift into the mixture. Cut 
raisins in half, dredge fruit with the flour, 
and add all but the citron; add orange 
marmalade and almonds. Melt choco- 
late over hot water, and add it together 
with the grape juice. Put into greased 
pans, and add citron between layers of the 
cake mixture. Tie greased paper over 



top, and steam three hours, then bake in 
a very slow oven one and one-fourth 
hours. If a wheatless cake is desired, use 
one cup rye flour, and one cup barley 
flour instead of the Victory flour. 

Maple Cake 



I cup vegetable fat 

1 cup shaved maple 
sugar 

2 eggs 

^ cup milk 



If cups Victory flour 
3 teaspoonfuls baking 

powder 
J teaspoonful salt 
^ teaspoonful vanilla 

Cream the fat; add shaved maple sugar, 
gradually, and eggs beaten until light. 
Mix and sift the dry ingredients, and add 
them, alternately, with the milk. Add 
flavoring, and bake in a moderate oven 
for forty minutes. One cup maple syrup 
may be substituted for the maple sugar, 
and in this case only one-third cup milk 
will be required. If a wheatless cake is 
desired, use one cup barley flour, and one- 
half cup rice flour in place of the Victory 
flour. Other wheat substitutes may be 
used. When substituting rice, corn, or 
potato flour, use only one-half to three- 
fourths as much as would be required of 
wheat. Barley or rye flour may be used 
in the same proportions as wheat flour. 

Maple Syrup Frosting 

1 cup maple syrup White of 1 egg 

Boil maple syrup until it spins a thread 
when dropped from a fork. Pour, grad- 
ually, over the stiff-beaten white of egg, 
beating constantly, and continue beating 
until thick enough to spread. One cup 
corn syrup may be substituted for the 
maple syrup, but the frosting will be 
moist, and will never harden as the maple 
syrup frosting does. 

Decorating Christmas Cakes 

Christmas cakes, made in fancy shapes, 
may be frosted and decorated in many 
ways to suit the individual taste. To 
give variety, bake the cake, in three pans, 
each one smaller than the last, piling the 
cakes one on top of the other to form the 
pyramid shape show^n in the illustration. 



CHRISTMAS SWEETS WITHOUT SUGAR 



341 



Square pans may be used instead of 
round pans, which gives an unusual ap- 
pearance to the cake. The Maple Frost- 
ing is good for Christmas cakes, as the 
color makes a desirable back ground for 
the red and green decorations. The dec- 
orations should be put on the cake before 
the frosting becomes hard. The follow- 
ing may be used for decorating Christmas 
cakes: holly, cranberries, angelica, 
blanched almonds, candied cherries, or 
candied pineapple. Roses or other dec- 
orations can be made by pressing the 
frosting through a pastry tube and bag. 
For this purpose, the frosting must be 
beaten a long time, and should be very 
thick. *The Christmas Cake, shown in 
the illustration, is frosted with Maple 
Syrup Frosting, and decorated with cran- 
berries, holly berries and leaves, and red 
Christmas candles. The candle holders 
should be dipped in the frosting to pro- 
duce a uniform color. *The Fortified 
Victory Cake is decidedly patriotic in the 
arrangement . of its decorations, which 
consist of cranberries, angelica, blanched 
almonds, Christmas candles, and a flag. 

Maple Nut Candy 

3 cups maple syrup ^ cup chopped walnuts 

Boil the maple syrup until it forms a 
soft ball when tried in cold water (238 
degrees F.). Remove from fire, and 
beat until thick and creamy; add nuts 
and pour into a greased pan. When 
nearly cool, mark into squares with a 
knife. 

Honey Taffy 

2 cups strained honey | tablespoonful vinegar 

Boil the honey until it becomes brittle 
when tried in cold water. Honey burns 
easily, and care must be taken to have 
the fire low and to stir constantly during 
last part of the boiling. Just before re- 
moving from the fire, add the vinegar 
and pour into a greased pan. When cool 
enough to handle, pull until light in color 
.and cut into lengths with a pair of scis- 

* See page 351. 



sors. When cold, wrap each piece in 
paraffine paper, as tafi"y becomes sticky 
on exposure to the air. 

Christmas Candies 

An iron kettle is desirable in making 
candy, but an agate saucepan may be 
used instead. A candy thermometer is 
convenient, but not necessary, and in the 
following recipes the test is given besides 
the temperature. All the candies are 
made without cane sugar. 

Walnut Brittle 

2 cups white corn syrup | cup chopped walnuts 

Boil corn syrup until it becomes 
very brittle, when tried in cold water. 
Stir constantly toward end of boiling to 
prevent burning. Add nuts, pour into a 
greased pan, and when nearly cold mark 
into squares with a knife. If candy is to 
be kept any length of time, wrap in par- 
affine paper. 

Maple Syrup Fondant 

3 cups maple syrup 1-8 teaspoonful cream of 

tartar 

'^Boil maple syrup and cream of tartar 
until a soft ball, which will just hold its 
shape, is formed when tried in cold water 
(238^degrees F.). As the boiling syrup 
adheres to the sides of the kettle, it 
should be removed with a damp cloth, 
wrapped around the tines of a fork. The 
syrup should not be stirred while boiling. 
Remove from fire, and pour on a greased 
platter. When partly cool, but not hard 
on the edges, begin to work with a wooden 
spoon. When mixture begins to lump, 
knead and work with the hands, until 
perfectly smooth. Put in a bowl or jar, 
cover with parafi^ine paper, and allow to 
stand twenty-four hours, when it is ready 
to make up into various candies. 

Candies made from Fondant 

Bonbons may be made by rolling small 
pieces of fondant into balls, and dipping 
... Concluded, on page .j66 



342 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



AMERICAN COOKERY 

FORMERLY THE 

BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL 
MAGAZINE 

OF 
Culinary Science and Domestic Economics 

Subscription $1.50 perYear,Single Copies 15c 
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To other Foreign Countries, 40c per Year 

TO SUBSCRIBERS 

The date stamped on the wrapper is the date 
on which your subscription expires; it is, also, an 
acknowledgment that a subscription, or a renewal 
of the same, has been received. 

Please renew on receipt of the colored blank 
enclosed for this purpose. 

In sending notice to renew a subscription or 
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In referring to an original entry, we must know 
the name as it was formerly given, together with 
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or Street Number. 

Entered at Boston Post-office as Second-class Matter 



The Day and the Work 

To each man is given a day, and his work for the 

day; 
And once, and no more, he is given to travel this 

way. 
And woe if he flies from the task, whatever the 

odds; 
For the task is appointed to him on the scroll of 

the gods. 

There is waiting a work where only his hands can 

avail; 
And so, if he falters, a chord in the music will fail. 
He may laugh to the sky, he may lie for an hour 

in the sun; 
But he dare not go hence till the labor appointed 

is done. 

To each man is given a marble to carve for the 

wall; 
A stone that is needed to heighten the beautv of 

all; 
And only his soul has the magic to give it a grace; 
And only his hands have the cunning to put it in 

place. 

Yes, the task that is given to each man, no other 

can do; 
So the errand is waiting; it has waited through 

ages for you. 
And now you appear; and the Hushed Ones are 

turning their gaze 
To see what you do with your chance in the 

chamber of days. 

Edwin Markham in the Nautilus. 



THE OLD ORDER CHANGETH 

IN these days, affairs of the greatest con- 
cern are moving swiftly to a logical 
conclusion. Well nigh everywhere the 
privilege of suffrage is almost universally 
conceded to be a self-evident truth and 
the natural right of mankind. The use 
of alcohol, as a beverage, so long the curse 
of the human race, is almost prohibited 
among civilized peoples. The end of a 
world-wide war is in sight and an era of 
peace on earth and good will to man seems 
to be approaching as something more real 
than a dream or vision. When people 
come once more to themselves they will 
wonder what it was all about. The 
losses over the most prosperous parts of 
the earth have been enormous and awful: 
they can neither be estimated in figures, 
told in words, nor realized in thought. 
From a material point of view certainly 
no nation involved in the conflict has 
gained anything. Years, even genera- 
tions, will be required to repair the dread 
havoc wrought by war. May we, at 
least, cherish the hope that as a final re- 
sult, some great wrongs may be righted, 
and the reign of justice and righteousness 
be more widely spread over the earth. 

JUSTICE AND FAIR-DEALING 

IN times of war everybody is supposed 
to suffer more or less. The cost of 
living in all its phases invariably goes up, 
as is so manifestly the case today. Every- 
body, too, is supposed to share the ex- 
penses of war, for war means destruction, 
loss and misery. And yet, in this land, 
and no doubt in other lands, there are 
those who have prospered in the past four 
years as never before. Strange as it may 
seem, many have grown rich on the mis- 
fortunes- of others. Wrong is somewhere; 
it cannot be explained or justified. We 
call these individuals profiteers, and prof- 
iteers are many. In payment of the ex- 
traordinary expenditures of the times, it 
seems to us only just and fair that these 
people should be taxed most heavily and 
contribute most lavishly. Justice and. 



EDITORIALS 



343 



fair-dealing are the order of the day. 
Who has not suffered from wrong? Who 
has wrongs to right that were not in- 
flicted through injustice? In every con- 
dition of life and under every form of gov- 
ernment we want, above all else, simple 
justice. Even in religion we want justice, 
seasoned, perhaps, with mercy. Can it 
be true that right and not might is to be 
the rule of earth henceforth? 

READJUSTMENT 

THE matter of readjustment of in- 
dustries to normal conditions after 
the war looms before us. It is a most 
stupendous proposition. Of the many 
and conflicting features of the situation, 
the food problem is, perhaps, the foremost 
and most perplexing of them all. Hunger 
makes people restless, discontented and 
lawless. In every land and clime the 
primal need of the people is food. War 
breeds want, famine and misery. Al- 
ready in large tracts of the earth starva- 
tion has become a menace to life. *' Unless 
food is forthcoming in the half-starved 
regions of Europe there will be red revolu- 
tion everywhere. History has proved, on 
many occasions, that hunger is the prime 
instigator of terrorism." It is up to 
America, it seems, for the present at least, 
to help provide the food supply for the 
greater part of Europe. To accomplish 
this we must still continue to observe our 
several lines of economies, and increase 
our varied productions in order to re- 
lieve, as far as possible, the absolute ne- 
cessities of distracted nations abroad. A 
single year devoted solely to peaceful pur- 
suits will bring about great changes in the 
present disrupted state of world-wide 
affairs. Speed the time when "people 
shall beat their swords into plowshares, 
and their spears into pruning hooks; na- 
tion shall not lift up a sword against 
nation, neither shall they learn war any 
more." 



c 



BACK TO THE LAND 

OULD some millions of well-to-do 
women endure a season of freedom 



"from the tyranny of parlor curtains and 
dust-cloths," for the good of the nation? 
The query is suggested by a narration of 
this summer's experience of a mid-west- 
ern merchant, past draft age and with 
grown children in the war. He sold his 
store last spring, intending to retire. He 
found that the old farm homestead, still a 
family possession, was without a tenant. 
His report follows: "My wife and I went 
down to the farm and camped for six 
weeks in the sugarhouse. I put up 
twenty-five tons of hay worth ?30 a ton, 
and plowed seventeen acres which I sowed 
to wheat. My wife said she had not been 
free for thirty years from the tyranny of 
parlor curtains and dust cloths, and we 
greatly enjoyed the experience." 

There were other details of clear profit, 
material and spiritual, in dewy mornings, 
fresh mushrooms, a too generous avoirdu- 
pois of 255 reduced to 220, and bettered 
health in general; but the main point was 
that this couple will have a credit in due 
course of some eighty barrels of flour and 
more than two tons of bran, as their addi- 
tion to the nation's food supply. From 
the merely financial point of view they 
could well afford to remain non-producers 
and consumers. They chose another 
course. 

It is actual, direct work toward food- 
production which the country needs, from 
every one who can do it. The govern- 
ment does not now measure in bushels the 
amount of food supplies which this coun- 
try must furnish; it speaks of millions of 
tons. And for the current year, we shall 
have to send abroad 6,000,000 tons more 
than we sent last year, or an increase of 
nearly 50 per cent above our past enor- 
mous shipping. 

Every one who can. must help, in this 
serious, vital, primitive human work of 
adding to the food supply. It is needless 
to say, also, that saving must be unrelax- 
ing and comprehensive, as well. But let 
production be kept in mind and furthered 
in every possible way. That is the posi- 
tive side of the problem; the saving is the 
negative side. We cannot save what is 



344 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



not produced. And if care of "parlor 
curtains and dust-cloths" appears to 
stand in the way of any farmerette, of full 
rank or brevet, then let courage be sum- 
moned for a bit of study in neglect of 
non-essentials — ■ till the war famine is at 
an end. This will not be for many 
months after peace is won and signed and 
clinched fast! — The Boston Herald. 



PEACE BY NEGOTIATION 

AN answer to any proposals for peace 
by negotiation at the present time 
is contained in one line from Lowell: 
"They enslave their children's children, 
who make compromise with sin." And 
this is to be held to not out of sense of 
past injury, or any resentment or vin- 
dictiveness that ought to be cleaned out 
of the mind. The root of it is something 
that ought not to be forgiven, and cannot 
be forgotten. The disposition to forgive 
and forget is admirable with reference to 
things that thus would sink into oblivion. 
The things we are set to overcome are 
things that never will sink into oblivion. 
They are not, indeed, things in them- 
selves, mere events; they are principles, 
which, unless exterminated, will spring 
up into new evils; they are like the drag- 
ons in the stories, that must be destroyed 
utterly. Our duty is not punishment, as 
a penalty for wrong, a satisfaction of 
moral indignation; our duty is to lay the 
axe at the root of the tree, so that gov- 
ernments, resting on falsehood, lust, and 
cruelty, shall perish. While they are 
suing for peace they are continuing their 
black deeds, sinking hospital ships, laying 
waste, wantonly and without military 
necessity, towns, cities, and territory 
thickly populated, and dragging people 
into slavery. There needs a new Edmund 
Burke, to impeach, with scorching niolten 
words, the man and men who have com- 
mitted high crimes and misdemeanors, 
and commit them still. These men must 
be brought before the bar of the parlia- 
ment of the world and there learn what 
will makepeace. — The Christian Register. 



THIS Christmas number of American 
Cookery is full of good things for 
housewives. As we go to press the end 
of the war has come. Surely a Merry 
Christmas and a Happy New Year are 
before us. As we pass from the old state 
of the sad past to the new state of the 
hopeful future, let us all cheer up and 
smile once more. Grateful for kindly 
support in time of stress, may we re- 
mind you not to forget or neglect your 
American Cookery now. Help to en- 
large and strengthen our list of sub- 
scribers. 

GOOD POINTS OF AMERICAN 
COOKERY 



— ■ adheres to what it sets out to be 
— • a cookery magazine. 

— makes cooking a fine art and a 

joy- 

— embraces both the art and 



A 

M 
E 

Tj — renews flagging interest in every- 

T — inspires housewifely ambition 
-*■ and pride. 

— clear type makes reading a de- 
light. 

— advertises books and articles 
that help. 

— neat size makes pleasant to 



science of food preparation, 
renews flag 
day duties. 



N 

C 
O 

o 

K 
E 
R 
Y 



handle. 

carries incentive to the highest 
home-making. 

offers new suggestions that at- 
tract to new endeavor, 
opens in its exchange a give-and- 
take that makes neighbors of 
remote correspondents, 
keeps up unfailing freshness in 
diversified contents, 
each number cements the bond 
between magazine and reader, 
radiates brightness for the whole 
family. 

yields more for the subscription 
price than any magazine of its 
kind published. 

M.A. S. 




DETAIL OF ONE COVER FOR BREAKFAST 

Seasonable and Tested Recipes 

By Janet M. Hill 

TN ALL recipes where flour is used, unless otherwise stated, the flour is measured after sifting 

once. Where flour is measured by cups, the cup is filled with a spoon, and a level cupful is 

meant. A tablespoonful or teaspoonful of any designated material is a LEVEL spoonful. In flour 

mixtures where yeast is called for, use bread flour; in all other flour mixtures, use cake or pastry flour. 



Belgium Soup 

Use the water in which a fish was boiled, 
or, cover the cleaned heads, the bones and 
trimmings of two or three fresh fish with 
cold water. Cover and let simmer 
slowly, twenty minutes after the boiling 
point is reached; drain off the broth. 
For one quart of broth, stir half an onion, 
sliced thin, and a stalk of celery, cut fine 
(leaves and all), in two tablespoonfuls of 
vegetable oil until softened and yellowed; 
add a cup of cold water and let simmer 
half an hour, then strain into the fish 
broth, pressing out all the liquid and 
pulp possible. Cook one-fourth a cup 
of flour, a teaspoonful of salt, and half 
a teaspoonful of pepper in one-fourth a 
cup of hot fat; add one quart of milk and 
stir until boiling. To the boiling fish 
stock add two dozen oysters, and shake 
gently until the broth again boils; add 
a teaspoonful of salt, skim as needed, and 
pour into the milk sauce. A cup of 



cream may be added at pleasure; serve 
at once. 

Corn Chowder de Luxe 

Peel a mild onion of medium size and 
cut it in thin shreds. Wash two stalks 
of tender celery (outside stalks, if they 
are solid without too many coarse 
threads), and cut stalks and leaves into 
fine slices; put the onion and celery over 
the fire in two or three tablespoonfuls of 
vegetable oil, chicken or pork fat, and let 
cook slowly, stirring occasionally, until 
the vegetables are softened and yellowed 
a little; add about two cups of broth or 
boiling water and let cook about an hour. 
Half an hour before serving, pour boiling 
water on three medium-sized potatoes, 
pared and cut in thin slices; let boil two 
minutes, drain and add to the celery, etc., 
and let cook (adding water to cover, if 
needed), until the potatoes are about 
tender. Meanwhile cook three table- 



345 



346 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



spoonfuls of flour, one teaspoonful of 
salt, and half a teaspoonful of pepper 
in three tablespoonfuls of hot fat; add 
two cups of cold milk and stir until boil- 
ing; add one or two cups of hot milk, and 
stir till smooth; add, by degrees, to one 
cup and a half of corn pulp, or two cups 
of ordinary canned corn, and when 
smoothly blended, add to the potatoes 
and vegetables; let boil one minute; 



celery and pork should cook about an 
hour. Cook three tablespoonfuls of flour, 
half a teaspoonful of salt and one-fourth 
a teaspoonful of pepper in three table- 
spoonfuls of fat; add two cups of milk 
and stir until boiling, then add to the 
stew; if too thick add more milk. Sprinkle 
with two tablespoonfuls of fine-chopped 
parsley, and add more salt and pepper, 
as is needed. 




A LAYER FISH-PIE. READY FOR OVEX WHEN" MILK IS ADDED 



add more salt if needed, and sprinkle with 
fine-chopped parsley. 

Vegetable Stew 

Cut two slices of fat salt pork in tiny 
cubes, and let cook over a slack fire until 
crisp; skim out the bits of pork and add 
an onion, peeled, cut in thin slices and the 
slices separated into rings, a cup of sliced 
celery, and a cup of sliced carrot; stir 
until yellowed and softened a little; re- 
turn the bits of pork, add a quart of boil- 
ing water, cover and let cook. Alean- 
while pour boiling water over a pint of 
raw potatoes, cut in cubes or slices; heat 
to the boiling point, let boil five minutes, 
drain, rinse in cold water and drain again, 
then add to the other vegetables and let 
cook about twenty minutes longer, or 
until the potato is done. The onion. 



A Layer Fish-Pie 

Grease a casserole; to serve four, have 
about one pound and a half of fresh fish 
(flounder, hake, haddock, cod or pollock) 
in slices or filets, freed of all bones and 
skin, one onion, cut in very thin slices 
and cooked, without discoloring, in one 
or two tablespoonfuls of vegetable fat 
until softened, one cup and a half of 
pared-and-sliced potatoes, parboiled in 
boiling water about eight minutes and 
drained. Set a layer of fish in the cas- 
serole; add a layer of potatoes, another 
layer of fish, the onion, a few bits of 
butter or a sprinkling of vegetable oil and 
the rest of the potatoes. Sprinkle on a 
teaspoonful of salt and about half a tea- 
spoonful of black pepper; add hot milk, 
just to cover the potato. Let bake about 
one hour; serve in the casserole. 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



347 




HAM TFMBALES WITH BRUSSELS SPROUTS 



Fresh Cod or Haddock Saute 

Cut fat salt pork in very thin slices; 
over it pour boiling water, let stand two 
minutes, then dip the slices, one at a 
time, in flour and set into a cast-iron 
frying pan; let cook slowly until the fat 
is well drawn out, and the pork nicely 
browned on one side; turn and brown the 
other side. Remove the pork and keep 
it hot. Have the fish removed from the 
back bone in two long strips; cut these 
in pieces of a size for serving; roll in flour 
and cook in the hot fat (not too fast), 
until brown on one side; turn and brown 
the other side. Serve on a hot dish with 
the pork around the fish. The fish will 
hold its shape better and may be cooked 
more easily and thoroughly, if made 
ready as above, rather than when cut in 
slices across the grain of the fish and 
through the bone. The head and bones 



should be used at once to make broth for 
soup or chowder. 

Ham Timbales with Brussels 
Sprouts 

Beat two eggs; add one cup of cold, 
cooked ham, chopped fine, one-fourth a 
cup of sifted bread crumbs, half a tea- 
spoonful of salt, one-fourth a teaspoonful 
of paprika and one cup and a half of rich 
milk. Mix thoroughly and turn into 
molds thoroughly greased and sprinkled 
with fine-chopped truffles or capers or 
sifted hard-cooked egg. Let cook sur- 
rounded with boiling water (without 
boiling thereafter), until firm throughout. 
Unmold on a hot dish; surround with 
Brussels sprouts, cooked tender and sea- 
soned with butter, salt and pepper, or 
stirred into a cup and a half of cream 
sauce. 







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MASHED POTATO, SAUSAGE, APPLE QUARTERS, COOKED 



348 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Sausage with Mashed Potato 
and Apples 

Prick the sausage links on all sides, 
cover with boiling water, let boil five 
minutes; drain and let cook in the oven 
until cooked as desired. The heat of the 
oven should be moderate or the sausage 
will be quickly overcooked. Watch and 
shake the pan often to cook evenly. 
Mash the potatoes; add hot milk, butter 
and salt and beat until very light; shape 
in a mound on a hot dish; surround with 
the sausage; pipe a little of the potato 
between the sausage to hold them in 
place and set cooked quarters of apples 
around the dish. 



sausage. Quite as often the full length 
of the rib bones is left on the roast, and 
when served cold the bone is held in the 
hand for eating. Cook the meat on a 
rack, in a very moderate oven, about 
twenty minutes to the pound. Baste 
often with the fat in the pan, dredging 
with flour after each basting; serve with 
apple sauce. In the illustration the 
pork was garnished with parsley, and 
sliced tomatoes, ripened, after wrapping 
in paper, in a cool dry room in a cellar. 

Oysters, Florentine Style 

For two persons heat one dozen 
cleaned oysters to the boiling point in 




ROAST RIBS OF PORK, PARSLEY AND TOMATOES RIPENED IN PAPER, SLICED 



Apples to Serve with Sausage 

Pare, quarter and core three or four 
apples; have ready a hot syrup, made by 
cooking half a cup of sugar or honey in an 
equal measure of water; set the quarters 
of apples, separately, into the syrup, and 
let cook, turning often, till tender and 
transparent. 

Roast Ribs of Pork 

The ribs and loin are the choicest cuts 
of pork for roasting. In the roast of pork, 
shown in the illustration, the rib bones 
were cut short and the meat on the bones 
cut off and the flank used in making 



their own liquid; skim out the oysters 
and keep them hot in a covered dish. 
Melt two tablespoonfuls of butter; in 
it cook two tablespoonfuls of flour and 
one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, of salt 
and black pepper until bubbling through- 
out; add the oyster liquor, with milk or 
cream, to make one cup in all, and stir 
until boiling; add the yolk of one egg, 
beaten and diluted with one teaspoon- 
ful of lemon juice, and stir without boil- 
ing about two minutes. Set a layer of 
hot, plain, boiled spinach on a serving 
dish and spread a layer of sauce over the 
spinach; on this set the oysters; pour 
over the rest of the sauce, sprinkle with 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



349 




APPLE SHORTCAKE WITH HONEl 



one or two tablespoonfuls of grated 
cheese and serve at once. The cheese 
may be omitted. 

Risotto Air Artigiana 

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter or 
vegetable oil into a casserole or saucepan; 
add two ounces (or one-fourth a cup) 
of fine-chopped ham, bacon or sausage, 
half a large onion, a small carrot, two 
branches of parsley, and two inner stalks 
of celery, all chopped fine; add one 
pound of veal, lamb or chicken, cut in 
small pieces, and cook and stir constantly, 
until all are yellowed a little; add about 
a quart of boiling water and let the whole 
simmer very gently until the meat is about 



done, adding broth or water as needed; 
add three-fourths a cup of rice, a tea- 
spoonful of salt and let cook until the 
rice is just tender, adding broth or water 
as is needed. When cooked the dish 
should not be too firm nor yet sloppy. 
Turn into a hot serving dish; set three 
tablespoonfuls of butter above, and 
sprinkle the whole with half a cup or more 
of grated Parmesan or other cheese. 

Apple Shortcake with Honey 

Sift together one cup, each, of oat and 
rye or barley flour, four teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder, and half a teaspoonful of 
salt. Work in three tablespoonfuls of 
shortening, then adding milk as needed. 




CHOCOLATE CUSTARD, WHIPPED CREAM, FRUIT JELLY 



350 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



mix to a soft dough. Spread the dough 
in two, small-sized, layer-cake pans, care- 
fully greased. Bake about twenty min- 
utes. Spread one layer with butter; 
cover with apples stewed without sugar 
and very little water, and pour over 
strained honey; set the second layer 
above, spread with butter; cover with 
hot apples, and pour honey over the 
whole. Syrup may be used instead of 
honey. 

Chocolate Custard 

Scald three cups of milk; sift two level 
teaspoonfuls of cornstarch with one-halt 
a teaspoonful of salt and two tablespoon- 
luls of sugar several times, then stir into 
the hot milk; continue to stir until the 
mixture thickens slightly; cover and let 



above the custard; add a few bits of fruit 
jelly to the top of the cream for the color. 

Banana Charlotte Russe 

Cut half a banana in slices; over it 
squeeze a little lemon juice, to keep it 
from discoloring, and set aside in a cool 
place. Scrape the coarse threads from 
two bananas and one half, then press 
through a ricer. There should be one 
cup of puree. Scald the puree with the 
rest of the juice from the lemon (over 
boiling water); add one tablespoonful 
Oi granulated gelatine, softened in one- 
fourth a cup of cold water. Put three- 
fourths a cup of corn syrup, and one- 
fourth a cup of sugar in a double boiler 
with the whites of two eggs. Have the 
water in the lower part of the boiler boil- 




BANANA CHARLOTTE RUSSE 



cook httcjn minutes, stirring occasionally. 
Have ready one square (ounce) of choco- 
late, melted over hot water; add two or 
three tablespoonfuls of the hot mixture, 
and stir and cook over the fire until 
smooth, adding more of the mixture, 
meanwhile, if needed; when smooth, beat 
into the rest of the hot mixture. Beat 
two whole eggs, or four yolks; add one- 
third a cup of syrup, honey or sugar, and 
beat again, then stir and cook in the hot 
mixture until the egg is "set." 

Flavor w4th a teaspoonful of vanilla, 
when cold. Serve in cups with a spoon- 
ful of cream, thickened with cremo-vesco. 



ing rapidly; beat and cook the mixture 
constantly seven minutes. Spread one- 
half of this frosting on paper, fastened to 
boards one inch thick, in the shape of 
lady fingers; dredge with a few grains of 
sugar and let cook in a very moderate 
oven till firm and colored slightly. It 
should take about half an hour; beat 
the rest of the mixture into the banana 
mixture. Stir, in ice and water, till the 
mixture begins to jelly, then fold in one 
cup of cream, beaten very light. When 
the mixture will hold its shape, put it by 
spoonfuls into a mold lined with the slices 
of banana and the lady-finger meringues. 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



351 



Snow Apple 

Pare, quarter and core tart apples; add 
boiling water and let cook over a quick 
iire until tender. Press through a sieve. 
To two cups of thick pulp add half a cup 
of honey or sugar, or half of each and the 
juice and grated rind of half a lemon. 
Heat to the boiling point; add one table- 
spoonful and a half of granulated gelatine, 
softened in one-third a cup of cold water, 
and stir until the gelatine is melted. 
Chill and when the mixture begins to 
jelly, add the stiffly-beaten whites of two 
eggs, and beat with a Dover egg-beater 
until very firm. Turn into a mold, and 
when firm serve, unmolded, with cream 
or boiled custard. 

Cornstarch Blancmange 

Scald two cups of milk; mix one-third 
a cup of cornstarch, half a teaspoonful of 
salt and two tablespoonfuls of sugar, 
honey or syrup with half a cup of cold 
milk to a smooth consistency, then stir 
it into the hot milk; continue to stir 
until the mixture thickens, then cover 
and let cook, stirring occasionally, twenty 
minutes. Fold in the white of one egg, 
beaten very light, and when the egg is 
cooked (about three minutes), turn into 
one large, or five small molds. Serve 
when cold and firm, unmolded, with a cold 

Compote of Bananas 

Make a syrup of half a cup of sugar, 
syrup or honey and half a cup of water. 
Peel and scrape two or three bananas, 
then cut in thin, even sHces; add to the 
syrup and let boil all over, shaking the 
pan a little to cook all the slices evenly. 
A little lemon or vanilla extract may be 
added, or thin lemon or orange rind may 
be cooked in the syrup. Skim the ba- 
nanas, as they soften, to a plate. When 
all are cooked (kept in whole slices), boil 
down the syrup a little. When cool add 
the bananas and use. 

Christmas Fruit Salad 

For each service take: a slice of pine- 




FORTIFIED VICTORY CAKE (Page 341) 

apple, the flesh of one-fourth a grape- 
fruit, half a canned pear, about three 
heart-leaves of lettuce, two tablespoon- 
fuls of fruit juice (syrup from canned 
fruit included), half a teaspoonful of 
lemon juice, two tablespoonfuls of olive 
oil, and one-fourth a teaspoonful, each, 
of salt and paprika. Dispose the fruit 
in attractive pieces on the lettuce. Beat 
the other ingredients with a Dover egg- 




CHRISTMAS CAKE (Page 341) 



352 



AMERICAN COOKERY 









CHRISTMAS FRUIT CUP 



beater, until thickened a little (or shake 
in a fruit jar, closed securely with rubber 
ring), pour over the fruit and serve at 
once. Blend the dressing the last mo- 
ment before using; it thins somewhat on 
standing. A bright cherry may be used 
as a garnish. 

Prune-and-Cottage Cheese Salad 

Soak choice prunes overnight; cook 
quickly, till tender. When cold cut open 
each prune on one side, the entire length, 
and take out the stone; cut the flesh in 
smooth even pieces. Press cottage cheese 
under a weight for an hour or longer, then 
cut in half-inch cubes. Beat, for each 
service, two tablespoonfuls of prune juice 
(reduced by cooking till quite thick), a 
teaspoonful, each, of lemon juice and 
sugar or strained honey, and two table- 



spoonfuls of olive oil until thick. Set 
a layer of the prepared prunes on lettuce 
hearts, the cheese above; pour over the 
dressing and serve at once. Nut meats, 
cut in slices, may be added with the cheese 
or fruit, or sprinkled over the whole. 

Christmas Fruit Cup 

For five glasses, take one orange, three 
bananas, half a package of dates, one cup 
of white grapes, measured after they are 
skinned, cut in halves and seeded, twelve 
pistachio nuts, the juice of half a lemon, 
fruit syrup, and three-fourths a cup of 
cream. Remove all peel and white mem- 
brane from the orange, separate into sec- 
tions and free each section of all the white 
portion possible, then cut in halves, 
crosswise. Remove the peel from the 
bananaS; scrape the pulp to remove 




NUT. DATE-AXD-CHOCOLATE SWEETMEAT 



SEASONABLE AND TESTED RECIPES 



353 



coarse threads, cut in thin, even slices, 
and squeeze over them the juice from the 
half lemon. Pour boiling water over the 
dates, stir and skim to an agate plate, 
let become hot in the oven, then cut in 
sections from the seeds. Mix all the 
fruit together, then dispose in the glasses, 
pouring the fruit syrup over it. Whip 
the cream and pipe it above the fruit. 
Blanch and chop the nuts and sprinkle 
over the cream; serve very cold. For 
fruit syrup use the liquid from canned 
fruit or use fruit jelly melted in a little 
boiling water. Four or five halves of 
canned peaches or apricots or slices of 
pineapple may replace the orange, when 
the juice of the fruit becomes available. 
Thin cream, thickened with cremo-vesco, 
may be whipped for the top of the fruit. 

Nut, Date-and-Chocolate 
Sweetmeat 

Heat four tablespoonfuls (one-fourth a 
cup) of honey or maple syrup to the boil- 
ing point; add half a pound of "Dot" 
chocolate (slightly sweet coating choco- 
late), and let stand over hot water till the 
chocolate is soft throughout; add one 
package of dates, cut from the seeds in 
small even pieces, half a cup of blanched 
almonds, cut in shreds, and one teaspoon- 
ful of vanilla extract. Mix with a 
wooden spoon to blend thoroughly the 
whole. Have ready a brick-shaped ice- 
cream mold, or a small bread pan, lined 
smoothly with parchment paper. Press 
the mixture into the prepared dish, 
spread parchment paper over it, then on 
it lay a board, holding a weight. Let 
stand six hours or longer to ripen. Re- 
move from paper and cut in small pieces. 

One-Egg Cake 

Beat one-fourth a cup of shortening to 
a cream; gradually beat in one-fourth a 
cup of sugar, and one-fourth a cup of 
honey or syrup; add one egg, beaten 
light, the grated rind of a lemon, and, 
alternately, half a cup of milk (scant), 
one cup of wheat flour, one-fourth a cup 
of rice flour, and two teaspoonfuls of bak- 
ing powder, sifted together. Bake in a 



sheet about twenty minutes. Serve fresh- 
baked with Chocolate Custard. 

Samboy Rolls 

(Chicago Hotel) 
Sift together one cup of wheat flour, 
two cups of cornmeal, two tablespoonfuls 
of sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt, and 
six teaspoonfuls of baking powder; add 
three tablespoonfuls of vegetable oil and 
three cups of milk. Pour into hot, well- 
greased muffin tins and bake about 
fifteen minutes. 

Potato-Flour Muffins 

(Marshall Field's Tea Room) 
Beat the whites of four eggs very stiff; 
beat the yolks of four eggs quite thick, 
then beat in half a teaspoonful of salt, and 
one tablespoonful of sugar and fold into 
the whites; sift on half a cup of potato 
flour and half a teaspoonful of baking 
powder, that have been sifted together 
twice, and fold the two mixtures to- 
gether; lastly, fold in two tablespoonfuls 
of ICE water. Bake in hot, well- 
greased muffin tins, in a moderate oven, 
twenty to thirty minutes. These muffins 
are particularly tender and delicate. 

Peanut-Butter Rabbit 

(South Dakota State College) 
Melt one tablespoonful of butter; in 
it cook one tablespoonful of flour, half a 
teaspoonful (scant) of salt, half a tea- 
spoonful of mustard and one-eighth a tea- 
spoonful of cayenne; add one cup of milk 
and stir until boiling, then stir in half a 
cup of peanut butter; serve on crackers, 
or on the untoasted side of. bread, toasted 
on but one side. 

Onions w^ith Peanut-Butter Sauce 

Boil peeled onions till done. To serve 
six, make one cup of cream sauce; beat 
into it one-fourth a cup of peanut butter 
and pour over the onions. The onions 
should be kept whole until cooked; add 
salt a short time before they are done. 
When cooked, open each onion a little at 
one side, that the flavor of the sauce may 
penetrate it more thoroughly. 



Well-Balanced Menus for Week in December. 



Breakfast 

Cream of Wheat, Sliced Bananas, Top Milk 

Milk Toast (Boston Brown Bread) 

Zwiebach 

Coffee Cocoa 

Dinner 

Belgium Soup 

Celery Olives 

Tongue in Jellied Bouillon 

Cabbage Salad 

Rye Bread 

Apple Pie Cheese 

Supper 

Peanut Butter Rabbit 

Scalloped Tomatoes 

Chocolate Custard One-Egg Cake 



Breakfast 

Barley Meal Mush, Top Milk 

Sausage 

Potatoes Hashed in Milk 

Apples, Quartered and Cored, Baked 

Spider Corncake 

Coffee Cocoa 

Luncheon 

Salmon Croquettes (baked or fried) 

Canned Peas Cabbage Salad 

Apple Shortcake 

Dinner 

Risotto all 'Artigiana 

Squash Celery 

Quick Ryemeal Rolls (yeast) 

Jellied Prunes, Custard Sauce 



Breakfast 

Puffed Rice, Top Milk 

Broiled Salt Mackerel 

Potatoes Cooked in Milk 

Victory Bread, Toasted 

Coffee Cocoa 

Luncheon 

Cheese Souffle 

Tomato Sauce 

Rye Meal Muffins 

Oatmeal Cracker Cake 

Quince Marmalade or Honey 

Dinner 

Pork Chops, Baked 

Mashed Potatoes 

Brussels Sprouts, Buttered 

Celery Hearts 

Squash Pie 



Breakfast 

Bananas 
Fried Cornmeal Mush, Syrup 
Ryemeal Rolls (reheated) 
Milk ' Coffee 

Luncheon 

Sausage, Mashed Potatoes, 

Cooked Apples 

Hot Boston Brown Bread 

Molasses Popcorn Balls 

Dinner 

Halves of Grapefruit 
Lamb Chops Stuffed with 

Macaroni, etc., Breaded, Baked 
Sweet Potatoes, Southern Style 
Brussels Sprouts, Buttered 
Chocolate Cottage Pudding, Foamy Sauce 



Breakfast 

Cream of Wheat, Hot Dates, Top Milk 

Tongue-and-Potato Hash 

Cornpuff Griddle Cakes 

Coffee Cocoa 

Luncheon 

Stewed Lima Beans (dried) 
Wheat-and-Barley Biscuit 
Lettuce Salad 
Cake Hot Cocoa 

Dinner 

Boiled Salmon (middle cut) 

Drawn-Butter Sauce 

Boiled Potatoes Boiled Onions Cole Slaw 

Canned Pineapple 

Quick- Yeast Biscuit Cheese 



Breakfast 

Hulled Corn, Syrup, Top Milk 

Salt Codfish Balls, Tomato Sweet Pickles 

Samboy Rolls Victory Bread, Toasted 

Milk Cocoa Coffee 

Luncheon 

Baked Mexican Rabbit 

Lettuce, French Dressing 

Bread Sticks (whole wheat, rice flour) 

Cornstarch Blancmange, Compote of Bananas 

Dinner 

Filets of Fish, Baked 

(victory-bread dressing between) 

Mashed Potatoes 
Cauliflower, Drawn-Butter Sauce 
Cold Canned Spinach, Molded, 

Vinaigrette Sauce 
Toasted Crackers Cheese 



Breakfast 

Cornmeal Mush, Grated Cheese 
Baked Sweet Apples (reheated) 
Salt Pork, Sliced very Thin, 

(Floured, Cooked Slow) 
Potatoes Hashed in Milk 
Ryemeal Muffins 
Milk Cocoa Coffee 



Luncheon 

Salmon Salad 

Wheat-afid-Barley Biscuit 

Mince Pie 

Cottage Cheese 



354 



Dinner 

Boiled Brisket of Fresh Beef, 

Horseradish 

Boiled Turnips 

Boiled Potatoes 

Lettuce, Date-and-Apple Salad 

French Dressing 

Toasted Crackers 



Menus for Simple Christmas and Sunday Night 


Suppers 


I 


VII 


Chicken a la King 

Victory Bread, Toasted 

Lettuce and Cress, French Dressing 


Cream of Corn Soup 
Toasted Crackers 


Honey Cookies 


Cold Boiled Tongue 


Chocolate Custard, Cream, Jelly 


Molded Spinach, Sauce Tartare 


II - 


Yeast Rolls 


Oysters, Florentine Style 


Blushing Apples, Orange Sauce 


(canned chard or spinach) 


VIII 


Potato Flour Muffins 


Lemon Sherbet 


Baked Mexican Rabbit 


Lemon Queen Cakes 


Lettuce and Cress, French Dressing 


HI 


Parker House Rolls 


Welsh Rabbit 


(wheat and rice flour) 


Lettuce, Date-and-Apple Salad 

(French dressing) 

Yeast Rolls (reheated) 


Quince-Apple-and-Cranberry Jelly 
Tea 


IV 


IX 


Prune-and-Cottage Cheese Salad 




Noisette Bread-and-Butter Sandwiches 


Fresh Fish Salad, Sauce Tartare 


Hot Cocoa, Marshmallows 


Quick Ryemeal Rolls 


Ginger Snaps 


(yeast, reheated) 


V 


Christmas Fruit Cup 


Chicken Salad 


Half Cups Coffee 


Quick Ryemeal Biscuit 




(yeast) 


X 


Vanilla Ice Cream 




Oatmeal Macaroons 


Cheese Croquettes 




Lettuce, Apple-and-Date Salad, 


VI 


French Dressing 


Oyster Soup 

Celery Cucumber Rings 

Victory Bread Sticks (reheated) 


Victory Bread-and-Butter Sandwiches 
Brioche Coffee Cakes 


Constarch Blancmange, 


(wheat and rice flour) 


Banana Compote 


Coffee 



355 



Food Notes for December 



By Janet M. Hill 
Muffins 



AT the present time, baking powder, 
or quick muffins, are probably 
served more times in a week, and 
in larger number of families, than at any 
other time in their history. We certainly 
ought to have learned to make them most 
successfully by now. 

Muffins may be made of most every 
sort of flour, meal, cooked cereal or mush, 
bread crumbs and ready-to-eat cereal. 
Often nothing enters into them save flour 
or meal, leavening agent and water. Sugar 
or some form of sweet may not be essen- 
tial to a really choice muffin, but the use 
of eggs, milk and shortening, even if in 
very limited quantities, add much to the 
palatability and food value of muffins. 

Except in the case of one or two special 
varieties of muffins, the best product is 
secured when use is made of both flour 
and meal in equal quantity, or, at least, 
of no more meal than flour. The flour is 
not necessarily of wheat. 

The use of cooked breakfast cereal, 
mush or rice, gives a moist product and 
calls for longer cooking, or a hotter oven 
to bring out the brown tint so enjoyed in 
the crust of the muffin. Dry flour or 
meal, especially if milk or shortening is 
used, browns very quickly. Shortening 
makes a crisp crust. The larger the com- 
partments in the muffin pan are, the more 
surface is there to crisp. 

Thus the pan in which the muffins are 
cooked has something to do with the 
quality of the finished product. For any 
variety of muffin the best results are ob- 



tained when a heavy, iron pan, thor- 
oughly heated, is used. For muffins with 
the maximum of crust, use a bread-stick 
pan, and a French roll pan. The usual 
muffin recipe, which makes a dozen muf- 
fins, will fill a bread-stick pan of a dozen 
and a French-roll pan of six compart- 
ments. The recipe for Potato Flour 
Muffins, given in the "Seasonable Re- 
cipes," is from the Tea-Room at Marshall 
Field's store in Chicago. When properly 
made and baked nothing more delicate 
in muffins can be evolved. The mixing is 
similar to that of a sponge cake, and just 
as much care in mixing is needed to re- 
tain the air beaten into the eggs. The 
pan should be hot, and the oven of moder- 
ate heat. Do not move the pan while in 
the oven, until the muffins are baked, then 
remove at once. 

In general, the manner of mixing muf- 
fins depends on the quantity of shortening 
and sugar to be used. If the recipe calls 
for less than one-fourth a cup, each, of 
shortening and sugar, it will make but 
little, if any, difference in the texture of 
the finished product whether the sugar is 
added with the other dry ingredients, and 
the shortening melted and added last, or 
the shortening be creamed and the sugar 
beaten into it; the first method, being 
the simplest, is usually employed. For 
a richer muffin, the last method is prac- 
ticed. 

It should be needless to add, that, to 
keep the odor of burned fat out of the 
house, the hot muffin pan should not be. 



356 



FOOD NOTES FOR DECEMBER 



357 



greased until the mixture is ready for the 
pan. Quick work in mixing the batter, 
filling the pan, and getting it into the 
oven have much to do with the quality of 
the muffins. For a plain muffin, the fol- 
lowing recipe can be varied almost in- 
definitely, with good success. 



1 cup meal (rye is par- 
ticularly good) 
1 cup flour 

3 tablespoonfuls sugar 
^ teaspoonful salt 



4 teaspoonfuls baking 
powder 

1 egg beaten light 
Ij cups milk 

2 tablespoonfuls 
melted shortening 



Put all the dry ingredients into a sieve 
together and sift into a bowl; add the 
liquid ingredients and mix thoroughly. 
Put into a hot, well-greased, iron muffin 
pan of twelve compartments; bake about 
twenty-five minutes. 

Christmas Sweets 

If the supply of maple syrup, put up 
last spring or purchased later, still holds 
out, nothing choicer in confectionery can 
be had than candies made of maple fon- 
dant. In normal times, the more ex- 
pensive maple was helped out with granu- 
lated sugar; this was simply a matter of 
economy, for the best of fondant can be 
made by simply boiling the syrup, un- 
disturbed, to the soft-ball stage. Pour 
as usual on an oiled marble or platter, and 
when thoroughly cold, beat to a cream 
and finish in the usual manner. 

The chocolate fruit-and-nut confection, 
given in the Seasonable Recipes, is best 
after it has stood a few days to ripen; 
that shown in the illustration was molded 
in a brick-shaped, ice-cream mold, quart 
size. The mold should be lined through- 
out with parchment paper; figs or raisins, 



and other nuts than almonds might re- 
place the dates and almonds. 

Fruit of all kinds is high in price, but 
on account of its palatability, and the 
valuable compounds In composition, it 
should be given a place, in some form, 
in each day's food-supply. The best 
time to eat raw fruit is midway between 
breakfast and dinner. Cooked fruit is 
appropriately eaten at any meal. Ba- 
nanas have high-food value, and should 
be eaten more than they are at present, as 
a means of real nourishment. Cooked 
bananas are given scant attention; many 
people fancy they would not like them, 
and do not try them. Try them a few 
times, and you will end by devising all 
sorts of w,a.ys in . which to present a 
cooked banana. -The banana compote, 
given in the Seasonable Recipes, as a 
sauce for Cornstarch Blancmange, is rec- 
ommended for a trial. 

Apple or banana, with dates or figs and 
French dressing, made with lemon juice 
on a bed of heart-leaves of lettuce, should 
be given a place in the luncheon menu, at 
least, once a week. If the dressing be 
properly mixed, no oil is apparent; nor 
can it be tasted. The lemon juice should 
be squeezed over the apple, that the apple 
may retain Its fresh, clean appearance. 
Adding it in this way, before the oil, 
causes the salad to carry the acid flavor, 
and does away with all thought of oil. 
On this account those who fancy they can 
eat nothing dressed with oil may eat this 
salad without recognizing the composition 
of the dressing. 

In using grape fruit and oranges in 
salad, retain all juice in the dressing, add- 
ing a few drops of lemon juice to accen- 
tuate the flavor of the milder fruit. 



-^s^^^ 



Without Eggs 

By Julia Davis Chandler 



THE present high prices of eggs have 
made people think, what other 
cakes can be made than those with eggs, 
what puddings and sweets. Modern 
transportation has made it possible for 
us to have strawberries most of the year, 
and egg plants and plums in November, 
and melons at all seasons, but hens still 
maintain their habit of denying us eggs 
in winter. Although Leghorns and in- 
cubators have changed matters considera- 
bly, still, in winter, eggs go higher in 
spite of large hatcheries and poultry 
farms. 

Reverting in memory to years ago in 
cold New England, the thought cam6. 
Then people did not expect eggs every 
morning, the year around; they had the 
hearty American breakfast of meat, 
largely, for the main dish, with broiled 
salt mackerel, creamed salt codfish, and 
codfish balls, on certain days. Cream 
toast, of both white and Boston brown 
bread, replaced mufiins, made with eggs. 
When spring came there were bountiful 
platters of ham and eggs, or fried eggs 
with crisp salt pork border, in place of the 
southern bacon; the diff"erence being that 
bacon is smoked and the New England 
salt pork is simply pickled. 

Great tin boxes, or stone jars, were 
filled with sugar cookies and rich jumbles, 
made in late autumn before eggs were 
scarce; these kept nice a long time care- 
fully stored. Molasses ginger snaps and 
richer Scotch cakes were, also, made at 
intervals all winter, usually weekly in 
large families. Sour cream gingerbread 
was a favorite, — this required no eggs. 
Squares of it, served fresh or hot, made a 
good homely dessert, with a spoonful of 
whipped cream on each portion. 

Other desserts were, first of all, pies 
of all kinds, apple, mince, cranberry and 
raisin. Puddings were made, apple 
dumplings, apple brown betty, apple-and- 



sago or apple-and-tapioca, apple slump, 
apple fritters and pandowdy. Rice pud- j 
ding with raisins was nice, or rice plain, -m 
boiled in milk and served with butter and 
maple sugar, or any sweet pudding sauce, 
or jelly or jam. Baked Indian pudding, 
brown and spicy, with the proper whey 
texture, not just baked cornmeal, was 
made once a week. Few modern cooks 
know how to make it correctly by adding 
cold milk after all else has been scalded, 
and the dish set in the oven, thus giving 
the peculiar consistency of long steady 
baking. 

Spicy buns, with sugar and milk glaze, 
were baked frequently and replaced 
cakes. Occasionally there was the loaf 
cake, known as Old Election cake; this 
is bread dough with raisins, citron, spices, 
shortening and sweetening. Eggs, frozen 
stiif in the big hay mows almost as soon 
as the hdns left their nests, were thawed 
carefully, for they would be cracked by 
the freezing, and these were used for 
doughnuts, but not considered perfect 
for fine cake; they answered, also, for 
corncake and plain cookery, but even 
these were scarce during the bitter 
winters. 

Jelly tarts replaced cake on the silver 
cake basket for supper at night, for dinner 
then came at noon. Cocoanut macaroons 
were liked for company and slices of rich 
fruit cake, made early in the autumn, and 
put away like wedding cake. 

Instead of cornstarch, requiring eggs, so 
abundant in summer, the same mould that 
turned out patterns of roses, so pleasing 
to all children, was filled with sea moss 
blancmange, much liked by all accus- 
tomed to its taste of the sea. Jelly tarts 
gave color to the tea-table, and were 
chosen for contrast, part of showy cur- 
rant or barberry jelly, part of quince or 
apple. 

Hot griddle cakes made a nice first 



358 



WITHOUT EGGS 



359 



course for supper. These were not made 
as for breakfast, a few little ones for each 
person. They were huge in size, but 
very delicate withal, and piled to a tower- 
ing height, like a big layer-cake, with 
butter and sugar and a little choice cinna- 
mon spread between; these were kept 
hot in the oven, while successive lots were 
quickly cooked on more than one large 
griddle. The big, shapely pile was cut 
in sections like a layer cake, and being 
already sweetened, required no syrup like 
the griddle cakes or batter cakes served 
at breakfast. 

No eggs were used for these in mid- 
winter. Instead, thick sour cream was 
beaten with a little dissolved soda until 
it was bubbly and seemed right to the 
practiced eyes, hands, and even ears, for 
it must have just the right "flop-flop" 
sound when beaten. Salt and a little 
sugar were added, no shortening, if the 
cream was rich, but if only sour milk, then 



some shortening, and pastry flour, enough 
to make a good batter for griddle cakes, 
one that would bubble responsively and 
equally in so much time, and be ready to 
turn a nice golden, yellow brown. 

In many New England homes buck- 
wheat cakes were a winter standby. 
The old way was to have a large earthen 
pitcher with a lid; this stood on the mantel 
above the hearth fire, or stove in later 
years. Old-fashioned folk thought that 
it should never be all used, but that some 
of the yeast-risen batter be kept over for 
a "starter." Of course the pitcher did 
not go unwashed very long, although in 
use for months. Every other day the 
contents were poured out, and the pitcher 
washed before the "starter" and fresh 
buckwheat were added. 

Shortcake with preserved fruit, fresh 
fruit, or apple sauce, is another good 
winter dessert. Canned peaches, or apri- 
cots or fresh oranges may be used. 



My Service Flag 



My dear boy: I have yours in which you say, 
"Call me now Private John, of the N. A., 
For I've enlisted!" then you add, with zeal, 
"HANG OUT THE SERVICE FLAG!" My 

son, I feel 
My heart strings pulling tight — you cannot 

know 
How much it cost me, but it's done, and so 
I write to tell you. 

It is neat and small, 
A lovely silk one; modest, not at all 
Conspicuous — just such as you'd approve. 
I bought and hung it by myself, for you've 
No idea how I felt about it, Son. 
It seemed as if 'twas something to be done 
By me alone — just as in by-gone days, 
There were a few things, bless your baby-ways, 
That no one else could ever do for you; 
They were my "mother-right," and this was, too. 
It hangs on our front door, upon the glass; 
I see it there, as in or out I pass, 
That blue, blue star, the color of your eye; 
But I was brave, my Son, I did not cry, 
I could not so dishonor it, nor you. 



By such a show of weakness; and it's true, 
That underneath the pain I could not hide. 
My heart was throbbing strong with mother 

pride. 
That star to me is You. By day or night, 
Five points it shows, outlined against the white; 
They speak to me of honor, courage, truth. 
Of duty, and of love — your love, forsooth. 
For me, and for your country, intertwined. 
That star shows you were not the slacker-kind; 
No coward, and for this I must be glad. 
Your Father? He said nothing — Dear old Dad, 
Looked at the flag, then kissed me tenderly; 
But plainly stamped on his face I could see 
The things he could not say — his pride in you. 
And sympathy for me. 

We know you'll "do 
Your utmost"' for your Uncle Sam, and be 
A credit to the flag, and us; and we 
Will "keep the home fires burning" for you 

bright, 
Ani love our star, and you. Dear Boy, Good- 
night. 

— Margaret Wheeler Ross. 



Making the Dark Room Cheerful 



By Marion Brownfield 



HAVE you a dark, cheerless room in 
your house that you unconsciously 
avoid? Perhaps there is a room in your 
home that you realize is not particularly 
attractive. But do you realize that it 
may be largely responsible for a certain 
depressed feeling that possesses you when- 
ever you spend much time in it? In any 
case, there are several ways of brighten- 
ing a dark room. 

If you can afford a little carpenter work, 
probably the windows are the first thing 
to change. A north room, particularly, 
is improved with the addition of a number 
of large windows, and any room with 
extra light gains a spaciousness and cheer- 
fulness that makes it pleasant to occupy. 
Sometimes a room with only north win- 
dows can have a bay window, or a window 
seat built out in a way that will catch 
sunshine in the morning from the east, 
and in the afternoon from the west. The 
window seat or bay, also makes a cosy 
place for either plants, or a seat and 
cushions. 

If it is out of the question to add extra 
windows to your dark room, make the 
best of the windows you already have. 
See that they are always clean, and in 
winter, remove the screens. It is sur- 
prising what an amount of light screens 
shut out. White or yellow shades are 
preferable to dark green ones. Curtains 
of simple, thin material, that can be 
easily slid back on the rods, are best. In 
some rooms side draperies, about one foot 
wide, of dainty cretonne are pretty sub- 
stitutes for curtains. 

Repainting dark woodwork, to either 
cream or white, will often work wonders 
in a dark room. 

If a heavy, dark carpet can be ban- 
ished, the floor may be treated in one of 
several ways. The most attractive floor- 
ing is of course hardwood or maple, but 
sometimes a well-stained floor is almost 



as effective. Small braided or rag rugs 
look well on a bare floor. If it is de- 
sired to retain a square of carpeting, or 
use a large rug, a stained or painted 
border may serve. Light tan, gray or 
dark brown are shades that may be 
chosen for a painted edge. But if ex- 
pense is a consideration, there are other 
ways of brightening up the dark room. 

For instance, are there heavily-framed 
pictures on the wall? Are there dark 
pictures, steel engravings or family por- 
traits, crowded thickly over the wall 
paper? You can make the room lighter 
at once by taking them down. If you 
have pictures with lighter frames, by all 
< means substitute them. Gilt frames, as 
a rule, are more cheerful than black ones. 
If you have artistic magazine pictures, a 
pretty way to frame them is to place each 
one between a piece of glass and a piece 
of cardboard, the same size as the pic- 
ture, and bind the edges together with 
either black, white, brown or green passe- 
partout binding. On the whole, however, 
it is better to have too few pictures than 
too many. A mirror, no matter how it 
is framed, will help dispel gloom. 

There is a chance to make most any 
room cosy with an open fire, if there is a 
fireplace. Brass andirons, and if there 
is a mantel, brass candlesticks are at- 
tractive additions. During summer 
months, a jardiniere of flowers may be 
placed between the andirons. 

Most flowers and plants are brighten- 
ing touches, but there are a few that are 
best avoided. Coleus, for example, adds 
dreariness to a dim room. However, it 
isn't necessary to give up plants without 
blossoms. Boston ferns, placed in a 
window sill, seem to be a light green that 
radiate cheerfulness. For first choice, 
yellow or white flowers are best to 
brighten up a room. In season, mari- 
golds, daffodils, narcissus, daisies, black- 



360 



SANDWICHES THAT COLLEGE GIRLS MAKE 



361 



eyed Susans, nasturtiums, sweet peas, 
coreopsis, goldenglow, buttercups and 
golden rod should fill bowls or baskets. 
Dark flowers like heliotrope, fuchsia, or 
somber colored dahlias should never go 
into the dark room. During the winter, 
bright red or pink geraniums in pots, or 
growing bulbs in bowls are pleasing. 
Sumach, iris seed pods, jack-in-the-pulpit 
seed pods, rose hips, black alderberries, 
barberries, and pigeon plum vine will 



also lend color when flowers are scarce. 

Sometimes a bough or a branch, from 
what seems a very ordinary tree outdoors, 
will look very charming in the house, and 
it is far better to have it inside than against 
the outside of north windows, where it may 
make darkness and dampness. Gay autumn 
foliage is especially cheerful indoors. 

And, by the way, don't wait for com- 
pany, or a party, before you brighten up 
the dark room. 



Sandwiches that College Girls Make 



USE bread a day or two old; slice 
very thin and use a scant filling. 
Cream the butter before spreading and 
be sure it is not too salt. 

^^ Mexican Hots." One tomato, one 
onion, one green pepper; chop them all 
fine and season the mixture with salt, 
pepper and vinegar; spread on white 
bread or crackers. 

^'Jap" Sandwiches. Use equal quan- 
tities of almonds and preserved cherries; 
chop the cherries fine and pound the 
almonds to a paste; mix the two prepara- 
tions, and add a teaspoonful of almond 
extract and a little cream. 

^^ Harmony" Sandwiches. Two cups 
of fine-chopped celery, twenty-four olives 
chopped fine, one teaspoonful of tomato 
ketchup, a pinch of mustard, one-half 
cup of mayonnaise. 

^^ Strips." Cut the crust from a loaf, 
each, of white and brown bread, so they 
are left the same size, then cut three half- 
inch slices of each. Spread them with a 
mixture of deviled ham and peanut 
butter, and press the six together, alter- 
nating white and brown. Put the cube 
under a weight and let it press while you 
make another set. 

Sandwich "£)<? Luxe." Quince jelly, 
mixed with a few shredded mint leaves. 
This mixture is delicious spread on stale 
sponge cake. 

The ^^ Flossy" Sandwich. Melt two 



squares of chocolate, and when partly 
cooled, add one-half cup of brown sugar 
and two tablespoonfuls of cream. Flavor 
with a teaspoonful of vanilla, and add a 
handful of chopped nut meats. 

^^ Full of Pep" Chop a cup of pre- 
served ginger very fine, nad blend with it 
enough thick, sweet cream to make the 
mixture of thfe right consistency for 
spreading. 

The Sandwich " Unusual." Combine 
dates and raisins. Pass them through a 
food chopper, and add to each cup of the 
mixture two tablespoonfuls of honey and 
one of orange juice. 

^'Dreams." Take equal quantities of 
dates and nuts; run through a food 
chopper, and add to each cup a quarter of 
a cup of maple sugar and a small amount 
of cream. Use the mixture as a filling 
between very thin slices of bread, or 
slices of toasted sponge cake, or any loaf 
cake. 

^^ Sweet Sixteen" Sandwiches. Use 
square bakers' rusks, and cut up and down 
in thin slices. Spread with peanut butter. 
Then spread with sweet chocolate, melted. 

^^ Night Caps.'' Use wafers, and on 
each spread a layer of nut butter and nut 
meats.. Toast a marshmallow, and put 
one on each wafer, or the marshmallows, 
nuts and crackers may be arranged in 
layers and all put into a slow oven for a 
moment and thus heated. — j. w. w. 



Contributions to this department will be gladly received. Accepted items will be 

paid for at reasonable rates. 



Buy or Not Buy 

STEERING a straight path between 
the insistence of certain people that 
one should refrain from spending for any- 
thing that can possibly be done without 
for the moment, and, on the other hand, 
the advice to "stock up" (remembering 
the coal fiasco of last winter!) lest the 
time of scarcity arrive and find one un- 
provided, — is no easy matter, in these 
days, especially for those who "mean well, 
but don't know!" 

One woman, at least, sat down and 
reasoned quietly and sensibly with her- 
self, until she had a working maxim, which 
took the weight from her mind, once and 
for all. 

The uncertainty is generally based on 
the question, as to whether the purchase 
to be made is really needed or not. The 
woman referred to, when the urge to buy 
came to her, went first over every article 
of the sort that she already possessed, and 
made absolutely sure, either that it was 
not worth having cleaned, mended, made 
over, or otherwise put in the best order 
possible to it, or else she had the repairs 
and alterations put through at once, and 
the garment, or article put in finished con- 
dition for use. Secondly, she disposed of 
whatever she decided frankly to discard; 
getting it "off her mind," once and for 
all, — whether it could find place in some 
relief work, be remodelled for other pur- 
poses, or simply " dumped out ! " Thirdly, 
she went through whatever she had on 
hand in the way of "raw material," that 
could be utilized in making up for use 
along the same lines. And made it up! 



Then, and only then, if the need still 
made itself a clear and honest one, did 
she go out and buy for herself, or her 
household the article of which the need 
had proven itself — with clear conscience, 
and a far more certain knowledge of what 
would meet that need than if she had 
merely hurried out and stocked up, in 
answer to some alluring advertisement of 
special values, with something that she 
was only half convinced that she needed, 
but that she felt fairly sure would come in 
conveniently, because one never knows! 
When one does know is the time to buy, 
and only then! To one who has not tried 
it, it is astonishing how the above method 
clears the horizon. a. d. 



An Inexpensive Pleasure for an 
Invalid or Aged Person 

WE have always considered poppies 
as outdoor flowers, but try grow- 
ing them indoors for a gift that will please 
an invalid or an aged friend, who must 
stay indoors. 

Any good garden earth will answer, for 
poppies will grow, if not thrive fully, in 
poor soil, and they will begin to flower 
when ludicrously small, one two inches 
high, with a bud on it. is in sight of the 
writer now. The tall, double purple 
poppies, that have the opium pods, when 
grown in the house, are single, and about 
an inch and a half in diameter. Try to 
get the many colors, not just the familiar 
red kind, but a paper of seeds with yellow, 
coral, shrimp and apricot colors, some 
fringed with white, and rose colored ones 



362 



HOME IDEAS AND ECONOMIES 



363 



with white hearts; indeed, every day will 
show a new specimen, if you have a row 
of pots, or a large box, full of plants. 

Also try marigolds; these are hardy, 
and will bear the cold of a draughty win- 
dow, either the double yellow ones, or the 
velvet marigolds. And it is said that 
the bachelor's buttons or *' bluets" will 
thrive indoors, also. 

Thus a gift, costing nothing, if you 
gather the seeds from your own, or a 
friend's garden, may be prepared for 
those who cannot enjoy outdoor gardens 
and gardening. 

A Last-Minute Dessert 

(Costing Fourteen Cents for Six Persons) 

There were just three large bananas for 
three in the family, when suddenly three 
guests arrived. There was a choice roast, 
all prepared for dinner, but for dessert, 
the bananas were extended in this way: 

Two whites of eggs were whipped, and 
one and one-half bananas were whipped 
with these to a stiff, fluffy mass. The 
other one and one-half bananas (the stem 
ends that would make the best slices) 
were arranged in neat circles of slices on 
six plates of small dessert size, and the 
whipped egg and fruit piled in the centre. 

The white of egg and banana was 
sweetened and flavored lightly with the 
best quality of vanilla. Some persons 
prefer lemon juice with bananas, and 
vanilla is not indispensable, but it seems 
to blend with everything, improving even 
green gooseberries and pumpkin pie. 

Baked apple or stewed apple sifted very 
smooth and nice can be used for this dish, 
or pears, or other fruit pulp; and rasp- 
berry jam, or other jam may also be made 
into jam whips. Pile these in dainty 
glasses or arrange on squares of cake. 

Another quick dessert might be this: 
to have whipped all three of the bananas 
with white of egg in proportion, and 
quickly buy cake at the nearest cake shop, 
and cut in squares and pile the banana 
fluff upon it, topping off with a maraschino 
cherry, or strips of angelica or citron, 
or preserved orange peel, cut in long 



straws* In ordinary times, when sugar 
is abundant, such preserved peel may be 
cheaply made from peels of oranges, 
lemons and grape fruit, otherwise wasted. 

From an Old Cook-Book 

In old houses, in some libraries or in 
art rooms, may often be found queer old 
cookery books, long since out of print, 
from which one may glean an occasional 
idea, well worthy of experiment. In one 
such book, written when eggs and poultry 
could be used lavishly, was a recipe for 
the use of salsify (vegetable oysters) in 
chicken pie. As three chickens were used 
to a pint of the salsify, it is evident that 
the vegetable was added to enhance the 
flavor of the dish, rather than to eke out 
the supply of chicken. The salsify was 
to be cut in pieces the size of an oyster 
and boiled. In these days the quantity 
of oyster plant might be increased con- 
siderably without detriment to the pie, 
and to the advantage of the pocket book. 

To Replace Raisins Use Prunes 

Raisins, recently so cheap, are crawling 
upwards, and it is well to know that 
prunes, cut rather fine, answer most sat- 
isfactorily to replace part of the raisins 
n puddings, etc. 

Substitute home-dried cherries also. 
And orange peel, and other similar peels 
of lemon and grape fruit may be home- 
cured and used as sweetmeats in des- 
serts. So, also, may citron-melon rind 
be cooked and crystallized to replace com- 
mercial citron. 

Prunes give a delicious flavor to plum 
puddings and boiled suet puddings, and all 
the various steamed winter puddings. 

Make a prune betty, for a change. 

Prune Betty, How To Flavor It 

Stew some prunes until rather tender 
and sift them. Combine them with lay- 
ers of crumbs, as you make apple betty. 
A little sugar and a very little salt will 
be needed. It improves this pudding 
very much to add some grated orange 



364 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



peel and some ground clove. In these 
days we are so thankful for a dessert, we 
do not waste butter upon it; however, 
when better times return, some good 
cook's advice to add butter to the layers 
of crumbs may be followed. 

An Economical Hint Obtained 
from Italy 

Sometimes it happens that omelette is 
left. It seems a pity to waste it. Why 
not use this Italian method, which was 
not devised to prevent waste, but to make 
a choice dish.? Small omelettes are made 
quite thin and spread to cool, and then 
are cut into strips about a quarter of an 
inch wide. These strips are heated in 
butter and sprinkled with grated cheese 
and served with a meat gravy or sauce. 
The sauce should be well seasoned and 
savory with vegetables, celery, onion and 
parsley, a little tomato also. 

Additions to Hamburg Steak 

Try a little sausage, mixed with the 
beef, chopped for hamburg steak, or a 
little chipped beef ground with it. Again, 
if you have nuts, try black walnuts 
ground and mixed with the meat and 
bake the balls in the oven with slices of 
onion or chopped onion in the fat around 
them. This gives a better flavor than 
raw onion in the balls. j. d. c. 

Cabbage Salad 

ONE and one-half quarts of fine- 
shaved cabbage, one pint of fine- 
chopped celery, four hard-boiled eggs, 
shredded, one and a half cups of English 
walnuts, sliced, one-fourth cup of sugar, 
one-half teaspoonful of salt, one-half 
teaspoonful of white pepper, one-half 
cup of cider vinegar, and two cups of very 
thick sweet cream. Stir the cream in 
after the other ingredients have been 
thoroughly mixed. 

Carrot Salad 

Line a salad bowl with cabbage that 



has been shredded, soaked in ice water 
until crisp, and dried on a soft cloth. 
Sprinkle lightly with salt and pepper. 
Have ready very small beets and carrots, 
that have been cooked until tender in 
boiling, salted water, and shredded and 
marinated in French dressing for two 
hours. Arrange these in alternate colors, 
sprinkle lightly with horseradish, add 
French dressing and serve. j. j. o'c. 
* * * 
Bisque Soup 

IF you wish tomato bisque soup and 
have only a small amount of tomato, 
but have some left-over, cooked vegeta- 
bles, prepare as follows: Put in a kettle 
bits of left-over turnips or cabbage or 
parsnips (from a boiled dinner), also a 
little left-over, cold, cooked cereal (oat- 
meal, cream of wheat, or whatever is left 
from breakfast), also slice one onion, and 
add a little water. Cook slowly, stirring 
to prevent burning until the onion is a 
little softened. Then strain, pressing 
through a puree sieve about a half cup 
of puree, and as much liquid as there is. 
Put this in a double boiler with three i 
cups of milk and heat, then just before <| 
ready to serve add one-half a cup of tCK 
mato juice, into which a tablespoonful of 
flour has been stirred. Blend mixture,, 
season to taste and serve with croutons. 
This soup, while not so deep a color 
as the regular bisque, is still almost as rich 
flavored, because -of the variety of in- j 
gredients. ' 

Luncheon Dishes 

2. For a luncheon dish, if a little of the 
above soup or any cream soup is left, the 
following is very savory. Butter rame- 
kins (rather large ones) and put in each 
ramekin a tablespoonful of soup, then 
drop in an egg; on this, shave a little 
cheese and add salt and pepper, then add 
a teaspoonful more of the soup (or enough 
to cover the top of the ramekin), and 
sprinkle a few buttered cracker crumbs, 
over the whole. Bake in a hot oven five 
or ten minutes; ser^^e very hot. 



HOME IDEAS AND ECONOMIES 



365 



3. As a hearty dish for luncheon, 
which yet does not require meat, and so is 
suitable for Lent, stew one-half pound 
mushrooms in cream by the regular recipe, 
putting in peelings and stems also, and 
before taking up, add a can of peas. 
When very hot, pour over triangles of 
toast and serve. h. w. r. 

^ * ^ 

Wheat Products 

White Wheat Bread is made from flour 
refined from the starchy white center of 
the wheat kernel. 

Whole Wheat Bread is made from flour 
made from the starchy center and some of 
the outer brown layers (bran) of the 
wheat kernel. 

Graham Bread and Graham Crackers 
are made from flour containing all the 
wheat kernel, including the bran. 

Macaroni^ Spaghetti^ Noodles are made 
from wheat flour. 

Fuel Conservation 

Fuel conservation is patriotic service 
that costs you nothing. It helps the 
government and saves you money. A 
different way to aid your country is to cut 
down fuel in the kitchen, not by less cook- 
ing, but by careful management. 
Whether it be coal, gas, oil or electricity 
that is used, the government needs all we 
can save. In war times fuel and trans- 
portation are the big items. We can have 
better cooking at less cost, saving time, 
food and flavor. 

Many dishes may be improved by long, 
slow cookery, with no need of watchful- 
ness, and no danger of burning. A tiny 
flame will keep the food at simmering 
point for hours. It is an old notion that 
tough meats cost so much to cook that 
they were no cheaper, in the end, than 
tender cuts that cook quickly. It costs 
more to roast five pounds of choice beef 
than to roast ten pounds from the rump. 
A two-pound steak requires more fuel 
than six pounds of meat cooked gently 
for hours. Dried lima beans make de- 
licious dishes with the least amount of 



fuel. A little meat, cooked with a lot of 
vegetables, makes a savory dish, at a 
moderate cost. 

Cutting down gas bills may not help the 
gas company, but it does help Uncle Sam, 
and the quarters we save can buy thrift 
stamps to help our boys. 

Gas is wasted by: 

Lighting before filling tea-kettle. 

Heating more water than cooking re- 
quires. 

Using large burner, when small one 
would do. 

Use Simmerer Instead of Small 
Burner 

Using small burner when simmerer 
would do. 

Leaving flame on full after foods b.oil. 

Letting flame extend beyond utensil. 

Leaving gas on from one process to 
another. 

Heating oven too hot, or too long be- 
forehand. 

Leaving oven lighted until baking is 
finished — retained heat will bake for 
five or ten minutes without gas. 

Using yellow flame from dirty burner, 
or dusty mixers; clean burners give a 
hotter flame. 

Poorly planned meals — heated oven 
space not utilized. 

A small, well-selected equipment has 
every advantage over a large mixed col- 
lection of utensils. Kitchen convenience 
is a reflection of the worker, and drudgery 
is forgotten when one is interested in her 
task. ^ ^ ^ H. r. 

A French Village Home 

NOT every little girl gets as inter- 
esting a letter from her soldier 
father as the following, which the Spring- 
field Republican recently printed. It 
was written by an officer in a Massa- 
chusetts regiment, now serving in France, 
and gives an entertaining description of 
French peasant life. After telling her 
that the farmers live in villages, and that 
their houses are built of stone, and roofed 
with slabs of stone, he continues: 



366 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



"These houses are so old that the roofs 
are green with moss. Usually, there is 
one window downstairs, opening on the 
street beside the door. In the window 
inside is the sink, a great, saucer-shaped 
stone, and a hole under the window is the 
sink drain — ■ right on to the street. Op- 
posite the door is the fireplace, just a 
place on the stone slab floor, with a hood 
over it. 

"There, over the embers, are toasters, 
trivets, skillets, and all sorts of old- 
fashioned cooking utensils. Over in the 
corner is a brass thing that looks like a 
covered basket. It is a foot warmer. 
They fill it with coals, and in that way 
keep their feet warm in the cold rooms. 
On the step outside the door is a row of 
wooden shoes, which they wear over soft 
felt shoes that lace round the ankles. 
Over in the corner of the room is a bed, 
and, except for a few chairs and a table, 
the room is complete. 

"The night daddy got here he went to 
one of these houses, with two other offi- 
cers, and asked the lady if she could pro- 
vide some supper. She said she could. 
So she put some more sticks on the fire, 
wiped out a three-legged iron skillet, put 
in some lard, set the skillet down on the 
hearth and raked some coals under it. 
Then she pared some potatoes and cut 
them for frying. After that she reached 
up to one of the beams that crossed the 
kitchen and took down a ham. She cut 
off some slices, fried them, and we had a 
fine supper; bread and butter, ham, 
French-fried potatoes and quince jelly." 

H. M. J. 



Christmas Sweets 

{Concluded from page 341) 
them in melted fondant, or "Dot" choco- 
late. These centers should stand over 
night before dipping. When "Dot" 
chocolate is used for dipping, it should be 
melted over warm water, the temperature 
of which must be kept decidedly below 
the boiling point. Shave the chocolate, 
and stir constantly while melting. Dip 
centers in chocolate, stir until well coated, 
and remove with a fork or confectioner's 
dipper. Allow to cool on paraffine paper. 
The centers may be varied by the addi- 
tion of cocoanut, nuts or candied fruit, 
and they may be dipped in melted fondant 
instead of the "Dot" chocolate. Melt 
the fondant over hot water, dip centers, 
and cool on paraffine paper. Stir fondant 
occasionally, to keep a crust from forming. 
Chocolate, shaved and melted, may be 
added to melted fondant, and the centers 
dipped in this mixture. Add sufficient 
chocolate to produce a good color. Since 
this maple syrup fondant is dark, it is 
hard to color it with any of the delicate 
coloring pastes. 

After dinner mints may be made by 
adding a few drops of oil of peppermint to 
melted fondant. Drop mixture from end 
of a spoon on paraffine paper. Chopped 
nuts may be added to melted fondant, and 
the mixture allowed to cool in a greased 
pan. Cut into squares with a sharp knife 
when nearly hard. 

Walnut creams are made by rolling 
small pieces of fondant into balls, and 
pressing half a walnut on opposite sides, 
until the balls are flattened. 



The Service Flag 



O SERVICE FLAG, with colors three, 
Mute emblem of true loyalty 
Of hearts that gave their very all 
To serve their country's duty call, 
Our homage we extend to thee! 



Each tiny star that we can see 
Bespeaks a soldier oversea, 
With heart of steel to stand or fall, 
O SERVICE FLAG! 



And none can fathom the degree 
Of sacrifice each star doth plea! 
Those gallant ejfforts to forestall, 
A cruel, fiendish foe, appall! 
Thou stand'stfor WORLD DEMOCRACY, 
O SERVICE FLAG! 

— Caroline Louise Sumner. 




/■ 








THIS department is for the benefit and free use of our subscribers. Questions relating to recipes 
and those pertaining to culinary science and domestic economics in general, will be cheerfully 
answered by the editor. Communications for this department must reach us before the first of the 
month preceding that in which the answers are expected to appear. In letters requesting answers 
by mail, please enclose address and stamped envelope. For menus, remit ^1.00. Address queries 
to Janet M. Hill, Editor. American Cookery, 221 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. 



'Query No. 4001. — "In making Paprika 
Sauce to serve with a young chicken, baked in a 
bean pot, what may be added besides browned 
fat and flour, to make the sauce brown in color?" 

To Give Brown Color to Sauce 

The water in which dried mushrooms 
are soaked is one of the best things to add 
to a sauce, to give it a brown shade. 

Query No. 4002. — "What proportions of 
sugar and water should be used to make the 
syrup used in the recipe for Peach Sherbet, as 
given in 'The Book of Entrees,' also what may be 
used in place of the curacoa; how is the Italian 
meringue made?" 

Peach Sherbet 

Boil one quart of water and one pint 
of sugar with the yellow rind of two 
oranges twenty minutes, counting the 
time after the mixture begins to boil. 
Let cool, then add the juice of two oranges 
and one lemon, with two cups of peach 
pulp and juice. Boil one cup of sugar 
and one-third a cup of boiling water to the 
soft-ball stage, then pour in a fine stream 
on the whites of one or two eggs, beaten 
very light, beating constantly, mean- 
while; then beat occasionally until cold. 
When the first mixture is nearly frozen 
and the meringue is cold, add the me- 
rigue to the partly-frozen mixture and 
finish freezing. The rind of the oranges, 
cooked in the syrup, takes the place of 
the curacoa or orange cordial. 



Plum Sherbet 

Make a syrup, as for peach sherbet; in 
it cook about a quart of plums until soft, 
then press through a sieve; add the juice 
of a lemon and when cold freeze. 

Peach Salad 

Cut the peaches in halves, remove the 
skin, and cut in even quarters, length- 
wise, eight pieces to a peach; at once 
squeeze over the prepared peaches a little 
lemon juice, to keep them from dis- 
coloring. Mix paprika and salt, a few 
grains of each, with choice olive oil. Set 
the peaches on heart-leaves of lettuce, 
and sprinkle a little of the seasoned oil 
over them. A teaspoonful of strained 
honey may be added to each three table- 
spoonfuls of oil, if desired. 



Query No. 4003. — "Recipes for Plum Sher- 
bet and Peach Salad with dressing." 



Query No. 4004. — "Cookies made by the 
following recipe are hard and tough, what is the 
trouble with it? 

" \\ cups butter, 2 cups sugar, 2 eggs, 1 cup 
buttermilk, 1 teaspoonful soda, nutmeg, flour 
enough to roll out thin." 

Fault in Preceding Recipe 

Probably too much flour is used. The 
recipe should make good cookies, if the 
dough is kept soft and only a small por- 
tion of it handled at a time. Half a tea- 
spoonful of soda to sweeten the butter- 
milk (if sour) and four teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder would be preferable to the 
one teaspoonful of soda. A magic cover 
and a spatula are of great assistance in 



367 



368 



AMERICAN CaOKERY 



shaping cookies. To lift the cookies from 
the board or cloth, slip the side of the 
spatula under it, rather than the end. 



Query No. 4005 — "Recipes for cookies using 
substitutes for wheat flour and sugar in whole 
or part." 

Cookies with Substitutes, 
Molasses Nut Drop Cookies 

Cream one-third a cup of shortening; 
beat into it half a cup of corn syrup, 
half a cup of chopped nut meats, one egg 
beaten light and two-thirds a cup of 
molasses. Sift together one cup and a 
fourth, each, of wheat and rye flour, 
one-half a teaspoonful, each, of salt, soda, 
and cinnamon, and one teaspoonful, each, 
of ginger and baking powder. Beat the 
two mixtures together thoroughly. Shape 
a teaspoonful in a place, on tins rubbed 
over with fat, to make symmetrical 
rounds, some distance apart; set half 
a nut meat above each shape and dredge 
with granulated sugar, if at hand. Bake 
in a moderate oven. The recipe makes 
about thirty cakes. 

Peanut Cookies 



1 cup rice flour 

^ teaspoonful salt 

2 teaspoonfuls baking 
powder 

f cup peanuts, 
crushed 



J cup shortening 

I cup sugar 

J cup maple syrup 

1 egg, beaten light 

2 tablespoonfuls milk 
^ cup wheat, oat or 

barley flour 

Cream the shortening; beat in the 
sugar, syrup, egg and milk; add the flour, 
sifted with the salt and baking powder; 
mix and, lastly, add the nuts crushed in a 
wooden bowl with a pestle. Shape in 
small rounds with a teaspoon on greased 
baking pans. Set half a peanut above 
each ronnrl. Bake in a moderate oven. 

Buckwheat Cookies 



^^cup shortening 


H cups buckwheat 


f cup sugar 


flour 


1 cup maple or corn 


1 teaspoonful baking 


syrup 


powder 


2 eggs, beaten light 


1 teaspoonful salt, if 




shortening is un- 




salted 



slightly, roll and cut into shapes, 
in a quick oven. 



Bake 



Oatmeal Fruit Macaroons 



f cup raisins or dates, 

chopped 
2^ cups rolled oats 
^ teaspoonful salt 
2 eggs, beaten light 



1 cup granulated 
sugar 

2 tablespoonfuls corn 
syrup 

1 tablespoonful 
melted shortening 

Mix the fruit with the oats and salt. 
Beat the sugar, syrup and shortening into 
the eggs and combine the two mixtures. 
Shape with a teaspoon in compact rounds 
on a greased baking pan. Bake in mod- 
erate oven. 

Sour-Cream Drop Cookies 



^ cup shortening 
^ cup sugar 
5 cup corn syrup 
1 egg, beaten light 



t cup sour cream 
1^ cups wheat flour 
^ teaspoonful soda 
^ cup rice flour 

Mix in the order given, first beating 
the butter to a cream; drop from a spoon 
upon a buttered baking sheet; bake in 
an oven of moderate heat. 

Soft Molasses Cookies 



1-3 cup butter 
1-3 cup boiling water 
1 cup molasses 
1 teaspoonful, level, 
soda 



1 teaspoonful ginger 
7 teaspoonful cinna- 
mon 
J teaspoonful salt 
Barley andwheatflour 
for drop batter 

Melt the butter in the boiling water; 
add the molasses and the other ingredi- 
ents sifted together. Drop from a spoon 
upon a buttered baking pan, having the 
cakes some distance apart. Bake in a 
moderately quick oven. The dough 
should be of a consistency to make cakes 
that do not spread too much. Try one 
cake, then add more flour if needed. 
Stored in a tight-closed earthen jar the 
cakes will keep moist a long time. 



Query No. 4006. 
Relish for Oysters.' " 



"Recipe for 'Celery 



Mix in the order enumerated, knead 



Celery Relish 

(M. H. N.) 
Cut celery fine to make three quarts; 
add two quarts of apples, measured after 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




^ ^ War Cake 

A Conservation Delicacy — No Wheat, No Eggs, No Butter, No Milk 



THE table at this season must have its dainties. 
Yet none of us would think for a moment of 
disregarding the wishes of the Food Adminis- 
tration. This recipe solves the problem. 

You use Crisco instead of butter and to real ad- 
vantage because Crisco more than takes the place 
of butter in richness, delicacy and uniformity. The 
best of butters vary in quality but Crisco never does. 

(RISCO 

^. /or Frying -Fop Shortening 
^^-^ For Cake Making 

Crisco-made cakes also have this advantage — they 
stay fresh and moist longer. Their texture is un- 
usually fine. 

Crisco is creamed edible oil, tasteless, odorless and 
purely vegetable. It easily blends with war flours 
and all other ingredients. It is a shortening you 
can depend upon any time and anywhere. 

To use butter in cakes is an unnecessary expense for 
Crisco gives satisfactory results and it costs only 
about half as much as butter. 

Careful housekeepers like Crisco because it comes 
to them safe-guarded from impurities in sanitary, 
air-tight containers. Try it. Packages one pound 
and upward, net weight. 



War Cake 



Tested and Approved by Good Housekeeping 
Institute, Mildred Maddocks, Director. 



1 
2X 



cupful water 
cupful brown sugar 
cupful Crisco 
cupfuls seeded raisins 
teaspoo iful grated nutmeg 
teaspoonful cinnamon 
teaspoo Hiful cloves 
teaspoonful salt 
teaspoonful soda 
cupfuls bar!ey flour 
teaspoonful baking powder 
Use accurate level measurements 

Boil together for three minutes, the 
water, brown sugar, Crisco, raisins 
and spices. Let th s ntixture become 
thoroughly cold, then add the flour 
sifted with the salt, soda and baking 
powder. Beat these ingredients to- 
gether thoroughly, and pour into a well 
Criscoed loaf pan. Bake in a slow oven 
for one hour. 

Have You Seen "War Time Recipes" ? 

Here's a book by Janet McKenzie Hill 
that should be in the hands of every 
American woman. The editor of Amer- 
ican Cookery te.ls how to use all sub- 
stitute flours successfully and gives over 
300 conservation recipes, appetizing 
foods that will save you money. The 
book is illust-ated in color. If you have 
a copy yourself, it will make a nice little 
Christmas greeting to send to some young 
housekeeper. Published to sell for 25 
cents, we will send a copy for 10 cents 
in stamps. Address Dept. A-12, The 
Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, O. 



»l 



!i! 






Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
369 



370 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



being put through a food chopper, add 
twelve, each, of green and red peppers, 
put through the food chopper, after the 
removal of stems and seeds; sprinkle the 
whole with two tablespoonfuls of salt, 
and let simmer until the celery is tender, 
then drain and add one pound of seeded 
raisins. Make a syrup of two pounds of 
sugar, one quart of vinegar, one pint of 
water, and two sticks of cinnamon; pour 
the syrup over the celery mixture and 
let simmer very gently one hour. Seal 
in jars as in canning. 

Spieed Celery 

(F. M. F.) 
Cut off and discard the roots and leaves 
of six bunches of celery. Separate the 
stalks, wash, dry and chop. \ Peel and 
chop fifteen tomatoes; wash, wipe and 
chop one red pepper, discarding the seeds. 
Mix two cups of sugar, two tablespoon- 
fuls of salt, one teaspoonful of mustard, 
one teaspoonful of clove, one teaspoonful 
of cinnamon, one teaspoonful of celery 
seed; add one cup and a half of vinegar. 
Put all the ingredients in an agate (white 
lined) saucepan, heat to the boiling point, 
then let simmer one hour and a half. 
Store hot in fruit jars, as in all canning. 



Query No. 4007. — "Recipe for Beet and 
Horseradish Relish to serve with fish." 

Beet Relish 



1 quart cooked beets 
1 quart uncooked 

cabbage 
1 cup fresh grated 

horseradish 
1 cup sugar 



J teaspoonful cayenne 
pepper 

1 tablespoonful mus- 
tard 

1 teaspoonful salt 

2 cups cider vinegar 



Chop the beets and cabbage, sepa- 
rately, very fine; add all the other in- 
gredients, mix and cook twenty minutes. 
Seal in fruit jars as in canning. 



Query No. 4008. 
low Filling." 



"Recipe for Marshmal- 



Marshmallow Filling 

(MRS. LINCOLN) 



1 ounce granulated 

gum arable 
4 tablespoonfuls cold 

water 



f cup sugar 

3 egg-whites, beaten 

stiff 
1 teaspoonful vanilla 

extract 



Soak the gum arable in cold water one 
hour. Stir over boiling water until 
melted; strain into a double boiler; add 
the sugar and let cook thirty minutes; 
add the beaten whites and vanilla, and 
beat until the mixture is stiff and white. 



Query No. 4009. — " Suggestions for Church 
Suppers for fifty cents." 

Church Suppers for Fifty Cents 

SUBSTANTIAL DISHES FOR CHURCH 
SUPPERS 
Creamed Haddock, Cabbage Salad 
Fresh Fish Chowder, Tomato Jelly Salad 
Boned Filets of Haddock Baked with Bread 

Dressing, Drawn-Butter Sauce 
Hot Macaroni with Cheese and Tomatoes 
Succotash — Lima Beans, Corn (chopped) 
Hot Macaroni with Sliced Tongue (cheese and 

tomato) (one dish) 
Baked Mexican Rabbit (War Time Cook 

Book) 
Hot Macaroni with Hamburg Steak (one dish) 
Hamburg Roast, Mashed or Franconia 

Potatoes 
Hot Boiled Tongue, Scalloped Tomatoes 
Creamed Corned Beef (onion and celery 

flavored) au gratin 
Cold Boiled Tongue, Potato Salad 

ECONOMICAL DESSERT DISHES FOR 
CHURCH SUPPERS 

Baked Indian Pudding 
Apple Pies 
Squash Pies 
Pumpkin Pies 

Queen of Puddings (bread, jelly, meringue) 
Junket Ice Cream (made with sweetened con- 
densed Milk) 
Hot Gingerbread, Cottage Cheese 



Query No 4010. — "To what use, other than 
sponge cake, may Potato Flour be put? Can it 
be used in Bread.'"' 

Uses of Potato Flour 

A recipe for muffins made of potato 
flour is given in the seasonable recipes. 
In making one loaf of bread with wheat 
flour, half a cup of potato flour may be 
used to take the place of one cup of wheat 
flour. The loaf will be good bread, but 
not as large or feathery as when made of 
all wheat. 

''What's all that noise over atjthe 
minister's house.?" "Oh, he's memoriz- 
ing his sermon; he always has to practise 
what he preaches." — Judge, 



ADX'ERTISEMENTS 



iour 
Choice 

32 ^^^^ 





Choose Wisely 

They Differ in Value From 7 to lO'-Fold 

The large package of Quaker Oats costs from 30 to 32 cents. So does a 
pound of round steak at this writing — or a pound of fresh halibut. 

But, measured in calories — the standard energy unit — they differ in value 
as follows: 



The Quaker Oats package yields 6221 calories 
The pound of round steak yields 890 " 

The pound of halibut yields 565 *' 



Quaker Oats gives you, for the same money, about eight times the calory value of meat 
foods, on the average. 

On that basis, each dollar spent for Quaker Oats buys as much as ^8 in meats. 

It buys as much as $20 in some foods. 

And Quaker Oats is vastly better food. It is better-balanced, more complete. It is rich 
in needed minerals. The oat is almost the ideal food, both in flavor and nutrition. 

Make Quaker Oats your breakfast. Use it to cut your meat bills. Mix it with your 
flour foods. 

It means lower cost of living. It means better food for all. 

Maker Oats 

Just the Cream of the Oats 

The exquisite flavor of Quaker Oats Is due to selected grains. We flake the queen oats 
only — just the big plump grains. We get but ten pounds from a bushel. When you ask for 
Quaker Oats you get this extra flavor without extra price. It pays. 

Two Sizes: 12 to 13c — 30 to 32c 

Except in the Far West and South 




Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
371 



New Books 



Home and Farm Food Preservation. By 
William V. Cruess. Illustrated. 
Price, 21.50. The MacMillan Com- 
pany, New York. 

This volume tells "why" food spoils, 
and the ways of preventing spoiling. 
There are three main divisions in the text : 
First, the Principles of Food Preserva- 
tion; Second. Methods of Food Preser- 
vation; Third, Food Preservation Re- 
cipes. 

The reading of the first two sections 
will make clear the fundamental principles 
and will give the student an understand- 
ing of the general application of these 
principles. This will be of assistance in 
carrying out the specific instructions in 
the third part. 

The material presented is designed, 
primarily, for the housewife and farmer, 
to assist them in preserving surplus farm 
products for their own use. It will be, 
also, of value and interest to domestic 
science teachers and canning demon- 
strators. 

The illustrations are excellent and 
helpful. The text^ in every part, is sci- 
entifically and well done. As a thor- 
oughly practical and reliable work, this 
volume can be highly commended. 

Sunshine and Awkwardness. By Strick- 
land GiLLiLAN. ?1.00. Forbes & 
Co., Chicago. 

Like the author's former books, "In- 
cluding Finnigin" and "Including You 
and Me," the new volume will make a 
strong appeal to everybody; for it is a 
tonic to the mind and heart. Wit, humor, 
clear thinking and a wholesome view of 
life flow through the pages. Such a book 
as this is needed in these times to revive 
our sense of humor and thereby strengthen 
our mental balance and ideas of pro- 
portion. 

We can understand why Gillilan, after 
twenty years on the platform, is in such 
demand for lecture engagements that he 



cannot respond to the greater part of the 
requests. What he says is worth hearing. 
Through this joyful book everybody can 
have the privilege of hearing the equiva- 
lent of two of his best lectures. 

This book is pleasing, not alone for its 
wit and jollity, but also for the serious 
touches which appear here and there. 
Readable for sake of relaxation and 
cheerfulness. 

Home and Community Hygiene. By Jean 
Broadhurst, Ph.D. 118 Illustra- 
tions. ?2.00 net. J. B. Lippincott 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 
How to keep well! The cloak of mys- 
tery which was once wrapped about the 
art of keeping well is being discarded by 
the physician and the trained expert in 
hygiene. Today the first and last aim of 
home and community hygiene, as experts 
see it, is not only to keep you and your 
family, your neighbor and his family in 
health, through medical treatment and 
board of health rules, but to get your co- 
operation in every step of the process. 
The problem of keeping well is your busi- 
ness, as well as that of the city and state 
health department. 

What are the chief enemies of health.? 
The first chapter in this- book describes 
them. Second, what is the human ma- 
chine.? A good outline is given in chapter 
two. Then follow chapters dealing with 
each item that demands attention: food, 
milk, water, air and ventilation; cleanli- 
ness (in sewerage and refuse disposal), 
how disease is carried; our defenses 
against disease, when it attacks, how to 
treat it; how to make a health fortress of 
the home, of the school, of the library, 
church and other meeting places; how to 
prot-ect and care for babies; how to attain 
vigorous old age; how to defeat that 
terrible plague of civilized life, tubercu- 
losis; how to protect the working man and 
woman from accident and disease; how to 
keep the mind well; what military hy- 



372 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



Meeting 
Present Day 

Needs 



BAKING 
BOOK 



MARION HARRIS NEIL 



Ryzon 






Food Conservation has proved an education to us all! 

The Ryzon Service Staff itself never realized the adapt- 
ability of Ryzon until, one after another, our accustomed 
ingredients were curtailed and/'substitutes" confronted us 
on every hand. 

But the Ryzon Conservation Recipes were promptly 
developed and in all cases Ryzon justified its title of "The 
Perfect Baking Powder." With the coarser flours as well 
as with sugar substitutes, the results from Ryzon baking 
combine satisfaction with economy. 

The new edition of the Ryzon Baking Book contains the 
Conservation Recipes prepared by the Ryzon Service Staff 
and approved by the United States Food Administration. 

Ryzon is 40c per pound. The Ryzon Baking Book 
(original price $1.00) will be sent upon receipt of 30c in 
stamps or coin except in Canada. 

A pound tin of RYZON and a copy of the RyzoN Baking Book 
will be sent free, postpaid, to any Domestic Science teacher who writes 
us on school stationery, giving official position. 



THE PERFECT BAKING POWDER 

GENERALCHEMICAL^Q 

FOOD DEPARTMENT 
NEW YORK 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
373 



374 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



gienc aims to do; why the city is safer 
than the country for human life, and how 
to improve rural hygiene; the value of 
vital statistics, and health education as a 
universal conscription that is destined to 
save human life in the future from the 
dangers now threatening it on every hand. 
Finally, why the Health Board in city 
and state is the citizen's best friend, to 
be aided in every way^ possible. 

Courses in hygiene, sanitary science, 
preventive medicine and public health, 
are being given more and more frequently 
in our schools and colleges, but so far 
textbooks, which cover the whole field 
of disease prevention and health conser- 
vation, and which non-technical students 
and general readers can understand and 
follow intelligently, are rare indeed. To 
keep well is a patriotic duty. This book 
is highly commendable to nurses, teachers 
and mothers of America. 




Active Little Folks 

need the comfortable security given by 




OBLONG RUBBER BUTTON 

HOSE SUPPORTER 

Sold Everywhere 

Child's sample pair (give age) 20c. postpaid. 
For Infants — "The Baby Midget Velvet Grip 
Hose Supporter," Silk 15c; Lisle 10c. 

GEORGE FROST CO. - Makers - Boston 



The Business of the Household. By C. W. 
Taber. Numerous illustrations, 
tables, etc. ?2.00 net. J. B. Lip- 
pincott Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Efficiency in the business of the home 
is the next step in war conservation ur- 
gently demanded by the needs of the 
times. With taxes. Liberty Loans, War 
Chests, and the High Cost of Living, the 
task to make income and outgo balance 
in the family budget would seem to re- 
quire something resembling financial 
genius. 

In "The Business of the Household," 
C. W. Taber, with the assistance of noted 
professionals and technical experts, has 
applied the efficiency idea to the house- 
hold budget and household management 
so effectively as to be of inestimable value 
to the average reader. So convinced is 
the author of the efficacy of* his remedy, 
that he does not hesitate to say, "If home- 
study clubs, with a membership of two, 
will consider the plans here outlined, and 
if they will faithfully carry out the sug- 
gestions made, the problem of home 
finance will straightway be solved." 

The system outlined in this volume is 
not only business-like, but it is founded 
upon common sense. A housewife who 
would be successful, and her partner who 
desires to found a suitable home life, 
which his means will readily support, will 
find this volume of great value and 
helpfulness. 

In addition, the book may be used as a 
textbook for high schools and colleges; 
it may also serve as a reference book for 
the teacher in home economics in all 
grades. 

The Liberty Cook Book, By Bertha 
Stockbridge. ?2.00 net. D. Ap- 
pleton & Company, New York. 
This book has been written with the 
sole purpose of assisting the American 
woman to conserve food. Housekeepers, 
who have found the use of substitutes a 
problem, will be greatly relieved to learn 
that many of the old, delicious, but ex- 
pensive dishes may be prepared in a new. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



All- Year Food Delights 

Learn New Ways of Serving 
Many Pleasing Dishes 




"Iowa's Pride '* Bacon 

With the Famous Yorkshire Flavor 

^^vO meet the eager demands of women who are finding it 
^^y difficult to provide the economical variety that table 
efficiency now requires, Mrs. Ida C. Bailey Allen has written for 
us a book that contains new and selected recipe masterpieces — 
a book that tells 1 1 1 ways of serving Morrell's table delicacies, 
and make them go further. 

This splendid new book will be sent free, upon receipt of your name and 
address, and the name and address of your dealer. Get your copy today. 

John Morreli^ S2 Co. 

OTTUMWA. IOWA 



Buy advertised Goods^ — Do not accept substitutes 
375 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Quality 
thrifty 



IS 



ah 



ways 




THE delicate and ex- 
quisite flavor of Bur- 
nett's Vanilla gives a 
wonderful charm to the 
simple desserts that every- 
body serves these days. 
Do not risk spoiling ex- 
pensive ingredients by 
using "cheap" flavoring — 
use Burnett's for both 
quality and thrift. 



Burnett's 

Vani 



JOSEPH BURNETT CO. 

Dept. D 
36 India St., Boston, Mass. 




Send 5c for Book of 
War-time recipes, 
using very little flour 
Qf sugar. 




BREAD BOARD 

Eleven-inch turned maple bread board. The edge of this 
board is undercut like a dinner plate making a finished and 
attractive article. Sent, prepaid, to any present subscriber 
for securing and sending us one (1) new yearly subscrip- 
tion for American Cookery. Cash price, 75 cents. 

The Boston Cooking-School Magazine Co. 

Boston, Mass. 



WHEATLESS - MEATLESS MEALS 

84 Menus, 124 Recipes, directions for preparing each meal, food 
values, substitutes, timely suggestions, etc. 10c or FREE for 
four names of f riendt interested in Domestic Science. 
Am. School Home Economics, 503 W. 69th St., Chicago, III. 

Buy advertised Goods — 



less expensive way, but in one that will 
keep the food just as delicious as in peace 
times. There are hundreds of recipes for 
preparing meats, fish, vegetables, soups, 



preserves, dried 
author tells just 



fruits, etc., and the 
how the housewife can 
cut down on her wheat, meat, sugar, eggs 
and butter without in the least detracting 
from the taste, appearance or nutritive 
value of her meals. Sandwiches of many 
varieties are given especial place. One 
particularly desirable feature of the book 
will be found in the manner in which the 
recipes may be used to cover the needs of 
two persons, or they may be used to pre- 
pare a banquet, and the quality retain the 
high standard of excellence. 



More Recipes for Fifty. By Frances L. 
Smith. Cloth, ?1.50 net. Whit- 
comb & Barrows, Boston. 

The introduction best describes this 
book: 

A recipe, called to judgment, must an- 
swer three questions: 
Is it practical.? 
Is it economical.? 
Is the result attractive.? 

These questions have to be answered in 
the affirmative when the recipes are 
planned for small groups. The answers 
must be still more emphatic when cooking 
is done for half a hundred. 

The first book by Miss Smith has 
proved its rare value to the many dieti- 
tians and institution managers who have 
used it. The second carries the added 
merit of adjustment to our increased list 
of staples. 

Before the war, we were in a rut in our 
kitchens. We used wheat, meat, sugar, 
and fats thoughtlessly and monotonously. 
Now, happily, cooking is lifted out of this 
dull routine. It has become a real 
adventure. 

Repeated experiments with what> in the 
first days of the world struggle, we called 
"substitutes" have produced the recipes 
in this book. They make a reliable and 
complete collection of palatable dishes, 
which are not only good in theory, but 
entirely satisfactory in practice. 



• Do not accept substitutes 
376 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Wilson's Certified Brand 
Canned Peas 

The best you ever tasted 
— or your money back 

FLAVOR Y, tender green peas — the 
very finest grown — picked when just 
right for the table! You will say — "I 
never tasted such good peas" — when you 
try Wilson's Certified Brand. 

Only peas of uniform size— plump, full-flavored 
and fresh from the vines — are good enough to 
win Wilson's Certified Brand — the label of per- 
fect quality. 

All the fruits and vegetables we put up are pre- 
pared with unusual care, under the most sanitary 
conditions. 

Wilson's Certified Brand canned foods and table 
specialties possess such a high degree of excel- 
lence that we place our "money back" guarantee 
right on the label. 

The name Wilson & Co. is the symbol of superior 
quality in these products, just as it stands for 
highest excellence in Majestic Hams and Bacon 
and all other Wilson food products. 



W 



rWlLSON & CO 



\jtjwt. ^nenaraetT 



XT \y 

CHICAGO 



WAR-TIME RECIPES-Write us a postal^- 
request for our book telling how to r""*^-- 
economize in using meats. / 



A' 



^'HE WILSON LABEL 



A partial list of Wilson's Certified 

Brand Products sold under our 

"money-back" guarantee 



Sweet Corn 

Green Peas 

Tomatoes 

String Beans " 

Beets 

Pork and Beans 

Pumpkin 

Leaf Spinach 

Giant Asparagus 

Asparagus Tips 

California Peaches 




Loganberries 

Raspberries 

Strawberries 

Catsup 

Chili Sauce 

Jellies Jams 

Preserves 

Peanut Butter 

Mince Meat 

Olives 

Sardines Salmon 



Hawaiian Pineapple Corned Beef Hash 

Cherries Ox Tongue 

Blackberries Lunch Tongue 

Blueberries Veal Loaf 



OUR GUARANTEE 

I - YOU ARE NOT SATISFIED 
THAT THE CONTENTS OF THIS 
CAN i5 OF THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE 
QUALITY, YOUR DEALER V.'IL'. 
'EFUND THE PURCHASE PRICl 



-"'-J^cc 



os-*^- 




o lO L' r\ 






Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 

377 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllll 

This Christmas 
Give Books 





For Every War Bride 

SILVER LINING 

By R. W. F. 

The brief honeymoon, the enlistment, the final part- 
ing, the heartache, and the relief from heartache in war 
work — this experience of thousands of girls is vividly 
told by one of them. Every word rings true. 60.cents, 
net. 

For every mother, sister 

or sweetheart of a soldier 

MY COMPANY 

By Captain Carroll Swan 

The first book by an American officer describing 
America's splendid part in the great Allied Victory 
Drive. No other book like this has been written. 
Give it to every one whose boy is over there. Twenty- 
four illustrations. $L50 net. 

For the solver of food problems 

FOOD AND THE WAR 

This book, prepared under the direction of The 
United States Food Administration, tells how to 
save food, why to save food, and what is an adequate 
diet. 80 cents net. 

For the lover of good essays 

THE JOYS OF 

BEING A WOMAN 

By Winifred Kirkland 

"A delightful treat to those who love the informal 
essay, for here is a collection of papers written by a 
woman who has already proven her ability in this 
field." — The Independent. 

$1.50 net. 



REFRESHING FICTION 



OH, MONEY! MONEY! 

By Eleanor H. Porter 

"Mrs. Porter has never written a more enjoyable 
story. It is a very wise and lovable book." — Christian 

Endeavor World. 

Illustrated. $1.50 net. 

THE CARAVAN MAN 

By Ernest Goodwin 

"It simply sparkles with humor. There is not a dull 
chapter in the entire story." — Brooklyn Eagle. 
Illustrated. $L50 net. 



HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 

BOSTON AND NEW YORK 



THE SILVER LINING 
Deep Apple Pie 

Yum, Yum, Yi, 
Deep apple pie, 
Nothing else to eat so nice, 
So say I. 

Get a good, deep pudding dish; 

Well your apples peel; 
Cut them all up thin and fine, 

With sugar a good deal. 

Fill the dish up to the brim; 

A dash of cinnamon; 
Some water, then you're ready quite 

To put the pastry on. 

For that we need a cup of flour. 

Some baking powder, too; 
A pinch of salt; some butter, yes, 

Half-a-cup will do. 

Sift the powder, salt, and flour, 

The butter rub in slow, 
Wet with water just enough 

To make into a dough. 

Then you need the baking-board. 

And a rolling pin, 
To roll the dough out nice and smooth, 

But do not roll too thin. 

Now put your pastry on your pie, 

And trim it well around, 
Then place it in the oven hot. 

Until it is well browned. 

Take it out and leave a while 

The stove's warm top upon. 
For this will help to make you sure 

The apples are well done. 

And now our pie is fit to serve; 

Hot or cold suits some; 
So sit around the table then, 

And do not leave a crumb. 

Yum, Yum, Yi, 

Deep apple pie. 

Nothing can surpass it quite, 

So say I. 

— Donald A. Fraser. 



The teacher was relating all the authen- 
tic information recorded in the Bible 
about Methuselah, also various anecdotes 
gleaned from less reliable sources. In 
conclusion she said: "Now are there any 
further questions you would like to ask 
about Methuselah V " I'd like to know," 
said the most interested youngster of the 
lot, "where all his birthday presents are 
buried!" — St. Louis Times. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
378 



ADVERIISEMENTS 



'Minute 
Muffins 



^J?^ Minute Muffins 

Mix and sift two cups of rice flour, three teaspoonfuls of 
baking powder and one teaspoonful of salt. Stir one heap- 
ingtablespoonful of MINUTE TAPIOCA SUBSTITUTE 
in one and a quarter cups of milk, add to this the well-beaten 
yolks of two eggs, one tablespoonful of corn syrup and two 
tablespoonfuls of melted shortening, add the flour mixture 
and beat well, then fold in the stiffly-beaten whites of two 
eggs. Pour into well-greased muffin tins. Bake about twenty 
minutes in moderate oven. 





Minute Muffins for 
Breakfast 

Surpriseyour family tomorrow morn- 
ing. Try these delicious new muffins. 
Made with Minute Tapioca Substitute, 
they save flour, and have great energy- 
building value. 




You have used Minute Tapioca for years 
because your family loved the successful 
dishes you made with it. Now that the ships 
which brought tapioca from the Orient are 
taking foodstuffs to France, our supply of 
tapioca is curtailed. We can't give you 
Minute Tapioca, but we are proud to offer 
Minute Tapioca Substitute in its place. Made 
of tapioca, blended with native flours, it has 



the same deHghtful flavor and nutritive 
quahties. 

Identify it by the famihar red and blue 
package. The reading is changed, and the 
contents made on a new formula, but the 
old-time flavor is in all dishes made with 
Minute Tapioca Substitute. 

Minute Gelatine is instantly dissolved in 



hot water, and is measured ready for use. 
Send for the Consewation Cook Book, full ofnenxj and tempting receipts. 
MINUTE TAPIOCA COMPANY 312 North Main Street, Orange, Mass. 



Buy adveriised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
379 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




FOR BETTER MINCEMEAT 



Use Stickney & Poor's selected Spices. , Best and most 
satisfying because through improved methods of grind- 
ing, all the original flavor and aroma of the spice is 
retained. In the complete line of 

STICKNEY & POOR'S 

STANDARD PRODUCTS 

there's a spice for every seasoning purpose. Try 

Stickney & Poor's Pastry Spice in 3'our pies and pastries 
— and whenever you order Mustard, Spices, Seasonings 
and Flavorings, for your own protection, insist upon 
Stickney & Poor's. They are the best obtainable. 
Your Co-operating Servant, 

"MUSTARDPOT" 

^ STICKNEY & POOR SPICE C0/V1PANY . 

^L 1815— Century Old Century Honored—l 91 8 ^^ 

^ BOSTON, MASS. IP 

■I Mustards-Spices Seasonings-Flavorings ■ 

THE NATIONAL MUSTARD POT 



Housekeeper's size, 1 ^oz., .30 prepaid 
Caterer's size, 16oz., $1.00 
(With full directions.) 



Cremo-Vesco Company 

631 EAST 23rd ST.. BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



Cream Whipping Made 
Easy and Inexpensive 

(^ REMO- y ESGO 

Whips Thin Cream 

or Half Heavy Cream and Milk 

or Top of the Milk Bottle 

It whips up as easily as heavy cream 

and retains its stiffness 

Every caterer and housekeeper 

wants CREMO-VESCO. 

Send for a bottle today. 



Quite Another Proposition 

One afternoon Mike was caught in a 
railway wreck, which fortunately was not 
very serious. When his friend found him 
he was sitting beside the track supporting 
his head with one hand, and holding a leg 
with the other. The San Francisco ^ 
tells the story: 1 



"How are you feeling, Mike?" asked 
one of the party, stooping to help the 
bruised man. "Are you badly hurt.?" 

"Thot Oi am," answered Mike. ."Oi 
fale as if Oi had troid to stop a foight 
betwane a road roller and a mule." 

"Never mind, old fellow," sympatheti- 
cally replied the other. "It is not as bad 
as it might have been, and you'll get dam- 
ages, you know." 

" Damages ! " exclaimed Mike. " Shure, 
an' Oi've enough av thim. It's repairs 
Oi'm nadin' now." 



A guest in the home of Joseph K. 
Greene, missionary and author of "Leav- 
ening the Levant," according to the Con- 
tinent, observing how pleasant the host's 
two little girls played together, inquired 
of Fannie: "How is it that you and your 
sister never quarrel.?" "Why," said 
Fannie, "Lizzie lets me and I let her." 



Here is an old kernel in a new shell: 
"I shall have to ask you for a ticket for 
that boy, ma'am," insisted a conductor, 
speaking to a quiet-loolang little woman. 
The woman declined to pay. "You'll 
pay for that boy, or I'll stop the train and 
put him off," he persisted. "All right, 
put him off," she said calmly. "You 
ought to know the rules. How old is that 
boy.?" "I don't know. I never saw 
him before." 



The traffic officer raised his hand and 
the motorist pulled up abruptly. "Just 
a minute," he said. "Ugh." "Could 
I sell you a ticket to the policeman's pic- 
nic?" There was a long pause. And 
then — "Well, I should say you could," 
chirped the motorist. "I thought I was 
pinched." — Judge. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
380 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Pie puts the finishing touch to the suc- 
cessful feast. A good Pie depends on the 
It flavoring for its lip-smacking excellence. 
Use Slade's flavorings with these Pics and make 
your guests smile with delight. 



cf Lemon 

With MINCE use 

Slade's Cloves, Slade's 

All!»pice, Slave's Nutmeg:, 

Slade's Cinnamon 

Ask grocers for Slade^s. 
'CooV Bool; 



With SQUASH use 

Sladc'8 Ginger, SlodeN 
Nutmeg:, Slaite'^ Cinnamon 

Slade's Spices are 

strongest cCnd best and 

explain the secret of 

pleasing Pies. • 

Send stamp for Patriotic 

SInde CO^ BuHton, Ma.st*. 



Slade's Spices Flavor Best 



After-School Lunch 

What could be better for the after-school lunch than a cup of Chocolate 
Nesnah with a piece of bread and butter or cake. Try it and see if the 

youngsters don't vote it the "best ever". 

For a luncheon dish, or as a dessert, there's nothing more nourishing or 
more easily made. 

One ten-cent package makes a quart. 



1 qt. milk 



CHOCOLATE NESNAH 

One 10c pkg. Chocolate Nesnah 



Heat milk lukewarm, remove from stove, add Nesnah, stirring one-half minute. Pour 
into individual cups and allow it to set. Place in refrigerator; serve well chilled. 

Six Pure Natural Flavors 

VANILLA ORANGE RASPBERRY 

ALMOND LEMON CHOCOLATE 

The Junket Folks will send you a free sample and a booklet of 
recipes on request. 

CHR. HANSEN'S LABORATORY, Inc. 
THE JUNKET FOLKS, 

Box 2570 - Little Falls, N. Y. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
381 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Are You Nervous? 

Then Stop Drinking Coffee! 



II — 



-ii 



i^ HEALTHS: 

BlenO 

A COFFEE SUBSTITOTE 

I, Manufactured BY _> 

If 'NICHOLS Coffee Q)MP^^ 

|i^>^^^^ CHICAGO. U.S.A. 







DRINK HEALTH BLEND 
It's Different 

Not Coffee— But Tastes Like It 

If you have a case of "nerves" or are run 
down, if you are Sleepless, have that Tired 
Feeling', Brain Fag, Drowsiness. Coffee 
Kills Nerve Force. Health Blend is a Re- 
freshing, Palatable, Invigorating drink. A 
Combination of Cereals with fine Coffee 
Flavor. Try it. You will always drink it. 
It is cheaper than any other substitute. 
Send 10 Cents for sample or 50 Cents 
For one Pound to the Manufacturer, 
NICHOLS COFFEE COMPANY 
15 E. 23rcl St. Chicago. U. S. A. 

ENLIST FOR WAR SERVICE 

WITH its twenty-three million homes, 
housekeeping is our country's big- 
gest industry. To win the War, economy 
and efficiency in the home is an imperative 
necessity. 

Your Country Is Calling You 
To save food, save fuel and save all materials 

used in the home; 
To organize your work so that you will have 

more time and strength for War Relief 

Work; 
To make your home a safer, more healthful 

place to live in, to bring up children in; 
To make your home more w^orth fighting 

for, more worth this awful sacrifice. 

To meet this call fully — • become a 
trained expert in your home management 
(or for outside service). Enlist NOW for 
home-service. Send for the "Profession 
of Home Making" to American School of 
Home Economics, 503 W. 69th St., 
Chicago. 



Looking for Money 

Little Willie was discovered by his 
mother industriously smashing all the 
eggs in the house. "Why, Willie," she 
cried, aghast, "what do you mean by 
breaking all those eggs.^" Willie an- 
swered: "I heard papa say there was 
money in eggs, and Fm tryin' to find it." 



Gen. Leonard Wood tells the story of a 
captain to whom was assigned a new or- 
derly, a fresh recruit. "Your work will 
be to clean my boots, buttons, belt, and 
so forth, shave me, see to my horse, which 
you must groom thoroughly, and clean 
the equipment. After that you go to 
your hut, help to serve the breakfast, and 
after breakfast lend a hand washing up. 
At eight o'clock you go on parade and 
drill till twelve o'clock" — "Excuse me, 
sir," broke in the recruit, "is there any 
one else in the army besides me.?" 



A certain college teacher reproved his 
students for coming late to class. "This 
is a class in English composition," he re- 
marked with sarcasm, "not an afternoon 
tea." At the next meeting one girl was 
twenty minutes late. The professor 
waited until she had taken her seat. Then 
he remarked bitingly, "How will you 
have your tea, Miss Brown.?" "With- 
out the lemon, please," Miss Brown 
answered gently. 



iff 



Teco Self-Rising Pancake and Buck- 
wheat Flours are -prepared with Malted 
Buttermilk; to be used without milk — 
just add water. The buttermilk is in the 
flour. 

With Teco and a little cold water you 
have enough pancakes for the family^ and 
Teco Pancakes are as delicious as they are 
nutritious., because there is MALTED 
BUTTERMILK mixed in the flour,— 
see advertisement on back cover page of this 
magazine. — Adv. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
382 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



BRAND 







Try the "Carnation" Way 

of Creaming Vegetables 

Vegetables, either fresh or canned can be made most delicious 
when creamed. The "Carnation Way" of creaming vegetables not 
only improves the flavor, but adds the nutritive qualities of the 
original whole milk. For creaming vegetables, use Carnation Milk 
as it comes from the can or dilute to richness desired. The creamy 
consistency of Carnation enhances the natural flavor of all vege- 
tables—peas, beans, potatoes, carrots, cauliflower, asparagus, etc. 

Carnation Milk is just pure, sweet, cows' milk, with part of the water evap- 
orated. It is safe, because it is sterilized. Economical, because there is no 
waste. It is most convenient, because it is always ready to use— stays sweet 
until opened and for several days thereafter. 

Carnation Milk is used for cooking and makes everything you cook with it 
taste better. Use it in your coffee, tea, and for making cocoa. Give it to the 
children to drink, after diluting with pure water as per directions on each can. 
When used for cooking and baking, dilute its richness as desired. 

If you are not already a user of Carnation Milk get acquainted with this pure 
milk— order a few cans from your grocer. Give it a trial. 

Write for Free Booklet 

Write for booklet describing the sanitary methods of heindling Carnation 
Milk, and 100 choice recipes for every day and special dishes, including 
"The Carnation Way of Creaming Vegetables." 

CARNATION MILK PRODUCTS CO., Chicago and Seattle, U. S. A. 
For Recipe Booklet address 1258 Stuart Building, Seattle 









■From Contente 



Mil 



l^»^ 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
387 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



The Natiopf averages 




/ 



^ 



Coff^ 



I 




There's not a State in U. S. ATBut knows and uses White House Coffee aid Teas. 
Carload shipments, once an event with us, are now common. Nothing short of 
exceptional quality could command such patronage. If you haven't tried Whit< 
House Coffee and Teas, a new pleasure awaits you. Always in the air-tight package. 
DWINELL-WRIGHT COMPANY, Principal Coffee Roasters. BOSTON - CHIC AGO 



Victory-Chimes Fruit-Food 




Victory-Cliimes Fruit-Food is a fruit-food prepared for the boys "over there'* and *'over 
here." The confection, which comes wrapped in waxed paper, and packed in an attractive box, 
resembles rich fruit cake containing nuts. It may be served cold as cake, or hot with a sauce as 
a pudding. It is shown above, plain; and hot, on a small serving plate, under a small cone of 
ice cream. 

For prices, etc., address, 

VICTORY-CHIMES INDUSTRIES, 614 Milwaukee St., Milwaukee, Wis. 



Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



I 



U 



Not dry— but fresh- 
grated and canned 
in its oivn rich coco- 
nut milk. 








Some of the new "war-foods" in our 
pretty recipe booklet are more delicious 
than any peace food you ever set before 
those hungry critics around your table. 
The rich coconut milk in the can of 
Baker's Fresh -Grated Coconut is the 
secret. It is just like fresh coconut — 
without the mussy trouble of cracking 
and grating, of course. To be sure, there 
are other kinds of prepared coconut — but 
they're all dry. 

Send for your free copy of our new recipe 
booklet. If your grocer hasn't Baker's Canned 
Coconut on hand, send us his name and 15c 
in stamps for a full size can. 

The Franklin Baker Co., Phila., Pa. 

Manufacturers also af Baker'' s Shredded Coconut, in cartons 



Jaruiicaa Potatoes 



Just as delicious as they are novel 

One can Baker's Fresh-Grated 

Coconut 
Six medium-sized potatoes 
Two tablespoons fat 
One teaspoon salt 
Half cup coconut milk 
Quarter teaspoon cayenne 

Drain milk from coconut, as 
shown. Bake potatoes until 
tender. Cut lengthwise and re- 
move center. Mash in warm 
bowl, add coconut and other 
ingredients, and mix well. Re- 
fill potato shells heaping high 
v/ith the mixture. Brown under 
broiler, or in hot oven. Save 
the milk; rich enough for bak- 
ing or cooking. 




It 



COCONU 

Canned — in its own milk fresh 

11 



Buy advertised Goods 



■ Do not accept substitutes 
389 



AMERICAN COOKERY 







tintfa0^ 



'^Z '^^^^'<m^'~^^. 



An Xmas Suggestion 

f This beautiful Colonial PaulRe- 

. vere Sauce Pan <2 pints) 

I Polished 

[ Rubberoid 

I Handle-a .— sa^s-^**- 

f gift t hat # ^JK^ ^^"^ f ^-f; 

* combines ^ ^^K P^^*^ $2.25 

► beauty with yk^ ^ SH^ where we have 

' usefulness. ^%if^j^^ no dealer. 




^ Nothing better typifies the everlasting 
spirit of the Christmas season than Wagner 
Cast Aluminum — the "Sterling" of the kitch- 
en. Its purity, its cleanliness, its beauty of 
form and silvery sheen make it the ideal gift. 

Every utensil is cast (not stamped or spun) 
in one solid, seamless piece. It neither chips 
nor warps. Acids do not discolor it. Its 
worth becomes more evident with the passing 
of the years. 

The name WAGNKR cast in the hot» 
torn of every piece is your gtcarantee. 



w^^m^g 



I 



THE WAGNER 
Department 74 



MANUFACTURING CO. 
SIDNEY, OHIO 






Keep on Saving Food 

The U. S. Food Administration warns that 
we must continue to conserve food, especially 
wheat, meat, sugar and fats. 

Our Booklet 

Good Things to Eat 

tells how to make good use of scraps of 
bread and other left-overs. 

THE FLEISCHMANN GO. 

701 Washington St., New York City 



For a limited time we can supply all back 
numbers of American Cookery and Boston 
Cooking-School Magazine at regular prices. 
Order now if you wish to complete your 
files. 

We will pay 20 cents each for Boston Cooking-School 

Magazine issues of June-July, 191S, and 

June-July, 1916 

Address 

American Cookery, Boston, Mass. 



ECONOMICAL WAR TIME COOK BOOK 

By Janet McKenzie Hill 

is a book of 64 large pages full of timely information and recipes: Seven Commandments for 
War Time Conservation ; Substitutes for Wheat and How to Use Them; Victory Bread; 
Wheatless Quick Breads; Meat Substitutes; Dessert Dishes, Sugarless and Near Sugar- 
less; Canning, Cold Pack and Open Kettle; etc., etc. 

Undoubtedly the best and most helpful War Cookery Book yet published. What every 
housekeeper needs. This book will bring her cooking right up to the times. 

We have published this book that clubs and patriotic societies might have a practical and 
concise treatise on the new conservation war cookery for sale or distribution among their members. 
Prices, prepaid — 10 copies $2.25 50 copies $9.25 

20 " 4.25 75 ** 13.50 

30 ** 6.00 100 " 16.00 

Send 25 cents for a sample copy. 
BOSTON COOKING-SCHOOL MAGAZINE CO. 



BOSTON, MASS. 



Buy advertised Goods 



— Do not accept substitutes 
390 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



IT SERVES YOUR HOME AND SAVES YOUR TIME 
» " ®''" THAT IS PRACTICAL ECONOMY 




Large Broad Wide Table 

Removable Glass Service Tray — 

Double Drawer — Double Handles 

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Salt Mackerel 

CODFISH, FRESH LOBSTER 

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SALT MACKEREL, fat, meaty, juicy fish, are delicious for 
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391 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




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Buy advertised Goods — Do not accept substitutes 
392 



Dishes from Home Canned Vegetables 

and Fruit 

Not referred to in ** Seasonable Recipes '* 



Cream Soups: String bean, green pea, asparagus, spinach, tomato 

Succotash 

Corn Chowder 

Bechamel Style: Spinach, asparagus, Swiss chard, beet tops 

Creamed, au Gratin: Kohl-rabi, summer squash, celery, corn, spinach, 
beet tops, chard 

Scalloped: Corn, spinach, tomatoes, kohl-rabi, summer squash 

HollandaisQ Sauce: ) . 1,1,. 

Drawn Butter Sauce: | Asparagus, kohl-rab, 

Flavoring for Rice, Macaroni, etc.: Tomatoes, green peppers, celery 

Timbales: Green pea, spinach, corn 

Salad: Asparagus, spinach, string beans, green peas, tomato (jelly), 
Swiss chard, beet tops, beets 

Souffle: Spinach, beet tops, chard 

Mousse (cold) gelatine and cream: Tomatoes, asparagus, spinach 

Griddle-cakes and Fritters: Corn 

Pie: Squash, pumpkin, berries, apples 

Ices: Any variety unsweetened fruit juice 

Shortcakes: Pears, peaches, berries, asparagus 




CREAM OF CORN SOUP WITH TIMBALE AND CROUTON STICKS. CHOPPED 
PEPPER IN BOTTOM (NOW TOP) OF TIMBALE 



401 




FOR A SIDEBOARD, A TRAY IS ALW AYi L\ ouuD TASTE 



A HOME SONG 



I read within a poet's book 
A word that starred the page: 

"Stone walls do not a prison make, 
Nor iron bars a cage!" 



Yes, that is true, and something more: 
You'll find, where'er you roam, 

That marble floors and gilded walls 
Can never make a home. 



But every house where Love abides, 

And Friendship is a guest. 
Is surely home, and home-sweet-home: 

For there the heart can rest. 

— Henry Van Dyke. 



American Cookery 

VOL. XXIII JANUARY, 1919 

Trays of Yesterday and Today 

By Mary Harrod Northend 



No. 6 



IT is through our power to inhale the 
past, and the quickening touch it lays 
on our memories, recalling a sentiment 
here, or a tragedy there, that the furni- 
ture and decorative accessories of by- 
gone days 'commands our interests, and 
oftentimes our affections. If many of 
the inanimate pieces, which we treasure 
for their age and beauty, could but speak 
to us, what romantic and amazing con- 
fessions would be forthcoming. This is 
particularly true concerning the beauti- 
ful old trays that have lately come into 
such favor. Fancy a large, heavily lac- 
quered, gold-and-black one, used chiefly 
today for decorative purposes, telling us 
of a century old tete-a-tete in an English 
rose garden, or a highly ornamented silver 
tray that once held syllabus and mint 
juleps in an old Southern home. 

Wooden trays were the earliest re- 
corded, and generally show decorations 
worked out by a fine inlay in both centers 
and borders. Paper pulp or papier 
mache were also among the earliest made. 
These were usually circular, oval or 
square, and were lacquered and then 
ornamented. Very few of these, how- 
ever, are still in existence, as they were 
not considered of enough importance to 
be treasured. 

Among the genuine antiques, the iron- 
and-tin trays are the most common. 
These were usually japanned and or- 
namented. 

There are still, today, some particu- 
larly fine-old-Italian trays, made of 
different materials, which are frequently 
designated as waiters or salvers. 

It is very easy to distinguish the Orien- 
tal lacquer, as the brilliant gold decora- 



tion was so popular. These generally 
came in nests of three, the largest rarely 
exceeding two, or two and a half feet 
square. Many of the best examples 
were made in China, and found their way 
to European countries through commer- 
cial exchange. These are especially popu- 
lar in our country today, for during the 
time of commercial prosperity, we traded 
largely with China, and sea captains 
frequently purchased them, either as 
gifts to their families, or to sell them when 
reaching home. 

That trays were popular in the early 
days is shown in the fact that the Duke 
Charles of Lorraine possessed one made 
of rock crystal with gold feet, while 
Marie Antoinette was very proud of a 
silver oval one with gilt enamel, showing 
one hundred and forty-four cameos, en- 
graved heads of the sovereign princes of 
the house of Austria. 

Early in the eighteenth century, Eng- 
land sent over to this country principally 
iron trays. About this time the in- 
dustry flourished in Pontypool, England, 




A CHINESE TRAY, NOW USED AS A TABLE TOP 
•103 



404 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



but gradually drifted to the large hard- 
ware center of Birmingham. The trays 
turned out of these places, however, were 
not decorated to any great extent, but 
near the close of the eighteenth century 
quite a number of beautiful ones, painted 
by amateurs, as a pastime, were sent 
over. 

Many of these old pieces, through care- 
lessness or hard usage, have become faded 
and dilapidated, but the art of re-decorat- 
ing is being carried on in our country 
today, which gives to the old tray a new 
life through restoration, yet does not 
detract from its genuineness as an an- 
tique. For we are beginning to realize 
the worth of these old treasures, and are 
desirous of utilizing them for twentieth 
century afternoon-tea, or for decorative 
purposes. 

Few of us realize that pewter trays 
were, at one time, very popular, coming 
from the Orient, and were engraved by 
artists there, some of them being partic- 



ularly unique and interesting in design. 
Decoration has always played an im- 
portant part in these household acces- 
sories, for even the humble bread-tray 
was pictured in gold and lacquer, show- 
ing landscape effects on a black back- 
ground. Most of these lacquer trays, 
executed in the Chinese manner, gener- 
ally showed a black background with 
insets of mother-of-pearl, which gave 
color to what would have otherwise been 
a dull scene. Charming, round silver 
and Sheffield ones were made, and were 
generally used for letters or glasses, 
while the oblong or oval, being larger, 
were very useful for tea. We find gilt 
and polychrome decoration worked out 
in a great variety of subjects in the old 
trays of iron or tin. There is the grape 
leaf, fruit, and the flower decoration, be- 
sides many others. Some of these are 
perfectly plain in the center, while others 
have a portrait panel worked out on a 
black background. Occasionally we 







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BLACK LACQUER TRAY, WITH MOTHER OF PEARL INSET 



TRAYS OF YESTERDAY AND TODAY 



405 



come across a hunting scene, dating about 
1810, on a gold-lacquer tin tray, showing 
the huntsman painted in black and red. 

One of the most interesting is the old 
silver rose tray, which came into existence 
about 1780, and which was designed with 
trenches around the edge, in which to lay 
roses. This was not only an unusual 
idea, but made a wonderfully artistic 
centerpiece. 

Today we have what is known as the 
tea-tray tables, made of a frame with 
Sheraton legs, on which the tray sets. 
These are particularly adaptable for 
porch or garden use, as the tray is de- 
tachable and can be easily carried around. 

The antique Chinese trays show a type 
of art that is unique and peculiar to their 
race. They are popularly known in the 
United States as Oriental lacquer work, 
and show gold tracings on black or red 
grounds. These are being reproduced by 
the Japanese, who have been able to work 
out creditable productions by secret 
processes. 



Strange as it may seem, Oriental lacquer 
is not a made-up mystery, but a dense 
and heavy gum with an unusual and queer 
odor. The gum itself is not used in its 
crude state, but is strained through thin 
muslin to separate particles, which pre- 
vent it from settling. But the cautious 
and reticent lacquer-worker has kept his 
craft in the hands of a handful of men, 
and carefully guards his work shop from 
intruders^ which makes the mystery itself 
generally felt. 

If you wish to refinish your old tray, 
yourself, in the English manner, it is not 
a difficult matter to do it, provided you 
have some artistic talent. First, the 
old paint or varnish must be scraped 
thoroughly from the surface, which is 
then coated with lacquer diluted by 
turpentine, in order to make it workable, 
the desired color having previously been 
worked into the gum. This is known^as 
"intervention," and each coat must be 
dried separately, and when hard, rubbed 
down with a stump of charcoal, until a 




MODERN PAINTING ON OLD TIN TRAY 



406 



AMERICAN COOKERY 




PAINTED TIN TRAY, BIRD AND 
FLOWER DESIGN 

perfection of surface is obtained. It 
should dry from twenty to forty-eight 
hours, according to the degree of body 
or surface quality desired. Round 
brushes do not lay the lacquer evenly, 
and flat brushes, tw^o or three inches w^ide, 
should be used, the gum being drawn 
lightly over the surface with the flat of 
the brush drawn cheekwase against the 
face^of the w^ork. There should be a 
temperature of 60 degrees to keep this 
mixture in a w^orkable condition, and 
strange as it may seem, it dries better in 
damp w^eather. The finish being satis- 
factory, the design is then drawn in 
lightly upon the surface, and painted 
with the pigments desired. The decora- 
tive background usually harmonizes to 




red, black and gold, although sometimes 
creamy grays are unusual. After the 
surface is finished and thoroughly dry, 
the color must be laid by layer, and built 
up slowly to produce the right effect. 
This is naturally a laborious process, as 
each coat must be rubbed down before 
another is applied. When the pattern 
is finished, you should brush an upper 
layer over it, and in order to harden prop- 
erly should add a little camphor in with 
the gum. If you follow these directions 
carefully, it is not a difficult process. 

When w^e consider that Chippendale 
and Shearer, two of our prominent cabi- 




A RUSSIAN TRAY, RED IN CENTER, BLACK 
FRAME WITH GILT DECORATION 



A TRAY USED AS A TABLE TOP 

These are particularly adaptable for porch or garden 
use, as the tray is detachable and can be 
easily carried around 



net makers, considered trays of enough 
importance to design them, we realize 
that even in the olden times they formed 
a desirable acquisition to the home. 
They were designed principally of ma- 
hogany, with either a plain edge or 
scalloped, and often showed inlays as 
ornamentation. 

These old trays, now so popular, have, 
like the coming back of Colonial archi- 
tecture, proved that, at the present day, 
nothing has been designed to supersede 
them in artistic value. 



K 



m 



By Elsie Spicer Eells 



CYNTHIA HENDERSON dropped 
her sunny head upon the big ma- 
hogany desk under the portrait of 
great-great-grandmother Cynthia Wheat- 
ley. She was not a crying woman. She 
clenched her small hands tightly for a 
moment, rose abruptly, and threw back 
her slender shoulders with the same gest- 
ure which David Junior sometimes used 
on the bootball field. It was eleven 
o'clock of the evening of the December 
day when Professor David Henderson 
left the chair of modern languages at the 
College on the Hill for the path which led 
to a listening post on the front line "some- 
where in France," and to a war cross. 

Professor Van Slyke and his motherly 
little wife, from the big brown house next 
to the Henderson's white Colonial one, 
had spent the evening with Cynthia, and 
David Junior had stayed up for an extra 
half hour. There had been cider and 
toasted muffins and some of the crab- 
apple jelly, flavored with the mint, which 
had grown beside the spring at Wheatley 
Farm. David and Cynthia had gathered 
it the summer before. 

Cynthia pushed the tea-wagon into the 
kitchen, washed the soiled china and 
silver and glassware in the white enameled 
sink, put the left-over muffins back into 
the bread box and placed the jar of jelly 
in the cupboard. There was a lump in 
her throat. David was so enthusiastic 
about crabapple jelly flavored with mint. 
There had been no maids for professors' 
wives on College Hill in jelly-making time. 
David, himself, had poured the melted 
parrafine over the glasses, neatly pasted 
on the labels, which he had printed with 
his typewriter, and tied paper over the 
glasses which had no covers. 

"If he weren't such a dear, home-lover 
of a man I'd miss him less," whispered 
Cynthia to the row of jelly tumblers. 

She once more looked to the fastenings 



of the kitchen door, wheeled the tea- 
wagon back to its place in the dining- 
room, and closed and locked the window 
which had been open when Professor Van 
Slyke had smoked. She was glad that 
there was still a bit of smoky smell cling- 
ing to the blue window hangings. There 
always was after David's evening pipe. 
It was snowing outside yet, just the same 
gentle snowfall which had so soon cov- 
ered David's footprints on the brick walk 
when he had left. When she and David 
Junior had returned from the station she 
had noticed that they were entirely ob- 
literated. 

On the morrow Cynthia Henderson was 
to take her husband's place in the class 
room at the College on the Hill. Dear, 
old Professor Van Slyke had said some 
flattering things, when he had once more 
congratulated her upon her ability to 
carry on David's classes in his absence. 
He had said that she was the only one of 
the faculty wives on College Hill who was 
well fitted to do such a thing. David had 
always been so proud of her linguistic 
ability on their summer trips to Europe. 

" I must get to bed at once and try to 
sleep. There is so much ahead of me to- 
morrow," she said half aloud. 

For a moment she almost wished that 
she had allowed fourteen-year-old David 
Junior to stay up as late as the grown-ups, 
just as he had asked to do. She had said 
that one extra half-hour was quite enough 
for a boy who had to grow up into being 
man of the house. She dreaded to ex- 
tinquish the yellow-shaded lights in the 
pleasant, book-lined living room, and go 
alone up the stairway to the big front bed- 
room, which was now all her own. When 
she had come back from the station she 
had found a pair of soiled socks of David's 
on the floor where he had dropped them. 
She had patted them lovingly, as she put 
them into the laundry basket, and tears 



407 



408 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



had come into her eyes as she recalled the 
many times she had expressed the wish 
that David's mother had brought him up 
to be less careless in throwing his ward- 
robe about the room. Now the room 
would be empty of the litter of David's 
belongings. 

"If little Elizabeth had lived, I should 
have moved her bed into my room," she 
said to the portrait of great-great-grand- 
mother, Cynthia Wheatley. Eight-year 
old Elizabeth had died only the winter 
before. 

The portrait of the calm, gray-eyed, 
great-great-grandmother had a most com- 
paniable quality about it. That Cynthia 
had known, too, what it means to send 
one's man to the war. Cynthia Henderson 
took a faded brown leather wallet from 
a drawer in the big mahogany desk. It 
was the very wallet which Captain Abel 
Wheatley had tossed to his wife, when he 
had jumped upon the back of the farm 
horse and rushed to the battle of Lexing- 
ton. Three hours later the faithful 
horse had borne home again the bleeding 
body of its master. Great-great-grand- 
mother Cynthia had hastily tumbled the 
baby in her arms into its cradle, and tried 
in vain to stop the flow of blood from the 
wounds of Captain Abel. 

There was a bar for Captain Abel 
Wheatley on Cynthia's D. A. R. pin. 
Every summer at Wheatley Farm she 
took David Junior to visit his grave. 
David always went with his arms full of 
flowers for the moss-covered grave, but 
the flowers in Cynthia's hands were for 
great-great-grandmother Cynthia. She 
had always felt the deepest admiration 
for the brave woman whose name she 
bore. Cynthia Wheatley had gone on 
tilling the farm in the fertile valley, and 
bringing up her sons and daughters to a 
place of honor and esteem in the com- 
munity. Two of her sons had grown old 
enough to go to war before it was over. 

"How did you ever have the courage 
and the strength to do it all.^" Cynthia 
had often asked the portrait. Now she 
was beginning to understand how women 



have strength and courage to meet life 
as it comes to them. Tonight, as never 
before, she felt the kinship of great-great- 
grandmother Constance Wheatley. 
"Every day David Junior is more and 
more of a man," she quoted smilingly 
from Professor Van Slyke. She had 
worried about bringing David up without 
his father's guiding hand. Great-great- 
grandmother Cynthia had brought up her 
sons to be splendid men. 

Cynthia did not put the old wallet back 
into the drawer. "I'll carry it in my 
pocket to give me strength to go up to the 
college tomorrow," she said. She sat 
down in the wing-backed chair and laid 
the faded leather lovingly against her 
cheek. "Perhaps if I put it in my pocket 
now, it will give me strength to go up- 
stairs alone." 

Suddenly the ancient bronze knocker 
sounded on the front door. No one ever 
used the knocker. Cynthia had brought 
it from the old house at Wheatley Farm. 
There was an electric button beside the 
door. Cynthia let the leather wallet fall 
to the drop-leaf table at her side. She 
glanced at the grandfather's clock in the 
hall. It was exactly twelve o'clock. A 
whole hour had passed since the Van 
Slykes had left. 

For a moment she hesitated to answer 
the summons. Again the old knocker 
sounded its imperative call. With a 
swift step she crossed the hall and opened 
the door. It had stopped snowing. 

The old lantern from the farm house 
had been fitted up with electricity, and 
its soft light fell upon the snow-covered 
brick walk, which led to the trellised 
archway entrance. For a moment Cyn- 
thia's eyes were blinded by the sudden 
change from the lighted living-room to the 
midnight darkness outside the door. At 
least, she did not see at all the woman 
who stood on the doorstep. Slowly she 
visualized the tall erect figure. 

The Cynthia Henderson, who came to 
the white Colonial house on College Hill 
as a bride, would have noticed the wo- 



KIN 



409 



man's old-fashioned garments at once, 
but fifteen years had passed since that 
day. This Cynthia Henderson looked 
straight into the woman's eyes, and 
having once gazed into those wonderful 
eyes, she forgot all else. For a moment 
they stood in silence looking at each 
other. 

It was the visitor who spoke first. 

"Your eyes are gray like mine, and 
your hair, too, is full of golden lights. 
We women who are kin must stand to- 
gether in war times." 

Cynthia was not at all surprised that 
these should be her words. As she 
thought about it afterward she wondered 
why she had not been. Suddenly she re- 
membered her position as hostess. 

"Won't you come inside. Forgive me 
for keeping you standing there in the 
cold. Let me make you a cup of tea. 
Some friends have been spending the 
evening with me, and we had toasted 
muffins and crabapple jelly flavored with 
mint. There is some left." 

"Did you say crabapple jelly flavored 
with mint.?" asked the visitor. "I can- 
not linger for a cup of tea, thank you, 
but I should like to sample your jelly, 
I must admit. I have made it with a 
mint flavor, too. Have you ever flavored 
any with the leaves of the rose ger- 
anium.'*" 

Cynthia nodded. "Yes, I tried it 
this year for the first time. You must 
try my geranium flavored jelly, too. 
That is my favorite, but David likes the 
mint-flavored best. As for David Junior, 
he has no particular choice as long as 
there is plenty of it. What would I ever 
do, if I had six little boys to make jelly 
for like my great-great-grandmother.?" 
I asked him, when I was stemming the 
crabapples. 'When you make jelly, play 
that you have six boys,' is what he said." 

The visitor smiled as she seated herself 
in the Windsor chair. Cynthia thought 
afterward how the chair had stood in the 
shadow. 

"Boys are all alike," said the low, 
gentle voice. She added, after a mo- 



ment's reverie, "How well I remember 
the first year I flavored my crabapple 
jelly with mint and geranium leaves. 
There was no other fruit that year be- 
sides the crabapples. The crabapple 
trees were loaded, and I did not want all 
my jelly to be just alike." 

"That is the way with me this year," 
laughed Cynthia. "The peaches and 
grapes and quinces were so scarce and so 
terribly expensive. There was nothing 
in plenty except the crabapples. When I 
made my jelly, I did not know that the 
Board of Trustees would let me take 
David's place when he was gone. Now 
that David Junior is fourteen he is a 
bit* more expensive than he used to be 
when he was smaller and in grammar 
school. These days there are so many 
ways for one's money to fly, — Red Cross, 
the Y. M. C. A. work, the National 
League for Woman's Service. I was so 
glad to get such a variety of jelly out of 
my crabapples." 

The visitor's gaze lingered lovingly 
upon Cynthia's slender, serge-clad back, 
as she left the room in search of the jelly. 
"How young the mothers of fourteen- 
year-old sons look these days," she said. 

It was a Lowestoft plate and a rat- 
tailed silver spoon with which Cynthia 
served the jelly. Her guest took the 
spoon and plate lovingly in her thin, 
blue-veined hands. "I am so glad this 
spoon was found," she said. 

Cynthia wondered afterward why she 
was not surprised that the visitor should 
know about the spoon having been lost 
for so many years. "Yes," Cynthia 
said, "I'm glad too, not only for the 
spoon, but also for the joy it gave Junior. 
You see he was digging a trench back of 
the house at Wheatley Farm, where the 
old kitchen must have stood. He was 
the proudest boy when he dug up a spoon. 
I polished it, and when I found the in- 
itials C. W. upon it, I could hardly be- 
lieve the good luck. We have some 
Colonial silver from David's side of the 
house, but I never had a single spoon 
from the Wheatley side. David Junior, 



410 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



and his father too, dug for days and days 
to see if they might not find some more 
buried silver." 

"I love to hold it in my hands," said 
the guest, as she handed back the plate 
and spoon to Cynthia. "Your jelly 
tastes just as mine used to. I always 
hated a jelly that was too sweet."- She 
picked up the old leather wallet from the 
table, where Cynthia had dropped it at 
the sound of the bronze knocker on the 
front door. "May I hold this in my 
hands, too, for a moment?" She laid 
the faded leather lovingly against her 
cheek with the same gesture which Cyn- 
thia had used a moment before. 

Then the gentle voice went on after 
a brief pause. "What I came to tell you 
tonight, dear child, is this, *The side 
which is going to win the war is the side 
which can keep smiling the longest.' 
The Germans are very good smilers, but 
they cannot and must not be better ones 
than the best blood of America." She 
straightened herself proudly, in the 
shadow. 

"I well know what good smilers the 
German women are," said Cynthia. "I 
remember the tramps David and I used 
to take in the Thuringian forests those 
happy days before the war. I often 
talked with the old women wood-gather- 
ers. Their heavy burdens upon their 
backs nearly broke my heart, but the 
women, themselves, were always happy 
and smiling. I spoke about it to a pro- 
fessor's wife in Jena, who was my friend. 
'We German women can always bear 
the burdens we have to bear,' she said, 
'and we can do it with a smiling face.' 
I've often thought of that remark since 
the war began. I have no delusions 
about the women I have to compete with 
in smiling, any more than David has 
about the sort of men he has to fight 
against and outwit." 

"No woman can bear the things she 
has to bear with a braver smile than the 
American woman." The gentle voice 
rang out proudly, "These are not the 
first days when the women of America 



have smiled when their hearts were 
breaking, — have gone on smiling, — in 
order that Liberty might be born and 
nurtured and reared in the world." 

Cynthia felt a breath of cold December 
air as the visitor opened the door and 
passed out. "How rude of me not to go 
to the door with her," she cried, as she 
sprang up from the cozy depths of the 
wing-backed chair in dismay. The old 
leather wallet was lying on the table, 
where the gentle-voiced guest had 
dropped it as she left. 

The next morning David Junior was 
awake ahead of his mother. He tended 
the furnace and cleaned the walks before 
breakfast. He came in with sparkling 
eyes and glowing cheeks, with a big bear 
hug for Cynthia and a big bear appetite 
for the breakfast. 

"What do you suppose, mother.^" he 
cried. "The snow covered Professor 
Van Slyke's tracks all up, but Mrs. Van 
Slyke's tracks show as plain as anything on 
the walk this morning. Isn't that queer ? " 

Cynthia was serving the oatmeal, 
which had cooked all night in the fireless 
cooker. She passed the cupboard where 
she kept the jelly. The mint-flavored 
jelly, which she had put back into the 
cupboard after the Van Slykes had left, 
was entirely gone. There had also been 
some taken out of the dish of geranium- 
flavored jelly which stood beside it. 

She thought the matter over after 
David Junior had left for High School, 
and she was putting on her own hat in 
front of the mirror, preparatory to going 
up to the college to take David's place in 
the class room. 

"My visit from great-great-grand- 
mother Cynthia Wheatley may have been 
a dream," she remarked to herself. 
"Junior may have eaten the jelly. I 
never thought to ask him. However, 
that does not explain the tracks in the 
snow." 

You may think as you like about the 
matter. Cynthia Henderson, as she 
walked briskly up College Hill in the 



AUDREY'S BACK TRAIL 



411 



clear, cold morning air, liked to think that 
great-great-grandmother Cynthia Wheat- 
ley had come, that first night of David's 
absence, to help her twentieth-century 



kinswoman to keep smiling. In the days 
that followed there were many who com- 
mented upon the sweetness of Cynthia 
Henderson's smile. 



Audrey's Back Trail 

By Ladd Plumley 



THERE are many girls who are not 
fitted for business life, and Au- 
drey Fenton was of that kind. 
After her father's death, and her mother 
had been dead for years, Audrey ob- 
tained a position as a typist in New York, 
but a new manager speeded up the force 
and she was replaced by a quicker girl. 
There followed other clerkships, but al- 
ways there were mistakes or quicker 
typists, and when a jobless period set in, 
Audrey came to a desperate decision. 

"You can sign and give your refer- 
ences," said a woman in an agency on 
Sixth Avenue. 

"I can give no references. This would 
be my first position as a servant." 

"I thought so," said the woman. 
** We'll put you down as *Jane Smith.' 
Under the circumstances I will vouch for 
you. Can you cook.?" 

Audrey hesitated. 

"Could you roast a leg of lamb and 
bake potatoes.?" 

"Surely." 

" Pastry is generally bought, so is bread. 
Ice cream comes from the confectioner's. 
Washing is sent out. If you have a room, 
we'll say you prefer that arrangement." 

"What pay can I expect.?" 

"You should ask twelve dollars a week. 
If you lived at your place of employment, 
the wages would be thirty a month." 

Presently, as Audrey waited, the agent 
brought a lady to her. The woman had a 
way of puckering her brows, as if she were 
always solving a puzzle. After a short 
talk, she exclaimed, "Thank goodness, 



it's settled! You're to come at seven." 

The wages proved satisfactory. Of the 
twelve Audrey paid four for her room and 
carfare was seventy cents. This left 
some seven for clothing and incidentals. 
Her mistress was indulgent. If there 
were three simple meals a day, and the 
little apartment was kept neat, it was all 
she expected. Audrey did the market- 
ing, attended to the details of the house- 
hold, and she found herself better off, as 
to pocket, and far more happy than she 
had been in the business positions she had 
held; where she was expected to have, 
what she never pretended to have, a head 
for figures. But always back in her 
mind was the thought of her assumed 
name and the loss of caste, 

"You're Mrs. Atherton's maid," said 
a grocer's clerk, one day. "Hope you 
find it a nice place.?" 

After that she noticed, and with a feel- 
ing of annoyance, that no matter how 
many customers were waiting, Mr. Heald 
took her orders. And on a rainy day, 
when she happened to be the only cus- 
tomer, he asked, "Miss Smith, I wonder 
if you wouldn't allow me to call on you.?" 

Audrey was troubled, — indeed, she was 
more than troubled, she was angry. She 
explained that she did not live at Mrs. 
Atherton's. 

"But your rooming place.?" he asked. 

"There are reasons," she replied. What 
she had in mind was that a blue apron was 
not the garment she wished to clothe 
those who enjoyed a calling intimacy. 

"Forget it!" replied Heald. "I had 



412 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



a notion you were different." 

When out in the street Audrey knew 
that she was blushing. No girl could 
have failed to see what the clerk's eyes 
had shown. But although she was a ser- 
vant, she could not forget that her father 
had been a lawyer, and that there were 
New England traditions in her family. 
She would have liked to trade at another 
store, but her mistress wished to deal 
there, and, anyhow, she was inclined to 
defy the clerk. But for some time she 
sent her list by the grocer's boy. 

One night Audrey happened to go to a 
movie on Eighty-Sixth Street. She was 
late and no seats were vacant. She 
waited for the end of a film, but she 
would have failed to get a seat had not 
one been kept for her by a young man 
whom she recognized as the grocer's 
clerk. 

" Drop, Miss Smith," he urged. " You've 
got to grab a movie seat by its forelock." 

During the next hour Audrey could not 
help wishing all her movies were like 
this. As Mr. Heald followed her to the 
street he said, "This is too pleasant to cut 
short. Don't you want something to eat.^ 
Around on the Avenue there are real Cape 
Cods, and a rarebit that is the different 
kind." 

There was really no reason why she 
should not accept her companion's in- 
vitation, and presently she found herself 
in a crowded room. Mr. Heald led her 
to a seat in the corner, and the waiter 
took the order. Then came a doubtful 
surprise. In the stout and purplish- 
faced man, who left at another table an 
equally stout and purplish-faced lady, 
attired in celestial blue, and dangling 
from her person black jet in pounds. 

Audrey recognized the proprietor of 
the grocery store. He slapped Heald 
across the back. 

"So, Miss Smith!" he cried. "Jim 
knows where to dig out a pretty one!" 

Audrey did not like that, although she 
knew that the heavy voice had boomed 
out an attempt at a compliment. "I'll 
bring over ma!" he shouted. "She'll 



want to meet you. Jim doesn't often 
squat opposite a skirt. When he does 
there's sure something doing." 

This was a little too much, and when the 
madam of azure came over, Audrey at- 
tempted to be dignified, but it was a 
failure. Of a sudden she felt that in the 
democratic atmosphere of the East Side 
restaurant, the pretence of "Miss Smith'-' 
was a silly thing. And before she had 
said a dozen words, Audrey knew that 
under the eye-grabbing garment, the 
grocer's wife hid, and not successfully, a 
heart of gold. 

After the visitors returned to their 
table, Heald told Audrey something of the 
couple. 

"She was a clerk in a candy store and 
he's got a sweet tooth. That's when he 
started in business. It's a regulation 
East Side romance. A comfortable house 
on a cross street — he paid thirty thou- 
sand for it — three kids, fatter than the 
parents, and solid prosperity. They don't 
care a hang if I'm a clerk and you're a 
maid. If you're the right sort — and 
they've got keen eyes — they wouldn't 
mind if you were a scavenger." 

Audrey laughed, but uneasily, for her 
alias worried her. "But you wouldn't 
want to be a butler," she said. 

"No, I wouldn't. The reason is that, 
so far as I know the job doesn't promise 
advancement. A clerk can look forward 
to owning a store. The apron of my boss 
covers a successful man." 

"Money isn't everything." 

"A worn-out saw. Folks must have 
it. As long as you get it for honest ser- 
vice, . I can't see it matters. So I'm a 
grocery clerk, and thankful I'm opposite 
you. I'd put it a heap stronger, but my 
attempts of that sort have been swatted 
as if with a brick." 

Audrey turned her eyes away from his 
earnest gaze. 

"That I find," continued the clear 
voice, "is the greatest disadvantage of a 
blue apron. I'm a clerk. I meet a not 
unattractive girl, and understand she 
works for her living. Everybod}' ought 



AUDREY'S BACK TRAIL 



413 



to. Is there any reason why I should act 
differently than if I'd met her at the 
opera? Bosh! Sometime I'll tell you 
about myself. But I could never under- 
stand that the ability on the part of a 
bride to cook and take care of her house 
is a thing to be praised, but if circum- 
stances compel exactly the same thing 
for wages, she is supposed to descend in 
the social scale. That's a puzzle. Men 
don't look at things that way. Profes- 
sional proficiency in cooking, and all 
household duties ought to be looked upon 
as men look at proficiency in other lines. 
Goodness knows, household duties and 
cookery are important enough!" he 
continued. " But what's also important is 
that you've given me the jolliest evening 
ever. I'd be a brute to keep you longer — 
you have to be early at your work and so 
do I. But, A^Iiss Smith, please come 
yourself to the store. If nothing else will 
do, I'll hide behind a flour barrel and let 
a happier fellow wait on you." 

Heald did not keep his promise, and 
on Audrey's next marketing day he 
eluded a customer to take her order. 
Even with a barrel of herring on one side, 
and a barrel of pickles on the other, the 
ancient target-maker of bow and arrow 
managed to get in a shot between orders 
of coffee and eggs. 

"You silly!" exclaimed Audrey, as she 
hastened from the store. "You never 
supposed that you would allow a grocer's 
clerk to compare your cheeks to cran- 
berries. And, actually, he had the au- 
dacity to invite me to a ball given by the 
* Allied Grocery Clerks!' You said you'd 
think it over, but you know you'll accept. 
That gown Mrs. Atherton gave you is a 
dream. Miss Audrey Fenton getting 
fussed up over wearing her mistress's 
gown at a grocer's ball! He'll send her a 
bouquet of carrots, and she'll ride to the 
ball in a grocery wagon." 

But when the evening came, a florist's 
car chugged to the entrance, and a boy 
in uniform delivered a great box of roses. 

The ball was held in a hall on the corner 
of Third Avenue, with the rattle of the 



elevated trains mixing itself with the 
music. The men were as varied as every- 
thing in the life on Third Avenue. Audrey 
was introduced and danced with a man 
who spoke broken English, and .another 
by whose coal-black mustache she recog- 
nized a meat store clerk. But she en- 
joyed a glorious evening, with plenty of 
attention. By Mr. Heald's request they 
sat out the next to the last dance. 

He led her to a little room that ad- 
joined the hall and placed her in a corner 
which was shielded by some palms. 
"Miss Smith," he promptly began, "you 
must have noticed that from the first 
ady — well, you couldn't help noticing." 

Audrey had no inclination to help him. 
After a moment he continued, "But be- 
fore I stammer my piece, I want to tell 
you about myself." 

"I should like to hear." 

"Where shall I begin .^ Perhaps it's 
unimportant to go back of the war." 

"I suspected it was like that," Audrey 
managed to say. 

"Father sent me to his college. Coun- 
try minister up in Massachusetts. 
Wanted me to study law — but there 
wasn't money for a law school. I en- 
listed and went to France. Got some 
notions over there, but when I came back 
tried to pick up things where I left off, 
but that didn't work, so I got down to 
brass tacks." 

Audrey understood about the apron 
and honored him for it. 

"That's something the way it was with 
me," she said. 

"It's going to be more and more the 
way with lots," he said. "I grabbed the 
first real job that offered, and Donovan 
put me to opening boxes. To my sur- 
prise the pay was good. To swing to a 
finish, I've mastered an art — the art of 
suiting customers. My wages have 
steadily increased. I'm doing the buying 
for the house, and Donovan has turned 
over the books to me. In a small way 
I'm to become his partner. I've a de- 
cent income. I love you. I've loved you 
ever since you first came into the store." 



414 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



"Wait I" exclaimed Audrey. "I ought 
to have confessed before. My name isn't 
Smith. I couldn't use my own name. 
But I'm ashamed, I've been sailing under 
false colors." 

"Bosh!" he growled. "Any girl would 
do the same. Doesn't matter if you love 
me. 

Fifteen minutes later, Donovan, who 
with his wife had been shaking the floor 
in a two step, smote "Jim" with a mighty 
hand across the shoulders. "I've caught 



on. When you and she came from behind 
the rubbers I got the hunch. Ma'll be 
as tickled as can be. She's cracked on 
weddin' bells. Last night she poked me 
in the cross ribs. 'Say Pa,' she said, 'if 
Jim Heald falls tomorrow night for dear 
little brown-eyes, get him to have the 
send-off right home here. The new 
decorations in the parlor is elegant. 
When I got the painter to daub them 
cupids over the chanticlear, I had a hunch 
something was doin' before long.' " 



The Passing of the Year 

The winter's cold, the springtide's re-creations, 

The summer's heat, the autumn's harvest days, 
Have come and gone with sorrows and elations. 
Along the year's highways! 

And thou exemplify, O passing year. 

How life glides by with never slowing pace, 
Each day an opportunity sincere, 
To win or lose life's race! 

As dons the New Year thy stern obligations — 
Our hearts breathe forth this consecrated 
prayer — 
"Imbue us, Lord, with reverent aspirations, 
In meeting life's each care." 

— Caroli7ie Louise Sumner. 



The Prudent Housewife and Her Linen 

By Emma Gary Wallace 



THOSE who have had occasion to 
buy linens within the last few 
months have undoubtedly dis- 
covered the marked influence of the war, 
not only upon price, but quality. The 
prices have risen, and the quality is much 
inferior to that of former days. 

We do not need to go into the reasons 
for this, for it is self-evident that the 
destruction of the flax fields, the shatter- 
ing and carrying away of the linen spindles 
and looms, the diversion of labor to war- 
time purposes, and the interruption of 
transportation, have all affected the linen 
situation seriously. Besides this, the 



government uses for linen have increased 
so that even the giving of samples is 
restricted to conserve the supply, and war 
taxes are a factor not to be forgotten. 

Fortunate, indeed, is the housekeeper 
who has a reserve supply of linen suffi- 
cient to tide her over for some years to 
come, for there are those closely in touch 
with the situation who are of the firm 
opinion that the linen market cannot 
expect to be rehabilitated short of a de- 
cade, at least! This may be an extreme 
view, but, at the very best, it is bound to 
be a long time. 

All of this shows how important it is 



THE PRUDENT HOUSEWIFE AND HER LINEN 



415 



to conserve the linen on hand in every 
possible way, unless we are going to be 
content, in the near future, to be driven 
altogether to the use of cotton fabrics, 
and that, too, at prices higher than linens 
once sold for. 

It is possible, even yet, to find some 
patterns of heavy, double damask^ which 
have been in stock for a good while, and 
it is better policy to purchase such than 
the newer goods, even although the de- 
sign may not be the latest, for the quality 
of the older linens is superior to those 
being put upon the market now. If the 
housekeeper finds her linen supply is 
running low, she will do well to purchase 
some of this old stock, if she can find it, 
even at a somewhat advanced price, for 
linens show every indication of being 
much higher, and that, too, for a long 
time, before they are cheaper. 

Not long since a bride wished to pur- 
chase some table linen, and was fortunate 
enough to find a pattern cloth of beauti- 
ful, fine, heavy quality. She asked if 
there were napkins in stock to go with it. 
These were produced. There was no 
denying that the decoration was the same, 
but the napkins, which were of recent 
manufacture, were thin and sleazy in 
comparison with the cloth, which had 
been on hand for about three years. 

It will pay to search about among the 
stock of stores likely to have some of the 
older goods on hand, if linens are to be 
purchased now. 

Intelligent Care 

The writer has in her linen closet a 
cloth, the flax of which was woven and 
spun by a great-grandmother. In the 
center are her initials woven into the 
pattern in the making. The fabric is 
still firm, strong, and glossy, simply be- 
cause it has received intelligent care dur- 
ing the years of more than a century 
since it was made. 

Linen in everyday use should not be 
kept on the table until it becomes dis- 
tinctly soiled, for then hard rubbing is 
necessary and strong soaps, and even 



chemicals are likely to be used to restore 
it to pristine freshness. 

As soon as the linen is removed from 
the table, it should be examined for 
stains. These are likely to be of three 
classes, — tea, coffee and cocoa; fruit; 
and medicine. It frequently happens 
that the doctor directs a medicine to be 
taken before or after meals, and in order 
that this be not forgotten, the medicine is 
poured at the table. In fact, in one home 
a small, handsome, covered cracker-jar 
is kept so that any bottle of medicine, 
which would otherwise stand on the 
table, may be placed in this out of sight. 
Where the table is stripped after each 
meal, the temptation to give medicine 
bottles a place is less strong, but many 
housewives, who are not able to get their 
usual quota of help, are conserving by 
eliminating effort wherever possible. 

Tea stains are best removed imme- 
diately by rinsing in cold water. If it is 
not practical to do tRis, a cloth can be 
wrung out of cold water and laid over the 
stain to keep it from drying, and later 
the cold water process gone through with. 
A dried tea or coffee stain can best be 
removed by pouring boiling water through 
the linen, stretching the stain over a bowl, 
and .pouring the water from the height of 
a foot or two. 

If such stains have been boiled in and 
*'set," they are more difficult, and must 
then^be treated chemically by dissolving 
about a quarter of a teaspoonful of oxalic 
acid crystals in half a cup of hot water. 
Soak the stains in this and watch when 
they disappear, that the fabric may be 
removed and thoroughly washed with 
soap and water before it is injured. 

Cocoa stains can be treated with cold 
water, or with tepid water and soap. 
Rust marks will usually yield to lemon 
juice, salt and sunshine. If this fails to 
work after several applications, get a 
small bottle of syrup of phosphoric acid. 
Stretch the stain over a plate. Apply 
the syrup. Watch and as soon as the 
marks disappear, rinse out in clear water 
at once. 



416 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



Fresh fruit stains will yield to boiling 
water; older ones to a treatment with a 
weak oxalic acid solution; and stubborn 
fruit, medicine and rust marks, to a 
Javelle water solution. This latter is 
best obtained ready made at a drug store, 
although the rule printed on the outside 
of a can of commercial chloride of lime 
may be followed with fair success. Make 
the solution by taking one tablespoonful 
of Javelle water to four of hot water. 
Soak the spot and examine from time to 
time. When the stain disappears, wash 
at once in clear water, to which a table- 
spoonful of vinegar has been added. 
This will neutralize the alkali, so that it 
will not weaken the fabric. 

Linen which shows a yellowed cast may 
be whitened by soaking in a porcelain 
bowl in sour buttermilk. After this, wash 
in soap and water and scald in a solution 
of borax, — a tablespoonful to a gallon. 

Grease spots, such as melted candle 
wax, on table linen, are not difficult to re- 
move. Scrape away the superfluous wax 
or grease, and wash in soap and water, to 
each quart of which a tablespoonful of 
turpentine has been added. If the candle 
grease happens to be colored, the coloring 
matter may leave a faint trace of stain. 
This can usually be removed by an ap- 
plication of benzine or alcohol. 

Linen should be dried in the open air 
and, if possible, the sunshine. Never let 
it whip in the wind, as it will cause weak 
places to break and the hems to fray. To 
iron linen properly, it should be well 
sprinkled over-night, that the threads 
may all become equally moistened or, as 
an expert laundress would say, "mel- 
lowed." A moderately hot iron should 
be used, and the surface pressed until 
dry. 

Cloths in constant use should be folded 
differently, from time to time, as pressing 
and wear tends to make worn places in 
the seams. A little thought will show 
how such creases may be planned to come 
at different transverse lines. If the 
cloth begins to break because of having 
been folded in the same creases through- 



out its use, cut off a short length from 
one end and re-hem. This will bring the 
crosswise creases in different places, and 
the lengthwise one can be done away with 
by a different method of folding. 

If the length of the linen will permit, 
cut off enough so that the portion re- 
moved may be used for something. It 
will be handy for purposes of mending, — 
either to set pieces under, or to ravel, that 
the threads may be used for darning, to 
make napkins for the children or lunch- 
basket use, or even for tray or service 
cloths. 

Before linen is laundered it should be 
examined every time by holding it up to 
the light, that thin places may be dis- 
covered. A neat darn is scarcely notice- 
able, when a cloth is nicely ironed, al- 
though a patch is objectionable, unless 
very neatly done. 

If garments, and especially table linen, 
come back from the wash with mysterious 
little snags in them, the chances are that 
the laundress is using a broken zinc 
washboard, or that the interior of her 
washing machine has a rough projection 
which is tearing the clothes. 

Cloths in everyday use should be used 
in turn so that they may wear out evenly. 
Table linen, which is put aside for special 
entertainment use or as a reserve supply, 
should be examined, from time to time, 
and laundered whenever it begins to show 
signs of yellowing. Some housewives 
make a point of using their best table- 
cloths, occasionally, so as to keep them 
fresh and white. 

A thrifty housekeeper, who had pur- 
chased an advance supply of linen, felt 
exceedingly comfortable to think of the 
big box of new cloths and napkins stored 
in her attic. At one housecleaning time 
she decided to inventory her supplies. 
Great was her distress to find that mice 
had been there before her and had gnawed 
innumerable holes all through her treas- 
ures. The rodents had selected the 
corners as points of attack, and when the 
linen was unfolded, a multiplicity of holes 
appeared. 



THE PRUDENT HOUSEWIFE AND HER LINEN 



417 



Her error was two-fold. First, she 
should not have put away the linen with 
the starch in it, for starch is a food which 
mice enjoy. Her supply should have 
been made and laundered at once. Next, 
she should not have stored her linens 
where mice could get at them, for they 
will even eat that which has been care- 
fully washed, if they are very hungry. 

Speaking of inventorying linen brings 
to mind the wisdom of this work being 
actually done now, and supplies priced 
according to present values. This will 
show how much money it would cost to 
replace what you have. Then it will be 
well to go farther and examine your in- 
surance policy on your household goods. 
Was this taken out several years ago, and 
your valuation placed before prices went 
up.^ If so, a fire would not give enough 
insurance reimbursement to replace more 
than a fraction of the loss. Many have 
considered it expedient to increase the 
amount of their insurance policies for 
this reason. 

A very good way to care for extra 
supplies of linen is to fold each one in 
blue paper with a label on the outside 
which describes what is inside, so that 
what is wanted may be located at once. 
Then linen should be kept in a vermin- 
proof container or closet. Bureau draw- 
ers, open at the back, or open shelves in 
closets with loose-fitting doors, imperfect 
mopboards, or broken plaster, cannot be 
depended upon to keep mice out. 

The Day of Substitutes 

Once upon a time the word "sub- 
stitute" carried with it a great deal of 
reproach, but the war has changed all 
that, and we are ready to accept substi- 
tutes for the old supplies willingly, if 
patriotic reasons dictate, provided we are 
not deceived about the nature of what we 
are given to use. 

Some thrifty housekeepers have de- 
cided to conserve their linen supply for 
the present, at least, by using some of the 
mercerized cotton damask. This de- 
cision is in part due to their having to 



send their table linen to laundries, and 
while first-class institutions of this kind 
are reasonably careful of articles trusted 
to them, yet machinery is likely to be a 
little more trying than personal handling. 

Some very handsome patterns come in 
cotton damask, although the price of a 
good quality is not low. The drawbacks 
to this fabric are several. Stains must 
be watched for, and regularly removed, 
for it stains rather easily. When it is 
laundered, the commercial finish is re- 
moved, leaving a very soft surface, a 
little rough in appearance, and upon 
which the pattern no longer stands out 
with beautiful distinctness. 

A good way to overcome this, after 
having removed the stains and washed as 
usual, is to add starch or borax to the last 
rinsing water. The starch, which has 
been used for the rest of the fine clothes, 
and is so thin and reduced in character, 
will answer nicely. Add a pint or more of 
this (depending upon its thickness) to a 
pail of clear water, and let the cloth stand 
in it ten or fifteen minutes. A few drops 
of bluing may be added if wished. Wring 
the cloth and dry as usual. Just the 
amount of starch desirable will soon be 
learned by experience, but where the 
correct amount is added, it does not make 
the cloth stiff or difficult to iron, but 
gives a little better body and finish, and 
the pattern comes out with its original 
clearness. Adding borax to the rinsing 
water has much the same effect. 

One resourceful home-maker, who 
wished to conserve, both in linen and 
laundry, took the best part of a couple of 
worn cloths and made what she called 
"top cloths." The idea came to her 
after a motoring trip, during which she 
observed the frequelit use of such cloths 
in good hotels. 

She either hemmed or hemstitched the 
top cloths, making them just large enough 
to go over the top of the table, with the 
hems falling at the sides. First, she uses 
the large cloth, as it is spread upon the 
table without anything over it, for she 
says that any stains dropped upon small 



418 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



service cloths would go through anyway. 
As soon as the damask begins to be soiled, 
she uses the service cloths at her own and 
husband's place. By changing these as 
needed, she keeps her table fresh for a 
number of days. Then, when the entire 
surface is no longer at its best, she adds 
the top cloth, changing this as need arises. 
The service and top cloths are easy to 
launder, and she knows that her large 
linen pieces will last longer, because they 
are not subjected to the cleaning process 
only about a quarter as often as they used 
to be. 

As many as a dozen years ago the 
writer saw most attractive small covers, 
napkins, and tray cloths, made of a fine 
quality of linen-finished, Indian Head 
cotton, in the far South. This materia] 
is so prepared that it does not yellow 
readily. The threads draw with great 
ease, and it lends itself to hemstitching 
and simple drawn-thread patterns. The 
addition of a little starch to the final rins- 
ing water, as suggested, makes it very 
satisfactory for common use in summer 
homes during fruit time, or where the 
housewife is dependent upon indifferent 
outside help for laundry work, and does 
not care to use her best. 

For those who have handsome, polished 
tables, and who "clear" the board en- 
tirely after each meal, it is policy to use 
some of the popular Japanese runners and 
towelings, with napkins to match, for 
both luncheon and breakfast service, as 
this pieces out the use of one's choice 
linens. Supplies, which are beginning 
to wear thin, should be laid aside for sum- 
mer-time use, for laundering such in 
freezing weather soon shortens their 
term of service. 

Linen, white goods, or remnant sales 
are real opportunities for the watchful 
housewife, if she is alert enough to be 
among the first comers. Remnants of 
excellent quality damask and toweling 
can often be obtained at a fraction of its 
original cost. 

A short length of linen, which regularly 
sold at 34.50 per yard, was picked up for 



98 cents. It was a real bargain It 
was seventy-two inches wide and had a 
center design of polka-dots with a thistle 
border. Enough of the polka-dot was 
taken to make a very handsome service 
or tray cloth, and it was large enough to 
permit of a double hemstitched hem. 
The two ends made slightly smaller 
service cloths, which were uniform in 
design, and of ample size when finished 
with narrow French hems. By cutting 
the linen in this manner, the pattern was 
symmetrically placed. 

An end of linen of cheaper quality, un- 
bleached and much soiled, was obtained 
for 19 cents. It made three very satis- 
factory, common tray cloths. 

Excellent values in toweling remnants 
can often be found, and with the addition 
of a little embroidery, drawn threads, or 
a crocheted edge, these make attractive 
Christmas gifts of towels, fudge aprons, 
cushion covers, runners, and even dresser 



covers. 



A strip of table damask of elegant 
quality was picked up for 60 cents. The 
border across the ends was especially 
rich. The piece was made perfectly even 
by drawing threads. It was hemstitched 
and finished with an edging of handsome 
linen lace, also picked up at a sale at 
20 cents a yard. It took five yards, and 
the total outlay was 21.60, together with 
the work of some spare time. The re- 
sult was a very serviceable and handsome 
sideboard or buffet cover, which could 
not have been duplicated in an art store 
for less than six or seven dollars. 

If the wartime housekeeper has not 
laid away a goodly supply of fine linen, 
she need not despair, for one character- 
istic of the American people is their re- 
sourcefulness, and if the linen market 
becomes increasingly difficult, modes and 
material will be evolved to make use of 
what we have, and if it is the "style," 
and every one else has bowed to the 
decree of Fashion, then we would be sure 
to want to fall in line, too. In fact, table- 
cloths, as we understand them, may go 
quite out of style like hoopskirts. 



Apple Sauce Like That! 



AUNT ANNA'S TRICK OF TAKING PAINS 



By Ida R. Fargo 



Y 



"OU do make the best apple- 
sauce, Aunt Anna!" 

The Little Guest, coming into 
the kitchen where Aunt Anna's deft fingers 
swiftly pared and cored the firm fleshy 
fruits of the apple tree that Pa had just 
brought up from down cellar, commented 
warmly. 

"Course she does," affirmed Pa. He 
paused at the sink to get a drink of water 
before going out to the barn to curry Old 
Bess. 

"Pshaw!" said Aunt Anna. And then, 
"It's the apples, Baldwins an' Greenings. 
Come fall, we store a lot in the cellar, and 
we have good apple sauce all winter. 
Baldwins an' Greenings, both on 'em, 
to my way of thinking, make right good 
apple sauce." 

"The best I ever et," said Pa. 

He opened the kitchen door. Then he 
paused and looked back. 

"An' the worst I ever et, too. Funny 
thing is, both times, the apples came 
out'n the same barrel!" 

And Pa shut the door behind him, 
sort of softly, with a little repeating echo 
about it, like a chuckle trying to make 
itself heard. It's a way doors have, talk- 
ing like that. It's queer what an amazing 
lot of things a door can say, when it's 
being shut. If you don't believe, just 
listen right well next time you hear a 
door shut. If the fairies didn't miss you 
entirely, when you slept in your cradle, 
you'll hear that door speak out to you 
plain as day! The Little Guest did, and 
she smiled an answer, not thinking about 
it at all, thinking elsewhere. 

"But I don't see ^" she said; "out 

of the same barrel ^" 

"That's just like Pa," laughed Aunt 
Anna; never explaining a bit." And 
then : 



"Pa's thinking about the time I 
sprained my ankle. We had a hired 
girl, for a good two weeks it was I was 

out of my kitchen my, but it seemed 

good to get back! I never realized before 
how much I thought of my kitchen; I 
missed it like tunket, those two weeks, 
sitting around playing lady," mused Aunt 
Anna, falling into reminiscent silence. 

"But — : — 'out'n the same barrel.?'" 
suggested the Little Guest softly. 

"Just as I was sayin'," took up Aunt 
Anna, "we had a hired girl. Hester, her 
name was. She came out from town to 
help me that time. I tol' her particular 
that Pa wanted his apple sauce cooked 
just so, but somehow she never seemed to 
be able to get it right. Pa 'lowed he 
never could stomach apple sauce like 
that. Not the kind Hester cooked." 

"Well!" wondered the Little Guest. 
"I thought apple sauce was — just apple 
sauce!" 

"Of course," agreed Aunt Anna, 
"'specially if the apples all come out'n 
the same barrel. But it ain't. There's 
as much knack in making a good mess 
o' apple sauce as there is in making a 
good pie. Mebby more. Most folks, 
when they peel apples, just quarter them 
quickly and leave in bits of the core. 
Pieces o' peeling, too. Hester did. A 
body's sure to 'less they're that particu- 
lar. It takes noticing to get out all the 
core of an apple. And the bits of hard 
core left in, like flakes of isinglass, never 
cook up soft. I remember once, when I 
was a girl, I got a scrap of this tough core- 
wall caught in my throat. I couldn't get 
it upj and I couldn't get it down, not for 
quite a spell. It was sharp; it scratched 
and irritated till my throat felt like one's 
fingers do when one pushes into a patch 
of nettles. For a long time after that 
419 



420 



AMERICAN COOKERY 



I couldn't eat apple sauce, not unless I 
made it myself, to be sure it was fixed the 
way apple sauce ought to be fixed," em- 
phasized Aunt Anna. 

"The tough core-wall — all out," 
mused the Little Guest. 

"But that isn't all," rippled on the 
older voice, "if apple sauce is to be smooth 
and even texture, like Pa wants his'n, 
the peeling mustn't be left in either. I 
read in a cooking magazine oncet that 
apples were just as good cooked peeling 
on. I tried it. After the first bite, Pa 
wouldn't touch it. I had to feed it to the 
pig. TheUj too, apples want to be 
sliced evenly. If they are left in little 
chunks and big chunks, they'll cook up 
unevenly. The outside of the big pieces 
will cook up soft and burn on the bottom 
before the centers are done. And apple 
sauce, scorched, even the least mite, isn't 
nice apple sauce," nodded the capable 
hostess. 

"I know," hastened the Little Guest. 
"I scorched some once. It burned, just 
a little bit, right in the middle of the 
kettle. And I was so careful not to get 
any of the scorch in when I took it up, 
but nobody would eat it," dolefully. 

"The flavor was spoiled," advised Aunt 
Anna. "Scorched apple sauce is poor 
stuff. A body must keep an eye on't 
when it's cooking." 

"So it will not be lumpy — and never 
be burned — not even a tiny bit," mur- 
mured the Little Guest. 

"And beat it up with a potato masher," 
added Aunt Anna. 

"What-t.^" stammered the girl. 

"A wire potato masher," affirmed she 
who could cook, "so that there will be no 
lumps, and the texture be even. Besides, 
a potato masher stirs in the sugar better'n 
a spoon." 

"But don't you cook the sugar with the 
apples.^" 

Aunt Anna shook her head. "Never," 
she said. "Stir the sugar in afterwards, 



while the apple sauce is hot. It takes less 
sugar that way, and it is more digestable, 
they do say. But sometimes I use corn 
syrup instead of sugar, and then I do it 
like this: I take a pint of water, and 
enough corn syrup to sweeten it as I like 
best, and bring to a boil. Then I thicken 
it a very little bit with cornstarch, so it 
is like good thick cream. Then I put 
in my sliced apples, bring to a boil, pull 
to the back of the stove and simmer till 
the fruit is tender and rich red-looking 
with a syrup that is rich and thick and 
simply delicious. But apple sauce like 
this I never stir." 

"What a lot there is to learn about 
cooking, even apple sauce," sighed the 
Little Guest. "I supposed anybody 
could cook — apple sauce!" 

"So did Hester," laughed Aunt Anna. 

"And she made the worst Pa ever et," 
giggled the girl. 

"Pa oughtn't to be saying such things," 
chided Pa's wife, "just cause he couldn't 
eat apple sauce — like that." 

"But I know well and good he will eat 
apple sauce — like this," sniffed the 
Little Guest, as the apples Aunt Anna had 
peeled sent a spicy cooking fragrance out 
into the kitchen air, "and so will I. And 
when I go home I shall take pains — oh, 
such a lot of pains — cooking some apple 
sauce for us. Maybe we'll all come to 
like it. Who knows .^ We don't now. 
Not the way we have it. Why, even I 
don't like apple sauce when Pm at home, 
but I do here, when you make it. Isn't 
it queer .^" 

"Not so queer as it might be," adjured 
the older voice, very kindly. " For taking 
pains is a trick that makes most folks like 
most anything. Specially where cook- 
ing's concerned." 

And Aunt Anna poured the hot, fra- 
grant sauce into a big deep bowl, and set 
it away to cool against supper time, when 
Pa would come in from his work " hungry as 
two Turks, "and want sauce for his supper. 




Cooking by Electricity 



UPON beginning housekeeping in a 
small western town, we were very 
much disappointed in finding the 
town had no gas plant. So a gas stove 
was out of the question, but there still 
remained the choice of a coal or wood 
range, some kind of an oil stove or the 
electric range. Our kitchen was too small 
for the coal range, and our purse for the 
electric, that is, the running of one. As 
our dealer and friends said it would cost 
from 38 to $9 a month for electricity. 
So there was nothing left but the kerosene 
stove. We purchased a good wickless 
one. It worked fine the first six months, 
but the next six months it blackened our 
white enameled ^kitchen, and the smoke 
hurt my eyes so that I wept copious 
tears every time I prepared a meal. 

We finally had our kitchen redecorated 
and purchased a standard-make electric 
range, with three top elements and an 
oven, with a top and bottom element, for 
348 plus the S12 for installing. 

Then the question was to apply the 
principles of cookery to the new stove at 
the lowest possible cost. The first thing, 
I learned to read the meter, and then 
purchased suitable cooking utensils. For 
the top burners, thin aluminum pans, with 
tight covers, are the most satisfactory. 
Pans that cover the entire element, and 
that have flat bottoms, fitting close to the 
stove. If some one would only invent 
a clamp to hold the pan in closer contact 
with the burner, the electric bill would 
be cut in half. For the oven, glass, 
earthenware and the broiler are the most 
satisfactory. 

As with other stoves, oven cookery is 
time, labor and fuel saving; besides re- 
taining all the flavors and nutriment of 
the food. The following meal was pre- 
pared in my electric range: 

Meat loaf Baked potatoes 

Baked squash Shortcake 

At the same time a few extra potatoes 



(to cream), a pan of apples, and a ginger 
bread were baked for lunch for the next 
day. The cost of cooking was 9 cents, 
2 kilowatt-hours at 4J cents per kilo- 
watt. 

Pan-broiled ^^steak, mashed potatoes, 
creamed cabbage were cooked on the top 
burners at a cost of 4^ cents. One kilo- 
watt-hour was used. With the addition 
of a salad or fruit dessert, it made a very 
satisfactory meal. 

Fruit and vegetables may be canned 
successfully in the electric oven. The 
cost will be from IJ to 2J cents per quart, 
depending upon kind of fruit or vegetable. 

The secret of cooking by electricity is 
to cook food well with the minimum 
amount of heat. This means careful 
attention to the burners and the oven 
thermometer. After the food is brought 
to the boiling point on full, it may be 
finished on low or with the current en- 
tirely turned off. The oven may be 
turned off from one-third to one-half the 
time during the process of baking. Of 
course, this depends on how long the oven 
has been heated, and the kinds of food 
baked. If it is necessary to wait for a 
meal the food may be kept hot with the 
current off from twenty-five to thirty-five 
minutes. This, too, depends on the 
kinds of food. 

After using the stove three years I find 
the average of electricity used is 68 kilo- 
watt-hours, thus making the average bill 
S3 per month. Besides a three-hour 
ironing is done each week on the stove 
current instead of the light current. By 
using the stove current, the bill for iron- 
ing was c