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Sc^ /6^/.V^* 

Harbarb College IMwcp 



One half the income from this Legacy, which 
ceived in 1880 under the will of 

was re- 

of Waltham, MaMachutetts, U to be expended for book* 
for the College Library. The other half of the income 
it deroted to MholarBhipt in Harvard UnlTenity for the 
benefit of descendants of 

who died at Watertown, Mauachoaetts, in 1686. In the 
absence of snch descendants, other persons are eligible 
to the scholarships. The will reqnires that this announce- 
ment shall be made in erery book added to the Library 
under its provisions. 










Edited by N. R CLOUD, M. D., LaPlaoe, Ala. 



VOL. I. 18.53. 




-Sci lilli.lf^ 



NOV 20 1923 










Alabama Agricultural Association, Consti- 
tution of, 
American Women and Rural Lite, 

Press— Geological Cabmet, 

Cotton Planter, 

Agriculture, what it is, &c., 

Agricultural Convention, . 

" A8SOciation,l 14, 242, 274, 305, 337, 339 

'« Proceedings of, sc, 188 

Education, ^ ,^ J2o 

Edncation, Premium Essay on, 164,193 
and Horticultural Society, MobUe, 82 
Societies, County, 1* 

Society Southern C^ Premmm 

List of; 
Society, Montgomery County, 

u Robinson Springs, Pre* 
minm List of, 
Fair, Robinson Springs^ 

Agriculture in North Carolina, 
Alkaline Washes for Trees, 
Analyses, Cotton Plant and Seed, 

" Soils and Pulverization, 

«« Soils, 
Apple Tree Catterpillara, 
Army Birds, 
Arrow Root, its Culture, m^ 






Cold Cream for Sore Lips, 
Copper of the U. S., for 1852, 
Corn Bread, 
** Experiments, 
" Great Yield of, 
" Manuring, 
Cotton Plant, History of, 

Culture, No.'d 1 and 2, 
Dean Variety, 
Crop and Proppecis. 
Its unproved Culuire, 











Bark of Trees, sntting , 
Basket Willow, 
Black Oau, 
Bees, Hiving of. 
Beautiful in Ground, 

Su^S pro*A«Wcms tot o«wwt*rwting»fcc. 

Book Farming, 
Boms, Remedy for. 


a I, 336 

Csm^m^ vmluabU, 

Cholera, Remedy fott r«fu»r-M. 

r-.r«irfar of the Cfommittee of Agl Congress, 
Crrcujarot »»«^^„,.^^ Council AtflAssoc> 

Chemistry, Agriculture, statement by Liebig, 
'Clpver in the South, 
toeoa Cakes, 















I 308 


N 31 

No.ih^2jN"-2. n5; 

XNo. 3,243 

V 215 

6X 94 

159. 225, 310 



Long Staple, 

Market, Review of, 

Prospect and Pricej«, 

Treatment and CuUivatiou, Preinumi 


Planters, Important to, 

Press, New, 


Planting and CuUivatuig, 

Catterpillar in, 

Insects, e, IT • », 

Worms, flisiory. Character & Vanet's, 

Varieties, to., ui W. Africa, 
Cow and the Dairy, 
Cultivation, What is. 
Cultivation of the Ground Nut» 
Cup Cakes, white, 
Cure for Rattlesnake Bite, 

December, flints for, , t^. v« •*!? 

Ditching, Hill Side, . No. 1, 14; No. 2, 41 

Prtminm Essuy, 235 

and Level Rows, No. 1, 316; 

No.2, 348; No. 3,378 





40, 143 










3 3 






Divine Origin of Agricuhnral Labor, 
Discoveries in Animal Physiology, 
Domestic Recipes, 

Dried Fruit, 
Dress, Salt Fish, 


^ K.tort.1 Notices i». ^ «^ Jl; i ^; '^^ ^^^'^^ 



Education of Farmers, Colleges, &c., 135 

Enormous Tax upof n Farmers, 70 

Essay read before lij, and S. Society, Selma, 

Alabama, f 268 

Excretion of Plant*, 108 

Exchanges, Our CJabiuet of, 146, 370 


Egg Plant Cooking ,', 

Eggs, Preservatio i of, for Winter Use, 

Essay, Preliminar|r, by Prof. L. Harper, 


Facts, a column ok &c., 
Fairs, advantages! of. 
Fair, South- Westei-n Industrial, 
Farmer's Level, f 
Farmer's Boy, a H|int, 
Farming, Contrast/ in, 

Thorough or Rich, 
Fertilizer, Calcareous, 

^' a liqui^., for choice Plants, 
Ficus Carica*, oj^ommon Fig, 
Forces of ttie4'arm, 
Farmer, AlYierican, in Ala. 
Foresj^owth, Preserving as Manure, 
Fraif Culture, Profits of, 

Trees, &c.. 

Trees, Transplanting, 

Fresh, Preserving, 
Food for Stock, winter, 
Fair, Montgomery County, 


Garden and Orchard, Hints for Sept., 
Gardeners, Hints to. 

Green Sand, qualitative Analysis, &c., 219-311 

Geological Report, the State Company, 220 

Georgia Wine, 338 

Guano, best method of applying, 13 

lasting effects of, 18 

inexhaustible supply of, 47 

direct importation of, 51 
against Manure and Marl Compost, 48 

Plaster, &c., 56 

its use on various crops, 60 
Experiments with & Barnyard Mau'e, 1 38 

action of, 295 

a recent discovery, 316 




Insects, Economy of, 
Ink, Indelible, recipe for, 
IrishjPotatoe, How to Keep, &c., 
Important Inquiries, 
Iron Trade of the U. S., 


Lady's Book, Southern, 

Ladies on Horse-back, 

Lights— all new— are not true, 

Light, Importance of. 

Letter from Dr. Powell, . 
from Daniel Pratt, 
from Marengo Y. A., 
on Wool Growing, 
on Wheat Growing, 
from J. A. Whetstone, 

Lime, No. 1, Phosphate, 

Lightning Rods, 

Lucerne, Its Culture and Uses, 
" Culture of, 








143, 41 









248, 280 

304^ ladder and Indigo, 

350^ !>Marl, Its Value and Qaautity to be Applied, 





















Hay, Oat, nutritive value of, 133 

Hints for the Month, 248 
'.* for the Month, Orchard and Garden, 318 

Hedges, Thorn, 46 

*' for Rail Roads, 93 

Horticultural Fair, 114 

Horticulturist, 51 

How Long, 87 
How to popularize the taata for Planting Trees, 88 

Home Knterprize, 190 

How to dry reaches, 247 

Hog Crop, ' • • 333 

and Marling, 
*' **' notice of, 

Manure is Wealth, 

Preparatioa and Use of. 


Power of the Soil to Retain* 

it Pays to Use, 

How to Preserve, 

for Autumn Roses, 

Results on a Peaeli Tveei, 
Meat, fresh, to Preserve, 
Mechanics, Intelligent, 
Mildew, to Prevent, 
Mineral Manure, Theory, 
Miner's Domestic Poultrjr Book, 








76, 105, 131, 161, 197 


321, 356 













' 242 


Number, Our first, 



Okra, Green, ete., in wfnter, 

Okra Rope, 


** and Garden Hints for Kev. 
Osage Orange, Treatment, Sec., 
Our Subscription List, 
Oyster Shells for Peach Trees, 
Oar first Volume, 
Our New Dress, 

Paradox, that, 
Peach Trees, 








PeacheS) Pickled, 

Peaciies at the South, 
" ia Brandy, 

Period of Gestation, Domestic Animals, 

Plants, Color of, 

Plantation Mechanism, 

Plantation Economy, No.'s 1 and 2, 23, 24 
53;No. 4, 83:No. 5, 117: No. 6, 147; No 
No. 8, 212; No. 9, 244; No. 10, 276; No. 

Planting, Table of. 

Plowing, Table of. 

Poison, Antidotes, 

Practical Remarks^ '* Home made," 
" " "ClodThumper,'' 

Potatoe, How to Cook, 


Prune, When to, 

Prairie Plantation, What may be done on, 


' will Kill Hogs, 
^ill they Kill Hogs? 




Pea Question, 

Prairie Formations— Explanation of, 

" Soils of Ala.— New Theory, 
Policy of the Planting States, 
Premium List, Robinsou Springs Society, 
Prcductive Industry, 
Prospectus of our Second Volume, 
Pruning the Scupper nong Grape, 






; No. 3, 

. 7, 179; 









Red Clover at the South, 
Review, De Bow's, 
Rail Roads, 



Railways, Speed of, 

Remedy for Yellow Fever, 

Repljr to Dr. Price's Article, 

Rotation of Crops, 

Rural Embellishments, 

Robinson Springs Society, 

Rice Blancmange, 

Recipes, Useful, 

Recipe for Washing and Making Soap, 

Recipes, Several finable, 

" Valuable on various subjects, 







Science and Agriculture, \ 

Scientific and Statistical, 
Sweet Potatoes, House for Preserving, 
Sheep against Dogs, 

" Cotswold, 
Slavery, Moral Benefits of, 

*' Commercial Benefits o] 
Somebody at fault. 
Strawberries at the South, 
Strawberries, Grafted, &c. 
Strawberry, Culture of. 
Stock Raisers, Hints to. 
Snakebite, Whiskey for, •• 

Solanum Tuberosum, \ ^^ 

Sumac, Culture and Preparation W Y 
Soap-suds for Plants, ' / 

Soil, Selecting for Analysis, 
Soiling Cattle, Best Plants for, 


The South, Circular, 
The Bourbon Rose, 
The Comet, 
The Right Spirit, &c.. 
The Turnip Plant, 
The Seed Trade, 
Tobacco, Cultivation of. 
Transplanting Trees, 
Treatment of Woods, 

" of Apple Trees and Cucumbers, 


Vegetable Production of various Climes, 


Wagon Wheels, 
Water Gates and Fences, 
Wheat Culture at the South, 
Wool and Wool Growing, 

" Why not grow more 1 
Work for the Month, 





241, 27S, 305 

Yellow Clover, 

Yellow Clover, History, Treatment, &c., 



i Nnnllil]^ JonrEal AtnM to imprortd Plaatatios Economf, HisataelBia and :'Iecliaai< Arts. 

No. 1. 


■On Ihc Subjfct of Ac Coltan-plani, if« ffUlory. Infumee 
nn I'tmmerci; Pn/iliei, and Ihe Wflfare of the Human. 
Rare, and ilt /'robable Deitiny at the Great Produci 
o/ thr Southeni i'mlfd Stattt Bi luAC Choou, Esq., 

Mk. Pbbsiukst : — The irvtereating task has 
lieei) nssigncd to me, of presenLiiig n mamoir on 
the Biilijec.t of the Cotton plant, its history, influ- 
*iico oil commerce, politks, oaA the welfare of 
tlie human nice, and its probable destiny, as the 
great pi'oilni't of the Southern United States. 

To do justice to this great theme, demands the 
research of the historian, the ripe leaming erf the 
sciiolnr, and the profoiiad .and fur reaching vi 
-of thi< statesman. Not aspiring lo tltcse high 
<|iia]ifications, 1 ^pcar before you on the present 
occasion, with an unatfected distrust of my pow- 
<>rs, u'hich notliing could overcome but the oon- 
sideration, Uiat an imperfect performance of duty 
is more commendable than its entire omission. 

As the Europeans first obtained the Cotton 
wool from the Arabs, and from countries where 
the Arabic language was in use, the most proba- 
ble derivation of Cotton is from the Arabic word 
Koton, There are however, other plausible de- 
rivations for Cotton, fliny compares the pod 
i.ti this plant, with thefruitof the quince, a small 
iruit of the pear family, called in Latin, CotoHuum 
malum. Respectable lexicographers, from this 
<loubl9 resemblance of fruit and name, allege 
that Cotoneum mahim or quince furnishes a 
plausible derivation for Cotton. Dr. JolinKon, in 

of the i^iiince, bitciiiise of a diffbrent resemblance, 
lie says Cotton is named, according to Skinner, 
from the doirii that adherer to the mala Cotonca, 
or quince called by the Italians Cotitgni ; whence 
Cottoui (lUl.,) Cotton (Fr.) 

The foregoing views instruct; us as to th') true 
source of the word Cotton, with as much certainty 
as is perhaps attaiuablc. Doubts are still leftoci 
the mind, but they are not such as wtU excite 
much regret, except with the pltilologist and the 
antiquarian. The student of ij<>cfiil knowledge, 
will not perplex himself for a more undoubted 
derivation, unless he ahould be persuaded, that it 
would shed some new light upon the history of 
the plant. 

The 'Genus Giossypium (Cotton) comprehends 
four species: 1st. Gossypium HerJiaceum ; 2d. 
G. Hirsutum ; Sd. G. Barbadense ; 4th. G. Ar- 
boreum. There are many hybrid varieties of 
these several species. 

The Gossypium is indigenous to the tropical 
regions of Asia, Africa and America. Europe 
alone, of the old continents, lying without the 
tropica, her southern boundary being in 3ti°.3a' 
north latitude, caimot claim the gosnypium as a 
native plant. In a former geological period of 
the earth's history, however, it may have boen 
oftierwise. Dr. Mantell in his wonders of Geol- 
ogy says, that fossil st"itl- vessels reliited to the 
Date, Cocoa, Cotton-plant, Bean, Cuctimber, Aca- 
cia, Pepper, &c., are found in the Isleof Slieppy, 
lying in the mouth of the Thames, on the margin 


when a much higher! climatorial temperature pre- 
vailed in Europe tihan at the present time, or 
whether they are tWie results o^- the Currents of 
ancient seas,analag(i)i» to tKat by which the shores 
of the Hebredes arre wnn-aalTy strewa with the 
fruite of torrid ctti|ne.s, is a question which the 
Geologist has yet f to so!te. 

Jt is unneccssar / to give the various names of 
the Gossypiom in tWe different conntHes and lan- 
guages of the wor Id, its botanical' characters and 
chemical con3titu(ents, a« these may be readily 
found in the populaj scientific m«i>aa]s of*the flay. 

Were, the Cottoti.plant known only for its beau- 
ty, it would occui)»y no mean position in the veg- 
etabld^kingdonft, (lis verdant head, formed of its 
' profusion of grejijti leaves, with an oval or globu- 
lir or pyranuflal outline, adorned with white or 
straw color and -red blooms, with its pendant 
greenfglobula of every size from a bird's tda 
hen^a-egg;'with^ the snowy fleece of its matured 
fhitt, all combine t6 endear it to the lover of the 
bisautifuL This aspect of' the plant doea not 
vanish in a day, but continues for months, under 
favorable* dreumst&nces, and southern fields ofben 
present beauttfbl parterres on tHe plantation scale. 
What other plant presents the solrd as well as 
variegat6d^part6rrr of one; or it may be of two 
milea.jMiuaFe^and'^wli'erorel^ is it to be seen, but 
on a Southern plantation T 

But the beauty of the pjant bears no-compari* 

' t with its inappreciable vafue for human uses, 

icfa makes it secondary, only to the leading 

^eal plants. It furnishes not only olotKing, but 

ireotly, food for a large portion of tHe hnroan 

family, and is so* eminently one of Heaven's best 

gifts to man, ae €6 dTsti^gufsh the present era of 

its difiiised'use and'enjt>ynienC, ins a special period 

of Divine fiivor. 

The history of the Gbssypfum cannot tBerefore 
be without its interest, and I propose now to 
sketch that history, so far as the meagre facts on 
record relating to it, will enable me. 

Be^re entering upon this branch of my subject, 
it is proper to acknowledge my obligations to 
Baine's History of the Cotton Manufacture afid 
Seabrook's Memoir on the origin, cultivation, and 
uses of Cotton, in which works, are compiled 
most of the historical facts relating to Cotton. 

As clothing forms the no.vC most pressing want 
after that of food, the aj'Is of ^pinuing aud weav- 

practiccd in the earliebt historical periods, and 
arc doubtless coeval with the formation of social 


institutions. The art of wcavmg was ascribed 
by the Greeks to Semiramiji, Queen of Assyria. 
Some of the statues of Minerva represent her 
witK a distaff in her hand, and the Chinese ascribe 
the art of s[)inning to the consort of Tao, their 
first sovereign,, who led oft' one of the first Colo- 
nies, After the dispersion of Noah's posterity. 
The Egyptians and the Mexicans also refer the 
invention of these arts, to tlie origin of their nat- 
ural history. However fabulous and absurd these 
traditionary claims may seem, yet they indicate 
a belief in ,the high antiquity d' these most use- 
ful arts, which is corroborated by monumental 
and historical reom-ds of an unimpeachable char- 
acter. The materials first used, were doubtless 
those found in the several inhabited countnes. 
Flax, wool and the hair of various animals were 
roost generally used. Flaxtis indigenous to Egypt 
and Pharoah is represented by tke sacred histo- 
riant as having arrayed Joseph in veslores of fine 
Unen^ seventeen hundred years befbrc Christ. 
Gen. 41^ 42. The Egy tian tombs of Beni Has- 
san, wSich are conjectured to have been built by 
Osirtasen TsC, who was contemporary with Jo- 
seph, have sculptured on them tlie whole process 
of sphmfng, from the beginning to its final pre- 
paration for weaving. Their oldiest mummy 
cloths sufficiently attest their knowled^ of weav- 
ing, and these were without doubt several' centu- 
ries older than the tombs or Beni Hassan. But 
more than four centuries before tKe time of Jo- 
seph, Abraham being pressed by famine in fhe 
land of Canaan, went down iiHe Egypt witft' his 
wife sojourn there. From the diescrip- 
tion given of the country, of Pharoah and his 
Court, he found the Egyptians in a state of old civ- 
ilization.- And* ADraRam was very rich in cattle, 
in silver, and in gold. As Mizraim was the ori- 
ental name of lilgypt, and as Mizraim and'Gmaan, 
sons of Ham are supposed to have coFonized and 
given their names to the two countries bearing 
their names, enjoying as we have seen so early a 
civilization, a strong presuinptron* arises from his- 
torical data, that the arts of spinning and wear- 
ing were correctly attributed' to the descendants 
of Noah, who first led off cuibnics to people va 
rioua portions of the world. 

In their exode fronv the land of Egypt, the 
children of IsraeV nmnbered in their ranks, spin- 

• ^ 


hands, and brought that which they had spun, 
hoth of blue, and of searkt and of fki'e linen. 
They also spun goats havr, and Bezaleei emd Abo- 
liab^ worked M maimer of work of the engraver, 
and of the cunning workman*, and of the embroi- 
derer, m bhie, and in searlet, and in fine linen, 
and of the weaver. Exod. 86, 2&. King Solo- 
mon tn a hiter age, made silver and gold as plen- 
leous as stones in Jemsalem, and bad linen yam 
brought out of Egypt^ and the Klng^s merchants 
received the Unen yam at a prfce. Again in 
Proverbs, 7, 16, he says r I have decked my bed 
with coverings of tapestry, wfth carved works, 
with fine linen &f ISgypt. The Queen of Sheba 
brought him pr^enCs from Arabia, and Hiram, 
King of Tyre, sent hkn ships and servants, that 
had know}e<]^e of the sea, which went wfth the 
servants of Solomon to the land of Opher, lyfhg 
on the IndHin Ocean, for goM. Again it \9 sa'fd 
of Tyre which was on snch intimate and friendly 
teraas with King Solomon:: Fine linen wfdi 
broidered work from Egypt, was that which thoa 
spreadest forth to be thy sir^I : Syria was thy 
merchant by reason of the multitude of the 
wares of thy nrnhing : they occupied itf thy fairs 
with emeralds, purple, and broidered work, and 
^e lineny and coral, and agate — ^Eze. 37, 7, 16. 
But Cotton is not once named in the history of 
Solomon, or of Tyre, although the latter was the 
eomBsereial emporium of the world, and the 
former svi-passed all the kings of the earth in 
riches and m wiedom. Nor mdeed is Cotton 
ence mentioned in the old or new Testament. 

Homer, who lived in the same century with 
King Solomon, makes no allusion to Cotton. It 
is certain, however, from passages in his poems, 
that both Mnen and woolen cloth were need at 
that period, in Greece. In the first book of the 
Uliad, in describing the departure of the Grecian 
ships from the Island of Chrysa, whither they 
had come to restore the captive maid Qiryseis, 
to her disconsolate father, he says :• 

" Indulgent rales, 
• Sapplfed* 6y Plicebiu, fill the swelling tsHe ; 
Tke wriik itkUk cannot, beUying m tlfary Mow/* Ac. 

hi the sii^th book of the Odyssey : 

"The qtreen her hoarB beetowecT, 
In enrioae works ; the whirling spindle gloweif 
With cnsum threads, wkUe frusy iatnttit atU 
The wnomjffeect er tmiat thtimTpU tottof." 

The use of Cotton was confimed to India for 
many centuries before it was known to the 

early as Egypt or China ; and that the inhabitants 
of thiait country finding the Cotton-plant native 
to their soH^ manufactured it into cloth as early 
as the Egyptians and Chhiese did linen and silk 
or other Asiatics manufactured woollen cloths. 
This presumption is strengthened by the beliel^ 
that all early societies of the world enjoyed a 
modiBed civilisation, and from the further fiict, 
that the inhabitants of India have always been 
stationary in their habits, and when first visited 
by Europeans, manu&ctured cotton cloths in 
gre^t perfection. The aspect of Indian society 
when undisturbed by aggression from without^ 
has continned calm and unbroken, frora^^i^tnryt 
to century, with scarcely a ripple of change. 
This endless in statu c(uo, is well established by 
the present use of the same rude implements 
for sphming and weaving, which have been 
familiar to tiiem for thirty centuries. 

We are indebted to Herodotus, the fitther of 
History, who lived in the fiflh centurj? before the 
Christian era, for the iirst authentic record of 
Cotton. He says of the inhabitants of India : 
they possess likewise a kind of ptant, whidi, in. 
stead of fruit, produces wool of a finer and better 
kind, than that of sheep^ and of this the Indians 
make their clothes. 

The first time the Greeks saw Cotton, was 
upon the invasion of India by Alexander the 
Great, in the fourth century before Christ. Near- 
ohus, the Admiral of Alexander, kt fhat'memora- 
ble expiditioA, in deseribing his descent down the 
Indas, says > The Indians wore linen garments, 
the substaaee whereof th^ were made growing 
upon trees, And this is indeedf itax, or something 
much finer and whiter t&an f&x. They wore 
shifrts of the same, which reach down to the mid- 
dle of their 1^ ;^ and veils which cover their 
heads and a great fwtt of their shoulders. He 
also' says, the Ii^dian name for the Cotton tree is 
Tula, and he describes its pods^ 

Strabo; the learned' aiyd accurate geogn^her,. 
who wrote iii the early ptfrt of the first century 
of the Chfistian eif% off the authority of Near- 
chus, speaksof tlielrffowered Cottons or Chint^eSf 
and also of the beautiful and various dyes, with' 
which their cloths were figured. He says ilirther , 
that in his dtty, the Cotton was grown and 
manufactured ht Susiana, a province of Persia, 
at the head of the Persian Gulf; which waa 
doubtless derived firom India, 

a«%1a «ma^a ^f a1>^ Y_JI..— 

T* •_ 1- _T.^ 

i«- - *- 



Arabift, there grows a shrub which some call 
gossypiuin, (the Latin name) and others Xylon, 
(the Greek name) from which the stuffs are 
made, which we call Xylina. There is nothing 
to be preferred to these stufts for whiteness or 
fineness; beautiful garments are made from them, 
for the priests of Egypt. Thus we sob that the 
\He of Cotton was introduced into Eygpt, 
through Persia and Arabia, about the commence- 
ment of the Christian erk, having been previous- 
ly used for many centuries in India. Linen had 
before been the staple fabric for clothing, for a 
period long anterior to the e;code of the Jews 
from Egypt, It was satisfectorily established by 
the microscopical inspection of the unravelled 
fibres of the mummy cloths, made by tjie emi- 
nent microscoptician Bauer, that these cloths 
were made of linen, and Egypt from the days 
of her early civillization, had not only supplied 
herself, but also the neighboring co\mtrie6 with 
fuie linen. 

The first account w^ have of Cotton goods, as 
an article of trade, is contained in the Periplus 
Maris Erythoi, written by Arrian, a learned 
Egyptian Gi*eek, in the second century. He 
speaks of a trade in muslins, calicoes, and other 
Cotton goods, being carried on by the Arabs and 
Greeks, with certain towns in India. The sub- 
stitution of Cotton for linen clothing, must 
however have been very gradual as well in 
Egypt, as among the Greeks and Romans, since 
cotton goods are not mentioned byr their writers 
as articles of import and consumption, although 
other productions of the East are specified, such 
as gold, spices, precious stones and even silk. 
.Nor are they enumerated in the Roman tariff as 
articles of import, subject to imposts. It is 

highly probable as Mr. Baines remarks, that the 
use of silk, which was introduced by the trade 
with the East, was preferred to that of cotton 
fabrics by the luxurious matrons of Greece and 
Rome, M'hich was a serious impediment to the 

early introduction of the latter. 

The same judicious writer justly remarks, that 
to those who have observed the rapid spread of 
the Cotton manufacture, in the present generation 
it may appear beyond measure extraordinary, 
that a branch of industry so apt to propagate 
itself, should have lingered thirteen hundred 
years on the coast of the Mediterranean, before it 
crossed that sea, into Greece and Italy. It may 

fabrics of India, should not, when known, have 
been eagerly desired in the Roman Empire and 
largely imported. Such was the case with silks, 
which, though more costly, and fetched from the 
more remote region of China, were sought with 
avidity by the ladies of Rome, and still more so, 
by those of the Eastern capital, Constantinople. 

When Mahomet made his appearance in the 
beginning of the seventh century, the use of 
Cotton fabrics was well established in Arabia and 
some of the contiguous nations. And however 
much the relentless cruelties and fanatical bar- 
barities of his successors may merit execration, 
we cannot withhold from them the credit of hav- 
ing, by their commercial zeal and enterprise, in- 
troduced the manufacture and use of Cotton into 
the various and extensive countries which were 
subdued by their irresistible valor. Cotton gar- 
ments wore worn on public occasions, by the 
immediate successors of Mahomet, which had 
the effect of consecrating their use and making it 
popular and fashionable with the faithful. In 
this way, the use oft Cotton was introduced into 
Syria, Asia Minor, and Northern Africa. 

The celebrated traveller, Marco Polo, who 
visited most of the Countries in Asia, in the 
latter part of the thirteenth century, found the 
manufacture of a very fine Cotton cloth in 
Armenia Major; and states that it was abundant- 
ly manufactured in Persia, and the Provinces 
bordering on the Indus, and that it was then the 
staple cloth throughout India. He mentions 
but one town in China where it was gro\m or 
manufactured, while it is established by an old 
Arabian work translated by the Abbe Renaudot, 
that in the ninth century, the Chinese, from the 
prince to the peas«jnt, wxre clothed in silk. 

From this says Mr. Baines, might be inferred 
the curious fact, that that early civilized, ingen- 
ious and industrious people to whom the world 
is indebted for the important manufactures of 
silk, paper and sugar, and who practised the art 
of printing, and knew the properties of the mag- 
net, and the composition of gunpowder, before 
any other nation, should have reraai/ied without 
the Cotton manufacture until the end cf the thir- 
teenth century, when it had flourished among 
their Indian neighbors, probably three thousand 
years. The fact furnishes irresistible proof of 
the stationary habits and condition of Chinese 
society. It was nbt until after the conquest of 

At__*. a1_ _ 


tivatioD of the Cotton-plant was introduced, and 
the manufacture of it was for some time stoutly 
opposed by the artisans in silk and wool. In the 
latter part of the last century, its cultivation was 
prohibited, as interfering too much with the pro- 
duction of food. China now imports raw Cotton 
from India, and a large and increasing amount of 
the manufactured article from Great Britain and 
the United States. 

In Europe, from the tenth to the fourteenth 
century, although in many places, as Italy, Flan- 
ders, and the Hanse Towns, there were extensive 
and flourishing factories of silk, wool, and linen, 
no mention is to he found of the Cotton manu- 
iacture, except in Spain. Under theMahomcdan 
dynasty, in the tenth century, the plant was nat- 
uralised in Spain, and as successfully manufac- 
tured as in the Asiatic Provinces, subject to A(ps- 
lem rule. Both the cultivation and manufacture 
ceased with the Moorish dynasty. 

From the fourteenth to the sixteenth century, 
Cotton was manufactured to some extent in Ger- 
many, the Netherlands and Italy ; and its culti- 
vation and manufaoture in European Turkey, fol- 
lowed the subjugation of that Country by the 
Turks, in the middle of the fifteenth century. 

England, M'hich has since so far outstripped all 
other nations in the extent and value of her Cot- 
ton manufactures, was one of the last countries 
in Europe, to introduce it in her dominions, She 
had for a long time, imported the manufactured 
article in various forms, from the Levant, and 
other places, and Cotton wool for minor purposes, 
such as beds, candle w icks, &c. Jt is probable, 
however, that the manufacture of Cottdu took 
its start, at the time that the crowd of Protestant 
artisans and workmen, from the various towns 
of the Spanish Netherlands, sought refuge on her 
shores, from a relentless religious persecution, 
which occurred in the latter part of the sixteenth 

The earliest record of the manufacture of Cot- 
ton, says Mr. Buines, is in 1641, at which time, 
it had become well established at Manchester. 
Lewis Roberts, in his Treasure of Traffic, pub- 
lished in that year, says : the town of Manches- 
ter in Lancashire) must be also herein remeniber- 
ed, and worthily, for their encouragement, com- 
mended, who buy the yarn of the Irish iu great 
quantity, and weaving it, return the same into 
Ireland to sell. Neither dotk their industry end 

comes from Cyprus aiid Smyrna, and at home 
work the same, and perfect it into fustians, and 
vermillions, dimities and other such stuffs, and 
return it to London, where the same is vended 
and sol^, and not seldom sent into foreign parts, 
who have means on far easier terms, to provide 
themselves of said first materials. 

The Cotton wool was spun on a single spindle 
wheel, but little superior to the rude teak wood 
wheel of India, which had been used by that 
primitive people for nearly thirty centuries. 
The loom used, was the old hand loom, the idea 
of which was derived from the game source, and 
not greatly improved. The weavers furnished 
themselves with linen warp and Cotton weft, 
thus prepared, and disposed of the cloth at the 
nearest market. About the year 1T60, a new 
custom was introduced. The Manchester mcr_ 
chants sent agents into the country with llncu 
warp and raw Cotton, who employed weavers to 
work up these materials. The raw Cotton was 
spun in the weaver's family, or he hired the spin- 
ning of it by some neighboring cottager, while 
he was occupied in weaving. This was one step 
gained in the progress of improvement, as it 
saved the weaver the trouble and loss of time 
previously incurred, in providing the materials 
for his work. He could now devote the whole of 
his time to his proper business. The consequence 
was, that the weavers now began, in an increased 
degree, to prepare the spinners, in whose depart- 
ment, no improvement had been made. This 
necessity soon developed an improved mode of 
spinning, and in 1767, the spinning jenny was 
invented by James Hargraves,. an ingenious car- 
penter of Blackburn; This great invention at 
first enabled one person to perform the work of 
eight, by the old method. But the jenny was 
only adapted to weft, and it had become a desi- 
deratum, not only to incrca.':,e the supply of 
warp, but to use the Cotton material for that 
purpose. Two years later, in 1709, Aikwright'.s 
Invention not only mot these want^?, but efl'ected 
also an improvement in carding and roving. 
Cronjpton's mule jenny, Cartwright's power 
loom, and'Wutt*s steam engine, soon afterward-* 
supplied all tlie demands for maeliinory uf an un- 
limited manufictnre of Ojtton. Thci>e wundtM • 
ful inventions rapidly followed eaeh other as; ha j 
been seen, and so soon as they wlm'c tairly in 
operation, their influence was clearly rnonifsted 



accordingly found, that the import of Cotton in- 
to Great Britain, whidi had been for 17B0 and 
the f<3ur previous years, at an annual average of 
6,766,613 lbs., rose in 1790 to 81,447,605 lbs., 
and in 1600 to upwards of 56,000,000 lbs. We 
shall see, when we coiae to speak of the history 
of Cotton in the United States, in what way diis 
enlarged demand was supplied. 

The history of Cotton in America, at preeent 
the great field of its production, and which bids 
fair at no very distant day to be that of its 
manufacture, also, next claims our attention. 

The A)>^. Clavigero says, that of Cotton, the 
Mexicans, made large webs, and as delicate and 
firm as those of Holland, which were with much< 
reason, highly esteemed in Europe. They wove 
their cloths of dilferent figures and colors, repre- 
senting diflerent animals and flowers, of feathers 
interwoven with Cotton, they made mantles and 
bed-curtains, carpets, gowns and other things, 
not less sofl tlian beautiful. With Cotton also, 
they interwove the finest hair of the belly of 
rabbits and hares, after having made and spun it 
into thread. Of this they made most beautiful 
cloths, an<d in particular, winter waistcoats for 
their lords. Among the presents sent by Cor- 
tes to Charles V, were Cotton mantles, some all 
white, others mixed with white and black, or i-ed 
green, yellow, or blue; counterpanes, handker- 
chiefs, tapestries and carpets of Cotton; tbe 
colors of the Cotton were extremely fine, as they 
had both indigo and cochineal among their na- 
tive dyes. One of their kinds of money con- 
sisted of small cloths of Cotton. Humboldt 
says, they used Cotton in making a species of 
paper, and their warriors used cuirasses of Cot- 
ton, eovering Uieir bodies from the neok to the 

Columbus found the Cotton-plant growing wild 
in great abundance, in Hispaniola, and other 
West India islands, where the inhabitants used 
Cotton dresses, and used the same material for 
their fishing nets. 

Magellan visited Brazil in 1519, and found the 
jatives accustomed to make their beds of Cotton 

Ward, in his history d Mexico, says. Cotton 

. was found among the indigenous productions of 

Mexicx), at the time of the conquest, and formed 

almost the only clothing used by the natives. 

The cultivation has since been much neglected, 

so common among the A^ecs, entirely lost. In 
the terra caliente of Mexico, the Cotton tree pro- 
pagates itself. 

As a practical illustration of the art of spin- 
ning Cotton, among the inhabitants of America, 
at a very ronote period, I can show a bioach 
of the y»ni, which may have been spnn centuries 
before the discovery of America by Columbus. 
It is the property of R. B. Waller, Esq., of 
Greensboro^ to wtiom it was presented by Jolm 
B. Ritterhouse, Eeq., formerly of the same town, 
but for some yean past, a pufser in our Navy. 

Its history is as follows : Several years ago. 
while the ship to which Mr. Bittorhouee was at- 
tached, was coasting near the'iboiea.of Conti* 
nental America, he availed himself of an o]^r* 
tttirity which was presented, to go ashore, and 
examine the remains of one of tbose ancient 
ekiea, so admirably desoribed in Mr. Stevens* 
able work. In exploring these ruins, over which 
lai^ forest trees were grow^ig, he discovered 
the mouth of a cavern or subteranean. vault, and 
upon removing the rubbish, discovered a stone 
coffin, in which was lying the skeleton of what 
he sQppoaed an Indian girl. The skeleton was 
entire, with axeeption of the facial bonea belov 
the forehead. Tbe hair was also perfect, am 
reached to the waist. By the side of the skele^ 
ton, lay this small broach of Cotton yam and ar 
earthen cup, which is believed to be now in th 
possession of a lady of Greene County. 

We know that it had been customary from th< 
remotest antiquity, to deposit in the tombs, arti 
des of luxury or fashion, to which the occupants 
attached a special value or r^ard while livings 
The tools and implements of the humble artisan 
were also on this principle deposited with his re- 
mains, in his last resting plaoe. 

In whatever light we view this interesting spe- 
cimen of aboriginal skill, whether as a memorial 
of excellence, in the early history of American 
art, or as proof of the common and every day 
occupation of the class represented by the inmate 
of the tomb, we shall find it difficult to resist the 
belief, that it is the work of an age, long since 


Whether the first wanderers to America, 

brought with them the arts of spinning and weav- 
ing Cotton, or for the first time applied these 
arts to a new article abounding in their new 
home, cannot now be determined. Both the 
race of the emigrants which first peopled Ameri- 


in almost h^peloHS obscurity, but if they >vent 
from India prior to the manufacture of Cotton 
labrics-in the surrounding countries, America iau^ 
seeond^onl^ to India, In Uie use of Cotton clo- 

Bat im 'the nin^eenth century, the Southern 
States««f Cher North Amerioan Udiod, hare /ar 
surpaseed all other coontries in the produotMU of 
Gotten wool, for the commercial sa4 manafaetu* 
ring usee of the civilised world. If it be true, 
asiatlegedf that the crop of India is Upom one te 
thiee thousand million pounds, still her .home 
demand is so great that her ordinary «xport is 
notykoed mneh. higher than one hundred ml- 
lion f onnda; This export is divided between 
Chba and Great Britain, the former counter ta- 
king the larger part, when the price rules d^w;. 

The-dAtnre of Cotton was on a smsil nssle, 
and made t>ut little progress in the Southern 
States until (the invention of Whitney's saw-gin. 
Prior *te tifais Important discovery, the only 
modes nsed'Ibr separating the lint from the seed 
were by 4ie 'tinged and the roller gin, of Indian 
origin. iBodi of these processes were so tedious 
as te preclude an extensive supply of the raw 
matestal or one oommensurate with the demaiid, 
whidh suddenly sprung np in the latter fart of 
the^ig^teenth century. 

The two species of Cotton euMivwAed tn our 
country, are thb herbaceum (hei^aeeous), and 
hirsutum (hairy), known to commerce as the 
long and short staple, and semetimes classified 
as Sea Island and Upland, and also as black and 
gpeen seed. The Sea Island, .or long staple, is 
said to be derived from the spedes <irossypium 
Ai'boreum, and to have become an herbaceous 
hybrid, by acclimation. The short staple, or 
green seed, is believed ^ have been brought 
from Turkey to Virginia, where flie plant was 
cultivated on the patcli scale, for domestic 'Uses, 
one hundred and thirty jears before the revolu- 
tionary war. 

The first authentic ffecord of the Cotton cul- 
ture in (iie Southern oolonies, is contained in a 
pan^phlet, dated in 1666, entitled, " A brief de9. 
ei)ipticn«Qf the Province of Carolina, on the coast 
of Florkla.'* In the year 1663, the tract of country 
extending from the $8th degree of Nordi latitude 
t9 the river St. Matheo, was erected into a Pro- 
vince, by the name Carolina, and granted to Lord 
Qarendon, Duke of Albermarle^ and six other 

j 'lliesc l^rupriutora took iiicaiJurus h»r an ijiuju- 
diute settlement. A small ouk#iiy (if einignuitH 
fix>m Virginia, had established ihi^uselves afx>und 
Albemarle Sound, whioh formed ike nucleus of 
the future State of North Carolina, and of which 
Sir William Berkeley, one of the Proprietors, 
was made Governor. 

The attention of the Proprietors was nex^t di- 
rected to the tcountry lying south of the Cape 
Fear. This district as far as the St. Matheo 
river, out of ^iiioh was afterwards formed the 
States of South Csirolina and Qreorgia, was erect- 
ed into a oouut^% by the name of Clarendon. In 
the year 1664, a considerable riumber'of persons 
from the Island of Barbadoes immigrated into 
this county. They brought with them the seed 
of Cotton which was then culfivated in the West 
Indies; for the author of the pan^phlet in speak- 
ing of 4hese colonists, says, Cliey have indigo, 
tobacco ^wry good, and Cotton wool 

Wilson^s Provmce of Carolina in America, 
published in 1682, says, that 4iie Cotton of Cy- 
prus and Malta grcms^well, and Jk .good plenty -of 
the seed is sent thither. 

., The culti^vation and domestic -oonsiMnption 
gradnally incteased, until about the pesiod of the 
revolution.; it was^own in small lots, from the 
IXelawaie, to the St. Mail's. During the war 
and after 4ts ciose,4he necessitias of the people 
operated as a stimulus to household manufac- 
tures of various kinds, and under this influenee 
hume-spun Cotton <!loths, to the end of the iast 
century, supplied the chief material for clothing 
whites as well as blacks^ on the plantations of 
the South. 

Alexander Hamilton, Sn his o^ehtnted rep<art 
on manuiactures made in 17d0, sa^:: .^eneisa 
vast scene of household manufactsidng, wfiich 
contributes more largely to the wel&re of the 
comnwnity, than could be imagined, without 
having made it an object of special enquiry. 
Among other .things, die enumemtcs Cotton ho- 
siery, coarse fustians, and muslins, checked and 
striped Cotton, bed-ticks, 'Coverlets and counter, 
panes, vaiIuus mlxtuies of CmIIou and woo), 
and Cotton and fbx, and in inany in^ances, 
not only sufficient for the supply of the families 
in which they ans made, but ^v sale, and even 
exportation. And again, evircing hla wondetfii) 
sagacity, he says, the faculty of the United 
States to produce the raw mntei ial in abundance 



..I ,-;..<■ 


ferior to soiilu whicli is produced in other quar. 
ters, is nevertheless capable of being used in ma- 
ny fabrics, and is BUbct*}yfeiblo in all probability 
of being ct^rjied by ar rnwe experienced culture, 
to si ill greater pcrfeetion. 

¥our years eurlior, Mr. Lfadison evinced the 
same far reaching mind, in ihe remdrk he is re- 
. po^rted to have made to a friend, dui'ing the Fe- 
dtsrid Convention at Philadelphia — viz: That 
fjom the garden culture of ('otton so cxtensive- 
1} practised in Maryland and Virginia, he had 
uo doubt but tht United States, would at some 
future day become a great Cottofi producing 
com; try. 

Tiic Sea Island or long staple Cotton although 
classed as herbaceous, is derived from Gossypi- 
iim Arborcurn. The seed were first sent from 
the Baliamas, to gentlemen in Georgia, in the 
year 1786, and experiments made with them 
soon aflerwards on the Sea Islands near the 
moutli of Sayannah river. The plants did not 
bear fruit the first year, but tbe winter proving 
mild, the rattoons bore fruit the following year, 
and in this way the plant became acclimated. 
The seed sue said to have ooiioa first irom Persia. 

The successful growth of the long staple Cot- 
ton, is confined to a string of Islands stretching 
from Geei^otown, in South Carolina, to the St. 
Mary's river, in Greorgia, a distance of nearly 
two Inm^red miles, and including a belt of the 
ooast not more than fifteen miles in width. Mr. 
Spauldir^ veiy justly asks — If Frederick the 
Great j never forgot him, who first introduced a 
better description- of rye into Prtfssia, and if 
Svflft is right iu saying he merits a great name, 
who causes two blades of grass to grow, where 
but one grtw before, why should we deny to the 
dead, wlllat may be their duel The first- cultiva- 
tors of Sea Island Cotton, were J osiah Tatnale 
and Nichohis Trumbull, on Skideway Island, 
near Savarmah; James Spalding and Alexander 
Bessitt, upon St. Simon's Island, near the mouth 
of the Altamaha, and Richard Leake, upon Jekyl 
Island, near St» Simon's. 

Of the many and great improvements made in 
the quality both of long and slrort staple Cottons, 
in their preparation for market, of the best me- 
thods of manuring, preparing lands, planting and 
cultivation, and of^ the cKmate, soils and imple- 
ments, best adapted to perfect the plants^ my 
limited ti»e^will not allow me to speak — ^nor 

made known through the valuable agrkmlturai- 
jommals of the country. 

There was a great impulse given to the cnltl- 
ration of Cotton, a?bout the tinic the experiments 
before spoken of were being made in Georgia^ 
in every quarter of the worM suited to its growtli^ 
and in commercial connection with England.- 
The cause was obviously the improvements 
which had been made in manufbetiiring the arti- 
cle. It was under this influence, that the Amer- 
iciin planter imported new varieties of seed from 
abroad, with the design of enlarging the culture 
as well as improving the character of the Cotton 
plant. Experiments soon removed all doubts as^ 
to success in growing it. But there still remain- 
ed an obstacle seemingly insnrmoun table. The^ 
only known modes of disengaging the wool from 
the seed, were too slow, to admit the hope of^ 
an extensive cultivation. And here perhapa- 
is the most interesting point in the history 
of the Goasypium. The geaars of Hargraves, 
of Arkwright^ of Crompton and of Gartwright, 
had given to the world maelftiaery for spinning 
and weaving it to any desirable limit, and Watt, 
had famished a<notive power, which never flag> 
ged firom fatigue or hunger, and was likewise sus> 
ceptible of any required multiplication. The en- 
terprise and energy of American planters had 
placed beyond doubt their ability to grow the 
plants But yet untQ some plan could be devised 
to facilitate the cleaning the wool of its seed, 
Cotton must occupy a subordinate position to 
the staples of flax and wool. A want so urgent, 
a demand so prsissing, did not appeal in vain to 
the genius of Anglo-Americans. Deep called 
unto deep and was answered. The genius of 
Whitney came to the rescue of his country. Ho 
invented the saw-gin, and thereby accomplished" 
a revolution in Agriculture and Manufactures, 
without a parallel in the history of industrial 

A brief sketch of the origin, progress and' 
completion of this important invention cannofe 
be out of place, in a memoir like ours. 

The legislature of Georgia made a large and 
valuable donation of lands to General Nathaniel 
Greene, lying on the Savannah river, for his re- 
volutionary services. Gen. Grrcene resided on- 
this estate nntiJ his death, liis widow after- 
warcfe married a Northern gentleman by the 
name of Miller, who was by profession a lawyer. 


ted, was a friend of Miller, and Mr. Miller per- 
suaded him to emigrate to the South, gratuitous- 
ly olTering him a place in hi& family, his instipuc- 
tions, and the use of hfs' library, while be was 
qualifying himself for the practice of law. Whit- 
ney being without means, and desirous %>f ac- 
quiring a profession, gratefully accepted the kind 
offer of his frieBd, and took up his abode with 
him on the banks of the Savannah. Having a 
strong mechanical cast of mind, and but liltle 
relish for bladw letter studies, and seeing so much 
interest eshibil^d around, him, tor a more expe- 
ditious mode of cleaning Cotton, he resolved to 
attempt the solution of the problem. Accord- 
ingly he shut htmself up in his room ami went 
to work. To Mrs. Miller he confided his pur- 
pose, but did not diselose to hor his progress. 
Wheu he had been seeluded for several wedts, 
ikirs. Miller who was keenly alive to the impor- 
tance of the result, in her great impatience, ven- 
tured one day to auk him what progress he made? 
She was delighted to hear Whitney say, that he 
had succeeded in pulling the wool from the seed, 
but he could not olear his machine of the wool, 
when thus separated. She begged him to permit 
her to see it operate. He did so. As the cylin- 
der revolved, the hooked wires surrounding it, 
were filled with cotton lint, but there was no- 
thing to relieve them from it. Mrs. Mlllei'afler 
observing the operation of the machine for a 
few moments, stepped aside, and returned with 
a broom in her fiiand. Placing herself behind the 
machine, as the revolving cylinder brought the 
wires to her loaded with Cotton, she rapidly 
brushed it off, by a motion of her broom reverse 
to that of the cylinder. Young Whitney, after 
observing her for a short time, became absorbed 
in thought, when he suddenly exclaimed, Oh, I 
have it now ! He immediately retired to his 
study, and upon this simple suggestion, added 
the brush wheel to his gin, by which his great 
work was accomplished. If this statement be 
true, the world should honor the memory of 
Mrs. Miller, for her agency in the most import- 
ant invention of the 18th century. Thus was 
invented Whitney's saw -gin, which has produced 
a greater change in the pursuits of man, and 
w^orked a might^r influence on his physical, social 
and moral enjoyments, than any discovery of 
modern times. 

And what shall we say of such a bene&otor ? 

"The inventor of the Cotton saw-gin." '£ha 
however is eulogy enough. Tliese tew words 
eomprehend more of honor and gratitude to his 
name, and of interest to liis country, than is 
contained in the memoirs of an Alexander or a 
Geesar, or of all the selfish and ambitious con- 
querors recorded in the world^s history. The 
truth embraced in this simple epitaph, secures 
to Whitney a deathless fame and enrolls his 
name by the side of a FrankHn, a Jeaner, a 
Watt, a Fulton, an Arkwright, as one of the best 
friends of his speeies. 

The true Cotton era commenced with Whit- 
ney's saw-gin — and we arc all so familiar with 
its history since that peiiod, that it is unnecessa- 
ry to dwell on it, only so far as it will appear, 
in showing its commercial, moral and political in- 
fiueuces on the human race. 

Our duty ia next to show, the mfiuenco of Cot- 
ton on commerce. In doing this, we have it ia 
our power fortunately to call to out aid figures, 
which proverbially, do not lie. We will take 
three periods, in the histories of Great Britain 
and the United States, which two countries en- 
grofis perhaps three-fourths of the foreign com* 
merce of the world. The imports and exports 
of Cotton, and the total imports and exports 
of these two countries, will be given for (hese 
three periods, by which exhibit, we believe, all 
doubts x{LUSt be removed not oftly as to the rela« 
tive importance of Cotton, but its unrivalled in* 
fiuence on the commerce of the world. 

In 1792, the United Kingdom imported of 

Cottonwool 51,90r.497 lbs*. 

Same year exported 1,485,418 lbs* 

In 1792, Total importa jei7,716,752 

" " exports 1S,621,942 

In 1832, the United Kingdom imported Cot- 
ton wool : 236,832,525 INr, 

Same jrear exported 18,027,940 lbs. 

Total imports same year JC48,161,661 

" exports " " 36,652,640 

Ih 1849, entered for consumption into the 

United Kingdom, Cotton wool. . . ^ . , . 758,841,650 lbs. 

Same year, export manufactured Cottons, 
value $130,000,000, which is more than half the 
exports of the United Kingdom for this year. 

In 179S, haports into U. 8. of Cotton wool.. 51,470 lbs. 

Exports " " .. 138.000 lbs. 

Total nsporta** •♦ .. 131,600.000 

" exports" " .. 20,753,098 

In 1838, Imports manofactnred Cotton $10,996,230 

Exports raw Cotton 81^50,000 

Total importo 101,029,266 

*• exports 87,176,943 

In 1849, Imports manufactured Cotton about $15,000,000 

Exports Cotton wool 66,396,967 

ManaftLCUired Cottana ^ 5,000,000 

Total imports $147,857,439 

" exports , 132,066,95» 

These statistics strikingly iHusftrtfte the great 







by the artiale of Cotton, in expanding 
oomneffce to its present overshadowio^ diTOen- 
sioBi. We mi^ proptfly add, the increment 
it has made to the internal and external trade 
of <»Uier ttations, and atoo its inoalcalable value 
to the immense internal trade ef the U. States 
and Great Britani. k oar own country, the 
filantar of the Sooth, tbe £irmer of the Weet 
aad North-West, the manu&eturer of the North, 
the merchants of tbe iviiole eonntry, the Steam* 
boat of the rivers, the coasting Vessel, the Rail 
Road and even the Telegraph, are ail noore or 
less depeadcnt^ <» Cotton. 

In 184>1^, the United States exported above 
seventy millions dollars worth of Cotton, snd 
some tirenty-five mtlHoM of other agiicnitavsl 
products, the latter being principally for the use 
Cotton manufiu^tarers abroad, thus basing 
near |95,000,<KNI of our exports upon Cotton. 
As foreiga;oo9imeree is but an exchange of oom- 
moditiee between nations, this amount, bemg 
nearly two-thirds of our exports, for 1849, should 
lie credited with the same amount of imports. 
Did time allow us, we could easily multiply 
striking views, all going to show that Cotton is 
the great leverage power of the world^s com- 

If it be true, as has been alleged, of whidi"we 
think tlnre can be no doubt, that the effeet of 
commerce is to inspire as veil as gratify new de- 
sires and wants,, to subdue hostilities, to soften 
national asperities, and religious antipathies, to 
promote civilization and refinement, justice &nd 
truth, to crush oppression and war, and establish 
religion and peace, any tl^ng which promotes 
aud cherishes commeree, must at the same 
time advance the welfare of the human race. 
Rut it is due to this branch of my subject, to 
show further that Cotton possesses other and in- 
herent properties, singularly adapting it to hu- 
man use and comfort. 

The peculiar qualities of its fibre, uniting 
length, strength, firmness, softness and cheapness, 
its .spiral form, its chemical properties as a non- 
conductor of heat and eleotricity, and its absorb- 
ent properties, all unite to make it 'the healthiest, 
cheapest, the most comfortable and convertible 
of existing materials for human olothing. To 
these may be added the extensive habitat of the 

The wonderfU improvements which have 

with the increased cultivation of the article, have 
so much reduced the price of doUiiiig made of 
this material, that the poorest laborer may sow, 
not only supply himself with oomlbitable igar* 
ments, but his house with Doataud Qom^fortable 
funiiture* As Mr. Baines Cruiy ireaiarks, the 
liMmblest classes have now the soeaos of asgfeat 
aeatness and evea gaiety of dress, as tlie middle 
and upper classes of the last age. A oouotry 
wake in the nineteenth centu.ry qiay display aa 
flMch finery, as a drawing room in the eighteeathi 
sad the peasant's oott^^ may, at this day^ with 
good management, have as handsome furaitMfc 
lor beds, windows and tables,,as the house of ^ 
substantial tradesmaa sixty yefum age. 

The increased ftoility of proeuring Cettoa 
dothitig and a more abundant snf^y, imve pvo> 
JBated cleanliness and with it faeahh, to such an 
exteat, during the presei^ century, as to increase 
th^ average duration of hum^n life, in those 
countries wRere it is fireely used. 

Less time and money are required for neces- 
sary elothing, and of course more of each ia 
liberated from this objeot, lor intellectual and 
moral culture and social enjoy nnmt. 

It is unnecessary to go further, but I will not 
omit to state, that it confers manifold blessings 
on the human family, by diversifying employ* 
ments, and aflTording the means of subsistence 
and of independence, to millions who might oth^ 
erwise be destitute. 

As regards, In the next place, the influence of 
the Cotton plant on politics, startling or absurd 
though the enunciation may seem, yet, that it 
exerts an undeniable and powerful influence on 
the political state of the woild, none can deny, 
who will bestow a little reflection on the subject. 
The spirit of the age we live in, is a commercial 
spirit. This is the master influence of che times. 
As has been tersely and triily said, " Commerce 
is King." The unraistakeable tendency uf com- 
merce is to spread Christianity and civilization, 
to promote the arts of peace and feelings of 
brotherhood among nations, to repress the igno- 
ble Ambition of plunder and territorial aggran- 
dizement and to fotttcr in its stead, the exalted 
desire for universal progress and prosperity, that 
the legitimate wants and wit»hes of all may bo 
gratified. Under the operation of results so be- 
nign and salutary, the political character of 
those nations enjoying an active commerce, un- 




tlon which it works, m&y almost be said to be- 
come, in its embraces, as day in the hands of the 
potter. If thie be trtie, the iniloence of the Cot- 
ton plant on polices is suffiotently established, 
by what has heea said, to show that the rapid 
growth, the present ilouriflliiiig oondition and the 
fiiture w^&re of oommeroe are and must be 
greatly indebted to this great staple. 

But more especially do the political eoaditions 
of Ghreat Britaih and the Uftited States rest vpon 
this basis. The latter grows four-fiftiis of ^ 
saw mftteriid, and the ibrmer maauftietttres the 
larger half of the Cotton grown for maricet. In 
this way is enacted a political bond of trieiidsbip 
and peace, bet^nri^en these two powerfal and Ag- 
gressive nations, stronger than hooks of steel, 
and the efieots of wluch, to their own welfiure, as 
well as to that of the rest of the world, it is di£> 
fioMit to estimatflL If we direet oar attention to 
oor own country, we cannot fiiil to peiaeeive that 
the great conservative spirit which binds togeth- 
er the difibrent.raeflibers of oar con&deraey, and 
preserves our polilacal Union, is to say the least, 
cherished and invjgorirted, by the Cotton intenest. 

The Cotton plaster of the South furnishes a 
market for the gmis, the provisions and the stock 
of the West and Northwest, the raw material 
and a market for ^e roanu&ctnres of the North 
of every kind and sort, directly or indirectly 
nore than half of the exports ^and the means for 
an equal amount of imports and revenue. It 
iQsanot be doubted that such an interest supplies 
a bond of political Union, stronger than the iron 
hsuda which are so happUy uniting the widely 
se^acated parts of our broad land, stronger than 
a oommon origin and common history, nay 
stronger even, than our glorbus GonstituUon. 

B«it again— »that wealth confers individual as 
well as political power has grown into a proverb. 
One of the ablest English writers on Political 
Economy, says erophatieally, that it was the 
wtolth and energy derived from the Cotton 
manu£u»ture, that bore England triumphantly 
through her dreadful conflict with Napoleon, at 
the same time that it gave her strength to suis- 
tain burthens which would have crushed her 
people at any prevmus period, and which could 
not have been supported by any other people. 
Let it here be tettiembered that the total impiirt 
of Cotton wool into England in I6l5, the period 
retetfed to, was only M,200,000 lbs, and in 1B60 

further, that her political wealth and power in 
the last thirty years, have increased in no very 
disproportionate ratio, to her increased eoasump- 
Uon of Cotton. 

And how, let me aak, would the immenao 
debts of our second war with Great Britain, our 
Florida a«d Mexican wars and indemnity, have 
been liquidated, without the aid derived from our 
great Southern stapled The statistics of the 
country demonstrate that Cotton has been di- 
rectly or iadireetly the chief source oi our reve- 
nue for the last twenty-five years, and besides, a 
leading cause of our unparalleled advasnement in 
wealth 4nd political greatness. >>< 

From the for^^ing truths, the corollary ne^ 
oessarily results, that the slave-labor of the Uni- 
ted States, has hitherto conferred, and is still 
conferring inappreciable blessings on mankind. 
If these blessings continue, slave-labor must also 
continue, for it is idle to talk oi ftodaeittg Cot- 
ton for the world's supply with free lAcr, It 
has never yet been successfiiUy grown by volun- 
tary labor. Great Britain made the experiment 
in her West India colonies during the present 
generation, and it was a signal fhilure. In 1791| 
the West Indies exported to the Mother Country 
twelve millions of pounds of Cotton, in 1801 , 
seventeen millions, in 1884, only eight millions 
of pounds, and the supply from tWs quarter is at 
present but little more than nominal. 

It is stated upon undoubted authority, that an 
attempt was made some ten years since, by a 
Louisiana planter, to procure five bushelft of seed 
from the Bahamas, formerly a favorite English 
Colony for Cotton, and that quantity could not 
be procured on the island. 

However therefore paradoxical it may appear 
to the narrow bigot or the transcendental higher 
law votary, it is nevertheless true, that in the 
dispensation of an All- wise Providence, thejte^ 
culiar institution of the Southern States, contrt* 
butes &n indispensable support to human pro- 
gress and prosperity, and it is a consolotory re- 
flection, that our slaves are carried along with 
the onward current of improvement, being in in- 
telligence, in comfort, and in m<mls, as much 
superior to their native brethren in the AtHoan 
deserts, as they are inferior to the ^ite race 
i^hom they serve. While the Southern slave 
occupies a middle position in the scale of civili- 
-zation, his African brother is so low as scarcely 



hlbiting, it is true, somethiog more of the type 
of humanity in his external form, but less in his 
disposition and habits. 

It remains for us to speak of the destiny of 
Cotton, as the great product of the United States. 

In deciding this important question fraught 
with so much interest to the Cotton growing 
States, we must necessarily be guided by the 
history of the past. Conclusions thus reached, 
may not be as certain as recorded facts or mathe- 
matical truth, yet they may be sufficiently so, to 
command belief, excite hope and determine ac- 

Our first enquiry will be as to the nature 
and extent of future demand and supply. — 
The many oomparatire advantages of Cotton 
over BYQTy other known material for clothing 
and other purposes, have established its superi- 
ority and fixed its use on a basis, as permanent 
as that of wheat for bread. WheVi to this we 
add, the immense interests - commercial, agricul- 
tural, manufacturing and mechanical, involved in 
and dependent on it — and further reflect that the 
greatly increased supply for the last twenty 

No other portion of the world possesses these 
combined advantages, nor can they indeed hope 
for them without great changes, which if practi- 
cable at all^ will require a fundamental remodeU 
ling of then* social institutions and genoratioua 
of time to accomplish. 

The other Cotton growing countries are, Bra- 
zil, Egypt and India, the West Indies being only 
nominally so, since the English emancipation act« 
As regards Brazil, she finds a more profitRble 
crop in coffee, the value of which is constantly 
advancing: her exports of Cotton has been 
regularly declining for the last twenty years^ 
and chieflv from this cause. From 1845 to 
1850, the crop of India declined 24 per cent. 

There has also been a regular decline m the 
crop of Egypt. 

* Nothing can permanently increase the supply 
of Cotton from these countries, but such prices 
as are incompatible with a liberal consumption, 
and even at high prices, this supply would fall 
very far short of satisfying the world's demand. 

The more profitable cultivation of coflee then, 
forms a reasonable presumption against any ma- 

years, so far from satisfying the demand seems i tcrial increase of supply of Cotton from Brazil. 

only to have increased it, that there seems to be 
no limit to its consumption, but the want of 
ability in the consumer, that from the restricted 
area of supply and the exhausted and exhaust- 
ing condition of that area by an improvident 
cultivation, the maximum of supply may be 
already approximated, that one-half the world 
has yet to learn its use. I repeat, when we con- 
sider all these, we are forced to the conclusion, 
that the Cotton demand will know no end, nor any 
limit, but that of supply, in the world's future 

It is not less certain, we think, that the South- 
'ern States of the American Union, )nust be 
looked to as the chief source of supply, if not 
for an indefinite, certainly, for a long period in 
the futile. The past and present, the character 
of the people, their peculiar institutions and lo- 
cal advantages, experience and specuLition, all 
tend to confirm, this belief. 

These States for more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury, have been the great Cotton producers of 
the world. They have the soil and climate 

The precarious character of her government, re- 
moves all fear from Egypt. The character of 
the population of India, to say nothing of its 
density, indolent, listless, enervated, with barely 
food enough of the simplest kind, to sustain their 
feeble bodies ; with the fact, that the British Go- 
vernment have spared no effort to extend the 
growth of Cotton among them for the last twen- 
ty years, without success or encouraf;ement, 
places India in the same category. Africa and 
Spanish America labor under obstacles greater 
than those enumerated. 

The result from these views is a probability so 
strong as to be little short of certainty, tliat the 
Southern United States must, for an indefinite 
period in the future, continue to supply the 
world's demand for our great Southern staple. 
And here we might properly draw to a close. 
But we will trespass a few moments longer on 
, your attention, for the purpose of exhibiting the 
progress of supply and demand for the last five 
years. It will be found that oonsomption has 
exceeded production, the former having ad^ranoed 

adapted to the plant, the labor indispensable to 19 per oeut. and the lat-ter only 9 per cent. At 

its successful cultivation, ample resources in food 
and dotkini; to make this labor eificrient, suid en- 

the end of 1844, the Cotton on hand in Europe 
was 1,101,000 bales ; at the end of 1849, with a 




646,000 bales. This surplus had been gradually 
diminishing, although the price for the last two 
years has boon so high, that in former years it 
would have operated as a material check on con- 
sumption. When in addition to this, we reliect, 
that we have reached the western limit of the 
Cotton region, that the exhausting character of 
the plant and the mode of its cultivation aro 
contributing to a rapid deterioration of the soils 
on which it is grown, that the number and wealth 
of its consumers are annually increasing, and 
that the Southern United States must be the 
chief source of supply, the grateful assurance is 
forced upon our minds, that the great Southern 
crop will be (bstered by remunerating prices. 

And in conclusion, I may be indulged in say- 
ing, that no portion of our country has more 
cause for congratulation and gratitude, than the 
great and honored State of Alabama. 

Although she has been redeemed from the 
wilderness, as of yesterday ; to-day, the single 
item of Cotton, pre-eminently distinguishes her 
as the first exporting State of the Union. 

With a present Cotton crop exceeding that of 
the whole United States in 1824, and greater 
than that manufactured by England in 1829, 
with not more than one-fourth of her lands in 
cultivation, to say nothing of her exhaustless 
mineral resonrt?es, Alabama may justly lay 
claim to natural resources inferior to those of 
no State of equal territorial extent; and when 
she shall have extended the cultivation of her 
precious staple to its practicable limits, and made 
available her abundant water power and resources 
for stciim power for manufacturing purposes, and 
completed her well-devised system of Internal 
Improvements for facilitating transportation and 
intercommunication, all of which may be easily 
fiecompHshed in the present century, few States 
will equal her in prosperity and the means of a 
high cultivation. 

Then will Alabama appear as a star of the first 
magnitude, In a brilliant constellation of sister 
Republics: and may she, proud in her position, 
contiuue to shine brightly and more brightly, 

'• Until the great globe, and all which it iohorits, ihall diMolv«.*' 


How TO Cook a Pota/io. Waah it well, but tot 

there bono acTapiag. At the thickoet end out off a pieoo 
the iize of a sixpence. This is the safety valve through 
which the steam e8eapefl» and all rente in the skin are 

Aw A.«B^K W W *%.««#%■«>• «■•% ^^^ 

•n^ ah«« ^l^^^. *m*^W9ws^ v^^4h«to«h«« A«B ^ «ta«« Mk, A m»^^ 

Best metliod of Applying Ouano* 

I am satisfied from experience and observati<->n 
in the use of Guano, ft)r the past twelve years, 
that the best method, decidedly, of applying it 
to crops in our climate is, to plow or spade it 
into tlie ground ; and autumn is the best season 
fordoing this, as it gives time for the pungent 
salts contained in the guano, to get thoroughly 
mixed with the soli before spring planting. Do 
not fear to lose the guano by plowing it in as 
deep as you please — it will not run away^ depend 
upon it. At the south, it loses half its Tirtues if 
not plowed in at least three inches deep ; six to 
twelve inches would be still better. 

Spread broadcast on grass land, late in the fall 
or -^QT^ early in the spring. If not plowed in 
before sowing bucli wheat, rye, or wheat, then 
spread it broadcast after sowing the grain, and 
harrow well and roll the land. This last opera- 
tion is quite important. 

Caution. — Never put guano in the hill with 
com, no matter if covered two or three inches 
deep ; for the roots wOl be certain to find it, and 
so sure as they touch the guano, so caustic is it, 
that it will certainly kill the corn; the same with 
peas, beans, melon vines, in fact most vegetable 
crops. Wheat and other small grains have so 
many roots, and litter so well, there is no danger 
of guano killing them when sown directly with 
the seed. Still, as before remarked, it is better 
to plow it in before sowing the seeds. 

After com has come up, the only safe way of 
applying guano to this crop is, to take about a 
table spoonful, at the first time hoeing, and dig it 
in an inch or two deep, around the com, six 
inches at least from each stalk. A table-spoon- 
ful is sufficient unless the land is very poor ; and 
with this quantity it will take about 250 to 350 
lbs., per acre, according to the distance the hills 
are placed apart. If the soil be rathsr poor, a 
second dQse administered in the same manner, at 
the time the com first shows its silk, will ad4 
considerably to the yield in grain, if followed by 
rains, but little or nothing to the growth of stalk. 
Guano increases the size and growth of the grain, 
more than it does that of the stalk ; hence one 
must b^ content to wait till the grain is fully 
matured before giving an opinion of the virtues 
of guano. 

Before applying the guano, it is better to mix 
it well with an equal quantity of plaster of Paris 
or charcoal d ust. Either of these substances help 
to retain the ammonia and prevents its evapora- 

The genuine, unadulterated Peruvian guano, is 
so much superior to any other kind, that it is in 
reality the cheapest^ though the price is conside- 
rable higher than that of other qualities. 

As com is very late this year, i&rmers will do 
well to apply guano to it This will aceelevate 
its growth, give a larger crop, and cause it to ma- 



dllll-tSlde mtcUingi 


J0CA86IS, July 2d, 185S^ 
Dr. N. B. CLOuiy. 

Dear Sir: — On my ftrnval at my farm in Han- 
eock county, from Sarannah, where I am engaged 
in the Commissioti business, I found your letter 
of the 5th of June, covering a prospectus for an 
agricultural paper to be published in Montgom- 
ery, Ala«, with a request tiiat I would furnish you 
with an original article on Hill^side Ditching and 
Horizontal Culture. Referring to an article of 
mine on that subject which yon had seen in the 
Soathem Cultivator. 

The article referred to, was prepared for and pub- 
lished first in the Recorder Supplement in 1847, 
at the request of Mr. Howard of your State, and 
the editors of that paper< Subsequently it was 
published in the Southern Cultivator, and was last 
year re-published in the Recorder Supplement at 
the request of Hugh Lawson, ^sq.^ of this State. 
I send you a copy of the Recorder Supplement 
of last year, that you may see in what estimate 
the article was held by Mr. Lawson and the edi« 
tors. That arttele wsa writtetr as the A B C of 
the system, that any farmer by studying it per- 
fect might put it into praetice. And if I were to 
write fifly times on the subject, having that object 
in view, I should in substance write the same 
thing, not having had in the practice the first 
reason to alter a single principle therein laid 
down. Therefore, I can see no use in writing 
over again what is already in print. In the arti- 
cle published there are some typographical errors, 
some words and parts of sentences that might be 
changed for the better, bat as to the matter, it 
would be substantially the same if I were to write 
again. And what is a little wonderful, the article 
has never been attacked by any one thaf I have 
seen. - Had it be«i, or should it ever be, I shall 
feel called on to defend it and have no fear of 
being able to do so successfully. 

I wish you great success in your praiseworthy 
enterprise, you deserve to succeed and I. hope you 
will. The country, however, wiU be a greater 
beneficiary than you, even if you succeed. 

Crops are fair in this country, and if the sea- 
fion continues favorable, the husbandman will be 
MWftrded for Us labor. 

With Ugh regard, yours, 

No. L 

To AuGuaTus Howard*, Esq. 

pear Sir ; — Before the receipt of youfr letter 
of the 19th May, 1 had promised the editors ot 
the Recorder, at their special request, atr article 
for the July supplement, on the subject of gnid^ 
hiil<«ide ditches, and the horizontal method of 
eulture From their letter requesting an article 
on tdiat subject, it is obvious that I was selected 
because of the article over my signature ptfbttsh- 
ed hi the April Supplement, finding fault with 
many of the systems now practiced by fanners 
on that subject — •alleging that various en^uiriea 
were made of them, induced by that article, 
which, it appears, was the cause of your inquiries 
being made. Being under the promise th«e I 
Was to the Editors, and finding your letter asking 
informatioa of the same sort^ I determined to 
have your letter published and answer it through 
the same medium. By this course I could com- 
ply with your request and fiilfil my engagement 
with them at the same cost of labor that it would 
take to answer one. To reply to your enquiriea 
fully in one communication^ would require more 
space than the Editors could well spare in one 
number ; therefore I will eofitinue ray letters to 
you monthly until I have fuUy answered all your 

Thus,* air, you have my reasoR for the pnUioa- 
tion of your letter without your consent, whiok I 
hope will be a siitisikctory apology 00 my part 
for the liberty taken^ 

That I may the more fully explain the system 
on which I am about to write, and the mora 
readily be understood by you and others who 
may be desirous of information on the important 
subject of graded hill side ditches atid the- hori- 
zontal culture, I will begin with the A B C of the 
method of operation. 

The first tiring then is the construction anid de- • 
soription of an instrument absolutely necessary " 
to lay off the work correctly — the opinion of 
many that they can lay off as good a ditcb m" 
run as lerel a row by the eye, to the contrary 
notwithstanding. Take two strips of plank, 1 
indi thick, 8 wide and B feet loi^, put them to- 
gether at one end by letting them into each oth%r 
at such angle as that the oth^ ends will be Ju^gt 
twelve feet apart from outside to outside. Take P 
two other strips of the same width and thtckness 
and of sufficient length, and let the end of one 
into the side piece, one-third from the top or 
crown, and the other end one-third from the foot 
of the opposite or other side piece. The other 
piece must be let in the same way from the op- 
posite side pieoe, whidi will eauee them to cross 
each other, where they must be let into each 
other — ^the whole pet together with inch aerews, 
firraiy. Then draw a line from the outer comer 
oi obe fpo^ to the outer corner of the other, mark 
and saw ofi. Ibia will. make the instrument fiat 
on its feet when raised w on them* It would 



a strip one inch thick and as long aa the foot is 
wide and even with the bottom, to keep iC from 
sinking in the ground where it is soft. The in- 
strument now being complete — ^all bwt having the 
level and grade block attached to it'^should have 
two good coats of paint to protect the wood from 
the influence of the weather. Then procure a 
carpenter's spirit level, such as they use In lev- 
eling sills and plumbing walls. Attach one end 
of it to the cross piece by means of a screw ; 
then place your instrument on the ground as 
nearly level as you can judge by the eye, bring 
the other end of the level on the other crossbiif, 
up or down until the' vacuum or air bubble in the 
tube stands in the middle or centre. Then flrmly 
grip the level to the cross bar with the hand, or a 
hand vice which is better, carcfuUv mark the feet 
of your instrument and change the ends, being 
careful to put the feet precisely on the same 
groun^they stood on before. If the air bubble 
m the tube stands at the same place, you may 
be certain of having a perfect level. Should ydti 
not have the true level — and it would be an ae^i- 
dent if you did — you will move the end of the 
instrument on higher or lower ground, as may be 
ndicated by the bubble, until the vacuum or air 
>ubble in the tube stands one half the distance 
etween the true level point and the point that 
it occupied after the feet were first reveraed ; thus 
yoa will continue to change until the air bubble 
in the tube will stand at &e same point with the 
ends reversed, when you may be sure of having 
the true level. Then firmly secure the end by 
means of a screw as in the case of the other end. 
A better plan for attadiing the level to the instru- 
ment is by a box, that will just receive the level, 
and -attach the box just as I have directed for the 
level, with the level in it, because you can more 
conveniently take out the level for other purpo- 
ses, than to unscrew it from the cross bars, by 
having a hole in the bottom of the box through 
which you can raise it out with your finger. 

Having got the true lev^l, it is now necessary 

to get the grade for your ditches. To do this, 

you will tfl^e a block just as broad and long as 

Ike foot of your instrument, and as ihkk as you 

want your grade in 12 feet — say 8, 4, 5, or even 

6^ inches, if you want your water to ran so fast 

aa to keep out of the way of that which is com* 

ing on behind — and attach it to a atrip of the 

same width and tkiokness of the side pieee,. and 

some 12 inches long, at such angle to the block 

as will make the strip thus attadied to the block 

run up and be even witk the lop and bottom edge 

of the side piece when the block is placed under 

the foot of the instrument. This strip with the 

block attached should be firmly screwed on to the 

side piece, and you have a fkrmer'a lerel, ready 

graded for ronning your ditehes. lliis minute 

description of a farmer's leral I deemed neoeesaTT 

as many are usinig very elumsy instmments, wiUi 
• *i 11 ... _ ..... i^ii «_^ .•-_ »- 

done with the one than the other, and with 
double the ease to the operator. 

The* instrument or level as f shall now call it, 
being reaidy all but setting on the proper grade, 
brings up that question on which there is such a 
diversity of opinion, varying from three to six 
inches in twelve feet. In the disooaslon of this 
point, I take this position as fncontrovertible : 
that the true grade rs one that will be&r off the 
water without breaking over the ditch or wash- 
ing it any deeper. For if the grade is so great 
the ditch continues to wari^ deeper by every 
heavy rain, it will bare soon to be considered a 
gully, and treated accordingly. By this rule 
every one can determine the proper grade for him- 
self More than ten years eYperienee has con- 
firmed me in the opinion that the grade that I 
give to my dftches is the true one, and thai a 
material departure either way will prove miB- 
chtevons. Slight variations either way, will 
make very little perceptible difference. It is 
safer, however, to depart slightly on the side of 
a greater grade than on the side of too little^ 
Because, in the one case your ditch being incapa* 
ble of carrying off the water, mast brea& over, 
while in the odier case, the mischief that accrues 
is only the washing of your ditch. A very good 
and substantial reason why the grade should be 
no more than sufiicient to bear off the water is, 
that the less the declension or grade of your 
ditch to answer the purpose for which you intend 
it, the better it will encirde the hill, and thereby 
protect more of the land whidi it was designed 
to do. In«ther words, suppose jou have a 
ditch to run 300 yards lone, it will take 75 
strides of your level to run it ; and by calcula- 
tion, you will find that the month ot your ditch 
will be just 18 feet and 9^12 lower than the be- 
ginning point. But again suppose, by way of 
experiment, that you <mnge your grade from ? 
to 6 inches and go to the same starting-point and 
go the same distance 800 yards ; by calculation, 
you will find that the mouth of the ditch will be 
37 feet and 6 12 below the aUrting pofnt. This 
difference in the grade of your oitoke^ if the 
grade of your land was only moderate, miffhc 
make t(e mouths of the ditches, as above spoken 
of^ from 50 to 150 yards apart, from which 
you will readily perceive, if you should select 
the six inches as your grade, that all the land be- 
tween the points where those two ditches would 
run would be unprotected, supposing that to be 
the first ditch and nearest the top of the hill. T 
will now, sir, leave this braaoh of the subject 
with you, to jud^e whether I have snstaihed my- 
self in the position set out with. 

The grade given to my ditches is 3 inches in 
12 feet on porous soils that absorb water freely, 
Lnd 8^ to stiff argillaeeoos soils that absorb wa^ 
ter less freely--S| and Si- I would put dona aa 
the very highest poiiM* 1 have one field 34, sad 





deepen the ditcii as (o make it mischievous. I 
have found ihat the grade given to my ditches 
succeeds well when other things are done as they 
should be, of whlcli I am hereafter to speak. 

Haviitg gone through with the question of 
grade, and given the one used by myself, the 
use of the level is next in order, "fiie level 
being ready, with the grade block screwed on 
the thickiiiess you intend to have your grade you 
will take it to the field intended to be ditched, 
accompanied by a sxiiaII boy witii a hoe suited 
to his size. The operator should first take a ge- 
neral view of the field and get as well in his 
mind as possible the variations of the hills and 
the common undulations of the land, and then 
approach the highest point and examine round 
tlie hill from 5f> to 75 yards, in proportion 
to the fall, to find out where the first collection 
of water will take place. This you caa judge 
of bv the breaks or undulations of the surface. 
Having detc mined that point, you of course 
will start your ditch a few yards below that 
point, sufSeiently near to catch the water before 
mischief can be done the land. You next deter- 
mine to which side of the Held you will carry 
the water; and that done, you place the level 
with t^e end that has the grade block on it in 
that direction and continue to move one or the 
•ther end up or down hill until the air bubble 
stands in the centre of the tube : vou then have 
a grade precisely the thickness of the block ; for 
the level being perfect before the block was put 
on and the block now being on, and the air bub- 
ble standing in the centre, shows conclusively 
that the land on which the block stands is just 
the thickness of the block lower than the other 
foot of the level. You then dir«3Ct your b«y to 
dig a small hole just in front of the forward end 
of the level as a sign to show where the level 
stood. The level is then moved forward in 
either direction that you may please to go and 
the hinder foot is carefully placed where the front 
one stood, and you look to the air bubble in the 
tube to see if it is right, if not, you move the 
forward end up or down, as may be necessary, 
until the bubble stands at the centre, when you 
order your boy to dig,^ awd move on as before 
until you gain the end. You then return to the 
beginning place and run as before, taking care 
not to turn your level round unless you should 
want to change the direction of the water and 
throw one-half out at one side and the other 
half at the other, which I invariably do, if it is 
practicable. Just here, I will remark, that all 
new beginners are apt to select some point at 
which they want to discharge the %vater of the 
ditch, and are apt to force the level up or down, 
as the case may be, to gain that point. This is 
wrolig. The level should be allowed to select 
its own poinf, after you start, which it will al- 
t!^ays do better than the operator,, if property 
mani^ed. Again, by forcing the level, some- 

fimAA tin nnA th^^n rlnwn. in tb« samii ditdfa in 

opetator, nriiachief is apt to accrue when heavy 
falls of i*ain have to be encountered, by water 
passing faster where the grade is increased than 
where it is decreased, so that the water in the 
parts of the ditch where it /moves slowest, is 
crowded on by the water from that part where 
it has more grade and moves faster, and there- 
by endangers the ditch. Once broke — and mis- 
chief ensues to the land below ; hence it is im- 
portant that the grade should be kept as perfect 
as possible. Again, some operators are so te- 
nacious of the coming out point, or the point 
where they want to empty their ditch, that they 
frequently make that the starting point, and they 
about as frequently have a ditch where it does 
no good. The (irst ditch having been laid out, 
vou move down the hill from. oO to 100 yards, 
regulating the distance agreeably to the fall of 
the land and the probable chance for water t*> 
collect so as to wash ttie land, and there select 
another stalling point as in the first catc, and 
rtm as before. 

Thus you continue on until the field is finish- 
tshed. It may not be amiss to remark that more 
depends on the judgement nf the operator in tlie 
starting point for his ditch than any thing else ; 
for if you start at the proper place, and manage 
the level properly, the balance will be sure to be 
right. In selecting the starting point, the only 
guide is your judgement, and when you find a 
place that you feel satisfied water will collect 
and wash the land below, be sure to make that 
a starting point — or rather a few yards below, 
and throw your water in whatever direction may 
best suit the circumstances of the case. 

The next thing to be considered is the opon- 
of the ditches and the implements necessary for 
doing it. The first thing needed is a scooier 
plough, horse and boy, and as many hands vviih 
weeding hoes as you muv think necessary or 
proper to operate with. You will start aliend 
of the horse, directinc* the ploughninn to follow 
you, taking care to follow carefully the chops in 
all their meanderings, * directing the ploughman 
to do the same. This is important that your 
grade may be kept perftK:t. Three furrows are 
run with the plough, the two last on the upper 
side of the first, and jost near enough to brenlc 
the ground into each other. The hands with 
their hoes then scrape out the dirt on the lower 
side. On soft land this is sometimes sufficient, 
whore the land lies pretty well ; but usually, I 
run three or four more furrows in the bottom, 
not so deep however as the first and take that 
dirt- out. In the last operation, I usually put 
behind a hand of the best judgement, to finish off 
the ditch, preferring to have the ditch rather 
wide than deep, cotftave in the bottom, with the 
deepest part nearest the upper side, so that the 
weight of water will -not be against the embank- 
ment made by the dirt taken out of the ditch. 
That part of the ditch occupied by the water is 
uauallv about two feet wide and 6 to 10 inches 



to take a level from the embankment below is 
from 10 to 20 indies to tlie bottom. In middle 
Georgia it is not unfrequent that the operator 
comes in contact with gullies — they are however 
very easily overcome. The gully must be first 
filled up with rock, pine bushes or poles even 
with the bottom of the ditch and sufficiently up 
and dow^n the gully as to go well above the ditch, 
and well below under the embankment. This 
being done, the whole should be covered with 
dirt, and thenthe embankment raised below the 
ditch by digging dirt from above and on the 
side of the gnlly that the water goes off on, un- 
til it is sufficiently high. It would be well to 
protect this part of the embankment by placing 
stones in it if you have them convenient. Thus 
the operator may go on until the ditches of the 
field are completed! Should stumps or trees be 
in the way of the ditdi, it is best to t^ke them 
up ; but if the operator is ^careful he may pass 
them while running the ditch, by forcing the 
level below so as to pass without injury^ Ope- 
rator will find the land in better order to diteh 
or level, afler stubble or ether crop, as the sur- 
face is smoother. 

The next thing is to level the field, or rather 
to lay off the rows horizontally or on a level. 
To do this, the operator will detach his grade 
block, and with his level and bty, return to the 
highest point of the field. Within a few yards 
of the apex or highest part, at either side or in 
the middle, I usually take the middle as I can 
better judge of the land ettck way — start ^our 
level, having the boy to dig the holes as before 
at each set of the level. If you <begin in the 
middle of the field, you must return to the be- 
ginning place and run the other end out. That 
row being done you move off from tliat row 20 
ito 50 yards, being governed in the distance by 
the fall of the land ; if very abrupt, the distance 
should be less, but if a very gentle declivity it 
may be increased. Thus you may continue on 
until the field is all laid offi In laying off those 
rows which are technieally called " guide rows," 
no attention is paid to the ditches; whenever 
you approach one, cross it as if it were not there. 
A guide furrow or two being laid off, you may 
start your ploughs to bedding, and both operar 
tions may go on at the same time. Having a 
few guide furrows run off as above referred to, 
you will start on the chops of the first row, fol- 
lowed by your principal ploughman, and thus 
run out three or four of the guide rows. The 
ploughman then returns to the upper side of the 
first guide row, and with a reed or small stick in. 
his hand as long as the width of your rows, and 
proceeds to run parallel thereto, regulating the 
width by the stick which he will very soon do 
with great accuracy. Thus he continues on un- 
til the land is laid out above the first guide fur- 
row. Meanwhile another boy, with the same 

ning first right and then left, suffieiently near to 
break tlie ground perfectly into the track of the 
other or first furrow. The reason for this se- 
cond furrow is obvious w^hen you reflect that a 
good turning plough, such as Freeborn's, No. 
11^, will turn the dirt so far over a single fur- 
row that in returning you cannot break the ground 
perfectly into the first furrow run. It therefore 
becomes necessary that your land may be per- 
fectly pulverized through, and especially in the 
centre of the bed where you intend to plant your 
crop. Having finished above the first guide 
row, the principal ploughman comes down to fill 
the space between that and the second. As in 
the case above, he starts in below the first guide 
fiirrow — followed by the other boy asliefore, 
running the second furrow always on the lowe r 
side, and runs parallel to it, governed in the dis- 
tance by his stick as before, until he runs three 
or four furrows — governed in the number by the 
distance of the guide furrow below — then he 
shifts to the upper side of the guide furrow be- 
low, and continues to run as many furrows as 
were run to the one abov«. By this time the 
parallel rows will more than likely approach each 
other on that part of the ground that is most ab- 
rupt, and leave one or more places where the 
ground is more level, not laid off or filled up, as 
it is technically called. The balance must bo 
filled up with short rows on that side which 
should seem to be the best level to the eye of 
the ploughman. Meanwhile tlie other ploughs 
may go on bedding up, by running the first fiir- 
row on the lower side of the row, or a furrow, 
run for the purpose of bedding to, and return- 
ing on the upper side of the same row or furrow 
and thus continuing on until one-half the middle 
is taken on each side. The necessity forerunning 
the first furrow on the lower .side is obvious to 
every ploughman. It is because having an open 
furrow to turn the furrow slice into, the resist- 
ance that would be otherwise offered to it by 
turning up the hill is removed, while returning 
on the upper side, the plough having the advan- 
tage of turning the furrow slice dow^n the hill is 
enabled to lay the dirt up much better than if it 
was turning up hill, without the advantage of an 
open furrow to receive its furrow slice. Thus 
the operation moves on until the field is comple- 
ted, without any regard to the ditches, other 
than to prevent the ploughs from dragging or dis- 
charging their dirt in them as they cross them. 
The operator or manager may be somewhat sur- 
prised at his guide furrows, at one end or at 
some point in the field coming much nearer to- . 
.get her at one point than another. This not un- 
frequently occurs, and always does, where the 
same level passes over ground that is a steep 
hill, and at some other point, over which it is 
comparatively level. In cases of this kind much 
judgment is to be exercised by the man that j» 
filling up, and it not unfrequently requires the 



in the short rows, for the great object is to keep 
your rows as level as possible. 

I am aware of the great objections that many 
have to the short rows that necossiirily occur in 
the horizontal cultivation ; to these objections I 
will reply at the proper place. It will be proper 
however, to make one or two remarks, showing 
how time may be saved in plowing those short 
rows, without dragging the plough from where 
a bunch of them may be finished in the middle 
of the fieldj^if you please, to the end to begin 
the next row. And just here I will remark, that 
the crop is plowed in the same way that I have 
recommended for the bedding of the land, by 
running the first furrow on the lower side of the 
row, and the returning furrow on the upper 
«ide. Now to the short rows. A hand having 
started at the end on the row next to the one 
just finished, in returning on the upper side he 
finds a bunch of short rows above him ; he how- 
ever goes on until he is going back with his last 
furrow. When he gets to the end of the first 
short row he stops and ploughs it ; when it is 
finished on arriving at its end and without stop- 
ping his horse he throws over his plough to the 
plaoe from which he first turned round, and car- 
ries the furrow on until he comes to the end of 
another short row ; he turns and ploughs that and 
80 on until all are ploughed ; he then throws his 
plough over as before and gains the end at his 
proper place. 

I have now, sir, gone through with the descrip- 
tion of the level, the manner of using it in laying 
off the ditches, of opening them, and the guide 
rows, the manner of filling up between, and the 
method of ploughing or bedding them, • which 
ends the chapter on these subjects. I hope I have 
made myself unde/stood ; but if I have not, all 
that you have to do, is to interrogate me as to 
that particular point, point out clearly the diffi- 
culty that seems to be in the way, and I have 
no fears but that I can explain fully to your un- 
derstanding the point that may be in doubt. I 
had intended in this communication to give the 
whys and wherefores of this system, and answer 
a few of the most prominent objections that are 
made to it as well as to point out why the vari- 
ous systems that are intended to approximate to 
this, and the system which had suggested itself 
to your mind, and spoken of in your letter, will 
not do. But I am warned by the number of pages 
already wntten, that I shall quite occupy the 
space that the editors can conveniently spare for 
one letter. In my next I will take up those sub- 
jects, when the beauty of the system will more 
fully appear. 

With high regard. 
Your most obedient servant. 


Period of Gestation of Domestic Akimals. 
It is often important for farmers to know the 
exact length of time that the dilFerent domestic 
animals go with their young. The following 
table contains the times of those which most con- 
cern him, as near as we can ascertain them ; 

Mare II months. 

Jennet, • •••II 

Cow 9 

Goat ^ 

Ewe K> 

Sow 4 

Bitch 2 

Cat 8 weeks. 

Rabbit ^ 

Hat 5| 

Mouse • 4^ 

Guined Pig 3 

Period of Incubation of Domestic Fowls : 

Swan' weeks. 

Turkey • • • • • 4 

Goose 4 

Duck 4 

Pea Hen 4 

Guinea Hen • 3 

Common Hen 3 

Pigeon • 2 












Poison Antidotes. — For oil of vitriol, or 
aquafortis, give ftirge doses of magnesia and water, 
or equal parts of soft soap and water. For 
oxalic acid give magnesia, or chalk and water. 
For saltpetre, give an emetio of mustard, and 
water, afterwards mucilages and small doses of* 
laudanum. For opium or laudanum give an 
emetic of mustard and use constant motion, and 
if possible, the stomach pump. For arsenic, 
doses of magnesia are usefiil, but freshly prepared 
hydrated oxide of iron is best. If frost-bitten, 
take and rub with spirits of turpentine. For in- 
sects taken into the stomach, drink a small quan- 
tity of vinegar and salt. For corrosive subli- 
mate, give the whites of eggs mixed with water, 
until free vomiting takes place. — iV", Y. Farmer 
and Mechanic, 

^Concealed buds may be started by making a 
niche immediatel v above them with a knife. This 

Lasting Effect of Guano. — ^There is a strange 
delusion affecting the minds of half the farmers 
in the country upon the subject of guano not 
doing any good to crops succeeding that to which 
it is applied. From a thousand other similar 
evidences which we have on hand, we select, says 
the Frederick (Md.) Herald, the following experi- 
ence of Hon. James A Pearce, one of Maryland's 
farmers as well as statesmen. He says, "April, 
1845, 1 applied 350 pounds of guano to an acre 
of growing wheat, tjie land being very poor. Of 
course it was applied as a top dressings mixed, 
however, with plaster. The wheat doubled in 
quantity at least and fine clover succeeded it; 
and in two crops, one of com and the other of 
small grain, last year and the. jureeeii^ tl^.^^^^_ 


^mcricttn Cotton planter. 



t3f Wa Striceluii^ Boak9«Uer, 28 Dauiihin-s' 
Mobile, is Agant for the "Araerican Cotton I'lontr 
who will receive sub«<jrIptions and furnish tlic work to 
All KubscribcrB in anil about the city. 

Jg- Wk ahall B«Dd the first number of the A 
Cotton Plniitcr to eatli tacmber of the Editorial frutncui 
t; of onr ^ate, and to such others out of Uu State na v. 
laaj 1)0 abl« to loeutt^ in the hope lliat they will fiud 
ourjiaper. nod tho cjilerpnse in which it is enlisted, wor- 
thy of tiieir BppFoval, and elieit fi-om them a worm and 
curilial caniiiii.'ndation to the favor of tlieir fricnile. Any 
paiier desiring to eiehange, will direct to Hie "Aineripaii 
Coltuu riuuler," LocklaQd, Macoa cuuiily, Ala., t)U fur- 

Onr Tignette. 

It affords 01 pleasure to l>e able, inaeb in advance 
of our eijieelotion on leaving home, to intrc 
tliB AiiEit[u.tN Cotton FLA^'TEE, to its unmcroua friends 
with a heading so complete, bo npproin-iatP, anil, at 
llie BttiQO time, so oliaracteristio of a cotton plantation, 
all of Alabcna de^gn and manufacture. Tlio young 
gentlwoan, Mr. J. B. Alexaxdeb, who projected and en- 
l^nved our Vi^ettc, ia a titizen of Mobile, a gcDtlomnn 
of tftliiit (ind much promise, — aiiJ we liope his gcniufl, 
iudnstry and ]>ereeverance in the Arts, will 60on be wide- 
ly known throughout the planting State?, niidaaliijerolly 
[Hitronizcd and rowarilod. 

I«t us but patronise and foster homo genius and home 
industry and the certain fruit will ho home wealth, home 
impruTcmcnt and home prosperity. 

C^Wo would call the attention of our planting 
friends and others v!«tjng Jlobiio to onr list ot Advei'- 
tisemcnta, on the Inst page and on our cover, llioso gen- 
tlemen are prepared to supply planters with every arti- 
tiele needed in their several departments of trade, of good 
<iu:ility, at fiur prices, and worranted to give satisfoetioD. 

We aA cspecis! attention to tho Agrieultnral depart- 
ment of Mr. Stecckland's stoek of Books. If we wo^ 
have oiu- y.nmg men enter upon the active duties of life, 
learned nuil qualified fiir the important work of produe- 
«ve Hiduflry. wo must furnish our l*ys with practical 
A^rienltural and Scientific liooks on thp aubioot Thru- 

C^tu^ty Agzicullnna SocleUea. 

We would urge upon our iJonting friends in all see- 
tions of our State, and indeed throughout the country, 
the projirietj, as also the nectwiity, of ot once organiring 
County and neighborJiood Agrieijtural Societies. If we 
would learn of others the valuable lesson of unprovcmcnt, 
and bo hciicfited by the eiperienee of tliose who have al- 
ready learned in pnH^ — we must organise. By associa- 
ting our efforts for tlic purpose, the toil and Iroublesnma 
expenditure of labor and time, with the frequent vexa- 
tious disappiiintnienls incident to the experiments end in- 
ventions of the pioneer in improvements, are greslly 
abridged, — and a safe point of beginning is confidently 
pointed out to the many, with wide-spread interest toall 
eoDcerned — on thisside of all these diffianllies. So long 
as we net sejiarate nnd alone, theen advantages are of but 
rare iJcciirrence. So it is with every valualde improve- 
ment ill all the de]iarlinents of our agrienltural pursuita, 
— l:y Bssoeiated etTorf, they are realized qniekly and at 
IIW per cent lew cost than in any other way, besiden 
the protection from iniporilioti. But there is another 
imjjortant reason why we, as Alabamiams riionld act at 
once, — wa have a State Ajrieultnral Society recently or- 
ganized nt the <'ii;>i1al of our State. In its t^nstJtti- 
lion is contemplated nnd provided n wide and eonipre- 
hcnsivc Iicld of action, an<l if tho planteni of our Slate 
shall i-onie forwiml pmmj.tly and give it (the Stale So- 
tiety) tlieir eo-operntive inlliiencc, its good effects will le 
seen nn.l felt dirci-tly in all sections of the State. Our 
friends will find (in anotlier page of this DUmlier) by ex- 
amining the Constitution of our State Society, lliat its 
provUions and organization are such that if it he prompt- 
ly sustained by neighborhood and County Societies, as 
auxiliaries, it will be abundantly effective for all Ihc ob- 
jects contemplated. But it is in those primary County 
Societies that all this vitality and power for good liea. It 

In the country, in the peaceful and quiet retreats of 
private life, among the industrious, [>crscveriag and pub- 
lie-spintod planters of the State — and their wives and 
danghters, onr fair country women — who are the active 

d zealous advocates olways of every vnlnalde improve- 

nt, that we are to look for the tnie friend^ the snr* 
if tlie great work for which our State Society 

15" We will take occasion here in thelirginniogof onr 
enterprise, to remark to our friends, one and all, who feel or 
(iterest in the iraprovements of tlie day, tooom- 
thronjjh our columns the results of any e:speri- 
liether favorable or unfavoraltlo, any improved 
methnds of enltiure in any of our (itld or garden cropc, 
any improventent in any way, that promises good for ' 
e industry of tho nmntry. Let no man hetritate lie- 
use he may think himself unable to please the fancy. 
The most interesting and instructing AgrieiUtural article, 
that written just as you would, around your social 
hearth, relnte to your neighbor all the routine of man- 
agement and treatment of a certain field or lot, the pros- 
perity or failure nf which may have indnced (he inquiry. 
In this way every industriouis enei^etic, improvement- 
iMwotiic a vnlaalile correspondent of nn niri- 



Tlie Aiucricau Collou Planter* 

In presentiiipj the first nuiubcr of the American Cot- 
ton Planter to ita friends aixl the friondn of improvement 
and progress in the industrial pui-snits of our State and 
country, it is but rijjht and proper that we defijie our po- 
sition in the great work upon wliioh we propose entering. 
And it may not l.>c amL^ that wc premido in a few brief 
remarkfl in the outset, that this enterprise had not its 
orij»in in any spii'it of rivah*y or compotitiou whatever, 
toward the success of those most excellent Asricullural 
papers, the "Southern Cultivator," ttie "Southern Plant- 
er" or the "Soil of the South," — ^nor indeed of any pub- 
lication whatever, that has for its object to inform the 
public mind for good. We would not take a single sub- 
scriber from their long list of well earned friends, or cir- 
cumscribe an inch of territory over which they have so 
devotedly extended the plastic hand of improvement 
Our friends are their friends, and we hope never to be es- 
teemed otherwise. Tlie American Cotton Planter had its 
inception most auspiciously — during the session of the 
Cotton Planters* Convention, assembled last fall, with the 
" Georgia State Fair and Exhibition,' at Macon, — among a 
number of Alabama planters, who, highly delighted with 
the results which a few years* labor by the Soutliern Culti- 
vator and ita friends had exerted upon the public spirit and 
industrial interests of our fellow-citizens in Geoi-gia, — 
determined to try tlie efficacy of similar means in our 
own State. We take our position, then, as coJabor^w in 
the great work of reform and improvement in the indus- 
trial pursuits of our common country. Our columns will 
be free, as a medium of oommnnication and information 
to the Agriculturist, the Manufacturer and the Mechanic, 
from whatever locality he may boil, to extend to his fel- 
low croftfr-men any new principle, the result of any ex- 
periment^ or any nieons whatever that may be discovered 
BB an abridgement of labor and a consequent increased 
per centage upon the industry of such pursuits, — all of 
which go to moke up the stock of light and science of the 
• industry of a country.-^and of necessity and right, like 
water, is the common heritage of the people. Also the 
man of scientific research in all dcpaiianents of Science 
and Art^ is respectfully invited to make the American 
Cotton Planter the medium of communication with the 
industry and labor of the country. But our immediate 
field of labor is Alabama and the Southwest, among our 
Cotton Planters^ Manufu<:turcr8 and Mechanics. 


Of all the pursuits or callings that have engaged the at- 
tention, industry or talent of mankind, this one is incom- 
parably the most important. This fact will hardly be quee- 
tioncd by any one— and we may not, therefore, spend time 
in its further illustration. It lies at the foundation of all 
other pursuits, and is the support and sustenance of all hu- 
man industry. And though it afford a wide and inexhausti- 
ble field — and among the most interesting presented in all 
nature for the man of science,— yet it has received but little 
r ill, coin}>arativcly, fi-om such research, till since tlie l^egin- 
riing of the prefw^t century. "Agriculture is the art of 
obtaining from the carih iooj for nidu and his domestic 
nuimaly.'' Thisis Ujo orjiiiurily rtcoived definition, and 

has been, and iu most instances still is, a literal version of 
this definition. But the American Cotton Planter con- 
templates a new and better definition, one more pliilan- 
thropio. We insist upon it, — and intend to expend our 
humble ability in establbhing the fact, — ^that its scientific 
definition, the perfection of the Art — Is to obtain fi-om tho 
earth food and the elements of raiment for man, with 
food for his domestic animals, — and in the act improve 
the producibility of the earth. 

The apprehension has bean expressed by some of our 
friends, that as the name of our jounial was to be " Cot- 
ton Planter," we might go too much for Cotton! Tliis 
apprehension, we doubt not, is prompted by motives aa 
pure and patriotic as ever moved tlie kindest cliord of 
man's heart, — ^but the extreme difficulty consists here in 
the fallacy of the premises. We are well acquainted 
with the prevalent theory! of the counUy,— and wo 
doubt not, but eveiy cotton planter has heard it preached 
again and again — " that we make too much cotton — that 
every planter sliould be bound to plant but so many aci'ea 
to the hand, or to make but so many bales per hand." This 
is a peculiarly Christmas holiday doctrine, wliile hoar 
■v^dnter has the earth locked up from cotton planting. But 
we believe, that in the history of cotton-gi'owing, there is 
not to be found a martyr to this doctrine, or much leas 
even a believer indeed ! The impracticability of this per- 
fectly imaginary theory, is too evident to evei-y thinking 
man to require an argument of refutation hei-e. We aro 
gratified to remark however, that there is considerablo 
diversity of opinion just now among cotton planters upon 
this very grave subject. 

fre have given this subject vigilant attention, in all ita 
aspects and bearings^ for the last ten or twelve years,— 
and we aro confident that American cotton planters have 
not produced any too much cotton^^and we ask especial 
attention to this position, because we shall have occasion 
frequently to recur to it^) — ^but we are equally confident 
that American cotton plantei^ produce too little grain^ 
and consequently too little bacotiy too few mules^ and no 
wool ! A system of policy that must be changed, else the 
cotton States are to become to^he grain and stock States 
what Ireland and Irish fanners are to England and her 
Lords, — "hewers of wood and drawers of water!** We 
are aware that this is strong language, and too many of 
our planting friends are unable to behold the insidious 
effect or tendency of this disastrous policy through a crop 
of two or three million bales of cotton. Now, if it were 
a fact Uiat our lands would not produce grain, and our 
climate and soil were prejudicial to pasturage, and stock 
could not be raised here, then the evil would be seen, 
felt and deplored by aU. But it is the siren song of 
procrastination that is thus sapping the cotton States of 
the immense sums of gold produced annually from our 
cotton fields^— €X]>cnded for grain, ni(;at^ mules and ne- 
gro clothes! Tliese are nccc.snncs, without which we 
c4nnot make cotton at a! I. But cx])oricnce, practical 
and successful, ha.« and is annually <lt>mon&truting the 
fact, in the hands of practical men, that may be found 
:.catlcrcd, epai'sely it Ij true, in the varioui* districts of 
our country, — that we can produce any amount of tho 



tho year roaiul, nnd none of your short nijw either 1 — ^Ba- 
con, OS fat and as heavy as need l)e,-«-rauled eqnal, fully, 
to the demands of onr work— and wool endless, good and 
cheap. Why, then, is it, that our planters persist in pay- 
ing out the substance of their fields and labor for grain, 
bncoD, mnles, <fec., which they may and can produce to 
better advantage to themselves and country? Every 
planter with whom you have but a few moments conver* 
sation, answers this question— by " I intend at a future 
day to cliange this policy I I intend to produce more 
grain, raise my own stock, &cl" 

In this place and at tliis time wo cannot more than al- 
lude to a few of Uie disjastrous con:»oqucnce8 of this poli- 
cy ; — and one of not the least of its evils is, that it will 
certainly and inevitably impoverish the plantation where- 
on it is closely followed ;— because it is a fixed fact, that 
wJfcrc there is no stock raised, there will be little manure 
made, and where there is no manure, rich land grows 
poor, and poor land unproductive. And it is folly to 
think or even hint, tho efficacy of Guano, as a cotton 
crop, from exhausted land after paying for bread, bacon 
and mules can hardly afford Guano I 

But there is still another evil, and it has as yet been 
but little studdied, it may be termed a national evil or a 
disadvantage, and its enormity is sucli as to begin to at- 
tract attention. It is the impoverishing influence that 
this policy has njwn the cotton States in the way of im- 
peding the progress of substantial And pennanent im- 
provements for purposes of commercial convenience and 
personal comfoi-t. We give away to othera our gold, the 
produce of our cotton fields, the substance of our coun- 
try, for grain, meat and mules,— ^lings perishable, an- 
nals we may admost say, that we can and should as well 
produce ourselves^-^and in the use of them we are 
strengthened only„ to produce more gold from oar cotton 
fieldsy to barter off in the same way. Kow the effect of 
our suicidal policy is seen everywhere in the STorthwest 
and grain and stock raising States,— -villages of but yes- 
terday are now cities, canals and rail and plank roads 
running in all directions, whUst the eye of the traveler 
is greeted* on every hand,' by fine mansions, beautiful 
and tastefully arranged grounds, fine orchards and valu- 
able stock, and indeed every comfort that an improved 
ta^te could desire, or an accumulated wealth may pro- 
cure These remarks arc not prompted by any feelings 
of invidious jealousy toward the provident industry of 
our fellow-citizens in otiier sections of our country, — by 
no mcaiij', it is not that we envy the wise and the pnrfi* 
dent abroad, but we would admonish the improvident at 
home. But we are improving and progressing, slowly 
it may be, — ^but how can it be otherwise with such odds 
ogaiost u&;-*aud so our condition will continue, in the 
midst of cxliaudted fields, until we change this policy. 

No man can comprehend the extrnordinary advanta- 
ges that would accnie to ourselves as plantei'S, — ^to our 
country, — to our fields, and to our improvements in 
every respect, which a change of policy, in our planta- 
tion economy, would produce in the short space of ten 
yearsi We possess all the elements abundantly, that 
will enable ua at once to accomolish this crreat work. I 

IB100,000,0(KK Does this not phow us at one view the ex- 
tent of our resonrccs for improvonicnt ? Under our pre- 
sent system of operations what do we receive from 
abroad necessary to enable us to produce this immense 
sum of gold? We receive nothing, that we cannot our- 
selves produce and procure at home. We have ii-on ore 
and coal fields inexhaustable, — we can grow our grain 
and raise our meat and mules,— *we can and should man- 
ufacture our negro clotli, kei-sey^s <5:<?m and our cotton 
bagging and rope, all this wo ninst do, and we can com- 
mence it at once — showing conclusively that, we possess 
at home every needful appliance necessaiy to the pro- 
duction of 3,000,000 bales of cotton without the expen- 
ditui'e of a single dollar abroad. IIow changed and 
beautiful the scene, at the expiration of ten years? — all 
tlie necessai'ics of successful and improved plantation 
economy produced at home. — and one thousand million 
of dollars retained at home^ and Vested in building up 
our own towns and cities^ and In improving our country 
residences and such plans tmd schemes of rail and plank 
road improvements, as the geniua, industry and intelli- 
gence of otir people might suggest. Under this system 
of policy we shall find abundant surplus means to bcr 
employed in building up 


Yesy this i^ the tnie policy for the American cotton 
planter, — we Bhould give this subject our prompt and 
immediate attention, and by nil the means in our })Ower, 
judiciously du'ected, we should foster and encourage tho 
introduction of Cotton Manufacturing in the midst of our 
cotton fields. What intelligent and patriotio planter, 
looking forward to the interest and welfare of his chil- 
dren and the ultimate prosperity and improvement of 
our coimtry, that does not perceive in the Manufoeturing 
establishment and the Machiae^hop, that sore and most 
valuable extension of the area of labor, that our enei^ 
and industry rapidly approximate \ With the genius and 
boasted intelligenco of our people, — and in possession of 
the only reliable labor under the sun,*— why should we 
longer be satisfied to send oil such immense quantltiea of 
raw cotton, to enrich and make great other people, by 
affording them tho privilege of putting it in a condition 
fit for use 9 We can spin, and we can weave, as well 
as other people, and we con give to cotton its greatest 
value at home here, where it is grown. Truly ill this 
act of biraplicity, wherein do we differ from the siUy Af- 
rican or the improvident East Indian, Uiat roam over the 
sun^scorched sands of their barren country and 'gather 
the raw materiaL of ivory, — ^aud thus selling become 
poorer every year, — while the foreign nmnufacturer 
grows rich in giving form, polish and value to tho tooth? 
This is a rude picture, but so'faithful that we have been 
unable to resist its cxliibition. 

We remember well, when the cottxm gin wjis fir^t in* 
troduced into the neicjhborhood in Soutli Carolin.i, whvro 
we were raised, — it was an interesting ])eriod — theinduH- 
try of the country was undergoing a change from the cul- 
ture of tobacco to tliat of cotton, — ^aiid tlie neighlK>rh(*pd 
gitirkouse became quite a public rendezvous — ^luany and 
vaiTOUB. doubtleb?. were tiu* sd'/c. vet r.T)IciiCtic invdic- 



" Cavendish," — who boasted theioBelves in womiing an 
acre of the weed per diem, — ^^'hile the akillful mechanic 
tui'ned off a bale per day of the snow white staple 1 
"Beautiful," said they, "and valuable too, — ^bnt who 
can afford to hire and keep a regularly apprenticed me- 
chanic to attend it ?" " And as for Sambo, it will soon 
cut off all his Angel's," and hundreds upon hundreds of 
tobacco hogsheads continued to roll on to Augusta. In 
the mean time, however, some public-spirited planter de- 
termined to try Sambo, — and very soon his negroship 
was found to gin as successfully as Whitney himselC 
And. from that day tobacco hogsheads and the tobacco 
inspection migrated to the Old North State. 

Now it IB a truism, that one tiling may be done about 
as well as another, — and any thing that a pi*udent, wise 
will determines, can be accomplished by energy and per- 
eeverancc. It is not^ that we have not the labor com- 
petent to put cotton into its most valuable form for going 
out of the hands of the planter, — we insist tipon it^ as 
we did in the Cotton Planters' Convention, last fall, — 
that ours is the best labor, because the 8U|-est and safest 
and <dway9 <Uhand:^-o\a difficulty then, is the want of 
^raaehinery; sndi aft'to enable every planter at home, to 
spin with his women and small negi*oc8 the cotton pro- 
duced by his fellows or effective handa^ and in this way 
augment the value of the industry of all at least three- 
fold ; besides saving the commissixms of the Manchester 
man, who fixes the price of our raw cotton abroad! 
'With this improvement in our system of pt*eparing our 
oottoQ for market^ would looms be introduced in a rapid 
ratio into our country ; and whatever of the surplus 
yarns we might find it necessaiy t<o ship to foreign looms 
eonld W done, at a saving of at least two-thirds of the 
present cost, from the fact that a bale of spun yarn weigh- 
iRwfmirto five hundred pounds, instead of netting us 
but' $50 in Liverpool,, as is now the case from a bal« of 
raw cotton,' it would net us $150 to $200 — cost and 
chai'ges just the same. Why^ then, shall we longer hesi- 
tate to set about this great work ? We assure our Mends 
that the "-American Cotton* Planter** is in for the war! 
or until the prbject shall be clearly shown to be imprac- 
ticable. Let us, as cotton planters^ in solemn conven- 
tion, respond at once amd promptly, to the magnanimous 
and most patriotic pi-opoeition, e3rt;cnded by the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Southern Central Agrieiiltural 
Society to the Couvention of Cotton Hantcrs,. soon to 
assemble in Montgomery, Alabama, -^which report and 
proposition with the Committee's call for the assemblage 
of the Convention of Cotton Planters at Montgomery will 
be found in another page. 

Now, if our position be a correct one, and its practica- 
bility adapted to the true interests of our cotton plantere 
and the wants of the countiy, — then we see clearly the 
importance to the planting interest of the country of the 


While we are entirely opposed to see or have the cot- 
ton planter dependent upon the mechanic for an ordina- 
rji hoe or axe helve, or a common plow stock, or any ar- 
ticle of a merely make ahift diaracter, yet we are confi- 
dent, from many years' experience, that to the planter. 

structed tool, in all its parts, is esteemed economy, as well 
OS altogether essential to the satisfactory performance of 
his work. Within the last half-century the Mechanic 
Arts have rendered essential service to the profession of 
Agriculture, — ^both in the improved construction and, in 
many instances, the remoddling of old tools, — as also 
in the invention and construetion of new labor-saving 
implements, in the use of which the industry of the hus- 
bandman is increased in value and very much of the ar- 
duous and toilsome drudgery of the farm entirely dis- 
pensed with or greatly abridged. Tiie business of cotton 
planting has derived not a little of its importance among 
us as planters, and the extensive introduction and use of 
cotton as an article of appai'el among mankind, from the 
inventive genius of the Mechanic. The inventicn and 
adaptation of the cotton gin to the use of the plantei' — 
and also of the spinning jenny and the loom, has given 
an importance to cotton planting that it cou^d. never 
otherwise have possessed. We are still lo<^dng forward 
to improvements wherein we hope and expect as cotton 
planters, to be benefited, for any or all of which we 
shall be brought under renewed obligations to mechani- 
cal genius and art. We cannot then, too highly appre- 
ciate the Mechanic Arts, blended as they are, so inti- 
mately with our interest in all the pursuits of life. In- 
deed, the cheerful tap of the Mechanic's hammer, may- 
be well styled the time-piece of industry. 

Cue Pibst Number has been gotten out hastily 
and much in advance of the time at which the volume is 
to commence, as a speciinen of what the work is to be, 
both in fts mechanical execution and the interests that it 
is to advocate. Wc have been compelled to have this 
number published in the City of Mobile, but in due time 
our second or Febmary number will be issued entire on 
a single sheet, from a new Power Press^ for the express 
purpose, at Montgomery. In this number and in the first 
article we give our readers a complete, "well- written and 
interesting history of the Cotton Plant by a citizen of our 
State, as read before the Historical Society of Alabama. 
We hope its apparent length will deter none of our 
friends fi'om the interest and information, which its care- 
ful peruiial will afford. We have on hand several inter- 
esting ai'ticles on practical subjects^ and among them ono 
from our friend, I>r. W. S. Pkicb, of Marengo, on a new- 
mode of clearing and retaining the original fertility of 
our forest lands, which we shall give in the February 
number, when we shall commence the practical and 
manipulatory oi)erations of the routine of plont<ation 

l^r Our readera will doubtless be gratified with the 
stand taken by our well-tried Agricultural friend, Dr. 
M.- W. PnaLiFS, of Mississippi, in the position which he as- 
sumes in regard to tlie importance of diver»ifying our 
plantation labor. 

We also ask the especial attention of our readei's to 
several original communications — ^with our correspond- 
ent's Review and Cotton Statement of tlie Mobile Mar- 
ket. Gur ]^anling friends wUl perceive, that our staple 
production, Cotton, is likely to afford us remunerating 



[For the Amarican Cottoa Plantar.] 

Plantation JBconomy— rVo* !• 

Edwards, Miad., June, 1852. 
Dr. N. B. Cloud. 
Beat Sir : — ^When "w^o look around ua^ upon the extent 

of goodly 0oi],. upon a favorable climate and refleet upon 
tlie energy and talent of our ftUow-^tizens with whom 
we have been bom, educated aad lived, — ^for whom we 
(I mean, you and myself) have written so much, it is but 
reasonable to suppoae we are amazed that our loved 
countrymen will continue to be dependent. 

Judging of the slave States, of the Cotton region, by the 
portions I know, (and through nearly every portion I have 
journeyed and mingled with their cidzens,) I am indeed 
lost in wonder, that bo little has been done. Taking 
Missisaippi for my starting pointy knowing its i-esources, 
its people better than any other, I will attempt to show, 
that we can and ought to vary our labors, and that in so 
doing, we would be more independent, comfortable, hap- 
py, and, in the end, be richer and wiser. To many this 
is a hackneyed subject. But this should not deter us. 
We know that the greatest good ever bequeathed to our 
race is and has ever been to some a hackneyed theme, I 
need not refer to it, in this connection, yet I cannot re- 
frain from saying, that the superlative blessings received 
and acknowledged by all Christendom is that one most 

holy cause. 
Next to that one most blessed cause, for I include the 

improvement of the head and heart in it — is this one 

subject — ^improved agriculture. Many of your readers, 

well know, that I am and have been for some 20 year« a 

public and private advocate for a varied husbandry. Do 

we not sec, from the history of poor, downtrodden, dear 

and loved Ireland, " the home of our fathers," what the 

one-crop system has produced ? If not, please cross over 

to the Continent, and see the granaiy of England and 

much of Europe, around the Black sea and elsewhere. 

"We can see the mining districts, and, in shorty any and 

all others where the one-crop system prevails, and only 

to see poverty, want, suffering. Look at the following 

picture : 

Caleforkia. — ^It is a ffict^ though by no means a sin^- 
lar one, that while California has already supplied 
$160,000,000 to the circulation of the world, she herself 
has retained not more than $8,000,000 for home circula- 
tion. At the same time, money commands 8, 4 and 5 
per cent, per month. The main cause is evident enough. 
Everything that California has, comes from abroad. Her 
agriculture is in its infancy, and she has no manufactures. 
For necessary articles, she can only give in exchange that 
which she has and at present she Las nothing but gold. 
The time will change. 

Whereos go to the farm house and we will find com- 
fort, ease, luacury ; well clad, intelligent, educated youth. 
Gk> to sections, counties, counties where such a system 
prevails, and we see opulence almost at every comer. 
Where is the travelling man who cannot respond 9 Who 
has not seen herds- of eattle,. where . 50 or fiOO cows, I 
might' say, roam at full liberty and the owner without 
milk, butter, or almost a comfort Shall this continue, 
that property may abound 1 Common sense fwbid it^ 

In Alabama, in Geor^a, here, elsewhere, what pre- 
vents our varyinp; more or leas our labor, so as to en- 

I many who doubt the utility ; a few facts will suffice for 

this my first, in your first, to be followed, I trust, with 
others. ' 

A Mr. W., living in this county, (Hinda,) mode in 1851, 

two thousand dollars clear of all cfxpense, with six or 
seven hands, having for sale only corn and hogs. He is 
a native of Kentucky ; and a relative of his informs me 
that he says, he regards this county as better for this 
mode of farming than even Kentucky. So much, so 
fully is he convinced of this, that he has this year all his 
land in com and gi*ain, even plowing up 25 acres which 
he had planted in cotton. And yet com is in moi^ 
abundance at this date than I have known for 20 years. 
Again: I have reared sheep on this place for 18 or 19 
yearsi, at no time has it been needful to feed sheep; 
this year I have sold my entire clip at 20 cents in the 
dirt. My sheep are all improved, it is true. Tear-old* 
wethers were selling last week in Jackson, of say 60 IbSb 
at $2 76. But put price of wool at 15 cenCs, clip only 
8 Iba and a yearling at $2, and we have $2 45 from an 
erwe per year^ or an interest of 100 per cent. This is a 
rough estimate. 

Again: I have threshed 24 bushds of seed oats pet 
acre, with, I am sure, full 6 bush^ lost from want of a 
thresher, and cutting a little too late,-~-but at market 
price 75 cent»^$18 per aci%. I have threshed barley 20 
bushels per acre, at price I paid, $1 60, $80 per acre, or 
at $1 per bushel, we have $20. And yet again. Shin- 
gles are brought down the Mississippi river for sale, 
whilst two good hands can, I think, average 1000 per 
day the year round, Sundays, of course, excepted ; but 
say 800 days^ and at only $3 per thousand, and we have 
$450 per hand — but admit only five thousand per week 
and for 50 weeks only $876 each, quite comfortable in a 

small way. 
But look yet further. And leave to us only mules and 

at 2 years old, ridng 8, at only $70 each, and what wiU 
prevent us from turning out $80 per year from each 
mare, with her use to make com and other work, where 
(again, hogs, cattle, sheep^ ^^ are reai*ed? Are these 
things facts or not? We may be told that unless we buy 
we cannot sell ; but to this I reply, that the more we 
make at home^ the more we can dispose o^ and the bet' 
ter able are we to pay remunerating prices to others. 
Oould it be possible for the cotton region to make com, 
one^ird of the wool, mules, horses, all of our meaty 
bread and hay, we would soon find^^in my humble opin- 
ion, more thrift every where. TVue, we would not 
sellnmeh cotton perhapg, but we would buy more 
than we now do of the luicuries; we would have better 
buildingB; and employ more of our race in profitable 
labor. But I am not sore, that we would make so much 
less cotton, therefore I say ^^perhape." And why f Be- 
cause our fields would not be worn down with the inces- 
sant labor of producing cotton. I do not see why it 
should not be, that the human laborer if well-fed, well- 
housed, well-provided for in all respects sliould bo able to 
do more work, and yet om* land treated thus would fail in 
doing likewise. We all know that land i)Aslured by 
shoep will improve. We know Uxat rotation and rcct 
improves it We know that by hubbauding our mauuro, - 



JVo. 3. 

, Edwards, Mm, Juiie, 1852. 

Dh. N. B. Cloud. 

Dear Sir: — In pursuing the same train of thought qb 
in my first article, I would not desire to be understood 
as desiring to discard cotton from any plantation or farm, 
but that I would have every plantation to grow more 
than one article for sale. 

Admit that I had 400 acres in cultivation and had 30 
hands, requiring 200 bales or rather packages, (for we 
here mean- 400 lbs. to a bale,) which at 8 cents, perhaps 
averaging 450 lbs., Bay 17,200 groj« income. Estimate 
now, let any man dare^ what with such a crop, would be 
the annual expense as now, for mule^, meat and ordinary 
farm improvements. And then look at the other side of 
the picture. Suj^kihc wc all ftttemj)t to nuikc 180 bales 
at 8 centsy or |5,760, but I lisk here the advantage in 
handling 180 bales against 222. , With such a crop, 
the planter con with care make corn, oats and pork for 
home, and some to spare. Uc could rear three or 
four mule colts per year. He could raise wool enough 
to clothe in the winter at least. He could improve 
by pasturage, by manure, by rotation say only five per 
centum per year, and he could have his hands at 
times to get out timber and do largely all his own im- 
provements. I speak what I know, for even now I have 
already cut down and hewn in the woods, cut down, 
sawed, riven and drawn shingles^ hauled up and assist- 
ed to rear with field hands more Uian 2 hands can make 
cotton ta hire a northern man to do. 

Do we not see almost daily a stout hand working in 
the cotton field to make $100 or even admit $200 dear, 
and hire a man to do work at 8600 per year, when 
the ahove hand oould do much of that work } 

We are at this moment paying 818 to 820 i>er barrel 
for pork, say $9 to 810 per hundred, when we can to 
a certainty cultivate 80 acres of com per hand, which at 
only 20 bushels^ will make 600 bushels of com, to feed 
hogs^ and with oar advanti^es of climate, we can cer- 
tainly make and sell at a profit of 4 cents per p^und for 


Are we to lose all advantoges of our cfimate t Hav- 
ing &r yearn pvactised it,. I know we can feed our hogs 
on oiBT oottoB field from let Ceoerober to Irt April, by 
sowing in the fields oats» rye,, or barley. Laat fall I had 
about 80 acres la eats^ the fields have wrw crops of oom 
and cotton ea them; Our meat hoga can be fatted en- 
tire on the pea field, but better to com for 1^ days be- 
fore killing. Thus can we from an eats field soy M of 
June, keep idl hogs nntil I«t of October, then gather a 
part ni com,, and torn lit meat hogty rearing with hogs 
in oats field vntS one field of cotton con be ^ared 
for stock hogB to groM on the oatai But is tliif all? 
Wlkere am sweet potatoes? Where ordiardfl for pigs? 
And where a rich permanent pestore welS stockad with 

to systematize, preparing manure, from a well fed and a 
full stocE 

The gain to the farmer from so pitching his crop that 
he is not by necessity bound down to the one crop, is far 
greater than can be supposed by those who have had no 
experience. Which can be readily shown here, — ^for in- 
stance, three years ago, I manured for experiment one acre 
of land, from it I have taken onl crop of corn, two of 
cotton and but now one of oats. The oats immediately 
adjacent not a furrow separating was not either as heavy, 
nor by measure anytliing like that of the manured por- 
tion, a difference of at least 10 bushels per acre. On 
anotlier small spot manured in 1841 or 1842, crops taken 
from it yearly, at this writing there are weeds of a luxu- 
riant gi'owth and the crops are double of the adjoining, 
where the weeds ai'c puny and sickly green. Can further 
iUusti'ation be needed f The difficulty is not, i n i (rnorance 
of the right, but in the fact tliot there is a prejudice ex- 
isting against encroachments on " the will and the way *' 
of the elder planters. We must make a systematic attack 
upon the practices of the past,, encourage reading, expo- 
rimentR^ patronize agricultural aasoeiations,. and they in 
their turn encourage an enlarged improvement in tivn, of 
premiums for one acre, one hog, dsc, which only show the 
posBible and not the practicable. We must have an ag- 
rienltnral bureau, and from thence send floojds of lights 
that the nations of the earth may be immured therein^ 
I'enovated and come forth with revivified pi*iniiples,. have- 
the good of man at heart. 

The mere culture of the hog has more in it than is 
dreamed <^ in many men's philosophy. Wliy should we 
rely upon the com crib, when time and times again, it 
has been demonstrated that pasture, succulent food, 
abundance of good water, proper crosses will do as much, 
if not more. And likewise is it proven, that a few feet 
of sheet iron and plank, with a few nails, will make a 
boiler, where ground food well cooked will pay a good 
interesty or all expense and for hire of hand. Admitting 
more rtfpid improvement^ why not use the cooked food,, 
but when a saving of only 10 per cent clear, it scemetb 
that good sense would say "try it" Who fattens their 
swine protected from the weather, mud and filth ? This 
is '^'book farming*^ which is abont as great ascare-crow, 
as change in old religious creeds and dogmas, the man 
whe advises must expect " anatheoMt nwranatha " fromr 
all the intolerant 

Tours, with afi due rcspeety 

M. W. PHmCPS. 

And' yet ih' all this economy ve have not noticed the 
gain to be derived from deep and thorough tilth, which 
we can alone command by mixed husbandry. 

We have not noticed the time we would have to circle 
our lands and thus prevent waste. Nor has anything been 

DKja CrKNTLT with thosc who stray.. Draw them back 
by love and persuasion.. A kiss k worth a thousand 
kicks.. A kind word is more Tahiablfe to the Test than m 
mine of gold.. Think of t^iis and be en your guaid, ye 
who weald chase to the grave an erring hrothcr or sister.. 

A Yalvablb Cbuznt iwr IfonsBHOD^ FsK-^-Take new 
milk, half-a-pint and curdle with sharp vinedar; separ- 
ate the whey and mix with the cord, the whites of five 
eggs, beat weU;^ add fine <[nicklime, and mix till you 
have a ductile paste or putty. It will stop craks, and i? 


^,, .V ■ rv .., '.<.•>.' .,«^N^(f^--" • .V:'\ 





I For tha Amot'f 

£<Gtt€r from 

m jETotton P)»ntor.] / 

srjcan jUotton PI 

CnuVKENC«w«f 5th Julr, 1853. 
I>B. N. B. Cloud. 

Dear Sir : — ^Yonr very interesting communication of 
the 16th nit is now before me, and ehould have been at- 
tended to at an earlier period, but for bodily afiBiction ; 
for I am not so highly fayored, as that good old man of 
old was, whose " natural force ha<l not abated ; his eye 
was not dim, nor his ear heavy," even when he had 
numbered one hundred and twenty years. How envi- 
abla a situation ; I often think how happy the old man 
(Moses) must have been. Though a little over half that 
age, I am continually admonished by the failure of my 
decaying faculties and powei-p, that my days upon earth 
are but few, and that my sun is rapidly approaching the 
horizon ; yet my sreal to promote the good of my fellow- 
man, and the independence and prosperity of my coun- 
tiy, has not abated, and in the i*etrospection of the past, 
I have much cause to regret that my time and talents had 
not been earlier devoted to the noble objeds that now 
animate my bosom — ^tbat when called hence some me- 
mento or memorial would bear testimony that I had not 
lived in vain, but should be ranked among the benefac- 
tors of the age. This now is my highest ambitioD, and to 
lend my feeble aid in promoting your enterprise will be 
my greatest pleasure ; and with Dr. Phillipe, I wisih Mont- 
gomery may send yon up twenty-five hundred aubscri- 
bers. I subscribed my name to the prospectus seat me, 
and had it posted up at Judge Fullnm's storey hoping 
others will follow the example and soon afford you a 
patronage commensurate with the noble cause in which 
you have embarked. I will make known your request 
to the Secretary of our Iloi^icultural Society, who will 
I doubt not^ furnish the information you require. 

In relation to the growing crop, the prospect with us 
is far from being flattering. The ejEeessive ratns in the 
early part of June literally ruined both com and cotton 
upon our sloughs and bottom lands^ my farm never sus- 
tained so great an injiury. I am certain I shall not make 
more than the half of an ordinary crop^ especially of oot. 
ton. This I am aware^ is not a general thing. As much 
of my faun is slough land subjeet to innundation, still, 
as far as my observation goes, I feel assured the cotton 
crop was never more unpromising at this season of the 

Our oat crop has been greatly damaged by the late 
storm and heavy rains ; I fear seed will be scarce in this 
region. Our gardens have been fine. Such cabbages 
•nd potatoes we never raised befinre,. the latter were not 
only Utfge, but like the potato grown in the mountains of 
pld Yiiginia they were mealy and deliciou& Through 
the medium of your journal Mrs. P. con afford your 
readers some valuable information in relation to tiie 
quality and ^tivaiipn of th| Irish pototou 

Wishing you great success in your undertaking. I am 
your fellow-citizen. N. B. POWELU 

[The above is from an esteemed finend and gentleman 
^tU and widely known in eastern AlaboiDA and western 
Georgia as an eneigetic, proeUeal and thonmg^goiag 

full of public-spirited patronage towai*ds eveiT enter- 
prize that has for its object the inseparable good of the 
country and its industry. This old gentleman, in the cn^ 
joyment of the earthly fmife, with which a kind Provi- 
dence has so profusely rewarded his industry, energy and 
perseverance now awaits with noble chiiBtian patience, 
full ripe, in half the years of Moses, to be gathered home 
to his fathers^ — ^with but a single ripple of regret ujion 
the ocean of retrospect — ^and that, how patriotic? "Tliat 
my time and talents had not been earlier devoted to the 
noble objects that now animate my bo^om." The mem- 
bers of the Cotton Plantera* CJonvention, assembled at 
Macon, Ga., last October, there learned some of the ob- 
jects that now animate the bosom of this patriotic old 
gentleman of Alabama. "Uome Industry and Home 
Improvement of Home Industry," when the horn of 
plenty will ever characterise the Cotton Planter's home. 
Here is a nobl^ lesson for our young men, who are just 
entering upon the maiden soil of our Southwestern coun- 
try, with the energy and industry of youth and, in most 
stances, with ample means and well educated, — ^to en- 
gage in the pursuits of agriculture ; — ^whilst by your la- 
bor, diligent attention to busine^ and economy, you 
shall have grown rich from your plantation, — see to it 
that at last you may not have to regret an impoverished 
farm with dilapidated improvements^ which in old age 
are illy adapted to provoke or stimulate a noble impulse 
in any good or patriotic enterprise of improvement. Let 
every young planter in tlie cotton States commence now, 
and devote his youth, energy and influence to promote 
the great and noble work of reform and improvement in 
the plantation economy of our country. 

We shall ever take great pleasure in opening our 
columns to any valuable information from the pen and 
experience of Mr& Powell, and also to any others of our 
fair countrywomen, to whom we look as the star of hope 
to cheer on our young planters to noble deeds of improve- 
ment — ^EnrroB Am. Cotton Pi.amteb.] 

• •• 

[For the American Cotton Plaoter.J 

Rail Koads. 

It eonnot be denied that the Steam En^ne has a social 
moral and politdcal, as well as a potent physical 
energy. Some one has colled it a great working demo- 
crat. TVuly it may be said to labor for the amelkmition 
of the massesL In the inmiense reduction which it has 
effected in the cost of many of the leading necessaries 
and comforts of civilised life, — in relieving toil, through 
its thousand offlietionfl^ of much of its most monotonovs 
and 'oppressive drudgery,— 4n eheapening, e^M^ting 
and fodlitating sodol interooorse, it bos probably effeet- 
ed m<Mpe than even the art of printing in advancing tike 
welfare of the major portion of the human iomily. 
Modem setence has discovered the fulcrum which AtM- 
inedes wished for in vain, but applies it to a nobler pur- 
pose than the movement of inert matter. It lifts not the 
globe, but the people. Indeed, this is the |»«oud distinc- 
tive feature of modem civilization. Art is no longer the 
slave of kings and favorod doeas— -it is the servant of 



it 1108 evoked for tlio eervice of the millioBs, it has erected 
a lover whose movement is shaking the foundations of 
the throne and the castle. 

In America where there is no antagonistic influence to 
be weighed do\\*n by this element of popular progress 
the tendency can only be harmonious, elevating and con- 
servative. The greatest triumphs of the Steam Engine 
have been and are yet to be in the hands of this young 
people, — -vigorou-s free, inventive and indefatigable. 

Of all the purposes to which steam has been applied, 
there is no one more strikinsc in its effects than its use as 
an agent of locomotion. It is upon the Rail Road that 
steam exhibits itself not merely as a friend of man in the 
reduction of the moneyed cost of travel, but as an econo- 
mist of time, or in other words life itself. Let as attempt 
an approximate estimate of the gain on this score by the 
introduction of Railroads. 

Estimating the whole number of miles of Railroad 
now completed in the world at 24,000, equal to the cir- 
cuit of the globe, and 200,000 annual passengers for every 
100 miles^ and we have 48 millions of people, moved say 
an average of 50 miles in tho course of a year. This 
would require about two hours to each individual, or 96 
millionr of hours. Before the introduction of Railroads, 
this distance would have occupied say 8 hours to each 
person, or 884 million of hoars. The saving therefore 
in time would amount to 288 million of hours, or 12 
million of days, or three thousand two hundred and 
eighty-five years! Tliis in less than two years would 
equal the period which has elapsed since the creation of 
man, by the Mosaic record. 

Taking the useful period of life of each passenger at 20 
years and we have a gain for that period equal to 8,280 
lives piincipally among the most valuable and product- 
ive classes. Let it not be eoid that this is subject to de- 
duction for loss of life incident to this mode of conyey- 
once, for it is well established that no mode of trans- 
portation has ever been devised safer to the traveller than 
the Railroad. According to the semi-annual returns re- 
cently made of the 6,800 miles of Railway in operation 
in England, the number of passengers transported during 
the past six months was 47,509,892. Equal to nearly 
700,000 for every 100 miles, or 1,400,000 for every 100 
miles during the year. The total number of persons 
killed was 118, or one in every 420,000. Upon the Con- 
tinent of Europe^ where there is some 8000 miles of Bail- 
road in operation, the number of passengers transported 
is about the some as in England, with about the some 
proportion of accidental death& 

If we attempt to estimate the gain to the world effect- 
ed by RoihroadB in the reduction of cost of travel and 
the inland carriage of raw produce and merchandise the 
result is equaUy remarkable. In the first place, the 
48,000,000 of passengers moved 60 miles, would be 2400 
millions moved one mile. Say this is effected at a re> 
duoed expense compared with the former modes of land 
conveyance of 2 cents a mile. This would give 48 mil- 
lions of dollars. Say that the 12 million of days saved 
in time is worth but $1 50 per day to the travelling com* 

value of the saving in time to passengers equal to sixty- 
six million of dollars annually. 

Taking the average price of wagon transportation at 
40 cents per 100 lbs. per 100 miles, it is eight dollars per 
ton of 2000 Ihs., or 8 cents per ton per mile. On an 
average the cost of Railroad transpoi'tation does not pro- 
bably exceed 2^ cents ))er ton per mile, but we will 
place it at 8 cents or % of Uie wagon charge. It b near 
enough for our purjioses to say tliat the gross receipts of 
the Railroads from freight and passengers are tlie same. 
TIjo 48 million of passengere moved 50 miles at 8 cents a 
mile would amount to 72 million of dollars. Adding for 
freight the same^ we should have 144 million gross re- 
ceipts, wliich after deducting expenses, 45 per cent., 
would leave 80 million net income, or 4 per cent, on the 
estimated cost of all the Railroads in the world, tw^o thous- 
and million of dollars. Kow taking tlie receipts from 
freight OS representing but-l of the expense which would 
be sustained in the absence of Railroads, and we have a 
saving effected in the carriage of freight amounting to 
120 million of dollai'Sr This would make the aggregate 
moneyed saving on freight and passengers equal to 188 
million of dollars. 

If in addition to this, it were possible to ascertain the 
saving due to the more rapid transit by Railroads, in in- 
terest on the value of produce and merehanduie trans- 
ported in the course of a year, with the effect which such 
unrivalled expedition, certainty, safety and cheapness of 
carriage and intcr-oommxmication has in stimulating and 
enhaneing the profits of labor, in opening new paths to 
capital and enterprise, the gain to the value of real estate 
and to tlie products of the forest, mines^ manufacturea, 
^f we should have an aggregate whidi would be abso- 
lutely startling. It may be thought ,at first view, unfair 
that we should take wagon transportation as a basis of 
comparison in the foregoing estimate, inasmuch as Rail- 
roads have to some extent entered into competition with 
marine, river and canal navigation. Yet it is probable 
that the important item of insurance which is saved in 
Railroad carriage, will moi*e than cover any difference iu 
the estimate justly chargeable on this account 

The saving of insurance on all the more valuable de- 
scriptions of merchandise will, in many instances, more 
than pay the entire cost of Railroad freight 

Undoubtedly one important consequence of Railroada 
has not been sofiiciently regarded. This is in curtailing 
the extent of coastwise intercourse by navigation. For 
instance, when our great lines of Railroads from the city 
of New York to the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi 
river at Memphis and Yicksburg shall be completed, an 
immense amount of merchandise which now reaoh^ the 
interior of the South and Southwest^ by marine a;id river 
navigation, will then come directly to tlie point of desti- 
nation by Railroad. 

So also when the Mobila and Ohio Railroad' is. fc^ymj^le- 
ted, much of the coastwise shipment from New Orleans 
to Mobile of Western produce, will be isup^nsedcd— ^ind 
the planters on the route of that road will liot, as at pre- 
sent; draw their supplies of bagging, rope, bacon, <&c., 
from the sea porty but directly from the point (rfp odue- 




nugmented by this work, and th« prosperity of the city 
cannot fail to bo enhanced to on extraordinary extent. 

Our Railroads have already added immenf»ely to the 
value of the Southern portion of the Union. It cannot 
be questioned that they have fully realized public expec- 
tation in regard to their advantages — and more than, 
equalled the estimates of the most sanijuine in regard td 
\]\e extent of business and traffic which they have se- 
cured and aceommo*! sited. 

At a future timp, we propose to investigate the extent, 
cost, condition,, prospects and economy of Southern Rail- 
roads. A. A. DEXTER, 

Civil Enixineer. 

Cross Keys, Ala., July Sd, 1852. 


(For the American Cotton Planter.] 

liCttcr from Daniel Pratt, E§q. 

PRATTVttLE, Ala., July 7Ui, 1852. 

'r. N. B. Cloud — 

Dear Sir : I understand the first numbed of the Ame- 
rican Cotton Planter will be issued in the course of a few 
weeks. I feel a deep interest in its success and wish that 
1 was able to contribute to its usefulnees. All I can do, 
however, is to send you the names of a few sabicribers, 
which you will find enclosed. I am not a Cotton Plan- 
ter, notwithstanding I am deeply interested in ita ealti- 
vation. It is from this Plant tdiat I have been enabled 
to support myself and family, and to give employment 

plied with good 
how can it be done I I answer by haying our lands irell 
cultivated, not worn out as the custom has been, but to 
improve tliem. If a Planter disoovera his soil ia becom- 
ing more productive^ he will not think of leaving it to 
go in pursuit of fresh lands. He wiU become satisfied he 
can do as well where he is as to move to a new ooxmtry. 
If he oonsiders himself .settled be wiU want a good dwel- 
ling house, good negro houses, barns, stables, gin house, 
&c He will want a good school house and Chnreh in 
hia neighborhood. How is he to obtain themt If he 
wants good houses — ^which he moet assuredly will—- he 
will seek for good Mechanics to biiild them. He may at 
first have to go abroad for them, but so soon as there is 
a demand for good mechanics, we shall raise them np 
amongst as. We shall not only be able to build good 
houses^ but we will have Machinists^ Engineem^ Manu- 
facturers, and persons suitable to carry on every branch 
of mechanical business which we need. All thia and 
much more will result from Improving our landSb Every 

neighborhoods f Will we not have manufacturing villa- 
ges where we can get better articles than we ore in the 
habit of procuring from the North I I think so. On the 
other hand should our agricultural community pay no 
more attention to the improvement of their lands than 
they have formerly done, instead of our population be- 
coming more dense, it will become more spai'se, aiul 
much of our good land will be abandoned as worthless. 
If what I have stated is correct, is it not of the greatest 
importance that our attention should be directed to this 
subject ? The first step to be taken is to stir up the minds 
of the people to it, and what is better calculated for the 
pur|K>se, than such a work as you are getting up. It is 
a Southern work adapted to our Southern soil and cli- 
mate, and I hope it will be patronized by every South- 
em Planter and Meclianic It is a work in which every 
person who has made some valuable discovery or im- 
provement can communicate it to the public This will 
not only benefit the community but will be a source of 
pleasure to the person who communicates it For what 
do we live ? Is it to hoard up silver and gold ? Is it to 
say we have a plantation of one or five hundred negroes, 
or that we make 1000 bales of Cotton I Is it to slave 
ourselves to accumulate property, and not enjoy it! 
Have no comfortable house to live in ourselves^ or for onr 
negroes, or stables or bams for our stock — ^to have no 
roads that we can pass safely over to visit our neighbore ? 
It is the desire of every person to be happy, but they are 
many of us who do not punrue the right course to obtain 
happiness. Permanent happiness consists in something 

to a good number of persons, who I hope are benefitted 

thereby. Is it not important to have onr country snp- 1 ™^'® ^^^ *^ ^^^^^^^ &^^ ^^* ^ ^« *^^^ o^ *«™P0- 

plied with good mechanics* of various branches I If so, ' ^"^ *°d spiritual hi^piness are so blended that it is difli- 

cnlt to separate them. I think we can take more satis- 
faction in worshipping Gk)d in a good comfortable house, 
stutable for the worship of such a Being, than we can in 
a log cabin, where there is but little to protect ns from 
the cold wind and inclement weather. When we have 
finished onr days labor we con see more satisfaction in a 
good, well ventilated house, with good furniture, than 
we can in a little pent-np log cabin with stools, or chairs 
bnt little better, to sit on, and other furniture correspon- 
ding. I care not how industrious a man is, or how hard 
he may labor, so he enjoys the fruits of it What I 
call enjoying the fruits of labor is this :— When we retire 
from it to have things comfortable around ns — say a good 
house, onr table well supplied with the rich products of 
our soil, and above all, a gpod appetite to partake of 
them. This we shall be almost sure to have if we, as we 
are commanded " live by the sweat of our brow." Dan-^ 
iel Webster has remarked, that " People now have the 

...w,^ — w»« „*** .w»^. ..V— «« cw, «— «..w« — ,^. privilege of living a long life in a short space of time.** 
branch of business is dependant on the cnltnre of our U **^ *^** ^^ ^»^« ^« "J«*>» ^ gaining more knowl 

soil. I think it vriU appear evident to eyery reflecting 
person, that if we at the South can get on some plan for 
improving otu* lands, our Planters will consider them- 
selves settled, and of course have eyery thing eomfoita-. 
ble and pleasant around them. Our society will be yaat- 
ly improved, our population more dense. When this 
takes place, every year there will be anrpluB capital to 
invest In what way will it most likely be invested f 

edge in one year and reUahiiig greater enjoyments^ than 
those who lived a century back had in ten. Can we not 
still improve and carry it to fifteen i . I think so. In my 
opinion the most important step towards it is to encour- 
age agric^tural improvements, the balance will follow. 
From what I have written, you will discover my vie 
OS to our duty to our Creator, ourselves and our fello 



IFor the Amertcan Cotton Planter.] 




^ ^ 

Dr. X. B. Cloud— 

Arcbitectnrc, like geometry and mathematics, lias its 
lca^3ing and fundamental principles — -principles abstract 
and eternal — ^principles that are and would be, if die 
univei-se of matter were swept into one wide chaos* 

In the application of these principles, variations may 
and will occur, according to the circumstances under 
which the expressions are made : yet this should never 
induce the student or patron of Architecture to Imagine 
for a moment that Architecture was the mere accidental 
creation of conventional influences. 

In the early periods of society, as far back as any au- 
thentic history conducts us; we find music, painting, 
poetry and architecture struggling with the rudeness of 
untutored generations — ^for a pla<:e in the circle of social 
utilities ; and as age aucoeeded c^e, with their experi- 
mental lights, gradual developements bequeathed to the 
world sciences that are as truthful in their applicability, 
as essential to the happiness and well being of society. — 
Euclid, in his complete system of Geometry, did not build 
itp his theory of materials crude from the quarry : much 
had been practised long anterior to his days: but it was 
the systemi^ng of these first and incidental disclosures, 
tlmt led this profound thinker through the intricacies of 
a thousand problems, not one of which but is essential to 
the truth and harmony of the whole. 

Over two thousand years, the geometiy of Euclid has 
been in the hands of every variety of learning and labor. 
By it, man has acquired a degree of omnipotence that ib 
startling to contemplation. Yet with all the advantages 
that this science has secured to the generations of* man, 
there has not been aught essential added or diminished. 

AH this is equally true of Architectui-c. It is no fan- 
cied interest to uphold the dogma — that the attainments 
of excellence in our public and private edifices and gene- 
ral style of building depend upon a discriminating adap- 
tation of the forms and arrangementa of antiquity. With 
as much propriety might we anticipate new elements in 
the triangle, by which to determine the distance of Mars 
and Jupiter, as to look for anything new and essential in 
the art of ordcrsi What if indifference has for tedious 
periods rendered nugatory the triumphs of art! Shall 
we therefore throw away the treasures of antiquity and 
retain but the rudiments of architecture! Indifference 
may be, and is chargeable upon our nation — ^the South in 
particulai*: but is not this indiffei'ence to be traced to the 
• ignorance of those claiming to be its teachers? 

Euclid was not of our age — ^nor nation : neither were 
the perfections of Aichiteoture — shall we lay them aude 
or pervert them ? Surely not. 

Kational pride is justly a noble passion. Is there no- 
thing in the art of architectural illumination to gratify 
tins noble passion ; though it were of Greek and Roman 
origin? What if none of its characteristics were deter- 
mined by the peculiarities of our climate and habits ? Is 
there notliing still of which we may be proud ? The sel- 
Ushness of a Westminster Quarterly may answer this 
question, no. But we think this art is to contribute as j 

oiu* people by the expression of their sentiments and cha' 
rooter* Show me your general style of architectural de- 
velopementSy and I will from thence determine the taste 
and habits of the incumbents^ Then to a rational pixv 
gression in the illumination of tlie art, men must be fitted 
by education for these great interests. Music, i>atnting, 
dancing, fencing, oratoiy-o^ll have their professors. Cor^ 
poraUons and communities are liberal patroj)s uf all these 
refinementfly but where is the school to teach the art of 
fit expression to give to every building a definite charac- 
ter ? A dwelling should not indicate a bank' — ^nor a 
bank a state house. A stable should not resemble the 
residence of man, nor a church a btirn, neither should a 
bam be ornamented with battlements and gothic win^ 
dowd. Truth is so beautiful, it cannot be dispensed 
with either in art or morals. 
Arcliitecture, is an ornamental art~*its ornaments 

when rightly understood in their appropriate ordei*8, find 

a oounterpai't in the feelings of society, and therefore of 

practical utility. 
The most elaborate oimaments can never be pleasing 

if ^here ^ not perfect symmetry in the propofti(ms^ and 

harmony in the adjustment of parts to each other, and 

these parts to the whole. 

By study and practice any ordinary roan may become 
a good builder: but more than the mere manuel of a 
trade is essential to a complete architect Ardiitects of 
old were on a level in their dignities with the most exal- 
ted in earthly honors. Royal birth and noble parentage 
were the hereditary incumbents of this noble art. This 
shows at least the estimation the profession was held in« 
Is there any reason now why we should not .(a race of 
Nobles, born to freedom of privileges, unknown to Greek 
and Roman rights) have opened in Alabama schools of art 
where genius might be ripened in its particular tenden- 
cies to nsefiilness and glory ? Shall incapacity be a fit 
object for corporate benevolence — Insanity the nursling 
of State guaranties — and genius, that sacred fire trans- 
mitted from God for man's good — ^be doomed by the vo- 
taries of mammon to plod impoverished ? Surely not. 
It was supposed by some sagacious friends of the Me- 
chanics Institute of Mobile, that out of this organization 
a plan would be perfected that would ultimately secure 
to the patrons of the beautiful and true, facilities to fan 
the fires of genius in our midst and tliereby project at 
home our mansions — ^adom our walls with glowing land- 
scapes — and our parlor tables "with 

" Thought! that breatli and words that Innn.*' 

Are we but half awake ? The Soutli — Alabama — is 
destined to wealth and opulence. Can her wealth secure 
the high ends of society, if art is left to languish ? To 
give practical effect to architecture, utility must be con- 
sulted. Who but the ingenious, practical thinker, can 
grasp these high ends! Such is the state of society around 
lis, that the most brilliant capacities for artistic accom^ 
plishments feel but little inclination to the culture of 
powers that would have no patronage. If genius is t(> 
work to live, instead of live to work-->-then ,it is deemed 
no great sacrifice to pursue that calling which yields most 
readily a living — Whence w*e are a mere plodding people — 
not one step advanced by the agencies to progress so 




Art k not aougUt for its own Bake, for the sake of ite 
eternal woi-th — ^hence we remain narrow, poor, ami in- 
capable, for want of that broad culture and experience 
thi'ough which, alone, men grow to real manhood : and 
if we have not men, where shall we find aii^ to meet the 
wants even of our half civilization ? Could we but realize 
life as a duty — and genius a commission which, is to be 
sent tlirough the world in honor of-the great Giver of 
every perfect gift, and to cheer and enliven the way- 
farci-B of this transient earth : we should not long witncsu 
the didl apathy that laughs to scorn the earnestness of 
oiu' faith in the power and perfection of beauty. If man 
be a transcript of the Eternal, sliali he not emulate in the 
works of his hands, the beauty, order, utility and power 
everywhere displayed no magestically in the wide field of 
experiment before him ? 

Mensuration, geometry, trigonometry and algebra are 
requisite to a complete architect, and how are these ap- 
pliances to be rendered available if society seeks in its 
established process no liigher attainments than that which 
is reached alone by physical force ! Would a school sup- 
ported by the State expressly for the education of apt 
and ingenious youth in mechanical philosophy be a re- 
venue or a profitless exjKinditinre? Tliis is a question to 
be discussed, and we hope that there are minds awaken- 
ed to its importance, which will come timely to the res- 
cue of mental resources that now lie deep immured in the 
gulph of our cupidity and avarice. 



From an old volnme of the ColtiTrntor. 

Farm BmbellishineHts^BaildiDgi— Feiiees. 

There are comparatively few of our farmers, 
who could afford to be at any considerable ex- 
pense for rural embellishments alone ; but we 
tliink there are many, who would do more in 
this way than they now do, if convinced there 
was an actual profit in such expenditures, and 
that by improving the appearance of their farms, 
they were adding to their positive value and in- 
creasing their own means of comfort. The man 
who spends a few days in planting fruit and or- 
namental trees, is adding decidedly to the per- 
manent value of his farm, as well as improving 
its beauty. The man who spends a few days, 
and perhaps dollars, in painting or coloring his 
bams, out buildings and fences near his dwelling, 
is very far from throwing away his time, or losing 
money by the operation. However slovenly 
and unthrifty a man may be himself, he is always 
pleased with a neat, well-managed place; and 
w«re he to be a purchaser, would always prefer 
paying well for such improvements, rather than 
have them wanting. The most careless obser- 
ver is struck with tlie wide difierence there is be- 
tween two farms, on one of which all the build- 
^^S% gates, fences, &c., are just as they should 
be, all iti good o'-der and perfect repair; and 
another, where all is the reverse, nothing in its 
place, and notlaing as it should be, and insthict- 
ively prefers the former. We do not advise our 

any case ; the times demand economy and re- 
trenchment; but we Ethould be gratified to see 
more attention given to rural einbeliishments, 
particularly where it can be done with little ex- 
pense other than the time and labor of the far- 
mer himself. 

Experiments abundantly prove that white- 
washing, or otherwise coloring out buildings, 
fences, or wood work of any kind exposed to the 
air, has a powerful tendency to preserve it from 
premature decay ; and certainly docs much to 
improve the appearance of the farm on which 
such operations are performed. White wash, 
colored at the pleasure of the farmer, laid on 
once in three or four years, is one of the best 
preservatives of picket or board fences yet dis- 
covered; quite as good as* the ordinary oil paint- 
ing sometimes adopted. For the benefit of those 
who are willing to make improvements of this 
kind, we give the following methods, selecting 
from a great number, as they may be depended 
on for good results, and are cheap and easy in 
their preparation : 

Recipe No. 1. — ^Takc two quarts of skimmed 
milk; two ounces of fresh slacked lime; two 
lbs. of whiting ; and the same proportions for 
any larger quantity Put the lime into a atone 
vessel, pour upon it a sufRcient quantity of milk 
to make a mixture resembling cream, then add 
the remainder of the milk. When this is done, 
crumble and spread the whiting on the surface of 
the fluid, in which it will gradually sink. It must 
then be well stirred or ground as any other paint. 
By the addition of any coloring matter you may 
make it suit your fancy. It must be put on with 
a paint brush, and when dry, a second coat should 
be given. The quantity named is sufHcient for 
twenty-five or thirty square feet. 

No, 2. — To make a fine stucco white wash. 
Take clean lumps of well burnt stone lime, (oys- 
ter-shell lime will do as well,) a half bushel ; 
slack the lime with hot water, (in a half barrel 
or large tub) covered with a blanket to keep in 
the steam, and theii sifl through a fine sive ""(this 
sifling is quite unnecessary for ordinary purposes,) 
add one lb. Spanish whiting, (well pulverized,) 
two lbs. sugar, five lbs. rice fiour, made into a 
thin and well boiled paste ; one lb. light colored 
glue, dissolved by simmering over a slow fire 
(as cabinet makers do.) The lime is the basis 
of the wash — ^add to the whole thus prepared 
five gallons warm water. It must be laid on 
with a brush and while warm. 

No. 3. — ^Take one bushel of unslacked lime, 
(Thomaston lime is the best,) and slack it with 
cold water; when slacked add to it 20 lbs. of** 
Spanish whiting, (pulverised,) 17 lbs. of (cle^n) 
salt and 12 lbs. sugar ; strain this mixture through 
a wire seive and it will be fit for use after redu- 
cing it with ten gallons of cold water. This is 
intended for the outside of buildings or where it 
is exposed to the weather, plank fences, pailin/rs, 




three on brick. A white wash brush may be 
used for laying it on, and each coat must be 
dried before the next is applied. This may be 
made any color you please. For straw color, 
instead of the whiting, use yellow ochre; — for 
lemon color, ochre and crome yellow ; — for lead 
or slate color, larapblacic ; — for blue, indigo ; or 
for green, crome green. 

There is one difficulty frequently attending the 
use of white wash,- and that is, it comes olf in 
flakes, or the coats separate from each other or 
from the wood. This is occasioned by its being 
put on two thick, which sliould be strictly guard- 
ed against. The wood is affect ed by the alkali 
of the lime, and the first coat should have more 
referenee to this fact, than to the color. When 
wooden out^buildings, fences, dec, Are protected 
in this way, their durability is greatly increased 
and an air of neatness and comfort, worthy of 
the farmer's attention, secured. 

[In the above extract, from an old volume of 
the Cultivator, (Albany,) we give three recipes 
for making white wash; the first is more pro- 
perly adapted to the use of ladies in white wash- 
ing about the fire place, &c., and is admirably 
adapted to the purpose. The second, is one of 
superior merit — and produces a finish on inside 
work in rooms or passages almost as fine as paint, 
and does not rub off, and retains its brilliancy for 
years. It is fine for inside work, but more ex- 
pensive than the third, which is simple and of 
great durability for outside work, which is the 
result of the experience of our Agricultural friend, 
Solon Robinson, Editor of the Plow. We have 
used w^hite wash made after these recipes, and 
can confidently recommend them as superior to 
any other combination that we have seen or used. 
And we doubt not, on our Southern cotton plan- 
tations, but that, besides an atr of neatness and 
cheerfulness imparted to our homes, by white 
washing the out-buildings and fences about our 
dwellings and stock yards, — it would contribute 
materially in promoting the health of our fami- 
lies, both white and black. If the neutralising 
influence of the alkali of the lime thus spread 
out tastefully upon our out-buildings, board and 
picket fences, ^be not exerted chemically upon 
the noxious miasm floatuig in the air during our 
autumnal evenings and thus protect us from chill 
and fever, — the exhilarating influence upon our 
spirits and the new beauties imparted to home 
by the neat and cheerful aspect thus aflbrded. 
will nerve us up to a new and invigorated inter- 
est in home, improvement and country. — Ed. 

Tliia nnmber of our paper will be sent to many 
plnntera and others, who have not yet sent in tlicir uamcd 
88 pubecribers, in the hope that they will find it, both in 
its material and matter, not entirely devoid of interest 
or unworthy of their i»Rtix>uftge ; — and we further ti'iL«<f, 
that tliey will become enlisted in its behalf and exert 
themselves in extendinij its cireulation. This is a new 
enterprise, and the first of the kind in the planting 
States, outside of the old thirteen, and tlie po-^ition which 
we have assumed can be sustained by the prompt eo-ope- 
ration of tlie friends of improvement in the industrial 
pursuitd of our countiy. Those who may not wiah to 
])atrooifle the cnterpri-'^e ean return this number to the 
Editor, to liOekland Postoffice, Macon county, Alabama, 
without incurring blame or imputation. 

0/ the Alabama State Agricultural Associatioiu 

1st. This Association shall be and consist of 
delegates from each County Association, equal 
to their representation in the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the State Legislature. 

2nd. 'i he Governor of the State, in office, shall 
be Preesident ex-ojjlcio^ of this Association, and 
there sliall be a Vice-President elected from each 
Congressional District. 

This Association shall have a secretary, and 
Treasurer, who, with three members elected for 
the purpose, shall constitute an Executive com- 
mittee. ^ 

8d. This Association shall meet annually at 
the seat of government of this State, on the 3d 
Monday in November of each year, and shall 
have power to alter or amend this Constitution 
by a majority of votes present, and to do all 
things that shall present themselves of value to 
the agricultural interests of the State — such as 
the appointing and holding fairs, offering premi- 
ums for the best productions, Animal, Vegetable, 
Mineral or Mechanical, or of the fine arts, or of 
any other production of labor or manufacture of 
this State ; and for the best essays on agriculture 
or any other subject connected with the Associa- 
tion ; and for making all arrangements that may 
connect them with other similar State institutions. 

4th. This Association shall raise all money 
by assessment of a certain sum upon each County 
Association, and the payment of such assessment 
shall be lefl to the option of each Association. 

5th. Each county of this State shall be an 
Agricultural Association, and be governed by this 
Constitution, and be subject to the action of the 
State Association. 

6th. The County Associations, after they have 
organized and elected their officers, which shall 
be a President, Secretary and Treasurer, may 
hold their meetings at such places and at such 
times as a majority of the society may choose, 
and shall elect their delegates to the State Asso- 
ciation on the Ist Saturday in October, and give 
certificate to each member chosen. 



tccu years old and upwards may become a mem- 
ber by paying annuoily one dollar to the County 

8th. All agricultural societies now existing in 
this State, shall, by adopting this Constitution, 
be the County Association of the county they 
are in, provided there be but one such society in 
n county but in the event of their being more 
than one such society, the first established society 
shall be the County Association, and the others 
shall be auxilliary to that by adopting this Con- 

9th. Each and every industrial association of 
mechanic arts, or society for the promotion of man- 
ufactures, or for the advancement of science, or 
the fine arts, tiiat may or shall be regularly or- 
ganized in this State, and shall agree to the pay- 
ment of equal asessraents as provided in this Con- 
stitution, (Article 4th,) shall be permitted to send 
three delegates who shall be members of this 
Association, with all the powers and privileges of 
delegates to the State Association. 

lOtL Each County Association shall have 
power to appoint and hold county fairs, and offer 
premiums for the best Animal, Vegetable or 
Mineral production of the county, or for any ar- 
ticle of manufacture, or of the fine arts, and for 
the best essays on any subject connected with 
this Association, and to make all arrangements, 
and co-operate with the State Association in all 
matters they may appoint under the Constitution. 

11th. Ilxe Judge of Probate of the county 
shall be President, the Sheriff, Treasurer, and the 
Clerk of the Ciicuit Court, Secretary, of the Coun- 
ty Association, until as many as ten persons shall 
sign the Constitution : then they shall proceed to 
elect the officers of the Association, who shall 
hold their office for one year. 

12th. Each County Association shall have 
power to make their own By-Laws. 

13th. All moneys raised by the County Asso- 
ciation for county purposes, shall not be subject 
to the State Association ; but the County Asso- 
ciation may respond by the payment of what 
sums the State Association shall at any time as- 
sess by a majority vote of the Association — ^a 
quorum being present — which shall consist often 

* 14th. The meeting that adopts this Constitu- 
tion in connection with those who may sign the 
Constitution, shall constitute the State Associa- 
tion until the first annual meeting herein provided 
for — shall Q^t the officers of the State Associa- 
tion, who stall hold their office untill they shall 
Le superseded by the regular election of officers 
by the Association at their first annual meeting, 
and when such regular election shall take place, 
the (^cers elected shall hold their office for one 
year, and in event of the failure of an election at 
the regular term of ejection, which shall be at the 
annual meeting of the Stat^ Association, they 
shall rctauL tlieix office till an election does take 







1 5th. A quorum of the State Association shall 
be any number of delegates that shall meet, ac- 
cording to the provisions of the Constitution, 

ICth. Each County Association may send as 
many delegates as the}'' may choose, to the State 
Association, but shall not be entitled to more 
votes than their proportion, as set forth in article 
first of this Constitution. 

17th. The President, with the concurrence of 
the Executive Committee shall have power to call 
an extra Session of the Association, whenever, in 
their opinion, the same may be necessary. 

Officers of the Association : 
The Governor of the State, President, ex officio. 


1st District — W. S. Price; of Marengo, 

E, A. Holt, of Montgomcry>'^'^ 

Jno. Steel, of Autauga, 

Isaac Croom, of Greene, 

, Nathaniel Davis, of Limestone, 

Reuben Chapman, of Morgan, 

Leonard Tarrant, of Talladega, 

Secretary. • . .N. B, Cloud, of Macon, w^ 

Treasurer. ...Jvo, Goldthwaite, Montgomery, 

Executive Committee. 

F. M. Gilmer, of Montgomery, 

Absalom Jackson, of Autauga, 

Alex. Carter, of Montgomery. 

For tlie American Cotton Planter, 

Tlie Cotton Crop, 

Prospects of Consmnption, Prices^ d:c. 

Dr. N.B.Cloud. 

Dear Sir :— In obedience to yonr invitation, I submit to 
the readers of your popular enterprise, the result of my en^ 
qoiry and investigations, in reference to the above subjects, 
up to this time. 

Before entering into those details, however, we will look 
at the production of Cotton for the period embraced in the 
past five yean, and for the period of five years before it. In 
the period first alluded to, it was 12,523,000, in the period be* 
fore 10,684,000--averaging in the past five years 2,505,000 
annually, and in the former period 2,137,000 bales. It is ap- 
parent in looking at the annual extent of the crops, that in 
the past five years, the productiou has been forced to its 
greatest capacity, and that four out of the five seasons were 
highly propitious to its yield. It embraces two of the largest 
crops ever made, that of 1849, 2,729,000 bales, and that of 
the commercial year just closed , of 185 1-2, of 2,995,000 bales, 
with eiports of two years of 2,350,000. 

In reference to the growing crop, we may say, that with 
the exception of the general complaint, that by the coldness 
and inclemency of the spring, it was generally a month more 
backward than last year,the crop on the first •f August looked 
well, and, without casualty .would yield well. Too much rain 
in Alabama, had sent it too much to weed, and an unusually 
general complaint of the appearance of the Boll worm came 
to us from the bottom and black land planters. Notwith- 
standing the forbearance to loudly complain by the planters, 
from the experience and observation of the writer, he view- 
ed this early announcement of the worm — in so many differ 
ent localities, and the (act that rainy and' cloudy weather 
continued to preml 




cut oflT the cropB. It will Ije remembered that a peculiar 
feature attended botii the lafit cotton crop and the one 
bfifore, — that was the entire absence of the various destruc- 
tive worms, which for years previously had become a 
standing nuisance to this article. They, it seems, must have 
a moist season to germinate in, which, for the two last crop 
reasons, they did not have. The freqaency of rain in July 
and»August tltis year, has supplied them in inconceivable 
namber^, as ouraccounis for the past ten days confirm. The 
fatal army worm has appeared in great numbers, and destroy- 
ed all the leaves, small bolls and forms on large bottom plan- 
tations. This is earlier, to be destructive, than they were 
in 1846. Intimations before the Ist September, were simply 
made of such a worm, but it was from the 7th to the 20th 
September they spread over the cotton region of South Ala- 
bama, and with the boll worm, which had preceded it, cut 
off the crops of the West, South Alabama and Florida. The 
boll worm had been so destructive, some planters said they 
doubted if the army worm had been of much real injury, as 
the boll worm had left little or no forms or small bolls for it 
to consume. 

Such is the nature of our accounts now, that the bottom 
and black land crop of Alabama is badly injured by the boll 
worm, and the prospect that all the crop will be seriously 
afllected by the army worm. We are told that the cane- 
break crop will be cut off one-half. 

We have had here very recently a severe storm of wind and 
rain, and we are beginning to hear accounts of ruined crops 
on creek and river bottoms. The extent fblly of these ex- 
cessive rains and floods and of their devastation, we are not 
adviied of; they have been terrible in South Carolina and 
Geoiigia generally, we many judge from the telegmphic ac- 
counts, that all the cotton made on the creek and river bot- 
toms must be materially diminished. From Geoi^gta we hear 
that the constant rains since Ist August, has caused the bot- 
tom and level lands to rust, and the jilant had shed all but 
the grown bolls, and the prospect is it will yield only what 
is now on it. The army worm has appeared in Florida. We 
hear that in Eastern Mississippi the boll worm is committing 
great havoc. The boll and army worm in certain localities 
in Louisiana and Mississippi have been alluded to, but not 
in a form suflliciently definite upon which to base any opin- 
ion. We may ascribe this to the absence from New Orleans 
of the most of the merchants, and that planters, having 
been so wonderfully below tlie crop in their early estimates 
last year, have determined to say nothing at aU upon the 
.subject. The inference however is, from what we know of 
the South Alabama crop, that if so muck, not over an aver- 
age crop will be gathered in that division. The extraordi- 
nary crop of last year, requires some notice, to enable us 
clearly to present the question of this year's. About the mid* 
die of August last year,after an exceedingly dry year through- 
out the cotton region, it mined generally over it. The imme- 
diate consequence was, that all the forms, blooms and small 
bolla fell off. The planters univeirsally stated that it was 
too late for the weed to put (brtlv'new forms, blooms and to 
mature the bolls before froiit, hence what was on the stalk 
then, was all that could be realized. The reality however, 
was very different from these suppositions. The plant sent 
forth forms and blooms, and the bolla appeared in profusion 
late in October, which many plai^ters still insisted would not 
qpen. The fall continued warm and dry>till unusually late, 
and they did open, af&nling to many planters a crop doable 
^ tLR large as they expected in August. 

In submitting an estimate of the growing crop, the pecu- 
liarities of the post extraordinary one, must be forirotten. 

in sora« sections and two weeks later in others, the kuow^ 
injury by the worms in South Alabama and Florida, their 
appearance in Mississippi — ^2,500,000 bales would be a full 
estimate now. If these worms spread, the crop may be far 
below that. 

Consumption. — We have alluded to the peculiar fact. 
that in the past five years, two very large and two over 
average crops were made, while the remaining one was but 
a little below the average of the previous figures. 

Tlie simplest mode of illustrating the immense increase of 
consumption, is to say that the enormous stocks held in Great 
Britain and the Continent and th« United States amounting 
u^ether to 1,318,000 bales, at the commencement of this 
period, 1847, and the large cotton crops raised within it, has 
all iee» consumed, the stocks on the let August in Great 
Britain, the Continent of Europe and ilie United States, not 
exceeding about 950,000 bales. The consumption in Great 
Britain for seven months of 1852 has been 1,204,419 bales — 
indicating a consumption during the year of 2,100,000 bales. 
The consumption of the northern portion of the United 
States is 620,000. The Continent about 1,10D,000, making 

Our accounts are that the progress of building new facto- 
ries both in Great Britain and the Continent, is very anima- 
ted, which is also the case in portions of our own. 

Paiges. — To arrive at probable prices let us examine in- 
to the probable supply. 

The average supply received in Europe frOm India, Egypt, 
&c., has been the past three years 655,000. Our crop of 
1852— say 2,500,000 to 2>600,000; making 3,205,000. 

As the stock on hand in this country is next to nothing in 
the ports, and certainly no old cotton back in the country, 
the imports of Great Britain and the continent from thoR« 
causes alone will be less than last year. Our crop being 
later, and the resolution of planters to be more firm than 
last year in their proper demands for higher prices, will still 
more lessen the probability of their getting the quantity after 
1st of August this, that they did last year. Their imports 
into Great Britain were 548,000 bales ; 300^00 of which 
was from the United States. Their stock in Great Britain in 
January next is not likely to be 350,000 bales ; the Continent 
50 to 75,000 and the United States 77,000; making together 
say 500,000 bales. 

We have shown the consumption c^ this year as 3,820,- 
000 bales. 


Crops of American and other cottons,. .. .3,255,000 

Stocks on hand say Ist January 1853, in 
Europe and this country, 500,OQQ 3,755,000 

Showing without calculating for increasing con- 
sumption, with this supply, a deficit of. 65,0QO 

With the present independent position of the Cotton Plan- 
ters and this encouraging state of the trade in this article 
without any obstacles to the full expansion of trade and com- 
merce, it is plainly perceptible we think, prices must rule 
^^A the present commercial year. *■ 

Mobile, September 7, 1852. 


Is published on ike first of each montli^ at Albany, IT. 1"., 

$1 per Ann.— 7 Copies for $5—15 for $10. 
ly All subseriptiouH to ooniracnce with the toIutop. 

A Monthly Joanial, devoted to Improved Flajitatloo EeoDomy, Vann&ctnies, and Mccbaidc Arts. 


No. 3. 


TTie natural history of the Cotton Plant,' and 

improvement in ita culture, in the Cotton grow. 
ing States, are interesting Bubjects. Originally 
the production of the tropics, it has, in our coui 
try, Iravelied farinta the temperate region, a r 
flourishes on a belt of several hundred mill 
wide; extending from Virginia, along the aea- 
coast, toour Western limits on the Gulf of Mexi- 
co. Congeniality of climate, seasons aad aoits, 
has carried the cultivation of this Plant, which 
is not certainly indiginoua to the United States, 
much further than was at first expected it would 
ever be extended ; and it has tiecome the staple 
•fell those parts not actually mountainous in the 
Southern States, Whilst its culture has most 
rapidly advanced and increased in every section, 
the Planters of the old Cotton growing Slates, 
from the exhaustion of their soils, and the lack 
of proper systems of Rotation and Manuring, 
btfe been thrown in the back ground, in the 
«ca1e of profitable production, by iheSr more fa- 
ctored rivals, the fortunate possessors of the vir. 
gin lands of the South-west. If this deficiency 
u ever to be remedied ; if the fertility of those 
ftoiiM, worn out in the oft repeated production 
of Cotton, is ever to be restored and permanently 

niih BtmaU; Swedhti BcmuU ; lUIlm Cabmr. Birmlrariii; Spm- 
]•)! -iK'/nln ; Parlii^eH JllfidMt, Algtddrc ; llunldii Cklatlt- 
/lutmlm hxmiigii ; Pullnh BaxSnit; Oeoralin £m(1, Beii^ ; l-UIn 
iivttniums Gndl Bomtft. tVwi WdbkuI Kit'iiri ifls'lao 
Ruki : Mlivt Enfiu : lujlun fi^ ,- ChitwM^y-lfHiir, //<k>-J(icji. 
Skinner. Ida •iyniologu(,«)V thai OoKonliao ciUvd tivm )<■ >lin- 
llfludu la Uw duwn vblch idbrm h> Itas qaliicr, mmliM itimiii, 
whh^li thb luJiADji can u£«f«. ftnd rotm^, miiitfMllv ntvuniia. 

CoHTplum. DrOotloD, a ktbiw odke puljiiuKlriB unln', bdmuHnR 
lo lli« iDomwilBljihli clua or |>linl>, nod, lu llie nuuni order •.•! 
ranking, undiir Ihe 37lti unlcr, CiAamnlfCnr.—Enrjrloiitiia Bri- 

improved, for the future ouhure of this crop, or 
forother systems of tillage, it must be done un- 
der a proper understanding of what constituent* 
are to be restored to the soil, to supply the place 
of thoee of which it ban been robbed. How far a 
correct analysis of the Cotton Plant end Seed 
wilt enable the present generation of Planters lo 
remedy the lack of fertility in their imsoverishrtd 
soils, and enhance their future product iveneaa 
for this crop, it is dilEouU to determine ; but it 
is no matter of speculation ID assert that it is 
essentially necftssary for the impimfewent of the 
soil of Cereal crops, that the past industrious de- 
spoiling of the natural elements, should furniak 
a guide for their restoration. 

The analytical in vest ig a lions made by tife 
author, and for their correctness receiving tlte 
sanction of ProSeaior Von Liebig, the most 
celebrated Chemist of ihe age, oad given lo the 
world in their present shape, are not intended as 
the basis of a new theory for the production 
of the Cotton Plant, but merely as auggesiive of 
aids, and by returning to the soil what baa been 
taken from it, bringing about a restoration offer. 
tility, which will render its cultivation profitable to 
Agriculturalists in any other ma lie eta b|e crops. 
When, howe*'er, wo raQect, that oi the one thou- 
sand millions of pounds of Cotton produced in 
the world, upwards of Ave hundred and liAy 
mil lions of pounds are grown (a the United States, 
we readily see that the importance of this crop 
— swelling to this enormous amonut since 1784. 
when it was doubted at Liverpool that so much 
as eight haks could be produced in this country — 
demands all those scientific aids by which otticr 
nations have fostered their staple agricultural 
productions, and thereby contribuled to nniional 



prosperity. England, by her icommercial enter- 
prize, assumed the pinnacle of national rank. 
The Cotton Plant, its production and adapta- 
tion to human wants by m^nO fact u ring skill, 
will give the blood to invigorate our national 
prosperity.. What a . picture of prosperity 
would be presented, if we manufactured in South 
Carolina all the Cotton grown in the State, and 
had sufficient capital and enterprize to concen- 
trate the exportation and exchange of the manu- 
factured material at our Queen city of Charles- 
ton ? Added to this, how much more pleasant 
would be the prospect ahead, if the cultivation 
of this crop was so regulated and carried out that 
it would fit the soil for the increased after-pro- 
duction of the grain crops — those crops so essen- 
tial to the prosperity of the world. 



QtiaUiadve Analysis. — A part of the ash was 
taken and boiled with distilled water, then tiltred, 
the fihrate acidulated with nitric acid, and then 
treated with sulphate of silver, (AgO, NOs .) 
A white precipitate of chloride of silver was form- 
^- ed, showing the presence of chloride.. 

Adding muriatic acid to another part of the 
ash, an effervescence took place, showing the 
presence of carbonic acid. 

Another part of the ash was taken and dis- 
solved in muriatic acid, and evaporated to dry. 
ness ; then moistened with muriatic acid and 
digested with water — a residue consisting of coal, 
sand and silica remained insoluMe. The pres- 
ence of silicic acid was proved by boiling the 
residue with potassa, (free of silicic acid,) and 
evaporating the filtrate in the presence of muri- 
atic acid, to dryness, then moistening with muri 
atic acid and dissolving in water, the silicic acid 
remained insoluble. A portion of the liquid freed 
from sand, coal and silicic acid, was nearly neu- 
tralized with ammonia, when, upon tl)e addition 
of acetate of soda, a white precipitate of phos- 
phate of iron was formed. 

To a part of the liquid filtred from this precip- 
itate, ammonia was added, which formed a 
white precipitate, showing the phosphoric acid 
was not in combination with iron. 

To another part of the liquid filtered from the 
precipitate of phosphate of iron, oxfilate of ammo- 
nia was added, which formed a white precip 
itate of oxalate of lime. 

The liquid filtered from this precipitate gave, 
on the addition of phosphate of soda and ammo- 
nia, a precipitate of phosphate of magnesia and 
ammonia, showing the presence of magnesia. 

Another part of the liquid, freed from sand, 
coal, and silicic acid, was boiled with an ex- 
cess of baryta water and filtered. The excfssof 
barylcs in the filtrate w aa removed by carbonate ; 

of ammonia, and filtered — ^the filtrate was evap- 
orated to dryness, and dissolved in a small portion 
of water. A part of this solution was treated 
with bi-chloride of platinum; a yellow chryista- 
line precipitate was formed, showing the pre. 
sence of potassa. 

A part of the residue was tested with the blow- 
pipe for soda ; the presence of which was proved. 

A portion of the liquid, freed from sand and 
silica, was treated with chloride of barium'; a 
white precipitate of sulphate of barytes was form- 
ed, showing the presence of sulphuric acid. 

Quaniitative Analysis, — 6.181 grammes of the 
ash was digested with muriatic acid, and evapo- 
rated over a water bath to dryness. The resi- 
due was gently ignited, and moistened with mu- 
riatic acid, then let stand for half an hour, after 
which it was digested with water, and filtered 
upon a weighed filter. The coal, sand, &c., 
remained upon the fijter, and was washed out 
with boiling water, until, on evaporating a drop 
of the filtrate on a platina foil, no residue re- 

The filter was now dried, and all the sand, 
coal, &c., were carefully separated, (in order 
not to damage the filter,) after which the sub- 
stance which was on the filter was boiled with 
potassa in a platina basin over a water bath for 
one hour ; then filtered upon the same filter, 
washed out with distilled water, and dri^d at 
212 deg., until it remained at a constant weight. 
After deducting tlie weight of the filter, there 
remained 621 grammes of sand and ooal. 

The part soluble in potassa was mixed with 
muriatic acid, (HCl,) and evaporated over a 
water bath to dryness; then ignited and mois- 
tened with muriatic acid, (HCi,) and dissolved 
in water, filtered and washed, then dried and 
burned. It weighed after burning 0.403 gram, 
mes, silicic acid (SiO^ .) 

The liquid filtered from the sand and silicic 
acid, measured in a gi^duated tube, was found 
to contain 480 cubic centimetres, which was di. 
vided into three equal parts of 160 centimitre4 
each, =2 060 grammes of the ash, for each 160 
cubic centimitres of theliquidt 

These three parts will be termed A, B and C. 

In A, the phosphate of lime, iron and magnet 
sia were estimated. 

In B, the sulphuric acid, and the entire quan* 
tity of phosphoric acid. 

Id C, the alkalies. 


The liquid A, was nearly neutralized with 
ammonia, then acetate of soda, j^d free acetic 
acid were added. The precipltat#was left stand, 
ing for 24 hours, after which it was filtered and 
washed out with boiling water, then dried and 
burned. It weighed 0.3 16 grammes, or, for the 



entire liquid, 1.038 grammes of 2Fe2 O.i 8PO5 , 
or, 0.507 grammes of Pes O3 (oxide of iron.) 

The liquid filtf-red from the precipitate of 
phosphate of iron was treHled with oxalate of am- 
monia. The precipitate of oxalate of lime wus 
filtered, washed, dried and hurned. It weighed 
after burning, 0.643 erammes of carbonate of 
Ume, (GaO, CO9 ,)>or ror the entire liquid, 1.9*29 
graiMiQes, (CaO, COj; ,) =3 1.092 gramnies lime, 

The liquid filtered from the oxalate of lime 
was evaporated over a water bath, to a smaller 
volume, then phospliate of soda and ammonia, 
were added, and the precipitate left standing for 
two days, after which it was filtered and washed 
out with water containing one-eighth of ammonia, 
and burned untit it was white. It gave 0.391 
grammes of 2MgO, PO5 , (pirophosphate of mag- 
Be8ia,)or, for the entire liquid, 0.903 grammes 
sf^ 0.330 gramaiea MgO, (niagnesia.) 


The solution B was precipitated while boiling 
with chloride of barium, and left standing on a 
sand bath for 34 hours, then filtered and washed 
with boiling water, dried and burned. It gave 
0.079 grammes sulphate of barytes, (BaO, SO) ,) 
or, for the entire liquid, 0.237 grammes (BaO, 
SOs ,) sa 0.081 grammes sulphuric acid,(S03 .) 

The liquid filtered from the precipitate of BaO, 
SOt , was miyed with per chloride of iron and 
acetate of soda* and hoiled for iive minultes in a 
large flask ; theo ibe preeipttate of phosphate of 
.iron and baaic aceiate of iron was filtered while 
warm, sod washed with boiling waier, until, on 
ieira^oraliag a drop of the filtrate, there reioaiaed 
no residue. 

Thp precipitate was dissolved while moist, in 
as small a quantity of muriatic aaid as possible. 
Tartaric acid and amgaonia were now added in 
excess, when to the dear, yellow-colored solution, 
a mixture of sulphate of magnesia and chloride 
of ammonia was added, to prevent a precipitate 
of magnesia. The precipitate was left standing 
for two days, after which it was filtered and 
washed .out with water containing ammonia. 
When dried, burned and weighed, it gave 0.442 
grammes of 2MgO, POs , or, for the entire liquid, 
1.326 grammes of 2MgO, POs^ 0.837 grai^- 
men phosphoric acid, (PO5 .) 


Bar3rta water was added to this ^lu^ion, until 
an alkaline reaction had taken plf^pe, thep boiljed 
and filtered The excess of l^arytes in the fil- 
trate was removed with carbonate of ammonia 
and free ammonia ; the QUrafe was evaporated 
over a water bath to dryness, and ignited until it 
was free from all an^ipopiacal saltSj then dissQlysd 
in water. Sorrie nqagnesia renr^aining insoluble, 
was filtere4 off, and the filtrate again evaporated 

to dryness and ignited, then weighed. It gave 
0.770 grammes of the chlorides of the alkalies, 
which is for the entire liquid, 2.310 granmie^^ 
These alkalies were again dissolved in a small 
quantity of water, and the potassa estimated with 
bi-chloride of platinum, which gave, after being 
evaporated with alcohol over a water bath, 8.356 
grammes of double chloride of potassium, and 
chloride of platinum, (KCl, PiClg .) Thi3 r^re- 
sents 2.157 gramniej^, phloride of potassium, 
(KCl,) or 1.320 grammes potassa, (KO.) 

There remains, consequently, after subtracting 
the chloride of potassium from ihe chlorides of 
the alkalies, as follows, the amount of chloride of 
sodium, which is estimated as loss, thus, 2,310 
KCl, NaCl^— 2.157, KCl, =0.153 (NaCl,)phlc. 
ride of sodium. 

2.970 graqrimes of the ashy WQs boiled with 
di.stille<) wafer, and filtered. The filtrate was 
acidulated with nitric acid, then precipitated with 
nitrate of silver. It gave 0.044 grammes chlo- 
ride of silver, (AgCl,) or 6.022 grammes chlorine 
(CI.) Also 0.158 grafpmes NeCl^^srO.037 gram- 
mesj NaCI «= 0.1 16 graqnn^es chlaride of sodium, 
(NaCl) = 0.961 grammes soda, (NaO.) 

1066 grammes of the ash gave 0.168 gram* 
mes carlbonip acid, (CO3 ,) The following is the 
percentage of the (constituents in 100 parts of the 

GramfMs fovmd: Percentage* 

Silicic Acid, 0.403 6.50 SiOs 
Sand and Coal, 0.621 10.04 Sand 6c Coal. 
Oxide oflron, 0.507 8.20 Fes O3 
Oxide of Lime, 1.092 17.66 CaO 
Oxide Magnesia, 0.330 5.33 MgO 
Sulphuric Acid, 0.081 1.31 SO3 
Phosphoric Acid, 0.837 13.37 PO5 
Potassa, 1.362 2201 KO 

Soda, 0.061 6.99 NaQ 

Chloride Sodium, 0.087 0.05 NaCJ 
Carbonic Acid, O.^^a }5.72 QOs 




Pr^flffl^ipH of ^ A^h, — The seed werp 
burne^ \n ^ f)es£fian crucible, with a muQe. 
Only a slight red h^c^t \f qs necessary to burn ^h^in 
perfectly white. 

For estimating the amount of watei^, 6.406 
gramnr^es pf the seed were taken and dried at 212 
deg., i^otil they remained at a constant weight. 
They gave 0.646 grannn^e^ w&(er^ == IQ-QQp* c, 
^n 100 parts of t^^Aee(j, 

EstimaHan of the ilsA.-r-The se^d were dried 
until they remained at a constant weight, then 
burned in a platina crucible. 6.587 grammes of 
the dried seed gave 0.237 grammes ash-— equa) 
to 3.8 percent ash, in 100 parts of the dried seed. 



The qualitative analysis showed that all the 
constituents were present which were in the ash 
of the plant, with the exoeption of carbonic acid. 

The quantitative analysis was carried out simi- 
lar to that of the ash of the plant, heretofore de- 

The following are the results : 1.882 grammes 
of the ash were used. 


Per Cent. 

Phosphoric Acid, 




Oxide of Iron, 








Sulphuric Acid, 




Oxide of Lime, 




Oxide of Magnesia, 












Silicic Acid, 


Loss and Chlorine, 




Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 21, 1850. 

Sir: Your favor was duly received, and I 
cheerfully make a cominunication for your An- 
nual Report, on the subject of wool-culture and 
sheep-husbandry, in the low latitudes of the United 
States. Observation and many years' experi-.. 
ence have brought me to different conclusions 
from all others who have written on this subject, 
upon the effects and influence of warm climates* 
on wool-growing, and especially upon the finest 
Saxony wools. 

In a letter addressed to the Commissioner of 
the Patent Ofiice, and published in the Report 
for 1848, page 627, 1 expressed the opinion that 
*Hhe United States are a better wool-growing 
country than any portion of Europe; that the 
low kuitudes have an advantage over the high,, and 
will produce finer wpol ; and also, that as fine, 
wool is now grown in the United States as can be 
fi)und in the world." 

I stated further, that I had studied this subject 
with diligence and devotion for tbirty.five years, 
and thought I had come to corect conclusions ; 
but the Commissioner, Hon. £. Burke, decided 
that I ''was wrong, and most decidedly mistaken 
in the whole matter ;'' and that Mr. Fleischman's 
views, who had said that we must go to Germany 
for sheep, if we hoped to succeed, were no doubt 
correct. Still confident that my long study and 
experience had not misled me, when the Com- 
missioner published his Report and remarks, I 
addressed him a letter, which may be found in 
The P^f0» Loom and AnvH page 366, Decem. 
ber No., 1849, ofiering to exhibit selections from 
my own flock, in latitude 36 deg., against any 
sheep which could be found in all Silesia, or any 

high latitude in Europe, and especially above 50 
deg. north latitude. Thb ofTe r has not been accept 
ted, and I have no fears of the result, if it should 
ever be. 

It is gratifying now to refer to the impartial ev- 
idence science of in favor of the positions taken. 
I was certain the facts existed, but I did not know 
that the reaearohes and inventions of our country- 
man, P. A. Browne, Esq., of Pennsylvania, 
would so soon present the testimony in so satis- 
factory and tangible a shape. Mr. Browne prac- 
ticed law for more than thirty years in the city 
of Philadelphia ; retired from practice, he has 
devoted years to the study of hair and wool, aided 
by the lights of others and his own inventions. 
I consider his examinations, therefore, entitled to 
full faith and credit. 

From two letters addressed to Uie Hon. R. R. 
Reed, of Pennsylvania, and myself^ published ia 
the May No. of The Plow, Loom and Anvils 
1850, I beg leave to make a few extracts, which 
show important results to the United States, be- 
cause it places her at the head of the list of all 
countries for fine wools. 

Mr. Browne examined sixty-five samples, or 
collections of samples, from all parts of the world, 
and especially the eighteen samples brought over 
by Mr. Fleischman from the most renowned flocks 
of Europe, and distributed, through your office, 
to the several States, as the standards of excel- 
lence, and worthy of imitation. 

The quality is expressed by the number of fi- 
bres which will cover an inch ; or, the diameter 
of one fibre is that fraction of an inch. The low 
figures indicate the coarser wools, and the high 
figures the finer : 

Toon inch. 
No. 4* Common American wool, 500 

No. 4. The wool of Leceister, Enghind, 500 
No. 4. The Irish long wool, 560 

No. 17. Wool of Odessa, 750 

No. 81. Three quarter Amer. Saxony, 1041 
No- 32. Wool from the herd of Dambran, 
improved by buck from Prince 
Lichnowsky, by Mr. Fleischman, 1093 
No. 34. Lamb from the Duke of Leitche- 
man, in the possession of Hon. 
R. R. Reed, Pennslyvania, 1003 

No. 37. Wool from buck "Napoleon," 
. valued at 91,500, owned by 
M. Heller, of Chrezelitz, whose 
flock is considered the only rival 
to that of PriAce Lichnowsky, 
collected by Mr. Fleischman, 1200 
No. 38. Wool from a buck of the herd 
of Reti, from Hungary, by Mr. 
Fleischman, 1200 

No. 39. Ewe of Prince Lichnowsky, 

Knohelna, 1350 

No. 40. Buck of Roggon, in Mecklen- 
burg, collected by Fleischman, 1250 



No. 42. Ewe from the Duke of Leitche. 

nan, dam of the ram of the Hon. 

R: R. Reed, 1250 

No. 45. Another ewe of Prince Lichnow- 

sky, by Mr. Fleischman, 1562 

No. 46. liuck near Moscow, Russia, 

by same, 1572 

No. 47. Buck of Prince Bsterhazy, by 

same, 1572 

No. 50. Ewe of the herd of Guettsnan- 

dorf, celebrated for its thorough 

blood, by same, 1560 

No. 51. Buckof the herd of the Viceroy 

of Hungary, 1600 

No. 54. Buck of Gross Herlitz, Silesia, 1875 
No. 61. Specimen from a wooLmercbaot, 

Dresden, 21^6 

No. 57. Ewe of Col. Randall, New York, 1875 
No. 57. Specimens from five ewes and 

iive bucks of Mr. S. Patterson, 

Pennsylvania, 2186 

No. 57. iSpecimen of Col. Lee's flock, 

Pennsylvania, 1875 

No. 57, Flock of Mr. Robert Allen, 

Virginia, 1875 

No. 65* Five specimens from the flock 

of Mr. Mark R. Cockrill, Ten- 
nessee, as follows : 
No. 1. 1672 

No. 2. 187.'> 

No. 3. This is a beautiful, even wool, lb75 
No, 4. This IB a clean, even wool, of 

the extreme fineness of 2186 

No. 5. Not uniform, 2186 

No. 6. Sonae strands in this specimen, 2500 
The above is the evidence of soteotifio instru- 
ments in the hands of a gentleman devoted to the 
investigation of this subject, and fully sustains 
my position, that the United States are growing 
as fine wools as Saxony, Silesia, or any other 
part of the world. 

Mr. Fleischman recommended in his report, 
that wool-growers should go to Chrexelitz and 
give Mr. Heller f 1,500 for such buoks as "Na- 
poleon," for the purpose of improving the qualify 
of our wool. Compare the sample from "Napo- 
leon" with the samples in Mr. Browne's cabinet, 
from New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and 
Tennessee : 

United States sampler, 1875, 2186, and 2500 
'^Napoleon," rival fiock to Prince Lich- 

nowsky, 1200 

Was I mistaken, then, when I said that as fine 
bucks could be purchased in the United States 
for 850, as those in Germany which are valued 
and sold at $1,500 1 What improvement in 
quality of wool would such a buck as *'Napoleon" 
be to the flocks of New York, Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia and Tennessee, which grow the samples in 
the above collection, running from 1500 to 2500, 

whilst he wears a coat grown in the snows of 
Northern Europe, of only 1200 to the inch f 

The samples from the fiock of Prince Esterha* 
zy, of Hungary, is 1572. This Hungarian 
Prince, it is said, owns a flock of 3,000,000 sheep* 
and 4,480,000 acres of land. We have a right 
to suppose that he has done everything that wealth 
and leisure could accomplish in thai latitude to 
improve his flock. Yet, would a buck with a 
fleece of 1572 be an improvement upon our ewes 
in the low latitudes of 36 deg., which bear now 
the "beautiful, even fleece of 2186 ?" The same 
remarks apply with equal force to the flock of 
Prince Lichnowsky, of Kuchelna, whose samples 
are 1550 and 1262. 

I cannot omit a notice of a remark of Mr. 
Fleischman, at page 306. He says : *'Jt has 
.been found that the highly improved sheep do 
not last well in America, and that the wool grown 
in America by the German sheep does not at all 
compare with that grown in Germany." 

I can excuse Mr. Pleischman's partiality tor 
his "fatherland," but I should do injustice to our 
own country not to challenge a test of such state, 
ments. I hold directly the reverse of both these 
propositions, and, on the subject of wool, refer to 
the testimony of Mr. Browne, who deserves from 
our wooKgrowers a service of plate and a suit of 
clothes from the "beautiful fleece of 2186," for 
his investigations in this important product. 

There is a traditional t>eUef entertained by the 
greater portion of the world, that sheep, by na- 
ture, belong to a cold cUmate ; and that when 
they are removed from a cold to a warm climate, 
the wool will grow coarser. My observations 
and reflections on this point, have convinced me 
that, when the latitude is not below 30 deg. north, 
the reverse of this tradition is true. I believs 
that the improved Saxony sheep, brought from 
the snows of Russia to Texas, in the United States, 
will produce a finer, evener and fuller fleece than 
while in Russia. I think the evidence is pretty 
conclusive that the Merino sheep are natives of 
the orange groves, and are fitted by nature for 
the warm climates generally. Climate is a law 
of nature, and her laws are in harmony. The 
animals fitted for warm climates are most health- 
ful and vigorous, under the action and influence 
of these laws. The elephant, lion and camel are 
organized to bear, with healthful influences, the 
long-continued heat of Africa, and the white bear 
grows fat on the ice of the Arctic seas. I can, 
with confidence, say to all husbandmen In the 
cotton districts of the United States, that, for fine 
wool-growing, they have nothing to fear from the 

I consider Texas an admirable location for 
wo»]-growing, as there is a scarcity of timber, 
and it is not so well adapted to other agricultural 
pursuits. The prairies are produclive of grass 



without the labor of man. The winters are mild, 
open and warm, furnishing green food, with a 
regularly growing fleece, throughout the year. 
Population sparse and lands cheap, requiring but 
a small capital to engage profitably in the busi- 
ness. Our population is rapidly increasing, and 
must continue to do so ; and Inst year we import- 
ed nearly 20^000^000 pounds of raw wool, besides 
the woolen goods which We fake annually from 
foreign countries. These are strong facts in fa- 
vor of a continued demand for wool. 

Though ootton-Mhe happy gift of Heaven to 
that class of men blessed with the fewest comforts 
of life— ^is steadily In competition with all other 
matertala for coarse goods, yet there are appro- 
priate uses for wool which nothing else can sup- 
ply. The cotton district, embracing ten States, 
and about 500,000 square miles, presents a wide 
field for the growth of wool. The resources of 
the South are but partially developed, and I am 
happy to see Southern opinion awakening on this 
subject. . The spindles and looms are coming to 
the cotton fields, and when they are up, the cotton 
crop alone will yield 8150,000,000 per annum. 
The wool crop, at twenty sheep to the square 
mile, will yield 10,000,000 pounds, besides rice 
And suga% We have spread over our cotton ter- 
ritory, and the great enterprise of opening new 
cotton States is nearly closed. We have 9750,- 
000,000 invested in the growth of cotton, an en- 
terprize of comparatively but a few years, and 
the addition now of the spindles and looms in the' 
cotton fields will double the product of this great 
growing capital, and insure consumption by fur- 
nishing coarse goods for the laborers of all the 
world, at cheaper rates than they ever have been 
or ever can be furnished elsewhere. 

The cotton district of the United States is to be- 
come, in a few years, the dispenser of a great 
public charity, by furnishing the laborers of many 
portions of the world with the cheaoest clothing 
made in Europe or America. The wool crop 
raay be grown in the cotton district, without di- 
minishing the latter, and thus add to the resources 
of the South* All the cotton region is adapted to 
wool and sheep. 

In my estimation, the South 19 not dependent 
and not weak ; but rich in natural advantages, 
and now ready to say she will turn to account tlie 
gifts of nature, and show the strength of her po- 
sition. No power at home or abroad has any just 
right to interfere with our domestic relations and 
thereby disturb our quiet, and arrest the full de- 
velopement of our resources. 

I have, said that the low latitudes of the United 
States will grow the finest Saxony wool, finer 
tbao Silesia, the boasted province of Europe. J 
am alao satisfied that the intellect of the Cau<|^- 
Btan race, under the genial iofluenceo of our 
Southern sua, and thi» effects of our domeatic re- 

lations, is more rapid, more {x)li6hed ahd more 
brilliant, than it is in the higher latitudes of our 
own country. Mind is power, and the South may 
add this to its other natural advantages ; and 
these powers, when developied and understood, 
and associated in harmony, point to a prosperous 
destiny. I am, very respectfully, yours, 

Hon. Thomas Eubank, Cam. qfPatetits. 

[From DeBow*8 Bcnrlew.J 



We have the authority of the Sacred Scriptures 
for saying that fig leaves formed the first clothing 
used by man ; that skins of beasts probably came 
next, and aAer these probably cotton, wool and 
silk, in the order in which we here give them. 
Whether cotton, wool or sllli, was the first nat* 
ural product manufactured into clothings im a 
question which has not been much discussed, alnl 
one, too, which it would be difficult to answer. 
The earliest historical records throw but little 
light on the subject. According to th« most 
learned commentators, it cannot be fbHy determ- 
ined whether silk is ever mentioned in the Old 
Testament. It is true that the word sUk is found 
in King James' translation, but it i« qaite unau- 
thorized. The meaning of the Hebrew word, 
translated silk in the common English Bible, and 
trichaptjcm in the Septuagint version, cannot be 
determined, for trichapUm is in reality as obscure 
as the Hebrew word itself. Jerome could not 
make out iti9 trfeaning, and concluded that the 
word was intented by f be translators. It is found 
nowhere out of the Septuagint, except in a pas- 
sage of Pherecratesy a comic poet of Athens, con- 
temporary with Platcf and Aristophanes. Brau- 
nius, in his De vestilu Heb. SmeertUium, gi^^ the 
whole question a full examination, and decides 
that there is no mention of silk in the whole of 
the Old Testament, and that it was unknown to 
the Hebrews in ancient times. 

Whether cotton was used before wool, depends^ 
we conceive, much upon the question HBgarding 
the situation of the Garden of Eden ; Imt thitf 
question cannot be determined. If the fir^ tn^ 
habitants of the earth dwelt in a region producing 
cotton as a spontaneous production, it is probable 
that cotton was the f^ast article manufactured in- 
to clothing afler leaves and skins ; but if the lo- 
cality of Eden lay in any other region, wool was 
probably the article used first. 

So fur as all existing historical records aid ua 
in determining the question, we think that the 
weight of evidence is in favor of cotton as the first 
manufactu red article of clothing. We know that 
cotton was an article of clothing in common use 
in India in very remote ages, and that the Indi- 
ans had brought its manufacture to a very high 



Stage of perfection at a period when neither K^y pt 
nor any of the western nations had any knowU 
edge of its growth or manufacture. Growing too, 
as it did, spontaneously, it would naturally pre- 
sent itself as the easiest ajticle for manufacture 
that could be found. Men would hardly go to 
the greater trouble of raising sheep, for their wool, 
when the earth presented them everywhere with 
the beautiful (lodsof silky cotton. 

Undoubtedly the inventive faculty of man be* 
gan to exhibit itself at a very early period; but 
the insect world taught man the art of weaving. 
Tbo spider, says an ingenious and learned author, 
"may be regarded as the earliest practical wenv. 
er on record;" and he might have said spinner ; 
while the much despised wasp may claim the hon- 
or of being the first paper manufacturer, since it 
produces van undou'ited specimen of paper iu the 
material of its nests, of so smooth and hard a sur- 
face as to admit of being written ui)on with ease 
and legibility. 

The antiquity of the rnQnufaclure of cotton 
cannot be reached by any authentic records. 
Neither wool, silk, nor linen can claim a higher 
antiquity. One thing is pretty certain, that its 
ttrst manufacture may be traced to India, whence 
U passed to all the rest of the world. India, in- 
Heed, has been the source of many of the arts of 
civilized life. It was, in all probability, the cra- 
dle of mankind, and the source of Assyrian, 
Egyptian and Persian civilization. 

The Indians have, in all ages, raaiDtained an 
unapproached and almost incredible perfection in 
their fabrics of cotton. Indeed, some of their 
muslins might be thought the work of fairies or 
insects, rather than of man ; but these are pro- 
duced in small quantities, and have seldom bef n 
exported. In the same province of India from 
which the ancient Greeks obtained the finest mus- 
lins then known, namely, Bengal, these astonish. 
ing fabrics are manufactured at the present day. 

We are told by two Mahammedan travellers, 
who went to India in the 9th century, "that in 
(hat country tbey make garments of such extra* 
ordlnaiy perfection, that nowhere else are the 
like to be seen. They are woven to that degree 
of fineness that they may be drawn through a ring 
of moderate size." Marco Polo, in the 13th cen- 
tury, mentions Coromandel, and especially Ma- 
aulipatam, as**producingthe finest and most beau- 
tiful cottons that are to be found in any part of 
the world ;" and this is still the case as to flow, 
ered and glazed cottons, called chintzes. 

The Portuguese adventurers who went to India 
immediately ailer the discovery of the route by 
the Cape of Good Hope, speak of '*the great qaan. 
titieB of cotton clothes admirably painted, also 
some white and some striped, held in the highest 
estimation, which were made in Bengal." Ccesar 
Frederick, a Venetian merchant, who travelled 

in India in 1.^3, describes the extenslire trade 
carried on between St. Thome, a port 150 miles 
from Negapatam, and Pegu, in humbnst (cotton) 
cloth of every sort, painted. Which is a rare thing, 
because this kind of cloths show as if they were 
gilded with divers colors, and the more they are 
washed the livelier tlie colors will become ; and 
there is made such account of this kind of cloth, 
that a small bale of it will cost 1000 or 2000 du. 

Tavernier, who travelled in India about '200 
years ago, speaks of the white calicoes (so called 
from the city oi' Calicut, in India, wh^re they were 
first seen by Europeans) or muslins woven in 
Bengal, and rendered so remarkably white by 
being dipped in lemon juice. He says, "some 
cttlicuts are so fine that you can hardly feel them 
in your hand, and the thread when spun is scarce 
discernible." The same writer savs, that there 
"is made at Seconge, in the province of Malwa, 
a sort of calicut so fine, that when a man puts it 
on, his skin shall appear as plainly through it as 
if he were quite naked ; but the merchants are 
not permitted to transport it, for the Crovernor is 
obliged to send it all to the Great Mogul's seraglio 
and the principal lords of the court, to make the 
sultunesses and noblemen's wives shifts and gar- 
ments for the hot weather ; and the king and the 
lords take great pleasure in beholding them in 
these, and seeing them dance with nothing else 
upon them." Of the turbans of the Mohammedan 
Indians, Tavernier says : "The rich have them of 
so fine cloih, that twenty.five or thirty ells of it, 
put into a turban, will not weigh four ounces." 

Kighteen hundred years ago, according to 
Arrian, author of the Peri pi us, there were thou- 
sands of men, women and children employed at 
Baroche, in Guzerat, and the adjacent villages, 
in the manufacture of cotton, from the coarsest 
sail-cloth to the finest muslins. So that it is a 
great mistake to suppose that cotton manufacto- 
ries are of modern origin. They existed in India 
centuries before the Christian era; 

The ingenuity of the Hindoo cotton manufac- 
turera is truly wonderful. The late Rev. Wm- 
Ward, a missionary at Serampore, says : "At 
two places in Bengal, muslins are made so ex- 
ceedingly fine that Tour months are required to 
weave one piece, which' sells at five hundred ru- 
pees. When this muslin is laid on the grass, 
and the dew has fallen upon it, it is no longer 
discernible." We might cite a great number of 
creditable authorities in proof of the fineness of 
India cotton manufactures, and the ingenuity of 
the Hindoos, but these will sufiice. The orien. 
tal hyperbole, which describes the muslins of 
Decca as "weA« of woven vind,^^ is less poetical 
thari is generally supposed. No modern Buro. 
pean manufacturer ol' cotton at all approaches 
the Hindoos, iu respect to the fineness of his fab- 



TICS. The extreme of fineness to^ which yarns 
for muslins are now spun in Great Britain, is 250 
hanks !o the pound, though cotton yarn has been 
spun in If^ngland itlaking 350 hanks to the pound. 
This was, however^ only an experiment, to ascer- 
tain how fine cotfoti could be spun. No such 
yarn is ot ctmld be used in making muslins, or 
K>f any other pufpose. The Hindoos are the on- 
\y ODes who have ever woven such yams into 

The cotton manufacture in India is not carried 
on in a few large towns onlv^ of only ill one or 
two districts; it is universal. Almost every vil. 
lage has its Weavers. Orme, in his Historical 
Fragments of the Mogul Empire, says : "At 
present much the gfeatest part of the whole prov- 
inces are employed in this single manufacture of 
cotton. The progress of the cotton manufacture 
in India includes no less than a description of the 
lives of half the inhabitants of Hindoostan<" 

Dr. Hamilton, in his account of Patna, men- 
tions it as a fact, strikingly illustrating the na- 
tional character of the Hindoos, that "all Indian 
weavers, who work for the common market, make 
the woof of .one end of the cloth coarser than that 
of the other, and attempt to sell to the unwary by 
the fine end, although almost evefy otie who deals 
with them is perfectly aware of the circumstance, 
and although in the course of his life any weaver 
may not ever have an opportunity of gaining by 
this means, yet he continues the practice, with 
the hope of being able, at some time or other, to 
take advantage of the purchaser of his goods." 

It is a matter of great surprise that the Hin. 
doos, with such rude materials for manufactu- 
ring, should be able to produce fabrics of such 
exquisite delicacy and beauty, unrivalled by the 
products of any other nation, even those best skil- 
led in the mechanic arts. This is explained by 
the remarkably fine sense of touch possessed by 
the efieminate Hindoos ; by their patience and 
gentleness ; and by the hereditary continuance 
of a particular species of manufactures in fami- 
lies through many generations. It is further oh- 
served, that every distinct kind of cloth is the 
product of a particular district, in which the fab- 
ric has been transmitted from father to son for 
centuries perhaps. 

The commerce of the Hindoos in cotton fabrics 
has been extensive from the time of Christ to the 
end of the last century. For many hundreds of 
years, beginning even farther back than any au- 
thentic record carries us, the Hindoos, probably, 
supplied Persia, Arabia, Syria, Bgypt, Abyssin- 
ia, and all the eastern parts of Africa, together 
with Europe, with all their cottoqs and muslins. 
The great marts of this commerce were at Surat 
and Calicut, on the west coast of India, and at 
Masulipatam, Madras and St. Thome, on the east 

At one time the manufacturers of all Europe* 
owing to the beauty and cheapness of India mus- 
lins, chintzes and calicoes, apprehended ruin by 
their competition. In the seventeenth century, 
the Dutch and English East India Companies im- 
ported these goods in large quantities, which 
importation, in 1678, produced, in England^ a 
loud outcry against the admission of India goods, 
which, it was maintained, were ruining the wool* 
en manufacture. The interference of cotton 
with woolen fabrics Was greatly dreaded in Bnu 
gland. The English regarded the woolen man* 
ufacttfre, for many centuries, with almost sti* 
perstitious veneration. It was, in fact, the 
most extensive branch of manufactures in the 
world, save that of cotton in India, until the com^ 
metrcement of the present century, and the En- 
glish looked upon if as the palladium of their na« 
tional prosperity. 

{To he continued.) 

To PitfisERVB Frbsh Meat. — As the weathef 
in this climate is variable, it is important that 
those who are situated so that they cannot al« 
ways procure a supply of fresh meat when want- 
ed, should know how to preserve it. The ordi- 
nary method of putting it in an ice- house, down 
the well, and other cool places, keeps it but » 
short time ; but it is suggested by the National 
Gazette that it may be kept sweet for years : 

For household purposes, the most convenient 
way will be to provide a number of earthen jars, 
with ground covers and a small hole in each gov* 
er, like that in a tea-pot, which may be slopped 
easily. The meat may be first partly boiled and 
deprived of its bones, and be then put, with part 
of the liquor, into the jais, which must be set in 
a pan of warm water, and gradually brought to a 
boil. When the steam is rising from the jars, 
the covers must be put on and fixed down air-tight, 
the steam generated in the meantime being soU 
fered to escape from the lids. Finally, the pan 
must be removed from the fire, the holes in the 
lids being stopped with small corks, and 
these corks waxed over to make them more im- 
penetrable. It may also be a good precaution 
to run Brittle melted wax round the edge of each 
cover, to obviate the leakage due to any imper* 
fection of the surfaces in contact. Meat might 
also be preserved by repeatedly dipping it in 
melted fat, the same as they do candles, till it had 
a protecting coat of tallow which the air could not 
penetrate. Vegetables may be preserved injurs 
as above, as well as meat. 

^t0tm^^imm ^>^«^^Mi.. — ■■MB^^^^^— ^ijfcMw^^w^— ^ 1^ ma a^^ttm^^^^t^m^ 

Draining. — The draining of wet lands and 
marshes adds to their value, by making them 
produce more, and better crops — by producing 
them earlier, and by greatly improving the health 
of neighborhoods. 




The tegs of the level, 2, 8 and 3, ^, are eight feet long, 
and one inch thick, and three broad. The cross 
bars are the same width and thickness. All of these 
pieces are let into each other, and secured by wooden 
acrews. The stride of the level from the leg 2 to the leg 
4 is jnat twelve feet. The cross bars 8, 10 and 0, 11, as 
^ou will see bj measuement, go on the side pieces, or 
legs of the instmment, one third of the distance from the 
heel and crown ; that is, the ends 8 and 11 are one third 
the length of the legs fl*om the heels 2 and 4 ; likewise, 
9 and 10 are one third from the ctown. The light bar 
7 represents the box into which the spirit level is placed, 
and should be only large enough to receive it, so that it 
may not rock in the box when carried, and is screwed on to 
the bars 8, 10, 9 an^ 11. 

How to put the box on, so as to have the true level, is 
the question. Then observe the following rule: Screw 
one end of the box to cross bar 9 and 11, with a hand 
vice clamp ; the other end to cross bar 8 and 10, and take 
the instrument to a slight hill side, and put the legs on 
ground, as nearly the same level as your eyes dictate, 
and observe where the bubble in the tube stands ; then 
reverse the legs, and place each exactly where the other 

stood, aiid the bubble in the tube will indicate whether 
the end held by the vice should be moved up or down. 
After repeated shiftings of the feet and moving the end of 
the box, you may get the bubble to stand at the same 
place with the legs shifted ; then you may be certain that 
you have the true level. Then the box should be made 
fast by a screw, as the first end was. 

Now, to get A grade for cutting inclined ditches, I 
would recommend a more simple and easy method of get* 
ting the grade than that laid down in my first number 
to Mr. Howard. It is simply this : The true leyel bar- 
ing been obtained in the way above described, take your 
level and place it on the ground, moving one leg up or 
down until the bubble stands in the centre; then take a 
block as thick as you want your fall, say 8} inches in 12 
feet, and put it under one foot of the level ; then raise 
one end of the spirit level in the box, until the bubble 
stands at the level point ; then, with the point of a knife, 
make a mark on the end of the level at the top edge of 
the box, and then saw in with a tenant saw, say one inch» 
and slip in a piece of tin, long enough to reach the bot- 
tom of the saw cut and reach over the edge of the box— 
and you are prepared for ditching. K. S. H. 


No. 2. 
To Augustus Howabd, Esq. 

Dear Sir : In my letter of the 15th of June, I 
promised in my next to give some of tiie reasons 
why the system there described was better than 
any of the great variety practiced to prevent the 
washing of our fields j to answer a few of the 
objections to the horizontal culture, and show 
why none of the various systems that approximate 
to it, and are intended to supersede it, and by 
many of their votaries thought to be equally 
good, if not better, will do. 

Whether I shall be able to satisfy you and 
others before whom this communication will come 
that the system described will do what is claimed 
for it, the. sequel only will prove. Certain I am 

that I shall not be able to shake the faith of the 
anti-improvement, knock down, drag out, kill and 
cripple advocates. They are so joined to their 
vandal policy that it is quite as well to let them 
enjoy the (to them) sweet reflection, that when 
they are done with a piece of land, it will do no 
one else any good — that posterity must do as they 
have done — take care of themselves. 

To such I have not a %vord. On them argu« 
ment is thrown away, and proofs demonstrable 
are not understood — not for a want of capacity, 
but from a determination not to be convinced. 
Like carniverous animals, they seem to have a 
natural propensity to destroy. 

Before an impartial judge, I feel confident that 
the system will be sustained ; and believing that 
1 have one in the person of yourself, as well as 



man}' others, i with confidence proceed to the 

I lay down in the outset the premises, that no 
system of culture can secure the land from wash- 
ing that does not prevent the water from embody- 
ing itself; and that any system which does will 
protect it from any material injury. 

To prove this position, you may take, or im- 
agine to yourself, afield that is a perfect inclined 
plane, (and I intend the word fterfect to have the 
benefit of its fullest signfication,) and suppose 
the rain to fall on it until the eartli is fully satu- 
rated — the balance must flow off as a matter of 
course. The plahe bein^ perfect, the water 
naturally flows directly down it, and will "be 
equal at all points, fornung a thin sheet all over 
the surface, no thicker at one place than another. 
Because of tiie perfectness of the plane, and the 
Water falling equally all over it, it will of course 
move off at all points at ihe same time ; and for 
the same reason, the relative positions of the dif- 
ferent parts of the body will be preserved, until it 
has all in succession passed over the lower e^ge 
of the plane. 

A moment's reflection will satisfy you that 
Hone of the plane is washed, because the moving 
sheet of water, equal at all parts of the field or 
plane, although perfectly inundated, is too light 
and thin to take with it any earth. The sheet of 
water, in its movement down the plane^ is never 
increased in bulk or tliickness by overtaking other 
Water, or meeting with it from lateral directions. 
It can only be increased by the falling rain, and 
it is' reasonable to suppose that it will be equal 
all over the field. Thus you perceive that the 
rain would have to fall fast enough to increase on 
the plane until there wa<3 sutiicient weight in the 
dheet of moving water to take earth with it. And 
•you further perceive, that if it washed at all, il 
would be equal at all points of the plane, because 
il is perfect— the sheet of water being of equal 
weight and thickness, and moving with equal ve- 
locity at every point. It is admitted on all hands, 
that it is not the water that falls on land that 
Washes it ; but the collection of water from oth- 
er parts passing over it in a current having weight 
and velocity. Noth withstand ing the water that 
falls on the upper side of the plane has to pass 
across it, because of the perfectness of the plane, 
and the laws of gravitation, every part of the 
sheet is made to preserve its relative position, and 
can only be increased by the falling water ; 
hence the sheet of water will be too thin ever to 
materially injure the land. 

Now, sir, it 1 have made myself understood, 
the main point in the cuse is made out, and all 
that remains to be done is to apply it. 

Perfectly horizontal rows, and perfectly paral- 
lei to each (other, form a perfect inclined plane, 
no matter how many various directions they rnay 
take, or however serpentine they may be» The 

first, or guide furrow, being level, suppose the 
land to fall one inch in five feet, and the next 
rows being run parallel to, and just five feet 
from the guide rows, would make an inclined 
plane of one inch in five feet, and just no with all 
the other parallel rows to that guide furrow. 
Thus the various guide furrows described in my 
communication of the 15th of June, are the gov. 
erning rows, to which the parallel rows are run 
— and when properly run, an inclined plane is 
formed, taking any one row with the row next 
above and next below. The necessary inclined 
or graded ditches having been made, the land 
bedded up on a level, and planted, if you please, 
or if you would rather, will you suppose the crop 
to have been ploughed over, and then, hy way of 
testing your Work, you have a heavy fall of rain, 
sufficient, we will suppose, to overrun the water- 
furrows, or finishing furrow, between your beds. 
We will now see the result. The rows being lev- 
el, the water stands in the water- furrows, or mid- 
die between the rows, equally from one end to 
the other ; and when it can hold no more, it then 
passes over the bed below, from one end to the 
other. And just so with all the rows in the field, 
if the depth of the water-fiirrow is about the same 
and a good level is preserved. The water- fur. 
row will overflow as soon on the hill-top as on 
the hill-side, or in the valley ; and altbongh the 
same row may pass round the side of a hill, and 
through a valley, and over comparatively level 
land, it will overflow at all points at the sanno 
time, simply because the row is level, the water 
remaining where it falls until the water- furrow 
is full. The water furrows becoming full at tbe 
same time, they all flow over simultaneously. 
Thus a sheet is formed, and takes its direction 
down the different planes, and is received by the 
ditches below and borne out of the field. Now, 
there would be no necessity for the ditches, if 
you could keep up your inclined plane perfect 
throughout the field, which you could do but for 
the various undulations of the land. These un- 
dulations compel you to have as many inclined 
planes as there are changes in the surface ; and 
not unfrequently they face each other, or, in other 
words, incline towards each other, having a bot- 
torn between them, reaching from the base of the 
one to the base of the other. Thus you perceive 
that the water of these two planes must meet, un- 
less prevented by a ditch. 1 mean then to say, 
that by this system, such an inclined plane is 
formed as to receive the water bv the ditches 
befbro it can become embodied, afler overflowing 
the water- furrows. 

I tried the horizontal svstem for several years 
without the ditches, and with moderate rains my 
success was satisfactory ; hut when the rain was 
80 great as to overflow my water-furrotvs, mis- 
chief was done to the land just in proportion to 
the extent of the rain. It is easy to perceive why 



1 did not then succeed. The various inclined 
planes formed by the borisontal rows, over which 
the various sheets of water were moving bv the 
overflowing of the water-furrows, passed down 
their respective planes ; and because of the vari- 
ous changes in the planes by the undulations of 
the land, the water was necessarily thrown into 
bodies, and a wash Was inevitable. Properly 
graded and located, ditches are a sovereign rem- 
edy, and since I have united them with the hori- 
zontal system, my success has been perfectly 

Another reason is, that in all rains, whether 
great or small, that <ro not overflow the water. 
furrows, the water is retained within the rows on 
which it falls ; consequently the water is more 
equally didtilbuted over the fields than if it was 
permitted to run from the hills to the vallies. 

Again ; by the falling of rain the lighter and 
finer particles of the earth are taken up and float 
in the water, which is called sediment, and all of 
which is retained to the land, if the water is held 
by the water- fur rows; and if the water- furrows 
overflow, even then mueh more is retained than 
by any other system ; because, as soon as the 
rain ceases, the overflowing water passes ofii* by 
the aid of the ditches, the water- furrows retain- 
ing all that they can hold, the sediment contained 
in which is retained to the land. 

Again ; by this system, a less amount of rain 
will suflice to make a crop. In all moderate 
^ains all the water is retained to the land, and just 
where it falls; consequently moisture is longer 
retained and more perfectly equalised than if the 
Water had been permitted to run down the decliv- 
ities to the bottoms, and in many cases out of the 

Lastly ; land will retain its fertility longer un- 
der this system than any other; and if reduced 
to poverty by the old kill and cripple system, can 
by this the sooner be restored and brought back 
to its maiden fertility, ell other things being equal. 
To establish this point, one plain and simple rea- 
son will suiiioe. Whea a piece of land is first 
reduced to cultivation, if a f^ystem should be es- 
tablished that would perfectly protect it from 
washing, whereby all the offal from the crops 
would be retained to the land, it certainly can- 
not deterioriite as if its soil was floated ofl' by ev. 
ery heavy fall of rain. In the one case, its fer- 
tility is only reduced by giving up the necessary 
quantity of food for the growing crop ; while in 
the other case the same thing is done, and the 
washing of the land besides, which, in wet years 
like the present, amounts to much more than the 
necessary food for the- crop. The same sort of 
reaosning will apply to the reclaiming of exhaus- 
ted land. The manure applied to save whiit is 
consumed by the plant, is retained on the land, 
if washing is prevented ; while, on the other 
hand, if the land is permitted to wash, by the end 

of the yeat* the ctx>p and the Washing together 
will exhaust all the manure that may haVe beett 
dpplied in the spring. 

More might be said, but I deem it unnecessary* 
if the arguments already submitted are not suf^ 
ficient to establish the groUnd assumed ^ other ai- 
gumenis would be equally linaValling* 

The next point before me is to answer or reply 
to n few of the most prominent objections to the 
system, raised by men who admit its utility but 
excuse themselves from its practice for (to them) 
many weighty good reasons. One very common 
oojection is, the number of short rows that neces- 
sarily occur in the horizontal cultivation — alled- 
ging that as much work cannot be done. To 
this objection I will remark, ihat on ordinary ly- 
ing land, there are as many, so much increased 
in length over what they would be if run direct, 
ly across the field, that tht-y more than overbal* 
ance the short rows. In other words, I doubt 
whether a horse has to turn as often in the hori* 
zontal culture as in the straight, save on Very 
knobby land. But admit that they have^ and 
even one fourth more, what is that compared to 
the saving of the land ? 

Another objection is, that the ploughing cannot 
be as well done on those sharp turns that frequent- 
Iv occur on very knobby ground. I admit the 
force of this objection ; but contend that they 
seldom occur in ordinarily lying fai^ms. But 
even this should not deter us from trying to save 
our land, and supplying the deficiency by a little 
more hard work at those places. I however, 
maintain that gradual curves can be ploughed as 
well as straight rows, and quite as much in the 
day, and with more ease to the hand and horse, 
as they are all the time moving on a level. 

But again it is objected, that this system re- 
quires the constant attention of the owner or man- 
ager to have it correctly done, and necessarily 
consumes much of his time in actual labor, in 
laying ofl*the land* All of which I admit, with* 
out feeling or seeing the force of the objection. 
"If you want a thing done, send your servant ; 
but if you want it well done, go yourself," is an 
old saying, and as true as it is ancient. My ex-* 
perience in life has been, that if I had any busi- 
ness well done, I had to superintend it in person. 
The objection, however, amounts to nothing ; be- 
cause it is the duty of the owner or manager to 
attend strictly in person to every branch of his 
business. Therefore he should be there, wheth- 
er the rows are to be run straight or crooked — ^to 
say nothing of the advantage that is to be derived. 
By way of encouragement to those who make a 
mountain of this objection, I will remark that sev- 
eral of my fields were laid ofl^by a servant— I 
being present often enough to give him the start- 
in points — and the work is as eifcctual as any on 
the farm. By way of overbalancing all the ob- 
jections that have been or can be raised, I asseit 



it will prevent hilly land from washing, and ex 
perience has proved ihe fact. If higher testimo- 
ny is wanting, I invite any gentleman who de- 
sires it, to give me a call, and he shall have a 
peactical illustration of the fact. 

I now come to speak of the various systems that 
are intended to supersede the one I advocate and 
practice* And 1 might sum them all up together 
and dispose of them all with the same answer, as 
they are all liable to the same objection. It 
might, however, be considered too summary a 
notice, and not sufficiently respectful ; therefore, 
I will name only a few, and point out their defects. 

Perhaps the most common practice is to run 
the rows on a level by the eye, or take the gene- 
ral advantage of the hill, making turn rows oc- 
casionally where the hill makes any material 
change. Now, it certainly will not be consider- 
ed necessary for me to enter into an argument to 
show that neither of these systems can prevent the 
Water from embodying when there is a h<javy fall 
of rain. A moment's reflection will convince ail 
that a level row cannot be run by the eye ; and 
if the row is not level, the water must necessarily 
be drawn to different points, in consequence of 
which a body will be formed, the ditch filled up 
with dirt, and the land washed. The other me- 
thod spoken of will in many cases bring out the 
water by the rows from both sides into the turn- 
ing row ; a current is then formed, and a guliey 
is the consequence, with the filling of the ditch 
below. 1 speak advisedly, having travelled over 
the ground in my early efforts to prevent my 
land from washing. I therefore assert, without 
any fear of successful contradiction, that neither 
of these methods will do. 

A more common practice, and very strongly 
advocated by many, is to run the rows with and 
parallel to the ditches, beginning below the ditch 
and finishing with short rows above the next ditch 
below. The reason urged for this system is, 
that each row will carry off its own water. Well, 
this looks very well on paper ; but why, allow 
me to ask, will you be at the trouble of cutting 
ditciies ? If your rows are to carry off their own 
water, you certainly have no use for them, save 
for the few short rows that would need an outlet 
for their water. I must be allowed to call in 
question the fact, and deny that the rows will bear 
off their own water, save a few of the first. If 
the fall of the land at all points of the field is the 
same, a number might do it ordinarily — not more 
than five or six. Suppose the land at one side of 
the field falls very abruptly, and at the other very 
slightly, and suppose the fall of the ditches is 
from the abrupt side to that which is gradual, you 
will readily perceive that the water will run the 
contrary way from the one you intended, in a 
very few rows from the ditch ; because the grade 
is soon lost by the land falling rauch faster at one 
side of the field than th« other. But tlii« is not 

all ; the natural undulations of the land would 
soon destroy your grade, and cause the water to 
flow to the same row, when a current would be 
formed, and the shortest direction taken down the 
hill, increasing in volume as it went, taking with 
it a sufficient quantity of earth to fill up the ditch 
below. For the sake of further illustration, we 
will admit that the rows may be so graded 
as to bear off their own water, without materi- 
ally washing the rows, and then the system isob* 
jectionable ; because the water would take with 
it all the sediment, and waste the water in hasty 
showers. This system has done and is still doing 
much mischief to land. 

And again ; another method is to so grade the 
rows that each one will empty its water into the 
ditch below. But this is subject to the same ob- 
jection as running the rows parallel to the ditch- 
es. The common undulations of the land will be 
sure to embody the water ; and besides this, an- 
other objection would be prominent, provided the 
rows could be so run that each one could empty 
its water into the ditch, which is, that in hard 
rains, the rows would carry a sufficient quantity 
of sand to fill up the ditches, unless they had 
the favorite fall of my very particular friend, 
o^ six inches to every twelve feet. Besides this, it 
would be liable to the objection of wasting light 
showers, and taking with the water the sediment 
or finer particles of the earth. 

Once more, and I shall have done with this fa- 
vorite system ; and although it is the last I shall 
mention, it is not the less plausible. Neverthe- 
less, you will find that its utility exists more in 
the imagination of the author than in reality. 

But to the system. First, lay off the necessary 
inclined ditches ; then run about three parallel 
rows on each side of the ditch, and lay off the bal- 
ance of the land by a perfect level. The author 
and practitioner of this system claimed for it 
that each parallel row would carry off its own 
water, and that you could cultivate the land bet- 
ter near the ditches, than if you crossed them with 
the rows. "All is not gold that glitters;" so 
with this theory — it will not bear the test of ex- 
amination. It is subject to two objections : first, 
because in ploughing the horizontal rows, which 
would be bounded on each side by the parallel 
rows to the ditches, and would be what is tech- 
nically called butting rows, you would have to 
turn round, making your outside parallel to the, 
butting row, and consequently a turning row to 
the horizontal rows, which would increase the 
turning at least fiiiy per cent — already loo great 
an objection with some. The second objection is 
that tiiere is no necessity for the ditches, for the 
reason that where the rain is so great as to over- 
flow the water-furrows where the land is laid off 
on a level, the sheet of water in its downward 
passage will first reach the rows parallel to the 
ditch, when tke sheet will be broken — the parallel 



foWB having the same fall as the ditch, the water 
oaturally will take down them, and will never 
reach the ditch, unless the rain be one of the 
largest kind. I deny, too, that the land can be 
cultivated better and more economically near the 

a divinity, or, at least, held as an object of extreme 

The domesticated species of oxen is, in all its 
varieties, materially altered from its wild paren- 
tage. Influenced by climate, peculiar feeding, 

one half of their width from the ditch, while those 
that cross the ditch can be cultivated entirely up 
to the ditch, pains being taken. 

I have now, complied with my promise to you 
of the 15th of June, and respectfully submit the 
defence for your decision, as well as the system 
there described, hoping you will give it a critical 
investigation, and expose its defects, if you find 
tbem to exist. 

I am undetermined as to which class of your 
interrogatories I will answer in my next, or Sep- 
tember letter ; but will conclude in all good time 
fcr you to hear from roe again in that month. 

With regard. 

Your most oh't servaat, 

Jocassie, Hancock Co., Ga., > 
July 15th, 1847. \ 

ditch; because the pvallel rows must be at least and training in a state of subjection, its bony 

"" ' structure is diminished in bulk and power, its fe. 

rocity tamed, and its tractability greatly^improved. 
Our observations will refer chiefly to the Cow, 
on which very great changes have been eflTected 
by domestication ; the most remarkable of these 
alterations has been in the capacity for giving 
milk. In a wild state, the udder is small, and 
shrinks into an insignificant compass when the 
duty of suckling is over; but when domesticated 
for the sake of its milk, and that liquid is drawn 
copiously from it by artificial means, the lacteal 
or milk-secreting vessels, enlarge, and the udder 
expands, so as to become a prominent feature in 
the animal. In this manner, by constant exer- 
cise, the economy of the cultivated species of 
Cows has been permanently altered, and rendered 
suitable to the demands which are constantly 
made on it. Vet it is important to remark that 
those milk-yielding powers are not equal in the 
diflferent varieties or breeds of cows. Some breeds, 
from the influence of circumstances, give a large 
quantity of milk, but of a thin poor quality, while 
others yield less milk, but of a good rich quality. 
Whether, then, the cow-keeper wish quantity or 
quality, is the question for him to solve in making 
a selection of stock. In general, near large 
towns, where the demand for milk is considera. 
ble, the object of dairymen is to keep Cows which 
will give a large quantity of milk, no matter of 
what sort. Private families in the country are 
more regardful of the quality of the article ; they 
wish a little milk which is good, some fine cream, 
and perhaps also some sweet butter and cheese ; 
and on that account are more careful in the ae. 
lection of their Cows. For those who go for 
mere quantity, and yet have some^ honest scru- 
ples lefl about resorting to the jn/mp, the old fash- 
ioned, large-framed, big-boned Holdemess would 
do best; while for cream only, for family use, 
no breed can compare, in color and richness of 
milk, with the ewe-necked, deer-looking, ragged, 
boned, Aldemey* This breed may be seen at 
Roswell House, residence of Mr. Colt, Paterson, 
New Jersey. 

Dried Fruit. — Horace Greely, in his letters 
from Paris, says that nicely prepared dried peaqb- 
es would find a ready sale in London and other 
markets, if the article were introduced to public 
notice. May we not reasonably believe than an 
enormous business is yet to open to this country, 
in the way ofthe culture and drying the very best 
fruits for exportation, their weight being thus so 
much reduced as to cost littlo for transporta 
\ tioa? 



Next to the horse, the Cow is justly valued as 
the most useful animal which man has been able 
to domesticate and retain permanently in his ser- 
vice. The Ox tribe, of which it is the female, 
belongs to the order Ruminantia, in the class 
Mammalia; these terms implying that the ani- 
mals ruminate or chew their food a second time, 
and have mnmmcB or teats, with which they suck- 
le their young. In the Ox tribe there are diffe- 
rent genera and species, all more or less differing 
from each other. 

The Wild Breed, from being untameable, can 
only be kept within walls or good fences ; conse- 
quently, very few of them are now to be met 
with, except in the parks of some English gentle- 
men, who keep them for ornament and as a curi- 
osity. Their color is invariably of a creamy 
white ; muzzle black ; the whole of the inside of 
the ear, and about one third ofthe outside from 
the tip downward, red ; horn white, with black 
tips very tine, and bent upward ; some of the 
Bulls have a thin upright mane, about 4 or 5 
inches long. The weight of the Oxen is from 
460 to 5i0 pounds, and the Cows from 280 to 450 
pounds. The beef is finely marbled, and of ex- 
cellent flavor. 

Of the domesticated ox, the varieties, from the 
efiect of cultivation, are now very numerous. 
The ox, in one or other of its genera, and for the 
sake of its labor as a beast of draught, its flesh, 
or the milk of its female, has been domesticated 
and carefully reared from the earliest times — in 
some countries having been raised to the rank of 



[From tbe ScoUish Jouruia of Agriculture.] 


The importance of a good supply of light has 
long been overlooked, and it has only been with- 
in a very recent period that the subject has at all 
been considered. The result of the investigations 
on light has proved that a close and intimate con- 
hex ion exists between it and the performance of 
the higher functions of animal and vegetable ex- 
istence. Plant a pea, for instance, in a dark 
cellar, and what is the consequence? It takes 
I'oot, and grows, doubtless ; but are the shoots it 
throws out vigorous, and possessed of that healthy 
green color, the effect of the existence of healthy 
juices? No. Pale and sickly, the plant droops 
—growing still, but never arriving" at fructify- 
ing n(^aturity. As with vegetattle, so with animal 
life. In many of our large towns are dark cel- 
lars and rooms, lanes and alleys, into which the 
glorious light of day never enters, and which are 
inhabited by wretched beings — the grown up, 
pale and sickly ; the young, stunted and de- 
formed. And not the less marked or decided is 
the state of things in this respect, as witnessed in 
the country districts — windows few in number, 
aod so miserably deficient in size that all the light 
admitted only serves to make **the darkess visi- 
ble." To one who knows the effect of light up- 
on health, such specimens of ignorance on the 
part of our cottage-builders is calculated to give 
extreme paio. 

Mr. Ward, of London, has been instrumental 
in drawing much attention to the influence of light 
upon health. In his examination before the 
Health of Towns Commission, he stated that du- 
ring a practice of thirty year^ in a densely pop- 
ulated neighborhood, his attention W3S repeatedly 
drawn to the influence of light, not only as a most 
efficient means of preventing disease, but like- 
wise as tending materially to render disease mild- 
er when it ocpurs, aqd more amenable to medical 
and other treatment. And he also gave the fol- 
lowing remarkable illustration : Dupuytren, a 
. very celebrated physician of Paris, mentions the 
oase of the lady whose disease had baffled the 
3kill of several eminent practitioners. This lady 
resided in a dark room into which the sun never 
shown, in one of the narrow streets of Paris. 
After a careful examination, Dupuytren was led 
to refer her complaint to the absence of light ; a 
removal to a cheerful situation was recommended, 
and was attended with beneficial results, her dis- 
ease completely vanishing. Dr. Edwards insti- 
tuted a set of experiments, which serve to show 
the importance of light. He proved that if tad- 
poles are nourished with proper food, and exposed 
to the con3tantly renewed contact of water, in or- 
der to maintain their beneficial respiration, but 
entirely deprived of light — although they contin- 
ue growing, their metamorphosis into the condition 

of air breathing animals is arrested, and they 
remain in the form of large tad-poles. It is du- 
ring childhood that the evil efTects of want of light 
is most directly influential in acting injuriously 
on the full physical developement. The strength 
and constitution of the man is very much depend- 
ent on his early rearing during childhood. 
Whatever stints tbe growth of a child operates on 
his physical capacity for labor. The want of 
light exercises another influence wonby of being 
noted — a moral one. This is so self-evident that 
the statement scarcely requires a proof. Tbe 
more dark corners you have in the dwellings of 
the poor, the greateramount of filth and dirt, and 
their sure concomitants, we may add, careless- 
ness and disease. There is every inducement 
in an ill-lighted house, for the inhabitants to be- 
come careless and indifferent as to personal and 
household cleanliness. 

[From tbe Albany CylUvAtor.] 


As our woodlands are getting short of wood 
for fences, it is time for us to be looking out for 
something more durable. [ have thought about 
thorn hedges, and I may give your readers sonae 
information on the rearing and planting of these 

The seed are gathered from the thorn in 
autumn, and mixed up with dry earth ; through 
the winter, (this is the manner in Scotland,) and 
in the spring, they sow them broadcast in beds ; 
the first year part of them come up and grow 
through the summer, when they are trans- 
planted in the spring in the nursery ; and for two 
succeeding years they stiM come in the beds. 
They then let them grow two or three years be- 
fore they plant out into hedges, when the nurse- 
ryman puts them into bunches of one hundred 
each, and cuts the small tops and roots oflT, and 
they are ready for planting. There are various 
ways, sometimes on level ground, but the com- 
mon way is in ditches. We will take that way. 
Say the fence is to be made alongside of a road 
— ^the men employed to be provided with a spade, 
a shovel, and pick or mattock — the latter being 
necessary when the ground is hard and stony. 
The first thing to be done is to set up two 
sticks, one at each end of the ditch ; then set in 
two or three more in a straight line, and stretch 
the line along the stakes ; then, with the shovel, 
(the shovel is such as those they call the Irish 
shovels, only a little larger, and the handle no 
longer than a spade handle,} the line being 
stretched along the stakes, he turns his face to 
the road, and cuts along the line with the shov- 
el, sloping back considerably; then turns back 
and cuts the other way, at about a foot frpm 
the other line ; next he cuts across the sod and 
I turns it over, but keeps it back about four inches 



from the Up of the ditch, so that it forms en oi&t t 
called the water table. They then shovel sonie 
of the best soil from where they took out tho sod, 
and level it all off ready for the thorns. Then 
take a bunch of thorns and lay them on a level, 
with the roots into the ditch, with their tops hard- 
ly out of the edge of the sod, so that they will not 
be hangiog by the roots when the frost moulders 
away the earth. They are laid about three inch- 
es apart. This done, they shovel out of the bot- 
tom of the ditch on top of the thorns, until the 
ditch be two feet, and sometimes more, deep. 
They then clap all along the face of the ditch, to 
make it solid and compact. It is then finished 
with the exception of the fence. The fence is 
made by driving stakes on the top of the ditch, 
lour to the rod, and nailing on two boards, three or 
iCbur inches broad. 

1 bate been a long time in this country, and 
have had an opportunity of trying experiments, 
and I find that thorns from the old country do 
not thrive well here. VVliether it is owing to the 
climate, or the snow lying on them so deep in 
the winter, I do not know. 

I am now about to make some inquiry among 
your readers, as to bow the thorn in this country 
would do. I have read your CuUivaior several 
years, and I do not remember to have seen any- 
thing with respect to that, except the Osage Or. 
enge hedges, and that yet remains to be proved. 
Will you please inform, through the columns of 
your paper, whether any one has made the ex- 
periment, and how they have succeeded, and how 
they planted ? Robert Shell. 

■ [From the American Agriculturist.J 


Many of our farmers have been deterred from 
making use of guano from an apprehension that 
the supply might fail, and that so powerful a 
stimulus would injure the soil, unless the same 
substance could be annually applied. Erroneous 
as this last notion is, it will perhaps be more or 
less entertained, until repeated experiments shall 
have shown in this country, as in others, that its 
tendency is permanently invigorating. 

The fear that there will not be found an ample 
supply on the coast of Peru alone, for the' wants 
of Europe and the United States, will cease with 
those who can give credit to an official report 
made to the Peruvian government in 1842, and 
published at Lima, under the authority of the 
Treasury department {Minisierio de Hacienda.) 
This report gives the result of a survey made by 
order of the Peruvian governmentt of the three 
islets near Pisco, in latitude about 14 deg. south, 
called the Chinch as, where is found oiie of the 
many deposits of guano which abound on the coast 
pf Peru and Bolivia, to an extent of 800 miles. 
The survey or; afler some remarks upon the na- 

ture and origin of guano, states, that from ad- 
measurement, he found the superficial extent of 
the deposits on these three islets to be 1,554,400 
square varas (the vara is computed at 83^ inches, 
English ;) and the depth to vary according to 
the irregular surface of the rock upon which it 
is based ; but niakiner liberal allowance for the 
points of rock rising above the bed of the general 
mass, he calculates an average depth of 60 varas, 
which gives the sum total of 93,264,360 cubic 
varas. The report adds, "the cubic vara of 
guano as found in these deposits weighs more 
than half a ton ; but taking no account of the ex- 
cess, we have here 46,632,180 tons, which if ex- 
tracted nt the rate of 50,000 tons per annum, 
would last more than 900 years ; and valued Oi 
$50 per ton, amounts to $2,331,609,000, a sum 
such as no mine has yet produced." 

Making every reasonable allowance for errors 
of survey, and over estimate of depth, 1 think 
here is abundant evidence that Peru, from these 
islets alone, can supply the world with guano for 
many generations. Edwin Bartlett. 

JSew York, May 12, 1845. , , ^ , ^ ,* '^' 

To Farmeks' Boys— 'A Hint. — The writer t. 
of these remarks was once a farmers' boy, and 
speaks from experience when he recommends 
all farmers' boys to keep a daily register of 
everything interesting coming under their ob- 
servation, relative to their business. The time 
.of planting or sowing crops, with the results of 
late or early planting appended ; the efiTects of 
any peculiar mode of manuring ; the benefit or 
detriment from thick or thin sowing; the kind 
of seed ; the time or manner of harvesting ; 
the results of draining, of deep or shallow plough* 
ing, and of numerous other matters-— especially 
including the cost and profit of each crop— if ac- 
curately recorded, would not fail to yield a great 
deal of interest as well as usefulness. The time 
of the appearance of birds and insects, the flower* 
ing and fruiting of trees, or anything else in re- 
lation to nature and its productions, would assist 
very much the acquirement of knowledge on 
these subjects, if made a matter of record. I am 
sure it would be a delightful employment, both at 
the time, and by its examination afterwards. 

Now, all that is necessary is to get a small 
blank book, with a flexible leather cover, which 
may be had for a dime at any book or stationary 
store, and rule each page into two columns 
— the first for the record of planting, sowing, 
and all other operations during their earlier stages 
and the second column for the registry of the re- 
sults, directly opposite, on the same page. By 
comparing these results with the operations that 
produced them, a great deal of valuable practical 
knowledge would be obtained. 

Another advaniage might result from this prac- 
.ticc. When any operation was deferred till too 



late, and loss was occasioned thereby, make a 
memorandumof this fact at the proper place in 
the second column, by the examination of which 
the second year, this difficulty might be avoided. 
Many failures occur from a want of seasonable 
attention ; such a journal would therefore leave 
an excellent memorandum book to refer to daily 
the second year, or any other year afterwards, to 
remind one of what must be done at the time* 

Would not this be worth a thousand times its 
oost, by way of making accurate, intelligent, 
practical and successful farmers, of lads and 
young men in the country, besides improving 
their knowledge of writing ? — Alb, Cultivator, 

[From the Albanj CuliiTator.] 



Our readers are aware that we have always 
urged the insufficiency of simple analysis to 
determine the real value and productiveness of 
soils. Ingredients must not only be in suffi. 
cient quantity, but must be in such a state as 
to be accessible to plants during their growth. 
Nitrogen, for example, is admitted to be of the 
greatest importance to growing plants, yet eve- 
ry plant in the world grows in an atmosphere 
consisting of four- fifths of this ingredient in a 
free state, without being in the least benefitted by 
its presence ; while the infinitessimal portions 
carried down as ammonia by the descent of 
rain, are eagerly caught and assimilated. 

A late number of Silliman's Journal contains 
an analysis by D. A. Wells, of the soils of 
the best '♦bottom land" in Ohio, strongly cor- 
roborating thi« view of the subject. One spec- 
imen examined was from a field which had ()een 
planted successively for eighteen years with corn, 
and had continued to yield without diminution, 
fleventy to eighty bushels per acre. Another soil 
examined had been cultivated fifty-one years, 
with forty-five crops of com, and two or three of 
wheat, with scarcely diminished fertility, yield- 
ing now eighty bushels of corn per acre. And 
yet D. A. Wells informs us that these soils, 
**yielding whh little or no culture, from seventy 
to eighty bushels per acre, are no better, so far 
as their mineral composition is concerned, Vian 
many of the Massachusetts soils which have a 
reputation for sterility. ^^ The question imme- 
diately arises, to what do they owe their ex- 
traordinary productiveness ? Doubtless, in a 
considerable degree, to their large portion of 
organic constituents, but mainly, in the opinion 
ofD. A. Wells, to ihe fineness of their particles. 
In commencing their examination, it was found 
that sieves ordinarily used would not answer ; 
those were therefore procured which were made 
of the finest gauze, the largest meshes of which, 
by accurate measurement, did net exceed one 

sixtieth of an inch in diame-ter. One huQ^red 
parts of several specimens of soil passed through 
this sieve, left a coarse residue of from one and 
a half to seven parts, and this residue was partly 
vegetable fibres and undecom posed organio 
matter. "This remarkable comminution of par- 
ticles gives at once a clue to the secret of their 
great fertility. With this fineness an increased 
power is given to a soil for the absorption, reten- 
tion and condension of moisture, carbonic acid, 
and ammonia, an opportunity for the free permea- 
tion of atmospheric air, a fiicility to the rootlets of 
plants for extension, and consequently increased 
facility for receiving and appropriating nourish- 
ment." This is proved in a remarkable man- 
ner by the double and often triple crops ob- 
tained from thoroughly draining a wet soil, 
without the least alteration in its composition ; 
and also by the utter uselessness of coarse mo^ 
nure badly mixed with earth in a dry sea^n. 

[Ftom the Agriealtor.] 



Mr. Coggins, who works on shares a farm 
belonging to Henry P. Havens, near to Port 
Washington, New Jersey, made a most con- 
clusive experiment of the value of Guano the 
past season. Not only did he prove the intrin- 
sic value, as a fertilizer, of Guano itself, but 
that it is superior to any other manure at the 
same cost. He manured his potato crop with 
twelve loads of compost, made of equal parts 
of good stable manure and Middletown marl — a 
good fertilizer, though not quite equal to the 
Squankum marl. Failing in his supply of 
compost, he procured guano to finish his field, 
and applied 250 lbs. per acre, unwittingly in 
the drills with the seed, by which one-twelfth 
was destroyed. Now for the result. Do you 
expect you will be satisfied if the guano pro- 
duces half as much as the manure ? as we 
suppose that is about the ratio of cost. Of 
course none of the advocates of old systems will 
expect more. Will they believe the fact that 
the manured portion of the field yielded ten 
barrels per acre; and the guanoed portion twen- 
ty-two barrels, of a quality so much superior 
they brought $2 a barrel, while the others 
brought $1 75 ; making a difference in favor 
of the guano ot $26 50 per acre, notwithstand- 
ing a loss of one-tweMlh of the seed from want 
of information how to use the guano. 

Mr. Coggln remarked, "it woujd have been 
better for me if 1 had thrown away the manure 
and never dug the marl, and had purchased 
and used guano upon all my crop.'' And so 
it would ; and yet we cannot recommend such 
a course altogether. We do recommend, how- 
ever, buying guopo in preference to any othey 


We do know it is more eoooomical 
ta buy and use guano than it is to dig and 
haul marl ; aod much more so than it is to 
haul street manure, even if it could be had 
within a mile of the place of using it, for noth- 
ing^ ^ - 

^tncrican Cotton planter. 


If. B. CLom), H. D., EDITOB. 

Omr AgaaU, 

Wm. Stricki^avd, Book-B^lcr, No. 28, Da.iipUnBtree 
ta our >e«at ia Mobile, vbo irill TeaiiTe eabsoripttoi 
and famish tha p^er to Bubicribera. 

Mr. Akdb TaATisja our agent at Q^MTiIle, Sumter 

G-IM. BKinotpa ud Hr. Tdkkex an am traToIling 

0;:^ Our exchanges aod correspondents wilt 
please obaerve to direct any matter for the Ameri- 
can Cotton Planter, to N. B. Cloud, Locktand ?, 
O., Macon county, Ala., till further notice. 

(fir Our subscribers will take notice, that 
our terms are invariably cash, the receipt of the 
journal ia the beat evidence that we have received 
the doBar. Any subscriber, having ordered the 
JMiper in compliance with the terms, will confer 
a fiivor, should it fail to reach him, by informing 
uaatonoe. It will readily perceived that this 
■rrangemeid will save much unnecessary trou- 
U«, and be entirely satisfactory. 

ft^ Our friends will perceive, by the receipt 
of this, the second and February number of tha 
a Cotton Planter, that its publit^on Li % 
(ised &at. We have not yet reaeived tha num^ 
berof subscribera neoessary to sustain the pub< 
lication, we have, however, received such en* 
couragement from the friends of the enterprize^ 

the various sections of the country, as to iQ. 
duoe us to go fbrvard with the work. If Um 
eottoD planters of the oouatry, and espeotally 
of Alabama, wish a publioation of thia aharaa. 
bold and fearless advooate of our own pe- 
culiar industry, a caterer Ibr the oommoa goodi 
—neatly and tastefully arranged, and equal, In 
all respects, in its meohanioal execution, to tin 
oldest aad beat agrionltural publioationa ia. tb* 
country,— .it is only Deeesaary to ftirniah a nitk 
scriptton list sufficient to sustain it. We ask no 
more,— Miot a picayune, for our attention and do* 
votion to this home eaterprize. 

Those persons holding subsoriptEon llata voA ' 
others who have iotereated theniselves In proov* 
ring subscribera, will please forward at onoot 
that we may have (be names and send forward 
the paper. The cash system will be strictly ob- 
served and adhered to. Ko name will be eotar* 
ed on our book, nr the paper sent, (exoept an % 
specimen,) unless the money sooompany the ofr 

0:^ It will be observed by the merohants of 
our oitiea and large towns, and the meohanics 
»tid manufacturers of the country, who would 
sell to the planter, that the American Cotton 
Plantar affords a fine opportunity for advertising. 
Its oirculation is mainly among the conaumers of 
their warea, and its form and neatness of style 
such as to secure its preservation. 

0^ Wo avail ourselves of this early (Vpor- 
tunity, to disabuse the apprehension expeeaaad hj 
some, and, perhaps, enlertaiaed by othora, tl^t 
our journal, as its name might seem to import, ia 
to be devoted exclusively to cottoa and its im> 
proved culture. We had to hare soma nanUi 
and weseleoted that of "Amerioon Cotton Plai|> 
ter," because we regard the produstion of cottoii 
as an object of the very first importance anxNtf 
men. And though we intend to furnish our rw. 
ders with all the information we posaeaa, )md 
may be able at any and all times to eolleot, that 
will add to the value of thia ioduatry, we shall 
not, for a moment, loose sight of the cereal orc^ 
and their improvement,-i4n object of vital inter- 
est to the success of the Cotton Plantar. 

In our horticultural department we hope to 
interest and enlist the taste of the ladies of our 
country, with the gentlemen amatners of the 
beautiful and useful. Thia subject, too mueh 
neglected in the Southern and planting States,— 



the natural home of flowers and fruits,— we in. 
tend shall have much of our attention, in all the 
several departments of floriculture, fruit culture, 
landscape gardening and vegetable gardening. — 
If we would endear home, "sweet home," to our- 
selves, to our sons and daughters, we must em- 
bellish homo with the beautiful and fragrant 
flowers, the cheerful evergreen and the twining 
vine. With this culture we are anxious to see 
illrodaced and displayed the true artistic taste, 
that all the sacred, hallowed influences of the 
homestead may become indellibly stamped upon 
the youth and rising generation of our country* 
Ii^ fshort, we intend to make the "American Cot- 
ton rifiDter'' a cabinet of useful, practical infer- 
n^ation on all subjects that appertain to the indus- 
try and improvements of our people. That we 
xpay be able to accomplish an object so desira- 
ble^.to make this journal acceptable to all, — to 
vary and diversify its pages, we solicit the aid 
of our friends, — ^ladies and gentlemen^ — ^to con- 
tribute to our columns- 

' fclr* We cannot permit this number of the 
Cotton Planter to go out, which announces to its 
g'everal friends and the planters especially of Al- 
abama, the fixed and determined publication of 
an agjicultural journal in this State, devoted to 
th6 best interest of the planter; without giving ex- 
pression of our sincere thanks to the man^y kind 
friends who have interested themselves in exten- 
dbg the circulation of our paper. To all, we 
wish a prosperous future in fruitful crops and 
iftipf^ving farms at home. We cannot, howev- 
er, resist the temptation in this connection, of 
perticularizing one of the many instances of dis- 
interested public spirited industry in behalf of 
this enterprise. We allude to our friend, Dr. J. 
F. DoETCH, of Wilcox county, who has furnish- 
ed a list of near 150 substribers, — most of them 
from that county. If twenty other gentlemen 
in the middle counties of Alabama, should de- 
termine to give the enterprise the same interest, 
ive should be quickly relieved of all apprehen- 
slon of suecess. Are there not so many that 
will determine with us, that the "American 
Cotton Planter shall succeed ? 

Thr ^uthebn Agriculturist is the title of 
^ new paper to be commenced shortly in S. C, 
^ited by A. G. & W. Summer. Success to it. 

O^We call the attention of oar cotton planters 
to our first article in this number, on the analy- 
sis of the cotton plant and seed, by the late Mr. 
Thomas Summer. Mr. Summer was a Southern 
man, raised amid the cotton ^elds of the South 
— a thoroughly educated man, and in the science 
of chemistry, was taught by the great master of 
the art, Liebig. The technicalities and abrevi- 
ations, difficult to be understood, should deter 
none from the careful examination of this article. 
We shall soon give an analysis of Indian corn 
wheat and the best of fertilizers, when the value 
of this article may be appreciated. The day ie 
at hand when these truths must be known and un- 
derstood by those who would succeed in the eco- 
nomical and profitable culture of our crops. 

Our readers will find in this number of onf 
paper, under the Hortcultural head, a most ex- 
cellent practical communication, by an amatuer 
of this delightful fruit. Mr. Peabody, too, is in 
our midst, with a fine supply of his acclimated 
Hovey's seedling, — a rare opportunity for our 
friends to commence the cultivation of the straw. 
berry as it may and should be done. Who will 
neglect longer to have strawberries and cream 
all summer ? 


In this number of our journal we conclude- 
the admirable treatise of Mr. R. S. Harowick, 
upon the practice and the philosophy of his sys- 
tem of side- hill or grade ditching and horizontal 
culture. For the convenience of those of our 
planting friends who may wish or intend to avail 
themselves of the advantages of this system of 
improvement, the very first and most important 
step in plantation economy, we have obtained 
from the author a true draft of his instrument, 
which we have had engraved by our fellow-citi« 
zen, Mr. Swan, and which will enable any 
planter, that can manage tools at all, to construct 
a perfect "Planter's Level," with the directions 
so minutely detailed in the January number. 

We need not add anything by way of com- 
mending the superiority of this system of pro« 
tecting land, as the philosophy of the author, in 
this number, is incontrovertible, perfectly. And 
then the ease, rapidity and perfection by which 



the work may be done, with an instruiaeat eo 
easily constructed — simple and perfect in itself 
—leave not the vestige of an argument why any 
and every cotton planter should not avail them- 
selves at once of the advantages of the system. 
We have the maiden soil of the very best plant- 
ing State in the Union, fresh and new ; why, 
then, with the living, practical examples and the 
advantages of the system, as realized in the hands 
of those who have adopted the system in portions 
of the older States, shall we not all, as wise and 
patriotic Alabamians, determine that no more 
ugly gullies or washes shall deface or waste our 
fields? With this perfect instrument any char- 
acter of rolling land may be graded, with grade 
ditches, and the rows horizontal! zed, not only to 
the perfect security of the land, but by leveling 
the culture, very much is gained to both hands 
and teams in performing the work of the crop. 
Then, again, to attempt a system of permanent 
improvement, upon undulating or rolling land* 
without first adopting a system of grade ditches 
and horozontal culture, is like the nursling story 
of the frog in the well, that "climbed up two 
feet in the day and fell back three at night." 

You may manure and fallow it» and loose it up 
by the best of culture, but like the slacked and 
pulverized earth on the sides and margins of gul- 
lies, it only facilitates its precipitation, by the 
next fall of rain, into the branch. But the use 
of this instrument not only retains the soil in 
your field, but it retains the shower of rain, la- 
den with the ammoniacal gases, washed out of 
the atmosphere on the soil where it falls, to feed 
your crops and make rich the land. 

We take pleasure in calling the attention of 
the young ladies and gentlemen, and indeed, all 
admirers of the fine arts ''in the sunny South," 
to the SoTTTHERN Ladies Book, just commenced 
and published in the city of New Orleans. It 
only needs the warm friendship and patronage 
of the South, to make it equal to any of the 
monthly, magazines in the country. W. T. 
Leonard & Co. Proprietors, No. 103, St. Charles 
New Orleans. Price 83 00. 

To Kill Lice in Poultry. — Boil onions, thick- 
en the water with meal, and feed to the poultry. 

Our young friends, who desire to cultivate a 
taste for the beautiful with the useful, will be 
pleased to learn that the Horticulturist, estab* 
lished by the late and lamented A. J. Downing, 
Esq. is to be continued in all its native spright* 
liness at Rochester, N. Y. edited by Mr. P. Bar- 
ry and published by Mr. James Viok, jr. at the 
very low price of two dollars. The Januarj( 
No. we have received, beautifully embellished 
and filled with a great variety of original and 
select matter on horticultural subjects. 


Our Alabama Planters will observe, by refar* 
ence to the advertisement of Mr. T. Affleck, ia 
this number, tiiat by means of h'lB agency and 
the direct importation of Guano, from Peru, inta 
the port of New Orleans, this valuable fertilizer 
is to be afibrded there at from eight to ten doK 
lars less per ton than we have had to pay for it 
heretofore in Mobile. We are gratified to an* 
nounce this public spirited movement on the part 
of Mr. Affleck. We have written him on th« 
subject, and shall spare no pains to have an a. 
gency established in our own port. Mobile, for 
the sale of guano. The saving of ten dollars 
per ton is something of an object, but the guar- 
anty afforded by such agency in its direct im. 
portatioo, to those who purchase, that they are 
getting a genuine article of Peruvian guano, is 
an object of vast interest. 

Our friends will also perceive that Mr. Af- 
fleck's Rural Almanac is to be had in most of 
the large towns of our State. Our planters will 
find that this little work, besides answering all 
the purposes of an almanac, furnishes a great 
fund of useful information on all subjects con« 
nected with the farm, garden and orchards. 

Also, his plantation books for the convenienoo 
of the planter and overseer. And again, we 
would remind our friends, that Mr. Affleck is the 
proprietor of the Southern nurseries, where ev- 
ery variety of good fruit trees may be had. 


By stabling and shedding stock through the 
winter, a saving of one-fourth of the food may 
be effticted-^that is, one-fourth less food will an- 
. swer, than when such stock may be exposed to 
the inclemencies of the weather. 



CoitoA— 'Its ImproT'ed and trne Cmlture* 

No. 1.. 
. In the first, or January nnmber of this journal, we 
haye famished its readers with a concise, comprehensiye 
and interesting history of the Cotton Plant — and we think, 
not inappropriately. From this memoir, we derive at 
once, in the beginning of onr enterprize, all the informa- 
tion that is important to the American planter in a his- 
torical point of Yiew. While we may be surprised, in 
eontemplating this subject, at the slight interest, seem- 
ingly manifested in an article, that we now know to be 
Cf such paramount importance, by the inhabitants of 
the old world, who were acquainted partially with some 
of its uses for centuries prerious to the Christian era, 
there is, nerertheless, in such contemplation, a feature 
of gratnlation in the reflection, that it has been reserv- 
ed for the Anglo-American to derelope the true value of 
cotton to mai^dnd. Whatever may be the difference of 
opinion among planters, as to the causes producing the 
ttmoh oompUined of fluctuations in the market value of 
ootlo&t or M to the means by which these fluctuations 
•rt to bo obtlatod, there is a remarkable uniformity of 
opinion vmong all classes of men, as to the importance 
of our cotton, both commercially and nationally. The 
power and influence which it has acquired over the com- 
merce of the world in less than a century, is compara- 
ble to nothing but the fabled story of the young Hercu- 
les. It i» indeed, not only the controlling influence of 
oommeroe, but it is emphatically, the barometer of 

take of this peculiar interest and production. There i» 
no doubt at all, but that the prolific sou rce of all the 
evils and disadvantages so prejudicial to the planter's 
interest in the commercial value and sale of our cotton^, 
has been the careless and underrated valuation, almost, 
indeed, no valuation at all, which the planter himself 
has placed upon Cotton. It is on this position we place 
ourselves, and it is for this position we intend to do bat- 
tle, BO long as we are able to serve the productive Indus* 
try of this country, vis : that it is the planter alone — ^the 
intelligent, practical, industrious producer of Cotton— 
who is competent to fix the valuation of Cotton. 

These several predistinguishing traits of our pecu- 
liar industry, we shall discuss in the order in which they 
stand, after treating, as we are constrained to believe 
from practice and observation, of the improved and iru4 
Culture of Cotton* We intend to conduct it, in a series of 
short monthly numbers, in a bold, frank and candid man* 
ner, asking only the respect for our opinions and thepo* 
sitions we may assume, which we shall at all times most 
willingly accord to the opinions and positions of othem 
— a fair and candid consideration. 

In the practical part of this discussion, we intend to 
fiimish our readers with a synopsis of field notes, derived 
from a practice of twelve years, carefully conducted with 
a view of determiDing a system of rotation and shift of 
crops, adapted to the wants and true interest of the 
American Cotton Planter. We intend to go into all the 
minutia of the subject, from the collection of the mate- 

commeroe.— determining by its buoyancy or depression ^ial, preparatory to making compost manures, to the 

in the markets of the world, the value of all other in- 
dustrial interests or productions,— even breadstuffs, the 
Yery existence of man, obey the influence of American 
eotton, beyond the stem 'pressure of necessity itself. — 
Its national importance consists in the problem yet to be 
demon8tmted,-*-vliether or not cotton can be suocees- 
lully or profitably grown without the cotton region of 
the United States, by any labor at all, and certainly not 
Vy free labor. There are, however, other features of 
▼alue, sketohed dimly, it may be to some, in this grand 
developement, but to the far-seeing, who look upon the 
destiny of this noUe plant, beyond mere dollars and 
cents, these features appear distinctly and grow in im- 
portance. The extraordinary influence that our cotton 
has exercised in facilitating an intelligent, liberal and 
permanent civilisation of the inhabitants of the earth, 
during the last half century, clearly designate it as the 
true civiliser of man* Again, the obvious and unmis- 
takable influemoe that our cotton has had in promoting 
the peace of the world, shows it at once entitled to the 
importance of the great pacificator of mankind. Then 
again, as an element of political economy, our cotton, 
connected with our peculiar labor, which is alone capa- 
ble of producing cotton extensively, successfully and 
profitably, is evidently the true conservative and sus- 
taining power of this great and best of governments. 

This is the true and appropriate view, that it is alto- 
gether necessary OTSiy American cotton planter should 

closing process of collecting and preparing the Cotton for 

As the columns of the Cotton Planter will be open and 
free for all, we invite our planting friends, as a special 
favor to the cause of Improvement in the plantation econ- 
omy of our country, to contest every Inch of ground that 
we may attempt to occupy, which they, in their judge- 
ment, may believe to be contraiy to sound philosophy, 
or the trae interest of the planter. We feel onrselvog 
deeply interested in this important subject — the growing 
of American Cotton — and we regard it as truly a matter 
of the first importance that the true system and mode of 
culture should be at once ascertained; by which wo 
mean to be understood that system of plantation eoono* 
my and practice under it, in the production of Cotton^ 
that shall yield the greatest amount of Cotton, at the 
least possible expense in labor or soil. There are ftur 
planters perhaps that fully appreciate this extraordinary 


In 1819, just one third of a century ago, our State, 
(Alabama,) the first new cotton State, was admitted into 
the Union. At that time the crop of the United States 
was, in round numbers, 500,000 bales, and now 
the crop of Alabama alone is 560,000 to 600,0001 nor 
will it be 83 years more before the crop of Alabama will 
number 8,800,000 1 — the probable crop at this time of 
the United States. Nor shall we then have attained the 
maximum of our capacity for producing Cotton. This 
is no idle speculation, but the result of actual, practical 





^lantotiott tonnnq. 

^ Edwards, Miss., Jan. 1852. 

No. 3. 

Bb. N. B. Cloud, 

DtcBT Sir: That Agriculture is, and shonld be, the 
important matter which should hold in subserricnoe hu- 
miui action — religion and Christianity ever excepted — it 
being the thing for which we were made, no man will 
deny ; nor that it is the great subject towards which 
tbought and action should tend, all other pursuits being 
only exceptions to the axiom. Admitting this in its 
length and breadth, I do not think that manufactures, 
commerce, &c., should be neglected by any people. Nor 
because I allude not to education in its fullest sense, do 
I think it should hold any second rank. For us to have 
the entire benefit of agriculture, education should hold 
« yery high rank. That we may use our education and 
our energy to the best advantage, we should encourage 
mechanics, and thus call into action manufactures and 

Though I regard agriculture as more essential as it is 
the primitive calling of man, yet I do not wish to make 
all other business pay tribute to the agriculturalist, fur- 
ther than that mutual dependence which the human fam- 
ily should encourage towards each other. The mechan- 
ic is far too near a friend to agriculture to give him any 
secondary position. Without the manufacturer we 
might make out, but with him we will flourish ; and, 
therefore, he is a partner in trade. Again, without the 
commercial man, we may exist as the Indian ; but with 
him all other callings are made to progress to a much 
higher niche of imprveoment than without him ; and 
^hos we find so intimate ft relation, such a bond of union 
• — so great a dependence— that we dare not draw the line 
of separation ; therefore, as an humble member of the 
agricultural family, fully and Toluntarily I offer to strike 
hands on the altar of my country's glory, and say we are 

y^ I would therefore recommend to one and all of my fel- 
/ lows (equals) to endeavor to encourage the one and the 
other. To be a great and happy people, I believe it to 
be our duty to encourage as many branches of manufac- 
ture — including all the mechanical arts — as may be in 
our power. At the same time, I cannot see why I should 
not, within myself, do something. To illustrate : I think 
I might, on my own farm, make my hoe and axe handles, 
without its being said that I oppose the carpenter. If a 
paling fall off the fence, I need not send for a carpenter 
to drive two nails. My chief business should be agricul- 
ture, but I can at times do much which is neither plow- 
ing, hoiog, clearing or fencing. 

I would not condemn the carpenter who made sweet 
potatoes, or who raised pigs, and should sell what he did 
not want ; yet I think if he has work to do he could bet- 
ter follow his calling at $1 per day, than to work pota- 

toes 10 days if he can save ^ ; yet, even then, it is hit. 
own affair. 

A few years since, a very kind hearted gentlemaiiy 
whom I knew when we were almost 80 years younger^ 
was on a visit here, and when he saw a pile of motes. in 
my gin-house, he Risked me what I was going to do with 
them ; to which I remarked, that I would put peaches, 
up in them, if I concluded to send any to market. Se 
then said that I ought not to waste (hem, as they oould 
be sold for three or four cents a pound, and thus, though 
I made but little, I would be assisting in commerpo and 
manufactures, aa the motes were used in paper-making» 
I did as he directed, but was not paid for expense and. la* 
bor. Just 80, do I feel, should be our action ; for tiioogli 
a sheep-skin or a cow-hide is worth but little, yet they 
will add to home induetxy ; and if payiog for labor, tiuy - 
should be preserved. 

I do not think we sh«nld do our whale duty if we mtt^ 
to make all we could and sell aa much as possible uriag- 
the least, and speading no money but to boy land, n^*. 
groea, mules and such things, whioh would enable ua to 
increase our income, that we may buy more priq»eH7f. 
Much rather should we encourage, to aa extent not inr 
juring ourselyeoorfauUy, all other callings. 

That individual who pushes everything to uake tht 
largest crop, and has to buy all neoessanes, would do 
better for his own family if he wpnld make a lees oropi, 
and more of the necessaries. Thus, though he might 
have less to boy with, he might have more clear cash, aft 
having less to buy ; and in that way oontributo to koep 
prices at a healthy standard. 

When there is a great demand for pork, (meat I mean,) 
prices may advance as now to so high a rate as to induoo 
men to stlut their operatives. So with oom, &o.—- ''and 
so with cotton," says somebody, which I admit. I only 
desire that the prices of one— of all— ehoilld be kept at 
a healthy standard, where the industrious and prudent 
man win be paid for his labor, and all men be able to 
purchase meat, bread and clothing. Cotton adxancing 
to a high price, does as much, if not more evil, than if 
the price was below a fair remuneration. To ret^n that 
just medium, it behooves us to keep all departments from 
unduly sinking or advancing. And thus it is impera- 
tively necessary that we vary our labor, provide weH 
for home and contribute our mite towards supplying mao^ 
beast and land with the necessaries. 
With respect, yours Ac. 


Salt as Manure. — The Editor o^lhe Amer' 
ican Farmer says he has tried lime and salt, 
brordcast, upon part of a field of corn, the re- 
mainder of the field being treated with lima 
alone. Both parts had been well manured, and 
yielded well ; but the part salted continued n;)oist 
throughout the season, the other sufTered much 
from dirouth. 



The sabjoined letter from Doctor Price, of 
Marengo county, will bo read i^ith interest, though de- 
acribing an experiment, which, for the time being, at 
least, has proTed rather a failure. We were quite in- 
terested in attentiyely listening to an explanation of this 
theory for continuing the fertility of our forest lands, 
firom Dr. Price himself, during a few days last fall, 
when we had the pleasure of his company. 

This will be found a near approximation of a practi- 
cal illustration of the Baldwin theory, of enriching 
lands by shading it,— other than that, I belicTe that 
Baldwin xneiets npon it, that the true modiu operandi of 
ttftiiaring, eonsiate in the capacity possessed by the fer- 
tUiser applied to the lands to shade it We are Tery 
ttuoh in hopes that the public spirit and enterprise of 
Dr. P. will induce him to giye this plan a fair and tho- 
rough trial ; there is certainly very much of plausibility 
about i^ There can be no question as to the fact, that 
if 9^ the vegetable matter of our forests could be re- 
tftloed upon, and rotted on the land, tiins oonrerted into 
Kt aUnent Un eom and cotton, without incnrring too 
gnat ea pie — e in tiie opevmtien, that the inereaeed fer- 
tiHty tnd lattiof the land would be greatly perpetuated. 
If it shall be found, upon a dear test . of this plan of 
otearing land, that its piaoticability lies within reasona- 
M^'boonds of expenBe,->^thia, in eonneetion with a prop- 
er eyiftem of horizontaliting, and then conducting our 
piamling c^rationa under a Judicious system of rotation 
of ereps, it will be an easy matter, with such advanta* the beginning to keep up the maiden fertility of 
anr fields. 


Oak Forest, Marengo co., 
July Isl, 1652. 
Dr. N. B. Cloud, 

Dear Sir : Tour favor is at hand, asking for 
my experience in preserving the forest growth to 
be used as a restorative for lands, during aAer 
cultivation, which I will give you, with the rea- 
sons for engaging iu the experiment, and why I 
abandoned it. .« 

The position from which I started was, that 
nature's greatest eflbrts were directed to ttie re- 
storatlon of inequilibriums or lost balances in her 
works, and their prevention. Hence I assumed 
that there was as much of the nourishment for 
vegetation expended annually in its growth and 
sustenance as was retained. From this reason. 
ing 1 inferred that if it was possible to return all 
that had grown out of the earth into it, and make 
crops during the process, that its value would be 
doubled, from the decomposition and shade fur- 
nished by the material, which is usually submit- 
ted to combustion, as a means of getting clear of 
it, and thus destroying more of the essential in- 
gredients for crop.making, than will be put on 
the land from without in iifly years, or probably 
in all time to come. With such philosophy you 

will not be surprised at my engaging in the ex- 
periment. I selected for the purpose a plat of 
ninety-four acres, thirty-four of which was clear- 
ed in the usual way, and the tim(> required to do 
it noted ; the remaining sixty I had thoroughly 
grubbed, and in felling the timber, regard was 
had to the future direction of the rows, throwing 
as many as was convenient in that direction, to 
save labor in rolling. This being done, the rows 
were designated by tall stakes, at distances of 
twelve feet. Four hands to the row placed such 
timber as they could handle into line ', afler which 
the remaining logs and brush were brought up, 
having the brush backed so as to render the mass 
as compact as possible ; then, with the hand- 
rakes, 1 had all of the litter that was in the 
spaces placed on or near the line of timber. I 
found, although a dense forest, the timber did not 
occupy more than three feet generally. I 
planted two rows of corn between each of the 
rows of timber, two feet in the drill and four 
feet between the rows of com, which gave as . 
many hills as if the entire ground had been 
planted six by two feet, which is rny favorite 
distance on new ground. The time of preparing 
the land for planting was noted, and I found that 
it and the labor was less than in preparing the 
thirty-four acres. 

There was no difficulty in cultivating with 
the plow, the foreign growth put up to no greater 
extent than was anticipated, and I made some 
corn and peas. Last winter, which was the first 
after the experiment, I set about having the tim- 
ber and brush removed to the surface which had* 
been cultivated, to avoid the shrubbery that put 
up last season. After removing a number of 
rows, being greatly tfverse to doing a losing 
business, or prosecuting any experiment that 
might cost too much, and finding that the tim- 
ber did not make as dense a covering as I 
expected, in consequence of decay and break- 
age, I came to the conclusion that the weeds and 
grass would put up through it and give trouble ; 
and being averse to thnl likewise, 1 directed my 
overseer to burn off, which it did finely. This 
is not exclusively an experiment. There was 
an elderly planter of my acquaintance in South 
Carolina, who cleared all of his land by making 
large piles of the timber and brush, without re- 
gard to order; and to illustrate the advantages 
of durability and productiveness arising from it, 
I will furnish you with the testimony of one of 
the servants who cultivated it. He was hoeing 
inthis odd field of good corn and promiscuous 
piles of timber, when a stranger was passing, — 
the novelty attracted his attention, and called to 
the servant to know whose field it was ? Sambo 
replied "we neber buy corn here ;" — continuing 
his work, the stranger repeated his inquiry. — 
Sambo raised hi9 head and returned the same re- 



ply. The patience of the stranger being taxed, 
he vehemently said "that is not what I asked, — 
who's field is this?" Sambo replied again, "we 
neber have bought any corn here." The stran- 
ger concluded that it was a good plan to save the 
land and get good crops, leaving this he passed 
on, believing that this was worth more than the 
name of the proprietor. 

My confidence in the value and practicability 
of returning the forest growth to the earth from 
M^hence it grew, as a restorative and as a preven- 
tive to washin;; awav, is not the least shaken. — 
An additional reason for this experiment, is the 
certainty of fresh lands to produce fair crops of 
cotton, and the belief that the decay and shade af- 
forded by the forest growth, would perpetuate this 
quality in land. 

With my present views, I will resume the ex- 
periment, (making some modifications,) at some 
future time, of which 1 will advise you. If yod 
think these thoughts, with a history of my fail- 
tire, will induce some more practical and perse- 
vering planter to engage in the task of making 
lands of double value without any additional ma- 
terial, you can use this as you may think proper. 

Accept nyy best wisiios for your own and the 
success of the American Cotton Planter. 


[For the Cotton PUatftr.] 

Db. CLOTm, 

Dear Sir : I take pleasure in complying with 
your request of an article from my pen, relating 
to the culture and manufacture of the Arrow- 

In botany, this plant ^s called marania, and 
there are Several varieties of it ; Ibe one that is 
cultivated for its starch, is the maranta arundina- 
eea^ and though evidently a tropical plant, does 
well in latitude thirty-two; and I am told that it 
is indiginous of the Southern part of Florida, be- 
low twenty-seven degrees of latitude. 

In the surnmer of 1851, while on a visit lo the 
mountains of Georgia, I met with Mr. Stephen 
Clay King, of Wayne county, Ga., who gave me 
an account of the culture and manufacture of 
the arrow root, and expressed the opinion that it 
would do in Montgomery, Ala, and kindly offer- 
ed to send me some of the seed which he did, 
and in April, 1852 I received and planted .what 
be sent me. My success was very gratifying 
to me. .From two rows, forty feet long, in my 
garden, I raised five bushels of the tubers and 
iTomit we made seven pounds of pure starch, 
and saved all the small tubers for seed. 

As far as I am able to judge, the arrow root 
has but three articles in its composition, — woody 
fibre, starch and mucilage. 

In its manufacture, the tubers are pounded in 
a trough or mortar, to a pulp ; it is then put into 


tubs and water added plentifully, after which thd 
process is pretty much the same as that pursued 
by country ladies in making starch from wheat 
bran, only that the whole operation may be com- 
pleted in a day. The culture is the same as the 
sweet potato, and the keeping the seed tiie same. 

A part of my arrow root seed I put up in cot- 
ton seed, and of this I lost nearly all. A parti 
put up in earth as I do my sweet potatoes, — thi;^ 
keeps well ; and I hope this crop to be able to 
distribute largely of it to my friends next fall. 

The arrow root is a delicate plant, and we are 
most too far North for its profitable culture, but 
we can raise our own supply, and it is a valufii- 
ble article for culinary purposes. 

Your ob t servH, 

E. A. HOLT. 

Montgomery, Ala. Jan. 15, 1853. , 

Marl— It* Value and ttk» (^uaniitj to be.appUe4» 

We received a letter some time ainoe from J>* -K.. a 
subeoriber of Camden, Wileox eounty, requesting va to 
Btetei, tbBOQgfa the pa^es of the Gotlon PUat«r, the beit 
mode oi nsing sbeUnMurl, and the usual qnantiUes e^ 
plied on olay and aondy land* Ae this is one of tlie 
leading objects of this joarnftl, it inll afford as great 
pleasore to Ornish our fHend, IX K» and sncb Qthers as 
may desire it, the necessavy information on this T<A^y 
interesting subject. 

"Marl is a mixture of earths containing a 
large amount of mild lime. It is clayey or ar^ 
gillaceous when it has the mechanical charac- 
ters and touch of ctay, — sandy when silicious^ 
and calcareous wheb almost entirely composed 
of mild lime ; it is also shelly, when full of fos- 
sil shells. The richest shell kinds are best, aA 
they contain bone earth. The value of m&rl is 
precisely as the amount o{ Ilxne they contain.-*- 
Marls seldom contain more than 20 per.cen^ of 
carbonate of lime associated with sands or clay." 
The following analysis by Springel gives the 
composition of two kinds of marl, shell and clay- 
ey marl : 

Shell MarL Clayty M^U 

Qiinrtz, Sand and Silesia, 5.6 58.4 

Alamina, 0.4 8.4 

Oxides of Iron, 4.2 6.7 

Oxides of Magnesia, Trace. O.St 

Carbonate of Lime, 85.5 18.2 

Carbonate of Magnesia, 1.25 8»d 
Sniphate of Iron, 

Potash and Soda oom- > a nr i <• 

bined with Silica. / ^'^ ^'^ 

Common Salt, 0.03 Traee. 

Gypsum, O.OG 2.1 

Phos. Lime, (bone earth,) 2.3 0.6 

Nitrate Lime, O.Ol 

Organic Matter, 0,6 

100 100 

I ano almost con tideot that I have seen shell 
n)arl in Eastern Alabama, in Russell county, oa 




fiig Uchee creek, as rich as the specimen here 

The prot)er tnode of applying tnarl id to haul 
it out on a fall fallow, depositing it in small 
heaps of from five to eight bushels at equal dis- 
tances eyery WaV, ahd allow it to retnain during 
the winter^ ihat it may crumble down and pul- 
\ef\vbi at the rate say of five to six tons per acre. 
We have seen it so shelly j and the shells of such 
Oonsififtence, as to render it necessary to burn it 
previous to using it at all. There is no manure 
ttiore taluabi'e on poor, sandy land than marls, as 
la plainly indicated in theif composition. 

Marling is comparatively a new busine^ in 
Alabama^ and indeed in any portion of the cotton 
States ; but the day is tapidly approaching when 
It will become a business of unlimited extent, — 
tiod why so ? The cotton States^ especially Al- 
abama^ Mississippi and Florida aboUbd in any 
Quantity df the best of marls, and when it be- 
comes generally known and well understood, 
that an ap|>lieatiob of five to six tons of marl, 
Irill make any and etery acre of the etkaatded 
koHnesiead worth one hundred dollars, and each 
lUid every such acre, after paying all expense for 
labor and sustaibing its proportion of sustainence 
to the family or those Inrorking it^ and then pay a 
better premium than one hundred dollars vested 
in opy other way, our planters will cease their 
ivestward march, and we shall see them investing 
.their Capital in marl banksf secured by the 
strongest and best ot bonds,*<»graded ditches and 
lioritontal rows. 

6«uuft4», Plaster, it«« 

. Utt halre a letter ftom Mr. K. A. MoMlllaiii of Canton, 
ttileox cottatjr^ in whldh the Irviter stotes : "I am just 
lUMnt startiDga farm on fMuidy land, and I wisli you to 
Worm me ad to the propriety of applying Guano, Plas- 
ter, fte., to it for tiie purpose of miring com ; the mode 
of applioatiouj the titHe atid quantity ; and the propriety 
|yf mixing Guano and t'laster | Irhat kind of Plaster, and 
the proportions of each.'* 

We may remark^ in replying to the various inquiries 
of our correspoildentj that wi| hare been using Guano 
and Plaster as fertilisers for the last 8 or 9 years, on all 
the Tarioos STops ttsttally otiltivated in this eountry. We 
haye not a great deal of experience in the use of Gnano 
and Plaster mixed* as ITS neter found anything composted 
Urith Guano, that did not add to the trouble and expense 
Of applying the Guanoi Urithottt a coiresponding adran- 
tage ; nevertheless, onr experience has satisfied tis that 
a valttaUe compost may be made of Gnano and Plaster. 

We havoi however, recently met, in a late number of 
the New York Agncukor^ with some interesting experi- 
ments that have been conduoted by gentlemen in Virgin- 
la and Marylend, which would seem to be rather contra- 
dletoiy in their results. 

We presume these experiments wiU famish the infor- 

mation that our correspondent desires, and we therefore 
submit them. The first are from Mr. T. S. Pleasants, of 
Tirginia^ which go to prove that there was an injur/ 
done by mixing Guano with Plaster. But the others^ 
Communicated to the American Fanner by Mr. Caleb 
Stabler, of Maryland, -Mrould seem to justify the practice 
as adyantageous, the increase being yery large over that 
from the application of Guano alone > 

MttTtrto ot GtJAivd Aim PtASTxa. — thete has been 
a good deal of controyersy in Maryland and Virginia re« 
cently on the policy of mixing Plaster with Gnano pre> 
yious to sowing it. Some experiments, which we annexi 
from Mr. T. S. Pleasants, of Virginia, seem to prove that 
there was an injury f^om this practice ; but others com- 
municated to the Amerkan Parmer by Mr. Caleb fitahier^ 
of Maryland^ would justify it, the increase being yetjr 
large over that from the application of Guano alone4 

The first experiments are as follows i 

No« 1. Had no manuroi 

No. 2. 16. lbs, Guano alone. 

No. 04 16 IbSi Guano and 6 Ibe^ Plasteft 

No< 4. 16 lbs. Guano and 12 lbs. Plaster* 

No. 6. 16 lbs. Guano and 18 lbs. PUster. 

The Guano and Plaster for the above experinieate 
were thoroughly mixed 7 days before being applied to 
the land, and frequently etirredi 

No. 6. 16 lbs. Gnano alonci 

No. 7. 16 lbs. Guano and 6 lbs. Master^ 

No. S. 16 lbs. Guano and 12 lbs. Plaster. 

No. 9. 16 lbs. Guano and 18 lbs. Plaster. 

No. 10. 16 lbs. Guano plowed in, and top-dressed witk 

12 IbSi Plaster, after the wheat was sowed. 

The Gtlano and Plaster for these experiments wefe 
likewise well mixed, and applied immediately. The 
whole was turned in with a double plowj with the exo^[^ 
tionjust statedi 

No. \i 66 J lbs. wlteat, equal to 12 bush* 14} lbs* 

No. 2. 125 " «« " " 27 " 06 

No. 8. 118 ** " « •« 26 « 84 

No. 4* 112 " " «« " 24 " 16 

No. 6. 109 " " . •* " 28 « 87 

No. 6. 112 " " • •« «« 24 " 16 

No. 7. 110 " « «« " 23 *« . 60 

No. 8. 102} « " " «« 23 " 12} " 

No. 9. 101 «« " " ** 21 «' 68 

No. 10. 108 « •* " " 22 •< 19 




The following are from Mr. Stabler: 

Lands 88 by 6 yards — 496 square yards^ the gtiane 
and plaster mixed 9th mo. 20th, '51, and that^ as well 
as the guano by itself, moistened as we nsually do it for 
sowing — 10th mo. Ist, each parcel shoreled ever oa a 
plank floor, so as to thoroughly incorporate them, aiul 
then returned to the barrels — 10th mo. 10th, (29 days 
after mixing,) sowed the wheat with the diiferent par- 
cels of manure^ shoyeled them in, and rolled the ground* 

No. 1* 
No. 2. 
No. 8. 
No. 4. 
No. 6. 

Pounds of Wheat par Acre, 

No manure 69} 11 bush. 36 Ibsi 

bus. Guano 118 18 <* 18 ** 

•« " } bu. Plas. 147 28 « 28 *« 

" " } " " 164 24 «< 66 " 

} " "1 " " 151 24 «• 27 




Quantities of Manure per Acre, 

li No manure. 

2. 250 lbs. Guano. 

8. 250 <* Guano and 2} bushels PUster. 

4. 250 « Guano and 6 bushels Plaster. 

6. 250 '< Guano and 10 bushels Plaster 



03^^ We have a private letter from a gentle- 
man of Cedar Town, Georgia, detailing the re- 
sult of some experiments in the culture of corn, 
a portion of which we take the liberty of insert- 
ing in this number of the Cotton Planter, from 
the fact that we desire to suggest to otlr corres- 
pondent a slight variation of the experiments. — 
We should be pleased to have an experiment the 
present year, of the alteration we shall suggest 
on the same ground and in connection again with 
his most successful one. We give the extract 
and then the proposed alteration. 

"Last spring I measured off three parcels of 
land, containing precisely the same amount each. 
1 planted the first parcel 8 by 3 feet each way, 
[9 square feet to the hill,] one stalk to the hill ; 
2d 1 4 by 4 and 2 stalks, [16 square feet to the 
hill ;] 3d. 4 by 2 and one stalk, [8 square feet to 
the hill.] They were each cultivated alike. A 
few days since I had the com gathered and care- 
fully measured, the result of which has confirm, 
ed me in an opinion I have long entertained^ viz* 
that on any valley or upland, there can be more 
corn made one year with another, by planting it 
d by 3, and one stalk, than by any other mode. 
That planted 3 feet each way, made 66^ bushels 
per acre, and the other two 62^ each. On a for- 
ty acre field the difference in favor of the for- 
mer would be about 30 bbls. enough to fatten 30 
pork hogs.*' 

We suggest to our correspondent this altera- 
tion, viz : — lay the rows five feet wide and put 
the stalks 21 inches apart on the row. By this 
arrangement of the stJlks you will have 140 
toore per acre than when planted 3 by 3. If by 
this plan •f 5 ft. by 21 in. as much corn can be 
grown on an acre of land, all other things a* 
like, it is the best arrangement for planting from 
the following considerations: All upland should 
be protected by grade ditches and perfectly hori. 
feontal rows. Five feet rows We are convinced, 
from many years experience to be the best, and 
most convenient for this mode, (the only true 
system of improvement,) the land can be work- 
ed to better advantage and more effective ; by 
this mode also, a much heavier fall of rain may 
be retained immediately in the place where it 
falls on the land, than if the rows were laid nar- 
rower. This is an object of much more impor 
tance than our planters seem to be aware of. If 
all the rain that falls on land should sink into the 
soil where it falls, it would, perhaps be impossible 
to exhaust the fertility of any soil by cropping* 

and certainly not by a judicious system of rota- 
tion and shifl of crops. With this subject, how- 
ever, we shall have much to do hereafter. 

■'■■ ' ""■■ ■ ' ' " ■ III - 



Dm. CuyuDi 

Dear Sir: According to promise made, when 
I had the pleasure of meeting you at the Macon 
fair, I now send you a description of my manner 
of cultivatrng the Strawberry, founded on the 
experience of many years. It is so very simple 
that no one need, in this plenteous Southern coun- 
try, be without an abundance of this delicious 
fruit for four or five months, instead of two or 
three weeks. If the work is properly done and 
the plants of the right kind, there will be no fu- 
ture labor required in the cultivation, a very im- 
portant consideration, and one that can only be 
correctly appreciated by those who have had to 
keep a Strawberry bed clean and the plants in a 
healthy condition during* our long and hot sea- 

The land intended for Strawberries ought to be 
well and deeply worked ; if on a large scale fof 
market, have it sub-soiled as deeply as possible ; 
if in the garden, have It trenched with the spade, 
at least eighteen inches deep, always being care- 
ful to keep the top soil on the top ; cover the* 
whole an inch deep with well rotted msmuie— ' 
that from the cow- pen is to be preferred, being 
colder, but stable manure will answer, but is, 
from its dry nature, more liable to bum the roots 
in dry weather — mix the manure intimately with 
the top soil with the plow or spade ; level the 
surface and make it fine with an iron-toothed har- 
row or rake ; lay off the rows eighteen inches in 
medium and two feet in strong land; put the 
plants from fifteen to eighteen inches apart in the 
rows, then cover the whole bed at least six inches 
deep with any kind of straw or leaves from wood- 
land. If straw is used, it will be necessary to 
put the plants exactly opposite each other in the 
rows, so as to be able to put the long straw be- 
tween the plants. It is best to check off the 
whole bed and plant in the checks. I use salt 
water rushes and salt water marsh grass, on ac- 
count of their being more convenient, and think 
the salt in them has a beneficial ef^ct on the 
strawberry plant » 

The work for the season is now done, and until 
you come to gathering the fruit, nothing in the 
way of culture will be required, unless to pull 
up any large weeds that may spring from roots 
accidentally lefl in the ground ; no grass or small 
* weeds can grow under the covering. The straw, 
berry plants will grow vigorously all summer ; 



in the fall put on half an inch thick of well rotted 
manure ; dig it in, and also all ihe runners and 
last gear's covering, leaving the plants at the 
eame distance as they were planted. As long 
as the plants are strong and bear well, they may. 
be allowed to remain ; but when any signs of 
decline appear, turn in the old plants along with 
the manure, and leave the young ones in the in- 
tervals, the proper distance apart, and cover as 
before, and the whole labor for another year is 
done. The same bed may be continued for years, 
by changing the spaces for the plants every oth. 
er year ; but it is best to change them every five 
or six years. 

Strawberries, like everything else worthy of 
cultivation, grow best in rich laud, and that 
which is neither too wet nor too dry, suits them 
best ; and a very small space ofground, managed 
as before mentioned, will supply a family with an 
abundance of these best of all berries, from the 
middle of March to the end of July, with no labor 
but that of watering in very dry weather ; and if 
the land has been stirred by subsoiling or trench- 
ing, and properly mulched or covered after plant- 
ing, the cover will retain moisture, so that but 
little watering will be needed. 

The deep ploughing or trenching in preparing 
the land, is,, in our Southern climat«), absolutely 
necessary, for, although the strawberry plant 
has but small fibrous roots, yet these will descend 
as deeply as the earth is stirred, and will suffer 
but little in time of drought ; and the manure is 
just as necessary, especially in land not very 
rich, for it is only under the shade of the largest 
and greenest leaves, (and they are only found in 
land naturally rich, or made so by manure,) that 
the largest and most luscious fruit is found — 
healthy, large leaves being as requisite for the 
production of fine fruit as healthy roots. 

Strawberry beds in full bearing produce few 
or no runners during the fruit season, but when 
any appear they ought to be carefully cut off, 
barren plants when discovered ought to be dug 
up and thrown on the manure heap; if left from 
their stronger growth and greater production in 
runners, they would soon take entire possession 
of the ground, and smother the weaker but pro 
ductive plants. 

In planting new beds, the largest and finest 
plants or runners from roots, bearing the largest 
and greatest number of fruit, ought only to be 
used, and this principle of selection ought to be 
followed in all productions of the field and gar. 

The strawberries at present cultivated by me 
are Hovey's seedling, Kean's seedling and the 
Virginia early scarlet. Hovey's is the best 
bearer, producing the largest and best flavored 
fruit, many of them very large, from three to 
four inches in circumference. Kean's seedling 
has a smaller fmit generally, and does not bear 

so well, nor for so long a period as Hovey's.^ 
The Virginia scarlet is an early and great bear. 
er, but the fruit is rather too acid, — it sometimes 
bears until late in July. 

There is an impression but too prevalent at the 
South, that we cannot raise fine fruit, our poei* 
tion being too far South, for the fruits of the 
North, and not far enough South for those of the 
tropics. This is a great mistake and has pre* 
vented many from trying what they could do in 
growing fruit. Excepting picking, a bushel of 
strawberries can be more easily and cheaply pro. 
duced than a bushel of potatoes. 

Wishing you every success in your underta. 
king and that your **Cotton Planter" may be 
found in every homestead of our broad sunny 

I remain Respectfully, 


Beaufort, S. C. 24th Dec. 1852. 

J v-^ 


[From the HortlcTiUarlst.] 




Dear Sir — I am confident that there are ma- 
ny of your lady readers, ond perhaps many of 
the other sex, who are puzzled among the many 
new manures, and having failed with some, and 
injured their plants with others, they end by rais- 
ing only sickly and meagre plants, when they 
might have them presenting a luxuriant and sat. 
isfttCtory appearance, — with leaves of th« da rk.^ 
est green and flowers or fruit of double the usu- 
al size. I 

Having made a trial for three years past, with 
a perfectly safe and satisfactory liquid fertilizer, 
which appears to suit all kinds of vegetation, 
which is clean and easily applied, and procured 
without difBculty, in any town, I confidently re. 
commend it to your readers, especially those who 
wish to give especial pains to, and get uncom- 
mon results from, certain favorite plants, — either 
in pots or in the open garden — plants, whose roots 
are within such a moderate compass, that they 
can be reached two or three times a week^ if not 
oftener by the watering-pot. 

This liquid fertilizer is made by dissolving half 
an ounce of sulphate of ammonia in a gallon of 

Nothing so good can be cheaper, and the sub- 
stance may be obtained at almost any apotheca- 

Now for the mode of using it. I may say, at 
the outset, that weak as this solution appears to 
be, and is, if plants are watered with it daily, 
they will die — ^just as certainly as a man will who 
drinks nothing but pure brandy. 

The right way to apply it is, to water the plant 



with this solufioti every sixth time, the other five 
times with plain water. 

The proportiot) is so simple, and the mode of 
using it so easy to understand, that the most ig- 
norant person cannot possibly blunder about it — 
if he can count six If we prepare the solution 
occasionally, and water our plants in pots every 
Saturday, with this ammonia water, and all tbn 
rest of the time with plain water, we shall have 
a safe rule. 

'i'he result will, I am sure, both delight and 
surprise every person who will make a trial of 
it. It has become such an indispensable thing 
with me, that 1 regularly mix a barrel of it eve- 
ry Friday, and use it on Saturday, upon any 
plants that I particularly wish to invigorate and 
stimulate. I do not know that 1 have seen a sin- 
gle instance of its disagreeing with any pl^nt — 
immooia being the universal food of vegetation. 
Of course, the more rapid growing plants — those 
with foliage that perspire a great deal, are most 
strikingly benefitted by it: Of course, also, 
plants that are at rest, or not in a growing state, 
should not be fed with it ; but any plant that is 
about starting, or is actually in a growing state, 
will not fail to be wonderfully improved by it. — 
Many plants that have fallen into a sickly state 
by reason of poor, or worn out soil, will, usually, 
in the course of a month, take quile another as- 
pect, and begin to develope rich, dark green foli- 
age. I will enumerate some of the things that 
1 have had great success with. 

Stratoberries. — Beds of indifferent appearance 
at the opening of the spring, lost sec son, after 
being watered four times with this solution, grew 
■very luxuriantly, and bore a crop of remarkably 
fine fruit. This year I have repeated the expe- 
riment on half of evefy bed ; both foliage and 
blossoms are as large again on the watered, as 
on the unwatered bed ; and by way of compari- 
son 1 have watered some with pluin water also, 
— and find, though rather benefitted, (for the 
strawberry loves water,) they have none of the 
extra depth of verdure and luxuriance of those 
watered with ammonia. 

Early Peas. — At least a week earlier than 
those not watered, and much stronger in leaf 
and pod. 

Fuchsias. — A surprising efiTect is produced on 
this plant, which, with the aid of ammonia water 
will grow in very small pots, with a depth of 
verdure, a luxuriance and a profusion and bril- 
liancy of bloom, that I have never seen equalled. 
Old and stunted plants are directly invigorated 
by it. 

Dtoarf Pears. — Some sickly trees, that I have 
given the best attention for three years previous- 
ly, without being able to get either good fruit, or lowing remarks : 
healthy foliage, afler being watered four times . "About thirty five years ago, a French beta- 

perfectly healthy and luxuriant, and have ever 
since, (two years,) remained so. 

Dahlias. — Which I have never succeeded well 
with before, have done beautifully with me since, 
flowering most abundantly and brilliantly, when 
watered in this way. In all out-of door plants, if 
mulching is used, only half the quantity of plain 
water is needed. For plants in pots, 1 consider 
it invaluuble; and gardeners who wish to raise 
specimen plants for exhibition, will find this mode 
of watering them every sixth time with the solu- 
tion, to produce a perfection of growth not to be 
surpassed in any other way. 

Yours truly, 

An Amatuek. 

New- York, May 10, 1852- 

We endorse our correspondent's testimony to 
the value of the solution of sulphate of ammonia, 
applied in the manner he directs, having witness- 
ed its satisfactory efiects. £d. 

Transplanting Trees.— In answer to many 
inquiries, we would advise that all trees, except 
peach, apricot, nectarine and other similar sorts, 
should be transplanted in the autumn or late in 
the fall. By choosing this season of tlie year, the 
trees may be stripped of the leaves, and thus the 
great surfaces for evaporation will be removed. 
The body of the tree, by this treatment, may re- 
tain its moibture, not losing it by the active pow. 
er of growing leaves. This gives the roots an 
opportunity to establish themselves, and to retain 
the moisture received by simple absorption before 
the formation of spongioKs, which draw water by 
the natural laws governing the action of plants. 
Such trees planted out in the spring would be 
parting with large amounts of moisture from the 
surface of the leaves before the roots were suffi- 
ciently established in their new location to supply 
the necessary amount to compensate for evapora- 
tion. The slightest drying of a tree at the time 
of transplanting is likely to interfere with its 
organism, and give rise to after unhealthy habits. 
When large supplies of water are on hand, it is 
well to settle the earth around the roots by its 
use, as this causes the particles of earth to come 
in direct contact with the roots, and to get up a 
condition of the soil more closely resembling 
that from which the tree has been removed. 
It is impossible by pounding or stamping to 
settle the earth as judiciously as by the use of 

water. — Working Farmer . 


Thb Bouebon Rose — Paul's Prince Albert. 
— Turner^ s thrist for November gives a bril- 
liantly colored portrait of Paul's new Bourbon 
Rose, Prince Albert^ accompanied with the fol- 

with the solution— of course with the usual in-. 

nist, M. Breon, visited the island of Bourbon, and 

lermediatB supply of common water — became ^found growing, in a garden at St. Benoist, a rose 



altogether new to him. The flowers were rosy 
carmine, beautisully cupped, and the petals re- 
markable for their size and smoothness. Our 
botanist did not fail to appreciate this nouveaute 
and sending it to PaVis, it was there multiplied 
and scattered abroad. This was the origmal 
Bourbon Rose. It is not a species, but an acci- 
dental hybrid, supposed to have sprung up be- 
tween the common China Rose and the red Four 

Some of our readers will doubtless remember 
the rose lie de Bourhon or Bourbon Jacqees — for 
under both these names it was disseminated ; and 
it is from this rose, variously hybridised, that all 
the Bourbon Roses have been obtained. For the 
few first year? most of the seedlings raised were 
of the same color as the original; some were 
finer, and many were double ; one of which, Au- 
gustine Leleur, remains a good rose to this day. 
The first variation was the production of kinds of 
a clear and beautiful silvery tint, then of a dark 
purple and crimson hue, till now we have in the 
subject of this notice a flower of as brilliant color, 
and equal in form, to almost any rose. The hab- 
it of Prince Albert is dwarf; the shoots are very 
robust, and clothed with large, rich, green foli- 
age. It usually blooms in large clusters, but 
does not grow rampant, like Madam Desprez, but 
produces short, massive shoots, more in the way 
of Cornice de Seine et Marne, from which it is 
probably a seedling, although more robust, larger, 
brighter in color, and more double. As it is of 
dwarf habit, and blooms freely from June till 
November, it will probably prove an acquisition 
as a bedding rose. The autumn blossoms we 
have observed are of a richer but less brilliant 
hue than those of summer. 

The history of this rose is briefly this: Mr. 
Paul of the Chestnut Nurseries found it growing 
in the garden of the raiser, in the neighborhood 
of Fontenay-aux- Roses, near Paris ; and being 
struck with the beauty and brilliancy of the flow- 
ers, purchased the entire stock, and now, for 
the first time, offers plants for sale. 

The Bourbon Roses generally are hardy and 
easy of culture ; the short- wooded, free- blooming 
kinds require two annual dressings of manure 
and close pruning ; they aro then the most beau- 
tiful of autumn roses, flowering better and more 
abundantly late in the season than in summer, 
fine flowers often expanding at the end of October. 

Stbawbehries Grafted on Roses. — A short 
lime ago were exhibited in Paris, in a florist's 
shop on the Boulevard des Italiens, several rose- 
trees, upon which were grafted a few strawberry 
plants. This curiosity attracted much attention 
from the passers-by. The process by which it 
was elTected was as follows : In autumn a few 
dog-roses of good sorts, on their own roots, are 
selected and planted in pots ; at the same time [ 

a well-rooted strawberry is placed with each rose, 
planted just beneath the stem of the rose. In spring 
when the runners push out, two or three of them 
are tied up to the stem of the rose. It is well 
known that the runners of the strawberries soon 
make their own roots, and in due time these 
roots are cut away, making the cuts as for a 
scion, and then they are guafted on the rose stem, 
'^without cutting or rearing the runners from the 
parent plant in the ground." They should be 
preserved very carefully, to lead the sap upward 
to the scions, and, treated in this way, the straw- 
berrries will vegetate upon the rose-tree for soma 

To Prevent Mildew. — Mildew is one of the 
greatest pests of green-houses, and all sorts of 
plant structures. The following remedy has 
been tried in the houses of the London Horticul- 
tural Society, and it is thought will prove eflica- 
cious : Sulphur and unslaked lime put into a tub 
of water, in which they are quickly and intimately 
mixed, and the trees and plants syringed with the 
clear liquid after these substances have settled at 
the bottom." 


The article below, as published in the Tribttna 
of Mobile, on the use of Guano, was sent us by some 
kind frieud, and we cheerfully give it a place in our 
journal. This new and Taluable fertilizer is attracting 
much attention just now, and all practical information 
with regard to its use and application must prove inter- 
esting to our planters. 

"We are personally acquainted with some of the gen* 
tlemen whose experiments are referred to, and know 
them to be entitled to all credit: 


Notwithstanding the apparent expensiveness 
of this manure, its use is gradually extending ; 
and where judiciously applied, has been found 
highly beneflcial for all kinds of garden, field and 
plantation culture on all descriptions of soil. 
On cotton, fewer experiments perhaps have been 
made than with other crops ; but in the few cases 
where it has been applied, the results were en- 
tirely satisfactory. 

Mr. Stephens of Marion, Mississippi, has pub- 
lished in the Star the result of his trial last year 
with guano. He says : 

**I planted on good cotton land, the rows four 
feet wide ; I applied guano to each alternate row, 
at the rate of about 200 lbs. per acre, leaving the 
remaining rows without manure. This furnished 
an opportunity to ascertain precisely the in- 
creasdd production. I picked one row of the 



unguanoed cotton, and it yielded /8^ lbs. seed 
cotton. I also picked one row of tne guanoed 
cotton, immediately by the above row, and it 
yielded 82 lbs. seed cotton. The rows being four 
feet wide, of course it took 52 rows to make an 
acre, which being multiplied by the above pro- 
ductions will show that the land without guano 
produced 936 lbs. per acre, and with guano it 
produced 1664 lbs. per acre, being an increase 
per acre of 728 lbs., or about 66 per cent. The 
guano put on this acre cost $6. The increased 
production, 728 lbs., at $2 50 per cwt., is worth 
about 91^ I deduct 96, the cost of the guano ap- 
plied, and it leaves 812 clear profit per acre. 

"I applied on my plantation several tons of 
guano. I found the result on all good lively cot- 
ton lands about equal to the above; but where it 
was put on old, thin, worn, light lands, and noth- 
ing mixed with it, I found it did but little good — 
not enough, I apprehend, to pay for the guano. 
Dead, poor, light, old lands must have something 
besides guano. I think, however, if rich earth, 
or surface as we geneeally call it, was placed in 
the furrow with the guano, on suuh side lands, it 
would pay very well. I think it would do well 
on the land If new ; but after the land gets old 
worn and washed, surface must be put with the 
guano or it will not pay." 

In regard to poor lands, that is, exhausted 
lands, his suggestion was no doubt a good one. 
A mixture of plaster and guano would, however, 
be much better, and would, with favorable sea- 
sons, produce fine yields of cotton, corn or 

In Virginia and elsewhere guano has been 
employed on wheat and oats with the most marked 
success. Mr. C. Russell, of Virginia, used 
guano on wheat at the rate of 200 lbs. to the acre 
and ploughed in six inches deep«— land unlimed 
and sterile as could be wished. The crop of 
corn preceding the wheat only made a barrel and 
a half per acre. The yield of this field was 22 
bushels an acre. The Farmers' Club in his 
neighborhood is of opinion that Mr. Russell is 
indebted to the guano for 17 bushels of this 

On oats, Mr. J. D. Matthews, of Prince George, 
made a trial with guano. That he might ac- 
curately test its true value, he seeded 442 
square yards of unlimed and otherwise very 
ordinary land, without guano; the yield was 
31 lbs., making per acre 345 lbs. He then 
seeded alongside the land of similar quality, 
guanoed at the rate of 150 lbs. . per acre, well 
mixed with wood ashes, at the rate of five bush- 
els per aprp, and ploughed under eight inches 
deep, which yielded 452 lbs., making a differ- 
ence in favor of the guano of 1,107 lbs. per acre. 
Mr. Matthews aflerwards seeded six acres of land 
in oats, gunnued and ashed at the above rate, 

which produced 1,884 lbs. per acre, being better 
than the piece he experimented upon. 

But let us come nearer home. In 1851 seve- 
ral gentlemen in the vicinity of the city used guano 
on several kinds of crops. Mr. J. Donovan has 
used it on his farm ten or twelve miles from the 
city. He cultivates pine land, level, with light 
sandy soil based on clay. For corn, afler well 
breaking up, he applied the guano broadcast at 
the rate of 400 lbs. per acre ; then ploughed in 
and harrowed. The crop was cultivated as 
usual. The yield was fully fifly bushels per 
acre, the ears large and well filled. 

Mr. J. C. Hodges, five or six miles west of the 
city, sowed two pieces of land, which had been 
previously limed and cultivated, one in oats and 
the other in barley, spreading at the same time 
250 lbs. of guano to the acre. All was ploughed 
in and harrowed. Both crops were remarkably 
fine, so much so as to attract the attention of every 
one who passed by the fields. The land is sandy, 
unless at a great depth, and without manure would 
scarcely '^sprout peas." Mr. Hodges also tried 
guano on sweet potatoes with the most satisfactory 
result, producing unusually large and fine pota- 
toes. In regard to Mr. Donivan's experiments, 
he sent us a note, stating that his first trial was 
with sweet potatoes. He planted three acres, 
manured with guano at the rate of 400 Ibs.^per 
acre. In the same field alongside, he planted an 
acre manun d ^\ ith good compost from the stable, 
at the rate of sixty cart loads to the acre. The 
field was old and worn out. A part planted with- 
out manure failed to produce twenty bushels of 
small potatoes per acre. The yield from the 
stable manured and guanoed land was about 
equal, say 200 bushels of fine large potatoes and 
fifty or sixty bushels of small ones. The next 
year the field was put in corn without additional 
manure and produced finely. From one acre in 
oats, with 400 lbs. guano broadcast, he gathered 
sufficient oats to fodder four hoi^es for three 
months. The oats grew six feet high. Mr, 
Donavan has tried guano on corn, peas, potatoes, 
(Irish and sweet) water-melons, tui'nips, tomatoes, 
and other garden vegetables, fruit-trees and 
shrubbery, and says with confidence that it is 
one of the most powerful as well as the cheapest 
fertilizers in the country. The poor pine-lands 
in the high neighborhood of Mobile, treated as 
above, will, Mr. Donavan thinks, always be good 
for 40 bushels of corn per acre. 

We have at hand some experiments more fs« 
cent, all within a few miles of the city. Mr. S. 
Roberts has used guano on melons, sweet and 
Irish potatoes, and in fact on all garden veg6];a« 
bles with entire success. He cultivates the ordK 
nary pine land. His sweet potatoes yielded 
about 400 bushels to the acre, all very large and 
of uniform size. He put up a barrel, a forty bal- 
lon whiskey barrel, for a friend in New YorK-^ 



forty seven potatoes filled it, some of them weip^h- 
ing 11 J pounds. Mr. Roberts used about 200 lbs. 
guano psr acre, sprinklng the gmno in the drill, 
and covering the dirt before planting the .slips. 

Mr. A. FI. Ryland has also used it with the 
most marked success in producing grass for hay. 
He has formerly bought from 200 to 250 bales 
of hay a year. The past season he made enough 
on a five acre lot to feed his stock the whole win- 
ter, and will not have occasion to buy any. His 
mode of culture is as follows : About this period 
of the year he prepares his ground for sowing the 
oats by ploughing in 200 lbs. of guano to the 
acre. In June he cuts the oats, and in the fall 
takes off his crop of crab grass. Last fall the 
yield of grass was so large that it could not be 
cured on the ground where it grew, 

Mr. D. T. Brennan, one of our most success- 
ful market gardeners, employs about 200 lbs. per 
acre, mixed with a little manure and sowed 
broadcast. He never fails having fine crops. 
After taking ofTa crop of potatoes, or an early one 
of corn, he levels his ground bv harrowing and 
rolling, and cuts the following fall a fine crop of 
crab-grass hay. This grass stood last season 
four feet high, and had the appearance of a mead- 
ow in the Eastern States. As another evidence 
of what may be done by the proper employment 
ofgflano, we may mention that Mr. Wm. Flash, 
of this city, prepared in November last about 
half an acre of ground for cabbages, by applying 
150 lbs. of goano in the drill when transplant* 
ing, and that he sold the lot of cabbages a few 
days since to a huckster, as they stood in the 
ground, for $180. 

Other cases might be cited, proving the great 
fertilizing propertips of guano, and its adaptation, 
not only to the soil of our immediate neighbor, 
hood, but to all kinds throughout our State. But 
we have said enough to convince any intelligent 
mind that it is one of the best manures now em- 
ployed. The price may seem high, but in view 
of its small bulk and consequent facility ofappli- 
cation, we consider it cheap, and so will any in- 
telligent culturist who tries it. 

It may not be amiss, in this connexion, to in- 
form our readers that Messrs. P. B. Pomeroy & 
Co., nave arranged for a constant supply of the 
genuine Peruvian guano, which will be sold at a 
small profit. 

J ** [Prom the Soil of the Soath.] 

. . ; - ^ Rock Mills, Ala. April 21,1852. 

^' '..■'' Mr. Ediwr, — Inasmuch as the columns of the 
5oi7 of the South are open to all, I take the liber- 
ty of communicating a few recipes for the bene- 
m of those who may find them intnresting, and 
as I think the fewer words used the better, I will 
be short. And I further think that what is pub- 
lished should be attended with experimental tes- , 

Ist. How to prevent ants and other crawling 
insects from annoying bees, sweet- weats, dec. 

Tie greasy wool round the legs of the bee gum 
bench, or spread it under the jars. If dogs eat 
it off, dip the wool in a little spirits of turpen- 

2d. To prevent the bud- worm from injuring 
corn in low, wet places. 

Put a small quantity of ashes in the hill when 
planting. Another way is to transplant those 
wet places with corn drawn from other places in 
thinning. It will grow and ear well, and the 
worrn will not attack the transplants. 

3d. How to prevent birds and hens from pul- 
ling up corn. 

Soak the seed in a decoction of hen manure 
and a small quantity of fiah brine sixty hours, 
and rub in ashes and plant. My word for sao* 

4th. How to protect cucumbers from frost and 
destroy the bugs. 

Permit gourds to grow about tho fence— no 
matter what shape. Saw the gourds open, and 
in cold nights turn them over the cucumber hill. 
They will save it from frost, and the bugs will 
collect in the gourds for safety and shelter. In 
the morning take a torch and burn the bugs. In 
two days you may exterminate all the bugs in 
your neighborhood. 

5th. How to plant cabbages, &c. 

Get a plank the length of your rows and ser- 
en inches wide. Lay it across the bed and plant 
by the edge of it — walk on the plank to preTent 
treading the ground when wet. Your rows will be 
straight, and your ground not trod. 

6th. How to have an orchard of bearing pears 
in two or three years. 

Select healthy crab trees five or six feet high ; 
dig them up with care ; mind to save as many 
roots as possible ; cut off all the limbs except 
three or four to graft on ; cut them within one 
inch of the body of the tree. The reason for 
this is, that if you grafl from the body of the 
tree, the graft will out grow the crab limb, be- 
come heavy and twist off. Get your pens from 
a bearing tree, and you will have a beautiful 
healthy tree. 

7th. Grapes may be brought to bear the se- 
cond year by grafting in wild grape vines. In 
getting grape vines to graft upon, in order to suc- 
cess, the root or stock must be vigorous and 
healthy, otherwise your labor is in vain. 

8th. In manuring with ashes, I find a small 
quantity, on my land, answers a better purpose 
than too much. 

I have growing three varieties of American 
Grapes — ^two from the forests of Texas, and one 
from the north-western part of North Carolina. 
The two from Texas bore a few bunches of 
large black grapes last year. I think they will 




do well. The variety from North Carolina is a 
Fox Grape, of a purple color, as large as a small 
Tomato, smells lucious, and is the most thrifty 
vine I ever saw. It was grafted into a native 
grape vine. 

If any of our friends wish to try any of my 
grapes, they know where to find me. I should 
like very much if all the writers in the Soil of 
the South would write over their own English 
names, as I do not understand Latin. 

Yours, &c. 


ble remedy used a few years ago by a certaia 
tamer and exhibitor of those reptiles in this and 
other cities, who it may be remembered, allowed 
them to bite him frequently during exhibition : 
Pulverized Indigo, 4 drachms ; Pulverized Cam- 
phor, 8 drachms ; Alcohol, 8 ounces. Mix and 
keep it in closely corked bottles. The directions 
for using are simply as follows: After shaking 
the bottle, soak the bitten part in the mixture for 
fire minutes, and the cure is complete. 


[From the Southern ColtiTator.] 


Messrs Editors — I procured ten bushels of 
Black Oats last fall, and sowed twelve and a half 
acres — in November. They stood the severity 
of the winter, until the last very extreme cold 
spell, and I then thought they were all destroy- 
ed ; but some time after I discovered some living 
bunches, and I concluded, as they were scarce 
and very high, to try and save all I could for 
seed. As the spring advanced, I saw more 
greenness over the lot, and when matured I was 
driven to the necessity of feeding some of them, 
perhaps ten or twelve dozen. I saved and hous 
ed them, and had them thrashed a few days past, 
and though a leak had destroyed some ten bush- 
els, I had measured, of clean oats, one hundred 
and six bushels. I have but little doubt I made 
one hundred and twenty- five bushels — and now 
comes the marvelous. I found one bunch, grow, 
ing from one seed, that had one hundred and 
twenty -nine heads, and 1 counted one head that 
cofitained three hundred grains. If each had 
averaged three hundred grains, it would have 
been thirty. eight thousand seven hundred ; but 
one hundred and fifty grains to each head, (and 1 
have no doubt they will do that,) make nineteen 
thousand three hundred and fifty grains from one, 
and there were many found having over one hun- 
dred branches or heads, and a great many over 
eighty. 1 have proof of what I say, indisputable, 
and I have fifly-six bushels for sale at 8 1 00 per 
bushel. I would never sow any oth^r kind, but 
the time they are obliged to be cut interferes with 
the crop. 

If any of your readers should doubt the in- 
crease, I have not only evidence of what I say, 
but I have several bunches together with the cel- 
ebrated one hundred and twenty-nine. Some 
have counted and said one hundred and thirty- 
two, instead of one hundred and twenty-nine 
heads. G. Lumpkin. 

Harmon^ Oglethorpe co, Ga. 

For Rattlesnake Hites. — The following, 
says the New York Sun, is an Indian recipe for 
rattlesnake bites, and said to be the most infalli- 

Brief Revle'vr ot the Cotton Marketa 

For the information and SAtisfaction of our planting 
friends, we fumish in tliis nnmber of the Cotton Planter 
a concise and hasty review and statement of the condi- 
tion of the Cotton Market, np to the close of January, 
taken from the Merchants' and Planters* Price Current, 
and Mobile Journal of Commerce Letter-Sheet Price 
Current, of the latest dates, 29th Sanuarj. 

We can but remark to our friends, that the prospec- 
tive prosperity of our cotton industry is truly flattering. 
Upon the heel of a signally unprecedented crop, that of 
1851, and in the face of another promising 8,800,000, at 
least, fair and remunerating prices are sustained. 

The fialea of the week, ending January 29th, are put 
down at 18,000 bales in Mobile, taken mostly by North- 
em ordeca — the English and French taking but little. 


Jan. 81, 1852. 


Jan. 28, 1858. 

Ordinary.... 7J@ 8 

Middling t — @ 8} 

aood Middliog 9}@ 9I 

Middling Fair 10 @10J 

Fair 10i@ll 

The receipts of the week amount to 22,489 bales, and 
exports 24,515 bales, leaving the atock on hand and on 
shipboard not cleared, 128,508 bales. 

The receipts up to the latest dates, at all the ports, 
give the following result : 

iNO^iASB — ^New Orleans 880,755 

Mobile 77,808 

Savannah 80,641 

Virginia 1,460 

North Carolina 2,582 

Texas 13,384 

Florida 18,218—474,847 

DxoBSASE — Charleston 2,878 

Total increase for the season 471,469 

The foreign exports this season, as compared with, 
last, will exhibit an increase : 

laoaaASB— To Great Britain 298,716 

Other foreign ports 88,858—887,074 

DacaKASE — To France 88,420 

• • 

Total increase 299,645 

The decrease in coastwise exports is 7,762 bales. The 
increase in stocks, at all the receiving ports, is 119,285 


Junuary 29M. — The letters by the Arabia came to 
band this morning, but do not appear to have brought 
many orders, as the demand is very limited, and thustkr 
If • have heard of the sale of only 1,000 bales. 



Contents of tl&ls IVambor* 


Analyses of the Cotton Plant and Seed 83 

Wool and Wool-Growing 36 

The History of Cotton Manufactures » ,»»... 38 

To Presenre Fresh Meat , 40 

Draining , , 40 

The Farmer's Level , 41 

Hill-Side Ditching No. 2 41 

The Cow and the Dairy ,, , 45 

Dried Fruit. 45 

Importance of light 45 

Thorn Hedges ...* 46 

Inexhaustible Supply of Guano... .*...47 

To Farmers* Boys — A Hint 47 

Analysis of Soils and Pulverization 48 

Guano, against Manure and Marl Compost. 48 

Editorial Notices &o , , 49-50 

Southern Ladies' Book — Horticulturalist — >^ 

Direct Importation of Guano, &o., j ' 

Cotton — Its Improved and True Culture, No. 1 52 

Plantation Kconomy, by Dr. M. W. Philips, No. 8 53 

Preserving Forest Growth as Manure 54 

Arrow-Root — .Ite Culture, &c. — Marl — Its "> »g 

Value, and- Quantity to be applied, / 

Guano, Plaster, &c 56 

Corn Experiments , ,..., 57 


Culture of the Strawberry „ .m'-57 

A Liquid Fertilizer for Choice Plants 68 

Transplanting trees — ^The Bourbon Rose., 59 

Strawberries grafted on Eose stalks — \ ^^ 

To prevent Mildew, / ^ 


The Use of Guano on Various Crops.,. ..,„,„. ..,,,,,.60 

Valuable Receipts on Various 8uki|)eots „„,.,„ 62 

Black Oats— For Rattlesnake Bite— \ /^ 

Review of the Cotton Market^ / •"•""•♦' ^ 


Surgeon's Machinist, Truss Maker, Cntler, 8cc., 


MONTfiOniERT, ALi., 

MAKES and adapts every description of Tnus for In- 
quinal, Cural, and Umbilical Hernia; 
3pinal Supports foi* Carviture of the Spine ; 
Instruments for Incurvation o^ the Limbs of Children, 

club feet, distortions, &o. &.; 
Artificial Limbs ; Laced Stockings ; Ankle Sooks ; Knee 
Caps for yaricose veins, weak and swelled legs, knees, 

P. S. Particular attention paid to Plantation Stands, 
and Instructions for Measuring sent by post io any part 
of the country. 


A Splendid Assortment of SHEFFIELD CUTLERY, 
of the finest quality, finish and tempefi imported direct 
from themakers, consisting of 

Ivory-Hfltilled Table Knives, for Silver Plated and |3teel 
Forks ; 

Pen, Pocket, Hunting, and Sportsmen's Knives ; 

Razors, warranted ; Strops, &6. &o. ; 

Ladies' Scissors, and a variety of other articles of Cut- 

jl^^Kew Bhides put in Handles. Cutleiy and Sur- 
geons' Instruments repaired. 

February Ist, 1858, 

Acclimated Fruit Trees, 




THE Stock, this year, is good and well-grown. Prices 
and descriptive Catalogues, containing hints for 
planting, pruning and tending, will be promptly for- 
warded by mail to applicants who prepay their letters. 
Shipments can be made, with entire safety, to any part 
of the South — the utmost attention being paid to /»adUiiy 
and forwardxng. 


Has been published, as usual, and will be sent by mail 
and prepaid, on receipt of 12 cents in postage stamps.— 
Orders solicited, for this nseftil and popular periodical, 
from Booksellers and Country Merchants; and adver- 
tisements fh)m Gind-Stand and other Manufacturers^ 
Schools and Colleges, Watering Places, '&o. No oUier 
work has so large a circulation in the South. 

ACCOUNT BOOKS, new edition, now ready. No. 1, 
for 40 hands or less, $2 50... No. 2, for 80 hands or 
less, $3 00.. .No. 8, for 120 or less, .$3 60. 

ACCOUNT BOOKS— Number 1, for 80 hands or less, 
$8 00...Number 2, for 120 hands or less, $8 60. 

These Books are now in general use amougst Plant* 
ers. They will be sent by mail, prepaid and carefallyr 
enveloped, at the above prices. Orders solicited front 
Booksellers and other dealers, to whom a libenl 
count will be made. 



TIIE Subscriber, acting under an arrangement with Bfeam. V. 
Barreda & Brother, of Lima and Baltimore, the general urenta of 
the Pemyian Oorernment for the aale of Gaano, and Uirovh 
whom alone thin Guano can be procured, it prepared to aii|^i^ 
Planters %nd others in the Sooth, with a pare and unadultomta^- 
article, in any desired quantitie«, and %t the following |nrioM, die 
livered in New Orleans : 

For an J quantity under four tons, f.'M) per ton of OOOtlbg. 

For more than four tons and under 25, f 47 per do. 

For larger quantities, the price is somewhat lower. 

In all cases, where more than one ton is ordered, there win be* 
no additional charges for drnyage, &c., but the Quano willbe 4«» 
livored on board steamer, or in the eity, at those prices. Fof IMS 
than one tqn, drayage will be added. 

By this arrangement, the cohi to the Planter will be THS 
chased; avoiding the factor's commimton for purchasing, drayagei^ 
repairs of sacks, dec, Ac; and the subKcriber guarantees the art!- 
cle, procured through orders sent to him, to be unadalterated aD4 
pure as taken from the Ghincha Inlands. It will be delirend in 
sacks, containing each about 150 to 180 lbs. 

A right draft upon a New Orleans house, or other ^naUy aT«il<i 
able funds, must invariably accompany each order. 

As the first cargo, coming direct from Peru to New OrleatM, uiH 
der the subscriber's arrangement with' the Messrs. Barreda, fanattl- 
be expected to arrive before the Ist of October ne^t, a supply will 
be immediately sent forward, reshippod at Baltimore and stored at 
Npw Orleans, to afford him the means of filling orden already jk 
ceived, or which may be sent to him during the winter. The prlea^ 
for any quantity of this lot, over one ton, will be $60 par legMtan* 
delivered on board steamer ; the freight and charges from Balti- 
more causing the additional price irhen even a larger qoaatttjr 
than five tons is ordered. 

Messrs. Barreda, in their letter to the subscriber, laying dowi| 
the scale of prices, and explaining the arrangemeuts entendlntQ 
for a deposit in New Orleans, remark,—^* We have given orders to 
our Lima house to eend direct from the Ghincha Islands, aquantl- 
ty suflicient to meet the den^and, and to have a deposlfe aluajs 
readv to sqpply any amount The Guano that yoa will reetif* 
shall come direct from the said Islands." 

From arrangements made with some of the regular Packet Beats 
on the river, the freight will not exceed, to any point below TiAf- 
burg, from 20c. to S6c. per sack, or about $2,50 to $3.50 per too. 


Iflt Jaauary, .l|534t. WMhiogton, Adaou eo., Jlia; 

A MoBlhly Jonrnal, devflled to Improved Plantation Ecocomy, Mannfaclnres, and Mechanic Arte. 


No. 3. 


BY C. F. m'cAY, 

The course of the cotton trndc Juring the pnsl 
year has been steady xnd uniTorm. The season 
opeaed in September and October, et rates a trifle 
higher than were fealiSfd in December, but from 
January forward the market slowly advanced, 
until non it is a little higher than it was a year 
«go. The price at Liverpool of fair cotton, on 
the IstofSeptembor, 1851, waa 5 1.3d., in Oc- 
tober it was 5 l-4d., ID January 5d., in .March 
S l-8d., in May 5 l-4d., in July 5 3.4d., and 
6d. in Se|)tember, 1S5S. The increased esti- 
mates of the crop depressed the price early in the 
season, but the immense consumption in every 
partof tho world — in the United States, in Eng- 
land and on the continent — encouraged the sel- 
lers to demand higher rates ; and tlicso have 
been maintained, in spite of the promise of another 
large crop br tho ensuing year. The rates now 
current are not high, but they aro abovp the av- 
erage. For the twelve years from I840to 1852, 
the whole American exports, (see Table 1, at (he 
end of this article,) nmounling to nearly ten 
thousand millions of pounds, have been sold at 
ui average price of eight and a half cents. The 
price of good middling at Charleston i\now, Oc- 
I III iitii^iii o-i.ti>iwii* Itutaad of daoliiiing 

below tho usual rates, the market has advanced, 
after receiving the largest crop ever produced, 
and with the prospect of another fully as large. 
What has maintained these prices} Are the 
causes temporary or permanent 1 Will they 
continue for the present year? or is tbeir eAect 
already past? 

In attempting an answer to these questions, it 
may be remarked : lat, That the advance is not 
due to the fact that lower rates do not pay. From 
1840 to 1814, when the average (see Tabe 1) was 
only eight cents, tlic stocks were constantly in- 
creilsing. Tho prodiietion outran the COnsump- 
tion. Tills led to lower prices, which tliscour- 
aged planting, and at the same time increased the 
demand of manufaaturers. From 1815 to 1849, 
the average price {see Table 1) was only 7 1-3 
cents. The surplus stoclts then became small 
and prices advanced. Thus it appeared that an 
average of 8 cents from year to year stimulated 
production, so that the supply exceeded the de- 
mand ; while 7 1.3 cents produced the opposite 
cfFecl. The present rates, therefore, are more 
than suflicient to pay the planter a proper profit 
on his investment. And the general advance on 
laii^ and negroes throughout the SoutHern States, 
confirms the conclusion thus indicated by the 
rise and the decline oftho stocks lying over from 
year to year. The present prices will not only 
pay the cost ofproduclion, but allow a handsome 
profit to tho proilucer. 




2d, The price has been kept up during the 
past year in part by the high rate of exchange. 
A rise of one per cent in exchange is nearly 
equal to one eighth of a cent in the price of cot- 
ton. The advanoe in exchan£ce has been about 
two per cent over the rates which were current 
before the discovery of California gold. We 
were then both exporters and importers of the 
precious metals. When we were sending them 
abroad, the price of exchange was the real par, 
pltis the freight, insurance, and other expenses of 
exportation. The highest rates were 1 1 1 or 112 ; 
the lowest, 104 or 105. The average was about 
lOS for sixty day bills. For the past two or three 
years, we have always been exporters of gold, 
and the range of exchange has been from 108 to 
112 at New York ; seldom going down to 108 or 
rising to 1 1 2, the average being about 110. This 
rise in exchange on account of our owning the 
gold mines in California, is a permanent cause. 
Exchange will be hereafter the real par, pltis the 
cost of exporting specie, and not the real par, 
sometimes increased and sometimes decreased by 
the cost of exportation. Thi^ is equivalent to an 
advance of one fourth of a cent in every pound of 
cotton, and for the year past it produced to the 
South not less than three millions of dollars. 
This, though a true cause for an advance in cot- 
ton, is not sufficint to account for the whole rise. 
Another cause may probably be — 

3d, The increased supply of the precious 
metals, which by expanding the currency tends 
to raise the price of all other articles of merchan- 
dize. The large additions of gold to the ourrepcy 
of the world must, by inevitable necessity, pro. 
duce an efiect of this kind. No arithmetic can 
calculate its exact amount, in a short period of 
time I but that it is producing and must produce 
hereafter a slow, continued rise in all kinds of 
property, no one can possibly doubt. Its first 
effect is to raise the price of silver ; but it is im- 
possible, while the present laws regulating the 
comparative value of silver and gold at the mints 
of the world continue unchanged, to raise the 
premium on silver beyond a very small amount 
The effect of a slight advance is to push aside 
the silver and to introduce gold in its stead. 
Thus in our domestic currency, silver is passing 
out of general circulation, and the vaults of the 
banks are filling with gold in its place. In | i)erity in every department of manafactures, have 

France the coinage of gold has of late increased 
very largely. And so in other countries whers 
both metals are a legal tender. This expansioD 
of the m3tallic currency gives the banks an op- 
portunity to increase their circulation, and thus 
the whole monetary medium, by which all the 
exchanges of Comm3rco are made, becoming 
enlarged, the price of all other articles cannot fall 
to advance. It is impossible to say how large 
an influence this may have had in the rcceDt 
prices of cotton. It is not probably large, but 
that it is real no one can doobt. 

4th, Another cause whioh has helped to sus- 
tain prices, and probably this is more potent than 
all the others together, is the successful despotism 
of Louis Napoleon in Franoe, and of the crowned 
heads on the continent of Europe. The order 
that has reigned in Paris and throughout France^ 
has given confidence to the me rchant and manu- 
facturer, encouraged labor and industry, givea 
security to property, and stimulated production 
and consumption in every department of business. 
Similar causes hare been operating in the Grerman 
and Italian States. The triumph of law and 
order over the revolutions of 1848 was not com- 
plete until the pr^nt year. The iron heel of 
arbitrary power had crushed the external mani- 
festations of resistance, but the murmurs of dis« 
content were still audible, and the lK)pes of liber- 
ty were not yet extinguished. But the present 
year has witnessed the end of all these things.. 
Lombardy and Hungary kiss the rod of the op- 
pressor. French soldiers preserve quiet at Roma* 
The patriots of Naples and Sicily are in prison 
or in exile. An Austrian army has quelled the 
disturbances in Baden, Hamburg and Sehleswig- 
Holstein. Revolution, anarchy, socnalism, red* 
republicanism, exist no more. Men have turned 
their attention to trade, to labor and to the pursuits 
of peace. Instead of political agitation, the peo- 
ple are employing themselves in new enterprises 
of industry, of commerce and manufactures. 
The consumption of cotton in France has, in con- 
sequence, outrun every former year. Though 
stationary for many years past, the deniand has 
suddenly awakened to new life. And so^ 8^, in 
all the disturbed parts of Europe. 

5th, The low price of grain in England, ths 
successful working of free trade, and the pros- 



Stimulated the home demand in Great Britain to 
an extraordinary extent. The exports of cotton 
fabrics have been encouraged by the peace and 
prosperity of every part of the world. The over- 
throw of Rosas has oponed the La Plata and its 
tributaries to British Comnlerce. The outbreak 
in CafRcaria is unimportant. The war in Bur- 
mah bcirig out of India prapor has no influence 
on trade. The rebcliioii in China does not dis- 
turb the exchanges at the free ports. So that 
universal peace may be said to prevail. 

6th, In the United States the onward march 
of the cotton manufacture has again been re- 
sumed. The tariffof 1846, and the high price of 
the raw material, had checked the demand for the 
past three years, but the progress of our coun- 
try in population, wealth, and enterprise, has 
surmounted these obstacles, and our course has 
again- been forward. 

Of these several causes noW enumerated to 
explain the fair price of cotton for the past year, 
in the face of the abundant supply, there id not 
one which is not likely to oporate for the coming 
year. We may, therefore, in considering the 
supply and the demand for 1959, anticipate full 
average prices. They cannot be high, for the 
supply will be too large to permit any check in 
consumption. They cannot fall even to the ave- 
rage, for the stocks are low, and any further de- 
cline would stimulate the demand even beyond 
tts present extraordinary amount. 
' The supply from the United States will proba- 
bly exceed the large cropof 1S52. The increased 
number of hands, the large breadth o( land plant- 
edin cotton under the stimulus of good prices, 
the favorable character of the season, the fine 
weather for gathering the crop afler the 1st of 
October, and the lateness of the frost, will tell 
stroDgly in favor of a large production. We 
have indeed had two severe storms, and with one 
of them a flood, but their injury has not been se- 
rious. The rot also has prevailed to an Uncom- 
mon extent. The boll-worm has been very gen- 
eral, and in some places severe. The caterpillar 
has done some harm, but beyond eating the leaves 
from the stalk, its ravages have been local and 
aninflportant. These causes have not produced 
as much injury as Was suffered last year** 

age than all the opposing causes of the present 
season. The receipts at Charleston and Savan- 
nah will therefore exceed those of last year. 
They will also be increased by the extension of 
the Georgia Railroad further to the West. In- 
stead of 800,000 bales received last year, 900,* 
000 may confidently be anticipated for 1853. In 
Florida, the storm of October the 9th did such 
serious injury that we may expect a falling off 
in the receipts at Apalachicola and St. Marks. 

More of this cotton will go to Savannah than 
usual ;, and the loss from the caterpillar and boll 
worm has been considerable. But the increased 
planting will go far td balance these deficiencies, 
and but a sliglit decline may be looked for. From 
Alabama the receipts Will be lafgdr than last 
year. There was then too little rain ; How there 
has been too much. The river lands produced 
finely last season ; now it is the sandy uplands 
that are white with abundance. Only a small 
increase however may be anticipated. From 
the Various districts that send their cotton to New 
Orleans, the reports are contradictory. The 
Red River lauds are doing very Well ; the par- 
ishes of Louisanahave been injured by the worm, 
the bottoms of the Mississippi have been too wet ; 
the frost has kept off to a very late period in Ten- 
nessee ; the planting has been large ; the season 
for gathering long, and nearly the same amount 
will probably be received as for the past year. 
From Texas the reports have been very favora- 
ble, and an increase of 25 per cent may be looked 
for with confidence. The whole crop of Amert- 
can cotton fof 1853 may be estimated (see Table 
II.) at SI,1O0,OOO bales. 

The imports from the East Indies have fallen 
off largely the last year on account of the mode- 
rate prices. This has been the uniform effect of 
a declining market, and we may look with con- 
fidence for the same result hereafter. There is 
in India an immense production of cotton for do- 
mestic use. It has been stated to be as large as 
the crop of the United States, but no satisfactory 
statistics have ever been collected to show the 
actual amount. It is, however, very large, and 
a high price in Europe attracts a larger portion 
for foreign export. It may then be brought ibiN* 
ther from the interior and pay a larger chaige 




cotton, the heavy expense for freight and insu- 
rance for the long voyage, leave but a small bal- 
ance for the first cost of production, and the car- 
riage from the interior to the seaport. The circle 
around the marts of exports is thus narrowed, 
and the amount sent off decreases. Thus the 
high prices ot 1350 and 1851 raised the English 
imports to 308,000 and 329,000 bales, against 
182,000 in 1849. The moderate prices for the 
present year have caused the imports at Liver- 
pool to fall off near 100,000 bales. (See Table 
III.) The low rates current in December and 
January last, diverted much of the East India 
cotton intended for export to China, and the Eu- 
ropean receipts have been small. No increase 
in these can be expected for 1853, since prices 
promise to be moderate, as they have been for 
the last season. 

The imports into England from Egypt have 
increased largely for the past year. The lar- 
gest amount ever before received was 82,000 
bales in 1845. The average for the last three 
years has been 73,000. But for 1852 the re- 
ceipts at Liverpool alone on the Sth of October 
had reached 142,000 bales. Less than usual 
has been carried to Franco, and so large an 
amount for England cannot be anticipated for the 
coming year, especiaily as the stocks in Liver- 
pool of Egyptian cotton have advanced 50,000 
bales. From Brazil and other places, the Liver- 
pool receipts have increased slightly over last 
year, namely, from 90,000 to 108,000 bales ; 
they are, however, less than for the two prece- 
ding years. The average from Egypt and Bra- 
zil for the last four years has been about 250,000 
bales, (Table IV.,) and this amount may be 
looked for in 1853. 

ThetotaUsupply from all these places for 1853 
may be estimated (Table V.,) at 3,550,000, or 
about the same as last year. This is 685,000 
bales larger than for 1851, and 500,000 larger 
than for 1849". But, as^ the increased demand 
has taken oflT the whole of the larger production 
of 1852 at moderate prices, leaving the stocks 
now sraaller than they have been for several 
yeas past, (Table VI.,) there is nothing in this 
large supply calculated to depress prices. 

In considering the consumption, we notice 
ft larcTA increase, not only over last year, but over 

Great Britain in 1851 ^Vas 1,663,000 bales, while 
the largest figures for any previous year were 
1,590,000 bales. The deliveries to the trade this 
year at Liverpool (see Table VII.) where 95 pet 
cent of rU English sales are made, exceed those 
of last year more than 8,000 bags per week. Aa 
the factories are now well supplied, the excess 
will scarcely continue until the 31st of Decem- 
ber. But the great regularity in the deliveries 
forbids any material decline. If the future pur- 
chases of the trade should not exceed those of the 
same period for last year, the consumptioD of 
Great Britain would reach 1,992,000 bales &r 
1852. Nor can we anticipate any less for 1853. 
The abundance of money, the favorable barrest, 
the great demand for labor, the high Wages ia all 
branches of manufactures, the advance in irpn, 
the prosperity of the shipping interest, the large 
influx of Australian gold, the universal preva- 
lence of peace in every part of the civilized world, 
the new machinery erected during the last year, 
the moderate rates which the raw ntaterial prom- 
ises to bear, the low stocks of goods in the hands 
of the manufacturers, the large decline in the 
imports of wool, and its consequent advance in 
price, and the general prosperity, both in the 
domestic and in Che export trade^ authorize the 
expectation of a still larger consumption for 1853. 
There is not a single drawback to this anticipa- 
tion, except the chapter of accidents y but it may 
be the safest, as the increase for the last year has 
been so unprecedented, to look forward to a de- 
mand only as targe as for the present year* 

The consumption in France has increased as 
rapidly as in England. Our exports thither have 
been 120,000 bales larger than last year, and 
they have caused no accumulation of stocks eith- 
er at Havre or at Marseilles. The deliveries at 
Havre alone have increased (see Table VIII.) 
more than 80,000 bales, and the amount of Amer- 
can cotton for the whole of Franco will probably 
exceed 400,000 bales, against 310,000 for 1351. 
As large a demand for 1853 may be confidently 

On the continent of Europe the consumption 
has been steadily increasing. Its progress is 
occasionally checked by high prices, but these 
are only temporary disturbances in its onward 
march. In Russia, the imports for the three years 



1844 to 1846 they were 584,000 ; and from 1S47 
to 1849 they were 1,065,000. In the German 
Zollverein the protective duties they have im- 
posed have given ample encouragement to the 
home manufacture of cotton goods. The English 
and American exports of raw cotton to these and 
other continental States have averaged (see Table 
IX.) 417,000 bales in 1847 and 1348; 522,000 
in 1948 and 1850 ; and 582,000 in 1850 and 1852. 
For the incoming year they will almost certainly 
reach 600,000 bales, which is a trifle less than 
the amount for the present season. 

The consumption of the United States has made 
a most sudden and rapid progress during the past 
year. For the threo preceding years we had 
gone backwards. The high price of the raw 
ikiaterial, and the imports of cotton goods from 
abroad, had given a check to our increasing de- 
mand, such as we never before bad experienced. 
Hitherto our progress had been uniformly on- 
ward. The rapid increase in our population and 
wealth forbids any retrograde movement in the 
regular operations of business. Just as our rail- 
ftHids, our shipping, our crop of cotton, or of wheat, 
or of corn^ make steady and invariable progress 
from year to year, so must our cotton manufac- 
tures. There will be at times a backward step 
ia this movement, but it is temporary and brief. 
It IS like the oscillation of a pendulum on a mov- 
ing surface — the weight swings backward and 
onward, but the onward motion of the point of 
support makes it certain that the forward oscilla- 
tions will more than compensate for the backward 
movements. The present prosperity of the coun- 
try authorizes us to expect an advance even on 
the large consumption of the past season. The 
amount for 1852 has reached (see Table X.) 
603,000 bales, and 625,000 may be anticipated 
for the coming year. 

The whole demand for 1853 will then be esti. 
mated at 3,625,000 bales, (Table XL,) which is 
75,000 more than the anticipated supply, (Table 
V.) Now as the stocks on hand (Table VI.) are 
very low — Slower than they have been for years 
past, especially if the time for which they would 
auppty the demand be considered — it would seem 
that prices must keep above their usual average. 
This has been 8 1-2 cents (Table I.) at the sea- 
ports for the last thirteen years, and if the influ- 
ence of a high rate of exchange and the abun- 

dance of gold arc to be regarded as real causes 
of elevating the money value of cotton in our 
markets, it would seem probable that the present 
prices (9 1-2 cents at Charleston, October 29th, 
for good middling) will be fully sustained, and 
that an advance rather than a decline may be 



Total exports 

Total yalue. 


in pounds. 



»40 to '44 





'46 to '49 





'50 to '51 




Estm'd for 18o2 





'40 to '52 1 9,691.000,000 


















N. 0. ^ 




















S. Ca., 





0th. pic's 











1830 to 1834, aT. 5 ys. 
1835 to 1839, " " " 
1840 to 1844, «* " " 
1844 to 1849, ** «f " 
1849, Oct 5, Liv. only 
1851, «*10, 
1862, " 8, 
1849, whole yr.G. Br. 

1851, «* " •* * 

1852, « Estimate. 

1853, " " 







Low prices. 
High prices. 
Chinese War. 
Peace and low prices. 
Low prices. 
High prices. 
Moderate prices. 
Low prices. 
High prices. • 
Moderate prices. 

200.000 Moderate prices. 



Liverpool, G. Britain. Liverpool, G. Britain. 

about Ist 
Years. October. 




whole about 1st 

year. Years. October. 








1851. 1852. 1853. 

Crop of the U. S. Bales. 
Eog. imp'ts from E. Ind. 
from oth. pla. 





Total from these sources|2,865,000|8,515,000 








1849. 1850, 
U. Statet, Sept 1, 166,000 


LWerpool, Oct. 8, 682.000 
HftTre, October 6, 46,000 






782,000 746,000 741,000 632,000 



1849. 1861. wy con 1862 wy con 

Mayl,bl8.| 582,000 
Jniie4, I 688.000 


August 1, 
Sept. 8, 
October 1. 

Bo, G. Brit 







427,000 25,100 










630,000 37,100 




Gov... , • 







- On examining the foregoing Aanalysis of the 
Cotton Plant and Seed, we see that they abound 
in the phosphates and alkalies, Drs. Will and 
Freseniu3, in their analysis of the Cereal Grains, 
show that Vyhpat also abounds largely in these 


In order to enable the reader to make the com- 
parison, we give the Analysis of Red and White 
Wheat, as published by tjiem. It is as follows s 



1860. 1851. 1852. 
All k'dfl. U. S. All k'ds. U. S. All k'ds. U. S. 

Wbolc fur. 



1 300,000 



294,000 312.00(\ 




1» t 




T«an. Am. exports. Eog. exports. 

Potass... • ^ ,. • ^.i 

Soda.... ..•••!•• 


Magnesia ••••• 

Peroxide of Iron • • 

Phosphoric Acid 

Silica.. • 

Ciiarcoal and Sand 


• • 







1847 bales. 














100.00 98.21 




North of Av'ge for Inc. South of 
Biehmond. 8 years, p. ct Richmond. 












Result for Estimate for 

1860. 1851. 1852. 1853. 

Great Britain, 
United States, 
France, of U. S. 
Ezp'tsfrom G. 
B. and U. S. 









400,000 400,000 





An Enobm ons Tax upon Farmers. — The dog 
population of the United States is estimated at 
About two millions, and the expense of keeping 
tb^m &t upwards of $10,000,000 per annum. 

All these constituents being derived directly 
from the soil, plainly indicate the reasons why 
the lands in the South are ao easily exhausted. 
The crops extensively puhivated here all require 
in a great measure the same food from the soil, 
and hence ^ils whieli will not produce Cotton, 
are alike Inoapableof producing the Cereal crops.* 
The gveat benefit derived from the application of 
Cotton Seed as a manure lo these crops, is accounU 
ed for from the same causes — an abundance of 
Phosphate^ being given in their application to the 


A system of tillage which carries away anna- 
ally so large a proiportion of these natural esaeB* 
tials to vegetation, and wbi<)h provides no noeaas 
of returning them, must necessarily impoverish 
[ any soil. A ^xed principle in the Agriculture 
of all countries where the prosperity of the future 
has at all been regarded, has ' been the gradual 
but certain improvement of the soil. This is 
necessary for the support of increased population^ 
and in the slave States, where there has been such 
an extraordinary and rapid increase of the labor- 
ing population, it should never be lost sight of. 
The intensity of our Southern sun-shine prevents, 
in a great measure, the annual coat of grass that 
supplies vegetable matter to the soil in Northern 
climates ; and the never-ending occupation of the 
soils, by our system of culture, prevents the nat- 




ural improvement which in other countries is 
carried out by Fallowing. We are well aware 
that Fallowing is generally objected to in the 
South, and we think where Fallow is converted 
into pasture land, and taxed during the whole 
season for the production of herbage to sustain 
greedy herds, the system might well come info 
disrepute. Planters, too, object to Fallowing, 
and say they have not land enough to allow one- 
half to lie idle, &c.; but reason and justice to 
the noble occupation of Agriculture, allows this 
objection to pass unheeded ; and its fallacy is 
proven by the desert wastes of "old fields," an 
agricultural feature only common to the New 
World, and— we blush to say it— only visible to 
the Southern or Planting States. In Europe, 
where arable soil compared to population, is a 
thousand times scarcer than in the Southern 
Stales, the Agriculturalists find Fallowing a re- 
munerating system. It is but little understood 
in American Agriculture, and we may be par- 
doned forgiving the proper details for Fallowing, 
believing it to be the cheapest manner of renova- 
ting our soils. A field intended for Fallow, 
should bo deeply ploughed in mid- winter— the 
deeper the ploughing the better. This is simple 
proparatloij, but, nevertheless, necessary ; and 
above all things, keep every description of Stock 
off the field. The porousness of the soil will 
facilitate the assimilation of the natural salts of 
the earth, and atmospheric action, with the dis- 
solving influence of rains, will generally bring to 
the aid of the succeeding crop a sufiicient quanti- 
ty of these for its production. Late in autumn 
the herbage should be turned under. This pro- 
cess exerts chemical and natural influence bene- 
ficial to the soil. First, as by decomposition of 
vegetable matter carbonic acid is produced, which 
is known to act as a powerful solvent of phospha- 
ted alkalies. Secondly, those portions of the 
grass and weeds, not readily decomppsible, when 
admixed with the soil, give it that friability so 
necessary to easy tillage, and thus aids the agri- 
culturalist in his future labors. A hastard sytem 
6f Fallowing might, by the aid of the red and 
black Tory pea, be judiciously adopted in the 
Cotton-growing States. Owing to their imper- 
viousness to wet, they can be sown in mid-winter, 
and vegetating in the spring, without the aid of 
eultivation, generally make upon ordinarily pro- 
ductive land a sufficient crop to protect it from 
the sun in summer, and ^mother out those weeds 
which are such a pest to cultivated crops. The 
oooatntuents of the Indian pea-«known to be in a 
great measure derived fVom the atmosphere — 
would in all probability furnish a better green 
orop for subversion than the natural grasses and 
weeds. Judicious fallowing iSf therefore, in our 
opinion, the cheapest, and by far the eaaiest mode 
of renovating ami preserving the productiveness 

of our soils, and if adopted and regularly perse- 
vered in, would heighten both the production and 
value of our Cotton lands. 


Much may be effected in reclaiming worn out 
Cotton lands, by a good system of Compost ma- 
nuring, the benefits of which have been forced 
upon our agriculturalists by the gradual accumu- 
lation of animal manures, and the decomposition 
of wasted vegetable matter, in and around their 
barn-yards. It is a system which should bo so 
generally understood and practised, that we deem 
it unnecessary to make other than a few remarks 
respecting the increase of this manure and its ap- 
plication. It is a mistaken idea, that the planter 
gains by hauling into his barn-yard the stalks 
from his Corn and Cotton fields, in order to con- 
vert them into compost manure. Their elements 
would be returned to the soil by the certain law 
of vegetable decomposition, if suffered to remain 
on their fields, and their place in the compost 
heap can be supplied easily by litter and leaves 
from the forest, grasses, weeds and muck from 
the marshes, ditches, and fence-rows on the farm. 
Weeds, abounding in the alkalies, furnish profi- 
table vegetable matter for composting, in addi- 
tion to these, we have the rotten wood and forest 
leaves, which are so abundant on all hands. 
Muck or peat, being decayed vegetable matter in 
mass, in this concentrated form contains a largo 
amount of phosphates and alkalies ; and when 
mingled with the droppings of animals, forms a 
compost highly retentive of substances thus im- 
parted, which it yields most readily to the grow- 
ing crops to which it is applied. Compost when 
applied in wint<?r, docs not require to be thorough- 
ly decomposed, but when, as in the case on crops 
where it is applied in the spring, and its elements 
are demanded immediately by the young plants, 
its decomposition should be perfect. The com- 
post heaps should be protected from the rains, in 
order to prevent those salts rendered soluble by 
moisture, from being washed away. It would 
add much to the value of compost manure, if the 
water collecting on the roofs of farm buildings 
was carried in gutters entirely beyond the yard, 
and not allowed to flow through it, which would 
be greatly facilitated by a concentration of farm 
buildings. Every domestic animal, if properly 
confined and quartered, when not in use for gra- 
zing, would amply repay for the trouble of attend- 
ing to them ; and the filth from the wash-house, 
stercory, pig-pen, hen-house and pigeon cote, so 
much neglected amongst us, would, if properly 
hoarded, furnish most valuable ingredients to the 
heap. A concentration of all that is essential to 
the production of our cultivated plants, being 
found in the component parts of this fertilizer, de- 
rivable from the Cereal food consumed by ani. 



mals, and the phosphate ar.d ulkilinn propcrties'| 
of the weeds, grasses, A:c., niaKc ii at once the ] 
best and cheapest form of applying A'cgetable and 
animal manures for the immediate production of a 
crop, at the command of our planters. The 
quantity might be increased on every plantation 
in the State, to a degree which would make its 
manufacture profitable. This, however, will 
never be done until fewer acres are planted, which 
will enable them to manure more land. 


Bones, according to Berzelius, contain 55 per 
cent of the phosphates of lime and magnesia. 
The relative value of the bones of difierent ani. 
mals varies in their constituents, and also from 
the difference in age, their value being increased 
with years. The bones upon every farm would 
fumishy if preserved and applied, a considerable 
amount ofthe best and most durable fertilizer, 
which is peculiarly adapted to the production of 
the Cotton crop. This is proven by the identity 
ofthe constituents which compose bones, and are 
found in the Cotton Plant. The planter in the 
marl regions— especially where fossil bones and 
shells abound — has an abundant supply of native 
phosphate of lime, which only requires pulveri- 
zation to render it almost as useful as the recent 
bones. Phosphates in the bones comprise their 
chief vaipe/ which is shown by the fact, that 
they make a fertilizer equally as valuable, afler 
the fatty matter has been extracted by soap boil- 
ers, as before — hence, all old bones might be 
rendered yalpable if properly applied, iiuano, 
the most powerful fertilizer applicable to hus- 
bandry, being the ordure of sea-oirds, it is known, 
derives its great value from the amount of bone 
earth it contains. We therefore regard the an- 
nual waste of bones on plantations in the South, 
where more animal food is consumed than by 
any other people in the world, as the most suici- 
dal disregard of that economy which has furnished 
the axiom to agriculturalists — ^^tkat Manure is 
Wealth." Many arguments abound, to favor 
the adoption of bones as manure aipongst us. 
One is, they caw easily be preserved, and it only 
requires the same labor to do this that it does to 
throw them away. Another argument in their 
favor is, that a laborer in a sack, can transport 
to a distant field bone manure whiph will furnish 
more constituents to the crop than oaii be con* 
centrated in a four horse Ipad of the best stable 
dung or compost manure. Still another, is the 
little labor it requires to apply them to the soil. 
The great secret of applying bones to the soil is 
found in pulverizing them into as finely separa- 
rated particles as possible, which fits them for 
the operation of speedy atmospheric influence, in 
order that their constituents may be taken np 
rapidly by the plants. Grinding, crushing and 
burning are the usual modes ; but in order to fit 

the crushed boiies or bono ashes for the greatest 
production, Professor Von Liebig recommends 
the following pructss: Pour over the crushed 
bones or bone ashes half their \veight of sulphu- 
ric acid diluted with four parts of water, and 
afler they haye bceu digested for tweoty-four 
hours, add one hundred parts of water, and aprin* 
kle tiiis mixture over the field immediately be* 
fore ploughing. By its action in a few secxmds, 
the free acids uniting with (he bases in the earth, 
a neutral suit is formed, in a very fine state of 
division. Experiments instituted on soils, ibr the 
purpose of ascertaining the action of manure pre- 
pared in this manner, have distinctly sbown that 
neither grain nor kitchen garden plants sufier 
injurious effects in consequence, but that, on the 
contrary, they thrive with nmph nf)ore Y>gor afler 
its application. (Vide Van Liebig* s Organic 
Chemistry, p. 230.) 

Another theory of application, by the great 
French Chemist, M. Dumas, the substance of 
which we give from his article, cotained in 
CompUs, Rendeus, Nov. 30, 1846, p. 1018, ''On 
the Manner in lohich Phosphate of Lime epenf 
Organized Beings,*^ is interesting. He remarks, 
that the phosphate of lime being insoluble in 
water, nevertheless penetrates, and is deposited 
in their structure ; and bones containing it are 
slowly disaggregated by the soil, and disappear 
afler a time, under the influence of rains. The 
investigations of M. Dumas discovered two causes 
producing these effects — the one acting rarely 
and feebfy, the other constantly, and with great 

The first resides in a property possessed by 
sal-ammoniac, which facilitates the solution of 
phosphate of limei Though this salt dissolves a 
noteable quantity, and exists in all runninpr waters, 
yet this slight proportion renders its action in this 
respect inconsiderable. 

The second is fbund in the aption of parbonio 
acid ; and in this, the true solvent of phosphate 
of linie is to be found, for water impregnated with 
carbonic acid dissolves large quantities of phos- 
phate of lime. M. M. Berzelius and Thenard 
had remarked the alkalies and ebullition, by 
driving off or neutralizing the carbonic aoia, 
which precipitated it. 

M. Dumas, believing the action of carbonic 

acid to be such as above stated, did not doubt the 

efifect it would produce on the bones themselves. 

He therefore introduced plates of ivory into bot. 

ties of Seltzer water, (which contains a great 

I deal of carbonic acid,) and they were as much 

■ softened in twenty- four hours as if acted upoa 

I by dilute hydro-chloric acid, which is also a pow. 

erful solvent of phosphate of lime. The Seltzer 

! water was found loaded with phosphate of lime, 

I and the experiment proved the action of carbonic 

; acid as its solvent, to be rapid and certain. I am 



sure th^ fjiscovery wiU be of importanpe to the 
agricultural world. 

I would call the attention of physiologists to 
to this property in carbonic acid, as it satisfacto- 
rily explains, the transfbrmation of the phosphate 
of lime into plants. Of course, it would not be 
practicable to dissolve the phosphate qflime, by 
the aid of Seltzer water, but the preparation of 
bone ashes by its known and powerful constitu- 
ent, might be rendered available in the following 
manner : Where bone powder or ashes is inten- 
ded for manuring soil destitute of vegetable matter, 
let them be mixed with leaves or other organic 
matter, and its decomposition with the aid of the 
rains and atmospherical influence, will create a 
suilicieilt quantity of carbonic acid to assimulate 
the phosphates in such a form that they will be 
readily taken up by the organism of the plants. 

How easily could a planter manure a few acres 
of Cotton with bone powder or ashes ? When 
all the bones are hoarded as gold, and their true 
Taloe known, they will be appreciated. Then a 
bone mill for crushing, and simple apparatus for 
their chemical reduction, will bo as essential to 
producing the crop as a grinding mill is to pre- 
pare the grain for the food of man. 


Containing phosphates and alkalies, to a con 
■iderablc extent, may be used advantageously as 
a manure fof Cotton. 


Being tiseful in decomposing and ameliorating 
adhesive soils, might be profitably employed in 
the permanent improvement of Cotton lands. 
Common potter's clay, disused through water 
and added to n^ilk of lime, thickens immediately 
upon mixing, and if the mixture be kept for some 
monthii, and an acid be added » the clay becomes 
gelatinous, which is the eQect of the admixture 
of the lime. The lime, in combining with the 
elements of the clay, liquifiies it, and, what is 
more remarkable, liberates the greater portion of 
its alkalies. The^e interesting facts, so impor- 
tant to the scientific world, were first observed by 
M. Fuchs, at Munich, and led to the explanation 
of the effects ofcaiistic lime upon the soil, which 
furnishes the agriqulturQiist with an invaluable 
means of opening it and setting free its alkalies — 
substances so indispensable to the production of 
bis crops. (For further facts ooncerninff lime, 
and its application to Agriculture, see Liebig^s 
Organic C)iemisiryj Which should be in the hands 
of every one.) The lime lands of the West pro- 
ducing abundant crops of Cotton, so long as fur- 
nished with vegetable matter, shows that lime 
alone, upon exhausted soils, would prove a doubt- 
ful aid. 

We could add suggestion after suggestion, rel- 
ative to the aids to be applied to the production 
of Cotton upon exhausted noils ; but these being 

the most important, we shall (dispense with the 
boundless materials which lie abundantly around 
us, and only need transporting to our fields in opder 
to benefit them. It was a ir^atter of surprise to 
Professor Von Liebig, that any soil not furnished 
by artificial means with the preponderating con- 
stituents of the Cotton Plant and Cotton Seed, 
should produce a crop abounding in the phos* 
phates. This leads me to further investigations, 
and a rich field of research ^till lips une3(plored, 
in the analytical examination of the Cotton Soils 
of the South and West. 


From ])eBo^*s,Revlei|r. 




The cotton' fabrics of India became common 
in England at the commencement of the eight- 
eenth century, and were complained of a^ a great 
evil by a host of pamphleteers. In the year 1700 
an act of the British Parliament forbade the im. 
portation of India silks an4 printed caliooes for 
domestic use, either as apparel or furniture, 
under a penalty of £200 on the wearer or seller. 
This was done to ''avert the ruin of English 
manufactures, and revive their prosperity." 

The manufacture of cotton, ^^ we have seen, 
was general in India, and had attained a high 
excellence in the age of the first Greek historian, 
that is, in the fiflh century before Christ, at which 
time it had already existed for an unknown pe- 
riod ; yet eighteen centuries more elapsed befqre 
it was introduced into Italy or Constantinople, or 
even into the neighboring empire of China. 
Though so well suited to hot climates, we have 
seep thf^t cottons were known rather as a curiosl- 
ty than as a common article of dress in Egypt 
and Persia, five centuries afler the Greeks bad 
heard of the dendra eriophora^ the wool-bearing 
trees of India. In Egypt the manufacture never 
reached any considerable degree pf excellence^ 
and the muslins worn by the higher classes have 
always been imported from India. In Spain, the 
manufacture, carried thither by the Arabs, flour- 
ished for a time, and then became nearly extinct* 
In Italy, Germany and Flanders, it maintained 
only a sickly and ignoble existence. 

In the downfall of tho Roman Empire, the arts 
and commerce perished. We have at this period 
only a few incidental notices of the cotton manu- 
facture in the East. Omar, the successor of 



Mohammed, is described as '^preaching in a tat- 
tered cotton gown, torn in twelve places ;" and 
All, his fellow fanatic, wore, at his inauguration 
as Caliph, "a thin cotton gown tied around him 
with a girdle." Whence it is inferred that cotton 
yrsiB a common article of dress in Arabia at the 
time of the Hegira, A. D. 622, and had probably 
been so for many generations. 

There is little doubt that the Mohammedans 
carried along with their conquests into the west- 
ern world the arts of growing and manufacturing 
cotton, and that they also introduced into India 
many, improvements in the oriental manufacture 
ofootton, suggested by their superior intelligence 
and inventive genius. 

In Spain, the cotton manufacture flourished 
during the thirteenth, fourteenth and fiileenth 
centuries, and then declined. The cotton plant 
still grows wild in many parts of Spain. Barce- 
lona was famous for its cotton sail-cloth, large 
quantities of which it furnished to other nations. 
The Spanish ierm fustancros, from which comes 
our yf 0x6 fustian, denotes manufactures of a stout, 
substantial kind of cotton goods first manufac- 
tured in Spain. CoWoxi paper was also probably 
first made in Europe by the Spanish Arabs, who 
brought the art from the East, some say Egypt, 
others Bucbaria, The Arabs also manufactured 
linen paper at Valencia. The religious antipa- 
thy, however, whiph existed between the Moors 
of Spain and the Christians, prevented the propa- 
{ration of the oriental arts in the West ; and when 
the Saracens were driven from Spain, the arts 
which they had brought to that country perished. 

The Portuguese were the first to import into 
Europe the cotton stuffs and muslins of India, but 
thejr never attempted the manufacture of cotton 
ip Portugal. The Dutch, however, not only im- 
ported cotton fabrics largely from India, but also, 
towards the latter end of the sixteenth century, 
began to manufacture them at home. LfOng prior 
to this perioi a manufacture of indigenous cotton 
had existed in the southern parts of Italy, where, 
particularly along the gulf of Taranto, the plant 
had been cuHivated since the eleventh century. 
In Calabria the plant was biennial. The soil of 
southern Italy is said to have been very favorable 
to the culture of cotton. 

Xhe manufacture of Qotton in England, did not 
pomnience until about the beginning of the six- 

teenth century. They brought their raw cottoa 
from the Levant, Lisbon and Sicily. The first 
cotton manufacturers in England were Protestant 
from the Low Countiies, whither they were driv- 
en by the religious persecutions of the court of 
Spain. They commenced the manufacture at 
Bolton and Manchester. 

The cotton fabrics first manufactured in Eng- 
land were partly of linen, owing to the scarcity 
ot cotton. It was not until 1773 that fabrics 
purely of cotton began to be made in England. 
These were produced by Messrs. Strull & Need, 
the partners of the illustrious Arkwright ; but no 
sooner were they produced, than it was discov- 
ered that a law existed, expresslyybr the encour- 
agemenl of the arts, prohibiting the sale of such 
fabrics. Application was immediately made to 
the British Parliament to repeal so unwise a law, 
but it required much time and expense to ooQ- 
vince that legislative body of the propriety of re- 
pealing so preposterous an enactment. This it 
finally did, on condition, however, that thr.'c 
pence a square yard should be paid by manufiic- 
turcrs on all printed cottons or calicoes. 

Men have often complained that the world has 
been cursed by physic and false medical philoso- 
phy ; but it may well be questioned whether 
society has not suffered much more from the ope- 
rations of stupid laws ; for what step forward has 
civilization ever made, that has not found a stum- 
bling-block in some stupid enactnient, if not som« 
entire code of laws ? Commerce and manufao* 
tures especially have sufibrred, and still continue 
to suffer by bad laws. 

In modern times, cotton has attained to an im- 
portance among the vegetable productions of the 
earth, which could not have been even dreamed 
of a few centuries ago. The manufacture of 
cotton, though it now affords employment and sub- 
sistence to hundreds of thousands of persons, is 
almost wholly the consequence of discoveries and 
inventions, made in England and in this country 
since the middle of the last , century. Previona 
to that time the nianufacture was confined to 
the narrowest limits. Owing to the diOSculty of 
separating the wool from the seed, its price, so 
long as this operation had to be perfbrmed by the 
hand, was necessarily high ; while tlie cost of its 
spinning and weaving by the wheels and looms ia 
use previous to the yeaT 1760, added so much to 



its price, that cotton articles were suited only to ; Roberts succeeded in rendering the hand even of 
the use and demand of the higher classes of so- the spinner unnecessary, the ipaqhine doing the 


It is' a very remarkable fact, that no material 
improvements in the art of manufacturing cotton 
fabrics took place, during the long period from 
the earliest historical dates down to the middle of 
the last century. The Hindoo, at the present 
day, uses the same rude and sin^ple implements 
in manufacturing his fabrics that were used when 
Herod itus wrote. AH the great improvements in 
ihc art of manufacturing cotton and wqolen were 
reserved fpr the present age. 

The first great improvenient was. an invention 
of the Qpiqning-jenny, by FJargreaves, in 1767, 
by which qi^o individual qoqld spin 120 threads 
at once, or, in othetwqrds, perform, in any given 
length of time, the work of 120 persons! Pre- 
vious to tl^is invention, every thread used in the 
manufactnre of Qottoq, wool and flax, through- 
out the world, was spun singly by the fingers of 
the spinner, with the aid of that rude, antique, and 
classical instrument, the domestic spinning toheel. 
The jenny of Hargreaves, however, was fit to 
spin only the softer despriplipns of yarn, pr that 
used as tcefly it being unable to give the thread the 
firmness and hardness required for v^arp. Two 
years afterwards, this deficiency was removed by 
- the genius of Arkwright, who completed what 
Hargreaves had begun, by inventing the spinning- 
frame — a wonderful piece of machinery, which 
spins any number of threads, of any degree of 
fineness and hardness, leaying to t^^e t^and of the 
operator merely the feedino; of the machine with 
cotton, and joiqing (he threads when they happen 
to break. 

Five years later, in 1774, the genius of Comp- 
ton conceived the happy idea of combining in one 
machine the ipventions of Rargreave and Ark- 
wright, thus erepting an instrument turning one 

entire work unaided. Now, in our cotton facto* 
ries may be seen several thousand spindles, in a 
single apartment, revolving with inconceiyablo 
rapidity, with no hand to urge their progress or 
guide their operations— drawing out, twisting, 
and winding up, as ipany thousand threads, with 
unfailing precision and indefatigable patience 
and strength — a scene as magical to the unfamil- 
iari?;ed eye, as the transformations of oriental 


Nearly at the same tinie that the spinning de* 
partment was thus wonderfully improved, Doctor 
Cart Wright, a clergyman of Kent, England, in- 
vented the poioer-loom. But there was still anoth- 
er thing necessary to complete this astonishing 
career of discovery, Without a vastly increased 
supply of the raw material, and at a much lower 
price than it had previously brought, the inven- 
tions of Hargreaves, Arkwright, Compton, Rob- 
erts and Watt, would have been of comparatively 
little value. This last, and perhaps the most in^- 
portant step of all, was the work of an Ai^^npari. 
Mr. Eli Whitney, a native of Connecticut, by the 
invention of the cotton- gin, conferred upon the 
world a n^achine which has done more for cotton 
growers, manufacturers, commerce and civiliza- 
tion, than any other one machine that was ever 
invented. Without the cotton-gin, all the inven- 
tions for spinning would be comparatively use- 
less, and even the steam-engine itself would bq 
stripped of half its y{ili\e as a manufacturing en- 
gine. Where would now l^ all our immense 
exports of raw cotton, all the vast cotton manu- 
facturing establishments of the world, and all the 
vast commerce of nations in cotton fabncs, if we 
had not the cotton-gin of our illustrious country- 
man, Eli Whitney ? We often talk of erecting 
monuments to the memory of our great statesmen 

hundred spindles at once— hundred-handed, like and literary men; but certainly Eli Whitney 

Briarcus and his giant brothers of old. 

At first this astonishing invention ^yas turned 
by hand, and Kelly was the first to apply to it the 
waters of the Clyde. Watt next applied the more 
potent agency of steam, thus causing the two 
thousand spindles to whirl at qnce in a single 

But the spinning machinery awaited another 

deserves a monument, whose top would overlook 
the whole cotton region of North America ; and 
such monument should be erected by the plant- 
ers of the Southern States. 

{To he continued,) 

dfir Sub.8oil sound land, that is, land whieh 
is not too wet, and you will by that means con- 
improvement. By an ingenious contrivance, ' duco to its productiveness. 




Silver Bluff, South Carolina, 

January 5, 1846. 

JJear Sir : I embraca the earliest opportuni- 

There is no question, however, that the want 
of chemical knowledge has in time past led to 
great errors in its application and eon|^uent 
failures— often to serious injury from ib use. 

ty my Other engagements have allowed me, of j ^V^»<5° the element in marl which gives slits chief 

fulfilling niy pronjise to reply with the request of 
your Society, to give them such information as I 
possess in regard to Marl. I am happy to learn 
tba( an ii^terest in this matter has been excited in 
your GouQty ; and if, in what I am about to say, 
I shall fail to meet all the inquiries which might 
be made, it will afford me great pleasure to com. 
municate more fully on particular points^ at any 
time hereafter. 

Aware of the strong prejudice existing too gene- 
rally among Farmers against everything new in 
farming, it may not be amiss for me to begin by 
saying, that however new to us Marling may have 
been a few years ago, it is in po|i)t of fact one of 
the oldest agricultural operations of which we 
have any authentic record. Pliny, who wrote 
during the first century of our era, mentions 
Marl as having been long in use atpong the 
Qreeks, and also in Gaul and Britain. lie de- 
scribes pretty accurately the appearance of all, 
or nearly all, the kinds of marl now known. He 
^yen specifies the peculiar effacts ofeach on soils, 
^nd states the length of time these effects were 
supposed to last, which was from 10 to 80 years, 
according to the quality of the marl and the land 
iparled. Varro, who wrote a century before 
Bliny, mentions having seen fields in Gaul cov- 
ered with a "white fossil clay," and also de- 
scribes several kinds of marl as in common use. 

Although these writers, because ignqcant of 
the discoveries of modern science, made great 
blunders in attempting to account for the extraor- 
dinary influence exeited by this earth on vegeta- 
tion, and to discriminate between its varieties, 
still it is unquestionable that the leucargilhn of 
the Greeks, the fossicia creta of Varro and the 
hutrga of Pliny, were no other than the same kinds 

of marl we find here, and which at this day so 
many enterprising farmers, both in Europe and 
America, are actively and extensively engaged 
in spreading over their fields, and which have 
been continuously used for that purpose more or 
less from the remotest ages. Marling, then, is 
certainly no novelty*— no untried experiment that 
can for a moment be. (passed aniong the modern 

virtue, and also its certain and its probable chem« 
ical action on the soil and its growth, were all un- 
known, every new application of it was to some 
extent an experiment which might or might not 
succeed. It is a great proof of its universal val- 
ue, that so many succeeded as to maintain its 
reputation and consequent use. Mr. Ruflin, of 
Virginia, was the first in this country to explain 
on scientific principles the true nature^of marl, 
its mode of action and the proper manner of ap- 
plying it, and to carry his theory through the 
ordeal of successful experiment. He is the found- 
er of the marling system among us, for which he 
will be long ^nd deservedly ranked among pub- 
lie benefactors. His "Essay on Calcareous 
Manure" contains everything that it is important 
to know about marl and marling. Throughout 
my operations it has been my guide, and it is 
still, I believe, far in advance- of anjrthing that 
has yet been published in any other country, on 
the subject. If I thought every member of your 
society would procure a copy of that essay, and 
peruse it carefully, \ might close my letter here, 
by earnestly recommencing thenfi to do so. It is 
with the hope of inducing some of them fo do it, 
as well as to testify ray respect for them, 1)y re- 
sponding to their enquiry, that I proceed. 

Marl, as correctly defined by Mr. Ruffin, nnd 
now known ifj this country, is calcareous earth/ 
that is, earth containing lime. The lime found 
in it is united for the most part with carbonic 
acid, and is therefore called carbonate of Itnie* 
AzQle has been found in marl alsg, and magnesia 
is not u ncommon . Besides these, it contai ns sand 
and clay in various proportions, and occasionally 
a green* sand highly prized as a manure, on ac- 
count of its being rich in pqtash. All of these 
constituents are valuable to the farmer. But it 
is the quantity of carbonate of lime in it which 
gives its character to I^arl, and by which it is 
estimated when it is called rich or poor. 

Nothing is more deceptive in appearance, and 
the most experienced are liable to great mistakes, 
if they attempt to estimate its value by the eye, 
and without employing the proper chemical test. 


There i% a rock found in abundance in 3'our 
county, and \\'hich is of great value for other 
purposes, that has deceived man}'. It seems to 
be a mass of shells ; but the fact is, they are only 
effigies, or casts from which every particle of 
lime has been long since washed away, and sand 
deposited in its place. There is also a fine, soapy 
jeartb, usually of a pale ash color, though some- 
times darker, that many have regarded as a very 
rich marl. This is what was formerly, and by 
foreign writers is still denominated clay marl. 
It seldom contains much lime, and is generally 
wholly destitute of it even when found in marl 
beds. This Soapy feeling is a very uncertain 
iadioation of lime. Where it is observed in marl, 
it is usually owing to something else, chiefly to 
tnagnesia*or^.alumina. A marl is found whiter 
and harder than the earth to which I refer, but 
of the same lamellated structure, and also a 
somewhat soapy touch, that is exceedingly rich 
in lime — that at Shell Bluff containing 90 odd 
per cent of the carbonate. It yields readily to 
the knife, crumbles when exposed to a severe 
freeze, and is altogether the most valuable marl 
we have. It is unfortunately not met with in large 
quantities in our formation. . In our marl beds 
immense quantities of large shells are generally 
found. Inexperienced marlers have been known 
to spread these on their land. But they are of 
little or no value, unless burned or crushed. 
They were deposited where they are found be- 
fore the human race inhabited the earth, and be- 
ing for the most part sound yet, will yield little 
or no lime to the -soil in our day. Even the mas 
ses of much smaller, conglomerated shells, though 
very rich in lime, are not among the most valua- 
ble marls, unless broken up and pulverized to a 
considerable extent. There is a marl abounding 
with us, which to the naked eye seems to be mere 
sand, that is much more valuable, though it 
docs not contain two-thirds of the quantity of car- 
bonate of lime ; it mixes at once with the soil, 
and exerts its full influence in a very short pe- 
riod. The most valuable marl, practically speak- 
ing, that is found in any quantity at Shell Bluff 
— and will be found in your marl beds, for the 
formation is the same — ^is composed of very fine 
shells, scarcely discernible, which are loosely 
cemented together, and readily fall apart. It is 

plish, yellow br light bfown. The most abun- 
dant marl found in our fornlation is hard and 
compact, of a grey dolor, contaihiilg fifty to sixty 
per cent of lime, and crumbles, on exposure to 
the seasons, and in handling. 

Bbt, as I have said, the Valtie of niarl cannot 
be estimated by its appearance. Between earth 
which contains 75 per cent of carbonate of lime, 
and that containing 20 per cent, or even none at 
all, the most experienced are far oAener than 
otherwise unable to distinguish without using the 
proper tests. These are so readily to be pro- 
cured, and in fact the analysis of marl, so far as 
to ascertain the quantity of carbonate of lime, is 
so very simple an operation, that the maHef 
should leave nothing to conjecture on this point. 
Barth containing any notable portion of carbo- 
nate of lime, will effervesce if thrown into vine- 
gar, or almost any acid. But the best test is 
muriatic acid, a singk drop of which will produce 
immediate effervescence whenever there is car- 
bonate of lime. To discover the precise quanti- 
ty of carbonaid ot lime in any marl, it is only 
necessary to have this acid, a pair of common 
apothecaries' scales with weights, and a wide 
mouthed vial. Dry the marl thoroughly on a 
shovel, and pound it in a mortar to a fine powder. 
Fill the vial about one-third with the muriatic 
acid diluted with two parts of water to one of 
acid, and balance it exactly in the scales, with 
weights of any kind. Then add, very slowly, 
100 grains of the powder previously weighed^ 
taking care not to make it effervesce so rapidly 
as to throw any of it out of the vial. When the 
efiervescence has completely ceased, blow gently 
into the mouth of the vial, with a common bel- 
lows, to expel any of the carbonic acid gas which 
may have remained in it in consequence of its 
being heavier than the atmospheric air. Weighto 
to the amount of 100 grains must now be put in 
the opposite scale to balance the 100 grains of 
powdered marl put into the vial. It will be found 
that in consequence of the escape of carbonic acid 
is a gaseous form, the scale with the vial will 
rise. Then put weights into it until the scales 
are once more exactly balanced ; the number of 
grains put in the scale with the vial will of course 
indicate the weight of the carbonic acid which 
has escaned. Now, carbonate of lime contains 



in 100 parts, nearly 56 parts of lime atid 44 of 
carbonic acid. If then 44 grains have escaped 
in your analysis, the specimen is pure carbonate 
of lime. If only 22 grains have escaped, then it 
contains but 50 per dent of carbonate of lime. 
And i6 Iti proportion id any quantity of carbdnic 
acid which may have been expelled. . In prac- 
tice, it will bo found niost convenient 'fo uso 50 
gralnsofthe powdered marl. The value depen- 
ding itiainly, as stated, on the quantity of carbo- 
nate of lirne which it contains. 

The value of lime for agricultural purposes, 
Is not dnly established by the experience of all 
ages, and so far as we know, of all countries, but 
must be obvious, when it is known that chemical 
analysis has detected it a^ a constituent of every 
vegetable that grows on the Surface of the earth. 
It is also the chief element of the bones of every 
animal— ^ven of those that feed dn grass only. 
It is therefore not duly beneficial, but indispensa- 
ble to the growth of all kinds of Vegetatio"n. The 
all-bountiful Creator has diffused it over the whdle 
globe, as extensively aS almost any known sub- 
stance. But like all His gifts, it has been, for 
wise and good purposes, no doubt, unequally dis- 
tributed. That it is placed, in some form and to 
6ome extent, wihtin the reach of all plants, is 
certain, since they all contain it. And a late 
scientific writer on Agricultural Chemistry in 
our country, has attempted to prove that all— even 
the poorest soils— possess an ample supply of it 
to furnish heavy crops of vegetation for countless 
years to come. If this were true, it would be 
worse than useless to expend labor in spreading 
it over our lands ; and millions of farmers, be- 
sides myself, have acted very foolishly— and you 
would do well to think of no more marling. But 
this is not the case. 

There are a great many soils in which the 
chemical tests now known have failed to find a 
trace of it. Such, I will venture to say, it is with 
regard to most, if not all of the lands in your 
county ; though I am aware you have had pre- 
tended analyses made, which exhibited large pro- 
portions of lime. The reasoning of the writer 
alluded to, is this : All soils are formed by the 
disintegration and crumbMng of rocks. Most 
rocks contain lime, especially those which disin- 
tegrate most readily and form soils. He calcu- 

necessary to create a doil of a certain det>th, and 
thence infers that there is So mUch lime in the 
land. There is no doubt that the I'ocks from 
which your soil and mine were formed, contain- 
edlimetdthe amount estimated. But it is equally 
certain that these rocks, in their transition from 
one state to another, were subjected for an indefi. 
nite period to the action of the water. I am 
speaking particularly of our immediate section 
of country. The ocean once undoubtedly cov- 
ered it as high up as the Falls of our rivers and 
the belt of Sand- Hills which runs through the 
middle of the districts of South Carolina and 
Georgia, add held it as permanent domain. 
During thid period, our marl beds Were deposi- 
ted— *pos^ibly also our present surface of earth. 
But whether that be so or not, and tvhether the 
surface we now cultivate belongs to the Eocene 
formation, as these njarl deposits are supposed 
to do, or to the Post Pliocene, of, as is most 
probable, to the Diluvial, it is evident, from the 
irregular stratification of different kinds of earth, 
and the rounded pebbles on and in it, to a consid- 
erable depth, which could have beeti rounded only 
by the action of the water, that the whdle of it, 
like the sand and clay now brought down our 
streams, has become, at some remote period, 
drifted from a higher region, and deposited by 
water here. The lime in the rocks being soluble 
under circumstances which must have attended 
the drifts, was retained and carried away in the 
currents. Our marl beds were probably deposi- 
ted at a much earlier geological era, and have 
no conneciion with the soil on our present surface, 
but were upheaved or denuded in some of those 
great convulsions to which our globe has been 
everywhere subjected. That our lands are for 
the most part destitute of lime is certain. That 
it has been taken from them in this way is more 
than probable. The masses of silicified shells to 
which I have already alluded, and which are so 
abundant in your county, prove that the lime 
may be entirely carried ofTby water. 

But if there is no lime in the soil, from what 
source do the growing plants derive thf« indis- 
pensable constituent, may be well asked? It 
has been often asked. Nature has not revealed, 
and science has as yet failed to discover an an- 
swer satisfactory to all. Whether, as is conjee- 



plant is suiiiciently powerful and oomprehensive 
to create the requisite modicum — or whether it 
can, as others suppose, by some galvanic agency, 
extract it from sources where its existence has 
not yet been detected by chemical re- agents, is 
yet a mystery. But this much, experience has 
established and science demonstrated, that where 
lime cannot be found in fair proportions in a soil, 
the health and vigor of the plants growing on it 
can always be materially improved by a judicious 
application of it. And to this conclusion com- 
mon sense, without experience or science, would 
lead every one who is aWare that it is invariably 
an elenrient in all Vegetable matter. 

(To he coniinued,) 

The Results of Manure on a Peah: Tree. 
— In a late number of Moore's New Yorker^ 
Lin us Cone, of Oakland county, Michigan, informs 
us of an interesting experiment with high ma- 
nuring. Twenty-five years ago, he planted a 
Summef Bonchrciicn Pear tree# the culture of 
which, after a few years, waji neglected. The 
fruit at first was fine, specimens ofUsn weighing 
nearly a pound each, but afterwards grew grad- 
ually smaller, till nearly worthless. The tree 
was then well pruned, washed with lye, the 
ground well spaded — with no improvement. Last 
spring, twenty bushels of manure from a black- 
smith shop, consisting of dung, parings of hoofs, 
cinders, &c., was spread and dug in. Twenty 
bushels of fine, high-flavored fruit, was the re- 
sult, the same season. — Albany Cultivator . 

To Dress Salt Fish.— Soak it in cold ^^ater, 
according to its saltness ; the only method of as- 
certaining which, is to taste one of the flakes of 
the fish. That fish which is hard and dry will 
require 14 hours' soaking, in two or three waters, 
to the last of which add a wine-glassfull of vine- 
gar. But less time will suffice for a barrelled 
cod, and still less for the split fish. Put tiie fish 
on in cold water, and let it simmer, but not actu- 
ally boil, else it will be tough and thready. Gar- 
nish with hard boiled eggs, the yolks cut in quar- 
ters, and serve with egg-sauce, parsnips, or beets. 

Another method is to lay the piece you mean 
to dress all night in water, with a glass of vine- 
gar ; boil it enough, then break it into flakes on 
the dish ; warm it up with cream and a large 
piece of butter rubbed with a bit of flower, and 
serve it as above with egg-sauce.— -4^ncuZtor. 

■«^«^M «■ w^^ft^M 


0^ The chopping or grinding of grain, to be 
fed to stock, operates as a saving of at least 25 

nor nont' 


BY i. S. 8felN!V£n. 

Tl>c breeds of cattle vary in diflerent districldy 
from the small hardy Varieties of the North High- 
lands, to the bulky and handsome breeds of The 
Southern parts of England. It has been custom« 
ary to class the whole according to the compara- 
tive length of the horns — as the long. horned, 
short-horned, middle-horned, crumpled-bornedy 
and hornless, or polled breeds. Besides thes^, 
there are many intermixed breeds. The middle- 
horned Cows, which are found in the North of 
Devon, the East of Sussex, Herefordshire and 
Gloucestershire, in England, are among the most 
valuable and beautiful varieties of the aninofaU 

Whateter be the breed, there are certain con* 
formations which are indispensable to the thri- 
ving, valuable Ox or Cow. If there is one part 
of the frame, the form of which, more than any. 
other, renders the animal valuable, it istho ehest* 
There must be room enough for the heart to beat 
and the lungs to play, or suflicient blood ibr the 
purposes of nutriment and strength will not be 
circulated ; nor will it thoroughly undergo that 
vital change which is essential to the proper die- 
charge of every function- We look, therefore, 
first of all, to the wide and deep girth about the 
heart and lungs. We must have both ; the pro* 
portion in which the one or the other may pre- 
ponderate will depend on the service we require 
from the animal ) we can excuse a slight degree 
of flatness of the s^idee, for he will be lighter in 
the forehead, and more active ; but the grazier 
must have width as well as depth. And not only 
about the heart and lungs, but over the whole of 
the ribs, must be both length and roundness; 
hooped as well as deep barrel i» essential ', there 
must be room for the capacious paunch— room 
for the materials from which the blood i» to be 
provided. The beast should also be ribbed hoave, 
and there ehoald be but little space between the 
ribs and the hips. This seems to be indispensa^ 
ble in the Ox, as it regards a good healthy consti- 
tution and a propensity to fatten ; but a large* 
oess and drooping of the belly, notwithetandmg 
that the symmetry of the animal is not improred, 
arc considered advantageous in the Cow, because 
room is thus left for the udder ; and if these qual- 
ities are accompanied by swelling milk vefns, 
her value in the dairy is generally increased. 
This roundness and depth of the barrel, however, 
are most advantageous in proportion as found be- 
hind the point of the elbow, more than between 
the shoulders and the legs ; or low down between 
the legs, rather than upward toward the witherv ; 
for the heaviness before, and the comparative 
bulk of the coarser parts of the aninMil, are thus 
diminished, which is always a very great oonsid- 

Arfitmn T'K/* l^r»« ^U^.,1 J U- «,:J-- - -r*U5-*i. 



can be. DO doubt, for they are the prime parts ; 
they should seem to extend far along the back ; 
and although the belly should not hang down. 
the flanks should be round and deep. Of the 
hips, it is superfluous to say that, without being 
raggefl, they should be large ; round rather than 
wide, and presenting, when handled, plenty of 
muscle and fat. Tiie thighs should be full and 
long, close together vhen viewed from behind, 
and the farther down they continue close the bet- 
ter. The legs may occasionally vary in length, 
according to the destination of the animal ; but 
shortness is a good general rule, for there is an 
almost inseparable connection between length of 
leg and lightness of carcass, and shortness of leg 
atid ))ropensity to fatten. The bones of the legs 
(and they are taken as a sample of the bony struc- 
ture of the frame generally) should be small, but 
not too sniall-^small enough for the well known 
atiCompaniment, a propensity to fatten — small 
enough to please the consumer — but not so small 
as to iodicate delicacy of constitution and liabili- 
ty to disease. Lastly, the hide, the most impor- 
tant thing of all^-i^should be thin, but not so thin 
as to indicate that the animal can endure no hard- 
ship ; moveable^ mellow, but not too loose, and 
particularly well covered with fine and soft hair. 
Of the various breeds and cross-breeds of Cows 
tiow in Usej there are a tevr which enjoy the best 
reputation. We may name, for example, the 
Old Yorkshire Stocky a cross between the Tees- 
watet and Holdemess breed ; the Loti^-hotiied or 
Lancashire breed ; the Short-homed or Dutch 
breed ; the Middle-homed breeds of Devonshire, 
Sussex and Hereford ; the Ayr slur e breed ; the 
Aldemey breed, &c. Some of these merit par- 
ticular attention. 


In accordance with the call previously made by 
the Executive Committee' of the Southern Cen- 
tral Agricultural Aasociatioa, a number of 
Southern I^laoters convened in the city of Macon, 
6a., on the of October, 1852, for the pur- 
pose of forming an Association of the Agricultu- 
ralists of the Slave-holding States. Besides a 
large number of the members of the State Society 
present, the following gentlemen appeared as 
delegates from the adjoining States : 

From South Carobna, — Col Wm. DuBose, J. 
W. Harrison, Thos. Smith, Col. A. G. Summer. 

From Virginia. — Dr. Butler. 

From Alabama.— Dr. N. B. Powell, Dr. N. 
B. Cloud, Wm. H« Cbambers, R. C. Shorter, 
Boiling Hall, A. G. McGehee, J. S. Reese, 
Joseph Hall, Geo. W. Haile, Elbert A. Holt, R. 
J- Glenn. Dr. Wm. H. Rives, Peter Ware, Joseph 
L. Moultrie, Amos Travis Jr., L. H. Pierce, 
Wm. O. Ormsby, Wash. Pollard, Mr. Griswold. 

From Mtssissivm. — Col. Thos. G. Blcwetl, Dr. 

A. N. Jones, John ^Vton, Dr. .W. Burt. 

From Teunessee.-^V . Keith. 

From Louisi iua.—S. Craig Martyn. 

From Florida. — Col. Williams, Judge Mc 

The Convention was organii^ed by calling Dr. 
D. A. Reese, of Georgia, to the Chair, and the 
appointment of Wn^. H Chambers, of Ala., as 


The objects of the Convention were explained 
by Dr. W. C. Daoidl, of DeKalb, who also in- 
troduced the following resolutions: 

Resolved. That the members of the Agricultu- 
ral Association of the Slave- holding States, to be 
organized as hereinafter recommended, be com*- 
posed of such citizensf of the same, a9 taking an. 
interest in Agriculture, desire to become mem. 
hers thereof; and of delegates from State and 
local Agricultural Societies; and from States or 
parts of States. 

Resolved^ That such persons as above designa« 
ted convene at Montgomery, Ala., on the first 
Monday in May next, and organize an Agri* 
cultural Association of the Slave-holding SCates^ 
under such provisions as to them may appear 
best calculated to fulfil the purposes of their or- 
ganisation, which shall hold its meetings in 8uc« 
cession in all the Slave-holding States that may 
participate in the Association. 

Resolved, That a Committee of Correspondence 
to consist of seven, be appointed to carry into ef* 
feet the forcgoinfj resolutions. 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted, 
and the following gentlemen appointed to com* 
pose the Committee of Correspondence : 

Dr. W. C. Daniel, of DeKalb ; Gov. Geo. R- 
Gilmer, of Lexington ; Hon. Asbury Hull, of 
Athens, Hon. Thomas Stocks, of Greensboro ; 
Hon. James Hamilton Couper, of Darien ; Col. 
James M. Chambers, of Columbus ; Maj. Joel 
Crawford, of Blakely. 

A communication, favoring the purposes of the 
Convention, was received from Maj. Lewis C. 
Gaines, of Fla., and read, after which the Con- 
vention adjourned sine die. 


Wm. H. Chambers, Secretary. 

Cotton Manufactures in Russia. — Accord- 
ing to a recent ofiicial report upon the manyfac- 
tures and domestic trade of Russia, there are in 
the Empire 158 manufactories of cotton, divided 
among thirty.six provinces. The amount of the 
goods manufactured is abont 1,500,00Q pieces, 
estimated at 3,000,000 silver rnblcs, and giving 
employment to about 14,300 individuals. About 
half of these goods are printed, adding a value 
to the above of some 2,000,000 silver rubles, and 
emplovins: some 5,000 laborers additional. 



IXmcxkaa Cotton Planter. 


ir. B. OLOVD, H. Zl., EDITOR. 

Wm. 0mozun,BDok-ad)«r, Mo. 28, DMpUnstnM; 
Bdvklubi'i Lirkabt Ddoi— eorser of Bo7*l uid 
DftnpUn itrMt; H. H. Cakvik ft Co., BatUs Hoius 
Book 8taie, Mobile ; from tttj of wbom the back nam- 
iMn IU7 b« hkd. 

A. P. PiTiTHM, ExokABge Comer ; C. E. Huiiiobd, 
Uarket itreel, Montgotaery. 

With Tke Ameriem OntUm PUndtr, ovr ftfiricnltnnl 
ftiesdi irin flnd all tlie new and vahiable pabHoatloni of 
a« daj-, ellher Uterarr or agrionltiiral, at the abore- 
BamadBook Steree. 

Mr. Akos Txatib ii onr agent at aalneerilla, Suntcr 

O. IL BsraOLDa and Hr. Tdkbi> are our tnTtlling 

03^ In this number of the CoUen Ptanter, we 
famiah Hs readsre with the rery judicious re- 
marka ofthe lateThomaa J. Summer on fertilizers 
attd their practical application, as auggeated in 
the aOBlyseB of th« Cotton Plant and Seed, which 
may be found in the February number. 

The attentive reader will not fkil to obaerre 
the striking analogy thus ibown between the ele- 
ments of wheat and the oereal crops, and the wed 
of Cotton. From this fkot the planter will, or 
nay draw seTeral moat important practical con- 
siderstions. Why send to St. Louiaor Cinolnatti 
ibr flour, when we can so easily raise it at l»me } 
The adrantagea to the planter directly, in the re- 
tention of so much gold at home, is, perhaps, not 
• moiety, when compared to its indirect influ- 
ence apon ht» interest, in the dirersity of labor 
at home— a fact of itself worth at least half the 
nine ofthe home consumptioD of wheat. Thia 
article is furthermore valuable in pointing out 
other iacts equally interesting to the great plant- 
ing interests of the ixnintry. It indicates the 

value of a great many articles that contain In their 
elements richly, the food of both cotton and grain. 
In the April number of our paper, we shall fur. 
nish a brief memoir of Mr. Summer's life and 
character, which we desired to have appear in 
this number, but our unavoidable absence to 
Mobile prevented. 


We aak the eapeinal attention of our Agricultu* 
ral firiends to the prooeedings ofthe Agricultural 
CoGventioa, held in Macon, Gs., in October last, 
published in this number of The CoUoa Planter, 
It will be observed that this Convention was held 
in aooordance with the call previously mode by 
the Executive Committee of the Southern Central ' 
Agriouhural Society. There vera delegated 
present, as will be further observed, from soma 
seven or eight ofthe planting States. The ob- 
jaot of the Conveotion was, to take into conside- 
ration the pn^riety of forming an Agrioultural 
Association ofthe slave-hcdding or pt anting States. 
The propriety of such oi^niKstion was unani- 
mously and most heartily bailed by the members 
ofthe Ooavention ; whereupon it was resolved, 
that such Association be organised, wad the first 
Monday in May next recommended as the day 
when auch persona as are designated in the first 
resoluticHi, shall meet in the city of Montgomery, 
Ala., for that object. 

We ask the citizens of Mcntgomery, many of 
whom are engaged to some more or less extent 
in Agrioultural pursuits, and every one immedi- 
ately interested in the success of the Agricultn. 
ralist, what mptrnte they Intend to m^e to this 
ooDtemplated Convention of the practical, work- 
ing and produoUve men of our common oountry t 
We had the honor, in tha Coovention, ofBomina. 
ting Uontgoroery, as the pcnnt most sooessible- 
—^aoet appropriate, as the Cephel of the great 
planting State, Alabama — and, indeed, the cen- 
tre of the planting region of our oountry. The 
nomination was approved by the Convention. 
No dlizen of Montgomery being present in Ao 
Convention at the time, we took the responsibility 
of oommeoding the public spirit, eoterprize and 
social character of the oitizenaof Mcntgomery to 
the CcwvMition ; and we gave them (the mambem 
ofthe Convention) a warm, cordial invitation to 
visit Montgomery the first Monday in May. 



. We bopa to see the citizens of Montgomery 
notice this contemplated assemblage, in a manner 
worthy, not only of the noble cause, but of the 
public spirit of the city. We expect to see ten 
thousand agriculturalists assembled in Montgom- 
ery on the occasion ! Why not ? A nobler ob- 
ject never claimed — never engaged the attention 
of the slave-holding or planting States — ^the or- 
ganization of an Agricultural Association of the 
planting States ! We reiterate the invitation — 
come one, come aTl. Assemble in your primary, 
neighborhood and county meetings ; appoint your 
delegates ; send your practical men ; send yotir 
wise and experienced men to meet their fellows 
— their co-laborexB of the plow, the sickle and the 
cottoabalfr-^o ooooevt measures for the progress^ 
devebpemeat and prosperity of our common in- 

WUI the gentlemen of the press urge the im- 
portance of immediate and prompt action in be- 
half of this Association? 

""~ ~^^'~r~r~T~ -^ ~ i ~i~ i n i ~ i ^r 


During our recent visit to Mobile, we enjoyed 
the pleasure of Ineeting and conversing with many 
of the gentletoi^n of this infant Society, so recent-- 
ly organized in the city of Mobile. We Were 
highly gratified in witnessing the enthusiasm 
manifested among the officers and gentlemen of 
the several oommittees, in regard to die prospec- 
tive and future action of the Society. 
• This Society has been organized under pecu^ 
liarly favorably circumstances, and in the selec* 
tion of its officers and the arrangements of sev- 
eral committees, especial regard has been had to 
efficiency, public .spirit and energy— Kjnalifica- 
tions essentially necessary to suooess in an en- 
terprize of this sort- We know several of the 
gentlemen, and we a)'e confident they intend to 
succeed. We hope soon to see and to be able to 
repoi^ the organization of similar Societies in w^* 
jy town, village and county of our State ; and we 
therefore again ask .the Secretaries of all Agri- 
cultural or Horticultural Societies of our State, 
to send us a copy of their organization. It will 
aflbrd us pleasure to publish them. 

The following gentlemen are the officers of this 
Society : 

G. G. LangdoHj P/esident; Ch^st^ Root, Geo. 

N. Stewart, John C. Hodges, Vice-Presidents; 
W. W. McGuirb, Corresponding Secretary; 
Samuel Penny, Recording Secretary f A. L. 
Pope, Treasurer ; L. M. Wilson, Calvin Norris, 
Wm. Stewart, Wm. A. Dawson, J.'E. Sawyer, 
Executive Committee ; David Stodder, D. W. R. 
Davis, F. Ravesies, P. B. Pomeroy, Isaac Done, 
van. Committee on Agriculture; J. H- Wood- 
cock, Robert Hartwell, I. C. DABose, Committee 
on Horticulture; Wm. DeF. Holly, Wm. H. 
Homer, Wm. 'Bower, A. B. Gause, C. W. Dor- 
ranee. Committee on Floriculture ; J. C. Smith, 
P. Loughry, Edm. Dickson, B. C. Rowan, Wm. 
Shaw, Committee on Vegetables ; Newton St* 
John, George E. Holt, Robert Purvis, Henry 8. 
Levert, Daniel , Wheeler, Committee on Pre- 

Mabl and Marlino. — Too late for our last 
or February number, we received from Governor 
Hammond, of South Carolina, a letter prepared 
by himself, at the request of the Jefferson county 
(Ga.) Agricultural Society, embodying his exten- 
sive knowledge of, and practical experience with 
marl as a fertilizer, upon thin, sandy, piney woods 
land, a highly ipterestipg .portion of which we 
furnish our readers in this number. Our friends 
will derive from this letter some valuable practi- 
cal hints with 9^^rd to the deceptive appear- 
ances under whibh we meet with marl in various 
localities. It also furnishes a mode and means 
of analysis, at once plain, simple and sufficiently 
accurate, by which to enable any planter to deter- 
mine the value of his marl, or to ascertain wheth- 
er ornot'he may have marU We had intended 
to furnish our ivaders'with this simple mode of 
analysis from the Farmer*9 IHctUmary. In this 
connection, however, we esteem the opportunity 
as decidedly more favorable to the object we have 
in view. We may remark here, that this essay 
is the result of more extensive practice in the use 
of marl than is found perhaps ^iny where in the 
cotton region of the United Staites, as Governor 
Hammond faad^ at the time this essay was written, 
spread 800,000 bushels of marl upon 2,300 acres 
of land ; and, using his own language, he says : 
''I am at this moment as actively engaged at it 



Oir All grain crops should be harvested before 
e grain is tiv^iDdgbly ripe. 




^tatttatton Cmttnmq. 

Bbak Sib: We nuty dwell on generalities on the 

abstract question of what is right and yet acoompUsh 
bnt little in persuading men to do. AUoir me to draw on 
cases in point, and to request of eaoh reader to look 
among his acqnidntsnoe and judge if the facts are not 
the facts. I will gi've faets, but use the poet's Uoense in 
painUng up these Kuls. 

. Yean ago» I mot and knew Mr. A. B. He was an In- 
dastrious, prudent, teonamie^ man He had a few ne- 
groes and a tract of land. He never planted for what Is 
ever understood to be an ordinary crop — ^his serrants and 
teams never pushed. He always made stables, I think, 
and took excellent care of his sUtos — really exposing 
bimselfmost Twenty-ftre years ago he had probably 
the same number of negroes— twenty-i&Te. He now pays 
taxes on eonslderably over onvhundred. Anotiier IHend 
about his own a^ had» say twenty^ive yesars ago, not 
under forty negroes. He did for ttftny yearn make 
doubly as many bales per hand in all ptobftbiUty, push- 
lag his hands^ not by aqy means brutally— no, indeed ; 
but at this writing he has not oyer 76, and very many of 
them bright negroes, er their progeny. Now why the 
difference f 

The irst made for m gsodly while at least his own 
shoes, clothing, tools, Ao., expending but little for Us 
plantation ; raised nearly every negro he owns, wMom 
loosing his children. I term all bom his to be hi/l^ 
whether as black as negroes gBt to be, or his white fSun- 
ily. Thus has his negro won|en been able to take care 
of all they had. My other friend, Mr. C. D„ never re- 
garded children as more than costing as much as they 
were worth to raise them, that he could buy clothing 
and shoes dieaper than he oonfd make them, that 'the 
lesstime and feediagaooUattfotr its head: Andm2( 
C. R confessed to me that onr mutoal friiad eoald- buy 
him out twice over, taking <mfy their plaatiag interests 
in the count. 

And yet another. My friend B. C, seldom made over 
4 bales per hand, really making all supplies save his 
sngar, coffee, and such like; of course store goods, 
household wearing apparel are excepted. His cotton 
did invariably eommand 8 eente or over it per lb more 
than others of ns who mtade 60 per cent more, four of 
his bales has netted him $200, whilsl fbnr af mine netted 
me $118. These are^ outstanding CMtsi&Md xalie^ 
and cannot be gainsayed. 

Why, sir, I have seen oosuand hay taken vp to Nash- 
ville, Tenn., a region of as fine com and grass land as 
our country can boast of. Com has been brought to this 
depot to the tune of 80,000 bnshels in one year, when I 
can point ont a plantation within 6 miles of it, which 
every aoie will prodoot a« iEivrage of 50 bushels per 

MVe. Are these not fhets T And why not corret them t 
I have understood that cotton goods madcno^ farfron 
Montgomery were sent to New York, there, bought by a 
merchant of Montgomery, shipped past the manufactory 
and sold in Montgomery. This is only placed here to 
show that we will look abroad for what we ought to havo 
at home. 

Now to eradicate the evil. It is a Herculean task, 
equal to the cleaning out of the augean stable, but not 
impossible, MaVe Agriculture respectable. Instead 
of my friend R. Z., who is now, we will say, a Senator 
in Congress, rearing up his son to be a lawyer or a doc- 
tor, or some profession, let him show to others th&t he 
regards Agriculture equal to any pursuit Instead of 
our young man being ashamed of work, let it be his 
highest meed of praise to have It said he is a workiag 
man. Let planters at once direct their own affairs, 
taking observation of the most ndnute details, and dis- 
pensing with the overseer, using his services as need be^ 
as an agent to carry out his orders. Agricultural papers 
should hold up a general attention to farming or plant- 
ing polity, and not to the "earliest bloom," the largest 
crop, the fattest pig and all such monstrocities. Put 
dovm the eternal thirst to outstrip each other in having 
the first bale carried to market, or the largest per hand 
crop. Let tls see who can show the least mortality, and 
the grea4est increase in servants. Give us the depth of 
plowing-— show us how to Bsake the largest yield per aero 
tha^hole farm over. Advise us as to the eheapest and 
surest mode of raising and feeding horses, mules, h«gSy 
&c. ; who can sell five bales of cotton clasdng high, with 
stock sold, meat to spare, com and oats, and sheep and 
wool for home use. Give us the amount invested in 
manufactures ; who saves and hauls out the greatest 
number of chords or bushels of manure. 

This sort of statistics will soon stimnlate man to quite 
a different policy. I would rather leave my land so im- 
proved that my heir could make 60 to 76 bnshels per 
acre, than to leave him the com and the land reduoed to 
the money scale. Why should not the best policy be, ia 
bringing up land to flatness, and thereby with ordinary 
industry to have a handsome living, than to have propertj 
wasting away to leep soul and body together? We do 
see there is hmd, which, twenfy years ago, with hard 
work, did prodaoe only ten bushels of com, yotnow, with 
comparatively light work, it produces four or five foU. 
If the land was worth $10 00, then why not place a cor- 
responding estimate on the advance ? Land is not val* 
ued as it should be. Every man should value his soil as 
a part of his country, and whilst he would defend the 
latter with his blood, he should hot see the other treated 
as an enemy to be worried to death— murdered. When 
tiie sou is appreciated as it should be, when Ibedingand 
resting it becomes a principle, then will we see more im- 
provement than we can now credit. 

Yours, ftc., 

^fiftMnfe, J&s., Jmui 1863. M. W. PHILLIPS. 



On ilne CalilTaUom •f tb« OromnA Vmt or Pirn- 
dar, Pea If vt, Goub«r— Tlft^ Araohl« Hypof «a 

The Ground Nat bears best on a free light soiL Plow 
and harrow level about the lot of March ; open a trench 
ihth a small plow, fire feet apu't, in strong land, and 
ftar feet in poor-— about six inches deep ; into which put 
8one well rotted manure^ if you haye it to spare ; if not 
the treooh need not be more than three inches deep ; 
dover the manure with about two inches of earth, on 
which plant the shelled nuts, eighteen inches apart, two 
in a place, and ooTcr with t)»e foot or hoe. When well 
up, hoe the grass from the plants for three or four inches 
on each side of the rows ; and keep the spaces between 
free from grass with the plow and hoe, gradually increas- 
ing the width of the beds as the branches spread, and 
keeping the earth loose for the nuts to enter and grow to 
maturity. The beds ought to be of an oral form, and 
not raised yory high. The branches spread on the 
ground, and the blossom is produced at the base of the 
leaf on a short foot stalk. When the blossom decays, 
the tender germ, by the elongation of its foot-stalks, 
pushes itself under ground, where the nut grows to ma- 
turity ; hence the necessity of keeping the sides of the 
bedslooee to facilitate the entrance, of the young and 
tender nuts. At the last plowing run a furrow from 
four to six inches deep, to cany off the rain-water from 
between the beds. 

The advantage of putting the manure in the drill where 
the roots can come in contact with it, is to give a strong 
and quick growth to ttie vines, so as to get the whole 
land eovered as soon as possible. The Ground Nut re- 
quires the whole season to come to maturity. To save 
the vines for fodder, b^ore frost pull them up quiokly, 
and dry them until cured^ They make excellent hay for 
all kinds of stock, and the product is more than doable 
the quantity of com blades. By pulling briskly the nuts 
are left in the ground to be gathered at leisure. The 
gathering of the nuts is a tedious process, one bushel 
being a day's work, unless they bear veiy thickly, and 
the weather is fine and the soil dry, when one and a half 
bushels may be gathered. They are cured by spreading 
them thin on a scaffold, in the sun until perfectly dry, 


and all the false ones picked out before they are put 

tf not planted to sell, one or more acres should be 
planted on every farm or plantation, and after gathering 
enough for famDy use, and seed for another year, the 
rest may be left for hogs and turkeys, both of which will 
fatten on them better than on any other food. And 
planters on light land may raise their own bacon, of a 
rexj fine quality ; the hogs may be killed from the 
Ground Nut field, without any com, and the meat will 
be sweeter, and will not shrink more than if com fed. 

The Ground Nut is the best of all nuts grown in the 
South, and from its productiveness and easy cultivation, 
ought to be more generally oultivated. The product is 

more to the aere, prodneing from Mj to ese kimdrecl 
buahela, md selling readily tw one dollar a boahel, and 
frequently for more. 


Beoitfort^ South C^roUm, JF^^ 1^^, 1968. 

Vrom the Soil of tlM Booth. 


Mb. Editor : In the March pumber of the 
Soil of the South are remarks ia relation to ''Corn 
Planting." No subject can our agricultural^ 
journals treat on of more importance to those en- 
gaged in South Western planting, than that of 
Coi^ Planting; for, unfortunately, by far too 
much neglect is manifested among cotton planters' 
to provision crops, and bouniilully supplying 
themselves at home out of their own fields, instead 
of, as is the custom, depending on Tennessee and 
New Orleans for what can be made by ourselves, 
would we but turn a proper attention to this part 
of our duty. We have no excuse for not making 
an ample supply of corn, and other grains, and 
raising our pork — for all who pay a proper atten* 
tion to this duty, raise plentifully and have it to 
spare— hence it is manifest that our wants and 
small crops of corn are owing entirely to negli. 
genoe and a mistaken policy of farming. I need 
not say more on our omissions and bad manage- 
ment, as it is constantly adverted to by the editors 
as well as writers for the agricultural journals ; 
the subject is pressed home sufficiently to pro- 
duce a change, could sound reasoning and wri- 
ting have any effect. 

I consider myself a fortunate corn planter, as 
I invariably make large crops, and have it to 
spare to those who buy corn. I take more pleas- 
ure in the planting and cultivation of corn than 
any other crop I make ; hence I find it aa easy 
matter to make large crops — for the will io dosq 
is the greatest point at last, and when you obtain 
your own consent, the greatest difficulty has been 
overcome. The writer on *'Com Planting" in 
the March number sets forth some reasoning and 
practical ideas. In admonishing the farmers to 
duty. His plan of preparing, planting and man- 
agement seems good, and his warning, as regards 
''too much haste and too little care," may be con- 
sidered all important. I differ though with the 
writer, as regards his system of manuring with 
cotton seed. 

In planting my corn crops I invariably pay 



great attenUoa to the preparataon of the gcouad 
by thorough, deep plowing^. My rows are laid 
off five feet apait, and the eeed placed in the drill 
as near three feM apart as the droppers can judge. 
I cover by runaiqg a scooter furrow on each aide 
of the planting furrow, and fill up the covering 
furrows made by the scooter, with two more 
scooters sideing, breaking out the balk with 
ahovels* By this method your corn is well cov- 
ered, and sufficiently deep to protect it from being 
gravelled up by the birds and squirrels, (I have 
always had good stands,) and you have the 
ground deeply broken and well pulverized, for 
at least eight or nine inches on each side of the 
com — in fact, the whole bed, if ypu are careful 
in having the balk well plowed out. I scarcely 
ever give corn more than two plowings, for I have 
found it unnecessary when the ground hae been 
thoroughly plowed and prepared before planting. 
I am though as particular in having it as well 
hoed as plowed, and give it three hoeings, if I 
conceive that the com requires a little stirring of 
the ground. 

I have, in as short a manfaer as possible, stated 
my plan of preparing, planting and the number of 
workings I consider necessary* I shall now give 
you the manner in which ' I manure with cotton 

The ground being well broken up, the laying 
off furrow is deep and wide ; the com is dropped 
mi above stated in said furrow, as near three feet 
«part as can be done by judgement. The ma* 
nurers toUow the dropperp, and plaee a large 
handful of cotton seed in the pkuUing fiurow^ 
teem mx to eight inches on each aide of the corn ; 
wlien (Aanted and before covered, it has the ap- 
pearance, in the furrow, of two handfuls of cotton 
need — then the grain of com to itself, and then 
the joottonseed and the corn i^ain— it is all oov. 
ered, as above deseilbed, by the scooter. My 
reasons for ihus manuring, I will now give, in as 
lew words as possible, and whether the theory 
holds good or not, experfeaee and heavy erops 
bear me out in aayiog the plan k a geod 4me. 
The impressions of those who taught me this 
system, (and jtbey are also my own,) were« that 
when the manure was placed on the seed corn, 
or in contact with it, that it pushed off the young 
plant to a large stalk aad heavy blades. But the 
0ar was generally small, for the reason that the 

heneftts of the manure were exhausted in the stalk 
and blade, and before the ear was formed and 
needed support. By placing the manure off fnmi 
the seed, as above described, the young plant es« 
tracts nothing from it, and when lai^, and pre* 
parity to ear, its roots were then sapping fjt>m 
the manure the strength which supported the fruit 
and made a large ear. Such is my plan of ma- 
nuring, Mr. Editor, as remarked above, whether 
the theory holds good or not, my crops are large 
and heavy, planted and managed on this system. 
Yours, dEC.» J. H. D. 

Mardk 13, ia&2. 

Wmm ih» Souttierii AgrloiUtiiriBl. 


InveiHgatum ofvmt of the CaMa that kavi kd 1^9 

Dedine l^tke Soih qftke SouUL 

The Southern Stirfes are now annually sending 
to a foreign market three million bales of cotton. 
This, rated at four hundred pounds to the bale, 
will give twelve hundred millions of pounds an* 
nually earried off from their soil, and shipped 
across an ocean to a bourne whence no portkm 
of it ever travels hack to become an agent of re« 
production.. These twelve hundred millions of 
pounds are twelve hundred- millions of something 
essential to the fertility of our soil, which is, in 
this same degree, diaiailahed in productiveness by 
their exportation to foreign countries*' If thd 
vessels on which our cotton is freighted to the oM 
world, brought back every year firtiliziBg sub* 
stances which would replace the elements carried 
oS, we should then consider the account balanced; 

The propositions above stated are certainly 
sufficient to awaken the energies and arouse the 
attention of every planter to the necessity of an 
enlightened MyMiem of manuring, as the only re* 
medy of the disadvantages under which we labor; 
and here we must make a diatinction which no 
one seems yet to have enforced, between an ag« 
ricttkufal ^iatriot which tnaioly ekpoits its pro- 
duotiotts, and one whidi naainly consumes its 
produots at home; In the latter 4^ase it is evident 
that all the elements of the soSl removed by each 
annual crop remain at home, and may, jf the 
cultivator chooses, be replaced upqn the identioi|l 
fields whence they were removed. 

Now let us sea what elements and m what 
quantity, these twelve hundred miUioBs pounds 



SI 09 

17 05 

3 26 

12 30 

1 22 

of ootton take from us. Accordiog to Professor 
Shepard's analysis, for every hundred pounds of 
tiie ash of cotton wool there is abstracted from the 
ainl about sixty.five pounds of the following im- 
portant mineral ingredients, viz : 

Potassa, (with possible traces of soda,) 



Phosphoric Acid, 

Sulphuric Acid, 

64 02 
But one hundred pounds of cotton wool are as- 
certained to contain 92.47 pounds of inorganic 
matter. Hence there is annually transported by 
the entire crop of the South eleven millions nine- 
ty-six thousand and four hundred pouiids of the 
essential cobstituenlsofoursoil. In this amount 
of inorganic materia) are abstracted one thousand 
one hundred and sixteen tons of potash ; six hun- 
dred and twelve tons of lime; one hundred and 
seventeen tons of magnesia ; four hundred and 
forty-two Ions of phosphoric acid, and forty-three 
Ions of sdlphurio acid. Let il be kept in view 
that the above are computations of only a portion 
if the mmerai ingredients, (the organic matter not 
kaviog been taken into the account at all,) and 
that, too, Ibr only a angle erop* To what an 
•nonnotts aggregate of diminished productiveness 
nay we not reach in fifty, twenty, or even ten 
years, if. we ceotinue our hitherto improvident 
and skinning iprocesneu of culture 9 

We have omitted above to notice the analysis 
of the cotton atalk, as well as that of the cotton 
Heed, since, in their annual restoration to the soil, 
there would seem to be involved no loss. We 
shall presently show, however, that in connec- 
tion with the seed, there is an ultimate loss so 
enormous, so disastrous, that those already cited 
aink into comparative insignificance ; a loss, too, 
which is the result of improvidence and neglect. 
But to proceed. 

There subsists a striking analogy in the com- 
position of cotton seed and Indian com, showing 
theoretically what we all know practically, viz : 
the special adaptation of the former as a manure 
Ibr the latter. Com has been shown, by fre- 
quent analysis, to require, for the organization of 
its seed, a larger supply of phosphorio acid and 
potash thanof any other of its oonatituents. Cot- 
loo seed oontaia these elements in such proper- 

tion as renders them more nearly a specific ma* 
nure for com than any other substance we can 
apply, not excepting even Guano. And here we 
will ofier our theory with respect to the enormoos 
and disastrous loss above referred to, involving 
the decline of all our lands that have been long 
cropped in corn or cotton. Sucb lands lack phos- 
phate of lime ; and we will show how they have 
been ruthlessly deprived of it, and whither it has 
gone. The ash of cotton seed contains 61 per 
cent of pbosphale of lime, derived entirely from 
the soil; we return the whole of this as manure 
to our com and grain eiops ; so far as it is all 
saved and taken up by their processes of growth 
and maturity. These crops become the main 
food of man and animals, and their value ava foed 
is in a great degree due to the phosphate of Ihne 
which they contain. This substance is secreted 
by the digestive functions of the animal economy, 
carried into the circulation of the bones and there 
deposited, imparting to their structure such firm- 
ness and strength as no other quality of food can 
give. This important element constitutes 55 per 
cent of the bones of all land animals. It enters 
largely, also, into the composition of milk — is 
found in the blood*— in the cellular tissue of the 
lungs, and is constantly required by these organs 
for the reparation of its waste throughout the whole 
period of animal life. Now comes ^ l&es. The 
bones are never saved — never restored to the 
fields which originally yielded their substance 
to the seed of the cotton crop. On the contmry, 
whether in town or o^t M^ey a^ thrown asUe 
into some receptacle of useless rubbish. Thef 
disappear, too, as if bymagiot from our kitchens 
and plantation quarters ; and if, perchance, aa 
animal dies, the scavengers of the air are pernut. 
ted to make their filthy repast, without a thought 
or even a consciousness, on the part of the culti* 
vator,.of the loss he is incurring. 

Who shall estimate the amount of phosphate of 
lime lost to the soil by the bones of all our horses 
and mules that di»^-^f all the cattle, sheep and 
swine that are annually consumed by all classes 
of Southern population, to as great an extent per- 
haps as by any people on the globe 1 

We know of, as yctn^not a single establishment 
in the whole South for the manufacture and sale 
of hone dutL The English agrioulturalist, mean- 
while, has nmsacked the globe for supplies of 



this invaloable fertilizer. So far back as the 
year 1837, the value of the bones annually im- 
ported into England from foreign countries, 
amounted to one and a quarter millions of dollars; 
and at the present period, possibly exceeds five 
times that sum. 

Thus it will be seen that, by the exportation of 
cotton wool, the loss of lime and phosphoric acid 
together, is equal to 29 per cent of its inorganic 
constituents ; while, by our own listlessness and 
neglect, we incur an almost total (ultiipate) loss 
of 61 per cent of the same elements contained in 
the ash of the seed. As confirmatory of the force 
of these views, we will conclude our article by 
quoting from Liebig's Organic Chemistry the fol- 
lowing passages : 

*^My recent researches into the constituent in- 
gredients of our cultivated soils have led me to 
the conclusion that, of all the elements furnished 
to plants by the soil and ministering to their 
nourishment, the phosphate of lime, or, rather, the 
phosphates generally, must be regarded the most 
important. A field In which the phosphate of 
lime or the alkaline phosphates form no part of 
the soil, is totally incapable of producing grain, 
peas or beans. An enormous Quantity of these 
substances, indispensable to thQ nourishment of 
plants, is annually withdrawn from the soil and 
carried, into great towns, in the shape of flour, 
cattle, &c. It is certain that this incessant re- 


moval of the phosphates must tend to exhaust the 

land and diminish its capability of producing 


Oadsdeny S. C. 


Db. N. B. CLOIfD i 

—Dear Sir: Well may I 
say. Doctor, ''How long ?" wlien I look around 
me at the progreisiim bacfcf^i^' smotg our own 
people, and then look to New England, <&nd see 
her progres8ionyartaar(2^. This thought has beefi 
called out by seeing an article l("Prbgression") 
in a 'capital Monthly, publiiihckl in Boston, by 
Raynoldfi & Ndurse^-2%e New England Farmer. 
Look — and mark well ! 

<<David D. Stevens, o^LeWitAtm Falls, Maine, 
gives notice that h6 will visit any or all theto^nhiis 
within the limits of their Agricultural Society, 

the ensuing winter, and lecture on the subject of 
Agriculture.'* Yes, sir; the people in New 
England need light at this day ; and yet we, 
"way down South," find no use for it. How long 
must it be so ? How long before our planters 
will find it advantageous to read, learn and in- 
wardly digest matters pertinent to their profession? 
If men who have followed a comparatively limi- 
ted scale of culture need information that a lec- 
turer can be supported by a fair turn out t^ hear 
him^ how much more so with us, who ought to 
cultivate and rear nearly al( the New England 
farmer does, and much more in addition ? And 
yet this is scarcely the half; for our servants de- 
mand a world of thought, in order that we may 
do justice to their training, their health aad their 
work. My dear sir, bow long 1 — how long must 
it be, before we have thougj^t about the moral cul- 
ture of all ? Yet more-— their Christian culture 
by at least all professors? And yet the treat- 
ment required in health to continue them so, and 
their treatment in disease, to restore them. I do 
not mean the practice of physic, at all; I only 
refer to what may be termed a knpwledge for the 

Will man never learn until driven to the wall 
by necessity ? I^ere are we, in this goodly south 
west, with lands which should produce now, say 
forty bushels of com per acre, and should be kept 
at this point for the residue of our days, "be they 
many or few." We can make our own supplies, 
raise our own stock, all the necessaries, and very 
much of the luxuries of life. And yet, how is it ? 
Our lands are fast verging to the same condition 
which much of New England, and even many 
States further South, have long since reached. 
We have to be forced to the necessity. Like the 
young woman who was counselled not to marry 
by her father, who had "seen the errpr of it," she 
replied, she wanted to see it too. We will not 
learn save as Old and New England, New York, 
Virginia, dec, have learned. 
Yours, as I should be, 

February 17, 1853. 

0^ To double the crops on mc^ farms, about 
all that is necessary is, for our agriculturalists to 
sell off one half of their land)' and with the prof- 
its buy manure for the other. — Southern CuUhalor.^ 




TioBi Um nortkaltuiirt. 



How to popularize that taste for rural beauty, 
which gives to every beloved home in the county 
its greatest outward charm, and to the country 
itself its highest attraction, is a question which 
must often occur to many of our readers. A 
traveller never journeys through England with- 
out lavishing all the epithets of admiration on 
the rural beauty of that gardenesque country ; 
and his praises are las justly due to the way-side 
cottages ofthe humble laborers, (whose pecuniary 
* condition of life is far below that of our numerous 
small house-holders,) as to the great palaces and 
villas. Perhaps the Tovliest and most fiiscinating 
ofthe ^'cottage homes," of which Mrs. Hemans 
has so touchingly sung, are the clergymen's 
dwellings iii thatoooiitry ; dwellings for the most 
part of very moderate siae, and no greater cost 
than are common in all the most thriving and 
populous parts of the Union-^ul which, owing 
to the love of hoftiouHuve, and the taste for some. 
'thing above the merely useful, which character* 
'ises their owners, as a class, are, lor the most 
part, radiant with the bloom and emheUishment 
ofthe lovUest flowers and shrubs. 

The oontrasl with the comparatively naked 
'and neglected dwellings that are the average ru- 
ral tenements of our country at large, is very 
striking* Undoubtedly, this is, in part, owing to 
the £iot that it takes a longer time» aa Lord Bacon 
said a century ago, *Ho garden finely than to build 
stately." But the newness of our civilization is 
not suflSoient apology* If so, we should be spared 
the exhibition of gay carpets, fine mirrors and 
furniture in the "flront parlor," of many a me- 
chanic's,'s and farmer's oomfbrta* 
ble dwelling, where the ''bare and bald" have 
pretty nearly supreme control in the "front yard." 

What we lack perhaps more than all, is not the 
capacity to perceive and enjoy the beauty of orna- 
mental trees and shrubs — the rural embellish- 
ments alike of the cottage and the villa, but we 
are deficient in the knowledge and the opportu- 
nity for knowing how beautiful human habitations 
are made by a little taste, time and means expen- 
ded in this way. 

Abroad, h is clearly seen, that the taste has 

descended from the palace of the noble, and the 
public parks and gardens ofthe nation, to the hut 
ofthe simple peasant ; but here, while our inati* 
tutions have wisely prevented the perpetuation of 
accumulated estates that would speedily find their 
expression in all the luxury of rural taste, we 
have not yet risen to that general diflhsioti of cul- 
ture and eompetenoe which may one day give to 
the many what in the old world nuMiHj hefengs 
to the few. In some localities, where that point 
has in some measure been arrived at already, the 
result that we anticipate has in a great degree 
already been attained. And there aie probaNy 
more pretty rural houses within ten miles of Bos- 
ton, owned by those who live in them, and have 
made them> than ever sprung up in so short a 
space of time in any pert of the world. The tasto 
once formed thersi it has become contagious and 
is difiTusing itself among all conditions of men, 
and gradually elevating woA making beautiful^ 
the whole neighborhood of that populous city. 

In the country at large, however, even now, 
there cannot be said to be anything like a gene- 
ral taste for ^rdening, or for embellishing the 
houses ofthe people. We are too much occu- 
pied with making a greal deal, to have reached 
that point where a man or people thinks it wiser 
to understand how to enjoy that little well, than 
to exhaust both mxki and body in getting an in* 
definite more. And there are also many «1k» 
would gladly do somethiog to give sentiment to 
their houses, but are ignorant both ofthe nuOe- 
rials and the wa^ to set about it. Accordingly, 
they plant odorotut Alianthusea and filthy poplars, 
to the neglect of graoeftit elma and salubrious 

The influence of commercial gardens en tba 
neighborhood where they are situated, is one of 
the best prop& ot the growth of taste— 4hat our 
people have no obtuseness of faculty as to what 
is beautiful, but only lack information and exass- 
ple to embellish with the heartiest good wilL 
Take Rochester, New York, for instance— ^whiok 
at the present moment has perhops the laigeet 
and most active nurseries in the Union. We 
are confident that the aggregate planting of fruile 
and ornamental tree|^ within fifty miles of 
Rochester, during the last tefn years, has been 
twioe as much as has taken place in the 



.Uipe ia any three of .tb« Southern Stat^. Phil- 
.adelphia has long beea famous for her exotic 
.gardepSf and now even the little yard plats of the 
city dwellings are fille4 with roses, jasmines, 
LageatrcBinias, and the like. Such facts as these 
plainly prove to us that, only give our people a 
]uiowle4go of the beauty of fine trees and plants, 
and the method of Qultivi^ting them; and there is 
so sluggishness or inapj^tude^ on the subject in 
the public mind. 

In looking about for the readiest method of dif- 
fusing a knowledge of beautiful trees and.plants, 
and thereby bettering our homes and our country, 
several meads suggest themselves, which are 
worthy of attention • i . 

The first of these is, by nhaijrivaU individuals 
may do. 

There is scarcely a single private garden in 
the country which does not posess plants that are 
perhaps more or less coveted-— or would at least 
be greatly priaed by neighbors who do not pos- 
sess, and perhaps cannot procure them. Many 
owners of such places, cheerfully give away to 
their neighbors, any spare plants that they may 
possess ; but the majority decline, for the most 
part, to give away any plants at all, because the 
indiscriminate practice atfbjects them to numer- 
ous and troublesome demands upon both the time 
and generosity of even the most liberally dis- 
posed. But every getittemah who employs a 
gardener, could well afibrd to allow that garden- 
er to spend a couple of days in a season, in prop- 
agating some one or two really valuable trees, 
sltrubs or plants that woilitd be a decided acquisi- 
tion to the gardens of bis neighborhood. One or 
tvo specimens of such tree or plant, thus raised 
in abundance, might be distributed freely during 
the planting season, or during a given week of 
the same, to all who would engage to plant and 
take care of the same in their own grounds ; and 
thus this tree or plant would soon become widely 
distributed throughout the whole adjacent coun- 
try. Another season, still another desirable tree 
or plant might be taken in hand, and when ready 
for home planting, might be scattered broadcast 
among those who desire to possess it, and so the 
labor of love might go on as convenience dictated, 
till the greater part of the gardens, however small, 
within a considerable circumferei\cej would con- 

tain at least several of the most valuable, useful 
and ornamental trees and shrubs for the climate. 

The second means is, hy what the nurserfmem 
may do. 

We are very well aware that the first thought 
which will cross the mind of a selfish and nar* 
row-minded nurseryman, (if any such read the 
foregoing paragraph,) is that such a course of 
gratuitous distribution of good plants, on the part 
of private persons, will speedily ruin his busineos* 
But he was never more greatly mistaken, as both 
observation and reason will convince him. Who 
are the nurseryman's best customers? That 
class of men who have long owned a gardeui 
whether it be half a rood or many acres, who 
have never planted trees— or, if any, have but 
those not worth planting ? Not at all. His best 
customers are those who have formed a taste &r 
trees by planting them, and who, haying got a 
taste for improving, are seldom idle In the matter, 
and keep pretty regular aqoounts with the deaU 
era in trees. If. you cannot get a person who 
thinks he has little time or taste fi>r impxoving hia 
place to buy trees, and he will aoeept a plant or 
a fruit tree, oc a shade .tnee^ now and then, from 
a neighbor whom he *knowa to be ^'obvious in 
such things"— «by all meaB% we say- to the nur. 
seryman, encourage him to> plant, at ai^ rate and 
all rates. 

If that man*s tree turns out to his satisfaction, 
he is an amateur, one only beginning to pick the 
shell, to be sure, but an amateur full fledged by 
and bye. If he once gets a taste for gardening 
downright — ^if the flavor of his own rareripes touch 
his palate but once, as something quite different 
from what he has always, like a contented, igno. 
rant donkey, bought in the market^-if his Mai- 
maison rose, radiant with the sentiment of the 
best French women, and the loveliness of intrinsic 
bud-beauty once touches his dull eyes, so that 
the scales of his blindness to the fact that one rose 
''differs fVom another," fall off forever — ^then we 
say thereafter, he is one of the nurseryman's best 
customers. Begging is both too slow and too de- 
pendent a position for him, and his garden soon 
fills up by ransacking ij\e nurseryman's cata* 
logues, and it is more likely to be swamped by 
the myriad of things which he would think very 



much alike, (if he had not bought them by dif- 
ferent appellations,) than by any empty spaces 
waiting for the liberality of more enterprising 

And thus, if the nurseryman can satisfy him- 
self with our reasoning that he ought not object 
to the amateur's becoming a gratuitous distributor 
of certain plants, we would persuade him for 
much the same reason, to follow the example him- 
self. No person can propagate a tree or plant 
with 80 little cost and so much ease, as one whose 
business it is to do so. And we may add, no one 
is more likely to know the really desirable vari- 
eties of trees or plants, than he is. No one so 
well knows as himself, that the newest things — 
most asealously sought after at high prices— are 
by no means those which will give the most per- 
manent satisfaction in a family garden. And 
accordingly, it is almost always the older and 
well-tried standard trees and plants — those that 
the Durserymap can best aflford to spare — those 
that he can grow most cheaply<^that he would 
best serve the diffusion of popular taste by dis- 
tributieg gratis. We think it would be best for 
all parties if the variety were very limited — and 
we doubt whether the distribution of two valua- 
ble, hardy trees or climbers for five years, or till 
they become so common all over the surroundings 
as to make a distinct feature of embellishment, 
would not be mare serviceable than dissemina- 
ting a larger number of species. It may appear 
to some of our commeircial readers, an odd ro- 
commendation to urge tbem to give away pre- 
cisely that which it is their business to sell — but 
we are not talking at random, when we say, most 
confidently, that such a course, steadily pursued 
by amateurs and nurserymen throughout the 
country^ for ten years, would increase the taste 
for planting and the demand for trees, five hun- 
dred fold. 

The third means is, ^y tohat the HorUculiural 
Society may 4o. 

We believe there are now about forty Horti- 
cultural Societies in North America. Hitherto 
they have contented themselves, year after year, 
with giving pretty much the same old schedule 
of premiums for the best cherries, cabbages and 
carnations, all over the country — till the stimulus 
begins to wear out — ^somewhat like the effects of. 

opium or tobacco, on confirmed habiiues. Let 

them adopt our scheme of popularizing the taste 
for horticulture, by giving premiums of certain 
select small assortments of standard fruit trees, 
ornamental trees, shrubs and vines, (purchased 
by the society of the nurserymen,) to the cultiva- 
tors of such small gardens, surburban door-yards, 
or cottage enclosures^ within a distance of ten 
miles round, as the inspecting committee shall 
decide, to be best worthy, by their air of neatness, 
order and attention, of such premiums. In this 
way, the valuable plants will fall into the right 
hands ; the vender of trees and plants will be 
directly the gainer, and the stimulus given to 
cottage gardens and the spread of the popular 
taste, will be immediate and decided. 

'*Tall oaks from little acorns grow" — ^is a re- 
markably trite aphorism, but one, the truth of 
which no one who knows the aptitude of our 
people, or our intrinsic love of refinement and 
elegance, will underrate or gainsay. If, by such 
simple means as we have here pointed out, our 
great farm on this side of the Atlantic, with the 
water privilege of b6th oceans, could be made to 
wear a little less the air of Canada-thistle-dom, 
and show a little more sign of blooming like the 
rose, we should look ttpon it as a step so much 
nearer the millenium. In Saxony, the traveller 
beholds, with no less surprize than delight, oil 
the road between Wiessenfels'and Halle, quanti- 
ties of the most beautiful and rare shrubs and 
flowers, growing along the foot-paths, and by the 
sides of the hedges which line the public prome- 
nades. The custom prevails there, among pri- 
vate individuals who have beautiful gardens, of 
annually planting some of their surplus material 
along these public promenades, for the enjoy- 
ment of those who have no gardens. And the 
custom is met in the same beautiful spirit by the 
poeople at large ; for in the main, those embel- 
lishments which turn the highway into pleasure 
grounds, are respected, and grow and bloom as if 
within the enclosures. 

Does not this argue a civilization among these 
''down.trodden nations" of Central Europe, that 
would not be unwelcome in this, our land of equal 
rights and free schools ? 

0^ All wet land should be well drained. 






Our rernarks upon the Peach will he conclu- 
ded by a few notes upon the varieties cultivated 
here, in regard to quality, time of ripening and 
productiveness. The times of ripening of the 
Peaches described below are for 1850 and 1851, 
as the crop the past season was greatly injured 
by frost. They are described in the order of 

1. Cohimbus June. Brought here from Co- 
Inmbus^ Ga., and said to be a native of the State. 
Leaves, with uniform glands.- Flowers-nsmall. 
Pniit-^medium size to large, flattened or slightly 
hollowed at the apex. Suture—Shallow. Skin 
-—pale yellowish white, with a rich red cheek 
towards the sun. Flesh — slightly red at the 
stone, melting, juicy, sweet and high flavored. 
A good bearer and an excellent peach for its 
season, in. every respect. Ripens 20th June. 

2. Earl^ Yark. We have a*|ieaoh from the 
north, without thQ name, which I thipk is this 
variety. An excellent peach, very juicy, and in 
every respect worthy of cultivation. June 20th. 

8. Walter's Early. Bears an abundant crop 
of mebing and delicious fruit, which ripens about 
the first of July* Not so easily injured by frost 
as many others. Succeeds as far south as Mobile. 
Likes a sandy soil. 

4. Red Rareripe. Ripens about the same. 
Bears well, and is a great favorite here. Fruit 
— smelting and high-flavored. 

5. Strawberry. Generally ripens about the 
1st of July, and if allowed to overbear is of but 
ordinary quality. This year a few escaped the 
frost, and ripened some six days earlier than 
usual, and were delicious j if well thinned, al- 
ways 80. 

6. Royal George. This peach is not inclined 
to overbear, but ripens a moderate crop of deli- 
cious peaches about the 4th of July. 

7. CooUfige's Favoriie. The peach received 
here under this name bears finely, and ripens 
about the 5th of July, but is too acid and poor to 
cultivate. We may not have the true variety. 

8. Early Adndrahle. Ripens about the 5th 
of July. Productive, large and good. It will 

stand a frost without 'much injury, that will cut 
off Grosse Mignonne entirely. Bore a good crop 
this season — one of the best. 

9. Early NetnngUm Free. Another hardy, 
excellent variety, bearing a fair crop the present 
season, in spite of the frost. One of the most de- 
sirable peaches grown. Ripe July 5th. 

10. Grosse Mignonne. This is, perhaps, the 
best free stone peach cultivated. Fruit — ^large, 
beautiful and delicious — excellent in every re* 
spect. Ripens July 8th. If it has no rival, it is 

11. George IV. This ripens a day or two 
later, and is in general equally esteemed with 
the foregoing for beauty and excellence. 

12. Malta. Ripe the 10th of July. Large, 
juicy and good. 

18. Morris^ Red Rareripe. Ripe about the 
middle of July. Productive, melting and excel* 

14. White Blossomed Incomparable. Ripe 
the 15th or aOth of July. Nearly always wormy, 
and not worth cultivating. Of only second rate 

15. Crawford*s Early. One of the best cnl- 
tivated, always large and fair, and pretty haidy. 
Ripe middle of July. Fruit often nine inches in 

16. Bellegarde. This peach came here as 
the Red Magdelen. It is hardy and productive. 
Will stand frost better than most of the good va- 
rieties. The fruit is melting and delicious. 
One of the best. Ripe about the 20th of July. 

17. NoMesse. Ripens about the 20th of July 
— ^very excellent. Well worth cultivating, even 
in small collections. 

18. Belle de Beaucaire. Received by Mr. 
Camak from Mr. Prince. Leaves^-with globose 
glands. Flowers— small. Fruit — very large, 
(about the size of Crawford*s Early y) roundish, 
with protruding point at top. Suture— is very 
shallow, but distinctly marked from apex to stem. 
Skin — flight yellowish green, with cheek slightly 
reddened. Flesh — ^greenish yellow, and light 
red at the stone ; a little coarse, but delicious ; 
full of a very rich, slightly acidulated juice. 
Tree — ^thrifly, bears regularly and sufficiently 
abundant. Skin slips readily from the flesh with- 
out the use of a knife. Ripe the last of July. 
One of the best. 



19. Late Red Rareripe. Ripens last of July. 
Pfodttdive and good. 

20. Royal Kensington, Ripens first August. 
Somewhat resembles Grosse Migiumne, but it is 
drjer and not so good. 

21. Late Admirable. Ripens the 1st of Au- 
gust. One of the very best late peaches. Lasts 
till the itaiddle of August. Still not equal to 
Crfosse Mignonne. 

22. Morris Whiter Ripenc early in August. 
This peach is very apt to be wormy. I have 
never seen it first rate> always acid and somewhat 

*28. Crmcford?s LstU. A laa^nificeDt peach 
'— large and productive. Ripens early in Au- 
gust. One of the very best. Indispensable. 

24. Ispahan. Received under this name, but 
is not the Ispahan of the books, but seems to re- 
semble very much the Red Cheek MehcoUm, and 
is perhaps identical. Generally a large and rath- 
er fine variety. Ripens about the 1 0th of August. 

25. Presidom, One of the indispensable 
varieties. Ripens about the middle of August 

M. Crreen Ca&ierme. A large and produc- 
tive peach, but inferior to the foregoing, and apt 
lo be wormy. Ripe August I2th. 

27. Newii^gUm CUng. Ripe about the 10th 
of August. One of the best of the clings—- 

rich and juicy. 

28. Jraeef or Timely. Ripe middle of Au- 
gust* Fruil-^fge to very large in size, oval, 
pointed at apex. Skin->-of dull, dark, purplish 
red, covered with a thick, dull, grey down, 
Flesb-^ark red, marbled with orange, moderate- 
ly juicy ; ricb^ oot loo acid for most tastes. It is 
productive and very hardy. Resists frost better 
than most peaches. Skin peels <off readily when 
fully ripe. Loses flavor if over ripe. External- 
ly the x)olor is something like Bhod CJing. A 
freestone, and a great favorite in most parts of the 
State, but not first rate. Reproduces itself from 
the stone. 

20. Red Cheek MelocoUm. Ripe middle of 
August. A beautiful and productfire peach, of, 
fine quality, but not the best. Merits cultivation 
for its hardiness. Ripens much earlier some 
years than the time above specified. 

80. Lemon GHng. In this climate delicious. 
One of the best of the clings. Ripe 10th Au- 

81. Yellow BkmUm CUng. Ripe 3etk of 
August. Leaves — ^Ifurge, with globose gluids. 
Tree — thrlAy and healthy. Fruit-— large» and 
in general shaped like the Lemon Cling f with the 
same projecting, swollen. point. Skin-^^rich or« 
ange, with a slightly red cheek. Flesh-^KurangQ 
yellow, firm, but full of a delicious vinous juioe. 
Originated her^. Later and better quality thaa 
Lemon Cling. To my taste the best of oliiigs. 
Reproduces itself from seed. 

82. Pavie de Pon^pone. A magoificeiit Ipok^ 
ing peach, but the flesh is too ooarae a fi^ 

38. Blood CUng. Ripe the BOtb of Aiaguat, 
but unfit for eating. When very ripe it is bavaty 
tolerable. Don't know any reason why il should 
be cultivated. 

84. Tq^canoc Clmg» Ripens in the Isifsf 
part of August, and is large, juicy and fine. One 
of the best. 

85. WkiU English CUng. Leaves— with 
globose glands. Fruit'— -veiy large, and oval. 
Suture— slight, with a swelled point at top. Skin 
—clear, creaflsy white, wHh somethnes a aUgfat 
hue of red on the sunny side. Plesh«-^eKoat6 
white, firee firom red atthe stone, to which it firmly 
adheres; very iMi, juicy and high flavored. As 
it is entirely fi'ee from color, it is the very best 
for preserving or for brandy peaches. Has no 
tendency to be wormy, as most white peaches 
have. Ripe early in September. Grows true 
from the stone. Very valuable for its latenesss 


and excellence. Widely known here. Brought 
originally from Virginia. 

86. Bough. This is the next named peacb 
of first quality that ripens after the WkUe EngUsh 
— a native of this State. Leaves — with globose 
glands. Fruit — medium size, roundish, termi. 
nated with a small point. Suture,obscure. Skin 
-*pale yellow, almost white, with a slight blush 
towards the sun. Flesh^yellowish white, melt- 
ing and juicy, with a sweet, pleasant flavor. By 
far the best fruit of the season. Indispensable. 
Freestone. Ripe 1st October. 

We have three peaches, of pretty good quality, 

without names, two of which were received from 

Mr. Prince, by Mr. Camak, with the statement 

that they were too late to be valuable in that cli* 

j mate, and the other obtained by Mr. Camak fixMn 



an old field in this State, ell of ^\$h aiB really 
valuable, as they ripen between the 15th of Sep- 
temberand the 15th of October. We have also 
a CM$ig of very good quality in w'arm seasons, 
that ripWM the Ist of November ; making it pos* 
siUeto extend our peaoh season from the 20th of 
June tilt about Ae middle of November, in favor 
able years. 

Of the above peaches, the best ten (or sucoes- 
■RW, in this (Ornate, are Chhunbus June^ Walter^* 
Bttfhfi G'roue Migwnme^ Crmwford's Early ^ Belle 
de Beameaire, Crawford s LtOe^ NewingUm Cling , 
¥Mm BkmUm CUng, White English and B<mgh. 
Add to these the Earfy York, Early Admirable, 
George IF., BeUegarde, Late Admirable, Late 
Btntrtpe) Ptesideni, I^mon Cling, Tippecanoe, 
Nof^efkber CUng, and the unnumbered varieties 
above for October, and the collection is quite as 
large as desirable. 




Tram Uie SovUiem Agrloaltiuift. 



Ti^ protecting of lines of Raihraada, so as to 
pr^veQt the inoursioos of stock, would certainly 
be, desired by all persona who wiah to throw^more 
efiectual guards of security arowM human life, 
as well as by those who would exempt their do* 
meetic animals from those contiagenoiesof dan* 
ger, and the casualties which eo frequently oc 
cur. Cattle are accustomed to select roads and 
clean places to sleep on, and hence this kind of 
stock are more frequently killed than horses, 
swine and sheep. The location of most of our 
roads in the upper country — seeking the vallies, 
in order the more easily to reach their roost ele* 
vated grades— has invaded thoee grounds natu* 
tally fitted for pasturage ; and hence, the evil 
here will become greater rather than decrease. 
It is the duty, and should be made penally the 
business of Railroad Companies, to fence in their 
lines of roads at all exposed points, so that human 
life and private property would not be perilled 
by the heedlessness of engine-drivers. . We once 
had the pleasure of introducing into the South 
Carolina Legislature, a bill, embracing, among 
other things, provisions relating to this matter. 
That portion of it relating to placing obstructions 

on tracks, dz;d., was en&eted into a law, making 
such crimes highly penal ; but the portion which 
proposed erecting securities to the land-holder, 
was thrown overboard, aana etrenumU — ^very 
much like they frequently serve their passengers. 
The private rights of the land-holder are invaded 
by the building of the road, and if he concedes 
them the privilege of a right of way, they are 
certainly the more bound to protect his personal 
property which may be endangered, by their op* 
orations. ^'A public blessing" should not. be 
permitted to degenerate into a general nuisance* 
The inexpediency of the thing, because it would 
cost money to do it, shall not prevent us from re- 
peating our views until every li^e of Railroad in 
the country is made secure from the incursions of 
stock. The land-holder should be protected by 
laws embodying the most ample, as well as the 
most stringent provisions. In England, guards 
are stationed at regular distances, in order to en- 
sure safety, and road-crossing are secured by 
gates on each, side of the Railroads, which are 
closed whenever a train approaches. On many 
of our roads there is not, even at road-crossings, 
a sign — ^'Look out for the ears when the engine 
whistles !" — ^to warn travellers. 

Hedges, as far as private property is concerned, 
would afibrd ample protection. The Qsage Or- 
ange (maclura aurantica) would form an impene- 
trable barrier, at such points where the road is 
at or near grade. For large banks, the Macart- 
ney Rose would soon cover their side and prevent 
them from washing. This rose is a rapid grower, 
and is covered with innumerable thorns, ao that 
but few animals would venture amongst them. 
The track minders could . keep the weeds and 
grass from obstructtng the growth of these plants 
for a few years ; and the trimmings of these 
hedges would not amount to as much in ten years 
as it would require to keep the bushes and briars 
cut down. The soil of Railroad banks produces 
most luxuriant growth. One plant of the Osage 
Orange every two feet, and one of the Macart- 
ney Roses to every ten feet of bank, would, in 
time, prove ample protection against stock. 
What Railroad Company will set the good exam- 
pie, and make a trial? What says the little 
Laurens ? What the scourged and unfortunate 
Greenville ? And what our friends of the Spar, 
tanburg, whose chief engineer .{las so much taste 



formml adornmeDt, and who, to our knowle^9y 
is the only individual that has devoted any atten- 
tion to beautifying and preserving public works 
bvtbe aid of those natural resources which abound 
on all hands ? We refer to his having planted 
a skirting of beautiful Hawaian Canes on a bank 
near Pomaria, whilst he was in the service of the 
Greenville Railroad Company. 

From tho HortieolturiBt 


A correspondent has furnished us with the 
following text : "At what times in the year should 
the different kinds of pruning be performed, in 
the cold latitudes of the North, and in the milder 
climates of the South ?" 

We hold that pruning in general, in our north- 
ern climates, is safest after the severe frosts of 
winter are over, immediately before the swelling 
of the buds. When performed early in the win- 
ter, or in autumn, as is practised properly in mild 
climates, the ends of the cut shoots dry up, shrivel 
and die — loosing the buds intended to make lead- 
ing shoots, and leaving dead points that require 
much labor to prune off afterwards ; or if large 
branches are cut off, leaving a broad, fresh sur. 
face, the wood and bark dry up and require a 
long time to heal. We perform roost of our pru- 
ning in the month of March, although a great 
deal of the less exact nursery pruning is done in 
February. Southward, as the climate is mild 
and spring early, we should prefer pruning very 
early in the winter, or immediately afler the fall 
of the leaf, bepause activity, in the functions of the 
tree commences early, or scarcely ceases, as we 
must believe it does during our intensely cold 
weather, and by pruning early we economize the 
sap and strength of the tree. 

The only pruning we hold to be sound, safe 
aud commendable, in the season when the leaves 
are on the trees, is that of the^n^er and thumb, 
in other words, pinching. It is quite inconsistent 
with good management to rear a crop of shoots 
and then cut them away. This can only be 
avoided by nipping superfluous or misplaced 
shoots at two or three inches of growth, before 
they attain to woodiness. - This economizes the 
force of the tree, and turns it into a channel where 
it will promc^Q, ipstead of frustrating the ends we 
are aiming at. For instance, if we plant a young 

tree, and hate prutaed it with a view to a eeitaio 
form, and, contrary to our expectations, a lAioot 
breaks out at an unexpected point, and assumes 
a vigorous habit, and robs all the other parts, it 
would evidently be unwise to tolerate this intruder 
until it arrives at full growth, and then out away. 
Too many trees are thus managed, by the neglfKat 
of summer pruning or pinching. We admit, 
however, that there are cases in which the sum- 
mer pruning, or entire lopping offer cutting out 
branches of considerable size, may be judicious 
and safe. For instance, in the case ot neglected 
orchard trees, in a luxunant state, wkh dense 
heads in which the fruit id deprived of air and 
light. In such cases, branches may be thinned 
out, and the cut surface heals over more rapidly 
and smoothly than at any other time. But it is 
unsafe to produce any very sensible diininution 
of foliage, as it arrests the growth of the tree> 

All pruning in the glowing season tends le sr* 
rest growth. Nurserymen know that a slight 
pruning of stocks before budding will so arrest 
growth as to make the bark adhere firmly, when, 
before the pruning, it lifled freely. It is on this 
principle that most all pruning, to promote fruit- 
fulness, must be done at a point of greater or less 
activity of growth* Late spring pruning is often 
resorted to as a means of subduing a superabun- 
dant vigor, and it has the same efllect as root pru- 
ning to a certain extent. 

ReTiefT 0t tfti« Cotton Harkoi, 

/ MoBiui, Mabok 2, 1868. 

Dr, y. B, Claud, Dear Sir : In reply to your reqaesl» 
that I should famish you my vidws respecting the pros- 
pects of the price of our great staple, Cotton, I beg to 
say that the pressure of my engagements restrains ms 
from entering fully now into the details of the sabjeet 
It, however, affords me much pleasure to enclose you n^ 
Circular of the 1st of January last, which, if you doom of 
sufficient interest, you may publish or eztraot from. It 
examines the sabjeot at length, though I will not sij 
exhausts it 

My opinions thsn submitted are not mateiiaUy ohangod. 
I estimated the crop at 2,760,000 bales ; though I admit- 
ted it was possible it might reach 8,000,000. The ex- 
cess of receipts this year over the corresponding periods 
of last, look now, and have looked for some time, fond* 

Take a litUe boy, ever so smarts bat who has nsvcr 
been aooustomed to i^kiritad and high-bred hoises, and 
put him on the back of one, and the usnsl paving and 




bowing .oC, the wc\, &o., y^U Haaxa him so moeh as to 
absolutely frighten the animal ; while, take one who has 
been amongst the animals much and rode races, and put 
him up, and he is wide awake to Chose moyements. So 
it is now with those who are in the habit of cuUivating 
nimors ; when thej look at this excess — ^the why and 
tiM wherofore of tha excess — tliey are too numerous to 
inyestigate, and simply would add to the excess the 
amount received after that period the year before, with 
the proportionate increase for that subsequent time. 
They would rise from their wise figuring, saying that was 
a saib calculation, and they would only operate on that 
basis-— they would not only buy by it, but they would be 
willing to sell by it I think both these extremes unfor- 
tunate for the parties. The circumstances of the excess 
■hoald be considered. In the circular alluded to, I haye 
pretty well explained the causes of this excess, without 
admitting that it will or can be long maintained ; and I 
irill simply recapitulate the heads here. They are these, 
with our acknowledged full crop, and MiddUngt, at the 
beginning of the season at 9} to 9} cents, and with the 
most universal capacity to sliip cotton to market fh)m 
Ulc time it was picked out early in the fall, it has been 
boxried to market as fast as it has been possible to do it. 
So we are now near the eUte of our receipts eyerywhere, 
in my opinion. Last year the receipts were kept back 
f^om yery many important sections, from lowness of the 
rivers, until February, and of course receipts were eon- 
slderably retarded last year. 

Xaat week we reeeiTed here 80»000 bales ; this week 
our reeeipts will bu abovt aO^OOO; next 10,000; 
iiext7»000; next 6,000; and after that they will be 
next to nothing. At New Or^Mpg^, their receipts for this 
and the succeeding three weeks, will fall below 25,000 
bales f^ week, and after that, the story will be told there. 
And BO of each division of the cotton region — ^by the first 
day of April the cotton will be pretty much all in. Be- 
ginning to arrive four months earlier than last year, re- 
ceipts will certidnly be in four months earlier. 

My figures now for the crop would range something 

I^ew Orleans 1,460,000 to 1,600,000 

Mobile 490,000 to 510,000 

Texas 65,000 to 70,000 

Atlantic Ports 700,000 to 760,000 

Florida 166,000 to 170,000 

Total 2,865,000 8,000,000 

Should the reeeipts run up «» 8,000,000, the crop has 
been then at least 250,000 bales heavier than last year. 
I have doubted, taking all things into consideration, if it 
were really heavier. Last year at least 260,000 bales of 
old cotton came to hand, which, disnersed throughout 
the cotton region, is held for other years. This crop will 
lose that soH of aid. It will all come forward, I believe, 
aa I do not know ef any feeling in favnr of holding cot- 
ton back in the eoontiy aaywkerck 

Well, yrith all tira firrorable fOBVurring dements, if it 
is found the crop will not exceed 8,000,000, Middling 
Cotton, I think, will go to 7d. before the 1st of July in 
Liverpool ; and if the worms^ which made a pretty re- 
spectable commencement last year, should acquit them- 
selves with their usual taste and impartiality, (and they 
are fully due this year, as it is the seventh since 1846,) 
why, prices will go to 8 or 9d. for Middlings next fall. 

Middlings which we sold this time last year for Ofe., 
we are now selling at Sjfc, and such was selling at the 
same time in Liverpool at 4|d., and was, at last dates, 
selling at 5id. this year — a difference here of l}c. higher, 
whUe these prices are equal to 2f c. higher. The pres- 
sure of our receipts, and our anxiety to sell, puts us 
lower than we should be evidently, if these receipts could 
have been diflTuse throughout the year. 

I think, therefore, the prospects of the cotton planter 
are extraordinarily propitious ; that cotton must advance 
this season further^ and prices will also be good another 

How much good depends, as usual, on accidents t If 

the worm does his seventh year's work, 15c. next year 

will be a common price. 

Truly your friend, 


Contents of tills Brvmber* 

The Cotton Trade «...., 66 

Enormous Tax upon Farmers..... «...7(l 

Analyses of the Cotton Plant and Seed 70 

History of Cotton Manufactures 78 

Marl and Marling 76 

The Besult of Manure on a Pear Tree 79 

To Dress Salt Fish 79 

The Cow and the Dairy 79 

Agricultural Convention 80 

Cotton Manufaetures in Russia. 81 

Editorial Notices, &c 81 

Mobile Agricultural and Horticultural Society 83 

Notice of Marl and Marling 82 


Number 4 88 

Cultivation of the Ground Nut 84 

Manuring Com 84 

Manure is Wealth 8A 

How Long? 87 


How to Popularixe the Taste for Planting. »..•«««., 88 
Peaches at the South ««.9t 


Hedges for Railroads..... 98 

When to Prune „ 94 

Review of the Cotton Market 94 

- ....■ ....■ ^ 


MobUe, September lot, 1862. 





Bar Iron, Nails, Oastings, &c., 

Hardware, Cutlery, Guns, &c. 

68 * 64 ^vrater Street, 

Acclimated Fruit Trees, 


Mareh 1st, 1868. 

THB Bubseriber, who is sole Pro- 
prietor of the aboTe Manufactoiy, hay- 
ing obtained and pot in operation the 
requisite machinery, and secured the 
aerrices of skillful workmen, respect- 
fiilly announces to the public that. he 
is fully prepared to execute all orders 
with which he may be favored, and 
upon the most fayorable terms, 

JI^The FACTORY is conyeniently located on the 
road leading fh>m Montgomery to Tuskegee, twenty-five 
miles firom the former place, and seventeen fh>m the 
letter. It is but a mile and a half south-east from 
fiHOBTin's Depot, on the Montgomery and West Point 
Baiboad, and FURNITURE, if so desired, will be deliv- 
ered at the Railroad without extra charge. 

Cross Keys, ^iaoon Co., Sept l-6t 


Surgeon's Machinist, truss Maimer, Cutler, &c., 



MAK£S and adapts every description of Truss for In- 
quinal, Cural, and IJmbilical Hernia; 
Spinal Supports for Curviture of the Spine ; 
Instruments for Incurvation of the limbs of Children, 

elnb feet, distortions, &c. &.; 
Artificial Lioibs ; Laoed Stockings ; Ankle Socks ; Knee 
Caps for varioose veiosi weak and swelled legs^ knees, 
&o. &c. 

P. S. Particular attention paid to Plantation Stands, 
and Instmetions for Meaanring sent by post to a^y part 
of the country. 


A Splendid Assortment of 8HEFPIBLD OUTLBRT, 
of the finest qnaUty, finish and temper, imported direct 
Arom the makers, consisting of 

Ivory-Handled Table Knives, for Silver Plated and Steel 

Pen, Pocket, Hunting, and Sportsmen's Knives ; 

Razors, warranted ; Strops, &c. &c. ; 

Ladies* Sdssors, and a variety of other articles of Cut- 

fBTNew Blades put in Handles. Cutieij and Bur- 
geobs' Instruments repaired. 

February 1st, 1868. 

Tn SOUTHSVN OOLTrrATOR, is published on the 
first of each month, at Augusta, Geo. D. Lbi, M. D., 
Editor, and D. Rbdkohd, Assistant Editor. Ttmu : $1 
a year, in advance. 



THE Stock, this year, is'good and well-grown. Prices 
and descriptive Catalocues, eontaiSng hlate for 
planting, pruning and tendrng^ will be promptly finr^ 
warded by mail to applicants who prepay their letters. 
Shipments can be made, with entire safety, to any part 
of the South — the utmost attention being paid to ^podUf^ 


Has been published, as usual, and wUl be sent by mMl 
and prepud, on receipt of 12 cents in postage stamps. — 
Orders solicited, for this useful and popular periooncal, 
fW>m Booksellers and Country Merchants; imd adver- 
tisements Arom Gind-Stand and ofher ManafatftttrerSi 
Schools and Colleges, Watering Plaoes, fto. No otiier 
work has so large a circulation In the Soutib. 

ACCOUNT BOOKS, new CiUtion, now ready. No. 1, 
for 40 hands or less, $2 6O...N0. 2, for 80 hands or 
less, $8 OO...N0. 8, for 120 or less, ^ 60. 

ACCOUNT BOOKS— Number 1, for 80 hands or less, 
$8 00...Number 2, for 120 hands or less, $8 60. 

Jl^p^These Books are now in general use amongst Plant- 
ers. They will be sent by mail, prepaid and oareMfy 
enveloped, at the above prices. Orders soUcitedfrom 
Booksellers and other dealers, to whom a liberal dis- 
count will be made. 



THB Sabseriber, Mtlnc nndtr la axtangeiiiettt irHli MMm. V. 
Barred* & Brother, of Lima and Baltimore, tbe goneiil acenli of 
the PemTlan €K>Temment for tlie nle of Onano, and viiow|li 
whom alone thU Onano caa ba proouMd, to pveparad to fapuj 
Planters and others In the Sonth, with a pare and nnadnlterataA 
artide, in any desired qnantitiea, and at the following prtoM, 4e 
livered in New Orleans : 

Por anj quantity under fonr tons, $10 per ton of aOOOlha. 

For more than fonr tons and under 2S, $47 per do. 

For larger quantities, the price is somewhat lower. 

In all oases, where more than one ton is ordeied, then Win be 
no additional charges for drayage, &e., but the Guano will be de- 
livered on boaitt steamer, or in me city, at tboee prioea. Vor leu 
than one ton, drayage will be added. 

By this arrangement, the eosi to the Planter will be THB 
chased ; aroiding the factor's commission for purchasing, drafM*, 
repairs of sacks, etc., Itc; and the Bubeeriber guarantees the ant- 
cle, procured through orders sent to him, to be vaadnlterated and 
pure as taken from the Ohiacha lalaada. It wUl be dellTerad la 
sacks, containing each about 160 to 180 lbs. 

A sight draft upon a New OtlMUDm hoilM, tt othM eqaaUy avail- 
able funds, must ininariably accompany each order. 

As the first cargo, coming direct f^m Pern to New Orleans, ea- 
der the subscriber's arrangement with the Meieri. Barrada, eaoaoi 
be expected to arrive before the 1st of October next, a aapply will 
be immediately sent forwaid, reshlpped at Baltimore and stored at 
New Orleans, to afford him the means of filling orders already re- 
ceived, or which mav be sent to him during the winter. The piiee, 
for any quantity of this lot, over one ton, will be $50 per legal ton, 
delivered on boacd steamer; the fre%ht and ehargaa from Balti- 
more causing the additional price when even a laxger quanti^ 
than five tons Is ordered. 

Messrs. Barreda, In their letter to the nbicrlbir, Uyii^ down 
the scale of prices, and explaining the arrangements entered lat<» 
for a deposit in New Orleans, remark,—" We have girea ordM* ta 
our Lima house to send direct from the Chincha Islands, a quanti- 
ty sufllcient to meet the demand, and to have a depeait always 
readv to supply any amount. The Guano that you wiU reeeive 
shall come direct from the said Islands.** 

From arrangements made with eome of the ngnlar Packet Boats 
on the river, the flight will not exceed, to any point below Ticks- 
bus, from $0e. to S5c. per sack, or about $2,50 to $8.60per ton. 


IstJTanaary, 1668-4t. Washington} Adams co., Bflis. ' 

A HoDlUy Jonrnal. devoted to improTed Plantation Economy, Mannfabtores, and M«dianlc Arts. 




PreviouB to 17&0, the United Slates did not ex- 
port a single pound of raw cotton. In 1792, we 
osported the trifling quantity of IS-^iSSS pounds. 
Whitney V invention came into operation in 1793, 
«nd in 1794 we exported 1,601,760 lbs ; and in 
1795, 5,376,306 lbs. And bo astonishing haa 
been the growth of cotton since the invention of 
tba cotton gin, and occasioned by it, that in ISBS 
the United States exported 595,952,297 lbs. Our 
immense oiports since that year need not be 

A cotton mill is probably, all things considered, 
the moat BStooishing triumph of skill and ingenu- 
ity ; all the various operations, from the carding 
of the cotton to its conversion into a texture as 
fine almoBt aa that of the goesamer, being per- 
formed by machinery. Each of the workmen 
at present employed in a cotton mill, superin- 
tends aa much work as could have been executed 
by two or three hundred workmen sixty or sev. 
enty ye^ra ago ; and yet, instead of the number 
of workmen being diminished by machinery, it 
has been vastly increased. It would be curious 
to investigate hovr many persona are dependent 
directly for subsistence on the inventions and disr 

of ffai^reaves, Arkwright, Watt, WhiU 
ney, and other loundeis and improvers of (hia 
great manufacture. They certainly amount to 
several millions ; at the same time that there i> 
hardly an individual on the face ofthe globe wfav 
is not indebted to them for an increase of oomibit 
and enjoyment. It is impossible to estimate the 
advantage to the great bulk of mankind arisiiig 
from the wonderful cheapness of cotton gooda. 
The humblest classes have now the means of 
dressing as elegantly aa did the highest fifty jrean 
ago ; and the humblest peasant's cottage BU,y 
DOW have as handsome furniture for beds, wuf 
dows, tables, &c., as the bouse of the nob mm 
half a century ago. 

The following table will show the early pro- 
gress of the cotton manufacture in Great Biitaia 
prior to the invention of the spinning-jenny by 
tlarg reaves : 

Raw Cotton. Value ofOoods. 

Years. Imported. Exported. 

1697 1,976,369 lbs <6,»10 

1701 1,985,866 MJO* 

1710 715,008 ;i.ftiB«8 

1720 1,972,805 ,.ie,*M 

1730 1,545,473 ISJW 

1741 1,645^1- J30,1llt 

1751 3,976,610 46^ 

1764 3,870,392 SOO.SM 

The spinning-jenny of Hargrewea went Into 
iperation in 1767 ; and Arkwright's improvemwit 
was patented and put in operation lo 1769. The 



influence of these and other inventions and im- 
proveraents made afterwards, on the manufacture 
and trade, may be seen by inspecting the follow- 
ing table : 

Years. Cotton Imported. Cotton Exported. 

178^ 5,198,77S lbs 96,788 lbs. 

1785 ..18,400,384 ,. . . .407,496 

1790 31,447,605 844,154 

1795. ..... .26,401,340 1,193.737 

1800 56,010,732 4,416,61 

1 805 59,682,406 804,243 

1810 132,488,935 8,787,109 

1811 91,576,535 1,266,867 

1812 63,025,936 1,440,912 

1813 50,966,000 

1814 60,060,239 ^ • .6,282,437 

1815 .99,806,343 6,780,392 

The importations of cotton into England, from 
all sources since 1816, have been as follows, ac- 
cording to the statement of Messrs. Geo. Holt 
& Co.j ,cottoa brokers at Liverpool : 

501,000,000 lbs. 





1810 03,000,000 lbs. 1833 

1820 143,000,000 1839 

1825 222,000,000 1840 

1830 261,000,000 1845 

1885 361,000,000 1850-1 

1637 408,000,000 

The best portion of the cotton imported into 
Bnglaad comes from the United States ; the bal- 
ance from Brazil, Turkey, Egypt, and the British 
East and West India possessions. England takes 
the lead of all other nations in manufactures, par- 
ticularly of cotton. It is estimated that the num- 
ber of persons employed in this manufacture in 
Greet Britain is not far from 2,000,000. Esti- 
mating the state of the cotton manufacture by the 
nufnber of spindles employed, it stands nearly 
as follows at the present time, in the various 
manufacturing countries of the world : 

Grisat Britain 17,500,000 spindles. 

Fr&tiee • • ...4,300,000 

United ittates 2,500,000 

Gbi-aMmy....»....«.... 815,000 

RuBtfia 700,000 

Bwiliwrland*....... 650,000 

Bitglam« • •.•.•.•.•..^.•.» «.•••..• .420,000 

Spain; 300,000 

Inlly.v 300,000 

Manchestbt, or Mither Lancashire, is the grand 
seat of English cotton manufacture ; and 'next to 
it Cheshire, Nottinghamshire, the West Riding 
of Yorkahire and Cumberland, are its principal 
eeats. Glasgow and its vicinity is the seat of the 

manufacture in Scotland, and Belfast in Ireland, 
where it is said to be on the decline. 

The value of the cotton manufacture of Great 
Britain is greater, estimating from the last table 
of spindles above, than that of all the rest of the 
world besides. It is difficult to give aa accurate 
estimate of the annual total value of the cotton 
manufacture of Great Britain. Mr. McCuUgch, 
in his Commercial DicUonary, estimates it at about 
jB34,000,000, or •164,560,000. This estimate 
is considered by Mr. Bainos, in his elaborate work 
on the Cotton Manufacture, as too small. 

It would be a pleasant task to trace the history 
of cotton manufactures in France, Germany 
Holland, Russia, and other countries of Europe ; 
but as that would extend this paper much beyond 
the limits we designed for it, we shall conclude 
with a brief history of the manufacture of cotton 
in the United States. 

The first cotton-mill of the United States waa 
erected in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, by the late 
Mr. Samuel Slater, a native of Belper, Derby- 
shire, England, in 1790. The machinery was 
that of the Arkwright patent. There is evidence 
that Hargreave's jennies were in use in this cpun* 
try previous to 1790, but by whom and when in- 
troduced, is not knowa* They were worked 
principally by Scotch and Irish weavers, who 
produced mixed goods of linen and cotton. 
Great Britain, at that time, used every means to 
prevent the introduction of her spinning machine- 
ry into other countries. Her law expressly for- 
bade its exportation ; and every attempt to im- 
port the machinery into America had failed. The 
Hon. Tench Coxe, of Philadelphia, entered into a 
bond with a person, who engaged to send him, 
from London, complete brass noodels of Ark-. 
Wright's patents. The machinery was completed 
and packed, but was detected by the examining 
officer, and forfeited, according to the existing 
laws of Great Britain. No way remained to ob- 
tain the benefit of the British inventkxia but to 
manufacture them on our own soil. For this 
purpose, Mr. Slater came to America. He .had 
been a pupil of Arkwright, and waa perfectly- 
familiar with all his patents. He brought with 
him neither patterns nor memoranda to assist him 
in his work, but depended entirely on his memo- 
ry, a thing that the statutes of Great Britain could 



» fa . 

Dot reach. The King of England had frequently 
made proclamation against any tradesman leaving 
the kingdom, and had called en his officers for 
their most vigilant watch against it ;* but the 
professions of tnen leaving the kingdom could not 
always be detected. 

' Some 6f (he first yarn made by Mr. Slater in 
America, and some of the ftrst cotton cloth made 
from it, was sent t6 ther Secretary of the Treasu- 
ry, rni (he 16th of Ootober, 17OT ; and H is pro- 
Imbly in existence now* It is statedf that Mr. 
Clay had some of the first 3'am in his possession 
in 1836. It was as fine as number 40^ 

Mr. Slater was induced to leave his employ- 
ment under Arkwright, in England, to come to 

' America, by seeing a premium offered by the 
PeoflsylvaDia Society, for a certain machine to 
spin cotton. 

Mr. Slater kbored under the greatest disad- 
vantages, lor the want of suitable materials, and 
mechanics of sufficient ingenuity to assist him. 
The history of his first labors is deeply interes- 
ting, for this details of which we must refer the 
reader to his biographer. His first machine was 
what is called a water frame, of only twenty-four 
spindles. Such wss the humble origin of cotton 
manufacturing in America. From that first 
machine the advancement of the cotton manufac- 
ture has been truly astonishing. It has caused 
hundreds of populous villages, towns, and even 
cities, to spring up, as if by magic, where only a 
few years ago nothing was seen but a barren 
wilderness. :|: 

*U9t of BMniie18lilli>r,t>y 0. 8. White, p. 88. 
fldem, p. 89. 

^Aitoniahing m)im been the Inerease of tlie Tarions mannfmcta- 

Tiiiff towot mi TUlikgM iB the Ualtod SUtei, Low»U, In Mmhl- 

clMMetts, •orpMMi eTttythiog of tb« Mud Uiat Iim been witaofleed 

within the memorj of man. In 1819 its site ires a wilderness, 

whither spottsuen went to shoot game, fhe entire population 

«f llM tenitoiy wonnd it did net exeeed 900 aonls. It was a poor, 

hanen district, with but a few hoases on the place where the cltj 

BOW stands; and the Inhabitants supported themselres prineipaUj 

- fer Mitaf-ia the Oaoootd and Meiifmaek liftn, e* the Junction of 

« whkk Iiowell is sitaated. ▲ company of wealthy men in Boston, 
■eeiiig the Talnable water priTilegee of the spot, porohased it for 
Maaaftctaringparpoeet. The tlrtleotlonmiUwae erected tlMfe in 

. ll»tMidlftlflWttiepopalitioaoftheplaeehadiBCf«aiadtoM77 
persons. In 1840 the popnlation had become 30,706 ; and the ralue 
of property there was $13,400,000. la 1844 the popolatlon was 

• aiiiOD. It la aow 81,000. Thas,;irhaiealy thirty yean ago was a 
tdld p a itat e froaad, hae become a large and flooriihiog city--a 
proof of what water-power, seconded by capital and enterprise, 
taa do 4»r a plaee. KoweU la a ^^adid exavple of an Aaerieaa 
BMBOfiMtitring ei^, and ezeites the attention, and, in tome mea«- 

The rapid growth of the cotton manufacture 
in this country is unparalleled ib the history of 
industry. The second cotton mill in America 
was erected in 1795, at the same place as the 
fitsU No more were built until 1808, when a 
third was erected in Massaiihusetts, followed by 
a fourth, in 1804. During the three following 
years ten more mills Were erected in Rhode 
Island, and one in Connecticut, making in all fif* 
teen mills with 6;0Wspindles, producing dM^OOO 
pounds of yarn annually. By a report made to 
the GovernmeEK inf 191(1, it appears that eighty- 
seven additional mills bad been erected by the 
end of 1809, of which sixty-two were then ia 
operation by horse and water-power, running 
31,000 spindles. The cotton manufacture con- 
tinued to spread, and received a considerable 
impulse from the war of 1812. In that year 
there were in Rhode Island thirty-three cotton 
factories, with 80,663 spindles. In Massachu- 
setts there were twenty-three mills, with 17,871 

A report made to Congress, in 1616, gives the 

following statement of the consumption of cotton 

by our raHls, showing how rapidly the cotton 

mannfacture had advanced. The consumption 

of cotton was,- ia 

1800. ,,. ... . 500 bales. 

1805 1,000 *' 

1810 , 10,000 " 

1815 « « « 90,000 '' 

The following statement is alsooffiotally made 

in the same reix>rt, showing the state of the cotton 

manufacture at that time : 

Capital employed in 1 8 16 • ...$40,000,000 

Males over 17 years old 10,000 

Women and female children, 66,000 

Boys^'under 17 years 24,000 

Cotton cloth manufactured. .. 81,000,008 yds. 

Cost of same. .#34|000,000 

Raw cotton, 90,000 bales^ or 27,000,000 lbs. 

The subject of protection was then extensively ' 

agitated. The importations of cotton goods, in 

1815 and 1816, were immense, and created gasat 

alarm among the manufacturers. The amount 

of importations of those two years was about 

^■^^"•^•-^^""■~~^^"""~^"^"— ■— "— ""^— ■^i™^>^p^"^— «^»i^— «-^— »-"^"»™— w— li^— ^ 

are, the Jealoasy, says MoCalloch, of Manchester and Ola^ow. We 
need no better proof of wliat mannfaotares can accomplish thaa 
the history of Lowell. The LoweU oottoa-aiiUet oiwaed by twelre 
manaGMtaring companies, extend in a costinaottsliae about a aiiie, 
from the Merrimack to the Pawtacfcct falls. . 




•180,000,000. During the years 1817, 1818 
1819 and 1820, great distress prevailed among 
the manufacturers, but Congress was not dis- 
posed to grant their petitions in full. 

Tariff laws were passed in 1824, 1828 and 
1832, in each of which the duty upon foreign 
cotton goods, imported, was 25 per cent, ad 
valorem. These duties, though they did not 
prevent our markets from being glutted with for- 
eign goods, caused our manufactures to gradually 

In 1620, the first cotton mill in Pennsylvania 
was erected at Manayunk, by Capt. John Tow- 
ers. There were then only two small cottages 
on the spot. It now contains 500 dwellings, 5 
qburches, 15 stores and about 30 mills. 

Amongst the numerous towns that have sprung 
into existence, owing to the influence of manu- 
factures, may be mentioned — Waltham, Patter- 
son, Ware, Fall River, Taunton, Pawtucket, 
Lawrence, Adams, Newmarket, Matteawan, Nor- 
ristown. Pa., and Gloucester, N. J. 

In 1840, there were in the United States about 
1025 cotton mills, with about 2,112,000 spindles. 
These mills were distributed as follows : 

In Massachusetts •••••• .310 

New Hampshire. •••••• ^ • • . 70 

Vermont 30 

Rhode Island . • •' 130 

Connecticut. ••• 120 

New York 120 

Pennsylvania • 80 

New Jersey. ••.... 55 

Delaware •••••• 17 

Maryland 30 

Ohio 10 

Virginia '••••• • • • • 10 

Kentucky 10 

Many of these were small establishmeois, with 

•not more than 1,000 spindles ; there were, also, 

at that time, numerous* small factories in the 

Western and Southern States, not included in 

the above statement. In 1840, the 

Cotton used annually in our millB, was 106,000,000 lbs. 
CapitalinTeaied, was $80,000,000 

jLnnual value of cotton manufacture 60,000,000 

In the same year, there were in operation in 
the New England States, 1,590,140 cotton spin- 
dies. The whole number of spindles in the Uni- 
ted States in 1850, was 2,500,000, showing an 
increase of 20 per cent in the last ten years. 

thp: preparation and use of ma. 



All manures, from whatever source derived, 
should be regarded as part and parcel of the soiU 
and studied in IhAt connection. It is usual to 
consider them under the heads of animal, vegeta- 
ble and mineral manures. Animal manures are 
either animal substances, like the flesh of a dead 
horse or sheep, or the excrements of animab, 
voided of the bowels and kidneys. Vegetable 
hianures differ from the dung and urine of 
herbivorous animals, in being*less conceDtrated» 
and containing in a given weight more carbon 
(coal) and more of the elements of water, (oxygen 
and hydrogen.) Decaying vegetablea, not con* 
sumed by animals, yield vegetable manures. — 
Mineral manures differ from both animal and 
vegetable in being in a wholly disorganized 
state, like gypsum, burnt bones, wood ashes, am« 
monia and carbonic acid. Of all animal ma- 
nures, the excrements of dunghill fowls and sea- 
birds, called guano, approximate nearest to those 
which are minerals, or in a disorganized condi- 
tion. Comparatively speaking, guano contains 
very little carbon and oxygen, and a large per- 
centage of nitrogen and phosphorus. 

In no department of rural economy is American 
labor more unskilfully expended than in the col- 
lection and use of manures. This arises partly 
from the low price of crops, which discourages 
the critical study of fertilizers, and partly from 
the lack of good schools and experimental iarms 
for teaching such labor-saving processes as may 
be best adapted to the peculiar circunistaaoaB of 
the cultivators of the soil in the several States. 
Different crops, prices, soils, climates and varia- , 
tions in value and kind of farm labor, all modify 
practice, and render the effort to lay down gene- 
ral rules in manure-making exceedingly difficult 
and hazardous. We shall venture, however^to 
indicate two or three plans for collecting and a|>- 
plying manures, which experience haa shown to 
be highly advantageous. . 

In all oases wter^it can CQ&Y^oiently be 
done, domestic animals should be fed under a 
shelter of some kind, to protect them from the 



8un and rains of summer, and tho cold and 
storms of winter. In this way their droppings 
may easily be gathered into heaps, keeping the 
dung and urine together, and both from loss by 
volatilization, and protecting the mass from the 
washings of rain or snow water and natural 
drainage. Where manure has to be hauled any 
considerable distance, it Is bad policy to add 
weight to it by applying water, with the view to 
promote fermentation or the rotting of the heap. 
Suppose one has ten tons of dry straw or corn- 
stalks, it will not pay to add, as is oflen done, 
forty tons of rain-water, so that the farmer actu- 
ally hauls four tons ofsimple water into his dis- 
tant fields to convey thither one ton of vegetable 
matter. If one's soil is so dry that straw and 
cornstalks will not readily decay when ploughed 
in, sound economy dictates the making of all 
pompost heaps in the field where the mauure is 
to be used. This will save the hauling of an 
immense quantity of water ; for every ingredi- 
ent used in making the compost may go into the 
field in a dry state. Leached or dripped ashes 
should be well dried to diminish their weight be- 
fore hauling ; the same remark will apply to 
swamp muck or mud, to forest leaves, straw and 
trash of every kind. Rains are expected to sup- 
ply the necessary amount of water ; although it 
will oflen pay to dig wells in fields to have water 
for this purpose and for stock in all CQ)qningtime, 
A large reservoir, deep in the ground, and made 
tight by water-lime cement or good clay, to hold 
3urface- water in case living water is not attaina- 
ble, will pay a good interest on its costs. The 
excrements of domestic animals, particularly 
their urine, will hasten the decomposition of 
poarse straw, stalks and muck ; but it is better to 
haul, the dung and urine of domestic animals to 
distant compost heaps than so many tons of value- 
less Water. Without the admixture of the excreta 
pf animals, all vegetable substances placed in the 
pompost heap will rot, and stable manure may be 
DQore epoqqiniaaUy applied directly to the land 
that needs it. As a general rule, the sooner a 
plant designed to fertilize the soil is buried in it, 
the better. It can never yield a larger (j^uantity 
of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, or earthy 
salts, by passing through the digestive qrgans of 
any luiiaial^ or by lying a day or year in a ma- 

nure or compost heap. In case one has poor land, 
and desires to produce a large crop in a few weeks 
or months, as in market-gardening, then the pre- 
vious rotting of manure or vegetable substances 
is indispensable to feed many growing plants up 
to the highest point of vegetable nutrition. But 
on fair soils, in common field culture, this great 
labor of of preparing food for crops is unwise hus- 
bandry. Let the entire decomposition take place 
in the soil, as is witnessed when clover, peas, or 
other plants are turned under with the plough. 
If it was convenient, all the droppings of animals 
should be immediately covered in the soils 
which most lack fertility ; for they will lose more 
than they can gain by keeping it above ground. 
Hut so speedy and constant an application of ma* 
nures would interfere with other necessary labors 
on the farm, and hence the safe-keeping of fer- 
tilizers until needed is a matter ot importance. 
It is excellent economy to provide a bed of dry 
straw, forest leaves, or peat, to absorb all the 
urine of domestic animals. In what is called 
"box-feeding," both the dung and urine of fatting 
oxen, sheep and hogs, are intimately mixed with 
straw, or some other good absorbent, and trodden 
under the feet of the animals. As the latter coQ- 
sume meal and it)0t8, their excreta are obvioady 
rich in the elements of fertility. The animal is 
turned loose in a small pen or box, being fed reg- 
ularly and^ell supplied with litter for bedding. 
The mass of manure thus formed is rarely dis- 
turbed until it is applied to the ground, either as 
a top-dressing or to be mingled with tilled-earth. 
As a general rule, it is desirable to cover manure 
with from three to nine inches of soil. If it is 
light, porous and sandy, manure should be buried* 
deep ; if compact and impervious, a covering of 
two or three inches will suffice to retain all gas- 
eous elements. Manure moves both downward 
and upward, as well as laterally, in tilled ground, 
and therefore on a mediam soil it should be placed 
mid-way in the earth stirred with the plough. If 
the ground is broken ten inches deep, five inches 
of the soil shoi;ld \ie above the manure and five 
belqw it. 

All organic and mineral fertilizers dissolved in 
water will enter so far into a chemical combina- 
tion with the soil when applied to it in irrigation, 
that nothing will be lost by atmospheric and solar 



influences, unless the quantity applied to it per 
square rod is needlessly large. This speedy and 
thorough incorporation of fertilizing substances 
with the soil when dissolved, has led many to at- 
tempt the complete solution of the manure before 
it is applied to the land, knowing that it cannot 
enter the roots of plants to nourish them before it 
is dissolved in water, or reduced to a gaseous 
state. By bringing all fertilizers made in stables 
and yards in a liquid form, the manure is easily 
conveyed in wooden pump-logs or pipes made of 
burnt clay, into the several fields on the farm. 
If the fields are lower than the barn or stable, the 
water will run to them in pipes by its own gravity ; 
and if higher, horse-power, or a small steam en- 
gine will force the liquid up to their level. Ope- 
ralioos of this kind are successfully practiced in 
Bngland. Hose is used to distribute the water 
over the surface in the fields ; and thus they are 
boHh manured and irrigated at such times as the 
application will do inost good.— rPa/en< Ofiee 

Pram Uie SouUitm isrieoltarist. 


The Hon. Marshal P. Wilder, chairman of a 
boaid of coroniissionerB appointed by the Legis- 
lature of Massachusetts, has written an extended 
and interesting report on the subject of Agricul- 
tnral Education. It contains an instructive ac- 
count of the prinoipal ooUegef apd ^bools in 
England, Sootlandi Ireland, France* ahd other 
QOPtuieQ^l oalions, designed to teach the several 
arts and vdenoes which pertain to rural afiairs, 
from the pen of Professor Hitchcock, who devoted 
some mionthsi while abroad, to collecting the in- 
format|Qi| given. The p,oyal Agricultural Col- 
l9g^ at Cfreocester has six professors apd 700 
aoras of land for agricultural purposes. The 
object of tliis institutiop is to prepare young men 
to beoonie intelligent proprietors of fannp, or to 
Biiperintead in the meet skillful and successful 
manner ^be iams of others. From the unhappy 
operation q{easU in English society, says Profes- 
sor H., ^pd froip the ^ant of goverpmental pa- 
tronage, this college is not so well attended as its 
foundefv anticipated. There are accommoda- 
tioot for 900 ftudepts, but only fifty now belong 
to the school. Tliose residing in the building pay 
•355 annually i those who board clpc where, pay 

$175. Formerly, theJ[school was open for the 
sons of smaller farmers, but could not find sup. 
port on that plan, and it was found that, jf thc/^e 
attended, the wealthier classes would not send 
their sons. The price, accordingly, has been 
raised, and none but the sons of gentlemen, such 
as clergymen and wealthy laymen, now attend. 
None of the nobility send their children^ though 
many give their money for its support. 

The impassable barriers of caste happily, do 
not exist in this Republic ; and it would be im- 
possible to establish an experimental farm of 700 
I acres, erect suitable buildings to accomn^odate 
200 students, appoint six able Professors, aided 
by museums to illustrate natural history, compar. 
ative anatomy, vegetable and animal physiology, 
and provided with a chemical laboratory for 
making original researches, pabipets of mineral?, 
and all other needful appliances, and not have' 
the institution crowded with students. 

The agricultural school at Grignon, near Paris, 
is in a much more flourishing condition. "In 
going through a stable," says Mr. H., "contain, 
ing a number of fine cattle, I observed one young 
man with water and ^ broom, cleaning the legs 
of an ox, which had laid down in his leavings. 
The director whispered to us that that young man 
was the son of a wealthy banker. Indeed, the 
pupils all appeared aQ if they had not been accus- 
tomed to labor. Formerly, pupils were admitted 
from the laboring classes to attend the lecturesi 
without residing in the institution, but they are 
now excluded. They now pay 750 francs, or 
9188, for board, and receive nothing for their 
labor. This institutioh receives 91,100 from 
governnient annually.'' 

Already it has sent out about 600 pupils, and 
the present number is about 80. The farm con- 
nected with the institution contains 750 acres. 
The system of instruction and study is extensive 
and thorough, embri^cing algebra, geometry, me- 
chanics, surveying, levelling, stereometry, (meas- 
uring solid bodies,) linear drawings, in the math- 
ematical sciences ; meteorology, mineral chem- 
istry, mineralogy, geology and botany, in the 
physical sciences; orgonic chemistry, or agri- 
cultural technology, agriculture, arboriculture, 
sylviculture, veterinary art^ agricultural zoology 
and equitation^ in what are denominated techno* 



k^iCKl soienoss } tad rural architecture, fareal 
ecoDomy, farni Bcoounts, rural eoanatay, and 
ml law, ia the ooolt^ical sciences. There . 
six professors hips, aod three years are required 
to go through with a coursa of study. 

At Versailles there is a National Agronomic 
Ifiititute, employing nine firal class professors and 
3,650 acres of land> The report of Professor 
Hitchcock fills over ninety octavo pages, and we 
regret our want of room to give copious extracts 
from this truly valuable contribution to the agri. 
cultural lilerature of the United Slates. It is a 
work of great labor and condeosalion. Without 
the text, the thirteen tables would be Dcsrjy un- 
int«Illble. The following summary, however, 
will indicate the territory surveyed : 

'-But though my list ia doubtless deficient, I 
bave been amazed, as I doubt nst the committee 
will be, At its extent. The fullowiog summary 
will bring the whole subject uoder the eye 

la Englai 
In IrelaDi 
In Scotlai 
In Fraoci 
In Italy, 
In Belgiu 
In Prusai 
In AuBtri 
In Wurte 
In Bavari 
In Saxon' 
In Bruns' 
In Mechli 
In Schles 
Grand Du 
Grand Du 
Dutchy of 
Grand Du 
Dutohy Se 


' in the above list 

The 22 "superior scbooli 
will rank with our best colleges in the cxlenl [ crease the growth of flesh, fat and wool, amj'tia 

aud variety of sciences studied, while the 51 "in- 
termediary sflhools" will compare favorably with 
most American colleges. It is remarkabja that 
the United States should not contain a single in- 
stitution of the kind, and that all efibrts to estab- 
lish one in the great Stale of New York, for tbe 
last thirty years, should prove unsuccessftil. 
Nor has the report of tho Massachusetts conunis- 
sioners been favorably acted upon, even in a State 
so distinguished for its liberality to all other ed- 
ucational institutions. One serious impodiment 
has been the lack of well qualified gentlemen to 
fill the several professorships. These muat be 
educated in Europe before we oan eslablish a 
first class professional school. When raediMl 
schools were first founded in this country, nearly 
all our teachers of anelomy, physiology, lurgery, 
theory and praol ice of physic, Sic, were educated 

Professional schools of a high character oould 
bo established in no other way. Doubtleaa Con- 
gress might establish an institution of the aeieiii- 
tific grade of West Point Academy, and prooura 
such gentlemen as Liebig, Agassiz and Bouasin- 
gault, to serve as teachers until a reasonable num> 
ber of talented Americans could be prepared to 
fill professorships in State Agricultural CollegMt 
Atpreseut, we not only lack iostitutions of tliia 
kind, but gentlemen duly qualified to toaoh all 
the sciences that legilitaately a^peitata to ibf 
noble profession of agriculture and husbandry. 
The people of the United States have over thne 
hundred millions of dollars invested in domertio 
animals, and if a young farmer, engaged in stock 
raising, wishes to study the digestive o^ans, tbe 
muscles, nerves, or blood-vessels of the horae, 
cow, sheep or hog, there is not a museum in all 
America where this can be done, and ha must 
cross the Atlantic for the purpose, or remain ig 
ignorance. Wo do not depend exclosivaly on 
books to leach the anatomy and pbyskdtvy of 
I, but make dissections, have occulor demon- 
strations, and valuable museums, still further to 
Uuslrate all parts of the system, both in a heallbyi 
and diseased condition. Why should we be so 
unwilling to form agricultural museums ? W^hy 
so reluctant to provide facilities for the sucoesa. 
ful study of the organization of valuable domeatio 
animals, with a view to preserve their health, jn. 



producti<» of milk, butter and cheese ? Will it 
be said that a knowledge of all this living ma- 
chinery 18 of no value to the country ? Is there 
no ehance Ibr additional improvement in thirty 
iBillions of sheep which elaborate wool and mut- 
tea, nor in the five or six millions of cows which 
yield all the products of the dairy in the United 
States f On the pontrary, is there an intelligent 
roan in the Union who does not know that nine- 
tenths of all our domestic animals, from the horse 
down to dung-hill fowls, are susceptible of very 
great improvement } 

In 1818, William King, of Wurtemburg, es- 
tablished an Instit)ite of Agronomy and Forests 
on the royal domain, of some 8'^5 acres, haying 
one director, six professors, four functionaries 
charged wi(h various labors, besides twojUi^ors 
who hei^r Wessons in the school. The instruction 
given is embraced in forty courses^ divided into 
three groups, as follows: 

1. Agricultural matters. 2. Forest matters. 
S. Auj^iliary sciences. In the first course are 
included — 1. Of climate. 2. Of soil. 3. Of 
itianuve^r 4. Of tools and implements of tillage. 
0. Of clearing up of ground. 6. Of meadows 
and pastures. 7. Of agriculture in general; 
this is divided into plowing and other tillage, seed 
plots, of grain and root-culture, threshing and 
preservation of grain, dec. 8. Of special agri- 
dsttnre. j^ll pultivated plants are treated of par- 
ticularly. 2d course — Viticulture. 1. Culture 
of the vine. 2. S¥ine-making. 3d course — 
Cnlture pf fruit-trees. 4th course — The rearing 
of cattle I the races ; the crossing ; the young. 
Sth course — The rearing of the horse ; natural 
history of the horse ; different methods of raising ; 
choice of animals for reproduction ; treatment of 
mares ; treatment of colts. 7th course — Rural 
Industry in tinnier; the manufacture of beet. 
augar; of li.cjuid manure ; and bran- 
dy. In samm^, manufacture of beer, vinegar, 
cider, lime ^pd draining tiles. 8th course — Ru- 
ral Econoniy. Valuation of real estates ; gene- 
ral circamstapces of the country ; of farms in 
general ; of di^rent parts of the same farm ; of 
the home means of maintaining its fertility ; of 
system of culture; of labor and the internal or. 
ganization of a farm ; relation between the num- 
ber of beasts and land worked ; of capital of the 

undertaker or farmer ; of the. different modes of 1 0°"*"^^^^^ ^" 

working a farm. 9th course-s-Agrtcultural book. 
keeping, dec. 

Auxiliary ScisNCEs.-^lst course— ^Higher- ar- 
ithmetic. 9d course — Algebra, dd courser- 
Planimetry. 4th POM rse— ^Stereometry. 5lb 
course — Trigonometry. 6th course— -Applied 
geometry. 7th course — Mathematics applied to 
forests: 1. Of the culture of trees and of the 
entire forest. 2. Of the increase of trees. 3. 
Of the valuation in money of forests. 8th course 
— Physics. 9th course — Mechanics. lOih course 
— Chemistry. 11th course — Qryctognoey. 12th 
course — Geognosy. 13th course — Vegetable bou 
tany and physiology. 14tli course-— Special and 
rural botany. 15th course — -Zoology. 16th 
course — Veterinary medicine : 1. Natural his> 
tory of our domestic animals. 2. Anatomy of 
the same. 3. Animal pbysiolc^y. 4. Care to 
be taken of animals. 5. Of the medicines proper 
for slight diseases. 6. Description^ of diseases^ 
pathology and therapeutics. 7. Veterinary sur* 
gery. 8. Internal diseases of animals and mur- 
rains. 17th course-—Of forest law. 18th course 
— ^Rural constructions. 19th course — Of pre- 
paring plans. 20th course — Drawing of ma* 


To illustrate these coursea of instruction, the 
means seem to be very ample at Doheoheim. 
They are as follows : 

The operations on a large farm annexed to the 
Institute. A forest of 5,000 acres. A botanic 
garden. A library open twice a week. A geo- 
logical collection. A mineralogical do. A bo- 
tanical do. A cqllection of woods, seeds and 
resins from the forest. 4A collection in oompar. 
ative apatomy . Do. of specimens of wool. Do. 
of agricultural products. Do. of models of in* 
struments for tillage. Do. for physical science. 
Do. for chemistry and laboratory. 

Students board where they please, at a price 
from $24 to $120. per annum, but lodge at the 
Institute. The number of students in 1849 was 
about 100, but it had been 140 for many years. 
No less than 1650 finished their education at this 
seminary within thirty-one yeiirs. Dr. Hithcook 
pertinently asks— "How is it possible that so 
many, having gone through such a thorough 
system of instruction, should not exert a power*, 
ful influence upon agriculture throughout the 



If the namber of students appears small, it 
must be borne in mind that the small town of Ho- 
faenheim has seven agricultural and horticultural 
schools of an inferior grade. 

In Saxony there is a superior school, with 
nine professors, and a domain of 7,355 acres. 
Brunswick has a superior school with thirteen 
professors. This practice of subdividing the 
business of teaching among so many professors, 
each of whom gives his undivided attention to the 
mdvanoement of a particular art or science, se- 
cures that pre-eminence in German Universities 
and scholars for Which they are distinguished. 
Is it not possible for the United States to have one 
«chool worthy of the Republic ? 


Silver Blttpp, S. C-, 
January 5, 1646. 


The precise rationale of the action of lime on 
e soil, and the manner in which it benefits veg- 
tation, has never been minutely and fully ex- 
ainedf Nature still holds many of the secrets 
her laboratory undisclosed. Many, and many 
he most important details of her wonderful 
esses of composition and decomposition and 
the vast play of her chemical affinities, yet 
ait the persevering investigation and the pene- 
ng thought of man. I will endeavor to lay 
re you, succinctly, what is known or ration- 
ally c6iijectured in regard to the operations and 
eSboUTof lime, so far as may be material to the 
present purpose. 

It is applied to land, either directly or mixed, 

in compost heaps, and earried out in manure. 

Blit fi>r the additional labor, the latter would al- 

^ Vays be the best method. Where it is used in 

P^Prge quantities, it is much cheaper to spread it 

^^it once upon the land, and apply manure, dsc, 

I aAerwards, as circumstances may dictate or per. 

L mit. It is sometimes put upon land in the state 

kk which it cones from the kiln, that is as quick 

or caustic lime . Someti mes it is slacked in water, 

^ when it becomes a hydrate of lime. Most com- 

1 monly it is slacked by mere exposure to the at- 

iDoepliere, when it assumes the form of carbonate 

or mild limei that is lime combined with carbon- 

ic acid, which it extracts from the air in the pro- 
portions I have already stated. It is in this form' 
that it is found most abundantly in nature. Sul- 
phate and phosphate of lime are also found, but 
quick lime never. The lime in shells, marble, 
limestone, marl, dec, is usually all of it the car- 
bonate. Its action, however, in the long run, is 
always the same, whether applied in the mild or 
caustic state, being dependent on its intrinsic 
properties as lime. When caustic, it at first ra- 
pidly decomposes whatever of vegetable fibre or 
animal matter it comes in contact with. But its 
caustic quality is soon exhausted, or rather it 
soon becomes changed itself by the action of the 
substances it meets, and thus looses its causticity. 
On lands containing a great excess of vegetable 
matter, such as peat and rich bog, and where ra- 
pid decomposition is desirable, quick lime is the 
best form of application, if equally cheap, as it 
saves time and renders the soil proauctive much 
sooner than the carbonate will do it; 

Although lime is found most commonly eonfi* 
bined with carbonic acid, the fact is owing mord 
to the abundance of that acid which exists in the 
atmosphere, in water, and is continually arising 
from vegetable decay, than because it has any 
affinity for carbonic over other acids. On the 
contrary, it will yield it up, and combine in prefe- 
rence with almost any other. Not only the strong 
mineral, but most vegetable acids, even vinegar, 
as I have before mentioned, will drive it ofiT. 
The effervescence which takes place when car- 
bonate of lime is thrown into them, is caused by 
carbonic acid escaping in the form of gas. From 
this great affinity of lime for all acids, results one 
of its primary and most important effects on soils. 
Acids are antiseptic, and arrest spontaneous de- 
cay. Lime combines with them wherever it 
finds them free from other combinations, and 
neutralizes their injurious effect. Hence, on 
lands that we call sour — and on many that are 
really sour without our knowledge of the fkct— i 
all land covered with broom sedge, for example 
— it is invaluable. It destroys the sourness, 
and thereby promotes the decay of whatever mat- 
ter may have been locked up by acids, which W 
calculated to nourish useful vegetation.)^ From? 
this quality of lime, it is denominated an alkaline 

earth — alkali being the reverse and antagonist 
of acid. Whenever an acid and alkali meet. 



they neutralize one another in certain proportions^ 
and form what is called a salt. For instance, our 
common salt is muriatic acid, and the alkali of so- 
da. So carbonate of lime is in fact itself a salt. 

These salts, and especially those of which lime 
is a component part, are of the highest value iu 
agriculture. Some of them are soluble in water, 
and these are the most valuable. It is in fact 
only when they are thus dissolved that they af 
ford any direct nourishment to growing plants, 
which can imbibe nothing by their roots but 
watery solutions, and are fed altogether in this 
way from the ground. But the salte which are 
readily solluble in water are soon exhausted. Ev- 
ery shower dissolves them, and whatever surplus 
is left afler the plants have absorbed tlie solution 
to the extent of their capacity, is liable to escape 
by evaporation, or to be carried by the water in- 
to the earth below the reach of vegetation, or to run 
off to the streams. Salts, then, that are not immedi- 
ately soluble in water, if they can be made sollu- 
ble gradually, are in the long run the most use- 
ful to the farmer. Of this class are roost, if nc 
all, of the salts formed by lime. Carbonate of 
lime is indeed wholly insoluble in pure water, and 
if lime remained forever in that state it would be 
of little value in the soil, other than its mechani- 
cal influence on the texture of it. But if car- 
bonic acid be added in excess — ^that is, more of it 
than 44 parts in 100, which are required to make 
the carbonate — this salt becomes soluble. This 
excess is in point of fact constantly furnished in 
small quantities by the air, by rain-water, and by 
the decay of vegetable substances in the ground, 
and hence one advantage from keeping lime near 
the surface. The lime thus dissolved enters in- 
to the plant and feeds it. In this way, and this 
vay only, it is a direct manure. All its other 
influences are indirect, on which account it is 
jnoet generally regarded as a stimulant rather 
than a manure. I am speaking of course of car- 
bonate of lime as it exists in our marls; and not 
of the sulphate or phosphate of lime. 

Its indirect action, however, is as important as 
it is varied. I have already said it promotes de- 
cay by neutralizing acids. But while lime, from 
iU neutralizing power^ promotes decay, by ar- 

resting the influence of acids and giving efficien- 
cy to the legitimate agents which accomplish it, 

it is a watchful gu ardian over their action, re« 
arding their wasteful haste, and sometimes whol- 
ly preventing further progress for a time. It 
expels, for instance, from deoom posing substanees 
ammonia, whioh is the most active and rapid 
conductor of putrifying contagion, driving it into 
the air to descend in future showers, or if they 
are at hand, into other substances less advanced 
in the stages of decay. 

The ultimate result of the vegetable decfompo- 
sition thus judiciously forwarded by lime, is a 
substance to which various names have been ap« 
plied by chemists, such as "Aumti^," "geitie,^* 
^^ulmtTiy" &c., which, so far as agriculture is 
concerned — ^their treatment and influence on the 
growth of vegetation-*-*are one and the same thing 
— meaning, substantially, that residium of de- 
composition which is familiarly known to us as 
"vegetable mould," without a sufliciency of which 
in our soils, we are all aware that compensating 
crops cannot be made. In the progress of decay 
the most soluble portions of this mould are ex- 
hausted, and ^assume new forms, and what at last 
remains apparently fixed in the soil is the undis- 
solved sediment. This is said to be wholly in- 
soluble in water, but when plowed up and fre- 
quently exposed to the action of the air, it be- 
comes so, sparingly. Yet, without aid from some 
other source than the atmosphere, water will not 
furnish it to plants in sufHcicnt quantities for their 
vigorous growth. Now the alkalies and alkaline 
earths — lime being the most important in this last 
class — act directly on ihis insoluble substance. 
Their presence«^and it is a singular but well 
known principle in chemistry, that mere presence 
is a power called catalytic — induces it to absorb 
oxygen from the atmosphere, and to produce what 
is called humic acid. With this acid the alkalies, 
immediately combine and form salts, called hu- 
mates, which are soluble in water, and afibrd 
nourishipent to plants. Thus when lime is prop* 
erly applied to land, it brings into fruitful actioii 
the hitherto inert vegetable mould. 

But it must be obvious that if no additional 

vegetable matter is given to the ^l, the efl^t 

of lime will be to exhaust it utterly, in a short* 

er time than might otherwise be doneby^ cK>p(MOg*» 

Hence the saying, that liming land enriches the 
father but impoverishes the son. It must not be 




forgotten, however, that the lime has eDriched the 
father, hy giving to his crops food that would 
otherwise have remained dead in his soil, or been 
elimioated by other agents, through a series of 
years, in feeble proportions, to scant, and there- 
fore profitless crops; while, if it impoverishes 
the son, it is because a wretched husbandry has 
taken all from the land, and given nothing in re- 
turn. The exhausting effect of lime is mitigated, 
however, by another highly important interme- 
diate condition of the process. As the mould dis- 
appears, the proportion of lime to mould of course 
increases, and the lime becomes excessive. When 
this is the case, the humate, which before was 
soluble, becomes wholly insoluble in water. The 
process of decomposition then ceases for a time. 
And such is the case very soon, wherever lime 
or marl, in very large doses, is put on land pos- 
sessing but little vegetable matter. It is called 
"marl burnt" among the marlers, many instances 
pf which I can point out on my plantation. In 
the course of cultivation, however, the lime be- 
ing constantly exposed to the atmosphere, absorbs 
carbonic acid, which combining with a portion 
of it, converts it into carbonate of lime again, 
and thus freeing the humate, or a part of it, of 
the excess of lime, renders it soluble once more. 
But this is a very slow process, and unless there 
are imipense quantities of vegetable mould which 
have been thus locked up by an extraordinary 
and injudicious application of lime ; and proba- 
bly, even then, the proper plan is to remedy the 
evil at once, by a heavy coating of vegetable 
matter brought fresh from the woods. When 
this cannot be effected, we should give the land 
a long and absolute rest, allowing every particle 
of vegetation it produces to rot upon it, and if it 
can be conveniently done, to plow it in. The 
best of all methods, however, to restore the land, 
and not always the most expensive, would be to 
add a safficiency of oompost manure. Besides 
the amount of decayed vegetation which such 
manure would supply, the alkalies, potash and 
soda are always generated in compost heaps. 
These act directly on the insoluble humate of 
limCy decompose it by their greater affinity for 
the humic acid, and form new salts which are 

quite soluble. 

Insrtead of objecting to this action of lime in 
locking up the food of plants, and its constant ten- 

dency to do so when that food is not made abun- 
dant by good husbandry, we should rather regard 
it as one of its most valuable properties. Tho 
vegetable mould was dead in the soil. It could 
not be carried away, but it was of little value ad 
it stood. The lime by its presence persuades it 
to decompose in sufficient quantities to nourish a 
luxurious growth of plants. So soon as the mould 
'begins to become scarce, the lime confines it in 
its embraces, and preserves it from the wasteful 
influence of heat and moisture. Yet to the indus- 
trious farmer, whose constant furrows give access 
to the atmosphere, it yields up what a prudent 
enonomy would dictate under existing circum- 
stances, to promote the growth of vegetation. If 
that vegetation is permitted to rem^^in and decom- 
pose upon the land, vegetable mould, in time, be- 
comes abundant again, and the lime prepares it 
to furnish ample food for heavy crops again. If 
all the produce is taken ofi^ the lime, more prov^ 
ident than the farmer, and more generous too^ 
jstill preserves what remains in the soil, for the 
exclusive use of the crop, and doles it out until 
all is gone. 

The influence of lime upon the mineral sub- 
stances of the earth is scarcely less powerful and 
important to the farmer than the vegetable. The 
chief mineral constituents of the soil are, as you 
know, sand and clay. They are usually resolved 
by agricultural chemists into what they call silica 
and alumina, which are silicon and aluminum, 
their ultimate principles, with a little oxygen ah- 
sorbed from the atmosphere. Of these two, silica 
is much the more abundant, as well as perhaps 
the more valuable. Afler what we call clay has 
been deprived of its sand by washing, in which 
state it is usually denominated pure or agricultu- 
ral clay, it still holds in chemical combination 
from 50 to 60 per cent of silica. The purest pipe 
clay we find is half silica ; and the stiffest red 
lands of your county probably contain at least 70 
per cent of it and not more than 15 per cent o£ 
alumina. Lime and alumina have a strong ^T-k 
finity, and from their combination and subsequent 
decomposition results the important fact, that the 
stiffest clay lands are rendered light and mellowr 
by liming. The rationale of this process has 
never been satisfactorily explained. The effect 

is usually referred to the mere mechanical ope- 
ration of the lime. But this cannot be so, since 



a hundred, or at most a few hundreds of bushels 
per acre of one earth, could not materially alter 
the texture of another to any depth. It is proba- 
ble that the crumbling of the clay, afler liming, 
will be found owing to the condensation by severe 
cold of the carbonic acid supplied by the lime, 
and its extraordinary power of expansion under 
the influence of returning heat, since this disinte- 
gration ofstiff lands has never been observed un- 
til a winter has elapsed after the application of the 
lime or marl. Alumina will not combine with 
carbonic acid ; and it may be that clay lands are 
opened partly by the incessant changes occasioned 
by the affinity of lime for bothr Being insoluble 
in water, alumina furnishes of i^elf little or no 
aliment to the growing plant, though it has other 
indirect influences fully in proportion to its con- 
spicuous position as a constituent of soils. 

(To be conlinued.) 


From the HorUoalturlBt. 



Every person connected with the cultivation 
of the soil is aware that soils wear out, or become 
exhausted, by being constantly cropped with one 
kind of plant. It has been supposed by many, 
that the soil under such circumstances becomes 
impoverished by the plant. Others, again, con- 
clude that it is poisoned by excrements thrown 
off by the roots. I propose to examine the argu- 
fnents advanced by the latter, not with the object 
of showing that the soil may not be deteriorated 
by the excrements alluded to, but that they have 
hitherto failed to prove even the probability of 
the hypothesis. 

It seems to be admitted that plants excrete in- 
digestible matter from their roots. "The roots 
not only absorb fluid from the soil, but they re- 
turn a portion of their peculiar secretions back 
again into it, as has been found by Brugmans, 
who ascertained that some plants exude an acid 
fluid from their spongioles; and also by Mr. 
Macare, who has proved that to excrete supera- 
bundant matter from the roots, is a general prop- 
erty of the vegetable kingdom." {Lindley, In, 
Bot,9 hook n., chap. 2.) "If we place a growing 
bulb in a vessel of water, but do not change the 

water, in a few days a slimy substance appears 
in the water, evidently an excretion from the 
roots." {Horticulturist^ vol vii.y p. 507.) "If 
you place a succory in water, it will be found 
that the roots will by degrees render the water 
bitter, as if opium had been mixed with it; a 
spurge will render it acrid, and a leguminous 
plant muscilaginous. A nd if you poison one half 
of the roots of any plant, the other half will throw 
the poison off from the system." (Theory 
Horticulture, par. 40.) "An apple orchard wil 
not immediately succeed upon the site of an old 
orchard of the same kind of fruit. No amount 
of manure will enable it to succeed. Dahlias do 
not *like' the soil in which dahlias grew last year. 
(Ibidy p. 284.) 

All the ex.racts, except the last, show that 
plants do excrete from the roots certain sub* 
stances. The last extract is one of many obser- 
vations which have been recorded to show that 
J successive croppi ng deteriorates soil. That there 
is some change in it, is undoubted ; but that it \$ 
caused by their excrements/ is assumed. We 
know that each individual plant absorbs from the 
soil peculiar elements, or, at least, peculiar pro- 
portions of various elements. This has been 
proved by chemical analysis. Have the excre- 
ments of any given plant been subjected to the 
same ordeal, and the nature of the assumed poiaon 
been detected ? Would it prove to be arsenic^ 
opium, or any of the metallic or alkaline poisons, 
that are known to be as destructive to vegetable 
as to animal life ? Whether with the idea of show- 
ing the injurious effects of e^ccrementitious mat- 
ter or not, such an analysis would be highly in- 
teresting to those who cultivate the soil. The 
idea that it injures the soil, seems to originate from 
the apparent impossibility of a plant taking ap 
again what it has thrown off. But it ha* been 
proved that the matter thus thrown off musi ne* 
cessarily remain unaltered in the soil, and may 
not be immediately changed, by eonjunctioD or 
chemical aflinity with other substances, to matter 
useful to the growth and existence of the plant f 
It has been inferred by a correspondent of the 
Horticulturist, in the page quoted above, that ma* 
ny of the deaths which are supposed to result 

from sour soil and over- watering, are rather 
caused by an accumulation of excrementitious 



discharges. Has there been anything discovered 
by which to prove that this sourness is not what 
most gardeners take it to be— *the result of an 
acid ? I, and no doubt the majority of my prac- 
tical brethen, have frequently observed that the 
greater the amount of organic matter in soil, the 
easier does it sour. We are particularly anxious 
to avoid the use of leaf mould in any other state 
than well-rotted, on that account. An abundance 
of water is favorable to the decomposition of or- 
ganic mattter ; soils contain a peculiar acid analo- 
gous to humic acid, produced during the decay of 
vegetable matter, which is hurtful to the growth 
of plants." (Solly: Rur.C hem. i par. SIS,) Lind- 
ley himself, one of the advocates of the excremen- 
titious doctrine, suggests "that the subject 
has hitherto been so little investigated, that it is 
not safe, perhaps, to take it as the basis of a the- 
ory." ( Theory of Horliculture.) And since his 
time, Henfrey, the most searching of modern 
physiologists, considers the theory "entirely with- 
out foundation." (Henfrey^s Outlines Vegetable 
Physics, I quote from memory.) 

Although there seems, then, to be no evidence 
that the excrements of plants have the injurious 
effects on the soil they are charged with, the dis- 
cussion of the subject has been productive of good. 
It has caused attention to be called to the nature 
of impoverished soils and its causes, which must 
in the end produce knowledge which will be of 
undoubted interest to the cultivator of the soil. 



The question regarding the excretions of plants 
stands at the present moment as unsettled and de- 
bateable as ever. Duhamel, we believe, was the 
first to call attention to it, being led to suspect ex- 

' cretions on account of the earth adhering to the 
young roots, or spongioles of plants. Brugmans, 
Decandolle and others, took it up and collected a 
large number of facts, familiar to readers on this 
subject, bearing upon the point, and furnishing a 
sort of circumstantial evidence in favor of such 
a theory. Macaire Prinsep, at the suggestion of 
Decandolle, made a series of experiments to test 

' it, by growing a great variety of plants in vials 
of pure water ; and the results were such as gave 
additional strength to the excretive doctrine^ at 

the time. But practical men were no( satisfied 
with experiments conducted upon plants in such 
unnatural conditions, and other experiments of a 
more reliable nature, subsequently conducted by 
German phytologists, produced entirely opposite 
results. The theory, therefore^ has never been 
fully established, although we believe that a ma- 
jority of those who have given the subject atten- 
tion, regard it with a greater or less degree of 
favor. For our own part, we do not wholly dis- 
card the doctrine. We almost daily meet with 
cases in practice that persuade us that at least it 
is not unreasonable. In turning up the soil in 
which crtain plants have grown — ^the cabbage 
and turnip tribe, for instance*-we find peculiar 
odors escape. So in potting or shiflmg house* 
plants, we find that difierent plants impregnate 
with different odors the soil in which they have 
grown. This may or may not be due to the pro* 
cess of excretion. 

We do not, however, beliere that this prooese 
is such, in any case, as to unfit the soil to repro- 
duce the plants which grew in it. The fact with 
which we are all familiar, of the failure of sue- 
cessive crops of any given tree or plaiit in the 
same soil, is unquestionably due, in the maJD, to 
an exhaustion of the soil, or its loss of the ele« 
ments essential to the growth and perfection of 
such trees or plants. Our American agrioultuve 
exhibits thousands of instances where, owing le 
the extraordinary fertility of the land, twenty 
successive crops of corn have been grown in the 
greatest perfection, without any renewal of the 
soil by deep tillage or additional manures. In 
other soils, two such crops could scarcely be ta- 
ken in successiofl. So in regard to other crope* 
In the case of nursery trees, we have known in- 
stances where a single crop of apple trees of fenr 
or five years' growth, has so exhausted the soil 
that a succeeding one of the same trees was a per- 
fect failure, notwithstanding the most liberal 

Rotation of crops is an established principle in 
field, garden and nursery culture ; and this, net 
because plants excrete matters unfavorable to 
their growth, or favorable to the growth of a di£- 
ferent class of plants ; but chiefly, as we have 
already said, because they exhaust theaoil of cer- 
tain elements which are necessary and indispen- 



sable to their particular structure, composition 
and niode of growth. Excretion to some extent 
18, however, J)ossible, and eVen pi'obabie. 

The question is full of interest, not only in a 
scientific point of view, blii as having a direct 
bearing upon one of the mo^t important bi^anbhes 
of culture*-tbe nutrition of plants. 

From thd Southern CUltlratdr. 


Messrs. Editors : Believing the cultivation 
of Red Clover to be highly important id Southern 
agriculture, I propose to give you some of my ex- 
perience with this invaluable grass. 

An opinion has generally prevailed that Red 
Clover Will not succeed well in a hot climate, 
but I am inclined strongly to believe, that if it be 
supplied With the proper food, it will thrive well 
as far south as 91 ot 80 deg. tts chief constitu- 
ents are sulphur and lime, and when these are 
- abundantly supplied) I have never known a fail- 
' lire. In Eastern Virginia it is grown very sue* 
oewfuUy on lands which were originally sour and 
sandy, by suitable application of marl. In South 
Albania, Red Clover grows luxuriantly in the 
. lima landS) the natural soil being sufficiently cal- 

I have been raising clover noW some eight or 
sine years with decided success. My plantation 
is in Marengo county, in the lower or cane-brake 
lands, and in latitude near 82 deg. I find it un- 
necessary to re-sow it, as the seed which fall 
from the plant keep the land sufficiently well 
supplied and set. This is a great convenience, 
as it saves the trouble and expense of frequent 
, seeding, clover being a biennial plant* 

In England and on the continent, as well as in 
our own country, it is so common for land to tire 
of clover, from mechanical as well as well as 
chemical causes, that the term "clover sick" has 
beoome a familiar designation for such lands. 
But I find my volunteer crops, on land that hag 
been continuously in clover for eight or nine 
years to be as luxuriant as the first crops. 

I have clover lots from five to forty acres in 
.extent. My fattening hogs are put up in Janua- 
ry in the horse bts^ where they are kept until they 
.are slaughtered in the winter following. Ad- 
. joining these horse lots are small clover lots, of 
four or five acres^ to which the hogs are allowed 

unlimited access from May to November. The 
consequence is, that they are as fat during the en- 
tire sumnier as when they are slaughtered. As 
these lots adjoin the public road, nothing is more 
common than applications for a pair of pigs, to 
get into my breed of hogs. 

My large lots furnish a supply of grazisg of 
the best quality, commensurate with my demands, 
for milch cows, brood mares and colts, idle horses 
and beef cattle, during a large portion of the year. 
The first crop matures about the beginning of 
June, and if not grazed or mowed, it falls and 
rots upon the ground, serving to benefit the land 
both by its shade and a large supply of Vegetable 
matter, besides furnishing an abundant sUppIy of 
seed. Although well advised as to the viilue of 
cloVer hay, I seldom save any, as the hoe crops 
at this period require all my labor. When not 
graced in the winter and spring, it is allowed to 
rot on the ground. 

The second crop makes its appearance as soon 
as the nights and mornings become coqI, and 
about the same time a volunteer crop springs upi 
so that the two crops together furnish good gra- 
zing during the entire fall, and a large portion of 
the winter. 

Let me here detail to you the amount of gra- 
zing derived from a clover lot of &ye acres, the 
eighth year in clover, adjoining one of my horse 
lots, tt may ^eem extravagant— ^and it really 
does so to me, although it has passed under mj 
own observation — but it is literally true, and can 
be proved by the most respectable testimony, if 
it were necesssary. On the Idth day of Decem- 
ber last, there were twenty-one calves, large and 
small, put in this lot, and they continued x>n it till 
the first of May, when they were taken ofiTas &t 
as seals. The same week, if not the same day, 
in May, that the calves were removed, sixty fat- 
tening hogs were allowed access to this lot at will, 
from the horse lot adjoining. The hogs were 
shut out some two or three weeks ago, as fat as 
need be, in which condition they have been da- 
ring the whole summer. The calves have been 
returned to this clover lot, and the clover has been 
gaining upon the hogs and calves since the first 
of October. 

I find no difficulty in saving seed. The heads 
are pulled off by hand; and in that state are put 



away until sowed. The sower, wheh he performs 
his work, takes about a flour, barrel of these heads 
to the acre, rubs them well between his hands, 
and sows them as he would oats. This mode has 
always insured me a good stand. I believe that 
if all the hands of the plantation were turned in, 
they would save seed enough for a hundred acres 
in a day. The seed is saved either from the sum- 
mer or fall crop, as most convenient. I com- 
menced the cultivation of clover in the lime land, 
with a full faith in success, from the calcareous 
character of the land. My chief object was the 
imprevement of the land. It will doubtless be 
/ound invaluable for this purpose, as well as for 
grazing, but I have not as yet tested its value as 
a regenerator. I made a beginning this fall by 
putting.A clover lot of fifteen acres in wheat, as 
Ibllows : The clover lay seven years, was turned 
in with a four-horse eagle plough, going eight 
inches deep ; two bushels of wheat, well washed 
and limed, were then sown to the acre, harrowed 
in lightly, and rolled with a heavy roller. Hill- 
side ditches were next cut two feet wide and two 
deep, aud water-furrows, parallel to these ditches, 
made with the plough and hoe, eight feet apart. 
From such a preparation, may not a crop of some 
twenty-five or thirty bushels per acre be reason- 
ably anticipated? 

As I design to sow a good deal of clover the 
ensuing winter, some of my present clover land 
will be cultivated in cotton, and should the result 
be in any way remarkable, it shall be communi- 
cated. I have tested the fact, which had been 
done before, that a good stand of clover will fol- 
low a crop of cotton on clover land. 

In conclusion, Messrs. Editors, allow me to say 

that I have made this communication in the hope 

that it will interest Southern agriculturists, and 

direct their attention to a most valuable resource, 

and one which, if suitably cherished, must advance 

the comfort and prosperity of many large sections 

of the cotton-growing region. 

Very truly yours, 

GreenslarOj Ala., Nov., 1852. 

0:^ Cold cream, for sore lips, is made by mix- 
ing two ounces of the oil of almonds, one ounce 
of spermaceti} one drachm of white wax, and melt- 
ing them together, adding rose water to perfume. 

Remedy for Burns. — A gentleman at Daytonj 
Ohio, in a note to the Dayton papers, says: 
"While at the supper table, a little child, which 
was seated in its mother's lap, suddenly grasped 
hold of a cup full of hot tea, severely scalding its 
lefl hand and arm. I immediately brought a pan 
of flour and plunged the arm into it, covering en- 
tirely the scalded parts with the flour. The ef- 
fect was truly remarkable ; the pain left imme- 
mediately. I then bandaged the arm loosely, 
applying plenty of flour next to the skin ; and on 
the following morning there was not the least 
sign that the arm had heed scalded, neither did 
the child suffer the least pain aAer the applica- 
tion of the flour.'' 

White Citp Cake. — One cup of butter, two 
cups of sugar and three cups of flour, the whites 
of eight eggs, a small table spoonful of rose-water, 
milk or cream, to make a thick batter. Beat the 
butter and sugar to a cream. Whisk the eggs 
very light, and add them gradually with the flour, 
add the rose-water and saloratus, and ifthis should 
not be quite as thick as a pound cake batter, add 
a little rioh milk or cream- Fill small tins about 
three parts full with the mixture, and bake them. 
The yolks of the eggs which are lefl may be used 

for a pudding. 

— - ■ ■ .- . - - -- 

Cocoa Nut Cakes. — Three eggs, ten ounces 
of sugar, as much grated cocoa nut as will form 
a stiff paste. Whisk the eggs very light and dry, 
add the sugar gradually, and when the sugar is 
in, stir in the cocoa nut. Roll a table spoonful 
of the mixture in your hands in the form of a 
pyramid, place i\^ on tins, and bake in a rather 
cool oven until just a little brown. 

Corn BRfiAB. — A New Recipe. — ^Everybody 
who has been at the Mansion House, at Bufialoy 
N. York, has learned the luxury of the corn bread 
there provided. The clerk is often taxed to write 
directions for home manufacture, and I thus pro- 
cured a recipe for domestic use, which I copy fyt 
you, so that those who wish may try a piece of 
bread from the Mansion. It is as follows: One 
quart of sour milk, two table ^poonfullsof salera- 
tuB, four ounces of butter, three table spoonfuQs of 
flour, three eggs, and corn meal sofficient la 
make a stiBT batter.— fjt. 



Alkaline Washes for the Surface of 
Trees. — Almost all the alkalies have in turn 
been used for this tJiirpoiie. l^he trunks of trees 
have been whitewashed with lime, and perhaps 
this is the worst practice which has been resorted 
to for the destruction of fungi and insects ; and 
although at the time of its application the lime 
is caustW^and will decompose pai^asitiCal plants, 
this actionlasts but a very short time. The lime 
becomes converted into carbonate of lime, fills 
the ultimate surfaces of the bark, and prevents 
the healthy respiration of the tree ; therefore all 
trees which haVe beeti treated with the white- 
wash, while they present an apparently clean 
surface, are not in an entirely healthy state. 

Solutions of potash, when saturated, were found 
oocasionally to destroy the tree, and this gave 
rise to its use in the form of soap, which will ad- 
here for a greater length of time, and was found 
to be less deleterious. 

One alkali, (soda,) however, may be. used with 
impunity, without the fear of injuring the bark 
of any tree ; for while it causes the rapid decay 
of the dead portions of the bark, it has no effect 
upon the living parts. . If the body and branches 
of a tree be wetted with a saturated solution of a 
good qbantity of sal soda^ such as we have often 
described as Bleacher's No. 1 Soda, it will inva- 
riably improve the health of the tree. The inert 
portionsof the bark will be soflened, and mosses 
and other fungi will be decomposed, and the co- 
coons and ova of insects will be destroyed. Du- 
ring the aftergrowth of the tree, the decomposed 
portions of the bark will be thrown off, leaving a 
clean and healthy surface. No tree can be fruit- 
ful, and improve in size and figure, unless its bark 
be perfectly clean. 

The application of soda, made by dissolving one 
pound in a gallon of water, and applied in spring 
and late in summer, will ensure vigor not attain, 
able without such means, and will do away with 
the necessity of scraping or slitting trees to pre- 
vent their becoming hide-bound. Such trees as 
have spiooth b^rk may be rubbed with a woolen 
doth, one week after the application of the soda, 
and a shiny smooth surface will be produced. 

We have a few trees in which the soda has 
been applied for three years in succession to the 
point where the branches commence ; and it is 

now evident that the portion of the tree thus treat. 
ed lis larger and.jn finer health than the part im* 
mediately above it. We first saw this treatment 
at the seat of Robert Rennie, Esq., New Jezvej. 
— Working Farmer. 

An Apple Pudding DuMPLmo. — Put into a 
nice plate, quartered apples, tie up in a floured 
cloth, and boil two hours ; serve with sweet 
sauce. Pears, plums, peaches, dec, are fine, 
prepared in this way. 

(Krlfyou want to keep hore-radlsh, grate a 
quantity while the root is in perfection ; pat ^ 
in bottles, fill the bottles with strottg vinegar, and 
keep it corked tightly. You may thus have a 
supply all the winter. 

0:^ Tallow greaves, fed in a moderate quail* 
tity, are found to haVe a marvellous effect in tin 
prod uction of winter egg^. We presume unaalled 
pork scraps or greaves, or any kind of mea^ 
would answer the same purpose. 

Water Colors for RooMS.-^Take a quaati* 
ty of potatoes and boil them, tiien bruise and pov 
water upon them until a very thick mixture is 
so obtained, whichis to be passed through asiere* 
With boiling then make a thick mixture of whiteiK 
ing, and then put It into the potato mixture. To 
give color, if white is not wanted, add dlflbreot 
colored ocres, lampblack, &c., according to cir- 
cumstances. This paint dries quickly, is rerj 
durable, has a good appearance to the eye, uA 
is, moreover, very cheap. 


English Fritters.— -Put a pound of sifted 
flour into a bowl, with a good half pint of water, 
mix it until it becomes smooth, then stir in two 
ounces of melted butter, and the whites of tbie^ 
eggs, beaten to a very stifl!* froth. Into this batter 
dip six russet apples pared, cored and cot ul 
slices a quarter of an inch thick ; when die slioes 
are well covered with the batter; drop them inta 
hot lard, and fry them, .serving as above. 

0:^ To preserve meadows in their jHnodoothe* 
ness, it is necessary to harrow them every esopodl 
autumn, applying top^ressing, and rolUiiig them 
up well. 



^mcricon Cotton ipiontcr. 


ir. B. OLOUD, BC. D., EDTTOH. 

Our AgfiBta. 

Vm. Stuoelaxd, Book-Bsller, No. 28, D»nplunsti«et 

. BoDUwaT'a Limbabz Dipoi — eomtr of Boyal and 

DmapLin rtreetj H. H. CasvibA Co., Battle Hoiua 

Book Store, Mobile ; tzom uaj of irhom the back nam- 

ben ma; be had. 

A. P. Prunx, Euhange Comer ; C. B. Hahsiobd, 
Market etraet, MoDtgomerj. 

With 1%» Ameriem Cotlon Flanter, our agricnltnral 
ftiendawiUftiidaUtlie new and Tiloable pablicatJons of 
the dsf, Nthflr literary or agricultural, at the above- 
utmed Book Stores. 

Mr. Aaoa TiAVii la ooi agent at Qunearille, Somter 

Hr. N. PbiniB, Sparta, Conaenh county. 

Q. M. RsnoLDa Mr. Tcasia, Mr. B. M. Cuke, 
and lb. H. F. PouTHiT_ are our traveling aganta. 

)^ Ja onr Hareh nnmber, that adirirable article of 
Hr. WUta, at Oaargia, od Soathem Feaohes, ahould hare 
beeo ar«£l«<l to that moat exoellent journal, the Sorti- 

I^We find among oar «xcliang«B tlie Sontb- 
em Agriooltoralut, published in good style, at 
lAimnsville So. Ca., and edited, in its Agrionltn- 
nl department, by Col. A. 0-. Summer and in 
its HoitionHnnl and Fomologioal departments by 
Mr. Wm. Bommer. Tbe namet) of these distiD- 
goisbod gentlemen are sufficient guarantees that 
the Eknitbem Agrioultnralist will prove an inval- 
vabla aoqnisition to the corpse of ita oolaborers 
in promoting the cause ofimproTementintheagii- 
cnltoral industry of the planting states, in stimn- 
Liling and popularising a taste for horticniture 
among our planters, so shamefully neglected 
tbi^ the home of flowers and fruit. It Is neatly 
printed, oorered, oontainlng 82 pages, and afford- 
ed at the lim price of SI. 

f* Our readorj, like oorselTei, donbtlasa wiU be 
pleased to obeerre the air of origiiiality which this num- 

f the CaOo* Plaaer preaenta. We expect soon to 
haTB oar ooltuniu crowded with tlie praotical ezperi' 
enee of manj of oar moat intelligent pLanten, mann&wtii- 
rers and mechaniaa, on every TSriety of aubjeeta connec- 
ted with the industry of our peo{^e. 

The MatorlKl na* Appllanoea far onr Kaw Droaa 

Onr Mends will bear with ua yet this one month longer, 
in our homely and ill-faabioned dres*. Our public apiri- 
ted and eoterpriaitig publiabers, ctct willing to lend a 
helping hand to any undertaking promlBing the gnateat 
amonnt of good to the many, have ordered a new and 
splendid power press, with a Aill, now font of typo, om- 
bradng all the latest improrements— direct from Phila- 
ddpbia. Bright and blithe, on May day mom, we intend 
to greet yon, bind readere, and all the members of the 
great Agricultural Aaeociatian, in our Dcw cap and feath- 
ers ; demonBtrating tiie fact, for which we hare alnioat 
solitary and alone contended, that even hero in Uontgom- 
ery, in the midst of the cotton tlelda at the coon&y, we 
could and would fiimish the cheapest, neatest and moat 
tastily arranged (in its mechanical execution) agticnlta- 
nd paper published in the Utdted States. And if the 
cotton planter* of tbe conntry deure it, and ao dOtnmu, 
w« will make it the moat valuable medium of scientiSo 
and practical information to the cultiTators of the soil of 
the cotton region. 

Widely indeed bate we been misapprehended by those, 
if any tbwe be, who may have siqipoaed, that in the ori- 
gin of this ent«rprise, we intended any plD-ho<d(woatolt- 
pcmny aAir t We have studied onr snl^t l<ii^ and 
wdl. if money merely had be«i the prompting motlre, 
the AmneoK Cotton PlaiUtr had remwned a thing ideal 
yet to be, and we ehould hare deroted onr energy and in- 
dustry to the practice of physic. 

We Uiink we are not mistalran in the o«ntnl pomtion 
of onr location in the great cotton State of Alabama — 
new, ycnrag and ngorons — prodndug already one fifth of 
the cotton crop ofthenalioD, and equally unsurpassed by 
any State in the Union in her mineral reaources — why 
may she not sustain a high-toned, spirited journal deve- 
Tobid to these important interests, that shall vialt month- 
ly the hospitable homes of her people, with the why and 
the wherefore (br the most approved tndnstrial opoations, 
in the derelc-pement of her resources. 

Ton may not perhaps convene with a sin^e dtisen — 
planter, uanoficturer, or mechanic — in the State, who 
will not at once expieas himself as gratified and anxions 
to see a well conducted a^ealtnral paper snstuned is 
onr State. With all such, we oordially stiike hands, and 
reply, that a tinglt dollar of such anxiouB gratification, 
o()abribut«d to the Aamcan Cotton Pltmttr, w^l not only 
obtain the paper for on* year, bnt will raaliia the foil 
I measure of such patriotic deure, in sustaining just each 



jonmal as our industry and the intelligence of our plant- 
ers entitle ns Uh 

Will not OUT agents and our nnmerous other kind 
fHends, redouble their efforts, and send us up an addi- 
tional thousand of subscribers by the first of May ? We- 
^et lack a thousand subscribers to prevent embarrassment 
to the enterprize. In this connection, we must again 
s^peal to our friends to communicate their experience on 
any and all subjects connected with the industrial inter- 
est of oup country, for our columns. If you would inter- 
est and instruct the working man, whether planter or 
mechanic, write just as you would talk to him around 
your social hearth. In this way, an immense amount of 
instruction and useful information may be disseminated 
among the producing men of our country. 


In this number of the Cotton Planter, we publish the 
circular of the Corresponding Committee, appointed by 
the Conyention or Congress of Agriculturalists, assembled 
in Macon, Ga., last October. The gentlemen composing 
this Committee are well and widely known in this coun- 
try. The circular, with the accompanying resolutions of 
the Convention, will be read with interest, we arc sure, 
by every improvement man in the country — addressing 
themselves, as they do, personally to every man in the 
planting or slave States, who feels an interest in the ag- 
ricttltrirol improvement of these States, and who desires to 
promote, by all proper means, a speedy developement of 
the resources of our country. Every such man, as is 
most wisely provided in the first resolution of the Con- 
vention, becomes a qualified member of the Agricultural 
Association, to be organized in the city of Montgomery, 
on the first Monday of May next. 

We hope our agricultural friends in all sections of the 
planting States, will take immediate steps to have their 
societies, where such exist, with their neighborhoods, 
counties and States fully and efficientiy represented at the 
Qfrganization of this most important Association. A no- 
bler object never engaged the attention of any people 
-—to develope the resouroes, and unite and combine the 
enefgiee of the slave-holding States, so as to increase 
theijp wealth, power and dignity, as members of this Con- 
federacy ! 

. Nature has lavished her bounties upon us with a prod- 
igal hand. Our climate is not surpassed by the AljjBine 
elopes of Italy ; the delta of the Nile furnishes no- equal 
to the nation-wide exuberance of our soil, the productions 
of which, present and prospective, command a world for 
a market ; while our mineral resources, and extent and 

superiority of timber privileges, are unparalleled in any 
country. Thus we have briefly a portion of the materials, 
crude though they be, in the quarry of nature, which it 
wilj be the duty and the business of such Association to 
foster and improve to the proper use and benefit of the 
planting Stat43s. 

We are pleased to be able to state to the friends of im- 
'provement throughout the planting States, that our fel- 

low citizens of Montgomery are fully alive to the impor^ 
tance of the honor thus conferred by the Convention, in 
the selection. of their city, the capitol of the great plant-' 
ing State of Alabama, as the favored point for the first 
grand o'onvocation of the Agricultural Association of tiio 
Slave-holding Stateft The iniatory steps have already 
been takeii by both the City Authorities and the Agricul- 
tural Society of Mon^mery, to make all suitable ar* 
rangements to give the delegates from abroad a warm 
and dordial reception to the city. 

Let no man stay away, or treat this truly patriotic en» 
terprize lightly, under the mistaken idea that he may not 
individually, contribute anything towards the consumma- 
tion of this great work. No man should hesitate — ^the 
time has fully arrived ; every consideratioh of personal 
interest and national prosperity — the progress of the age, 
the intelligence of our people, and last, though not least, 
our relative position, socially and commercially on ac- 
count of our peculiar labor and industry, to portions of 
our own country and most foreign" nations — speak out in 
language that no observant man can mistake, that we, 
the proprietors and cultivators of the soil, are the tiien to 
act ; that life, energy and the elements of Certain success 
may be imparted to a great national movement of tliis ' 

What are we to do? may be asked by some, the 
friends of man everywhere, with the clothery and the 
grannery of the naked and the hungiy of the earth, we 
propose first to unite our energies and our sympathies in 
the promotion and general adoption among our planters 
of a proper and economical system of agricultural im- 
provement — ^with the fixed purpose of directing the in- 
fluence and patronage of tliis great agricultural interest 
to the speedy and full developement of the resources of 
our highly favored land, which alone can secure for Ifs 
wealth, dignity and independence. 


We have been requested to say, that the fair of 
the Chunnenuggee Horticultural Society of Ma- 
con County, Ala., "will be opened on Thursday the 
5th of May next at the Society's Garden. 

This is one of the oldest societies of the kind 
in the Southwest, and of it and for it may be tru- 
ly said — "It has made the wilderness blossom like 
the rose." Our friends of Chunnenuggee are no- 

I ted for their public spirit and hospitality. Let 
every body go to the Fair and fail not to bring 
away with them some of that same public spirit. 

During the last thirty-nine and a half years, it is said, 
there have been built in the United States, 40,650 ves- 
sels, and that more ships, are built ia Maine than in all 
the other States. 






kBtfportant Bnqitlrles* 

**As iooft as eonTenie&t, will you jdeflse publish ''the 
hest way to cultivate one acre' of sandy land, to make it 
}>roduce the lai'gest quantity of good food for a fnilch 
eow, through tho summer and faM ; what must be plant- 
ed, how the seed sown — how the ground prepared ; if lu- 
cerne^ will it do to lei the cow graze on it? if millet, 
how often will it do to out ? if grass, what kind-^how 
sown, and when ? Can Irish potatoes be raised in this 
ollmaie ? be saVod through the winter and spring ? if so, 

''Your attention will oblige yours truly, 

The aboTe extract, from a prirate lettef recently rc- 
teived, we deem of much public inter^t, and we ask the 
attention of our readers to it, in the hope that some oho 

pleased with that kind of home talk. If this 
should meet the eye of any gentleman who may 
have the paper, we shall be fevored by the receipt 
of it. 


No. 2. 

Entertaining views in regard to the importanoe 
of American Cotton such as those expressed in m 
of our ooxrespondents may be able and willing to furnish j previous number of this journal, it may not ap- 
ike infcHrmation sought. Wo have not much experience 
with lucerne, but from the little we have seen, and the 
information that we have from the most reliable sources, 
we suppose that one acre of land coidd not be so profita- 
bly set with anything else afl in this article. It does 
weU on sandy land, made rich and limed ; and a stand 
may be easily secured in this latitude. «'It requires a 
deep, rich soil. (See Farmer's Dictionary.) It is often 
<mt, year by year, for six and ten years^ and yields in 
the cuttings each season, from six to eight tons of excel- 
lent fodder, equal to tho best cloTor. An acre soiled will 
supply froiJL three to four coWs during the season.'* 

Like doYer, it is much benefitted by Plaster of Paris 
and- lime. It must nerer be depastured. Bigfaty pounds 
per day of fresh lucerne is enough for a oow, aad pro- 
duces an abundance of nulk. We have observed a lot of 
red clover at the plantation of CoL Scott, in passing on 
the Railroad, that has afforded us much pleasure, as a 
practical demonstration of the fact, that this invaluable 
article may be successfully ciiltivated in South Alabama. 
For further information on the subject of red clover, we 
refer our correspondent to the excellent artiole of Isaac 
Croom, in another page of this number. 

With regard to the best mode of saving Irish potatoes 
through the winter here, we want much information ; and 
as this is one of the objecta of the Cotton Planter ^ to col- 
late and disseminate practical and useful information on 
all subjects connected with the farm, garden and dairy, 
we hope our friends, whose experience may enable them 
to famish the information sought, will respond promptly 
to the enquiries of our correspondent. 

Some kind friend sent us some time since 
a number of the Selma Enterprise, containing an 
address recently delivered in that city, on the sub- 
ject of improving and beautifying home, by trans- 
planting and cultivating trees. We have unfor- 
tunately mislaid the paper, and have been unable, 
therefore, to notice the article as we intended. — 
Indeed we intended to give the address (being 
short) a place in our columns, as wc are much 


pear surprizing that we should insist upon a sys- 
tem of culture and management in the production 
of Cotton as nearly approximating to perfection as 
the present advanced state of agricultural science 
will admit. Persons unacquainted with Cotton — 
its culture and peculiarities — ^passing through 
South Carolina, Georgia and the older couotiQA 
of Alabama, and remarking upoo the dilapidated 
appearance presented in the conditions of the cot- 
ton plantations of the country generally — ^the 
worn and wasted condition of the land, utterly 
unfit, in very many instances, for any kind of 
crop, without a vast deal of artificial aid — would 
very naturally conclude that, of all crops culti- 
vated. Cotton is the most exhausting. Such con- 
clusion, however, we shall be able to show to be 
altogether erroneous. 

We regard this as an extremely interesttng fea- 
ture in the progress of this investigation. A clear 
and distinct understanding of the recuperative 
capacity of properly cultivated soil, and the Cot- 
ton Plant, as a natural furtilizer, we had almost 
said, is indispensably neeessaxyi to induce 
any planter to engage with spirit and deter- 
mination in a liberal system of improvement 
at and for a home for himself and family.— 
If we institute an examination into the true 
causes that induce our planters to sell out 
old plantations and remove to new ones, we shall 
find it to consist mainljf in this : To grow CoUon 
on new and rich land, every comfort and conve- 
nience, with all the social relation of life, are 
sacrificed for rich land, in a strange country, to 
grow cotton on I And where is the planter that 
is not exhilerated with the prospect of rich land 
to cultivate ? 
The result of our experience is, that no plant 



is equal to the Cotton Plant as a fertilizer ; hence 
we ipake the point, that to grow cotton under 
that system of culture which is most profitable 
to the planter, any land will improve and grow 
rich. We ask the attention of the reader to a 
plat of cottdn stalks growing — large, if you please, 
for such we prefer — on a level or leveled piece of 
land ; pass with it through all the stages of the 
season and work ; and you find that whatever of 
grass or weeds be cut up about it, remains and 
decays there ; every fall of rain sinks into the 
soil there where it falls ; every leaf that drops 
there decays — so of the blooms, the burs, the 
stalk, and, finally, the seed from the gin, by the 
pToyident planter returned to the soil i and a bale 
of lint, or (50 realized per acre. 

Let us ask now — and we appeal to practical, 
thinking men — what article, grown under the 
same circumstances, on the land, will leave it 
in so favorable a condition for the next crop ? 
we shall be told, doubtless, that the land sufiers 
much more from evaporation during the cultiva- 
tion of a crop of cotton, than under the culture of 
any other crop. To this we reply, that from ex- 
perience and every year's observation at home, 
cotton grown on land rich and improving, will 
shade the land as early in the season as any cul- 
tivated crop. 

In all this, for which we claim so much for 
the cottdn plant as a fertilizer, there is nothing 
new— it is one of the inseparable conditions of its 
favorable and most profitable culture. Why is 
it, then, that this extremely valuable feature of 
the Cotton Plant has not been seen, been apprecia- 
ted, and ere this enriched the country ? Plan- 
ters, in all this country, have cut down and cleared 
up rich and fertile lands, upon which they have 
grown cotton, producing from 1,500 to 2,000 lbs. 
of seed cotton per acre for a few years ; and in 
10, 12 to 15 years, they have abandoned them as 
unproductive — ^leaving the old fields and hill-sides 
^ worn out and waste ! while the branches, ponds 
and lagoons without are filled and choked up with 
fertility. The studied policy of cotton growing 
in this country has been, and in many instances 
still is, a perfect system of land bleaching. The 
most elevated point in the field has been invaria- 
bly selected as the place of beginning, and the 
rows directed hy Une to the branch or lowest part 
of the field, as though the Cotton Pi«nt was hydro- 

phobic ! — ^that each fall of rain might hasten out 
of the field, laden with the humus of the soil* 
This rude picture — but too true — may provoke a 
smile, but if, with it, thought and refieclion, we 
shall have well accomplished our object. 

We shall be asked, doubtless, as we have been, 
often and again — "is it possible ? Are there any 
means practicable, by which this wasting of soil, 
and despoiling of fields in the production of Cotton, 
maybe remedied?'' If our object were selfish 
altogether, we might truthfully answer yea— it 
is both possible and practicable entirely— and 
thus close the subject of inquiry* But we have 
a nobler object in view— -a much higher duty to 
perform ; and whilst we do say that it is possible 
and entirely practicable to grow cotton success- 
fully, profitably and extensively, and improve the 
land whereon it is grown, in the performance of 
such plantation economy ; we further assure 
our planting friends— -and we do so from the field 
of operation, proof posUive, practical and inoon* 
trovertible, because in our system of practied 
there is nothing hidden, mysterious or too difficult 
for the capacity of any man raising cotton? or the 
Ifind he may cultivate, however rolling, sandy or 
calcareous — that in the adoption of a system of 
plantation economy, which tends to husband the 
resources of the land and improve its fertility, 
the quantity of cotton now grown upon any of our 
farms by hook or by crook, may be grown cer- 
tainly upon one third the number of acres, the 
capacity of the land increased for the next crop, 
and a corresponding improvement made in the 
grain and hay crops, and, consequently, the stock 
of the farm. 

It will be the fixed object of the Colian Planter 
to demonstrate this important fact to its friends 
and readers — to prove and illustrate to the planter 
the very great advantages arising from a fixed 
system of rotation and shift of crops, without 
which a continued, certain productiveness is not 
to be expected from our lands. 

To Make Indellible Ink. — Two drachms of 
caustic dissolved in two table spoon fulls of water, 
one tea spoonful of brandy, half a tea spoonfull 
of brown sugar ; wet the cloth large enough for 
writing, with strong pearlash water, and dry with 
a hot, flat iron, then apply the writing, and dry 
I with the same. 



:^laiittttintt totinmq. 

No. 5. 

Dr. N, B. Cloudy Dr. Sir: A remark of 
yours, on the 21st page of the Cation Planter — 
"Why should we longer be satisfied to send off 
such immense quantities of raw cotton V^ — brings 
to my mind, and to which I beg your attention, 
remarks made by me some ten years ago, that 
we ^ould turn into twist, upon at least our lar- 
gest plantations, all cottcm ginned, by having at- 
taohed to the gearing, additional machinery to 
spin. This was looked on as one of my theories, 
like unto my idea of raising our own swine and 
corn, some ten years or less prior to that date ; 
or that advanced in 1642, that we in Mississippi 
ought to sell fruit to New Orleans and elsewhere. 
At this time, no man doubts either of the two last, 
as they are recorded facts. Any body, who will 
half try, can raise meat and corn; and two citi- 
fsens of Mississippi, Gen. Felix Houston and Rev. 
Benj. Whitfield, who ought to be a General, if a 
poul as large as a meeting house makes one, have 
planted out (how many thousands, gentlemen ?) 
of trees, and have sold (please say how much ?) 
this year. 

From having as deeply thought of the first, I 
am as fully persuaded that an American cotton 
planter will in ten years perhaps, send all his crop 
offUk bales of thread. 1 am now among the old 
llgricultural writers, and among those few who 
have devoted days and nights to the study, with- 
out the hope of fee or reward, and I xpust hold 
that the spirit of An^erioa iQUst teiko bold m this 

I think twist is sent off and sold at 75 to 90 
cents per package of 5 lbs. Take 80 cents at 
the average, which gives 16 cents per pound, and 
cotton at 8 cents gives only 100 per cent profit 
in round numbers. But admit the nett profit to 
be 20 per cent only, and we find the planter can 
makd even more than that, as be pockets much 
cost and loss in transportation. 

Permit me, just here, to call on my brother^ 
L. A. Phillips, now engaged in manufactures, to 
state in your paper what the cost will be to man- 
ufacture a crop of 1,000 bales into twist of the 
beat numbers ; what aniount of thread these 1^000 

bales, weighing (including bagging and rope) 
450,000 lbs., would make, cost of transportatioa 
to Philadelphia, cost of sales, and the amount it 
would sell for, cotton worth now, say an averago 
of 9^ cents. 

The planter can then easily find out what the 
extra machinery would be worth if attached to 
his steam engine. I make this public call on 
my brother, having confidence in his practical 
mind, that he can give as important information 
as can any man. Our father before us was a 
practical man, and I regard his youngest son as 
being a better "chip of the> old block" than faif 
elder brother. 

Look at the difference. It will cost no more 
to ship to Europe or China 450 lbs. of thread) 
worth say 15 cents a pound, or $67 50, than a 
bale of cotton weighing 450 lbs., and worth, say 
at 8 cents, $36 00 ; and besides, not the loss by 
waste, and thus even enhancing the value by 10 
per cent. And another very grand consideratioa 
is, that we could give employment to many young 
and old negroes much of the year, make less cot- 
ton, and thus, instead of all the vagaries of hold- 
ing up prices, we would control, per force, tiie 
market of the world. 

Some clever Arkwright, jr., will put his brains 
to work, and invent something by which we me- 
diocre planters of one or two hundred bales can 
put up our cotton ; and I hope soon, so that I may 
see it, and thank my Master that mine eyes have 
beholden such, ere I pass away. If any one do, 
he must present me with one, for I doubt of mj 
ever being able to pay for it, being not like the 
Pennsylvania farmer — ^*<live entirely within what 
I make" — for I eat all I make. 
Yours, with hopes, 


LiQHT Paste foe Tarts and Chbbse^Cakbs. 
— ^Beat the white of an egg to a strong froth, then 
mix it with as much water as will make three 
quarters of a pound of flour in a very stifi* paste, 
roll it very thin, then lay the third part of half a 
pound of butter upon it in little bits, dredge it with 
some flour left out at first, and roll it up tight. 
Roll it out again, and put the same proportion of 
butter, and so proceed until all be worked up* 





Dr. Ohudf Dear Sir : As you are aware, I 
am a Btroog believer in the precepts and doctrines 
of holy writ, in which we are admonished to let 
''our light slune, and not put our candle under the 
Ihidhel/^ Through the medium of your valuable 
Agricultural journal, the American Cotton Planter, 
I hope I shall be afforded an opportunity of shed- 
ding a ray of light upon our rural eoonomy. Talk 
of our husbandry and our general agricultural op- 
orations, and thereby create a spirit of emulation 
among our agricultural brethren. 

As I have nothing to ask of the world, feeling 
assured that I am near the end of life's short jour- 
ney; and, if I am not greatly deceived, my sole 
object now is to try to redeem lost time ; for much 
of it has run to waste. Ah, could I live it over 
again, with the lights now before me, how differ- 
ent would it be spent ! Its retrospective would 
not be a sterUe waste, without an oasis to regale 
the eye, or for the memory to dwell on. 

I should have been more than pleased to have 
Iiad you on my prairie plantation last month, to 
have afforded you an opportunity, from occular 
demonstration, of alluding to my operations in 
your February number ; this would probably have 
saved me the risk or hazard of being thought ego- 
tistical, or a disposition on my part to boast. As 
that is not my design or purpose^ modesty will not 
cause me to withold the truth. 

My only wish is, to show how easy it is for eve- 
Ty ffljrmer to raise his own meat, mules, hay, &c., 
by which policy we should soon be the most inde- 
pendent people in the Union. Had you been here 
before oar slaughtering, you would have seen as 
ffne hogs as Kentucky raises, many weighing over 
300 pounds; and one and two and a half years old 
weiffhins 575 pounds. Many went over 300, and 
thelast killing averaged over 200 pounds. You 
would have seen seven mule colts, two jacks and 
one jennette, equal, I suppose, to those of Ken- 
tucky or Tennessee. Also, a splendid lot of hay 
of our native grasses, through the spontaneous 
growth of our prolific soil; yet not inferior to 
Northern or Western grass, the latter it seems, 
from Tarlton & Whiting's Circular, is now worth 
in Mobile $1,80 per owt. At those rates, the crab 
grass, well saved on my plantation, would bring 
more money than the com and cotton together. 

But not wishing further to trespass on your 
time and patience, I will close this hasty article, 
wishing your journal a wide circulation. 
I remain yours truly, 

OhunnenujiC^e, Ala., 

Jan. 24, 18 


Thorough preparation of land is absolutely nec- 
essary to the successful and luxurious growth of crops. 


Cane Brake, March 10, 1853. 

Dear Sir: Will you permit me to call atten* 
tion, through the columns of your journal, to a 
subject of much interest to the cotton planters Y 
I jne&n/enctnff. The law requires owners of im- 
proved lands to keep them fenced. Now, sir, I 
conceive it to be high time that this wretdied pol- 
icy was abolished, at least so far as the black lands 
of our State are concerned ; and I am persuaded 
that it is called for by every consideration of thrifty 
improvement and economy. 

The building and keeping up of fences aroaad 
our plantations, entail one of the most expensive 
and troublesome items in the plantation eccmomy. 
The cutting down the trees, mauling the rails, 
hauling them, and then putting them up, are each 
of them accompanied with a heavy and an expen- 
sive outlay of labor, for the building of this new 
indispensable f';noe around impoverished lands. 
But, in addition to this, a large proportion of 
land must be kept in woods, to meet the future 
and distant requirements of this odious law. 
Capital of great value, in the shape of timbered 
lands, must thus lie actually idle, annually wasting 
perhaps as much as the worth of the fence ! and 
all this for what good ? To keep off stock, Jfow, * 
Mr. Editor, you are well aware that nothing breeds 
so much ill will, bad neighborhood and unfrieiidly 
feeling, as this same subject of fencing. Ques- 
tions of boundary lines, of whose fence it is when 
discovered by some adjoining investigator to be 
on his knd-Alisputes about whether equal portions 
are fairly kept up, and through whose part ani- 
mals get in there — and a thousand other difficul- 
ties arise from this same requirement, to build 
fences to keep out stock. Now, is it not strange 
that this law has been permitted to remain so long 
unrepealed — at least as far as the black lands are 
concerned ? 

What is there, I would ask, in the nature of 
this property called live stock, which should make 
every other interest subordinate and subservient 
to it ? The rule of the common law was and is, 
that you must so use your own as not to injure 
another. Why in the name of all that is reason- 
able, are stock exceptions ? And why, instead of 
the owners being required to keep them from tres- 
passing by fencing them in, is the cotton planter 
and com planter required to fence them out f In 
the eye of the common law, every man's knd u 
fenced, and every trespass is called a breaking of 
his close. A man may not walk across your line 
against your wishes, or he commits a trespass ; but 
the miserable caricatures of cows and calve^^the 
mere skeletons of what were intended for cattle — 
do not, by our law, break the close, unless, for- 
sooth, they get through or over a fence five feet 
high and staked and ridered ! 

It is not unfrcquently the case it our oane brake 

c < 



that lane fences are kepi up for miles and miles 
continuously, on each side of the road, where the 
annual value of fifty pannels would purchase all 
the unfortunate cows and hogs which seek a pre- 
carious subsistence in the locks of the fence, and 
for whose exclusion alone all this heavy and costly 
fencing has to be done I 

The relative importance and magnitude of the 
two interests seem to leave no kind of question as 
the interest' of which should be consulted— that of 
the planter or the stock owner, if they were op- 
posed. But the planters themselves are the owners 
of the stock, and even the interest of this very 
stock requires that the law should be reformed. 
If it be an object to raise stock, our horses, mules, 
tiogs, &c., wh«B we have literally no range but the 
road, will they not fare much better to be enclosed 
and provided for than to thrust out on the short, 
unsatisfactory pickings in the fence locks ? The 
most thrifty and successful in raising meat do it by 
means of keeping them enclosed and having grass 

Now, I am very far from presuming to prescribe 
and direct in what manner otlicrs shall conduct their 
matters, but I do not see why an interest which is 
the paramount one — the great interest of the cane 
brake — should be left at the mercy of this incon- 
siderable stock, which I must think are only per- 
mitted to rove because they are of little or no esti- 
mation in the eye of the owner. As the planting 
interest is by long odds the most considerable — at 
least in our cane brake country — the owner of stock 
should be required to fence them in, which he could 
do at one hundredth part the cost and labor it re- 
quires for the planter to fence them out. This 
would entirely dispense with the incalculable cost 
^d labor of keeping up partition fences. 

Yours, &c., A SUBSCRIBER. 

Foa THB Amebicak Cotton Plaxtkr. 

jyr, iV! 3, Cloud, Dear Sir : In sending the 
fint BAunber of your excellent journal to my ad- 
dress, you did but anticipate my intended subscrip- 
tion to what gives abundant promise, I think, of 
being one of the very best agricultural papers pub- 
lished in 1^ South.; and for 3'our kindness in doing 
this» I sincerely thank you.. 

There is an air oi practical usefulness about the 
contents of the number before me that I like, and 
I have no doubt will address itself forcibly to the 
consideration of every intelligent planter. If any- 
thing can redeem the agricultural interests of the 
South from the state of passive i^rostration into 
which the misguided policy of the "one crop sys- 
tem" has thrown them, it is the multiplication and 
more general dissemination of just such papers as 
the Southern OuUivator, Soil 0/ the SouOi and the 
American Cotton Planter, Give us plenty of these, 
and the South will yet achieve her high destiny, 
and become what, by her soil and climate' she so 

eminently deserves to be — the garden spot of the 

But I sat down merely to bid you God's speed in 
your praiseworthy undertaking — ^to enclose my mite 
of '^material aid,'' and to ask you this question — 


My own impression is, that under certain cir- 
cumstances, the}/ will; but as this opinion is founded, 
only upon the experience of the last two years, I 
need more light upon the subject before coming to 
a satisfactory conclusion. 

Two years ago, we planted but few peas in pro- 
portion to the number of hogs that were to eat 
them ; the consequence was, tbat the fields were 
gleaned early and we lost no hogs. Last year, we 
planted eighty iicres in peas^ among common bot- 
tom — turned in 1 50 head of hogs early, and were 
well pleased with the result, till after the first hard 
\ frost, when a few of the hogs began to sicken and 
die, with what had every appearance of being in- 
flammation of the bowels. 

Wo lost perhaps twenty or twenty-five in all, and 
many more would have died, I presume, had wo 
not promptly removed them from the fields and in- 
stituted the regular daily administration of anti- 
phlogistic remedies to all such as manifested symp- 
toms of the disccase. We lost very few, if any, af- 
ter this ; but the convalescence of those already 
effected was tediously slow and protracted. Some 
of our neighbors were stiU more wnfortuaate than 

From my limited experience, then, I am led to 
the following conclusions: First, that sound, 
healthy peas will not injure hogs, where they have 
unrestrained access to plenty of water, and are oc- 
casionally supplied with salt. Secondly, that pern 
in a state of decay, either from heavy frosts or long 
rains, will kill hogs. Third, that castor oil, in 
daily doses of one, two and three ounces, with a 
slop diet, will generally cure the disease, if taken 
in hand early. Fourthly, that peas are a profitable 
crop to the stock raiser, in spite of all the danger 
to be apprehended fjom tlieir deleterious agency. 
Acting upon these conclusions, we shall plant about 
100 acres in peas this season, but shall be careful 
to remove all stock from the fields immediately af- 
ter the first hard frost, or long-continued rain, by 
which the vines and young pods are forced intp 
premature decay. 

Will you be so kind as to give us your views on 
the subject? With high respect, I remain 

Yours truly, 

H. A. SWASEY, M, D. 
Poplar Hall, Tazoo County,} 
Misss., Feb. 20, 1853. j 

^^ Avery slight declivity suffices to give the rna- 
ning motion to water. Three incheB per mile, in a 
smooth, t'straigUt channel, gives a velocity of about three 
miles an hour. 




Gbesnsbobo, Feb. 23, 1853. 

Dear Sir : As Calcareous Manures lie at the 
foundation of all ogricultural success and im- 
provement, I propose to present a few truths con- 
nected with them, which can hardly fail to inter- 
est, if not to benefit many of your readers. 

Taylor's Aratbr and Skinner's American Far- 
fner, published at an early period of the present 
century, were the first agricultural works which 
attracted the attention of the Southern planter, 
and awakened him to the necessity and ad- 
vantages of improving his exhausted eeoil and un- 
remunerating crops.* In this way these writers 
accomplished much good at the time ; but as they 
were not in advance of the science of their day, 
a defect attached to their system, calculated not 
only to lessen their benefits in many instances, 
but to produce serious evils in others. This con- 
sisted in their exclusive reliance on what was 
then called putrescent, but are now called organic 
manures, for the improvement of cultivated lands. 

Edward Ruflfin, Esq. the greatest living bene- 
factor of his State, and who, in the memorable 
words of Swtfl, which were adopted by him as 
the motto of his periodical, TJie tarmer^^ Roister 
''for having made five ears of corn grow where 
but one grew before, and red clover to take the 
place of poverty, grass and hopeless sterility, 
deserves better of mankind and has done more 
essential service to his country, than the whole 
race of politicians put together," was the first to 
demonstrate the important truth, that inorganic or 
mineral manures, and especially lime in some 
form, is an essential element of a good soil. His 
Essay on Cakareous Manures disclosed, amon 
other new truths, the important one, "that no 
soil can be permanently improved beyond i 
original state of fertility, without the aid of cal^ 
careous manures.'' This new truth, brought to 
light some eight or ten years afler the appearance 
of the Araiar vnd The American Farmer convinced 
the deciples of Taylor and Skinner that they had 
been following imperfect guides, in the vain at- 
tempt to convert their silicious and poor soils into 
fertile farms, by means of almost unlimited ap- 
plications of putrescent manures. It would not 
be extravagant to say, that in this way, millions 
of dollars worth of labor were misapplied and lost. 
From this truth; another corolary follows, which 

should bo known by every one who has to buy or 
sell, or cultivate a farm — that where calcareous 
matter is not to be procured, land originally poor, 
though it be fresh and but little reduced by cul* 
tivation, will not compare it value with that 
which was originally good, but which may have 
been exhausted to the lowest point. With this 
brief historical digression, we now come more 
directly to our subject. 

In the first place, we alHrm that lime, in some 
of its combinations, is an indispensable element 
in every fertile soil. This is abundantly proved 
by the facts, that analysis shows that all soils, the 
least productive, and all valuable crops, c(»itain 
more or less of lime. Asa further proof, it has 
been tested that the most barren soils, such as the 
thin silicious and pipe clay lands of Eastern Vir- 
ginia and the Carolinas, contain but little if any 
lime. If they have any, which their luxuriant 
growth of pine and other vegetables containing 
small portions of lime would indicate, it is ren- 
dered latent by the strong grasp of acids, which 
refuse to release it to chemical analyses. 

The next enquiry is, how does lime act upon 
soils in promoting their fertility ? 

It produces two effects upon sandy or clay 
soils--*the one mechanical, the other chemical. 
By marling or liming a silicious soil, which, )b 
its natural state, is too loose and porous to retain 
moisture, heat, or fertilizing gases, is made more 
close, cohesive and retentive, and is of course 
greatly benefitted. In soils of pure clay or ap« 
proximating to it, and which are nearly impene- 
trable to air, moisture and manuie, lime baa the 
efiect of destroying their too great cohesion, and 
making them friable, loose and mellow. 

But the chemical influence of lime is inore 
ameliorating than even its mechanical, great as 
the latter confessedly is. Carbonate of lime, or 
lime in its natural state, is saturated with car- 
bonic acid gas ; when mixed with the soil in this 
state, it comes in contact with other acids for 
which it has a stronger attraction than the car* 
bonic which it has derived from the air, such aa 
the humic, oxalic, sulphuric, &c., and readily 
yields its carbonic to form new combinations, 
such as the humate, oxalate and sulphate of lime. 
In this way it forms a new soil, first by developing 
nutriment for plants which was previously locked 
up, as well as by storing up permanently treas* 


■ I 



ure for the future growth of plants, which would 
otherwise prove eyanesoent. In addition to all 
this, lime has the property of destroying many 
pernicious minerals. By combining with the 
•ulphurio aoid of sulphate of iron, it forms plas- 
ter of Paris, a valuable manure, besides nullify- 
ing the poisonous character of the former mine- 
ral. It also developes fertilizing silicates from 
barren sandy soils, by producing disintegration. 
Believing that enough has been said to give the 
reader an accurate opinion of the mode in which 
lime acts upon soils, as well as to convince him 
that such action must be beneficial, the next en- 
quiry will be, what is the best form of its appli- 
cation ? 

Lime enters into combination with various 
acids, such as sulphuric, humic, carbonic, &c. ; 
and these combinations take their names from 
the acids thus uniting, as humate of lime and 
carbonate of lime. But the most common forms 
ia which it is used for improving lands are only 
,the two of quick or burnt lime and carbonate of 
lime. QuicK lime is lime decarbonated, or lime 
deprived of its carbonic acid gas by the action 
of heat. In this latter stAte, it is thought best in 
cold climates, or where it is to act on large mas- 
ses of vegetable inert matter, or to develope sil- 
icates from a sandy soil, or to decompose noxious 
mineral substances, such as the sulphate of iron. 
But in warm climates such as ours, mild lime or 
carbonate of lime, the form in which it is found 
in all our prarie or rotton lime-stone, in shell 
banks and in marl beds, is the form in which it 
has been most beneficial, economical i^nd conre- 
nient for use. 

Our prarie lime-stone contains usually fVom 
sixty to eighty. five per cent of carbonate of lime, 
which is as rich as could be desired. After be- 
ing dug up and exposed a few months to the ac- 
tion of air and moisture, either at the quarry or 
in the field, it pulverizes so as to be well prepared 
for spreading on the land, 

What is called marl, no matter of what kind, 
is Yaluable for manuring chiefly for the carbo- 
nate of lime contained in it. This value, it is 
true, may be enhanced by the organic matter 
which is frequently connected with it, in the same 
manner that the value of a gold mine would be 
improved by the union of precious stones or oth- 
er valuable adjuncts. 

Lime is liberally used in every country which 
can boast of a prosperous and improving tillage. 
The bounty of the Creator has furnished it abun* 
dantly for all human uses, for it is estimated that 
carbonate of lime forms one eighth of the crust of 
our globe. To secure the chemical benefits of 
lime it is necessary also to furnish a suitable quan- ■ 
tity of vegetable matter in some form, whether it 
be the growth of the land where it is spread, or { 
furnished from the bam yard or woods. In ma- ] 
king farm-yard manure, it will greatly improve and 
economize it to mix it freely with lime. Decom- \ 
position is thereby hastened, and the escaping] 
gases are absorbed and stored up for the future 
food of plants. 

The next, and final enquiry is, what is the pro-^j 
per quantity of lime to apply ? j 

This will depend so much upon the circum* 
stances of each particular locality, that no definite 
and fixed rule can be given. Experience mnst be 
the guide, and there can be no difficulty, imless' 
an over dose is given, which, however, is easily, 
remidied by time or applications of clover crops,; 
for clover has been found to do well in soils which' 
are too calcareous for other crops. 

Fertile soils have been found, upon analysis, to 
contain various proportions of lime — some twO|f 
some four, and others as high as sixteen, twenty 
and thirty per cent. Indeed, this proportion itf 
by no .means a sure index of the' fertility, fof 
the reason that a large supply of vegetable matteij 
by its acids, may have neutralized much of th« 
lime and concealed it from analysis, at the same 
time that it has enriched the soil by tiie formation 
of fertilizing salts. 

Our best black prairie soils have been found i< 
contain eight per cent of carbonate of line. ^ 
specimen of the richest cane-brake soil contained 
sixteen per cent, and one from the Choctaw praS 
rie, in Mississippi, thirteen per cent of carbonatj 
of lime. Other ferti]^ soils in the vicinity of th^ 
foregoing, and like them lying upon a limestone 
substratum, did not show any lime at all in th^ 
form of carh(maJb&, From twenty to thirty pel 
cent of carbonate of lime is not an xmusual propcMB 
tion in the best soils of France and England. 

Mr. Buffin found that no injury was even sua 
tained by the application of 250 bushels of mar] 
containing 4-10 of calcareous earth. As our lime 
stone contains about 8-10 of calcareous earthy } 



rill probably be most judicious to apply in the 
irst instance about 125 bushels to the acre, and 
mnually or biennially renew the doses, as obser- 
ration may indicate. Experience both in this I 
jountry and England, goes to prove that frequent 
i^d moderate applications are preferable to heavy 
loses with long intervals. 

Professor Johnson says that in the county of 
^.oxburg, in Scotland, where it is usual to lease 
and from nineteen to twenty-one years, the cus- 
»m is to apply from 240 to 300 bushels of quick 
ime to the acre, at the beginning of the lease. 
The crops are found to improve by this dressing 
iflitil the tenth year, when they reach their maxi- 
num, and then decline as gradually as they im- 
proved, until, at the end of the lease, they have 
*eached their condition at the beginning, before 
ih.ey received, the lime* 

XIpoUi the whole, there can be no doubt that the 
iest general rule on the subject is, to give your 
.and in the beginning as large a dose as it will 
bear without injury, and yearly afterwards apply 
IS much as is taken away by the crops. From 5 
io 10 bushels per acre, it appears from high au- 
ihonty, approximates to the auAual waste. 

It shoujd not be forgotten that valuable, nay 
Indispensable as lime or marl is to the improve- 
oaent of our lands, to secure its full benefit, it must 
be connected with the manuring system and rota- 
tion of crops. All experience fully establishes 
this truth, and to expect any permanent improve- 
ment in our soils under the present scourging pro- 
cess of continuous and unvarying hoe crops of corn 
%jkd cotteQ; were as idle as to expect that a patient 
prith one of his leading veins open should increase 
in health and vigor., while his life's blood is per- 
mitted to flow out. 

And in conclusion, let me say, that the time 
bas already arrived for Alabama to commence this 
improved system of husbandry, unless she is re- 
solved to go down to the lowest depth, where there 
is no lower deep of exhaustion. The sooner now 
the better. The more exhausted land is, the more 
Bostly and tedious is its reijovation. To this com- 
plexion we must come at last — a change of our 
planting system, or unremunerating crops. Our 
individual, social prosperity, not less than that of 
our noble State, urges upon us the former altera- 
tion. The examples of some of our sister States 
are encouraging and wooing us. Mr. Ruffin says 

that since 1828, by marling and rotation of crops, 
in Eastern Virginia, (of which system he can 
proudly say, magna pars /ui, et aucior,) individual 
estates have increased in value ten fold, and the 
assessed value of lands in that part of the State, 
while not more than one twentieth part of them 
has realized the benefits, has increased to the 
amount of thirty millions of dollars. And further, 
that when the benefits of this beneficent system 
shall have embraced one third or one half of this 
portion of Virginia, the increase in individual and 
public wealth will be estimated by hundreds of 

You, my dear sir, have embarked in the noble 
and patriotic enterprize of urging on the agricul- 
turists of our State, this great, good work of an 
improved and improving husbandry, and that you 
may realize your highest visions, your most cher- 
ished hopes, is the sincere wish of 
Your friend and ob't s'vt, 




From the New Y«Mrk Tribuno. 


Prof. J. J. Mapes, in the forthcoming number 
of his Working larmer, gives thfi following sum- 
ming up of the great elemental truths of Agricul- 
tural Chemistry, which he introduces as follows : 
The following is from one of Liebig's familiar Let- 
ters on Chemistry, - and is a synopsis of all tbe 
knowledge of the present day in relation to Agn- 
cultural chemistry^ so much of which had its ori- 
igin in the original writings of the great chemist. 

He stands forth now the reviewer of himself, 
and gives us, in the most laconic manner, almost 
in adage-like form, the very rudiments of our 
knowledge, and this, too, posted np with: a}], the 
improvements and observations of the day. 

Let those writers who have waddled to and 
from his precepts, review their apostacy and be 
chastened for their want of eonsisteney, by read- 
ing the following. 

We present it to our readers as the best paper 
on Scientific Agriculture we have ever seen. We 
recommend that it be studied hy rote, and that its 
truths form the basis of their after-investigation. 
We feel proud of belonging to a profession, the 
merits of which should call forth from so great a 
mind so great an effort. We hail it as a declara- 
tion of independence for Scientific Agriculture. 



■ — -- 

Witli modesty we would endorse it, and with a 
full acknowledgement of our^inability to equal the 
great original, still we fearlessly throw the gaunt- 
let to those who would wish to attack the doctrines 
contained in the following paper. 

Let the calumniators of Liebig find in this, 
his maturest effort, aught that will not cause them 
to blush when they attempt to villify their great- 
est benefactor. We heg of our readers to study it 
line by line, and when they comprehend it all, 
with such clearness as we hope they may at a sin- 
gle careful reading, they will find that they have 
a grammar of their art, a foundation on which ev- 
ery obser\'ant agriculturist may build a rationale 
which will accord with practical truth ; and des- 
pite the sophistry of those who would rob the great 
original of his due credit, this letter will live so 
long as language has a property to recommend it. 

J. J. M. 


In the immense yet unlimited expanse of the 
ocean, the animal and vegetable kingdom are mu- 
tually dependent upon, and successive to each 
other. The animals obtain their constituent ele- 
ments from the plants, and restore them to the 
water in their original fonn, when they again serve 
as nourishment to a new generation of plants. 
The oxygen which marine animals withdraw in 
their respiration from the air, dissolved in sea- 
water, is returned to the water by the vital pro- 
cesses of sea-plants ) the air is richer in oxygen 
than atmospheric air, containing 82 to 33 per cent ; 
while the latter contains only 21 per cent. Oxy- 
gen, also, combines with the products of the putre- 
laction of dead animal bodies, changes their carbon 
into carbonic acid, their hydrogen into water, and 
their nitrogen assumes again the form of ammonia. 
Thus we observe in the ocean a circulation takes 
place without the addition or subtraction of any 
element, unlimited in duration, although limited 
in extent, inasmuch as in a confined space the 
jxourishment of plants exists in a limited quantity. 
We well know that marine plants cannot derive a 
supply of humus for their nourishment through 
their roots. Look at the great sea-tang, the fucus 
gigantius. This plant, according to Cook, reaches 
a height of 360 feet, and a single specimen, with 
its immense ramifications, nourishes thousands 
of marine animals, yet its root is a small body, no 
larger tha^ the fist. What nourishment can this 
draw from a naked rock, upon the surface of which 
there is no perceptible change ? It is quite obvi^ 
ous that these plants require only a hold — ^a fast- 
ening to prevent a change of place — as a coun- 
terpoise to their specific gravity, which is less than 
that of the medium in which they float. That 
medium provides the necessary nourishment, and 
presents it to the surface of every part of the plant. 
Sea-water contains not only carbonic acid and am- 
monia; but the alkaline and earthy phosphates, 

and carbonates, required by these plants for their 
growth, and which we alwaj's find as constituents 
of their ashes. 

All experience demonstrates that the conditions 
of 'the existence of marine plants are the same 
which are essential to terrestrial plants, but the 
latter do not live, like sea-plants, in a medium 
which contains all their elements, and surrounds 
with appropriate nourishment every part of their 
organs ; on the contrary, they require two media, 
of which one, namely the soil, contains those es- 
septial elements which are absent from the medi- 
um surrounding them, that is, the atmosphere. 
Is it possible that we could ever be in doubt re- 
specting the office which the soil and its compo- 
nent parts subserve in the existence and growth 
of veget^ibles ? that there should have been a time 
when the mineral elemcuts of plants were not re- 
garded as absolutely essential to their vitality. 
Has not the same circulation been observed on the 
surface of the earth which we have just contem- 

«;ed in the ocean, the same incessant change, 
urbance and restitution of equilibriums ? Ex- 
perience in agriculture shows that the production 
of vegetables on a certain surface increases with 
the supply of certain matters, originally parts of 
the soil, which had been taken up from it by plants 
— the excrement of man and animals. These are 
nothing more than matters derived from vegetable 
food, which, in the vital processes of animals, or 
after their death, assume again the form under which 
they originally existed as parts of the soil. 

Now, we know that the atmosphere contains 
none of these substances, and therefore can replace 
none ; and we know that their removal from a soil 
destroys its fertility, which may be restored and 
increased by a new supply. Is it possible, after 
so many decisive investigations into the origin of 
the elements of animals and vegetables, the use of 
alkalies, of lime and the phosphates, any doubt 
can exist as to the principles upon which a rational 
agriculture depends ? Can the art of agriculture 
be based upon anything but the restitution of a 
disturbed equilibrium ? Can it be imagined that 
any country, however rich and fertile, with a flour- 
ishing commerce, which, for centuries, exports its 
produce in the shape of grain and cattle, will main- 
tain its fertility, if the same commerce does not 
restore, in some form of manure, those elements 
which have been removed from the soil, and which 
cannot be replaced by the atmosphere ? Must not 
the same fate await every country which has actu- 
ally befallen the once prolific soil of Virginia, now 
in many parts no longer able to grow its former 
staple productions, wheat and tobacco ? In the 
large towns of England, the produce both of Bng- 
glish and foreign agriculture is largely consumed ; 
elements of the soil indispensable to plants do not 
return to the fields ; contrivances resulting from 
the manners and the customs of the English peo- 
ple, and peculiar to them, render it diflicult, per- 



haps impossible, to collect the enormous quantity 
of phospb^teS; which are daily, as solid and liquid 
excrements, catried into the rivers. 

These phosphates; although present in the soil 
in the smallest quantity, axe its most important 
mineral constituents. It was observed that many 
English fields, exhausted in that maqner, immedi- 
ately doubled their products, as if by miracle, when 
dressed with bone earth imported from the conti- 
nent. But if the export of bones from Grermany 
is continued to the extent it has hitherto reached, 
the soil must be gradually exhausted, and the ex- 
tent of our loss may be very easily estimated by 
considering that one pound of bones contains as 
much phosphoric acid as a hundred pounds of grain. 
The imperfect knowledge of nature, and the prop- 
erties and relations of matter possessed by the 
alchemists, gave rise i^ their time to an opinion 
that metals as well as plants eould be produced from 
a seed. The regular fonn» and rammifications seen 
in chrystals, they imagined to be the leaves and 
branches of plants ; and as they saw the see<|^f 
plants grow, producing K>ot, stem and leaves, and 
again blossoms, fruit and seed, apparently without 
recovering any supply of appropriate material, they 
deemed it worthy of jealous enquiry to discover the 
seed of gold, and the earth necessary for its devel- 
opement. If the metal seeds were once obtained, 
might they not entertain hopes of their growth ? 
Such ideas could only be entertained when nothing 
was known of the atmosphere, and its participation 
with the earth in administering to the vital pro- 
cesses of plants ai^d aiiimals, 

Modem Chemistry, indeed, prodnces the ele- 
ments of water, and, combining them, forms water 
anew, but it does not create those elements — it de- 
rives them from water; the new-formed, artificial 
water has been water before. Many of our farm- 
ers are like the alchemists of old ; they are search- 
ing for the miraculous seed — ^the means which, 
without any further supply of nourishn^ei^t to a 
soil scarcely rich enough to be sprinkled with in- 
diginous plants, shall produce crops of grain a hun- 
dred fold. The experience of centuries, na^, thou- 
sands of years, is insufficient to guard men against 
these fallacies ; our only security from these and 
similar absurdities must be derived from a correct 
knowledge of scientific principles. In the first pe- 
riod of natural philosophy, organic life was sup- 
posed to be denved from water only ; but we now 
know that other elements must be supplied by the 
earthy if plants are to thrive and multiply. The 
amount of materials contained in the atmosphere, 
suited to the nourishment of plants, is limited; but 
it must be abundantlv sufficient to cover the whole 
surface of the earth with a rich vegetation. Under 
the tropics, and in those parts of our globe where 
the most genial conditions of fertility exist — a suit- 
able soil, a moist atmosphere and a high tempera- 
ture — ^vegetation is scarcely limited by space ; and 
where the soil is wanting; it is gradually supplied 

by the decaying leaves, bark and Aie branches of 
plants. It is evident that there is no deficiency 
of atmospheric nourishment for plants in those re- 
gions, nor are these wanting in our own cultivated 
fields ; all that the plants require for their devel- 
opement is conveyed to them through the incessant 
motion of the atmosphere. 

The air between the tropics contains no more 
than that of the arctic zones; and yet how differ- 
ent is the amount of produce of an equal surface 
of land in the two situations I This is easily ex* 
plained. All the plants of tropical climates,' the 
old and wax palms, the sugar-cane, &c., contain 
only a small quantity of the elements of the blood 
necessary to the nutrition of animals, as compared 
with our cultivated plants. The tubers of the |kh 
tato in Chili, its native country, where the plan* 
resembles a shrub, if collected from an acre of land 
would scarcely suffice to maintain an Irish family 
for a single day. The result of cultivation in thosei 
plants which serve as food, is to produce in them 
those constituents of the blood. In the absence of 
the elements essential to these in the soil, starchy 
sugar and woody fibre are perhaps formed ; but no 
vegetable fibrine, albumen or caseine. If we in- 
tend to produce, on a given surface of soil, more 
of these latter matte^^ than the plant can obtain 
from the atmosphere, or receive from the soil of 
the same surface in its normal and uncultivated statCj^ 
must create an artificial atmosphere, and add the we 
needed elements to the soil. The nourishment 
which must be supplied in a given time to difierent - 
plants, in order to admit a free and unimpeded 
growth, is very unequal. On pure sand, on ca]. 
careous soil, on naked rocks, oi^ly a few genera of 
plants prosper^ and these are for the most part per- 
ennial plants. They require for their slow growtf^ 
only such minute quantities of mineral snbstancea 
as the soil can furnish^ which may be totally bar* 
ren for o^her species. 

Annua), and especially summer plants, grow 
and attain their perfection in a comparatively iSiort 
time ; they therefore do not prosper on a soil whidi 
is poor in those mineral substances necessary to 
their developement^ To obtain a maximum in 
height in the short period of their existence^ the 
nourishment contained in ^e atmosphere is net 
sufficient. If the end of cultivation is to be ob- 
tained, we must create in the soil an artificial at- 
mosphere of carbonic acid and ammonia ; and this 
surplus of nourishment, which the leaves cannot 
appropria,te from the air, must be taken up by the 
corresponding organs, that is, the roots, from the 
soil. But the ammonia, together with the carbon- 
ic acid, are alone insufficient to become part of a 
plant destined to the nourishment of animals. In 
the absence of the alkalies, the phosphate and oth- 
er earthy salts, no vegetable fibrine — ^no vegetable 
caseine can be formed. The phosphoric acid of 
the phosphate of lime,indin)ensable to the ceralia 
and other vegetables in the K>nnation of their 8eed| 



18 separated as an excrement ita great quantities, 
by md rme and bark of ligneous plants- How 
dmerent are thetayergreen plants, the oleaginous 
plants, the mosses, the ferns and the pines, from 
our annual grasses, the ceralia and the leguminous 
vegetables r The former, at every time of day 
during winter and summer, obtain carbon through 
their leaves, by absorbing carbonic a«id, which is 
not furnished by the barren soil on which they 
grow ', water is also absorbed and retained by their 
coriaceous or fleshy leaves with great force. They 
lose very little by evaporation, compared with 
other plants. 

On' the other hand, how very small is the quan- 
tity of mineral substances wmch they withdraw 
from the soil during their almost constant growth 
in one year, in comparison with the quantity which 
one erop of wheat of equal weight receives m three 
months 1 It is by means of moisture that plants 
reoeive the necessary alkalies and salts from 
the soil. In dry summers a 'phenomenon is ob- 
0erved, which, when the importance of mineral 
elements to the life of a plant waa unknown, could 
not be explained. The leaves of plants first de- 
veloped and perfected, and therefore nearear the 
surfBce of the soil, shrivel up and become yellow, 
lose their vitality and fall off while the plant is in 
an active state of growth, without any visible cause. 
This phenomenon is not seen in moist years, nor 

water: Carrots, pumpkins, peas, &c., are frequent- 
ly thus di&eased, when, after dry weather, the plant 
being near its full growth, the soil is.moistened by 
short showers, followed again by dry weathere 
The rapid evaporation carries off the water absorb- 
ed by the root, and thus leaves the salts in the 
plants in a far greater quantity than it can assimr 
ilate. These salts effloresce upon the surface of 
the leaves, and, if they are herbaceous and juicy, 
produce an effect upon them as if they had been 
watered with a solution containing a greater quan- 
tity of salts than their organism can bear. Of 
two plants of the same species, this disease befalls 
that which is nearest its perfection; if one should 
have been planted later, or be more backward in 
its development, the same external cause which 
destroys the one will contribute to the growth of 
the other. 

the Hortleiiltarift. 



No branch of agricultural industry is of greater 
importance than the forest in all its appliances. In 
most of the States the question now is not how the 
woodlands shall be most speedily cleared of the 

Sremature decay is now obvious. The perfectly 
eveloped leaves absorb continually carbonic acid 
and ammonia from the atmosphere, which are con- 
verted into elements of new leaves, buds and shoots ; 
but tiiis metamorphosis cannot be effected without 
the aid of the alkalies and other mineral sub- 
stanoes. If the soil is moist, the latter are contin- 
ually supplied to an adequate amount, and the plant 
retams its lively green color ; but if- this supply 
ceases from a want of moisture to dissolve the min- 
eral elements, a separation takes place in the plant 
itself. The mineral constituents of the juice are 
withdrawn from the leaves already formed, and 
are used for the formation of the young shoots ; 
and as soon aa the seeds are developed, the vitali- 
ty of the leaves completely ceases. These with- 
ered leaves contain only minute traces of solu- 
ble salts, while the buds and shoots are very rich 

in them. 

On the other hand, it has been observed that 
where a soil is too highly impregnated with solu- 
ble saline materials, these are separated upon the 
surface of the leaves. This happens to culinary 
vegetables especially, whose leaves become covered 
with a white crust. In consequence of these exu- 
dations, the plant sickens, its organic activity de- 
creases, its growth is disturbed ; and if this state 
continue long, the plant dies. This is most fre- 

ically answered, with the smallest inroad upon the 
standing timber ? Even in our new States, a good 
^'wood lot'^ is often considered the most valuable 
on the farm. 

Two questions are involved in the preservation 
of these forests : How may the uses of building 
material and fuel be economized ? How far may 
the products of the soil be increased and improved 
in quality, by proper management ? 

With the greatly improved methods of genen^ 
ting heat for domestic and manufacturing uses, 
not more than half the amount of fuel is required 
now that was consumed ten years ago. Iron and 
glass are fast gaining ground where strength is 
more needed than bulk, and where durability is 
an important consideration. 

I do not wish to discuss the economies of wood 
after it has been taken from the forest. How 
much and what quality of wood may be taken from 
woodland, consistent with the least deterioration 
of the permanent value of the forest, is a question 
that more immediately concerns the land owner. 
The oak is the most valuable of all our woods. It 

quently seen in folia«oous plants, the large sur- « j.^r j j • * * *i,« 

faces of which evaporate considerable quantities of is the most generally diffused, and is put to tbe 



greatest nuihbcr of good uses. It is well known 
that the most valuable timber is that which has 
attained its growth with most light and air. The 
Wagoh-makcr takes care to combine toughness and 
durability, by selecting his timber from trees of 
.^'secotid growth/' or from trees of first growth that 
Irom infancy have stood alon^ or far apart; Ac- 
ting on this hint, we would cull out first such of the 
t)ak8 as are unsound, giving those thdt are left 
Xiiore light and air. It is a fact in vegetable physi- 
ology^ that motion facilitates circulation, and that 
young trees confined to stakes do not form their 
foodies so rapidly as when left to the moving in- 
fluences of the breeze. The thinning should be 
carefully efiected too ; for the sudden exposure of 
the body of a tree to the light, after it has been 
shielded for centuries from the rays of the sun, is 
frequently fatal to it. The growth of a tree that 
has always been closely hemmed in and guarded by 
its fellows, has a form so different from one of the 
same species that has sprung up and come to ma- 
turity in the open ground, that the identity would 
ficaroely be recognized. Thus, the black walnut 
in the forest, is a tall, fine>looking and naked 
shaft, with often but a few short branches at its 
top ; while in the open field it grows low, round 
and spreading. I have often recommended the 
whitewood for the avenue, or as a very fit tree for 
private grounds, and have almost as often been 
asked if that tall, naked tree, out of which so much 
lumber is made, could be beautiful. Here let me 
say that the very general ignorance which exists 
of the difference of pent up forest trees and those 
that have had full exposure, is the great reason 
vhy ornamental trees for transplanting are so sel- 
dom chosen from many of the more common forest 
Tarietics. How often does the woodman's axe itch 
for contact with the tall, naked column of the white 
ash, whose tempting softness is destined to be un- 
til he shall have disposed of some harder but less 
valuable tree. As a lawn tree, that white ash be- 
comes short and round, close and symmetrical. 

The experiments of hundreds, in attempts to de- 
velope the sylvan beauties of wildwood, have failed 
from sudden and indiscriminate thining. I have 
seen the fruits of it on my own ground. A nar- 
row belt of forest, composed of oak, linden, hicko' 
ry and elm, was left a few years ago on the front 
of a sloping field. Noble old oaks bome of them 

were while.standing in the thick forest. I have 
hoped that exposure to the light would force them 
to throw out branches from their naked bodiefl, 
and that some of these days a pretty grove ifr^ould 
be the result, as many more sound trees of a youiig- 
er growth were left as body guards to shielcl their 
stems. These younger have done their duty Veil; 
but the old ones struggle on from year to year, and 
refuse to be comforted by the youthful family 
around them. Some of them have thrown out a 
few weakly branches, but as niany more look as if 
beginning to decay. I shall, after all, look to the 
second growth for my permanent and most beauti- 
ful shades: !rhe difficulty in my case ^aa that tli« 
wood was too suddenly thinned. Two-thirds <^ 
the large trees had been cut out of the belt nearly 
at once, judging from the appearance of the stumps, 
and all the trees on either side. 

Owners of wood lots do not attach sufflcieflt im- 
portance to the nut-bearing trees. It will not be 
very many years before the hickory, black-walnat 
and chestnut will have become so scarce as to pos- 
sess a value, for the fruit they might produce, 
quite exceeding that of most orchard trees. But 
a small portion of the hickory trees in foiesti 
where this is the prevailing tree, bear well, if at aU. 
The good bearers should be saved atld cherished. 
There is so much difference, too, in the quality of 
the nuts — neai'ly as much as in the fiiiit of a seed- 
ling apple orchard — ^that great care should be ta- 
ken in selecting the trees to be spared the axe. 
Some claim to be able to judge of the character of 
the nut by the number of leaflets in a leaf. I do 
not know how far this test may be relied on. 

In forest labor, there is quite too little attention 
paid to the fact that some trees are impatient of 
removal, and that such should be cherished on 
their natal soil. The hickory, for instance, is very 
difficult to transplant. Indeed, I do not recollect 
ever to have seen one of the common size for street 
planting, live long after removal. We should act 
upon the hint, and encourage it to give us the 
greatest possible beauty in the place where it ger- 
minated. Few of our Western farmers realize 
that they have been guilty of any great barbarity 
when they have ^ ^cleared" their last field without 
having left a hickory upon the farm. With this 
tree, utility and beauty go so hand in hand, that 
such wanton destruction is quite inexcusable. For 



beauty and thrift, .there arc few round-headed 
trees equalling the hickory. 

Thorough draining will much improve a forest, 
not only in the increased growth of the trees, but 
in the greater comfort of getting about in it. All, 
or nearly all woods are closer and firmer on a dry 
than on a wet soil. Often the vegetable matter 
that forest ditches afford would pay vei'y well for 
the trouble of cutting them; and it will generally 
be found that these drains will effect quite as 
favorable a change in the forest crop as in the 
field crop, though their influence would not be 
perceived so immediately. 

It is becoming an object in the older States to 
make forests for timber. On sandy soils, and 
such as compose the western prairies, the locust 
grows so rapidly that it soon arrives at a size profi- 
table for many uses. On a moderately rich, san- 
dy soil, the yellow or seed locust, if not sown too 
thick, is large enough at eight years old to make 
good fence posta, and would do very well for the 
rails of a post and rail fence. The sprouting pro- 
J)ensity of this tree precludes all necessity of re- 
planting. The character of the locust for durabil- 
ity is such that, if possible to get, it would be very 
generally used for railroad ties. A prairie or New 
England farmer could hardly make a surer pro- 
vision for his children, than to make a locust plan- 
tation of a portion of the land he holds in reserve 
for them. 

Now, Mr. Editor, these thoughts are intended 
more as suggestive of a great deal that should be 
said on forest culture, than for any intrinsic value 
t)f their own ; and I hope they may be the means 
of calling out more familiar pens. 


Dr, Cloudy Dear Sir: At a meeting called 
bv the Executive Committee of the '^Southern 
(jentral Agricultural Association, held in Macon, 
Ga.,*on the 21st of October, 1852, attended by a 
large number of the State Society of Georgia, and 
by delegates from Virginia, South Carolina, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, Florida, Tennessee and Louisi- 
ana, the following resolutions were adopted : 

Resolved, That the members of the Agricultu- 
ral Association of the Slave-holding States, to be 
organized as hereinafter recommended, be com- 
posed of such citizens of the same, as taking an in- 
terest in Agriculture, desire to become members 
thereof; and of delegates from State and Local Ag- 
ricultural Societies, and from States or parts of 


Resolved, That such persons as above designa- 
ted, are recommended to convene at Moiltgomerj^ 
Alabama, on the first Monday ill May ilext, and to 
organize an Agritjultural Association of the Slaye- 
holding State's, under such provisions as to them 
may appear best calculated to fulfill the purposes 
of their organization, which shall hold its meetings 
in succession in all the Slave-holding States that 
may participate in the Association. 

Resolved, That a Committee of Correspondence, 
consisting of seven, be appointed, to carry into ef- 
fect the foregoing resolutions. 

Acting under the third resolution, the under- 
signed respectfully beg your attention, arid solicit 
your co-operation and influence in promoting the 
great and important interests involved in the sub- 
jects which will engage the attenlipn of the con- 
templated assemblage in Montgomery. 

To us it is manifest that great advaiitageg may 
reasonably be e:^ected to result from periodical 
meetings of persons, or represeiltatives of persons, 
cultivating the soil of the South and West, having 
a common interest in the Institutions, Productions, 
Commerce, Manufactures and Education of the 
Planting States. 

The chief objects of such an Association would 
be, it is presumed — - 

To improve our own agriculture, yielding pecu- 
liar productioiis through the agency of a normal 
labor, requiring distinct economy, and dependent 
on a climate of its own. 

To develope the resources and unite and com- 
bine the energies of the Slave-holding States, so 
as to increase their wealthy power and dignity, as 
members of this Confederacy. 

To enlist and footer those scientific pursuits 
which reveal to us the elements and character of 
our soil, instruct iis in the presence of those mag- 
azines of fertilisers which nature has with so boun- 
tiful and considerate a hand provided for the uses 
of the industrious and the enterprizing ; and search 
out the histories and the habits of the insect tribes 
which destroy, it is believed, annually a fifth of 
our crops, and supply us with a knowledge of 
them which may enable us to guard against their 
future ravages. 

To promote the mechanic arts directly and in- 
directly ai^xiliary to agriculture, and by a gene- 
rous confidence and liberal patronage raise those 
engaged in them to a social position always the 
just reward of intelligence, industry and good 

To direct, as far as may be done, public senti- 
ment against the barriers which have been artfully 
raised to cut off our commercial intercourse with 
distant countries, save through such outlets as are 
supplied by Northern marts, exacting tribute upon 
what we produce and consume. 

To exert an influence in establishing a system 
of common school ingtruction which will mako 



Ghnstians as well as scholars of our children; 
which, in arming the risibg generation with the in- 
simments of knowledge, will instruct them also in 
fiieir proper uses ; impre^ing upon them, from 
first to last, that, especially under our form of gov- 
ernment, private worth constitutes the agreeate of 
public good, and that no one can disregard his du- 
ties to those around him, without positive injury to 

These constitute the main purposes for which we 
appeal to the individual and aggregate interests of 
the Slave-holding States to meet us in an Agricul*> 
toral ConTcntion, in Montgomery, on the 1st Mon- 
day in May )iext» Your attendtoice is respectfully 
and earnestly requested* 

W. 0. DAuNlEL, DeKalb County, 
GEO. B. GILMER, Lexington, 
THOMAS STOCKS, Greensboro,! 
A8BUBT HULL, Athens, 
JOHN P. KING, Augusta. 

Contrast in Fabminq. — ^In a recent oonver- 
Balion with Rev. Mr. Nash, of Amherst College, 
whom our readers may recolect as the author of 
an excellent article on wheat-growing in New-Eng- 
land, he stated to ns that some of his neighbors 
grow com at a clear profit of fifty dollars an acre : 
while within the same town there are others who 
do not get enough to pay the fair cost of cultiva- 
tion. For instance, one farmer plowed in thirty 
loads of coarse stable manure upon a light sandy 
8oil| and made 46 bushels of com. The next 
year he repeated the same process with the same 
]:0Biilt. This manure, at current prices, was 
worth more than the crop. The error was in u- 
sing the wrong kind of manure for such a soil. — 
What should have been used J Upon the same 
fium and convenient to the ground planted, there 
is a large bed of peat. If this had been compost- 
ed with stable manure in the proportion of one 
load of manure to three of peat, with a sprinkle 
of salt and lime, it would have made a manure 
worth more than that from the bam yard. 

Caatents of titia Niunb«r« 

Baron Liebio, the distinguished chemist, says, 
tliat as much fiour or meal as can lie on the point 
of a table knife is more nutrious than five meas- 
nieSi or about ei|^t<Mr ten quarts of the Bavarian 
beer; and that a person who daily consumes that 
amount of beer, obtains from it in a year the ar 
mount of nutriment which thereis in a five pound 
loaf of bread^ or in three pounds of filesh. 

The Histoty of Cotton Mooaiketarefl 97 

Preparation and use of Mannros 100 

Agricultural Education » 102 

Marl and Marling 105 

Excretion of Plants...*. ...... ....>i 108 

Clover in the South ...110 

Cold Cream for Sore Lips m 

Remedy for BnmB »,lll 

White Cup Cake » HI 

Cocoa Cakes » m 

Com Bread m 

Alkaline washes for the Sorfscsof Trees 112 

]>oiBestio Becipes. 112 

Agents and Notices Editorial 118 

Our New Dress ...« » 118 

Agricultural Association 114 

Horticultural Pair ^ lU 

Important Enquiries .116 

Cotton, its Improved and True Culture 115 

Bedpe for Indelible Ink. US 

plaktatiom sookokt. 

Number 4 , 117 

What may be done on a Prairie Plantation 118 

Fencing , , 118 

Will Peas KiU Hogs , 119 

Calcareous Manure 120 


Chemistry, Agriculture, Statement by liebl^ 122 

Treatment of Woods 125 

Cireular of the Committe of the Agrl. Congress.. ..125 
Contrast in Farming 128 

J. A. & s. s. viaaiN, 



# PIANOS, ^B^ HARPS, jtt 


VARnrnr of busioal iserohandisb, 




N. B. — Watches, Clocks, and Jewelrj repaired in the 
best manner. 

April 1, 1858-6t 



Mobile, September Ist, 1862. 



■ / /.. 

A Huitlily Jonnial, devoted to improved Fl&ntetion Econna;. Mannfacttues, and Mechanic Arts. 


No. 6. 

HlBtmy of (yoVtffA ■aini&ctiiie8. 

Of (ihe present ttctnal cODilition of the cotton 
muiafaetare m liis country, ve cannot apeak with 
entire certainty, nnlil the retnma of the censne, 
for 1850, are publiahed. We are d^cdent in de- 
tails, hnt for the fignrcs given above, derived 
flhieflj fi^m a work on Amerioan cotton rnaua- 
ftctorcB, by Eobt. H. Barrd, 1851, we can speak 
with confidence. 

Of the 2,5000,000 ootton spindles now in the 
United States, 150,000 are in the Soathem states, 
«id 100,000 in the Western. A committee of 
t)ie Hanu&ctnrere' Convention, held last year at 
Richmond, Va., stated, in their report, that there 
were 20 companies engaged in the manufacture of i 
ootton in that state, with an aggregate capital of 
♦1,800,000. Theso companies ran, when in full 
opention, 54,000 spindles, producing no yam, 
hovsver, inttr than No. 20. For some time past, 
tbwe Tii^ia mills have hul in full operation 
22,000 ^indies, at a redaction of 36 per cent on 
tha wages; 7,000 spindles three-fourths of the 
tine, »d 8,000 {4k^third of tbe tUw. The re- 
Biajndar of tha &otorise are entirely, or partioUy, 
ab^ed.* In Mvylaod, affiurs an not mutdi bet- 
tor tJun is Virginia. " Oat of 38 mUb in that 
slate," M^ Mr. BmhI, " only two are oonst^ttly 
oniAoyed; 18 work a part of the timei, and eight 

•Valrt'l CMton Splniicr, p. SS. 

are entirely idle. The total average product is 
less tiian half the capacity of the mills. In 
Rhode Island, too, we learn from a writer in the 
Scientific American, for Dec. 7, 1850, soma 70, 
out of the 130 cotton mills in that state, have 

These suapenwona and dcprrasions of our oot- 
tfia tnanufacturing operations are undoubtedly at- 
tributable to the following causes combined : 

1. Our present low tariff. 

2. The high price of cotton; and 

8. Out manufactoring too much coarse goods. 
Which of theso causes is the most potent, we leare 
onr readers to decide. The first trc cannot dis- 
cnsB without being drawn into tlie field of poli- 
tics. The second aSbcts Eoann&otnrea by turning 
capital into other channelB ; and the third by over- 
stocking the markets with coarse goods, and leav- 
ing our citizens dependent on other oonntrics for 
fine ones. If wo would keep the fine goods of 
other countFics out of our markets, we must man- 
ufiMture that description of goods at homo.— 
Nx)thing but an absolute prohibition of the fine 
ootton fabrics of other countries would keep them 
oat of our markets, if we did not manufacture 
tliam onrselros. If our manuiaotuTera do ttot 
supply the demand for fine &brira, they must and 
wUl oomo from abroad. The veal coarse oottons, 
and our manulaotuieis make scarcely an^hing 
else bat coarse ; and tjie consequence is, tbat the 
present supply of coarse fabrics is greater than 



the demand — ^the markets are glutted. Mills^ 
then, are obliged to stop. We consider this the 
chief cause of the failures. The other causes 
mentioned have their weight. 

The process of calico printing by machinery is 
the last invention, and the crowning one, in the 
manufacture of cotton. Before the introduction 
of calico printing, the cotton manufacture in the 
United States was considered to be too precarious 
to justify one in an attempt to manufacture the 
finer fabrics ; but the introduction of calico prin- 
ting has placed our cotton manufactures on a per- 
manent h^sia. Our consumption of domestic cal- 
icoes is immense, and all our coarser cotton &b- 
rics have the preference in the markets of South 
America, China, Siam, the East Indies, and else- 
where, on account of their being superior in du- 
rability to those of France and England. 

The comparative idleness of our cotton factories 
is to be deplored ; but the general government 
cannot justly be charged with die present state of 
things, and it is at least questionable whether the 
evils complained of can be removed by legislation. 
To succeed, it is evident that our cotton factories 
must manufacture those fabrics most in demand. 
If, alter glutting the markets with coarse fabrics, 
they ssill continue to manufacture them, t)iey 
must expect to fail, and no legislation could help 
them. Undoubtedly a higher tariff would help 
them some, but it would not obviate the necessity 
of nuuiufitcturers adapting their &brics to the de- 
mand and supply of various marketSi 

Our cotton Manufacturers are at present much 
affected by the importations of foreign cottons.—* 
The value of cotton goods imported into this coun- 
try, after deducting the amount re-exported, wsa, 


1844 $13,286,880 1848 $17,206,417 

1846 18,860,729 1849 16,182,618 

1846 12,867,422 1860 19,686,986 

During the year 1850, the value of the cotton 
goods exported from this country was $4,734,424. 

It is a curious fact in the history of the agri- 
cultural products of the earth, that cotton, which 
now yields to this country a profit of from $30 to 
$40,000,000 annually, was almost a worthless 
plant only sixty-six years ago. Mr. T. Coxe, a 
writer in Rees' Encyclopaedia, says, that in 
1786 cotton was only seen growing in ^gar- 
dcns in this counti^. Cotton crops and cotton 


planters, at that time, were quite unknown. Not 
a single bale of cotton was exported from this 
country before 1787, that is, of this country's 
growth. We find in Smither's History of Liver- 
pool, pages 129, 153, an account of the first ex- 
portations of cotton from this country, as follows : 

1770 8 bales from New-York. 

*^ 4 bags from Virginia. 

" 8 barrels from North-Carolina. 

1784 8 bales from ** America." 

1786 6 " " " 

1786 6 




All of this cotton was from the Spanish Main, 
or the West Indies. The eight bales marked 
" America," on arriving in England, were seised, 
it being presumed that so large a quantity of cot- 
ton could not come from America. It would 
seem that as late as 1794, Mr. Jay, when making 
the tfeaty with England at that time, was not a- 
ware that any cotton, was exported from the Uni- 
ted States.* The first export of our own cotton, 
according to M'Culloch, was in 1790. It was in 
small packages, called '^pockets." 

The prices of cotton at ftrst were very hi^. — 
In Engknd, in 1789, it was 22 pence per pound. 
In America it was as follows : 

1790 14} ots. 1796.... ..8B} cts. 1802 19 cts. 

1791 26 " 1797 84 " 1808..,...19 ^ 

1792 29 " 1798 89 " 1804 20 •• 

1798 82' " 1799 44 «* 1806 28 •• 

1794 88 " 1800 28 "^ 1806 22 " 

1796 86} " 1801 44 " 1807 21} " 

From 1807 cotton decHned until 1814, when it 
was 15 cents; 1815, 21 ; 1816, 29}; 1818, 34. 
It then declined to 15 cents in 1824, and in 1825 
rose to 21 cents. It then deelined to 9} cents in 
1827, and was not over 10| until 1883, when it 
became 11 ; 1834, 13 ; and in 1835, 16}. 

The United States export more raw cotton thaa 
all the rest of the world. For the last five years 
our exports have been ajs follows : 

1W6 „ $42,787,841 

1847 68,416,848 

1848 61,898,294 

1849 ^ 66,696^887 

I860 71,984,616 

1861 oyer 100,000,000t 

Europe paid the United States, in 1860, the 
enormous sum of $71,984,616, besides what she- 
paid to other cotton-growing nations. Our home 
coesumption is, at present, 539,000 bales ; that of 

* Ufctor Of th* SaerotMT Of tlM ftMsnzsr, Doe. No. 141^ ^ 88. 
t We bare not jet the Seeretary'e retttnt--Bluai henUtn glTf it. 



EiiglMid, 1,472,000 ; that of France, 863,000.— 
All tke rest of Europe together consume about as 
much as France. England, therefore, uses up 
more than one-half of all the cotton raised on the 
earth ; but all the people of Great Britain and 
her dependencies do not use as many manufactur- 
ed cotton goods as the people of the United States. 
Our home consumption exceeds that of all Europe. 

A. W. ELY. 

Bad and Barling. 

Silver Bluff, So., Ca. 

Silica, on the contrary, enters largely into the 
formation of the plant. It has, as I have men- 
tioned, acid properties, and combines with the al- 
kalies and alkaline earths and metals, forming salts 
of the greatest value in numerous points of view, 
which are <»illed silicates. It is the silicate of 
potash, sometimes replaced by that of soda, and 
to some extent that of time, which forms the out- 
er coating of straw, stems, stalks, &c., giving both 
strength and protection te the plant. These sili- 
cates are insoluble in water, so much so that they 
constitute the chief ingredient of. rocks. But 
that universal and inexhaustible agent, the car- 
bonic acid of the atmosphere, acting on the alka^ 
line basis of the silicates, decomposes them : 
hence the gradual breaking down of rocks under 
atmospheric influence. The presence of lime is 
also known to influence the decomposition of the 
silicates of potash and soda, and at the moment of 
decomposition, both the silica and alkali are solu- 
ble. Thus, lime aids materially in supplying 
these essential elements to plants. Whether it 
does so by its alkaline properties, or by concentra- 
ting carbonic acid, or merely by its catalytic pow- 
er, has not been settled. The silicate of lime it- 
self, when rendered soluble by the decomposing 
influence of "carbonic acid, sometimes, as I have 
stated, becomes, in their absence, a substitute for 
Ike silicates of potash and soda. It is this com- 
binatiod also, that renders light sandy lands more 
consistent, which is one of the most important ef- 
fects of lime on such lands — ^particularly on 4ke 
light uplands so extensively planted on this side 
of the Savannah, and in your county. The &ot 
is Unquestionable. It is usually reierred, as is the 
c opening of stiff lands, to the mccbuiical influence 

of the lime, but the cause assigned here, as in that 
case, is not adequate to the effect. 

The red and brown lands in your county are 
colored, as they are every where else, by iron. — 
You have no doubt observed that, after continued 
cultivation, some of the best of them cease to be- 
come productive without much apparent loss of 
vegetable mould, and are not rapidly restored ei- 
ther by rest or manure. Among other causes, this 
is owing, to a considerable extent, to the exces- 
sive oxidation of the iron in consequence of its ex- 
poseure, from plowing, to the atmo^here, whence 
it extracts oxygen, a process you see constantly 
exemplified by the rusting of old iron. ■ It be- 
comes what is called a peroxide of iron, which is 
very injurious to vegetation. Lime neutralizes all 
acids, and if put upon these lands in proper quan- 
tities, it will neutralize a portion of the acid in tbe 
iron, and convert the peroxide into a protoxide of 
iron, which, if not actually beneflcial, is a least 
harmless to plants. You have too, in some of 
your soils, the sulphuret of iron, so often taken for 
gold ore. This, on exposure to the air, absorbs 
oxygen, which produces sulphuric acid; and then 
forms the sulphate of iron or cc^peras, which is 
poisonous to plants, If lime is put on the iand it 
will arrest the accession of the sulphuric acid, thus 
formed, to the iron, and prevent the formation of 
copperas. But what is more, combining with the 
sulphuric acid itself, it forms sulphate of lime, 
commonly called plaster of paris, one of the most 
highly prized of all mineral manures, and an ele- 
ment in all, or nearly all plants. Lime has also 
the power of forming plaster in the same way when 
it comes in contact with sulphate of silicon, which 
is supposed to exist in all soils. It combines also 
with sulphuric acid, arising from vegetable decon^ 
position or any other source, and produces this val« 
uable salt. 

The sulphate of lime, called also gypsum, as 
well as plaster of paris, must exist to some extent 
in all soils, as it is found in almost all plants.— 
But, like the carbonate of lime, it is seldom to be 
detected by chemical tests. It may also be elim<^ 
inated from unknown combinations by the vital 
action of the growing plant. But in the way I 
have mentioned, it will undoubtedly bo fbamed Ia 
greater abundance in all soils, by the ^pplioatioB 
of lime. Sulphuric acid itself is often used as a ma- 



nnre, but experience has fully established the fact, 
that it is of little value except on calcareous soils ; 
and what is more remarkable, that sulphate of 
lime will also act with far greater effect on limed 
land. I rolled the cotton seed in it, previously to [ 
planting them, and thus applied it at the rate of 
only one peck of the plaster per acre. I am sat- 
isfied that the product, on the few acres to which 
it was applied, was one third greater than on sim- 
ilar adjoinidg land, marled also, but not plastered. 
I anticipate, therefore, the greatest benefit from 
the use of plaster after marl. I should remark, 
however, that it has not been found invariably 
)>eneficial even on limed lands. In England, and 
on our coast, south of Long Island, little advan- 
tage has been derived from it. Two probable 
causes have been assigned for this : the influence 
of 0ea air, which has not been satisfactorily ex- 
plained, and the probability that the lands in the 
regions mentioned have derived a sufficiency of 
gypsnm already from the sulphuret of iron, or 
other sources. Very little is required for plants : 
one peek per acre applied to the moistened seed 
will probably have as much effect, for one year at 
' least, as any other quantity. In the last dry seas- 
tm H had, on my land, double the effect of a bushel 
sown broadcast. Five to ten bushels are sometimes 

Phosphate of Lime is even more esteemed for a 
manure than the Sulphate. It is sometimes call- 
ed the " Earth of Bones," as bones contain over 
50 per cent, of this salt. Being less abundant 
than sulphate of lime, it is much more costly. — 

Bones are transported across the Atlantic to Eng- 
land, to be used as manure. Several hundred 
vessels are now engaged solely in transporting 
bones from various parts of the world to England. 
This phosphate is also an essential constituent of 
plants, though rarely to be detected in soils. But 
phosphorib acid, like sulphuric, arises from vege- 
table decomposition, from phosphuret of silicon, 
and perhaps other sources. If lime be present in 
Hie soil to fix it, not only is the vital action of the 
• plant relieved from producing it, but much is prob- 
-ably saved that would otherwise be lost. The 
tAft of eotton seed contains considerably more of 
thU acid than bones do, and hence the immense 
voixia of this seed as a manure. But its effects 
«re ]fV0Tdrbially transient. With lime in the soil 

sufficiently abundant to fix the phosphoric acid, 
cotton seed would be a manure almost as perma- 
nent as bones. But to detail all the operations of 
lime in the soil, in assisting to prepare food for 
plants out of the vegetable and mineral substan- 
ces — which compose it — ^would require me to write 
a much longer letter than you would read with pa- 
tience. I have touched on the most prominent 
only. The general consequences, however, which 
follow, and which are regarded as arising peculiar- 
ly from its applications to land, require to be 
glanced at. 

By opening stiff land, it renders it more per- 
meable to the air, and more subject to atmospher- 
ic influence, while its surplus water more readily 
escapes. Quick-lime, when saturated, holds more 
water than common clay, such as yours, but yields 
it more readily to heat, and is therefore of great 
use in drying damp lands and rendering them 
warmer. But it does not give up its water so 
promptly as sand, and therefore renders that more 
retentive of moisture. In fact. Marl containing 
50 per cent, of carbonato of lime, and the residue 
chiefly fine sand, will absorb more water than the 
common clay of your lands, and retain it as long. 
During the extreme drought last year, at one time, 
the plow turned up dry dirt in a field of mine 
marled that year at 100 bushels per acre, and not 
yet sufficiently mixed in the soil, while several 
days later, without intervening rain in a soil e- 
qually sandy and having less vegetable matter, 
but marled four years ago with 200 bushels per 
acre, earth quite moist was turned up at the same 
depth. You will readily perceive and appre- 
ate the value of marl in this respect. 

By rapidly natiu*alizing the noxiona, and vivi- 
fying the good properties of the subsoil brought 
up in breaking land, lime enables the farmer to 
deepen his soil more speedily and without risk. — 
Mr. Euffin's experience confirming ^e theoiy, is 
decisive on this point ; mine, so far as it goes, ill 
to the same effect. Lime undoubtedly haateiis 
the maturity of crops. Writers abroad state that 
it advances them a fortnight Before seeing these 
statements, my observation of my. own crops had 
led me to the same conclusion. Two weeks gain- 
ed to the cotton plant is equivalent to a degsec of 
latitude — a very material gain to us. 

It is also stated on good authority, that lime in 



land improves the qxidliti/ of every cultivatedcrop, 
a&d that it has the effect of increaeing the fruit in 
proportion to the weed. It is well known, that 
while the straw, stalks, &c. of plants, contain more 
of the carbonates, the seeds contain more of the 
phosphates. If the application of carbonate of 
lime increases the fruit more than it does the stalk, 
its indirect influence in producing phosphates is 
greater and more important than has been gener- 
ally supposed, and its value is enhanced in a cor- 
responding degree. It is siiid also to extirpate 
many noxious weeds. However this may be, I 
can testify that it gives great luxuriance to the 
growth of all the grasses with which our crops are 
infested. This, to the mere com and cotton plan- 
ter, may be no recommendation of it. I will state, 
however, that in a field planted in cotton in 1844 
and jested last year, which usually produces a 
heavy crop of hog-weed, when turned out, there 
came up, although it had not been plowed at all, 
an uncommonly fine growth of crow-foot ; which 
I can only account for from its having been marl- 
ed. The part longest marled had the best crow- 

Lime is thought in England to prevent smut in 
wheat — to destroy many injurious insects — to pre- 
serve sheep pastured on land after its use from rots 
and foot-rot — and it is every where regarded as 
improving the healthfulness of drained lands. In 
short, it is now generally agreed, not only by sci- 
entific men, but by the best and most experienced 
formers in every part of the world where it has 
been properly tested, that '' Lime is the basis of all 
good husbandry," — in which opinion I fully and 
cordially concur. 

From tbe Aneriean Famor. 

Natcltlve Talne of Oat-Hay. 

The following letter upon the above subject, 
from the pen of the late professor Norton, will be 
feuiid full of interest, and not the less so that its 
lamented author has passed into another state of 
existence; for though he bleeps now with his fath- 
ers, his writings were so marked by good sense 
and true philosophy, that the intelligent mind 
found in them pleasure as well as profit- At the 
time this letter was first published we read it with 
feelings of approbation, and cut it out for inser- 
tion, but have been hitherto prevented from doing 
so owing to the press of matter upon our pages. 

As the time for seeding oats will be coming on a 
pace, we seize the present occasion as an auspi- 
cious one, to give it publicity, and call the atten- 
tion of our readers to it. Professor Norton, as 
many of our readers know, was a gentleman of 
profound learning as an Agricultural chemist, ad- 
ded to which, he was passionately devoted to the 
science from a conscious belief in the vast bene, 
fits it was calculated to confer upon the agriculture 
of his country, and hence gave to every subject he 
discussed a thorough investigation. Therefore, 
the opinions and facta of such a man are the more 

The letter originally appeared in the Albany 

On the Nntritive Value of Oat-Bay. 

Analytical Laboratory, Yale Colleo, ) 
New Haven, Conn. July, 1850. j 

Eds. Cultivator: — ^In the January No. of 
the Journal of Agriculture, published by the 
Highland and Ag. Soc. of Scotland, I notice an 
article "on Oat Hay, and the relative nutritive 
value of oats cut green and cut fully ripe," by 
Dr. A. Voeleker, Prof, of Chemistry in the Royal 
Ag. College at Cirencester. The subject is one 
which has long interested me, and I call attention 
the more readily to the statements made here, in- 
asmuch as Dr. Yoelcker is an old friend, in whose 
results I have much confidence. We have work- 
ed together in the Laboratory of Mulder, where 
he was first assistant, and I am sure that he will 
benefit the cause of agricultural science, now that 
his whole energies are devoted to it. 

The idea of cutting grain while yet quite green, 
and of making it into hay in the same manner as 
grass, is not by any means entirely novel. Expe- 
riments of an imperfect nature have been made be- 
fore the present ones, with this same end in view. 
Some of these have perfectly suooeeded, while oth- 
ers have, if not unsnooessful, been at least leu 
striking in their sucoess. We have needed in the 
occurrence of these nnsatis&ctory experin^^ti, 
some general principles upon which to reeondle 
them if possible, or at least discover the scarce of 
error, or by means of which we might more folly 
attain our object of inquiry. We need also the 
union of scientific with practical knowledge. Up- 
on this subject, in order to the certain detennin*- 
tionof many point«, I will copy two or three sen- 



tcnccs from Dr. Voelcker's paper. 

'* On the other hand, I am convinced that prac- 
tical men will remain in the dark on many of the 
most important points of agriculture so long as 
they despise the aid of chemistry, and persist in 
solving inquiries connected with agriculture by 
mere blind experimentising ; By experiments I 
mean made without plan, or anything clearly de- 
fined and distinctly understood. K those engaged 
in such random trials will bear in mind that na- 
ture does not give a precise answer to an indistinct 
<j[ucstion ; and if they would be candid enough to 
believe, in all cases in which an experiment has 
failed to onswer thoir expectations, that the expe- 
riment itself, or the anticipated result, must be 
false in principle, and that consequently the fault 
is their own, and not on the part of nature — a 
great deal of good would be effected- Unfortu- 
nately, however, most men are as quick in con- 
demning the value of the materials used in a bung- 
ling experiment as they are eager to praise and 
enthusiastic in recommending every result when 
the experimenter has some kind of theoretical no- 
tion in his head with which the experiment can be 
9iiade to tally, the case is still worse. In this way 
a great deal of harm has been done, and the pro- 
gress of scientific agriculture retarded instead of 

There is much of sound practical sense in the 
above remarks, and every person who has studied 
over the numerous unproffitable and wearisome 
discussions, which fill up many of our agricultural 
papers, will fully appreciate it. It is for want of 
knowledge as to what they are about, that the con- 
tradictory results of most experimenters are to be 


In the present case. Dr. Vocclcker seems to 

have hapily united science with sound practical 

"inews, and we consequently have intelligible and 

reliable statements from him. 

The first point to which attention was directed, 

regarded the proportion of water contained in the 

straw and grain of the ripe and unripe oat respee^ 

tively ; both samples being of the same variety and 

taken from the same field. As might have been 

expected^ the green oats contained most water; 

ihis is shown by the following table : 



53«30 28.66 65.43 84.56. 

I have taken the mean of the various results 
given, as some discrepancy appears in the sin^e 
determinations. By this table, several general 
conclusions are indicated — 

1. That the proportion of water in the unripe 
plant is greatest. 

2. That the proportion of the dry straw in the 
unripe plant is greatest. 

3. That when the plant is dry, the grain bears 
a lai^er proportion to the straw than would have 
been imagined ; being, even in the green plant, 
more than one-third of the whole weight, and in 
the dry plant nearly one half. 

The next step taken by Dr. Voelcker, was to 
determine the nutritive value of his several sam- 
ples. In this case regard was had only to the 
amount of nitrogen contained in them, that being 
considered the most important ingredient, in esti- 
mating any particular variety of nutritious food. 
He calls the body in oats which contains nitro- 
gen, by the general name of protein ; this name 
applying to a class of bodies that contain about as 
much nitrogen, and that arc aliovt as nutrious, as 

lean meat when it is dry. 

The proportions, or per eentages of protein ob- 
tained by Dr. Voelcker were as follows r 


Grain, 15^89 pr. ct. of protein compounds, 




Grain, 17.87 pr. et. of protein compoundff. 
Straw, 11.01 " of ** " 

PIr isntage of Waters Proportion of Straw to Grain. 

Straw. Grain, Dry Straw. Grain. , ixi. i. xi. i. j ^a aa..:^^^ 

f^.48 30.W S7.56 46.45. I the unripe oats, although they had not attainea 

Mo. n. was cut when the stalk and leaf were 
yet quite green, and the grain milky, but fnlly 
formed. They were cut at the same time, the 
green oats having been sown about one month la- 
ter than the others. 

The conclusions to be drawn from the above re- 
sults are not only extremely interesting in a m- 
entific point of view, but are of much practkal 

1. We see in comparing the numbers in the 
ripe and unripe straw, that the latter contains Zi 
per ot. more nitrogen than the former. 

2. That the unripe grain also contains more ni- 
trogen; this may seem a very strange result, but 
may be explained when we consider the fact, that 




their full bulk, had received most of their nitro- 
genooB compounds, and ihat the after increase 
while ripening, must haye consisted mainly in an 
accumulation of starch, and other non-nitroge- 
nous bodies. 

In addition to the facts established by these a- 
nalyses, it is to be borne in mind, that the unripe 
straw is also much richer in starch, gum, sugar 
and other compounds of the same nature, all of 
them both nutritious and easily digestible, but 
which are for the most part in ripening, gradually 

converted into woody fibre. 

Here too, the larger quantity of water, which 

has been already shown to exist in the unripe 
straw, is to be brought into the account. This 
water helps to render the food more soluble, and 
more easily digestible by the animal. We find 
then an equal weight of the unripe straw and grain, 
contains vrwre nitrogen, more sugar and gum, and 
also more water ; so that while it is more nutri- 
tiouSj it is also at the same time more easily assim- 
ilated and digested by the animal. This last is a 
point of more importance than is usually imagined. 
Of two kinds of food containing equal quantities 
of nirogen, one may be vastly superior in its ef- 
fects when fed, and this simply because it can be 

readily digested; a large portion of the other may 
even pass through the body unaltered. 

Dr. Voelcker gives, in addition to his theoreti- 
cal results, two letters from farmers who have seen 
oat hay tried. One of them says, " that when 
cut fine, oat hay goes one-fourth farther than if 
the oats and straw had been allowed to ripen." 

In many parts of the country, it is very diffi- 
cult to produce good grass for cutting; but easy to 
g^w quite tolerable oats, at least so for as bulk of 
straw and appearance of head is concerned. The 
grain may not fill out well if allowed to stand, but 
still would serve a good purpose as fodder when 
cut green and made into hay. There is no loss 
of the grain by shelling when cut in this way, and 
the hay would be highly relished by stock. 

I have no doubt but the same system would do 
well in the case of rye, or other grains ; hay made 
from them would also be exceedingly nutrative. — 
The facts given in the report of Dr. Voelcker, are 
quite sufficient to warrant my calling attention to 
this subject, and recommending experiments in 
such districts as feel the need of good winter fod- 
der, and this of a variety that can be obtained 
without great expense. John P. Norton. 

From Uie WMtcra Plow-Boy. 

Education of the FaimenH-OoDeges, 8cg. 

In all efforts at improvement, no matter on what 
subject or in what direction, it is best to begin at 
the beginning ; to go to the root of the matter. 
The beginning o? agricultural improvement is 
with the agriculturalist himself. The startiug 
point is in his mental culture — ^his intellectual 
training — ^his Education. 

The restless disposition to seek after something 
new and to be dissatisfied with whatever is old, 
forms a striking and peculiar characteristic of the 
American mind, and constitutes the distinctive 
type of the age and country. Nor is this dispo- 
sition wrong or matter of wonder, so long as it 
is confined within the conservative limits of true 

reform and improvement. Too many look upon 
things which have become common and familliar 
by use, as they look upon a garment which they 
have worn, and consider that because they have 
worn it for a time, it is really worthless and must 
be thrown aside or changed. 

In some matters this spirit of change and rev- 
olution may meddle^ and with no danger of inju- 
rious consequences resulting* When, however, 
other matters are concerned, old and established, 
and tried institutions, this disposition at innova- 
tion and change is to be regarded and watched 
with deep concern and apprehension, lest we should 
injure useful establishments, and attempt a sub- 
stitution of others in their places, inferior in point 
of ability, and more costly in their arrangements. 
In such caseS; higher principles must govern, than 
those which actuate when we change the cut of our 
coats or the style of our hats. In such cases we 
should not follow the dictates of fashion, but the 
suggestions of enlightened reason. 

If; following the fashion of the times, the pop* 
ular cry is heard, for great changes in our educa- 
tional systems and institutions — ^institutions the 
alma mcUer of the great and the good of our 
country and our times ; men honored and distin- 
guished at home and abroad for their attainments 
and exploits, whose discoveries in science and the 
arts have shed their beneficial infiuence over the 
nation and the world — ^we should lend a cautious 
and distrustful ear. We do not believe that our 
institutions are perfect, that they may not some- 
times be improved by introducing chi^nges into 



their organization and course of instruction^ but 
we do mean that an old and tried thing is liot to 
be abandoned and thrown aside simply because of 
its old age, or a new one substituted in its place in 
simple obedience to popular clamor or the dictates 
of fashton. If old and established institusions 
and modes of instruction have failed to fulfil the 
beneficial purposes for which they were intended, 
let them be given up and abandoned ; or if, in 
the change of circumstances resulting from the 
progress of society, they fail in their adaptations 
to meet our newly recuring wants and cannot fill 
the place they once occupied, let them be substi- 
tuted by other and by better institutions. 

We have been led into this train of remarks in 
consequence of the prevalence of opinions in cer- 
tain quarters, and to a great extent in agricultu- 
ral circles, that our colleges and higher schools 
of learning are not adapted and fail to meet the 
pcadiar wants of the farmer ; that ho needs in- 
stitutions differing in character and plea from 
those which now exist ; that the present will do 
well enough for lawyers, doctors and clergymen, 
who are to fill a different sphere of life and busi- 
ness, but arc not adapted to the education of the 
farmer and agriculturalist. This view looks very 
plausible, and is in accordance with a class of pre- 
vailing and popular ideas, and it is no wonder that 
farmers should fall in with it and bo made to "be- 
lieve that it is just the thing which the case re- 

Is the position taken by the advocate of the 
new system really sound and tenable ? If the 
view taken by the advocates of change and reform 
be the right one, then of course to be consistent 
it must necessarily apply to all persons designed 
to be educated, and the lawyer, doctor, and cler- 
gyman must each have his peculiar and adapted 
institation. Again in order to reach the real 
merits of the question, how the farmer ought to 
be educated, it is necessary to understand first 
what the course of studies in the colleges and high- 
er institutions is designed to accomplish. We an- 
swer they are designed to devolope and strengthen 
the powers of the human mind. All the exerci- 
ses and studies of the college have one end, and 
only end in view, the development of the intel- 
lectual faculties and powers. The systematic and 
thorough training of the student, in mathematics, 
lancuagosj or science^ has no reference necessarily 

to his future vocation or business ; it embmces not 
the ulterior question whether he is tabeeom*^ in «£> 
ter life a lawyer, doctor or clergyman, s fermor bar 
mechanic. His whole course of studies and in* 
struct ion is to be regarded as preparatoiy to hia 
future calling ; it is only a disoipline laying a 
foundation. In his training and diseipline, the 
student acquires more than what is merely rodi* 
mental, he gains much that is eminently practical 
in knowledge; yet still the course is designed foqr 
training and development of mind. For secoriiig 
these objects, training and deuelopment^ his course. 
is wisely planned so that he proceeds from the less 
to the more difficult and obscure studies ; it is de* 
signed to lead his mind from step to step in its up- 
ward course, as the intellect acquires new powcy 
by previous exercises. If we have not stated 
correctly the leading objects of study in early life, 
we must confess our [ignorance of what those ob- 
jects are. 

If we are correct, then, in the position we have 
taken, what institutions are necessary and requi- 
site for the education of farmers' sons. Shall wo 
establish institutions which have no reference to 
the development ai^d training of the intellectual 
faculties and powers — ^institutions which shall 
contract their views within the yarrow limits of 
merely teaching the sons of ^mers how to plow, 
to sow and reap ; to analyze soils, classify rocks, 
and distinguish and call by name the different ob- 
jects of mature; or to extend their acq[uirementa 
farther and en^braoe the entire circle of sciences 
pertaining to agriculture ? This is right and high- 
ly importsnt, so far as it goes, but it is radically and, 
essentially ipaperfect and defective ; it pinst still 
embrace, in order to meet the wants and necessi- 
ties of the farmers' sons, that wide range of ify^ 
struction which secures the full a^d entire object 
of mental discipline — that which shall develope 
the intellectual powers. Entertaining these viewa^ 
we believe that institutions of the higher orde^ 
already exist in sufficient numbers to meet all the 
wants and necessities of the country, especially, 
in the older portions. We believe these views to 
be correct not only in reference to the full and en- 
tire objects of education, but equally true in re- 
gard to the economical aspects of the question.— 
Wo believe that while some local and incidental 
advantages may accrue, there are many and great- 
er disadvantages resulting from the multiplicatioi^ 




«f ooUeges. If the laige scuds neceesary to be 
•t{iiadedBiisew institiitioiHi; in the eiecfcioA of 
Irafldnigs, sastainisg a full corps of instructors, 
ftumifihing apparatus^ and providing for endow- 
lAents ; were bestowed upon the older institutions, 
It would increase their efficiency and means of use- 
lulness^ and we should not often bohold the morti- 
fying spectacle of a so called, college with no at- 
tribute to distinguish it from an academy or high- 
School except its name, left to languish and fail of 
usefulness, for want of the promised support of 
those whose &lse views and over estimate of its 
necessity, led to its creation. 

The plans which have been recently adopted in 
many of the older institutions of the country, are 
eminently oalculatod to make them more useful to 
the agriculturalist ; they consist chiefly in widen- 
ing the range of studies in those sciences which 
have a particuliar application to agriculture, and are 
adapted to meet the particular wants of the far- 
mer. In a word we believe that the institutions 
now established, are fitted in their organixation 
and course of study, 'to meet the wants of the 
fJEurmers' sons, or that they may be made so with 
a very little alteration. We have spoken of the 
cap»bilitieB of our present institutions, and not of 
that course of institutions peculiarly adapted to 
the farmer. But, we ought to remember that it 
is not simply the farmer who is to be educated 3 we 
must take a wider range and more comprehensive 
view, includtng the man and citizen, in all their 
varied and responsible relations, and consider that 
course of education, which leaves these unprovi- 
ded for, as essentially defective and unsound ; as 
tending to engender and foster low and narrow 
views which pertain only to place and business, 
and regards the farmer as one who digs and toils, 
ai>d nothing else. The principles on which our in- 
stitutions of learning are founded, though ancient 
ai« not absolute, they rest upon that which is es- 
sentially unchangeable, while at the same time 
they are not yielding in their adaptations to the 
nrogress of the human mind as it advances in dis- 
coveries in science ; enlarging their fields of ope- 
ration; adjusting themselves to the altered condi- 
tions of society which they have been mainly in- 
strumental in bringing about. 

'All permanent improvement of lands must 
look to lime as its basis. 

From the Farm »&d Garden* 

Amtttlcaii Womeii and Bual Life* 

We readily concede all the essential afld }m1'« 
mary virtues of Ameriean Women. Un meuse 
they have never been exceeded in any age of the 
world, in all the qualities that constitute the best 
of wives, mothers, daughters, friends ; and they 
are ever ready to undergo sufieing and privation 
when friend or country demand the sacrifice. If 
the history of the Women of the Revolution could 
bo written it would astonish the world. Ay, too, 
or of the Women peceding the ttevolutionr^—vfhim 
the war-whoop from every comer of the fields, 
from every angle of the road-side, sent a pang to 
their inmost souls ; when the stealthy savage, ly- 
ing in ambush for them, or those dearest to them, 
and aided by the keen gunnery of their Friencb 
alHes, might at any moment consign father, hus- 
band, brothers, and sons to a bloody grave, or their 
little ones to a hopeless bondage ; when every pri- 
vation, cold, exposure to the rude elements, hun- 
ger, toil, and sickness were endured for a century 
and a half, from the landing of the May Flower 
till the final struggles with our most unnatural 
parent— endured too with gentleness, modesty, 
unsullied virtue, patient meekness, and self-sacn-* 
ficing forgetfulness of their own sufferings, that 
their posterity might be nurtured in piety and in-i 
telligence, the best interest of their country ad-i 
vanced, and a pure and undefiled religion dissemt 
inated throughout the world. All this we kno^ 
from a carefully cherished tradition, having thus 
far been handed down by our earliest nursery tales 
through every age of childhood. If all these 
characteristics of our female ancestry were fully 
delineated, (and we know of no more prolific and 
useful theme for our literary countrymen,) we 
should have a graphic embodiment of female vir-* 
tues, such as the world has not hitherto seen.— 

And we believe, too, that as a body, American 
Women have not degenerated ; that their daugh<« 
ters and grand-daughters lure ready now,, as their 
grandmothers were before them, to endure what* 
ever is necessary for the advadcement of their kin-* 
kred, and country, and race. It is not the ma« 
jority of them we have in our mind in the follow- 
ing suggestions, which we feel bound to make, but 
an unworthy few only, who have temporarily for- 
gotten their true dignity and place. Wc allude 



to 6ueb as either through affectation or disgust^ 
tcomihe scenes, and duties, and employments of 
rural life. 

We never see a lady luxuriantly attired, and 
with all the surroundings of wealth and fashion, 
discussing the last concert or opera, and to eyery 
suggestion made by a country fnend turning a 
deaf or indifferent ear, that we do not commiserate 
the littleness of her mind ; and if to this she adds 
a contempt for country life or country enjoyment, 
our pity gives place to indignation, that beings 
claiming the possession of a soul, should so de- 
mean their nature and its Great Creator. They 
can, forsooth, admire the French flowers or feath- 
ers of their milliners, or the latest landscape of a 
fashionable artist, and absolutely go wild on the 
Echo of a Bird Song of some fair cantatrice in a 
close room, poisoned with gas and feted human 
breath ; yet they have not one word or sentiment 
of admiration for the green woods and fields, the 
fresh and the feathered warblers that make a Para- 
dise of the country. Some, perhaps many, there 
are who only acknowledging the claims of these to 
their admiration, nevertheless eschew all else that 
attaches to country life. The oversight and di- 
rection of female rural employments, the partici- 
pation in which gives such a glow to thQ cheek, 
such elasticity to the step, and such vigor to both 
body and mind ; and more especially, when all 
these are to be endured through late autumn, win- 
ter, and early spring — ^this, is too much for female 
endurance, and can by no means be tolerated. 

Now we know many a fine, sensible man, (and 
if the ladies will promise to keep the secret, we will 
whisper in their ears, that it is by the urgent solicita- 
tion of some of them that we write this article,) 
who has a country domicil, and small farm attach- 
ed, (which with proper inducement from its fe- 
male inmates, he would gladly enlarge,) surround- 
ed with all that can make home desirable, yet all 
is insufficient to attach the feminine heart, and on 
the advent of the first frost, they must forthwith 
away to town, to participate in the gay and heart- 
less round of a winter's city dissipation. The 
hnsband and father might sell his city residence, 
and retire to his country home with a competency 
for his family, where all that is really worthy in 
life might be enjoyed; yet giddy female ambition 
dissents, and seeks still greater display and noto- 
riety, and the overtasked father^ driven to almost 

superhuman exertion to provide for his' family's 
increafling wants, finally breaks down in haalth| 
and is consigned to a premature grave; his fol> 
tune is dissipated, and perhaps these same ambi* 
tious females are driven by want to eke out a slen- 
der support in some of the already overburdened 
employments of their sex* 

We are sure we counsel our fair countrywomen 
wisely, when we advise all of them to foster rath- 
er than check the hankerings after rural life man- 
ifested by their husbands or fathers. Implant 
these predelications if they exist not already^ and 
by every proper and gentle means aid to develop 
them if the germ is already there. Go with them 
to the country on the first solicitation, and if they 
have it not, aid them in selecting a pleasant rural 
residence. Embellish it with all the skill which 
belongs to a cultivated female taste. Participate 
in all the toils that may be necessary to make that 
home delightful, for health and pleasure wait ou 
such exertions, and use your benign influence to 
keep your protectors from the perils and dissipa- 
tions of city life rather than incite them to their 



From th« Fkrmer and PUaii«r. 

Experiment withOnano and Bam-Tard Ha- 


Shinglkton. Sussex, Co., Va., 1 
February 18, 1853. j 

Messrs. Editors : Although yours, dated the 
31st of January, found my " pen ready nibbed," 
yet I must respectfully decline entering the '^lisf 
for a " free fight" with any of the champions of 
the " fungus theory" for smut. Close observa^ 
tion has convinced me as to the cause of smut ; 
and nothing that has been said or can be said, 
will decide the question : a discussion on this sub- 
ject is perfectly useless. A great deal of theoret- 
ical nonsense has already been brought to bear oa 
this question. Francis Bonner, Esq., pehaps the 
greatest champion for the fungus theory, wrote 
ably and labored zealously to prove the cause ho 
advocated, the true and only one. How fruitless 
the efibrt! Others have followed : — ^but theory 
will never put under foot truths that practical, 
close observing agriculturalists have arrived at.-r- 
The theorist may spin his "long yams," however 
plausible, yet must rest contented with convincing 
those of his "own cloth." But enough of this. 



I shall read with pleasure the discussion of this 
question, and shall look for some '' far-fetched" 
arguments from the fungus theorists. 

My object in addressing you, was to give the 
result of an experiment with guano compared 
with good barn-yard manure, on com last season. 

In the spring of 1852, I laid off that portion 
of my com land that I designed manuring with 
barn-yard compost — having subsoiled and covered 
with scrappings from the woods, the remainder of 
the com shift. 

The manure applied — ^which I term bam-yard 
compost — ^was a complete mixture of stable ma- 
nure, manure from fattening hogs, dropping from 
cattle, ashes, ditch bank earth, plaster and salt. — 
This manure was in fine condition when applied, 
being slightly fermented in the heap. An excess 
of fermentation should be avoided in the heap : 
the earth is the proper place for complete fermen- 
tation — ^then that portion ( f manure which are 
volatile, are secured and held in reserve for the 
cultivated plants. A heavy dressing' of this com- 
post was applied broad-cast, and covered some six 
or eight inches with a two horse plow. The ma- 
nuring being completed, I found that there was 
something over an acre of land left unmanured — 
on this I determined to try guano ; and in this 
way, at the second working of the com, throw the 
earth from the com ("narrow way") with single 
tum plows, running some ten or twelve inches 
from the plants — ^then deposit two table spoonfulls 
of guano in the furrow just opposite the plants, 
so diat in the future cultivation of the crop the 
guano would not be disturbed by the plow or hoe, 
as the cultivation would be the " wide way." — 
The guano mixed with } plaster was thus applied 
about the last of June ; putting a single table 
spoonful on each side of every plant, and turning 
the earth back to the com as fast as the guano 
was applied. It was not disturbed in the least, in 
the further cultivation of the crop. 

Notwithstanding the crop was then suffering 
froQi a severe drought, which continued many 
days after the application of the guano, yet its ef- 
fjscts w^re to be seen in the dark green which the 
corQ assumed in a few days. Some fifteen days 
after its application we had a very good rain, then 
its stimulating and beneficial effects began more 
rapidly to dcvelope ; the crop grew more rapidly 

where the guano was applied than that portion to 
which the barnyard compost was put, and I began 
to fear an excess of stalk and blade. I left one 
row through the centre of the guano piece unma- 
nured, in order to test its effects more satisfactori- 
ly. In November the entire crop was gathered^ 
and an average row was selected from the gua^ 
noed piece and the manured portion. Here is the 
result, measured carefully and accurately: Ma« 
nurcd row, measured at the rate of 20 bushels 
per acre. Guanoed row, rate of 32 bushels per 
acre. Unmanured row, rate of 13i bushels per 
acre. It is but just to state, that owing to thd 
severe drought, the bam-y«rd compost did t»cft 
benefit the crop but little, that portion of the crop 
suffered more than any other, and was greatly in- 
jured. That portion of the crop to which wood 
scrappings was applied and the land subsoiled, 
kept its color throughout the drought, and made 
as good a return as the manured land did in pro- 
portion to its fertility. 

Troly yours, 

Thomas £. Blount. 

"From the Caltirator. 

The Forces of the Farm. 

Success in any business requires a thorough 
knowledge of the means and material under em- 
ploy. Place the levers of a locomotive in the 
hands of one who had never before seen this pow- 
erful machine, and instead of being able to drive 
it with the speed of the wind and the precision of 
mathematics, he would be sadly puzzled to know 
what first to do with his important charge. What 
could a plowman do if required to superintend a 
cotton factory ? Or a blacksmith the machinery 
of a wholesale merchant ? What could a shop- 
keeper accomplish if placed in charge of a thresh- 
ing machine, a horse-reaper, or a subsoil plow f 
We should all doubt the sanity^ the urafi^ho 
would send for a lawyer to set a fractured limb, 
although he might point out to the nicety of a hair 
the rights, privileges, &c., of John Doe and Richard 
Roe, and their legal representatives. But it needs 
no argument to show the absurdity of looking for 
knowledge where it is not to be found ; it is notj^ 
however, quite so plain to every one, that no bus- 
iness can be well conducted without thorough 
knowledge of all its parts. The idea that men 



micceed by a sort of lucky guessing, instead of a 
thorough mastery of facts and principles, is quite 
too prevalent. , 

We remember some years ago, as an example, 
that a newly invented water wheel was highly re- 
oommended to the public as possessing, with an 
equal amount and fall of water, three times the 
power of the best overshot wheel. The wildness 
of such a claim would have been instantly evident, 
to many who were deluded by it, had they only 
known or reflected, that the principles of gravity 
are such, that one hundred pounds of water de- 
scending ten feet, could never, by the most cun- 
ningly invented machine, be made to elevate more 
than a like quantity of water to a similar height, 
or do its equivalent in any other way. The heath- 
en poet, who, in his historical fictions, spoke of 
wine that was twenty times stronger than common, 
that is, four times stronger than pure alcohol, did 
not commit a greater blunder than many do in 
their estimates, or rather vague conjectures of the 

power of machinery: 
InTentors of farm machines, like most other 

men, resemble very much a flock of sheep, and 
follow where some one is- bold enough to lead. 
Hence we see that they have not struck off so 
much into every possible avenue, as they have 
travelled with the mass in certain beaten tracks. 
We have a plow invented for nearly every county 
io the Northern States, but not half a dozen wcU- 
ponstructed harrows j we have had for a long time, 
fk vast number of thrashing machines, but until 
very lately, scarcely a reaping machine was known. 
The World's Fair, it is true, has turned the tide 
of fashion iti the latter direction, and we shall now 
goon have them by scores. We havQ been sup- 
plied with as great a variety in churns as the dish- 
es of a French cook ; yet a good milking machine, 
a thing of much greater consequence, (counting 
le consumed,) has never yet been made. 
We have often wondered why Yankee ingenuity 
had never yet devised a good mangle, although 
hours are consumed every week, in nearly all 
families of this broad country of 20 millions, by 
the hard labor of the ironing table ; yet sausage- 
stuffers and sausage-mincers, paring-machines and 
pepper-grinders, have all had a large share of at- 
tention, although perhaps used but once a year. 

We cannot but believe, that one great reason of 
the defilclcncy in these, and in many other par- 

ticulars, is that farmers themselves do not ade- 
quately comprehend what is needed, and what 
may be accomplished. They do not possess a suf- 
ficient knowledge of the principles of machinery, 
in many instances, to qualify them for judging of 
the merits of new machines ; to know how much 
and no more, the best application of force can ac- 
complish ', and especially to enable them to judge 
with some degree of confidence, whether inventors 
have nearly reached perfection in any particular 
point, or whether there yet remains a great field 
unachieved before them. It is here, if anywhere, 
that a thorough knowledge of means and materials 
— of facts and principles — is needed, to enable 
every one to conduct his business understandingly. 
We will furnish a few examples, by way of ex- 

The crow-bar is simple and effective, and, so 
far as it goes, may be considered as having about 
reached perfection. It possesses but little friction^ 
and a given force applied to it is wholly applied, 
without any loss, to the desired end. How is it 
with the reaping machine ? One man, with th^ 
best hand-machine, will cut two and a half acres 
of wheat in the day. A horse is reckoned to the 
work of five men, consequently a two-horse reaper, 
deducting one-fourth for the friction of the parts, 
should do seven and a half times as much work as 
a single hand, or nineteen acres in a day 
— an amount which has been nearly reached by 
the best reapers. They cannot, therefore, be ex- 
pected to be greatly improved in the quantity, but 
rather in the perfection of their work, and in cheap- 
ness and simplicity. Apply the same kind of 
calculation to the plow, and the reader cannot but 
be surprized at the great field yet open for im- 
provement. A cubic foot of earth weighs about 
125 pounds ; a team turning a slice a foot wide 
and six inches deep, and moving four feet per sec- 
ond, lifts two cubic feet of soil, or 250 lbs, m each 
second, about on an average seven inches high. 
Now, a good American horse has been found, in 
ordinary work, to lift one hundred pounds, at the 
rate of four feet per second, or seven hundred lbs. 
seven inches high per second, which is neaiiy three 
times as great as the amount effected by two horses 
attached to a plow. That is, five-sixth of the force 

applied is expended in overcoming friction and 

cohesion. Hero is a chance for inventors to ex- 



crcise their ingenuity for a lung time to come^ in i 
endeavoring to lessen this loss of five hundred per 

A two-horse team, as we have just remarked, 
should do nearly ten times as much work as a sin- 
gle hand. This remark applies to cafles where the 
full strength of the man is exerted to the best ad- 
vantage. But the gain by machinery is greater 
if well perfected, in doing what men perform to a 
decided disadvantage, or where their strength can 
only be partially applied. Such for example, is 
the case with some of the best seed planting ma- 
chines, as compared to planting by hand, ; or of 
some of the most perfect horse hoes or oultivatoiB, 
as compared to the slow and tedious process of 
hand weeding, in neither of which instances is one 
half of the human strength advantageously ^>- 
plied. It is here that inventors are to look for ex- 
traordinary results. The manufacture of cotton 
furnishes an interesting illustration — ^where the 
best modem, machinery turns out in each day at 
least two hundred times as much goods as the te- 
dious process of hands and fingers accomplished 
eighty years ogo. 

Our limits will not allow us to enter into the 
details of this subjeet, which would furnish ample 
materials for a volume. We only wish to ccUl the 
Attention of farmers, whose business it is to judge 
of farm machinery, and furnish suggestions to 
manufacturers, to the importance of thoroughly 
miderotaaiding the subject- 
It is interesting to look back and see what has 
already been done. The capital now invested in 
farm labor and farm forces in the United States, 
is not less than five hundred millions of dollars 
per annum, although but one half of what it would 
have been, but for the improvements in the plow, 
the thresher, the fanning mill, the seednsower, the 
horse^^e and the reaper. What may yet be 
done towards reducing this enormous amount, must 
depend on the ingenuity of our inventors, and on 
the general knowledge and experience of our 

No lands can be preserved in a high state of fer- 
tility, unless elover and the grasses are cultivated 
in the course of rotation. 

^ Tomamixe, or iime wet. lands, is to throw ma- 
jasae^ lime n^i labor away.- 

From the Journal of Agricnltare. 

Power of the Soli to retain naniues. 


We propose in our present number to show the 
power of the soil to retain manures, and the means 
of improving this property when required. 

For a long time it was supposed that all mate*' 
rials soluble in water Would pass downward id so* 
lution, and thus bo lost to plants — those who 
worked clayey soils claimed that, because water 
could not readily percolate their soils, that hence, 
they were not Zcoc/iy, and therefore retained ma- 
nures — ^while other operators with sandy soils 
argued that manures passed downward and were 

soon lost to the surface of the soil. 

AU these position are false. It is true, that a 

fair proportion of alumnia is valuable to sdls, and 
in the absence of oarbonaoeous matter is absolHle-' 
ly necessary for the retention of manures, bat it is 
not true that the tenacious property of clay need 
exist to such an extent as to prevent the free titra- 
tion of pure water before the manures will be veh 
tained— for many soils whioh will pass poie water 
readily, wiUstill retain, from impure water, all it* 
impurities, permitting only the pure water to de>- 
scend. Indeed this is true of all arable soils, and 
if it were not so, the water in. all our wells would 
be unfit to drink from being surcharged with 8olu< 

ble organic matter. 

Even the brown fluids of a barn-yard will aot 

leach downward in the soil, without feaviagalltlie 
foetid matter in the surface. Dig in anoU barn- 
yard, but a few inches below where the aoil haa 
been before disturbed, and it will be found not io 
contain any undue proportion of theso^oUe mat- 
ters resident at the surface, but to be like the sub* 

soil of adjoining fields. 

Alumnia (clay) has the curious property of re« 

ceiving and retaining all animal and vegetable 
substances, and their gaseous products, until ab« 
stracted again by growing plants, and for this rea- 
son a free clayey loam will purify water dnriug ita 
passage through the surface soil, retaining all tbo 
fertillizing substances ori^nally held in the solu- 
tion, and permitting the pure water to pass down- 
ward. Nor does this retaining power cease with 
organic substances alone, for many of the alkalies 
are also retained, and all of them to a certain ex- 
tent. Excess of lime, potash or magnesia will 




pass down a'nd therefore the chemist finds variable 
proportions of these alkalies in our well water. 

This peculiar property of clay was noted by 
Mr. Teschmaker of Boston, in his public addres- 
ses many years since^ and in our published addres- 
ses before the American Institute, as far back as 
1840, the saine truths are set forth. Within the 
last two years, Professoir Way and other English 
chemists are claining this as a new disoovery. 

Alumnia is not the only substance in soils 
which has this retaining power, for carbon in ev- 
ery form has similar properties, and it is not im- 
portant whether charcoal dust be ^artificially added, 
or exist in the soil by the decay of former vegeta- 
tic^n or of mdnures^ for in either case carbon is 

the result, and as such, has similar retaining pow- 
-ers to those of clay. Thus charcoal dust placed 
for a time near a fermenting dung heap, will re- 
ceive and retain the gases arising from decompo- 
sition, and if placed in the soil Will give out these 
;ga8es again to the roots of growing plants. Priv- 
ies, stables, &a, are rendered inodorous by the use 
of charcoal dust. Decomposed peat, toof, swamp 
muck, &c, are but varied forms of carbon, with some 
more partially decomposed vegetable matter. The 
dark color of soils is due to the presence of car- 
bon; humus, TCgetable mould, &c., are but modi- 
fications of carbon. 

All know that an old and iblack gdrden soil will 
retain manure longer than field soils, and that a 
less quantity of manure will act in them^ for the 
isimple reason, that the carbon (charcoal,) contain- 
ed HI them, and arising from previous decay, re- 
tains tiie reluctant gasses from the decomposition 
of the manure until used up by plants. 

Let any fanner try the following experiment 
and he will be satisfied of the truth of our state- 

Prepare four barrels by taking out the dipper 
lieads and boring small holes in the lower heads, 
fitand the barreis on end and fill them with the fol- 
lowing substances : 

No. 1. Barren sand with one-tenth the bulk of 
clay intimately mixed throughout the mass. 

No. 2. Barren sand with one-tenth of finely 
ground charcoal dust. 

No, 3. A dark colored loam or garden soiL 

No. 4. Barren sand alone. 

Pour on all four barrels the brown solution 

from the^bamyard, ahd it unW be fotind, that the 
water running out of the bottoms of Nos. 1, 2, 
and 3, will be colorless and without smell, white 
that fr^m No. 4 will be unaltered and as offensive 
as when placed on top. 

The question may now be asked, "if the soluble 
results of vegetable decay do not filter downward, 
what becomes of them f " We answer, that resi- 
dent in the earth's surface, frt)m the combined in- 
fluences of sun and air, they decay, and take the 
gaaeo^ form; if the soil contains either clay or 
carbon, these gsAses are absorbed by them, until 
ab^racted by growing plants. But if these sub- 
stances are not resident in the soil, then the gasses 
rise into the atmosphere, and are absorbed by beL 
ter pre)>aired soils^lsewhere, or are carried to the 
ocean and a're thus lost for a time from the land. 

Let our readets reflect that both the vegetable 
and animal producti<ms of the earth's surface are 
continually decaying, and that nolWng but the 
tacts we have stated can account for continued fer- 
tility. For if the results of decay could filter 
downward in solution mik water, long before this 
time, the whole amount of organic constituents 
would have passed below the fertile surface, all our 
wells would be filled with masses of fllih, and bodi 
animal and vegetable life would have ceased. The 
simple facts are, that aU organic manures do deci^ 
in the earth's surface, and are only lost by rising 
in the gaseous form, and not by sinking below th« 
roots of plants, and therefore they should be 
plowed under to such a depth that their resultant 
gasses when rising shall meet with a sufficient 
quantity of alumnia or carbon to arrest them. 

Ttom tlM Working FamMr. 

The Bead Trada 

Our seed dealers, or at least some of them, are 
rapidly learning English practices, and it has al- 
ready become difficult to find pure seed of the bet- 
ter ckss of garden vegetables, and even the grass 
seeds are often sold of mixed and very inferior 
qualities. There are doubUess some dealers who 
pursue an honorable course, but hundreds of wag- 
ons are now traversing the country, selling seeds 
of inferior quhlities. The market gardeners near 
our large cities seldom or never buy seeds of the 
large seed dealers; they are compelled topoiohMe 
from each other^ each raising some one or two kinds. 



and making the necessary exchanges. Late Ber- 
gen Cabbage seed is seldom sold by market gar- 
deners for less than $8 per pound, still you may 
buy saed purporting to be the true Late Bergen 
Cabbage, at $2 per pound, or eyen less ; but as 
no grower requires but a few ounoes of this seed, 
it is certainly better to pay the large price to ob- 
tain the pure article. A seed dealer in Newark is 
now selling a bean which he assures his custom- 
ers has been lately imported from Lima, and is 
the true Lima Bean. It is flat, with its two sides 
parallel throughout, and is not a profitable sort. — 
The Lima Bean of the true kind, whether grown 
in Lima or elsewhere, is short, very thick, and 
with a deep dent in each side, and none other 
should be grown. We have several times been 
tempted to buy seeds from large dealers, and have 
nearly as often found ourselves deceived. In 
some instances they were not true to the label, in 
others new and old seeds were mixed together, 
and in many insta.nces they would not germinate 
at all. We imported last year from England, un- 
der the cover of a popular name as a seed dealer, 
a quantity of early sorts of Cabbage seeds, and 
have now several bags on hand which are worth- 

From the Working Fanner. 

Advantages of Fato—Impiovements— Dxain- 

Extract of an address delivered at the Ohio 
State Fair, at Cleveland, by Professor J. J. 
Mapes, editor of the Working Farmer, consulting 
agriculturalist, etc., etc. : 

To fanners, the benefits arising firom fairs are 
incalculable y fiirmers are not a migratory race ; 
their vocations require th«n at home, and there- 
fore improvements which occur in one township 
or county, may remain unknown for a century or 
more, to adjoining counties. There is scarcely a 
state in the Union, in which one or more formers 
have not succeeded in producing one hundred bush- 
els of shelled com per acre, and still millions of 
teres of similar soils continue to be improperly 
worked and to produce forty bushels, or less, per 
acre. The fairs and the press alone can remedy 
this evil. By vtsiting faira formers are brought 
in contact with farmers, interchange of facts 
oeeur, improved q^ecimens of crops, of stock, etc., 
are seen^ and each individual returns home stimu- 

lated to surpass his neighbor. 

Seeds undergo hybridation and deterioration of 
quality, unless occasionally moved to a beW local- 
ity. At foii^ ihterchanges of seeds occur, scions, 
grafts, aUd cuttings are e:i^changcd, and any new 
fruit Seen by the horticulturalist induces its intro- 
duction into some new district. Addresses are 
delivel^d occasionally to the advantage of the 
listners, new implements are itivetited, and these, 
if of approved kinds, are introduced for general 
use. Labor-saving machinery does much to the 
advantage of the farmer ; indeed, it ofteh causes 
a difference of profit equal to that required to 
change a losing into a gaining business. 

In relation to the improvements in agriculture; 
which have transpired within the last few years, 
the speaker stated that they were greater than du- 
ring all previous time ; that the iron plowshare 
was introduced but eighty years ago, and then in 
so rude a shape, that ten plowmen of its time, 
with a corresponding number of teams, would be 
required to perform the labor now readily per- 
formed by one. As to the importance of agricul- 
ture generally, he observed that a thousand mil- 
lions of human beings were supported by it; that 
nine-tenths of all the available capital in the 
world, was engaged in its exercise; that despite 
the highly vaunted powers of the merchant, he 
was but the factor or broker of the farmer, and 
the success of his agency was entirely dependent 
upon the amount of agricultural product. Our 
Com crop of 1860, was estimated at 600,000,000 
of bushels^ worth at the export value of the year^. 
1300,000,000 ; and this only erne of several crops-, 
nearly or quite equal to it in value. So great is 
the sum total, that a saving of the half of one per 
cent would be greater than the present income of 
the government from duties on inports, sales of 
public lands, etc. 

The two greatest agricultuaal improvements of 
the age are under^^raining and subsoil plowing.— 
Draining can be rendered a source of great profit , 
wet lands cannot be tilled ; the meehanical disin^ 
tegration, arising from plowing such lands, re- 
mains but for a short time ; soil when wetted to 
saturation, will settle more solidly after the lubri- 
cation of its ultimate partides by water than 
from any known means of mechanical compres* 

sion j soluble manures are wasted in subsoils ; the 



chemical cbaxlges dependent upon the free and 
frequent cirouUtion of the atnjospliere are arrest- 
<ad } indeed moist soils are not arable until proper- 
ly under-drwned, nor are all the advantages ari- 
sing from the use of under-drains dependent upon 
getting rid of an excess of water ; the very hill 
tops are benefited by such treatment, and this ben- 
efit will be more fully illustrated when discussing 
the advantages of subsoil plowing. * * * 

The next most important improvement is the 
use of the subsoil plow. Wet lands are not im- 
proved by subsoiling until after having been un- 
der-drained. The subsoil plow does not turn over 
the soil like a surface plow j it follows the sur- 
face plow, and is propelled by a separate team, 
the beam lying on the bottom of tho surface fur- 
row, and disintegrates without elevating the sub- 

The admission of atmosphere freely circulating 
through this subsoil, secures the chemical changes 
dependent upon its presence, and enables the sur- 
face plowing to be gradually deepened ; but this 
is not all the benefits arising from subsoil plow- 
ing. The roots are permitted to pass down and 
receive the constituents of plants resident in the 
suosoil, and to carry them to the surface to com- 
plete the vegetable organism. In times of drought 
the roots may pass do¥m for moisture, and in 
times of excessive rains pa^ of the roots at least 
win not be drownod out. 

The greatest benefit, howeT<»r, is that thoroagh- 
ly H9d)er-<draned and sobsoiled land never suff&rs 
from drought. The reasons is obvious, and may 
be thus explained : You wiU perceive the pitcher 
in front of mc is covered, on its oat»ide, with 
drops of water. These, yon will readily under- 
fitsAd, conld not have passed through the pitcher. 
Bat as the tea^g^^&rskUae of the pitcher is colder 
than that of the surrounding atmosphere, it has 
condensed upon its surface the moisture of the at- 
mosphere ; for in the hottest day in summer, the 
absence of moisture from the soil merely goes to 
prove its existence in the stmosphere, and when 
thQ heated ajr containing moisture passes through 
Tmder draiiuSf or down into subsoil cnts, it depos* 
its it9 moisture upon the cold snrfaoea of ik& par- 
ticks of the subsoilsj and tht^ pipteeto the roots 
frOQi sufieriog by drought. Cknxi Aercr voIIb its 
leaves on thoroughly drained and subsoikd lands. 

Young stock should be moderately fed with 
grain, in winter, and receive generous su|^Ues of 
long provender, it being essential to keep them in 
fair condition, in order that the formation of mus- 
cle, bones, Ac. may bo encouraged and continu- 
ously carried on. 

Milch cows, in winter, should be kept in 
dry, moderately warm, but well ventilated quar- 
ters, rogularly fed and watered three times a day, 
salted twice or rhrioe a week, have clean beds, be 
curried daily, and in addition to their long proT- 
ender, should receive succulent food, monung and 

Weeds should never be permitted te OMh 
ture their seed on a farm, but be puUed up, «ra&t 
down as often as they t^ow Uiemselves, such be* 
ing the only effectual method of eradicating then. 
To ensure this result, the ground should be pknt- 
ed in com, and thus keep clean. 

Time and labor, devoted to the collection 
of materials to be converted into manure, are the 
most fruitful sources of profit in the wholo range 
of farm economy. 

9Sf* The orchard, to be productive of good fair 
fruit, requires to be fed, as much as does afield of 
grain. The soil of each requires that the snb- 
iitanecs abstracted by the cn^ shall be restofed. 
Tho soil should be kept clean, aaad open to ^le 
meliorating influences of the sun, the dews, Ae 
rain and the air — ^the bark of the trees should be 
kept in a healthful condition, by scHoping, wben 
necessary, and by alkaline wash^. 

^—^^^^^^^^ ■ - _rjr --i I ■■ - 

49^ Lands whioh have been lo^ in eotttm, 
will be benefitted by applieations of phosphate ef 
lime, and it is unimportant whedier the deideney 
be supplied in the form of bonenlust, guBoo, na- 
tive phoRpdbate ai line, compost'of fish, aedlies, orin 
that of oystershell lime-— or marl — if ^e land need 
liming, also. 

All highly ooneentrated animal manurecr 
are incroased in valne, and thek benefits prolonged, 
by admixture wilAi plaster, salt «r pulverized dutr- 



• We hiTO reocived Commimieitions aince our Uat nom- 
bor from Dr. M. W. PLUlipB, of Miu., Dr. M. 8. 8o»- 
bj. it Qroen Co., Al».. " Clod Thiimp«-." T»Uadeg^ 

andOcoi^eG. Hcnrj, MobUe. 

American tttoUon planter. 


Oar Ac*Bta> 

Wk. Stbickl*sd, Book- seller, No. 28, Dauphin street; 
BortLiMM's LiTKRARr Depot — corner of Bojal and 
D&npliiD itrccC; H. H. Cabves & Co., ButUe Houso 
Book Store, Mobile ; txom »oj of Ktiom tbe back i 
b«rs tna; be bad. 

A. P. PrisTEB. Eichange Corner ; C. B. HissroBD, 
Market Btreot, Montgomery. 

With TAt American Cotton Planter, our Rgricnltnral 
fHeada will find all the ofw and TSluible publications of 
tho day, either litcr&ry or agricultural, at tho aboTe- 
Damed Book Stores. 

Mr. Amos TBAviiUaor agent at Gaineaville, Sumter 

Mr. N. Fldmb, Sparta, Consenb county. 

E. B. Pox, Sandy Ford, Fla. 

Capt J. Jack, Havuina, Sumpter county. 

Wh. G. Bkiwix, Tuakegee. 

H. C. BtasiLL, Carlowrille. 

Dr. *«. Cii!t!«iNGnAM, Burnt Corn. 

Dr. J. F. DoHTCQ, CamdcQ, Ala. 

E. J. Capell, Esq., Rosa Hill. 

Isaac Faeki, Oak Bowery. 

Dr. Batt PiTKaBo.i, Clayton. 

Ja«. Mohtooxbrt, Fife, *'« 

N. A McMillan, Canton. 

Dr. J. E. FoKLLFiTi, HoDtpclier. 

a. H. B*TXOU>s Mr. Tdkkib, Mr. B. M. Clabk, 
•ad Mr. M. P. DouTBit are our (nfeling agents. 

WecoDdudeintbianumbeiof the Cotton Planttr, 
from DeB<Adt Reeieie, that highly interesting and Talu- 
able orticlfl on the " History of Cotton Manulicturos." 
B pleused to bo able to append to this article Ik* 
of the author, which does not appear in the Be- 
Vle hope very soon, again to be aUe to fnmiali 
our Tcadors an article on the same or some kindred nib- 
joct perhaps, of half the importance of Cotton, and with 
its TBried and ImiuQierable use, about which oar planters 
hftTO such Bc&nt means of information* 

B^* Oar subscribers win please notice, thtt as a 
tarms an inrariably cash, the recript of the Joiircal is 
tb* best eridesee tbat wb baie reeeired the dollar. Any 
nbscriber having ordered the Cotton Plantor in compli- 
mnoe with the t«rms on the title page, wilt confer & fa- 
TOT, sboold itfail to r«aeh him, by informing us at once. 
jUIremittuoea at our risk through your Post Maat«r, or 
registOTed by Mm. It will readily be pcTceiied tb«t 
t]|!t arraogeaient will ixre mack tumeoessary trouble in 
reeofting £c., and be enti/elyeatisfsotory. 

f9~ Wc ask Uie attenUon of our readers to the md- 
Tcrtiacmcnt of Mr. Williah Woioht, to be found on 
the 4th page of the ooTcr. Mr. Wright is a professional 
mechanic, and in not only prepared to furnish every ar- 
ticle in hia line, of superior quality, bat it may be of im- 
portanco to our professional friends, physicians and sur- 
geons, and planters also to know that various instrunients 
in constant nsc are made and adapted to the particular 
cases in which they may be needed — such as traEsei of 
all varieties, spinal supporters, instruments for iDonrra- 
tion of the limbs of children, club feet Ac, artificial 
limbs, laced stockings, snfale socks, knee caps for van- 
•se Teing, &c. 

To planters, an opportunity is aflbrded here, in the 
cert^nty of getting on instrument that fits well, of in- 
calculable adrantagc. Every physician and many plan- 
ters know the trouble, the BulFering to such unfortunate 
hand and Trequent expensive vieits, from an old patent 
truss, imperfectly adjustad and not suiting the case. — 
Mr. Wr'g'it can remedy all such difllcultics. 
Sec advert! sement. 

Dr. Swasey, of Poplu Hill, Miss., in the eoncToaion of 
his article, in the the last number of the Cotton Planter, re- 
marks ; " Will yoa be so kind as to give as your vuuv on 
tho subject !" It will always afford as a great deal of 
pleasure to answer any question that may be askod us, 
or ^ve our views, at leaet, on all subjects connected 
with the interest of the planter. This question, though 
rather hackneyed, " nill peas kill bogs !" is nevertlie- 
less one of very material interAst to th» plUlcrJ Our 
views and experience on this snt^ject, coincide so nearly 
with those of Dr. Swasey, that it would be an uunacMU- 
ry repetition of tbo same article to attempt a lengthy 
discasaion. The Pes>. in ftll its varietiea that we have 
seen or bisd, fnmiahes the planter oheaply witb an 
invslnaUe artide of food, fbr fatlscing stock, izd for 
Bsgroes, Then properly used. That they will under on- 



favorable circumstanoes injiirc and kill stock there can 
be no doabt. Some cases haye occurred in Macon coun- 
ty the past season, in our immediate neighborhood and 
among planters who have never heretofore lost stock or 
hogs from peas, very similar to those mentioned by Dr. S. 
These Gentlemen have changed their opinions on the 
subject. Our theory of the seat of the disease, being 
inflamation of the stomachc and bowels, we used calo- 
BUel in a few cases — they were desperate too, before we 
saw them, and we have abundant reason to believe, that 
with careful attention, this treatment would have proved 
successful in each case. The experiment was an unfa- 
TortWe one, and conducted to great disadvantage. One 
recovered and is now doing well, and the other died. If 
we should ever have an opportunity again, we intend to 
give this treatment a fair trial. We shall have much to 
say on the subject of the pea hereafter, as we are very 
confident that there are many articles of vegetation, 
that can be substituted to great advantage to the improve- 
ment planter, for a large proportion of the pea crop. — 
W e should be pleased to have the views of our planters 
oh this subject 


We HaA intended previous to this time, to ^Airnish our readers 
with a short chapter'of notices, of our cO-laborers in the field of ag- 
lienltotal improvement, but have been prevented untill now by 
pushing engagements. Our readers wUI perhaps be pleased to ob- 
■arve the sources, profUse and varied, ttom which, apart from our 
rapidlj Increasing oorpse of correspondents, we serve up for them, 
a monthlj repast of practical agricultural reading. We find first 
(•• we Intend to class them according to age,) 

The OVLTivAToa, (Albany,) well and favorably known by every 
deciple of agricultural improvement in this country. With this 
Tolume it enters its third series and twenty first year — ^it is of age 
therefore and can speak for Itself. It is edited and published by 
Lather Tucker at Albany, N. T., where it was commenced in 1832 
by Zudge Buel. It is printed in fine style, on good paper, and in 
royal octavo form; price 50 cents per ypar. 

The SouTHami Plaxtbe, of the "old dominion," the successor of 
'* TheTarmers Register," and edited, we believe, by the son of the 
Ttneiable Edmund Rulfin. This is a valuable paper and has entor> 
•d its 12th volume, and is published at Richmond Ya., at $1 a year 
to cash subscribers. 

The SouTHKRH CULTirjLToa.~£ very body knows the Southern 
Cnltivator published at Augusta Ga., that has wrought so much 
good for the planters of the cotUm States. It has now entered its 
nth Tolame. onlaiged and impruved, preaching and practicing im- 
provement at home and abroad. Of coarse we all intend to go to 
the fair at Augusta next October, and no planter should &il to make 
the acquaintance of the editors, Dr. Lee and Mr. Redmuud, or the 
pablisber, Wm. 8- Jones, Esq. Form, royal octavo, 32 pages, and 
price $1. 

Thb Amxrxcak FABMiR.'^Tbis is also a valuable agricultural pa^ 
per, and has done much good service in the cause of improvement 
In this country. It is published at Baltimore Md. Medium octa- 
vo, 83 pages ; price $1 a year. 

Tn Woucnro FAftx bu.-— It is said poetieatly, that *< There Is 
nothing Id a name &c," but we. are decidedly food «f this name 
*^ Working Farmer." There is something in that name, and some- 
thing valuable too in every number of Prof. Mapes^ Working Far- 
mer. This work is published at the American Institute 351 Broad- 
way, M. T. Bach No. eontalnaM pages large folio 9t columns, and 
has enterodits 6Ux volome. Price. $1. . * 

Titb.Fa^mkb asp Plasteb.— Tbi.< l« a. most excellent pjiper, con- 

taining much useful and practical information to the cultivators 
of the soil. It is a f'lio of 10 pages, covered, and published at 
Pendleton, S. C, and Edited by Seaborn and Gilmer. Price 
$1. The Farmer and Planter has entered its fourth volume. 

Thb Soil or thr SorTH. — We regret that by nome mishap or oth- 
er we liavenot enjo3'ed the plea.sure of receiving this very excel- 
lent paper this year. We have huwever seen it occasionally and 
shall c^t ityet. The Soil of the South, hax, and is still doing gcol 
servico in the south west. The names of its editors are safe guar- 
anties of its ability. Mr. Jas. M. Charabor« U its agricultural edit- 
or and the well known Charles A. Peabody, Esq., its horticutural 
editor. It is published at Columbus. Ga.,at $1 a year. In com- 
mencing its 3d volume, its form i^ changed to an octavo medium of 
33 pages. 

Thb SouTHHTtir AcRicrLTrPALisr.— This is a new work just 
commenced this year, promising much usefulness in both its agri> 
cultural and hortienltaral departments. We noticed this valuable 
publication in our last. It is published at Laurensville, 8. G. Ita 
editors, Col. A. G. Summer as agriculturalist and Mr. Wm. Sam* 
mer as horticulturalist and Pomologist are well qualified to fill 
the positions they respectively occupy. The Agriculturalist is 
well printed, contains 82 pagesroyal octavo. Price $1 a year. 

Tub Fakjc ako Gardbb— Another new and exceedingly valva- 
ble work, the successor of ^' The Plow." It is published by A. B. 
Allen &Co., Kew York. Its style is alao new, and it is in every 
respect a beautiful paper, conta ining 82 pages, royal octavo. — 
Price $1 a year. Some of the readers of the Cotton Planter nay 
visit New York this summer on a visit to the World^s Fair. If ao, 
and any fine Devons or other dairy stock or Improved agricultoral 
implements, or fine fruit trees of any kind are wanted, call on A. 
B. Allen &Co., 189 Water Street, and yoa will be well served. 

Thb WbBtbbh Plow-Bot. — Thisis also a new labourer in ttie 
field of improvement, and promises well. It is published at F«it 
Wayne, Indiana, in semi-monthly numbers of 16 pages, at $1 a 
year. That fine article in this number of the Cotton Planter oa 
the subject '*■ Education of the Farmers — Colleges, Ac.,*' we take 
Grom the Plow Boy. 

Thb Hobtictltdribt.— This is one of the handsomest, moat vat* 
nable and practical publications of the country. This invaloahle 
work was commenced and conducted up to the jterlod of hiadeatli 
by tho late A. J. Downing. In the hands of its present etlitor 
Mr. Barry, it sefma to have lost cone of its spirit or sprightli- 
ness. II is published at Rochester, New York. Prleefft. PUdn. 

Tbb MIS0KLLA5T asd RBvniw.— We have Jvst f«ceived. It is 

well filled with quite a variety of articlea. '' Home enterprisa^'in 

its motto. It is published at Memphis Tenn. Price $2 a year.>— 

The number before us is very handsome and well printed, and its 

articles diversified. 
Thb South brs School Joitrnax..— We havo heard of such pib- 

lication in New-England, but we had no idea that any man inthia 
country, posseHsed the temerity to face the " old field fogies'^ of 
the south. '* Fortuna fa vet fortibui." This is a Perverse gi*nera- 
tion Mr. Scotc, lay on your licks thick and hard. You have com- 
menced a noble work, and deserve to succeed. This is a neat pab- 
lication of 16 pages, publthhed at Columbus Ga. Price $1. Eve- 
ry body that has children to educate should tak** it. 

Alabama PLAaTBR.**Thls fs the weekly edition of the Tribune * 
and Herald of Mobile. Unpretending, it has gone forth for years* 
lighting ap the new and humble home of the plantera In their new 

settlements. It is edited by Messrs. McGuiro Jt Bolleot^ae 

Price $3. 

We also find the Socthbrh' Ladibs Book. This is not an agri- 
cultural work, but it is a literary companion for the fairdaugh- 
ters of our southern agriculturalists. It is a beaatifhl and spright- 
ly publication of its kind. It is a southern enterprise and deservea 
well, at tho hands of the southern people, a ty the of the support 
given to our enemies for publications in no essential partiealar 
better, and in many respecta, greatly inferior* would maka the 
Southorb XMies'Book the casket of American ftmale Utemtnre. 
It la published in the Cresoent City, by Mewrs. Wm. T. I^onard, lb . 
Co., «na edited by Miss L. Virginia FrenclK Price |3. 



We promiMd a short chapter in thU revelrj of booki, if howev- 
er the patient reader hae accoupanled lu thus along, he U rea4j 
dpnbtleflttojog us on the elbow, bat the end of the chapter ie 
hard bj. Our weeklies, It is impomible to do them Jiutiee now, for 
the coarteons treatment we bare received at their hands. The 
bare mention of their names would All a column, extending as 
they do from Tar river to the Credent City, and all around about 
like so many honey bees, sipping the nectar of news from every 
new and occuring incident for the American mind and intellect. — 
To you, gentle readers and our t^xchanges all, we bespeak a sea* 
•on of peace, quiet and golden prosperity. 

■ ' ■ ■■■ " ■ ■« -mm.^m m» ■! ■■ ..ii ■ ii, 


We reoelTed ftom oar respected Mend, Dr. Plongh, yesterday 
6r«Bisg, a late number of the Daily Orleanlan, announcing the 
passage ihroogh the Senate of Loaisiana of the blU fbr incorpora- 
ting the Bxecutive Committee and members the Industrial Fair 
of the South and South West. We hope soon to see the ball in live- 
ly and spirited motion. We believe the Szecutive Committee will 
new ac(t,act promptly, and aet en a liberal and magniflcent seals. 
W« hope the Committee think of nothing bat an exhlbltiott «&^ 
lair superior to those of London or New York. Determine thai the 
exhibition of the Crescent City shall eclipse any thing of the kind 
eirer witnessed heretofore. Let the spirit of the great south-west 
be Ared np on the subject. Let the State Bxecutive Committees 
he called out, and our people, planters, meehanSes, and manafhe> 
toren be fully aroused to the importance, the utility, and the pride 
of a great national movement In the industrial pursuits of our 
common country, and a triumph— a glorious triumph— must inevi- 
tably eBsue. Let every man ffiel that he haaa nleh to flit, yea 
n«re, let him determine thatitshaU be flUed, and well lUled, aAd 
beaatifhUy ; not with the eommon ffk«lt of his Indastry, bat with 
the first, the master piece, the crowning effort, .firom the plowman, 
whose rustic, yet plastic hand moulds the soil, and with the geni- 
al seasons, elicits frnctlbllity, plenty and prosperity from our fields, 
to the avtist, whose sktU and enltlvated taste ehlsels to aataro, or 
pencils the tinted life ensplring shade of the landscape. A prop- 
er, laudable and generous effort, not only to succeed, but to sacceed 
triumphantly, on the part of every one interested in the improve- 
ment of the arts and industrial pursuits of our country, wltti a spee- 
dy derelepment of its varied and valuable resonrces, most and 
will accomplish an <i1^eet so desirable. 

We shall await with impatience the announcement of the pro- 
gramme of policy intended to be pursued by the Executive Commit- 
tee. There Is now no excuse for Inaction, nor is there time for de- 
lay. We areeonlMent that the warmest friends of this enterprise 
have every eonfidenee in the talent of the Exeeutlve Committee, 
and if that bow seconded by energy, saccesa isceiialn. 


Our readers will pemae with careful attentioii, onr 
oommereial letter, — '*Cottoo, Prospeot of prices, &o." 
la its faets and details, it is interestiBg and gratifying to 
the planter. In its frank and candid advice, ii teaches a 
wholesome lesson, the practical utility of which should 
be understood by all. 

Dnuning of wet lands and marshes, adds to their Tai- 
ns, by making them produce more, and better crops^- 
by producing them earlier — and improTing the health of 

Abundant crops cannot be grown for a succesnon of 
jMrs, onless care be tahen to provide and apply, nn 
tfufTslent for the substances carried 6f the land in th# 
products carried thereon. 

plantation Ctanam; . 


No. 6 

Diu N. B. Cloud — Dear Sir: — Many may think my 
ideas of plantation economy to be very large, and that 
I draw out rather extensively. But so it is, I believe, 
that true plantation economy will even cover the eduoa- 
tion proper of the planter, as it fits the owner the bet- 
ter to manage. My object at present being the advoca- 
cy for improvement of hands, I suppose no one will ob- 
ject to my using the heading. 

I have seen it stated that the ** item of underground 
draining alone on an estate of 500 acres" in England 
amounted to «* 1800 pounds steiling" or <* $7500 or 
X150 per acre." I have also seen statements of land 
renting for 6 pounds, aye 10 pounds sterling, for grasing 
alone. I have seen machinery an a large estate below 
New Orleans, which cost $80,000, no cost including for 

Admit that the products of a farm in those latitudes 

pay a better price and thus are the holders enabled to 
make such expenditures, or investments, and what al- 
ters the case ? Take Mr. Nobody's farm of 600 acres, 
with 200 only in eultivation, the residue getting poor, 
o^mofl asfast as the tilled land, and put thereon, admit, 
only a fence, let us count the cost Put land square, 
and it will take 8 miles of fencing to inclose 820 acrw, 
1760 yards in a mile mulUpUed by 8 equal to 6280 yds, 
multiplied by 4, which wiU give 21120 rails, and bare 
in mind, kind reader, the number of yards in length, 
multiplied by 4 will give the number of rails required 
to make a fence 10 rails high, with five feet worm, which* 
at $1 per hundred for making, bawling and putting up 
will cost $211. If done with your own hands, taking a 
fellow who is a good axe hand, but not a cotton picker, 
and worth $16 per month, or the rate of 180 per year, ' 
itwill take, say 18 days, at about 120 rails per day; 
then bawling, putting up and cutting out fence row, I 
guess, only a month to bawl and a month minus 6 d^ya 
to clean out fence row, and to put up, it wiU take 2i 
months, say 8 months, equal $46, or double it for bawl- 
ing rails around woodland a distance ; making $90, and 
addfor feed of team, wear and tare, interest &o., and 
$86 more, making fUll payment at $176. Who wiU 
dare aflrm that woodland will not be enhanced in 6 
years, if fence lasts no longer, to the valne of 80 ets. pr. 
acre, or 10 cents per year, or if land be worth $6 per 
acre not to increase in value 2 per oent ? Look at tinea 
figures my brethren, and I dare yen to the answer, and: 
then will you falsify your best judgments by wearing 
out tilled land only to be getting poorer<-rbftautiful fact ! 
Again, where are there 800 acres, whiohif nndcra 
good fence will not keep in good condition some 8 months 
In the year enough horse% or cattle', or sheep, or hogs, 
to pay 25 per cent on investment;' the fencing truly 



paying in the 6 years the prime cost, and interest on the 
same. Bat land not to be stocked so as to injare, bear- 
ing in mind 2 acres of good pasture are allowed to each 
obw or horse, and therefore not over 80 head of cows to 
800 acres, and they not all the year, occasionally there 
may be 60 or even 100 for a short time. 

But this is only one step. If planters will only see 
their way and take this step, they are safe ; because ev- 
ery man who desires to live where he now stays, will 
find he can rear his own meat, cows, wool and colts with- 
in his own encloseure, and at less cost. Let us see. I 
can refer to note book, and give exact dates and num- 
bers, for such a note book I have for 21 years of my 
planting life, but no need- I turned out, say 90 heed of 
pigs, 8 and 6 months old, all castrated, marked, and the 
older ones spayed. This was done after planting corn, 
■ay in 1841— of these after all that expense, admit no 
more, I killed 16 hogs December, 1843. This year in 
January, I had 91, killed 7 for eating, and now 83, one 
having died, and 2 old sows from spaying in August. I 
suppose these may have eaten as much more as those 
usually tnmed out in the woods, and so I have 90, out 
of 91 at less than half cost what I had in 1843, 16 head. 
I need not remind my fellow citizens that I have no call. 
iPg by which I realize one dime except by what is le* 
l^mately farm matters, therefore I cannot design to 
induce them to do an error. 

The great arator of Virginia, John Taylor, the author, 
some 40 or 60 years ago, proTed this matter, and I do not 
touch his argument, nor desire to more than draw at- 
t«niioB, only desiring to beusefal by alluding to evident 

And one step farther. When you, my brethren of 
ihia latitude, shall have gotten up your stock and see 
irhat you have gained in them ; in your land, from be- 
ooming grown up with grass, weeds, and underbush, 
eJearly evincing improvement, you would then plow up 
irell an harrow 6 acres of good land and sow on it 10 or 
12 pounds of clover seed — 681bs. to the bushel, or if thor- 
oughly wetted with brine by sprinkling, you can rely on 
• good stand, 1 bushel to 10 acres, the month of Sep* 
iember or October. These 10 acres will take 70 or 80 
pigs from January to 1st of July, and keep them in bet- 
ter condition than will 2 bushels of com per day, or 860 
liuahels, or $18 per year rent on the 10 acres, and the 
land better for oorn or ootton the preceding year. And 
you wUl be certain to have a pasture of-— aye— of Ber- 
muda griss, which like my friend tbetoi7 pea, is abased 
for the strongest thing of all — being too good. I court 
BO oontroveray, but if wrong in any of this I wish to be 
put aright, and to be sincerely yours, Mr. Bditor and 


III I .....I.... i.. .1 ■ .^ , -. . ^ - ■^» ■ .»»i.. .■■,-. 

$Sf* To preserve meadows in their productiveness, it 
19 neoessa]^ to harrow them every eecend autumn, apply 
Xop drf^ssing and roll them up. 



Ma. Editob : — It is generally believed that everything 
on earth is made for the use of man — a senUment not 
more proud, selfish and exclusive, than false ; if, by it, 
be meant that hit advantage and enfogment aiom have 
been consulted in the formation of the world. 

"But though the Creator, doubtless, regarded the well 
fore of each class of his creatures, when he called them 
into existence, and in this point of view they may be just* 
ly siud to have been created for their own sakes, yet He 
has so imited all the classes together, as to form oaie 
great and harmonious whole, and by most wonderfU ad- 
aptations, has so beautifully adjusted all the relations 
both animate and inanimate, that every thing may, in a 
certain sense, be said to be created for all the rest." 

In this sense, the belief applies, with peculiar force, to 
man, the most noble and the most sensible being on earth. 
He, we arc told, was created after the image of his ma- 
ker, and to him, was given the " dominion over the fisb 
of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cat- 
tle, and over the earth, and over every thing that mov- 
eth upon the earth." He, a mere child originally, waa 
as ignorant of the manner of obtaining the means of 
subsistence as the beasts of the field, and the fowls of 
the air that surrounded him. Placed in the Oarden cf 
Eden, he was commanded '' to be fruitfrd, and multiply 
and replenish the earth and subdue it.*' Like them, he 
too, as it were in a wilderness, untouched by the plastic 
hand of man, was fed by his Creator, by all that was 
necessary for human subsistenoe. Adam was told to 
dress and keep the Garden, and to partake freely of ev- 
erything in it, except of the fruit of the tree of knowl- 
edge. Our first parents then, had only to rove over th« 
Garden and live on delicious sweets. They had neither 
to sow, nor to reap, nor to gather into bams ; everything 
was prepared for them. But they disobayed, and after 
the fall, the Lord said, " cursed is the ground for thy 
sake." He was sent out of the Ckirden << to till the 
ground from whence he was taken." The sentence wa9 
passed upon them, which included at once a denuncia* 
tion, a permission and a command, " in sorrow shalt thou 
eat of it all the days of thy lifs ; thorns and thistfes 
shall it bring forth to thee ; and thou shalt eat the herb 
of the field ; in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat 
bread, till thou return unto the ground." 

We are told, Cain was a tiller of the ground, Abel a 
keeper of sheep, and Jabal a herdsman. Hence we maj 
say, was the origin of agricultural labor, and the love of 
it in his descendants, handed down from generation to 
generation, to the present time. But the wickedness of 
the world caused the flood, and every thing was destn^yed 
except Noah and his ark, and every thing it contained. 
After the flood, the Lord promised Noah not to curse 
the ground, or smite his creatures any more for maa^a 
sake, and "while the earth remaineUi, seed-time and har^ 
[ rest, and ooM and boat," &o., shall not cease, Noah he« 



came a haBbandman, and cultiTated the Tine and made 
wine, and drank it, and got dnmk» 

According to the Bible, Adam was perfltet, and endow- 
ed with rational powers, and made master of the uni- 
verse, and supplied with all the necessaries of life. — 
Even after his disobedience, the goodness of God was 
manifested to him by providing him with the means of 
subsistence, wid rewarding him according to his indus- 

By the destruction of the world, the art of agriculture 
was not lost, but was resumed by Noah and his descen- 
dants, and from that time to this it has continued to im- 
prove ; and no doubt will continue to advance as long as 
the world stands. 

Was it not for man, and without his concurrence, or 
asking, that nature, or an all wise Providence, made this 
earth ? 

Is it not for us that the seasons continue and refresh- 
ing showers cause the gardens, the orchards, the fields 
and forests to abound in blessings that would be lost did 
we not make good use of them ? 

Let us not then remain insensible to so much kindness, 
and forget our responsibility to the one who bestows 
them upon ns. 


Forkland, Ala. 



*< Wheat, rye, oats and barley, should never follow each 
other in a course of rotation ; there should always be an 
intervening hoe crop between them." — American Farmer 
— Southern CuUivator, 

The necessity of a rotation in crops, is perhaps one of 
the first agricultural truths which suggested itself to the 
human mind. Experience, which is the best teacher in 
agriculture, as in everything else, must have taught it at 
a very early period in the history of our world. And 
yet, even in the middle of this nineteenth century, there 
are many intelligent agriculturists, who have not yet ful- 
ly appreciated the simple truth announced in the quota- 
tion at the head of this article. And while they admit, 
in theory, the groat importance of a systematic rotation 
of crops, there are thousands of farmers and planters in 
this our own Alabama, who strain their fields, almost to 
exhaustion, by one crop of cotton or of com after anoth- 
er, merely because the soil happens to be fertile and will 
produce a larger return than other portions of ihQ farm. 
Well, there may heprcsefit profit in the operation ; but it 

is at the expense of ultimate loss. 
But I did not set out, Mr. Editor, to inflict on your 

readers aregularobuilt essay on the subject of "rotation," 

important as it truly is ; but simply to conimunicate my 

very small experience, in this connection, as to two of the 

several mentioned in the above quotation — oats and 

Many years ago, in South Carolina, where I then lived, 

{ bad a field which was old and so exhausted that, with 

good cultivation, it produced me just about five bushels 
of com to the acre — ^pretty low down, you'll readily ad- 
mit. The only agricultural work I had read, or even 
seen, was Taylor's Arator. In that, I had seen that an 
easy and valuable means of improving land was to turn 
under, with a mould board plow, whatever vegetation 
might happen to be on it. Well, the only difficulty with 
me was, that my field was so poor that there was almost 
nothing to turn under. There was, however, a thin sur- 
face of vegetable mould — I was going to say, about the 
thickness of a common table-knife blade — but I am 
afraid that would be praising my land a leeile too high, 
and I will just say, it was thick enough to be visible. 
Tm not joking, Doctor — ^its true as preaching. Deter* 
mined to try the experiment, as soon as I could get mj 
nubbins hauled out (and it was'nt a very tiresome job) I 
set two turn plows to work, breaking the ground as deep 
as could be done in the latter part of October and first of 
November. It was well done, and tehen done, the field 
looked like one mass of red clay. A less hopeful man 
than I, might have thought the land was ruined. — 
I, however, thought that had been done before. WeH, 
I let it lie in this condition until the next February, when 
I sowed it down in oats — plowing in with a bull-tongue. 
As good a crop as could be reasonably expected from 
such land was cradled the next summer. In October fol- 
lowing, the field was again turned over in the same way, 
and again in February it was sown in oats. This cra|> 
was, I think, rather better than the first. A third time 
the same process was gone over, with an improved crop 
of oats. The fourth year I planted it in com, and mtro- 
bile dictue ! — ^it produced twenty bushels to the acre ? — 
Candor, however, requires me to state that it never did 
the like again — at least not under my administration.— 
I was getting as poor as my land, and a few years after 
ilaxfi prodigious experiment, I pulled up my stakes and 
emigrated to Alabama, where the second experiment, 
about to be detailed was, more recentiy, made. This 
time it was wheat I had raised a good crop of wheat 
on a field of as good valley land as any in Talladega coun* 
ty ; and not knowing that it was improper to sow wheat 
on the same land two years in succession, and having an 
overseer who had as littie sense as I had myself^ the 
same fields was again sowed the next year in wheat. — ' 
Some of my better informed neighbors told me, in ad- 
vance, that I would make no wheat ; but I didn't believe 
them. They were nearer right than I was — 1 made/uet 
three bushele to the acre ! I have never done the same 
thing since, and I never will. 

Now, Doctor, I don't suppose that in writing this com- 
munication I am advancing the cause of Agricultural 
improvement in any degi-ee, because I presume every 
practical farmer has learned, long ago, that his land may 
be improved by turning under the vegetable growth ia 
the fall ; and I suppose few of them are as green as I 
was when I sowed two successive crops, of wheat on tl e 
same field. But I vehemently desired to clap you on the 



back aad cheer yon on in yonr noble enterprise, and I 
thonght I wonld give in my experience by way of intro- 
duction. Oo ahead, Doctor, and may the people go with 

DxMOPOLiB; Marengo Co., Ala., ) 

March 25, 1853. J 

De. N. B. Guovd— Dear Sir : The March No. 
of the American Cotton Pknter came to hand yes- 
terday, and I have read every article in it, and can 
say, were there no other issue to be made, I am 
well paid for my subscription. I am a new begin- 
ner in fEurming ; have just purchased a farm, rath- 
er thin, but with a ** good foundation.'' Some of 
my land is rolling, some gravelly, some red stiff 
clay, some black stiff land, and some light sandy 
land. I write this for your advice upon the best 
system of rotation for such a farm in the South. — 
By giving your advice either in your next issue or 
any during the year, you will confer a great fiEivor 
upon one of your subscribers. Y. A. 

P. S. I have many other questions to ask but I 
fear to weary you. I pursue a system of improve- 
meftt, in the way of composting, I think new in 
this country upon which, if you wish, when I get 
bold enough, I will give my views and plan. 

Y. A. 

The abOTS ItCter from **a new beglimor In flu-rolng,'* thews tho 
riftit kind of tpirll. No man wiU Iro prove % plantiitiun In the pro* 
doetion of coUon or anj marketable crop, who doee not adopt a 
flmd and Jndldooa iTatem of rotailon, and shift of crops. Marengo 
la one of the riehast eonntles of onr Stale, and admirably adapted 
to a proper sjstem of tillage. Our eorrespondeat la doubUess 
aware that lime, in some of its forms, most oonstltate the basis of 
all valnable and permanent Improyementa. We haTO deroted the 
Hat ten or twelve years, with much care, to the sol^eet of rotation 
and ahlfl of CTDpa as best sailed to a eotton plantation. We have 
eencalTed the idea, that no one that tilla the earth la eapahle of pro. 
dodng such varied and valuable crops as the American eotton 
phmter, and as such he only needs a proper system of rotation to 
enaMe him to produce any amount of cotton, and all the necessaries 
oflUb abundantly besides, and yet Improve the (brtiUty of his land. 
Wa shall have oeoasion very soon to discuss this snltfect In another 
coonrctlon, which we shsU do ftilly. 

Our correspondent ** Y. A.** need have no apprehensions of wea- 
tfUkg us by aaking any question oonoected with the sntject of sgrl- 
caKore. It sflbrds us pleasure thus to converse with our sgrieultu- 
lal fHends, and if we shall ihU to answer estlsfhctorily at any time, 
we doubt not but some of our correspondents will bo able abd wUl- 
Sng to famish the n e c es sary information. We hope our friend 
^ T. A." will soon make a bold and eflcient soldier In the cauae of 
agriottltaral improvement. 

The eotton planters of the country need a great deal of informa- 
tion on the subset of making manure. Few havH yet found out 
(and sursly those have not that ibed in the roads, or leave their ma- 
nars lots on the branch sMe,) that well fbd and eomlbrtably hooaed 
atoek not only pay bade In Aill, in the highly valuable materials 
Ihay IVimisb ftir oomposthig, but pay a handsome premium on the 
rapfUil thufl expcnd*il,— fEn. 

[for tub lliiaicAv COTTOX PLA5TBa.J 

Ball Roads— Na 2. 

Alabama as a State is entitled to veiy little cred« 

it for anything which she has yet done in the way 
of internal improvement. Although the elder and 
and more wealthy of the South-western States, her 
capital has furnished but a moiety of the means 
thus far expended in rail road construction within 
her limits. To the untiring energy of a few in- 
dividuals we are indebted for the Montgomery 
and West Point Bailroad, one of the most strictly 
private enterprises, as regards its dependence upon 
corporate or State assistance in the Southern 
States. The citizens of Mobile have also display- 
ed a highly laudahle spirit in their united efforts 
in hehalf of that gigantic work, the Mobile and 
Ohio Eailroad, hut a small portion of which, 
however, is within the limits of the State. Sel- 
ma, too, must not he overlooked, having for her 
Tennessee Bailroad an interior private subscrip- 
tion, perhaps equal to that of any work of similar 
magnitude in the Southern country. 

We have in Alahama 87 miles of Railroad in 
operation between Montgomery and West Point, 
which, with the portions of the Mobile and Ohio, 
and Charleston and Memphis Eailroad in North 
Alabama, now completed, with the 55 miles in 
operation from Selma to Monticello, will give ns 
226 miles of completed road, about one fourth as 
much as Georgia and not near half as much as South 
Carolina. Although this amount will be much 
extended in a few years by the completion of the 
works now in progress, yet when the Mobile and 
Ohio and the New Orleans, Jackson and Great 
Western Railroads are finished, Mississippi will 
present more miles of Railroad than any of the. 
South-western States, particularly if the Yicks- 
burg road, as is contemplated and much to be de- 
sired, should be extended Eastward, in the direc- 
tion of Montgomery, to the Alabama line. 

Perhaps in no part of the Southern country has 
the stimulating effect of Railroads upon the value 
of real estate been more successfully demonstrated 
than upon the Montgomery and West Point Rail* 
road. The pine region upon the line of this road 
from near Notasulga toOpelika, which was deserib- 
ed to the writer in 1885 as a countiy ''so poor 
that the Indians would not live upon it," is now 
densely settled with four pro^roaa villages in 



tlio space of 20 miles, the lands readily command- 
ing from $8 to $12 per acre, or about 100 per cent 
more than that of a similar quality 15 or 20 miles 
from the road. Now take a parallelogram 20 miles 
in length by 15 in breadth, or seven and a half 
miles on each side of the road, and it will contain 
192,000 acres. Put the enhanced value of this at 
$3,50 per acre, wh'cb, including the village prop- 
erty is certainly a moderate estimate, and we have 
$672,000, or nearly three times the cost of the 
road, for this distance. Say that for 20 miles 
from Montgomery the Railroad does not effect the 
price of land ; we should then have 67 miles sub- 
ject to enhanced value. Say that this apprecia- 
tion, making allowance for poor timbered lands, 
which are never valueless upon the line of Kail- 
roads, should represent but $2,50 per acre, this 
would give for the width of 15 miles $1,608,000. 
This is several hundred thousand dollars more 
than the cost of the whole 87m*!e3 of Railroad and 
equipments. If the influence of the work upon 
the value of town property at Montgomery was 
also to be estimated, it would swell the aggregate 
to more than doable the cost of the road. 

But we wish at this time to consider the value 
of Railroads solely with reference to the interest 
of the planter and landholder. Any one who 
will compare the present with the past condition 
of South Carolina and Georgia, will be struck with 
the rapid progress which has been made in agri- 
cultural improvement in those States since the intro- 
duction of Railroads. The depopulating tide of emi- 
gration which set so strongly from portions of those 
States, some 15 years ago, has been arrested to great 
extent. The man who lives within sound of the 
locomotive whistle cannot readily be reconciled to 
sell his possessions, merely to obtain cheaper and 
better land in a remote wilderness. Consequently 
he will seek to improve his land and erect comfor- 
table buildings, &c., not only with a view to the 
preservation and enhanced production of the soil 
and the greater comfort of his family, but because 
he feels assured that owing to the eligibility of his 
position, it will be practicable at any time, when- 
ever he or his children after him may desire it, to 
effect a sale of his property at a remunerative price. 
In this latter respect he aets upon the principle of 
the man who will spend but $500 or $1000 on his 
plantation dwelling, but will freely invest thou- 
sands on a city residence, not because he absolute- 

ly requires suck an expensive habitation, but be- 
cause it is convertible property, which will com- 
mand a return for the monied outlay by sale or rent. 
This motive may not be recognized in olden coun- 
tries, but it certainly has great force with our 
migratory and trading people. 

Apart from this, however, the Railroad has a ve- 
ry direct agency in the work of agricultural im- 
provement. All the imported stimulants of vege- 
tation, such as guano and its compounds, as well as 
such calcarious manures as may be supplied from 
other States, or prepared at home must bo depen- 
dent in a great measure upon Railroads for their 
use and generel distribution. The existence of 
guano in such inexpressible quantities, and the 
highly concentrated nature of its invigorating 
principles, gives it peculiar adaptation to agricul- 
tural purposes, and promise immense advantages 
to those who can avail themselves of its use by 
their proximity to navigable streams and railroads. 
The influence of. Railroads upon southern agricul- 
tural economy, even in those sections most open to 
their advantages, is yet but partially felt It will 
increase, and it will react. Raikoadg will beget 
agricultural improvement, and agrictiltuTal im« 
provement will multiply and extend Railroads. 

That Railroads will pay in the south, merely 
for the accommodation of an agricultural regioii, 
without regard to through travel, is now clearly es* 
tablished by the success of the Central Road in 
Georgia, as well as the upper country roads of South 

The fact that such roads will pay 7 and 8 per 
cent, dividends, should encourage our planters to 
invest in such undertakings and lend a vigorous 
hand in their construction. It is a common error 
to suppose that the commercial terminus is the 
recipient of the greater share of benefit. As trade 
is increased those who share that trade are increased, 
and the enhancement of property at the one'point 
will not nearly equal that which is effected in the 
value of lands upon the whole route. Our plan- 
ters look too much to the towns and cities, not on- 
ly for the initiative step, but for the entire execu- 
tion of such enterprises. Cities have this advan- 
tage — ^their collective intelligence and resources 
can be readily brought to bear and to act. But 
the solid means of the interior is infinitely great- 
er. It also can be*]conveniently extended to act 
collectively either through the agency of the State, 



or, as in Mississippi and Tenneesee by county sub- 

Unquestionably the enhanced value of the real 
property of Georgia and South Carolina is fully 
equivalent to the whole cost of their rail roads, 
independent of the stock investment. In Ala- 
bama it is thus far the same. The investment 
therefore pays two fold, the dollar is returned, or 
produces its value by the earnings of the road, 
and is at the same time added to the realty or land- 
ed interest of the country. , j |^ ^ (SujJaJia^ 

OusaM> '0 ^V A. A. B. 

Montgameryy April 21, 1853. 



Being strongly impressed with the pemicous results 
of the general system of policy pursued in the cotton 
planting states, I am induced to send you some obser- 
vations upon the subject, with the view of bringing it to 
the consideretion of the public, and in the hope that it 
may lead to its reformation. 

These States poscss within themselves, equally with 
other portions of the Union, all the elements of social 
and financial prosperity. They have a temperate and 
healthy climate — a soil of great variety — a very large 
portion of it naturally fertile, and nearly all of it capa- 
ble of being made so ; and adapted to the widest range 
of production. They have an extended sea coast upon 
the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico ; fine nav- 
agable streams with their sources in the mountains of 
gold, iron, and coal ; abundance of limestone and marl, 
besides other minerals which contribute to manufac- 
tures and agriculture. They have, in common with the 
other slave-holding States, the cheapest and most avail- 
able labor in the world ; and, in addition to these, they 
produce almost exclusively a staple, which, next to food, 
is the most necessary to the comfort of the human race, 
and enters most largely into its consumption. 

Now with all these advantages, what ought to be our 
condition ? I do not think I am extravagant, when I 
say it onght to bo one of very great prosperity. With 
abundant and cheap labor, our lands under culture with 
their natural capabilities, aided by the artificial appli- 
ances at our command, ought to be in the highest state 
of fertility and productiveness, yielding, in profusion, 
grain and provisions for our own consumption, besides 
abandant crops of cotton to exchange with other coun- 
tries for the commodities and luxuries our own does not 
produce. Instead of this being the case, our soils are 
actually in a state of gradual impoverishment, and it 
may be safely affirmed, do not yield more than a third, 
or a half at most, of what they are capable, under a 
proper system of culture. In no other portion of the 
United States does Agriculture exhibit so unsightly an 

aspect as in ours. Our fields, instead of being proie«i- 
cd by durable and ornamenial fencasi are still enclosed 
by the ugly and expensive one of rails. Our bills ars 
washed, wasted and gullied ; our plains often saturated 
with water; our swamps and ponds undrained; our 
dwellings, barns, stables and negro-quarters with rare 
exceptions of the lowest grade. And we may add to 
this, that our agriculture is also a fair specimen of eyo- 
ry other department of industry amongst us. 

With the richest depoits of coal and iron ore, those 
two most potent of all the elements of manufacturing 
industry, we do next to nothing in mining. 

AVe have here and there an iron foundry, and we have 
a few scattered manufactories of coarse cotton and wool- 
en goods, and with these and some other inconsiderablo 
exceptions, we have scarcely any thing worthy of the 
name manufactures. For at least nine tenths of all tht 
manufactured articles we consume, from tho hats on our 
heads, down to the simplest and commonest implement 
of industry, wo are dependent upon others. We hava 
idle villages where we should havo thriving towns, in 
which all these articles should be fabricated by oar 
own people, and we havo a sparse population, and be- 
cause we have little variety of occupation, and there- 
fore slender inducement for any other immigation savo 
that of slaves. 

This is a mortifying statement of our condition, bnt 
it must be admitted to be a true one. If it is, does 
such a state of things result necessarily from any thing 
in our social or physical condition ? I am convinced 
that it does not, and I beliete it is capable of demonstra-* 
tion that the reformation of some errors and defects ia 
our system of industry, is all that is needed to give ns a 
prosperity equal to that of any people in the world. — 
The limits of an ordinary essay will not allow me to 
discuss these in detail, or the benefits to be derived 
from the changes I propose, and I cannot do mvch mora 
than suggest those which are the most obvious and im- 

The first error to be corrected is the planting of mora 

land than can be cultivated and at the same time im- 
proved. Such a system as our does not exist in any oth- 
er part of the world, and there is not a soil on earth 
that it would not reduce to barenness. We have ande« 
nlablo proof of this under our eyes. The Alabama bat'* 
toms, thirty years ago, in many instances did produce a 
hundred bushels of corn, and even more, to the acre. I 
doubt if thd same lands would now produce much mora 
than a third of that quantity. Any system of coltora 
which thus abuses the bounty of Provipence must be 
erroneous and unwise, and shoitld be abandoned^ The 
evil I think would be remedied by reducing by a third or 
half the amount of land we cultivate in cotton. Such 
a reduction wculd entail an apparent sacrifice for a year 
or two. But wh'lo I believe there wonld be no real 
sacrifice, I feel sure that thereafter there would be a 
regular progression in improvement of the s<»l and m 
pecuniary return. Such a reduction would enable «B tO 



apply Hi least one foartii of oar labor to manuring, and 
bringing our lands up to the maximum of productiTe- 
ness ; to ditching superfluous water from our hill sides 
and bottoms; draining swamps ; converting pestilential 
marshes into meadows ; building good houses for our- 
selves and slaves, bams, ware- houses, stables for horses 
and cattle ; raising stock and provisons in abundance ; 
making gardens and orchards, good roads, fences gates 
and fixtures of all kinds ; and in a few years doubling 
and trebling the production of our land, and enhanoing 
its intrinsic value frcm ten or fifteen dollars an acre — 
its present price — to fifty or even a hundred dollars 
which is now the rate of improved land in the northern 
and middle states. The adoption of this system would 
improve the general face of the country and increase its 
healthfulness. We should have pleasant homes, free 
from the malaria of swamps and ponds which now ren- 
ders so many of them uninhabitable. With fixed and 
improving homes, the comforts of living would be more 
appreciated ; our people would become more attached 

to the soil and deprived of the inducements to emigra- 

In addition to an improved system of agriculture, we 
should adopt the most vigorous measures to encourage 
the establishment and growth of every kind of manu- 
facture suited to our circumstances. The first and the 
nost effective of these measures would be to prohibit 
the farther introduction of slaves, except such as might 
be acquired by actual residents, through inheritance or 
marriage, or such as might be brought in by bona fide 
emigrants settling amongst us, and with the restriction, 
that they should not be sold or hired for a term of years, 
unless under process of law. One great and beneficial 
effect of this measure would be to stop the vast drain of 
money which we now expend for slaves, and consequent- 
ly the rapid accumulation of abundant capital at home. 
This accumulation of capital would reduce the rate of 
interest, while at the same time it would enhance the 
value of property. New investments would be sought, 
and these would be found in mining, in manufactures, and 
improvements of every discription. With abundance 
of money, a low rate of interest, and little cost for liv- 
ing ; with snperabnndant water power almost every- 
where, and coal and iron equal to any in the world, we 
should unite all the requisite conditions of success, and 
in a great variety of productions we might compete 
ffaooessfully with the world. In the article of cotton 
alone, we ought, absolutely, to monopolize the manu- 
facture of iron and Machinery. What we now achieve 
under very unfavorable circumstances, proves very con- 
clusively what we might accomplish, with money cheap 
Md abundant, aided by the other favorable conditions 
J haye mentioned. As an illustration of these views I 
will refer to the recent experience of our sister State of 
Georgia. She prohibited the introduction of slaves, for 
ten or twelve years succeeding the great financial revul- 
Bion of 1887, and though that revulsion was quite as 
du'aiitrons to her as to any of her sister States, she, in 

consequence of this policy, quickly recovered, and to 
that measure, more than to all others, is to be attribu- 
ted the great advancement she has since made in internal 
improvements, and manufactures, and which has placed 
her so far in advance of all the cotton growing States. 
By one of those caprices of legislation^ to which our law 
makers are unfortunately so liable, she repealed th« 
restriction a few years since, but she has had the sa- 
gacity recently to adopt it again, and I hope never to b# 
again abandoned. 

But independently of these >&iantfia/ advantages, there 
are social considerations connected with this subject of 
the most serious import. The institution of slavery 
itself is assailed by the whole civilized world. Against 
such an array of moral and political power, we oaa hope 
to maintain it, only by retaining in its defence the moral 
and political power of all the present Slave-holding 
States. But Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Mis- 
souri and Kentucky have been for a long period gradu- 
ally diminishing the proportion of their slave popula- 
tion, by exporting large numbers of slaves to the cottou 
growing States. In all of the States I have named, re- 
cent developments have shown the existence already of 
a strong Abolition sentiments, and if the process of dim- 
inution in them, and augmentation amongst us, is per- 
mitted to go on for a few years longer, it is difiicult to 
anticipate any other result than the abolition of slavery 
in them, and a dangerous and unmanageable accumula- 
tion of it amongst us. It is therefore not only the most 
infatuated folly, but it is absolute madness in the people 
of the cotton growing States to allow this process to bo 
longer continued. Let us therefore arrest it at once 
and we may retain slavery in all the States in which it 
now exists, and have their whole political power united 
in its defence. But let the present state of things con- 
tinue, and much sooner than would be otherwise even 
dreamed of we shall have one half of them arrayed in 
deadly opposition to the other. Arrest this process, 
and we will not only avoid this fatal calamity, but we 
will perpetuate slavery for an indefinite period. Wo 
will make it more beneficial by keeping it more equally 
diffused, and preserving everywhere throughout the 
South the necessary equilibrimum of the white and 
blaok population. In the existing condition of the two 
races, slavery is the only relation which the black one 
can occupy to the white, with safety to either, and to 
make this relation stable and secure, a proper equilibria'' 
um between them must be maintained. Destroy this 
equilibrium, and what would be otherwise a most bene- 
ficial agent becomes in every aspect an unmitigated evil. 

There are some other measures of minor consequence 
to these which might also be adopted to give efllcienoy 
and completeness to this system of policy. But if the 
policy itself shall be adopted, they will follow as necea* 
sary consequences, and therefore need not now be spec^ 
ified. My object, at this time, is only to call attention 
to a general consideration of the subjeet. I am under 
the strongest conviction that a change of system is not 



only necessary to the prosperity of tlie cotton growing 
States, bat is absolutely es?ential to tbeir safety. I be- 
lieve the adoption of snch a one as I have indica- 
ted would put a new face upon the country. Our agri- 
culture, instead of a desolating curse, would cause our 
land to smile with beauty and fertility. The finuncinl, 
the social, and the mornl well being of all connected 
with it would be promoted. The vast surplus of our 
production, instead of being exported to the slave-selling 
States for more slaves, and thus actually buying future 
ruin with present disadrantage, would be invested in 
nseful and valuable improvements amongst ourselves. 
Railroads would be built wherever needed, with our own 
funds ; manufectures of great variety would be estab- 
lished and multiplied throughout our land. Our mines 
of iron and coal would become the sources of a vast 
production. A valuable white emigration would be in- 
duced into our borders, our little villages would grow 
into populous towns, teeming with merchants, manufac- 
turers, mechanics, requiring for their consumption im- 
nensely increased amounts of every discription of agri- 
cultural produce ; labor would be diversified and va- 
ried by a thousand new employments, all acting and re- 
aetiflg beneficially upon each, and each upon all. The 
result of which would be that all property would be en- 
hanced in value, and fixed in a condition of security and 
Btability ; prosperity would pervade all classes of our 
people, and there is no degree of advancement we might 
not justly hope to attain. While I solemnly believe that 
eur present system persisted in can lead to nothing but 

poverty, debasement and ruin. 



From the Southern Agricultarist. 


The apple succeeds well in most sections of the coun- 
try, and with proper cultivation yields regular and boun- 
tiful crops. It is a vigorous, hardy tree, and will grow 
upon most soils, but thrives best in a good loam, with 
clay subsoil, as a porous subsoil is often unfavorable. — 
Some varieties do best on a deep, sandy loam, and early 
varieties usually require a warm, dry soil, which hastens 
their maturity, while others flourish best in strong, moist 
loam ; and late kinds require a cool soil to retard their 
ripening. For this purpose we have found mulching 
with leaves, pine-straw and such material, of great ben- 
efit ; when applied after a good season in midsummer, 
the fhiit will mature more gradually and in better per- 
fection, and will keep better during winter. 

Upon the whole, the apple is one of the most valuable 
fruits ; other kinds axe more luscious and delicate, but 
these qualities render them transient, whUe the apple en- 
sures and may be had in excellence throughout the year. 

Various other fVuits when duly attended to will assume 
far more comparative importance. Yet the apple, from 
its hardiness, easy production, great excellence, and be- 
ing always in use, both fresli and dried, will, in the main, 
bold a decided superiority over any other species. In 
spring, it is a beautiful trcQ, with its blossoms of white 
tinged with red, and some of the varieties are highly or- 
namented with their showy double flowers.'' Cole, in his 
Fruit Book, thus admirably sums up its uses : 

"The fine kinds are excellent for the desserts. Besides 
the pleasure of this luxury, and nutriment in rich apples, 
they have an excellent medical effect. They are greatly 
laxative and keep the system in a good condition. They 
serve as a healthy repast for children, who would often be 
eating something that is injurious from too much nutri- 

** Apples arc cooked in various ways, and may at all 
times form one or more] dishes on the table ; stewed ap- 
ples are an excellent sauce ; frying in a pan after meat 
is a fine preparation. (Though fried with butter we 
think they are still better.) They are excellent in 
dumplings. . Sliced sweet, or mild apple, in Indian and 
other puddings, are better than raisins, and so they are 
in boiled rice and in warm Indian bread. They make 
fine pies and tarta. A doicdy, or big pie, makes a meal 
for a whole family. They may be made into apple sauce 
and be kept a long time. Apple butter is a still finer 
dish. Caudlcd apples, (boiled in just water enough to 
cover them,) are excellent Suitable kinds make fine 
preserves. Roasted or baked, they are good without fur- 
ther preparation ;" and to our good clean housewivea, 
we need not tell them that they make an excellent jelly^ 
Apples, under proper feeding, are valuaUe for aU 
kinds of stock. We not only give them freely to our 
hogs, but feed them to our milch cows, and frequently to 
our horses ; all seem to thrive upon them, and always 
eat them with good relish ; and we would advise all our 
good housewives to make a plentiful supply of good ci- 
der vinegar, which is better, and much more preferable 
to a great deal of the vinegar sold as White Wine Vine- 
gar, often a composition that has never touched a seaport. 
The apple is admirably adapted to the upper region^, 
of the Southern States, where it thrives in great perfec- 
tion, and many choice varieties have been produced. — 
Among those which may be named is the Aromatic Carty- 
Una and Ferdinand, both produced here. The first being 
a very superior Summer fruit, and the other ripening in 
October and keeping till March, of* large size and supe- 
rior flavor. The Carter apple, scions of which have 
been sent us by Dr. N. B. Cloud, of La Place, Ala., and 
from Col. Carter himself, through the Rev. Mr. Moul- 
trie, of Chunnenuggee, Ala. It is discribcd as of me- 
dium size, excellent flavor and a remarkable good keeper, 
riie Davit apple, sent us by our friend E. J. Capell, of 
Miss., is valued there for the same good qualities. The 
CalUuaga and Niekajaeky two valuable native apples, re- 
cently brought into notice by Mr. Silae McDowell, of 



Maoob CoTiniy, N. C, ^ith seTer&l others which hare re- 
oeiTed the notice of the Fruit Committee of the South 
CarolinA Agricultural Society, at their laat meeting in 
Macon — all deserve to be extensively propagated. The 
Murrcofy from having tasted it, we would particularly re- 
commend — ^indeed we must look to our choice native ap- 
ples for good winter fruits — the most of the winter vari- 
eties from the North ripening too early to keep during 
the winter. With a little care, a selection can be made 
that will furnish a supply of this wholesome fruit. 

We have given directions as to propagating by grafting 
in an other article, and in a preceding article, we have 
given particular directions for transplanting. The land 
should be kept in good condition by culture and the 
proper kind of manure, as no tree can be expected to 
produce good fruit if neglected. 

Our soils are mostly deficient in lime, and for this rea- 
son it should be liberally supplied. 

[This defleiency of lime rarely ocean in anj loealitj in Ala> 
bama.— S4. CMon PlanUr.] 

The following table shows the inorganic matters in the 

apple : 

AnalytU of (he Aah of the Apple. 

Sap Heart Bark 

wood wood of trunk. 

Potash 16.19 6.620 4.980 

Soda 8.11 6.986 8.286 

Chloride of Sodium 0.42 0.210 0.640 

Sulphate (^ lime 0.06 0.626 0.687 

Phos. of peroxide Iron 0.80 6.600 0.876 

Phosphate of Lime 17-60 6.210 2.426 

Phosphate of Magnet 0.20 0.190 

Carbonic Acid 29.10 86.276 44.880 

Lime 18.68 87.019 81.678 

Magnesia 8.40 6.900 0.160 

SUicia 0.86 0.400 0.200 

Soluble SUicia 0.80 0.800 0.400 

Organic Matter 4.60 2.460 2.100 

100.06 104.686 111.460 

Supply potash in wood ashes ; soda in common salt ; 
phosphate of lime in bones ; carbonic acid in charcoal 
and manure from animals ; lime in lime, old plaster, 
chalk, bones hair or horn shavings ; magnesia in this salt 
ormagnesian lime. 

The apple is subject to the attacks of several insects — 
the eaierpiller, the borery the canker wormy the bli^kty and 
the bark lotiee, ¥ot eradicating the last named trouble- 
some insect, we would refer the reader to the preceding 

The caierpUler some seasons do immense injury, ta- 
king the entire orchard. The best mode of destruction 
is to cut off in winter the branches upon which they have 
deposited their eggs, and burn them. Every nest of 
eggs thus removed, which is done in a few seconds, to- 
tally prevents a nest of caterpillers in the Spring — but 
when these appear, no time should be lost in cleaning the 
trees of them. Soap-suds, to which some salt has been 
added, and applied by means of a swab at the end of a 
pole, is the best method to rid trees of them when they 
have nuule their appearance. Tobacco water is also re- 
commended as a good remedy. 

The borer (saperda bivittati) is an insect which enters 
the tree at a bud« and outs into the solid wood, fireqnent- 
ly doing immense damage. The first indication of it« 
presence is the appearance of small, round holes. — 
Theso holes will soon become more visible by the ejee^ 
tion of dust — and it will be found necessary to cut off 
the affected ports In young trees, below the entrance of 
the borer, in order to save them, or they may bo destroy- 
ed by running a piece of wire into the hole ; but as pre. 
vention is better than cure, we would advise the tree to 
be kept smooth and dean, and well washed with some al- 
kaline solution, to which add a littie sulphur, tobacco or 
other offensive matter. The insects would then be pre- 
vented from harboring, if this wash was applied in June, 
July or August. 

The appU warm or eodUtig moth (oorpocapsa pomonella) 
was imported from Europe. During the latter i>art of 
May and June, these moths lay their eggs in the eye or 
blossom end of apples, sometimes in early pears. They 
hatch in a few days, and the worm eats into the apples,: 
and in a few weeks attains its fuU growth. The apples 
ripen and fall prematurely. Soon after the apple falls,- 
and sometimes before, the worm crawls into the erevioeB 
of the tree, or other places, spins a coooon of a whitfr 
delicate web, where it remains until the next season.—* 
It is quite probable that with us it comes out and produ- 
ces a second generation. The only remedy that is avail- 
able is to let hogs run into the orchard and eat the fallen 
fruit, and when it is practicable to pick up the fruit as it 
fedls, and destroy the worms. Lay old oloths in the 
crotches and around the trees, and many wiU erawi in 
and may be caught. By scraping off the bark in ^ring 
many will be destroyed. 

The canker worm (anisoptery pometarla) aifocts the 
apple, the quince, mountain ash and hawthorn. One of 
the principal remedies which has been tried, is to prevent 
the female from ascending the tree to deposit her eggs, 
but none have yet been discovered of ea^y, safe and ef- 
fectual application — one of the best is to endrcle the 
tree with a canvass belt, coated with a mixture of tar and 
train oil, to be renewed several times. Applying the tar 
directiy to the bark of the tree is injurious. India rub- 
ber dissolved in whale oil over the fire will last a long ' 
time without renewing, and is equally as effectual as tar. 
A species of a Am, often infesting young trees, is destroy- 
ed by whale oil soap, and by lime wash. 

The blight which sometimes kills the terminal shoots of 
the branches, has been variously ascribed to the sting of 
an insect, and to the effects of the weather. The cause 
does not appear to be satisfactorily ascertained. It raro-> 
ly proves a formidable disaster, although trees are ooca* 
sionally very much disfigured by it, and temporarily 
checked in growth. We have always out off the branch** 
OS and burned them when thus affected, and the disease 

We would recommend the following varieties for gene- 
ral cultivation in this latitude, having fruited them and 
tested their qualities. 



Ist Early Harvaty the best early apple, as it is of fine 
mse, juicy, of a pleasant sub-aoid flavor, excellent for 
cooking and eating. It seems to be well adapted to a 
-warm, rich soil ; ripe from the 26th May to the loth of 


2d. White Juneatinjj small pale yellow, sometimes, 
when exposed to the sun, a faint blush ; flesh white, 
crisp and pleasant ; early in June and a great bearer. 

8d. Carolina Red June, is one of the best early apples; 
in favorable locations frequently large; oblong, deep 
red when exposed ; rather acid ; excellent for tarts ; ri- 
pens early in June, and continues for several weeks. 

4th. Red AttraeHon^ like the preceding, is often quite 
large, the whole surface frequently of a deep crimson ; 
flesh white, crisp, and in favorable seasons, of a pleas- 
ant Bub-acid flavor ; ripens a few days after the early 
harvest ; excellent for cooking, and should be in every 


6th. WilUam'e Favorite, large oblong, bright red ; dark 
red in the sun ; flesh yellowish white, fine, mild, pleas- 
ant and excellent ; ripens during July ; moderate grow- 
er, and a great bearer. 

6th. Summer Pearmain, roundish, yellow, mostly mark- 
ed with red ; flesh very fine, tender, rich, aromatic— 
with us has no superior ; continues to ripen through 


7th. Early Strawberry, of medium size, roundish con- 
ical; smooth, yellowish, white ground, often covered 
with brilliant red, flesh white, tinged with red next to the 
lylrin ; very tender, slightly acid, slightly aromatic flavor ; 
ripens in July ; moderate grower, and a good bearer. 

8th. Autumn Strawberry, a fine productive variety, ri- 
pening in Summer ; it is a beautiful apple. 

9th. Aromatic Carolina, large, oblate ; flesh tender, of 
A rich* aromatic flavor, with dull reddish stripes, covered 
with light bloom ; continues to ripen from the last of 
July often through August. 

10th. Oravenetein, large, slightly oblate, stripped and 
f^loshed with bright red on a yellow ground ; flesh ten- 
der, juicy, very rich, sub-acid, high flavored; ripens 
from the last of July to the 16th of August. 

11th. Porter, large, oblong, ovate, smoothe, rich, yel- 
low, resembling a lemon ; flesh fine and tender, very jui- 
cy, of a rich, excellent, sprightly flavor, and is with us, 
the best summer apple ; a great bearer. 

12th. Garden Royal, see previous description. 

18th. Fall Pippin, very large, roundish ; superior for 
the table, and excellent for cooking ; ripens in August 
and September ; requires good culture for fine fruit. 

14th. Male Carle, This is an excellent apple of medi- 
um nie, smooth lemon color ; crimson in the sun ; flesh 
white and juicy, of a delicate rose perfumed flavor. It 
is well adapted to this latitude, and with care, keeps un- 
til Christmas. It is the finest apple in Italy, and highly 
esteemed in the south of Europe. 

16th. VeUow BeUfiower, yerj large, long, ovate coni- | 
4sal, smooth, lemon yellow, blush in the sun, flesh tender, I 
Ijiicy. rich, pprightly, aromatic flavor ; ripen.s in Sep- ; 

tember ; thrives well in a deep sandy loam ; not a great 
bearer, but deserves to be cultivated. 

16th. Fameuee, medium, greenish yellow, mostly cov- 
ered with red ; flesh pure white, very tender, juicy and 
pleasant ; slow grower but a good bearer ; in a cool lo- 
cation will ripen during October and keep until Christ- 

17th. Dutch Mignonne, large, roundish, dull or ange, 
and dull red ; large russet specks ; flesh tender, of a 
rich, high aromatic flavor ; ripens last of September ; 
trees of vigorous growth and promise to bear well. 

18th. Cayuga Red Streak, very large, roundish, green- 
ish yellow, marbled and striped with purplish red ; fleah 
of a brisk, sub-acid flavor ; is a great bearer, and the 
fruit of a beautiful appearance. 

19th. Belmont, large, skin waxen, sometimes pale yel- 
low, brownish check, fine, tender, of a rich, sub-acid ; 
early in autumn ; a fine grower and great bearer ; ad- 
apted to rather dry soil. 

20th. HawUy, large, roundish, pale green, becoming 
yellow, sometimes a faint orange cheek ; flesh yellowislt 
white, fine grained, quite tender, with a mild, rich, sub- 
acid, fine flavor ; late summer and early autumn. 

21st. Jonathan, a beautiful, very fair, medium sized 
apple, and promises to be very productive, and a good 

22. Laquier, large, oblate, somewhat irregular striped, 
light and dark red or greenish yellow ; flesh white, fine 
grained, firm, crisp, mild, a gentle sub-add, keeps until 

28d. Marston's Red Winter, large roundish, oval, stri- 
ped with bright red, and crimson on a yellow ground ; 
flese yellowish, fine grained, tender, juicy and high fla- 
vored, and promises to be one of the best winter apples. 

24th. Northern Spy, large, handsomely striped with 
red; flavor mild, agreeable, pleasant, sub-acid, and 
promises to be a good keeper. 

25th. Pryor'e Red, rather large ; color dull, brick red 
on greenish yellow in dots ; slightly russetted ; flesh ve- 
ry tender, mild, sub-acid, and very agreeable. Highly 
esteemed in Virginia and Kentucky, where it keeps until 

spring, and promises to prove a good keeper here. 
26th. RaicU Jannet, medium in size ; color pale red, 

iistinct stripes on light yellow ground; flesh nearly 

white, fine, mild, sub-acid, fine texture, crisp, juicy, 

compact, and in our climate, decidedly first rate ; ripens 

late in autumn, and will prove a vauable keeper. Tlie 

blossoms open ten days later than usual and will always 

escape our spring frosts. It is known also as Keverfail ; 

the tree is of slow growth, and requires a good soil. 

27th. Red Canada, medium in size, nearly the whole 
surface covered with red, and interspersed with large, 
rather indistinct whitish dots ; flesh fine grained, high 
and excellent flavor ; keeps till late in winter. 

28th. Wagener, medium or rather large, shaded and 
indistinctly striped with red ; deep red in ihe sun ; an a 
warm, yellow ground, often streaked with russet ; flesh 
yellowish, very fine ground, mild, sub acid, very aromatio 



ftnd excellent ; lipcnB late. i 

29th. Pcck^a Pltasanty large, often quite large ; emooth : 
and regular, color light green, becoming ycUoT7 with a ■ 
brown blnsh ; flesh very tender, not good when over ripe; 
resembles the Newton pippin in flavor. 

SOih. Rhode Island Greening, large, roundish, oblate, 
green, beooming greenish yellow ; always fair with a 
dull blush to the sun ; flesh a rich yellow if exposed to 
the sun ; tender, rich, rather acid flavor ; promises to be 
very productive here, but requires the proper ingredients 
to be supplied in the soil. 

Slat. Newton Pippin^ of rather large size, roundish 
oblique, slightly irregular, dull green, becoming yellow- 
ish green, with a duU brownish blush ; flesh greenish 
white, juicy, crisp, flne grained, with a high, fine flavor ; 
keeps late and retains its freshness ; trees slow of growth, 
and the fruit falls for want of necessary constituents in 
warm soils ; promises, with care, to succeed in cool or 
moist locations. 

82d. Swaar, rather large, slightly flattened at the 
«nds, color greenish yellow, becoming a rich yellow, 
sometimes faintly russeted ; a little blush when much 
exposed to the sun ; flesh tender, fine grained and very 
rich, mild, aromatic agreeable flavor ; requires a favor- 
able location and good soil to bring the fruit to complete 
perfection, and then it is regarded as the very best table 

' 88d. CtarVe Pearmain, medium size, of a dull, red and 
coYered with numerous small dots ; flesh yellowish, fine, 
and when fully ripe, tender ; keeps until Christmas ; 
trees slow of growth, requiring very little pruning when 
the heads are formed ; has been long cultivated, and was 
one of the first good apples introduced here from Virgin- 
ia, by the late Philip Pearson, father of our worthy 
fkiendDr. George 6. Pearson. He first gave attention 
to the culture of fine fimits in Fairfield District. 

84th. The Cfreening, is a medium sized apple, rather 
flftt, of a bright green, sometimes yellowish ; fiesh re- 
markably tender, juicy, and extremely rich and delicious; 
was also introduced by the late Philip Pearson from Vir* 

We could extend this list to a much greater length, and 
have already been compelled to omit several choice vari- 
eties, which we intended to include, but want of space 
prevents us— at another time we will continue our notes 
Qf favorite varieties. 

From the Hortieulturuit. 

BT WM. W. TALK, M. D., FLVSHma. 

We Uke to see a garden well laid out and cultivated. — 
There is something in the contemplation of its design, 
the harmony of its parts, and the neatness and tkill with 
which it is kept up, that affords a peculiar Jdnd of grat- 
ification to every true loves of the beautiful in art or na- 
ture. But aU gardens are not well cidtivated. Some 
l&Tf no design^ and are but a hetrqgeneous aggregate of 

an absurd and preposterous fancy, — expensive it may be, 
but nothing more. No one portion of them is in keep- 
ing with another, though every walk and bed is scrupu- 
lously clean — this is the gardener's pride, and he " lays 
himself out on it " with perfect composure ; for Ats 
knowledge of what a garden ought to be, ** hath this ex- 
tent, no more." Again we see design, and a certain har- 
mony in every department, but the whole lacks that great 
essential, Uute — ^the combination of aU the elements em- 
braced in location and surface, developed with sound and 
discriminative judgment. A flat surface and straight 
lines in the walks, the trees, the shrubbery, form the ul- 
timatum of many gardners' ambition, and they will take 
infinite pains to destroy every natural beauty, in order to 
accomplish this most undesirable and monotonous object. 
But we did not set out to speak so much of tastehil 
designs, and the laying out of gardens, as of their being 
well cultivated. The divisions of them may be round or 
square or oval, or of any shape or size, the surface flat 
or undulating, the soil poor or rich, sandy or loamy, the 
advantages of location and aspect good or bad, yet the 
question comes at last, is the garden cultivated with skill, 
and according to the best lights of scientific horticulture T 
What is cultivation ? To the man of science there is but 
one answer to this question ; with the superficial and illit- 
erate there are many, and scarcely any two of these 
shall agree in their definition. One man removes the 
wild strawberry from the woods and plants it in his gar- 
den. With him this is cultivation — a mere change of 
place—the soil, most likely, being less suited to its 
growth than that from which it was transplanted. Up- 
on this principle, whatever is in the garden is in a state 
of cultivation, and for no better reason than because the 
common operations of a whole in making up a complete 
system of culture, but they are not the system itself, 
and if nothing more were required or done, vegetation 
would ultimately languish, and become essentially retro- 

Another gardener (and there are many such) trans- 
plants a small tree from a hedge to one of his garden 
plots. He knows just enough of veget^le physiology 
to reduce the head and branches somewhat, and to keep 
the tree exact and steady, to facilitate its rooting. This 
accomplished, the tree has (to him) been brought into a 
state of cultivation, and he expects it to grow and flour- 
ish far more rapidly and certainly than if it had been 
permitted to stand where it originally sprung from the 
earth. If it does not fulfil his expectations, the fault 
lay in the tree, and not in any act of omission on his 
part, by which the cultivation of it should have been per- 
fected. Such a gardener knows (generally speaking,) 
just enough to be quite at his ease in the performance of 
certain duties pertuning to his calling, and to render 
him obstinate in receiving farther enlightenment £rosk 
his employer or any body else. There are such men as 
we very well know, capital operators with the hoe, the 
spade, and the rake, doing well what the hands alone 
may do, but without the mind and skill to give them the 



only proper direction. CiUtivation has a meaning intli 
them, but it is very remote fh>m tlie truth, and limited 
to certain acts of a purely mechhnical nature. There 
are grades of intelligence among gardeners, and ve hare 
commenced our illustrations with the lowest. Let us 
]Mi88 on to a more enlightened class, and see what they 
understand by the term cultivation. 

If one of these men is asked for the meaning he at- 
taches to that process by which he brings to perfection a 
tree, a shrub, or a TCgetable, he will very properly reply 
that their eulHimtion embraces a knowledge of soils, tem- 
perature, light, moisture or dryness, and the application 
of manures. By their aid, and the use of certain imple- 
ments, he adapts means to their proper ends, because he 
knows their relative value. By reading, reflection, ob- 
servation, and diligent practice, the mind has become 
prepared for the reception of the truths of vegetable 
physiology, and by a practical application of them to the 
oirettmstances under which the tree, shrub, or vegetable 
IB made to grow, he cultivates them as their several ne- 
cessities require. This brings perfection if it is at all at- 
tainable, and the result is based upon sound and discrim- 
inative intelligence. 

There is no such thing as a royal road to perfecti<m in 
amnging and planting a garden. But one would be in- 
duced to believe it an easy matter to do either, were the 
opinion formed upon the illustrations met with every 
where of the capacity and judgment of most of the gar- 
deners employed in the United States. There are some 
uUtiOigsnt men among the number, but the larger portion 
are of a& inferior caste, practical workers truly, but not 
men of reflection, not the men who read and reason, and 
base their operations upon the scientific elucidations of a 
p r o gres s ive age, pregnant in great issues to the horticul- 
turist as irell as the mechanic and professional man. — 
We want that class of assistants in our gardening pur- 
suits, who eschew that dogged obstinacy so inseparable 
from superficial knowledge. We want the men, who 
having come from Europe, will remember that they are 
in America, and that the soil and climate bear an impor- 
tant influence in controlling and modifying the least of 
their operations. 

From the Soathem Cultivator. 


Messrs. Editors — ^Twenty years' experience 
in the culture of Lucerne, leads me to regard it of 
incomparable yalue in this climate (36 deg. N.,) 
both for soil feeding and for hay. Five good crops 
a year, for a succession of seven or eight years, 
may be relied on with fair treatment. The small- 
est number I have cut is four, the largest seven. 

Soil — Any good com land, high or low. Mine 
is a deep red clay. 

Time of Sowing — As soon as the ground is in 

plowing condition in the spring ; or early enough 
in the fall to allow the young plants to become so 
well rooted as to resist the winter frost-'-say the 
latter part of August or first of September. 

Mode of Sowiiuf — ^Broadcast, brushed or light- 
ly harrowed in, and rolled. I have tried drillS| 
but decidedly prefer the former, 

Quantittf of seed to the Acre — ^The books say 
10 lbs., and the seed being good, the ground well 
prepared, and the season auspicious, this may suf- 
fice; but my experience suggests double that 

Preparation of (rrourw/— Deep plowing — the 
deeper the better — and thorough pulverization, to- 
gether with liberal manuring. Liberality here is 
the truest economy. If sowed in the spring or 
late in the winter — ^FAruary or March — ^hot, 
recking manure from the stables or sties should be 
plowed in, in the fall preceding. If sowed in the 
fall, this operation should be performed the previ- 
ous spring, in which case a rich summer crop of 
something else may be taken. I have not tried 
guano or super phosphate of lime on Lucerne, bat 
do not doubt their adaptation to it, especially for 
surface manuring, after the second or third year. 
Ashes and Plaster of Paris I have applied as a 
top dressing with satisfactory results. 

Time of OuMing — ^As soon as the flowers appear. 
Cure as clover — not scattering, but sufiering it to 
wilt, and then cocking in tall narrow-based cooks, 
not exceeding three feet, or at most four, in diam- 
eter, built as high as they will stand. In two, 
three or four days, according to the weather, turn 
them ovei^--opening a little to the sun — ^from half 
an hour to an hour in advance of the wagon, and 
haul to the bam or stack. 

The product is more than double that of clover, 
to say nothing of the sulivating effect of the sec- 
ond or third crop of the latter, from which every 
crop of the former is free. It is said to be less 
nutritious. Yet I find it for soil-feed to pigs, 
calves, mares and colts, as well as oows and hor- 
ses, decidedly superior to clover. Cows give more 
milk when fed on it, and equally good; the rea- 
son for which, perhaps, is that they are fonder of 
it, and therefore eat more. Every change from 
Luceme, to clover proves the supericH-ity of Lu- 
cerne, both by the quantity of the milk, and the 
appearance of the oows. 

In July and August, if dry, Lucerne fidls -, sad 



the only reliable substitute I have found, though 
a very inadequate one, except in quantity, is the 
Guinea grass. 

Lucerne should be cut — ^never depastured. If 
thickly sown, it smothers all weeds, and takes ex- 
clusive possession for six or seven years, till the 
blue grass enters the lists. Rather than under- 
take the extermination of this insidious and al- 
most indomitable foe, the eradication of which, if 
completely aflfected by the coulter and harrow, and 
rake and hand, " costs more than it come to,*' I 
have chosen to sow a new plat, and cultivate corn 
in the old one. One years's thorough culture in 
com, with a good coat of manure, refits it for Lu- 

Seed may be procured at Baltimore, Philadel- 
phia or New York, at frqpi 25 to 37 i cents per 

P. S. — ^If weeds threaten to smother it the first 
spring or summer, let the scythe be fearlessly ap- 

Yery respectfully yours, 

W. B. Bingham. 
Oaksy Orange Co.y N. C Eeb. 1852. 

Cnmmtrrial fttter. 



Db; Cloud — 

DearSir : In your March No. I stated tlie views I com- 
menced the seaaon with, and as especially eubmitted in 
my circular of Ist January, now not materially changed, 
though at that time (1st March) the excess of receipts 
of Cotton oyer the corresponding period of the year be- 
fore, was forminable, and snfficient to shock the nerves of 
those who would not consider and investigate the causes 
of the excess. The explanation I gave for it, I still 
think correct, and am happy to say that the encoura- 
ging prospect I presented in reference to our great sta- 
ple, and all the elements connected with it, are being 
ftilly and rapidly realised. 

On the 8d March, the date of my last to you, I stated 
the receipts would fall ofif rapidly. Our excess then 
was about 100,000 bales above the corresponding period 
of last year. To-day (April 21st,( in about six weeks, 
there is not an excess of 9,000 bales, as Satnrday's Pri- 
ces Current will show. On 2d March, Middlings were 
worth 8J. now they are lOo. At the end of next week, 
there will be a clecrease here from the receipts of last 
year, and persons who know any thing at all of the mat- 
ter, will see that that decrease iriXi bd widened evet^ 

week for the remainder of the season. My outside esti- 
mate for the crop then was 8,000,000 bales. It will not 
vary materially froln it. Some points will exceed my 
figures slightly, I now think, while I think others will 
not come up to them. 

So far as my humble ability and influence could effect 
it, I have endeavored to direct attention to the fact that 
the crop has been largely over-estimated, and I have 
wished to give confidence alike to planters and buyers of 
cotton. I am gratified at the efforts I think yon are 
making, to collect light upon this great and important 
subject, and cannot question it will be productive of ad- 

Let me venture a word of advice to my planting friends 
and country merchants. Now you have sold your cot-- 
ton and towards this crop you have no further immediate 
interest, and hence may be disposed to speak carelessly 
of the receipts that are yet to come in, or of your ideas 
about prices ; but you have a direct interest in full jus- 
tice being done to the remnant of the crop unsold, as it 
will be simple justice to buyers. For example, if the 
crop docs not exceed 8,0000,000 to 3,100,000 bales, they 
will certainly make fine profits on their purchases, and- 
they will return to their work next season in good spir- 
its, and meet the prices which may prevail without any 
malicious feelings towards them if they are ever so high. 
And ought we not to protect and sustain them in every 
honorable and reasonable mode ? Then let us be cau-. 
tious to allow no remark to escape us that is not founded • 
on probabiliHea o,nd facts, I will illustrate my meanings 
thus : — Last summer, in New York, a Mobile cotton buy- 
er received such accounts from those sort of careless- 
writers and speakers, as caused him to write to France, - 
and perhaps England, that the crop was wonderfully 
promising, and that in no event could it fall below 
3,500,000 bales, &c. &c. In Havre it created a panic, 
and they sold cotton at tremendous sacrifices, and, in- 
stead of realizing fine profits, they lost their money. — 
This may accounjt for the smallness of the business of the 
French buyers this season ; they have hardly been known 
in the market until they had realized fine profits upon 
some random purchases they made from time to timo by 
early tbipments, since when, and that but recently, tbey bare opera- 
ted n^ely. Now, I say mi man has been, or was justified in seriously 
estimating this crop iit 3,500,000 bales. 

Below you will flod a table of the American crop ttom 1830, 
which I desire all parties to examine. Tney will see what has t)een 
the progress of cotton planting, and by this I consider is proven 
that anv allusion even to a crop of 3,50 >,t1M) bales has been as abturd 
as it wa^ prfposterout. I do not wish to check the agreesible pro- 
pensity of gentlemen for gossip, bnt those who do not deal fairly 
and honestly with this subject, should be appreciated and dealt wiib 
as a traitor to Southern Interests. Ky an examination of this table 
of the production of cotton, it will strike you that in six years out of 
twelve, the production fell greatly below in each what it was last 
year~4liat two large crop years in the period only' succeed eaeh 
other in the years 1847 and 1848, ttll those of 1851 and 1853. In 
M83I we received 3,015,000 bales, and the crop of 1852 will bo about 
the same To say that this year, or last year, or any year, more real 
effort is made, or will be made to make a crop* ia incorrect^ la 
plantors make every eflbrt possible every year to make a Aill crop ; 



then ii no Tiirlatioii from this rule. Now what shall we say respect- 
ing thooomins crop? Why we must koep in mind that we have 
been much later getting it planted than usual ; planting is scarcely 
finished on any plantation yet. In July it will appear nourlihiog, 
and whlppcrsoappers, if you do not checic there, will begin to wrtie 
again that the crop will be perhaps 3,500,000 bales. Judging of tha 
past, which is the proper mode to arrive at the probabilities of the 
future, the coming crop mtut be skort. All tne corn and cotton 
mnst be worked together. Wheat must be cut (and I hope crab- 
grass bay,) and the consequence will be crops will bo grassy and the 
worm win eat it up, more or less. 

Lot thero be no more complaints respecting: the crop than are 
real, but when oomplaini should be made, maIkO it candidly, and let 
us know all. I have seen those laie crops grow off and look uninter- 
ruptedly fine, till frost, but being late, the stalks could not mature the 
bolls, and only half, or abouthaif a crop yas gathered. I would bo 
glad to we the crop turn out 3,000,000 bale? at le ist again, but with 
■o backward a stand, we can not only hope, but can not expect it. 

Erevy element concurring to promote tho Interest of the cotton 
planter, appear to be in successful operation, and, when his intcre»t 
is promoted, there is always a general season of prosperity through- 
out the land, I look for good prices for the next crop ; planters 
May as well raiae their marks high ; as with the present state of con- 
•amptioD, trade, and uniTcrsal proeperity, they can get them if they 
demand them. 

When those 3,.'S00,000 bale fellows see how ridiculous thoy have 
madethemselves, and consider how much harm they have done, 11 
Is to be hoped they will not be imprudent enough to trouble any one 
with Uielr opinions on this subject. 

WiabiDg every success to cotton planters, I am truly yours, 




1839, 3,178.000 

1840, 1,635,000 

1841, 1.681,000 

1843, 3,370,000 

1843, 2,030,000 

1844, 3,305,000 

I84.'S, 3,101.000 

1846, 1.779.01)0 

1847, 3.348.000 

1848, 3,7'29.0'0 

1849, 3.097.000 

1850, 3,35.5.000 

1851, 3,015,000 

By recent scientific researches on the part of 
Peter A. Brone, Esq., of Pennsylvania, it has 
been established that the United States can outri- 
val the world in wool as well as in cotton. Thus, 
Spanish sheep yielding naturally 2,000 to the 
iach, carried to England, degenerated to 900 to 
the inch, and brought to the United States recov- 
ered to 2,100, or finer than the original. The fact 
being once established that our soil and climate 
produce finer wool than other countries, will give 
to our manufacturers invariably the superiority in 
cloths^ if the manufacturer is allied in his interest 
to the grower. 

Every husbandman should carefully read and 
digest matters connected with his business ; his 
success being as dependent upon full knowledge 
of its principles and details, as is that o ! the law- 
yer or physician, with a knowledge of the science 
of law or physic. 

An excellent cement for scams in the roofs of 
houses, or in any other exposed places, is made 
with white lead, dry ,white sand, and as much oil 
as will make it into the consistency of putty. — 
The cement gets as hard ar any stone in the 
course of a few weeks. 

Contents of tliis Ifnn&ber. 

History of Cotton Manufactures, Page 129 

Marl and Marling, 181 

Nutritive Value of Oat Hay 188 

Education of Farmers, Collegen, &c 136 

A.merican Women and Rural Life, 187 

Experiments with Guano and Barn- Yard Manure,... 188 

The Forces of the Farm, 189 

Power of the Soil to retain Manures, 141 

The Seed Trade, 148 

Advantages of Fairs — Improvements — ^Draining, 148 

A Column of Facts and Agricultural Practice, 144 

Editobial — WiH Peas kill Ilogs, 146 

Our Cabinet of Exchanges, 146 

South- Western Industrial Fair, 147 

Plantation Economy, 147' 

Divine origin of Agaicultural Labor 148 

Rotation of Crops, 149 

Letter from Marengo — .*' T. A.", , 160 

Rail Roads 160 

Policy of the Planting States, 162 

The Orchard, 164 

What is Cultivation, ISf 

Lucerne — Its Culture and Uses, 168 

Cotton — Prospect of Prices, &a, « 169 

J. A. & S. 8. VIRGIN, 





1 B fig V 








N B. — ^Watches, Clocks, and Jewelry repaired in tk% 
best manner. 

April 1, 18o3-6t 



Mobile, September 1st, 1862. 


A Mofltlity Jfonul, devoted to hnprored Flaotadon EcoDomy, Miuinractares, and Mecbanlc Arts. 

Vol. I. 


No. 6. 

VLaA and Harllns- 

ta ende&TonriDg to farniBh yon with something 
like k theory of the action of lime, I have stated 
Bom&— perhaps many Uiiaga — whieh are qoestion- 
ed by men of great Kientific attainment. Agri- 
cnltntal Ohemistry — indeed the wb(^ science of 
ehemistry — may be md to be yet in infancy. 
it ia difficult to penetrate the arcana of passive na- 
ture, it is far more so to inTeatigate those active 
operadons which ore conducted la tin air and un- 
der the gronnl, in the formation of plants, com- 
plicated as they are in addition by the yet an- 
known vital agency of the plant iteelf. Although, 
on the whole, the art of agricoltare has been vast- 
ly advanced by the discoveries and eiperimcnts of 
chemists, and he who shuts his eyes to the light 
they are constantly shedding for the benefit of far- 
mers, is now, and wilt soon be much ferther, 
bind his age ; still it is well knoirn that great ab- 
sordideshave bees pnt forward, and with the ut- 
most oonfidenoe, hy the most eminent characters 
in modern scienoe. In speaking, then, of the pe- 
ttoliar action of any of the elements out of which 
pUBtsare formed, and ita agency in the myateii- 
ooM operations oonsdmrnated in the production of 
a fttll-gnnra, matured and frmt-hoaring plant, it is 
sot only baooming, bat necessary, that every one, 
Stost aapemaily a mere bnner like myself, ahoold 
exfUM B opiniesBiritb great diSdenoe and oaution. 
Mad huitttt beftce dmwi&g even from estaliQBhed 

I facts, inferences of important and extenuve bear- 
ing. In view of this, I ongbt not to omit to state 
to yon, that within a few years past, a sweeping 
theory has been suggested by one of the fiirst 
chemiata and moat popular writers of the age, that 
has found some able supporters, and whiijh if true 
apparently upscta every thing that has been said 
of the effects of lime in furnishing food to grow- 
ing plants out of decayed vegetable matter. Dr. 
Liebig asserts that the decayed v^etable matter 
of the Eoil called humus, or mould, affords no di- 
rect nourishment whatever to plants. That they 
derive all their organic constituents from the at- 4- 

mosphure, ani only their inorganic from the earth. 
The organic constituents of plants are those which 
are dissipated when they are burnt, and in most 
vegetables amount to from seventy -nine to ninety 
parts in a hundred. The inorganic constituents 
compose the askee which are left by fire, amount- 
tag usnally fmn one to three parts in a^utdnd, 
in some rare cases to as much as twelve per-amt. 
The only nourishment which, according to this 
theory, the soil afibrds to plants, being thoa lim- 
ited to from one to tliree parts in a hundred, the ^ 
utmost direct influenoe of good or bad soils, of 
mviure of «U ktnda — of lune, alnmnia, silicsi, and 
all mineral elements, can leaoh no farther thsa 
to the modificaffcn of an hundredth or at most a 
tlurt^^bird part of tba ai«p wa enltivate. It fbl- 
Iowa that tba world kM all tlu» tima kboaini im- 
der a snM jmiKMut V^ W etniating at sinh 



Tastlj different Talaes^ what we call rich aiid poor 
landB. That the effects of matiui'e are in a great 
measure fanciful, or at least that ftt>m one to three 
pounds of ashes are equivalent to a hundred 
pounds of vegetable matter, as an application to 
the soil, and that it is useless to labour to put on 
manure in any other form. Knowing as we do 
that a single drop of prussic acid will almost in- 
stantly extinguish life, it would not be fair to de- 
ny very great influence to even the smallest pro. 

with you, as with all the world, heretofore, a cri- 
terion, and a never failing one, of the value of 
land, and so it will forever continue to be, I ven- 
ture to assert. K then, as I believe, and you will 
probably agree, plants derive their most important 
constituents of all kinds from the soil and from 
vegetable mould, the value of lime in the soil is 
by no means limited to its action on the mineral 
or inorganic constituents of it, but extends to the 
production also of those organic elements which 

p(^ion of inorganic matter in the production of preponderate so immensely in all vegetation, 
plants. And since Liebig concedes that until the^ But your inquiry of me was in reference to 
leaves are formed, the plant derives its carbonir Marl. I must therefore remind you again, that all 
aoid from an artificial atmosphere generated by 
the contact of humus in the soil with the air, it 
would not be safe to denounce this theory in the 
present state of science, as absurd. It is admit- 
tsd, too, on all sides, that plants do assimilate car- 
bon from the atmosphere, and it seems establish- 
ed that ammonia descends in'rain water. Howev- 
er true this may be, and though Liebig's theory 
was established as perfectly so in all its parts, I 
should think it most prudent to hold on still to 
what experience and rational deduction have taught 
us of the influence of vegetable mould on crops, 
in the hope that further discoveries might harmon- 
ize old facts and new truths, especially as none of 
ufi would set about improving the atmosphere, or 
desire to add more carbonic acid or nitrogen to 
it, since any material increase of these elements 
would render it fatal to animal life. Indeed, no 

scientific discoveries or force of logic can ever, I 

am convinced, for an instant shake your confidence 

or that of any practical farmer, in vegetable mould 

and compost manure } or lead you to doubt that 

the amount of your crop, if properly tilled under 

fair seasons, depended in all other respects wholly 

and solely on the quality of your land. Whether 

the soil furnishes one part or ninety-nine parts in 

a hundred — you have too often seen plants on the 

same acre subject tdthe same identical atmospher- 
ic influences throughout, varying* from good to 

worthless, according to the soil, to question the 

important fact that by improving your land you 

improve your crop in the same ratfo precisely, and 

that by exhausting it you equally det^-iorate the 

cro-p. JL^ 

In fact, depth of soil, by whicn^k mean depth 

of decayed vegetable mould, or decayed vege- 
table mould mixed with sand, clay, &c., has been 

which has been said of lime is true of marl. If 
it is slower than lime in its early operations, that 
is more than compensated by many advantages 
which it possesses. This is becoming so well ira- 
derstood, that wherever the same quantity of lime 
can be placed on land as cheaply in the form of 
marl, it is rapidly superseding the use of it in aU 
other forms. Marl contains besides carbonate of 
lime other valuable constituents.) Its eilex and al- 
umnia though fine in quality are not of muohooo- 
sequence, since they are never thus applied in suf- 
ficient qualities to effect the soil materially/ But 
some marls — ^those of Virginia, for instance — con- 
tain sometimes sulphate of lime and the valuaUe 
green sand of which I have spoken. As the sul- 
phate of lime exists there in Eocence Mari it may 
be discovered in our formation. I have seen green 
sand in specimens from several localities in this 
State. A deposit of green sand, such as is found 
and used to an immense extent in New Jeney, 
would be more valuable in you^ county than the 
richest gold mine in the world./' There is none of 
it at Shell Bluff. I have already spoken of phos- 
phate of lime. In marl from Asbury river, in this 
State, which belongs to the same formation as our 
marls, five per cent of this phosphate has been dis- 
covered. From some crude experiments of my 
own, I am inclined to believe it exists in some of 
the jnatls at Shell Bluff, and probably in yours — 
to what extent I would not undertake to say. But 
five, per cent of it would give you the equivalent 
of nine bushels of ground bones in every hundred 
bushels .of .marl, which alone would be worth moie . 
than the whole cost of applying that quanti^ of 
marl, though the pxpenise of it might be five dol- 
lars. We cannot, however^ expect to find it In saoh 
quantity in all the mark we use. Those will profa« ■ 




ably be riobest in it, in which are found remains of 
tones and teeth. In the shell maris on the Rhine, 
recent analysis has detected an important propor- 
tion of azote, derived, it is supposed, from animal 
matter. This is the most powerful, as you know. 
of all manures. There is every reason to believe 
that a scrutiny equally rigid would disclose a val- 
uable proportion of it in our shell marls here. 

The duration of marl in the soil, is undoubtedly 
greater than that of lime. The question of the 
duration of calcareous earth applied to lands, is one 
of great importance itself, and about which you 
will no doubt desire to be satisfied before attempt- 
ing to use it I have tncntioned already, that the 
andentfl regard marl as producing Its effects from 
ten to eighty years. Lord Kames states an in- 
stance of their being o1)servable for one hundred 
and twenty years, and Mr. Ruffin another of sixty 
years. Few or no records of such experiments 
have been handed down from generation tQ gene- 
ration. In those countries where lime and marl 
have been used most extensively and for the long- 
est period, it is impossible to say how the land 
produced before they were applied at all, in com- 
parison with its production now. Of late years, 
more accurate accounts have been kept. The pe- 
culiar effects first observed to follow the application 
of lime, have been thought to disappear or materi- 
ally diminished at various periods, reaching from 
four to Ibrty years, according to the amount ap- 
plied and other circumstances. It is supposed by 
writers and farmers abroad, that about three and 
a half bushels of it are consumed per annum by 
the GTop, and that in general the influence of any 
quantity will cease in from twelve to twenty years. 
But these conclusions are not to be relied on. It 
is certain that no crop will take off so large an a- 
monnt as three and a half bjishels, and the loss 
from other causes is altogether indefinite. While, 
tihough, at the end of twenty years, the same pre- 
cise effects as at first may no longer be observable, 
it by no means follows that this may not be owing 
to theirant of proper applications of other manures 
ihat Would excite the lime again to its original ac- 
tion. Mr. Enffin thinks that marl once placed 
on land, will endureas long aa the clay and sand 
m it. Tb<ragh we might not indulge fully in this 
belief, I am of ofsaion that it will last for a peri- 
od which Way Wj^ed indefinite,, from ite re> 
x&otenesfl — pertfctuarly when crops'arc grown such 

as we cultivate. Irish potatoes consume more 
lime than any other crop, perhaps ; nine tons, 
which are sometimes grown upon an acre, though 
not with us, abstract about two hundred and sixty- 
six pounds, or say three and a half bushels — but two 
hundred and sixty are contained in the tops, v^hich 
we never take from the land. A thousand bush- 
els of turnips, tops and all, consume about two 
bushels of lime. Wheat, the cultivation of which 
is extending among us, requires for a crop of twen- 
ty-five bushels, straw and all, about nine pounds, 
or a half peck. Cotton and com do not require 
more. Seed cotton sufficimt to make a bale of 
four hundred pounds — that is fourteen hundred 
pounds in the seed — will consume about thrca 
pounds, and most of that in the seed which is in- 
variably restored to the land. If we treble this 
amount for the stalks and leaves, which, however, 
usually rot on tne ground, the exhaustion of lime 
by our heaviest cotton crops will not exceed half a 
peek when every thing is taken off. Thirty-five 
bushels of com will consume only^ about one and 
three-<fourth poonds of lime; if we add six times 
this amount for the cob, shucik, blades and stalk, 
it will not require more than cotton or wheat, t 
am not aware that our cotton stalks, or our com- 
eobs, shucks, stalks or blades, have ever boon an- 
alysed; but I have, I think, fully allowed for the 
lime they may contain. And, at these rates of ex- 
haustion, thirty bushels of lime, which is about 
the quantity contained in one hudred bushels of 
marl that has sixty per cent of the carbonate, will 
supply the wants of our usual crops, when much 
larger than we now average, for two hundred and 
forty years, if the land was cultivated so long, 
without rest or restoring anything to it. The con- 
sumption of the crop then is next to nothing. — 
The loss arising from other causes is undoubtedly 
greater. Quick-lime dissolves in 750 parts of wa- 
ter. A fall of forty-four inches of rain, which is 
less than Hie annual average quantity that falls 
here, would afford water sufficient to dissolve one 
hundred and seventy bushels per acre. Quick- 
lime when spread on land, however, becomes a cai*- 
bonate, and nevly insoluble, too soon to lose to 
this extent. StjlN. considerable amount might bo 
lost in this way, by a heavy rain immediately after 
liming. Lime, after being burnt, falls into a pow- 
der. Its minute paxtides are forced by showers, 
aided by deep plowing into the subsoil^ and much' 



may be thus carried off. When these things are 
considered, it is obvious that all the lime in the 
land may in time be exhausted, as it has been 
^ from our "drifted" soils. But the chances of its 
duration are greatly increased by being applied in 
1 the form of marl. Being a carbonate, it is solu- 
\ ble by the carbonic acid in rain water only in 
small quantaties, and ages must elapse before it 
oould dissolve and carry off any great amount ; 
and not having been reduced to a fine powder, Its 
particles are too large to be readily driven down 
into the subsoil, below the reach of the plow. — 
Wilhout, then, assigq||[kg any precise limit for the 
d^atioB of marl, I thmk it may be safely conclu- 
ded, that the effects of a sufficient application, un- 
der proper culture, will last for a longer period 
than we can conceive ourselves to have any direct 
ij^terest in the land to which we may apply it. . 

^ 7^ 


Sparta, Ga., March 7th, 1858. 
Mmn. Editors Soil of the SotUh:—The Eze. 
pntive Committee have instructeoi^ to have ||ub- 
liahed the enclosed report, and (in^mpliance wireh 
title iiiequest made in it) the Essay of Mr. Buffin, 
to which it relates. Please to aecomipny the pub- 
licatioA with this explanation — since the course 
pursued by the Executive Committee in regard to 
this Beport and Essay, is different from that ad- 
opted as to other prize Essays, and is pursued only 
in respeet to the wishes of the Committee to whom 
ihis class of Essays was referred. 

Very BespectfuUy, 

Secretary S. C. A, S. 

LaPlacEj Macon Co., Ala., ) 
December 20th, 1853. ) 

Gentlemen of the Executive^ Committee : — ^In ac- 
cordance with your instructions, in committing to 
my hands the Essays on Agricultural Education, 
I associated with me the two gentlemen whose 
names appear below. 

After reading over the Essays, which we care- 
fully did, I was instructed to make the following 

BSPORl* : , 

"ypur C?t)ttimJttce beg leave to make the follow- 
ing Beport, which is respectfully submitted. 

^p^e Saaays were submitted to our examination, 
09 the subject of Agricultural Education^ and 

while it affords us much pleasure to lemark, tbf^ 
each of the Essays exhibit ooAsid^rabla merit % 
regard to this important subject ; nevertheleos,. in 
our opinions, the Essay marked '^ A. B." is deci- 
dedly entitled to the premium. 

Your Committee further ask, that this valuable 
document be published a4 once, and spread Qut be- 
fore the Agricultural community, without waiting 
for the publication of the Society's transaotioiw. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

N. B. CLOUD, Chairman, 
E. A. HOLT, 




Agriculture, as an employpient of labor, and 
the means of drawing subsistance from the earth, 
may be, and generally has been conducted with 
less skill than any other ordinary business, or ex* 
ercise of either physical or mental labor. The 
most ignorant of the human race may know that, 
by coverinjueed in the soil, and weeding the grow- 
ing plants, fruits will be obtained for the subsis- 
tence of the cultivators. And as a greater or less 
measure of production may thus be obtained, by 
the exercise of the lowest grade of intellect, and 
by the rudest processes, it seems to have been 
thence inferred that less instruction, and less pre- 
liminary knowledge, were required for even the 
proper tillage of the earth, than for any other ba- 
siness or persuit of man. No one, perhaps, has 
expressed this opinion in words. But acts, of 
much more force than words, seem to show that 
nearly all mankind had held this opinion ; and in 
this country, more especially, in the action of all 
cultivators of the soil, and of every State govern- 
ment representing these cultivators, there is no in- 
dication of even an exception to the general prev- 
alence and influence of the opinion that i^jncul- 
ture needs but little knowledge, and no prelimi- 
nary instruction. ' " 

But though scanty products and ptofits may b$^ 
derived from the rudest labors of ignorant oulUva* 
tors, there is no employment of man, whether of 
science or art, which requires, to secure it9 gr^^t- 
ost rewards and benefits, so much and such varied 



knowledge, skill and judgment, as does agricul- 
Wre ; which is hoth an art and a science, and also 
l^hnkiAess reqniriDg nraeh administraliTe talent 
for eondacting it with proper economy, and due 
adaptation of means to the ends sought. And 
more especially are these requisites needed in 
these slaveholding States, to which my remarks 
will be designed more particularly to be applied. 

All other pursuits admit of, and are much ad- 
vanced by, great use of the division of labor. — 
Thus, navigation has been brought to its present 
highly advanced condition, and is carried on by 
the combined labors, mental and mechanical, of 
numerous separated classes, some of whom may 
scarcely know of the existence of other co-labor- 
era, or dT the purpose for Which their labors wiU 
nltittttlely serve. The astronomer, who studies 
only the courses and phenomena of the stars — 
Who is devoted to abstract science only — and has 
no concern with or thought of worldly business and 
gain — ^yet by his sublime discoveries in the heav- 
ens, furnishes the most important and indispensa- 
ble aids to the navigation of the ocean. The great 
disooveiy of the steam en^ne, and its improve- 
ments, by men of either scientific research or mo- 
chanical skill, have doubled to navigation the val- 
ue of the previous aid from astronomy. Yet all 
these discoverers and improvers, and many others 
indispensable to modem navigation, might never 
hare seen a vessel, or have been at first aware of 
the practical application of their discoveries: And 
the other classes, who severally provide materials. 
Slid construct vesdeld and perform the mechanical 
kbon of navigation, maybe profoundly ignorant 
of the working and the very existence of the sci- 
entific aids by which their labors are made efikit- 

In comparison with other pursuits, agriculture 
can have but little aid from the division of labor ; 
and, practically, has much less than ought to be 
used. It is true that the cultivator obtains from 
other hands and arts his machinery and utensils ; 
and that he is indebled (perhaps without being a^ 
waire of it) in some degree, to scientific research 
and iheory ftnr the plan and general direction of 
his labors. But still, for much the larger part of 
all hi« labors, the cultivator and |»oprietar of land 
has to direct evMry one of the bundles of various 
details,' all of which belong, and of whieh Ihe prop- 
er care is eeisbntial, to his bnsmess. 

Regarding agriculture merely as an art, it is no 
small matter that the cultivator shall know how 
to order and conduct the numerous mechanical 
proceses, all of which are essential to duccesSi 
of plowing, hoeing, draining, reaping, preparing 
crops for market, &c.; and to keep in good working 
order, all the implements, machines, and applian- 
ces for all farming processes. There are not many 
employments which require more of this merely 
mechanical capacity and skill. Tet this one ill 
but the lowest grade of the three great depart- 
ments of agricultural knowledge required ; anS 
which one, however generally and greatly deficient 
on nearly all cultivated lands, is more usually op- 
erative than either of the other and still more im- 
portant requisites for agricultural success. The 
highest skill and perfection in the practical op« 
eratioQs referred to, which belong to the art of 
agriculture, would be of little use, if the cultiva- 
tors not also directed by the science, which wcttld \ 
direct why, when, how, and under what circum- 
stances, each and every mechanical labor or pro- 
cess, shall be either performed, modified or wholy 
Emitted. It is not necessary, indeed, that every 
Individual fifrmer shall be a scientific agricultu- 
rist — and it may be, that many may do well in 
practice with scarcely any acquaintance with the 
science of agriculture. But, nevertheless, it is es- 
sential, not only for the greatest success, but for even 
a moderate degree, that all practice in cultivation 
shall be directed, as in fact it always is directed, 
or influenced more or less, by the theories and rea- 
soning which constitute the science of agriculture. 
An ignorant individual cultivator may not reason 
at all. But he is not therefore the less directed 
in his practice by the glimmerings of light derived 
from the experience of better informed farmers^ 
who themselves derived their knowledge from 
some source of scientific instruction and reasoning. 
The sound scientific knowledge of one individual^ 
in some cases, might serve to diffuse light to thou- 
sands of merely practical cultivators, and to in^ 
fluence and direct successfully the general pnu>> 
tice throughout an extensive region. Still this 
aid and direction would not be the lees ftimished 
by science, even thou^ most of those who were 
benefitted by the aid, were totally ignorant tfaM 
its aonroe wae in aeientifia leaeoningaiNlTeeeefoli. 
All the SQOoess of merely practical cultivatore ie^ 
due to their availing themselves of sneh ]]|^te of 



scientific instruction as arc readily accessible and 
available. And all of those who deem themselves 
the most perfectly independent of the aid of scien- 
tific agriculture — ^who indeed scorn and denounce 
it under the contemptuous epithet of '' book-far- 
ming" — are, in fact, directed in their almost ev- 
ery labor and process by doctrines which were de- 
rived indirectly from scientific agriculturists. But 
the great drawback from the benefits so derived is, 
that the sources of information arc so imperfect, 
or so remote, and the channels through which the 
instruction flows are so circuitous and so clogged 
with errors, that the lessons so received are great- 
ly damaged in their truth and value. 

Further : A planter may be so fortunate as to 
be able to avail himself (through his subordinate 
agents) of every proper appliance of art and skill — 
he may also be well versed in the science of agri- 
culture — and yet his results may be unsuccessful, 
and his labors and capital be unprofitable, for want 
of still another requisite. This is administrative 
ability— -or what, in common parlance, is under- 
stood as a man's having " a turn for business," and 
habits of business. It is to little purpose that 
both the art and science of agriculture may direct 
and accompany all the operations of a proprietor, 
if he does not also know how to govern and direct 
his subordinate agents and laborers, to manage his 
teams and their equipments, to economise his pro- 
visions, and to guard against the manifold evils of 
waste of means in every department. It is this 
all important capacity for good general manage- 
ment> (more usually a natural, than an acquired 
passion,) which enables many cultivators to thrive 
though greatly deficient in the other requisites of 
knowledge and skill. And it is the want of this 
business capacity, or of its proper exercise, which 
has produced to so many other cultivators loss or 
failure, even though exercising more than ordina- 
ry knowledge of the art or the science of agricul- 
ture, or of both in proper combination. When 
we hear (as so often occurs) of a person's losses, 
or perhaps the ruin of his fortune, being ascribed 
to his knowledge of " book-farming," it will gen- 
ially be found that the true cause waa not this 
kind of knowledge, (which, if true knotoiedge, 
can never be otherwise than beneficial,) but his 
want of knowledge of management, and the conse- 
quent deficiencies of all proper arrangement, sys- 
tem, discipline and economy of his estate. 

There are but few, if indeed any person, who 
have attained an eminent station in all three of 
these departments of knowledge, which are re« 
quired to make a perfect agriculturist But there 
are many farmers or planters who, however hlU 
ing short of these highest claims to distinctioni 
have acquired more knowledge, and exercised mors 
talent, in conducting their humble business, ihnu 
have served, and will again serve, in many cases, 
for the whole intellectual capital of renowned com- 
manders of armies, and rulers of nations ! 

When 60 much study and research is required 
for attainments in th'3 science — so. much skill and 
judgment for the art — ^and so much ability and 
varied talent for the business in general — it scarce- 
ly needs proof, that no other pursuit more needs 
instruction for its young votaries than does agri* 
culture. Yet it is almost tho only business or pro- 
fession which is without any regular and ordinary 
instruction, and in which every learner is without 
a teacher. Agriculture is not only taught, and 
without any means for being taught, but it is the 
only science or art which is in that destitute con- 
dition. For every other pursuit, requiring skill 
or knowledge, every beginner receives early in- 
struction from some person supposed to he well-in- 
formed, and competent to instruct in the business. 
This practice is universal, and properly doeuMl 
indispensable, whether for the most simple me- 
chanical labor, or the most abstruse scientifio study. 
Farmers, alone, are expected to understand 
their business without instruction — and indeed, 
almost without any available means, in this coun- 
try, of obtaining information. If, in any other 
entensive and complicated business, it was the 
general usage of capitalists to commence as un- 
dertakers without any knowledge of the theory or 
principles — ^to employ operatives and superinten- 
dents who were as ignorant of the practioe— and 
that for all to acquire the knowledge wanting, re- 
liance was placed solely on their subsequent un- 
taught operatives— every voice would pronounce 
that any business so pursued must inevitably end 
in bankruptcy. Yet this is the course of procede- 
ure, nearly to the letter, in almost every agricul- 
tural business in this country, whether on a laige 
or a small scale of operations. And the losses al- 
ways incurred for the want of preliminaiy instrao- 
tion, would be enough to cause bankrupt^ in fiur- 
ming likewise, if this business did not yield good 



profits for even limited knowledge, and ill-direct- 
ed effort. The actual average returns would be 
more than doubled, if the needed instruction for 
the business was afforded, and the loss from igno- 
rance and inexperience were avoided. 

The annual course of the heir and expectant 
cultivator of a considerable landed property, is to 
be educated in some town, far from his future prop- 
erty — and to be instructed almost exclusively at 
first in dead languages, and afterwards in science; 
all of which afford very little knowledge applica- 
ble to the student;, designed for agricultural pur- 
suits. Perhaps to this general scholastic instruc- 
tion, the recipient may add more or less of the 
study of law or medicine; but nothing of any sci- 
ence or subject especially designed for aid to agri- 
cultural education. When arriving at manhood, 
the student throws aside all these studies, and un- 
dertakes his before designed business of farming. 
'With every part of his business he is almost a 
stranger to the country scenes and country life. 
Still a remarkable aptitude for agriculture may 
sometimes enable such a proprietor to contend 
with successfully, and finally overcome, all the dis- 
advantages of his own ignorance and that of his 
agents; and to become a good farmer, notwith- 
standing all the enormous obstacles in his way. — 
But because many such cases may be before us, it 
would be a great mistake to take these exceptions 
for the rule, and thence infer that instruction was 
unnecessary for farmers. It would be not loss erro- 
neous and absurd to infer that all education in lit- 
erary and scientific institutions is unnecessary, be- 
cause without such aid, a Franklin could reach 
a station of great celebrity in science, and in gene- 
ral and useful knowledge. 

Bat great as are these disadvantages of the 

wealthy young land-holder, they are as nothing 
compared to those of the hr more numerous class 
of men of small possessions, and very limited ed- 
ucation. Travel, reading, frequent and varied so- 
cial intercourse with his fellows who are better in- 
fbrmed, (or who, even if as ignorant as himself, 
are all striving to learn,) all serve to forward the 
instruction of the farmer, who can command these 
resources. But the small or poor cultivator, who 
is confined to his daily toil, has no such means, 
and can rarely derive much knowledge from oth- 
er persons, if surrounded only by neighbors in 

rimihir circumstances and under like disadvantages, countxy . 

Such are the inauspicious circumstances of the 

whole class of cultivators of our country. The 

actual results and effects of this universal want of 

proper training and instruction, are such as might 

be expected in advance, from merely knowing the 

These views, concisely ai (hey have been set 

forth, I trust will suffice to show the enormity of 
the existing want of agricultural education. Be- 
fore proceeding to propose any mode or system of 
instruction, it is proper first to inquire na to the a- 
mount of funds to be devoted to this purpose, and 
at whose expense they should be provided. I 
maintain that the principal part of the ezpetse 
should be defrayed by the state — the whole com>- 
munity — ^which will reoeive the principal part^of 
all the accruing benefits — and enough benefit to 
repay more than ten-fold every ezpendittfre re* 
quired for this purpose. Even if it should Tje ob* 
jected that the agricultural interest would receive 
all the benefits, and therefore ought to pa/j^ all tlie 
cost, this would scarcely vary the case. ' In each 
of these southern states the agricnlturtl is the 
great preponderating interest. Directly or indi- 
rectly, agriculture pays all the taxes. J nd upon 
the products and profits of the agricultpl al inter* 
est are suppprted all the minor intereste or other 
pursuits of indstuiy within liie State. I mean 
this in no invidiuous or disparaging sense. For eo 
long as each pursuit of industry is left free bj 
government, each one is beneficial to all others.— 
The plow makers and the country blaoksmithe, 
for example, as classes of minor mtferests, certain^ 
ly derive every dollar of their gains from the elas» 
of cultivators of the soil. The benefits of the pay* 
ers and receivers of these gains are reciprocal and 
equal. But it is not therefore the less true that 
the receipts of these mechanical interests will in* 
crease or decline with those of the great agrieul* 
tural interest. Therefore, whatever measure of 
government serves to increase Ihe profits of agri-^ 
culture, will equally increase the receipts of all 
minor interests dependent on agriculture. If,' 
then, in the agricultural Stale of Georgia, for ez-^' 
ample, agricultural edu(dktion were provided for at 
the cost of the Treasury, and of general taxation, 
the case would scarcely vary at all in substance, 
from a tax being imposed on the agricultural in* 
terest, and disbursed for the benefit of the whole 




There are still ether points of view, besides 
theee olaims of right and justice, to prove the ben- 
efit and good policy of the government's providing 
for agricultural instruction. Most or all govern* 
ments, and I believe all these Southern States, 
with a wise regard to the general interest, endow 
Seminaries for the higher branches of learning, 
which could not be sustained bj private demand 
aad patronage, even if established by private en- 
terprise. And in many of these United States, 
mieh government aid and expenditures are extend- 
ed to every ordinary branch of literary education. 
Thus not only does government aid, and at great 
eoitj instruction in every branch of general edu* 
n, but also instruction in the particular stud- 
of privste adventurers, as they may be eonsid- 
iB schools of law and medicine — ^whioh pro- 
fy^ot^s certainly requite no stimulus of govern* 
meikttoalaronage to induce enough of aspirants to 
fil their ranka. But while most of our State 
govemwnts thus pay liberally, and in some 
eases pibfosely and improperly^ for all other 
Ipndg of; inatrtietioni of high or of low order, 
set a dolbr haa been paid by any of the States for 
instracti^m in agrioultore. It is ha from my de- 
sign to i jjeet to these heavy ezpenditufea for or- 
dbncy education, so far as they are .properly di- 

condition of proper direotion. But this I 
any, and will maintain— that if even saoh expen- 
ditnrea are directed and used in the beet possible 
UMmner for aiding instrueflaon in the usual hranohes 
o£ education, an^f portion of the amount, whether 
etteftenth or one*half, would be fitr more benefit 
eidUy and prcfilaMy bestowed in judiciously aid- 
ing agirieultural instruction and improvemeiit->^ 
end this even if looking solely to the promoticm of 
ordinary soholaatie education. The dineot and 
eicliBst effeet of sueh aid to o^prieultuial instruc- 
tion would be to in^eaae the improvemeiit and 
tbe products of the land, and the profits and wealth 
of the proprietors, and eoasequentlj of: the whole 
cmunnnity. This increase of proapenty, and of 
mseasi to numerous individuals, wouM ihduc^ 
« hfgfi addition to their previous expenditures 
for the soholaatie ^ucation of their children. — 
And thtui they would return, for the aid and 
laMfaae of scholastic education itsdf , much more 
tliaa any amount wUeh they had before re- 

tural instruction and improvement Every per* 
son, who may hear this announcement,- can refiar to 
some facts in proof of its truth, if he is acquainted 
with any locality where great increase of agrieul* 
tural improvements, or j refits, have been made. 
When,, by such improvement, farmers* profit have 
been doubled, their surplus or disposable funda, 
(that is, the excess over the amount required for 
absolute necessaries,) will be much more increased 
and it may be as much as ten-fold. It is out of 
this surplus or disposable profit, only, that the ex- 
penses of education are usually defrayed. Hence^ 
a farmer with a email income, who might find it 
difficult to spare fifty dollars yearly for the edua^ 
tion of his children, could easily afford three huip 
dred dollars, by his land being so improved aa to 
yield a double product only. And in the general 
expenditures for education to be thus largely i^ 
creased in proportion to the gross increase of pro* 
duction, will as certainly result frcm such in^ea^ 
ed production, as any other expenditures whatever. 
It is scarcely necessary to say that every dollar of 
increase to each farmer's inccme, frrm agriculp 
tural improvement — and all the millions' which 
might thus be added to all the incomea of the whok 
State*-would be expended in some way or other* 
Of that enormously increased expenditure, gcne^ 

« I 

reet6d-*-or to even double their amount, with the ^^^ education would have its full share. 

Besides all these considerations and benefits, of 
the government's aiding agricultural inatructicn 
and improvement, there would be returned to the 
Treasury, in increased products of taxation, on the 
new wealth thus created, very fiur more than the 
amount of the most liberal bounty which had been 
bestowed for agricultural instruction. Theee itt« 
ferences are indeed but suppositione-^but siqqpee^ 
ed in regard to unquestionable facts. But with 
every just allowance for unoertainty of tkeestesfr 
of the (^ration, there can be no doubt the* «ay> 
judicious outlay of public money, given in proper 
direction for agricultural instruotion, and thne: 
ooiidudng te a^oultural imprt^vemeat, womki ee- 
tutna pecuniary profit to the Treaeal7 ; endweold 
be more than reimbursed to every indSvidvel tas* 
pave)*, in his share of the geaentl benefit aoenung 
to the whole o(»nmunity. 

But however beneficial and profitable te the 
commonwealth would be a system ai agriaytnrai 
instmotion, it would not be required thali eU tin 

ceived from the Treasury, in aid of their apieul- ezpenee should be at the pahUeehavge. It would 



as in TQgttd to other oolleges, neoeeaary for 
Ab State to provide tbe land and its stock, and 
tfoitable buildings, and sufficient salaries to teach- 
ers. A large and increasing proportion of the an- 
imal expenses would doubtless be met by the tui- 
tion fees of pupils. To such an institution, hun- 
dreds of pupils would be drawn/ whose parents 
would gladlj pay liberally for their instruction, 
fitilly it would be a wise benevolence, and also a 
politic and gainful measure, for a certain number 
of poor youths, eminent for their moral and men- 
tal qualifications, to be admitted to the benefits of 
the institution at the charge of the commonwealth. 

l^Tohe continued.^ 

nomtbo Natto&Al Intelligencer. 


MtntUes of hiformaJtum collected in retpect to the 
Drairuige of Lands forming the sites of Totons, 
to Road Drainage, and the Fadlitation of the 
Drainage of Svhurban Lands. Ordered to be 
printed for the use of the local boards of health 
and their surveyors engaged in the administra- 
tion of the public health act. London, 1852. 

. The letter &om Edwin Chadwiek, Esq., C. B., 
which was published in our paper of Saturday last, 
opens a wide field for thougjit and effort. It is 
k&deed the soundest wisdom in our municipal ad- 
BiiiustratioaSy as well as in our naticmal policy, to 
take ears not '' to plant old evils." It is often 
said, by way of apology for our country, that it is 
'^ new/' and that fact does doubtless afibrd a prop- 
er sokition of many omissions and wants ^ but in 
MMM points of view it constitutes our greatest ad* 
^raDftage^ and ought never to be pleaded in extenu- 
ailMm ai erronu We possen the inestimable ad- 
THstage of starting on our career in the midst of 
the most enlightened age of the world, and with 
theaeeuniulated experiencerof all past time at our 
ssrvi^. No doubt in the fundameatal principles 
of goramment and general law we have profited 
fully by the ezBOiqples of other nations. But there 
an odicr maiters, subordinate, it is true, to those, 
jet of grnvB importaoee, in which the eirperience 
o£ the world is not to be disregarded, and in which 
we sM. likely, throu^ sbatr neglect, to ecmimit 
ssriovs mistakes. 

> TksjBoststtpertksialaequalntanoe with the state 
of our prinoipal cities and towns must eottvinee 

us that we are already to a grave extent '^plant- 
ing old evils," and the very evils to which Mr. 
Shadwick alludes. It becomes us, therefore, to 
accept the offer of the experience of another ooun^-' 
try, collected as it has been with the utmost care 
and labor, and now laid freely at our feet. It 
would be well if this information could be reprint- 
ed entire and widely disseminated through our 

The first document to which Mr. Chadwiek al- 
ludes is the one the title of which heads this article. 
It goes most elaborately into the subject of the 
methods, cost, and advantages of town and sub- 
urban drainage, and presents it in a plan and prac- 
tical way. It is intended, indeed, as a manual fbr 
the surveyors of the looal boards of health, and 
has the force of instnicti<ms from the superior and 
central executive board, to which are comimtted 
the sanitary interests of the entire kingdom. We 
present as many of the leading points in this im- 
portant document as the limits of a single article 
will allow, reserving the other reports of the se- 
ries for early future consideration. 

The sanitary importance of drainage can scarce- 
ly be over-estimated, exhalations from moist and 
marshy grounds and from damp celhirs and ibun- 
dations being the causes of most of the prevent!- 
ble disease which pervades our cities. Water ris- 
ing from a damp foundation by absorption ren- 
ders the fioors and walls damp in proportion to the 
absorbent nature of the materials of which they 
are constructed. Dampness in the soil is often 
rendered visible, particularly in the evening, in 
the shape of mist or fog, and these mists will of- 
ten be found to marie out and cover the seats of 
preventible disease. Efficient drainage removes 
the cause of both these evils, and with it the 'dis- 
eases which fiow from them. 

But simple dampness is not the only evil against 
which the sjrstem of drainage is directed. The 
disease and discomfort produced by moisture \A 
aggravated and complicated by the exhalation of 
noxious gasses from decaying animal and vegeta- 
ble matters collected in cespools and othet recep- 

Fevers of a typhoid character result from this 
banefril combination, and the depressing effects of 
the inhalation of an atmosphere thus poisoned, cre« 
ates and sustains an appetite for stimulants which 
giTS' ft- temporary rriief; • 



Town drainage [is therefore two fold — simple 
water drainage and foul water drainage ; the lat- 
ter comprehending sewerage^ as the term is now 
commonly nscd. The system, which is found to 
be the most economical as well as the most effi- 
cient, consists principally of tubular and imper- 
Tnedble drain-pipes. The objection to permeable 
pipes for town drainage are, that they let out and 
saturate the site with the foul water they ought to 
remove, and they detain in their pores much of 
the offensive matter passing through them, the 
gaseous products from which escape through the 
pipes and through openings into houses, and 
through gully-shoots into the streets, and pollute 
the atmosphere. 

From open places, gardens, public grounds, &c., 
the plain surplus land water will be most econom- 
ically carried off by arrangements of permeable 
pipes, on the same principle as those used for land 
under cultivation. 

The town or city to be drained often occupies 
but a small portion of a natural drainage area, 
comprehending the line of water shed dividing a 
hill top or a ridge, and bounded by a brook or riv- 
er beneath, dividing a valley — the greater propor- 
tion being occupied by tillage or grazing land, the 
drainage of which is important, on sanitary grounds, 
in proportion to its proximity to the town. 

A well drained agricultural district surrounding 
a town is almost a necessary complement of a com- 
plete system of town drainage; for, as will be 
shown in a future article, this latter contemplates 
the application of town manures in a liquid state 
to agricultural production. 

Suburban lands requiring drainage may be di- 
vided into two classes — ^garden, villa, and house 
lands in and immediately adjoining the town, and 
market garden, tillage, grazing land, and commons 
in its vicinity. The sanitary importance of drain- 
ing such lands is clear from the fact that excess of 
moisture powerfully affects the local climate, 

1. Excess of moisture, even on lands not evi- 
dently wet, is a cause of fogs and damps. 

2. Dampness serves as the medium of convey- 
ance for any decomposing matter that may be en- 
veloped, and adds to the injurious effects of such 
matter in the air — ^in other words, the excess of 
moisture may be said to increase or aggravate at- 
mo^heric impurity. 

3. The evaporation of the surplus moisture low- 

ers temperature, produces chills, and creates or ag- 
ravates the sudden and injurious changes or fluc- 
tuations of temperature by which health is impaired. 

The following are the chief agricultural advan- 
tages of land drainage to individual occupiers or 
owners : 

1st. By removing that excess of moisture which 
prevents the permeation of the soil by air and ob- 
structs the free assimilation of nourishing matters 
by the plants. 

2d. By facilitating the absorption of manure by 
the soil, and so diminishing its loss by surface 
evaporation and by being washed away during 
heavy rains. 

3d. By preventing the lowering of the temper- 
ature and the chilling of the vegetation, diminish- 
ing the effect of solar warmth> not on the surfisu^ 
merely, but at the depth oocupied by the roots of 

4th. By removing obstructions to the free work- 
ing of the land, arising from the surface being at 
certain times, from excess of moisture, too soft to 
be worked upon and liable to be poached by cattle. 

5th. By preventing injuries to cattle or other 
stock corresponding to the effects produced on hu- 
man beings by marsh miasma, chills and coals, in- 
cluding a general low state of health, and in ex- 
treme cases the rot or typhus. 

6th. By diminishing damp at the foundations 
of houses, cattle sheds, and farm steadings, which 
causes their decay and dilapidation, as well afi dis- 
comfort and disease to inmates and cattle. 

Objections, both sanitary and economical, lie 
against the Efystem of open ditch drainage. These 
ditches give rise to an offensive and unwholesome 
evaporation, and are more expensive, all things 
considered, than more efficient and permanent^ 
drains would be. The plan proposed as a svbsti^' 
tute is pipe drainage with covered ditches, the ad* 
vantages of which are testified to, by numerons 
competent witnesses. This plan, as applied t9 
road drainage, will offer important facilities for 
private land drainage of every description. 

JAexe tur/ace drainage by ridge and furrow, be* 
sides leaving the land surcharged with moistttre, 
carries away the fine particles of earth, and witb 
them the soluble manures and fertilizing matters 
which they contain. The earth tbus removied 
clogs the main drains, and the dissolved manures 
are lost. 



Thorough drainage, on the contrary, does a'tvay 
irith ridges and farrows^ and the water drains 
downward through the table land into the un- 
derground channels* The fine mould, if thus left 
upon the surface, the soluble manures are carried 
down into and absorbed by the soil and retained 
for the sustenance of vegetation. The water, by 
the time it reaches the deep-laid pipes, is thorough- 
ly^ filtered and purified, and not liable to leave de- 
deposites to obstruct them. 

As to the depth and distance apart of the drains, 
there seems to be some difierence of opinion among 
eminent autorities. The rule must evidently va- 
ry with the nature and condition of the soil. The 
principle, however, seems to be established that 
the deeper drains need not be so near each other 
as eiiallower ones. Mr. Parkes gives the follow- 
ing table as showing the actual and respective cost 
of three cases of under drainage, calculated on the 
effects really produced — ^i. e. on the masses of earth 
effectively relieved of their surplus water at an 
equal expense : 

Depth of the 
drains in feet. 








- s* 

.9 JO 








9 d 

J2 'O 1-* 

o 2 

.S 9"^ 




Mr. Stephens lays it down as a principle that 
the drains should be so deep, at the least, as to 
place tiiem beyond the reach of subsoil ploughing ; 
twenty-six inches. 

The following mies are given by Dr. Shier, one 
of the ablest agricultural chemists of Great Brit- 
ain : 

Ist. The drains ought invariably to run down 
the steepest descent and parallel to each other. 

2d. The distance at which the small drains are 
plaeed apart depends on the nature and texture of 
the soil, the depth at which the drains are to put 
in^ and whether it is surface water alone they have 
to deliver. 

8d. The best materials for the construction of 
tlie water-way of the frequent drains are tubes, 
tOea, and soles, water-worn pebbles from the sea 
beach, harped gravel, or broken stones. A de- 
cided preference should be given to tubes over tiles 

and soles. They arc cheaper, occupy less space 
in the kiln as well as during transport, and are 
much less liable to breakage j they ara easier laid, 
effect as complete drainage, and arc less liable to 
silting or sediment, or indeed to accidents of any 

One of the important agricultural results of 
deep or thorough drainage is, that after a series of 
years the subsoil of a thorough drained field chan- 
ges into the nature of soil as far down as the level 
of the water in the drains. This change in tho 
subsoil is accounted for — 

Ist. By the ameliorating effect of air and watcr^ 
producing healthy decomposition of the organic and 
inorganic constitues, and thereby eliminating sub- 
stances which constitute the food of plants. 

2d. By the washing out of deleterious ingre- 

3d. By the loosening of its texture. 

4th. By the penetration of roots, and by. their 
ultimate decay in the subsoil. 

5th. By the penetration of earthworms and in- 

Dr. Shier thus enumerates the results of thor- 
ough drainage : 

1st. When properly executed it always proves 

2d. The quality as well as the amount of the 
crops is improved. 

8d. Clay lands which could produce only wheat, 
beans, and clover, have been made to produce root 
crops, thus enabling the naked fallow to be dis- 
pensed with, and permitting the adoption of a 
much safer and more profitable system of farming, 
in whioh the rearing and feeding of stock are com- 
bined with the growth of valuable grain crops. 

4th. Thorough drained fields stand wet and 
drought better than undrained fields naturally of 
the same sort of soil. 

5th. They are more easily tilled, and are in a 
fit state for tillage a much greater number of days 
per annum. 

6th. All manures produce a much greater ef- 
fect on thorough drained fields than on undrained 

The estimates of cost given in the report are 
entirely inapplicable to our country, and ai« there- 
fore omitted. B.elative cost, where labor was the 
chief element, might possibly remain the same ia 
the two countries. 



With regard to the shape of sewers, it is found 
ihat flat bottom sewers spread with wator, increaj*- 
ed the friction^ retarded the flow, and accumula- 
ted deposito. 

It is also found that first drainers generally fall 
into the error of having their pipes larger than 
neces8ary'^--in some cases in the proportion of thir> 
tj-seven to one. The size of the pipes should be 
carefully adapted to the quantity of water they 
have to discharge ; and exactitude in their form 
and accuracy of pointing are highly desirable. — 
Their junctions should not be at right angles but 
in easy cunres. 

Experiment has shown that it is not necessary 
to increase the sixe of the main in consequence of 
the introduction of side pipes to such an extent as 
had been supposed, as the supply from the side 
pipe gives in many cases such increased velocity 
to the current in the main as to obviate the ne- 
cessity of increased area altogether. 

We have given above the main points discuss- 
ed in the body of the report. The appendix con- 
tains many matters of practical detail, which we 
are compelled to omit for the present. They re- 
fer to the quantities of earthwork required in 
drainage, the quantities of rain that are filtered 
through the soil, the cold produced by evapora- 
tion from wet soils, the effects of drainage upon 
productiveness, the cost of tiles, pipes, and labor 
per aore, and, finally, the general sanitary effects 
of draining. We may recur to diese particulars 
at seme future time. S. 

The total unount of copper procured from the 
miBes of the United States during the year 1852 
was 2,500 tons. There were consumed in the 
'coutttry during this time 6,000 tons. It thus ap- 
pears that^ with our enormous resources, we do 
not produce hal/vis much as we consume. This 
will not always be so. The Lake Superior Cop- 
per Regions will soon be made accessible, by the 
construction of a ship canal at the Saut, and pro- 
pdlers will then be able to pass from ail parts of 
the world directly to the mines, without breaking 
bulk. We shall soon be heavy exporters of cop- 
per, 88 we h«v6 thS9 metal in larger mascfes and in 
^reat^ abtmdance than any other nation — Ohw 
Sui'e Journal. 

The chopping; or grinding of grain, to be fed to SBOCk, 
operates as a saving of at least twentj-Ate per ceat. 

Doral Benefits of Slareiy. 

Freeman Hunt, Editor of the Merchants* Maga- 

zinej etc. 

Sir : The excuse for sending this article to a 
Merchantsi^ Magazine, is found in the title and de- 
sign of such a work ; as a military magazine is the 
appropriate repository of material supplies for the 
future, so is a Merchants^ Magazine intended as a 
repository of mental supplies for their use. Slavos 
are considered and used as merchantable properly 
by nearly one half of the States, and are guaiun- 
tied in such use by the constitution of ourgovem- 
ment; hence any information respecting any other 
species of merchandise ; and I feel assured that ail 
article recapitulating the old, or adding any new' 
light on that subject, will be highly appreciated 
by many of the readers of Mr. Hunt's inoompa^-' 
able journal. I propose, first, to consider the mor*' 
al benefits of slavery, its design and effecrt, as is 
set forth in the universally acknowledged book of 

2d. That it is the true, speedy, and succeorfal 
method, for civilizing the heathen. 

3d. The probable duration of slavery. 

Permitting history to guide us, we must conclude 
from the municipal laws found necessary to govern 
the Hebrews, that the chosen people of G-od were 
a very depraved heathen, previous to their becom- 
ing slaves to the enlightened Egyptians.* Al« 
though subject so the instruction of that enlight* 
ened people for four hundred and thirty years, yet- 
we find when they are intrusted by Providence 
with self-government, that they were wholly in* 
competent } and the inspired instrument of A^ 
delivery had to operate on their religious fears, 
(with a thus sayeth the Lord,) to enforoe the most 
simple f sanative laws ; a circumstance unkno#D,' 
if ever required to govern any other heathetf.*^^ 
Hence we infer that they were, previous to their 
bondage, a very depraved people, but having been 
teught subordination while slaves, their inspii^ 
guide could enforoe civil laws among tbem by sp* 
pealing to their fears and gratitude, which itra the 
cultivated sensibilities of a slave. Thai th^ Ood 
of Israel did permit his people to be enslaved, no 
question can be made, and the permit being coMi* 
ed in the strong language (shall) of the deeaiog;oe 
would lead us to believe that it was an unqmliied 

• G«n. XT. 18 : Oen. zlvi. S~4 : Sxod. zli. 4<>. 
t Lot. ztUL : Beat sir. 



^ct, fcfter the fulfillment of which, they wore to 
be mitde a great nation ; bj deduction we infer, 
that in their native condition thej were not suita- 
ble material to make a great and useful people of, 
nor until they were taught subordination and the 
civilised arts by the enlightened Egyptians ; thus 

of their labours at home, the plain inference is, 
that but little had matured abroad. The first ef- 
fort to introduce this plan of civilization in Amer- 
ica, was made with the aborigines (Indians,) bat 
the Europeans finding them unprofitable servants 
and yielding to selfish considerations, adopted the 

receiving the moral benefits of their enslavement. African; instead of persisting in that, which would 

The plan adopted for the civilization of Israel, 
appears to be the favorite of God to ameliorate the 
condition of the heathen, and to humble the proud, 
^e find him using the same strong language (shall) 
while instructing the Hebrews to J buy of the hea- 
then and enslave them forever, which shall be an 
inheritance for their children afterwards ; evident- 
ly limiting the term of their bondage by his own 
discretion, or their advancement in the arts of civ- 
ilisation and self-government, as in the case of Is- 
rael, and furthermore instructed them to § enslave 
the Egyptians, for the purpose of inculcating hu- 
mility. According to the book of morals, this 
species of merchandise (property in slaves) has 
been used as a means for ameliorating the condi- 
tion of man, since a very early period of the world's 
history, by a thus sayeth the Lord, and would seem 
that its continuance was intended, until an object 
was accomplished. We find under the new dis- 
peusation of Christ, who was sent as an exemplar 
to the world, that his teachings were definite in 
regard to the relation he found existing between 
master II and servant; his intelligent vicegerant 
(Paul) was not less mindful of the then existing 
institution of domestic slavery, of which we have 
an evidence in his inimitable^ letter to Philemon, 
ifi regard to his runaway slave, whom he overtook 

have proved a blessing to the natives in the end. 
Since the English have had possession of theoonn- 
try, the Indians have had ample opportunity for 
improvement in the arts, and moral government 
of civilization; the protection of onr government 
is and has been thrown around diem, they have 
been encouraged by example, sums of mony have 
been appropriated to their use, enough to place 
them in comfortable circumstances, without any 
valuable consideration (so far as they are concern- 
ed) from them in return. Collection after eollee- 
tion of money has been made, much of it the re- 
sult of the properly directed labour of the African 
heathen, and appropriated to their civilization ; 
teachers and preachers have been sent to them, 
many valuable lives exhausted in their serviee ; 
the result of all these efforts is, that they are In- 
dians yet, and are likely to continue such, with 
the addition of the views of civilization, and an 
abhorance of its virtues. The reason for all this 
mispent time and money, is to be found in the want 
of authority to control them. The taak of domes- 
ticating a wolf unconfined, would be as readily ac- 
complished, as to instruct, with a permanent effect, 
the Indian, while in the employment of his wild 
freedom, with no other faculty cultivated but 
sense, and it undiciplined. The culpability df 

vul sent back to his owner, begging for his par- this government must forcibly appear to every re- 

don. Much more proof could be added, that the 
^ble recognizes and teaches the enslavement of 
I^eathen, and that they are merchantable proper- 
ty and have been since time immemorial; but 
enough has been referred to for the purpose of in- 
viting investigation. 

2d. That it is the true, speedy, and successful 
method for civilizing the heathen. We have no 
evidenoe that any other plan has succeeded to any 
great extent ; it is tme that the Christian churches 
diaoourse eloquently in regard to their exertions 
in behalf of the heathen, but judging by the fruits 

iLori. zzT,4&— 48. 
Mii. >!▼. SL 
KXlli#. Yt. A> . . - 

^ PhiUmon. 

fleeting mind ; having those people in our midst 
so many ages, without advancing them in the road 
to civilivation ; instead, we see them rapidly grow- 
ing worse in a moral point of view, extinction a- 
waiting their race, a burlesque on the divine im- 
age, and a disgrace to the country ; and that too 
with the book of morals in our. hands, plainly 
pointing out the true, speedy, and suocessfiDd meth- 
od of civilization. That tbey are of a siqrarior or- 
der intelligences when con^par^d with the A ^Hf ^nj 
we have evidence in their sagAfijtj and detennisar 
tion in self defence; and ijmt they haive seoeiTad 
a more enlightened revalation, is manifiBst^ kj 
never capturing their brethren with the view ot 
selling or enslaving, ^'but of the children of the 



strangers/' iivliich' edict they fulfil, apparently 
with the saiae views that t4ie Hebrews were in- 
structed, through their'proph^t Isaiah, to enslave 
the Egyptians. Yet with capacities superior and 
opportunities ampler for improvement, they are 
incomparable with the African heathen, which wc 
have under process of civilization according to the 
Bible plan. Had the efforts been persisted in, 
which were made according to this plan, it is 
probable ere this our government could have erect- 
ed a monument to herself, in the form of a state 
made up of civiHzed aborigines, effected by making 
th^Ki profitable laborers, wheras they have and arc 
eoBthigthe labor of the country millions of money 
aniiually, as a means of defence against a worthless 
and wild enemy. 

Having examined the second proposition ana- 
logically, ot necessity we will offer an analysis of the 
third, after the same manner of reasoning. The 
duration of slavery is in the hopeful, but gloomy 
future ; hopeful, because there is a hope during 
time, and gloomy, because of the great number of 
heathens that are in the world. We have not the 
least evidence, according to revelation, that slave- 
ry can cease so long as there are heathens, or un- 
til the world is brought to the light and liberty of 
knowledge ; it is then we may look for equality 
among men of every grade. Knowledge, or men- 
tal power, hajs taken place of the physical of past 
ages, and until there is a mental equality, physi- 
eal differences will prevail to the extent of forbid- 
ding the promiscuous amalgamatian of the races, 
which of right should, that the Ood-like princi- 
ples of man may continue to bring into subjection 
the animal of his kind, that reciprocal benefits 
may accrue, and the world's uses be served. Had 
England and the Northern States, (from which 
tfie present generation were taught the first prin. 
eiples of domestic slavery,) continued to bear their 
part ift this work, and not have yielded to self-in- 
teresty by dispensing with it, because of its un« 
profitableness, the duration of African bondage 
might have been shortened, bs Providence evi- 
dently hafi an object to accomplish through it, as 
m the case of Israel ; hence the subject resolves 
into this proposition : if it required four hundred 
and thirty years to fit the Hebrews for self-govern- 
ment, under constant domestic instruction by the 
entire Egyptian nation, how long will it require a 
Nmall part of the American people to effect the 

same with fifty millions of Africans. If human 
officiousness were to succeed in releasing or extri- 
cating them from their present situation, it could 
but give a different and probably a worse form and 
location to their bondage ; if placed in colonics, a 
despotic government would of necessity, have to be 
administered, either by some of them or by the 
governments interested in their colonization, from 
the fact, that a people unfitted for freedom cannot 
be made free, nor can a people prepared for free- 
dom be made slaves. The interference by human 
agencies with the ways of Providence, in securing 
permenently the release of Africa from mental 
and physical bondage, may stay the work for a 
time but cannol prevent ; and when the work of 
their bondage is complete, the exodus may be de- 
layed by the self-sufficient wisdom of man, as did 
the Egyptians, but they will pass to the Canaan 
provided for them, although it should require the 
Atlantic Ocean to be opened with the dividing rod 
which was employed on the Bed Sea. Having 
become a great nation in numbers with no reliable 
attainment in self-government, presents physical 
circumstances which must forever preclude tlie 
possibility of individual or national action effect- 
ing their exodus, and to attempt to hasten it with- 
out a knowledge of the divine will, may meet the 
rebuke that Pharaoh did in attempting to retain 
the Hebrews. Respectfully yours, 

Wm. S. PaicE. 

SpencerviUe, Mareiigo Co.y Ala,, \ 
Februar^y 28, 1853. j 

Cotton Picking. — ^Cannot some ingenious me- 
chanic invent a machine to pick cotton in the 
fidd f 8uch a machine, duly patented, would be 
worth a great sum to the inventor, and an enor- 
mous sum to the country. It would obviate the 
difficulty experienced in securing the crop when it 
is very large, and in procuring it when winter sets 
in early. — BoUon Transcrtpt. 

To Light Matches in Damp Weather.— -It 
may be useful to our readers to know that matches, 
when too damp to be used in the ordinary way, 
can be ignighted by rubbing them gently, for a 
few seconds, upon a piece of cork. 

Periodical applications of ashes, tend to keep 
up the integrity of the Boils, by supplying most, 
if not all, of the 6rganic substance. 



Amarioan AgiloiiItiir»--What it Is, and what 

It ought to he. 

The following interesting article is taken from 
the National Intelligencer, supposed to be from the 
pen of Dr. Daniel Lee, of Washington City, which 
is well worthy of a perusal by those of all occu- 
pations. The article developes deep thought upon 
the future destiny of Agriculture in this great 

Republic : 

*< Few know what American agriculture is, and 

fewer what it ought to be. The Journal of the 
United States Agricultural Society contains fuU 
retonui of the agricultural statistics of all the 
States and Territories, as prepared at the Census 
office, for the year 1850. These statistics present 
many interesting and instructive facts, and indi- 
cate remarkable progress in the produotiyeness of 
rural industry of the country. The capital em- 
ployed in agriculture, including the value of the 
slaves so engaged, exceeds five thousand millions 
of dollars. Of this large sum, the returns show 
that (8,266,926,587 are invested in land. This 
consists of 118,596,025 acres of improved land 
and 184,596,025 acres of unimproved land. — 
P)robably, something over two-thirds of the labor 
of the nation is employed in tillage and husbandry. 
American agriculture is distmgnished by two 
prominent features — ^its productiveness of crops 
and destructiveness of soils. Crops, large in the 
aggregate and sometimes abundant per acre, are 
grown by thoughtlessly consuming the elements 
of fertility which nature has stored up in the vir- 
gin lands of this continent. Before any one can 
have a correct idea of what American agriculture 
is^ he must carefully investigate the facts which 
show how much of the atoms in the surface of the 
earth that form six hundred million bushels of 
maize, one hundred and thirty million bushels of 
wheat, over three thousand million pounds of seed 
cotton, two hundred million pounds tobacco, su- 
gar, and other crops in proportion, is annually re- 
moved from the al'ated fields, pastures, and mead- 
ows of the United States, more thaa is restored to 
them again. The difference in what the soil loses 
by tillage and in crops, and what it gains in ma- 
nures^' indicates the true character of our system 
of husbandry. Rural economy with us is hot a 
study, but an empirical art. Hence no account is 
taken of the matter consumed in the growth of 
grain, grass, roots, cotton, tobacco, and other cul- 

tivated plants. Art and physical labor are every 
thing ; principles and natural laws are nothing, 
in our farming operations. All that subsist oa 
the fruits of tillage and husbandry in cities and 
villages are equally unmindful of their abiding 
duty to feed the land that feeds them. Not to da 
this is to impoverish the soil over millions of acres, 
and to a degree that farmers cannot possibly rem- 
edy by the aid of imported or home made manures. 
One hundred million acres now under cultivation 
must continue to detoriate until all classes that 
compose our twenty-five million of population, who 
arc fed and clothed by the products of the soil, 
co-operate in giving back to the land its indispen- 
sible elements of fertility. So long as these axe 
wasted in cities and villages, the arated and de- 
pastured fields and forests that yield the grain, 
meat, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, sugar, 
rice, cotton, tobacco, flax, hemp, wool, wood, lum- 
ber and timber consumed, must suffer needless 
damage. To extract the few precious items that 
form cotton, bread and meat out of the surface of 
a virgin soil and send them to market is one of the 
simplest of all mechanical operations, and there- 
fore it is that the most stupid slaves and ignorant 
whites are so successfully employed in agriculture. 
To wear out the natural fruitf ulness of land requires 
as little thought and knowledge as to wear out 
shoes, hats, plows, hoes, and axes. Skill in pro- 
duction, without making full and adequate resti- 
tution, is simply an advanced state of the art of 
transforming soils which are naturally fertile into 
sterile old fields and deserted plantations. Tho 
art of killing land has several stages in its devel- 
opment ; and we have passed from the first into 
the second in such old States as New York, Mas- 
sachusetts, Pennsylvania and Maryland. The sec- 
ond stage differs from the first in this : that, where- 
as, in the first stage farmers apply no manure, as 
a general rule, to new lands, but draw on the 
bounty of nature for their crops, they now use 
on old lands in the second stage, some amendments, 
such as lime, ashes, bone dust, gypsum, guano, 
and stable manure to form a part of their harvest. 
Such elements of grain, tobacco and cotton as 
were not consumed at an earlier date, are now be- 
ing removed by deeper plowing and more thor- 
ough cultivation. 

One can predict theresult of this advanced prac- 
tice with as much certainty as any future eclipse 



9ith» 0im or moon may be fbtotold. To draw 
potadi and bone eardi from the eub-eoil as well 
aa from the surface soil, to be wasted in cities 
where crops are so largely consumed, is sim- 
ply to inflict deep instead of shallow sterility on 
the land so treated. The available supply of the 

ingredients that impart fruitful ness to the earth 
being known and quite limited in quantity, it 
would not be difficult to devise a system of agri- 
onltural statistics showing from year to year wheth- 
er the improved lands of a State or county lost or 
gained in the raw material for making human food 
or raiment. Allowing two and a half per cent per 
annnm for die increased area brought under cul- 
tivation since June, 1850, and the improved lands 
of the country may now be set down at 125,000,- 
000 acres. Of these, it is a large allowance to say 
tiiat one-fifth or 25,000,000 acres are holding their 
own in the elements of crops, leaving 100,000.- 
000 acres subject to constant detonation. In the 
national work of exhausting Ian'', not the cultiva- 
tors of the soil alone, bat all consumers and ex- 
porters of agricultural staples participate equally 
in the wrong done to our common mother earth. 
Those that grow so many million tons of grain, 
cotton, tobacco, hay, Ac., are forced to send to dis- 
tant markets the precious atoms that leave their 
farms in cultivated plants. The return of these 
needfnl atoms to recuperate the soil whence they 
are taken, depends more on the action of those 
that dwell in cities and villages than on the action 
of the £irmer. The latter cannot q^e what the 
former have wasted and destroyed. It is in cities 
that both the study and practice of good husband- 
ry must begin before they are possible in the coun- 
try, as society is now formed. It is the supreme 
folly of the denizens of American cities, with their 
navigable rivers and lakes, their canals, and their 
far-reaching railroads that desolate the land which 
supports their commerce, their manufactures, their 
trade, their arts, and their professions, because 
they greedily grasp all that tillage and husbandry 
produce, a.nd ^ve nothing back to renovate the 
impoverished fields of the planter and farmer. — 
Th^ tnie oonditio|i of American a^cnlture is un- 
icTBiood. S^tesmen, innocent of any knowledge 
of the BoienoOy expect impossibilities both of the 
soil and its oultiyi^tojs. . Farm^r^ are required to 

Ave fat inde^nate ajj^ea to inland ^d fareign. oom- 
meroe unlimited qnandties of human food, and ihe 

raw material of clothing taken from the smfaoe of 
the ground, and reoeiving nothing but dry goods, 
groceries, hardware, farm implements, and hotue* 
hold furniture in exchange. Such is our present 
system of rural and political economy. It makes 
the land support all classes and all interests, while 
it does nothing whatever to maintain the enduring 
fruitfulness of axated and depastured fields. 

Improvements in agricultural machinery^ in 
plows, cultivators and reapers, in reads and other 
facilities for transporting crops to market, are 
helps to hasten the depletion of all the {arming 
lands in the Republic. Has not the plaatiag 
of cotton and com impoverished millions of aorss 
at the South ? When was this op^ation so exten- 
sive as in the year 1852 ? How can the applica- 
tion of twelve pounds of potash to an acre plant- 
ed in tobacco or wheat in Virginia or Haiylaiid,. 
and forming a part of two hundred pounds of Pern* 
vian Guano, make good the loss of thirtjHU 
pounds of potash remoyed from the acre in tfas 
crop ? To put a pound of bone earth, magnesia^ 
potash, ammonia or chlorine into the earth, and' 
take three pounds out by deeper and better tillage, 
is surely not the way to increase the earthly ele« 
ments of crops in the soil. At best, it is but ths 
consumption of one's capital in prematmre divi- 
dends on his investment. Large immediate profits, 
whether in agriculture, manufactures, banks or 
railroads, are almost always deceptive, and fre- 
quently lead to unwise action from miiqplaoed oon- 

Accounts from Western Africa state that thirty 
varieties of cotton have been found growing spon- 
taneously in that country. A missionary says he 
has stood erect under the branches of a cotton tree, 
in a Goulch viUage, so heavily laden with boUs 
that it was propped up with forked sticks to pre- 
vent it from breaking down under its own weight. 
The cotton was equal to that of any oounUy* — 
The natives manufacture cotton goods extensiTelj. 
Western Africa also abounds in coffee. Thfl whole 
land is said to be covered with it. In Errevab^ 
and Eaffa 200 pounds can be purchased for i^ dpi- 
lar. A single tree in ]tf onrovia yielded foor and 
a half bushels in the hull at one time, which, madf 
31 pounds when s]^elle4 A^d dried. — i^tlciingfi^ 

All wet la^d shordd be drained. 



American OTottoii pantcr. 


Out HSbbU. 

Tie. St»ioklahi>, Book-seller, No. 28, Danphin street 
BoOLLiMIT'i LlTEttART DiPol— Corner of Rovnl anq 
Dunphln street; H. H. Cabvir & Co., Bilile Hotwe 
Book Store. Mobile ; from My of whom the back nnm- 
bera may be had. 

A, P. Pmi»R.Eiehiing« Comer; C. E. Hmufobd, 
Market itrtet, Monlgomer;. 

With Th, Aincrican ColUm Flmtir. our uprionltural 
mnda will Sad^i the dow and Tnlmible pnblioatione of 
the day, cither literwy or agricultiiral, at the abore- 
Bsmed Book Stores. 

Mr. Amoi TiAWi la om agent at Q^noeTiHe. Sumter 

Mr. S. pLtiitn, Sprirta, Conecuh counlr 
R B. Fox, Sandy Ford, Fla. 
Capt. J. Jac», HaTiina, Orcono county. 
Wk. 0. BbeWeb, Tuakcgee. 
H. C. BiaiKL, CarlowTiiie, 
■ Dr. Wx, Cdmsinobam, Burnt Cora. 
Dr. J. F. OoRTCH, Cnmden, Ala. 

B. J. OAPtLi., R«q., EoM Hill. 
Isaac Pabes, Oak Doverr. 
Dr. Batt Pstbsbon, Clajton. 
Jii, MoNTooviBr, Kfe, Ala. 
N. A. MoMiLLAH, Canton. 

Dr. J. £. PoiLLKin, Uootpelier. 
?■..**■ ,?'Tf''"'__"''' ''™'"». Mr. B. M. Clabk, 
reliog agents. 


J^ In tke hnny and diapatch of dosing up onr ntftt- 
tera for last montb, that we might promptly get out the 
May number of our paper, wa neglected to direct the st- 
taation of Onr readers to the communication In the May 
IMubtr, OTor the slgiuttnre of " S." on the " Policy of 
tlw Planting Slates." Wo ask eroy man to road it 
wtttdOj, and tUnk at it The mbject is to bo oontin- 
iwd. It la wrltMn by a prMtioal man, a cotton planter, 
and a g«ntleman who has grown up wi til tlie fitalo of Al- 
abama, though, we bolioTB, a Goorgiaii by natiTity. 

OenwoLD, OE Lciocana Shiiv id Ausana.— We 
IftVaJwtrDotttotaytoavtHaad aad (ubscilber. Col. 
AAs M. Borhe, of WUlooi County, that the noUca and 
tfMlptioB of bla ftoe Ualjt, of ibo aboTo named br«od of 
M«<P> ahall appear In onr next Dobber, hUlottw having 
Cr^Vsto hud Just as dor Ame ounber is gr^iog to -pntt. 


Wa hate rocelred eommunlcatlona Ohm our laM, iram 
Dr. M. W. Phillips, of Mississippi, Wm. DeForect Hally, 
MobUe, " W. P. Q.." " D. C. S.," and " B, H. W," 

Sotnefeody at Fanlt. 

On the foorlh daj of May, a letter was received from ow 
Post Office, Lockland, Macon County, Alabama, coBtain- 
ing a communication, designed for the April number rf 
tie Cotton Planter. TUs letter was mailed at the Post- 
Office at Mobile, aa appears from the stamp, « post data, 
" March 21th," bdng about forty days " an ronU" ttim 
Mobile to Looldand. This it annoying to botheditor nA 
correspondent. Tho superscription SAd dlrtetion rf thf 
iett«r are in a plam and fair hand— Dr. N. B, QavA, La- 
PUce, Lockland P. 0., Macoa County, Alabama. 

Our readers may not feel much interest in this, but 
some of Uiew wiU regret, doubtless, that through the 
neglect or carelcMness of mon^iaia to give prompt atten- 
tion to the mail business, they haw been prwvanted get- 
ting, in April, a mnst valuable oommnnication in ngard 
to the Fig. its characlcrislics, oulture to. 

Wo publish tiie article in this&nmber. Wa are plaaNd 
to be able to commend it to our readers, as the reanltof 
touch obaerration and oipcrienco with this moat Talnable, 
but too much neglected fruit. 

In this we charge no individual Port Master— we rfm- 
ply ttale (As/a«j, in the hope that onr rights aa adltor, 
and the rights of onr eorreapondenta nsy htnaftar r». 
cflive appropriate and [a^mpt atteotiou. . 

AgrlCQltnnd Oonventioa ctf llw Uav^eU- 

Delegates from six of the Slavdioldiag or PlaMljig 
ates assemblod in tlie oity of Montgommy os the first 
Monday of May, as per adjounimant from Macon, Qmc- 
gia, the fuU proceeUitigB of which will be found in this 
number of the Cotton Planter. Though tho assemblaga 
was not so large aa we desired to see, yet it was in every 
rcapoot highly satisfaototy. Qentlamon of ezperienM, 
of talents and of brilliant acquirements, from varloH 
sections of the planting 8tat(», hanng tamed aside fMn 
the political scrambles of the day, to ooneert tummm 
for the promotion of a system of improvemont in tha ad- 
enee and practice of our EitduEtrial pnnnita, S[t» (h» 
nost indubitable aesurance that tlie importance of thia 
luldect is engaging the attention of our planters. And 
it is most extraordinary, that tha subjeot has been de- 
layed thus long, in a eenntty and anong paopla •• peM< 
Uarly oironmitanoed, in ngajd to om' labour and iBdv- 
by. Wo know there are anoag ns, masy planMt>, aad 
most axMllent dtiaens too, who say we arOBotn^drfor 
aoisotlfic Sftloulture, for a tystcfi of eionomie and pr^- 
Jmat* perfecUon In onr apibultnjal optratieos, ov 
pwple not niBeleotly toMued. BiitwelsdfttrptB H, 



that ^c propitioas time has fully come, and we urge the 
nbir maiden soil of our country and the energy of our 
people as the sheet anchor of success. Who will think 
it THse, for a moment, that ire should plod along, step 
by step, tediously through all the routine of experiment 
and improvement of our fatherland, England, to find out 
for ourselves only what they now know in improvements 
in science and art of agriculture ? How much more wise 
to fall in at the present more advanced point, where 
we find their improvements, with any and all improve- 
ments, which, in their results, furnish evidence of utilty 
and' value ? An agricultural Association of the Slave- 
holding, or Planting States has been organized^ the ob- 
jects of which are folly set fourth in the Constitution. It 
is submitted to the favourable consideration of the plan- 
ters of the South-west. There were fifty-seven members 
joined the society, after the adoption of the Constitution, 
in Montgomery, and in accordanca with the require- 
ments of the Constitution. We hope many others will 
do the same, previous to the next meeting of the Associ- 
ation, in Columbia, South Carolina, next November. 

[roa TSB AinaiOAH cotton PLiSTsa.] 

Hiving of Bees. 

Dallas Cotjntt, Ala., ") 
April 18, 1863. ; 

De. N. B. Cloud — Dear Sir : Having time 
and space, I will give you a short article on the 
Hiving of Bees — the dificolty of which deters so 
many from raising honey and wax. Should you 
think it worth a plaoe in your excellent journal, 
you can use it, if not, you need not fear hurting 
feelings in not publishing it. It is too late to be 
of much service in the southern country, this sea- 
son, but will do some the next. 

Bees, when swarming, never fail to settle upon 
some tree, limb, or bush — ^I presume, for the pur- 
pose of collecting all of the swarm together, so 
that those that come from the old hive last, may 
have an equal chance of going off to the tree or 
hole selected for their future home, with the first. 
Now the earlier in the season, usually, the longer 
they will remain, when they settle, hence they 
.sometimes lie until the next day. In March and 
April,; afid scarcely ever untU then — during May 
• and June. They scarcely ever swarm as late as the 
last of June, in this climate. Now, until they 
-have mado up ^eir minds to leave for their future 
home, it is impossible to drive them off. Hence, 
you need ' not fear, that any measure you may 
' adopt towards. ttempnllr.un them away (the com- 
mon expression.) Now, possessing a knowledge 
of these facts, early in the season, I have no hesi- 

tation in suffering my swarms to hang, when they 
settle, until night, particularly, should they come 
out after 12 o'clock, but if otherwise, having pre« 
pared my boxes for the purpose, as soon as I see 
where they intend to alight, if not satisfied with 
the place, i. e. if it is still ittconvenient to pot 
them in the box from that place, I procure me a 
gourd, with a good long neck, and sti<^ a long 
pole into the neck, having first sawed the neck off, 
then saw a small piece off of two sides of the body 
of the gourd, and fill the saw with rags and a small 
portion of sulphur sprinkled on them, then set fire 
to them, and getting it to smoke well, place the 
gourd so that the fumes of the sulphur may pass 
directly to the bunch of Bees, and it is but a few 
seconds before they will all leave that plaoe and 
seek another. 

Now the secret of success, in my plan, is, that 
the air becoming impregnated with sulphur fumes, 
or from some other cause, to me unknown, they 
will, nuieteen times in every twenty- come lower, 
for every time that you make them change their 
place of settling. I recollect one instance in which 
they even settled directly upon the ground. Thai 
might have been owing to some accident that may 
have happened to the Queen Bee, but whether or 
not, they were hived and did well, so the injury, 
if any, must have been slight. I have smoked 
them from place to place, for an hour, they hav- 
ing changed the place of settling, some eight or 
ten times. This I keep up until they settle at 
some very convenient place. Some persons there 
are, I know, who will not adopt my plan, for fear 
of driving the swarm to the woods, but whoever 
can drive a swarm to do so, can do what I never 
did, and I have practiced this plan for over six 
years. Last year I hired twenty-one swarms, the 
produce of eight old hives, some of the first swarms 
that came out having sent forth a new swarm, aid 
one or two as many as two. 

Now, sir, you have the indiscriminate right to, 
and should yon think it worth a place, shall be 
pleased to give you something more, if not about 

Having some facts in connection with hi|sbaid- 

ry that, I think, is of some* importance,. will be 

pleased to furnish them toyou, 9bou)dyQn.d<;i9iie iC 

With respect yowr * -' 

"Obedient sefvaiit^ 

DC. S- 

• •^ ^ 





^Ifltitatian (0rannmii. 

[roarnie ambbican cottox plaxtir.J 

No. 7. 

Dr. N. B. Cloud — Dear Sir : In my former 
article of this date, I was drawn off from mj pur- 
pose by the train of ideas which got uppermost in 
my mind. I make no pretensions for being yery 
methodical, not caring for any fame. I have 
been ridiculed before the public, in my own coun- 
ty, and before a people assembled in a church, and 
by a preacher, and by a man, too, upon whom it 
waaintended to confer a title of " D. D.'' (but there 
was some mbtake made, and they made a very 
small matter of it, by conferring a "d. d.,") and 
ridiculed, for what think you ? Not being able to 
write a gramatical sentence. I state this, with 
the Intent of letting your know that they need 
not look for any thing more than the matter I 
have uppermost in my mind, and, if there be any 
small " d's" among your readers, to beg they will 
skip over my article. 

my nett income from three thousand dollars, why 
is it not better than adding one fourth more land 
and one fourth more negroes ? Be there not less 
risk ? Can it not be done ? I must speak of my- 
self, and let others try for themselves. I have a 
forty acre field, square four hundred and forty 
yards each way, including a ditch, fence and hedge 
around north, south and east sides. In 1888, I 
was ridiculed by men who thought they had sees 
enough to know, for cultivating said field, yet I 
have taken from it a crop, every year since, save 
one — did last year save forty-one thousand pounds 
of cotton, only picking over my crop twice, one- 
third of hands making such, August, September 
and October. This year I have, up to the fifteenth 
of September, gathered thirty-eight thousand sax 
hundred and thirty-seven pounds, and upon care- 
fully examining the crop, I counted nombers of 
stalks, showing, on said days from forty to forty- 
five grown bolls — certainly a fair calculation to put 
an average of twenty bolls, and that my prospect 
was good for fifty thousand pounds. " Mark 
well," here is a field of forty acres which was pro- 
nounced too poor to cultivate, thirteen years ago. 

When I sat down and referred to under ground 
draining, and making investments, it was with the I ^^ ^rop last year pronounced at only five or six 

hundred pounds, and such a year fatal to sueh 
land. This year it has been pronounced as good 

view of eliciting thought upon an investment in 
the land we all own, and thinking it would be more 
profitable in twenty-five years, than adding acres 
to a worn estate, and more negroes to assist in 
wearing all out, 1 manured, in 1840, with stable 
manure, a small piece of land immediately in 
front of my house, for some beans, corn, &c., that 
I had received and was testing. There are now 
peach trees on it, a small nursery extending two 
hundred and fifty yards, north and south, as the 
same flat and the same grade of land. The trees 
on the manured part are much larger and thrifter. 
Every year something has been planted thereon 
since the above date, and I have taken what good 
judges believed was an average of a five hundred 
pound bale, while in the same row, with no ma- 
nure, not over a three, or four hundred pound 
bale. If manure will tell on this piece for thir- 
teen years, we need only improve one acre per 
hand, each year, to soon restore our land. Will it 
not pay better than to employ capital in buying more 
Acres, or more negroes ? If this estate is now 
worth twenty thousand dollars, and I can use cap- 
ital by fencing, draining, hill side ditching, making. 

for five hundred, when hands were picking, yet I 
have seven hundred and thirteen pounds per acre 
now out, and I am certain I had enough left to 
have made me an average, in all, of a bale of four 
hundred pounds per acre, and who thinks I could 
have lost less than one, or two hundred pounds 
per acre, last year — ^picked once in September and 
again about the firt of December, after our Novem- 
ber storm. I have used deep plowing, about five or 
six inches, burnt nothing, never in cotton two years 
in succession, and now it will be three years, as I 
have, for two years past, been using all cotton seed, 
stable, lot and hog pen manure upon it, intending 
to make sixty thousand pounds of seed cotton np^ 
on it, or givft up that I am no planter. And I 
will do so with every acre in cultivation on this 
place, cropping yearly in corn, cotton, and oats^ 
using all manure on cotton land, and never plsnt^ 
ing cotton on this land without having com and 
com, or com and oate, or com, coni and oaiiy to 
precede. I sow down about one^half bushel- of 
peas per acre when in com, and if oat^foUow^ <he 

saving and bawling out manure, so as to increaee peas come up and cover all stubble. 



Ihave this day, on twenty acres of such land, 
nine moles, eight brood mares, five mule colts and 
three horse colts, all weaned but one, and have 
hnA, for three months, three or four mares and 
colts upon it, with grass and vines every where. 
The ten head of mules and mares are only on a 
day now and then, being engaged in gin and wag- 
on, usually. What would be the cost to manure 
ten acres, I know not, what would be the cost to 
tmd«r drain ten acres, I know not; but I do know 
"both together would enhance a three hundred and 
llfty acre tillable plantation to produce as ordinarily 
does a five hundred acre place. On this, I mean, 
Hhe place which now averages nine hundred pounds, 
per acre, ought to be improved to yield one thou- 
MSid ihree hundred and fifty pounds, or a bale, 
per acre. And who will deny. 

Brethren, we must do more than we have done 
for twenty years, or we are sold to the yankees, 
whether living in Boston, New Orleans, or Mobile. 
Ftodon this ? I do not know lines, I do not intend 
to know sections, unless it be where a man makes 
his money here to spend in New York or Boston, 
ai IriiBh land holders spend Irish blood in London. 
May God in his infinite mercy shield us from that. 
I care not where the man is from, so he is one of 
11B-— belongs to the soil — a part of it. This is rath- 
er too much digression, but my readers must take 
m« as they find me — ^as always truly thine. 



Water Gate and Water Fence. 

C0TTON.WOOD Creek, ) 

Marengo, County, Ala. j 

Pe. N. B. ChOVJ)— Dear Sir : Yesterday I re- 
eeived your valuable work, gotten up in much 
better style, and filled with much more useful and 
intevesting matter than I believed it possible for 
» monthly, at one dollar per year. But God speed 
yonr work, and may it prove for us what the Amer- 
ican Farmer has done for Maryland and Virginia. 
I see in your first number, you invite contribu- 
tjaUB from the whole planting States, and as I be- 
lieve as much information is to be derived from 
liie pjaefcical farmer as from the theorist^ who can 
wnte arlades on farmii^g^ or constitutions, if need 
U, by the gross, I have determined, although a 
aanager, to contribute my mite for the advance- 

ment of an interest, and consequently a people 
with whom I have been reared, and with whom I 
intend to be buried. 

I propose to give to the farming world a Water 
Fence that water cannot move, and a Water Oate 
that is undisturbed by freshets. I will denomi* 
nate the fence as a picket fence. First, then, cut 
and maul some white oak rails, ten and a half feel 
long, of good size ; cut a ditch three feet deep, sb 
narrow as will allow your men, or ditchers, to stand 
up in it, then put your rails in the ditch, and in- 
cline them against the post of the water gate, 
about an angle of forty-five degrees, commencing 
with a rail not more than twelve inches long above 
the ground ; over that rail drive two stakes with 
a maul on each side, that have first been well shar- 
pened, until they refuse to go, or until you have 
driven them within one foot of the rail ; then put 
another rail between the stakes, observing to keep 
the foot at about the same distance from the first 
rail throughout the whole length. Again, repeat 
the staking operation, dropping back about one 
foot, and so on, until you reach the height of four 
feet (this I believe to be the true height) as the 
fence is so rugged nothing will undertake it, and 
the lower the better, so as to allow logs, trash &c., 
to pass over, during a freshet. After your fence 
is completed to high water mark, have the ditch 
filled up with rock, if they can be had, in which 
your rails are put, and have them weU rammed. — 
This will make a fence that water cannot move, or 
the weight of water; but strengthen it. And to 
move one rail you have to move the weight of the 
whole fence. 

The Water Gate is somewhat difficult to describe. 
My gate is fifty-two feet wide, the post twenty- 
four feet long, fourteen inches square, and set in 
the ground six feet, with braces from the top of 
the post, stretching back at an angle of 47 degrees, 
and six feet in the ground, rammed with rock ; then 
plank are pinned on the post and braced so as to 
prevent the least giving way. Great eare must 
be taken to hang the gate four feet higher than 
high water mark, so as to admit logs of the lar- 
gest size to pass under with impunity, and to pre- 
vent any hanging, and to make doubly sure, the 
gate will raise by the force of water, it must be 
planked on the butt or upper side, with three-quarter 
inch plank, very close, I have shown ywi the 



bc«trepreaeiitation I can, of the fence and gate, 
which you will find enclosed, and I have only to 
add, I haye seen trees of the largest size, roots and 
all, pass under this gate, and any quantity of 
logs trash, &c., pass over the fence. I hope, sir, 
your readers will be able to understand my des- 
cription of the Qate and Fence, and they may re- 
ceive as much benefit from it as I have. 

W. P. G. 

Accompuiying the commanicataon of '* W. P. G." we 
have a draft of the water gate and fence therein described, 
and 80 highly reoommended. We should liare been 
plmied to have had it engraved, and should have done 
m>i had the eiroulataoa of the Cotton Planter have wax^ 
ranted it. A well executed cut, which our fHend, Mr. 
Swan, could have furnifihedus, would have facilitated ve- 
xj much a correct comprehention of such gate and fence. 

We have no doubt, but manj of onr planters, who 
have plantations lying on large creeks or water courses, 
Mlject to rise without their banks, will be interested in 
the infc^mation ooataiaed in the above article. — [Ed. 

Cotton OIL 

A few days ago, says the Mobile Register, we 
published a telegraphic dispatch, briefly stating 
that a chemist in Egypt had discovered a method 
of extracting oil from cotton seed. We thought 
it a strange announcement at the time, as the pro- 
cess could not be attended with much difficulty. — 
It now appears, however, from fuller accounts, 
that the novelty and utility of the discovery consists 
in darifymg the oil, and rendering it fit for burn- 
ing fluid, for manufacturers' uses, and for making 
soap. For these purposes it is said to be well ad- 
apted. The Viceroy of Egypt has conferred on 
the discoverer the exclusive right to clarify and 
•ell the oil for ten years. We shall look with in- 
terest for further accounts of this discovery, and 
of the value and uses of the clarified Cotton Oil, 
as it may prove to be an invention of importance 
to Soathem planters, 

Sandy lands can be most effectually improved 
by day. When such lands require liming, or 
marling, the lime or marl is most beneficially ap- 
plied, when made into compost with clay. In sla- 
king lime, salt brine is better than water. 

Mould ia indispensable in every soil,-*-^nd a 
healthy supply can alone be preserved through the 
cnltlTation pf clover, aad the grasses, the turning 
itt of green Grope, or by the application of com- 
poflls rich in the elements of monld. 


Useftd Redpees, 

Fayetteville, I 

Talladega Co., Ala. ) 

Dr. N. B. Cloud— jDcar Sir: You may in- 
form your readers that a small portion of the haul 
substance that grows on a horse's legs, below th» 
knee and hock, given to a horse, is a sure preven* 
tive against founder. I have known it a long time, 
but have never seen it published. I am of the 
opinion that about as much as would lie on a dime, 
swallowed by a horse, is a preventive ibr Hfe. t 
have tested it for a number of years, in horsea 
that were muclwaddicted to foundering, previoQalyi 
and found it infaliblc. 

You can likevrise tell your readers that to raB 
warts with polk root a few times will remove them 
without suffering the least inconvenience. Many 
persons use severe remedies. Take the bark off 
the roots when fresh from the ground, while juicy. 

Every body ought also to know, if they do not, 
that to rub the buds of the Balm of Grilliad tree 
on a ringworm is a certain cure, without hurting 
any. E. C. W. 


nous Oarlca, or Oomm'^ii Fig Tree. 

Oakland, Mobile, Maroh 23d, 1858. 

Da. N. B. Cloud — Lear Sir : The gigantic ef- 
forts now making by the various pomological and 
horticultural societies, to raise and acclimatize 
new seedling varieties of home and tropical fruits, 
trees, plants, &c., adapted to the various sections 
of the United States, induced me to trouble you 
with this communication, and, at the same time, 
to urge upon the attention of our southern plan- 
ters and horticultural friends, the peculiar fitnesa 
and adaptability of the climate and soil of the 
southern States, to the growth and perfection of 
the ficus carica, or common fig tree. Probably no 
fruit in existence is better calculated to promote 
health, so easily grown, and so little liable to be 
affected by blight, insects, &c. This fdot has been 
illustrated to the satisfaction of that '^ old inhabi- 
tant," by those who have raised magnificent fig 
trees in our city and its vicinity, ranging from 
eight to fifteen inches in diameter, and from twen- 
ty-five to thirty feet in length, and which has 
withstood the vecisitudcs of our climate during 
the last half century. The many tirieties of this 



peerless ond magnificent &uit which have been 
sncoesfifiilly grown and fruited in this city and its 
suburbs^ have satisfied those of my friends who 
wcr« bom and raised in France^ Italy, and on the 
shoxes of the Mediteranean Sea, (the home of the 
fig,) that the fruit grown and matured in the vi- 
cinity of Mobile, is as fine and luscious as in its na- 
tive clime. Who then, let me ask, is unable to 
plant and cultivate a few varieties of this admira- 
b^ fruit, so healthy and peculiarly adapted as a 
*' southern home" desert and table fruit. Talk 
of "Hovey and Peabody's" fine strawberries.—^ 
Who would exchange a splendid dish of green 
hckiafig^y with their drop of honey at the crown, 
their delicate green fiesh, yich, s^eet and delicious, 
for breakfast, &c. 

The intrinsic value of this fig as a desert fruit, 
for the table and preserving, (and nothing can 
equal it for that purpose) is the ipse dixit of my 
friends, from various specimens tested at my ta- 
Ue, and which was manufactured by Mr. H.) as 
•hso its great value for poultry, &c., &c., is only 
to be estabiished by those who have grown the 
fruit to perfection and experimented with it for 
culinary purposes &c. During the last month I 
have planted, at ^' Belle Bose Cottage," some five 
hundred outtingis and rooted plants of the Creole 
varieties, obtained during a series of years, from 
various sources, and from approved and well 
known varieties. I therefore flatter myself, (prov- 
idence permitting,) to be enabled to show you, 
within a few years, the fig orchard of the south, 
and one that embraces all the choice varieties to 
be had at home and abroad, with new and then an 
approved seedling. 

To those of your readers unacquainted with the 
history, origin, and varieties of the family ficus, 
I respectfully append the following historical and 
statistical information. There are forty-six spe- 
cies, forty-five of which are principally ornamental 
evergreens — ^viz : the Bengal, Superstitious, B^lig- 
iosa, Elastic Gum, Otaheite, the Australia, and the 
Bengalensis, or Banyan tree, of India, &c., &c. 

The Ficus Carica, or common Fig is a native of 

Caria, in Asia, and naturalized in the Levant, 

south of Europe and America, where it forms 

large trees, as in the vicinity of Mobile. It is 

with us, as is the^ case in every part of Europe, a 
deciduous tree ) while in tropical countries it is 
evergreen, '^he fig was introduced into Eng- 

land by Cardinal Pole, in 1525, and still exists in 
the garden of the Archbishop, in Lambeth. Somis 
of these trees cover a space of fifty feet in lengtb^ 
by forty in breadth. They are of the white Mar- 
seilles sort, and bear delicious fruit/' In England, 
(the climate being hurried,) it is cultivated mere- 
ly for the disert. In fig countries, its cultivation 
becomes a matter of great importance as an article 
of exportation and as an article of food, which thejr 
prepare in a variety of ways, both in a ripe and 
unripe state. There are few tables in France and 
Italy, which do not produce this fruit in some 
shape or other, either fried or stewed, or as an 
addition to their desert. We are supplied chiefly 
with our preserved figs from' Spain, the south of 
France, Italy and the Isles and shore of the Med- 
iteranean Sea. It is a singular fact, that fig trees 
should not be planted near meat safes or larders, 
as they have the singular property to intinerate the 
contents sooner than may be desirable. Philips 
(in Pom., Brit.,) relates an experiment made up- 
on a haunch of venison, which had lately been 
killed, being hung up in a fig tree wtcn the leaves 
were on, about 10 o'clock in the evening, and was 
removed before sun rise in the morning, when it 
was found " a la Francais/* in a perfect state for 

The number of varieties of this fruit arc sup- 
posed to be great, in fig countries, they are pro- 
duced from seeds so readily, that many varieties 
are yearly springing up. It is supposed that there 
may be, about twety-five distinct varieties worth 
cultivating. Among which^ are the Brown, Black, 
Oroen, Yellow Ischia, the large white Genoa, Early 
White, Black Genoa, Blue or Purple, large Black 
Naples, Italian, or Brown Naples, Brown Turkey, 
Brunswick, Hanover, or Madonna, Lee's Perpetual, 
White Merselles, NereiPregustata, and Pig Cileste. 

KespectfuUy your 

Obedient servant. 

Carrots. — ^When young and small need only be 
washed without scraping ; leave on about an inch 
length of the green ; put them in a stew-pan with 
hot water to cover them, and a teaspoonfol of salt : 
let them boil fast for twenty minutefi, then take 
them into a dish, put butter and pepper over, and 
serve, with boiled meat and poultry. 



Afiicnttnral Conyaiitloii of the Slavebold- 
insTi or Vlantliifir Statet. 

Puraiiant to'a^iounmieiit of the GonTontion of PUntors, 
proliminifcry to the organization of an Agricultaral A«8o- 
eistion of the slaTeholding states, from Macon, Georgia* 
last October, delegates from six of the slaTeholding, or 
planting States, assembled in the city of Montgomery on 
Monday, the 2d day of May 1858, when, after a state re- 
ception in the Capitol, by Qot. H. W. Collier, the con- 
tention was temporarily organized by calling Dr. W. C. 
Danibls of Georgia, to the Chair, and Dr. Charles Lu- 
cas, of Alabama to act as Secretary. 

Dr. Daniels, on taking the chair, addressed the con- 
▼ention at some length in an interesting exposition of our 
pscttUar laboir and its adaptedneas to our great cotton in- 
dustry. On motion of N. B. Powell of Alabama, 

Rnolved, That a committee of fire be appointed by the 
Chair, to select officers to preside over this Conrention. 
The Chair appointed. 

Dr. N. B. Powell, Chairman, 

H, W, ViCK, Mississippi. 

John Goldthwaitr, Alabama. 

J. B. Cobb, Mississippi. 

S. S. B. Titrnbr, Georgia. 
On motion of judge B. S. Bibb, of Alabama. 
Resolved, That a committee of thirteen be appointed by 
the Chair to report business for the action of the conTen* 
The Chair appointed, 

B. S. Bibb, Chairman. 

Gen. Eli C. Shorter, Alabama. 

Dr. K. B. Cloud, Ala. 

W. L. Yanct, Ala. 

E. D. Kino, Ala. 

G. H. TouNO. Mississippi. 

D. W. Lewis, Georgia. 

Geo. Reese, Alabama. 

Mr. Chase, Florida. 

T. S. Jackson, Florida. 

Charles A. Peabodt, Alabama. 

James M. Chambers, Georgia. 

Dr. C. Bellenoer, Alabama. - 

On motion of Bir. A. Hull, of Georgia, the Chairman, 

Dr. W. C. Daniels, of Georgia, was added to this com- 

On motion of Mr. Toung, of ^Mississippi, the delegates 

were requested to come forward and register their names, 

by States, when it was ascertained there were delegates 

in attendance from six Statos, numbering, in all, one 

huddred and sixty. 

On motion, the Convention adjourned to meet at four 

o*dook in thA afternoon in Estelle HalL 

FOUR o'clock SESSIOir. 

The Convention met as per adjounmient, when the 
committee of five reported through their Chairman, Dr. 
Powell, the following named gentiemen as officers to 
preside QTCir the deliberations of this Convention. 

George R. Gilmer, of Georgia, President. 

H. W. ViCK, of Miss. \ 

Geo. H. YoiiNO, Miss. / „. ^^a^^ 

W. Anderson, Fla. \ ^^^ wesmeuts. 

Dr. W. C. Daniels. Ga. / • 

Dr. Charles Lucus, Ala. 1 

Dr. N. B. Cloud, Ala. / Secretaries. 

The President, Gov. Gilmer, was conducted to his 
seat by Judge Bibb, when he addressed the Convention 
in a spirited and stirring appeal to the patriotism and dt- 
votion of its members in behalf of the objects of tlitlr«0* 

/ After which Prof. Tourney, of the Univtrrity of Ala- 
bama, was introduced to the Convention, who delivered 
an inieresting scientific lecture on the importance of ag- 
ricultural chemistry. ^ 

On motion the Convention adjourned to meet Tuesdiy 
mormng at 10 o'clock. 


The Convention assembled as per adljoumment^ when 
the committee of fourteen made their report^ coaaiMiiig 

Ist. A Constitution for the Agricultural AsaociAliMi of 
the Slaveholding States. 

2d. Resolution marked «<A.*' 
$d. Resolution marked ** B." 

[^See appendix."] 
All of which report was received and concurred in by 
the Convention. * 

After which CoL James M. Chambers, of Georgia, pie- 
sented to the Convention a document from the Ber. Thee. 
F. Scott, of Columbus, Georgia, which document was, on 
motion of Mr. W. L. Tancey, of Alabama, given into the 
hands of a committee of three, appointed for that pur- 
pose by the President, consisting of 
W. L. Yakcet, Alabama. 
G. H. YouNQ, Mississippi. 
James M. Chambers, Georf^. 

with instructions to report to this meeting. 

A second document, presented to the Conventioa by 
Dr. C. Bellenger, of Alabama, from citizens of Texas, 
was also, on motion of Dr. Bellenger, given into the handa 
of the same committee, with instructions to report to this 

On motion of John H. Newton, of Athens Georgia, the 
following resolution was adopted by the Convention : 

Meeolvedf That in the opinion of this Association, it la 
expedient to establish at some central point within the 
Southern States, an Agricultural Institute or College, 
designed as a normal school for instruction in thepi«cti"> 
oal duties of a planter's life. 

On motion, the President appointed the following gen- 
tiemen a committee under this resolution with instruc- 
tion to report to this session of the Association. 
JoBH H. Newton, Georgia. 
Dr. W. C. Dakiels, Georgia. 
Dr. N. B. Powell, Alabama. " 
Charles A. Peabody, Alabama, 

» - 



At this hofar, Mr. J. B. Cobb was hitrodnood to the 
sMMMUtion, who deliTered an intereBting ftddresB on the 
lajBtMBOO and dostiny of onr cotton industry. 

On motion the assoolation a^Jotirned to meet at 4 o'- 

rouB o'clock session. 

The GonTeDtlon assembled pursuant to acQonmment, 
when Mr. Robert Nelson, of the Troup Hill Nurseries, 
Oeocgia) was introduced to the CouTention, who deliTored 
ft practical lecture on the subjeot of horUonlture and 
tridt culture at the south. After which, 

Cd. James M. Chambers, of Columbus Git., was intro* 
duoed to the ConTcntion, who deliTered an address on 
the tubject of the Agricultural Press audits influence for 


On motion the Convention aoyoumed to meet at 10 o** 
cloek on Wednesday morning. 

nsr o'clock sissiok — ^xat foubth. 

The Convention aoembled as per aiQo^inui'i^Q^ 

On motion of Mr. W. L. Tanoey, their Chairman, the 
eowaittee on dooumente reported. 

Also, on motion of Mr. John H. Newton, the commit- 
tee to whom were referred the readution on the subject 
of an Agricultural Institute, made their report. Both 
these reports were laid on the table temporarily by the 
CoBTiBtion, the special hour having arrived for the ad- 
dress of the Hon; Robert Toombs, of Georgia. 

Mr. Toombe was introduced to the Convention, who 
iMtsrssted ft large assemblage of gentlemen and ladies 
with ft foreible address on the subject of the duties and 
^jeots of this Association. 

After which the Associfttion went into an election of 
its officers under the Constitution, which resulted in the 
seleotion of the following gentlemen : 

Hosi. OioKOB R. GiLxxR, of Georgia, President 

H. W. VioK, of Mississippi, 

Mr, AsBiTKT Hull, Georgit 

Mr. B. T. Glotxh, Virginia. 

Pr. J. A. Wrststoks, La. 1 

Sr. R. W. WiTHXBS, Ala. | 

Pr. N. B. Cloud, Ala., Secretary and Treasurer. 

The Agricultural, Association of the Slaveholding 
States being thus organlxed, adjourned to meet at three 
•*eleek, P. M., in the Hall of the Mechanic's Institute. 

TH&SX o'clock 8E8SI05. 

The Association assemblod occording to ac^oummcnt 
in the Hall of the Mechanic's Institute. The first busi 
BOSS in order, being the reports of the committees, tem- 
porarily laid on the table in the forenoon, they were call- 
ed up snd read in order, when the report of the commit- 
tee eo documents, with said documents, was referred to 
the Ezeeutive Council. And the report of the committee 
Oft the expediency of an Agricultural Institute, was re- 
committed with the original resolution to a new commit- 
tee, eonslsting of three gentlemen from each State rep- 
reseftted in this Convention. 

Committee appointed by the President : 

PPU ) 
rgla. V 

^a. J 

Vice Presidents. 

Messrs. J. B. Cobb, O. W. Tonro, and H. W. Tick, 

of Missinippt. 

Messrs. D. W. Lewis, Jas. M. Cbaxbe&s, and W. 
C. Dajvixls, of Georgia. ' , 

Gov. H. W. CoLLixx, Dr. C. Bblle50e&, and Chan- 
cellor W. W. Matsoiv, of Alabama. 

Dr Lockhabt, Mr. Abdebson, and Mr. Cbasx^ of 

Hon. Washikoton Babbow, Dr. Jas. A. Wrxtsxobb, 
and Jaxxs F. Eastlakd, of Louisiana. 

B. T. Gloves, Virginia. Ballance to be supplied. 

John H. Newton, of Athena, Ga., Chairman. 

On motion of Gov. Collier, of Alabama, 

Ruolfied^ That as a means of imparting increased dig- 
nity and honor to agriculture, and of living a more in- 
telligent direction to efforts to improve and fertilise the 
soil, and to prevent an injudicious and unnecessarily ex- 
pensive waste of labor, it is the opinion of this Assoda- 
tion that the colleges and universities of the south should 
impart instruction in agricultural chemistiy, and where 
the State has established no agricultural school of a high 
order, the legislatures of the several States where there 
are colleges or universities dependent upon State lUd or 
subject to State legislation, should promptly provide for 
a Professorship, assistant to the Chair of agricultural 
chemistiy, the duties of which, shall be to analize soils, 
manures and vegetable productions. 

This resolution was unanimously adopted by the Asso- 
ciation and refered to the Executive CounciL 

On motion of Mr. A. Hull, of Georgia, the Aasoelation 
adopted the following resolution : 

Re$olvedf That copies of addresses and essays deliver- 
ed and read before this Convention, be requested Arom 
the gentlemen making them, to be taken charge of by 
the Executive Council, and filed for future reference or 
publication, as may be determined on in the future trans* 
actions of the Association. 

It was further ordered that the Secretary procure said 
addresses and essays at the earliest convenience of the 
gentlemen delivering them. 

The President here announced the Executive Coundl 
under the Constitution. 


Mr. E. a. Holt, Montgomery. Ala. 

Dr. C. Bxllxnger, 

Judge B. S. Bibb, 

0. H. Young, Mississippi. 

Walker Anderson, Florida. 

Col. Q. A. SusixxR, South Carolina. 

Jas. M. Chambers, Georgia. 

17 iv^^ \ ^>o- ^* Gilmer, Ga., President. 
Jix-omao. I j^ ^ CuiW, Ala., Secretaiy. 

On motion, the following resolutions, offered by Got. 
W. H. Collier, of Alabama, were unanimously adopted. 

Retolvedf That it is important to the agricultural and 
industrial interests of the south, that a geological and 
agricultural survey should be made of Che several States 
that participate in this Association. Therefore, we do 







BiMt reepoctfuUy rooommend to the legjulatairCB of these 
States to cttase siich »urvej8 to be made at ae eurlj a day 
as may be. 

2d. Bnohedj That the Secretary of the Association 
'triDsmit a copy of the foregoing rosolution to the Ooyer- 
noreof the States referred to. 
/^On kotion of Dr. W. C. Daniels, of Georgia, 

Setolvedy That the next meeting of this Association be 
held in Colombia, & C, with the South Carolina State 
Agriottltiiral Society, in November next. 

On motion of Dr. R. W. Withers, of Alabama, 
Resolved^ That the thanks of this Association be ex- 
tended to the several gentlemen who addressed the Con- 
* vention during its session. 

On motion of G. W. Young, of Mississippi, 
JUiohedf That the thanks of this Association are ten- 
dered to the citizens of Montgomery, for their individual 

and public hospitality. 

On motion of Mr. A. Hull, of Georgia, 

JUeolved, That the thanks of this Association be rotum- 
od to the societies which have so liberally supplied as 
the use of their halls. 

On moti<m of Col. J. B. Cobb, of Mississippi, 

Resolved, Toat the thanks of this Association be of- 
fered to the President of this Association, for the able and 
dignified manner in which he has presided over its delib- 
erations. And also to the Secretaries, for the faithful dis* 
charge of the duties assigned them. 

On motion, the Association adjourned to meet in Co- 
lumbia, South Carolina, in November next The day to 
be made known in due time by the Executive Council, 

GEORGE R GILMER, Freiidcui. 

N. B. Cloud, Secretary. 



ooNffnTonoN of the aobioultuhal absooiation oe the slave 


AsTiOLC, 1st. The chief objects of such an Associa- 
Uon, would be to the exclusion of all sutjeots purely po- 


To imiMrove our own agriclntnre, yielding peculiar 
produotioBB through the agency of a normal labor, requir- 
ing a distinct economy, and dependent on a climate of 
its own. 

To develop the resources and unite and combine the 
energies of the Slaveholding States, so as to increase 
their wealth, power and dignity, as members of this con- 

To enlist and foster those scientific pursuits, which re- 
Teal to us the elements and character of our soils, in- 
struct us in the presence of those magazines of fertili- 
zers which Nature has with so bountiful and considerate 
» hand provided for the uses of the industrious and the 
enterprising ; and search out the histories and habits of 
tfl&e insect tribes which destroy (it is believed) annually 
» fifth of our crops, and supply us with a knowledge of 
them which may enable us to guard against their future 

To promote the mechanic arts, directly and indirectly 
nttxifiaiy to agriculture, and by a generous confidence and 
-Iflberil patronage raise those engaged in them to a social 
position always the just reward of iatelUgenoe, industry 
mad good conduct. 

To exert an influence in establishing a system of in- 
struction which will make Christians as well as scholars ' 

of our children ; which, in arming the rising generation 
with the instruments of knowledge, will instruct them 
also in their proper uses ; impressing upon them, ttota 
first to last, that (especially under our form of govern- 
ment) private worth constitutes the aggregate of public 
good, and that no one can disregard his duties to those 
around him without positive ix^jury to himself. 

Aat. 2d. This Association shall be composed of such 
citizens as taking an interest in its objects shall desire 
to become members, and shall signify such intention vpl 
writing to the Secretary. 

AxT 3d. There shall le annually elected a Pnodsnt 
to preside over the meeting of this Association. The Pres- 
ident to be first elected under this Constitution shall be 
succeeded by a new election to be made at the annual 
meeting 1854. 

Abt. 4th. The delegates and members from each 

State present at any annual meeting may nominate 

to this Association a Vice President. The oldest Tiee 

President present shall preside in the absence of the 

Aa7. 5th. A Secretary and Treasurer shall be eleeted 

who shall servo during the pleasure of the Association. It 
shall be his duty to keep a fair record of the proceedings 
of this Association and of the Executive Council, and to 
register the name and address of each member, and to sik* 
perintcnd all publications under the direction of this As- 
sociation, and, in its recess, of the Executive Council. He 



shall receive and preserve all essays and addresses, and 
all such commanicationfl as may be addressed to him for 
the use of this Association. As Treasurer ho shall col- 
lect subscriptions and contributions, and receive all do- 
nations and legacies made to this Association, and dis- 
burse the funds under its direction when in session, and, 
at other times, under that of the Executive Council. He 
shall make a r^ort of the state of his accounts at each 
meeting of this Association. 

Abt. 6th. An Executive Council shall consist of sine 
persons, not more than three of which shall be selected 
fh>m any one State, three of whom shall constitute a 
quorum. The President and Secretary and Treasurer 
shall be ex-officio members of the Executive Council. — 
Fire members of the Executive Council shall be appoint- 
ed by the President, at this session of the Convention, one 
of whom shall vacate his office at the expiration of two 
years from this term, and one thereafter annually, whose 
place shall be flUed by appointments of the President as 

the vacancy occurs. 

The Executive Council shall have charge and sole man- 
agement of the income of this Association, and the entire 
control and direction of all publications, and the superin- 
tendence of all the afifalrs and concerns of this Association, 
when not in session, and shall fix from time to time the 
salary of the Secretary and Treasurer. 

AsT. 7th. The annual meetings of this Association 

thall be held in succession in each of the Slavoholding 

States, the time and place to correspond, as nearly as 

practicable, with the annual agricultural meeting of the 

State to be selected. 
Abt. 8th. Semi-annual meetings of this Association 

may be called by the Executive Council, to be held suc- 
cessively, in the Slave-holding States, to correspond, in 
time and place, as nearly as practicable, with the horti- 
cultural meetings of the State to be selected. 

Abt. 9th. Each member shall pay, on his admission 
into this Association, to the Treasurer, the sum of five 
dollars, and at each subsequent annual meeting, one dol- 
lar, which may be compounded for on payment of twen- 
ty-five dollars, which shall constitute him a life member, 

and entiUe him to a copy of each publication of this As- 

Abt. 10th. Honorary members shall bo admitted by « 
Tote of this Association, and be exempt from payment of 
fees and contribution.8 

[A.] This Association, impressed with the imporlaoee 
of annual agricultural fairs to the communities in wImIi 
they are held, and satisfied of the great benefit thatmsgr 
be rendered to this Association, when held in coi^unction 
with such State biannual fairs, 

Resolved, That we recommend to the people of the 
several States interested in the objects of this Assoeia- 
tion, to organize State and county agricultural soeivties 
connected vrith biannual fairs. 

[B.] Resolved, That each delegation be requested to 
furnish to the Chairman of this committee the names of 
such gentiomen as may be prepared to address this As- 
sociation, together with the subject of the address, and 
that the Chairman of this committee be requested to ftir- 
nish to the President the names of persons, together with 
the subjects of their address, for each day of the session. 


Dr. W. C. Daniels, John H. Newton, Gov. George R, 
Gilmer, David W. Lewis, J. S. B. Turner, Charles A. 
Peabody, Asbury Hull, Robert Toombs, G. Biyan, W. 
B. S. Gilmer, and Col. James M. Chambers, of Georj^a. 

Dr. R. W. Withers, David Lordon, B. S. Bibb, James 
Dent, Samuel Jeter, Judge A. Martin, Dr. B. Johnson, 
James H. Smith, P. R. Gilmer, R. C. Shorter, Senior, 7. 
B. Scott, B. F. Ashley, Dr. A. Saltmarsh, Dr. N. B. 
Powell, Dr. Charles S. Lucas, Dr. N. B. Cloud, Col. Mc- 
Genny, Dr. J. H. Hall, CoL E. Harrison, W. S. Yancey, 
Thomas R. Beck, 0. S. Jewett, J. D. Hopper, £. A. 
Holt, M. A. Baldwin, L. James, Thomas M. Cowles, W. 
L. Marks, W. B. Mathews, W. C. Bibb, CoL J. Daxrfng- 
ton, A. y. Scott, Jas. P. Irwin, W. W. Mason, J. Gold- 
thwaite, S. W. Harris, Charles Crommelin, Dr. C. Bd- 
longer, Charles Ti^BoUard, and Gov. H, W, Collier, of Al- 

Dr. J. A. Whetstone, of Louisiana, 

Col. John Gilmer, H. W. Vick, CoL J. B. Cobb, H- 
G. "Vlck, and G. H. Young, of Mississippi. 

Fran the Journal of Agriealtnre. 

Thonmgh, or Rich Fanning. 


This term kas been generally adopted by the 
best European writers to express such a system of 
farming as would embrace the use of capital lib- 
erally^ and at a maximum profit, in contradistinc- 
tion to low farming, or the procuring of minimum 
crops, with no investments beyond the purchase of 
land and cheap workings. 

Those who pursue high farming argue that itis 
both safe and profitable, and that they use their 
capital liberally to put the land in the best possi- 
ble condition by under-draining, sub-soil plowing, 
convenient arrangement of cisterns, pumps, ma- 
nure-houses, &c., &c., so as to have light expen- 
ses by labor saving arrangements, at the co«( per- 
haps, of heavier original outlays. 

The high farmer has analysis of his soils, and 
uses upon them, all the manure they arc capable 



of converting into plants; or, in other words, all 
that can be used with profit, instead of only so 
much as will only produce a crop. For such 
crops as are found to pay a profit for the labor, the 
soil is plowed two, three, or nwre times before 
planting; and where a thorough admixture of the 
manure through the soil is found to be more ad- 
vantageous than simply to plow or harrow it in, a 
large cultivator, or stin-er, is liberally used for this 
purpose. For crops which are advanced material- 
ly by continued irrigation, even steam engines are 
kept in motion to insure the necessary supply. 

Cattle on such farms are never pastured, but al- 
ways fed in buildings, supplied with every conve- 
nience to save manual labor. The supply of wa- 
ter is always at hand, and readily led by gutters 
to the front of the animals. The arrangements 
for warming and ventilating are such as to insure 
a steady and healthy temperature and supply of 
atmosphere. The manures are rapidly moved as 
voided, and composted with as much inert vege- 
table matter as can be converted by its fermenta- 
tion into useful amendments. The fluid excretise 

fortunes by high farming, while but few have done 
so by any other style of culture. Now, while free 
trade is paralyzing the efforts of the farmer, those 
who pursue high farming alone are able to succeed. 
We do not assert that all who spend much succeed 
as a consequence of such expenditure; but those 
who use their capital freely ^cDAjudicioudt/ do suc- 
ceed, and find it more to their interest on bond 
and mortgage at the ordinary rates of interest.— 
Hundreds of tenant farmers in England are bor- 
rowers of capital on interest, extending the amount 
of their operations as their increased capital may 


How many farmers do we know in this country, 

who have heired fortunes, or become rich by the 

rise of property, and whose farms are of less value 

than their more industrious neighbors', from the 

want of capital properly applied to them ! They 

loan out their surplus incomes at six per cent, per 

annum, when a part at least could be used on their 

own farms, at twelve per cent, with profit. 

Let no man, however, attempt high fanning^ 

who thinks a fact bocomes a falsehood by having 

- , - ^^ J. r «.^**«« ™T,;«k ^o been printed. He must have brains enough not 

led by gutters to masses of matter, wnicn re- r*^^ r . . r i. r tt 


ceiveit and retain the volatile portions from evap 


If the soil is short of potash, soda, or any other 

oonatituents of the required crops, these are added; 
not directly to the soil, but to the compost heap, 
so as to advantage by their decomposing or chemi- 
cal effects before going to the roots of plants. — 
Manures are never left immersed in water, parting 
with gases without undergoing proper decomposi- 
tion ; but the drainage of manure-heaps is daily 
returned to them, to supply the necessary amount 
of moisture to insure decomposition without burn- 
ing ox fire-fanging. 

If ammonia is lost by steaming or overheating 
of manures, the drainage-cistern of the heap is 
immediately supplied with diluted sulphuric acid, 
or some soluble required by the compost, which 
changes the volatile carbonate of ammonia to the 
fixed sulphate of ammonia, and thus all the excre- 
tise of animals is saved in its best and most effi- 
cient form. 

Some old style farmer may say, " This is all ve- 
ry well ; but where is the money to come from, 
and when can you get it back ?" We answer, as 
to the latter inquiry, that many men in England 

to rail out indisoriminately at hook farmers. He 
must even read books, until he knows how to an- 
swer the following questions, at least, and as ma- 
ny others appertaining to his calling as these may 
suggest: — 

Do plants receive the whole of their nourish- 
ment from the soil, or part from the atmosphere ? 
and what from each ? 

Do those received from the atmosphere, enter 
the plants above or below the surface of the soi) ? 
and, if in part below, what conditions of the soil 
are necessary for their reception ? 

By what means are these conditions of the soil 
to be attained ? 

How does moisture effect the vegetable economy ? 

To what depth will the roots of the plants en- 
ter the soil if properly prepared ? 

To what depth will the roots of plants enter 
the soil ? and if not to an indefinite depth, why 7 

In what manner, and from what causes, do 
plants receive the constituents of manures below 
the surface of the soil ? 

Of those solutions of manures which filter down- 
wards, what portions are lost to plants ? or of those 
which rise as gasses, what portions escape into the 
and elsewhere, as tenant farmers, have made large atmosphere without being absorbed by plants? 



and why ? What modes may be adopted to ar- 
rest them until plants c&n make use of them ? 

Let those who would censure high farming find 
the farmer who can answer those questions, and 
they will find a successful votary of our art, and 
one, too, who can enjoy nature as his God intend- 
ed he should. Such a farmer can find delight in 
observing nature's laws, and '^ hok (hrcyugh na. 
tare up to nature* s GodJ' 

All these quedtions may be answered ; and our 
readers will find them answered if they will read 
the Journal with the same care they would exam- 
ine a mortgage when buying it. Some may say 
farmers have not time to become chemists and nat- 
ural philosophers; but they should^ for their own 
happiness and profit know so much of the science 
M to be able to read them understandingly, and to 
apply them readily. 

It is not necessary that a farmer should be ca- 
pable of analyzing his own soil, but only to under- 
stand the analysis when made. Because a farmer 
may occasionally have a lawsuit, he need not ne- 
cefisarily study law, and become a lawyer; and if 
an analysis will cost but five dollars, he is a lucky 
fellow if he does not pay more money to lawyers 
than to chemists. 

But some say, they are too old, even to study 
so much as to understand an analysis^ or to learn 
how to apply manures in accordance with it. If 
so, employ a consulting agriculturist to inform 
you, and pay him less for enabling yon to double 
your crops than you now lose by wasting manures 
from bad noanagement; and if you cannot find a 
more competent one, apply to us. 

from the Sonthern Agricultorbt. 

Planting and Cnltivating the Osage Orange 
nant, and treatment of the Hedge. 

In the first place, it is important to procure gen- 
uine and sound seed. The seeds of the Osage Or- 
ange are enveloped singly in the tough and fibrous 
substance composing the fruit or ball. Extracting 
the seed without injuring their vitality, is a slow 
and tedious process. In order to do it with great- 
er facility, many unprincipled persons have resort- 
ed to scalding or to a high fermenting process, 
which entirely destroys the germinating principle 
of the seed. 

The seed of the Osage Orange requires a high 
temperature to induce vegetation, and hence they 

should not bo planted until the warm weather of 
Spring is established, say about the first to the 
tenth of May. About two weeks before jplantiog^ 
the seed should be placed to soak and remain in 
the water for three days. Not more than two 
quarts should be put in the same vessel. Tur^ 
the water off and cover the seed with a cloth and 
place them in a warm room and stir them daOj. 
They should be kept sufficiently moist to induce 
vegetation. Should the weather prove favorable^ 
the vessel containing the seed may be plunged into 
a hot bed. As soon as the germ begins to appear 
they should be planted. 

The ground selected for the seed beds should 
be rich and should be plowed deep and thoroughly 
pulverized and finely raked. Lay the ground off 
in drills of one inch deep, wide enough to admit 
the passage of the cultivator. The seeds should 
be dropped about half an inch apart in the rows, 
and they should be covered by drawing the fine 
earth from each side, with both hands, forming a 
ridge one inch high. In six or eight days, if the 
season be favorable, the young plants will begin 
to break the ground. The ridge should then be 
removed with a fine rake. This method leaves the 
row clean and mellow, and gives the young planta 
a good start of the weeds and greatly lessens the 
labor of the first hoeing. These plants should be 
well cultivated throughout the season. 

The hedge row should be plowed at least ten or 
twelve inches deep and eight or ten feet wide, in 
the fall ; or, if the land is new, it would be well 
to cultivate a crop of corn or potatoes on it tiy» 
year previous. If poor ridges occur in the row, 
they should be well trenched and manured, to Ia* 
sure uniformity in the growth of the hedge. 

In the Spring, just previous to setting the plante, 
the row should again be plowed and well harrow- 
ed. The plants may be lifted from the seed beds 
with facility by two persons with spades, one 09 
each side of the row ; care should be taken not to 
mutilate the roots. Shorten the roots to about 
eight or nine inches in length and the tops to with- 
in one inch of the root. 

Stretch a line where the hedge is to stand, j^- 
sort the plants, and set those of uniform sixe to- 
gether. In setting the plants, run a long q>ade 
perpendicularly by the line to the depth (^ tbp 
root, making an opening wiAout renwving Ae 
earth ; withdraw the ppade and insert the plant 



foil 00 low as it grew in the seed bed. Press the 
•arth to the root by entering the spade again just 
husk of the plant, pressing the earth forward. Set 
the plants in this manner about ten or twelve inches 
apart, according to the strength of the soil, in a 
flisgle row. After setting, the ground should be 
firmly trod on each side of the plants and again 
levelled off* In order to secure the advantage 
of requisite light, and a free circulation, of air, 
and to leave room for thorough cultivation, the 
hedge should never be planted within six or eight 
feiet of any fence. The row should be kept free 
from weeds and be thoroughly cultivated during 
(he season. 

One great error has been committed by nine- 
tenths of the persons who have attempted to grow 
Osagid hedges, and that is, they have been too im- 
patient to complete the hedge before they had se- 
oured a foundation on which to base it. A hedge 
sufficiently firm and compact at the bottom cannot 
he ffroum without severe and repeated cutting back, 
in order to insure strexigth to the lower and latter- 
al branches. This must neither be neglected nor 
delayed beyond the proper time, or all the previ- 
ous labor will be lost. The season the plants are 
set in the row they will require no regular pru- 
ning; but should any of the plants assume a too 
vigorous upright growth, they should be checked 
by cropping their tops with a long knife. This 
can be done as fast as a man can walk. The 
Spring after the plants have been set, they should 
be cut off to within three or four inches of the 
ground. In consequence of cutting off the tops 
at the time of setting, each plant has produced 
three or four shoots. The second cutting will 
cause them to multiply to six or eight, nearly fill- 
ing the space between the plants. 

Cultivation must be continued the second year 
aa before. About the middle of June, or when the 
plants appear to be making the most vigorous 
growth, they must be again shortened back to 
within three or four inches of the last cutting. — 
In order to give size and strength to the latteral 
branches, and secure a close and compact base to 
the hedge, these summer prunings must not be de- 
layed. Continue to repeat the Spring and Sum- 
mer prunings until the fourth or fifth year, cut- 
ting off the side and bottom branches so as to 
form the hedge about three feet wide at the bot- 
tom, gradually narrowing at the top, to about four 

or five feet in height, when it will be sufficiently 
formidable to turn any stock upon the farm, and 
so close at the bottom as to render it difficult for 
a rabbit to pass through it. The experience of 
the hedgcr by this time must suggest the subse- 
quent treatment. 

For trimming the hedge, a common hemp-hook 
with along handle and the hedging shares will be 
found the most convenient implements ! 


Here are some facts worth knowing. Read and 
ponder them well. The generality of fiimilies 
make their coffee too weak, and use too much sugar, 
which often causes it to acid on the stomach. — 
Almost every house-keeper has a peculiar method 
of making coffee ; but it never can be excellent 
unless it be made strong of the berry. And make 
it as you will, strong or weak, sweet or bitter, un- 
less it is properly roasted, it will be a miserable 
unwholesome beverage. If it be underdone, its 
virtues will not bo imparted, and in use it will 
load and oppress the stomach ; if it be overdone, 
it will yield a flat, burnt and bitter taste ; its vir- 
tues will be destroyed, and in use it will heat the 
body and act as an astringent. The closer it is 
confined at the time of roasting, and till used, the 
better will its voktile pungency, flavor and virtues 
be preserved. Count Rumford, a gentleman of 
science, taste, skill, judgment and ability to say 
the truth, says : " Coffee may be too bitter — but 
it is impossible that it ever should be too fragant. 
The very smell of it is reviving, and has often 
been found to be useful to sick persons, and to 
those who are afflicted with headache. In short, 
everything proves that the volatile, aromatic mat- 
ter, whatever it may be, that gives flavor to coffee, 
is what is most valuable in it, and should be pre- 
served with the greatest care, and that in estima- 
ting the strength or richness of that beverage, 
its fragrance should be much more attended to, 
than either its bitterness or astringency. This ar- 
omatic substance, which is supposed to be an oil, 
is extremely volatile, and escapes into air with 
great facility, as is observed by its filling the room 
with its fragrance if suffered to remain uncovered, 
and at the same time losing much of its flavor"-^ 
and he might have said, by long exposure, will 
lose all its valuable qualities. 



From the Mobile £Tcning News. 

Home Enteiprlse. 

Nothing has ever afforded us more real pleas- 
ure than the visit we made yesterday to Meahers' 
Mill and Ship-yard. Our obj ect was to inspect the 
first steamboat ever entirely built. and furnished in 
the vicinity of Mobile — ^the William Jones, Jr.-, 
but we found many other sources of interest that e- 
qually divided our attention. The Meahers should 
certainly be classed among the first, if not at the 
head, of all the enterprising utilitarians of our city. 
Like deep and placid rivers, they pass before us 
and among us, never uttering a murmur nor a 
word of boasting ; bat their acts are the continued 
opening of silent and unfathomable channels of 


The selected place of their operations, is, indeed, 

one of the most romantic spots that nature ever, 
in her gayest mood, endowed » A firm and high 
embankment of shells and clay, bordered by a 
broad and beautiful bayou, forty feet in depth, 
forms a foundation upon which rests the Mill and 
Ship-yard appurtenances ; and at a short distance in 
the rear, rises a second bank, all covered over with 
grass, and studded with the most magnificent live- 
oaks, and upon which, Capt. Tim, calls his '^ bar- 
racts" — a long house for the eating and sleeping 
accomodations of the whole Shipyard troup. The 
Mill itself, is a feature, and cuts an enormous a- 
mount of lumber each day, besides sawing shin- 
gles, weather-boards, &c., &c., and cutting and 
dressing wood in all shapes and sizes, to answer 
their required purposes. But we are growing 
prolix, and will return to our point, leaving all 
romancing to the many pic-nic parties that will, 
no doubt, visit this lovely place next summer, and 
make it the scene of their revelries. 

The William Jones, Jr., is as beautifully mod- 
delled as any steamboat we ever laid eyes upon, 
and in every particular most nobly adapted to the 
trade she is to assume. She has three fine boil- 
ers, two large engines of eight feet stroke, and 
twenty-one inches cylinderical diameter. She has 
a length of two hundred feet on deck, twenty-five 
feet floor, and thirty-one feet beam, with a cabin 
one hnndred and fifty feet long. The work of her 
cabin is very plain and substantial, and overspread 
with the very essence of neatness; the upholstery 

and fitting of her staterooms, superb, and in eve- 
■ jy respect agreeing with the costly furniture and 

in fittings of the whole interior. Capt. S. P. Por- 
ter designed and superintended the building of 
the hull. Mr. H. McAdams, joiner, built her 
cabin. Mr. D. Harris did all her painting,' Mr. 
A. W. Farrow, a young workman of true merit, 
in the employ of Mr. Kirk, did all the plumbing 
work of the Barber's Saloon and Ladies' Washroom, 
which will compare to any work of the kind we 
ever saw, and Mr. C. McCord completed her up- 
holstery, hanging and furnishing, in the short 
space of four days from the time he was notified 
to commence. It is needless to add, that all the 
above gentlemen are tradesmen of Mobile, who 
have executed their several parts in the building 
and furnishing of this steamer, by regular con- 
tract with her owners. 

Such home industry and enterprise must be en- 
couraged by all who have^ home interests at heart, 
or to discourage it, would be suicidal in its efieets. 
Therefore, let every good citizen that can, go and 
look at the first steambeat ever entirely built at 
Mobile. She is probably now at the wharf, and 
will go up the river to-night in place of the steam- 
boat Mcay Clifion, to be withdrawn. 

This is not all of the enterprise of the Meahers, 
for they have a large and noble-looking ship on 
the stocks, which is in a very forward condition, 
and, we learn, will be launched sometime in the 
latter part of April next. 

She is 160 feet on deck, and 34 feet breadth of 
beam, with 22 } feet depth of hold. It is thought 
she will register over 800 tons burthen, and will 
be calculated to carry about 3,000 bales of cotton. 
She is built of white oak, live oak and cypress, 
and it is said by her carpenters that there is not 
a ship in the world better timbered, and but few 
equal her in this respect. We made the acquain- 
tance of her designer and superintendant, Capt. 
Myllay, the uncle of the Meahers, who delighted 
us for an hour with many topics of interest. One 
importand feature in his remarks was, that we had 
in the South, and especially around the Gulf of 
Mexico, the very best timber in the world for 
ship-building, and that England, Franoe, and oth- 
er foreign nations were continually drawing it off, 
at their own prices, while the South actually re- 
fused to increase her wealth and prosperity by not 
seizing upon and properly disposing of the many 

great resources that had sprung spontaneously 




from her soil. Capt. M. thinks when his new ship 
18 onoe launched; and covered with her crowd of 
canyas, that she will be leader in the enterprise 
of Southern ship-building, that will startle much 
sleeping capital into activity. It is truly inter- 
esting to hear the clinking of hammers — the bel- 
lowing of forges- — the ringing of anvils — and whiz- 
sing and buzzing of saws — or to see over a hun- 
dred sturdy working men lay down their tools 
quietly at noon-day, and spread themselves res- 
pectfully around the long table at the " barracks" 
of Meahers' Mill. This sight can be seen every 
day^ and is worth going to see, and when there, 
you need not fear but what the ever-generous host 
will invite you to his most welcome fare. 

We clip the above article from a number of the Mobile 
Evening News. Our object in re-publifihing it in the Cot- 
ton Planter, is but carrying oat our intention as set fourth 
in the beginning of this enterprise ; regarding as we do 
the mannfacturing interest of the country, and the me- 
chanic arts, as of paramount importance to the success 
and prosperity of the agricultural interest, and surely so 
to the permanent prosperity of cotton growing. 
■ An Alabama built ship of one thousand tons I Yes, 
every word of it is true. We saw for oumelf, the verita- 
ble new and first bom Alabama Clipper, and beautiful, 
substantial specimen of she art is. She is intended to 
engage in the Liverpool cotton trade from Mobile, where, 
we hope she may long continue to vie successfully and 
prosperously in the trade of carrying our cotton to Eu- 
rope, and returning directly back to our ports with such 
merchandise as our people need. 

We need add nothing to what has been so well said in 
the above article, in regard to the public spirit and en- 
terprise of the mechanics. Their indomitable energy, 
perseverance and industry, in this new and important 
business in Alabama, deserve well, and, we belieye, the 
people of Alabama will see to it, that they do not go un- 
rewarded. This fine ship is to be launched about the 
first of June. We may be a head of the times, but we 
opine, and we are sanguine in its realization, that the pe- 
riod is not remote, when a ship launched in the vicinity 
of Mobile> though it may not be an every day occurrence ! 
will be no uncommon announcement. How long before 
^we shall be able to announce the manufacture, in Ala- 
bama, of Railroad Iron ? 

.«-»■ ■ ■ .1 , . ..1. . .^ ■■■. «.ii 11 ■ .. I ■ »«. »»i. !«».... I. .r. ■..-■.,■ ■■. .I.. ... 

Pabsnips. — ^Young parsnips require only to be 
scraped before boilings old ones must be pared thin 
and slieedy when tender, put butter and pepper 
over and serve. Parsnips may be boiled or stew- 

• • • • . 

ed with salt meat. 

• • • • •. 

A ^tskel of piaster, per aere, sown broadcast 
ov«f^ will'add one hundr^ percent to its pi:oduc.e 

By stabling and shedding stock through the 
winter, a saving of one-fourth of the food may be 
effected — ^that is, one-fourth less food will answer, 
than when such stock may be exposed to the in- 
clemencies of the weather. 

Contents of tide ITnmber* 

Marl and Mailing id 

Premium Essay on Agricnltutal Education 164 

Drainage leg 

Copper of the United States for the year 1852 172 

Moral benefits of Slavery ^ 172 

American Agriculture, what it is and what ought 

to be... , 175 

Cotton, many varieties in Western Africa.. 176 

Editobial Notxoxs , 177 

Somebody at Fault 177 

Agricultural Convention 177 

Hiving of Bees , 179 

Plantation Economy, Number 7 179 

Water Gate and Water Fence 180 

Cotton Oil 181 

Useful Itecipees .» 181 

Ficus Cariea, or Common Fig Tree 181 

Proceedings of the Agricultural Conventon of the 

Slaveholding States ,. 183 

Thorough, or Rich Farming 186 

Ossage Orange — Planting, Cultivating, and treat- 
ment of the Hedge 188 

Coffee 189 

Home Enterprise 190 

The SOUTHEBN OULTIYATOR, is published on the 
first of each month, at Augusta, Geo. D. Lbk, M. B., 
Editor, and D. Rbdmond, Assistant Editor. Tgrmt: $1 
a year, in advance. 

J. A. & S. 8. VIRGIN, 





VABiKnr OF nnsiOAL ioerohaiidisIm 




N B. — ^Watches, Clocks, and Jewelry repaired in the 
best manner. 

April 1, 1858-6t 



Hbbile, S^^tMber 1k^':1852., 


!'■ • ■ i ' ' 



Qardirare and Citlery, Heehanics' TmIi,. 


MENTS^Sirnf Cutters. Scfthu ind CndlM, Reap-' 
KEEPIXO ARTICLES, to. &o., togetfaw with mrj 
ever; iirticic □lunlly kept ia ■ Gnt-Mta Qirdrar* Stan; 
■II of wbich will bs lold at loweit prioM fcr C«^ 
Fubnurjl, 1B63. 



Forei|;B and Domestic Hedlcines, 


FaTfOufliT, Bnuhaa, Painta, 011b, and Window Olua, 



Fobnur; 1«t, 1853. 


Qrt IFouuiiaTite the iittentiaa of the public to ^^ 

MilUnery Establislimeiit, 


When ahe offers for aals a handeome NBsartnieDt of all 
th« Taiions artic!«g to her line of baainen. 

(^BONNETS mulo to order and pat up at the 
ahorMal notice, on tiki iioiiaBATB tibmi. 

HoUIe, September 1. 186S. 


a NO. 16 DA<n>HlN-ST., ^m 



Hat§, Caps, Boots, Shoen, Bonnets, 

HAS one af tba largeat iiad beat lelsoted Stoeka of the 
abora-Damad artiolea, to be raaad la the Cit; of Mobile, 
«hioh he offanfor lale at £o« Prwu, and on aooomno- 
datlns tana.' 
IVAIao, a 1*17 large Stoah of NEGEO SHOES, of 
• anparter qnaUt;, aatound vrpwAaitj for the Merchanta' 
-id Platan* taada. 
VobUe, St^enber l-6t. 

Hjurdlwaiir® siimdl lEiroia StoffOo 



(West of tbo Conrt Boom) 
noffXGomreBY, Alabama. 



■oa.SS and CO Cotnmarc* SireettMaMla, 


SSOOMS, WOODWABZ:, fco., Ilo, 
ttp-Ship, Stosmboat aod Family Store* pot ap at 

a^We call tfaa atteutioa of Plaatera awl MeRbnta 
tram the np-oountrj, to our nell-aelacted Slock, at all 
times ample aad gufficioatl; Tnried. 

Mobile, September 1-St. 



#HAS on band, at his Mnnio Score, a lai^ and 
unlusblo aMorimcai of UUSIC. MUSICAL IN- 
Tariely. and of the first qoalitj. Nov and fai^ 
ionsble MUSIC : atxo, Staoitnrd Publications <ff old and 
valanblp Music, GuJDUtB and iDslrumcntal Boots, Chnrck 
Muaic, &o. 

St^The snbKriber receiTea Tepiler ntppUea of aS 
MUSICAL PU1ILICATI0I4S from (he North, FranM 
and Ourmiiny. 

I^^MUSIC bODDd in a Baperior atjie, vith sprii^ 

Tbe tabscriber respectfully infonna the pnhUe, that 
haling made amiDgemeDtH with the Mnnafaclurera.