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An American Cruiser in the East 



" Pass not unmarked the islands in that sea, 
Where nature claims the most celebrity, 
Half hidden, stretching in a lengthened line 
In front of China, 

Japan abounds in mines of silver hne. 
And shall enlightened be bv holy faith divine." 

CamoenS, Tht Lu;iad. 








G'^^ 



AN 

AMERICAN CRUISER 

IN THE EAST 

Travels and Studies i?i the far East 

The Aleutian Islands, Behring's Sea, Eastern Siberia, 

Japan, Korea, China, Formosa, Hong Kong, 

and the Philippine Islands 



BY 

JOHN D. FORD 

Fleet Engineer of the Pacific Station, United 
Slates Nu'-vy 



Second Edition, with account of the Battle of Manila, 
April 30, 1898 



New York 

A. S. Barnes and Company 

1898 



J 



Copyright, 1S98, 
By a. S. Barnes & Co. 



mnibn-sitg Press : 
John Wilson and Son, Camhridge. U.S.A. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

INTRODUCTION i 

Chaptkr 

I. The Start 5 

II. Unalaska, Aleutian Islands 14 

III. Cruisln'G in Behrixg Sea 24 

IV. Petropaulski, Kamtchatka. Eastern 

Siberia 38 

Y. Kamtchatka, Eastern Siberia 44 

VI. Yokohama, Japan 51 

VII. ToKio, THE Capital 76 

VIII. Kobe, Japan 124 

IX. Osaka, Japan 153 

X. Constitution and Government of Japan . 1S5 

XI. Population and Industry of Japan . . . 190 

XII. A Trip to the Northwestward 227 

XIII. A Trip to Korea 237 

XI\'. Seoul, the Capital of Korea 251 

X\'. PiNG-VANG, Korea 259 

X\'I. Korea 278 

XVII. Shanghai, China 293 

X\TII. Ningpo, China 305 

XIX. Formosa 320 

XX. Amov, China 331 



825851 



viii Contents 

Chapter Page 

XXI. Canton, China 343 

XXII. The Government and People of China . . 376 

XXIII. HoNG-KONG, China 399 

XXIV. Macao, China 411 

XXV. Manila, Philippine Islands 417 

XXVI. The Philippines 432 

APPENDIX 

The Japan-China War 443 

More about the Philippines 469 

Naval Battle of Cavite 479 

The Capture of Manila and the Philippines by 
THE Combined Sea and Land Porces of the 

United States, August 13, 1898 500 

INDEX . . .• 511 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



JuJix U. Ford Frontis/iece 

Page 

The Point of Tomioka, Japan 48 

A Japanese Torii and Lanterns 49 

Fujiyama 51 

The ioi Steps at the Bluff, Yokohama, Japan, with the 

Celebrated Zenaea Tea-House on the Left ... 52 

Yokohama, Japan 53 

The Grand Hotel, Yokohama, Japan 56 

Yokohama Bluffs, Japan 57 

JiNRiKisHA IN Japan 59 

The Imperial Japanese Government Buildings, Yokoiia.ma, 

Japan 61 

A Japanese Sampan 63 

Japanese Green-Grockr's Shop 65 

A Japanese Actor 66 

Dai Butsu, THE "Great Buddha," near Kamakma, Japan . 67 

Enoshema, Japan 70 

Japa.vese Junks 72 

Harvesting the Rice in Japan 73 

A Street Scene, Tokio, Japan 77 

Making Rice Flour, Japan 79 

Wistaria 80 

A Garden, Tokio, Japan 81 

Entrance to Kwanin Temple, near Tokio, Japan .... 85 

Vegetables i.n Japan 87 

Japanese Acrobats SS 

Sweets and Toys 89 

Japanese Jugglers 90 



X List of Illustrations 

Page 
Entrance to the Mortuary Temples of the Shoguns at 

Sheba, near Tokio, Japan 91 

Japanese Troubadours 93 

Temple of the Shoguns, Sheba, near Tokio, Japan ... 95 
The Temple Font at the Shogun Temples, Sheba, near 

Tokio, Japan 97 

Ancient Japanese Armor 98 

Temple of the Shoguns, Sheba, near Tokio, Japan ... 99 
Temples of the Shoguns at Sheba, near Tokio, Japan . loi 
Tomb of "Roku Dai," the Sixth Tokugawa Shogun, Sheba, 

NEAR Tokio, Japan 

Temple of the Shociuns, Sheba, near Tokio, Japan . . 

A Japanese School 

Japanese Wrestlers 

Japanese Wrestlers 

A Lotus Field 

In a Japanese Rice-Field 

The Mikado's Palace at Tokio, Japan 

Bamboo Grove at Fukiagu, Tokio, Japan 

Chrysanthemums 

A Sedan Chair in Japan 

Shimonoseki, the Entrance to the Inland Sea of Japan 

"The Falls" at Kobe, Japan 

Japanese Wood-Pedler 

Kobe and the Inland Sea of Japan 

Japanese Fruit Shop 

Dry Goods Shop, Kobe, Japan 

Japanese Dancing-Girls, — the " Gkisha" 

Japanese Babies 

A Trip into the Country, — the "Kaga" 

Japanese Carpenters 

A Japanese Barber Shop 

Nunabiki Waterfall at Kobe. Japan 

One Method of Irrigating the Land in Japan .... 

A Japanese Clog-Maker 

A Japanese Home Dinner 

Japanese Doctor and Patient 

How They Sleep in Japan 

The Family Bath, Japan 



List of Illustrations xi 

Page 

Making the Toilet, Japan 147 

The Hair-Dresser in Japan 148 

The Sick Babe, Japan 149 

A Tattooed Japanese 150 

Japanese Cooper 151 

Picking Tea Leaves in Japan 153 

Japanese Cabinet-Maker at Osaka 154 

Japanese Pottery at Osaka, Japan 155 

Entrance to Nagasaki Harbor. Papinbekg in the Dis- 
tant Centre 157 

Japanese Sampan Ferry 159 

Up the Mountain Stream, Nagasaki, Japan 160 

The Hillside Graves 161 

An Old Stone Bridge, Nagasaki, Japan 163 

Japanese Toy Pedler 165 

Fish and Fresh Provision Shop, Japan 166 

Nagasaki Harbor at Noon on a Fourth of July .... 167 

Artists Decorating Lanterns 169 

A Funeral Procession in Japan 171 

Coffin and Funeral Ornaments, Japan 172 

A Japanese Country House near Nagasaki, Japan . . . 173 

In the Rice-Field 174 

The Dry Dock at Nagasaki, Japan 175 

Japanese Bull Cart 179 

"The Old Mill" at Nagasaki, Japan 180 

Moji, Japan . 1S2 

Hillside Graves of the Martyrs, Moji, Japan 183 

Ancient Japanese Warrior 187 

Japanese Firemen on Parade i93 

Shinto Priest, Japan 196 

Buddhist Priest, Japan I99 

Japanese Wood-Carving 200 

Japanese Homes -02 

Japanese Tramps 204 

A Coolie 207 

Making Umbrellas in Japan 209 

Japanese Wood-Carver 211 

Japanese Lacquer Ware 213 

An Instrumental Concert, Japan 217 



xii List of Illustrations 

Page 

Japanese Artists Decorating Porcelain 221 

A Chinese Cart 227 

Chemulpo, Korea 2^7 

A Delegation of Koreans Visit the " Alert " 245 

Korean Mourning Costume 247 

Seoul, the Capital of Korea 251 

Gateway to Seoul 253 

Gaieway to the King's Palace, Seoul, Kore.v .... 255 

The Korean Army 257 

Ping-yang, Korea 259 

Fortifications and Governor's Housk, Ping-yang Inlet . 263 

A Korean Young Wo.man 265 

A Korean House, Ping-yang Inlet 266 

Fortifications 267 

Korean Buddhist Priests 270 

Broughton Bay and Gen-san 272 

His Majesty Li-Fin, King of Korea, and his Royal High- 
ness the Crown Prince 2S0 

The Prime Minister of Korea 2S2 

The "Choson," the only Vessel in the Korean Navy . 284 

A Korean Family 286 

Sacred White Horse of Jungu Temple 288 

The Korean Army, — Skirmish Drill 289 

Chinese Junk 293 

A Road in Shanghai, China 303 

Waier-Front, Ningpo, Chlna 305 

A Corner of the City Wall, Ningpo, China 307 

Tin, Pontoon Bridge, Ningpo, China 309 

A Ningpo Chinese Family 311 

NiNi'.po Chinaman 316 

Chart of the World 321 

Old Banyan-Trees 327 

The Deified Rocks at Amoy, China 332 

Foreign Residences at Korlangsoo, Amoy, Ciifna .... 335 

Lampotoh Temple, Amoy, China 337 

Woman of Sw \row, China 340 

Map of Old Canton 349 

The Bare Pagoda, Canton, China 357 

Chinese Punishment, — In the Caugue 350 



List of Illustrations xiii 

Page 

A Knotty Case in Old Canton 361 

A Cantonese Family 363 

Execution of Chinese Rebels 366 

Temple of the Ocean Banners, IIonan, Canton .... 369 

The Water-Front of Old Canton 373 

Camel Caravan bound for Peking, China 391 

IIon(".-kong 399 

The Queen's Road, Hong-kong 401 

The Water-Frcjnt, Hongkong in a Fog 403 

The Parsee Cemetery in the Happy Valley, Hong-kong . 404 

Residence of the Tartar General, New Chwang, China . 411 

Woman of Northern China 415 

Manila, Philippine Islands 419 

An Indian Warrior of the Philippine Islands 422 

Church of Dominicans, Manila Facing 422 

Natives of Manila, Philippine Islands 423 

Bell Tower shaken by Earthquake, New Cathedral, 

Manila Facing 424 

Open Air Theatre, Manila „ 426 

A Native of Manila, Philippine Islands 427 

Valley of the Apostles, Cavite Facing 428 

A Native of Manila, Philippine Islands 429 

A Cock-Pit at Manila, Philippine Islands 431 

The Untamed Indians of the Philippine Islands .... 433 

Natives of Manila, Philippine Islands 436 

Cay-Sabo River, Cavite Facing 436 

Native Bull Sled, Manila, Philippine Islands 438 

Native Woman of Manila, Philippine Islands 439 

Japanese Mounted Infantry. By a Japanese Artlst . . 446 

Imperial Chinese Troops 459 

Japanese Artillery. By a Japanese Artist 464 

Battle of Manila Bay 481 

Pasig River, Manila. Governor-General's Palace . Facing 484 

Manila Harbor, 8 a. m., May i, 1898 „ 4S6 

Effect of 5-iNCH Shell in Malite Fort .... „ 486 

(Spanish Flag-ship) "Reina Cristina," IMav i, 1S9S „ 4S8 

"IsLA DE Luzon," May i, 1898 „ 4S8 

"Castilla," May i, 189S „ 49° 

"San Antonio de Ulloa," May i, 1898 „ 49° 



XIV 



List of Illustrations 



Church of Paranaque Fi 

The Battle of Cavite 

Corner of Old City Wall, Manila (Bay Side) . . 

Old City Wall, Manila (Land Side) 

Sangley Point Battery after Engagement with 

the " Baltimore " 

Philippine Artillery, Malite, July i, 1S98 ... 

Church and Convent, Old Cavite 

Main Entrance to Cavite 

Spanish Arms Stacked on the Plaza, Old Manila 
9.5-iNCH Gun, Old Manila 



Page 

cttig 492 

494 
496 
496 

498 
500 
500 
502 
504 
504 



Introduction 

AFTER a term of duty at the Baltimore Manual Training 
School, having watched its growth from nothing to 
live hundred students; having seen four classes of one hundred 
and twenty voung men graduated, settled in good employ- 
ments, and well started in their chosen lifework ; having 
witnessed the material increase from two bare floors in the 
old schoolhouse on Courtland Street to the acquisition 
and equipment of the entire building, together with the lease 
and equipment of the annex, on the opposite side of the 
street, and the erection and furnishing of the five-story 
building adjoining and connecting with the old schoolhouse, 
— I opened my mail, on the 2d of July, 1890, and found 
an order which required me to report for duty in San 
Francisco on the 13th of the month. 

The work had been laborious. There were some data 
for other circumstances, but none to suit our conditions. 
We were doing pioneer work. Every lesson and every 
course of study, both in the laboratories and the draughting- 
rooms, had to be studied out and devised, in order to obtain 
such as would furnish the largest amount of hand and eve 
work, so that it could be made to supplement the purely liter- 
ary work, blending together and producing the desired result, 
thus solving the problem. How to adjust Manual Train- 
ing to the Public-School System ? The results show how 
well or how ill the work has been done. 



2 Introduction 

Although my official relations with the school had been 
severed by the receipt of the order, I desoted the remaining 
days to getting things in shape tor my unknown successor, 
and had never realized until then how it had endeared 
itself to me. But the last day came, as last days always 
will come! 

His Honor the Mayor, and the Officers and iMembers of 
the School Board tendered me a farewell dinner at the 
Rennert. After sitting through the feast, from the oysters 
to the black coffee and cigars, where all had kind words 
and pleasant wishes, we all stood and sang " Auld Lang 
Syne." Then came the hardest part of all, the "good-bye " 
and the " God bless you." 

A little later, I bade farewell to dear old Baltimore, and 
took rny seat in a Pullman sleeper of the " Overland Flyer," 
on the hottest night that has been known in this section for 
manv vears. As the train was rushing through the tunnel 
and beyond, I remembered how kind and helpful all had 
been to the work I was leaving behind. Our Senators and 
Representatives had interested themselves in it from its 
inception. The newspapers had sent their representatives, 
investigated, and commended. The Mayor, the Councils, 
and the School Board had been generous in their appropria- 
tions. The Chairman and Committee had always been a 
unit for the school. The Faculty was devoted and zealous, 
and the great majority of the students appreciated their 
opportunities. 

The next night Chicago was reached and left behind us, 
and we were still rushing through the great flat, treeless 
plains towards the Rocky Mountains. Council Bluffs, 
Omaha, Grand Island, Cheyenne, Laramie, Green River, 
Granger, Ogden, Winnemucca, Reno, Trucker, and Sum- 



Introduction 3 

mit, seven thousand feet above the sea-level, and scores of 
other cities and towns, were passed by as we sped from 
prairie to desert and over hills and mountains. From Sum- 
mit the road ran down the Pacific slope, through Sacra- 
mento to Oakland, where we crossed the bav in the big 
steamer to San Francisco, ha\ ing lett Baltimore late on 
Tuesday night and arrived in San Francisco on the follow- 
ing Sunday morning. The car services, sleeping and din- 
ing, left nothing to be desired. 

Having completed mv duty in San Francisco b\- the end 
of September, I repaired to the Mare Island Na\ y Yard, 
and joiried the U. S. S. " Alert " for a cruise in Behring Sea 
and the far East. The cruise was \ery interesting, and the 
experiences were valuable. Behring Sea and Korea were 
revelations to me. During a large portion of the cruise we 
visited Japan, China, Hong-kong, and the Philippines, 
which gave me the opportunity to compare, modify, or con- 
firm the impressions ot years ago ; and mv desire is, to show 
those countries and their people as I saw them. 



An American Cruiser in the 
East 



CHAPTER I 

THE START 

ON the morning of the i8th of June we cast off 
the lines that bound us to the water-front of the 
Mare Island Navy Yard, and steamed down the river 
towards San Francisco. After reaching the bay, we 
changed our course to keep clear of the great steamer 
which plies between that city and Oakland ; and passing 
bv the city, we rounded to, and stood through the Golden 
Gate, running against a stiff breeze and a heavy chopped 
sea. As soon as we were well outside of the land, upon 
the bosom of the broad Pacific, bearings were taken, and 
the vessel was headed for Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, about 
twentv-two hundred miles away. The clouds lowered and 
became almost black, and the once chopped sea gradually 
increased until we had a heavy head sea, causing the old 
ship to roll and pitch in a most uncomfortable manner. 

The little ship, that was to be our home for the next 
two years and a half, was an iron steamer, 175 feet long, 
35 feet beam, 15 feet 6 inches deep, and of 1,020 tons' 
displacement. It was full bark-rigged, and had an old- 
fashioned bow. Her armament consisted of one elc\en- 
inch smooth-bore pivot gun, two nine-inch smooth-bore 
broadside guns, one sixty-pounder breech-loading rifle, and 
several machine guns and brass pieces. 



6 An American Cruiser in the East 

We had a lot of almost worthless Japanese for servants, — 
poor fellows, who had left their island home to seek their 
fortunes in America. They had met with poor success, and 
were discouraged and homesick. To get away from their 
uncongenial surroundings, and with the hope of ultimately 
reaching Japan, they shipped as servants for our cruise. 
They made poor seamen ; for as the gale increased, boy 
after bov disappeared, — sick, down with mal de mer^ — and 
before the close of the day we had but one servant in con- 
dition for service. One bov to look after a dozen of us ! 

Our head wind and sea stuck to us, and continued to 
increase, as though winds and seas never came from any 
other direction. After experimenting for four davs, it was 
determined to abandon the direct course to Unalaska, 
and to make a leading wind of the present freshness, run- 
ning into Victoria, British Columbia, to refill our bunkers 
and to make a new start. 

The bad weather we were experiencing gave us the 
opportunitv of testing the seamanship and endurance of 
our men, as a great deal of sail-drilling was necessary ; and 
before the end of it we realized that we had about as fine 
a crew as ever went to sea. Many of them were not only 
good seamen, but possessed qualities that promote the 
happiness of a ship's company. There were some jewels 
in the engine department, — men who worked well, and in 
the early watches of the night excelled in song and dance ; 
they could " spout " quotations from an " improved " Shake- 
speare or the dime " Ready Speaker," with a fervor and 
gesture that would cause an actor to blush. These inter- 
ested and amused the forecastle and the fire-room, and made 
Jack's time pass pleasantly during the loneliest hours of the 
nights, from tea-water to hammocks. We had men who 
were formerly elegant " barn-stormers," but had been finan- 
cially wrecked in their showy ventures; also an ex-negro 
minstrel from down the coast, and an athlete who had seen 



The Start 7 

Sullivan ; but the cream of the crew was the dude barber, 
whose carroty frizzes were always parted in the middle. 
He wore the finest embroidered trousers and shirts, and the 
ship's name, in solid silver, on his cap ribbon ; his clocked 
silk hose and elegant pumps were the envy of all the young- 
sters, from the forecastle to the maintop. He could trip the 
light fantastic toe, in hornpipe or jig, make good music 
from almost any instrument, " splice the main-brace," or 
jump aloft as nimbly as an\-. Of course, such a paragon 
soon became the favorite of the crew, and, to his credit, he 
held this good opinion throughout the cruise. As I have 
stated, we had artists and poets amongst the crew, and 
many of their stories of imagination, told to a gaping audi- 
tory in the dark midnight watches, might " cause each 
particular hair to stand on end," or provoke mirth that 
would disturb the slumbers of the watch below ; and we had 
some old fellows who were so salt that thev would secure 
all the sea water they could stow awav, to use for bathing 
purposes when the vessel was in fresh-water rivers. 

Early on the 24th, we sighted the Olympics and headed 
for Cape Flatterv, the most northerly point of land project- 
ing from the State of Washington, and just opposite V'^an- 
couver Island. We entered the Strait of Juan de P\ica, 
between the cape and the island, and headed tor Victoria, 
British Columbia. On one side of the strait, the great 
black mountains are covered with dense forests until the 
snow-line is reached ; beyond which the darkness is trans- 
formed into an eternal whiteness, rending the heavens and 
piercing the clouds, thousands of feet abo\'e us. Several 
Indian villages are scattered along the foot of the moun- 
tains. Braves, and squaws with their pappooses, stroll 
along the beach and admire the great white war-canoe that 
is forging its way through the waters. Others paddle their 
canoes upon the quiet waters, or haul seine or line in pur- 
suit of unwary members of the finny tribe. 



8 An American Cruiser in the East 

A cool breeze and calm sea bring our late, not sea-sick, 
but sick of the sea, messmates from their rooms, with 
appetites as big as the ship. Crackers, cheese, and beer 
are in demand ; and the stentorian voice of our most 
excellent caterer is heard in vain protests against this dan- 
gerous raid upon the sea stores. As the day passes into 
night, the Olympics, with a nearly full moon shining upon 
them, appear like masses of blackness capped with dancing 
gold ; and the old ship speeds on through placid waters, 
carrying a mass of silvery waves at her bow, which make 
faint dashes, and are lost upon the beach, where the tiny 
lights and fires of the Indians dance like " will-o'-the- 
wisps " amidst the blackness. About ten o'clock we 
anchored near the inner harbor of Victoria, and were soon 
surrounded by a little fleet of pleasure-boats, whose happy 
occupants gave us some fine music, instrumental as well 
as vocal ; and we found that these good people were as 
curious to see a Yankee man-of-war as the Indians of 
the strait had been. 

Victoria, British Columbia 

Victoria is situated on the southern end of Vancouver 
Island, in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and has grown from 
old Fort William, a trading post, which is nearly as old as 
the fur-trade on the North Pacific coast. It is still a 
seat of the Hudson Bay Companv, which has fine store- 
houses in the city, where almost anything can be purchased 
or traded. 

The fur-trader was close behind the hunter, and thev 
were soon followed by the prospector and the miner, as 
vast quantities of gold were supposed to be hidden in the 
hills. The finds were not equal to the expectations, 
and the rush soon cleared out what was there ; but the 
coal mines that were discovered have proven themselves 



The Start 9 

vastly more important to this pcntioii of the world than the 
precious metal could possibly have been. The mines at 
Nainaimo and vicinity supply the whole upper Pacific coast, 
including San f'rancisco as well as the railroads and ship- 
ping, and make lite, manufactures, and commerce possible. 
Timber is abundant, but the government cares for it, and 
its cutting, on a large scale, is discouraged. 

The business portion of the city is built around an inner 
harbor which is protected by a point of land that juts out 
into the strait. Many improvements are being made in 
this part of the city : roads and streets are being changed 
and graded ; hollows and low places are being filled in, and 
hills removed, giving the place a " fussy " appearance. 
There are many handsome buildings that would be orna- 
ments in any city. Through the streets several lines of 
cars are run, dri\ en by electric motors. They make good 
speed, are easily handled, and have many advantages over 
the cable cars run in San Francisco. The poor car-horse 
is on the eve of emancipation, and there seems to be no 
excuse for his further employment in that capacity. The 
streets — roads, they are called — are lighted with electric 
lights. 

The curious old custom is preserved in Victoria of firing 
a warning gun at nine in the evening; and at nine thirty 
a second gun is fired, when all the public lights are ex- 
tinguished and the streets and roads are in darkness. 

Everything mo\'es slowly here. Business is done in a 
very quiet way, and the shopkeeper's life seems an easy 
one. There is no push or drive, and no advertising, as we 
see it in our home cities. No attempt is made to push 
goods in the shops : they are shown, on inquiry the price 
is named, and you buy ov not, as you please ; and yet a vast 
business is done in this quiet, easy way, and handsome 
profits are realized. Business does not begin until after 
nine in the morning, and ends at four in the afternoon. 



I o An American Cruiser in the East 

The hotels are excellent, and are conducted on the Eng- 
lish plan. 

The residents' portion of the citv extends over hills and 
valleys, and far up the strait, where, surrounded by neat 
little gardens filled with beautiful flowers or carefully 
kept lawns, stand villas and cottages, — the homes of the 
people. The roads are hard, smooth, and admirably cared 
for. They are bordered with trim hedges, and brightly 
painted gates open from them into little gardens. In the 
quiet summer evenings, the air is laden with sweet per- 
fumes from these dainty gardens of roses. 

The houses are picturesque and varied, and of a com- 
posite order of architecture that is convenient and attrac- 
tive. Many of the houses are built of bricks with hand- 
some stone trimmings, while a larger number are of 
wood, painted in pleasing tints ; and all have an air of quiet 
refinement and elegance. The climate is invigorating and 
healthy. The summers are delightful, and the winters are 
comparatively mild, for the latitude. The city contains 
about twenty thousand inhabitants, its population haxing 
doubled in the last three years. 

We drove to " Beacon Hill " to see the magnificent sun- 
set, and sat through the long twilight, which lasts about 
two hours. The route led o\er a fine, hard road, sur- 
rounded by handsomely hedged gardens, whose delicious 
perfumes filled the air ; and the elegant houses lent their 
beauty to the e\'er-changing panorama, as we wended our 
way up among the hills. Beacon Hill is a bare knoll of 
greensward, with a flagstaff from which the British jack is 
thrown to the breezes. Prom this spot a most magnificent 
view is obtained. 

In the valley below us nestles a village with its cluster of 
gardens and bright little cottages. We see the coast-line, 
with its restless, ever-lashing sea ; and beyond, an arm of 
the sea studded with islands, while here and there little boats 



The Start 1 1 

and steamers are feelintj; their way through the wiiuiiii": 
channels. Yonder, the forest-covered Olvmpics, and in 
the tar-oft distance the snow-capped mountains of the 
Pacific hold up their heads in solemn grandeur. 

As the " da\-god " sank into the bosom of " Balboa's 
ocean," the tints changed from blue to silver, to gold, to 
fiery vermilion, the outlines of the mountains were tipped 
with old rose, and finally all melted into one streak of rosy 
red, when the heavens and the earth seemed to meet each 
other, and we realized that it was night, and the stars were 
on guard. 

The guns having been fired, the lights were extinguished, 
and our ride back to the hotel was dismal. The lonely 
watchman threw the ravs of his dark lantern upon us, 
peered at us through the darkness, and cried out : " Ten 
— o' — clock, — a — clear — bright — night ! " Then 
all was dark and still. , 

At Sea 

On the 30th, we said good-bye to our new-made friends 
and made another start for Behring Sea. When we had 
cleared the land, and the vessel's course was set, we found 
ourselves confronted by head winds and seas that caused 
the ship to pitch and roll to such a degree as to make life 
miserable. On the night of the 3d, the wind and sea 
died out, and the 4th opened with almost a calm, with a 
smooth sea and as bright a sun as ever shone. The boys 
had not sufficiently recovered from their second attack of 
sea-sickness to make any attempt at celebrating the day, 
and the " glorious Fourth " came and went with only the 
"storm flag" flying. 

During the night of the 4th, the fair weather left us, 
and by daylight we had strong head winds and seas, with 
cold, gloomy weather. The 6th brought us some remark- 
able weather, — a cold Scotch mist with drizzly rain. 



1 2 An American Cruiser in the East 

Through this the sun would shuie brightlv for about twenty 
minutes ; then the mist would shut the sun out for about 
the same length of time, — and so it went on, repeating the 
order for the whole day. The next day brought us a 
heavy sea with a dense fog. The ship, having been light- 
ened up considerably by the use of stores, rolled very deep, 
and the creaking bulkheads and blowing steam whistle were 
not soothing music for nerves already strained in endeavors 
to penetrate the fog and discover the rocky shore ahead. 

Owing to the flatness of the earth in these latitudes, 
there are chances for grave errors in estimating distances; 
and the fact that these waters have never been carefully 
surveyed and charted, makes navigation extremely hazardous. 
After leaving Victoria, our only visible neighbors were 
several schools of whales and numerous stray seals. 

Early on the morning of the 9th, the fog having cleared 
away, the peculiar haze, which the seaman knows to be 
land, was discovered ahead of us. Keeping on our course, 
we were soon between snowy mountains, whose chilly 
winds sent cold shivers through our frames. The grandeur 
of the scenery was fascinating, and held us almost spell- 
bound, in spite of the cold, as we felt our way through the 
Onalga pass, which leads into Behring Sea. On one side 
of us were rugged, snow-capped mountains, upon whose 
rocky sides not a vestige of verdure could be seen, with 
here and there mad torrents of melted snow plunging 
into the sea almost at our feet ; or mountain sides of 
emerald and black, up to the snow-line, from whence began 
their covering of white. On the port hand was Mount 
" Makooshin," 5,500 feet above the sea, sending forth 
ashes and smoke ; on the starboard, mighty cone-shaped 
'' Shisaldin," towering 8,500 feet towards the heavens, with 
its everlasting mantle of snow, the mad waters of ocean and 
sea dashing themselves against its rocky base. All about 
us were islands and great snow-capped peaks, which we 



1 ne ocarr i ^ 

passed and left in the distance. " Priest Rock " stood out 
of the sea, tall and slender, in cowl and gown, and " Egg 
Island " and " Old Man " were passed as we felt our way 
into Behring Sea. An interesting native village about six 
miles away, and Beaver Bay, where Captain Cook refitted 
his little fleet in 1 778, were visible ; and by five in the 
afternoon we moored the ship in the outer harbor of Iliuliuk, 
Unalaska. 



CHAPTER II 

UNALASKA, ALEUTIAN ISLANDS 

Ice-built, ice-bound, and ice-bounded. 

Such cold seas of silence ! such room ! 
Such snow-light! such sea-light confounded 
With thunders that smite like a doom! 
Such grandeur! such glory, such gloom! 
Hear that boom ! hear that deep, distant boom 
Of an avalanche hurled 
Down this unfinished world! 

Ice seas and ice summits! ice spaces, 

In splendor oi white, as God's throne! 
Ice worlds to the pole! and ice places, 
Untracked and unnamed and unknown ! 
Hear that boom ! Hear the grinding, the groan 
Of the ice gods In pain! Hear the moan 
Of yon ice mountain hurled 
Down this unfinished world ! 

JoAouiN Miller. 

ILIULIUK is a beautiful harbor, surrounded by snow- 
capped mountains and green valleys. Unalaska, the 
settlement, has been built upon a natural crescent of low 
hills and plains on the southern side of the harbor, and con- 
sists of a Russian church, six large residences, sixty one-story 
wooden shanties, a few sod-houses, two storehouses, and a 
lot of sheds. These are the property of the Alaska Com- 
mercial Company, whose agent, called " Prince Paul " by 
the natives, manages the place, under the observation of 
some of our own officials. 



Unalaska, Aleutian Islands 15 

An inner harbor is formed by a point of land jutting out 
from the shore, opposite the middle of the settlement. 
Near by is a third harbor, opening into the main one, known 
as Dutchman's Bay, around whose shores a rival company 
is erecting storehouses and shanties for use of its people 
in future operations. At the foot of the mountains, be- 
hind the settlement, there is a large fresh-water lake, which 
is formed by the melted snow from the mountain's side. 

" Prince Paul " came on board to pay his respects, and 
to invite us to a ball which was to be gi\'en in the palace 
that evening in honor of our arrival. But as the notice was 
short, and as we had not been sufficiently long beyond the 
pale of civilization to indulge, we were compelled to decline 
the honor. We lunched the " Prince ; " and when he had 
said good-bye, he insisted upon returning to the shore in 
his own barge, which, bv the way, was managed by only 
one man. Soon after he left the vessel, a local breeze and 
heavy rain came howling through the little valley ahead of 
us. The whitecaps soon sprang up from the smooth sur- 
face of the bay, and the " Prince's " man Friday could not 
pull against the wind and sea. Their barge was blown 
upon the beach on the opposite side of the bay, where, in a 
drenched condition, they were compelled to abandon the 
boat and wade through swamp and mud to the head of the 
spit : here thev secured another boat and were landed near 
the palace. 

The principal part of the settlement of Unalaska faces a 
roadway, which extends along the beach for about two miles 
from the inner harbor to the little cemetery on the hillock 
towards the sea. In this little cemetery there are twoscore 
or more quaint graves marked with the double cross, and 
heavily fenced in to protect the inmates from the raids of 
hungry wild beasts. 

The islands are of volcanic origin. Immense rocks have 
been thrown up from the bottom of the sea in some past 



1 6 An American Cruiser in the East 

age, and a thin layer of soil has been deposited upon them. 
The tops of the hills and mountains are covered with snow, 
and there is nearly alwavs an icy breeze blowing from the 
mountains, a drizzly rain, or a fog. Efforts have been 
made to cultivate the soil. In well-sheltered places the 
experiments have been partially successful, but not very 
encouraging. There is not a tree or a bush in the neigh- 
borhood. A tall, rank grass grows in sheltered places, 
where a few cattle are pastured until killing time. 

A great variety of small wild flowers, including violets 
and heliotrope, grow about the sheltered valleys. I found 
more than one hundred specimens, which I pressed and 
sent to the President of the Woman's College of Baltimore. 
A line scarlet berry, which the natives call the "salmon 
berry," as large as a cultivated blackberry, and of delicious 
flavor, grows abundantly in sunshiny places, where it has 
protection from the cold winds. 

Unalaska is the huntsman's paradise, whether with rod or 
gun. There is no end to the sport. It is just bevond 
civilization, or rather just on its border. There are no 
hotels and no boarding-places, and one must rough it all 
the time. The " globe-trotter " and the tourist have not 
penetrated its boundaries, climbed its hills, nor drank its 
sparkling waters ; neither has the hotel clerk's headlight 
flashed along its beach. There are many fine sites for 
hotels, huts, or tents, and the hills are filled with brown and 
green stones, that are almost prepared for buildings. 

It is delightful to live the summer through in such free- 
dom. So close to nature ! All is so peacefully quiet, and 
the musical, silvery chimes from the old church belfry are 
only disturbed by the dashing of the surf upon the rocks, or 
the howling winds that come tearing like mad from the 
mountain-tops. 

Wolves, deer, and foxes abound on the islands. Ptarmi- 
gan are plenty, and ducks and geese frequent the waters 



Unalaska, Aleutian Islands 17 

from September to May. The waters fairly teem with 
whales, sea-lions, seals, cod, salmon, halibut, flounders, and 
herring. Gamy trout give sport in the streams, while fine 
oysters and clams are abundant. 

The principal occupation of the inhabitants is hunting 
and fishing. They build small canoes (" kialcs ") of the raw 
hide of sea animals, which they sew over a light framework 
of wood. These they deck over, leaving an opening large 
enough to get their legs through. Their hunting and fish- 
ing garments are made of the entrails of sea-lions or other 
large animals ; consequently, they are waterproof. These 
garments are called " kamlika." After taking his seat in 
the " kiak," the native securely fastens the skirt of his 
"kamlika" to the rim of the deck opening, or hatch- 
combing, and with the hood of the " kamlika " secured 
about his head, he is prepared to encounter any sea, as, 
with the exception of face and hands, he never becomes 
wet. The paddles used in these " kiaks " are double- 
ended, with broad blades, and are made of such wood as 
can be procured from whaling vessels of the Trading 
Company. 

The melted snow from the mountains behind the settle- 
ment is collected in a little reservoir, which has been ter- 
raced into the mountain, from whence it trickles down the 
hillside into a fresh-water basin. 

Down upon the beach, among the rocks, pebbles, and 
shells, a noisy family party, assisted by neighbors, were 
preparing hundreds of fine salmon for the winter's food 
supply. A right merry crowd of merry-makers they were, 
and the occasion might be called an Aleute harvest. The 
older members of the party cut the great fish down the 
back, removed the entrails, and passed them on to the 
youngsters, — little " tackers," whose ages, perhaps, ranged 
from four to ten years. They chopped off the heads and car- 
ried the bodies of the fish to the rear of the " home," where 



1 8 An American Cruiser in the East 

they were thrown upon the ground in a heap until some 
old women strung them over great ridgepoles to dry. The 
fish were placed high enough to be out of reach of any 
wild animals that might be forced into the settlement in 
search of food. They were neither washed, salted, nor 
covered. There was no other preparation than I have 
noted. Many of these fine salmon would weigh twenty or 
thirty pounds apiece, and the cod, in these waters, are just 
as heavy. 

During the long winter season, the men devote their 
time to repairing boats and seines, making lines and spears, 
and lounging. Many of them, when they can obtain 
molasses or sugar, distil it into " hoocheno," a fiery rum, 
which they frequently use to excess. To prevent this, the 
agents are particular to sell these articles in very limited 
quantities; but it is surprising to see the devices of the 
natives to obtain the fiery beverage. 

Their women devote the long hours of winter to making 
baskets, mats, and many other curious ornaments from 
finely split grasses, with which they weave gay-colored 
wools and silks. They also make odd trinkets from dried 
skins, and ornament them with fancy colors. The sum- 
mer nights are nearly as light as the day, I could read a 
newspaper on deck until eleven at night, afterwards a 
deeper twilight lasted until about two in the morning, when 
again the paper could be read without the assistance of 
artificial light. 

The Aleutian Islands number about one hundred and 
fifty, and belong to the United States, being a part of 
Alaska. They form a chain which extends from the west 
coast of America to a point within eight hundred miles of 
Asia. They lie in about 55 degrees of north latitude, and 
separate Behring Sea from the Pacific Ocean. They are 
naturally divided into five groups, are of volcanic forma- 
tion, and show evidences of earthquakes on every hand. 



Unalaska, Aleutian Islands 19 

The smoke of several volcanoes can be seen at great 
distances on clear days. 

The whole number of inhabitants on all the islands is 
about fifteen hundred, who, from their circumstances and 
surroundings, are compelled to live in a shiftless condition, 
and lead miserable lives. They are poor stunted Indians, 
who gather salmon and cod in the summer for the winter's 
supply of food. They live in caves and holes in the 
ground, or in huts made by piling rows of sods upon each 
other, over which they thatch a roof, and fasten the skin of 
some animal to a lintel to serve as a door, unless they are 
so fortunate as to obtain some old boards for the purpose. 
They dress in skins of animals, or in " store-clothes," which 
thev receive in trade for the skins they have captured. 
They live on in this way until they are put into another 
hole in the ground, where they will remain until the last 
trumpet shall sound. 

In the settlements, the Aleute has undergone a great 
change since he made his first bow to the Russian in the 
seventeenth century. His condition is not much improved, 
although he has changed his language, religion, and dress. 
His main reliance is still upon his fish, which he captures at 
the old place, and in the same old way. He has learned 
the use of civilized goods, and rather enjoys them. Canned 
goods and rum are two of his chief delights. He still lives 
in his cave, or hut, which he would gladly exchange for a 
comfortable Japanese cottage, with its charcoal fire and 
kerosene light, and he would have no prejudice against 
changing his garb for " store-clothes." He is the true son 
of his ancestors, and inherits many of their qualities. He 
is a member of the Russian Church, and can read and write 
the Russian language, which he has been taught by the 
priests. He is dependent upon the Trading Company for 
his living, being paid for the skins he captures, and for the 
work he does about the warehouses. 



20 An American Cruiser in the East 

It was curious to see a coal vessel unloaded by women 
and girls, who carried great baskets filled with coal from 
the vessel to the coal sheds. 

In the centre of the settlement there is a neat little 
Russian church, which is noted for its beautiful silvery 
chimes, and its fine pictures. Several of these are truly 
works of art, and it is surprising that they are in this out-of- 
the-way place. A painting of the " Last Supper," which 
hangs behind the altar, is particularly fine, both in its group- 
ing and colors. A picture of the " Madonna and Infant,'* 
on the left of the altar, is also fine, and there are several in 
miniature that are excellent. The solid silver altar service 
is artistic and massive. 

On the right of the entrance to the church there is a 
solitary grave marked " Nestor, a Bishop of these Islands." 
The monument states that at one time " Nestor had been a 
Lieutenant in the Imperial Russian Navy, and in civil life 
a Baron ; " the monument fails to narrate the romance 
which caused the change in the man's career, and brought 
him from the gay scenes of St. Petersburg to these bleak 
rocks beyond Siberia ; but here he sleeps under the shadow 
of his little church, where the silence is only broken by the 
chimes of the silvery bells. 

A stroll along the beach from the boat-landing to the 
cemetery, about four in the afternoon, is very interesting. 
The fashionables of Unalaska are out for an airing ; to see 
and to be seen. The ladies of the station are dressed in 
fur or velvet cloaks, gay-colored skirts, and headgear that 
rivals the rainbow's colors ; together with their escorts, in 
neatest outfits of the San Francisco tailor. The reverend 
priest, in black gown, with bared head and stooping form, 
has a cheering smile and a kindly greeting for all. He 
strokes the heads of the little ones, and imprints a kiss of 
love and peace upon the rosy cheek of the babe. All 
reverence the good father, and bow low to him in passing. 



Unalaska, Aleutian Islands 2 1 

The ladies of the " Alcute Colony " are on the promenade 
in gowns of quiet colors, with wraps as bright as their own 
sunny smile, their hair parted in the middle and carcfulh- 
made into " Psyche " knots. 

The half-breeds, like the Creoles in southern climes, have 
forms and features of surpassing loveliness and great, flash- 
ing black eves. They dress in the blackest products of 
the loom, and have cloaks of the sea-otter for handy use in 
the chilly breezes. They daintily pick their way over the 
pebbly walk that ends in the little valley beyond the ceme- 
tery, where the beautiful wild flowers may be had for the 
gathering. The population of the settlement is about four 
hundred, of whom one hundred are whites, and three hun- 
dred are Aleutes and half-breeds. 

Every day, after our arrival, we enjoyed fine cod and 
salmon, some weighing as much as twenty-five pounds. 
The trout, ptarmigan, oysters, and clams were very fine 
and of delicious flavor. Cod or salmon, boiled and sea- 
soned with drawn butter, a dash of salt, pepper and Wor- 
cestershire, with a steamed potato, as entree^ and a half-pint 
of Sauterne, is very appetizing after a climb over the hills 
or a stroll along the beach. 

Prospectors are continually rapping, sounding, and " divin- 
ing " about these islands and hills on the mainland. We 
could not go anywhere without meeting their eager, anxious, 
speculative faces. Why not leave these islands as spots in 
which to hunt and angle, haul the seine, or tong the oyster 
and clam that wait to be lifted out of the water ? 

Every two or three days, and sometimes every afternoon, 
a gale is loosened in the icy mountain-tops among the snow, 
and sweeps down upon us in all its fury. The cables be- 
come taut, an ugly chopped sea is raised, and cold chills 
are sent through our frames, the only relief being found 
within our little rooms near the heaters. Sometimes the 
days are beautiful, when the sun shines brightly and there 



2 2 An American Cruiser in the East 

is just a " baby-breeze," when greatcoats and storm-caps 
are comfortable. 

Such we have found the Aleutian Islands, their people 
and climate, after- spending many " summer days " in the 
full enjoyment of the good things nature has so bountifully 
supplied. But it must be remembered that the Aleutian 
Islands are only a small portion of our territory in this great 
northwest. Alaska, of which they are a portion, is an 
immense territory, about one fourth the size of the entire 
United States. From it twenty States, each as large as any 
of the older States of our Union, could be formed. The 
distance from Eastport, Maine, to Attau, the most western 
island of the Aleutian group, spans about one third around 
the globe. Alaska is very rich in minerals and coal, and 
its fishing interests are immense. Its grass lands could 
supply cattle for the world, and it is believed that the 
hardier cereals, fruits, and vegetables would flourish, if 
cultivated in its sheltered places. 

On the afternoon of the 30th of July one of our quar- 
termasters — Thompson — was killed in going from the 
coal bark to the shore. He had been visiting a party of 
friends on the vessel, which, nearly emptied of its coal, was 
high out of water, and the gang-plank was very steep. 
When Thompson reached the rail, he missed his footing 
and fell, striking his head against a large beam of wood 
placed in the water to keep the vessel from the wharf. 
When the man was picked up by the horror-stricken 
people about the wharf, life was extinct. The body was 
taken on board our ship and prepared for burial. All night 
long his messmates guarded the remains, and on the after- 
noon of the next day a funeral party from our vessel and 
other ships in port went on shore to bury the dead. 

The music, his messmates, and then the body, in a neat 
box covered by the " Union Jack," were followed by the 
Marine Guard and Blue Jackets, men from our other vessels 



Unalaska, Aleutian Islands 23 

and many from the British war-vessels which were there to 
assist us in patrolling the sea. The " Third Watch " acted 
as chaplain as well as commander of the funeral party. 
After these came the British and our own officers, in 
reverse order of their rank. Slowly the cortege moved 
along the beach to the tump, tump, tump, of the muffled 
drums, or the mournful strains of the funeral march. 
Nearly all the inhabitants of the settlement stood un- 
covered in the drizzling rain as the procession moved by, 
and then accompanied it to the cemetery. Having arrived 
at the grave, all uncovered, and the " Third Watch " read 
the solemn service for the dead, when all that was mortal 
of our late shipmate was tenderly lowered into his last rest- 
ing-place, that had been prepared by his messmates on the 
edge of the little cemetery. 

As Thompson had not been a Catholic, the priest could 
not officiate, neither could his remains be buried in conse- 
crated ground ; but who can say that no drop of water or ray 
of sunshine from the heavens has consecrated the ground 

" Where, wrapped in his tarpaulin jacket, 
A poor sailor lies low " ? 

Thompson had served long and faithfully. He was a good 
man and an excellent sailor. 



CHAPTER III 

CRUISING IN BEHRING SEA 

WE cruised about Behring Sea for thirty days, guard- 
ing the passes, hunting for illegal sealers, and 
going into port only to replenish our coal. We found the 
work very disagreeable, both on account of the reduced 
temperature and the weather. Fogs, with Scotch mists or 
drizzly rains, were not conducive to happiness ; and if we 
were so fortunate as to have an exceptionally sunshiny day, 
the fog had a disagreeable way of working in between us 
and "Old Sol," making it very annoying for those who were 
responsible for the navigation of the vessel. The steam- 
whistle could not be used, as it would betray our position, 
so we kept the lead going to ascertain the depth of water, 
and kept sharp lookout about us, slowing the engines. 

On the 15th, we overhauled a schooner which proved 
to be all right. On the i6th, the weather being thick, we 
sighted a schooner which "took to her heels." Her people 
crowded on all sail in the effort to get away from us. 
Every few minutes the weather cleared a little, then the fog 
settled down thick, so that we were unable to see as far as 
the length of our own vessel. We were gaining on the 
schooner, but slowly, and the chase was becoming exciting. 
In one of the thick spells, the schooner's course was 
altered, in the hope that we would keep on our course and 
run by her, while she would be making " to the good " on 
the new course, and thus elude us. Our " Skipper" antici- 
pated the move or " chanced it," and the schooner's people 



Cruising in Behring Sea 25 

were very much astonished, when the fog lifted again, to Hnd 
us almost running over her. She proved to be engaged in 
the contraband work, and her master was warned to take 
her out of the sea. 



Our vessels cruise at a great disad\'antage in these waters. 
The sealers and whalers are accustomed to keep a sharp 
lookout, day and night, at their vessels' mastheads for 
seals, whales, and other game ; and as their profits mainly 
depend upon it, thev become very expert at the work. 
While they are watching for game they also keep a look- 
out for the tall masts, smoke-pipes, and the long line of 
black smoke which betrays our position. At the same time, 
their shorter masts and smaller hulls are a protection to 
them ; so it is only by chance that we are able to see 
them through the fog and mist. 

Later we anchored for about an hour, and gave all hands 
an opportunity to catch some fish. Some magnificent cod 
were hauled in, about a yard long, and weighing from thirty 
to thirty-five pounds apiece, while scores were taken that 
averaged more than twentv-five pounds. Some lines had two 
and three of these struggling beauties when they neared the 
surface, and assistance was necessary to land them safely. 

On the 1 6th, we sighted the island of St. George, on its 
eastern side, and ran close in to see if any unauthorized 
vessels were loitering in the neighborhood. This side 
presents to the sea a bold, rocky bluff, about three hundred 
feet high, and almost perpendicular. Millions of birds were 
flying from its top towards the mainland, and the sickly 
sunshine was darkened to twilight by their passing between 
sky and sea. Hundreds of "killer" whales were sporting 
in the sea, rolling and blowing ; but they are not attractive 
to the hunter, and seem to have been created for the sole 
purpose of thinning out the smaller fish which abound in 
these waters. We headed about and stood to the north- 



26 An American Cruiser in the East 

ward, going at a very slow rate of speed, but with every- 
thing in readiness to " crowd on " in case of necessity. 

After a week's cruising in dense fog, chasing schooners, 
with scarcely a ray of sunshine to gladden our hearts, or to 
assist us in determining our position, we felt our way in 
under the lee of St. Paul Island, and anchored on the night 
of July 21. The stillness was broken bv the rolling and 
dashino; of the surf and the almost human cries of the seals. 
All night long these nervous, restless creatures kept up a 
chatter and din that made the night hideous. The next 
morning, Sunday, we steamed around to the village, where 
we found the " iMohican " and the " Thetis," the " Bear " 
and the " Corwin," H. B. M. S. " Nymphe " and 
" Pheasant," and the mail steamer " Farallon." 

After devoting the remaining portion of the forenoon to 
official calls and the functions incident to the day, and hav- 
ing partaken of a " sea luncheon," a party of us started in 
the gig for the shore to see the island, particularly the seal 
rookeries, and the hauling and killing grounds. As we 
approached the shore, we found many hidden dangers from 
rocks close under the surface of the sea, over which our 
boat bumped and grated, much to the discomfort of all hands ; 
but by poling here, pushing there, and an occasional pull on 
the oars, we succeeded in getting the boat safely through the 
surf, and landed on the rocks at the foot of the village road. 
After "pulling ourselves together" and making a hasty sur- 
vey of the surrounding countrv, we dismissed our boat to 
the ship, and started for the north beach, or rookeries, from 
which the sounds that we had enjoved (?) the night before 
had proceeded. Leaving the village for future inspection, 
we started over the hills, which are covered with soft, 
fibrous turf, from which a rank grass has grown, amid which 
there is neither path nor road. In a rain that had lasted 
perhaps since the last winter, we trudged along over the un- 
certain, slippery ground. So uncertain was the footing that 



Cruising in Behring Sea 27 

at almost every step great exertion was required to hold the 
position we had gained, or to make any progress toward our 
destination ; but this, like all other things, must have an 
end, and after a couple of miles of such travel, with much 
puffing and blowing, and some very poor attempts at pleas- 
antry, we finally reached the rookeries, and beheld the 
celebrated amphibious animal in all its glorv. 

The beach, or rookery, which we visited extends for 
about a mile and a half along the seashore, and gradually 
slopes up from the sea for about sixtv feet to a point where 
the rocks are covered with soil, whither the seals never go. 
The beach is formed of hard rock, worn smooth by the rise 
and fall of the sea, and bv the friction of the seals moving 
about upon it. Rising from this smooth surface, at inter- 
vals more or less great, are shelving rocks, or seal's pillows, 
— natural formations, which vary in size and shape, some 
of them being only a few inches in height and area, while 
others are several feet high. 

The male seal measures about six feet in length, and 
weighs about five hundred pounds. Its head is very small 
in comparison with the size of its body, and its eyes are 
bluish, changing to hazel. It has a long yellowish-gray 
mustache, and sits verv nearly erect. The female seal is 
about four feet in length, much more shapely than the male, 
and has a handsome head, eve, and body, and an expression 
of much intelligence. The young seals, or " pups," are 
awkward, ungainly little animals, of a black color, with large 
heads and small eyes, and of not much intelligence. They 
huddle together in groups, and spend the first weeks of life 
apparently in wondering why they were born, and if life is 
worth living. 

The hunting season is in the months of June and July. 
There is nothing novel or exciting about it, it being rather 
a piece of cold-blooded butchery. The seals are singled 
out and driven like domestic animals. 



28 An American Cruiser in the East 

The Pribyloff Islands (St, Paul and St. George) and the 
Commander Islands (Behring and Copper), having clean, 
shelving, rocky beaches, free from mud and sand, are pecu- 
liarly adapted to the habits ani comfort of the seals during 
the breeding season. Here they live from May to October 
in perfect peace and security. 

The business of hunting the seals, curing the skins, and 
trading with the islands has, for the past twenty-five years, 
been a monopoly of the Alaska Commercial Company of 
San Francisco, which has made a point of protecting the 
seals required for breeding purposes, but has not enjoyed 
its franchises undisputed. Many vessels have been fitted 
out each year, both in our own country and in Canada, to 
prey upon the seals when they leave the rookeries. It is 
claimed that these poachers have wantonly frightened and 
destroyed the seals in great numbers by the use of fire-arms ; 
and it is also said that the crews of such vessels have raided 
the rookeries, and have even gone so far as to raid the salt- 
houses and carry off the skins, under cover of darkness and 
fog. 

After gathering some specimens of beautiful wild flowers 
and coarse grasses, we retraced our steps to the village 
landing, where we found a motley crowd of young natives 
who were curious to see the strangers. We were soon in 
our boat again, and after having experiences similar to 
those on our way to the shore, we reached the vessel, thor- 
oughly tired out and wet, but well repaid, we thought, for 
the trouble it had cost us to see the seals and rookeries. 

The next morning we sailed from St. Paul, heading to- 
wards St. George and Unalaska, going very slowly and 
keeping a bright lookout for our friends, the poachers. 
We arrived at St. George Island on the morning of July 
23, and were soon headed for the rookeries to see our other 
dear friends, the seals. St. George lies to the southward of 
St. Paul, and has less than half its area. The approaches 



Cruising in Behring Sea 29 

and the landing are in better condition than those at St. 
Paul. The extent of the rookeries is about one sixth as 
great as those at the main island. There are about one 
hundred inhabitants on the island, — Americans, Russians, 
Aleutes, and half-breeds, — whose occupations are all con- 
nected with the seals or the government of the islands. 

We were greatly interested in the efforts that a gentle- 
man was making here to instruct some of the native boys 
in the art of working the bones and teeth of the seal into 
ornaments and other articles of commercial value. Both 
this island and St. Paul are strewn with bones and teeth of 
whales and seals, and they appear to be useless. Thev are, 
however, susceptible of manipulation, and mav be given 
a fine polish. I have seen beautiful articles manufactured 
from them, such as buttons, card-cases, paper-cutters, etc. 
Such training and employment will be of great benefit to 
the natives, as it will broaden their contracted range of 
winter employments. 

At the landing we saw about twenty voung Aleutes and 
half-breeds lounging about to see the arrivals. They ranged 
from twelve to twenty years of age, and were resplendent in 
store-clothes, most of which were too large for the wearers, 
and were " baggv " upon them. Each one of the natives 
had a heavy watch-chain across the front of his waistcoat, 
loud neckgear, pins, and finger-rings, which they took a great 
deal of trouble to displav. They were veritable know- 
nothings, for we could not get an intelligent answer to any 
of our questions, though we afterwards learned that the 
under-employes of the Company are not permitted to an- 
swer the questions of strangers. 

The seals were chattering to themselves, and the little 
settlement was before us ; so we concluded to do our own 
piloting, and struck out on our own account. The forma- 
tion and soil of this island is about the same as at St. Paul, 
except on the eastern side, where a great elevated plateau. 



30 An American Cruiser in the East 

about three hundred feet high and almost perpendicular on 
the eastern sea-front, gradually slopes inland, and is lost in 
what may be called the general level of the island on all 
other sides. The settlement contains a little Russian 
church, with musical chimes and a beautiful white Virgin 
and Infant, and a schoolhouse, where the children are taught 
the catechism, the creed, and the elements of a secular 
education. Its fifty houses are built of wood, with no 
attempt at ornamentation, but all had an air of comfort, 
and some were elegant in their furnishings. 

Leaving the village behind us, we started off for the 
beach and rookeries, guided by the well-known chatter of 
the seals. After a hard tramp we approached the rook- 
eries, where all before us, as far as the eve could reach, 
spread a dark-coated, restless, chattering mass, — like a 
crouching army, ready to dash upon an enemy's lines. 
The beaches on all sides, except the east, are similar to 
those at St. Paul, and are well suited to the habits of the 
seals. 

Hundreds of little groups of these interesting creatures 
were huddled together. These were the " harems," or 
families, and near by the " pups " were cared for by the 
rough old males, or " bulls." Over yonder, thousands of 
unmated "bachelor" seals were assembled in large parties 
bemoaning their fate, while thousands more were disport- 
ing among the breakers in the surf. Amono- all these 
thousands of restless, nervous seals, the rights of each 
seemed to be respected. Occasionally, a dissatisfied female 
would start off" with the intention of deserting her lord, but 
a few roaring howls, and a savage bite on the neck, would 
cause her ladyship to return to her allegiance in short 
order. 

The "bachelors" spend their time in lamenting their 
fate, and they are the first victims of the conscientious 
hunter's blow and knife. The seals begin to leave the 



Cruising in Behring Sea 31 

rookeries about the middle of July, and these are ciitirelv 
deserted by the middle of September, when the young JKue 
learned to take care of themselves. 

The study of the movements and sports of these interest- 
ing creatures was both instructive and entertainin<r. From 
what we have seen, there can be little doubt that the man 
who originally reported a mermaid had seen a female seal 
sporting in the sea. Their heads and bodies are shapely 
(almost human in form), and their arms are handsome to 
the elbows, from whence the forearms become great black 
rubber-like flippers ; while from the hips down the body 
tapers into a double tail, instead of legs. 

As we took a farewell look at the rookeries, what a 
din and chatter there was ! There were old seals and 
young seals, males, females, and " pups," — sportive, 
meditative, and quarrelsome. The males were guarding 
their "harems" while the females were lying about in 
enjoyment of their leisure and ease. Seals are very shy, 
and all about us were evidently disturbed by our presence. 
Whenever any of us approached too near, within ten or 
twelve feet, the males assumed an angry, threatening atti- 
tude, and they expressed their anxiety with trembling form, 
shaking of heads, flashing eyes, gestures, and loud roars 
of voice. 

We saw the sun, a great ball of dull red, sink into the 
far-ofF west, and in the twilight we retraced our steps to 
the landing, and took places in our boat to return to the 
ship. 

After the poor forlorn bachelor has become a regular 
Jeremiah by spending the season in lamentations, he is dri\'en 
to the hauling grounds with his fellows, knocked in the 
head, stabbed to the heart, and skinned. The skin is salted, 
pickled, and cured, after which it is plucked and dyed. 
Every here and there over the seal's body a coarse white 
hair grows out from the fur, and these hairs must be 



32 An American Cruiser in the East 

plucked out so carefully that the fur is not injured, other- 
wise the skin will be depreciated in value. 

A little while ago a countryman of ours invented 
a machine i'or removing these hairs. An enthusiastic 
furrier witnessed some experiments with the machine, and 
was so well pleased with the rapidity of the work that he 
invested in hundreds of unplucked skins and set the in- 
ventor to work. When the work was rinished it was dis- 
covered that a small tuft of fur had been i)lucked out with 
each hair, and the skins had all been ruined. I'he pluck- 
ing is all done by hand now. After the plucking, the 
skins are dyed ; for it must be remembered that until the 
dver has satisfactorily performed his operations upon it, the 
seal's skin is of a dark silver-gray, or mouse-color, — not 
the beautiful brown with which we are familiar. 

After leaving St. George Island, we cruised about, inside 
of the Aleutian Islands, as far west as Pass No. 72. The 
scenery was beautiful beyond description. Nearly every 
high hill was covered with sncjw, and bel(jw the snow-line 
were great frowning rocks, palisades, and valleys, while 
here and there mad, tumbling, rushing torrents flowed from 
the gorged streams of melted snow. Yonder, a handsome 
greensward, a lawn of nature's own making, containing 
whole acres as smooth as our decks. A fine buck with 
ten-foot antlers was grazing near the beach, but was gone 
before a rifle could be reached. Just the faintest stain of 
smoke, within the beautiful blue vault (jf heaven, indicated 
a volcano, that some night may be in full eruption, and 
send forth Hre, ashes, and smoke in great volume, while 
changing the physical geography of the neighborhood. 

After heading to the northward for a day, we saw a sail 
and made chase. On overhauling " the find," it proved to 
be a whaler whose master told a gloomy story of losing 
a boat's crew of five men, while trying to secure a whale. 
1 he men had stuck their harpoons into the whale, which., 



Cruising in Behring Sea 33 

as usual, started off, pulling the boat with it. Suddenly 
diving, the whale dragged the boat, with all hands, under, 
the men being drowned and the boat lost. Besides this 
he had a small mutiny to subdue. Some of his men were 
sick, and the others thought the old vessel was too shoit- 
handed to continue on the hunt, so wished to go into 
port for additional help. They refused to work, but the 
old skipper meted out the punishments of low diet and 
double duty. This, together with the presence of several 
men-of-war in the sea, caused the men to change their 
minds and go to work. The burly old skipper hummed 
psalm-tunes as he stowed his papers away, and cast a long, 
threatening look towards his forecastle. Our surgeon 
went on board and did what was necessary for the comfort 
of the sick. 

Three days afterwards, while a fine breeze was blowintr, 
we sighted a sail and gave chase. After running nearly all 
day, and burning more coal than would supply several 
houses for a winter, we came up with the sail, which proved 
to be our old friend, the whaler. Well ! we were not giving 
anything away, so we spoke him, returned his "dip," 
and kept right on the course as though we were going 
somewhere in a hurry. We could not afford to let that 
crowd have the laugh on us. 

On the next day, we sighted a schooner, which kept just 
beyond our range while her people were "doing" all the 
seamanship they knew, evidently with the hope of getting 
away, whether as a joke or for more substantial reasons, 
we could only conjecture. It was one of those intermitting, 
sunshiny, and foggy days so common in those latitudes. 
After having been led in the chase until it began to look as 
if the schooner would escape us, a charge of powder and a 
shell were put into the sixty-pounder, and in a moment of 
sunshine it was "let eo." It was a fair line shot; and in 
less time than I can write it, our friend was almost drowned 

3 



34 An American Cruiser in the East 

in a shower of water. The rapidity with which he let all 
his "sails fly" was a sight that would have delighted a 
yachtsman. Our vessel was soon alongside of the schooner, 
— a poacher, of course, — whose master was ordered to take 
her out of the sea. 

After more of such cruising and the enjoyment of the 
fine scenery about the islands, we worked our way into the 
harbor of Iliuliuk, and made preparations for the trip to 
Japan, via Kamtchatka. 

Unalaska to Kamtchatka, Siberia 

Early on the morning of September lo, we said good- 
bye to Unalaska, and started for Petropaulski, Kamtchatka. 
We ran along in full sight of the Aleutian Islands, once 
more enjoying the grandeur and beauty of the magnificent 
scenery. Late in the afternoon, we reached the latest 
addition to United States soil, the changeable island of Boga- 
slov. Bogaslov is very much like a child's " Johnny-jump- 
up," only Bogaslov jumps up out of the sea and then sinks 
into it again, to rise again in a new place. Now we see it 
as a great volcano sending forth dense clouds of steam and 
vapor, not only from its crater, but from crater and fissures 
in its sides, giving it the appearance of a whole mountain on 
fire. This steam and vapor are formed by water of the sea 
running into the fissures of the island where it comes in 
contact with internal heat and is sent forth seething and 
boiling. 

The old volcano Bogaslov, known to the Russians for 
more than a hundred years, is near by. In 1882, it burst 
forth, after having remained quiet for more than half a cen- 
tury, and a new volcano was thrown up from the sea and 
added to our possessions. This great mass of matter 
issued from a submarine volcano. The particles, it is 
believed, worked up and around the outside of the crater 



Cruising in Behring Sea 35 

until they reached the sea-level, where they formed the 
foundation of our new Bogaslov. So far as known, no 
human being witnessed the birth of this island, for it was 
never reported. Ships sailed by the spot without observing 
it, and, later, ships sailed by, and it was there. It was first 
seen in 1883, being then in about the condition we saw it, with 
the addition of a strip of land and a series of immense rocks, 
known as " sail-rocks," — from their resemblance to a full- 
rigged ship, — which connected the old and the new Bo<j;a- 
slov. These connections have sunk into the sea, and \'cs- 
sels of large draught of water can sail over the place where 
they once were. Extremes meet in this Behring Sea ! 
The internal fires in both old and new Bogaslov never 
cease, and yonder are great mountains from whose peaks 
the snow never melts. 

Our path lay across the i8oth meridian, and crossing 
this meridian for the first time is an event in a Pacific 
cruise almost equal to crossing the equator. The green- 
horns are made to pay their footing and are warned to look 
out for the line ; to watch and see that the ship is not tripped 
up bv it, and there is alwavs a jolly time. This meridian 
marks the division of time between the eastern and western 
hemispheres, and is exactly opposite Greenwich. In going 
westward, when we cross the i8oth meridian, we drop a 
day from the calendar ; for instance, one retires on Friday 
night and awakens on Sunday morning. 

There is a tradition, in our service, of an old salt who 
would not drop the day, and when his vessel fell in with 
the fleet he was still running his own time. As the days 
rolled on, he held his Sunday service on Saturday, so when 
the fleet was having Sunday routine, our friend started ofl^ 
with "general quarters," and there was a great deal of 
noise and racket on board of his vessel. The senior 
ofiicer signalled him to change his time and go on with 
the Sunday routine ; so our friend dropped the day, and 



36 An American Cruiser in the East 

ever afterwards insisted that he had kept two consecutive 
Sundays. 

The weather continued fine until the morning of the 
1 2th, when our head wind and sea had increased to such 
strength that we could not steam against them. The ves- 
sel was " hove to " under steam and sail until the evening 
of the 14th, when the weather moderated, and we were 
enabled to increase our speed. 

The next day and night were beautiful, but it was so 
cold there was no pleasure in being on deck. On the night 
of the 17th, we picked up a gale that blew right in our 
teeth for two days and a half, and the ship was worked in 
under the lee of Behring and Copper islands, where we 
remained until the 20th. There we experienced some of 
the effects of the kurisowo, or Japanese warm current, 
which sweeps up the coast of Asia, and is divided somewhere 
to the southward of Attau. One portion flows up into 
Behring Sea; the other, being diverted by the Aleutian 
Islands, extends along the northern Pacific, moderates the 
temperature, and renders the islands habitable, but increases 
the dangers of navigation by the fogs and currents it 
produces. 

As the gale subsided, we worked the vessel closer in to 
Behring Island, and we saw the place where Behring's little 
vessel was wrecked, and further on the spot where he is 
buried. The memories that cling about this island are 
sad. Near this spot, shipwrecked and broken in health, the 
intrepid Behring was stricken with scurvy. In the hope 
of checking its ravages, he was buried in the sand, but in a 
few days he died of the disease. A cruel fate ! a horrible 
death ! 

After taking a look at Cooper Island, we headed for the 
entrance to Petropaulski, Kamtchatka. We sighted the 
coast at about two on the morning of the 22d and pushed 
on into the outer harbor of Petropaulski. As we ran down 



Cruising in Behring Sea 37 

the coast, the lightning flashed, the thunder roared, and it 
rained in torrents ; but as the land is bold and the coast well 
charted, we kept on our course and anchored in the bay. 

The bay of Avatcha measures about ten miles across in 
every direction, and is surrounded by mountains from seven 
to ten thousand feet high, whose sides are covered with 
dense forests of birch, which extend almost to their peaks ; 
while in the distant background are mountains holding 
their heads seventeen thousand feet high, and perpetually 
covered with snow. 

It had been snowing here for two weeks, and it was a 
glorious sight to see the sunshine. Along the outlines of 
some of the mountains, the sun's rays playing upon the 
snow-banks gave all the prismatic colors of the rainbow. 
At this season of the year, the weather changes very 
rapidly. One night the elements will be warring and the 
rain coming down as though the very flood-gates had burst, 
while the next night will be calm, bright, and beautiful, 
and all the world seemingly at peace, until we discover 
by the howling, the yells, and the barking that we are 
anchored near kennels of native dogs. These creatures 
make the most horrible noises that can be heard outside 
of Cairo in Egypt. The noises made by the seals at St. 
Paul Island were painful, because human-like, but they 
were music in comparison with these dogs. 



CHAPTER IV 

PETROPAULSKI, KAMTCHATKA. EASTERN SIBERIA 

THE Russian settlement of Petropaulski stands at the 
head of the harbor of Avatcha, Kamtchatka, in an 
amphitheatre, on the slope of two hills, which form a valley 
that is covered with reeds and grasses. The settlement is 
composed of about two hundred small log-houses, surrounded 
by handsome little courts and gardens, which are neatly 
fenced with palings and interwoven twigs. Peter the Great 
took a great interest in the place, and more than two hundred 
years ago it was a flourishing port, but now it contains less 
than one thousand inhabitants. Bchring was able to build 
his ships here, and from this place he started on the vovages 
of discoverv that immortalized his name and added so much 
territory to the Russian Empire. Petropaulski has long 
been abandoned by the Russians as a military station. 
It is an interesting, dilapidated old place, whose history 
has been honorable, and it is likely again to play an impor- 
tant part in the affairs of the world. 

At the lower part of the settlement, in the valley, stands 
the old church, remarkable for its fantastic architecture. 
It is fast falling into ruins, and is not now used. A high 
railing has been built around the grounds for protection, 
and the church is looked upon as an almost sacred thing, 
as it stands, a monument to the marriages, the baptisms, 
the funerals, and all the solemn and grand religious out- 
bursts of this hardv people. Before Behring and his fol- 
lowers were blessed there, bishops, priests and people had 
suno; masses and chanted the xVIiserere within its little white 



Eastern Siberia on 

walls. A new church has been erected on the hill, adjoin- 
ing the governor's palace. On one side of the church, a 
monument has been erected to Behring ; on the other side 
is a monument to Gierke, the successor of the famous 
Captain Cook. There is also a monument to the navigator 
La Perouse. 

On a point of land which separates the inner from the 
outer harbor, there is a handsome granite monument which 
commemorates the victory gained by the Russians over a 
combined British and French naval force in 1854. During 
the Crimean war, the British and French attacked the 
place in torce, having six vessels and three thousand men. 
The Russians had several land batteries, and a frigate in 
the harbor. After having been twice repulsed, the com- 
manders of the allied forces determined to make an assault. 
A large force of sailors and marines was landed, and an 
attempt was made to take the place in the rear. The 
Russian sharpshooters picked off the assailants with deadly 
aim. Later a rush was made by the Russians, and in the 
panic the enemy was driven over the steep, sloping cliff, 
two hundred feet high, into the plain below. It is said 
that more than two thousand of the enemy were slain, and 
five hundred Russians. The British admiral committed 
suicide early in the attack. In two immense trenches, side 
by side, sleep the Russians and the enemy who fell that 
dav, and a handsome chapel has been erected on the plain. 

The houses of Petropaulski are built of heavy logs, one 
piled upon the other, the ends being halved out to receive 
the ends of the cross logs. The joints are calked like the 
seams of a wooden ship, and the interiors are lined with 
boards and painted or covered with paper. No attempt is 
made to ornament the exteriors. A few of the houses are 
elegant, many are comfortable, but the great majority are 
in keeping with the people, who are miserably poor and 
shiftless. Religious pictures and engravings are seen upon 



40 An American Cruiser in the East 

the walls, and a shrine, containing a representation of the 
patron saint, is placed in the principal room of every house, 
and in the shops. When entering a shop it is customary 
to remove the hat in honor of the saint. 

The men of the lower class are great drunkards, their 
favorite beverage being " swadka," a raw brandy full of 
fire, which they do not hesitate to pour down their " copper- 
lined " throats by the tumblerful. The evenings, which 
usually close with a supper, are generally spent in card-play- 
ing, drinking, smoking, and tea-drinking. 

The tea used by these people is of a superior quality, 
and is made in a very careful way. The " samovar," or 
tea-urn, is seen in every Russian house, and is found from 
Behring Sea to the Baltic. It is a portable furnace, — a 
brass urn through which passes from bottom to top a 
cylinder, a couple of inches in diameter. The cylinder is 
filled with ignited charcoal, and the water is heated by it, 
remaining hot as long as the fire continues. A porcelain 
or earthenware tea-pot is warmed with hot water before 
the dry leaves are placed in it, then boiling water is poured 
upon the leaves, and when the pot is about full it is placed 
on top of the samovar. It is kept hot, but does not boil, 
and after several minutes the tea is ready. The Russians 
drink their tea from tumblers. It is sweetened with loaf 
sugar, and a thin slice of lemon floating upon its surface 
gives flavor to the delicious beverage. 

Just before dinner, a luncheon is served on a side table, 
in the dining-room, and consists of cordial, wines, bitters 
with herring, caviar, dried meats, and fish. The dinner 
follows in a few minutes, and is served in this order : fish, 
soup, roast beef and vegetables, chops and cake, cream and 
jellies, the whole interspersed with wines and spirits. The 
fish is always served before the soup. 

The houses are heated by large brick stoves, which are 
from four to six feet high, and so arranged as to extend 



Eastern Siberia 41 

into the corners of two or three rooms. The furnaces 
are remarkably small. 

The women have attractive features, but their dress is 
old-fashioned and plain. The children are a merry, noisy, 
bright-looking lot of youngsters, full of fun and frolic, 
except when the governor appears ; then the fun ceases, and 
they act as if a " boogy man " were about. They have 
schools, where they are instructed in the Russian language, 
writing, and arithmetic. They are not encouraged to learn 
enough to make them dissatisfied with their lot in life. 

There are several good shops where almost anything can 
be purchased, from sugar to a full dress-suit. The fashion 
of the latter may be a little ancient, but the goods will be 
all right. 

The governor of Kamtchatka is a colonel in the Rus- 
sian army, and he is assisted in the administration by a 
captain and fifty Cossacks. They wear a butternut-brown 
uniform, long gray overcoats, and flat-top brown caps, being 
armed with rifles of superior make. These troops are 
stationed about the settlement, and little wooden shanties 
protect them from the rain and snow. The people hold 
the governor in great awe. Wherever he goes, hats are 
removed and hands fall to the seams of the trousers, until 
his pleasure is known, or he leaves the place. 

Coal is brought from the Shaghalen Islands, and is 
expensive. There is plenty of wood, the hills being cov- 
ered with forests of young birch, which is used for all con- 
structions as well as, in part, for fuel. The forests are 
cared for by the government, and only such trees as it 
permits can be cut. Timber is cut by hand or imported 
from California, as there are no saw-mills in the country. 

The melted snow flows down the mountain's side, and 
is diverted into ditches which have been made on one side 
of every street. From these little artificial brooks the 
people get their supply of water for household purposes. 



42 An American Cruiser in the East 

Years ago the cultivation of wheat, rye, and barley was 
introduced with considerable success, but for some reason 
their culture has not been continued. The people depend 
upon the government supplies of rye-flour, which is brought 
here and sold at cost price. Potatoes, turnips, cabbages, 
and lettuce are grown in the little gardens, but neither the 
cabbages nor lettuce will head. The hills are covered with 
beautiful wild flowers and tall rank grass. Some few of 
the hardy flowers are raised indoors and under glass, but 
they do not succeed in the open air. A large supply of 
cattle is kept on hand, and the beeves are killed to order. 

There are some delightful walks and climbs about Petro- 
paulski. A little "clearing" on the point between the 
harbors is delightfully situated for magnificent views of 
the snow-clad mountains, the hills, the bays, and the plains 
beyond. In the autumn, the days and nights are fine, clear, 
cold, and bracing ; the leaves have taken on their yellows, 
browns, and reds, and are about to die. 

The weather is fine until the middle of October ; after 
that it is cold and wet, and the snow falls, which does not 
disappear until June. During the winter, violent storms 
occur, the cold is intense, snow falls in such quantities as 
to lie even with the house-tops, and the people cannot get 
about. In their imprisonment, with storehouses full, they 
sleep and idle the time away until the thaw. The road- 
stead outside is rarely frozen over. 

The summers are short and hot. Vegetation is of re- 
markably rapid growth ; as soon as the snow disappears, the 
trees send forth their buds and blossoms, and the hills and 
valleys take on their beautiful verdure. In the same week 
the snow and ice may melt, and the trees begin to bloom. 
The temperature ranges from sixty to seventy-five degrees,. 
Fah. 

Fish form the basis of the native's food, and the salmon 



Eastern Siberia 43 

is his choice. The fishing season lasts for nearly two 
months, when the salmon ascend the streams. They 
are taken in seines, and immense numbers are caught 
each year. Salmon intended for the winter's supply are 
split and dried in the sun. The odor from one of these 
drying establishments is abominable and sickening. The 
natives in the interior catch the salmon in nets and with 
spears, while the dogs, wolves, and bears catch them with 
their mouths. 

Kamtchatka dogs are famous, and those of Petropaulski 
are second to none for the noises they can make. There 
are about two thousand of them owned in the town. They 
can bark, but they seem to prefer to howl. They begin 
about sunset, and keep up the most dismal howling until 
morning, making sleep and rest almost impossible, and life 
miserable. 

Kamtchatka has no industrial interests except its trade 
in skins and furs, and that is verv limited. Trade is con- 
ducted on the barter plan, and the poor native finds his 
furs are cheap and the store goods are high priced. Sable 
is the principal fur trapped by the natives, and all their 
ingenuity is expended in its capture. 

The poll tax of the natives is paid in sable skins at the 
rate of one skin for every four persons, and the governor 
makes an annual visit to all the villages, to collect the tax. 
Foxes, sea-otter, silver foxes, and bears are also caught in 
small numbers, and traded to the merchants. Bears are 
plentiful, but their skins are not desired for export. Bear- 
hunting is one of the sports of the community. 

There are about one thousand inhabitants in the settle- 
ment, consisting of Russians, Cossacks, Kamtchadales, and 
half-breeds. The port is free, so far as import and export 
duties are concerned. The local government is supported 
by the fines and dues of various kinds. 

Exiles have not been sent to Kamtchatka since 1830. 



CHAPTER V 

KAMTCHATKA, EASTERN SIBERIA 

THE Russians say : " Even the distant shores of the 
cold and fog-covered Sea of Okhotsk are not, how- 
ever, quite the ultima Thule of that dreariest of regions, 
Siberia ; Kamtchatka lies beyond." 

The peninsula of Kamtchatka extends out from the 
northeastern extremity of Asia, and lies between the Sea of 
Okhotsk and the Pacific Ocean. It is about eight hundred 
miles long and two hundred and fifty miles at its broadest 
part. The entire peninsula is a vast range of volcanic 
mountains, many of which are in a state of activity, and 
earthquakes are of frequent occurrence. Two of these 
volcanoes have thrown ashes and stones for more than a 
hundred miles, and Avatcha, just behind Petropaulski, has 
sent out showers of stones and water. Kamtchatka is in- 
cluded in the province of Eastern Siberia, and Petropaulski 
is its capital. 

The Kamtchatka is the only navigable river, and empties 
into the ocean on the eastern side of the peninsula. There 
are many smaller streams, which contain great quantities of 
fish and water-fowl. Whales, walruses, seals, cod, and 
herring abound in the seas, and many salmon are found in 
the rivers. Game is plentiful near the coast, and on the 
streams ducks, teal, divers, quail, and woodcock are abun- 
dant ; while tracks of larger game are found all over the 
country, 

Avatcha Bay is a very extensive basin, nearly circular in 
shape, and is about ten miles across. It is formed at the 



Kamtchatka, Eastern Siberia 45 

foot of a larger outer bay of the same name, near the 
southeastern end of the peninsula, and would afFord secure 
shelter for all the fleets of the world. The harbor of 
Petropaulski, on the eastern side of Avatcha inner bay, is 
small, deep, and well sheltered, and is a very convenient 
place in which vessels may refit, although there is no 
dock. 

Three aboriginal tribes still inhabit the peninsula. The 
Kouricks and Ohlutors divide the north, while the Kamtcha- 
dales roam over the south. They are a dirty, repulsive set, 
of short stature and filthy habits, and they subsist by means 
of fishing and hunting. They have no settled home, but 
wander from place to place, leading their most precious 
treasure, the " mean yellow dogs." The whole population 
of Kamtchatka is less than five thousand. 

The dog is a native of the country, and is as uglv as his 
master. He has many of the instincts of the mastifi^ and 
the wolf, both of which he resembles, having the body of 
the former and the head of the latter. He is of a dirty 
yellow or silver color, his senses are keener in the night 
than in the daylight, and his bark and howl are peculiar. 
He is alert and nervous, but obedient under the lash. He 
has no feelings of attachment, and he should always be 
driven by the hand and the voice that have trained him. 
It is very necessary to keep him in good temper with his 
neighbors, and it is not safe to let him loose at any time. 
The half of a dried salmon is his day's ration when idle ; 
and this is materially reduced when he is at work, as it is 
believed that he will work better when on the verge of 
starvation. The young dogs are considered the most 
dangerous. 

Kamtchatka being situated between the ocean and the 
sea, and influenced by the Japanese warm current, it has a 
somewhat milder climate than is found in the same latitudes 
on the Asiatic continent, but it is a cheerless, dreary place. 



46 An American Cruiser in the East 



At Sea. — Ok Passage to Japan 

The midnight of the 25th ushered in a beautiful day, 
and in the early morning we left our anchorage and shaped 
our course for Japan. On the way through the waters of 
Avatcha we took a farewell look at the land. Just north 
of the settlement, Mount Korianski stands 1,100 feet high 
in its mantle of newly fallen, glistening snow, resplendent in 
the glorious sunshine, while all about it lesser mountains 
and hills crowd upon the vision ; and behind all, great 
black clouds work down from the northward. Further on 
down the bay, the whole coast is one mass of jagged moun- 
tains, hills, and deep ravines. Wiluckneski, 7,250 feet 
high, and Flat Mount, both snow-clad, sparkle like great 
masses of diamonds amid the torest of black hills. 

After leaving Avatcha Bav, we had our usual rain and 
mists, with head winds and seas. The winds and seas in- 
creased until Thursday morning, when we found ourselves 
in a lively gale. From about five o'clock we had a suc- 
cession of rain squalls, for two hours after which the old 
ship wallowed in a very heavy, confused sea with no wind. 
The stifling, oppressive influence that always accompanies 
the typhoon was present. The barometer registered about 
28, and the vessel rolled from side to side with a deep 
lurch that was slow of reco\'erv ; but in her own good 
time she changed the motion, came up, and started oft' on 
the other roll. The hatches were battened down, and spars 
and masts were sent from aloft and secured. At every dip, 
green seas rolled over the rail, and for a time it seemed as if 
the ship must swamp. The bulkheads set up a melancholy 
squeaking that added to the unpleasantness. To keep the 
vessel under control, the engines were turning ahead slowly, 
the men at the wheel met the seas and tried to hold her up 
to them. Thick oil was dripped from a canvas bag at hei 



Kamtchatka, Eastern Siberia 47 

bow, while the boihng seas chased each other over her 
sides from every direction. 

Later in the day, the seas took on more form, and as a 
great roller was approached, the engines were speeded to 
their utmost. The sea, like an angry child, was making 
havoc with our luggage below, article after article, singly, 
in pairs, and in crowds, being dashed from their places into 
the filthy water that was swashing over the floors of our 
rooms. Bibles were chased around by boots and shoes, 
nautical and musical instruments followed ; packs of cards, 
books, and articles of clothing were tossed about like wreck- 
age upon a beach when the tide is low. 

At sundown, a faint breeze was discovered, which in- 
creased during the night. As it freshened, sail was set, the 
vessel's speed was increased, and by daylight we had a fine 
breeze, and were bounding along, under steam and sail, 
with nothing to mar our happiness except the recollection 
of the wreckage in our little rooms. 

On the morning of the 4th, we sighted the Japanese 
coast, and ran along near the islands. In the afternoon, 
we passed close enough to see a large native city with its 
thousands of houses and huts, some of its temples, and 
much of its bustle and life, while off its harbor more 
than three hundred junks were riding at anchor or engaged 
in fishino;. 

As we worked to the southward, we picked up fair 
weather, and enjoyed smooth seas and pleasant skies. Old 
Neptune became so extremely polite and so careful of us 
that our late unpleasant shaking up was almost forgotten. 
The life lines and extra lashings were removed, exercises 
and drills were resumed, the lately sea-sick crawled out 
from their little rooms, and the vessel once more became 
tidy and trim. The great sodden cloud-shapes in the 
mysterious, ever-changing vault were replaced by glorious 
skies. Our sun sank behind that great purple-black streak, 



48 An American Cruiser in the East 

the Empire of Japan, and the fantastic shapes and colors 
presented to our view would make an artist famous if he 
could but reproduce their beautiful effects upon his canvas. 
Our half-ill servants were soon on deck, to take a look 
at the outlines of the countrv which was their home, and 
while thev did not indulge in the old songs of " Home, 
Sweet Home," or " Home Again," we could easily see 
that thev felt all the sentiments of those songs, and more. 
Their mobile, jaundice-like faces lighted up with almost 




xim 1 ■ l.^ 1 -1 X ..ii'KA, Japan. 

sickly smiles as they bowed low towards their country, 
and to each other, and congratulated themselves upon their 
good fortune, or joined in animated conversation about their 
past disappointments and their new-found hopes. 

We soon rounded Nasima light, on Cape King;, and 
stood up Yeddo Bay towards Yokohama. From the 
dreary waters of old ocean, with their gloomy background, 
to the westward, we now turned towards a beautiful pano- 
rama. Terraced hills, of beautiful green, crowned and 
combed with bamboo, lined the broad bay on each side. 



Kamtchatka, Ea>tern Siberia 



49 



Here and there were towns, villages, and hamlets of native 
houses, and huts surrounded bv neat little farms, gardens, 
or groves. Scarlet or unpainted wooden torii marked 
the temple path, which ends in a grove of tine old trees. 
The great towering chimnev ot modern bricks sent its 
curling black smoke like clouds over the little hamlet, 
while the hum of machines announced the fabrication of 
beautiful silks and satins. Great steamers ploughed through 
the waters, and little ones rushed up or down like mad, as 




A Japanese Torii and Lanterns. 

thev sent a deafening: whoop from their tinv steam-whistles. 
Cnpainted iunks, with bright-bronze fastenings, and square 
white sails streaked half-wav down with black, stood across 
the swift running waters; and all about little fishing-boats, 
with picturesque people managing sails or oars, caused us 
to slow, to port, to starboard our helm, or speed the ship 
to avoid collision. As we approached the city, the scene 
became still more animated. The houses were more pre- 
tentious and closer together. The hum and din of ma- 



^o An American Cruiser in the East 

chinery was heard, and the great red ribs of a leviathan 
steamer were seen upon the ways as we passed near the 
shipyards. The people in the little native boats were noisy 
and boisterous. Steamers were swinging at buoys, in the 
outer reach, while taking cargoes of coal, or silk, or tea 
from great lighters, and the breech-clothed coolies sang 
merrily as they passed up bags, or bales, or boxes. 
These coolies were stalwart, handsome fellows, with splen- 
did muscles standing out as they bent and pulled and 
lifted the heavy weights. Along the beach, crowds of 
men, women, and children were bathing in the surf, while 
some of the more venturesome were swimming in our 
wake, and others beyond it were heading for the opposite 
shore. 




Fujiyama. 



CHAPTER VI 



YOKOHAMA, JAPAN 



IN the afternoon we moored^ the vessel inside of the 
breakwater at Yokohama, and before the first anchor 
was on the bottom, we were besieged by a long line of 
" sampans," or native boats, made of pine boards, propelled 
by two long stern oars, worked by the little brown boatmen. 
These boats contained representatives of nearly all the 
business houses in the town, and their occupants ranged 
from washermen to the business managers of great com- 
mercial houses. Americans, Britons, Germans, Japanese, 
Parsees, Chinese, and natives of India and Africa helped to 
swell the cosmopolitan mob, for mob it was, until our 
master-at-arms took charge of the ship's gangway, and 



52 An American Cruiser in the East 

arranged for the people to come on board in an orderly 
manner. Some of these people were old acquaintances. 
Many, soliciting trade, presented their cards and recom- 
mendations, whilst others brought samples and specimens 
of their wares. In most cases, the wares were beautiful, 
the offers tempting, and the merchants and their assistants 
courteous and graceful. 

Loath to leave this bazaar-like scene upon our decks, we 
turn from these interesting- merchants to look over and 




The 101 Steps at the Bluff, Yokohama, Japan, with the 
Celebrated Zenaba Tea-House on the Left. 

beyond the rail, to see the bay well filled with merchant 
steamers, sailing-vessels, native craft, our old " Monocacy," 
and several Japanese war-vessels, whose gay ensigns flutter 
in the breezes. 

On low, undulating grouhd, between two ranges of low 
hills, lies the town, studded with neat little Japanese houses 
and gay shops. The hills, called " the Bluffs," are about 
one hundred and fifty feet high, semi-circular in trend, 
and stretch inland for a mile or more. Far awav, and over 



Yokohama, Japan ^^ 

the town, snow-mantled Fujiyama looms up 15,000 feet 
towards the heavens, while a great white cloud cuts its 
beautiful cone between snow-line and base. Fujiyama, 
as Fujisan, has been almost deified. It is the object of 
many pilgrimages, and has always held the first place 
in the affections of the Japanese people. It is the first 
thing looked for and greeted in the morning; and when 
the gloaming is darkening into night, and Fujisan is 
disappearing from view, millions of people bid it good- 
night. 

The harbor is naturally exposed to strong winds and 
seas, and a semi-circular breakwater, twelve thousand feet 
long, is in process of construction for its protection. This 
breakwater extends from the entrance to the canal, under 
the bluffs, to the northern extremity of the settlement, and 
has an opening six hundred and fifty feet wide at its middle 
part, through which we entered the harbor. There are 
fixed red and green lights on the sides of the entrance, and 
buoys of corresponding colors are placed well inside and 
outside of the works as ranges for the navigator, and as 
marks of the channel. This breakwater is a great under- 
taking, and a magnificent piece of engineering. Its massive 
granite walls would reflect credit upon the working-men 
of any country. A great iron pier, two thousand feet 
long, at which vessels may discharge and take in cargo, 
is being built out into the bay, at the northern end of 
the town. 

Yokohama is situated on the western side of Yeddo Bay, 
and is about eighteen miles from the capital, with which it 
is connected by a fine double-track railway, or by water, for 
vessels of very light draught. The foreign residences are 
situated in handsome gardens on "the Bluffs," — a special 
concession made to foreigners when the present town of 
Yokohama was an insignificant fishing-village. " The 
Bluffs " are reached by a system of winding roads, or by 



56 An American Cruiser in the East 

one hundred and one granite steps. The views from the top 
of these hills are fine, and the location is the healthiest in 
this section of country. The tea-house at the top of the 
steps is one of the most celebrated in Japan. There is a 
fine Public Garden at "the Bluffs," and the race-course, 
which has a good track and is well enclosed, is situated 
about a mile beyond. The semi-annual meets are well 
patronized, and attract crowds of people from the open 
ports. Chinese and Japanese ponies are usually run, and 




'Jul (iuAxi) Hijtil. Yoij )1Iam.\, Jman. 

the sport is thoroughly enjoyed. A public hall, com- 
bining theatre and assembly-room, is also located on " the 
Bluffs." 

The Bund is a fine hard roadway, extending along the 
entire water-front of Yokohama, and upon this many of the 
principal houses and hotels front. There are churches, 
mission-houses, and schools of many Christian denomina- 
tions in the settlement, and near the centre is a very di 
lapidated recreation-ground. The public water-supply is 
excellent in quality and quantity. The hotels of Yoko-. 



Yokohama, Japan 



59 



hama afford excellent accommodations. The Grand Hotel, 
for example, situated at the southern end of the settlement, 
and facing Bund and bay, is one of the finest in the East. 
It has all the modern conveniences and appliances, and, 
under the management of" Fussy little Louis," who haunts 
the markets for delicacies, its menu is second to none in the 
world. 

Several daily and weekly newspapers, in the English 
language, are published here, and the latest news from all 
parts of the world is obtained. 




JiNRiKiSHA IN Japan. 

At Yokohama, the visitor from the United States has the 
first glimpse of beautiful Japan, and of its wonderful people. 
Whether you land at the canal or at the " Hataba," you are 
met by a crowd of jolly, laughing jinrikisha men, each 
offering his vehicle, and soliciting your patronage. If you 
except the customs officials, the jinrikisha men are about 
the first acquaintances one makes in Japan. Each of these 
worthies is clad in a close-fitting white-knit shirt, dark-blue. 



6o An American Cruiser in the East 

skin-tight pantaloons, or his bare, brown legs display the 
splendid muscles that rival those of an athlete. The sun's 
rays are warded off bv a large flat helmet, and he is shod 
with sandals of plaited straw. If he is at all " dudish," he 
wears a close-fitting, dark-blue coat, having scarlet edges 
and a great white monogram, or character, emblazoned 
upon the middle of the back. These poor fellows are in- 
telligent, faithful, and honest. As soon as you engage one 
you can trust him, and your property is perfectly safe in his 
care. The fare for these jinrikishas is ridiculously low, 
fifteen cents paying for an hour's ride, ten cents for any 
short distance, and seventy-five cents tor a whole day's 
service. 

Two men should always be employed with a jinrikisha, 
one to pull and one to push. The overheating and sudden 
cooling, incident to the work, is very injurious to health, 
and produces throat and lung troubles, which are frequently 
followed by consumption and death. An excellent author- 
ity places the duration of life of a "rickshaw" man at less 
than five years. After my attention had been called to these 
facts, I never permitted myself to be pulled about by one 
man. 

The government buildings in Yokohama, — built of stone 
in the foreign style of architecture, — and the Consulates, 
are grouped near the centre of the native settlement. The 
Consulates are surrounded by handsome, well-kept grounds, 
situated on wide streets. The town has grown ^ so rapidly 

^ Yokohama has grown rapidly since 1859, wlien it was thrown 
open to foreign trade. It is the port of entry for Tolcio, a consider- 
able coast, and the surrounding country. The population is about one 
hundred and fifty thousand. The number of foreign residents is about 
six thousand, of whom four thousand are Chinese. The imports con- 
sist chiefly of cotton and woollen goods. The value of the imports is 
$30,679,508. The total value of the exports is $50,450,489. Silk is 
the most valuable of the exports, being valued at $40,570,286. 



Yokohama, Japan 



63 



that the native houses, as a rule, are not equal to those in 
other towns. The roads are unmended, and in the rainy 
season almost impassable. 

On the Bund, one sees all sorts and conditions of natives. 
The man yonder, in the gray suit, like our letter-carriers, 
is in the Imperial Customs service ; the little fellow in 
blue-cloth sack suit, with the great goggles on his nose, and 
sword by his side, is a policeman, and the little box on the 
corner is the place in which he takes his rest and finds shel- 




A Japanese Sampan. 

ter from sun and rain. The man who is coming down the 
middle of the road, at a dog-trot, is a mail runner ; the tiny 
parcel, suspended from the bamboo rod over his shoulder, is 
the mail. These men, bv relays, go all over the Empire, 
conveying packages over mountains and through valle\s to 
the most remote places, and they are said to make remark- 
ably quick time. 

We meet representatives of every nationality in cosmo- 
politan Yokohama : the sight-seeing American, who landed 



64 An American Cruiser in the East 

from the last steamer from 'Frisco, or who is loitering to 
see more of the country ; the Englishman, who is making 
the "■ grand tour ; " the Frenchman, who is interested in 
beautiful curiosities ; the German, in quest of raw silk and 
mattings ; the Russian, whose interest centres in furs ; 
the Parsee, in search of desirable stocks ; the Aleute, 
stranded from a Japanese sealing-schooner ; the Indian, 
who mysteriouslv brings from the folds of his garments the 
most wonderful necklaces, brooches, rings, and unmounted 
stones of dazzling brilliancy, all sworn to be " first water " 
and " perfect," but at prices so astonishingly low as to excite 
suspicions of their genuineness ; the Chinaman, bent on 
legitimate trade, who keeps a furnishing or a grocery 
shop, and adds to his gains bv the sale of Manila lottery 
tickets ; and the native of South Africa, who offers a (ew 
Cape Colony "diamonds" of exceptional brilliancy, which 
he has " smuggled " into the country from Africa, or perhaps 
imported from Birmingham. 

We pass on, beyond the Go\ernment buildings and Con- 
sulates, make a couple of turns in the road, and enter the 
Benton Dori, a road which extends westward, and contains 
many native shops. It is a veritable "Japanese old curi- 
osity bazaar " on an extensive scale : old armor, swords, bows 
and arrows, pikes, spears, battle-axes, and all the war-gear 
for man and horse. Their fashion and workmanship are 
beautiful. Many of them are marked and inlaid with gold 
and silver, while many others are mounted with rich bronze, 
which was considered more precious than gold or silver. 
These arms, which cost hundreds, and in some cases thou- 
sands, of dollars to manufacture, can now be obtained for a 
few dollars apiece. They are graphic relics of Japan, her 
noble families, her arms, and her military glory, from the 
early ages of her history to the present time, and they 
should not be scattered all over the world, but should be 
gathered together and deposited in a great museum at 



Yokohama, Japan 



65 



Tokio, where thev could remain on exhibition for all 
time. 

The Benton Dori is not all made up of arms and armor. 
Brocades, silks, porcelains, masks, and portraits, and beauti- 
ful embroideries, old bronzes, ivory, and wood carvings, — 
much of it marvellously fine, — is to be seen in almost 
every shop. The very fronts have been removed from the 
little shops, and the whole interiors are exposed to view. 
How artistic is the anaiiirement of the beautiful and odd 




Japanese Grliln-(jk 



ocLic s Miur. 



wares ! What temptation there is to empty one's pockets, 
and say, " Give me anything ; all is so charming! " Thus it 
is, shop after shop, on both sides of the road, for the mile 
or more of its length, crowds of bright little men, women, 
and children thronging its thoroughfare, and peals of merry 
laughter ringing out in unison with the sounds of the clogs 
upon its walk. One is always dissatisfied in this great 
bazaar, where the more that is seen, the greater is the desire 
to see more and to examine closer. Hours are instruc- 

5 



66 An American Cruiser in the East 

lively and entertainingly spent in roaming from shop to 
shop, inspecting the beautiful wares, while chatting about 
their manufacture and history with the bright little shop- 
keepers or manufacturers. 




A Japanese Actor. 

Retracing our steps to the end of the road, where we 
entered, we make a sharp turn to the right, and find our- 
selves on the gay Isszakicho; and a little further on we are 
among the theatres, museums, booths, tea-shops, and bazaars 
which line its road. Here all is noise and gayety. Banners 
and streamers float on the breezes, bright lanterns add to the 



Yokohama, Japan 69 

brilliant scene ; and beating drums, the samesan, the high- 
pitched voices of the actors, the criticisms and applause of 
the audience, — all increase the noise and confusion of the 
place. 

We entered the best-looking theatre on the road, and sat 
through some pantomime acting, which was novel to us. 
The stage was bare of scenery. The actors and actresses 
were painted and made up with faces like those of the 
Chinese, although their costumes were ancient Japanese 
court dresses. The play was founded on a Japanese love- 
story, in which a maiden was carried off by her lover and 
his friends, after all the members of her family had been 
murdered, and their house burned. The story had no 
moral, for in the last act the " sweet girl " and her new- 
made lord were enjoying great happiness, after the Japa- 
nese fashion, notwithstanding the murder of her people. 

We visited a museum of wax-works, a series of tableaux 
from the life of a Japanese saint, or hermit. These we 
found very interesting, both as works of the imagination, 
and in artistic treatment, and some of them were startlingly 
life-like. 

The booths and bazaars, which line the road, were filled 
with the hundreds of trinkets peculiar to the native's use; 
while in the little tea-shops we could obtain tiny draughts 
of the delicious beverage, and sweetened rice-cake, which 
is so toothsome to the natives. 

Taking jinrikishas early in the morning, with sufficient 
help to travel comfortably, we set out for Enoshema, to see 
the colossal bronze statue of Buddha, the " Dai Butsu," 
near the temple of Hachiman. After a delightful ride over 
a portion of the " Trocado," the old damio road to the capi- 
tal, over hills and through valleys, stopping at the little tea- 
houses on the way, for refreshments and to rest our men, 
we finally arrived at the temple, which is situated in large 
grounds where priests are continually in attendance. The 



JO An American Cruiser in the East 

temple has great altars and shrines, and contains many 
specimens of beautiful armor, swords, spears, and banners, 
ancient trappings of war, and many trophies which have 
been committed to the custody of the god ; for this is the 
temple of Hachiman, the war god. Hachiman was not 
born until after his mother, Jingu, had subdued the Koreans, 
and placed her arrow over the palace gate at Seoul. After 
examining the beauties of the temple and the old swords 
and armor, we rode on another mile, which brought us into 




Enoshema, Japan. 

the grove of old trees, through which, in the distance, we 
could see the great image. 

Buddha sits alone upon his granite base, surrounded and 
shaded by old forest trees. Tradition says : " He was the 
altar-piece of a great temple which flourished centuries ago, 
and fell into decay ; and these great old trees now shade 
the form of the ' Dai Butsu.' " 

The statue is fifty feet high, and is made of bright bronze 
which is now greened with ao-e. It was made in sections 



Yokohama, Japan 71 

aud riveted together. The expression of the face is mild 
and bene\olent, well fitted for Buddha. The sacred snail 
is coiled upon his head to ward off rays of the sun. He 
holds the sacred lotus in each hand, and massive lanterns 
and vases are placed before him. The interior of the image 
contains a shrine, and the priest in attendance never tires 
of narrating the traditions of Buddha and the temple. 

A further ride of about five miles, through a beautiful 
rolling country, brings us to Enoshema, and after a short 
walk through a dark grove of old trees we are at the cele- 
brated temple of the goddess " Benten." After inspecting 
the temple and grounds, and enjoying the magnificent views 
both inland and seaward, we repair to the little tea-house, 
where we enjoy an appetizing luncheon of delicious fish, 
while watching the everlasting surf splashing upon the 
opposite beach of Katase. The journey back to Yoko- 
hama was verv enjoyable. The evening was refreshingly 
cool, and the light of the moon, breaking through the 
trees, which line both sides of the " Trocado," showed us 
the way. 

YOKASUKA 

From Yokohama, in one of the little steamers to Yoka- 
suka, the Japanese Naval Arsenal, was a very interesting 
trip, and revealed many facts about these wonderful people. 
The dry dock and slips for building vessels are large and 
well planned. Here we see great vessels, their engines, 
boilers, and auxiliaries in all stages of construction and 
repair; and a visit to this place would awaken in any one 
great respect for these people, as constructing engineers and 
mechanics. To see the begrimed little fellows at their 
work of bending, framing, riveting, or plating, attending 
the shaping machine, or drill press ; at the moulding trough, 
sweeping up, or pouring the metal, — all was a revelation, 
so cleverly did they work. Battle-ships, cruisers, and tor- 



72 An American Cruiser in the East 

pedo vessels, such as any nation would be proud to fly its 
ensign upon, were in process of construction or undergoing 
repairs. 

On leaving the dockyards, we strolled over to the hill 
where poor Will Adams lies buried. Adams was an 
Englishman who came here in 1607 on a Dutch trader. 
The natives soon discovered that he was able to instruct 
them in the art of shipbuilding, and they detained him in 
the country. Spiritless and broken-hearted, without hope, 




Japanese Junks. 

with a consuming longing for his far-off island home and 
loved ones, he went about his task as best he could, until 
finally he drooped and died of a broken heart, and was 
buried in this lovely spot. 

The Ride to Tokio 

The railroad travel from Yokohama to Tokio, the capi- 
tal, partly along the bay shore, is through a country of 
varying scenery, and is full of interest. The roadway is 



Yokohama, Japan j^ 

about eighteen miles long, well made and ballasted. The 
cars are luxurious, and are divided into compartments for 
passengers of different classes. On leaving Yokohama, 
the train passes under the shadow of a large temple, on 
the suburb, then along the fishing village of Kanagawa, 
which was the first designated place of residence for for- 
eigners in Japan. We pass through the noted tobacco- 
fields, and through Tsumi, where the planters congregate 
and exchange experiences over their cup of saki. As we 
go by Kawasaki, we see its fleets of busy sampans, and 
later the bare plains of Owair, whose porcelains have 
never been surpassed. Through Kamada, at full speed, 
we pass to Ikegawa, whose greatest treasure is the temple 
of the " Wealth God," old " Dai Koku," whose pictures 
of the god, sitting on bags of rice which rats are gnawing, 
remind us of the famous Gambrinus sitting upon his kegs 
of beer. In passing through Shinegawa, we have reached 
the head of the bay, and are at the home of those noted 
fish with the wonderful popping eyes, ill-shapen bodies, and 
fan-tails. Soon we round through the suburb of Tokio, 
passing Mita and Shambashi on the way, and have arrived 
at the station in Japan's capital 



CHAPTER VII 

TOKIO, THE CAPITAL 

TOKIO is situated at the head of Yeddo Bay, and 
is about ten miles square, containing about one 
million and a half of inhabitants. It is the seat of the 
Imperial Government and the residence of the Mikado. 
The Shiro, or palace, occupies a commanding position, and 
is the most notable building in the capital. It is one of 
the finest specimens of the old feudal castle to be found in 
Japan, and its many stories, huge ramparts, wide moats, 
and grove of old trees make it very attractive. 

Tokio is a busy, pushing city, with the hum and noises 
of a great metropolis. The streets are bustling streams of 
life and animation, and are full of novelties. As the people 
are changing their garb and customs for those of the Euro- 
pean, the streets show many extremes and contradictions. 
The officials and many private citizens wear garments 
made in the western fashion, while thousands adhere to 
the ancient dress. The gra\'e, picturesque, quaint, and 
grotesque meet, crowd, and pass on. The jinrikisha races 
by, the street car moves along the rails, and the sedan-chair- 
man dodges under the horses' heads. A crowd of human 
beings tug and pull as they move great loads on wheels, 
while the stately coachman drives by in livery. The pul- 
sations of the steam-engine mingle with the sighs of the 
poor coolie as he tries to rival it in pounding rice into flour. 
The dingy kerosene lamp is beside the arc-light. A little 
fellow with bushy head, in ancient dress and clogs, passes 
by the side of one in the latest tailor-made garments. The 



Tokio, the Capital 



79 



musiime, in bright kimono and handsome coiffure, trips 
merrily by the side of her sister who is gowned in American 
fashion. Men with bared heads, in dark-blue coats and 
tight pantaloons, and little women in demure kimonos ; men 
in full-dress, wearing high silk hats, greeting others whose 
only covering is a coarse shirt ; little soldiers in black uni- 
forms and burnished helmets ; the business-like policeman 
with sword by his side ; the hurrying postman and the 
clatter of the clogs upon the walks; the shuffling of the 




Making Rice Flour, Japan. 

throng, and the prattle and laughter of the merry children, 
who are playing along the streets; the quaint little shops, 
with their dark-blue awnings and patient attendants; the 
little white-and-black houses in almost endless lines, like 
rows of fireproof safes ; the thousands of odd, ugly, and 
pretty things that we see in shops or streets ; the chatting, 
smiling people ; the lowlv bows and happy, flowery salu- 
tations and greetings amongst the people ; and the noble- 
man's carriage at his poor friend's door, — all help to make 



8o An American Cruiser in the East 

up the bustle and noises, and the contradictions and ex- 
tremes of this great city of the Mikado. 

The Japanese have great appreciation and admiration 
of the beautiful in nature. They wander about the coun- 
try in little bands, visiting some mountain, waterfall, or 
other beautiful scenery. They are great lovers of flowers^ 
from the blossoms of the early spring and the roses to 
the imperial chrysanthemum. In the season, groups and 




Wistaria. 



crowds of old, middle-aged, and young can be seen strolling 
through the gardens, or on the roads, admiring the blossoms 
of the wistaria or the chrysanthemum. 

Even the poor coolie decorates his person, or his sur- 
roundings, with blossoms, buds, or flowers. From plants 
growing in a handful of soil, in pot or box, to those of the 
garden, all are cared for and nurtured. The Japanese will 
devote years to training vines and growing flowers, shrubs, 
and trees. The patience displayed is wonderful, and the 
results of their efforts and skill are the crosses and new 



Tokio, the Capital 83 

species in flowers and shrubs, and the dwarfed and twisted 
trees which they so well know how to produce, or the 
enormous, overgrown productions that would astonish the 
judges at one of our county fairs. They can carry a hun- 
dred-year-old tree in a flower-pot, or grow chestnuts that 
weigh half a pound, or potatoes that could not be put into 
an ordinary keg. 

The dwarfing is obtained with great patience and care 
by pinching oft the rootlets week by week, and rubbing ofF 
and trimming the ends of the branches until the tree is 
stunted and will not measure over a few inches in height ; 
the other condition is obtained by patient cultivation and 
forcing. These dwarfed trees are planted on little hills in 
the gardens, amongst rocks, miniature rivers, and water- 
falls, and the effects are not unlike the little artificial gar- 
dens we used to make around our Christmas trees. 

A ride through the beautiful, picturesque capital brings 
us to the suburb of Asakusa, where we visit the celebrated 
temple ot Kwanin, whose golden image of the goddess was 
found by a fisherman's net at the bottom of the river. It 
was a fitting find, for Kwanin is the goddess of the sea, 
and her temple is the favorite of fishermen and seafaring 
people, who pay their devotions to her, to supplicate for 
fair weather and prosperous voyages, or to return thanks for 
past mercies and blessings. 

At all temples, the worshippers perform ablution by 
washing their hands and mouths before entering the temple, 
for which purpose large fonts or basins of water are placed 
in the grounds near the entrance. Each person using the 
water is expected to deposit a small coin in a box placed 
conveniently for the purpose. On each side of the entrance 
to the temple is a great red cage with heavy iron gratings, 
containing colossal guardian gods, hideous and fierce fellows, 
whose terrible countenances and attitudes seem to belie their 
peaceful mission of receiving repentant sinners and looking 
after the welfare of children. 



84 An American Cruiser in the East 

Having purified himself, the worshipper devoutly enters 
the temple and selects the particular deity he thinks will 
suit his needs. This temple contains four shrines and 
gods, besides the goddess Kwanin : one makes fair 
weather at sea, another gives a prosperous fishing season 
or voyage, a third cures the stomach-ache, and the fourth is 
the patron of women and girls. The votary pulls a bell- 
rope to attract the attention of the deity with whom he 
wishes to commune, drops a coin into a grated box, places 
his hands together, and whispers his supplication ; after 
which, he claps his hands to let the god know he has 
finished, and retires. 

The entrance-grounds to the temple contain many hand- 
somely sculptured stone lanterns, several grim-grinning 
foxes, and some fine specimens of the Japanese lion. 
Flocks of tame pigeons and doves swarm and coo about 
the temple's eaves and grounds, and as they are believed 
to contain the spirits of the departed, they are held sacred. 
Old women sell rice and peas, which the pious purchase 
and feed to the birds. 

Kwanin, like all temple-grounds, is used for pleasure as 
well as for pious purposes. The place is crowded with 
theatres, shows, archery-galleries, tea-booths, and exhibitors 
of wax-works, some of whom rival the famous Mrs. Jarley. 
A large model of the sacred mountain, Fujiyama, is visited 
by hundreds of people who view the city and surrounding 
country from its crater. The pagoda, which is also near 
the temple, is approached by a stone walk, lined on both 
sides by gay little booths for the sale of toys, ornaments, 
and refreshments, where the women and children love to 
loiter and wonder over the gaudy trifles. 

All the children of Tokio seem to be here to-day ; the 
din, chatter, and noise of these happy youngsters can only 
be excelled by one of our Fourth of July celebrations at 
home. Tin horns, fire-crackers, toy balloons, waving 



Tokio, the Capital 



87 



flags, and grotesque kites add to the merriment and enjoy- 
ment of the young Japanese and his mother. 

All Japan is a paradise for the aged and the children. 
Gray hairs are eminently respectable, and great deference 
is paid to age. Old age and a clean, honorable life are 
honored by all. Old people are saluted in the most re- 
spectful language ; a mother's heart rejoices if an aged 
person speaks kindly to her babe, and the words are treas- 




Vegetables in Japan. 



ured as good omens for the child. Children with shaven 
heads, bright black eyes, rosy brown cheeks, clad in gowns 
which almost reach to their feet, play and frolic where they 
will, in the highways or quiet places, with ball or kite or at 
catches. They are never interfered with or molested. 
There are no displays of ill-temper, or bad words, — 
all is hearty fun and frolic. Even the poor coolie, with 
his heavy burden, will go a long way round rather than 
disturb the children's play. 



88 An American Cruiser in the East 

Little companies of juvenile acrobats travel about and 
give exhibitions of their skill, wherever they meet children 
at play. The little acrobats are clad in dark-blue tights, 
with great red turbans, and just enough bright tint to relieve 
the monotonv of the blue. They tumble, cross, pile, and 
roll, and perform a number of very clever feats to the sound 
of a gourd-like drum. At the climax of each feat they call 
out " Hie ! " — " See ! " — as they extend their tiny arms 
in graceful acknowledgment of the applause ; and when 




Japanese Acrobats. 

thev have finished their programme, a small contribution is 
gratifying, and thev move on in quest of other audiences. 
With all their love for the voung, and their beautiful 
wares, the Japanese are far behind the rest of the world 
in the use of common toys amongst their own children. 
Within the exception of some very poor specimens of 
monstrous cats, fishes, flowers, and rattles, I have not seen 
anything that was worthy of the name of toy for children's. 
use. 



Tokio, the Capital 



89 



The " wandering " candv manufacturer is a genius, an 
artist in sweets, and he always succeeds in gathering in a 
large number of small coins. He moves from street to 
street with his little stand, upon which is displayed his 




Swi i/rs AND Toys. 

stock of birds, fishes, flowers, sticks, and drops. One end 
of his stand is fitted with a tiny charcoal furnace, above 
which a large basin of molten sugar is kept ready for use. 
From this, he forms into shape and colors such articles as 
mav be desired. Some beautiful forms are fashioned from 
the sweet, and it is a pleasure to watch the clever fingers 



90 An American Cruiser in the East 

in their manipulations, and the wide-eyed youngsters gazing 
in astonishment as the work progresses. The candies 
made of pure sugar, while beautiful in form and color, are 
not flavored to our taste. Other candies are made of 
highly sweetened rice-flour, which is also moulded into 
beautiful shapes and highly colored. 

The juggler amuses, and may be called a friend of the 
children in this beautiful land. A poorly clad and ofttimes 
wretched-looking man steps in among a crowd of merry 




Japanese Jugglers. 

children at their plav, when, much to the amusement 
ot all, he will open an umbrella, perhaps, and begin to 
twirl it on his wrist. Suddenly a great ball is seen travel- 
hng rapidly over its surface in the opposite direction. 
He places a small roll of paper in his mouth, and pro- 
ceeds to draw therefrom marvellous yards of gay-colored 
ribbons; next, he may draw a sword from his girdle, 
give a history of the bloody weapon, and with great 
flourishes proceed to swallow its blade. He will plant .a 



Tokio, the Capital 



93 



couple of seeds in the ground, cover the spot, mumble 
some words, and make some mimic passes over it, and 
then remove the covering, revealing a beautiful plant in 
flower; or he will place a child in a basket, thrust a 
great two-handed sword through and through it, up and 
down, right and left, while the screams and finally the 
groans from the child are heard. Then all is quiet, 
the basket is uncovered and found 
to be empty. Thus he gives trick 
after trick, in rapid succession, until 
his stock is exhausted, when he 
solicits contributions and 
moves on, 

A man will be seen feel- 
ing his way along in the 
middle of the road, blow- 
ing an occasional blast on 
his little reed pipe. Every 
one gives way to him, for 
he is blind, and his oc- 
cupation is to give massage 
treatment to any who need 
his services. He will pull 
and pound, knead and rub 
you, until every joint and 
muscle of your body aches, 
and your skin rivals the 
color of a boiled lobster; but the reaction soon comes, 
and you feel like a new person. This treatment is 
thought to be ffood for rheumatism and some other ills 
that Japanese believe themselves afflicted with, and the poor 
man has a very lucrative occupation, notwithstanding his 
apparent helplessness. 

The Troubadours are usually from the country districts, 
and are dressed in quaint apparel. They bear a shrine 




Japanese Troubadours. 



94 An American Cruiser in the East 

of some celebrated saint or hermit about the city ; and 
wherever they can find an audience, they proceed to re- 
cite, in a monotonous, sing-song fashion, the deeds of the 
good man. 

Sheba and Uyeno Parks 

A ride through gay Tokio, with its beautiful life and 
novel sights, and into the country beyond, where the old 
trees meet across the broad roadway and shut out the sun- 
shine, almost the daylight ; through an open country where 
hundreds of picturesque natives are at work in their little 
gardens ; over a stretch of broad avenue, hedged with hand- 
some stone fences, enclosing green terraces, with fine old 
trees, and a stream of silvery water rippling beside the granite 
roadway, — brings us through the suburb and into famous 
Sheba. 

Through the dense shade, we behold the high, moss- 
covered white walls, with their quaint scarlet lacquer trim- 
mings, sparkling in the subdued sunshine, and the great 
granite torii, with its bronze crests, standing in the open 
space before them ; while just beyond is the gold and 
scarlet black-roofed gate that gives entrance to these temple- 
grounds of the Tokugawa Shoguns. 

Having reached the gateway and exchanged our shoes for 
straw slippers, we were ready to enter the sacred place. 
The priest, our guide, conducted us into a porch from which 
we beheld a scene of bewildering splendor, — courtyards and 
groves, filled with beautiful temples, tombs, sculptures, and 
bronzes, all magnificent examples of artistic handiwork. 
The ancient Japanese hut and the Tartar tents are en- 
larged and beautified in these wonderful structures, which 
glisten and sparkle wherever a ray of sunshine strays 
through the dense foliage and falls upon them. It is a 
strange order of architecture, pleasing, bright, and warm,- 



Tokio, the Capital 



97 



even in the subdued sunlight, the almost gloaming. The 
assemblage, grouping, and colors are wonderful, and one 
stands at the very threshold of all this beauty amazed at 
the magnificence. 

The court of each temple is enclosed with massive stone 
railings. Great rows of sculptured stone and bronze lan- 
terns, figures in bronze and iron, belfries, sacred wells, and 
handsome gateways, are seen in bewildering profusion, and 




The Temple Font at the Shogun Temples, Sheba, near Tokio, 
Japan. 

the whole is surrounded by dense groves of old fir-trees 
which add nature's covering to the beautiful scene. 7 he 
massive temples are warm and bright with gold, scarlet, 
green, and black lacquers and carvings ; Tartar-fashioned 
eaves, tipped, ringed, and edged with weather-greened bronze, 
are placed under highly sculptured and massive black roofs 
which form their covering, splendid and confusing; and, 
through and over all, the triple asarum leaf is everywhere 
to be seen. 

7 



98 An American Cruiser in the East 



A beautiful greenish-black building is decorated with 
carved panels in scarlet, white, green, gold, and blue, which 
form the frieze around its sides, A space of black wood, 
spotted with bright bronze, extends up to the cornice under 
^ . the eaves, which is 

I beautifully carved and 
painted, and the great 
dark-bronze and gilt 
roof is dotted oxer with 
the Shogun's crest. A 
flight of broad stone 
steps leads to a massive 
platform, upon which 
eight white columns, 
embellished with deli- 
cate tracery, support a 
great lintel which is 
wrought in monstrous 
dragons, and banded 
with greenish-brass, 
the whole gi\ing sup- 
port to the bronze, 
tiled roof. Two fierce 
warriors, in ancient 
armor and armed with 
bows and arrows, oc- 
cupy niches in walls of handsomely carved flowers, while 
guarding the temples. 

Projecting capitals are formed by half-bodies of fierce 
monsters with outstretched paws and open mouths, under 
a cornice of black and gold, from which project other 
gilded monsters, with contracted brows and hideous mien, 
who give support to a beautifully carved balcony. The 
balcony, a series of little panels of children romping among 
vines and flowers, has columns extendino; to the roof and 




Anxiext Japanese Armor. 




t,' P-. 



Toklo, the Capital 



lOI 



crowned with monstrous dragon-horses. In the centre, a 
great white-and-gold dragon is supported between two 
massive columns; and all around the cornice, and up among 
the rafters, are hundreds of tierce dragons in threatening 
attitudes. 

A great terrace, within a covered court, is enclosed by 
rich ffilt walls ; its polished black floors are covered with 
snowy matting of finest texture ; its altar and shrine are 
rich in gilt and scarlet and black lacquers ; the ceiling is 




Temples of the Shoguns at Shhua, xi^ar Tokio, Japan. 

wonderfully carved and colored, while the nave and chancel 
are decorated with exquisite carvings and gold. 

Another broad flight of massive stone steps brings us to 
a base of immense granite slabs, surrounded bv a handsome 
wall of highly ornamented stones, from which great black- 
and-gold brackets reach up and support projecting gilt 
rafters that carry the massive roof; and between them is a 
band of frieze of rich-colored carvings in birds and leaves 
and flowers. Black and white and gold carvings are used 
in profusion ; while the walls are covered with delicate 



I02 An American Cruiser in the East 

tracery and lattice-work, wrought in exquisite patterns of 
flowers and leaves, in whites and lilacs, lavenders, rose, and 
gold. 

Ascending a bronze stairwav to a beautiful lacquered 
platform of the shrine, which is supported by four great 
white columns, we see monster dragons crawling about 
over the doorways, golden monsters frowning from the 
roof, and monkeys and birds carved on the frieze and band 
of the temple's face. The interior recesses and panels are 




Tomb of " Roku Dai," the Sixth Tokugawa Shogun, Sheba, near 
ToKio, Japan. 

filled with beautiful carving in bewildering profusion ; 
strips of white sacramental paper, and a sacred metal- 
mirror are suspended from the main lintel ; snow-white 
mats cover the dark, polished floor. Gilt columns separate 
the central walls, and help support the massive roof, whose 
ceiling is emblazoned with conventionalized carvings of 
birds and flowers, and the crest of the Shoguns. 

It was nearly sunset as we turned from this magnificence 
and left the temples. Ascending a broad stone stairway, 



Tokio, the Capital 105" 

we passed between two hideous stone lions, and entered 
the famous bronze gateway, turned short to the right, and 
were soon before the tomb of Roku Dai, the sixth Shogun 
of the Tokugawa family. On a stone table before the 
tomb, are bright-bronze storks, lotus-flowers, and yases, — 
ornaments of the Buddhist faith. 

The tomb is beautiful in its conception and its simplicity, 
— an artistic combination of geometric lines and shapes 
which form the Japanese coyered bell. A base of fiye 
massiye, octagonal, bronze steps gives support to a domed 
cylinder that is covered by a pyramid, from the top of 
which a forked flame shoots up and serves as finial. The 
tomb is of bright-bronze which is now becoming green. 
The triple asarum leaf is repeated ten times upon the beau- 
tiful bronze doors of the tomb which contains the ashes of 
Roku Dai. 

Retracing our steps a short distance, and ascending a 
slimy, moss-covered old stairway, we pass along the great 
stone salleries until we reach the tombs of all the old kings 
of Japan, before which stand rows of bronze incense-burners 
and gigantic storks ; but these tombs are insignificant when 
compared with the tombs of the Shoguns. 

On our way out of the grounds we looked through the 
lattice of the dancing temple. A great black shadow fell 
across the floor, but the lithe form of the " woman in 
white " had vanished in the darkness. 

Some of these temples are Shinto, and some are Bud- 
dhist. The Shinto, " way of the gods," is the ancient 
religion of Japan, and is now the official religion of the 
country. Tt is founded on relationship and duties, ances- 
tral worship and nature. Its service is spiritual and cere- 
monious, no sound being heard in the temple, where there 
is neither decoration nor color, the white sacramental paper 
and the sacred metal mirror being the only ornaments. 
The temples are reproductions of the ancient Japanese 



io6 An American Cruiser in the East 



hut of unpainted woods with thatched roof, — the homes 
of the spirits of ancestors. The Buddhist temples are rich 
in decoration and colors, shrines and drums and bells ; and 
rows of low stools, containing scrolls of the law, are placed 
for the convenience of the devout. 

We devoted three davs to the Museum and the Zoologi- 
cal and Botanical gardens, which are filled with most inter- 
esting specimens, and are cared for bv gentlemen who are 
hiwhlv cultured in science and art. The pleasure and profit 




A Japanese School. 

of our visits were greatly enhanced by conversations and 
discussions with these enthusiastic scientists. 

The imposing buildings of the Imperial University are 
grouped near the Botanical Garden, where professors and 
students have the benefit of museum and garden, for study 
and recreation. 

Japan has made wonderful strides in educational lines as 
well as in other directions. Her system of free schools 
range from the Primary Department, through all grades, to 
the University. Separate schools are maintained for the 



Tokio, the Capital 



107 



nobilitv, and all male students are required to wear a white 
linen cap with the Emperor's crest upon it. 

The people of Japan are good-natured, flowery, and 
respectful in their address. When speaking of themselves, 
they are depreciatory and humble. 

The Club and hotels of Tokio are conveniently located 
and are managed in the European style. Any one can be 
as comfortably housed and as well cared for there as any- 
where in the world. 




Japanesk Wrestlers. 

We visited a colony of wrestlers near the Ragoku Bashi. 
Gay banners, standards and flags were floating in the chilly 
breezes. The sounds of clapping hands and the "Hie! 
Hie ! " voices from the interior of the tent attracted our 
attention and excited our curiositv. After settling for the 
admission, we entered the tent. The tent is held in place 
by a framework of bamboo, and is large enough to shelter 
several thousand people. The ring in the centre of the 
tent is about twelve feet in diameter, is filled with black 



io8 An American Cruiser in the East 

earth, and is formed by bags of rice arranged in a square 
about twenty feet on each side. 

There is a red pole at each corner of the pavilion, before 
which a judge, in black kimono, is seated. The umpire, 
decked in ancient costume, asserts his importance by shrill 
screeches, while the spectators, smoking their tiny pipes, 
sit upon the ground or on the platforms, which are 
arranged around the rino- much after the fashion of the 
seats at our circuses. 

The wrestlers squat around the pavilion, outside of the 
ring. They are entirely naked, with the exception of a 
band of silk about four inches wide, which is fastened 
around the waist, passing between the legs, and tied at the 
back, leaving a fringe to hang over the thighs. 

Two of them enter the ring and are received with great 
applause. What giants they are ! They gulp down great 
swallows of water from buckets con\'eniently placed in 
the pavilion. They squirt the water into the air, and 
it falls back upon their naked bodies in a sprav. They 
wipe themselves down with sheets of paper, and then 
begin to strut and pound upon their chests with their 
great fists. They slap their thighs, strike out with their 
legs, and bring their feet down with an energv that shakes 
the ground. 

One old Chinaman, who should have been preparing for 
a better world, was busy taking all the bets that offered, 
and he was well patronized. 

After this display, thev take places on opposite sides of 
the ring, bow to the umpire, judges, and audience, then sit 
on their heels and stare each at his opponent. They then 
approach the centre of the ring, bend over, place their great 
fists on the ground, and glare defiance at each other. The 
wrestlers next rub themselves down with dirt from the ring, 
where they squat and glare at each other again. When 
the signal is given to close, they crouch like beasts, and 



Toklo, the Capital 



109 




$ 



spring together. Each tries to grasp the belt of his antago- 
nist. They clutch each other. The great bunches of fat 
are crowded into great hills of muscle. 

Mammoth, overfed, shapeless, nude human-brutes, cling- 
ing, pushing, pulling, and crowding, each endeavoring to 
overcome the other bv mere weight ! Their arms and legs 
become like great chunks of iron. They qui\er, and one 
has grasped the waistband of the other, lifts the great beast 
as if he were a child, and throws 
him over the ring. There he 
drops with a dull thud, as if an 
elephant had fallen. What a pan- 
demonium! How the crowd veils ! 
The umpire franticallv beats his 
fan upon his hand and screams 
out the name of the victor. 
defeated walks off" wit 
ashamed face. The victc 
squats in the centre of tht 
ring, while the umpire 
proclaims him success- 
ful and awards the silk 
apron embroidered in 
gold. 

The victor and his 
followers march off^ in 
triumph. Then another 
couple appear, and a similar struggle ensues. Some of 
these matches are settled in about a minute, while others 
are so well contested that they last for half an hour. 

These games are about as dangerous as football with us. 
It is a common occurrence for these people to have ribs, 
arms, and legs broken, and sometimes a skull is cracked. 
There is no hitting or striking ; the work is done by 
pushing, pulling, clutching, and throwing. 




Japanese \\'restlers. 



1 1 o An American Cruiser in the East 

The training and methods of these wrestlers are entirely 
different from those of our athletes. They eat and drink 
large quantities of meat and beer, — an\ thing and every- 
thing that will increase their weight. Many of them 
weigh from two to three hundred pounds, and their muscles 
are hard and firm, although their bodies are so large. 
Wrestling matches have been favorite games in Japan from 
the earliest times, and wrestlers did great ser\ ice for the 
feudal lords in ancient days. 




A Lotus Field. 



Muscle still tells in this land, where the work of beasts 
of burden is done bv men, and athletes still have their place 
as workers, but they are no longer useful as military bullies. 
Rapid-tire guns and rifles have settled all that, and their 
occupation is gone. 

The next day a pleasant dri\ e brought us to the Botani- 
cal Gardens, where we were curious to learn about the 
flora of these islands. The oak, elm, beech, birch, laurel. 



Tokio, the Capital 1 1 1 

mulberry, walnut, chestnut, bamboo, pine and palm in 
many varieties, the wild plum, cherry, cycods, hydrangeas, 
azaleas, camellia, camphor, poppy, tea-bush, shepherd's purse, 
monkshood, dandelion, yiolet, lotus, mistletoe, rose, wista- 
ria, chrysanthemum, celandine, chickweed, mallow, plan- 
tago, golden-rod, thistle, dock, burdock, burweed, loquat, 
cotton, yam, vegetable wax, yarnish plant, rice, sesame, and 
tobacco are all well known. 

The well-known birds are the pheasant, snipe, woodcock, 
wild-duck, wild-goose, stork, tit, crow, shirkie, wagtail, 
jay, owl, finch, earget. Our inxestigations were cut short 
by a low, rumbling noise. The building seemed to heave 
with the undulating motions of a ship at sea, then all was 
quiet again. The phenomenon was of only a very i'ew 
seconds' duration, but it was quite long enough to convince 
us that we had experienced the shock of an earthquake. It 
was a small affair, however, and there was no material 
damage done. 

Japan is a land of earthquakes. It experiences about 
five hundred shocks every year, and on many occasions 
some parts of the country have been severely shaken 
up. At times, great cities are shaken and rocked like 
rafts upon the ocean. There is a great strain, as if 
the internal pressure had overcome the imprisoning 
earth, and the surrounding country is made to oscillate 
violently. Slighter shakings on the surface, with crum- 
blings and underground noises, follow, until finally this 
dies away, though perfect quiet and relief may not be 
obtained for months. In such years, an additional five 
hundred or more shakings are added to the average five 
hundred. 

When earthquakes are not felt, the country is threatened 
with volcanoes, and a terrible eruption may take place at 
any time, and without warning. On the 15th July, 1888, 
an eruption took place on the grass-co\'ered Bandaisan, and 



I 1 2 An American Cruiser in the East 

in less than fifteen minutes more than a hundred and fifty- 
square miles of country were buried beneath a hundred feet 
depth of earth. The labor of years was wiped out. 
Villao;es and farms were buried, and about six hundred 
people lost their lives. 

There are three well-known lines through which the 
subterranean forces act. The first of these comes from 
Kamtchatka, through the Kural Islands, Yesso, and Nippon, 
where it is met bv a second line, almost at right angles, 
which runs through the Bonin Islands to the Ladrones in the 
Pacific Ocean. The third line comes from the Philippines, 
through Formosa to the centre of Kinshin, where it termi- 
nates in the volcano Assan, whose crater is ten miles in 
diameter. 

Severe earthquakes are as frequent in the middle of Japan, 
where there are no volcanoes, as in other parts of the 
country. They are more frequent along the eastern coast, 
and do not come from \'olcanoes, neither do they seem to 
have any relationship with volcanic action as displayed at 
craters. The latest supposition concerning the cause of 
these mighty upheavals attributes them to the vapor of 
water. 

Water is supposed to soak downwards to the heated 
regions, and the resulting steam is the motive-force of the 
volcano and the earthquake. The fact that many earth- 
quakes occur in \olcanic countries near the ocean, where 
both moisture and heat are present, seems to support the 
theory, — notably, the frequent changes and eruptions at 
Bogaslov in the Aleutian group. There appears to be 
a complexity of causes which may enter into the production 
of earthquakes, and the proper investigation of them may 
lead to foretelling the advent of these terrible phenomena. 

One of the latest great disturbances in Japan was on the 
28th October, 189 1, about six o'clock in the morning, in 
the prefectures of Aichi and Gifu. In an area of over 



Toklo, the Capital 



113 



four thousand two hundred square miles the destruction of 
buildings and great engineering works was complete ; and 
stone and brick buildings were affected over an area exceed- 
ing twenty-four thousand square miles, while the shocks 
were distinctly felt from Sundai to Nagasaki, an area exceed- 
ing ninety-two thousand square miles. There are neither 
volcanoes nor volcanic rocks about Gifu, the plain being a 
bed of alluvium lying in a basin of paleozoic hills. It was 




In a Japanese Rice-Field. 

in these hills that the disturbance had its origin, and earth- 
quakes have been frequent in this place. 

The surgical report upon the effects of this earthquake 
states that : " One thousand one hundred and fifty cases 
were treated, mostly simple and compound fractures, es- 
pecially of the spine and pelvis. A great number of wounds 
in consequence of neglect were dirty and suppurating ; some 
were covered with maggots. Numbers of the patients were 
feverish and suffering from tetanus and erysipelas, but by 
strong antiseptic treatment and care, good results were 

8 



I ] 4 An American Cruiser in the East 

obtained, and only four out of the 1150 died. These 
patients were treated and cared for by members of the Red 
Cross Society, medical officers from the Hospital of the 
Imperial University, and doctors from the Imperial House- 
hold, the Naval and iVIilitary Departments, and from the 
missions." 

The hospital in which these unfortunates were treated 
was constructed from, and upon, the ruins of fallen houses, 
and the report further says : " The result of nervous 
excitement showed itself in the form of tetanus, spinal, and 
other troubles rather than in any general mental paralysis, 
. . . The fact that Japanese are less nervous and excitable 
than Europeans may be partly accounted for, perhaps, by 
the fact that the former nation has been cradled amongst 
earthquakes and xolcanoes, the manifestations ot which rank 
amongst the greatest of nature's terrors." 

I received an invitation for the loth, to attend a gather- 
ing in the gardens of the Emperor's Palace at Asakusa, in 
Tokio, to view the imperial chrysanthemums. Our party 
left Yokohama in the morning, and arrived at the capital 
in time to drive to the hotel, take a hasty luncheon, don 
our uniforms, and reach the palace. 

After driving through the city at a rapid pace, we 
reached an open, rolling countrv, through which winds 
the Imperial roadway. This road was kept clear of traffic 
for a mile or more from the palace entrance. At short 
distances, a soldier, clad in blue uniform with scarlet 
trimmings, stood statue-like at " attention," and only re- 
laxed from this position to salute the occupants of each 
carriage, as it passed, bearing the guests of his master. 
The road is broad, finely made, and hard, bordered on both 
sides by great old trees, whose branches meet overhead 
and shut out both the sunshine and the rain. 

As we wound onward and upward, the scene became 
gayer and more animated. Lines of handsome equipages, 



Tokio, the Capital 117 

whose prancing steeds dashed fire from their heels upon 
the hardened road, bore grave ministers of state, ambas- 
sadors, and representatives from all the civilized nations 
of the earth, clad in handsome uniforms, and escorting 
fair women, to the Emperor's reception. After a hard ride 
of nearly an hour, we reached the entrance and left our 
carriages under cover of an exquisite little Japanese house, 
whose architecture, finish, and decorations are marvellous 
even in this land of beautiful things. 

After presenting our cards, we were ushered into the 
presence of the Minister of the Imperial Household (repre- 
senting the Emperor), who was surrounded by gentlemen- 
in-waiting, and, near by, a host of servants. We were 
each presented to the Minister, who said some kind things 
about our country and the President, and expressed the hope 
that our visit to Japan would be pleasant and profitable. 

The Minister and gentlemen wore black frock-coats, 
light-colored trousers, and each wore the button of his 
order of nobility. The servants were bright in blue cut- 
away coats, with bright yellow facings, black knee-breeches, 
white hose, and shiny leather shoes with great silver buckles ; 
a chapeau under the left arm. 

We loitered awhile, with some British naval friends, 
to admire the beauty and exquisite taste displayed in this 
little entrance-house, where everything was charming. 

The walls were covered with a rich rose-drab, difficult 
to describe, more difficult to imitate, and so effective as to 
linger in one's memory like a pleasant dream. The floor 
was inlaid with hard woods, in simple but elegant designs 
and colors, and the walk over it was laid with a broad rich 
velvet carpet in bright colors. 

As we strolled along towards the chrysanthemums, 
through park and garden, we saw much to admire and to 
astonish us : a cluster of trees so grouped that their com- 
mingling colors of greens and reds and browns appear like 



I 1 8 An American Cruiser in the East 

a huge bouquet in the autumn light ; a pond, a quaint 
little lake of sparkling water, with its sportive gold and 
silver fishes, with great popping eves and fan-tails ; yonder 
a lawn, so smooth and so green it would tempt a tennis- 
player to brave the anger of the guards to play upon it ; 
a great waterfall, crashing and roaring as its mad waters 
dash into the pool below ; and beautiful old trees and 
shrubs and bushes everywhere. At every corner of the 
walk and bend in the road stood a member of the house- 







Ramboo Grove at Fukiagu, Tokio, Japan. 

hold guards, clad in black uniform and polished steel .helmet, 
at "attention." These soldiers neither bend nor salute, but 
stand like black statues to ornament the grounds. 

When we reached the pavilion, the bands were dis- 
coursing sweet music, — a selection from the opera of the 
"Bohemian Girl." Brave men and fair women were 
promenading, admiring the chrvsanthemums or expectantly 
awaiting the coming of the Emperor. Two gayly deco- 
rated pavilions had been erected on a commanding emi- 



Tokio, the Capital 1 1 9 

nence in the garden, — one for the use of the Emperor, and 
the other for the exhibition of the chrysanthemums. 

While we exchanged greetings with friends and enjoyed 
the magnificent sights about us, the bands finished their 
selection and commenced playing the Japanese National 
Air. Couriers were approaching in great state, bowing 
low as they cleared the way. After them came the 
gentlemen-in-waiting, and soon the Emperor. 

The Emperor was clad in the undress uniform of a 
general, and walked with a firm, stately tread, indicative 
of good health and power, and looked every inch the 
ruler. The Empress, dressed in a magnificent yellow 
satin gown of western fashion, came next after the Em- 
peror, and she was followed by the Princesses and ladies of 
the court, each magnificently gowned in satins of western 
fashion. After the ladies came the notables of the Empire, 
ministers of State, judges of the Supreme Court, generals, 
admirals, and other dignitaries in order of their rank. 

As the Emperor approached, we all gathered on the 
roadside and remained uncovered, until the party had 
passed by, when we joined it. The Emperor is a great 
lover of flowers, and led the way to the pavilion contain- 
ing the chrysanthemums. This particular flower is his 
family crest, and, as may be imagined, the display was 
exceptionally fine and beautiful for the Imperial inspection. 
The chrysanthemums were in great variety of form, size, 
and color, from the smallest imaginable to a gigantic size, 
plain, curly, and feathery ; ranging through all the colors 
of the rainbow, from the " rival of snow " to golds and reds 
and blues and pinks, with many intermediate shades and 
blendings. 

When the flowers had been sufficiently admired, the 
Emperor led the way to a large pavilion on the opposite 
side of the roadway, where an elegant luncheon was 
served. The Emperor and the Empress were seated at 



1 20 An American Cruiser in the East 



a table at the head of the pavilion, and the Princesses sat 
facing them. Below this point a long table extended to 
the extreme end of the pavilion, and there were numerous 
small tables on the green, just outside of the enclosure. 

Our places were at the long table, quite near the Em- 
peror, who was evidently gratified, and enjoyed the beauti- 
ful scene fully as much as any of his guests. Sitting here 
in such presence and with such surroundings, I could but 
think of the wonderful changes this great man has wrought 




Chrysanthemums. 

in this fair land and its people. Within the years that I 
have lived, the person of this man, whose guests we are, 
was considered too sacred for mortal eyes to gaze upon. 
No foreigner and very few natives could have access to 
him, — to look upon him was punishable bv death. He 
lived in seclusion, surrounded by his court, the source of 
all honor and power, without actual knowledge of his peo- 
ple or their needs. Another, even mightier than he, by 
inherited usurpation, administered the active duties ot the 



Tokio, the Capital 123 

Empire. But this great Emperor, when only a boy in 
years, tore away the traditions that had hedged about his 
family for the two thousand years or more that they haye 
ruled Japan. When the Tartars conquered China, his 
family was an old reigning one in this country. He has 
wiped out feudalism, changed the entire social system, gi\en 
his people a constitutional goyernment ; made the practice of 
religion free ; established a free public-school system, where 
rich and poor can receiye a liberal education ; encouraged 
and extended railroads, workshops, and electric plants ; 
opened up mines ; extended industries and enlarged com- 
merce until the flag of Japan is seen in e\ery eastern port. 
He has made his army and his nayy the most powerful in 
the far East, and watches oyer all with jealous care, seeking 
always for the best in personnel and material ; and should the 
time eyer come for Japan to defend herself, it will be a 
woful day for her enemy, come from whateyer quarter he 
may. Such is the \york of this great Emperor, who sits 
with us, in his scarlet blouse and blue trousers, sipping a 
cup of tea. 

Perhaps I should not haye intruded my thoughts here, as 
my intention was to describe the garden party, but the 
greatness of this man fills me with enthusiasm, and oyer- 
shadows the simple story. I cannot help contrasting the 
history of Japan as I haye read it, and the country and the 
people as I knew them twenty \ears ago, \yith the Japan of 
to-day as this great Emperor is shaping it. 

The rain that had been threatening all day commenced 
to fall in gentle patter upon the payilion roof, and about 
the same time the Imperial party arose from their seats, 
which of course was the signal for all to follow, and we 
were soon outside of the gardens, racing through the rain 
towards our hotel. Later in the eyening we took the train 
for Yokohama, yery tired but greatly pleased with the day's 
experiences. 




Shimonoseki, the Entrance to the Inland Sea of Japan. 



CHAPTER VIII 



KOBE, JAPAN 



ON the next afternoon we sailed for Kobe, where we 
arrived on the second day. We kept as close to the 
shore as possible, and had the full benefit of the beautiful 
scenery. Terraced hills, valleys, and picturesque villages that 
are scattered along the land varied the scene and delighted 
the eye. All about us, the little fishing-boats were sailed, 
sculled, or worked about in such manner as to compel us 
to pick our way, while the mischievous boatmen seemed to 
enjoy getting under our bows, and forcing us to change our 
course. The little shock-haired, browned fishermen would 
dip their colors and cheer us on every hand. The trip was 
more like an ovation than the dignified passage of a man-of- 
war, and I ha\e no doubt that these good people remem-' 



Kobe, Japan 



125 



bered the old ship and were glad to see her again, expressing 
their pleasure in this boisterous manner. 

Kobe and Hvogo adjoin each other^ and are situated on 
the Idzuminada, at the entrance to the beautiful Inland Sea, 
Both cities face the land-locked bav, stretch along its shores 
tor about three miles, extend inland tor about a mile to a 
range of lofty hills, where thev struggle up for a little dis- 
tance, then lose themselves under the almost perpendicular 
heights, whose tops form the beautiful plains of Arima. 




'The Falls" at Kobe, Japan. 

The foreign settlement, at Kobe, is governed by a Gov- 
ernor and a Council, composed of all the foreign Consuls, 
and three members elected by the property-holders. The 
settlement is well laid out with wide, clean roads, and is 
lighted with gas and electricitv. The water-front is pro- 
tected by a massive stone wall, which extends the whole 
length of Kobe, and behind this is a handsome road and 
driveway called the Bund. The landing is at the foot of 
massive stone steps, situated nearly in front of the mid- 



126 An American Cruiser in the East 

die of the settlement. The foreign houses are large and 
airy, being built of bricks covered with mortar, tinted in 
some pleasing shade, and they are surrounded by handsome 
grounds. Many of these houses face the Bund and water- 
front, and add to the beauty of the scene. 



Hyogo-Kobe, Japan 

The old native town of Hyogo is separated from Kobe 
by the river Minato, a narrow mountain stream spanned by 
a substantial stone bridge. Hyogo was not opened to 
foreign trade until 1892, when it was declared to be a part 
of Kobe. 

Hyogo is a very interesting town, 
where we see a busy, thriving native 
population, who are not much influ- 
enced by foreigners. Walks through 
its streets and glimpses of its gav, 
open shops and little manufac- 
tories are entertaining and instruc- 
tive. Everything is so novel and 
so different from what we have 
seen in the other cities and towns. 
The wares, the shapes, and the 
colors have been made to suit the 
native taste and use. Quaint and 
strange-shaped bowls and dishes, 
plaques, and tinv cups, in odd 
pieces and in sets of two, confront 
us in the shops, — Liliputian saki- 
bottles, in blue and white, or uglv 
browns and greens ; wide-mouthed 
vases, with chrysanthemum-like top 
broader than the base, and scalloped around the edges 
like the teeth of a saw ; wrouo;ht-iron tea-kettles, beauti- 




Japanese Wood-Pedler. 



Kobe, Japan 



129 



fully inlaid with silver filigree work, representing vines, 
monsters, or gods ; brass kettles, that have been pounded 
into shape, then chased and graven ; hair-pins, and the 
scores of knick-knacks that women use in their hair ; 
bows of blue, or pink, or red, to give brightness to the 
kimono ; mirrors in metal and in glass ; hundreds of cheap 
prints, novels, and fairy tales ; queer-looking and queer- 
tasting cakes and jellies, and great chunks of sweets, and 
nameless toys ; cats and do2;s, that might scare the crows 




Japanese Fruit Shop. 

from a field, and cocks that are just true enough to nature 
to have a place in a collection ; radishes that are two 
feet long; tomatoes, potatoes, and chestnuts that would 
easily take the prizes at our country fairs; old oak-trees 
that you could put into your coat-pocket, and hundreds 
of queer and odd things made for the every-day use of 
the natives. 

Beyond, and away from these streets of shops and trade, 
we come to other streets and roads just as full of people, 

9 



130 An American Cruiser in the East 

who are moving to and from the temples. The temple 
of Shinkoji has a very large bronze Buddha, which is 
placed in front of the building, where he smiles upon all 
who pass up or down the road, and no toll-keeper collects 
more willing contributions than does this silent pile of 
bronze. Poor indeed is the man, woman, or child who 
can pass by that face and not drop a cash or more. There 
is a curious old monumental stone in the courtyard, which 




Dry Giions Siioi', Kobe, Japan. 

declares in Japanese, Chinese, and English that " Bud- 
dhism was first introduced here, from China, more than a 
thousand years ago." 

Several hundred young girls were performing a religious 
dance in this temple, while its courtvard and the roads 
were filled with people participating in the festivities. 
When the dancing was ended, gifts of money and food 
were thrown from the tops of high bamboo towers to 
the poor people, who filled the temple-grounds. 

There is an interestino; old cemeter\- near the temples, 



Kobe, Japan 



131 



which is filled with quaint, moss-covered stones and monu- 
ments ; and near by, in a grove of old trees, stands a mon- 
ument that was erected in 1268 to the memory of the 
Japanese hero Kujormori. Thus does Japan honor the 
brave. 

Near the end of the town is an interesting little temple 
noted for its plainness and poverty. Materials have been 
most sparingly used in its construction. Its exterior is 
unpainted, weather-stained, and moss-grown; but the in- 




Japanese Dancing-Girls, — the "Geisha." 

terior is full of beauty, so fresh and bright that no one 
would dream it had weathered the storms of three hundred 
years and more. Its shrine contains a great brown Buddha, 
which at the time of our visit was almost buried in flowers, 
while crowds of gavly dressed musiimes were coming in, 
their arms filled with blossoms and flowers for its further 
adornment. 

Close by stands the old circular stone fort which has 
been there since before the davs of the Dutch. It was 



132 An American Cruiser in the East 



burned out, and is not susceptible of enlargement or strength- 
ening;, but stands with its cracked walls and closed ports, a 
wreck upon the land. 

As we retrace our steps, we see great streamers, flags, 
banners, and lanterns, which are displayed from the house- 
tops, giving the town a holiday appearance, and most as- 
tonishing signs hung out to advertise wares. Bareheaded 
men, gayly dressed women, with wide-eyed babies upon 
their backs, or following along in the 
crowd, make discordant music upon the 
hard walk with their little clogs. 
The scene, the bustle, and the great 
surging, polite, good-natured 
throng is thoroughly Japanese, 
" kimono and obi " prevail, while 
the people trip along, and bar- 
gain and shop from place to 
place. 

We crossed the great stone 
bridge, which spans the Minato 
and connects the two towns. 
It is almost like the aerial bridges 
of China, except that it is wider 
and heavier. We were forcibly 
impressed by its unnecessarily high 
ascent ; so great it is that jinrikisha 
men are compelled to go from one 
side to the other in making the 
ascent, and to repeat the operation in descending on the 
other side. The temple dedicated to Kusumski Masashegi 
stands near, on the Kobe side. This great warrior is 
famous in Japanese story for his loyalty and valor. He 
fell on the spot in 1336, during the unsuccessful war for 
the Restoration of the Mikado's power. 

The railroads in Japan are as fine as any in the world. 




|ai'anese Babies. 



Kobe, Japan 



133 



Kobe is connected with Osaka, twenty miles distant by a 
double-track road. This line has been extended to Kyoto 
(the old capital), a distance of twenty-seven miles from 
Osaka, to Nagoya and to Yokohama and Tokio. The 
whole system is called the Ko-kaido Railway, and its en- 
tire length is nearly four hundred miles. 

Another road, the Sanyo railway, is being rapidly pushed 




A Tkip imo the Country, — the "Kaga. 



on to Shimonoseki at the Yellow Sea entrance of the In- 
land Sea. 

At this place the Japanese government has extensive dock- 
yards which contain a patent slip capable of accommodat- 
ing a vessel of two thousand tons, where the government 
builds, and fits out, a large tonnage in cruisers, gun-ships, 
and torpedo vessels for its navy. It is nine hundred feet 
long, three hundred feet long above the water, thirtv- 
eight feet broad with a declivity of one in twenty, and is 
worked by hydraulic power. 



134 A'^ American Cruiser in the East 

The Imperial arsenal is situated in the eastern end of 
Kobe, where we saw a cruiser, with ram bow, and six tor- 
pedo vessels, together with their boilers, engines, and aux- 
iliaries in process of construction. The entire work was 
done by native superintendents and mechanics, and the 
intelligence, care, and workmanship displayed were sur- 
prising. The arrangement and equipment of the dock,, 
arsenal, and shops are admirable, and as complete as could 
be desired. 

We had been curious to discover what opportunities the 
bovs had for acquiring a knowledge of a trade, and learned 
that the bov is apprenticed by his father to a working-mah' 
whom he is expected to serve " faithfully and well." The 
man obligates himself to impart all the information he can,, 
and to explain, to the boy, the various operations and 
methods of his work. The boy commences his appren- 
ticeship when about twelve years of age, and remains until 
his majority. Whenever, from any cause, the working-man 
changes his place, the boy goes with him, as the shop- 
owner has no control over him, except in the matter of 
deportment ■, and as Japanese boys are well behaved, there 
is seldom any trouble. These youngsters frequently be- 
come draughtsmen and superintendents, as the door is 
alwavs wide open to the deserving young man in this pro- 
gressive Japan. 

Shipbuilding is a very important industry of Hyogo-Kobe,, 
and a number of iron, steel, and wooden vessels are built 
here annually. 

We strolled up the hillside to the temple of Hachiman, 
" the war-god," which is situated in a beautiful grove, and 
is surrounded by shrines and treasure-houses, that are filled 
with ancient armor, swords, spears, pennants, and trophies 
from Korea. Near by is the cage of the sacred white 
horse and the huts of the priests. The temple is ap- 
proached by a broad roadway of masonry, — a noble 



Kobe, Japan 



135 



avenue, — which extends through the city for several 
blocks, and is crossed, at intervals, by great stone torii and 
lanterns. 

To the beautiful grove of old trees crowds of people 
resort, after their devotions, to admire the trophies, eat 
rice and dainties, smoke tobacco, and sip tea, while ex- 
changing gossip or telling stories. The younger members 
of the party wander off to feed beans to the poor imprisoned 




Japanese Carpenters. 

horse, with his projecting ribs and pink eyes, clap their 
hands in merriment at the antics of the acrobats, climb 
over a blear-eyed god, and laugh and chatter over the fun 
and frolic. 

The raised river-bed of the Minatogawa, lined on each 
side with magnificent old pines, as straight as masts, many 
of them a hundred feet high, is a pleasure-ground for the 
inhabitants of both cities. Under the old trees, little sum- 
mer booths line the greensward banks, and tempt natives 



136 An American Cruiser in the East 

and foreigners to sip the saki, or lemonade, while enjoying 
the gentle breezes, the music of the soft samisan, and the 
song of the musiime ; old men fly kites, and boys toss 
the shuttlecock with the heels of their clo2;s. 




A Japanese BARiiEu Saor. 

Near by a merry family-party stops to rest ; the old 
man takes three whifFs from his infinitesimal bronze and 
bamboo pipe; the little women and men gambol on mats 
and greensward; the demure musiimes chatter in under- 
tone as they cast fugitive glances at the promenaders ; 




NuNABiKi Waterfall at Kobe, Japan. 



Kobe, Japan 139 

while the mother of the partv chats with a neighbor over 
the fence. 

All seem happy and joyous in Japan. No sad faces are 
seen, and if sadness fills any heart the clouds do not appear 
upon the countenance. 

The Montomachi, main street, running from the centre 
of Kobe through Hyogo, and losing itself in the country 
beyond, is a revelation and a delight. It is lined on both 
sides with tempting little shops, where beautiful wares are 
displayed. The fronts are all open, and the interiors can 
be seen from the street, which is only about twenty feet 
wide. 

Works of art, ancient armor and arms, bamboo furniture 
and ornaments, porcelains, fans, lanterns, jewelry, curios, 
old and new bronzes, wares of gold and colored lacquer; 
carvings in ivory and woods ; embroideries, silks, and the 
hundreds of nameless things that make up the native 
woman's finery ; fish, garden-produce, fruits and sweets, — 
are all temptingly arranged by the cunning, artistic shop- 
keepers, who are patiently squatting upon their little square 
mats, gazing into vacancy, apparently indifi^erent to the 
world and its surroundings, but well knowing that their 
beautiful wares are sure to draw you into their nets. 

Further down the street are establishments where some 
of the most precious articles of the ancient order can be 
seen, — articles that in the days of the Shoguns were sacred 
heirlooms in families that have been deposed. Many of 
these beautiful works of art are in gold, silver, bronze, steel, 
ivory, lacquer, porcelain, and silk ; armor that has resisted 
the spear's thrust, the arrow, and the battle-axe at the very 
gates of Seoul; swords that ha\'e hewn down countrymen 
and strangers, or perhaps have performed the hari-kari 
and saved a noble family from disgrace ; old i\'ories, bronzes, 
and porcelains, that decorated castles for hundreds of years, 
— all have found their ways here. As the settina; sun 



140 An American Cruiser in the East 

seems to gather the last rays of light and cast them like 
uncertain, scattering tints toward the eastern sky, so here 
we find the last trophies of the dying clans, gathered within 
the walls of these museums of art, where you and I may 
have our choice for the merest trifle. 

The dark hills behind Kobe, reaching to a height of 
twenty-five hundred feet, make a beautiful background for 
the settlement and its approaches. In the morning sun- 
light the hills are brightest green and purple, shading into 




One Mhihou (.>f Irrigating the Land in Japan. 

the color of night, while in the evening their blackness is 
dotted over with little red lights, which shine from the 
native huts that are scattered on their sides. 

The Nunabiki gathers its waters about the tops of these 
lofty hills, meanders for awhile, until, suddenly reaching 
a shelving place, it leaps over and dashes full a hundred 
feet into a basin that is surrounded by perpetual green, 
around which, as well as up the hillsides, the nature- 
loving natives have placed charming little summer-houses 



Kobe, Japan 141 

and tea-houses, where they enjoy the beautiful scenery and 
the waters. 

The waters, like sportive maidens, frolic and play in the 
basin, and then make another leap of a hundred feet, and 
go laughingly on to the sea. The scenery is just as it 
came from the hands of the Creator, wild and weird, a 
place of beauty, quiet, and rest ; and little bands of pilgrims 
come from every part of the country to wonder at, admire, 
and enjoy its beauties. 

The plains of Arima are situated behind these lofty hills, 
and as far as vision extends, — until lost on the horizon, 
where the fields seem to meet the sky, — nothing is seen 
but a vast greensward plain, smooth and level, like our 
own prairies of the West. 

Middle-Class Homes and Hospitality 

We were frequently entertained by native friends ; and 
as the native houses of Kobe are similar to millions of 
others all o\ er this fair land, I will describe one where we 
visited. 

The house stands about three feet above the ground 
on a foundation of bricks. It is two stories in height, 
built of wood, with an all-around projecting hip-roof of 
tiles. The sides and rear are enclosed by wooden walls 
with small openings for windows, while on the front both 
stories have sliding doors of thin wooden frames, covered 
with white paper. At night, and in stormy weather, 
heavy wooden shutters are set up in front of these papered 
frames, and secured on the inside. An oiled and polished 
wooden porch, about thirty inches wide, extends across 
the front. 

Vines are trained upon the enclosed sides of the house 
for beauty and for their cooling effect in keeping off the 
sun's rays in summer. A litttle vestibule, or reception- 



142 An American Cruiser in the East 

room, is just outside of the front door, where visitors are 
received, and are expected to exchange their clogs or shoes 
for slippers before entering the house. It would be a gross 
insult to go in upon the beautiful white matting with soiled 
clogs or shoes. 



A Japanese Clog-Maker. 

Having donned our slippers, we ascend one step, which 
brings us to the main floor, — into the house proper. Each 
entire floor is one room, but is divided into several com- 
partments by sliding doors or screens, which are tastefully 
ornamented and so arranged that they can be moved about 
in grooves that are built with the house. Each screen has 
a little bronze casting let into its edge which serves as knob 
to lift it or move it about. 

The floors are covered with beautiful white rice-straw 
mats, about six feet long, three feet wide, and three inches 
thick. Soft silk, crape, and cotton cushions, about two 
feet square and one inch thick, filled with cotton-wool, are 
placed about the floor. Imitating our host, each of us sat 
upon a mat. A small lacquered table, containing tiny cup 



Kobe, Japan 



43 



and saucer of finest blue-and-white porcelain, a bowl of 
sweets, and a cut of sweet rice cake, similar in appearance 
and taste to sponge cake, was placed before each of us. 
These little tables were about one foot high and one foot 
square, with a shelf half-way between top and bottom. 

On the eastern side of the room was a platform of hand- 
some oiled wood, raised about five inches above the floor. 
Upon the centre of the platform stood a handsome blue-and- 
white vase, filled with chrysanthemums ; and suspended 
upon the wall, behind the vase, was a " kakemono," a silk 
scroll, handsomely embroidered with the Imperial flower. 




A Japanese Home Dinner. 

In a few moments a large brazier, containing a kettle 
of boilino; water, was brought in and fixed in a place pre- 
pared for it, in the centre of the room. A handsome metal 
box containing tea leaves was handed to each guest. We 
placed a pinch of the leaves in our tiny cups, and they were 
filled with the boiling water. Placing a sweet in the mouth 
and sipping the delicious tea, with broken morsels from the 



144 A^^ American Cruiser in the East 

rice cake, was the mode. All the while our host and host- 
ess were doing their best in polite, flowery, honorific Anglo- 
Japanese to entertain us, and render our visit pleasant. 




Japanese Doctor and Patient. 

These people have no stoves. When it is cool they 
depend upon thicker clothing for the body, and the coals in 
the brazier, for warming hands and feet. When it becomes 
very cold, they make a good charcoal fire in the brazier, 
place a wooden frame about it, spread a heavy quilt over 
all, and sit or lie on a large, heavv cushion, with their feet 
towards the brazier, pulling the quilt up around their bodies, 
thus keeping warm while reading or chatting. Often they 
begin the cold winter evenings in this fashion, while telling 
blood-curdling stories of murderous robbers, or of the deeds 
of valor of some native hero. 

The floors of the kitchens are made of plain oiled 
boards, which can be raised, like thap-doors. Under these 
the familv stores of charcoal and other articles are kept. 
A large brazier is placed near the middle of the kitchen 



Kobe, Jcipaii 



H5 



where the family cooking is done ; and near by is a clay- 
furnace, "• hetsui," containing the large iron rice-boiler 
which is so necessary in every Japanese family. 

The walls are decorated with numerous utensils for culi- 
nary purposes, but there are neither chairs nor tables. 
Food is prepared on a short piece of board that is sup- 
ported on two legs, — " mana-ita." 

Charcoal and wood are the fuel in general household 
use. There is plenty of coal in the country, much of it 
of excellent quality ; but it is too expensive for ordinary 
household use. 




How They Sleep in Japan. 

The sleeping-rooms, on the second floor, are similar in 
appearance to the room in which we were entertained. A 
closet, with sliding door, is built on one side of the room, 
and serves as receptacle for beds and bedding when not in 
use. The beds are large quilted mats of silk, or cotton 
goods, about seven feet long, four wide, and three inches 
thick, and are spread out upon the white mat-covered floor. 



146 An American Cruiser in the East 

The head, which is always elaborately dressed, is supported 
by a little cushion that serves as a pillow, and is fitted into 
a wooden frame resting upon the floor. A small cabinet 
for cosmetics and a pair of metal mirrors complete the fur- 
niture of the room. 

There are no people in the world who indulge in bath- 
ing more frequently than the Japanese, and their bathing 
arrangements are very simple. A large, unpainted tub is 




The Family Bath, Japan, 

placed in some secluded spot in the house or garden, and 
nearly filled with water of a temperature that would almost 
turn a lobster red. Kimono and clogs quickly removed, 
and the natives spring into the tub, and scrub and rub 
and knead to their heart's content, the operation being 
repeated two, three, and often four times a day. There 
are public baths in all cities for both males and females, 
where a little tub of hot water and a place on the cemented 
floor (where they can rub and scrub and douch) can be had 
for less than half a cent. 



Kobe, Japan 



^M 




Making the Toilet, Japan. 



Japanese Girls and Women 

The life of a woman in Japan is unique, and very dif- 
ferent from that of her sister in the United States. Her 
birth into the world is heralded for several weeks in advance 
by a gaudy flag or streamer from the housetop. When she 
is seven davs old, her head is shaven, with great ceremony, 
and kept partially so until her sixth year. During her 
infancy she is carried about strapped to the back of an older 
sister, or perhaps her grandmother. When she is large 
enough to take care of herself, she plays in the open air at 
shuttlecock, gazes at the acrobats, and romps in the temple- 
grounds. 

She is by instinct modest and polite, and does not know 
what disobedience or rebellion means. Her education is 
on the lines of etiquette, ceremonies, poetry, the language 
of flowers, and obedience to men. At fifteen she has de- 
veloped into a well-knit woman, — a rosy-cheeked brunette, 
with dark, velvety eyes, — and is as bright as the sunshine. 



148 An American Cruiser in the East 

She dresses according to her station in lite. If she can 
afford it, she wears a kimono of silk or crape, which is held 
about the waist by a cord. Over the cord is placed a long 
sash, or " obi," ten inches wide, and about twelve feet long. 
This sash is wound about the waist, and made into a great 
bow at. the back. It is made of silk woven with threads, 
of gold, and forms the chief ornament. Her black tresses 
are subjected to frequent baths of rapeseed oil, and by the 
aid of decorated pins, combs, and pads, are formed into 
mounds and waves. She sleeps by resting her neck on a 
wooden pillow, " ma kora," and is enabled to keep her 
hair in good condition for several days. She goes to 
flower shows, the theatre, and to festivals, but she is 
always accompanied by her father, and knows nothing of 
flirtations. Her friends are all of her own sex. 




The IIair-dresser in Japan. 



Kobe, Japan 



149 



The Japanese take little note of affection, social position, 
or money when marriages are discussed, the all-important 
point being consideration for perpetuating the family name. 
No greater misfortune could befall a couple than to be 
childless, and this is the cause of the great number of 
divorces in Japan. An old maid or bachelor is almost 
unknown. The girl is not consulted, and has no voice in 
the selection of her future husband. 




The Sick Babe, Japan. 

Marriages are arranged by the middleman, or " nakado." 
He interviews the relatives of both, carries on the court- 
ing, is master of ceremonies at the marriage, and acts on 
all matters of discord between husband and wife. He 
settles all family matters, has power to grant divorce, and 
arrange the settlement of property. He brings the young 
people together for the first time. The girl must submit 
to an inspection, and if she is satisfactory to her future 
husband, the matter is settled. If not, the man leaves, 
and the engagement is off. When the engagement is 



ICO An American Cruiser in the East 



made, there is an exchange of presents of clothing and 
flowers. 

On the day of the wedding the girl covers her face with 
rice-paint, rouges her lips, and dresses in white garments, — 
the color for mourning, — emblematic of her death to her 
father's family. All of her property is sent to her mother- 
in-law, and after her depart- 
ure the house is thoroughly 
cleaned, indicating that she is 
no longer of the family. 

In old times, the father's 
parting gift was a short sword, 
with the admonition to the girl 
to commit suicide, " harikari," 
if she failed to please her hus- 
band. The wedding takes 
place at the home of the 
man's family, to which the 
girl has been escorted by the 
" nakado," where she changes 
her mourning kimono for one 
of colors presented by her fu- 
ture husband. The house is 
tastefully decorated with flow- 
ers, and in one corner of the 
room two wooden figures are 
dressed as an old man and 
woman, being intended to signify long life for the bride 
and groom. 

Religion and law have very little to do with these wed- 
dings. They partake of the nature of an agreement, and 
can be terminated at any time by mutual consent. The 
man kneels at one side of the room, where he is joined by 
the bride, the "nakado," and members of the families. 
They kneel, facing each other, and the man hands the 




A Tattooed Japanese. 



Kobe, Japan 



51 



bride a cup of saki, from which she sips and returns it 
to him. This ceremony of drinking is repeated nine times 
to the accompaniment of music from an adjoining room, 
and this means that henceforth the husband and wife — for 
they are now united — will drink from the same cup, 
whether it be of prosperity or adversity. The relatives now 
enter, and a feast follows. 




Japanese Cooper. 

When the guests have departed, the bridal chamber is 
sought, and nine cups are again emptied. The husband is 
then served by the bride, who makes low obeisances, and 
by all means in her power indicates her belief in her hus- 
band's superiority. From this time the husband's power 
is supreme, his will is law. 

After these ceremonies the woman blackens her teeth, 
shaves her eyebrows, and does all in her power to render 
herself as unattractive to other men as possible; but this 
practice is rapidly dying out. From childhood she is taught 
perfect obedience, first to her father, then to her husband 



152 An American Cruiser in the East 

and her husband's family ; and if" she becomes a widow, 
then to her son. She is tender, gentle, and womanly, but 
there is no romantic homage to her. She has limited 
privileges, and demands no rights. 

The railway terminus is at the boundary line between 
Kobe and Hyogo, and extensive car-buildings and repair- 
shops are on the grounds. There are Protestant and 
Catholic churches in Kobe, and an excellent club, recrea- 
tion-ground, and three ftrst-class hotels in the foreign 
settlement. 

The population of both towns is about one hundred and 
sixty thousand. The foreign residents of Kobe number 
about six hundred, not including the Chinese, who number 
one thousand and twenty. 

Five dailv papers are published, three of which are in the 
English language, and two in Japanese. 

The harbor is commodious, and affords safe anchorage 
for vessels of large tonnage. Tea, rice, camphor, vege- 
table wax, copper, matting, porcelain, and curiosities are 
the most important articles of export. 

The value of the import trade is about 526,501,670; 
that of the exports, $17,314,595. There are 23,679,977 
pounds of tea shipped from this port, the whole of which 
goes to the United States and Canada. 




Picking Tea Leaves in Japan. 



CHAPTER IX 



OSAKA, JAPAN 



TWENTY miles of railroad travel over a finely made 
road, through a scenerv varied by gardens, villages, 
and forests, delights the eve, and brings us to Osaka. This, 
the second city of the Empire, is situated on the Ajiawa 
River, about five miles from the sea, in the province of 
Settsu, and is an extensive manufacturing centre. Its 
houses are well built and close together, and the streets are 
well laid out, regular, and beautifully clean. Three hun- 
dred bridges span its canals, and it has been called the 
"Venice of the East." 

Osaka is thoroughly native, and is not influenced by the 
foreigner. It is a pushing, driving city, and has been 



154 ^^ American Cruiser in the East 

likened to some of our rapid growing cities of the West. 
The Imperial mint is located here, and its coinage is not 
surpassed by any in the world. The porcelains of Osaka 
are well known and admired throughout the world. Its 
bronzes are of the finest, and they are deservedly famous. 
The silk shops display the richest goods that can be pro- 
duced. Some of its mills send out beautiful patterns in rugs, 
druggets, and carpets, and others produce cotton cloths that 




Jaiam-m: Ca];inet-Maki:k at ().^\k 



rival the texture of India lawns. The iron-works are 
deservedly famous, and the ship-building yards send forth 
the steamers whose shrill Calliopes make the earlv morn- 
ings and the nights hideous about Kobe. Osaka is so 
much of a manufacturing centre that it will be well for the 
political economists and manufacturers of the world to 
remember the artistic tastes, mechanical genius, deft fingers, 
and cheap labor of Japan when making their calculations 
for the future. 

The city is the seat of the Pro\'incial government, and its 



Osaka, Japan 



H5 



scenes are similar to those of the other great cities. The pag- 
eantry of the court, the handsome equipages of the officials, 
the great throngs of people, in native and foreign dress, the 
sedan chairs, the jinrikisha and street cars, and the soldiers 
in red and blue uniforms, make a picturesque foreground 
for the gay, open shops which line the streets. 

Osaka was the capital and military camp of the Toku- 
gawa Shoguns. For more than four centuries they shaped 




Japanese Pottery at Osaka, Japan. 

the country's course, and made its history, from this city 
on the Ajiawa; and it was here they met their fate, and 
played the last act in the drama of usurpation, by surrender- 
ing to the Mikado, in 1868. 

The castle of the Shoguns was erected by Hido-Yashi, in 
1583, and is one of the finest specimens of the ancient 
feudal castle to be found in Japan, rivalling the palace of 
the Mikado at Tokio. It is now garrisoned by troops 
of the Imperial army, and is the military headquarters and 
arsenal of this district. The arsenal, situated in the castle- 



156 An American Cruiser in the East 

grounds, contains vast quantities of military stores and 
arms. 

The Haku Butsu, " great bazaar," is filled with speci- 
mens of almost everything made in Japan : antiques, 
lacquers, screens, porcelains, embroideries, gold and silver 
and bronze work. Side by side are the newest and the 
oldest, beautiful things and grotesque, rich goods and 
common, — all attract the natives, who delight to stroll 
through the roads and enjoy its sights. 

The Temroji temple and pagoda are fine specimens of 
Japanese religious architecture, and the little dingy island 
hotel is a comfortable place to rest in after tramping over 
the great city. 

The population of Osaka is 500,324 souls. Its imports 
are ^4,840,507, and the exports are ^1,000,601. 

From Kobe to Nagasaki, through the 
Inland Sea of Japan 

We sail in and out as we thread our way among the 
islands which dot the Inland Sea of Japan, — the beautiful 
water which connects the Pacific Ocean with the Eastern 
sea. Terraced hills, dark valleys, bamboo-combed rido-es, 
line its shores, and behind them great black mountain ranges, 
whose peaks are lost beyond the clouds ; while here and 
there cities, towns, villages, and temples add their beautv. 
Oueer, square sailing-junks and little fishing-boats are 
passed, and the sea and sky lend enchantment to the scene, 
as the white ship speeds on her way, with steam and great 

spread of canvas, with the starrv banner at her peak, a 

thing of beautv on the beautiful water. 

We pass from the sea through the beautiful but treacher- 
ous Straits of Shimonoseki, the " Gibraltar of Japan," where 
fortress on fortress, bristling with guns, terrace the hills 
where the busy garrisons are adding strength to the strong- 



Osaka, Japan 



159 



holds, and the huge black piles of coal await the coming of 
the iron and steel monsters. Between these grim hills, the 
treacherous waters curl and twist and turn, forming danger- 
ous eddies and whirlpools ; but having safely passed through 
them, we hug the shore while keeping well inside of outlying 
islands until we reach Papinberg, at the entrance, where we 
feel our way through the long narrow channel to Nagasaki. 




Japanese Sampax Ferry. 

The scenery all the while is varied and attractive, A fine 
pebbly beach extends inland to terraced hills of waving 
rice ; bamboo-combed mountains are in the distance ; and 
neat little hamlets of tiny native huts lie about the valleys 
and hillsides. 



Nagasaki, Japan 

Nagasaki is situated on the southwestern coast of the island 
of Kiushiu. The harbor is about three miles long, and 
its greatest width is one mile. It is land-locked, and is one 
of the most picturesque harbors in the world. To compare it 



i6o An American Cruiser in the East 

with another is absurd, for there is but one Nagasaki. The 
city is very old, and was the most important trading port 
of Japan in the early days of foreign intercourse. Near 
here, in 1637, were enacted the scenes attendant upon the 
extinction of Christianity in Japan. The celebrated island 
of Papinberg, at the harbor's entrance, is the spot where 
thousands of Christian martyrs, rather than renounce their 



<-*«i8~ 




Up the Mountain Stream, Nagasaki, Japan. 

religion and trample upon the cross, suffered themselves to 
be thrown over the high cliff into the sea. 

The native city is about two miles long and one mile 
wide, extending along the water-front, and following up the 
hills until they become too steep, where it loses itself in 
straggling summer-houses, tea-houses, and pleasure-houses 
among the gravestones, and the little terraced rice-fields. 
From this elevation a beautiful panorama of hills, valley, 
and sea is spread out before us ; and the " sampans," 
with their covered cabins, appear like white gondolas gliding^ 
through the waters of the beautiful harbor. 



Osaka, Japan 



163 



After the Christian religion had been crushed out, and 
the foreigners expelled, the Dutch were granted the privi- 
lege of trading with Japan. On the departure of their 
vessel for Holland, they were compelled to leave hostao-es 
for its return. The problem of taking care of these host- 
ages arose, and the governor looked about the city, strolled 
down to the water's edge, and, opening his fan, said, " Make 




An Old Stone Bridge, Nagasaki, Japan. 

an island like this." This was done, houses were built for 
the accommodation of the hostages, and, that they might be 
safeh kept, the windows were secured with bars of heavy 
iron. Thus the Dutchmen found themselves prisoners on 
the fan-shaped island of Deshema. 



The O'Sueva, or Bronze-Horse temple, stands upon a 
hill behind the citv, and is approached bv a wide roadway 
of huge stone slabs, spanned at intervals by great stone 
torii, behind whose columns stand massive stone lanterns. 



1 64 An American Cruiser in the East 

The roadway crosses the mountaui torrent by a fine old 
stone bridge, — a piece of engineering said to be several 
hundred years old. The roadway is lined on both sides 
by little shops and booths which extend almost to the 
temple. 

The temple is situated in a large courtyard which con- 
tains a life-size sacred bronze horse, colossal stone lanterns 
and a sacred font, the whole surrounded by a dense grove 
of old trees, where the natives congregate to enjoy the 
beautiful surroundings and scenery. 

At the entrance to the temple stand " Gog and Magog " 
in gigantic, barbaric hideousness, seeming ready to strike 
down any intruder. The temple is a mass of dingy col- 
umns supporting a tent-shaped tiled roof, and enclosed by 
wooden walls. There are three altars, each having a 
Buddha with different attributes. Before each is placed a 
grated box, to receive offerings, and a bell-cord is so located 
that the devout can call the attention of the god required. 

A trip through the korausha, or bazaar, gives an idea of 
the wonderful artistic and industrial life of the people of this 
section of the Empire. Here we see beautiful cabinets, 
tables, and boxes of various styles and design, made of 
natural colored woods, — almost incomprehensible boxes, 
which, turn them as you may, you cannot open unless you 
know the secret ; embroideries in gold and colored silks ; 
magnificent old brocades of gold and silver threads; stuffed 
birds, so natural as to cause surprise ; lacquer boxes and 
tables and trays, that rival, in decoration and color, the 
temples of the Shoguns ; handsome and grotesque bronzes ; 
old and new tapestries ; beautiful ornaments in glass and 
gold and silver; carved ivory and wood in many designs ; 
porcelains and pottery ; fruit and flower stands, where one 
may find his favorite rosebud or chrysanthemum. The 
crowds of shock-headed men, gayly dressed women, and 



Osaka, Japan 



165 



shaven-headed babies trip along good-humoredly, and add 
to the beautiful scenes. Chatting together or singing on 
the way, they seem to go through life in a merry, happy 
way, living close to nature, as their religion teaches, 




Japanese Toy Pedler. 

gathering the sweets as thev go. Contracted brows and 
sad faces are only seen on the gods and temple guardians. 

The ancient Dutch prison-houses on the bridge-guarded 
island of Deshema are historically interesting, though now 
they have been converted into storehouses where beautiful 
porcelains from Hizen, Hirado, Arita, and Imari can be 
seen. Here are shown unique designs and decorations, — 
the finest porcelains in Japan. 

Tortoise-shell work is a thriving industry of Nagasaki. 
One may stroll along the " Curio " street and see scores 
of busy artisans sawing, cutting, carving, and polishing, 
while fashioning this beautiful shell into the many designs 
that please foreign taste. 

There are several shops on this street where there are 
exhibitions of fine specimens of ancient swords, axes, spears, 



1 66 An American Cruiser in the East 

and armor, inlaid with gold, silver, and bronze ; old porce- 
lains in blue and white, and in varied colors ; and old 
brocades and silks, worth more than their weight in gold. 
Lacquered ware, cunningly inlaid with mother of pearl and 
gold, grotesque articles in porcelain, ivory, and rare woods, 
together with bronzes, old and new, are some of the pro- 
ductions of these patient people. 

The fishino; interests of Nagasaki are extensive, and many 







Fish and Fresh Provision Shot, Japan. 

tons of fine fish are caught, dried, and salted for the market. 
Hundreds of little fishing-boats go outside to deep sea 
soundings, where they remain until thev secure the catch 
they desire, or are driven in by bad weather. A short trip 
outside of the harbor, at night, soon brings us in sight of 
the great fleet, — a scene of enchantment. As far as the 
eye can reach we see the little reddish-white lights of the 
fishermen, twinkling as the everlasting roll of the sea gives 
them undulating motion that sends weird rays through the 
surrounding blackness. 



Osaka, Japan 



169 



. The feast of lanterns is held in October, after the har- 
vests. For days preparations are being made, and the 
festival is talked about. Cakes and cookies and sweets, 
and all the mysterious things the Japanese mother can 
devise to tempt the appetite and gratify the palate, are 
prepared. In the mean time, the male portion of the com- 
munity is busy with preparations ; houses are decorated, 
lanterns, flags, and transparencies are purchased or im- 




Artists Decorating Lanterns. 

provised, wagons are decorated, and " floats " arranged. 
When the night arrives, the people are in a fever-heat of 
expectancy ; houses are illuminated ; a great torch-li2;ht 
procession with beating drums, ringing bells, decorated 
wagons and floats, banners and illuminated transparencies, 
marches through a section of the citv, and pandemonium 
reigns amid this good-natured throng of men and women. 

After going over as much of the city as possible, the 
procession is so timed as to arrive at the head of the har- 
bor about midnio;ht, when all who have had relative or 



170 An American Cruiser in the East 

friend lost at sea or anywhere drowned, launch a miniature 
sampan made of rice-straw, gayly decorated and filled 
with provisions. A bright light is placed inside of the 
little sampan, so that the spirit, whose name is painted in a 
conspicuous place, can distinguish it. Many of these little 
craft are stranded and burn upon the beach of the long 
harbor, while many others float out to sea to hunt the lost 
spirit whose earth-name is borne upon its frail bow. 

After launching these little boats, the people re-form in 
family groups, and with lighted lanterns and a store of pro- 
visions wend their way up the hills, amongst the graves, 
where they feast with their dead. They believe that the 
spirits are present and enjoy the feast with them. The 
feast lasts for two nights and days, and when it is ended 
refreshments are left at the graves so that the spirits can 
feast at their pleasure. 

After another trip through the " Curio " street, where we 
inspected the beautiful specimens of armor and arms, old 
porcelains and silks, reminders of the last Shoguns and their 
faithful henchmen, and watched the cunning artisans fash- 
ioning beautiful designs in tortoise-shell, we strolled up the 
hill to the Shinto temple. Turning from the street into 
a flight of wide stone steps, which is flanked on each side 
by heavy retaining walls, we mounted the thirty or more 
steps which brought us under the torii and into the temple 
courtyard, — a large terrace bordered on all sides with fine 
old trees. A stone well for ablutions is fixed in the centre 
of the court, and numerous elaborately carved stone lan- 
terns are scattered about in artistic disorder. 

The temple is of plain, old unpainted wood, as the teach- 
ings of the Shinto faith require, and is more impressive 
from its great size and its surroundings than for architectu- 
ral beauty or decoration. Massive pillars of bright wood, 
capped with heavy green-bronzed heads, give support to 
great girders and lintels with curious bronze ends ; and little 



Osaka, Japan 



171 



birds fly about, and chirp from their nests between the 
rafters which support the black tiled roof. 




A Funeral Procession- i.\ Japan. 

The matted floor is soiled from use and age. The 
shrineless altar, with its sacred white papers and the great 
metal mirror overhead, adds to the beautiful simplicity of the 
interior. A couple of bonzes, priests, in elegant robes, 
were moving about in preparation for some event. 

As we were about leaving the temple we met a proces- 
sion of white-robed natives, two and two, each man bearing 
a massive bouquet of artificial flowers. Body-bearers bore 
a beautiful white-wood box which was about thirty inches 
square, and the same in height, with a slanting cover upon 
it like the hipped roof of a house. A body had been 
placed in this box in a sitting position, with the knees 
under the chin, and the head pressed forward. This coffin, 
or box, was placed close in front of the temple altar, while the 
persons composing the procession formed a triangle about it, 
the vertex of the triangle being towards the entrance, and 



172 An American Cruiser in the East 

the sides extending towards the chancel rail. One of the 
priests pulled the bell-rope to call the god, then all present 
engaged in silent prayer. The ceremony lasted for about 
half an hour, and there was no sound except the ringing ot 
the bell, the clapping of hands, and the chirping of the little 
birds under the roof. One of the priests then clapped his 
hands three times, when all bowed low ; the procession 
re-formed, and the body was borne out of the temple. 

When the procession reached the great porch of the 
temple, one of the priests opened a little wooden cage and 
set a beautiful white dove free. The freed bird circled 
round and round, each time widening its circle, until it had 
about completed the third, when it started off and upward, 
almost in a straight line, and was soon lost to sight, 
emblematic of the flight of the freed spirit. 




Coffin and Funeral Ornaments. Japan. 

The little company now resumed its march, slowly and 
reverently moving up the hills to the spot where the remains 
of their friend were to be hidden from the sight ot men. 



Osaka, Japan 



73 



A drive around the beautiful harbor brings us to the old 
native fort whose guns were always pointed towards the 
devoted island of Deshema, lest the poor Dutch hostages 
should forget their captivity and endeavor to enjoy the free- 
dom of the neighboring hills. Lotus-helds and beautiful 
flowers are bevond. Charming scenes are through the \ale 
to the right, and the Russian village that skirts the harbor is 
in the valley through which the terrible tvphoon sweeps, 




A Japanese Country House near Xacasaki, Japan. 

and where we meet the odd-looking half-breeds who re- 
semble neither Japanese nor Cossacks. 

Turning inland, we dismount, walk up a very steep hill 
to view the surroundino- countrv and harbor, and are o-reeted 
by a magnificent sight of mountains, hills, valleys, and 
clouds of wonderful shapes and colors, with the smooth, 
mirror-like harbor at our feet. Near us is the new resi- 
dence of the kenshaw, or governor, imposing in size, of the 
Russo-Japanese style of architecture, situated on a com- 
manding bluff at the head of the harbor, and surrounded bv 



174 An American Cruiser in the East 

a handsome garden, which is also the official weather signal 
station, where the approach of typhoons are about as well 
foretold as rains are foretold at home. 

We visited one of the public schools, situated on a hill 
near the kenshaw. The schoolhouse is a rectangular 
building, light and airy, externally having the appearance 
of an immense conservatory, as it is almost entirely made 
up of windows, doors, and roof. It is about two hundred 




In the Rice-Field. 

feet long, one hundred feet wide, and two stories high. It 
stands in a courtyard about as large as two of our city 
blocks. The interior of the building is divided into corri- 
dors and class-rooms, each of which is fitted with little 
tables, seats, and blackboards. 

To give some idea of the appreciation of the schools by 
the people, our dri\'er informed us, with a great deal of 
pride in his manner, that his children attended this school. 

Further on, we left the hills and re-entered our vehicle, 
crossing two of the fine stone bridges that have spanned 



Osaka, Japan 177 

this mountain torrent for centuries. Then we went up 
the road, which leads along the falls, to see the crazy old 
mill whose race passes over one wheel and under another, 
as it furnishes power from the flowing waters, to grind the 
people's rice. 

Crossing the city, we meet groups of men and women 
returning from their daily toil of gathering twigs from 
among the trees on the hillsides, and behind them groups of 
charcoal-venders, who have their little crossed piles of coals 
swung from bamboo poles, borne upon their shoulders, — 
every one of them having a pretty little nosegay, or bou- 
quet in hand, or on the burden, so dearly do these people 
love flowers. 

Pushing on up the hill, amongst the graves, we reach a 
favorite tea-house, where we stop awhile for rest and re- 
freshments. Having exchanged our shoes for light slippers, 
we pass over the white-matted floor to the verandah beyond, 
where we enjoy the beautiful scenery while awaiting the 
preparation of our luncheon. Soon the Honorable Miss 
Bamboo and the Honorable Miss Chrysanthemum make 
their appearance, and, falling upon their knees, exchange 
the compliments of the day, and receive our orders. 

After a time the luncheon is spread before us in Ameri- 
can fashion, and with sharpened appetites we proceed to 
make our honorable waitresses stare at the way the good 
things disappear. Stare, did I say? I did not mean exactly 
that, for no one stares in Japan except the great-eyed 
babies ; but as the Japanese, when compared to us, have 
such butterfly-like appetites, we think they ought to stare 
when we are enjoying our luncheon after a hard day's 
tramp. 

There is a fine dry-dock of stone with extensive manu- 
facturing and repair shops on the western side of the har- 
bor. The dock and works were built by the Japanese 



178 An American Cruiser in the East 

government, but they are now the property of a private cor- 
poration. The dock is 483 feet long (inside of caisson, at 
top), its length on blocks is 375 feet, its breadth of entrance 
at top 89, and at bottom 77 feet, its depth of water on blocks 
at spring tides 27 feet 6 inches, and neap tides 22 feet. 

Nagasaki has an abundant supply of good water, which 
is supplied to the people by means of hydrants on every 
block. The reservoir holds nearly 100,000,000 gallons, 
which pass through three filter beds and a supply reservoir 
before its delivery to the people. A railway is being con- 
structed from Kumamoto to Nagasaki, a distance of one 
hundred miles. It is now open as far as Moji, about five 
miles distant. 

The coal mines at Yackashema, an island which lies 
about six miles southeast of the entrance to Nagasaki, are 
very interesting. They now extend out under the sea, 
and a trip to them, including the descent of the shaft and 
the exploration of their vast passages, is an experience 
never to be forgotten. There one sees the little brown, 
blackened Japs, picking, wheeling, trucking, and sending 
the coal to the surface, with their tiny safety lamps, like 
Liliputian head-lights, to guide them, and one feels a realiz- 
ing sense of being so far under the sea. When the fresh 
air is reached, and one's feet are fixed upon the green- 
sward, the sensation is one of great relief.^ 

We devoted an afternoon to a trip to the crematory, 
which is located on the top of one of the highest hills 
behind Nagasaki. Our guide was a little superstitious, 
and, when he learned our destination, he refused to go with 
us ; so, United States fashion, we went without him. Not 

^ There are several very productive coal mines near Nagasaki, of 
which the Yackashema mine is the most important, the production 
being over 300,000 tons in one year; that of the Nakamashema 
mine is 125,509 tons, and the aggregate production of the various 
mines in the locality is about 800,000 tons. 



Osaka, Japan 



179 



being able to find the road, we concluded that " all roads 
lead to Rome," and struck out across the country, over 
rice-fields and terraces, climbing over parapets, and at 
times going a long way around to avoid the flooded rice- 
fields. The tramp was particularly fatiguing, as the mer- 
cury had taken a sudden jump up into the nineties for 
our benefit. Tired out, but undaunted, we finally reached 
our destination, and found the place well worth the visit, 
but, I must confess, a little mournful. 




Japanese Bull Cart. 

The building is a massive brick structure, with a tall 
chimney of the same material, and it is situated in a barren 
courtyard. A little Japanese summer-house, with white 
awnings and massive black characters, stands to the right 
of the entrance, and a great pile of cord-wood is neatly 
lined up behind it. There are no trees on the premises, 
no sounds ; not even the note of a stray bird breaks the 
awful stillness of this Dives-like inferno, man's device to 
cheat time and rob the worm. 



i8o An American Cruiser in the East 



We entered through a large central doorway which 
opens into a wide hall that extends across the entire breadth 
of the building and meets two other halls which extend 
to the rear. The hallways are lined with furnaces, so 
placed that their backs form the base of the great one- 
hundred-and-fiftv-feet-high chimney. The furnaces ex- 
tending across the front hall are reserved for the rich, while 
those opening into the side halls are on one side designed 




"The Old Mill" at Nagasaki, Japan. 

for the middle classes and on the other side for the poorer 
people. The furnaces are rectangular iron boxes, built in 
with the brick work, with an opening in the back end 
near the top of each, and each furnace door is fitted with 
a regulating damper. 

When a body is to be cremated, the religious services, 
if any, are held in the hallway. A known quantity of 
cord-wood is spread over the bottom of the furnace, then 
the body is placed upon an iron truck, the truck is run 
into the furnace over the wood, the wood is ignited, the 



Osaka, Japan i8i 

door closed, its edges made tight with luted clay, and in 
one hour the body is reduced to ashes. The door is then 
opened, the truck is drawn out of the furnace, the ashes 
are carefully gathered from the truck and placed in a vase, 
the top of which is sealed and marked. At this point my 
companion became nervous, and imagined all sorts of 
horrible things, and it was with great difficulty that I could 
quiet him, and get him into condition to make our down- 
ward journey. 

Our descent was pleasanter than the ascent as we tried 
a road which led us directly to the Bund, and we were 
soon on board of our ship. 

The climate of Nagasaki is mild in winter, and healthy 
at all seasons of the year. It is hot in summer by reason 
of the situation of the town on a plain surrounded by high 
hills. 

During the last few years the foreign trade has steadily 
improved. The chief articles of import are cotton and 
woollen goods. The principal exports are coal, tea, cam- 
phor, rice, and dried fish.^ 

The " Rising Sun," a small English weekly paper, is 
published here, and also two native papers. 

There are Protestant and Catholic churches, mission 
houses and schools in the settlement, which is just south 
of the native city. 

Moji, Japan 

Moji, an important fishing village, containing about five 
thousand inhabitants, is situated on the opposite side of the 
island from Nagasaki, about five miles distant. It is now 

1 The value of the import trade of Nagasaki was $3,000,133, and 
that of the export trade $3,482,226. Coal is the chief article of ex- 
port, amounting to nearly one half of the whole export trade. 

The population of Nagasaki is 60,860. The number of foreign 
residents is 1,006, of whom 671 are Chinese. 



1 82 An American Cruiser in the East 

reached by a broad new pass cut through the mountains, 
in a country justly celebrated tor its beautiful scenery, 
formerly, the distance was about eight miles by a narrow 
country road that wound upwards and over the mountain- 
tops. Thousands of men and women were employed in 
removing this great mass ot earth and rock with tiny shovels 
and baskets which hold about a peck of earth. The pass 
through the mountains is about one hundred feet wide and 
about one mile and a half long, and the banks are more 
than three hundred feet high. The road-bed has been so 
carefully made that it is as hard and smooth as a well-made 
city street, and the whole roadway to Moji, about five miles 
in length, is in the same condition. 



^.:^g^s^^ 




Moji, Japan. 

At every step and turn in the road there is something 
to attract and to admire : terrace on terrace where the 
beautiful rice bows its head to the gentle breezes; the 
bamboo groves and little shrines; the torii and temples;. 



Osaka, Japan 



183 



the old mill in the deep ravine ; the swift-running, mad 
mountain stream, now swollen to river proportions, with 
clear, sparkling waters rushing on and down to the sea, 
turning this wheel and that, as it grinds the rice or spins the 




Hillside Graves of the Martyrs, Moji, Japan. 



cotton ; the quaint little tea-houses, with their wistaria 
arbors shading the road, and the peaceful smile of the 
old hermit of the mountains as he welcomes you to rest 
in his little black hut. 

Moji is built around a semi-circular bay, its houses and 
huts occupying the level ground between the beach and 
the hills beyond. Here one sees native life uninfluenced 
by foreign fashions ; and the male portion of the population 
being absent on their fishing excursions, the village appeared 
to be inhabited by women, children, a few old men, and the 
crowd of squeak-voiced curs that were continually snapping 
about our heels. 



1 84 An American Cruiser in the East 

The beautiful ride, the \aried architecture, the pictur- 
esque old inn at the entrance of" the crescent bay, the little 
fishing vessels, tossing about in unison with old ocean's 
swell, and the magnificent scenery about us, — all make 
Moji a charming place to visit. 



CHAPTER X 

CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN 

THE government of Japan was until recently that of an 
absolute monarchy. The Mikados were the supreme 
heads of the Empire, and the source of all honors and 
power. They were encouraged to live in seclusion and 
pleasure (their persons being considered too sacred for ordi- 
nary mortals to behold), while the Shoguns, the military 
commanders, assisted by the Damios, or feudal lords,, 
superintended the active administration of affairs. 

Several attempts were made by restless Mikados to 
depose these usurpers, but their efforts were not successful 
until 1868, when the present reigning Emperor overthrew 
the power of the Shoguns in a short, sharp war. They 
surrendered their lands, retainers, and incomes to the Mikado, 
who granted them one tenth of their incomes and required 
them to reside in Tokio. 

The reigning monarch, Mutsu-hito, meaning " Honorable 
Gate," was born at Kyoto November 3, 1852. He suc- 
ceeded his father, Komei leune, in 1867, and married Prin- 
cess Han-ko December 28, 1868. The Empress was born 
April 17, 1850, and is the daughter of Prince Itchije. 

The present Emperor is the one hundred and twenty-first 
descendant of an unbroken dynasty which was founded 
660 B, c. By the ancient law of succession, the crown 
devolves upon the eldest son of the Emperor, and, failing 
male issue, upon his eldest daughter. Disregard of this 
law of succession has frequently occurred, and this was one 
of the chief causes that brought about the dual system of 



1 86 An American Cruiser in the East 

government in Japan. Women have frequently occupied 
the throne. 

The power of the A^ikado was formerly absolute, but in 
1875, when the Senate and Supreme Judiciary were estab- 
lished, the Emperor declared his intention to form a consti- 
tutional system of government. The Emperor has always 
been the spiritual as well as the temporal head of the 
Empire. 

The official religion is the Shinto faith, — "the way of 
the sods ; " but there is no interference in religious matters, 
and all religions are tolerated in Japan. In 1877, the 
Ecclesiastical Department was reduced to a bureau under 
the Interior Department. 

The Emperor acts through an Executive Council, which 
is divided into nine departments, the head of each being a 
great Minister of State. The departments are those of 
Foreign Affairs, the Interior, Agriculture, Justice, Finance, 
Education, the Navy, the Army, and the Department of 
Communications. 

The new Constitution was proclaimed in February, 
1889, and in 1890 the first Japanese Parliament was 
chosen. It is composed of a House of Peers and a House 
of Representatives. The House of Peers is composed of 
three distinct classes, — Hereditary, Elective, and Nomina- 
tive Members. The House of Representatives consists of 
three hundred members, who are elected by ballot, for a 
term of four years, but in case of necessity the term may 
be prolonged. The Emperor selects the members of his 
Cabinet, or Council, and they are not responsible to the 
Parliament. 

For administrative purposes, the Empire is divided into 
three Fu, or cities (Tokio, Kyoto, and Osaka), and forty- 
three Ken, or prefectures, including the Loochoo Islands. 
The island of Yezo is under a separate administration. 
The governors of these Fu and Ken are called Prefects. • 



Constitution and Government 187 



They are all of the same rank, and are under the control 
of the Interior Department. Their powers are limited, 
and they are required to submit every unprecedented ques- 
tion to the Department for decision. All judicial proceed- 
ings come under cognizance of the local courts and the 
Supreme Courts, the latter 
being presided over by a 
Chief Justice in the capital. 

Yori-touri, a general of 
great ability, founded the 
Shogunate in 11 84. It 
continued through several 
dynasties, and exercised 
the executive authority. 
The administration was 
shared by the two hundred 
and fifty Damios, or feudal 
lords, who were supreme 
in their own dominions so 
long as they remained loyal 
to the Shogun. 

The great Tokugawa 
family was deposed from 
its usurped authority in 
1869, and the rank and 
powers of the Damios fell 




Ancient Japanese Warrior. 



with it. In 1884, the nobility were re-established, and the 
most distinguished military and civil officers who took part 
in the Restoration of the Emperor were admitted to its 
ranks, — Prince, Marquis, Count, Viscount, and Baron 
replaced the ancient titles. 

The revenue of Japan is $85,980,081. The total 
expenditure is $85,978,078, — about two dollars per 
annum for each soul in the Empire. 



1 88 An American Cruiser in the East 

The Japanese Army 

The army of Japan consists of the standing army, the 
reserves, and the militia. The standing army, when on a 
peace footing, is composed of 61,976 men, and when on 
a war footing, 245,310 men, which can be increased to one 
million. The Imperial Guard is composed of 5,336 
picked troops, who do duty at the capital. 

The Empire is divided into six military districts with 
headquarters at Tokio, Nagoya, Sendai, Osaka, Kumamoto, 
and Hiroshima. Four regiments of infantry, one regiment 
of cavalry, two batteries of artillery, one regiment of engi- 
neers, and one regiment of transport corps are stationed 
at each headquarters, and camps of instruction are estab- 
lished in fifty-six other places. 

The army is organized on the French system by officers 
specially selected by the French government. The Em- 
peror looks after the army and navy with jealous care. At 
the manoeuvres, which are held every year, the Emperor 
spends days in the saddle, or on board ship, familiarizing 
himself with the condition of the troops, insisting always 
on the best in personnel, equipments, material, and move- 
ments. His tastes and the tastes of his people have always 
inclined toward outdoor exercise, the use of warlike 
weapons, a chivalrous bearing, and the cultivation of 
qualities which develop warriors. 

The Navy of Japan 

The navy of Japan comprises five steel coast-defence 
vessels, ten composite corvettes, two iron-clad frigates, six 
steam sloops-of-war, — five of steel, one composite, — five 
steam gunboats, three torpedo-catchers, four seagoing tor- 
pedo boats, and thirty-five torpedo boats, whose numbers 
are being increased by vessels built in Japan and in Europe. 

The steel coast-defence vessel " Itsukushima," built in 



Constitution and Government 189 

France, has a displacement of 4,278 tons with engines of 
5,400 horse-power. Her armament consists of one 65-ton 
and twelve smaller breech-loading steel rifles. One sister 
ship built in Japan, and one built in France, have similar 
power and guns. The iron-clad frigate " Fuso " has a 
displacement of 3,779 tons, with engines of 3,932 horse- 
power. Her armor varies from 7 to 9 inches in thickness. 
Her armament consists of four 15.25 and two 5.5 ton 
breech-loading steel rifles, so placed as to command every 
point of the compass. 

The iron-clad cor\ette " Kongo " has a displacement of 
3,000 tons, with engines of 2,500 horse-power. A belt of 
armor 4.5 inches thick extends around her, and her arma- 
ment consists of 124-pounder breech-loading steel rifles. 
The " Hiyei," a sister ship to the " Kongo," has similar 
displacement, power, armor, and battery. The steel cruiser 
" Tsukushi " has a displacement of 3,000 tons, steams 16 
knots an hour, and her armament consists of two 25-ton 
breech-loading rifles. 

The " Naniwa " has a displacement of 3,700 tons, steams 
18 knots an hour, and has an armament of two 25-ton breech- 
loading steel rifles, besides a number of machine guns. The 
*■' Takachiho " is a sister vessel to the " Naniwa," and has 
equal displacement, speed, and batterv. The " Yoshino " has 
a displacement of 4,200 tons, with engines of 5,500 horse- 
power, steams 22 knots an hour, and has an armament of 
two 25-ton breech-loading steel rifles, machine guns, and 
three torpedo tubes. The steel cruiser '' Chiyoda " has a dis- 
placement of 2,400 tons, with engines of 2,500 horse-power. 
Her armament consists of one 25-ton breech-loading steel 
rifle, machine guns, and three torpedo tubes. 

Japanese sailors are bold and venturesome, and the 
mechanical genius of the people fits them for the guidance 
and management of the great fighting machines of these 
times. 



CHAPTER XI 

POPULATION AND INDUSTRY OF JAPAN 

THE area of Japan is estimated at 156,604 square 
miles ; and the population, according to the census 
of 1890, was 40,453,461, of whom 20,431,097 are males, 
and 20,022,236 are females. 

The Empire is divided, geographically, into four depart- 
ments or islands, — Henshiu, Kiushiu, Shikoku, and Yezo. 
The first three are subdivided into eight great divisions 
containing sixtv-six provinces, and Yezo is divided into 
eleven provinces. 

The Japanese ports of Yokohama, Kobe-Hyogo, Hako- 
date, Niigatee, Nagasaki, and the cities of Tokio and Osaka 
are open by treaty to foreign trade ^ and residence. Thev 
each have a designated settlement where foreigners may 
reside. Some of the treaties were revised in 1889. The 
new treaties were to become effecti\e in 1890, when the 

1 The following table shows the total value of the principal classes 
of goods exported from Japan, in yen, or Mexican silver dollars, as: 

Books and Paper . $269,979 Silk and Cocoons $32,175,892 

Coal 4,749,734 Skins, Hair, Shells, 

Drugs, Dyes, &c. . 2,506,116 Horn, &c. . . 279,718 

Grain and Provisions 10,923,467 Tea 7,033,050 

Matches . . . 1,843,637 Clothing, &€. . . 5,372,413 

Metals .... 5,409,773 Duty free Goods . 6,247,764 

Oil and Wax . . 639,483 Foreign Produce, &c. 789,219 

Porcelain and Eartlien- 

ware .... 1,287,027 Total . <.j<),^zj ,zji 



Population and Industry of Japan 191 

whole of Japan was to be thrown open to foreign commerce 
and extratorialitv, — which is \ery distasteful to these 
clever people — was to be abolished. On October 19, 
1889, the Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs was se\erelv 
wounded in the capital in an attempt upon his life, incited 
bv the agitation of treaty revision, and the work was then 
suspended. The revised treaties had been signed bv the 
United States, Russia, and Germany, but thev were not 
ratified. Negotiations were resumed, and the United 

The imports from various foreign countries are classified by the 
Imperial Bureau of Revenue, also in yen, or \Iexican silver dollars, 
as: — 



Arms, Clocks, Ma- 
chinery, &c. . . §3,990,611 
Beverages and Pro- 
visions . . . 886,930 
Books and Stationerv^ 609,990 
Clothing and Apparel 755,519 
Cotton, Raw . . 8,199,251 
" "i^arn . . 5,589,290 
" Piece Goods 3,502,127 
Drugs, Medicines, 

and Chemicals . 2,225,767 

Dyes and Paints . 1,218,202 

Glass and Glassware 3/9,075 

Rice, Beans, Sec. 6,106,537 
Hair, Horns, Ivory, 

Skins, S:c. . . 1,177,101 



Lime and Manufac- 
tures of . 

Metals and Manu- 
factures of 

Oil and Wax . . 

Silk Manufactures . 

Sugar .... 

Textile Fabrics, 
Miscellaneous 

Vessels .... 

Wines and Liquors 

Woollen Manufac- 
tures .... 

Sundries 



Total 



§326,159 

5,140,893 

4,971,781 

535>377 

7,811,307 

393,590 
674,270 
430,111 

• 5,481,938 

• 2,5^1,639 

S62, 927,268 



The total shipping from and to foreign countries for the year 
9 3 was : — 

Entered. T^onnage. Cleared. 

■ 1,358 1,906,698 1,231 

1,006 156,605 1,167 



Steamers . 
Sailing vessels 



Tonnage. 
1,604,995 
154,325 



.364 



1,063,30; 



2,398 



i,759»32o 



Of which 1,262 steamers and 19 sailing vessels entered, and 1,280 
steamers and 1 9 sailing vessels cleared in the coast trade ; of these. 
more than one half were Japanese employed in foreign trade. 



192 An American Cruiser in the East 

States and British treaties were revised and signed in 
1894. 

Railways already completed and in course of construction 
will soon make a line of communication from the extreme 
north to Nagasaki in the south, branching off to the im- 
portant cities in the east and west. In 1892, the Parlia- 
iia.ent enacted a law authorizing the government to con- 
sti"uct lines of state railways connecting all the important 
cities and towns in the Empire, and to issue bonds to cover 
the cost. 

Tokio, Kobe, Osaka, Yokohama, Nagasaki, and Hakodate 
are now connected with each other and with the United 
States, via Europe, by lines of telegraph and cables. There 
are more than seven thousand miles of telegraph wires, 
connecting all the important towns in the Empire. 

Japan is a member of the Universal Postal Union, and 
for the past eighteen years has managed the international as 
well as domestic postal service. The telephone, electric 
lights, steam mills, and street-cars have been introduced 
into the capital, and the first three into nearly all the large 
cities of the Empire. 

The Religions of Japan 

The Japanese in civilization are far in advance of other 
far-Eastern people, and have a more liberal appreciation of 
Western thoughts and customs. This is due to the fact 
that their national religion is Shintoism. To-dav, Chris- 
tianity, Buddhism, and Shintoism flourish side by side, but 
Shintoism is the religion of the state, and gives direction to 
the thoughts of the Empire. 

Japanese history and Shintoism date from 660 b. c. ; 
Buddhism came through the snows of Korea, in 550 a. d. ; 
and Christianity was reintroduced after Perry's visit. 
Christianity was looked upon with suspicion and a certain 
dread which survived the unhappy experiences of the six- 




Japanese Firemen on Parade. 



Population and Industry of Japan 195 

teenth century, and although these are slowly dying away, 
they have affected the progress of Christianity. 

To comprehend Shintoism, we must examine Taoism and 
Confucianism, from which the Shinto faith was formulated, 
and study its wonderful effects upon a nation isolated from 
the outside world. The doctrine of Shintoism, " Kami-no- 
michi," or " The way of the gods," is contained in a combi- 
nation of selections from Taoism and Confucianism, and 
is of Chinese origin. Its fundamental principle is hero- 
worship, the veneration of the country's heroes and bene- 
factors, and of all ancestors, ancient and modern. When 
the Mikado gave his people their present liberal Constitu- 
tion, he invoked the spirits of his ancestors to witness the 
act. 

Shintoism is broad and liberal. It lends a helping hand 
to everything that tends to uplift the nation, and its priests 
and followers have always given aid and welcome to priests 
and missionaries of other creeds. Notwithstanding the 
fact that Shintoism has been the religion of Japan for 
more than twenty-four centuries, it was not declared the 
established religion until the year 1868, after the restoration 
of the Mikado, when a grant of ;^300,ooo per annum was 
made toward the support of its one hundred thousand 
temples. 

Shintoism and Buddhism work side by side, and the rites 
of either are administered as the people may prefer. Bud- 
dhism is pushing and aggressive, and had almost superseded 
Shintoism. 

The principal deity of the Shinto faith is Mingo-no- 
Mikato, the ancestor of the present Mikado, who is said to 
have been descended from the sun. The Mikado is known 
as the " Son of Heaven," on account of his descent from 
Mingo-no-Mikato. It is said that " when the goddess of 
the sun made ' Mingo ' sovereign of Japan, she gave him 
the 'way of the gods,' and ordered that his dynastv should 



196 An American Cruiser in the East 

be as immovable as the sun and moon." The goddess also 
gave him a mirror, and commanded him to look upon the 
mirror as her spirit, to keep it in the same house and upon 
the same floor with himself, and to worship it as he would 
worship her actual presence. 




Shinto Priest, Japan. 

There are ten parts of the Sacred Book, Yengi Shiki, 
which are devoted to court ceremonies, and these occupy 
a prominent place in the rules of the court of the Empire. 
The great incarnate god is the Mikado, but everything in 
nature is exalted and deified. 



Population and Industry of Japan 197 

Shinto temples are usually divided into two compart- 
ments. One contains the emblem of the deity, which may 
be a mirror, a sword, or a stone, kept in a sacred box within 
other boxes, covered with wrappings of brocades, and tied 
with silken cords. In the other compartment, usually the 
outer one, pieces of white paper cut in a peculiar shape hang 
from a lintel overhead. There is usually an oratory in front 
of the temple, with a gong hanging over its entrance, so 
that the devout can call the attention of his god, and before 
this oratory the worshipper bows and clasps his hands to- 
gether while offering his silent prayer. He then claps his 
hands, throws a few small coins into the box for offerings, 
and departs. The priests sell slips of paper bearing the 
name and title of the god, which many of the people use as 
charms. The temples are generally situated in a grove 
of trees, and there are often additional buildings near, which 
are dedicated to other Shinto deities. 

These temples are of the plainest architecture, without 
coloring or decoration. The floor is raised a few feet from 
the ground, and a narrow balcony extends around the entire 
structure. The approach to a Shinto temple is always 
under a torii, " bird-perch," a lintel placed across two up- 
rights at the entrance to the grounds. Sometimes more 
than one mark the way to the temple. They are made of 
heavy or of light materials, — wood, stone, or bronze, — and 
are sometimes painted a bright red color. The central 
part of the lintel may have inscribed upon it the name of 
the deity to whom the temple is dedicated. 

The temple of Ise at Yamato is Shinto, pure and simple, 
and as it is one of the most ancient shrines in the Empire, 
it is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims. There is 
no grand architecture or decorations, no sacrifices, and few 
symbols. The main columns of the temple are supported 
on heavy stone foundations, the floors are raised about four 
feet from the ground, and the walls are of wood. The 



198 An American Cruiser in the East 

roof is thatched, and metals have been sparingly used. The 
posts, rails, and fences are unornamented, and there is 
neither carving, lacquer, nor color, simply the brown and 
gray tints and the mosses of weather-stained woods, — the 
ancient hut enlarged. 

The "torii" are the gateways, and hanging curtains of 
white swing for gates. The lanterns are of coarse white 
paper, decorated with the conventional chrysanthemum, the 
crest of the Mikado. The offerings upon the altar are rice, 
salt, fish, and flowers, and the emblems are as simple, — 
ropes of rice-straw and wisps, and hanging slips of white 
paper, each a symbol in the story of the sun goddess, being 
enticements from the cave to which she had retired from 
the moon god's violence. 

The sacred mirror is never seen by mortal eyes. It is 
kept in a box which is wrapped in white silk and covered 
by a wooden cage, which in turn is covered with a silk 
wrapper. The mirror is in a brocade bag, and as soon as 
its sheen begins to fade with age, a new mirror is added 
without removing the old one. 

The priests call the attention of the deity by a few 
strokes upon a gong or bell, recite a few short prayers, bow 
the head, and retire. 

Buddhism in Japan 

There are as many Buddhist sects in Japan as there are 
Christian denominations in the United States. They all 
believe in the teachings of Buddha, but they vary greatly 
in creed and forms of worship. The Tundi sect peddle 
medicines and charms to protect against all the ills flesh is 
heir to, — to cure rheumatism or the cholera, to keep birds 
out of a rice-field, or His Satanic Majesty out of a house, 
• — and they sell earth to make the muscles of the dead 
flexible, so that the limbs can be doubled up and placed in 



Population and Industry of Japan 199 



the doghouse-like coffins which the Japanese use. This 
sect has thousands of temples throughout the Empire. The 
most powerful sects are the Monto, the Jodo, and the 
Nichiren. 

The Monto teach that fervent prayer, elevated thoughts, 
and good works are the essentials. The Jodo sect pray 
without ceasing, abstain from eating 
flesh, and do not permit their priests 
to marry. The Nichirens are noisy 
and intolerant, and believe that all 
except themselves are doomed to 
eternal punishment. Their temples 
contain many deities and incarna- 
tions. Some cure babies and protect 
from all childhood's dangers ; others 
cure all sorts of diseases. All one 
has to do, is to select the right 
temple and deity, bargain with the 
priest, say the prescribed prayers, 
and go away cured. 

At almost every temple 
there is a sacred horse, some 
hogs, or a flock of birds. 
These are fed by the bounty 
of some deceased person who 
has made provision for their 

support, or by the faithful, who bestow a few beans or a little 
corn upon the creatures in hopes of receiving their reward 
for a meritorious act. 

There are said to be about seventy thousand Buddhist 
temples in Japan. 

The Buddhists of Japan are kind and considerate of each 
other and of all creatures. They believe the spirits of the 
departed have entered into some created form, to serve 




Buddhist Priest, Japan. 



200 An American Cruiser in the East 



during the probationary period, and therefore they treat all 
creatures kindly for fear of oppressing some spirit. They 
are energetic and pushing. They publish many religious 
articles in the newspapers, and a movement is being made 
for the foundation of a Buddhist theological course in the 
Imperial University. Some advanced thinkers are hoping 
to make it the state religion, while others are formulating 




Japanese Wood-Carvi.xc 

A Detail of the Temple, Sheba, }iear Tokio, Japan. 

creeds for the union of Christianity, Shintoism, and 
Buddhism, retaining what they believe to be the best fea- 
tures of each, and forming a grand religion for all men. 
Many Buddhists, in Japan, believe that Nirvana does not 
mean a state of total spiritual annihilation, but the annihi- 
lation of all that is bad and the continuance of all that is 
good in man. 

iManv of these Japanese temples have been erected by 
men and women who became enthusiastic and gave their 
labor. Carpenters, masons, carvers, lacquerers, and laborers 
come from all parts of the Empire, and work for a certain 



Population and Industry of Japan 201 

number of days without compensation. Rich men con- 
tribute the materials, and women do the hauUng and lifting. 
They even cut the hair from their heads and braid it into 
ropes with which to pull and hoist the great stones and 
beams. It is said that two hundred thousand women and 
young girls cut oft' their tresses and made them into the 
ropes which are used for the hauling about the temple of 
Higashi Hongwauji, now being erected at Kyoto, yet this 
magnificent pile will cost more than eight millions ot dollars 
before its completion. Some of these temples have very 
large incomes, and almost any of them can raise from one 
hundred thousand to half a million dollars a year. 



Class Distinctions in Japan 

The Tokio Historical Society has made exhaustive re- 
searches from which the followinp; extracts are taken. 

" Until the year 470 a. d., all persons not elevated by 
official employment, nor degraded temporarily as criminals, 
were equal before the law. In that year, a man named 
Ne-no-omi rebelled against the Emperor Yuryaku. Ne-no- 
omi was killed, but the Emperor decreed that all the 
descendants of this man should be regarded as inferior per- 
sons and be reduced to servitude of a menial kind. Thev 
were divided into two parties, one being detailed to serve 
the Emperor, and the other a provincial governor." 

" In 486 A. D., Karabukmo-no-Sukune rebelled, and 
when captured the Emperor ordered that he and his 
descendants should look after the Imperial tombs." 

" In 693 A. D., the Emperor Jito decreed that if a man 
was unable to pay a debt, and if the sale of his property 
did not realize sufficient money to meet the obligation, he 
should become the slave of his creditor." 

"Down to this time (693 a. d.) all foreigners who 
came into the country were classed amongst the seinminy 



20 2 An American Cruiser in the East 



inferior people, and unless redeemed by relatives or friends, 
were slaves for life. The Emperor Jito changed this law, 
and decreed that foreigners should be classed amongst the 
ryom'in^ superior people, and be exempt from servitude. 
For several hundred years the distinction between the two 
classes was very great, but under the Kamakura and 
Ashikaga Shoguns it was almost obliterated." 



^Jf'^i' 



.^*^' 




Japanese Homes. 

"In 701 A. D., the 'Yaiho' laws were published, and 
semmin^ or inferior people, were classified as follows : 
(i) ryoko^ guards of the Imperial tombs ; (2) hvanko^ govern- 
ment slaves ; (3) kenhi^ domestic slaves ; (4) kom'ihi^ slaves 
of officials; (5) shinuhi^ slaves of private individuals." 

" The first two classes were householders and consisted 
of rebels or their descendants. The work of guarding the 
Imperial tombs was regarded in those days as disgraceful 
employment, as all work connected with the dead was con- 
sidered to defile. The slaves of classes 2 and 4 had 
precedence of all others, as it was not considered degrading 



Population and Industry of Japan 203 

to work about cultivated people, even in the capacity of 
slaves. The slaves in class 2 were mostly rebels, but they 
were over sixty years of age. Those of class 3 were too 
poor or helpless to become householders or to take care of 
themselves, generally poor relations, and were compelled 
to serve the persons upon whom they depended for their 
support." 

" Of course, there was a certain disgrace attached to this 
loss of freedom, but it was preferable to many other forms 
of servitude. In all classes except 3 it was punishment for 
crime or violation of law. In class 3 it fixed the mutual 
obligation of master and servant, between persons who were 
charged with the support and care of others who were un- 
able to care for themselves, and in this connection we 
must remember that institutions for the care of the poor 
were unknown. Classes 4 and 5 were composed of 
prisoners taken in war and criminals and their descendants. 
Class 5 furnished slaves for the market, as it was strictly 
forbidden to sell a member of the other four classes." 

" Men and women of class 5 were bought and sold, and 
their personal liberty depended upon the disposition of their 
owners. But the Japanese have always been a kind-hearted 
people, and the hardships to which their slaves were sub- 
jected were no more than always exists between master 
and servant." 

" Slaves were forbidden to marry with the other people, 
and the slaves of one class were prohibited from marrying 
the slaves of another class. The punishment for a violation 
of this law was fifty stripes and annulment of the marriage. 
The slaves who guarded the Imperial tombs were under the 
control of the Imperial Household officials." 

" Before 691 a. d., the sale of people belonging to the 
ryom'in^ or superior class, was common, but the Emperor Jito 
issued a decree in that year specifying the cases in which 
the sale of persons should involve degradation in social rank. 



204 An American Cruiser in the East 

If a peasant was sold for the benefit of his elder brother, he 
was not degraded, but if he was sold for the benefit of his 
parents, he was degraded, and a person sold to discharge a 
debt did not lose his rank as ryomin. In the case of traffic 
in slaves, a written bargain had to be prepared and submitted 
to the authorities for approval." 




Japanese Tramps. 

" A curious document bearing on the sale and prices paid 
for slaves in Japan was recently discovered. It gives an 
account of the sale of certain persons in Mino. There 
were three males and three females. They realized a total 
of 4,900 bundles of rice-plants. The ages of the three 
males were 34, 22, and 15 years, respectively. The two 
elder slaves brought 1,000 bundles each, and the younger 
900. The ages of the females were 22, 20, and 15 vears, 
respectively. The two elder ones realized 800 plants each, 
and the younger one 600. Various marks of identity are 
described, such as red spots on the left cheek, freckles, etc." 

" If they became sick within three days after the sale, 



Population and Industry of Japan 205 

the sale was null and void. In case of runaways it was cus- 
tomary to pay a reward amounting to five per cent of the 
value of the slave, if he or she were captured within one 
month, and of ten per cent when a year had elapsed 
between the runaway and capture." 

" Slaves might become free and enter the ryomhi^ or 
superior class, under certain conditions : in case of persons 
who had been stolen and reduced to slavery illegally ; when 
a master died without an heir and his house become extinct ; 
when given their freedom by their master. Official slaves 
became free when reaching 76 years ot age, or too ill to 
work. Freedom was often obtained after a few years' ser- 
vice by those who had been reduced on account of their 
association with rebels, but not owing to any prominent 
part they had taken in opposing the government. Slaves 
occasionally obtained their freedom by displaying great pro- 
ficiency in some art or accomplishment, and were some- 
times released by the will of the sovereign. In such cases 
there was usually some special object in view, such as the 
encouragement of ag-riculture." 

" There are no reliable statistics, and it is not known 
exactly how many slaves there were at any given time. 
But it is believed that they amounted to about frve per cent 
of the whole population, and that the number of female 
slaves was slightly in excess of the males." 

" The early Tokugawa Shoguns were much given to 
social classifications. They not only revived the old dis- 
tinctions between ryomin and semm'in^ which had nearly 
died out, but also divided the latter into a number of minor 
classes. At no time in the history of Japan was the 
list of persons officially designated semm'in so large." 

It was : (i) " Chori^ originally the name given to the head 
of Eta^ but in later days used as a synonym of Eta. (2) 
Eta. (3) H'lnin., an outcast, one who is too low to be 
regarded as human ; originally applied to criminals, now 



2o6 An American Cruiser in the East 

extended to beggars. (4) Tainaban^ mountain-keepers. 
(5) Kaivara-ymm^ beggars who are required to bury crim- 
inals. (6) Ordinary beggars. (7) Sh'iku^ persons who 
dance before shrines. (8) Miko^ a witch, one who tries to 
appease angry spirits. (9) Ma'imai^ a male dancer who 
uses no music. (10) Gaun'in^ a mendicant friar. (11) 
Sodekoi^ a class of mendicant priests, who wear long-sleeved 
koromo and beg with a wooden bowl, — "• sleeve beggars." 

(12) Ombo^ persons employed in the burning of bodies. 

(13) Niugyo-tsukai^ puppet showmen. (14) Actors. (15) 
Brothel-keepers. (16) Zato^ blind shampooers. (17) Sa7-u- 
gakii No^ performers. (18) Onyoshi^ diviners. (19) Plas- 
terers. (20) Makers of earthenware. (21) Imonshi^ 
moulders. (22) Tsuji-mekura^ wayside blind beggars. 
(23) Saru-hiki^ men who exhibit monkeys. (24) Hach'i- 
tatak'i^ priests who obtain money by beating a metal bowl 
and reciting passages of scripture. (25) Stone-cutters. (26) 
Umbrella-menders. (27) Ferry boatmen. (28) Dyers. 
(29) Teuhotate^ the keepers of archery grounds. (30) Pen- 
makers. (31) Ink-makers. (32) Seki-mori^ barrier guards. 
(33) Bell-ringers. (34) Shhhi-mai^ persons who dance with 
masks for the amusement of children. (35) Makers of 
rain-coats. (36) Keepers of bath-houses. (37) Watchmen. 
(38) Mlkaiva mausai^ beggars who acted as mummers at 
the New Year. (39) Jugglers. (40) l^W^/, showmen. (41) 
Inn maivashi^ professional dog-trainers. (42) Hanashikoy 
story-tellers. (43) Serpent-charmers. (44) Nazo toki^ 
expounder of enigmas. (45) Chikaramochi^ professional 
athletes. (46) Kogo nuke^ persons who crawl through a nar- 
row basket without being hurt by the drawn sword attached 
to it. (47) Kitsune-tsukaiy trainers of foxes." 

Why some of these occupations were deemed ignomin- 
ious, and why some were not so classed, is unknown, but it 
is certain that every irregular method of obtaining a liveli- 
hood was considered a degradation. Begging was abhorred. 



Population and Industry of Japan 207 

All connection with dead bodies was supposed to defile. 
Even pen-makers, who used the hair of deer, and ink- 
makers, who used the bones of horses and cows for harden- 
ing their ink, were condemned. Occupations were often 
considered ignominious on account of their associations j 




A Coolie. 

archery grounds were often used as meeting places of loose 
character, hence they were despised. 

During the time of the early Tokugawa Shoguns, the 
control of se?nmin of all classes was intrusted to Dauzae- 
mon and Kurnma Zeushichi. The powers with which 



2o8 An American Cruiser in the East 

these two men were endowed enabled them to establish 
a kind of judicial government. All the misdemeanors of 
semm'in were dealt with by these chiefs, as the Shoguns con- 
sidered it beneath the dignity of ordinary court officials even 
to pass judgment on the outcasts of society. The reign 
of the Dauzaemon family over the Eta and other classes of 
outcasts dates from the time of the Kamakura Shoguns. 
During the reigns of the late Tokugawa Shoguns, the 
classes of persons included among semm'in were gradually 
diminished, until, at the commencement of the Meji, — the 
present era, — the government was memorialized on the sub- 
ject, and as a result even the Eta and Hijiin were placed 
on an equality with their fellow-men. The Japanese have 
never taken kindly to class distinctions, and I cannot show 
these facts more forcibly than has been done in the preced- 
ing historical sketch, and in the following from the "Japan 
Daily Mail : " " In no country do a man's circumstances 
count for so little, provided his personal character merits 
esteem. A nobleman's carriage standing in front of the 
humble home of a highly valued friend of its owner is a 
sight no less common than significant, and is an abundant 
proof that the assumption of our modern wealth-worshipping 
world, and all the senseless minor class distinctions of fash- 
ionable society, are adjuncts of a civilization which in many 
of its characteristics is infinitely inferior to that which Japan, 
sitting at the feet of nature, has succeeded in developing." 

Japanese Art 

The Japanese have been artists, and have given their 
imagination full play from the earliest ages of their history. 
Their manners, customs, and dress are aesthetic, and their 
houses, lacquers, bronzes, porcelains, and household uten- 
sils, — in fact, almost everything they own or make, from 
the hut to the temple, from the bow of a coolie to the sword 
of the Damio, — are artistic. 



Population and Industry of Japan 209 




INlAKiNG Umbrellas in Japan. 



There are no Cupids, no Venuses, and no Apollo Belve- 
deres, but there are elegant forms, and shapes in every 
material worked by man. There are dragons, monsters, 
landscapes, and flowers, and many nameless forms that are 
elegant products of the imagination. The Japanese are a 
nation of artists in conception and finish, and the whole 
people are appreciative of art, to the extent, at least, of good 
taste and form. Their art and architecture are different in 
style from those we know in Europe and America, and 
must not be measured and criticised by the old rules and 
standards. 

As our fathers raised the tree-trunks, placed lintels across 
them, and fitted a roof over all, ornamenting and decorat- 
ing them until they developed into the various orders, simple 
and complex, that we know in Europe and America, so the 
Japanese have advanced from the cave and tent to the hut.^ 
and have developed this until it has expanded into the gor- 

14 



21 o An American Cruiser in the East 

geous splendors of the temples at Nicka, Sheba, Uyeno, and 
other places, at which artists, architects, and cultured men 
and women from all lands marvel and wonder. 

The Shoguns were patrons of art ; and there can be no 
doubt that the seclusion of Japan from foreign intercourse 
kept that art in pure channels, and caused artists to work 
for art's sake alone, by curtailing the demand for the rapid 
reproduction of their work for commercial purposes. 

The elegant simplicity and taste displayed in their houses 
are nowhere excelled, and no people are better housed. 
Their dress, in design, material, and decorations, is the 
most artistic worn by man. As a rule, their art wares are 
named from the locality in which they were made, or from 
some artist who made his reputation by their production. 

Perhaps the oldest art -workers in Japan are the wood and 
ivory carvers. These artists ply their sharp cutting tools, 
and produce the most natural, lifelike representatives of 
whatever design is born in their fanciful brains. This may 
be the ancient warrior, the boatman, wrestlers, the musiime, 
vines, flowers, birds, or monsters, — but all are faithfully 
reproduced, perfect models, and works of art. 

Their artistic wood and metal workers almost kept pace 
with each other; and specimens of the beautiful produc- 
tions of these old masters — specimens that are older than 
the Christian religion — are still to be seen. Both woods 
and metals are lacquered ; but that finish is usually put 
upon wood. 

One of the most important operations is that of thor- 
oughly seasoning the wood, which these clever people do 
to perfection. After this, the various pieces are fitted to- 
gether, and the grain of the wood is filled in with a paste 
made of powdered stone. After the joints have been 
made, and are firmly set in place, the edges are rubbed 
smooth with a fine, flat stone, and the whole article is 
coated with a composition of finely powdered burnt clay 



Population and Industry of Japan 211 

and varnish. When dry, it is again smoothed over with 
the stone. The article is then covered with silk or fine 
paper, which is pasted on with great care to prevent creas- 
ing, and receives about five coatings of the clay and varnish, 
each coat being allowed to become thoroughly dry before 
the next is applied. The surface is then made perfectly 
smooth by rubbing with stone of a verv fine giain, and the 
lacquer is laid on with a thin, flat brush of fine hair, — 




Japanese Wood-Carver. 

human hair being preferred for this purpose. Each 
coat is thoroughly dry and hard before the next is applied, 
and the final coat is laid on with the utmost care, with 
cotton-wool, and is almost rubbed off" with fine, soft paper. 
When thoroughly dry, the article is polished with deer's 
horn ashes, reduced to a fine powder and applied with the 
fingers. So far, we have only finished the background. 

The decoration, in gold, silver, mother-of-pearl, or a 
variety of metals, is now to be added, and the metallic 
powders used for this purpose are numerous. The com- 



212 An American Cruiser in the East 

positions differ in size and shape, and are distinguished by 
various names, and the powders are used to produce various 
effects according to the knowledge and skill of the artist. 

Nashiji is the decoration most frequently seen. It is 
made by covering the article with particles of ground gold- 
dust, until it resembles gold stone, and great skill is re- 
quired to distribute the particles evenly. This is covered 
with several coatings of fine transparent lacquer, often 
exceeding a dozen in number. This decoration dates 
from the fifteenth century. It is either made of pure 
gold-dust, gold and silver dust mixed, or of silver-dust 
alone. 

Giobu- Nashiji also dates from the same century, and 
has small squares of gold-leaf instead of the powdered 
metal. Similar work is made in mother-of-pearl, each 
piece being applied separately with thin, pointed bamboo 
sticks. 

For Togi-dashi, ground and polished metals are used, 
and the design is laid in a thicker lacquer, and is em- 
phasized by a fine, white powder and then gilt, the 
brighter pieces being raised above those of the lower tone 
by means of a stiff lacquer and gold-dust. When this has 
become dry, the parts which are to be gilded are covered 
with lacquer, and then thickly dusted with gold ; this, when 
dry, is again thrice lacquered and thoroughly hardened. 
The surface is then rubbed until the gilt design is shown. 
Great care is required to avoid injury to the gilding dur- 
ing the various manipulations. After the design shows 
through the glaze, the article needs to be polished. 

In Hira-makiye, the design is not raised above the gen- 
eral surface, the design and effects being produced bv 
shading or softening the metals, or by touching up and 
toning mother-of-pearl or colors, when the most beautiful 
effects are produced. 

The Tsui-shiu (red) and Tsui-koku (black) lacquers 



Population and Industry of Japan 2 1 3 

are carved out of thick coatings of lacquer. Guri-lac is 
formed of many layers of colored lacquers, through which 
the designs are cut to expose the layers. Chiukiu-bori is 
made by incising the design in line lines into the body of 
the lacquer, with a graver, and filling the lines up with 
powdered gold. 

Some of the greatest of Japanese artists have been 
workers in lacquer. A list of articles of this ware would 




Japanese Lacquer Ware. 



include entire suits of Japanese furniture used by the 
princes and nobles, — boxes, stands, trays, decorations for 
temples and houses, and hundreds of other forms. A suit 
of furniture includes two tauser, or stands, on which the 
tray and nine boxes are placed. The boxes include large 
ones for holding papers and books, incense and game boxes, 
a sloping reading-desk, and a writing-desk, picnic boxes, 
fan boxes, and oblong letter boxes. 



214 An American Cruiser in the East 

A letter was often placed in this box and borne to its 
destination by a servant. Frequently the servant's mouth 
was bandaged so that he could not breathe on the box, and 
much stress was laid on the fashion of the cord around the 
box, and the manner of tying it. If the recipient of the 
letter was inferior to the sender, he retained the box as a 
memento ; but if he was an equal, he returned his answer 
in the box. 

An Inro was a necessary part of every gentleman's 
dress. It was made fast to a netsuke by a silken cord, and 
strung through his sash. It was used for a seal box or 
for perfumes and medicines. ^ An Inro is made of metal, 
wood, crystal, bark, ivory, shells, and lacquered wood, and 
usually has four trays, each one fitting into another with 
great precision. 

Many of these articles in lacquer are extremely inter- 
esting and valuable specimens ot Japanese art. Marvellous 
harmony of design and coloring are often combined with a 
minuteness of detail that causes us to wonder at their com- 
pleteness ; and frequently a few rough strokes, dashes of 
a single color, are so graphic that a beautiful picture is 
produced, — a story is told. Hokusai and many others 
have made their names famous by their works in lacquer. 

In a country where civil wars and feuds were of frequent 
occurrence, and a stain, of any kind, upon one's good 
name could only be wiped out by suicide with one's own 
sword, the sword was brought to great perfection. 

Where the art instinct was universal, and jewelry for 
personal adornment unknown, the sword was regarded 

1 Seals have been in common use in China, Japan, and Korea for 
ages, and formerly took the place of a signature. They are made 
on small blocks of ivory, wood, or metal, on which is engraved the 
owner's seal. This is placed on a pad of vermilion ink, and stamped 
in one or more places on any document used. 



Population and Industry of Japan 2 1 5 

with deference, was subject to carefully prescribed rules of 
etiquette, and was handed down as the most precious heir- 
loom ; it became the dearest article of personal adorn- 
ment. Artists manufactured and decorated the sword 
and lavished their skill upon it. It is said that they at- 
tained such perfection in the blade that for temper it was 
unrivalled in the world, often performed marvellous feats, 
and acquired such a thirst for blood that its owner was pro- 
hibited from wearing it. Ornaments were lavished upon 
it, and these were executed in e\'ery variety of metal, and 
in designs so distinct that it is extremely difficult to find 
two exactly alike. 

To wear the sword was a privilege to which only the 
lord and his vassal, the "Samuri," were entitled. In the 
sixteenth century the fashion of wearing two swords came 
in. The " kantana," about three feet long, was for offence 
and defence, and the " waki-zashi," about two feet long, 
was for the " hari-kari " (suicide). A lighter sword than 
the " kantana," but of the same size, and called the 
*' chisakantana," was used for dress and court purposes. 

In full dress, the color of the scabbard was black, with 
a tinge of green and red. The fittings and mountings of 
these weapons are as follows : the guard, or " tsube," a 
flat piece of metal that is either square, circular, or oval in 
form ; a short dagger, " kokatanka," which is fitted into 
one side of the scabbard; and the "kogai," a smaller 
dagger, or metal skewer, which is fitted into the opposite 
side of the scabbard, and is left as a card in the body of 
an adversary killed in battle ; small ornaments, " menuki," 
placed on each side of the hilt to give a good grasp ; the 
cap, " hashiva," of highly ornamented metal, and held 
upon the head of the hilt bv a silken cord which is passed 
through opposite eves ; an oval ring of metal, " fuchi," 
which encircles the base of the handle, and through the 
centre of which the blade passes •, the " kurikata," through 



21 6 An American Cruiser in the East 

which the " sagewo," or cord for holding back the sleeves 
while fighting, passes ; and the " kejiri," or metal end of 
the scabbard. 

Doctors and inferior officials wore the "aikuchi," a dirk 
without a guard, and the "jintochi," or two-handed sword, 
and the " mamori," or stiletto. 

As a rule, the artists confined themselves to particular 
decorations, although some artists made several parts of 
the weapon, and others completed the entire sword. 

As famous armorers and workers in metals, the Miochiu 
family have been celebrated since the twelfth century, and 
they have received marks of the highest distinction from 
royalty for their work. They made the famous eagle that 
is in the South Kensington Museum, and the sixteenth- 
centurv dragon is their work. 

In the fifteenth century the Goto family appeared as 
workers in metal, and their work has always been held in 
great esteem. They were attached to the Shogunate, and 
always produced work of the highest quality. The suc- 
cessors in the family were always chosen from those who 
displayed the greatest proficiency in the art of metal- 
working. 

In the sixteenth centurv, Kaneiye, Nobuiye, and Melada 
introduced damascening, chasing, and inlaying with the 
"tsube," and Kaneiye is considered to have been the creator 
of artistic swords. 

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the countrv 
entered upon an era of peace which extended over a period 
of about two hundred and fifty years. The sword-guard 
was then adopted for dress purposes and to adorn the 
sword. From this time we see changes in the character 
of the metal used, and the decorations employed. At 
Osaka, damascenings of gold and silver were used in the 
iron. Kaneiye incrusted his work with copper, and 
enamels were introduced bv Douin and Kinai, whose 



Population and Industry of Japan 217 

beautiful pierced " tsubas " provoke the admiration of 
all who examine them. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, there were 
three great schools of these workers in metals, — the Nara, 
the Yokoya, and the Omori. The Nara school was com- 
posed of a large number of artists, and was started in oppo- 
sition to the Gotos. The Yokoya school joined with the 
Omori, and became famous for its pierced and gold "tsubas," 
with their battle-scenes. Teruhide was famous for his 




An Instrumental Concert, Japan, 

waves and imitation of gold stone, and may be considered 
as of this school. 

The armor, spears, and pikes, in elegant design and work- 
manship, kept close behind the sword, and there are some 
fine specimens by famous artists in metals. 

The Japanese still lead the world in the perfection of 
their bronzes, and they have two great schools of their beau- 
tiful art, the " Shakudo " and the " Shibuichi." Their dif- 
ference consists in the treatment of the metals, but the designs 
may be said to be similar. The metal used in the finest 



2 1 8 An American Cruiser in the East 

work is " Shakudo," — black, with an almost imperceptible 
shade of blue, — and is composed of ninety-five parts of 
copper, two to four of gold, one to one and five tenths of 
silver, and traces of lead, iron, and arsenic. Shibuichi is 
of a lighter color, bears a slight resemblance to steel, is 
hard, of a fine texture, and is composed of fifty to seventy 
parts of copper, thirty to fifty of silver, with traces of gold 
and iron. The precious metals are used to produce dif- 
ferent effects. In the Shakudo, the gold gives the rich 
purple tint, or " patina," as it is called. In the Shibuichi, 
the silver causes the metal to assume its beautiful silver- 
gray tint under certain atmospheric conditions. 

In making these beautiful articles, the designer has the 
shape formed in clay, — a mere core, — whether vase or 
other form, after which he makes his designs for decoration. 
These are made of wax, and are arranged upon the model 
with wonderful skill as they are evolved from his fertile 
brain. When the article is sufficiently decorated, the whole 
is covered with clay which fills in, under, around, and 
over each leaf, quill, or whatever the decoration may be. 
This is a difficult operation, requiring great deftness and skill. 

When covered, a huge, ill-shapen mass of clay is all that 
appears to represent the imagination, brain, and handi-work 
that has been expended. After the mass has become 
hardened, it is carefully turned about in a fire to melt out 
the wax decorations that have been imprisoned within the 
clay, leaving the hollow spaces that correspond with leaf or 
flower, monster or sea. The molten bronze is poured into 
this hollow space. When cooled, the outer clay covering 
is broken away, and the inner core dug out, leaving the 
beautiful form ready for the finishers. 

The finishers carve, touch, and retouch, and polish with 
chisels, hammers, files, and scrapers, producing the delicate 
outlines and the high polish of the finished piece. After 
this has been done, the article is touched with chemicals 



Population and Industry of Japan 219 

to produce the desired tint, and the artist receives the 
criticisms and congratulations of his friends. 

Shippo ware of the Japanese, Cloisonne of the French, 
is the most beautiful production of pottery. The Japanese 
created this fascinating ware, which is a combination of 
metal work and enamels, and for contour, color, and 
wonderful finish is without a rival in porcelains. 

The little brown, shock-headed smith pounds the copper 
into shape upon the beakhorn of his rude anvil, and dove- 
tails the meeting edges together. He then places the 
vessel upon his rude little furnace of live coals, spreads 
over the flux and solder, and furiously fans the lurid, green- 
gold flame that melts the solder and brazes the vessel. 
Satisfied with the perfection of this work, he removes the 
blackened article, and again hammers it to a finish upon 
the rude little anvil. The designer now takes the article, — 
vase, plaque, or whatever form it may be, — and outlines the 
thousand delicate and intricate designs that are to be deline- 
ated upon the rough metal forms. 

A second artist in metals now clips silver and brass wire 
into tiny pieces, and bends and fits them into the many 
shapes required by the design. These almost microscopic 
curves, elbows, angles, and circles are cemented over the 
outlines made by the designer, and stand up from the 
body of the article like filigree work. When the outlines 
are all laid on in cement, the article is taken once more 
to the furnace, and the wires are fused, thus securely 
fastening the outlines to the body, and making it one 
complete thing. If the work was now polished, it would 
be a beautiful work in filigree ; but the article is passed 
to an artist who is skilled in the mystery of enamels, who 
fills in the multitudinous little crevices between the wires 
with beautiful colors. 

After another firing the article is handed over to the 



2 20 An American Cruiser in the East 

polisher, who polishes the rough surface. Gradually the 
rough surface disappears, here and there a smooth place 
appears, until finally — it may be after hours or days of 
polishing — the article is seen in all its perfection of design 
and colors, reds, yellows, greens, and browns encased in 
tiny threads of gilt and silver, — a thing of beauty and 
a joy forever. 

It is said that from the earliest ages in their history 
whenever a Japanese died, his wife and one or more ser- 
vants committed suicide, and the remains of all were 
interred together, so that he might have company and 
consolation upon his long journey in the land of spirits. 
In the year 2 B. c, the Mikado Suinin issued an edict 
abolishing the cruel rite, but the old fashion was persisted 
in. Nomi-no-Sukune, an officer of the court, devised 
some clay images, and succeeded in having them interred 
with the remains of the Empress who died in the year 

3 A. D. This set the fashion, and Japanese ceramic art 
was born. From this time, images superseded the cruel 
suicides, and artists sprang up, each endeavoring to make 
his images the truest to nature. The originator, Nomi- 
no-Sukune, was decorated Hoji, or clay-image-artist, and 
Japanese art branched out in new directions. 

The Satsuma is recognized as the " Royal porcelain of 
Japan." It is of creamy color, and has a peculiar crackle 
finish. It is made by most skilful potters, and is deco- 
rated in beautiful designs with colors and golds. The 
decorations are outlined in black, after which bright pig- 
ments and pure gold are beautifully worked in. About 
the year 1600, the Prince of Satsuma invaded Korea, and 
while there became interested in pottery. He induced a 
few potters to settle in his domain, and they became the 
originators of this beautiful ware, under the patronage of 
the Prince. This ware was never off'ered for sale, but was. 



Population and Industry of Japan 221 

brought to the highest degree of perfection attainable, and 
was presented, as a special gift, to whomever the Prince 
chose to honor. For many years it was only used by the 
Mikado and nobles. The Korean potters intermarried 
with the Japanese, and their descendants are still working 
this Satsuma clay-bank, and producing the royal ware in 
cream, crackle, and gold. 




jAi'Axi'Si': Artists decorating Porcelain. 



In 1670, a disciple of the famous decorator Tauyu 
decorated some pieces of colored enamel faience for the 
Prince of Taugen. The designs were more elaborate 
than the customary decorations of this ware, and the tew 
pieces that remain, known as the "Satsuma-Taugen," are 
among the rarest specimens of old Japanese pottery. 
They are cream crackle decorated with brown figures, 
and are of the Kano school. 

Satsuma ware lost favor in the seventeenth century ; but 
the celebrated decorators, Kuwabara and his kin, produced 



22 2 An American Cruiser in the East 

a hard, close-grained ware. They adhered to the cream- 
color with finely crackled glaze, and their paste was as 
dense as ivory. They decorated in enamelled diaper and 
dragons and flowers ; and Satsuma regained its old place. 
In 1785, it was further improved by Yanasuke, an artist 
of great fame, and the ware of his time is considered to be 
the finest ever made. 

Modern Satsuma, made since the visit of Commodore 
Perry, is decorated in Kyoto for the foreign markets ; and 
■while it is beautiful, with decorations of saints, warriors, 
and deities, it does not compare with ancient products of the 
kiln of the Prince of Satsuma. There are thousands of 
specimens of modern Satsuma, but there is nothing more rare 
than a piece of the old ware. It is well to note, in search- 
ing for the old ware, its extreme solidity, its graceful and 
restrained decoration, its ivory-like surface, the sharp, hard 
edges, the perfection of gilding, the accurate outlines of its 
enamels, and the brilliancy of its delicate coloring. 

The Hizen ware is fine, and beautiful, and gorgeous in 
decoration. Great quantities of it found its way to Europe 
through the Dutch intercourse, but it was considered 
second and third rate ware in Japan. The shapes were 
not Japanese, but were made to suit the taste of the pur- 
chasers. Huge vases and bowls and the varied sizes of 
plates were not in accordance with the artistic taste of old 
Japan. The finest wares were made in the kilns of the 
princes, where the best manipulators and decorators were 
employed, and products of these kilns were bestowed as 
princely gifts. The choicest works of blue and white and 
of Kakiyemon and Keuzan were rarely seen outside of 
Japan until within the last twenty years. 

I" ^530? Shousui of Ise learned in China the process of 
decorating porcelain with blue. He returned to Arita in 
Hizen, bringing with him a small store of raw mate- 
rial, which he worked up into small articles, and he 



Population and Industry of Japan 223 

became famous as the father of Japanese porcelain. Goro- 
bachi and Gorohichi followed in his lead, and carried on 
the work until the material was exhausted and the manu- 
facture ceased. 

About 1608, Naboshima brought Risanpei, a Korean 
potter, to Arita, where he found the feldspar which was 
suitable for the manufacture of porcelain. Blue-and-white 
porcelain was made, but it was about fifty years before the 
discovery of the art of using vitrifiable enamels, which 
require a second firing over the glaze, at low temperatures. 

Porcelain, in Japan, was first decorated over the glaze 
about 1650. This process was introduced by Takuzaye- 
mon, who learned it in China. Takuzayemon was neither 
potter nor artist ; but Kakiyemon, a good potter and a bold 
artist, learned the secrets from his friend, struck out in 
new directions, and produced decorations in colored enam- 
els which created a new school in Japanese porcelains. 
He attained a degree of perfection, both in material and 
style, that have never been surpassed. His ware has a 
fine, hard, white base, and gives a clear, bell-like sound. It 
is decorated with bamboo and plum blossoms, or with corn 
sheaves and flowers, and sometimes with fluttering birds. 

At Imari, blue-and-white decorations under the glaze, at 
a single firing, are still produced, and some specimens rival 
the finest work of the Chinese. 

Kameyarna and Hirado kilns produced beautiful blue- 
and-white porcelain in the eighteenth century. 

Mikawa-uchi ware was presented by the Prince of 
Hirado to the Shogun and his private friends. The paste 
was finely powdered, strained, and bleached, while the 
glazes were delicately prepared. The white is clear and 
the blue is soft, very different from the intense blue of the 
old Chinese ware. The delicacy of the design, execution, 
and perfection of the firing, are not approached by any 
porcelains in the world. 



2 24 ^^ American Cruiser in the East 

Kutana ware, another celebrated porcelain, originated 
with Saijiro at Kutana in the province of Koga. In 1658, 
the Prince of Koga sent Saijiro to Hizen to study the 
art. Soon after his return to Kutana, he discovered a 
clay from which was produced the exquisite decorations in 
red, green, yellow, violet, silver, and gold, which made the 
ware famous. After the death of Saijiro, the ware soon 
lost its reputation, as his pupils could not maintain tho 
master's style or finish. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century, Morikage 
took charge of the work at Koga. He introduced freedom 
and boldness in design, and soon made the ware famous. 
His products vary in subject, and are in rare tints of green, 
yellow, and violet. After Morikage's death, the pottery 
again deteriorated in quality, and the base became dark, 
almost black. 

In 1 8 14, the process of decoration in red was redis- 
covered by Yoshidaya, who produced beautiful wares in 
that color and gold. These soon became famous, and bear 
the artist's name. In 1878, Zingoro produced a more 
brilliant porcelain by substituting gold-leaf for the powder, 
and using cleaner color. Seto, in the province of Owaii, 
produced commercial pottery for several centuries, but it 
was not until 1801 that Tamekichi commenced to make 
porcelain. The products of these potteries are beautiful, 
and may be seen all over the Empire. A beautiful ware 
in delicate blue and white is produced at Kiyowezer, near 
Kyoto. It may be recognized by its coarse paste and its 
dark-blue decoration. 

The Japanese devoted their genius as artists to faience, 
into which they introduced the most subtle and surprising 
effects by delicate shades of color, and quaint forms. 
Their love for artistic pottery dates back to the ninth cen- 
tury, since which time their amateurs have cherished the 
richly glazed Seiji ware, which was copied from, and 



Population and Industry of Japan 225 

excelled, the Chinese work. The early Shigaraki ware is 
rough, is skilfully made, and has a beautiful glaze ; the 
Soma ware has an impressed horse ; the Takatori ware 
has a bright lustre. Other varieties are the old Banko and 
Higo wares, the Yatsushina, and the Kiuezan, with its 
rich raised blue enamels, the Oribe, with mottle glaze, and 
the old lube or Bizen ware, with its reddish-brown glaze, 
one of the oldest Japanese wares, dating back fully five 
hundred years. 

Kakiyemon, Niusei, and Keuzan are the three celebrated 
names in the history of Japanese porcelains. They flour- 
ished between the years 1624 and 1652, and during these 
years Japanese decorative, ceramic art was at its height. 
Niusei worked at Kyoto, and his products were the cream- 
colored wares of " Awata." The ware is made of a hard 
paste, has a very fine, uniform crackle, and is enamelled on 
a buff ground, with floral decorations in green and blue 
tints heightened with gold. This work laid the foundation 
for a great school in faience which has come down to our 
times. Kyoto was filled with potteries which followed the 
style of Niusei, but these products do not equal his in glaze, 
crackle, or enamels. 

Kirko-Zau, who was a follower of Niusei, in the next 
century, brought the Awata products to great perfection, 
and introduced a raised, dark-purple enamel in relief. The 
work of this artist is fine, with uniform crackle; clear 
and finished in design and execution, while the Awata ware 
of the present day is thin, cold, and dry in glaze, and the 
enamels are not so perfect. 

Keuzan was no less famous than Niusei. He was a 
bold, dashing painter, and originated a new style of free- 
hand decorations in birds, flowers, grasses, and delicate 
landscapes. He flourished between the years 1663 and 
1743, and his style still influences all the Japanese, Euro- 
pean, and American decorative pottery. Free-hand floral 

15 



2 26 An American Cruiser in the East 

decoration on china was not known before his time. Keu- 
zan was a poet as well as an artist, and he did not hesitate 
to indite verses upon his landscapes. His work has the 
rough boldness of a masterful artist, a leader, not a follower 
in style ; and his productions are amongst the rarest and most 
precious products of the Japanese kilns. 

In writing of this Japan, where everything is so artistic 
and beautiful, I could not persuade myself to neglect the 
introduction of these few lines on its leading art works, — 
works which have had great influence over the lives and 
happiness of its people, and necessarily modify their inter- 
course with the outside world 




A Chinese Cart. 



CHAPTER XII 



A TRIP TO THE NORTHWESTWARD 



AT about half-past six on an o\ercast morning in May, 
which was Sunday, we left our anchorage and stood 
out of the harbor of Hyogo, Japan, bound for Chefoo, 
China. As we passed the flagship we gave the " flag " a 
steaming salute, having the marines drawn up in line, at a 
present arms, on the poop deck, and dipping the ensign. 
Our course was through the beautiful Inland Sea of Japan 
as far as the Straits of Shimonoseki, then heading to the 
northward and westward, across the Yellow Sea to Chefoo 
on the Shantung promontory. We had not gone very far 
on our way, perhaps twenty miles or so, when the weather 
became thick and foggy. We kept on blowing our steam- 
whistle at inter\als, and steaming alono; at a slow rate of 
speed. 

At about nine o'clock there was a bump, and we soon 
realized that the old ship had struck a sand beach which 



2 28 An American Cruiser in the East 

had not respect enough for us to keep out of the way. 
We were soon surrounded by natives in sampans, who were 
attracted by the novelty of seeing a great ship so near their 
little village. On investigation, we found ourselves to be 
in front of the village of Akashi, Japan. After some good 
hard backing of the engines, the ship was gotten out of the 
sand into deep water, when the anchor was let go and we 
remained until about noon ; when, as the weather had 
cleared somewhat, the anchor was raised and another start 
made. We ran along until darkness set in, when we 
anchored for the night. After all was quiet about the ship, 
and " Jacky " was snugly stowed in his " dream-bag," lost 
to the world, perhaps dreaming of his home and loved ones, 
the ship's bell rang out the alarm for fire, which soon 
brought all of us to our feet. Hammocks were quietly 
triced up and stowed, and all hands were at their places for 
fire quarters. We soon discovered that it was only a drill. 
It is alwavs a relief to know that there is no actual fire, for 
there is no more trying position than that upon a burning 
ship at sea. After running out the hose and starting the 
pumps, the retreat was sounded. When everything had 
been secured, the crew went off to whisper about the 
" old man," and once more to try the soft side of 
a mattress ; but these whisperings were short-lived, as 
in a few minutes the rattle was sounded for " general 
quarters." Hammocks were again made up and stowed ; 
lights were put out in a very unceremonious manner; the 
magazine was opened, and powder and shell were passed 
upon the deck; while the great guns were "cast loose" 
and loaded. Two rounds were fired from each gun, when 
"secure" and "retreat" sounded, and everyone repaired 
to his " downy couch " and endeavored to make up the 
lost sleep. Early the next morning the anchor was raised, 
and we picked our way among the islands. On the 
second day we passed through the interestino; Straits of 



A Trip to the Northwestward 229 

Shimonoseki, where the gallant McDougal forced his way 
in the "Wyoming," in 1863; not without a hot fight, 
for the Japanese were well prepared for him, and bravely 
contested his passage inch by inch, but the brave Yankee 
skipper won the fight ; and the " Wyoming " passed into 
the Inland Sea. 

Later, the Japanese government paid a heavy indemnity 
for the benefit of the families of the killed and wounded in 
this affair; but still later, this sum, together with the accu- 
mulated interest, was returned to the Japanese, who appro- 
priated the whole amount to the erection of the breakwater 
at Yokohama, which protects shipping in that harbor from 
the effects of typhoons that sometimes sweep up the Bay 
of Yeddo. 

The Straits of Shimonoseki are well surveyed and marked 
by beacons, lights, and bearings ; but as the tide runs very 
strong, and there are whirlpools and eddies, it is safest to go 
through at a good rate of speed and in the daylight. The 
surrounding hills are well fortified, and they are still being 
terraced and strengthened. There is a strong garrison 
stationed on the hills, above the city. Shimonoseki is not 
one of the open ports, and foreign vessels do not stop here 
unless they are in distress. 

At about nine in the morning we stood to the westward ; 
and when the vessel was well clear of the land, the engines 
were stopped and the propeller was disconnected. The 
entire morning was devoted to sail exercises, tacking and 
wearing ship ■, and while the men were aloft, many of them 
busy on the yard-arm, a dummy, that had been quietly 
prepared, was pushed out of one of the cabin ports, and 
soon the cry was raised of " Man overboard ! " The 
men tumbled down from aloft, while the head sails were 
thrown aback, lifeboats manned and lowered, and the 
" dummy " was brought on board, much to the disgust 
of the junior watch, who had the deck and was under 



230 An American Cruiser in the East 

the impression that it was really one of the men who 
had fallen overboard. This ended the drill, and the vessel 
was soon again steaming to the northwestward on her 
course. 

As we proceeded on our way, the wind freshened and 
the sea increased, until by night we had about as much of 
each as was wanted, — and a little more than was com- 
fortable, for the ship rolled and pitched to such a degree 
that it was very difficult to hang on, and impossible to keep 
on one's feet without being lashed to some fixed part of the 
ship. It was deemed expedient to " heave to " for the night, 
the engines turning just fast enough to keep steerage-way 
and prevent the ship from falling off into the trough of the 
sea. By daylight, the wind quieted down, and we had a 
smooth sea, with just breeze enough to blow the smoke 
away ; but the thermometer indicated 90° in the shade, with 
a mucky, sultry atmosphere that was anything but pleasant. 
The speed of the engines was increased to about the full, 
and the ship sped on at a good rate until night set in, when 
the weather became so thick and foggy that we could not 
see about the decks, and it was impossible for the look- 
outs to see for any great distance from the vessel. There 
was no alternative but to slow the engines and feel the 
way, keeping the steam-whistle blowing, at intervals, to 
warn the people on any other vessel in our vicinity, while 
we were compelled to avoid several ugly, jagged rocks 
' which show their horrid " fangs " above the surface of the 
sea, like very monsters guarding the approaches to fair 
Korea. 

About noon of the next day we entered the Yellow Sea, 
the sea which separates Japan from Korea. As there are 
no rocks until near the coast of China, at Shantung, two 
hundred and eighty miles distant, in spite of the thick 
weather, we pushed the ship, and arrived off Chefoo on the 
sixth day after leaving Kobe. 



A Trip to the Northwestward 231 



Chefoo, China 

Yantai is the port to which the name of Chefoo has been 
applied. As a matter of fact, Yantai is in the vicinity of 
Chefoo, but has no connection with it. While the town 
was in possession of the French troops, business men 
crowded there and settled about the camps under their pro- 
tection ; and as there was no fixed plan of settlement, many 
of their houses were surrounded by native buildings, hence 
they now have disagreeable neighbors, and what should 
have been one of the pleasantest places of residence in the 
far East has been marred by the undesirable surroundings. 

The later foreign settlement has grown up along the sea- 
shore, where there is a fine sandy beach. For miles 
beyond the town, stretches a gently rolling country, and 
back of this the hills rise into mountains, and render the 
landscape interesting and varied. 

In consequence of its wonderful climate and beautiful 
beach, Chefoo is the summer resort of many foreign resi- 
dents of China. Here, as all over the East, the houses 
occupied by foreigners are built of sun-dried bricks, covered 
with plaster, and painted in some pleasing color. The 
doorways and window openings are usually trimmed with 
stone, and the roof is covered with tiles. The houses are 
of large proportions, have spacious verandahs on every floor 
and side, are situated in commodious, well-kept gardens, 
and have an air of elegant comfort that is not seen else- 
where. As a rule, the furniture and fixtures are products 
of Eastern art, and are poems and marvels in woods, metals, 
stones, porcelains, and silks. There are six commodious 
churches of various Christian denominations, and a fine 
club-house where everything necessary for the comfort of 
man can be obtained. 

In the older settlement, and on the beach, are fine hotels, 



232 



An American Cruiser in the East 



which for appointments and comfort cannot be excelled in 
the Eastern world. There are many fine shops, where 
goods that have been imported from every part of the world 
can be obtained, from " Murray's canned corn " to the trap- 
pings for a lady's saddle-horse. 

My guide and I, mounted in sedan chairs, made a trip 
into the country and through the native city. The guide, 
Ah-Sin, did not speak very good American, and I had some 
difficulty in making him understand my Chinese ; but as mv 
principal need of him was to point out the roads, we 
managed to get along fairly well. He was very patient 
with me ; indeed, I do not remember any creature more 
patient than a coolie, who is paid for an afternoon's ride in 
a sedan chair while guiding a " foreign devil." 

On our way to visit the native citv, we passed out of the 
settlement into the broad countrv, which is traversed, here 
and there, by little paths not more than a yard in width. 
Each path has a narrow ditch running parallel with one side 
of it, and these little paths are the highways of this section. 
Coolies with heavy burdens upon their backs, and little 
Chinese ponies, laden with provisions, or great timbers, or 
some heavy piece of machinery, were led by their masters 
towards the distant mountains. All about these paths are 
little gardens, where vegetables are grown to sell to the 
residents of the settlement. My curiosity was aroused 
by the sight of grave-like huts in one corner of almost 
every garden spot. They looked like places into which 
these poor people might crawl and die ; but they proved to 
be the homes of the lonely gardeners, and near each one of 
them there is a little well from which they draw water to 
supply their thirsty plants. 

As it is a dry, rainless district, irrigation of the land is 
necessary ; and this is accomplished by raising water from 
the wells and pouring it into little ditches, whence it runs 
about the land. Many of these poor people seemed to be 



A Trip to the Northwestward 233 

continually lifting basketfuls of water out of these holes in 
the ground, and pouring it into these earthen gutters. 

After yielding two and three crops in a year, this land 
is still as productive as almost any well-kept garden in 
America. After the Japanese, the Chinese are the finest 
agriculturists in the world ; they are patient, hard workers, 
and never tire of turning over, cleaning up, and manuring 
the land. 

The United States Consul at this place has interested 
himself in introducino- California fruits to the farmers of 
the country, and, by so doing, he has varied the products 
of one class, and added to the table luxuries of the other. 

All about these hills, we see schools, missions, and 
churches, — monuments to the good women and men who 
have left their kin and friends in Christian lands to teach 
these people how to live and die, and for what to hope. 

Having reached the gateway in the mud wall of the 
native city, we were received with much shouting and con- 
siderable bustle, of which the guide came in for only a 
small share, as his rank did not count for much; but mv 
importance seemed to be increased by having the servant 
with me. Ah-Sin explained the situation to the mob, and 
after the expenditure of some '' cash," we were permitted 
to proceed on our way in peace. 

After passing through the city, we found the streets and 
roads — narrow, crooked, unpaved, and dirty — receptacles 
for the abominations of the place. The poor, rickety huts 
are made of mud, which is piled up and allowed to dry in 
the sunshine, after which a thatched roof of straw is placed 
over it. The best houses — but there are very few best 
among them — are built of sun-dried bricks, and the walls 
look as if in any excitement or crowding they would fall 
to the ground. There is not a shop in the miserable town 
equal to the poorest of the thousands to be found in the 
business portion of old Canton. 



2 34 Ai^ American Cruiser in the East 

The day was sultry, and a great many native gentlemen 
of leisure were taking their siestas on the roadsides, dressed 
in their birthday clothes, as is the custom in this part of the 
world. We could not find anything in the wretched little 
shops to serve as a memento of the visit, and as a last 
resort we offered a price to one of the gentry for the pipe 
he was smoking. He evidently thought the offer too good 
to lose, and closed the bargain by surrendering the pipe, 
which we brought off in triumph. 

This section contains the most unskilful mechanics that 
we have seen in the East. The boats and sampans in the 
harbor are clumsy, rough, and heavy. We saw some car- 
penters, " wood-butchers," at work in the town, doing the 
very worst with a piece of wood that was ever seen, hack- 
ing, chopping, and botching it to such an extent that it was 
a pity the poor wood could not cry out in protest against 
the rough usage. 

As we passed along we saw the native process of making 
bricks. Two or three coolies pour water into a hole in the 
ground, two or three others scatter straw over the water, 
while others jump about in it for the purpose of mixing the 
mud and straw together. I cannot imagine why they do 
not let their great fat hogs do this, unless it is because they 
prefer to have the fun themselves. When sufficiently 
mixed, the mud is scooped up in basket- shovels, and carried 
to other men who place it in wooden frames (" moulds ") the 
size of the proposed bricks. These men press the mixture 
into the frames ; it is levelled up, and then placed in the 
sun to dry. No attempt is made to smooth the bricks ; 
on the contrarv, they are roughened, we were informed, for 
the purpose of making them hold to the mud-mortar. 

We visited the only temple that we could find in the 
place. It is nearly in the centre of the city, a mean old 
structure well on the road to ruin. Some "sing-song" 
men were performing in its front courtyard, one old fellow 



A Trip to the Northwestward 235 

doing a first-class bass; and as he had a very large audience, 
there can be no doubt that the performance was, according 
to native taste, fine. 

Everywhere we heard comments upon the dryness of 
this climate, and I am free to say that I believe it is one 
of the drvest climates in the world, but it is said to have 
the healthiest climate in China. 

In the long winters when the Pei-ho River is frozen 
over, the mails and merchandise for the more northern 
cities are landed at this point, and conveyed overland to 
their destination. The harbor is commodious, and there 
is sufficient depth of water for vessels of large draught. It 
is exposed, however, to strong gales, which prevail at certain 
seasons of the year. 

Very important fortifications have been constructed by 
the Chinese authorities at Port Arthur, Wei-Hai-Wei, and 
on neighboring hills, for the defence of the place. 

The population of Chefoo is about thirty-three thousand, 
of whom about six hundred are foreigners. Its trade is prin- 
cipally in beans and beancake, of which enormous quantities 
are sent to the southern ports of China. The total value of 
the trade of the port is about $17,000,000. Large quan- 
tities of fine fish are caught near by, which are salted for 
the market. 

Wei-Hai-Wei 

Wei-Hai-Wei, the most important stronghold and ar- 
senal in China, is situated on the southern shore of the 
Gulf of Pichili, about twenty miles to-the eastward of 
Chefoo. It is an old walled city among the hills, whose 
inhabitants are well-to-do producers of silk and workmen 
in the arsenal. 

The city is of great size, including within its walls many 
cultivated fields. The wall is dilapidated in places, and 



236 An American Cruiser in the East 

many of its gates are closed. The western gate is in 
general use. There are several famous temples among 
the hills in the northwestern corner of the city. 

Large quantities of silk are made from wild silkworms, 
which are fed with leaves of the oak shrub that covers the 
surrounding hills. 

Wei-Hai-Wei has a naval college where young men 
are educated to become cadets in the Chinese Imperial 
Navy. It has a commodious, well-sheltered harbor, formed 
by mountain rocks which extend into the sea, and almost 
meet a large island which lies across the northeastern side 
of the harbor and protects it from the winds. This har- 
bor will accommodate a large fleet, and affords good shelter 
from typhoons. It can be entered in the winter when the 
other ports are closed by ice. Its forts and earthworks 
are located on almost every rock and hill, and bristle with 
Armstrong and Krupp guns of heaviest calibre. 

Wei-Hai-Wei contains the most extensive arsenals and 
shops in the Empire for the manufacture of war material, 
and is believed by the Chinese to be impregnable. 




Chemulpo, Korea. 



CHAPTER XIII 



A TRIP TO KOREA 



WE sailed from Chefoo on the afternoon of the 7th, 
and dropped our anchor on the Korean coast 
in a hurry in full sight of some of the ugliest rocks that 
ever confronted a seaman. The run across the Gulf of 
Pichili had been as pleasant as could be desired, as 
there was no wind, and the sea was as smooth as a 
mirror; even the almost ceaseless long-swell of old ocean 
was gone. 

The sun shone brightly by day, and the sunsets were 
ever to be remembered for their greens and golds and grays. 
Quiet and gorgeous tints blended into a beauty such as no 



238 An American Cruiser in the East 

artist could reproduce. The nights were as near perfec- 
tion as those that mortals dream of, but seldom realize. 
The moon, about half-full, shone out resplendent in a 
silver sheen, deepened by the clearness of the heavenly 
vault ; and Jupiter shone amongst the lesser planets and 
stars, like a globe of fiery whiteness. Early the next 
morning a great rainbow spanned the heavens, while its 
ends were in the sea and reminded us of the old saw, 

" Rainbow in the morning, sailors take warning ; 
Rainbow at niglit is the sailor's delight." 

But as we have all gotten away from the " unlucky 
Fridays " and other superstitions of the sea, this beautiful 
rainbow only impressed us by its brightness and symmetry 
of form. 

Later in the day, after the men had finished their hard- 
bread and coffee, the ship's decks were cleared, a target 
was anchored about one thousand yards from the vessel, 
and we had target practice with great guns. All being 
in readiness, the ship was gotten under way and steamed 
back and forth and about the target. The guns were 
loaded with powder and shell and fired at the target. Ob- 
servers were stationed on certain lines and in the ship's 
maintop to note and record the line and effect of each 
shot. Many of the shots were excellent, and all were 
good. 

After luncheon there was exercise with machine guns, 
rifles, and revolvers. As each man's name was called, 
he stepped in front of the line, fired his piece at the 
target which had been brought nearer to the \essel, and 
fell back in place. Some of this work was most ex- 
cellent. After these exercises we anchored the ship for 
the night. 

The next morning we started for Chemulpo, Korea, 
where we arrived at about five in the afternoon, anchor- 



A Trip to Korea 239 

ing in the outer harbor about three miles from the town, 
and about two miles from Roze Island, as we were afraid 
to anchor in the inner harbor, where the rise and fall of 
the tide is nearly thirty feet, and sandbars make the navi- 
gation uncertain. 

Chemulpo, Korea 

The town of Jeuchuan, or Juisen, known to the Japan- 
ese as Junsen, is situated at the entrance of the Satee 
River, a branch of the Han, and about east of Roze Island, 
on the west coast of Korea, in the province of Kuing-Kei. 
The town has grown in a few years from an insignificant 
fishing village to a place of no mean proportions. Many- 
substantial buildings, in the European style, have been 
erected, and the town is rapidly rising into importance as 
a commercial centre. The roads are rough and badly 
kept, in many places merely bridle-paths. 

The British and Japanese consulates occupy command- 
ing positions and are creditable to their nations. 

The rice-cleaning steam-mill, an American enterprise, is 
very interesting and well worth a visit. Situated on the 
side of a hill, in the centre of the settlement, it stands as 
an engineering curiosity, — Yankee boilers with Japanese 
coal, run by a Chinese engine, to clean Korean rice. Here 
steam has displaced the ancient man-power, it is true, but 
the work is thoroughly done, and the owners are satisfied 
with the profits. 

On a commanding hill to the right of the settlement, 
overlooking the native town, is the temple which com- 
memorates the peaceful landing of the Japanese. It is 
surrounded by tea-houses of the better class, and is near 
the little Japanese cemetery. With the waters of the 
Satee and Han on the one side, Roze Island for the back- 
ground, and amid the beautiful plains, valleys, and hills 



240 An American Cruiser in the East 

of fair Korea, no more delightful situation could be 
imagined. 

The temple is made of a fine grained wood, resembling 
our cedar, and carved in places, while its square pillars, 
beams, and lintels are held in place by framing that is sup- 
plemented by massive bars and angles of bronze, which 
give support to the heavy tiled roof. This temple has no 
doors, and the chief feature of its decorations is a large 
painting of the " Landing of the Japanese and their recep- 
tion bv the Koreans." This fine picture shows Japanese 
disembarking from their vessel, while others are landing on 
the shores of Korea, and are being received by white-robed 
Koreans. The leader of the Japanese carries a copy of 
the treatv between the two nations. 

The tea-houses are exquisitely neat, and the entertain- 
ment at them is all that could be desired. Beautiful views 
may be enjoyed from the verandahs, as well as from the neat 
little cemetery on the side of the hill. 

There are two hotels in the settlement, the "Stewart 
House," which is conducted in the semi-foreign style by a 
Chinaman, whose name the house bears, and the Japanese 
hotel, " Dai Butsu." The proprietors are accommodating, 
and it is well to know one of them before making the trip 
to Seoul ; either one will make all arrangements for the 
journev and secure accommodations at the tea-house in the 
capital. 

Jeuchuan, the sub-prefectural town, is situated about ten 
miles distant from the port of Chemulpo. The rising 
town of Mapu, on the main road to Seoul, is about 
seventy-five miles distant from Chemulpo, or about thirty 
miles from Seoul. 

The land forming the Japanese settlement was sold by 
public auction in 1884, and land sales in the general foreign 
settlement took place in November of the same year. 

Chemulpo is governed by a Municipal Council com- 



A Trip to Korea 241 

posed of the foreign consuls, one Korean official, and three 
representatives who are elected by the land-holders. Two 
foreign and one Chinese policemen, in European uniforms, 
do duty in the settlement, under the direction of the 
Council. 

The settlement has been neatly laid out with broad 
roads, which, in rainy seasons, rival for mud the war-time 
roads of old Virginia. The lots are all improved with 
substantial buildings, and the roads are planted with fine 
shade-trees. 

The approaches and the river (Satee) have been sur- 
veyed by the British and Japanese, and the charts of late 
dates are entirely reliable. The navigation of these waters 
is dangerous from the many sandbars, washings of the 
rivers, the frequency of sudden dense • fogs, and the 
absence of lights and beacons. The outer anchorage is 
accessible to the largest vessels, but the holding ground is 
not reliable, and vessels are liable to drag their anchors 
when the wind is strong on shore. The inner harbor is 
accessible to coasting vessels of light draught as far up as 
Mapu. 

An overland telegraph from China to this port, and con- 
necting Seoul and Ping-yang, is in operation. 

The climate of Chemulpo is healthy and similar to that 
of Baltimore. 

The foreign population is about three thousand, of whom 
about twenty-five hundred are Japanese. The native pop- 
ulation is estimated at about three thousand people, who 
live in mere huts built on the lowland marshes. Their 
settlement is most miserable and unsanitary, and altogether 
is the filthiest place in which I have ever seen human 
beings crowded. If the Japanese succeed in teaching these 
poor people cleanly habits, they will have done a noble 
work for humanity. 

The ascent from the boat-landing into Chemulpo is by 

16 



242 An American Cruiser in the East 

an inclined roadway of massive granite blocks, for about 
fifty rods, the road having an inclination of about 18°. As 
the tide falls, it leaves the inclined road covered with mud 
and slime, which frequently makes the ascent somewhat 
dangerous and at all times filthy. 

Landing here, and travelling over an unkept road full of 
hollows and hills, with no approach to straightness, does 
not impress one very favorably with Chemulpo. A tramp 
through the native settlement should be made in old clothes 
for the filth, stout boots for the mud, a cigar for the smells, 
and a stout stick for the curs, — for all are dangerous ; but 
the life one sees on such a trip is very interesting and well 
repays for the risks taken. 

The roads through the settlement are about eight feet wide, 
broken and filthy. They are lined on both sides by mean 
little huts, one story, eight by ten feet in height, and made of 
any old materials the unfortunate natives are able to gather. 
Some are made from old dry-goods boxes, some of mud, 
and a very few of sun-dried bricks plastered over with mud, 
— anything that will give shelter, hold the mud plastered 
over them, and carry the straw-thatched roof intended to 
keep out the winter's snows and the summer's rains. The 
mteriors of these cabins are as filthy and unkept as the 
exteriors. Dogs, pigs, and fowls share the "kang" and 
house with the family ; in fact, they are part of the family. 
Except for the flowing white robes, there are no evidences 
of cleanness in the place. The only water we could dis- 
cover was in the little tubs containing the fish for sale, and 
in the green pools along the roadsides. Every cabin has 
a compartment called the " kang," a sort of room, with 
earthen floor, under which a fire is made. Here the 
members of the family resort to secure warmth, and in the 
evenings mats spread upon the floor form the family bed. 

There is a shop of some description in front of every 
cabin, for the sale of fish, vegetables, charcoal, or notions ; 



A Trip to Korea 243 

or it may be a cook-shop, where the vilest messes that ever 
ruined the stomach of a human being are concocted. 
Great rolls of underdone rice-flour, swimming in a pool 
of boiling fish-oil; an unnamable mess of green stuff, pork, 
and fish made into stews, and chalky-looking loaves of rice, 
with shellfish and oysters. These shops give the roads 
the appearance of long, filthy bazaars, and the snowy-robed 
Koreans look very much out of place, as they crowd through 
the filth. 

These cabins have yards in the rear, enclosed by wicker 
fences, made from the branches of bushes. In some tew 
cases attempts are made to do truck-gardening by raising a 
little green stuff and a few cabbages, but there are no fruits 
or flowers ; indeed, I doubt if the Koreans care for flowers. 
Many of these yards are uncultivated, and contain abomi- 
nations of the foulest sort. How the people live and flourish 
amidst such surroundings is bevond mv comprehension. 

When one has run the gantlet of the dogs, the urchins, 
and the smells, and reaches the end without having been 
bitten, or ditched, or having contracted cholera, it is a 
relief to roam over the hills to the little Japanese cemetery, 
and gather the beautiful wild flowers that may be had for 
the taking, or to visit one of the tea-houses on the hill 
bevond, from whence we frequently watched the fishermen 
and the beach-combers gathering oysters, crabs, and other 
gifts ot the sea, when the tide was out. Sometimes we 
took pictures of the quaint scenes about us, pitched quoits 
upon the tea-house green, listened to the mandolin-like 
strains of the sweet samisan, or were entertained with 
tales of daring and war by a bold Korean warrior, who, 
when his tales were finished, politely invited himself to 
partake of our refreshments. 

The common people are innocent and inquisitive, child- 
like and bland, with no intention of being impertinent. 
They will smooth down your clothes, and inquire about 



244 ^^^ American Cruiser in the East 

the materials of which they are made; ask to see your 
watch, and require an explanation of its mechanism ; and 
your pockets must be turned out and the contents explained. 
I gave one of these people some sour drops I happened 
to have with me ; he thought them a species of amber 
beads. When I explained to him that they were edible 
and sweet, he ran off, but soon returned with a crowd of 
slipshod females, who were all very importunate for a supply 
of the novel sweets. In a short time my little stock was 
exhausted, and it was interesting to see the disappointment 
depicted upon their countenances, as they went off empty- 
handed. I afterwards learned that these ladies looked 
upon me as a magic-man, in league with the spirits. 

The Executive, the Senior Watch, and I called upon 
the Governor to pay our respects. We were met at the 
boat-landing, the foot of the inclined roadway, by a China- 
man who was to act as our guide. He had mustered 
three dilapidated sedan chairs for our use, and four coolies 
to act as bearers for each chair. We were in full-dress 
uniform, and the "conveyances" seemed ridiculously 
out of keeping with the importance of the occasion and 
our good clothes ; but the visit had been prearranged, 
and there was nothing to do but go ahead. 

The chairs were made of bamboo basket-work, with 
long poles projecting out before and behind on each side, 
for the bearers, and there was a canopy over the top to 
protect the rider from the weather. 

The Senior Watch had the most dilapidated rig of the 
three •, and as his bearers were as inexperienced as the 
others, he seemed in imminent danger of being tumbled 
out on his head. The best chair in the lot fell to me; 
but as mv bearers had not practised enough to give a 
steady swing to the chair, the ride was very uncomfortable. 
We were accompanied all the way by a rabble of idlers who; 
thoroughly understood and enjoved our discomfiture. 



A Trip to Korea 



245 



After having been borne up the inclined landing, and 
through the foreign settlement and skirting one edge of the 
native village, we started up a very steep hill, which put 
our stability to the test, but we reached the palace entrance 
in safety, and were thankful. The great outer doors of 
the palace courtyard were opened with much ceremony. 
Some twenty officials came out to meet us, and there was 
a great deal of bowing, chin-chin-ing, and good American 




^' 


i W 


' y^ 



A Delegation of Koreans visit the "Alert.' 



handshaking, as we dismounted from our rickety old 
bamboo cages. As soon as we pulled ourselves together, 
as it were, we were escorted through the courtvard, up 
a flight of broad steps, and into the audience-chamber. 

His Excellency and suite, in their official robes, were 
already present to receive us. We did not need a special 
presentation, as we had entertained the Governor on our 
vessel ; and he reached out to greet us — more in American 
than Korean fashion — as soon as we entered the- room. 



246 An American Cruiser in the East 

After more greetings and handshakings, we were all seated, 
and enjoyed a pleasant chat with the Governor and the 
other Korean gentlemen present. 

Presently cigars were served, the servant cutting off" the 
ends and lighting them for us. Later, wine and cake 
were brought in, all the while the conversation flowing on 
in pleasant channels. We inquired after the health of His 
Majesty the King, and expressed the hope that it might be 
a thousand years before he would be called upon to ascend 
on hish to ride the celestial dragon. When we took our 
leave, we were escorted to our chairs, the Governor in- 
sisting upon seeing us to the outer gate, and again shaking 
our hands. 

The audience-room, in which we had been received, was 
about thirtv feet long and twenty-five broad, with a very 
high ceiling. It was fitted in the European fashion with 
a handsome velvet carpet, made near Boston. Lace cur- 
tains, with heavy silk trimmings at the windows, a hand- 
some mahogany table, placed lengthwise of the centre of 
the room, and chairs to match, made it a beautiful audience- 
room. 

When we entered the room the Governor stood near 
its centre. He was clad in a long robe of dull blue silk, 
with square breast-and-back pieces embroidered with birds 
of gay plumage. He wore the ear-hat of the Korean noble, 
with a long strand of heavy amber beads, like a chin-strap, 
but reaching down upon his breast, and his shoes were of 
embroidered silk with pointed toes. 

When we reached the native village on our way back to 
the landing, our attention was attracted by wailing sounds 
from some one apparentlv in deep distress. We dismounted 
from our chairs and hunted for the cause of these outcries, 
which we soon found to come from a professional mourner, 
who, in shrill, high-pitched tones of voice, was announcing 
the virtues of the deceased person Iving before her. These- 



A Trip to Korea 



247 



poor professionals come from the lower walks of life and 
are generally objects of pity. They cultivate the funereal 
expression and the loud, shrill voice that adds horror to the 
otherwise dismal surroundings, and inspire feelings that 
make the " Westerner " wish he were as far away as pos- 




KoREAN Mourning Costume. 



sible. Of course, these professional mourners, like stone- 
cutters with epitaphs, add virtue to virtue for the fee, and 
deem the facts of the case to be no concern of theirs. 

We learned, through our guide, that the deceased was the 
father of a numerous family, and had been a very worthy 
blacksmith's helper, who was cut off in the flower of his 
manhood. His good deeds and virtues, as narrated by the 



248 An American Cruiser in the East 

mourner, were innumerable ; and as soon as the family 
ceased to pay for the mourning, the funeral would take 
place. 

When a Korean dies, his body is prepared for interment 
much after the fashion in China. Placed in a strong, heavy 
wooden box that has more or less ornament upon it, he is 
professionally mourned for as long as family and friends 
can afford to pay for that service ; and when all is ready, 
the box is borne to the grave by bearers, preceded by the 
professional mourners, who contort and howl in proportion 
to their pay. The relatives and friends follow, dressed in 
brownish-white robes, the males wearing immense, coal- 
scuttle-like hats of the same color, and having a long staff 
of natural-colored wood in hand. When the grave is 
reached, the box is lowered into the prepared place, or in 
some cases is placed upon the surface of the ground, and 
earth is piled around and over it. The term of mourning 
is three years. After this sight of distress and misery we 
made another start for the vessel. 

When I had removed my camera from under the seat 
of my chair and was preparing to take a view of the poor 
little shops in the native village, a great crowd, but a good- 
natured one, gathered about us, obstructing the view. We 
soon learned that the people were all anxious to appear in 
the picture, — not that they might ever see it themselves, 
but they were anxious to be identified with their village. 

What hovels and huts for a people to be proud of, and 
with which to wish to be identified ! The contrast is very 
great between these miserable Korean cabins, and huts in 
the swamps, and the neat, artistic peasant homes of the 
Japanese upon the hillsides. 

The Chemulpo Club's home is situated in the foreign 
settlement. It is neatlv fitted with billiard, reading, refresh- 
ment, and retiring rooms, with a bowling alley in its neigh- 
borhood. Its membership is cosmopolitan. Americans. 



A Trip to Korea 249 

Britons, and Japanese fraternize in its hospitable rooms 
and lounge away an hour or two each day. 

The currency of the country is in a wretched condition, 
and native money is scarce. Chinese " cash " is used for 
all small transactions. It was usual to see shopping parties 
followed about from shop to shop by a stalwart coolie bear- 
ing a huge bundle of stringed cash upon his shoulders ; and 
when it is remembered that the value of the cash is from 
1,000 to 1,300 to the Japanese or the Mexican dollar 
(depending upon the rate of exchange), one can understand 
the great inconvenience of doing business. 

The Korean coolie, stalwart as he is, is a study in his 
way. With a wooden frame which much resembles the 
framework of the under side of a common wheelbarrow 
strapped upon his back, he is prepared to bear great loads 
in the shape of stones, goods, or machinery. All he needs 
is a firm place to back against, to steady his great burden, 
and then he marches off with a firm tread and steady 
gait. They are great meat-eaters, and devour every part 
of the animal. Their wages are small, and they are happy 
if they can secure fish and rice enough to satisfy their 
hunger. When the tide is out they resort to the beach in 
great numbers, and supplement their scanty store of food 
with the oysters, crabs, or fish found there. 

Cook-shops and booths, the latter formed by four bare 
poles supporting an old straw matting for awning, are 
scattered about the roadsides, in the business locality 
where these poor toilers can procure food, and mav rest 
in the shade while eating it. 

In all large business houses, the Japanese are the lead- 
ing men, while the Koreans may be emploved as the com- 
mon laborers. 

The Korean mail service is conducted in the ports by 
Japanese, but in the Interior of the country the work is done 
bv Koreans. 



250 An American Cruiser in the East 

Chemulpo was opened to foreign trade in 1883. ^^^ 
value of the imports from foreign countries is about 
$3,500,000, and the exports amount to about $1,500,000, 
the difference being paid in gold. The total trade of the 
port is about $6,000,000. 




CHAPTER XIV 



SEOUL, THE CAPITAL OF KOREA 



THE distance from Chemulpo to Seoul is about thirty- 
five miles, and the journey can be made on horse- 
back, in sedan chairs, or in one of the two little steamers 
which plv on the Han Ri\'er, whenever the tide serves and 
thev are not aground ; but whichever route is taken, there 
are always regrets that the other was not chosen. If one 
has resolved to rough it, for the sake of the beautiful 
scenerv and seeing Seoul, either route will amuse ; but if 
comfort is anticipated, the journey will be disappointing. 

Both by the land and the water route, the scenery is 
beautiful and the eve never tires, for new and strange 
things of beauty and of interest are always present to 



252 An American Cruiser in the East 

awaken emotions of pleasure and surprise. The roads 
are rough and uncared for, — mere bridle-paths, — and 
if travelling by land you will likely sigh for one of the 
little steamers. If you have taken passage in one of these, 
you will find it untidy in its fittings, unreliable in its move- 
ments, and as far from comfortable as can be imagined, 
and you wish for the chair or horse, with all the jolting 
and dust. 

There are no hotels in Seoul, and if you are not fortu- 
nate enough to be a guest of some resident you will have 
to seek accommodations in the Japanese tea-house, in 
which case you should be provided with bed-clothing and 
provisions ; or if one of the little steamers happens to be 
at the landing, you can travel the three miles to the Han 
River, and make your headquarters on board for the night. 
In either case, you will have to superintend the preparation 
of your own fare, or be prepared for Japanese or Korean 
fare, which is not entirelv to the American taste. 

Having arrived at Seoul, the capital city of Korea 
(native name, Han-Yan, meaning " Fortress on the Han "), 
you find it situated in a beautiful valley, about three miles 
north of the Han River, and thirty-five miles from its 
mouth, almost in the centre of the province of Kuing-kei. 
The valley extends in a northeast and southwest direc- 
tion, and the citv takes the same general trend. There 
are eight gates in the city walls, arranged after the fashion 
of the gates of Peking. About the year 400 b. c, Ni- 
Taijo, the founder of the present dynasty, selected the site 
for a fortified camp, which afterwards developed into the 
present city. The city is surrounded by stone walls which 
average about eighteen feet in height, and the water- 
courses are spanned by arched stone bridges. The houses 
are about eight feet high, built of stone, or of mud-covered 
bamboo frames, and roofed with tiles or thatched with 
straw. Internally they may be considered clean, for the- 



Seoul, the Capital of Korea 253 

Koreans have the Japanese fashion of removing their shoes 
before entering a house. 

The citv is di\ ided into four quarters bv the intersection 
of two main streets. The central point has been marked 
bv the erection ot a large tower which contains an old 
Korean bell, seven feet high. Se\eral other important 
streets radiate from the tower, and thev are all called 
" Bell-roads." Everv night at half-past eight the " cur- 




Gateway to Seoul. 

few " is sounded bv the great bell, when all men must 
retire from the streets, which are given over to the use of 
the women until half-past one in the morning, and during 
that time the women visit and receive visits from their 
female friends. While there are no men on the streets, 
the women go with uncovered faces, wearing the colored 
"war" coat about the shoulders, shawl fashion. 

The King's palaces are situated in the northern part of 
the city, and are surrounded by about one thousand acres. 



254 ^^^ American Cruiser in the East 

of land, enclosed by heavy stone walls, about sixteen feet 
high, and pierced with several gates. A guard of soldiers 
is stationed at these gates at all times, and there are special 
gates for people of different ranks. 

An audience having been arranged, the person is con- 
ducted through the gate corresponding to his rank, then 
through roads and corridors, — some handsome, others 
mean, — until a large room, fitted in the American style, 
has been reached. Here he lunches and rests until the 
time for the audience. He is next conducted across a hand- 
some court and up a flight of stone steps, which are guarded 
by massive stone dogs, carved by Korean artists. He finds 
himself in a large, open hall, with a massive tiled roof, sup- 
ported by numerous scarlet columns. The floor is of hand- 
some, inlaid woods. A beautiful Korean screen stands at 
the opposite side of the room where the King receives. 

When the King grants an audience, he receives in a 
scarlet robe, embroidered with gold medallions on the 
breast and back, and on each shoulder. He wears a heavy 
jewelled belt about his waist, and a blue, wingless hat upon 
his head. No one can pass in front of him, and servants hold 
up his arms as he moves about. All must prostrate them- 
selves in his presence. He begins his day at five o'clock in 
the afternoon, and retires at about eight in the morning. 

Little two-story storehouses have been constructed, 
about the " Bell roads," in such fashion that the shops 
under them open into courtyards instead of into the 
streets. Whenever the King makes a "progress," these 
little houses are torn away. This pageant is a ceremony 
of very unusual occurrence, and its details are said to have 
been unchanged for hundreds of years. Little wooden 
shanties, that serve as workshops and for business pur- 
poses, have been erected in front of almost every house, 
not only reducing the width of the streets, but giving them 
a squalid appearance. 



Seoul, the Capital of Korea 255 

. The city is very dirty, piles of lilth being allowed to 
accumulate ; and the open ditches, on each side of the 
roads, are often choked up with refuse. 

The shops are mean, and it is difficult to find fancy 
articles of Korean make. The best way to obtain curiosi- 
ties is to let your wants be known as soon after your 
arrival as possible, name a place and date where you can 




Gateway to the King's Palace, Seoul, Korea. 



be seen, and you will be waited upon by merchants who 
deal in such wares. Fans, antique metal-work, Korean 
coins and mats can be obtained in this way. The prices 
will be high, as the articles are rare and the owners not 
anxious to part with them. 

One of the sights outside of the city gate is the exer- 
cise of the Royal troops. They are uniformed in blue 
coats, plum-colored trousers, black fur hats with bright 



256 All American Cruiser in the East 

yellow tassels, and their feet are encased in half-high boots. 
They are armed with modern rifles, and are a stalwart, 
fine-looking body of men. Their movements are credit- 
able, and they have the free, easy carriage of the volunteer 
rather than the stiffness of the regular. They are trained 
by two Americans who served in the Ci\'il War and now 
hold commissions under the Korean government. 

The courage and endurance of the Koreans has often 
been tested, and there is no doubt that they will give 
a good account of themselves in case of need; but it 
must be remembered that the whole army numbers only 
twenty-five hundred men. 

Street life in Seoul is picturesque and novel, and no city 
in the world equals it for quaintness. The gateways in 
the city wall, the palace gates, and the marble pagoda are 
worth seeing as the work of this interesting people. Out- 
side the city walls, to the northwest, the immense bowlder 
image of Buddha stands boldly forth in its granite grandeur, 
requiring some play of the imagination to decide whether 
it be the " Light of Asia " or some other man. But it is 
a work of nature rather than of art. 

Passing out of the northeast gate and through a miserable- 
looking country, we reach the village of the Buddhist 
priests, where these gentry luxuriate in greater comfort 
than the average Korean, Through the southwest gate 
we are conducted to the temple and tomb of Queen Chung. 
The temple is filled with soiled red hangings, has a shrine 
of Buddha incarnated, and the whole structure is noisome 
with foul odors. 

The pleasure-grounds, surrounding the palaces, cover an 
area of a thousand acres, and are very interesting. They 
extend to the foot of the mountains, where some magnifi- 
cent views may be had. There are no modes of convey- 
ance except sedan chairs, and a reliable guide is necessary,, 
both to point out the way and to act as interpreter. 




PiKG-YANG, Korea. 



CHAPTER XV 



PING-YANG, KOREA 



WE left Chemulpo early in the afternoon of May 
20, reaching Ping-yang Inlet late on the 2 id. 
During the daylight the weather v/as warm and balmv, 
not unlike May-days at home; but the nights were chilly, 
and our progress was slow, owing to the dangerous coast 
and the fogs which prevailed. The steam-whistle made the 
days and nights dreary by incessant " tootings," which were 
necessary to give warning of our position and movements ; 
and it was a relief to our strained-eyed lookouts when we 
dropped anchor in forty fathoms of water, and " piped all 
hands to rest." 



26o An American Cruiser in the East 

Through Hght rifts in the fog we had occasional 
glimpses of the coast and the great barren rocks, jutting 
up from the sea, — rocks without a vestige of verdure 
upon them ; resting-places for the gulls and sea-spawn, 
and breakers upon which the unwary mariner might be 
dashed to destruction. No lights, no marks, nothing to 
guide or warn in the fog or in the black storm at night 
when the howling winds and boiling sea, aided by the 
treacherous currents, might drive the ship on and on 
until the tale would be " missing." The memory of that 
region makes one shudder, and corroborates the truth of 
the stories that the Koreans have rendered the ap- 
proaches to their country as desolate and unattractive as 
possible. 

How different is the vicinity of Ping-yang Inlet ! The 
scenery along its shores and up the rivers is varied and 
beautiful. For background, dark and gloomy hills, which 
thrust their peaks into the clouds, brave the anger of the 
storm, or receive the first kiss from the rising sun, while 
from their sides bright valleys of waving green extend 
down to the sea. Here and there a patch of woods, a 
cascade, or falls of silvery water which leap over or 
trickle down the massy sides of great rocky hills, where 
may be hidden gold or silver or iron or coal, — awaiting 
the miner's touch, — that may yet ransom Korea, and 
make her one of the wealthy nations of the East ; villages 
of huts in the vallevs, or near the beach, where groups 
of curious natives with flowing white robes and sombre 
hats discuss the arrival as they add variety to the already 
beautiful scenery. 

The next morning we raised our anchor and stood close 
in to the land, hunting for Chelto, on the Yalu River, which 
we found late in the afternoon, and dropped our anchor 
just in time to get the full force of a very homelike 
thunder-and-rain storm. From an inky blackness in the 



Ping-yang, Korea 261 

heavens, lightning began to play its pranks. Soon the 
wind came whistling and howling, while the flashes of 
lightning came nearer and nearer, and sent great forked 
streaks among the hills and down the valleys, while the thun- 
der boomed, and echoed from hill to hill. The rain poured 
down in torrents, and the clouds seemed to have opened 
their flood-gates. In this war of the elements, each seemed 
to try to outdo the other, and all were rivalled bv the mad 
rush of the rivers, which unite here and form the Ping- 
yang Inlet. 

After awhile, the clouds drifted away, and blue patches 
began to appear in the heavens, and soon we had a clear 
sky and twinkling stars where the angry elements had 
warred. Here and there along the shore, or in the dingv 
huts, lights sent their starlike brightness from the homes of 
the natives, ana no sounds disturbed the peace of the " Land 
of the Morning Calm" except the mighty roar of the 
rivers, the surf upon the beach, and our bugle's " call to 
rest." We had finished our good-night cigars, after watch- 
ing the faint flashes from receding clouds, as the lightning, 
loath to leave, shot forth from the dim distance like a sullen 
army in retreat. 

In the morning we found our vessel just within the 
mouth of the Yalu (one of the three rivers which form 
the Ping-yang Inlet), opposite the town, and just inside the 
lines of native breastworks that mark the fortifications. 
The river was swift-running and muddy, sweeping like mad 
through a very fairv-land. The sun shone in splendor, 
and lighted up beautiful emerald hills, or, by contrasting 
shadows, emphasized valleys whose beauties allure to rest ; 
or penetrated the dark recesses of mysterious groves, — on 
the very mountain-tops, — where holv men, like Moses, 
commune with God, and still offer blood and buint offer- 
ings for the sins of the people. 

Everv time we visited the shore the tide happened to be 



262 An American Cruiser in the East 

low, and we found ourselves more than twenty feet below 
the usual water-level of the little town, and our boat unable 
to reach land. After being carried over the muddy bottom 
for some two hundred feet upon the shoulders of two lusty 
Koreans, we were landed at the foot of the principal street 
(" road ") of Chelto. 

Chelto is situated on the right bank of the Yalu River, 
just above the intersection of the rivers. It contains about 
fifty houses, those of the better classes being built of rough 
stones plastered over with mud, their thatched roofs being 
of rice-straw. The poorer houses are made of wooden 
poles, stuck into the ground and laced together with basket- 
work. These are also plastered over with mud, and have 
thatched roofs. Formerlv, the average Korean family was 
contented with a large hole in the ground, which was 
roofed over with straw thatching, leaving an opening in the 
roof for ingress and egress. These were found to afford 
very little protection against raids of the tiger, an animal 
which abounds in these northern parts. Frequently, after 
the visits of these creatures, whole families were found to 
have suffered, and in many cases funerals were the order 
of the day, so that to the present time the inventor of 
houses is considered a public benefactor, and a prayer is 
offered for him. 

Beneath each house is a large stone under which a small 
fire is kept smouldering, while above it mats are placed, to 
be used as the family bed. Mattresses and heavy bed-cover- 
ing are not required, although the thermometer often regis- 
ters zero, and snow and ice are well known throughout the 
winter. 

There are no shops in the place, it being a town of agri- 
culturists. The residence of the governor of the province 
is in the vicinity. The men are stalwart, with well-formed 
heads, handsome countenances, just a tinge of copper in 
their well-turned, regular features, black hair and eyes, and' 



Ping-yang, Korea 



263 



graceful, free-and-easy carriage. They marry quite young, 
and the women soon get a worn, haggard look, which they 
usually retain until about their fortieth year of age, when 
they grow stout. Except tor the " sleepy eye," they are a 
handsomer race of people than cither the Japanese or the 
Chinese. 




Fortifications and Governor's House, Ping-yang Inlet, Korea. 



They dress in flowing white robes which reach to the 
shoe-tops. Their loose white trousers are tied in at the 
ankles, and great mufflers of quilted cotton are bound about 
their feet, which are thrust into Chinese dress-shoes. The 
usual head-covering for an ordinary married man is the 
stiff", straight-rimmed hat of braided black horsehair, which 
is sometimes made of finely split bamboo which has been 
colored black. The usual dress of an unmarried man is 
the same, except that he does not wear any head-coverino;, 
and his hair is parted in the middle and made into a broad 
plait, which hangs down his back. When in mourning. 



264 An American Cruiser in the East 

the garb is of the same fashion, but is made of a white- 
brown or unbleached goods, with " coal-scuttle " helmet 
of the same color as the clothing. The hat covers the 
head, and reaches down to the shoulders, the intention 
being to cover the face as much as possible. The mourner 
must also carry a stafF of natural-colored wood, which 
equals the individual in height. 

The costume of the women is similar to that worn by 
the unmarried men, except that a girdle is worn about the 
body, which gives the costume the appearance of bodice 
and skirt. The women are small in stature, of good form, 
and are fair to look upon. While the sexes are separated 
at an early age, — about six years, — the women have all 
that can be called a domestic life in Korea. Marriages are 
arranged by professional "go-betweens." Ordinarily, the 
woman has no voice in the selection of a husband, and 
knows nothing of him until all the arrangements have been 
made, and the wife-to-be finds herself in the presence of 
her future husband. After the briefest ceremony, — a feast 
to friends, in whose presence they pledge each other in 
Korean wine, — the man seizes and carries off his new- 
made wife. These marriages seem to be as happy as those 
made in other lands. 

Korean ladies have been famous at the Eastern courts for 
their grace, their wit, and their beauty. As far back as 
the year 1200, they were celebrated at the court of the 
Emperor of China, and the Pope's legate to that court 
reported on the "wondrous beauty of a Korean ladv." 
Much has been written about the condition of these women ; 
but the facts are, that they are well satisfied, suited to their 
surroundings and the condition of their country, and are 
in the full enjoyment of all the rights they know or want. 
When the conditions of the country change, the women 
may change with them, and they will get their full share of 
the benefits. 



Pino;-yanc^, Korea 



265 



The Korean is a man in the full sense of the word ; and 
because his wife is a woman, she knows how to get what 
she wants, and — 

" When she will, she will, and what is more of it ; 
When she won't, she won't, and that is all of it." 




A Koi;i;a.n Vuu.xg Woman. 



The dress of the nobilitv is of the same fashion as that 
of the common people, but the materials, colors, and orna- 
ments are different, and vary with the rank. The hat is 
made of fine, braided black horsehairs, with round crown, 



266 An American Cruiser in the East 



without a rim, and is held in place on the head by ribbons, 
which tie under the chin. The sleeves of the robe are 
o-enerally of a pale blue or green color, cut long and flowing. 




1 jT ^^ 






"mls-A 



A Korean House, Ping-yang Inlet. 



From the sides of the hat, hanging down to the shoulders, 
long strands of amber beads are worn ; while on the breast 
and back are beautifully embroidered pieces of silk, worked 
in natural colors. These complete the costume of the 
Korean of very high degree, and no swell of Europe feels 
his imp)ortance more than does this scion of " Choson." 
They do not have much furniture or many ornaments about 
their houses. Meals are taken, friends are received, and 
business is transacted in a squatting position. 

At the foot of one of the streets, and near the water's 
edge, is an immense granary, where the rice is stored until 
the coming of some Japanese agent, who goes through the 
country and buys up the produce, particularly the rice. In 
nearly all my visits to the shore I had my camera with me,. 



Ping-yang, Korea 



267 



as it was my intention to take a picture in this interesting 
country at every favorable opportunity. I was here sur- 
rounded by a mob of curious men who persisted in crowd- 
ing between the camera and the house I was desirous of 
picturing. I presented each of the gentlemen with a cigar, 
whereupon they all squatted down in a line on their heels, 
giving me the opportunity to focus over their heads and get 
the house, with the women, babies, household utensils, and 
the furnace in the yard, — a typical Korean house. 

A short distance away, I took a picture of the long line 
of fortifications which defend the river approaches. These 
are made of rough stones cemented together, breast high, 
about one yard thick, and pierced with loopholes about 

1 




'^[_^f^,-^^ ^^ ? 



Fortifications. 

every five feet. They extend around the junction of the 
rivers, and up over the hills. They were made in the days 
of bows and arrows, and would not resist the prtjjectiles of 
modern ordnance unless well reinforced by earthworks, 
when they could be made almost impregnable. Little did 



268 An American Cruiser in the East 

I think, when joking with these good-natured people while 
taking this picture, that in a few months one of the most 
important battles of m.odern times would be fought over 
these walls, between the Japanese and the Chinese, — a 
battle whose results no man can foresee. 

On our way back to the town we saw many mammoth 
oxen grazing upon the fields, — oxen that would put the 
pygmies often seen at our county fairs to the blush; while 
the native pony, "a natty little rig," bore his master canter- 
ing through the half-sleepv streets. The lonely merchant, 
half miller, half merchant, bartered his rice for a vessel ot 
rich cream, while the good housewife wove cotton from 
her thrifty spinnings. 

These people live very close to nature ; and while the bet- 
ter classes are neat, clean, and as tidy as any people that 1 
have ever seen, the poorer classes detest soap and water. 
A friend of mine was on the beach at Roze Island with his 
men, for target practice, when some half-grown urchins, 
inspired by curiosity, and eager to gather up the empty 
brass cartridge shells, came over from the fishing village 
near by. While thev were idling around, some of our men 
tried to persuade them to go in bathing, but they could not 
be prevailed upon to do so until some small change was 
offered as a reward. This temptation was great, and they 
soon divested themselves of their scanty rags, and waded 
into the water, but it was only work for the money ; there 
was no boyish fun or sport, and as soon as possible they 
were out of it and on their way home, rejoicing over the 
reward. 

Korea has produced some very learned men, great artists, 
and workers in porcelain, but these have been among per- 
sons in the higher walks of life, who were self-educated. 
The common people have little or no opportunity to ac- 
quire an education. Until very recently, education for the 
best has been confined to reading and writing their own 



Ping-yang, Korea 269 

language, the works of Confucius, and other works of 
ancient China. Mathematics, even their own history, and 
the sciences, that have done so much towards the advance- 
ment and upbuilding of other nations, are almost unknown 
to them. The Buddhist priests have been their guides and 
instructors. The sons of nobles are usually sent to Peking 
to study Chinese lore. 

Koreans have no domestic life, and are great tramps 
and gossips. Singly, in couples, and in little groups, both 
by day and by night, the white-robed gentry may be seen 
roaming over hill and plain, on their wav to visit some 
celebrated shrine, a bit of beautiful scenery, or a sacred 
spot, stopping at almost every hut on the way to exchange 
the news and gossip. The people are good-natured and 
hospitable, and these tramps are always welcome to share 
the rice and meat, and doubly welcome when a particularly 
good story is told, or a bit of spicy gossip is rehearsed. 
The sexes are separated, and have separate apartments 
from an early age; and it is considered a great breach of 
etiquette for the face of a woman to be seen by a man. 

Koreans have a great appreciation and love for the 
beautiful in nature. It is common to see great monu- 
mental stones that have been erected by men of means to 
commemorate the pleasure they have derived from the 
contemplation of a landscape, waterfall, or some beautiful 
scenery. 

Their religion is founded upon the ancient Confucian 
of China. Their ancestors are the chief objects of wor- 
ship, but they also worship heaven, and believe in spirits. 
They think that the air and sea are peopled with spirits, 
good and evil, and believe that they can hold communion 
with them at all times. The fifth, fifteenth, and twenty- 
fifth of every month are considered unlucky days, upon 
which they will not begin any venture. 

The Koreans seem to have greater respect for the Japa- 



2/0 



An American Cruiser in the East 



nese than for any other people. Their relations have been 
close, as the Japanese have overrun the country three or 
four times. They are better acquainted with Eastern 




KOKEAN Bl'ddhist Priests. 



policy and diplomacy than any other nation, and are frank 
and honest in their dealings. The only portions of land 
that are of any great value are along the roads upon which 
the neat little Japanese houses, tea-houses, and the temple 
are built, where the little " musiime " pats her clogs as she 



Ping-yang, Korea 271 

waddles along, and where the Chesi makes night hideous 
with yells when stuffed with too much rice. 

The government of Korea has a dim appreciation of the 
tendency of these times towards scientific progress and a 
higher civilization ; but a very powerful anti-foreign party, 
with ramifications all over the kingdom, is bent upon plac- 
ing all obstacles possible in the way of any change. 

The Jesuits have given the Koreans a great deal of 
trouble in years gone by. They disguised themselves, 
studied the language in China, worked their way into 
Korea, set up their religion, and preached, making some 
converts. As soon as discovered, the Korean government 
thrust them out with fire and sword. Many were burned 
at the stake, others torn limb from limb, and still others 
decapitated. All that has been changed in the last few 
years, and now the missionarv has permission to live in the 
country under certain restrictions, and is doing a good 
work, educating the poor, healing the sick, and teaching 
the people how to live and die. 

Gen-san, Korea 

Gen-san (" War-san," of the Koreans) extends for a 
couple of miles along the shores of Broughton Bay, which 
is on the northeast coast of Korea, nearly half-way 
between Fu-san and Vladivostok. Broughton Bay is a 
beautiful sheet of water, surrounded by green hills which 
are in a high state of cultivation. Gen-san was opened to 
the trade of the world In 1883. The town consists of 
about two thousand houses, with a population of about 
eighteen thousand inhabitants. The main street extends the 
entire length of the town, and into this numerous narrow 
and crooked lanes open. The houses are mean and dirty, 
resembling the poverty-stricken huts of the native settlement 
in the flats at Chemulpo. There is an open space near 



272 An American Cruiser in the East 

each end of the main street, where small farmers and prod- 
uce dealers congregate each week for the purpose of ex- 
changing their wares. These markets are very picturesque 
and interesting, and are the means of bringing together all 
classes of the people, native and foreign. What a Babel 
of sounds ! Each is talking in his own language, or in 
some compromise between it and the others. 




Broughton Bay and Gen-san. 

The stalwart, white-robed Korean, the shock-headed 
obied Japanese, and the slick Chinaman in silks, barter for 
rice and eggs and fowls. The musiime exchanges gossip 
with the veiled Korean, while the Chinese maiden balances 
herself upon her deformed feet. The Buddhist priests 
" chin-chin " to each other, and walk off with a few eggs. 
The oxen and the ponies make friends, and the geese and 
fowls get mixed in their rough coops, while a Chinese 
urchin goes screaming down the road with a young Japa- 
nese and a Korean pulling at his pigtail. 



Ping-yang, Korea 273 

The Japanese, as usual, have a neat, clean settlement 
of about one hundred and fifty comfortable houses, built 
in the Tokio style, and have surrounded themselves with 
many of the elegances of their own land. Their Con- 
sulate, in the European style of architecture, is a very large 
building, containing many rooms, where Japanese interests 
are well looked after. 

The Chinese Consulate, not far from the custom-house, 
is situated near the centre of the Chinese settlement. 

The foreign settlement is on the side of a hill, in a very 
healthy locality. The houses are built of brick or wood, 
with, tiled or thatched roofs. The roads are soft, and are 
almost impassable in rainy weather. The Japanese and 
Chinese merchants carry on an extensive business in cottons, 
silks, dye-stuffs, and gold. There are about eighteen hun- 
dred foreign residents, of whom about fourteen hundred 
are Japanese. The country about Gen-san is in a good 
state of cultivation of produce, rice, and grasses. The 
soil is remarkably fertile. Mines of copper are worked to 
a limited extent, and gold is found in the neighboring 
mountains. Cattle are very fine and plentiful, and are 
raised for use as food and as beasts of burden. 

Broughton Bav is an excellent harbor, with good depth 
of water and fair holding ground. It is roomy, well pro- 
tected against stormv winds, and easy of access. Ice 
never forms to a thickness that interferes with the com- 
merce of the port. As trade improves, the natives are 
attracted to the town so that it is growing in almost all 
directions. There is a telegraph line under Chinese man- 
agement which connects the town with the capital. 

Trade is carried on by Japanese steamers and junks 
with Japan, China, and other parts of the kingdom. The 
value of the foreign trade is about 1,500,000 Japanese or 
Mexican silver dollars. The exports are hides, beans, rice, 
dried fish, skins, and gold. The imports are cotton and 
silk manufactured goods, metals, and dyes. 

iS 



274 ^^^ American Cruiser in the East 

Fu-SAN, Korea 

Fu-san (" Pu-san," of the Koreans) is the nearest Korean 
town to Japan, only separated from Shimonoseki by the 
Japanese Straits. It is a walled town, located at the head 
of a beautiful harbor in the southeastern end of the penin- 
sula. It is the residence of the military governor, who is 
in charge of the Royal storehouses for rice, which are lo- 
cated here. There are only a few miserable huts in the 
town, and these are occupied by the guards and laborers 
employed about the storehouses. 

A short distance from the walled town, opposite Deer 
Island, the Japanese settlement is located. As usual, these 
clever people have brought their homes and habits with 
them, and the little town is as methodically laid out, well 
kept, and clean as any little town in Japan. The houses 
are well built (in the Japanese style), are comfortable, and 
have many of the little elegances with which these artistic 
people surround themselves. 

The Japanese Consul, assisted by an elective council of 
land-owners, administers the affairs of the settlement. 

The police are uniformed in the European fashion. 
There is a fairly good supply of water, and the roads are 
lighted at night with lamps, which burn American kero- 
sene. There are about 5,600 foreign residents, of whom 
5,370 are Japanese. 

Hanging on to the outskirts of the Japanese settlement 
is a collection of miserably wretched, thatched-roofed, native 
cabins and huts, with an even more wretched population 
of about two thousand souls, among whom the males find 
employment, more or less precarious, with the foreign resi- 
dents ; and this is about the storv at all the open Korean 
ports. These poor natives gather about the outskirts of 
the foreign settlements, live in miserable huts, and as they 
are mentally simple and childlike, but physically strong, 



Ping-yang, Korea 275 

they eke out a wretched existence by avenues new to them ; 
and thus the ranks of agriculturists — which are said to 
be overcrowded — find relief. While workino; and livino; 
thus, these people learn foreign methods ; and crude and 
rough though it be, this experience is sure of its reward 
when the dawning day shall burst forth into the full noon 
of Korean prosperity. 

The harbor of Fu-san is a magnificent body of water, 
with sufficient extent and depth to float great fleets of the 
largest vessels. The climate is mild and healthy, — a very 
Hygeia, — a paradise for old and young, where one can 
live in the open air for the greater part of the year ; and 
the place has one of the finest beaches in the East, where 
sea-bathing can be indulged in at all times. 

The important town of Fong-nai-fu, containing about 
thirty thousand inhabitants, is about eight miles inland. 

Japanese steamers and junks make regular trips to 
Fu-san. There is telegraphic connection with the capital, 
and a submarine cable connects the town with Japan. 
The trade of the port amounts to about four million Japan- 
ese or Mexican dollars a year. 

QuELPART,! Korea 

What South Africa was to the British, what Siberia is to 
the Russian, so Quelpart is to the Korean, — a land of 
banishment and exile. This dread island is situated about 
forty miles to the southward and westward of the main- 
land of Korea, in the way of the navigator on his route 
from Japan to the northern part of China. The coast is 
high and rocky ; and as there is no reliable harbor, it is 
dangerous to attempt a landing. Deception Bay, as its 
name implies, is a mere indentation on the northern side 
of the island, and afFords neither holding ground nor 

1 Pronounced Kell-par. 



276 An American Cruiser in the East 

shelter for vessels. The everlasting, restless, dashing sea 
upon its unsheltered, rock-bound shores makes the landing 
extremely dangerous. 

Fancy scrambling upon the slimy, slippery rocks from a 
surf-tossed boat. Struggling up the face of the rocks and 
bowlders, drenched to the skin, hanging on by one's fingers, 
then a foot-hold, a slip-back, a tug, a pull, then a dreary 
prospect, an almost hopeless reach, until finally one has 
pulled, crawled, and worked himself up the face of the 
rocks for two hundred feet or more, when the lower 
plateau is reached. What a scene presents itself ! Off 
yonder, to seaward, a great ship is moving about, like a 
monster of the deep ; beyond, the heavens and the waters 
seem to meet and merge into one. Turning inland, the 
emerald and black hills and plains of the " accursed prison 
island " lie before one, and yonder Auckland looms up sixty- 
five hundred feet towards the clouds, and offers the Korean 
a holy place for sacrifice and prayer. 

In the quiet restfulness of the place, tired nature suc- 
cumbs to repose ; and, on awakening, the balmy air, the 
delicious scent-laden breezes, the sweet songs of the birds, 
and the presence of a group of curious natives make 
one feel this to be the very "Land of the Morning Calm." 

Near Deception Bay is a native settlement of several 
hundred huts, occupied by the garrison and a few hundred 
inhabitants, who live and die in this lonely place with 
scarcely a thought of the world without and its affairs. So 
innocent and ignorant are they that if they are told of the 
great countries beyond, or of current events of the world's 
history, they stare at you as if in a daze, with no sign of 
appreciation. They have no knowledge except of their 
little crops, hunts, and the affairs of the petty island. 

In olden times, the island was a resort for pirates and 
thieves, who swarmed the neighboring seas, and preyed upon 
all on land or sea, but " modern appliances " having ren- 



Ping-yang, Korea 277 

dered such occupations, to say the least, a little dangerous, 
the island has been given over to more honest purposes. 
The government have used it as a place of banishment for 
offending natives, and for foreigners who have had the 
temeritv to penetrate into the forbidden land, but whose 
heads it was deemed ad\'isable to leave upon their shoulders. 
Here thev languished out a miserable, hopeless existence 
until relieved by death. 

Up to the foot of Mount Auckland a rolling land is inter- 
spersed with hills and valleys, while waterfalls, rippling, 
silvery streams, and terrace on terrace, add their beauty to 
the scene. The soil, rich and productive, is well cultivated 
in many places, while over large tracts the wild hog has 
almost undisputed sway. The monkey frisks and chatters 
from swinging boughs, while the almost helpless native smiles 
in innocent glee at the antics of the Darwinian specimen, 
and either attacks, or retreats from his hairy foe. 

Until recently the government maintained a system of 
watchers and watch-towers on the island, as well as on the 
mainland, to signal the approach of suspicious \'essels, and 
to give warning of any danger, A great lire was lighted, 
the smoke of which could be seen at the next station, and 
this signal was repeated from station to station until seen 
at Seoul. 

The cultivation of a friendship with a few of the natives 
induced them to furnish us a large basket and a coil of 
straw rope, which facilitated the descent to the rocks below 
and at the same time lessened its danger. 



CHAPTER XVI 

KOREA 

" Land of the Morning Calm, — and evening rest. 
And afternoon repose, — thy life's lot seems 
A. dolce far niente undistressed 
By labor's pain or keen ambition's schemes. 
Keep thou thine ancient state; since countless years 
Have thrown no wave of progress on thy shores, 
Best now to stand aside, nor share the fears 
Of those who surge and clamor at thy doors. 
Still let thy sons, like shadows of the past. 
White-clad and silent, watch the distant strife 
Nor seek to know, nor long the die to cast 
Which shall with knowledge mar thy simple life." 

KOREA, Choson ("Land of the Morning Calm"), 
called Koria bv the Portuguese, who were the first 
navigators known in the far East, and still called Korea, or 
Corea, by foreigners, is a peninsula situated on the north- 
eastern side of Asia, extending southwestward between 
China and Japan. It is about six hundred miles long, and 
lies between the 34th and 43d degrees of north latitude. 
The Sea of Japan is on its eastern side, Manchuria lies to 
the north, the Yellow Sea is on the westward, and the 
Korean Channel marks its southern limit. It has a coast- 
line of about seventeen hundred miles. 

Korea is a land of mountains and hills, many being from 
1,000 to 8,000 feet in height. They appear snarled and 
tumbled about in all directions, but the trend is northwest 
by southeast. The highest lie towards Manchuria, and 



Korea 279 

here the Yalu and the Tumun rivers are formed. Hieu-fung, 
the highest mountain in Korea, is 8,114 feet high, and is 
at the southeastern extremity of the range. 

The Yalu, the chief river of Korea, and a portion of its 
northern boundary, has two sources, one on the southern 
slopes of the mountains, the other in the northeastern 
portion of the peninsula. These unite and form the 
"three-mouthed river," the eastern, central, and western. 
The eastern is the deepest, but has the strongest current, 
the central has less current, and the western is compara- 
tively small and safe. It is about forty-five miles from the 
harbor of Taku. Until verv recently the navigation of 
this branch was interdicted by the Korean government, and 
strangers found attempting to use it were put to death or 
transported to Quelpart. Its navigation, like that of all 
Korean rivers, is unsafe on account of many sandbars. 

The Tumun is the second great river in Korea. It 
takes its rise on the eastern side of the northern range of 
mountains and flows into the Yellow Sea. The Han 
River, upon which Seoul, the capital, is situated, and the 
Ping-yang, rise in this range of mountains, and are very 
important rivers. These rivers are frozen over for several 
months in the year. 

The navigation of this entire coast is dangerous, owing 
to the strong tides and currents among the islands and 
rocks and the prevalence of dense fogs. There are several 
deep, well-sheltered harbors on both coasts, which will be 
more fully noticed in the descriptions of the settlements. 

Korea possesses many advantages in hills, dales, sea, and 
river, and, lying at the mouth of the Yellow Sea, it receives 
the moderating influence of the southwest monsoon, which 
tempers the climate and necessarily causes many productions 
to surpass those of the continent in similar latitudes. The 
climate is healthy, invigorating, and bracing in the northern 
part, where the winters are long and cold. The southern 



280 An American Cruiser in the East 

portion is exposed to the winds from the Yellow Sea and 
the Korean Channel, which moderate the winters and make 
the summers enjoyable. 

The common people suffer terribly from scarcity of fuel. 
The mines are filled with coal, but there are no means of 




His Majesty Li-Fin, King of Korea, and his Royal Highness 
THE Crown Prince. 



distribution, even if permission to work the mines were 
given ; and so much of the arable land is under cultivation 
for the food supply that there are not enough forests to 
furnish fuel. Their only relief is in warm clothing. The 



Korea 281 

wealthy line their robes with the skins of animals, while 
the middle class and the poor quilt cotton-wool in their 
garments. Clothing made of wool is unknown to them. 
In the capital, a favored few obtain small quantities of sur- 
face coal, which is mixed with a proportion of mud to give 
it body, and is burned in open grates. It gives out a heat 
that is anything but satisfactory. 

Korea for political purposes is divided into eight prov- 
inces, and each ot these is subdivided into smaller jurisdic- 
tions, as in China. The people are of the same race as 
the Japanese and Chinese. In appearance, they are like 
the people of North China, but they are more frank and 
more like the Japanese in their manners. Thev are a brave 
people, and are excellent friends but dangerous foes ; their 
history is full of the proofs of this. They have frequently 
fought the Japanese and the Chinese, and the French and 
Americans can bear witness to their courage. Their devo- 
tion to the cause of the Roman Catholic priests in their 
hour of trial, and their open door and hearty welcome to 
every comer, clearly proves their friendship and hospitality. 

According to native history, a Chinese warrior named 
Kisbi, or Kitaze, who in 11 22 b. c. was defeated and had 
his army put to rout by the Tartars, fearing to return to 
his native country with broken fortunes, led his followers 
down the peninsula, subdued the native " hairy " race he 
found there, established the political and social order, and 
became the first Korean monarch. His descendants are 
said to have ruled until the fourth century b. c. As the 
*' hairy " people, or Ainos, were of an indolent but inde- 
pendent disposition, and could not be utilized in the new 
economy, their lands were confiscated and the owners 
disposed of. The present dynasty is descended from Ni- 
Taijo, a young soldier of fortune who succeeded in depos- 
ing the Wang dynasty. Seoul, whose native name is 
Han-van (city on the Han), was selected by Ni-Taijo as 



282 An American Cruiser in the East 



his capital, and it has remained the capital city since that 
time. The present ruler, His Majesty King Li-Fin, is the 
twenty-eighth sovereign of the present line. 

The kingdom is governed, under the King and three 
Prime Ministers, by five Departments, — those of Finance, 
Ceremonies, Public Employment, War, and Justice, The 
general administration of the government is 
patterned after that of China. The revenue 
for the support of the government is derived 
from the land tax, and amounts to about 
one million of Japanese or Mexican dollars 
each year. The King, though an indepen- 
dent sovereign, recognized the Emperor of 
China by a yearly tribute until the year 
1895, when before the tablets of his an- 
cestors he solemnly declared his indepen- 
dence of China. 

The Koreans have always been able 
military engineers, skilled in the construc- 
tion and defence of fortifications. After the 
lapse of twelve hundred years, ruins 
of their works are to be met with on 
all sides as we travel about the coast, 
from the round tower, with encircling 
court, to the great walls surrounding 
a city, — on plains, on hills, and on 
spurs on the mountain-side. 
Among the rugged mountains which are the barrier-wall 
between Korea and Manchuria, and in the valley of the 
Yalu, ranges a tribe of independent mountaineers who live 
in defiance of both Korea and China. They have fre- 
quently been attacked by the Chinese forces, but it has 
been found impossible to dislodge them. They are of 
Manchu descent and are partially civilized, are expert 
" medicine men," and occupy themselves in gathering and 




r. Prime Minister of Korea. 



Korea 283 

preparing medicinal roots, and in hunting for gold. At 
certain seasons they meet the Chinese and the Koreans 
and exchange their medicines and gold for products of 
China and Korea. 

For centuries the Koreans successfully resisted all efforts 
to induce them to hold intercourse with foreigners, going 
to the extent of converting their border-land and the entire 
coast into a desert, in order to render entrance as drearv and 
as unattractive as possible, and visiting the punishment of 
death upon any person who had the temerity to pass the 
bounds thus set. At the same time, they were striving to 
build up a nation worthy of the country they inhabited, 
and they became masters and teachers in literature and 
poetry, in metal and art work, painting and embroidery, 
and for hundreds of years they instructed the Japanese and 
the Chinese. 

They invented one of the most perfect languages in 
existence, — a religion founded upon the teachings of Con- 
fucius, — and their engineers were building civil and military 
works in the East when Rome was young. Their mastery 
of the arts has been lost in a great measure, and the de- 
scendant of the master has taken the place of pupil, while 
the descendant of the pupil has become the master. But it 
must be remembered that much skill still remains in Korea, 
as is demonstrated by their beautiful boats, which are made 
of wood without metal fastenings, guns, small and large, 
nearly ail breech-loading and of most beautiful workman- 
ship, and their artistic costumes. 

The houses of the wealthy class in Korea are oblong, 
one story in height, built of stone or wood, plastered inside 
and out, and covered with a thatched roof. The door is 
placed near one corner of the house ; near it is a boiler for 
cooking, and a small space for the cook to work in. The 
" kang," a mammoth stove of brick, stones, or terra-cotta, 
is built within this room, and the top of it forms the floor 



284 An American Cruiser in the East 

of the remaining portion of the house. The sleeping- 
rooms are at the back end of the " kang," which serves to 
warm them, and the fire which is used for cooking purposes 
also heats the " kang." The windows are small openings 
covered with oiled paper or scraped skins of animals, and 
only serve to show the inmates how dark it is within the 
room. The houses of the people of the better class are 
neat and clean. 




Thu "Choson," the only Vessel in the Korean Navy. 



Like all Eastern people, the Koreans have great venera- 
tion for age, and a white head is a " crown of glory." 
The Japanese and the Chinese shave the hair from the 
heads of their hoys, sometimes in fantastic shape; but the 
Koreans allow their hair to grow all over the head, part it 
in the middle, and wear the back portion hanging down \n 
a broad plait. When they marry, this plait is cut off, 
leaving a stump about four inches long, which is turned 
up, flat on the head, and worn under the hat. 



K 



orea 



285 



In the northern part of the country, the poorer classes 
dress in clothes made from a species of s>;rass-cloth, woven 
from a fibrous plant which is cultivated extensively. This 
cloth bleaches as white as cotton, and is substituted for 
it. In the southern part of the country cotton is worn, 
and the people dress in white, except when in mourning, 
the color for that costume being a whity-brown. The 
wealthy wear silks, either of their own or of Chinese manu- 
facture. The poor people use straw sandals, while the 
upper classes wear shoes made of cloth, or of leather, both 
having leather soles and pointed toes. The middle classes 
wear shoes made of stout twine plaited ; the soles are made 
first, then the upper part is worked on, and it is remarkable 
how well these shoes wear. The hats have broad brims 
and cylinder tops, and are made of black horsehair or of 
fine woven grass. This costume is after the style of the 
Ming dynastv in China. The buttons are of amber, orna- 
ments of jadestone, and the ladies afi-'ect pearls. In the 
northern part of the district, dishes and table-ware are made 
of polished cast-brass, which is rich in copper, while in the 
southern part the table-fittings are made of clay and porce- 
lain. Prospectors claim that the country is rich in 
minerals. 

All cereals and vegetables are found in abundance ; grapes, 
apricots, peaches, plums, apples, pears, and cherries grow 
throughout the country ; and gooseberries, currants, and 
strawberries are found in the northern part. The fruits 
come to great perfection, but owing to over-cultivation they 
do not have the rich flavor of corresponding fruits raised in 
the Middle States of our own country. 

The cotton produced in Korea is of staple and fine 
quality, similar to the best of Sea Island cotton. Formerly, 
large quantities of foreign cotton cloth were purchased from 
the Chinese at the gates. Koreans raise no sheep, and 
have no woollen manufactures. The mulberry-tree is culti- 



286 An American Cruiser in the East 

vated ill many places, the bark being used in the manurac- 
ture of a paper which is known all over the northern part 
of China, and it is especially valued for its texture and 
streno;th. It is used for screens, windows, umbrellas, etc. 




A Koia.A.N i'AMlLV. 



Medicines used by the Chinese are produced in great quan- 
tities in Korea. Ginseng, a celebrated tonic, constitutes 
one of the most important articles of trade ; and tobacco, 
of a mild quality, is grown in many places, and is almost 
universally used. 



Korea 287 

The elm, several varieties of pine, the cedar, several 
species of oak, birches, and cork-trees are common. The 
iron-wood, hawthorn, and the wild tig are frequentlv met. 
Chestnuts and several other varieties of nut-bearins: trees 

o 

are found, and the valley of the Yalu is celebrated all 
through the far East for its massive pines. 

The Korean horse is small of stature, but of good wind 
and bottom. Oxen are raised all over the country in large 
numbers for agricultural purposes and for food ; dogs, cats, 
and pigs are common, but they are smaller than with us. 
Wolves, tigers, and the wild hog are nuisances in the north, 
and the lives of the natives are made miserable by their 
raids. The eagle, pheasant, stork, and crane are common, 
and ducks, fish, clams, and crabs, similar to those found in 
our waters, abound. 

The Japanese give the following account of their first 
Invasion of Korea. 

"In 192 A. D. Chin-ai, the fourteenth Mikado of Japan, 
was holding his court at Isuruga, Eichizen, when a rebellion 
broke out in Kiushiu. He marched at once to Kiushiu against 
the rebels, and there fell by disease, or by an arrow. His 
wife, Jungu Koge, after his death headed the Japanese 
army, and, leading the troops in person, quelled the revolt. 
She then ordered all the available forces of her realm to 
assemble for an invasion of Shina, Korea. 

" All being ready, the Queen Regent set sail from the 
coast of Hizen, Japan, in the tenth month a. d. 202, and 
beached the fleet safely on the coast of Shina. 

" The King of Shina was struck with terror and resolved 
to submit. Tying his hands in token of submission, and in 
presence of Queen Jungu, he declared himself to be the 
slave of Japan. Jungu caused her bow to be suspended 
over the gate of the palace of the King in sign of his 
submission. 



288 An American Cruiser in the East 

"■ She restored the King to the throne as her vassal ; the 
tribute was then collected and laden into eighty junks, with 
hostages for future annual tribute. The tribute comprised 
pictures, works of elegance and art, mirrors, gold, silver, 
jadestones, and silk fabrics. The Japanese ascribe the 
glory of this victory to the then unborn babe who was 
afterwards deified as Ojiu, god of war, and worshipped as 




Sacred White Horse of Jungu Temple. 

Hachimiu, or the Eight-bannered Buddha. Manv temples 
are dedicated to Jungu, the one at Hyogo (Kobe), being espe- 
cially famous. And a sacred horse is alwavs kept here 
ready for the commander who is to lead the forces for the 
defence of Japan." 

I made a picture of the poor beast, and found him to be 
so badly fed that 1 doubt if he would be able to carry his 
own holy bones very far, if he were let out of his cage and 
given a crack of the whip. Just outside of his stable a 
small stand is erected where beans can be bought, ten beans- 



Korea 291 

for a cash, — a cash being about one tenth of a cent. 
Whoever has pity for the poor creature buys beans and 
feeds them to the horse. Amongst the common people, a 
belief is current that if they have a question to be answered by 
Buddha, they can get the answer through the horse : thus, if 
the beans are all licked up by the horse, the answer is 
negative ; but if a bean is left in the tub, the answer is 
affirmative. 

Korea has been invaded by both Chinese and Japanese, 
but before 1894 she enjoyed such rest and seclusion 
that she became known as the " Hermit nation." The 
Chinese, Japanese, and other nations have tried to force 
themselves into the countrv at various times for the pur- 
poses of trade, but with indifferent success until in 187 1, 
when the United States sent a fleet to Korea, and made a 
treaty with the country. Since that time foreigners have 
had the right to trade at Seoul and at Chemulpo. After the 
settlement of Japanese in the ports of Fu-sah and Fuensen, 
and the better acquaintance of the natives with them, the 
prejudice against foreign intercourse gradually died awav. 

In the country districts, the men break the ground, but 
the women sow the seeds, gather the crops, and attend the 
cattle. The women also spin the cotton, weave the cloth, 
and fashion and make the household garments, while the 
men roam over the country. 

Occupving one of the most varied, fertile, and beautiful 
countries on the face of the earth, with a climate similar to 
our own Middle States, the people may be called a nation of 
homeless wanderers. Their houses are small and mean, 
merely coverings to protect them from the sunshine and 
the rains, with bare earth-floors, or at best a mat for cover- 
ing. The sexes have separate apartments, and there can 
be no feeling of home. There is very little that can be 
dignified by the name of furniture, as thev have no need of 
chairs or tables. The heated stone slab of the " kang; " 



292 An American Cruiser in the East 

takes the place of a bed, and a few brass tea-cups and a 
tea-pot is about the extent of their possessions in this line. 

There are no newspapers, and very few books can be 
obtained by the poor. There is no entertainment except 
gossip, not even music, for they are not a music-loving 
people. They love to sit and contemplate the beautiful 
surroundings, or to wander from place to place and discuss 
the news. 

The principal articles of import are cotton manufactures ; 
but the amount of these has been disappointing to the 
foreigners who have been interested in the trade. 

It must be remembered that the people are poor, very 
poor, and every housewife spins the cotton, weaves the 
cloth, and makes the garments that are worn by her entire 
household. This is her recreation, after her agricultural 
labors have been performed. She knows nothing better, 
and it would be a crime to deprive her of these occupations 
until she has been educated in other directions. 

The population of Korea is about ten millions. The 
foreign trade is valued at about eight million silver 
dollars per annum. The principal articles of export are 
rice, hides, bones, beans, and small quantities of gold. 
The customs service is modelled after that of China, and 
is subordinate to it. 



CHAPTER XVII 



SHANGHAI, CHINA 




WITH Steam and 
sail, and a fresh 
blowing monsoon at our 
heels, we made good 
speed across the Yellow 
Sea. For the last fifty 
miles or more we were 
in the cold, chocolate- 
colored waters from the 
Yang-tse, and on nearer 
approach our western hor- 
izon became a long brown 
line, indicating the low 
shores of mysterious " old 
Cathay." 

We took on a pilot, ran near the light-ship for a while, 
and then stood on the course. Fantastic shapes of curling 
smoke hung in the heavens ; masts of vessels, and the forms 
of trees loomed up ahead of us ; fleets of bamboo-sailed 
junks, with great eyes carved and painted on their bows 
passed, and crews of pig-tailed " Celestials " leered at us as 
they trimmed sail or steered the dingy cratts. 

The entrance of the river is dangerous, as the coast is 
low and mud-banks lie in every direction. The river-banks 
are studded here and there by walled villages, or mud-forts, 
bristlino; with great guns. The fields are crowded with 



Chinese Junk. 



294 ^^ American Cruiser in the East 

round-top grave-like bakers' ovens. Here and there^ 
the hairless water-bufFalo wallows in the slimy mud, and 
the sad-faced coolie toils with hoe or line, sighing for a 
laundry in America. 

We crossed the bar at Woosung, the "• Heavenly Barrier," 
across which the Chinese sank stone-laden junks in 1884, 
to keep the French from ascending the river. One narrow 
channel was left open, and this has washed out and deep- 
ened somewhat. At certain stages of the tide, vessels 
drawing eighteen feet of water can cross the bar and pro- 

DC? * 

ceed to Shanghai ; but, owing to the shallow lumps and 
shifting channel, the navigation is extremely dangerous. 

The intention was to build up Woosung thirteen miles 
below, and avoid these dangers by having vessels anchor 
there. As Shanghai had become too valuable to abandon,, 
it was deemed best to connect the two places by rail. A 
railwav was built and equipped about twenty-five years ago,, 
and after its completion a syndicate of Chinese bought it 
out at a high price. The people who sold the road con- 
gratulated themselves on the nice way in which they had 
" done the Chinese," but their congratulations were sud- 
denly turned to consternation when thev learned that the 
new owners had torn up the tracks and thrown them and 
the locomotives into the river, declaring that the road had 
obstructed " fung-shuv," and brought bad luck to the 
country. 

As we ascended the river, the scene became more 
animated : crowds of junks, painted in gay colors, but dingy 
with dirt and age, drifted or sailed swiftly by us ; great and 
small junks from the coast, or great canal, laden with rice, 
or oil, or matting, sailed on, or hugged the river's bank, 
waiting for change of wind, and steamers from every 
quarter of the globe rode at anchor, awaiting their precious 
freights. Along the river's banks, paddy-fields have given 
place to great shipyards and drv-docks, foundries and' 



Shanghai, China 295 

machine-shops, marine railways and great storehouses. A 
little further up, and we are before an imposing city. 

We now have a full view of the most important com- 
mercial city in the far East, with its magnificent buildings, 
steeples, and spires, unrivalled shops, hard, smooth roads, 
and beautiful drives. Little steam-cutters fly about between 
shipping and shore, the sampan with sail and scull, and all 
the noises and bustling of a great, busy, driving centre are 
present. 

Shanghai is situated on the left bank of the Woosung 
River, a tributary of the Yang-tse, at their intersection. It 
is in latitude 31° 9' north, and longitude 121° 4' east, 
about twenty miles from the sea. 

The United States, German, and Japanese consulates 
are situated on the river-front. The public garden, where 
a fine military band plays every afternoon, is just across the 
creek, and the business part of the city extends further up 
the river. The French Concession is still further up, and 
beyond it is the old walled Chinese city. 

There is a fine club in the English settlement facing the 
river-front, and a Country Club a short distance outside of 
the city, on the Bubbling-well Road, where handsome 
grounds can be enjoyed, and ball and tennis indulged in. 
There is a fine racecourse a short distance outside of the 
settlement ; the autumn and spring meets are events which 
attract crowds from all over the coast, business is suspended, 
and everybody attends the races. Chinese ponies are 
entered and run at these races. They are a stunted breed, 
with good wind and fair bottom. The races are well con- 
tested, and some very good time has been made, both in 
running and steeple-chase. 

The drives about Shanghai are delightful and interesting. 
If one runs out the Bubbling-well Road, mounted upon a 
Chinese cob, or on the Sickaway, and to the " Point," and 
return in a dogcart, he will have enjoyed a variety of inter- 



296 An American Cruiser in the East 

esting and ever-changing scenes. One is impressed with 
the great number of Chinese graves which are everywhere 
except in the middle of the roads. Some are well kept, 
some are badly kept, and many have not even a covering 
over the strong box which contains the corpse. Some have 
so cracked, warped, and parted as to expose the ghastly 
bones within. Along the roads and at their terminus there 
are neatly kept inns where rest and refreshments may be 
had. 

Old Shanghai 

Having secured the services of "a guide, philosopher, 
and friend (?) " in the shape of an intelligent Chinaman, we 
pass through the French Concession, and soon reach the 
suburbs of the old walled city of Shanghai. No one can 
say how old the city is, as the date of its settlement is lost 
in the obscurity of ages, and there is no known record of 
the people who first dwelt here. The city is surrounded 
by a double brick wall, about fifteen feet high, which 
is filled in with earth, making the whole thickness some 
twenty-five feet. A roadway is formed on the top of 
this wall, where troops can be moved about for the defence 
of the city. The top is reached by means of broad 
stone steps for foot-soldiers, and broad inclined roads for 
the artillery. The wall is about three miles in circum- 
ference, and is in a fair state of preservation. 

There are six large gateways, each having double iron 
doors leading into the city, and there are other gateways in 
different localities inside of the city, which divide it into 
districts. Any or all of these gates may be closed in 
troublesome times, in case of fire, riot, or other commotion, 
or when it is deemed desirable to isolate a district. The gates 
are always closed at night, when each district is shut oft 
from the other, and the whole city is closed to the outside 
world. The approaches to these outer gates are filthy in 



Shanghai, China 297 

the extreme, and there do not appear to be any sanitary 
arrangements, inside or outside. 

Crowds of Chinese — men, women, and children, rich 
and poor and beggars — were elbowing and crowding each 
other, in and out, through the gates ot" the city, and at no 
time did we see a vestige of that courtesy and kindly greet- 
ing that is so prevalent in Japan. Here it seemed to be 
everyone for himself, as though his very life depended upon 
the business in hand. As we passed through the gateway, 
we were scowled at by a couple of dark, fierce-looking pig- 
tailed soldiers, who were guarding the entrance. We looked 
into the dingy little "guard-house," just inside of the gate. 
Opposite its entrance was a stand of banners with spears 
and some ancient weapons, — ugly instruments of torture 
for close quarters, but not such as one expects to see in the 
closing days of this century. These, together with a heavy 
revolver, completed the arms of the fierce braves who were 
lounging upon the mats in dirty blue-and-scarlet uniforms. 

The streets are about eight feet wide, and are paved with 
stones, which reach from house to house. They are lined 
on each side with neat two-story houses, whose roofs are 
of tiles. The lower floors are gay, open-front shops, where 
wares are temptingly exposed to view. People swarm the 
streets in great crowds, pushing and jostling as they come 
and go ; pedlers hawk their fish, fruits, or some odd 
article fancied by our Celestial friends ; a monotonous song 
of the swinging bearers drowns the voices of the throng as 
some dignitary is borne along in closed palanquin. A poor 
coolie picks his weary way with a great beam of wood, or 
an unwieldy pack upon shoulders or back ; the statue-like 
beggar thumps his little bell until you satisfy his demands; 
the farmer's man jogs along with balanced buckets of filth ; 
the outrunners of some wedding or funeral procession, or 
the henchmen of some mandarin, make a way through the 
throng for their procession, or for their lord and master. 



298 An American Cruiser in the East 

There is a great forbearance manifested in all these 
crowds ; seldom is there an unpleasant word, and rarely any 
breach of the peace. In other lands a large police force 
would be required to maintain order in such crowded 
thoroughfares, but here everything adjusts itself, — the 
people give and take, and pass on. 

The nearest approach to an evidence of friendship one 
sees is in the meeting of two acquaintances face to face, 
when each places the palms of his hands together, shakes 
his own hands, and each profoundly bows to the other 
person. 

There is a little niche on one side of the entrance of 
every shop, where joss-sticks are kept burning for luck, and 
there is a shrine and a god in the principal room, before 
which the aromatic punt sends up its fragrance in inverse 
proportion to the daily sales. The little shops are filled 
with silks and satins, plain, in colors, stripes, and plaids ; 
brocades of all colors, in bird and beast, and flower patterns,, 
beautiful embroideries, in plain and natural colors, fringes, 
ribbons, laces, and skeins, gauzes, and pongees, that are 
celebrated throughout the world ; and it is interesting to see 
the patient weavers and workers in embroidery, as their deft 
fingers and trained eyes guide the shuttle or needle in the 
manufacture of the beautiful goods. 

Furs of all kinds and grades, from the almost priceless 
sable to the humble sheepskin, are to be seen in the shops ;. 
porcelains from the finest shapes, decorated in gold, silver, and 
colors, to the grotesque white lions, dragons, dogs, and apes ;. 
images of gods and tablets, gilt, lacquered, and plain, are 
side by side with fine carvings and sculptures. Rich furniture 
in polished iron-wood, teak and cherry, wonderfully carved,, 
is enriched with colored marble panels, showing landscape 
or cloud eff^ects ; lantern shops, where globular, cylindrical,, 
and square lanterns, in paper, silk, glass, and metal, old and 
new, oddly designed and decorated, hang side by side, show 



Shanghai, China 299 

their impossible people, dragons, birds, and landscapes. If 
there is one art the Chinaman is deficient in, it is that of 
giving the relative proportions in his drawings and paintings, 
and nowhere is this more manifest than on his lanterns. 

We see the dingv little holes of cook-shops, with their 
seething, black furnaces, and steaming fats, broths, stews^ 
and fries. We see great cakes of quivering jelly, white or 
scarlet or brown ; baked and crispy ducks, and the tempting 
porker ; the hind quarter of a choice cur, with feet left on 
as a guarantee of genuineness ; stewed fish and shark's fins j 
the head of a sea monster in eels ; cabbage leaves and 
boiled rice, — and a hundred other similar delicacies that 
make up the menu of the epicure of the Celestial Empire. 

Fish, great and small, dried and smoked and fresh (the lat- 
ter swimming about in shallow tubs to prove their freshness)^ 
crabs and crawfish, lobsters and diminutive, coppery oysters^ 
gold and silver fish, eels, and scores of others, from the shark 
to the minnow, may be seen in the tubs and on the stands. 
When a purchaser comes along, if needs be, a piece is 
hacked out and sold, and the poor quivering fish is thrown 
back into its tub to await the next purchaser. 

Olive, nut, and tea oils, of all grades, are seen in curious 
wicker baskets, covered with oiled paper. 

The apothecary's shop has its mysterious collections of 
bulbs and roots, blisters and plasters, and the thousand 
drugs and compounds, including charms, for which these 
people are as eager as many in more favored lands. 

In the gay little tea-shops one may regale himself with a 
cup of the beverage, and indulge in a sweetcake which 
resembles chocolate, with little blocks of cocoanut scattered 
through it, but which upon investigation proves to be brown- 
sugar rice-cake, with chunks of pork fat. 

The Chinese charity hospital is the cleanest establish- 
ment that I have ever seen in a native city. The buildings 
are dingy from age, but are as neat and clean as could be 



300 An American Cruiser in the East 

desired. We saw many patients who were suffering from 
wasting lung troubles, others with the dread elephantiasis, 
some bad cases of rheumatism, and some who were evidently 
in the last stages of consumption. We have been led to be- 
lieve that the Chinese have no charities such as we have, 
but this is a mistake. This one, and another that 1 shall 
mention further on, are as noble as any in Christian lands, 
and the people who conceived of them and support them 
deserve honor and credit for their work, whether it be done 
under the cross or under the lotus. 

The Mandarins' tea-garden and club-house deserve some 
mention. The club-house is a fine structure in drab 
brick, with massive tiled roof, where porcelain dragons, 
fish, and birds seem to be making fantastic gyrations through 
the masses of lotus and peony blossoms. The mandarins 
meet here to discuss politics and the news, while indulging 
in the toothsome dainties of a Chinese menu amidst the 
dingy scarlet hangings. 

The Jeweller's Guild is a busy mart where matrons and 
maidens love to gaze at the beautiful wares in jade, gold, 
and silver. Bracelets, pins, rings, chains, charms, beads, 
and many quaint and odd shapes that please the natixe 
fancy are displayed in profusion. 

Crossing the winding sheet of water upon a zigzag 
bridge that could only have been designed by a Chinaman, 
we reach a little rocky island and the great temple. The 
temple is a massive structure in dingy scarlet and gilt, with 
tiled roof, covered with the accumulated dust of years. 
Passing the hideous guardians at the entrance, we enter the 
temple and behold many shrines and deities. The general 
appearance was more that of a junk-shop, or cheap museum, 
than of a dignified temple. Two dressed dolls — repre- 
senting a mother and daughter who were ill, and for whose 
recovery prayers were being said — were placed under a 
great bell. At intervals, a young priest, to attract the- 



Shanghai, China 301 

attention of the god, tolled the bell by striking its side with 
a beam of wood. Then he clapped his hands together, and 
whispered the prayer in behalf of the sick. One corner of 
the temple has the appearance of an undertaker's establish- 
ment, as it is piled up with coffins, large and small, which 
are supplied to the poor by a guild of the temple ; and this 
I consider the second of their noble charities. 

A motley crowd loiter about the outside of the temple. 
Old women mend rents and patch torn and worn clothing, 
while the owners stand or sit by until the work is finished ; 
jugglers twirl a dinner-plate on the end of a bamboo stick, 
or pull yards of colored ribbons from their hungry throats ; 
barbers shave a pate or fix a queue ; dentists, with goggles 
upon their noses, stand ready to extract a molar, or to apply 
the soothing drops ; fortune-tellers show their cage of little 
birds, one of whom selects a card from which the filthy 
owner will read your fortune ; around the corner a beggarly 
crowd may be seen, intently bent upon the result of their 
chance at " fan-tan ; " the beggar, wrapped in a piece of 
soiled matting, which is too small to hide his festering sores, 
thrusts himself through the crowd, and importunes for 
alms. 

The little tea-gardens behind old Shanghai produce some 
very fine tea, and we were interested in visiting them, al- 
though the " last picking " had been done more than a 
month before our arrival. The tea plant yields a crop after 
its third year, and this is gathered in April, June, and Sep- 
tember. The pickers, usually women and children, must 
have clean hands when they begin the work, and great care 
in the handling is required at every stage. The medium- 
sized leaves are the most desirable, the larger leaves being 
left upon the plant to gather moisture for its sustenance. 
Each leaf is picked separately and placed in a large basket, 
which, when filled, is slung on the end of a bamboo pole^ 
and carried across the shoulder. 



302 An American Cruiser in the East 

The leaves are spread in a clean place in the air to dry, 
after which they are trodden upon to drive out any moist- 
ure that may remain. They are then heaped together and 
covered over for the night, during which they become 
" heated," foment, change color from green to brown, and 
become fragrant. They are then crumpled and twisted by 
being lightly rubbed between the palms of the hands, when 
they are again put in the sun, or, if the weather is rainy, 
they are arranged in a sieve and placed over a grate of hot 
coals, where they are stirred about with a stick until they 
have all been heated alike. They are then sold to the tea 
merchant, who has them carefully sorted by women and 
children, who separate the bad leaves and stems from the 
good ones. The tea is scented and flavored for its par- 
ticular standard or market, after which eighteen or twenty 
handfuls are placed in a shallow copper bowl, over a char- 
coal furnace. The leaves are moved about in this bowl 
until the required form and color is obtained, when they are 
placed in carefully prepared, sheet-lead, paper-lined boxes, 
which are sealed up to exclude the air and moisture. 

The box is weighed, stamped, and marked. Samples 
have been retained, and the tea merchant always tastes and 
tests the tea before buying or selling. The tea is hurried 
off to market, where the first or new crop always brings 
the highest price. 

The methods of the Chinese artisans are very curious; 
for instance, they do not use work-benches. The material 
to be worked upon is placed on the floor, or ground, and is 
held in place with the naked feet, while the workmen squat 
or climb all over it in performing the required operations. 
In sawing and planing they always cut on the pull, never 
on the push. If thev are turning metal or wood, the lathe 
is nearly always swung in one direction for part of a revo- 
lution, and then in the other. A sculptor or carver will 
place his block ot stone or wood upon the floor, and squat 



Shanghai, China 



303 



and work around it, never even dreaming of a bench ; and 
yet these people use chairs, tables, cabinets, and bedsteads, 
— some of their furniture being very elaborate. 

The city of Shanghai is located on a low, alluvial plain, 
which is intersected by numerous creeks and canals that 
surround the walls, and enter the city from many directions. 
The river, in front of the foreign settlement, is filled with 
steamers and sailing vessels from every part of the world, and, 




A Road in Shanghai, China. 



lower down, the Chinese government has an extensive 
arsenal, where war vessels of the largest tonnage are built 
and fitted out. 

The municipal government of the foreign settlements is 
vested in a council, whose members are elected annually, 
and have charge of the local government and police, and 
of public improvements and repairs, the cost of which is 
raised by taxation. The settlements have many fine 
churches, missions, and schools. 



304 An American Cruiser in the East 

The Tae-ping rebels held possession of the city and 
settlements from 1853 '° ^^55i during which time its com- 
merce was nearly ruined, but it has since grown to vast pro- 
portions. The city is a very important entrepot for goods 
passing into the interior of China, and for imports and ex- 
ports, from and to foreign countries. 

The imports of foreign goods amount to $110,000,000, 
and of native products fully ^70,000,000 per annum. The 
principal articles of import are opium, cotton, woollen 
goods, and metals. The exports are tea and silk. Large 
quantities of opium are distributed to other parts of the 
country. 




Water-Front, Ningpo, China. 



CHAPTER XVIII 



NINGPO, CHINA 



COMING in from the sea on a cold, frosty morning, 
after contending with a fresh monsoon, one is pre- 
pared to enjoy the novel and beautiful scenes of the Ningpo 
River. The old Chinese fort on the point, with its great 
dragon-banner : the rice-tields, glistenino; like diamonds as 
the new-made ice sparkles in the sunshine; the quaint vil- 
lages, with their rude cabins and picturesque inhabitants, 
and the thousands of toilers, moving over the great plains ; 
the double-eved junks, thronging the banks of swift-run- 
ning, muddv waters -, the strange town of tent-shaped ice- 
houses on the one bank ; the thousands of graves scattered 
over the other, — all form the foreground of the picture, 

20 



306 An American Cruiser in the East 

and the vision ends in the distant blue-black line that indi- 
cates the mountain's ranp;e. Throuii;h a dozen miles of such 
scenes we pass, and are opposite Ningpo when we drop 
our anchors in muddy waters, where junks are crowded 
about us. 

Ningpo is in the province of Chekiang, on the Yuna 
Ri\'er, at its junction with another swift-running stream, 
in latitude 29° 55' north, and longitude 121° 22' east. 
Its port includes the citv of Ningpo, the Chusan group 
of islands, and the cities of Tsike, Funghai, Chinhai, 
and Tsianghan. The immediate surrounding country is 
a low, flat, alluvial soil, of remarkable fertility, cut up 
bv a net-work of rivers and canals that are covered 
with junks. The river-front is lined by junks, unload- 
ing and loading their rich cargoes of silks, tea, oils, fish, 
and rice. 

The opposite shore, as far back as the eye can reach, 
is built up with tent-shaped straw ice-houses, each house 
about twenty-five feet high, thirty feet long, and thirtv feet 
wide at the base, and tapering to a pointed top. Early 
every morning thousands of men, women, and children may 
be seen gathering the ice, and packing it within these 
straw tents. 

The whole plain has the appearance of a great Indian 
town. 

Deep-sea fishing is one of the principal industries of 
Ningpo. The venturesome people of this place often 
go a hundred miles, or more, upon the sea, to reach 
a fa\'orite fishing-bank. The junks are laden with ice, 
and the fish are packed in it until the return. Hundreds 
of junks and thousands of people are engaged in this 
occupation. 

The citv walls, about five miles in circumference, are 
about twenty feet high and are fifteen feet wide at the top. 
There are six double gates, and a moat nearly surrounds 



Ningpo, China 



307 



the walls. The moat communicates with canals which 
extend from the surrounding country into the citv, where 
they form two lakes, — Sun Lake and Moon Lake. Sun 
Lake contains a sacred island, which is reached bv several 
of those delicate aerial stone bridges, for which this por- 
tion of China is celebrated. The temples upon this island 
are the most extensive and beautiful to be found in China, 
the finest of them being- dedicated to the Oueen of Heaven. 




A Corner (jf the Cnv Wall, Ningpo, China. 

All fishermen, women, and girls believe themselves to be 
under her special protection, and the people of Fuhkin con- 
sider her their guardian and patron, as she is the deified 
daughter of a fisherman of that place. No labor or expense 
has been spared in honoring the goddess, the finest orna- 
mental stonework, the richest wood-carvings, and gold, 
silver, and colors, in barbaric splendor and profusion, com- 
pose and adorn her temple. The other temples, in honor 
of titular gods, are fine specimens of Chinese architec- 
ture, decoration, and ornamentation, but they pale in com- 



308 An American Cruiser in the East 

parison with the magnificence of that to the Oueen of 
Heaven. 

Ningpo is ornamented with a seven-storied hexagonal 
pagoda, — " the heaven-sent pagoda," — one hundred and 
sixty feet in height. The outer covering has crumbled 
away, leaving the rough brickwork exposed. The build- 
ino- leans a little like the tower of Pisa, and old trees and 
bushes are growing from its corners, but it is an interesting 
and impressive monument of the past. Its top is reached 
bv flights of rickety old wooden stairs on the inside. The 
\'iew from the top of this old pagoda well repays one tor 
the risky climb. The homes of two millions of human 
beings, with their hopes and fears, joys and sorrows, lite 
and death, lie before us. Beyond the miles of tiled roofs, 
serpent-like streams meander through the great muddy 
plains, which reach to the foot of the mountains, and vil- 
lages dot the shores, between which hundreds of junks sail 
on their busy way. At the foot of the old pagoda stairs is 
a shrine containing eight gods, and a priest sees that the 
joss-sticks and little lamp are kept burning. 

The streets of Ningpo are well paved, and are wider 
than those of any other Chinese city that I have visited. 
The shops are bright and gay with native goods, but all 
that a foreigner is tempted to purchase are the exquisite 
wood-carvings, — statuettes of natives, and beautitully 
carved cabinets and frames, which are really worth the 
care required to bring them home. 

The Ningpo River is crossed by a pontoon bridge which 
is more than six hundred feet long, and is lined on both 
sides with native shops and booths. It is a gay promenade 
where all phases of Chinese outdoor life may be seen. 
Behind the end of this bridge stands an old fort, dating 
from the days of the occupation, and near it is a monu- 
ment which commemorates the event. 

Outside of the city are thousands of burial-places. Some' 



Ningpo, China 



309 



are handsome stone and brick vaults, or mounds of earth 
as high as one's head. In others, the coffin is placed upon 
the ground and covered with matting, while in quite a 
number of instances the corpse is tied up in a piece of 
matting, and lies on the ground, exposed to the heat, the 
cold, and the storms. As may be supposed, all classes are 
represented here, the rich, the middle class, and the poor, 




The Pontoon Bridge, Ningi-u, China. 



and the poor beggar lies unburied, almost uncovered, in 
death. 

Thousands of men, women, and children crowd back 
and forth over the pontoon bridge and among the shops. 
Pedlers, with great packs upon their backs, call out their 
wares or spread them upon the walks for inspection. We 
see little shops where rice, fruit, and soups are sold, their 
owners shivering behind the tiny stoves while awaiting a 
customer. Horses, wheelbarrows, and sedan chairs add to 
the confusion, and the place is alive with barter and trade. 



3 1 o An American Cruiser in the East 

The blacksmith squats upon the ground and pulls his 
bellows and warms himself at his curious forge; the barber's 
tinkling bell announces that he is ready to shave a head, 
dress a queue, or put the last delicate touch upon the eyebrows 
of a dude ; an old cobbler is mending shoes ; and near by a 
woman is patching or mending a rent in an old garment ; 
a crowd of youngsters are enjoying themselves with shuttle- 
cock, striking with their heads, elbows, and heels ; and the 
old men indulge in flying great kites made in forms of 
beasts and birds and gods. 

The Chinese have some curious customs. Soon after 
a child is born, its wrists are decorated with scarlet cords to 
which charms are attached. These are expected to ward 
off the ills to which infantile lite is exposed, as well as to 
keep off evil spirits. When the child is one month old, a 
barber, dressed in red, the religious color, shaves all the 
hair from its head except one little tuft, which is left at 
the crown as a foundation tor the queue. A boy must be 
shaved before the ancestral tables, and a girl before the 
image of the goddess of children. In either case, thank- 
offerings are presented to the goddess, and friends send gifts 
of eggs, cakes, and sweets to the baby. These presents 
are done up in red paper or silk. 

The ancestral tablet is a small monumental slab of wood 
or stone, which stands for the dead ancestor. Sometimes 
several generations are represented on one slab by names, 
dates, and inscriptions. These tablets are similar to a dimin- 
utive tombstone, and are generally lacquered in black and 
decorated with gilt characters. The spirit of the dead is 
supposed to enter the tablet, and the more frequentlv it is 
worshipped, the better the spirit is pleased. After the fifth 
generation, the spirit is supposed to have passed into another 
body, and is no longer worshipped. 

Three moons after the shavino- of an infant, the goddess 
is thanked and in\oked to make the child grow up strong 



Ningpo, China 3 1 3 

and good. On its first birthday, the goddess is again wor- 
shipped, and thank-ofterings are made to her; while the 
child is dressed in gay clothing, and pencils, tools, books, 
and various other articles are placed before it. All the 
members of the family and friends stand around in expect- 
ancy, for whatever is first taken into the tiny hand is 
believed to presage its future occupation. From this time 
on the child is taught to worship the gods, to bow before 
them, and to raise his hands when incense and candles are 
burned in their honor. 

The boys wear a tuft of hair until the tenth year, when 
the queue is trained. Chinese boys are experts at top-spin- 
ning, seesaw, and quoits, and no boys enjoy the sports with 
more zest ; but in all their play there seems to be an under- 
lying vein of gravity and soberness that is not often seen 
among the young of any other country. At the sixteenth 
year children leave childhood behind them. Chinese girls 
are instructed by tutors, as there are no native schools for 
them, but native schools for boys are to be found all over 
the country. 

The schoolmasters are very important personages. 
Parents take great interest in them, and are always on 
the lookout for the best. The master must not only know 
the doctrines of the ancient sages, but he must know how 
to teach. When a particular school has been settled upon 
for the boy, the schoolmaster is invited to a feast specially 
prepared for him. A fortune-teller decides upon a lucky 
day for the boy to enter school ; and on entering the boy 
first worships at the shrine of Confucius, salutes his teacher 
respectfully, receives the teacher's instructions, and goes to 
his desk. Each boy has a desk so arranged that he cannot 
speak to the boy in the next desk, and they are not per- 
mitted to talk in school. In reciting their lessons, pupils 
are required to stand with their backs to the teacher. A 
Chinese school, during study hours, is a very noisy place. 



314 An American Cruiser in the East 

as the lessons are learned by being repeated in a sing-song 
manner, while the students sway their heads from side to 
side. 

Schools are always closed on the anniversary of the death 
of Confucius, and for about ten days at the Chinese New 
Year, and the pupils are excused to keep family festivals, 
— birthdays of ancestors, — and to worship at tablets and 
at tombs. 

Schoolmasters are men of literary honors who have a 
fondness for teaching. The incentive to study is the hope 
of taking literary honors, which are the only means of 
advancement. Even a person in the lowest walks of life, 
taking these honors, would rank as a gentleman, and be 
eligible to the highest place in the gift of the government. 

The school punishments are standing with face to the 
wall and repeating some lesson or classic. For extreme 
cases, the culprit is beaten with the " broom," which means 
bad luck, and is considered the worst punishment the master 
can inflict. The responsibility of the teacher never ends ; 
if the boy in after-life should commit some great crime, — 
kill his parents, for instance, — the teacher would be liable 
to be executed for the manner in which he taught the 
child. 

Chinese Homes 

The houses of the wealthy are built of drab-colored 
bricks, with heavy stone trimmings about the openings, 
and with tiled roofs, more or less ornamented, according to 
taste. They are composed of a number of large rooms, 
generally on one floor. In the crowded cities, some houses 
are two stories in height, but the Chinese think it is un- 
lucky to live above the ground. The houses are very 
roomy, for it is customary to have several branches of the 
family and the servants under one roof. There are always 
three entrances to a Chinese house. The principal door, 



Ningpo, China 3 i 5 

in the centre of the house, opens into a large reception- 
room, in which visitors are received. The floors are of 
polished woods, or concrete, uncovered by rug or carpet, 
and the walls are frequently hung with silk or satin scrolls, 
beautifully decorated with paintings, or embroideries, or 
inscribed with some motto from the sages. Beautiful lan- 
terns hang from the ceiling, suspended by silken cord 
or finely wrought chains. Handsomely carved, straight- 
backed chairs, of highly polished wood, are ranged against 
the walls, while tables, screens, and cabinets, bearing old 
porcelains, marbles, and bronze ornaments and fans, are in 
profusion. 

At the end of the room, usually facing the entrance, the 
altar or shrine of household gods and the ancestral tablets 
are placed, upon which incense-sticks and candles are kept 
burning, and offerings of flowers or meats are always to be 
found. The living room is similar to the reception-room, 
except that it has a large round-top table in its centre. All 
the inmates and guests of the house gather around this table 
at meal-time, when the viands — soups, broths, stews, 
bakes, and sweets — are served in course, each person 
helping himself with spoon or chopsticks as best serves 
his purpose. 

The kitchen, " the realm of mystery," is presided over 
by a man, or " chef," who is well skilled in the Chinese 
culinary art, from bird's-nest and shark's-fin soups to melon 
seeds, and this domain is a wonderful, dingy place. One 
side of the kitchen contains a large brick furnace, with 
great bowl-shaped pans fixed into the top of it, the fire 
impinging upon the under sides of the pans. One of these 
is sacred to the rice; the others (there may be several, de- 
pending upon the size of the establishment) are for gen- 
eral uses. The walls are covered with a multitude of pots, 
pans, kettles, boxes, jars, and crocks, all for the use of the 
"mysterious king of the kitchen," who is as much of a 



3 1 6 An American Cruiser in the East 



tyrant in China as his namesake is in America. Abo\'e all 
this, high up on the kitchen wall, safely placed in a little 
shrine, regaled by the savory odors and content with a 
burning incense-stick, sits the little kitchen god, watching 
over the honesty of the cook ; but the cook can get his 

re\ enge here as well as 
elsewhere. The god is 
supposed to go "top-side" 
for about ten days in every 
year, to make his report, 
and pay his respects to the 
gods and goddesses, and 
during his absence the cook 
can cheat and steal if he 
has the inclination. 

Most houses have 
beautiful gardens, and 
many have extensive 
porches, where the adults 
of the family enjoy the 
beauties of the garden while 
indulging in the evening 
smoke. Nearly all China- 
men, and many ladies, 
smoke a mild tobacco, in 
tiny metal bowls with bam- 
boo stems, or in a clumsy 
white metal affair. 
The rich gentlemen are gorgeous in blue silk gowns 
which reach to the shoe-tops, gay silk breeches of bro- 
caded silk, snow-white leggins, elegant embroidered shoes, 
and dark silk cap, with scarlet or blue button. Protruding 
beyond their flowing sleeves are rows of claw-like nails, 
polished in the highest style of the manicure's art, and their 
wrists are encircled by massive bracelets of the favorite jade. 




NiNGPO Chinaman. 



Ningpo, China 317 

As a rule, the Chinese appear to be a well-to-do people ; 
but though some of them are very rich, many are very poor, 
and when poor no people on the face of the earth are so 
badly oft. I ha\'e seen many who had nothing in the 
world, not even a rag between their bodies and the scorch- 
ing sun, or the wintry blast. In this nude condition, they 
hang about the suburbs of the city, with great, hungry, 
straining eyes, and ferociously snatch up any little broken 
stuff that may support their hopeless existence. Thev roll 
in the mud to get its covering for warmth, and crawl along- 
side of an old broken tomb to sleep. Hundreds of thou- 
sands of the people are actually crowded off the land, and 
have their homes in sampans and junks. Many were born, 
reared, and expect to end their days and be buried from 
such homes. 

A great many Chinese smoke opium, and the habit is a 
curse to the people. The " dens " where opium is sold 
and used are generally made as attractive as possible for 
the native, although I have seen many noisome, vile places 
of the sort. In either case, high or low, the victim resorts 
to the den, and, having made himself comfortable upon a 
low couch, places a tiny ball of opium in the bowl of his 
pipe, which he holds over the flame of a lamp until it be- 
comes ignited. Reclining upon the couch, he inhales the 
insidious druo; until overcome bv the effects, and given up 
to dreams and visions. The victim of this habit soon loses 
his ability for business and his appetite for food. He can- 
not sleep, and he looks haggard and miserable. 

In our trips through the city we saw scores of unburied 
bodies placed against the inside of the city wall, and on the 
roof of a stone vault there were three little bundles of straw 
matting, — the corpses of infants whose parents were too 
poor to give them burial. Three little bundles are as 
many as can lie on the top of the wall. When another is 
to be placed there, the inside one is pushed into the vault 



3 1 8 An American Cruiser in the East 

to make place for the last comer, and so it goes, until they 
all reach the quicklime and are consumed. A little coffin 
can be purchased for less than twenty-tive cents, but there 
are thousands who never own such a sum. 

Notwithstanding this poverty, the shops and rivers are 
replete with evidences of the general prosperity. Tea is 
successfully cultivated on the hills, and many other sources 
of industry abound. Two crops of rice are produced each 
year, and the mulberrv and the tallow tree thrive. Quail, 
wild ducks, and snipe are plentiful and cheap in the 
markets. 

The gods are invoked to assist in the general prosperity. 
A household shrine, containing the god of wealth, is placed 
in everv shop, incense-sticks are kept burning before it all 
the time, and the shopkeeper frequently puts on his best 
robes and bows before the god, invoking prosperity and 
good business. 

One sees crowds of boats of all sizes and descriptions. 
There are seagoing junks, that trade with Japan, Korea, or 
in the south, and the " hotel junks," that have large, gaudv 
houses built upon them, fitted with numerous large mats 
which are used as beds. These junks are brightly lighted 
bv handsome lanterns, and are made secure to the river's 
bank. The native cities are closed at nine every night, and 
these boats afford convenient shelter for the wearv traveller. 
The " flower-boats " are of similar size and style as the 
hotel-boats, but they are more elegantly found and deco- 
rated, and are used for pleasure. When a party engages a 
" flower-boat " for a trip up or down the river, music and 
dancing are furnished, and refreshments may be taken along 
or furnished by the owner of the boat. 

Ningpo, Canton, Shanghai, Amoy, and Foo-Chow were 
opened to foreign trade as a result of the opium war of 
1 840-1 842, between Great Britain and China. Ningpo 
has a very extensive coasting and inland trade, but foreign 



Ningpo, China 3 1 9 

trade has not developed, on account of the proximity of 
Shanghai. 

Chinhai, at the mouth of the river, is a port of entry. 

The suburbs included in the port of Ningpo are King- 
tung, a walled town, containing about thirty thousand in- 
habitants, situated about ten miles to the eastward of 
Chinhai, and the nearest town to the Chusan archipelago, 
and Funghai, the district citv of the island of Chusan, which 
is twenty miles long and about fifty-one miles in girth. It 
is mountainous, wMth valleys in a high state of cultivation, 
and has an excellent harbor. Funghai was occupied for 
several years after 1841, by the British, and was again oc- 
cupied by the allied forces in i860. 

The population of Ningpo is about five hundred thousand 
natives, and about one hundred foreigners who are in the 
foreign Consular or in the Chinese Customs service. The 
population of the tributary plain is about two millions. 



CHAPTER XIX 

FORMOSA 

THE island of Formosa, Tai-wan of the Chinese, is 
about ninety miles off the coast of China, from 
which it is separated by the Strait of Fo-kien, and it lies 
between Nan-hai and Tong-hai, the Southern and the 
Eastern seas. It extends from 21° 54' to 25° 19' of 
north latitude and 121° 15' to 122° 5' of east longitude, 
and contains very nearly 15,000 square miles. It shelters 
the coast from Amoy to the Yellow Sea, by warding off 
the typhoons. 

The Tan-shan Mountains extend the whole length of 
the island from north to south, and have several lofty 
peaks and volcanoes. Me-kang-shang, or " wooded moun- 
tain," is over 12,000 feet high, Shan-chas-shan, or Mount 
Sylvia, is about 11,000, and Dodd's Range is fully 11,000 
feet in height. The mountain range divides Formosa into 
three natural divisions, — the mountains, the western plains, 
and the precipitous coast. 

The island shows many evidences of volcanic formation, 
and is in the curved line which sweeps along the Pacific 
coast of North America, the Aleutian Islands, Eastern 
Siberia, the Kural, and the Japanese Islands, through For- 
mosa and on to the Philippines. Ho-san, or " Fire Moun- 
tain," sends forth steam and sulphur, and the hot springs 
of vapor and sulphur near Tam-sui are famous. 

The streams on the eastern side are mere mountain 
torrents and cascades, but the western side has several 
rivers, the most important of which is the Tam-sui. 



Formosa 323 

The scenery is enchanting, and it so impressed the old 
Spaniards that, in their deHght, they named it Isla Formosa, 
beautiful island. 

The vegetation is tropical and luxurious. The moun- 
tains are covered with dense forests of palms, camphor- 
trees, and aloe, and beautiful wild flowers are in profusion. 
The climate is tempered bv the breezes from ocean, sea, 
and mountain-top, and the temperature averages 82"^ Fah. 
in the summer season, and about 52'' Fah. in the winter 
months, while the rainfall is about 120 inches each year. 

Takow, Formosa 

Takow is situated near the southern end of Formosa. 
The approach to its open harbor and anchorage there is 
difficult for sailing vessels at all times, and impossible 
during the six months of the monsoon season. The water 
is deepest on the northern side, and the harbor must be 
approached from that direction. 

The city is built on a point of land which juts out into 
the harbor, and it presents the appearance of great commer- 
cial activity. From the top of " Monkey Hill," above the 
foreign residences, a beautiful view can be had of the 
surrounding country and the harbor, where hundreds of 
barelegged fishermen haul their great seines, while near 
them the puffing exhaust of the steamer's hoisting-engines 
sends little clouds of vapor into the air as they whip their 
cargoes in or out. 

The country from Takow to Poabi (the nearest settle- 
ment of native aborigines, whom the Chinese call Pepo- 
hohans, or "strangers of the plains"), is very beautiful, 
being filled with waving palm-trees, tall bamboos, and wild 
flowers, but one must be always wide awake and on the 
lookout for snakes in this country. It is very common to 
see the great yellowish-green serpents wound around the 



324 An American Cruiser in the East 

limbs of overhanging trees, or coiled up, or moving on 
the ground. When they stretch out their dreadful heads, 
and start hissing towards you, it is well to have a reliable 
stick in hand to be used promptly. Some of these crea- 
tures measure ten feet in length. They are fascinatingly 
beautiful but deadly, and, when met, the fight must be to 
the death. 

There are many caves about this country, but in inspect- 
ing them it is necessary to remember the serpents, as these 
are their favorite places of resort. 

The Pepo-hohans have been crowded back from their 
fertile plains, — the rich alluvial lands that were their an- 
cestral homes, — and they are now settled on the mountain- 
sides. These people are good workers, good haters, and 
good fighters. They still hold in loving remembrance 
traditions of the Dutch, who were once in possession of 
the land, and who were kind to their fathers until driven 
out bv the Chinese. 

The native huts at Poabi are built on terraces three or 
four feet high, and are very picturesque. They are made 
of a framework of bamboo interlaced with reeds and 
covered over with thick clav. A thatching of dried leaves 
completes the roof, and a i'ew coatings of whitewash gives 
the house a neat, tidy appearance. A fencing of pricklv 
stems extends around these huts, throwing a shade over 
them, and sjuardino- the inmates against sudden attacks 
from an enemv. Manv of the huts are built around the 
three sides of a square lot, with an open space in the centre 
where the family pass the evening together. When it is 
cool, a fire is made in this open space, and old and young 
assemble there, forming a circle on the ground. They 
sit together with arms crossed, smoking tobacco or chewing 
the betel, and talking, while their dogs are in an outer 
circle surrounding them. They will often sing, but they 
have no musical instruments for accompaniment. Their 



Formosa 



325 



voices are harsh, unpleasing, and discordant, but the scene 
is enjoyable because it is novel, quaint, and weird. 

Formosa has three classes of inhabitants : the Chinese, 
from Amoy and Swatow ; the subjected natives, many of 
whom have intermarried with the Chinese; and the unsub- 
dued aborigines, who defy the authority of China, and 
carrv on wars whenever they have an opportunity. These 
aborigines are believed by some to be of iMalay, by others, 
of Japanese origin. They are divided into many tribes 
and clans, and have several dialects. Some tribes have 
women chieftains, who are said to be bold fighters. These 
people are of medium stature, broad-chested, and muscular. 
They have full, round foreheads, which do not recede, 
large mouths, broad noses, and beautiful, full, black eyes. 
They have remarkably large hands and feet. Their 
women wear their hair in loose braids wound around their 
heads in turban fashion. Their dress is shabby. When 
near the Chinese they dress better, but are less affable, — 
they seem to become shy and restless. Tattooino; is uni- 
versally practised amongst them. They are thoroughly 
honest ; and when they die they are buried in a sitting 
position, similar to the Japanese method of burial. Their 
furniture and utensils are all made of bamboo, — beds, 
tables, chairs, buckets, jars, hats, even their paper and 
pens. The women make a fine cloth from hemp, into 
which they weave colored threads, and produce ornamental 
effects. 

Wars are common, not only with the Chinese, but 
between native tribes, and the heads of the slain are always 
preserved as trophies. Young men and boys often sleep in 
the " skull-chambers," in order that they may become 
courageous. 

Many tribes show a considerable amount of skill in the 
arts of civilization. The houses of the village of Ka-fri-ang, 
for instance, are built of stone, tiled with immense slabs of 



326 An American Cruiser in the East 

stone, and fitted with comfortable sleeping and cooking 
arrangements, and places for storing materials of personal 
and household use. 

The Chinese portion of the island is divided into five 
districts, — North Formosa, Chang-hua, Ki-ai, Tai-wan, 
and Feng-shang. 

There are some very important towns on the island. 
Kelung is in the north, near the mines. Howeie has over 
one hundred thousand inhabitants. Fwo-tre-tia is a dozen 
miles from the mouth of the Tam-sui River, in the tea 
district, and has a population of over thirty thousand. 
Mengka is further up the river, and boasts of over forty 
thousand inhabitants. Teukchasu, a walled town in the 
Tam-sui district, contains a population of fifty thousand. 
Tai-wan, the capital, which has grown from the old Dutch 
fort " Zelandia," contains more than one hundred thousand, 
and there are many towns of ten thousand inhabitants or 
less ; while the whole Chinese territory is spotted with 
villages. The entire population of Formosa is estimated at 
two and a half millions of people. 

The mechanical force of the elements is nowhere more 
graphically portrayed than on this island. During the 
rainy season, the waters rise and cover vast beds, open up 
new passages across the land, and flow towards the eastern 
plain. Rocky heights confine the beds of the streams, and 
the torrents carry great quantities of soil and sand, which 
the currents cause the sea to deposit along the eastern 
coast. In this way, the port of Thai-ouau is disappearing, 
and that of Takow has been formed further down the 
coast. There are no harbors on the eastern coast ; there 
we find mountains and the most beautiful scenery, but the 
west coast has the fertile plains and the ports. 

The soil in the plains, of sand and rich alluvial clay, 
is covered with a thick vegetable mould. The Chinese in- 
habitants brought their mode of agriculture with them, and 



Formosa 329 

pineapples and manv plants and fruits are grown in abun- 
dance. Tea, sugar, rice, the sweet potato, millet, wheat, 
barley, maize, indigo, hemp, peanuts, and jute are raised in 
such quantities as to be among the important exports of the 
island. 

The fauna includes several varieties of deer, wild boars,, 
bears, goats, monkeys, squirrels, panthers, and wild-cats. 
The ox takes the place of the horse, and dogs are kept for 
hunting purposes. 

The rivers and neighboring seas are well stocked with 
fish. Turtles, flying-fish, and coral-fish swim in the warm 
waters, and fine little oysters and clams lie upon the rocky 
beds under the waters. 

Coal, sulphur, oil, and turpentine are articles of export. 
The principal coal fields are in the northern part of the 
island near Kelung and Tam-sui. This coal is highly 
bituminous and free-burning. 

The island of Formosa was known to the Chinese from 
a very early date. They called it " Kilung," and its inhab- 
itants Fung-fai, or " southern barbarians." In the six- 
teenth century, when the Portuguese, the Spaniards, and the 
Dutch were scouring these seas in quest of gold and con- 
quest, they all happened to discover Formosa about the 
same time. The Dutch were a little ahead, and built the 
fort Zelandia, which has now grown to be the town of 
Tai-wan. They established a mild form of government, 
and conciliated the aborigine natives ; but when the Tartars 
conquered China, some of the defeated followers of the 
Mings crossed over to Formosa, drove off the Dutch, took 
possession of a large portion of the island, and formed a 
government under which the natives have always been 
restless. In the latter part of the sixteenth century, the 
Chinese of Formosa acknowledged the Emperor of China, 
and since that time Formosa has formed part of the Chinese 
Empire. 



330 All American Cruiser in the East 

In the latter part of the seventeenth century, a terrible 
typhoon swept over the island, throwing down the buildings 
on shore, and wrecking twenty-eight war vessels. Later 
in the same century a great rebellion broke out, and order 
was not restored until over one hundred thousand men had 
perished by the casualties of war. 

Formosa is a dangerous coast in the monsoon and 
typhoon seasons, and until the days of steam navigation 
was known only on account of the dangerous navigation in 
the locality, the fierce winds which draw through its chan- 
nel, and the large number of wrecks that were strewn along 
its inhospitable shores. But in these days of steam-power 
and a better acquaintance with the surroundings, we can 
stand off or on, as we please, and have no tear of the 
dangers that lurk about " Isla Formosa." 

Shipwrecked crews used to run great risks from the can- 
nibal natives and from the cruelty of the Chinese. In 1842 
the British brig " Ann " was lost, with fifty-seven persons on 
board, of whom fortv-three were executed at Tai-wan ; and 
as late as 1872, the crew of a Japanese vessel shipwrecked 
on the coast was murdered by the savages. The Japanese 
government sent an expedition to punish the assassins, and 
a war between China and Japan seemed imminent ; but it 
was avoided by China's payment of seven hundred thousand 
dollars as compensation to the friends of the murdered men, 
and an additional sum to cover the expenses of the expedi- 
tion, after which the Japanese troops were withdrawn from 
the island. 

Since 1877, roads have been constructed throughout the 
Chinese territory, the resources of the island are being 
rapidly developed, and Auping and Takow have been 
strongly fortified. 



CHAPTER XX 

AMOY, CHINA 

RUNNING down the coast before a stiff monsoon is 
the very acme of saiHng, and reminds us of the 
" good old times " we have all read of, when the time of a 
vessel between ports could never be predicted. If a vessel 
made a start, her progress would depend almost entirely 
upon the state of the winds. But in these days of " steam 
and schedules," the time of arrival can generally be calcu- 
lated. If, however, one is sailing in the monsoon region, 
there may be delays if the winds are adverse, or his speed 
may be greatly accelerated in spite of " close-reefed topsails " 
and " the engines turning as slowly as possible." 

The latter was our case on this run. We expected to 
arrive at early daylight, but the winds pushed us along at 
such rate that we found ourselves off the entrance lisht at 
about eleven o'clock in the night. The coast and entrance 
being well lighted, and the charts entirely reliable, we kept 
the lead going and ran iii, anchoring for the night in the 
outer harbor. Our friends on shore were delighted to see 
the "Starry Banner" just as Key wrote, "By the dawn's 
early light." 

The island of Amov is a great barren rock of volcanic 
formation, evidently of the same chain as its neighbors 
Korlangsoo and Swatow. Perhaps, in past times, the great 
thousand-ton granite bowlders, rocks, and stones that we 
now see all about us, were hurled upwards in some fearful 
convulsion of nature ; but the rains and the winds of the 



332 An American Cruiser in the East 

monsoons have washed and blown away from its un- 
sheltered sides all deposits before thev could gain a holding 
place among the smooth rocks. 

Ages ago, so long ago that no one now knows the time, 
an outpost was established here to repel piratical incursions 
from neighboring islands. This outpost developed into a 
camp, the camp into a regularly fortified place ; camp fol- 
lowers and hangers-on soon came ; and when the settlement 




The Deified Rocks at Amoy, China. 



was Strong enough to repel hostile attack, trade began and 
business grew, — hence the present citv. 

Amov is situated on a hill, on the south coast of the 
barren island of Amov, in latitude 24° 28' north, longitude 
118° 10' east, nearly opposite the centre of the island of 
Formosa, The city is about ten miles around, and is 
divided into an inner and an outer town, separated from each 
other bv a chain of hills. Upon the summit of these hills 
there is an old Chinese citadel of considerable strength,. 



Amoy, China 333 

which commands both cities, as well as the surrounding 
country. 

Each city has its own commodious harbor, where hun- 
dreds of picturesque junks, swarming with noisy natives, 
can be seen, and the incHned stone landings are crowded 
with men and women, bearing to and from these busy 
water-craft burdens of rice, sugar, tea, or fish. 

The inner city is protected by a network of very strong 
fortifications ; but these are so close that in case of an 
attack upon them an enemy's projectiles would be sure to 
destroy both cities. 

Amoy is the entry port of the province of Fo-kien and 
the seaport of Chang-chu, with which it has good river 
communication. Many cargoes of tea from Tam-sui and 
other ports of Formosa are handled here, the charges inci- 
dent to the porterage and handling adding very materially 
to the commercial importance of the place. 

The men of Amoy are stalwart, handsome fellows, who 
have the bearing of good soldiers. They dress like the 
Chinese of this section of country, but wear turbans 
to conceal the pigtail, which they consider a badge of 
oppression. 

The streets of the native cities are very narrow and 
filthy. They are not more than seven feet wide ; many 
of them are of less width, and there is no pretence of 
sanitary arrangements. To go about in them one has to be 
prepared to climb over and wade through the most horrid 
filth and abominations, and the odors are at times almost 
unbearable. 

Granite is plenty, and can be had for the gathering and 
hauling. On the heights, temples, monasteries, and a i'ew 
houses are built of this stone. During the prevalence of 
the monsoons, the climate is filled with moisture ; and as 
stone houses are believed to attract the moisture and become 
damp, the people do not consider them desirable as places 



334 ^'^ American Cruiser in the East 

of residence, A great manv very poor families are crowded 
together, more like animals than human beings, in scantily 
furnished, dirty houses. 

Many families seem to be composed entirely of boy 
children. When the parents are poor, or if they do not 
care to rear girls, they either sell or kill them. If killed, 
they are usually drowned in a tub of water, and the father 
must do the horrid work, as any agent would be liable to 
be punished for the murder. The parents have absolute con- 
trol over their children. Sometimes girls are offered for 
sale, but buyers are few. It is thought necessary that all 
children should marry ; and parents often sell or give their 
girls to their friends when they are quite young, to be the 
future wives ot the sons of the new owners. Even among 
the better classes, girl children are sometimes put to death, 
if the parents have more daughters than they care to rear. 

Chinese girls of from ten to sixteen years of age wear 
their hair " banged " across the front of the head as a noti- 
fication to the "go-between " that they are of marriageable 
age. The condition of a Chinese woman is fearful even to 
contemplate. Born a slave, she runs the gantlet of murder 
in childhood to die a slave, — only changing masters from 
father to husband, with too frequently a " she-de\'il of a 
mother-in-law " to make her life a very hell on earth. 
Uneducated, except perhaps in the " accomplishments of 
music and high-pitched discords," with no consoling re- 
sources, she works on and dreams her poor life away in 
stupid fancy or stolid indifference, until her time comes to 
maltreat some unfortunate daughter-in-law. 

The boys are not treated thus, for when thev grow up 
they can earn more money than girls, help support the 
parents when ill or old, and can worship the ancestral 
tablets, and continue the family name. 

The natives of Amoy were very curious, and followed us 
about in crowds. If prices were asked or bargains attempted, 



Amoy, China 



o o r 



every one in the crowd had a voice in the transaction, and 
if money passed, they each looked at it and expressed an 
opinion upon its genuineness and value ; but we were not 
long in concluding that this was due to what might be 
called, " good-natured inquisitiveness," rather than imperti- 
nence. The people have a high sense of the ludicrous, and 
we found that the best way to rid ourselves of their un- 
desirable attentions was to get the laugh on one of them, 




Foreign Residences at Korlangsoo, Amoy, China. 

when his fellows would immediately discover the joke and 
follow it up without mercy. The person laughed at would 
get out of the crowd and trv to sneak off, which was the 
signal for the greater part of the mob to follow him with jeers 
and shouts, and we would be left in peace until a new 
crowd discovered the foreigners, and gathered around us. 

The consulates and foreign residences are situated on 
the opposite island of Korlangsoo, a large island of vol- 
canic formation, where stones, rocks, and great bowlders 
have been hurled forth in some past age. The resi- 



336 An American Cruiser in the East 

dences are commodious and elegant, and are located 
in beautiful gardens, enclosed by low stone walls. The 
roads are well kept, and some delightful tramps, together 
with many charming views, may be enjoyed. 

The " Lampotoh Temple," above the race-course, is 
a fine specimen of Chinese religious architecture and 
decoration. 

Many of the great bowlders, on both sides of the river, 
are decorated with inscriptions relating to local history, 
or with extracts from the sages. 

The island was captured by the British in 1841, after a 
determined resistance, and is now one of the treaty ports. 

The natives are expert manufacturers of a grass-cloth that 
is quite celebrated throughout the east. Game, fish, and 
fruits are abundant. Snipe and wild ducks can be had in 
the autumn and winter season ; fine fish can be had at all 
times. Delicious pomolas are brought from the orchards up 
the river, and all the fruits of the semi-tropical zone can be 
found in the markets. Exclusive of junks, fifteen hundred 
vessels enter the port each year. 

SwATOw, China 

Swatow is situated on the Han River, in latitude 23° 40' 
north, longitude 116° 42' east, and is the port of Chan- 
chan-too in the province of Kwang-tung. 

About the time we dropped anchor off" the Consulate at 
Swatow we saw our colors flying on the staff of the old 
Chinese fort at the river's entrance, and on counting the 
little pufFs of smoke issuing from the fort's popguns, we 
found that our flag was being saluted. When the salute 
was finished, the " Chinese dragon " was flying at our main- 
mast head, and the compliment was returned with our eight- 
inch guns. Not since the earthquake, ages ago, has old 



Amoy, China 339 

Swatow had the shaking up we gave it. The great white 
puffs soon formed into white cloud masses, hanging about 
us and dimming our vision ; while the reports, deep and 
sullen, rang out to the echo and re-echo, playing among the 
everlasting hills, rattling and crashing before the expanding 
powder waves. Thousands of frightened natives flocked to 
the river's side, looking on in astonishment, as the great 
guns boomed out the salute. They said they thought old 
Swatow was experiencing a series of earthquakes, and they 
flocked to the river's edge as a place of refuge. The old 
commander of the fort danced and cried, by turns, when he 
saw and heard how we were honoring his country's flag. 
After the salute, the natives were very polite and could not 
do enough for us. 

The immediate neighborhood of the city is guarded by an 
ancient, quadrangular stone fort, which is armed with old 
two-inch, cast-iron, smooth-bore guns, mounted on ship's 
gun-carriages. These had been evidently obtained from 
some vessel in the old davs. The fort is fairly well pre- 
served, and is carefully watched bv its zealous guard, who 
kept very close to us while we were looking through its 
precincts. 

The houses are made of clay, with tent-shaped, tiled 
roofs, and many of them stand in pretty gardens surrounded 
by high walls. The interiors of the houses are frequently 
highly ornamented with dragons, beasts, birds, and flowers, 
the work of native artists, who are considered the finest 
painters in China. The houses are nearly all residences or 
warehouses, and we missed the gay little open-front shops 
that are so attractive in other Chinese cities. 

Swatow is an important tea-market, and its white-metal 
work and curious fans are well known throughout the 
world. Its painters are well patronized. The people dress 
better than those in northern China, and the women are 
considered the handsomest on the Chinese coast. Like the 



340 An American Cruiser in the East 

ladies in other parts of the countrv, they have a wonderful 
way of dressing the hair, in " tea-pot," " butterfly," or plain 
fashion. The toes of girl babies are turned under the feet 
and secureK' bound in place to prevent the feet from grow- 




WOMAN OF SWATOW, CHINA. 

ing, while the rest of the body is developing. Otttimes, 
the bandages are not remox'ed for months, and the poor 
children suffer excruciating pains, but the treatment is per- 
severed in. Tn olden times, this was done for the ungallant 
reason of " preventing the women from gadding about,'* 



Amoy, China 341 

but ill these days it has become the fashion. Small feet 
prove that the woman cannot stand upon them comfortably 
and cannot work ; consequently she must be a lady. 

Daintily mincing along on tiny feet, or borne in state in 
sedan-chairs, the belles of this " flowery land " take their 
airing and visit some temple, or a street where they can see 
and be seen. Clad in broad-sleeved garments of skv-blue 
brocade, bordered with black, or brown, or scarlet ; with 
wide black trousers, reaching to the ankles ; with white 
cloth -' leggins " and tin\' lilac silk shoes -, with thick white- 
edged soles ; with the hair done into great, glossy black 
folds, representing tea-pots, butterflies, or shells ; with 
numerous gold, silver, or colored glass pins and flowers, 
— they feel themselves the peers of their fairer sisters in 
any land. 

The beautiful strip of level land which runs along the 
river-front of the opposite island has been utilized by the 
foreign inhabitants as a place of residence. Here handsome 
houses, surrounded by elegant grounds, with the luxuries 
of the far East to gratify the senses and taste, make almost a 
paradise on earth. Great banyan-trees clingingly spread 
their branches up the hillsides, and the sweet rose blends 
its fragrance with the geranium and heliotrope. 

A tramp past the dingy little hillside temple, and a climb 
over the green hills, brings us into a great basin, — a very 
valley of death, — where we find a mass of barren rocks 
and bowlders that have been hurled from the interior of the 
earth in some past age, of which the natives have no record. 
For miles extends a great bowl-shaped valley of lava beds, 
an extinct crater, with rocks and stones and bowlders, where 
all is desolation and ruin, and no blade of grass or other 
green thing even struggles between crack or crevice to 
change the awful hue of nature's curse. 

The views from this height are charming, — the green 
hills, with the great brown, serpentine rivers, meandering 



342 



An American Cruiser in the East 



among them ; the hills bevond and beneath ; the green sea, 
losing itself in the great blue ocean ; while the clouds, like 
a great canopy, cover them all. 

The superstitious natives, like their brethren of Amov, 
have placed inscriptions upon some of the greater bowlders 
and deified others ; but the beating winds and mocking 
monsoons are disintegrating the stones, and drift the sand 
upon the clayey soil below, tempering it for the husband- 
man's use. Even now, the waving rice drinks in the dew- 
drops, and bathes its roots in the sweet waters, while waving 
" charms " ward off the poaching birds, and the air is laden 
with sweet odors from garden, field, and orchard. Birds 
chirp gavly as thev roam from branch to branch, and all 
nature seems to smile, under the lee of this leaden old 
crater. 

Comfortably settled in a house-boat, a junk with a cabin 
built upon it, fitted with a stove, some provisions, and a 
couple of Chinese servants, a partv may sail beyond the 
city and keep clear of all villages. Snipe, wild ducks, and 
geese come onto the marshy rice-fields for food and water, 
and as they are gamy, the sport is fine. Ovsters are large 
and of delicious flavor, reminding us of the Chesapeake 
Bav bivalves. 

The rise and fall of the tide is about sixteen feet, and 
when the tide is out great mud-flats must be crossed in 
landing. These are gotten over in peculiarlv shaped, flat- 
bottomed boats, which the native crews push in or out as 
they slide over the mud. 

Swatow contains about forty thousand native inhabitants 
and about two hundred foreigners. 



CHAPTER XXI 

CA.NTON, CHINA 

FROM the time of lea\ ing Amov until we reach the 
harbor of Hong-kong, two hundred and ninety miles 
away, we were driven bv a lively northeast monsoon, 
which caused the vessel to pitch and roll so deeply that it 
was almost impossible to keep on one's feet without the aid 
ot life lines. Under such conditions, we had great regard for 
the author of the old song, " A Life on the Ocean Wave ; " 
but when we remember that it was written on a bench in 
the old battery of New York, and not on the ocean wave, 
we must pardon the imagination and forgive the author. 

The harbor between Hong-kong and Kowloon, oppo- 
site, is picturesque and novel. Beyond, are great black, 
fog-covered hills, dotted here and there with white houses, 
which grow thicker at the upper end, and form the city of 
\^ictoria. The thread-like lines indicate the Kennedy and 
military roads, and the cable road to Mount Austin, A 
great fleet of war vessels, stretching along the harbor, 
represents all shades of naval architecture, from the hulk, of 
the days of the East India Company, to the most modern 
steel coast-defence vessel, and all that comes between, — 
including the old wooden Chinese war-junk with its two- 
inch cast-iron gun amidships, and the speedy little steel 
steamers which bear the dragon flag. Thousands of sam- 
pans and junks are lined up to the sea-wall, and on the 
opposite side is the low, sandy Kowloon. 

Steaming on, we enter the " Boca-Tigris," the "Tiger's 
Mouth," the entrance proper to the Hu-mun, or Pearl 



344 ^'^ American Cruiser in the East 

River. There are some beautiful hills on both sides of the 
river, extending for miles from the entrance. Some are 
undulating, with a gradual slope, others are craggy on the 
river's front, and some are cut off abruptly. Every hill is 
stronglv fortified, and bristles with great guns. Between 
the hills, two rows of piles have been driven, and these 
extend across the river, with openings in the channel about 
fifty yards wide, for the passage of vessels. One of these 
rows is composed of iron piles driven endways into the 
bottom of the river, with their upper ends connected by 
heavy chain cables. The other row is made of heavy 
wooden beams. 

As we approached the citv, the fortifications became 
even more extensive, and when we reached the level 
country we saw a great bridge, over which an armv can 
be transported for the defence of the city. The ends of 
the bridge and of the obstructions are defended by fortifica- 
tions, and these the Chinese call the "Tiger's Mouth." 

A little further up the river, we reached a great, alluvial 
plain of wonderful fertility, skirted in places by native 
villages. Hundreds of junks sail up and down the muddy 
river, and one hears the din of gongs, sees the burning joss- 
sticks, and the gay, triangular, scarlet flags at the mast-head, 
for luck. Several pagodas point heavenward and the 
outlines of the "White Cloud Mountains" bound our 
horizon. 

Great steel-clad, bomb-proof water batteries, the houses 
and huts of the people, and the hundreds of little river- 
craft tied to the water-front, warn us of our nearness to 
the city ; and we drop our anchors into the dirty waters 
between Sha-mien and Honan, where we can get the 
breezes that are wafted up the river. 

Canton is an immense old city and commercial port, 
situated on the north side of the Pearl River, in latitude 23^ 



Canton, China 34^ 

7' 10" north, longitude 113" 14' 30" east, and it is the 
capital of the province of Kvvang-tung in the southern part 
of China. 

The scene oft the city is animated, noisy, and bustling. 
Steamers, junks, and sampans are crowded together at 
anchor, tied up to the river's front, or struggle for room to 
move about their business. Occasionally there is a collision 
aniong these frail craft, when one, perhaps two, are cut 
down and sunk. A widening circle on the surface marks 
the spot, and is soon washed out bv the swift-running cur- 
rent, A little driftwood on the surface tells the story of 
several unfortunates suftocated in the river's treacherous 
mud, and the Chinese world rolls on without a thought or 
a sigh. 

Great boats go bv us loaded with passengers and freight, 
whose stern-wheels are worked from the inside in treadmill 
fashion by men and boys who are stripped to the waist. 
The streams of perspiration flowing down the bodies of 
these toilers represent the cost of the trips in human blood. 
The neatly fitted and gaylv painted sampan, which an ex- 
pert boatwoman can twirl round on its own centre, flits 
back and forth from the shore ; while little steam-cutters not 
only hold their own, but gain upon dignified old junks, 
whose two eyes may have seen storms in the Yellow Sea. 

It was not many minutes before we were besieged by a 
hundred or more boats and sampans. There were official 
calls, port calls, and Chinese merchants with new goods 
and old, porcelains, silver-ware, ivory and silk work, and 
tailors with hundreds of samples of the most outlandish 
patterns that ever were seen, and washerwomen who were 
anxious to do the laundry work for three silver dollars a 
hundred pieces. This assemblage was one of the noisiest 
and most picturesque that could well be gathered on a vessel's 
decks. The sleek merchant in brocade silk, clean-sha\'en, 
with the address of a courtier spread out his wares and 



346 An American Cruiser in the East 

temptinglv oftered them for sale. The girls of the sampans, 
with heads dressed in the best style of the " butterfly " or 
"tea-pot" or in plaits, in their blue gowns and black 
trousers, with bare feet, but with graceful carriage, wan- 
dered about their own little boats, and added gavetv to 
the scene. 

One of the most piteous sights that we have seen here 
was a poor, frail craft, containing a family of lepers. It 
dropped stealthily down into the crowd of boats surround- 
ing us, and the inmates importuned for the broken stuff 
from the messes. A little ivhite fellow of about ten years 
managed the boat, which was a mass of old matting 
and filth. From its stern a handless, noseless hag, with 
matted hair and covered with horrible sores, was imploring 
succor. The man in the bow was more loathsome than 
the woman. His eyes were gone, the mouth was eaten 
away, and the face and scalp were covered with dirty 
ulcers. These poor people held up their withered stumps 
and exposed their horrid sores to excite our sympathy. They 
were given a lot of provisions, and the inmates of the sam- 
pans drove them off, but, much to our annoyance, they 
persisted in hovering about the \ essel during our entire 
stay. 

" Sha-mien," the Sand-flats 

Formerly the foreign residences were on the river-front, 
outside of the city walls, and just east of Canton. In 
December, 1856, these residences were destroyed by a 
Chinese mob, when the city was captured and occupied by 
the British and French, acting together. The city and its 
neighborhood were governed by a military commission, com- 
posed of officers of these forces, until late in the year 1861, 
when it was concluded to select a more secure place of 
residence for foreigners. A large sand-flat, located to the 
westward of the old settlement, and in front of the city, 



Canton, China 347 

was chosen. This was made into a substantial island bv 
building a heavy granite retaining wall around it, and filling 
in with soil. A canal, one hundred feet wide, was left 
between it and the city, as a means of protection against 
Chinese mobs. The two bridges, which span the canal 
and lead into Canton, are guarded by heavy iron gates, and 
there are guard-houses, where Chinese troops are kept on 
duty at all times. The gates are always kept closed, and 
are locked at night. Chinese found on the island after dark 
are compelled to give an account of themselves. The new- 
made island is about three thousand feet long, and one 
thousand at its broadest part, and nearly four hundred 
thousand Mexican dollars were expended to put it in order. 
A tax of forty-five dollars per acre per annum is paid to 
the Chinese government for its use. 

Sha-mien is well located, being only a hundred feet from 
the suburb of Canton, where all the Chinese wholesale 
dealers, bankers, and merchants reside. It has a safe and 
commodious anchorage for vessels of about fourteen feet 
draught of water, but large steamers and all foreign sailing 
vessels are required to anchor off" Wampoa, twelve miles 
below. It faces the Macao passage, gi\'ing a short cut to 
and from the sea, and the cool breezes of summer are 
wafted up its channel. 

The residences on Sha-mien are palatial in architecture, 
finish, and fittings, and are surrounded with beautiful 
walled gardens. Their masters and mistresses are among 
the most hospitable people in the world. The roads about 
the island are broad, clean, and well shaded by trees of 
dense foliage. There is a handsome little English church 
near the centre of the settlement, while the club and the 
new theatre furnish the public amusements of the place. 

The residents live in a state of alarm produced bv the 
bad feeling that is always exhibited towards them by the 
Chinese. It is a common occurrence for Canton to be 



348 An American Cruiser in the East 

placarded with threats against the " foreign devils," and 
this, together with the recollection of the outrages of 1856, 
causes terrible strains upon the nervous systems of the for- 
eign residents. 

Old Canton 

Having secured the services of Ah-Po, a guide, we crossed 
the stone bridge which unites Sha-mien with Canton. 
Fierce-looking Tartar guards swung open one of the great 
iron gates, and we entered the suburbs of the " Celestial 
city." A peep into the dingv bamboo guard-house, on the 
left of the road, revealed a double stand of barbarous pikes 
and spears, still useful in repelling an infuriated mob ; and, 
lounging upon their soiled mats, awaiting a "call to arms," 
or to relieve the guard, were a crowd of men as piratical- 
looking as ever were seen. 

The citv is enclosed by a brick wall which is built upon 
a stone foundation. This wall is more than six miles around, 
twenty feet thick, and its average height is about twentv- 
five feet. Another wall runs from east to west, and 
divides the city into two parts, the old and the new. The 
old citv, or northern part, is occupied bv the Tartars ; while 
the new, or southern part, is peopled by the Chinese. 
The houses extend along the river for about four miles, 
and the river-front is crowded with junks, sampans, and 
boats of all styles. 

The outer wall of the city rises to enclose a hill on the 
north side, and on the other three sides it is surrounded by 
a ditch which extends, sewer-like, under many of the 
streets, while the ebbing tide is relied upon to carry ofF the 
mass of filth that accumulates in these beds. There are 
twelve gates in the outer wall, and four in the wall which 
separates the city into two parts. There are also two 
water-gates through which boats pass across the new city. 
The gates are guarded at all times, and are closed at night. 



Canton, China 3^1 

There are more than six hundred narrow, crooked, mazy 
streets in Canton, but a i'ew straight ones lead from the 
gates on the southern side to the water-front. The streets 
are nearly all paved with granite slabs, and are well kept, 
for a Chinese city. The smells, filth, and other abomina- 
tions that are so prevalent in the other cities are not met 
with here. Canton is a well-governed city. It contains 
1,500,000 inhabitants. 

The houses are small, usually two stories in height, with 
tiled roofs, and are built of drab-colored bricks, trimmed 
with stone or wood. The first floor is used as an open- 
front shop, and the rear portion and courtyard are used for 
storehouses; the upper floor is divided into living-rooms 
and chambers. 

The streets are usually covered over with mattings or 
cotton awnings which extend from the roof of one house 
to that of the house opposite. The gay signs and crowded 
thoroughfares give pleasure and delight as we jostle among 
the busy throng. Every house is barricaded at night by 
means of shutters and great beams ot wood, so that it might 
successfully withstand a siege. 

Almost every trade and occupation has its own street or 
quarter in this curious old Canton. For long distances, 
we see shop after shop where men and boys are fashioning 
and coloring impossible dragons, beasts, fish, birds, flowers, 
and gods, in low and high relief, and the boldness with 
which golds and greens and scarlets are used is startlino- 
and wonderful. In another section are beautiful speci- 
mens of polished and of dull ebony cabinets, bedsteads, 
settles, and chairs, carved and plain, with marble, glass, or 
exquisitely engraved panels and finishings. In others arc 
paper and silk ornaments for women's wear, flowers, birds, 
butterflies, head-dresses, porcelains of all kinds and forms, 
— from the wine-cup to the great punch-bowl, — in whites, 
greens, blues, golds, and all shades that can be imagined; 



352 An American Cruiser in the East 

jadestones, upon which all the processes, from the cutting 
to the finishing and mounting, can be seen; artists, in stone 
or wood, side by side, working out some hideous dragon or 
sweet-faced Buddha ; painters, who have no idea of per- 
spective, and verv little of proportion, gravely painting a 
twelve-foot body under a natural-size head, or a woman in 
the background taller than her house in the foreground, 
with colors and tints as absurd as the drawing ; ivory- 
carvers in whose work we can study all the manipulations 
of laying out, cutting, carving, and giving the finishing 
polish ; silk spinning, weaving, and embroidery, where 
wonderful effects are produced in natural and in fancy 
colors ; shops, where paper money, artificial shoes, and 
food are made for sacrificial purposes, for offerings to the 
spirits of the dead ; and as the spirits are not supposed to 
know better, these imitations are believed to be as accept- 
able to them, when offered through fire, as the real articles 
would be ; and as the cost is much less, the custom com- 
mends itself to a practical people. We see the dog and 
cat restaurant, where these creatures are served in cutlets, 
roasts, and savory stews; fish-stalls, where great monsters 
swim side by side with tiny shrimp, while a stream of 
silvery water flows into the massive tub ; wonderful little 
oil pictures on sheets of rice or silk; costumes of the 
people and punishments for the culprit ; mammoth crabs 
and crawfish, sportive gold and silver fish, with their flat 
heads, staring eyes, and fan tails ; mysterious herbs, drugs, 
blisters, potions, and charms in the apothecaries' shop, 
and the goggle-eyed druggist staring into vacancy. The 
throngs stop and glare at us " western barbarians," as we 
move on from shop to shop, and from street to street. 

All day long the streets and lanes and alleys are filled 
with swarming crowds of grave and gay men and women,, 
elbowing and pushing their way through the throng. Dis- 
tinguished-looking men, whose personality would attract 



Canton, China 353 

attention in any land, ordinary and common men, and fierce, 
cadaverous-looking fellows, who cause one instinctively to 
button up his coat and clutch his stick, — all pass, crowd, 
and repass in this human hive. The chattering, mincing 
woman, gayly decked and made hideous by powder and 
rouge, trips along on her tiny feet, frequently jostled by 
some rougher sister or impolite member of the opposite sex. 
The beggar slowlv moves his disgusting presence from 
shop to shop, and drums upon his little gourd until alms 
have been bestowed. All are pushed out of the way, and 
crowded here or there, bv the outrunners and chair-bearers 
of some low-grade mandarin who is proceeding in state. 
Bang ! Bang ! goes the gong ; then a crowd in dingy scarlet 
with pointed hats precede his lordship, who is borne in a 
closed sedan-chair, over which his red cotton umbrella is 
held. Or it mav be a wedding procession, headed by men 
and boys (as many as can be hired), each clad in old red 
coats and pointed hats. They beat gongs, play on shrill 
trumpets and bass drums, and are followed by bearers with 
sweets, roasts of duck and pig, cakes, more sweets, the 
bride's trousseau, fancv sedan-chairs, more gongs, and all 
the household furniture and utensils belonging to the high 
contracting parties. 

If it is a funeral procession, there will be a long line of 
professional mourners and the friends of the deceased, all 
clad in dingv white garments, and accompanied bv bearers 
with artificial monev, shoes, provisions, and bundles of 
incense-sticks to be burned at the grave. The body is 
borne near the head of the line. No expense is spared on 
any of these occasions to make as much display as pos- 
sible, and for that purpose many of these poor people pawn 
and sell everything in their possession. If a funeral should 
meet or cross a wedding procession, it is considered the 
most unlucky omen. 

In the western suburbs we saw a large mill, where 

23 



354 ^^^ American Cruiser in the East 

tiny oxen were harnessed to the upper stones, and they 
travelled round and round, grinding rice into beautiful 
white flour. On the opposite side of the road there is a 
rival mill, where the primitive method is adhered to. 
Large stone mortars are planted in the ground, and over 
each of them a heavy wooden hammer is so arranged as to 
fall into the mortar. Rice is placed in the mortar ; and a 
stalwart coolie, who is stripped to the waist, jumps on and 
off the end of a beam, causing the hammer to rise and fall 
upon the rice, crushing it into flour. This process is slow 
and tedious, and the poor coolies are covered with streams 
of perspiration ; but labor is cheap here, and many Chinese 
prefer the hammer to the oxen-made flour. 

The Guild-hall of the green-tea merchants is a handsome 
structure, and is highly ornamented with porcelain, carv- 
ings, and all the colors of the rainbow. The property 
occupies several acres of ground, upon which are a Con- 
fucian and a Buddhist temple, a theatre, and a handsome 
roof-garden, besides the Guild-hall, and a number of private 
rooms. Although the Guild-hall is a new structure, its 
appearance is marred bv the accumulation of filth and the 
large number of loafing loungers who haunt its precincts. 

At the entrance to the court of the Temple of the five 
hundred genii, we were met bv an old priest who collected our 
fee and conducted us through a long, narrow passage, open- 
ing into a large courtvard. Here twoscore or more of young 
Celestials were engaged in athletic sports, which they sup- 
plemented with occasional whoops that would do credit to 
young American Indians. The play was rough, and the 
whoops were loud, but we soon passed on and entered 
the temple. There are several gilded images in the centre, 
and ranged around the walls in aisles. The five hundred 
colossal gods — huge men, carved, plastered, and painted 
in brown — sit or recline at their ease. Some have smiling 
countenances, others are childlike and bland, and others 



Canton, China 355 

are hideous. Our old friend " Marco Polo " sits in a 
corner, crowned with a sailor hat, and seems to be at home 
in the company, as the curling smoke from the scented 
joss-stick reaches his wooden nostrils. 

Some of the gods have musical instruments, and around 
many groups of merry, light-hearted children gambol. 
Upon some faces is seen the vacant stare that is, I believe, 
the chief aim of the devout Buddhist. 

A stroll through the shops forcibly impressed us with 
the inferiority of Chinese lacquer-ware as compared with 
that made in Japan. In China, the article to be decorated 
is made smooth and painted red. When dry, the deco- 
ration is outlined with a stencil, after which the gold or 
bronze is put on over a pigment, and the article is given 
several coatings of lacquer. The result is, that finished 
work lacks the artistic boldness and brilliant finish so 
peculiar to the Japanese work. 

We were interested in a glass-ware manufactory, where 
broken bottles and other pieces of old glass were being 
melted in little clay-lined, iron furnaces, and then worked 
by human blow-pipes into fancy bottles and ornamental 
shapes. The coloring, bunching, drawing, moulding, and 
other manipulations were all neatly performed by little pig- 
tailed fellows of not more than twelve years of age. 

The Temple of Longevity is a dingy old house, where 
a fat, sleek, good-natured, old brown god receives the 
prayers and homage of all who seek him to ask for a long 
life. His shrine is well patronized, and the ofFering-box 
was well filled with " cash." In the public pond, we saw 
freaks and crosses of Chinese breeding, tiny, moderate, and 
mammoth in size. There were fan-tailed and tailless, 
wall-eyed and pink-eyed members of the golden finny 
tribe. 

The section devoted to silk weavers is very interesting ; 
and it is wonderful to see the beautiful fabrics produced 



356 An American Cruiser in the East 

from the rude looms used, many of which are no better 
made than those in use by our weavers of rag-carpets thirty 
years ago. The shuttles are passed back and forth bv hand, 
and yet the texture is marvellously fine, smooth, and even, 
and the patterns, in stripes, checks, and brocades, are re- 
markable for the fidelity in repetition of design. 

fust inside of the middle gate, in the south wall of the 
old city, we come to the court of the old temple of the 
" five genii," — an old pile, where the five gods hold court 
and receive the homage, incense, and offerings of the devout; 
while behind them loiters a crowd of filthy attendants, who 
devote their energies to smoking, sleeping, and staring at 
whoever enters the temple. Near by is the " Bare Pagoda," 
so named from the fact that its outside casing, or veneer, 
has fallen away, leaving its rough, time-worn old walls 
bare. Great patches and fissures have been made in its 
walls bv the ravages of time and the elements, and a mon- 
ster tree is now growing from its summit. 

The Confucian temple, not far away, is another fine 
specimen of Chinese religious architecture. It is bare of 
gods and decorations. Little stone and lacquered wooden 
tablets of ancestors are set upon the altar, in the holy of 
holies, where the people come to worship and burn incense- 
sticks. 

Further on, we see a fine specimen of the Chinese reli- 
gious monumental order of architecture, in a good state of 
preservation. It is nine stories in height, and can be seen 
from a great distance. The view from its top includes the 
city and the surrounding countrv for many miles. Below 
us is the great city with its narrow and crooked streets, 
lanes, and allevs, thousands of tiled roofs, " bare " and 
" five-storied " pagodas, a few old trees, and the citv walls. 
On the north are the hills with frowning forts upon them to 
awe the citizens and keep them in subjection, on the east 
lie the great, undulating plains, that lose themselves in the 







■:^ 



The Bare Pagoda, Canton, China. 



Canton, China 



359 



" White Cloud Mountains," and little truck gardens, with 
their busy men, women, and bovs, working about in quaint 
costumes. The graves, the tombs, the quiet houses of the 
dead, and the Pearl Ri\er, creeping like a huge muddy 
serpent between Canton and Honan. 

After descending from the Pagoda, we paid our respects 
to the " Sleeping Buddha." He occupies a shrine in a 
dark old temple, which is no cleaner than others, but 




Chinese I:'t.M> 



In the Caugue. 



seems to be a fitting home for the " sleeping intercessor," 
— the eastern " Rip Van Winkle," — who must be aroused 
by the beating of a large drum, which is suspended in the 
temple from a heavy ornamental frame. 

We visited the prison, which is a long bamboo shed with 
thatched roof, resembling an immense pig-pen rather than 
a place for the detention and reformation of human beings. 
We saw many horrible specimens of the Chinese criminal 
class, some being loaded with chains, some with their limbs 
manacled in the stocks, and others wearing the caugue 



360 An American Cruiser in the East 

about their throats, so that they could neither feed them- 
selves, nor lie down to sleep. 

The floor was covered with filthy straw, upon which the 
refuse of the place was dropped. The place and the people 
in it were extremely dirty, and the air was foul and dis- 
gusting. There was only a little hole near the top of the 
hut for the escape of the foul air. 

Along the street, outside of the prison, long rows of 
rickety tables were placed, at which the natives were playing 
their favorite gambling game of " fan-tan." The monev 
on the tables was mostly in "cash," — about one tenth of 
a cent, but in some cases it was less. They have a baser 
metal than the brass cash, and when they desire to use 
a coin of less value, they break one of these and weigh the 
parts in little pan-scales. 

The court is near the prison, and as some cases were 
soon to be tried, we concluded to see the proceedings. We 
were ushered into the judge's retiring-room by an attendant, 
where we indulged in cigars to freshen up a little after our 
prison experience. Soon the court convened. A man in 
a tall, pointed hat beat a gong several times. His Celestial 
Honor took his seat on the bench, behind a sort of counter, 
a boy standing on his right, a little in the rear. Two fine- 
looking Chinese court reporters took seats behind two 
little tables (one on the right and one on the left of the 
court), and began making notes. A poor fellow, ragged 
and bruised and bound in chains, was dragged into the room 
by a fierce-looking jailer, who shook and pushed the poor 
coolie as though he were endeavoring to escape. As a 
matter of fact, the prisoner was as meek as a lamb. The 
officer made all this noise to show "His Honor" how 
zealous he was. 

The prisoner was made to prostrate himself before the 
court, on one side of the room, while a witness was put in 
the same position on the other side, and these positions 



Canton, Ch 



una 



361 



they maintained throughout the trial. While we could not 
understand all of the Chinese, we knew that it was a 
knotty case, for the boy at the judge's elbow was kept busy 
emptying, filling, and lighting his pipe. His Honor would 
take a whifF or two, look very wise, and hand the pipe 
back to the boy. I am not sure whether our presence had 
anything to do with the form of the trial or not, but I have 
understood that it is not usual for " foreign devils " to be 




A Knotty Case in Old Canton. 

present at the sessions of this court. This man was 
accused of a small theft, and was sentenced to wear the 
caugue, with his offence placarded on his breast for thirty 
days. 

We next visited the " Temple of Horrors," which is 
very interesting as a graphic depository of the infernos, in 
miniature, of every creed -.uider heaven. The spirits of 
some of our own ancient churchmen might stroll through the 
ghastly compartments and shake their sulphurous forms in 



362 An American Cruiser in the East 

glee as they beheld these miniature people undergoing every 
degree of torment. Some are havino; the flesh torn from 
their writhing bodies, or their tongues pulled out with red- 
hot pincers ; others are being cut in two by slow-moving 
saws ; boiled in oil ; strangled ; torn limb from limb ; tortured 
on the rack ; trodden to death under men's feet ; or tossed 
into the everlasting pit bv his Satanic Majestv, who is 
represented as a hideous-looking creature, in red clothes, 
with horns, club-feet, and a tail. This temple is in decay, 
and loses some of its horrible effectiveness from this fact ; 
and if it is to continue to serve its purpose, believers in its 
utility must soon come to the rescue and burnish it. 

The temple of the God of War is comparatively new, 
and is patronized bv the military. It contains some fine 
old arms and banners, with other accoutrements and imple- 
ments of war. A sacred grav horse and a half-dozen lazv 
priests share the beans that are contributed by the faithful ; 
while the back part of the temple is occupied bv a crowd 
of loungers who render the place noisome with the odor of 
cooking-food and tobacco-smoke. 

The Mahometan mosque — a reminder of the little 
mosques about Cairo — is fast on the road to ruin. It 
was founded about a. d. 850 by the \'enturesome Arabians, 
who were in the habit of visiting and trading here. It is 
devoid of ornament, unless the dirtv mats and "sacred 
spot," facing the " East," where the de\'out have knelt and 
prostrated themselves at the hour of prayer, can be called 
ornaments. 

The examination hall is an open courtyard, lined on 
each side with little stall-like houses, not unlike two lines 
of bath-houses on some beach. Here the fate of aspirants 
for appointments and preferment for the district are settled. 
The candidates present themselves at stated times, and ques- 
tions are given and answered. The papers do not bear the 
name of the candidate, but when finished he puts a mark or 



Canton, China 



363 



character upon them. When the examination is finished, 
he puts a corresponding character and his address upon 
a card, which he places in a receptacle prepared for it. 
When the papers have been examined and passed upon, 
the candidate is notified of the result. 

The mint, a handsome modern building of European 
architecture, is situated outside of the eastern gate, and is 
operated under the authority of the governor of the prov- 
ince. The machinery used is of the latest design and 
make. Only subsidi- 
ary silver coins are 
made here. In design 
and finish, they are 
equal to any similar 
coins in the world, and 
are much sought after 
by the natives, who 
prefer them to the 
Hong-kong coins. 

•The Blind Men's 
Home, the Old Men's 
Home, the Old 
Women's Home, the 
Foundling Hospital, 
and the Leper's Village are praiseworthy charities, and do 
honor to the people who founded and support them. 

Along the space between the old city walls and the lower 
river-front, on the site of the thirteen factories, or foreign 
residences, that were destroyed by the mob of 1856, a 
custom-house and hundreds of Chinese shops and booths 
have been erected ; and it is here that we see the cosmo- 
politan side of Canton life, — the \'ast throngs of men, 
women, and children, of high degree and low ; the merchant, 
the farmer, and the coolie ; the people from the north and 
the people from the interior. The middle class jostle the 




A Cantonese Family. 



364 An American Cruiser in the East 

beggar, when there is a scowl and a war of words, but they 
rarely come to blows. One little fellow, however, of 
about a dozen years, was coming along with a great basket 
of fish suspended from the end of a heavy pole which he 
bore upon one shoulder, and a lot of vegetables in a basket 
to balance it. The load was about as much as an able- 
bodied man would wish to carry. The youngster was 
lustily crying his wares, when he was run into by a great, 
awkward fellow, who sent the fish and green stuff" in every 
direction. The boy threw down his pole and without much 
ceremony proceeded to thrash his big assailant in great style, 
A crowd soon gathered and hemmed them in, but the people 
would not let the big fellow strike the little one; and when 
the youngster had inflicted as much punishment as he chose, 
he quietly gathered up his wares and went down the street 
crying " Fish and radishes ! " while the crowd chased the big 
fellow oft" with jeers. 

This section of the city is filled with little stands in front 
of the houses, where piles of Chinese goods are temptingly 
displayed for sale, — lanterns, printed cottons, caps, shoes, 
counterfeit Mexican dollars, porcelains, pipes, tobacco, and 
cheap Chinese novels. Cobblers and menders of clothes, 
fortune-tellers and coolies out of a job, congregate here 
and solicit trade ; and there are restaurants and tiffin shops, 
where a full meal with all the trimmings can be had, in 
native style, from birds' nest soups, through all the stews 
and fries, to chow-chow dog and cat. 

The pawn-shops, " the poor man's Pagodas," are massive 
granite towers, five and seven-storied square, shooting up 
from the more retired streets, where the distressed deposits 
the few valuables he may possess, and receives a fraction of 
their money value. Many people who have no homes — and 
there are a great many such in China — put the clothes of 
one season in these places on deposit until the next season, 
when they pay a fee and exchange the clothes. We found 



Canton, China 365 

the floors of these towers packed with valuables and clothing 
that had been deposited as pledges for borrowed money. 
The government keeps a strict watch over these establish- 
ments, and I believe the charges are about six per cent. 
Whether that means for a week, a month, or a year, I could 
not learn. 

Bankers and monev-changers have little booths and stands 
along the thoroughfares, where they sell and exchange money, 
and many of them become very wealthy from small begin- 
nings and the accumulations of many transactions. Large 
sums of money are made in exchange. Money is never 
chano-ed as an accommodation. If a dollar is changed into 
cash, so many cash are deducted as the cost of the transac- 
tion, and this soon amounts to enough to be an object to 
these frugal people. 

We were amused to see men and boys at work in a 
tobacco factory, cutting, or rather shaving tobacco. They 
were at work on large planes that were fixed in place, one 
end on the floor, the other elevated at about 45 degrees, 
with the cutting edge of the knife down. They pulled 
great hard bunches of the weed upwards, thus cutting it 
into very fine strips, resembling the fine cut used in the 
United States. 

We visited the theatrical school-building ; but the school 
was not in session, so we missed our chance of seeing the 
future stars of the Chinese Empire. The business in hand 
seemed to be the sale and hire of actors' and actresses' out- 
fits and embroideries. The work was gorgeous, but we 
did not invest. In some of the shops in this section, we 
saw some beautiful filigree-work, in gold and silver, certain 
parts of which were filled in like mosaic-work with blue 
feathers of the king-fisher. Rice-paper pictures, painted 
fans, old and new jades, bronzes, gods, wood-carvings^ 
china-ware, and paper-joss shops abound in this quarter, and 
it is interestino; to loiter and watch the deft fingers of the 



366 An American Cruiser in the East 

cunning workmen as they fashion and finish their quaint 
wares. 

Opium-smoking saloons are also to be found here, with 
their sickening; odors and diso-usting; sights. Men and 
women are huddled about on filthy couches in all stages 
of the seductive intoxication, — some just falling into the 
dreamy state, others, perhaps, in the full enjoyment of 




I .... 



Execution of Chinese Reliels. 



dreams that rival a Monte Cristo ; but to awaken later, 
and realize more horrors than were at first experienced. 

In the new city, we jostle the same, never-ending stream 
of Celestial humanity as we stroll on, inspecting the fans, 
jadestone, and embroideries, the work of the gold-beaters, 
the rattan furniture, the ivory shops, and the F'rench 
Cathedral, where Tartar troops continually guard the cross. 

Outside the south gate, we stroll along the river's bank, 
where the same struggling, driving mass of humanity is 



Canton, China 367 

pushing up or down the road ; but the attraction tor us 
lies in the thousands of boats that line the river's bank, — 
junks, sampans, and flower-boats, and hotel-like struc- 
tures, gayly carved and painted in high colors, ornamented 
with bright lanterns and flowers (the pleasure-boats of 
the natives), — where feasts, music, and dancing are fur- 
nished. No expense is spared to make the Canton boats 
the finest that can be found on the Chinese coast. 

The execution ground where condemned murderers and 
pirates are executed, is a sandy beach by the river's side, 
near the Mandarins' landing, and almost under the two 
temples. When an execution takes place, a company of 
Tartar troops, of the " banner army," form a line in the 
rear of the grounds. The condemned is led out to the 
ground, and is compelled to kneel and bend the head for- 
ward. The executioner, armed with a heavy, thick-backed 
cleaver, takes his place behind the condemned. At the 
signal he steps beside the man, and, taking the cleaver in 
both hands, hacks his head off. It is a barbarous sight. 
Sometimes several hacks are required before the head of 
the unfortunate is entirely severed from the trunk. One 
of these barbarous exhibitions suffices for a lifetime, for the 
scene haunts one for days, and is sometimes pictured in 
dreams. 

HONAN 

Honan, a suburb of Canton, situated on the opposite 
shore of the Pearl River, is the seat of many thriving in- 
dustries, the most important of which is the tea trade. 
Many large tea hongs, where the leaves are received 
from the growers, and prepared and packed for their par- 
ticular markets, are located here, and scenes, similar to 
those in other Chinese cities, are seen on every hand, — 



368 An American Cruiser in the East 

similar open shops, with their quaint wares temptinglv ex- 
posed to the passers-by. Similar crowds of impatient, 
hurrying human beings crowd the busy streets. In \isit- 
ing the tea hongs, we see some curious processes, and 
learn some facts about the preparation of the fragrant 
leaves, whose decoctions have added so much to neighbor- 
hood gossip. 

" Orange Peko " gets its fragrance by being mixed with 
Arabian Jessamine, and " Scented Caper " is scented with 
leaves of the " Orange Peko." Eighteen or twentv hand- 
fuls of leaves are placed in a large copper pan, moistened 
with water, and stirred by hand until sufficiently softened, 
when thev are placed in coarse cotton bags, which are 
tightly fastened. These bags are then rolled about on the 
floor by men who hold on to wooden beams overhead, and 
move the bags with their feet. This rolling forms the 
leaves into curly pellets. When the bales are opened, the 
coarse leaves are separated from the fine ones, carefully 
fired, placed in wooden troughs, and cut up. They are 
then placed in paper-lined boxes, or chests, which are 
covered with thin sheets of lead. The paper is folded over, 
the lead soldered tight, the top of the chest nailed in 
place, and fancy paper is pasted all over it, to exclude the 
air and moisture. It is next carefully weighed, marked, 
and hurried off to market, as the first or "new crop" is 
the most desirable and brings the highest price. 

Merchants always retain samples of their tea, and taste 
and test both flavor and quality before buying or selling. 
Tea-testing is a very important profession in the tea 
districts, — a fine art which requires much careful prepara- 
tion. The successful " taster " must abstain from the use 
of all intoxicants, from tobacco, and from condiments that 
have a tendency to vitiate the senses of taste and smell, for 
on his acute perceptions and judgment the season's profits 
largely depend. The occupation is very trying to the' 



Canton, China 371 

constitution, and is almost certain to break down the health 
of the taster if too long continued. Some celebrated tea- 
tasters have realized from ^10,000 to ^50,000 for a single 
season's profits. 

The famous Har-Chwang-Sze, or " Temple of the 
Ocean Banners," is a magnificent pile of beautifully carved 
marble and stone, whose interior decorations are rich in 
scarlet and gold lacquers and wonderful wood-carvings. 
It is the finest and richest temple in this section of China, 
and has a hundred and eighty priests on its staff. Its 
patrons are fishermen and seafaring people, who come to 
its shrine, asking for good weather at sea and for a pros- 
perous voyage, and who, on their return, bring the thank- 
offerings which swell its coffers. 

Hundreds of women, girls, and boys find employment in 
the matting factories, where all is bustle, drive, and chatter. 
They prepare the straw, bleaching, dyeing, and weaving 
it, in rude looms, thus producing the beautiful white and 
figured mattings for which old Canton is so justly famous. 

The green-ginger and fruit-packing establishments also 
give employment to thousands of these poor people, whom 
we saw engaged in assorting, scraping, peeling, and boiling 
the fruit, or root, in sugar; while others were just as busy 
filling, cooling, and sealing the little blue-and-white vase- 
like jars, that find their way to our tables with their rich 
delicacies. 

The public flower-garden is rich in roses, peonies, and 
all tropical and semi-tropical flora, and the wonderful 
dwarfed specimens, — the rookeries, miniature streams, 
cascades, ponds, and waterfalls, which these patient toilers 
delight in producing. 

From the outside. Canton appears to be a great expanse 
of hipped-tiled roofs, relieved by three pagodas, the square 



372 An American Cruiser in the East 

granite towers of the pawn-shops, a very few old trees, and 
the bamboo fire-signal stations, which rise like cages in the 
air. Around the northern side of the city, bare hills, 
thirteen hundred feet high, are almost covered with 
tombs and graves. The suburbs of Canton are as interest- 
ing as the city itself, and cover a space of about ten miles 
in length. 

There are one hundred and twenty-three Buddhist tem- 
ples in Canton, but they are gaudy and more noticeable for 
their filth than for architectural beauty. 

The climate is remarkably healthy, and Canton is singu- 
larly free from fevers and epidemics ; but catarrh and 
asthma are common. The heat in summer is oppressive, 
and the winter nights are treacherous. The northeast 
monsoon blows from October until March, after which 
the southeast monsoon sends up the mists and fogs. The 
average temperature throughout the year is about 70° Fah., 
and the average rainfall is about 71 inches. 

The people of this old city are noted for their hostilitv to 
foreigners, and serious disturbances might occur on any day 
if foreign visitors would notice the insults off^ered to them, 
but by " not seeing," bad feelings are allaved and disturb- 
ances warded ofF. The foreign residences have, more 
than once, been attacked by mobs who could only be sup- 
pressed by force of arms. Canton was besieged by a rebel 
force in 1844-45, and it is believed that after the repulse 
more than one million people perished in the province. 

The city is admirably located for a great commercial 
port, and for centuries it has been a noted place. Its near- 
ness to the sea, its central location, the prevalence of the 
monsoons, and the fact that the millions of people who 
reside upon its tributary territory can be reached by the 
rivers and canals, seem to assure its situation. 

The Arabs were well acquainted with the place and 
\'isited it in the ninth century, bringing their religion and 



Canton, China 



?>!?> 



building their mosques. In the sixteenth century the Portu- 
guese came in for a share of the trade. In the seventeenth 
century they were followed by the Dutch, and from the 
latter part of the same century the enterprising East India 
Company carried on an immense traffic with this port. 

At sunset all business ceases, the city gates are closed, 
and the bustling, busy streets are quiet and deserted. The 
general feeling of distrust and insecurity among the na- 





The Water-Front of Old Canton. 
The Junks all in for the Chinese New Year. 

tives renders it necessary to barricade every shop at dusk, 
and to put it in condition to withstand a siege. 

The first sign of the Chinese New Year is the gathering 
of the junks, which come in from all directions. New 
scarlet flags are thrown to the breezes, and scarlet papers, 
having happy passages from the sages painted upon them, 
ace pasted on bows and masts. Houses are cleaned and 
made bright, and the scarlet papers are pasted on walls, 



374 ^^^ American Cruiser in the East 

doorposts, and lintels. Cakes and sweets, and all the 
toothsome wonders of the Celestial culinary art, are produced. 
The coolie stops work, and the people appear in their best 
clothes. Settlements are made and debts are paid, so that 
all business transactions are settled and closed. Occasion- 
ally a cracker or bomb is exploded, like the lonely blasts 
on the tin horn by our urchins at home, — just to let the 
world know the New Year is coming. As night advances, 
the din increases. Sampans and boats move down and up 
the river, with crackers firing, rockets ricochetting, drums 
and gongs beating, and the whole river and plain becomes 
a pandemonium of glaring lights, sounds, and fires. 

Suddenly a great sheet of red flame bursts forth and 
licks and lashes the heavens, — dense black smoke and 
volumes of hissing sparks curl and fly. The great guns 
boom, the bells ring out the fearful alarm, and the people 
shriek and curse and run. A lighted cracker had fallen 
among some waste stuff, and for three mortal hours the 
cruel, relentless, massive tongues of red flame snapped and 
roared and cracked ; while through and above them, 
myriads of bright hissing sparks arose and danced and fell. 
High up in the heavens, a great bank of black smoke curled 
and rolled itself about, and hung like an awful pall over the 
doomed place. The revellers were appalled, the noises 
ceased, and the river regained its usual quiet. The voices 
of the firemen and the shrieks of the women could be 
heard amid the roaring flames, and the pulse-beating sounds 
from the great steam-pumps which were sending streams 
of water from the river-front. The efi-'orts of the stalwart 
fellows, with their little wooden hand-pumps and buckets, 
and the help of the great streams from the steamers, were 
unavailing. Thousands of houses and their contents had 
gone up in the flames which were urged on by the cruel 
monsoon. Acres of shapeless heaps of bricks marked the 
spot, and ten thousand men, women, and children were 



Canton, China 375 

homeless wanderers on this festal night, this New Year's 
Eve. 

" The world laughs with him who laughs, 
But he who weeps must weep alone." 

After the lull, a bomb, a cracker, a rocket, gong, or drum, 
and the revelry was renewed upon the river. Bombs and 
rockets were sent up from boat and city, and cracked and 
flashed and sparkled in the air. The jolly mirth of the glad 
went on through the night ; and the next ten nights and 
days were given over to feasting and drinking and joy for 
the glad New Year. All business, public and private, is 
suspended, for these days the mails, the banks, everything, 
is at a standstill during the holiday. 

Canton has maintained her own army and navy, made 
and repelled attacks, and exercised all the functions of 
sovereignty in her own rights, in the years that are gone. 
The chief exports from Canton are tea, silk, sugar, and 
cassia, and the chief imports are cotton, woollen, and metal 
goods, food stuffs, opium, and kerosene. 

The total value of the trade is $42,280,752, of which 
1^22,328,632 are imports. The domestic trade is enor- 
mous, but no account of it is kept. There are 3,316 vessels 
entering and clearing the port each year. 



CHAPTER XXII 

THE GOVERNMENT AND PEOPLE OF CHINA 

KUANG-SII, Emperor of China, is the son of Prince 
Ch'un, the seventh son of the Emperor Tae Kuang, 
and is a cousin of the late Emperor Tung Chi, who died 
from small-pox on January I2, 1875. The present 
Emperor is the ninth of the Tartar dynasty of Tu-tsing, 
" Sublime Purity," which succeeded the native Ming 
dynasty in 1644. There is no law of hereditary succession 
to the throne, each Emperor naming his successor from 
among the members of his own family. The late Emperor, 
dying suddenly, in the eighteenth year of his age, did not 
designate a successor, but by an arrangement directed by 
the Empress Dowager and Prince Ch'un, the son of the 
latter was declared Emperor by proclamation, of which the 
following is a translation : — 

*' Whereas, His Majesty the Emperor has ascended upon 
the Dragon to be a guest on high, without offspring born to 
his inheritance, no course has been open but that of causing 
Tsai Tien, son of the Prince Ch'un, to become adopted 
as the son of the Emperor Weng Tsung Hien (Hien 
Fung), and to enter upon the inheritance of the great 
dynastic line as Emperor by succession. Therefore, let 
Tsai Tien, son of Yih Huan, the Prince of Ch'un, become 
adopted as the son of the Emperor Weng Tsung Hien, and 
enter upon the inheritance of the great dynastic line as 
Emperor by succession." 



Government and People of China 377 

The Emperor Kuang-Sii assumed the government in 
February, 1887, was married to Yeh-ho-na-la, a niece of 
the Empress Dowager on February 26, 1889, and ascended 
the throne on March 4, 1890. 

The government of China is that of an absolute mon- 
archy. The Emperor is spiritual as well as temporal lord 
and master of his people. He is regarded as the representa- 
tive of Deitv, " the Son of Heaven," and he alone with 
his ministers can perform the great religious ceremonies as 
High-Priest. No other ecclesiastical authority is recognized 
in the state, neither is any priesthood maintained at the pub- 
lic cost. 

The Constitution, or fundamental laws of the Empire, 
is recorded in the Tu-tsing Huei-tien, " Collected Regula- 
tions of the Great Pure Dynasty," in which the govern- 
ment of the state is based upon that of the family. 

The Interior Council has supreme authority in the 
administration of the government, and is composed of four 
members, two of Tartar and two of Chinese origin, with 
two legal advisers from the Han-lin, " Great College," 
whose duty it is to see that nothing is done contrary to the 
laws of the Empire as contained in the " Collected Regula- 
tions," and in the books of Confucius. The members 
of the Interior Council are called Ta-Hsis-sz, Ministers of 
State, and they are assisted bv the Li-Pu, eight boards of 
government, who are under their immediate control. Each 
of these eight boards of government is presided over by a 
Tartar and a Chinese, and a censor must always be present 
at their meetings. 

The Boards are: i. The Board of Civil Appointments; 
2. The Board of Revenue; 3. The Board of Rites and 
Ceremonies ; 4. The Military Board ; 5. The Board of Pub- 
lic Works ; 6. The Board of Criminal Jurisdiction; 7. The 
Board of Admiralty ; 8. The Board of Foreign Affairs. 



37^ An American Cruiser in the East 

The Tu-cha-Yuan, " Board of Public Censors," is inde- 
pendent of the government, and theoretically is above the 
administration. It consists of about fifty members, and has 
two presiding officers, one of Manchu and the other of 
Chinese birth. By ancient custom of the Empire, all the 
members of this Board have the right of presenting 
remonstrances to the Emperor. The divisibility of the 
absolute power takes from it much of its danger, and pub- 
lic opinion, backed by the protests of the censors, pre- 
vents the Emperor from violating the rights of the subject. 
The censors have often protested with a freedom and vigor 
worthy of all praise. 

According to Confucius and his followers, the Empire is 
solely under the guidance of Heaven : " Heaven is the only 
master of the nation." The sovereignty is a holy mission 
committed to an individual for the good of the people, and 
it is withdrawn from him when he shows himself unworthy 
of the high trust. In times of revolution, the conflicts have 
been terrible until some decided advantage has been gained, 
and the people, believing that Heaven had withdrawn its 
smiles from its adopted son and shown the sign of a new 
power, have submitted to that authority without further 
question. 

The Emperor, being the Son of Heaven, is father of his 
people, and has a right to the worship of his subjects. He 
is absolute, can make and abolish the laws, make or degrade 
officials, and has the power of life and death. He is the 
source of all power and authority, and can command the 
entire revenues of the Empire. The Emperor is sole 
proprietor of the soil and can recover possession for 
non-payment of taxes, or by confiscation, — for crimes 
committed against the state. The sovereign can trans- 
mit his power to whomsoever he pleases, as there is no law 
of inheritance to restrain him; and, being the father of an 
immense family, he delegates his powers to his ministers, 



Government and People of China 379 

who, in turn, appoint the inferior officers of the government. 
This division of authority extends downwards to groups of 
families, of which the fathers are the natural heads, and just 
as absolute within their sphere. 

The Emperors, after death, like the ancient Egyptian 
Kings, are subject to a trial, the verdict of which, coupled 
with their names, goes down to future generations. By 
this means they become known in history, and the verdict 
gives the estimate of their character. 

The literary aristocracy is an ancient institution which 
has become firmly established, and gives the government 
all its real and direct influence. Its numbers are increased 
each year by the examinations. Its members are a privi- 
leged class, — almost the only nobility recognized ; and it 
is considered to be the nerve and mainstay of the Empire, 
and appointments to civil officers can only be made from 
among its members, under well-established laws. Any 
Chinese may present himself for examination for the third 
degree. Those who are successful may take the second, 
which opens the way to the minor offices. Those who 
aspire to the higher offices must have been successful for 
the first degree. 

The only hereditary titles of nobility acknowledged in 
China are those of the Imperial family and the descendants 
of Confucius, to whom certain prerogatives and a small 
pension are allowed. They have the right to wear a 
scarlet or yellow corselet, plumes of peacock feathers in 
the hat, and to have a certain number of chair-bearers, but 
they cannot be appointed to any office without having 
taken the literary degrees. For the most part, they li\'e 
under the government and control of a private tribunal, 
which has cognizance of their behavior ; and, as a rule, 
they live in idleness on the small allowance granted to 
them by the government, being too indolent to prepare for 
the examinations, and too proud to do any useful thing. 



380 An American Cruiser in the East 

They spend their time in swaggering and strutting about in 
their tattered finery, to the infinite disgust of their neighbors. 

Distinguished civil and military officers may be rewarded 
with the rank and titles of koung, heon, phy, tze, and nau, 
which about equal those of duke, marquis, count, baron, 
and knight. These are not hereditary, and give no rights 
to the son of the person rewarded, but they may be carried 
back to the ancestors. An officer who has been raised in 
rank cannot perform the ancestral rites of his family in a 
suitable manner unless his ancestors have been decorated 
with a corresponding or a higher title. For a son to have 
higher rank than his father would undermine the principle 
of filial piety, and attack the fundamental laws of the 
Empire. 

All offices, civil and military, are divided into nine 
grades or ranks, — " khion-ping." These ranks are dis- 
tinguished by buttons or balls, about the size of a pigeon's 
egg, worn on the centre of the crown of the official hat. 
The balls are of plain red coral for the first grade, a carved 
blue stone for the second, a translucent deep coral stone 
for the third, a pale blue for the fourth, crystal for the 
fifth, an opaque white stone for the sixth, and a gilt and 
wrought copper ball for the seventh, eighth, and ninth 
grades. Each order is divided into two classes, — active 
officials and supernumeraries, or " honorary ; " but the deco- 
rations are the same for both. All the officials included in 
these grades are called " konang-fu." The term " man- 
darin " is unknown to the Chinese, it being derived from 
" mandra," an abbreviation of the title "commander," which 
the Portuguese are believed to have applied to Chinese 
officials in the early days. The administration of affairs 
is divided into three parts, — that of the Empire, of 
Peking, and of the Provinces. 

Filial piety is believed to have held together this nation 
of over four hundred millions of people for ages. Every- 



Government and People of China 381 

thing is done to increase the strength of this sentiment, — 
to make it a passion among the people that will serve 
as the moral support of public and private life. Every 
virtuous action is referred to as an act of filial piety, and 
every crime is treated as filial disobedience. " To be 
a good subject is to be a good son ; to be a bad subject is 
to be a bad son." Every good action reflects credit upon 
the parents and honors them, while every bad action brings 
dishonor upon them. Chinese parents are looked up to 
as superior beings, and they are called gods by very high 
authority. The Sacred Edict, " Shing-gu," forbids the 
people to gad about to the temples, worshipping the idols 
and flattering the gods, but teaches them to remember the 
two household gods at home — father and mother — and 
serve them. Great stress is laid upon these in the educa- 
tion of the young. Thev are instructed in these from 
their earliest years, and any outrage committed against 
a parent is punished with death. The father has absolute 
power of life and death over his children. 

The laws of China are severe. For small offences, 
corporal punishment is inflicted, generallv with the bamboo, 
and serious crimes are nearly always punished with death. 
Forms and ceremonies receive close attention, and every 
action of life may be inquired into by the authorities. 
The courts are very severe upon disturbers of the peace 
and upon thieves. The ordinarv punishments are fines, 
blows on the face, the bastinado, the caugue, the iron cage, 
exile into Tartary, and death by strangulation or decapita- 
tion. Rebels and parricides are cut in pieces, and pirates 
are decapitated. Punishments are usually inflicted swiftly, 
except the punishment of death, which must be approved 
by the Emperor. 

Women are in a degraded condition. They are not 
permitted to sit at table, or to eat with men. When walk- 
ing, the woman follows the man, who talks to her over his 



382 An American Cruiser in the East 

shoulder. It is said that about one woman in ten thousand 
can read. There are good schools and colleges for boys^ 
but no provision is made for girls ; even the birth of a 
girl child is looked upon as a misfortune. The wife is 
inferior to her husband except in her domestic position ; but 
if she arrives at old age, her sons and their wives are 
entirely subject to her, and unless she has a very sweet 
disposition, she makes the unfortunate daughters-in-law pay 
dearly for her own rough experiences. 

For a long time it was believed that such charitable 
institutions as I have noted in old Shanghai and Canton 
were peculiar to Christian lands and peoples, but the dic- 
tates of our common humanity caused their foundation in 
this country many centuries ago. 

The manners, customs, language, religion, and dress of 
the Chinese mark them as a peculiar people, who are very 
conservative and dread changes of any kind. They 
reached a very high state of civilization ages ago, but their 
further progress was in some way arrested, and until very 
recently they actually retrograded. They were acquainted 
from very early times with printing, the mariner's compass, 
gunpowder, the circulation of the blood, and many arts, 
but their use of these was restricted. They do not think 
it possible to be wiser than their fathers were. They have 
very little sympathy with genius or originality, and talent 
is strangled by conservatism. They are a nation of classic 
scholars, indoctrined in old methods of the dead past, and 
they expend their abilities in memorizing and moralizing 
upon the ancient maxims. While the world has been ad- 
vancing with giant strides, China has been only creeping 
along, — and scarcely that. Some innovations have been 
forced upon her, and others she has adopted in a half- 
hearted manner. 

After their subjugation by the Tartars, the Chinese were 
compelled to change their dress and to wear the queue. 



Government and People of China 383 

Many patriotic Chinese preferred death to this degradation, 
but now the queue has become their most cherished orna- 
ment. A few of China's great men have been struggling 
for advancement in the lines of western sciences, and some 
young men have been sent abroad to study these subjects. 
Efforts have been made to establish bankino- and commer- 
cial houses with foreign connections. The old wooden 
war-junks are being displaced by coast-defence vessels, 
steel cruisers, and torpedo boats. The army is exchanging 
its tactics, pikes, jingals, and banners for better methods 
and modern rifles. The official dress is being modified. 
Extensive dock-yards and iron-works of various kinds have 
been introduced, and the printing-press and sewing-machines 
are working their way into the country. 

Here and there, an innovation that proves itself useful 
and good is adopted ; but the changes are slow, and so few 
that only a close observer notes them. A ceremonious 
politeness, which seems born of distrust, pervades all con- 
ditions of society, — even while the pleasantest words are 
spoken. A mother is called the " countenance of mercy," 
a father, the " countenance of severity," and a daughter, 
the "thousand pieces of gold." The people are vain of 
their personal appearance and attire. Even the coolie 
becomes one of the politest of men when well dressed. 
He swaggers, with umbrella and fan in hand, and rivals 
a Japanese in the profusion of his bows and in the elegance 
of his behavior with his acquaintances. The Chinese are 
quiet, orderly, industrious, and punctual, but there appears 
to be always among them an undercurrent of insincerity 
and mutual distrust. 

They are a nation of born traders. Having arranged 
their wares in the most attractive fashion, they patiently 
wait for a customer, always with an eye to the betterment 
of their fortunes. The smallest profit is not neglected, and 
their greatest enjoyment is to count up the profit-and-loss 



384 An American Cruiser in the East 

account in the evening, behind barricaded doors, and to 
find the profit side the greater. Trade, traffic, and filial 
piety are taught to the children from their earliest infancy. 
They are given small coins and taught their value and 
importance. They are so well trained that it is always 
safe to send them to the shops, for they will never suffer 
themselves to be cheated. Thev are wide awake and 
knowing. The large commercial and banking houses are 
remarkable for their fidelity to their engagements, — their 
word is their bond, and may be relied upon implicitly. 
No matter what the loss may be, though it may bring 
ruin upon them, an agreement, once made, is adhered to 
at all hazards. 

The only legal coinage existing in China are the sub- 
sidiary silver coins made in Canton, and a little round 
piece of copper alloy, called "tsein," and by foreigners, 
*'cash." The tsein, or cash, have a square hole through 
their centres so that they can be strung together. One 
thousand of them are nominally worth one Mexican dollar, 
but their actual value varies with the rates of exchange. 
Frequently thirteen hundred and even fifteen hundred tsein 
are given in exchange for the dollar. The Mexican silver 
dollar is well known to the people, and thev prefer it to 
any other money ; but bank-bills of the prominent banks in 
Shanghai and Hong-kong are received in the large cities. 
The Chinese are very particular about the money they 
receive. As a rule, they carry little balances about with 
them, and weigh and test every piece of money before the 
transaction is closed. Some of these tsein are made of a 
brittle base metal that can be broken, in case a smaller 
denomination than one tenth of a cent is needed. 

The tsein is of great use in many of their small transac- 
tions ; and a few peanuts or melon seeds, a dozen fried 
beans, a cabbage leaf, a cup of tea, a segment or two of an 
orange, and many other small articles may be had for one 



Government and People of China 385 

or two of these small coins. It is with a melancholy in- 
terest that we note the thrifty housewife of some poor 
toiler, counting from her little string of cash the two or 
three required to purchase the little things, just enumerated, 
to provide her husband variety with his rice. 

The Chinese have no division of time corresponding to 
our weeks, consequently they have nothing which corre- 
sponds to our Sunday; but there are numerous religious and 
semi-religious observances, some of which are grotesque in 
the extreme. As a rule, the Chinese worship at the tablets 
and shrines in their own homes, and only visit the temples 
when they feel particularly in need of consolation. Con- 
fucianism and several forms of Buddhism are the most 
prevalent religions in China ; but the government does not 
give active support to any system. 

The Feast of Lanterns, when every town, village, and 
house is illuminated with lanterns and gayly decorated in 
colors, is one of their most solemn observances, in which 
the whole people participate. 

The Chinese belong to the Mongolian race. They are 
of shorter stature and slighter build than Americans, and are 
much inferior to them in physical endurance. While 
there are certain marked characteristics distinguishing the 
Chinese from all other people, it is a mistake to suppose that 
to know one you know them all. The dialect, manners, 
and customs change in almost every town ; and a man from 
the north is as much a stranger in one of the southern or 
interior provinces as if he came from America. The coun- 
tenance, certain national prejudices, the mode of thought, 
and the written language are remarkablv alike, but there are 
great differences in dialect, manners, customs, and dress. 
It must be remembered that this vast country is made up 
of a number of kingdoms that have been separated under 
various rulers, and governed by their own legislation. 
Although thev have been more than once united, they have 



386 An American Cruiser in the East 

never so closely assimilated that the different elements were 
not manifest. 

The beginning of China's history is lost in the obscurity 
of antiquity with no traces of its origin. Other nations 
have some traditions, folk-lore, monuments, and later his- 
tory which furnish data for tracing growth and progress in 
civilization, but unless these can be solved from the radicals 
of their remarkable written characters, all seems to be lost 
in China. 

The cultured classes have always adhered to the doctrines 
of Confucius, while the masses have followed the teachings 
of Buddha. The former is an intellectual feast ; the latter 
appeals to the senses. 

Four thousand years ago, China was called Heaven, and 
the ruler called himself God. The business of the chief 
officers was to light, warm, and fertilize this Heaven ; and 
they dressed and assumed titles corresponding to the duties 
of their offices. One represented the sun, another the 
moon, and others the planets with which they were 
acquainted. There was also the master of mountains, of 
rivers, of forests, and of fields, — a pantheon of gods. 
Supernatural authority was conceded to them, and the 
government worked beautifully, — for themselves ; but the 
appearance of comets and eclipses, which these big little 
gods had not foretold and could not account for, ruined 
their popularity. Wars and rebellions changed this govern- 
ment to the feudal system, and that to the monarchy. 
The Chinese have had long and bloody religious and 
political wars. 

The doctrines of Confucius balance the imperial power, 
and may be called the Constitution of China ; while the 
system of examinations for literary degrees and its appoint- 
ments to office has put the government into the hands of 
the educated, and made the unlearned subject to the 
learned. The Tartars, the cold-blooded men from the 



Government and People of China 387 

north, have frequently set this law aside ; but it always 
resumes its sway, as the Chinese prefer the rule of the pen 
to that of the sword. 

The Chinese have changed their forms of government, 
and have tried various political combinations. Their his- 
tory shows about the same experiences as that of most old 
nations. In the twelve hundred years following the year 
420 A. D., there were fifteen changes of dynasty, each 
accompanied by terrible revolutions, accomplished by the 
bloody extermination of the families dethroned. 

According to the official reports, the population of China 
is 405,000,000, one third of the human race. This popu- 
lation, upon an area of 1,600,000 square miles, gives about 
263 inhabitants to each square mile. The general appear- 
ance of China indicates a higher proportion of inhabitants 
than in any other country. The towns, roads, and rivers 
fairly swarm with human beings, and there are more towns 
and cities of hundreds of thousands and millions of inhab- 
itants than in any other country. The laws provide for a 
system of registration, and severe punishment is awarded 
to delinquents. The population of China is arranged under 
four heads, — scholars, agriculturists, mechanics, and mer- 
chants. Stage-players, gamblers, beggars, convicts, outlaws, 
and some other classes are considered social outcasts. 

The steady flow of emigration from China is a very strong 
indication of the condition of the country. About ten mil- 
lions Chinese are located in foreign countries. They are 
found in large numbers in Korea, Japan, Hong-kong, the 
Philippine Islands, Java, the Eastern Archipelago, Cochin- 
China, Australia, Africa, the Sandwich Islands, on the 
western coast of Central and South America in the West 
India Islands, in Canada, and in the United States. 

Without the wonderful, patient, unceasing industry one 
sees on every hand, it would be impossible to find the 
means of supporting life for such an immense population. 



388 An American Cruiser in the East 

Labor is carefully and abundantly bestowed upon all pur- 
suits, — agriculture, manufactures, fisheries, and trade. 
Villages, valleys, and plains are carefully cultivated, irri- 
gated, and fertilized ; hills and mountains are terraced, 
and every square foot of ground that can be made productive 
is brought into use. The profession of agriculture has 
always been highly honored in this country. Confucius 
and the sages have celebrated and exalted it, and the 
Emperor never fails to render it homage. Towards the 
end of March, each vear, the Emperor goes in state to 
the sacred field, accompanied by three princes of the blood 
royal and a retinue of nobles. After having offered sacri- 
fice upon the earthen altar, he lays his sacred hands upon 
the plough and traces a furrow. The princes and nobles 
follow his example and complete the field. Then the 
Emperor, as high-priest, blesses the work and the field. In 
the provinces, a similar solemnity takes place, in which the 
Governor represents the Emperor. 

Chinese agriculture is rarely conducted on a large scale, 
and the simplest tools are used. In the south, buffaloes are 
used in tilling the rice-fields ; while in the north, oxen, 
horses, mules, and asses are used, and it is a common sight 
to see a woman drawing the plough while the husband 
walks behind and guides it. At the end of the furrow they 
both sit down to rest and smoke a little tobacco. The 
Chinese have a passion for fertilizing the soil, and this is 
carried to great extremes, anything and everything being 
used for the purpose. Even barbers save the shavings and 
croppings of hair to sell to farmers for enrichment of the 
soil. Farmers often use the spade in preference to the 
plough, and weeds are exterminated as their dearest foe. 
They keep their places in beautiful order, and the neat 
appearance of their little lands compels the admiration of 
all beholders. 

In places too dry for rice, sweet yams and hemp will 



Government and People of China 389 

be raised, and useful trees are planted in the corners, — 
the mulberry, the chestnut, or some pines, according to 
the turpentine. 

The Chinese farmer is nervous about his crop, his margin 
of profit being so small that he cannot affbrd to lose. He 
binds several stalks of rice together to give mutual support 
against the winds, he arranges little sticks, with " charmed " 
strings attached, to drive the birds away, and each field has 
such a " scarecrow " as would frighten off any crow that 
lives. He watches the weather, and when it is too hot and 
dry he covers up his plants and irrigates the land ; he raises 
water from one reservoir to another, and by means of 
bamboo pipes runs it about his fields, — even up the moun- 
tain's sides. Archimedes' screw-pumps, chain-pumps, and 
bucket water-wheels are his implements ; his feet supply 
the power. These water-wheels are of extreme lightness, 
and have little half-round buckets attached, which take up 
the water and pour it into large tanks, from whence it is 
run over the fields. 

The Chinese do not know what worn-out soil is. Some 
places are so fertile and are cultivated with so much care 
and skill that three or four crops a year are regularly 
gathered. When the first crop is well along, the second is 
sowed, or planted, in the intervals between the ridges, and 
it is very common to see two crops in the same field at the 
same time. 

All the cereal and vegetable productions known in 
Canada, the United States, or Mexico, and many that we 
do not know, are found in China. Barley, wheat, buck- 
wheat, and maize are cultivated in the northern part, and 
rice in the southern part, besides a score or more in both. 
Rice is not the principal food of the inhabitants throughout 
the Empire. Wheat, buckwheat, Indian corn, and barley, 
form the daily food of the people in the northern and west- 
ern provinces, while rice is extensively used in the south. 



39 



o An American Cruiser in the East 



The method of preparing these cereals for food is about 
the worst that could be conceived. Little bunches of 
dough are boiled in oil, or grease, and a half-cooked paste, 
strings of boiled dough, and rolls of putty-like material, that 
would be irritating to the stomach of an ostrich, are regarded 
as appetizing by these poor people. 

The bamboo is the most useful tree that grows in China, 
and there are said to be sixty-three varieties. These differ 
in diameter, height, distance of separation of the rings or 
sections, color and thickness of the wood, and in the roots, 
branches, and leaves. The bamboo is used for houses, 
fences, furniture, water-pipes, and for hundreds of useful 
and ornamental purposes. 

The beds of rivulets, marshes, and ponds are planted 
with tubers, water-lilies, and lotus. The cultivation of vege- 
tables and fruits receives great attention and is encouraged 
by the government. Among the agricultural products of 
China we find, besides rice and tea, the wax-tree, camphor- 
tree, paper mulberry, the tallow-tree, varnish-tree, dragon's 
eye, star anise and jujube, many species of orange, cinna- 
mon, ginseng, cotton, sugar, and tobacco, — the whole 
range of vegetables and fruits, and a very large number of 
flowers. 

The manufacturing industry of the country is as wonder- 
ful as it is necessary for the support of the dense population. 
The silks, satins, crapes, embroideries, and gauzes have 
always attracted attention. The porcelains have only been 
equalled in the last few years, and the cottons and nankeens 
are famous. The many useful and ornamental articles of 
bamboo attract attention, and the furniture, instruments, 
and tools are commended for simplicity. The cunningly 
wrought and cast metal-work of the Chinese, their musical 
instruments, and their art in cutting and polishing hard 
stones are well known throughout the world. Thev are 
unrivalled in the production of unchanging colors, but they 



Government and People of China 391 

are losing their originality and cunning in this direction ; 
many specimens of antique manufacture far surpass the 
work that can now be done. 

Owing to the pressure of the dense population upon the 
means of subsistence, the Chinese eat anything and every- 
thing from which they can derive nutrition. Drunkenness 
is uncommon in China. Tea is universally used. They 
have native wines, but these are too expensive for common 




CamI'.l Caravan Buumj i-ou FiiKing, China. 



use. The people are temperate in all things, and unless 
working hard are content with two meals a day, — the 
morning rice at about ten a. m., and the evening rice at 
about five p. M. Thev do not use milk, butter, or cream. 
Dogs and cats are regularly sold for food. I have seen 
dogs skinned, hanging by the side of pigs and goats. Mon- 
keys, sea-slug, and birds' nests are aristocratic dishes, and 
unhatched ducks and chickens are much sought after. 

An immense internal traffic is carried on by means of 
the numerous rivers and canals, and over the roads. The 



392 An American Cruiser in the East 

roads are mere bridle-paths and tracks, and the transporta- 
tion of goods over them — on the backs of horses and 
mules — is a very slow and difficult undertaking. In times 
of crop-failure and famine, the loss of life is fearful from 
the difficulty of getting food supplies to the sufferers. 

The densely populated portion of China is compara- 
tively level, and is remarkably well adapted for the con- 
struction of railroads ; but the Chinese, even in view of the 
great advantages to be thus obtained, seem unable to con- 
quer their prejudices against these conveniences. The 
little railroad, only about ten miles long, connecting 
Woosung with Shanghai, constructed by a foreign company 
in 1876, was bought out and destroyed by the Chinese 
during the next year. The Kaiping Coal Company 
built a line of railway from their mines to the canal bank, 
afterwards extending it through Tientsin to Fungchow, 
near Peking. This is being extended from Tientsin to 
Shan-hai-kwan, and is used for passenger as well as freight 
traffic. Railway lines have been authorized by the gov- 
erment to extend from New Chwang to Luisi, and from 
Hankow to Peking, but not much bevond the surveys has 
been accomplished. 

All the important cities of the Empire are connected 
by telegraph and with the outside world by cable. 

The public revenue of China is about three hundred 
and sixty millions of dollars, and there are almost always 
deficits, which must be covered by extraordinary taxation, 
although everything is cheap and the government has no 
large debts. The total number of foreign residents in 
China is 10,149, of whom 1,526 are natives of the United 
States. 

The principal dependencies of China are Mongolia 
and Manchuria, which contain a larger Chinese than 
native population. Thibet is also a dependency, subject 
to the government at Peking, and a Resident is maintained 



Government and People of China 393 

at Lhassa. These dependencies have an area of two and 
one third millions of square miles, and a population of 
about twenty-three millions of inhabitants. 

The Chinese army has a total of one million men, 
including 678 companies of Tartar troops, 211 companies 
of Mongols and native Chinese (militia) infantry. The 
first grand division is composed of Manchus, — the troops 
of the "• Eight Banners," who garrison all the large cities 
and forts throughout the Empire. The second grand 
division is composed of Chinese, who, when not on active 
duty, live in their own homes, and follow some civil 
occupation. With the dense population of China, and 
the system of registration, the army can be increased almost 
indefinitely in numbers. 

The army seems to be uncared for. It is badly or- 
ganized, drilled, and armed ; and while there are some well- 
fortified strongholds in China, it is not possible for them 
to withstand successfully a determined assault or siege by 
any modern army. 

China evidently relies upon her vast numbers, her dis- 
tance from any strong power likely to attack her, and the 
consummate ability of her ministers ; but she cannot afford 
to slumber thus in the face of the possibility of mobs and 
revolutions within her own borders, and with neighbors 
who are restless under restraints which, they think, hinder 
their development and infringe upon the rights of their 
subjects. Diplomacy is always more potent when sup- 
ported by an efficient force. 

Until the year 1884 the Chinese navy consisted of a 
number of wooden war-junks, and a few small steel gun- 
boats of foreign style, which were built at the Mamori dock- 
yard, Shanghai, and at Foochow. Since that time, the 
navy has been greatly strengthened. The greatest improve- 
ment is found to be in the northern fleet, which now in- 
cludes ten armored steel vessels of from 3,000 to 10,000 



394 ^^^ American Cruiser in the East 

tons, having the most powerful machinery and modern 
breech-loading guns. There are also many steel cruisers, 
and gun and torpedo boats of the latest design ; but the 
weak points of the navy are in its personnel. The officers 
of many of these splendid vessels are composed of natives 
and foreigners, and there is very poor discipline among the 
crews. The foreigners are to supplement the want of 
knowledge on the part of the natives, who do not com- 
prehend the possibilities of the great fighting machines, 
and therefore do not absolutely command them. No 
doubt, in case of need, there will be some splendid fight- 
ing and heroic deeds, — for the Chinese are brave men, — 
but there will be faulty handling and manoeuvring. 

Port Li (changed from Lu-Shew-kow, in honor of the 
viceroy, Li Hung Chang), situated on the southern coast 
of Shing-king, has been built up as a great naval station 
and dock-yard for the new fleet, and has been strongly 
fortified. There is also an excellent school where young 
men are educated in modern naval science. 

Every variety of soil and climate, in every degree of 
altitude, are to be found within the boundaries of China, — 
from the heated swamps below the sea-level to the region of 
everlasting frosts beyond the snow-line ; and in these varied 
climates everything for the comfort of man can be produced. 

Facility of communication by natural and artificial water- 
ways is not exceeded in any country of the world, and 
the mineral resources rival those of our great western States. 
Iron ore is found in every province, and is so common 
that only the finest black magnetic ore is used ; while gold, 
silver, tin, copper, and lead are plentiful. 

Sharpened by competition, the mental capacities of the 
people are wonderful ; their higher examinations are equal 
to anv intellectual tasks set in America or Europe. Their 
statesmen hold their own with any in the world, and their 



Government and People of China 395 

merchants gain ground over those of other nations. 
Their common people are painstaking, shrewd, and docile, 
and have great love of order and respect for authority. 
Education among the males is common, and they possess 
all the factors requisite for success. This people have 
always been the ruling race in the far East, but lost their 
prestige by failing to keep up with modern improvements. 
It is not characteristic of the Chinese to remain stationary 
or to move slowly, but it is the result of circumstances, — 
the policy of their rulers. 

They have adopted some improvements that commend 
themselves. The Buddhist religion is an importation from 
India, and quite a number of Chinese are Mahometans. 
Nearly two thousand years ago the decimal system of 
notation was introduced by the Buddhists, and they changed 
the ancient custom of writing from top to bottom for the 
Indian system of from right to left. They rearranged their 
calendar to accord with the ideas of western astronomers, 
and in recent years they have republished many works by 
foreign authors. Hospitals and free schools have flourished 
for more than a thousand years, and vaccination is practised 
by native physicians. 

Extensive arsenals have been established at various places 
and there is a large powder manufactory at Tientsin. The 
government is purchasing and building powerful war vessels 
of the most improved types, and is beginning to arm and 
drill their forces after modern ideas. 

The Chinese are a progressive people. They have all 
the mental, moral, and religious instincts of our nature, with 
a keen perception of things conduci\'e to their interests and 
no prejudices to prevent their adoption. Some of the 
statesmen fully realize the conditions, — the trend of these 
times, — but appreciate the convulsions, overturnings, and 
untold misery to many millions of people that would 
necessarily follow the introduction of machinery, railways, 



396 An American Cruiser in the East 

and mining, on a large scale, or any radical change in 
dress, diet, and mode of life, and in their wisdom they 
choose to move slowly. 

Capital and enterprise are not lacking. America does 
not possess all the millionaires ; there are numbers of 
them in China. Notwithstanding the low wages, the 
millions of people who are crowded oft the land to live 
in boats, glad to get ten cents a day for their labor, 
China has many multi-millionaires. Perhaps the richest 
man in the world is How Qua, a Cantonese, who is 
reputed to be worth a thousand millions of dollars. 

There are thousands of Chinese who would be only too 
glad of an opportunity to start up a new order of things if 
they could get the permission of their government ; but it 
is fortunate for the people of America and Europe that the 
economic and political conditions of China exist there, 
and that changes are made so slowly. If her people, ac- 
customed as they are to their present social conditions, 
modes of life, and low wages, were to open up their mines 
and engage in manufacturing and mercantile pursuits on 
a large scale, they would soon become the exporters for 
the world. They could undersell all other people, and at 
the same time realize profits of which their people have 
never dreamed. 

To-day, hampered as they are by manual labor, rattle- 
trap looms, and slow methods, they do a comparatively 
extensive manufacturing, commercial, and banking business, 
and regularly declare dividends of from ten to twenty per 
cent in gold. 

The Chinese Language 

The Chinese is the only primitive language in use to- 
day. It is distinguished by its originality, and is used by 
more people than speak any other tongue. It is divided 
into two parts, the written and the spoken. The written 



Government and People of China 397 

language has no alphabet, but is a collection of written 
characters, representing ideas, or objects. The original 
characters were signs, or rather rude drawings, — pictures 
which represented objects. There were two hundred and 
fourteen of these, some for the heavens, others for the earth, 
— for man, the parts of the body ; domestic animals ; the 
horse, the ox, the dog ; plants, trees, birds, fish, metals, etc. 
As their experiences enlarged, new wants made themselves 
felt, the language needed to be expanded, and a new ar- 
rangement made. The forms of the rude drawings were 
changed, but the primitive strokes were retained ; and with 
these have been composed all the characters. By the 
combinations of the original characters were formed thou- 
sands of arbitrary sounds. 

Natural objects are classed under the animal, tree, or 
plant which was the type of the original characters. The 
fox and the wolf were referred to the dog, and the hoofed 
animals to the horse, etc. By their ingenious method, they 
formed real natural families. The name of every creature 
is made up of two parts, one denoting the kind, the other 
relating to the species, — indicating the peculiarities of 
shape, the habits, or the use that can be made of the 
object. 

It would appear very difficult to represent abstract ideas 
and acts of the understanding by such a system, but the 
difficulties have been ingeniously met. Two pearls, one 
beside the other, express the idea of a friend, because it is 
difficult to find two pearls alike. To express anger, a 
heart surmounted by a slave is represented. There are 
great numbers of characters, the analysis of which is very 
interesting ; but for many of the words, the characters are 
arbitrary. The whole number of characters amounts to 
about forty thousand, but less than one third of that number 
are used. The characters are written one above the other, 
in a vertical line, beginning at the right of the page. 



398 An American Cruiser in the East 

When the words are correctly intonated and properly 
modulated, the speech is musical. 

The Chinese language has no grammatical construction. 
There are some well-understood rules by which sentences 
are constructed and words placed in proper apposition to 
other words in the same sentence ; but the verb has no 
mood, tense, person or inflection of any kind ; the noun 
has neither gender, number, nor case ; and a word is sub- 
stantive, verb, or adjective, singular or plural, masculine or 
feminine, according to its position, or connection, in the 
sentence. The meaning of a passage can be determined 
only by close attention to the relative position of the words 
in each sentence, and by a knowledge of the idioms. The 
forty thousand written characters are expressed by about 
four hundred and eleven vocables; and many characters, 
when pronounced, have precisely the same sound to an 
unpractised ear. To avoid ambiguity, and as far as possible 
to distinguish one character from another in common con- 
versation, the Chinese have a system of tones, so that each 
vocable is capable of being pronounced in six or eight dif- 
ferent ways ; and another method of clearly expressing their 
meaning is the combination of two words, having relation 
to each other in point of signification. 




HONG-KONG. 



CHAPTER XXIII 



HONG-KONG, CHINA 

HAVING taken the last picture and the last stroll 
through the labyrinth of crazy streets and quaint 
shops of old Canton, and having said good-bye to the dear 
friends on Shamien, we retraced our seventy-five miles of 
river navigation through the " obstructions," the " Tiger's 
Mouth," and the " Lymoon Pass," and dropped our anchors 
in the green waters of Hong-kong harbor, — off Victoria, 
the capital and chief town of the colony. We were soon 
surrounded by hundreds of brown, gayly decked sampans, 
with their picturesque crews of women, girls, and children, 
shrill-voiced and barefooted, who live the days through, 
sculling, sailing, and steering ; driving sharp bargains with 
the sailors, and gossiping with their neighbors. 



400 An American Cruiser in the East 

Great war vessels, merchant steamers, sailing craft, and 
junks crowd the harbor ; while the upper end of the 
island is lined with junks that swarm with coolies engaged 
in unloading and loading, — merrily singing as they toss 
off great loads of rice, or coal, or some huge piece of 
machinery. 

Hong-kong is mountainous, and shows volcanic origin 
in its low, granite ridges, bleak, barren valleys, narrow 
strips of level coast-line, and lofty overhanging precipices, 
where the monsoons cut and grind and burn. Here the 
typhoon shrieks its horrid wails as it lashes mighty ships, 
frail junks, and little sampans to destruction ; or a pall of 
fog hangs between the granite hills and the sea. The 
prospect is wild, dreary, and monotonous, with barren, 
treeless hills, where no natural green thing smiles back 
to the sun in tender acknowledgment of goodness. 

Hong-kong is one of the Ladrone (" Thieves ") group 
of islands, so named for having been a place of resort for 
pirates and thieves in " the good old times." It is 
situated seventy-five miles southeast of Canton, in latitude 
22°4' north, and longitude 114° 6' east. It was ceded 
to the British in 1841, to be used as a depot for repairing 
and refitting their vessels, and as a place of refuge for dis- 
tressed seafaring people. It is irregular in form, about 
ten miles and a half long, and has a breadth varying from 
two to five miles, with an area of about thirty square miles. 
It is separated from the mainland of China by a body of 
water known as Hong-kong Roads, which narrows down 
to about one quarter of a mile in width at the Lymoon 
Pass. 

On the southern coast, two bold strips of land extend 
into the sea and form the harbors of Deep Bay and Tyam 
Bay, and the little island of Aberdeen shelters a fine 
harbor which is supplied with fine dock-yards and extensive 
machine-shops. 



Hong-kong, China 



401 



Victoria, the capital and commercial port, is situated on 
the northwest end of the island. It is laid out with fine 
wide roads and terraces. The residences occupied by 
Europeans are large and commodious, having, with their 
broad verandahs and beautiful artificial gardens, an air of 
elegant refinement. The houses of the Chinese are of 
brick, covered with mortar, and are much superior in ap- 




The Queen's Road, Hong-kong. 

pearance to houses found in the Chinese cities ; but they 
are not suited to the climate, being damp and unhealthy, 
and breeding malaria and fevers. 

Society is ceremonious and exacting, and is led by the 
occupants of the government house, who maintain a little 
court after British fashion. 

The citv of Victoria extends for about three miles along 
the bay shore, and thence up the sides of the hills, where 
it loses itself in terrace on terrace, which are reached by 

26 



40 2 An American Cruiser in the East 

winding roads, or broad flights of granite steps. Here and 
there a lovely villa or mansion marks the boundary, and the 
hotels and groups of elegant homes that comb " Mount 
Austin " reach down to meet the Queen-named town. 

The colony is ruled by a royal Governor, with an 
Executive Council, composed of the Colonial Secretary, the 
Commander of the troops, the Attorney-General, and the 
Auditor-General. The Legislative Council, presided over 
by the Governor, is composed of all the members of the 
Council (except the Commander), with the addition of four 
unofficial members, who are appointed by the crown, on 
the recommendation of the Governor. 

The Praya, the road along the bay-front, extends from 
the parade to the extreme northwest end of the town, and 
is lined with fine shops and storehouses, while its roadway 
is crowded with busy men and women. The Queen's Road 
is lined on both sides with fine shops, filled with beautiful 
and rare wares from every part of China, Japan, India, and 
Africa. Silks, crapes, gauzes, cabinets, ivories, lacquers, 
porcelains, precious stones, rare filigree in gold and silver,, 
and cunning work in camel's hair and fine wools, are 
lavishly displayed to tempt the traveller; and the roadway 
swarms with a motley crowd of Europeans, Jews, Japanese, 
Koreans, iMahometans, Hindoos, Malavs, Javanese, Parsees, 
Sikhs, Cingalese, Negroes, half-castes, and everywhere that 
unfortunate Chinese coolie, — the drudge, the bearer of the 
world's loads and burdens. 

The " Sikh " policeman, in dark blue, with immense 
scarlet turban, stands " attention " at the corner of the road. 
White-robed " ayahs " and Koreans stride from shop to 
shop, while the pedlers crv their wares. Everybody is 
talking in this great Babel. " Tommy Atkins," the high 
private, with cap on ear and switch in hand, swaggers up 
the road, the observed of all observers. A picturesque 
group of little musiimes from " Dai Nippon " chaperone 



Hong-kong, China 



403 



Chinese and Hindoo maidens through the mazy road. 
Parsees, Chinese, and Koreans discuss money, stocks, and 
the latest rumors from Seoul. The Turk and the Javanese 
hold a hot discussion. The childlike and bland Cingalese 
unfolds his pack, and displays beautiful emeralds, moonstones, 
cat's-eyes, sapphires, and diamonds that are worth a king's 
ransom, but can be purchased for a few shillings ; and the 




The Water-Front. Hong-kong, in a Fog. 



small boys in pigtails toss the shuttlecock with knee, heel, 
and elbow. 

Victoria has most of the modern improvements. Elec- 
tricitv, gas, and oil illuminate its streets. A cable-car line 
extends up the side of the hills, some fourteen hundred feet, 
to " Mount Austin," where summer houses and two fine 
hotels have been erected, and water is abundantly supplied 
from a reservoir holding seventy-five million gallons. The 
water-front is being extended out into the bay three hundred 
feet, where a massive granite retaining wall is beino; built. 



404 An American Cruiser in the East 

The intervening space will be filled in with soil, to enlarge 
the narrow strip of level land upon which the business portion 
of the city is located. 

The palaces of the Governor and the Bishop, the City 
Hall, the Cathedral, the Museum, the Exchange, the Hong- 
kong Hotel, the Club Germania, the Hong-kong Club, 
the Botanical Garden, the Hospitals, the Barracks, the 



The Parsee Cemetery in the Happy Valley, Hong-kong. 

Government dock-yard, the parade and recreation grounds, 
are all very interesting to visit, as well as the fine schools 
which range from the primary grades to the college, and are 
for both sexes and all conditions. The Bowen and Kennedy 
roads, and the aqueducts and military roads, that almost 
encircle the heights, are great engineering works. The 
English planted on this bold, barren rock, which nature 
hurled up from the bottom of the sea, their roads, their 
hedges, their gardens, and much quiet elegance, and this is 
their home. 



Hong-kong, China 405 



" KUHLAN, 1855" 

In a gloomy spot, at the foot of the hill where begins 
the deep cut to the Happy Valley, stands a monument 
commemorative of one of the few events in which Ameri- 
cans and Britons stood shoulder to shoulder, and shared the 
dangers, death, and glory of conflict. The monument is 
of granite, about sixty feet high, surrounded by a handsome 
wrought-iron railing well shaded by four old trees, and bears 
the following inscription : — ■ 

" ERECTED BY THE OFFICERS AND CREWS OF THE 

UNITED STATES STEAM FRIGATE ' POWHATAN ' 

AND 

H. B. M. STEAM-SLOOP ' RATTLER,' 

IN MEMORY OF 

Their shipmates who fell in a combined attack, 
on a fleet of piratical Junks off Kuhlan, 
August 4th, 1855." 

" KILLED IN THE ACTION. 

' Rattler.' ' Powhatan.' 

George Mitchell, A. B. John Pepper, Seaman. 

James Silvers, Carpenter's crew. James A. Halsey, Landsman. 

John Massey, Gunner, R. M. A. Isaac Coe, Landsman. 
M. Oliff, Private, R. A. S. Mullard, Marine. 

B. F. Addamson, Marine." 

From that day to this, no military procession has ever 
passed the spot without halting, while the band plays the 
" Star Spangled Banner," " God Save the Queen," and a 
solemn dirge, in memory of the brave fellows who sleep 
there. 

To the southward, whether you go by the deep cut, over 
the hills and through the valleys, or turn from the dock-yard 



4o6 An American Cruiser in the East 

and skirt along the Praya, the scenery is varying and grand 
beyond description. The Happy Valley, which is the pride 
of the colony, is a vast amphitheatre, with racecourse and 
cricket-ground in its centre, and behind the grand stand 
are the English, Catholic, Jewish, Mahometan, and Parsee 
cemeteries, with their beautifully shaded walks, clumps 
of palms, and strange, luxurious tropical growths and 
blooms, with here and there a stately pile, or stone, to 
mark the resting-place of some member of the silent 
majority. 

How full these cemeteries are ! It is only about fifty 
years since the white man unfurled his banner and took 
possession of the island, but in that time the " Happy 
Valley " has swallowed up her victims by hundreds and 
by thousands. The ride back to the city is delightful, 
but one becomes a little serious while pondering over 
the causes that have filled these cemeteries in so short a 
time. 

Victoria is remarkably quiet and orderly. The streets 
are guarded by a force of Indian sepovs, and after eight 
o'clock in the evening the Chinese must give account of 
their movements. The mode of conveyance is by chairs, 
open or closed, and jinrikishas, which give employment to 
the coolie who is always soliciting your patronage. 

Victoria has many industries, in the range of European 
and Chinese manufactures and art. Besides the hundreds of 
handiwork establishments, there is a large sugar refinery, 
rum distillery, a jute mill, an extensive paper mill, and an 
ice manufactory. Each year large sums of public money 
are expended for improvements, including fortifications ; 
and the extension of military and public roads, sewerage 
and drainage, gives employment to large numbers of coolies. 
Two daily and three weeklv newspapers are published in 
the English language, and there is one Chinese bi-daily, 
besides a Portuguese weekly. 



Hong-kong, China 407 

Aberdeen, Hong-kong 

The Aberdeen dry-docks are situated at the head of an 
inlet on the south side of the island. The entrance is easy 
and safe, and the anchorage is excellent. The docks are 
substantially built of granite. Hope Dock was opened in 
1867, and has a length, over all, of four hundred and thirty- 
three feet ; its breadth at entrance is eighty-four feet ; its 
depth, over sill, at ordinary spring tides, twenty-four feet. 
Rise of tides, spring, seven feet six inches. Lamont Dock, 
also at Aberdeen, was opened in i860. It has a length, 
over all, of three hundred and forty feet; its breadth at 
entrance is sixty-four feet ; its depth, over sill, at ordinary 
spring tides, sixteen feet. Rise of tide, spring, seven feet 
six inches. There are extensive building and repair shops 
connected with these docks. 

KowLOON, China 

Kowloon is a vast, slightly undulating plain, on the main- 
land of China, on the opposite side of Hong-kono; Roads, 
and faces the island of Hong-kong. It has been neatly 
laid out and built up with fine public buildings and resi- 
dences, has a garrison of Indian troops, and is considered 
to be a suburb of Victoria, with which it is connected by 
little steam ferry-boats. Fine granite dry-docks and patent 
slips for hauling up vessels are located here. They are in 
close proximity to the shipping, and are well protected on 
all sides. The approaches to the docks are perfectly safe, 
and the immediate vicinity affords excellent anchorage. 
Powerful shears of eighty feet, to lilt forty tons, stand on a 
wharf, alongside of which vessels can lie in from twenty 
to twenty-two feet of water. The depth of low- water 
springs in the shallowest part of the bay, in front of the 
docks, is thirty-nine feet. 



4© 8 An American Cruiser in the East 

No. I Dock, Kowloon, has a length, over all, of five 
hundred and thirty feet ; breadth at entrance, eighty-six feet 
top, seventy feet bottom; depth, over sill, at ordinary 
spring tides, thirty feet ; rise of tide, spring, seven feet six 
inches. H. M. S. " Imperieuse," of eighty-four hundred 
tons, is the largest vessel ever docked here. The dock 
can be filled in one hour, and pumped out in three hours. 

No. 2 Dock, Kowloon, was opened in i866. Length, 
over all, three hundred and forty feet ; breadth at entrance, 
seventy-four feet ; depth, over sill, at ordinary spring tides, 
eighteen feet ; rise of tide, spring, seven feet six inches. 
The S. S. "Glenartney," of 2,107 tons, is the largest vessel 
ever docked here. 

No. 3 Dock, Kowloon, was opened in 1866. Length, 
over all, two hundred and forty-five feet ; breadth at en- 
trance, 43.3 feet ; depth, over sill, at ordinary spring tides, 
thirteen feet ; rise of tide, spring, seven feet six inches. 
The S. S. " Douglas," of 1,373 tons, is the largest vessel 
ever docked here. 

Patent Slip No. i, Kowloon, was opened in 1888. 
Length, over all, two hundred and fifty feet ; breadth at 
entrance, sixty feet ; depth, over sill, at ordinary spring 
tides, eleven feet ; rise of tide, spring, seven feet six inches. 
The ship "Napier," of 1,235 tons, is the largest vessel ever 
taken on this slip. 

Patent Slip No. 2, Kowloon, was opened in 1892. 
Length, over all, two hundred and thirty feet ; breadth at 
entrance, sixty feet ; depth, over sill, at ordinary spring 
tides, eleven feet. Vessels can be placed on the slip in 
two and a half hours. 

The Cosmopolitan Dock is located on the Kowloon side 
of the harbor, about two miles from the centre of Victoria. 
The depth of low-water springs is twenty-six feet in the 
shallowest part of the bay. The anchorage is safe, and it 
is better protected from typhoons than any other portion of 



Hong-kong, China 409 

the port. The dock is substantially built of granite, was 
opened in 1877, and has a length, over all, of four hundred 
and fifty-six feet ; breadth at entrance, eighty-five feet ; 
depth, over sill, at ordinary spring tides, twenty feet ; rise 
of tide, spring, seven feet six inches. The Steamer "City 
of Tokio," of 5,079 tons, is the largest vessel ever docked 
here. 

These docks and slips are all under the same manage- 
ment. The work-shops, at each, have every appliance 
necessary for the repairs of vessels or their machinery, — 
lathes, planing, screwing, cutting, punching and hydraulic 
riveting machines, etc., etc., — capable of executing work 
on the largest scale. The shipwright's, boiler-maker's, 
machine, and blacksmith's shops, and the foundries, are all 
well equipped to execute the largest work with quick 
despatch. Several powerful steam-tugs are always ready 
for service. By the rules of these docks, vessels using their 
own materials and men to make repairs, while in dock, are 
charged fifteen per cent on the value of the labor, and ten 
per cent on the value of materials, except sheathing and 
nails, on which the charge is five per cent. 

Hong-kong owes its importance to the fact that it is the 
military and naval headquarters of the British forces in this 
quarter of the globe. It is also the prominent banking- 
centre of the far East. It is the central port for trade 
in sugar, flour, salt, ship supplies, and granite, and has a 
larger opium trade than any other port in that part of the 
world. 

The scenery is wild and dreary. Attempts have been 
made to cultivate rice and sweet yams, but even the Chinese 
cannot make them grow in sufficient quantities to supply 
the foreign residents. The orange, mango, and lichie grow 
in well-sheltered spots. Tortoises, boas, and several species 
of poisonous snakes are found about the island, and a 



41 o An American Cruiser in the East 

troublesome white ant burrows into woodwork and cuts the 
heart out of it. 

Hono--k:ong is not a healthy place. Malaria is given 
out from its decomposing granite hills, kidney diseases 
are prevalent, and deadly cuts and sores will not heal 
(surgical cases are sent abroad for cure), and catarrh is one 
of the nuisances of the island. The temperature ranges 
from 56° to 84° Fah. The mean temperature throughout 
the year is about 73° Fah., but is modified by the mon- 
soons. The annual rainfall is about 59 inches. 

In 1 841, the population was 5,000, which has increased 
by emigration to about 225,000, of whom 6,000 are 
Americans and Europeans (including all the troops), and 
219,000 Asiatics, of whom the Chinese are the most 
numerous. About 25,000, in addition, live in boats scat- 
tered about in the immediate vicinity. The Chinese 
government maintains a fleet of small revenue cutters in 
Hong-kong waters, to prevent opium and salt smuggling. 

From Victoria Peak, — 1,835 feet high, — where the 
British Jack is always flying, the view is interesting and 
grand. On one hand stretches the everlastingly restless 
sea, surging and dashing against the rocks and islets of the 
Ladrone group ; yonder. Mount Steakeuse, on the island 
of Lamma, two miles distant, stands 1,140 feet high; and 
sleepy old China is grand but mysterious, without bright- 
ness, — no greens or golds, silvers or pinks, blues or 
pearls, but just the dull, heavy red, like the ball the 
dragon tosses upon her own flag. The sun sinks be- 
hind the paddy-fields into the west, the twinkling lights, 
away down in the city and on the bay, admonish us, and 
when we enter the cable-car and are whirled down, and 
still down, the side of the hill, the romance is gone before 
we reach the city. 



Residence of the Tartar General, New Chwang, China. 



CHAPTER XXIV 



MACAO, CHINA 



ATRIP from Hong-kong to Macao in one of the 
untidy little steamers which ply between the ports 
is very interesting and enjoyable. When the frantic yells 
of the officers, the blowing of steam, and the tooting of 
the whistle have ceased, the little craft heads for the 
Lymoon Pass, and all is quiet on board except the pulsat- 
ing throbs of the exhausting steam. We run between 
scenes in brown and gray, leaden, wild, and weird, and the 
undulating motion of the ever-restless sea causes the little 
craft to dance upon the waters. Picturesque groups and 
crowds unwittingly pose about the decks, — Portuguese, 
Chinese, and half-breeds, who make up the list of pas- 



412 An American Cruiser in the East 

sengers. The ever-changing groups are studies that leave 
pleasant memories ; and long after the journey is done, we 
smile at the recollections of this or that incident of the trip. 

Like all other harbors in this part of the world, Macao 
swarms with gay sampans, with their queer little shrines 
and mirrors and pictures, half-Christian, half-Buddhist. 
A strange mixture of beliefs have come through poor old 
China, and in coming have brought the soil with them, — 
religion musty and soiled. The town is situated on the 
southern extremity of the island of Hiang-shang, on a 
point of land formed by the intersection of the Chu-kiang 
with the Heung-kiang, in latitude 22° north, and longitude 
132° east. The gayly colored, flat-roofed houses, red and 
blue and green, make a quaint little city, which nestles 
between bold, bleak, black rocky hills. 

The old Portuguese forts, with their ancient guns frown- 
ing upon the river, are more picturesque than awe-inspiring 
in these days of rifle-guns and long ranges. The Praya 
Grande (here everything is " grande ") is the promenade 
of the place, where the belles and the beaux of old Macao 
take their airings, passing before the palace, and among the 
little shops and gambling saloons which border its animated 
road. The old church of St. Paul has braved monsoons, 
typhoons, fiery flames, and earthquakes since 1594. St. 
Paul, with its deep-toned organ, and the old Hospital of 
the Misericordi, stand as living protests, — the cross against 
the lotus. 

After climbing the rocks and bowlders beyond the city, 
we reach the grotto of poor Camoens, the real object of 
our pilgrimage. Strewn with great granite bowlders, 
abraded and shorn by monsoon and tvphoon, the spot is 
as wild as nature made it, — although trees and shrubs 
and vines have been transplanted, so that men of these 
latter times may not see the place in its native bareness. 
Sitting here, where Camoens wrote his immortal " Lusiad," 



Macao, China 4 1 3 

to recount the glories of his beloved Portugal, although an 
exile from her shores, we must admire the man, so filled 
with patriotism. 

The history of Camoens is interesting. He was 
born in Lisbon in 1524. Of noble parentage, well 
educated, with classical attainments, witty, courteous, 
and handsome, he was welcome at the Portuguese court, 
where he met the youth and beauty of the land. Here 
he soon became a favorite with the fair sex, while his 
sarcasm incurred the hatred of his own. 

Camoens formed a romantic passion for a lady of the 
court. The lady had a suitor whom her parents favored, 
and when Camoens's passion became known to them, their 
influence procured his banishment from the court. Our 
poet joined the forces, went to Africa, and engaged in 
the war against the Moors, in which he lost his right eye. 
In 1550 he returned to Lisbon. In 1553 he had trouble 
with an officer of the royal household. The officer and 
two of the poet's friends were rollicking, when a dispute 
arose, and the poet came to the rescue. The officer 
received a sword-thrust in the neck, and the friends ran 
off. Camoens was thrown into prison, but was soon 
released on promising to leave the country. 

He started for the East Indies, and arrived at Goa in 
time to join a force against the Purientas, where he did 
some good service. He returned to Goa in the following 
year, but, giving loose rein to his caustic pen, he incensed 
the authorities and was banished. He found his way to 
Macao, and in the solitude of this grotto passed his days 
in writing the " Lusiad," recounting the virtues of his 
faithful Javanese slave Antonio, • — the poor slave, who, in 
strange lands, among strange people, tended Camoens so 
devotedly and with such solicitude, through exile, tempest, 
and wreck, who begged for him, and who tenderly closed 
his hungering, weary eyes in death. 



414 Ai^ American Cruiser in the East 

Returning to Goa, Camoens and his faithful slave were 
wrecked near the mouth of the river, and on their arrival 
were cast into prison. In Goa, Camoens received news of 
the death of his beloved, news which crazed him ; but the 
devoted Antonio guided him through his sorrow. Camoens 
was at last released from prison, and after seventeen years 
of weary exile he returned to Lisbon, where he was quar- 
antined for a year on account of the plague, which had 
carried off more than fifty thousand people. When he 
landed, he went to see his poor old mother, and then made 
arrangements for the publication of the " Lusiad." Its 
publication excited the malice of jealous poets, but Camoens 
knew little of this, as he lived a retired life, and his friends 
were only a few fathers of the convent of Santa Ana. 
After the year 1578, he was reduced to extreme poverty, 
and on June 10, 1580, he died in a small, cheerless room, 
in a miserable house in the Rua de Santa Ana. 

After the death of Camoens, Fra Jose Indio, a Carmel- 
ite monk, wrote these lines on a fly-leaf of a first copy of 
the " Lusiad " : — 

" What thing more grievous than to see so great genius 
lacking success ! I saw him die in a hospital in Lisbon, 
without a sheet to cover him, after having triumphed in the 
Indies, and havincr sailed five thousand five hundred leagues 
bv sea. What warning so great for those who, bv night 
and day, weary themselves in study without profit, like the 
spider weaving the thread to catch small flies." 

In 1557, the Portuguese, in return for their services in 
combating piracy, were permitted to form a settlement on 
the peninsula. The Jesuit missionaries set up the cross^ 
and in 1575 the Chinese built the wall across the island to 
separate this settlement from the rest of China. In J 5 83, 
a government was formed for the settlement, and in 1628, 
Jeronimo de Silveria became the first royal Governor. The 
Chinese claim that they have always retained control over 



Macao, China 



415 



the settlement through Mandarins, and have never sur- 
rendered their territorial sovereign rights. The royal 
Governor, De Amaral, in 1849, declared that the Mandarins 
had no more authority than the representatives of any other 




Woman of Northern China, 

foreign nation. De Amaral was assassinated in the same 
year, but his successors have continued his policy, although 
the Chinese government refuses to recognize the claim. 

The European powers consider Macao a de facto colony, 
and the King of Portugal appoints all the officers, includ- 



41 6 An American Cruiser in the East 

ing the Chinese magistrates. Macao has been occupied by 
British forces to prevent its seizure by the French. 

There are 6,050 inhabitants of European extraction in 
Macao, 60,617 Chinese Hving on the land, and about 
11,000 in boats. The people are engaged in commercial 
and agricultural pursuits, and nearly all the land is under 
cultivation. Macao has been a free port since 1846. The 
preparation and packing of tea is the most important in- 
dustry of the port, and there is a good trade in Chinese 
manufactured goods from Canton. Gambling and opium 
dens are numerous, and are openly carried on. 

The total value of the trade of the port is ;$ 15,000,000. 
The revenue is largely made up from taxes on gambling 
tables, and small dues and fines. 



CHAPTER XXV 

MANILA, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

ON the afternoon of March 12, we ran out of Hong- 
kong roads, and anchored under the lee of a barren 
little rock. On the following morning, we had target prac- 
tice with great and small guns, rifles, and revolvers ; after 
which we picked up our targets, and headed out for Manila. 

After leaving the fogs and gloom of Hong-kong, balmy 
air freshened into good topsail-breezes, drove off the chill, 
and gave us all new life. Even the old ship — as sail was 
made, and the engines put out of use — dashed ahead and 
bumped into the seas as though she enjoyed the delightful 
bath. 

During the middle watch of the i6th, we lost the wind, 
but the heavy swell of the sea remained, and the vessel 
became a little too sportive for our comfort. Fellows were 
pitched out of their bunks in a very unceremonious fashion, 
and furniture and crockery were sent about the decks at a 
rate dangerous to our limbs and our pockets. We were 
not slow in getting the engines connected, and going ahead 
with them. 

For the first two or three hours, after starting up, the 
vessel rolled deeper than before. Sleep was out of the 
question, and we wandered about the mess-room like white- 
robed spirits, securing the noisy articles, and declaring that 
we would gladly " sell our farms " and come to sea, where 
we could always have such pleasant surroundings and so 
much comfort. 

27 



41 8 An American Cruiser in the East 

On the morning of the 17th, we sighted Luzon, and 
ran along Manila Bay, in full view of the land. For miles 
we ran almost beside the beautiful white surf-washed beach, 
which met the low, rolling land, and lost itself on the sides 
of great mountains, that rear their black heads full five 
thousand feet into the clouds. We reached the outer harbor 
at about noon, and anchored there. 

Manila, the capital of Luzon, as well as of the Philippine 
Islands, is situated on the eastern side of the Bay of Manila, at 
the mouth of the Pasig River, in latitude 14° 36' north, and 
longitude 120° 52' east. The immediate surrounding coun- 
try is low, rolling land, almost flat, and being bare of vege- 
tation in the dry season has a barren appearance. The 
Mafonso and Mateo Mountains form the background for 
Manila, and give color and variety to the otherwise monoto- 
nous scenery. 

Old Boreas and Neptune paid their respects to us on 
our first night in the port, in the form of a little blow. 
The sea dashed into our ports, drowning out some of the 
rooms ; and after the ports were closed it became so intoler- 
ably hot that it was impossible to sleep in the ship. 

The next morning we made a trip to the shore. After 
crossing the bay in the steam-cutter, we entered the Pasig 
River, between the grim old Spanish fort and the massive 
granite lighthouse which guard the entrance. Keeping 
on up the river for about a mile, passing between and 
dodging lines of busv shipping, where unloading and loading 
was being done, we heard all the noise and witnessed the 
confusion made by Spanish sailors and longshoremen, — 
poor fellows ! — who cannot lift a weight without an ac- 
companying yell or song, in which the song is seven-eighths 
yell and one-eighth music. 

We landed on a flight of granite steps at the custom- 
house, and were assailed — but in a friendly way — by a 
crowd of natives, anxious to serve us in almost any capacity : 



Manila, Philippine Islands 421 

to act as guides over the city, to sell the lucky number in 
the lottery, cakes, fruits, or cigars, or to furnish teams to 
see the sights. After some parley, we entered a trap 
driven by a native and drawn by a pair of lively little 
ponies, and started off for the Club. Our driver more 
than earned his fare by the vigorous manner in which he 
conducted his part of the expedition. He would strike at 
the flank of one pony and then at the other, all the while 
veiling as if the city were on fire, and he driving the only 
fire-engine in the place. We soon discovered this to be a 
ruse, a cheap way of showing his importance and zeal. 
The dash-board and not the ponies received the blows, and 
the yelling is simply a Manila fashion. It became evident 
that the Jehu did not know where the club-house was ; 
neither did we, and as the day was hot, the trap comfort- 
able, and we were seeing interesting, novel sights, we let 
him drive on at will. 

After wandering about in this fashion, we dashed up a street 
where the " Stars and Stripes " were floating over our Con- 
sulate ; and through an open window we saw our repre- 
sentative decked in all the glory of full dress, ready for a 
dinner at eight. He was slowly pacing the floor, trying to 
keep cool, with the mercury bobbing 100° in the shade. 
The Consulate gave us the bearing of the Club, and we 
headed directly for it, soon arrived, and laid ourselves out 
in long easy-chairs under the " punkhas," which the 
coolies kept moving at a vigorous rate, wafting gentle 
breezes over us, as we enjoyed the perfection of laziness, 
while awaiting the preparation of luncheon. 

After having given the ponies a breathing spell and the 
Jehu time to rest his lungs, we re-entered the trap and 
started off^ to see the sights. 

The Pasig River divides Manila into two parts, which are 
connected by a fine old stone bridge and a handsome 
suspension bridge. 



42 2 An American Cruiser in the East 



The old city, the Plaza de Manila, is enclosed by 

the walls of the old fort, and is entered by low, arched 

gateways. Its streets are broad and very clean, and run 

at rio;ht angles to each other ; but as there are neither shops 

nor traffic, they are dull and gloomy, only brightened by 

the many little parks of refreshing 

r green, and by the tinkling bells of 

I ' the poor car-horses who are beaten 

through them. 

The Governor's palace, the 
administration building, and 
the cathedral face a large 
garden of beautiful tropical 
flowers, which shed their fra- 
grance about a colossal bronze 
statue of Don Carlos IV. of 
Spain. The University and 
Academy of Arts, the arsenal, 
mint, museum, hospitals, 
many churches, and religious 
houses are also within the 
gloomy walls of the city. 
Outside the city walls, hand- 
some villas, situated in beauti- 
ful grounds, extend along the roads 
for miles. La Luna is a prome- 
nade facing the bay, where all 
Manila resorts in the evening, to 
hear the bands plav. 
"• New Manila," on the opposite side of the ri\er, contains 
extensive warehouses filled with the products of these 
islands and with wares from all parts of the world, — the 
Escalto, lined with gav Chinese shops, the native suburb, 
which struggles for miles up the river, the busv Beriondo, 
and the fashionable San Miguel. 




An Inijiax Warrior of the 
Philippine Islands. 




Church of Dominicans, Manila. 



Manila, Philippine Islands 423 

Dashing over the moss-covered stone bridge which spans 
the Pasig, thence along the river's bank, by the old, cracked 
city wall and the monument to Magellan, and under the 
low archway in the wall, we found our spirited little ponies 
trottino; through the consecrated streets of old Manila. We 




Natives of Manila, Philippine Islands. 

kept on through the sleepy streets to the cathedral, a mas- 
sive old pile of granite, in the composite style of architec- 
ture, Romanesque, with Corinthian cornice. Founded in 
1575, one hundred and fourteen years after Columbus 
discovered America ; several times shattered, wrecked, and 



424 An American Cruiser in the East 

rebuilt, — it now stands (surrounded by the noblest speci- 
mens of architecture in Manila), bearing the scars and rents 
of the earthquakes of 1863 and 1880. 

Venerable, historic, and altogether grand, the old bat- 
tered walls still enclose and guard beautiful chapels and 
altars, the grand choir and organ, the golden throne, the 
cunningly wrought statues, and wonderful paintings, — all 
magnificent fittings for this old Christian church in this far- 
eastern isle. 

Inanimate witness of masses, glorias, and triumphs in 
the fair days, when the people had cause for thanksgivings 
and rejoicings for bounteous harvests, the stay of the 
pestilence, or some triumph of the Spanish arms, or the 
witness of misery and heart-rending distress, when terror- 
stricken women and half-dazed men flocked here and 
prayed to Heaven to stay the rumbling and quaking earth, 
that rent and shattered massive piles of man's handiwork, 
tore great rents in the earth, and swallowed up hundreds 
and thousands of people, burying them from the sight 
of their fellows forever. 

With its scars and rents, its chime of sonorous bells, 
and with clusters of old trees growing from its top and 
sides, the cathedral bell tower (now a ruin) stands like 
a solitary sentinel on the opposite side of the street. The 
native ringer, stationed within its walls, rings out the half- 
hours upon the musical chimes, by time measured with 
a Yankee clock which has superseded the ancient hour- 
glass. 

The only modern thing in the vicinity, besides the 
clock, is the colossal bronze statue of Don Carlos IV. of 
Spain, in robes of state, which stands in a handsome garden 
of flowers, facing the cathedral. The inscription on the 
pedestal reads, — 

" IN GRATITUDE FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF VACCINATION IN THE 
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS." 



Manila, Philippine Islands 425 

The noble pile of moss and creeper-covered granite 
yonder is the ruin of the palace, another result of the 
earthquake. The top and front of the building were 
thrown down, leaving the grand stone stairway exposed, 
like an ascent to some old tomb. These ruins are in the 
centre of a noble park of luxuriant growth. It is said 
that on moonlight nights, in the monsoon season, shadows 
from the trees thrown across stairway and park appear 
like a procession of black-robed monks wandering about 
the ruins. The superstitious natives stare with frightened 
eyes, and run in wonder and awe from the mysterious 
apparition. All about the city there are ruins of fine 
houses that were thrown down by the earthquake, and 
have remained untouched since that time. 

The Church of the Sacred Heart is a magnificent pile, 
long and broad and high. Its exterior is plain and unpre- 
tentious, like the ecclesiastic architecture of old Spain and 
Mexico, and the missions of California ; but its interior 
is encased with exquisitely carved sandal-wood, the work 
of native Christians of India, from designs furnished by 
native priests here. There are no gorgeous greens, golds, 
and scarlets, or bold, grotesque carvings, such as we see in 
the Buddhist temples, but beautiful reliefs and bas-reliefs 
that tell the stories of the Saviour, the Apostles, and Fathers 
of the Church. A great cabinet of sweet-scented woods 
is so finely executed as to bear the glass. Each section 
and panel is a wonderful work of art, and the whole a 
collection of masterpieces. 

There are a few fine old historical paintings in the Church 
of Santo Domingo. One represents the murder of the 
priests in 1260 by the Arabians, on the Pescadores. On 
the opposite side of the doorway a painting represents 
a number of priests assembled, in the sanctuary, around 
the mutilated body of a white man, while the heavens are 
open, and the priests hold consultation with the Holy 



426 An American Cruiser in the East 

Family. The light was poor, and we could not decipher 
the inscription upon this very old and dim picture. 

On one side of a chapel, there is a fine painting of the 
"Jesuits preaching to the Japanese," and a picture opposite 
represents the " Persecution of the Jesuits by the Japanese." 
These pictures are carefully guarded and shown with much 
pride by the brethren of Santo Domingo. 

About two hundred and fifty years ago, Japan was 
almost converted to Christianity by' the Jesuits. The 
Dutch were jealous, and intrigued with the Japanese gov- 
ernment, persuading it that the Christians designed its 
overthrow. The Japanese became alarmed, and waged 
a relentless war of extermination against the Jesuits and 
native Christians. Thousands who would not renounce 
their religion were thrown over the causeway of Papin- 
berg, and drowned in the sea. 

Cigar manufacture is a monopoly of the government, 
and the manufactory covers several acres of ground. It 
is a very interesting place to visit ; twelve thousand women 
and girls are at work, some handsome, some plain, some 
neat, and others untidy ; but all chatter gavlv, and many 
a hearty Spanish laugh rings out while their little heaps 
of tobacco are manipulated. Here one sees all the pro- 
cesses of stripping, assorting, filling, rolling, pasting, count- 
ing, and packing in boxes the rolls of fragrant weed. At the 
noon-hour and in the evening, when the women leave the 
premises, they are all searched, to make sure that no scraps 
of tobacco are taken away. They are even required to 
take down their hair. The examinations are made under 
the superintendence of a Spanish beauty. 

The cemetery, like those at New Orleans, is surrounded 
by an outer and an inner wall, with level compartments 
between them, shelved in rows one above another. On 
the arrival of a body, it is taken from its casket and placed 




Open Air Theatre, Manila. 



Manila, Philippine Islands 427 

in one of these compartments. Quicklime is placed around 
it to hasten the process of decomposition ; the opening is 
then sealed with a memorial stone, and the casket is taken 
back to the undertaker's shop to await the next body that 
will fit into it. 




A XaTIVIC iiF MaNIF.Aj PHILUTlNt ISLANDS. 

The old church near the cathedral contains some art 
treasures worth seeing. The painting representing the 
" Baptism of the Saviour by Saint John " is a fine composi- 
tion, rich in coloring. The stained glass window behind 
the altar has "■ angels hovering about in the heavens." The 



428 An American Cruiser in the East 

altar-piece is a marble statue of the Virgin ; and when the 
sun shines through the window, the effect is of " angels 
hovering about the Virgin." A heavy white veil hangs 
before the altar and heightens the effect of the picture, so 
that it appears like a beautiful dream. 

Every afternoon San Miguel, the fashionable drive, is gay 
with hundreds of Spanish dowagers, black-eyed senoritas, 
and interesting children, who recline in elegant carriages, 
which are drawn by handsome ponies. The ladies are 
gowned in black or pink or yellow silks, with black man- 
tillas arranged in the hair and falling gracefully about the 
shoulders, as they drive back and forth over the length of 
the noble street. As night approaches, the street is filled 
with people, the sidewalks are crowded, and all Manila 
seems to be out on parade. 

Driving through a beautiful suburb that is lined with 
handsome villas and well-kept grounds of luxuriant green, 
we keep on with the throng, and reach " La Luna," an 
oblong plot of ground near the bay shore. La Luna, " the 
night," is about a quarter of a mile long, several hundred 
yards wide, and is illuminated by reddish-black flames from 
hundreds of kerosene lamps. A band from one of the 
regiments discourses music from dark until ten o'clock, 
while hundreds of carriao;es containinp; fair women and 
brave men drive slowly round and round. Their occupants 
enjoy the cool breezes from the wide bay, the beautiful, 
moving panorama, and the sweet music, or perhaps alight 
to promenade upon the greensward, and to exchange greet- 
ings with friends. The men, in white linen clothes, with 
black derby hats, lounge about with their cigars, or drop 
into the little wine-shops at the turn of the promenade to 
discuss the news over a glass of claret. 

Wherever one goes in the evening, whether to church, 
theatre, on the streets, the beautiful promenade, or to call 
upon friends, he is always met by the sickly, reddish-black, 



Manila, Philippine Islands 429 

smoky flame of kerosene. The dread of earthquakes and 
fires should teach these people to throw the treacherous oil 
away, and to adopt gas or electricity. 




A Native of Manila, Philippine Islands. 



The Spaniards live in fine stone houses, which have an 
air of wealth and elegance ; while the natives live in huts 
of straw or in poorly built houses of wood, often situated 
on low ground, where they are built on piles of wood, and 
can only be reached by rude ladders from the outside. The 
living part of all houses is on the upper floors, the lower 



430 An American Cruiser in the East 

floors being used as shops and store-rooms. Many of the 
citizens are very rich, and we did not see evidences of the 
extreme poverty that is met with in other places. 

The native women dress in skirts of red or pink and 
white material, — usually large plaids, — a loosely fitting 
bodice of "penia cloth," with flowing sleeves of white lace. 
Their bare feet are encased in blue, red, or green plush 
slippers that have no backs, and their hair is always neatly 
dressed, as they never wear bonnets or hats. The native 
men wear white trousers and shirts (the latter always worn 
outside of the trousers), and slippers like those of the 
women. If it can be afforded, a black derby hat completes 
the male costume. 

The street cars are dirty, and the service is indifferent. 
The cars are only used by the poorer natives, — even the 
Chinese coolies refuse to patronize them. The city had 
no adequate supply of water until very recently, when a 
wealthy citizen gave to it water-works and a reservoir. A 
contract has been made to supply the city with electric 
lights, but such matters move very slowly in old Manila. 
The only steam railway on the islands is one from Dagu- 
pan, twenty miles from Manila, which was opened for 
traffic in 1892. 

After our return from La Luna, we went to the " French 
Restaurant," where we thoroughly enjoyed dining in public 
with Spaniards and some natives of the better class. There 
was an air of cheerfulness about the place. Everybody 
seemed to be in good humor, and tobacco-smoke curled 
about the room in an atmosphere already rich with garlic. 
As our appetites had been well sharpened by the day's work, 
we fully appreciated the menu and our surroundings. The 
dinner was excellent, consisting of fine soup, fish, and 
boiled potatoes, mystery, shrimp salad, Spanish meat-balls, 
more mystery, capon and fried potatoes, claret ad Uhituin^ 
assorted fruits, small cakes, ice cream, black coffee, and 



Manila, Philippine Islands 431 

good cigars, — all for sixty-six cents a plate. After dinner 
we rode out to the English Club, about two miles up the 
river, where, in a little summer-house, we enjoyed fragrant 
Manilas, while some of our friends were trying to keep 
cool by bowling in the alley. The night was quite warm 
and clear, with a half-moon to light the way and make the 
dingy kerosene lamps ashamed of themselves. Many resi- 
dences were thrown open and rooms brilliantly illuminated 
gave a bright, showy effect from the street. 

The amusements in Manila are the opera, theatre, even- 
ing receptions with cards and music, cock-fights, and the 
lottery. 




A CocK-PiT AT Manila, Philippine Islands. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

THE PHILIPPINES 

THE Philippines are a group of more than five hundred 
rich islands, which lie well off the coast of Asia, 
between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. For 
administrative purposes they are divided into twenty-seven 
provinces, and contain about eight millions of people. In 
the early days of the Spanish settlement, Jesuit missionaries 
came to the islands in great numbers, and met with success 
in the conversion of the natives. There are now about two 
thousand priests on the islands, who exercise almost un- 
limited authority over the natives. There are about six 
millions of natives who acknowledge the Spanish authority, 
and pay taxes in some form ; but there are more than a 
million, in the inaccessible mountains, who live a guerilla 
life, and resist all efforts to bring them under subjection. 

Ever since the Spaniards planted their standard upon the 
soil, in 1565, there have been strife, rebellions, and wars in 
the islands. In early days, the Portuguese and the Dutch 
were jealous of these rich possessions, and annoyed the 
Spaniards at every opportunity. Bold pirates sailed out 
from Chinese ports and raided the islands, and differences 
between the civil and ecclesiastical authorities have fre- 
quently led to internal dissensions and conflicts. In 1762 
the British captured Manila, but restored it to Spain after 
two years' occupation. 

There are about twelve thousand troops on the islands, 
of whom one half are natives with Spanish officers, and 




The Untamed Indians oi- the FuiLiffiMi Islands. 



The Philippines 435 

there is always a fleet of small Spanish war-vessels cruising 
about the islands to maintain order. There are a large 
number of ''mestizos," or half-breeds, children of native 
mothers and foreign fathers. 

In the wet season, from March to July, the rivers become 
swollen and flooded, and travel is difficult and dangerous. 
In the dry season, droughts often occur, when the ground 
is parched and vegetation burned by the sun. Locusts 
sometimes devour the crops, and terrific storms are frequent 
at the typhoon season. 

The Philippines are a centre of volcanic action, and 
destructive earthquakes are of frequent occurrence. They 
have shaken down massive houses, desolated extensive tracts 
of land, filled up valleys, and opened passages from the sea 
into the interior. The history of the islands is full of 
accounts of these destructive visitations. 

The Jesuits have an excellent observatory in Manila, 
for studv of the weather, storms, and earthquakes. Instru- 
ments for determining the direction, force, and duration of 
earthquakes are fixed on a floor which is suspended from 
masonry. The whole arrangement is automatic and self- 
registering, so that if an earthquake should occur during the 
absence of the observer, it is supposed to record itself. 
How this arrangement will work in actual practice, under 
the given conditions, time only can determine. 

The earthquake of 1796 was a calamity. In 1824, 
many churches, the principal bridge, the barracks, and a 
great number of private houses were destroyed in Manila. 
A chasm nearly four miles in length was opened, and six 
vessels were wrecked in the narrow river. The people all 
fled from the city, and a large number perished. During 
the earthquake of 1828, the great stones of the gates in the 
city walls were moved out of their places, and the bells in 
the church towers were set ringing. The walls of churches 
and other buildings were rent, and hanging lamps swung 



43^ An American Cruiser in the East 

through ail arc of about five degrees. The phenomena 
lasted for about three minutes, but there were no rumbhng 
noises. A destructive earthquake occurred in 1836, and a 
terrible one made the year 1880 memorable in the history 




Natives of Manila, Philippine Islands. 

of Manila, when a great portion of the citv was wrecked. 
The people live in constant dread of these terrible visitations, 
and all possible precautions are taken for protection. The 
houses are located, planned, and built with reference to 
safety under such conditions. They are large and imposing, 
but have no architectural pretensions. 




Cay-Sabo River, Cavite, 



The Philippines 437 

The city, with the suburbs, contains a population of three 
hundred thousand five hundred. 

The people are good-natured and orderly. They have 
great respect for authority, and very i'tw crimes are com- 
mitted. The police force is strictly military, and its mem- 
bers are natives. 

The lottery and several other forms of gambling flourish, 
and large revenues are derived from them. Race meetings 
are held every spring, when native and Chinese ponies are 
run. These entertainments are very popular, and attract 
large numbers of people from the islands and the Chinese 
coast. 

The climate of these islands is healthy but hot. The 
maximum range of the thermometer is 103° Fah., but a sea 
breeze usually sets in about five in the evening, and lowers 
the temperature. The greatest annual rainfall recorded is 
114 inches, and the least is 84 inches. 

There are 323 Europeans and Americans, 4,506 Span- 
iards, 16,520 Chinese, 47,662 Chinese mestizos (half- 
breeds), 4,963 Spanish mestizos, and 200,966 pure natives 
in Manila. The population seems to be divided into the 
clergy, the officials, the half-breeds, and native Indians. 

The business hours are from five to nine in the morning 
and from five to midnight. The middle of the day is 
devoted to quiet lounging and sleep. 

There are four daily newspapers published in Manila, 
" El Diario de Manila," " La Oceania Espanola," and " La 
Voz de Espaiia" in the morning, and "El Comercio" in 
the evening. 

Manila Bav is about one hundred and thirty miles in 
circumference and almost circular in shape. Its great size 
and the absence of shelter make it an unsafe anchorage 
for vessels during the tvphoon season. The anchorage 
is about three miles from the landing, but small vessels go 
up the river and make fast to walls. Since 1880, a tax of 



438 An American Cruiser in the East 

two per cent has been laid on all imports, and one per cent 
on all exports, the income thus obtained to be used in 
building a breakwater within which vessels can lie in safety 
at all seasons of the year. Hurricanes, earthquakes, and 
fearful thunder-storms are frequent in the rainy season. 

The Spanish naval station at Cavite, opposite the mouth 
of the Pasig, has a small patent slip and shops for the repair 
of vessels. 




Native Bull Sled, Manila, Philippine Islands. 

The public revenue amounts to about fifteen millions of 
dollars each year. The principal exports are two hundred 
thousand tons of sugar, seven hundred thousand bales of 
hemp, and live thousand tons of coffee. The United States 
and Great Britain are the chief markets, and one hundred 
million cigars go to China and the East Indies annually. 

The bay is full of harmless little water-snakes. Some- 
times sharks make excursions up the bay, but they are not 
believed to be harmless. 

Beef and other meats are poor, but the vegetables and 



The Philippines 



439 



fruits, which arc in great variety, are excellent and 
abundant. 

Manila hemp is a product of the leaf-stalks of Musa 
textilis^ indigenous to these islands, which the natives 
call "abaca." It is one of the most valuable products, 
and requires the least care and 
attention of them all, A false stem, 
or cluster of enclosing leaf-stalks, 
grows up from its rhizome to a 
height of about twenty feet, then 
spreads into unbroken leaves similar 
to those of the banana. It is rudely 
cultivated for its fibre. When about 
three years old it blooms, and this 
is the most favorable time for gath- 
ering the fibre. The stock is then 
cut, and the enclosing stalks are 
torn into narrow strips and cleaned 
while fresh. The cleaning is done 
by drawing the strips between a 
sharp knife-edged instrument and a 
block of hard wood, and repeating 
the operation until the soft cellular 
matter which surrounds the fibre is 
removed, when the fibre is hung in 
the open air to dry. Two natives will cut stocks and 
separate about twenty-five pounds of fibre per day. The 
fibre from the outer layer of leaves is tough, fully developed, 
and strong, while the product of the inner leaves is increas- 
ingly thin, fine, and weak. 

The fine fibre is used by the natives, without spinning 
or twisting (the ends of the single fibres being knotted 
together), and from it a beautiful, fine, thin, translucent, 
and comparatively strong texture known as " penia-cloth " 
is made, which is used for articles of dress and ornament. 




Native Woman of Manila, 
Philippine Islands. 



440 An American Cruiser in the East 

Having nearly completed our three years' tour of duty, 
we left Yokohama on August 15, and after buffeting the 
storms, calms, and fogs of the broad Pacific for about 
thirty-eight days, we sighted the highlands of California 
on a beautiful morning, and entered the Golden Gate. We 
gathered on the poop-deck and sang " Home Again " and 
" Praise God," while every fellow of us was filled with 
the sentiments of the hymns, for even the brown hills on 
each side of us were home ; and if we could have done so, 
I have no doubt that some would have been quite willing 
to hug the old hair seals on Cliff Rock because they were 
Americans. Soon we dropped our anchors off the Custom 
House wharf, and later proceeded to the Navy Yard, where 
the flag was hauled down just three years after it had been 
raised. 



APPENDIX 



Appendix I 

THE JAPAN— CHINA WAR 

EVER since the settlement of foreigners in Korea, 
there have been periodical outbreaks of more or 
less violence against the new-comers, — the Japanese. 
These outbreaks have been instigated bv secret societies, 
known as " Tan Haks," or anti-foreigners, whose hatred 
was hereditarv, and whose jealousy was excited and in- 
tensified by the beautiful civilization of the Japanese, and 
by the evidences of progress and advancement among the 
new settlers. 

A Japanese would be found murdered in one part of the 
kingdom, a serious outbreak would occur in another part, 
the authorities would be resisted somewhere else, and law- 
abiding people lived in a state of alarm and unrest. 

After the snows had disappeared, the ice had melted, 
and the roads became passable in 1894, a rebellion broke 
out in Korea, and soon became so formidable that the 
government forces were unable to suppress it. Korea 
called on China for assistance, and China, as by treaty 
bound, notified Japan that she would send a force to sup- 
press the outbreak. On June 7, Japan gave China notice 
that she would also send a force to protect her own sub- 
jects resident in the troubled districts. On June 9, the 
town of Asan, about fortv miles south of Seoul, was the 
scene of great excitement caused bv the landing of about 
two thousand Chinese troops ; at about the same time 



444 ^^ American Cruiser in the East 

the Japanese landed five hundred men from their fleet at 
Chemulpo, and pushed them on to the capital. 

The Japanese government appreciated the gravity of 
the situation, and by the end of the month had about five 
thousand men of the fifth division of its army divided 
between Chemulpo and the capital. There were one 
thousand on the southeast coast, one thousand at Fu-san, 
and one thousand at Gen-san. All the available vessels of 
the navy were being made ready for war service, notice 
was sent to the reserves to join the colors, war material 
was assembled for speedy transportation, and transports 
were secured and made ready for service. The people 
were patriotic and enthusiastic, and Japan commenced to 
send her forces to Korea, well supplied and well guarded 
while on the way. 

With the view of protecting her own subjects resident in 
Korea, and to protect her commerce with that country, 
Japan demanded that certain methods of the Korean gov- 
ernment be changed, under the joint protection of Japan 
and China. China declined the proposition, and demanded 
the withdrawal of the Japanese forces, claiming that the 
rebellion was suppressed. After grave consideration, the 
Japanese government, on the 14th of July, informed the 
Chinese government that " in this juncture the Imperial 
Japanese government find themselves relieved of all re- 
sponsibility for any eventualitv that mav in future arise out 
of the situation." 

On June 30, 1894, the Japanese navy consisted of the 
following vessels which were available for active war 
service : — 



Name. 


Class. 


Displace- 
ments. 


Speed. 


Where Built. 


Matsushima 


Coast Defence . . 


4,277 


16 


France, 1891 


Itsukushima 


Coast Defence . . 


4,277 


16.75 


France, 1891 


Hochidate . 


Coast Defence . . 


4.277 


16 


Japan, 1894 


Fiiso . . . 


Armored Cruiser . 


3,700 


13 


England, 1878 


Chiyoda . . 


Armored Cruiser . 


2,450 


19 


England, 1890 


Hiyei . . . 


Protected Cruiser . 


2,250 


14 


England, 1878 


Kongo . . 


Protected Cruiser . 


2,250 


14 


England, 1878 


Naniwa . . 


Protected Cruiser . 


3,650 


19 


England, 1886 


Takachiho . 


Protected Cruiser . 


3,650 


18 


England, 1886 


Yoshino . . 


Protected Cruiser . 


4,150 


23 


England, 1893 


Akitsushima 


Protected Cruiser . 


3,150 


19 


Japan, 1894 


Tsukushi 


Gun Vessel . . . 


1,350 


16.8 


England, 1883 


Takao . . 


Cruiser 


1,774 






Japan, 1889 


Musashi . . 


Cruiser 


1,476 






Japan, 1888 


Yamato . . 


Cruiser 


1,476 






Japan, 1887 


Katsuragi . 


Cruiser 


1,476 






Japan, 1887 


Teurin . . 


Cruiser 


1,547 






Japan, 1885 


Kaimo . . 


Cruiser 


1,358 






Japan, 1884 


Amagi . . 


Cruiser 


1,030 






Japan, 1878 


Banjo . . . 


Cruiser 


656 






Japan, 1880 


Yaeyama 
Oshima . . 
Maya . . . 


Partially Protected 
Cruiser .... 

Partially Protected 
Cruiser .... 

Gun Vessel . . . 


1,600 
639 
614 


1 


5 


Japan, 1890 
Japan, 1892 
Japan, 1890 


Atago . . . 


Gun Vessel . . . 


614 


13 


Japan, 1890 


Akagi . . . 


Gun Vessel . . . 


614 


13 


Japan, 1890 


'Chokai . . 


Gun Vessel . . . 


614 


13 


Japan, 1890 



44^ An American Cruiser in the East 

The fleet was organized into five squadrons, — the first 
squadron being composed of the " Alatsushima," the "Itsu- 
kushima," the " Hochidate," and the " Chiyoda ; " the 
second squadron, of the " Yoshino," the " Takachiho," the 




Japanese Mounted Infantry. By a Japanese Artist. 

"Akitsushima," and the " Naniwa ; " the third squadron 
of the "Fuso," the " Hiyei," the "Kongo," and the " Ta- 
kao;" the fourth squadron of the " Katsuragi," the ••' Yae- 
yama," the " Musashi," and the " Teurin ; " the fifth 
squadron, of the " Oshima," the "Banjo," the "Maya," 
the " Atago," the " Akagi," and the " Chokai." The 



Appendix 447 

fleet of torpedo boats was divided into three divisions, con- 
sisting of six boats each in the first and second divisions, 
and of four boats in the third division. 

The Japanese army, with the colors, consisted of six 
divisions of about nine thousand men each, and the three 
divisions of the Imperial Guard of about six thousand men 
each, — a total of about seventy-two thousand men. To 
reinforce these were the first and second reserves, each 
containing about sixteen thousand men, making a grand 
total of about one hundred and four thousand men available 
for active service. During the hostilities which ensued, 
the forces serving with the colors were increased by recruits 
from the reserves, bringing the active divisions up to an 
average of fifteen thousand men each. 

The Chinese army consisted of about one million men, 
less than two hundred thousand of whom had modern arms, 
and these were of many styles and patterns, while their 
equipments, organization, and training were far from being 
up to the standard of Western nations. 

The Chinese navy consisted of the following-named 
vessels which were available for active war service : — 



448 An American Cruiser in the East 



Name. 


Class 


Displace- 
ments. 


Speed. 


Where Built. 


Chen Yuen 


I]attleship . . . 


7,430 


15.5 


Germany, 1883 


Ting Yuen . 


Battleship . . . 


7,430 


15.4 


Germany, 1883 


King Yuen . 


Coast Defence Vessel 


2,900 


15 


Germany, 1887 


Lai Yuen . 


Coast Defence Vesse' 


2,900 


15 


Germany, 1887 


Chi Yuen . 


Coast Defence Vessel 


2,355 


17.5 


Germany, 1884 


Ping Yuen . 


Coast Defence Vesse 


2,600 


10.5 


China, 1890 


Ching Yuen 


Protected Cruiser . 


2,300 


1S.5 


England, 1887 


Chih Yuen . 


Protected Cruiser . 


2,300 


18.5 


England, 1887 


Ying Wei . 


Gun Vessel . . . 


1,350 


162 


England, ISSl 


Chao Yung 


Gun Vessel . . . 


1,350 


16.2 


England, 1881 


Kuang Yi . 


Third-Class Cruiser 


1,030 


16.5 


China, 1891 


Kuang Ping 


Third-Class Cruiser 


1,030 


16 5 


China, 1891 


Kuang Kia . 


Third-Class Cruiser 


1,030 


16.5 


China, 1891 


^Yci Yuen . 


Old Corvette . . 


1,300 




.... 


Kong Chi . 


Old Corvette . . 


1,300 






Chao Kiang 


Despatch Vessel . 


500 






Chen Pai . 


Gun Vessel . . . 


440 






Chen Pieu . 


Gun Vessel . . . 


440 






Chen Li . . 


Gun Vessel . . . 


440 







Chen Chung 


Gun Vessel . . . 


440 






Chen Nau . 


Gun Vessel . . . 


440 






Chen Tung 


Gun Vessel . . . 


440 








Appendix 449 

China called out her troops for the purpose of driving the 
Japanese out of Korea, and Japan determined on her own 
action. On July 22, China sent eight transports laden 
with troops from Taku to Asan, and on the next day the 
Japanese, believing that an attempt had been made to 
abduct the King of Korea and take him to the Chinese 
camp, sent troops to the palace, drove off the guards, and 
posted their own guards at the entrances for the protection 
of the King. 

Transports arrived off Asan in the afternoon of the 
24th, and landed twenty-five hundred troops (reinforce- 
ments for General Yeh) under cover of the Chinese war 
vessels " Chi Yuen " and " Kuang Yi," and, on the next 
afternoon, the " Wei Yuen " arrived from Chemulpo, with 
news of the troubles at the king's palace. 

Early in the morning of the 25th, the " Wei Yuen," 
" Kuang Yi," and " Tsi Yuen " started for China, and at 
about seven o'clock, when off the island of Poung Do, thev 
were met by the Japanese war vessels " Yoshino," " Akit- 
sushima," and "Naniwa," under command of Rear-Admiral 
Tsuboi. Turrets and guns were cleared for action. The 
*' Yoshino" and " Akitsushima" engaged the " Wei Yuen," 
while the " Naniwa " went in hot pursuit of the " Kuang 
Yi," damaging her so badly and pressing her so hard that 
her commander was forced to run her aground on a shoal 
place off the entrance to the bay. The " Naniwa " next 
joined in the pursuit of the " Tsi Yuen," which was fleeing 
towards the island of Shopajul, with badly damaged turret, 
steering gear, and other works. 

The transport " Kowshing," under the British flag, was 
now discovered coming in from the direction of China, and, 
to the southward, the Chinese steamer " Tsao Kiang " was 
seen on her way from Chefoo to Asan. The " Naniwa " 
made signal for the " Kowshing " to anchor about a mile 
from the island, and sent an officer to examine her. Later 

-9 



450 An American Cruiser in the East 

in the morning, the " Yoshino " continued to chase the 
" Tsi Yuen," and the " Akitsushima " started for the 
" Tsao Kiang," which vessel attempted to escape to China. 
The " Kowshing " was now directed to follow the 
"Naniwa," but the Chinese officials on board would not 
permit her English officers to obey the order. After several 
repetitions and non-compliance with the order, the " Na- 
niwa" discharged a torpedo at the " Kowshing " and opened 
fire upon her, sinking her in about a half-hour, after which 
the " Naniwa " steamed about the wreckage, and saved 
some of the people. The " Tsi Yuen " finally eluded the 
" Yoshino," when the latter vessel dropped her anchor, and 
in the early afternoon the " Akitsushima " returned with 
the " Tsao Kiang" as her prize. The next morning the 
little fleet steamed south, and, falling in with the " Yae- 
yama," transferred their prisoners to her for transportation 
to Japan. 

On the 25th, General Oshima, at the head of thirty-five 
hundred troops, left Seoul for Asan, where the Chinese 
were in force. The Chinese checked the ad\'ance p;uard of 
one of the attacking columns, but later the Chinese were 
met in considerable force at Seikwan, near Asan, and 
defeated. The main position at Asan was abandoned dur- 
ing the night, and an immense quantity of stores fell into 
the hands of the Japanese. The Chinese retreated, by a 
circuitous route around Seoul, to Ping-yang, and the Japa- 
nese returned to the capital. 

Ping-yang and the Yalu 

On July 31, the government of China made a formal dec- 
laration of a state of war, and the government of Japan did 
the same thing on August i. 

The most important duty assigned to the Japanese navy 
was to keep the sea communications between Japan and 



Appendix 451 

Korea safe, and to support the landing of their armies, and 
the work was admirably done. The fleet's base of operations 
was in the neighborhood of the Kokun Islands, and its 
guard vessels were kept hovering about the Gulf of Pichili, 
watching Ping-vang Inlet and the Shantung Promontory, 
while the fifth division of the Japanese army and war 
material of all kinds were rapidly pushed into Korea under 
this protection. 

The Chinese fleet remained in the Gulf of Pichili, appar- 
ently indifferent to the movements of the Japanese, and 
Chinese vessels accompanied their transports from Port 
Arthur to the Yalu without interference from the Japanese. 

On August 10, a Japanese fleet of twelve vessels and 
some torpedo boats exchanged shots with the forts at 
Wei-Hai-Wei, but, finding no large Chinese vessels in har- 
bor, they returned to Korea. 

The Chinese were in considerable force at Ping-yang, 
some having been sent from Taku, and great numbers 
having crossed over from Manchuria. The Japanese pre- 
pared to dislodge them, and on August 15 their main body 
left Seoul and took up the march for Ping-vang, while a 
column of infantry and artillery left Gen-san, the marches 
being so directed that a junction was successfully effected 
before Ping-yang was reached. On August 21, the first 
reserves of the fifth division under General Nodzu arrived 
at Chemulpo, in transports, and on the 25th they made a 
forced march to Ping-vang, where they assisted in the 
assault and capture. In August, a brigade of eight 
thousand men of the third division landed at Gen-san, when 
Colonel Sato marched across the mountains to Ping-yang, 
with five thousand men. 

On September 10, thirty-five transports arrived on the 
west coast of Korea, when six war vessels assisted them 
in landing the second brigade of the third division (about 
ten thousand men), the pontoon bridges for crossing the 



452 An American Cruiser in the East 

Yalu River, a large number of coolies, and vast quantities 
of stores and provisions ; while the main body of the fleet 
remained outside on the lookout. 

Ping-yang, naturally a strong position, had been greatly 
strengthened by the Chinese, who had about fifteen thou- 
sand men for its defence. The Japanese attacking forces 
amounted to about seventeen thousand. On September 15, 
the Japanese assaulted the outer works, advancing in three 
columns, the fighting lasting until night. The Chinese 
retreated towards the Yalu under cover of the darkness. 
The next morning, the Japanese took possession of the 
works and the city, and sent a force in pursuit of the fleeing 
Chinese ; but they were badly demoralized, and made no 
further stand on Korean soil. The Japanese moved up to 
the Yalu River, where they halted to await reinforcements. 
Their forces now in Korea consisted of the third and fifth 
divisions, with strong garrisons at Ping-yang, Seoul, Fu-san, 
and Gen-san. 

The Japanese fleet arrived at Ping-yang Inlet on the 
morning of September 15, when the Admiral sent four 
men-of-war and some torpedo boats up the river to assist 
the army in its operations against the Chinese. The re- 
mainder of the fleet was formed into two squadrons, and 
steamed up the coast, leaving the inlet the next morning. 
The first squadron, under command of Admiral Ito, was 
made up of the " Matsushima," " Chiyoda," " Itsuku- 
shirna," " Hochidate," " Hiyei," " Fuso," and the " Akagi," 
The second squadron, under command of Rear-Admiral 
Tsuboi, was composed of the " Yoshino," the " Taka- 
chiho," the " Akitsushima," the " Naniwa," and the armed 
steamer " Sakyo." 

The Chinese squadron cruised about Taku, Port Arthur, 
Wei-Hai-Wei, and the Gulf of Pichili, until the evening 
of September 14, when it headed for Talienwan Bay, 
where it was joined by the smaller vessels, and some 



Appendix 453 

torpedo boats. The entire squadron, under the command 
of Admiral Ting, and convoying five transports, with about 
five thousand troops and stores, sailed for the Yalu River, 
where it arrived on the i6th and landed the troops and 
stores under the guns of the " Ping Yuen," " Kuang 
Ping," and the torpedo boats, the "Ting Yuen," the 
"Chen Yuen," the "Lai Yuen," the "King Yuen," the 
"Chi Yuen," the " Ching Yuen," the " Chih Yuen," 
the " Chao Yuen," the " Yung Wei," the " Kuang Kia," 
and four small gunboats guarding the approaches. 

On the morning of the i 7th, smoke was reported, where- 
upon Admiral Ting got his fleet underway, and formed his 
line of battle, — the two battleships being in the centre, 
the smaller vessels on the flanks, and the gun and torpedo 
boats under cover of the fleet. The Chinese steamed 
slowly up to meet the approaching Japanese squadrons, 
which were advancing in column. 

The first squadron. Admiral Ito, was in the lead, and 
headed for the centre of the Chinese column, then slowly 
changed its course and passed its right wing. When the 
advance vessels of the Japanese squadron had approached 
to within about six thousand yards, the Chinese vessels 
opened fire upon them. The Japanese continued to advance 
upon their enemy's right flank, and when within about three 
thousand yards opened a deadly fire. 

After passing the flank, the " Ping Yuen," the " Kuang 
Ping," and the torpedo boats were attacked, but they 
avoided the assault. The squadron now hastened to the 
support of the " Hiyei " and the " Akagi." The Chinese 
vessels kept their bows toward their enemy, and slowly 
swung to starboard, as the Japanese vessels approached 
their right flank. The " Fuso " steamed close in front of 
the Chinese line, and the " Hiyei," having lost her position 
in line, was compelled to cross the Chinese line, between 
the " Chen Yuen " and the " King Yuen," and in so doing 



454 -^^ American Cruiser in the East 

was so badly damaged as to compel her commander to seek 
protection under cover of the vessels which had turned the 
Chinese flank, and were now in the rear of that fleet. 

The " Akagi," not being able to keep up with the first 
squadron, was exposed to the assault of all the vessels of 
the Chinese left wing. She was closely pressed by the 
" Lai Yuen," which vessel was set on fire, when the 
" Akagi " was enabled to withdraw. The second squadron 
was called to the assistance of the " Akagi," and fiercely 
assaulted the front of the Chinese line, while the first 
squadron was attacking it in the rear. The combined 
attack was maintained with great vigor, the Japanese vessels 
slowly withdrawing to long range, where they re-formed 
their columns. 

Early in the action, the Chinese fleet was thrown into 
disorder, and was not able to re-form. The " Chao Yuen " 
and the " Yuen Wei," disabled and on fire, headed for 
Talu Tao, where the " Yung Wei " sank soon after reach- 
ing shoal water, when her crew were taken off^ by one of 
the torpedo boats. The "Chao Yung" and the " Kuang 
Kia " were cut ofi:' from the fleet by the Japanese first 
squadron, and started to run from the battle. In the panic, 
the " Chao Yung " was rammed bv the " Chi Yuen," and 
sank in deep water, and the " Chi Yuen " soon sank as a 
result of her injuries. All the other vessels were more or 
less damaged, and were dropping away from the " Chung 
Yuen " and the " Ting Yuen," which bravely kept up the 
fight. 

The Japanese slowly drew their vessels out of range, but 
were followed up by the Chinese battleships, when the 
battle was soon renewed. The Japanese second squadron 
was sent after the retreating Chinese vessels, and sank the 
'■'■ King Yuen," while the first squadron of five vessels 
circled round and round the two Chinese battleships at 
long range. The " iVIatsushlma " was seriously injured. 



Appendix 455 

and had a large number of her people killed by beijig struck 
by a twelve-inch shell from the " Ting Yuen." 

At half-past five in the afternoon, after a hot engage- 
ment of seven hours and a half, the Japanese vessels 
steamed out of range, and closed the action. The 
remaining Chinese vessels steamed to Port Arthur, where 
they were repaired. The " Kuang Kia " being lost in the 
vicinity of Talienwan Bay, Admiral Ito transferred his flag 
to the " Hochidate," and during the night the fleet stood 
out to sea, returning in the morning, when the " Matsu- 
shima," the " Hivei," and the " Akagi," being badlv in- 
jured, were sent to Japan for repairs. The rest of the 
fleet returned to Ping-yang Inlet on the 19th, where all 
the other vessels were repaired. As soon as the vessels 
were ready for service, they were sent to cruise in the 
Gulf of Pichili, taking in Port Arthur and Shantung. 

Thirty-seven transports, containing eighteen thousand 
men of the first division, arrived in Ping-yang Inlet from 
Heisoshima, on October 22. They were convoved from 
here by the Japanese fleet and sixteen torpedo boats to 
Kwayeus, about eight v miles northeast of Port Arthur, 
where they landed on the 24th. The entire division was 
landed without opposition by the 29th, and the troops of the 
twelfth brigade of the sixth division, about nine thousand 
men, which had been encamped at Chemulpo, were brought 
over and landed by November 4. These movements were 
guarded by the vessels of the fleet, which were kept cruising 
in the vicinity. 

The Japanese moved on to the town of Pitsewo, and 
occupied it. The advance guard was then pushed on to 
Kinchau, which was defended by fifteen thousand Chinese 
troops. After an artillery duel of several hours' duration and 
an assault, Kinchau was captured on the 6th, the Chinese 
fleeing in the direction of Talienwan and Port Arthur. 

On November 6, the Japanese fleet, in companv with 



456 An American Cruiser in the East 

some tenders, sailed to the entrance of Talienwan Bay, 
leaving the vessels of their third squadron and a few others 
to protect the enemy's base. The tenders searched for 
mines, while the war vessels steamed back and forth across 
the entrance to the bay to draw upon themselves the fire 
of the forts. 

On the morning of the 7th, three of the vessels entered 
Talienwan Bay, and two entered Keu Bay, where they 
found that the forts had been abandoned by the Chinese, 
and were occupied by their own troops. The mines were 
soon removed, and Talienwan Bay was made the base of 
operations for the Japanese forces. 

The vessels of the Chinese squadron that had been in- 
jured at the battle at Ping-yang Inlet were now repaired 
and ready for service ; and having received their stores at 
Taku, they sailed for Wei-Hai-Wei on the 12th. The 
Japanese Admiral Ito, with the first, second, and third 
squadrons, and six torpedo boats, steamed about the en- 
trance to Wei-Hai-Wei on the i6th and 17th, in the hope 
of drawing the Chinese vessels out. On the i8th, he 
returned to Talienwan Bay, leaving the second squadron 
to watch the Chinese fleet. On the same day, the " Chen 
Yuen " struck upon a rock off Hwang Island, at the en- 
trance of Wei-Hai-Wei Bay, and received serious injuries. 

On the 13th the twelfth brigade reached Kinchau, and 
on the 17th the march was taken up for Port Arthur. 

The works at Port Arthur were very strong on the sea 
side, and on the land side were formed of redoubts of stone 
and earth, which commanded the hills for about three miles 
from the arsenal. These were connected by a wall that 
was of some value as a means of defence, and mounted 
guns of various calibres, from Krupps down to machine 
guns and Catlings. Ten of these works were located on 
the left hand and two on the right hand of the main 
road, and lines of rifle-pits covered their rear from the top 



Appendix 457 

of a steep ridge, being garrisoned by about thirteen thousand 
troops, while the Japanese force was twenty thousand, of 
whom about fifteen thousand were in the action. 

On the 1 8th, when about eight miles from Port Arthur, 
the Japanese advance was met by a large body of Chinese, 
who wounded a number of the Japanese, and drove them 
back to their main body. The Japanese steadily advanced 
in three columns, having fifty field and mountain and 
twenty-four siege guns. On the 20th, the Chinese made 
a sortie in force in two columns, threatening the Japanese 
right. A single shell put one column to flight, and the 
other was driven back after some little fighting. A Chinese 
force of about one thousand advanced to meet the Japanese 
right column, and was soon repulsed. The Japanese com- 
mander of the right column then paid his respects to the 
forts on the west of the main road, which he soon captured. 
The centre and left then pushed forward under cover of the 
artillery fire, and captured the works in front of them, 
meeting with little resistance. The Chinese fled in the 
direction of Port Arthur, leaving guns, stores, and ammuni- 
tion in good condition. They were pursued, the rifle-pits 
on the ridge were soon captured, and at two in the after- 
noon the Japanese troops occupied the camp. 

Several of the forts on the sea side were captured on the 
same day, and the remaining works were found abandoned 
on the 22d. The Chinese garrison was badly demoralized, 
and no attempts have been made to destroy any of the 
works, as forts and navy-yards were found to be in good 
condition. 

On the 2 1 St of November, the Japanese fleet, except the 
third squadron, which was on guard at Talienwan, steamed 
about the entrance to Port Arthur, some of the vessels of 
the fourth squadron exchanging shots with the forts. 
Late in the day, two torpedo boats came out of the harbor, 
when some of the Japanese torpedo boats destroyed them 



458 An American Cruiser in the East 

under the guns of the western forts. The fleet remained 
off the harbor all night, and on the next day found their 
army in possession of the place. The entrance was soon 
cleared of mines and torpedoes, when Port Arthur became 
the base of Japanese operations. 

The Invasion of Manchuria 

While the Japanese were awaiting reinforcements on 
the left bank of the Yalu River, the Chinese had selected 
a naturally strong position on the right bank, and erected 
earthworks. On October 24, the Japanese began the 
passage of the Yalu in columns. One column forded the 
river about twenty-five miles above its mouth, while the 
main body crossed on a pontoon bridge near the city of 
Wiju. On the next day, the Japanese charged the Chinese 
and defeated them, part fleeing towards Kiuliencheng, and 
the others towards Antong. The Japanese followed the 
Chinese and captured Kiuliencheng on the next day with- 
out opposition. The Chinese forces in these encounters 
amounted to about twenty-five thousand. 

The Chinese retreated in the direction of Fenhugangen, 
on the main road to Monkden, and through Antong on the 
road to Takushan, about thirty miles west of the entrance 
to the Yalu Kiver. They were hotly pursued in both 
directions, and were so badly demoralized that they aban- 
doned fieldpieces, small arms, and great quantities of stores 
and ammunition. 

General Tatsumi entered Fenghuanchung at the head of 
his brigade on the 31st, and found the Chinese fleeing in 
two directions, some on the road to Monkden, while others 
went in the direction of Haichang. General Oseka pursued 
the enemy to Siyuen, when they fell back to Semencheng, 
v/hich is situated on the Siyuen and Inku cross-roads. 

The third division, under General Katsura, attacked the 



Appendix 



459 



Chinese near Sumuchang, and dio\cthcm towards Haichang, 
which was captured and occupied by the Japanese on the 
13th. Here they intrenched themselves and rested. About 
the same time, General Tatsumi, with the fifth division, 
was doing some hard work in forced marches, fighting his 
way towards Liaoyang, where the Chinese offered consider- 
able resistance, and made numerous attempts to cut off 
their communications. The Japanese advance met a force 




Imperial Chinese Troops. 

which checked them at Matien Pass, on the Monkden 
road, but they made no effort to capture the pass, and 
General Ito harassed them by making several attempts, all 
of which were unsuccessful, to cut off the Japanese com- 
munications with the Yalu Ri\'er. 

The Japanese found the Chinese in considerable numbers 
a few miles west of Haichang, and only succeeded in driv- 
ing them off after several hours of hard fighting, during 
which the loss on both sides was very heavy. The 
Chinese retreated towards Nieuchwang. 



460 An American Cruiser in the East 

About the end of December, General Nogi left Kinchau 
for Kaiping with a brigade of the first division of the second 
army, which had been engaged at Port Arthur. He 
reached Kaiping on January 10, and drove the Chinese out 
with great loss, and as he was now within supporting dis- 
tance of the third division at Haichang, he opened commu- 
nication with it. The first division soon came up, under 
the command of Lieutenant-General Yamigi, when their 
forces were united. 

The Japanese now held Kaiping, Haichang, and Feng- 
huanchung, and kept their communications open with 
Takushan, Kiuliencheng, and Antong, which position 
remained practically unchanged until the end of February. 
The Chinese confronted them in superior numbers, there 
being a corps at Liaoyang, another at Nieuchwang, and one 
at Tienchwangtai, which also held the Inku. In January 
and February they made several attempts to recapture 
Haichang, but they were driven ofi^ with small loss to the 
Japanese. 

After the capture of Port Arthur, the Japanese fleet 
steamed about the Gulf of Pichili, and the entrance to 
Wei-Hai-Wei, using coal that had been captured at Port 
Arthur. On January 18, the " Yoshino," the " Akitsu- 
shima," and the " Takachiho " made a demonstration before 
Tenchan, about seventy miles west of Wei-Hai-Wei, which 
was repeated on the next day. These vessels then rejoined 
the fleet in Talienwan Bay, where they found the whole of 
the second division, and the eleventh brigade of the sixth 
division, — about twenty thousand men in all, — assembled 
on fifty transports which had arrived from Uijina. 

In the evening, the fleet convoyed twenty of the trans- 
ports, with troops, to Yungching Bay, on the Shantung 
Promontory, after which they took a threatening); position 
at the entrance to Wei-Hai-Wei, By the 23d, all the 
transports had arrived and landed their troops, not, however. 



Appendix 46 1 

until one of the vessels had opened fire and dispersed the 
Chinese who opposed the landing. 

Wei-Hai-Wei was defended against attack from the sea 
by strong earthworks on both the mainland and the islands, 
and heavy guns commanded both entrances. The land 
side was protected by earthworks that were mounted with 
field-guns, and the eastern islands had a clay wall about 
five feet thick. On the western side, a parapet of sand- 
bags had been built, and mounted with a number of 10.5 
centimetres, and a machine gun. The approaches were all 
mined. The island of Lingking had in barbette a number 
of guns, ranging from field-guns up to 9.4 inches calibre, 
and there was a well-built fort on Channel Island which 
mounted two 8-inch and a number of smaller guns. 

The Japanese advance guard occupied Yungching on 
the 20th, and on the 25th the Japanese moved forward in 
two columns. The eleventh brigade moved along the 
northern road, while the second division took the southern 
road, having daily encounters with a large body of Chinese 
who were retreating before it. These roads were very 
difficult, — mere bridle-paths, and almost impassable. 

Notwithstanding the fieldpieces had not come up, the 
eastern works were assaulted at about nine o'clock on the 
morning of the 30th, and by a quarter of one o'clock were 
in the possession of the Japanese. The larger vessels 
remained in position to assist in the attack if necessary, 
but the active work was done by the smaller ones. A 
party of officers and men from the fleet manned one of the 
captured forts at the eastern entrance, and opened a hot 
fire on the Channel Island fort. The fort on Channel 
Island, the eastern forts, and the imprisoned Chinese fleet 
replied with spirit. A battalion of Japanese troops was 
deployed across the beach to intercept the Chinese, who 
were fleeing from the eastern forts. While engaged with 
the Chinese, their line was enfiladed by the fire from several 



462 An American Cruiser in the East 

of their own vessels, and the battalion was nearly annihi- 
lated. On the next day, the Japanese southern column 
took position across the western promontory. The left 
of this line encountered the frenzied Chinese, who were 
fleeing from the western forts, and sustained great loss. 
After receiving reinforcements, they drove the Chinese off 
in the direction of Chefoo. The western forts were 
abandoned, and Wei-Hai-VVei was occupied without further 
resistance. 

The smaller vessels of the Japanese fleet were compelled 
to leave their station at the entrance to the harbor, and 
find shelter from a severe gale and snowstorm which raged 
for three days. On the 3d, the vessels returned and 
exchanged shots with the forts to divert attention from the 
parties who were examining the entrances to the harbor. 
A channel was found on the east side, and at two o'clock 
on the morning of the 5th, ten torpedo boats left the lee 
of Three-Peaked Point, and raced for the entrance. Eight 
of them succeeded in entering the harbor, and immediately 
attacked the Chinese fleet, firing eleven torpedoes. One 
torpedo from boat No. 9 struck the " Ting Yuen," when 
she was run into shoal water and sank ; later the Chinese 
blew her up. No. 9 received a shot in her boiler, and, being 
helpless, was abandoned. No. 22 grounded in trying to leave 
the harbor, and was lost. On the morning of the 6th, under 
cover of the darkness, five torpedo boats started for the 
harbor. Four succeeded in entering, and discharged several 
torpedoes, sinking the " Lai Yuen," the " Wei Yuen," 
and the tender " Panfah." After the exploit, all the torpedo 
boats returned safely, when some of the Japanese vessels 
and the eastern forts manned by Japanese opened fire on 
the Chinese fleet and island forts. On the 7th, the maga- 
zine on Channel Island exploded, and the fort was soon 
abandoned. The Chinese torpedo fleet tried to escape by 
the western entrance, but they were chased, and were all 



Appendix 463 

captured or destroyed by the first squadron. On the 9th, 
the Japanese placed mortar batteries in position near the 
western forts, and opened fire on the Lingking batteries at 
the same time the eastern forts opened on the island and 
the Chinese fleets. The firing lasted all day, and the 
" Ching Yuen" was sunk. On the nth, the Japanese 
fleet opened fire on the island forts, but a strong wind and 
heavy sea compelled the ships to stop firing, and draw out 
of range. During the winter months, the operations of 
the Japanese fleet were frequently interrupted by foul 
weather. 

On the 1 2th, Admiral Ting proposed to capitulate to 
Admiral Ito, and on the 17th the Japanese fleet steamed 
into the harbor, and took possession of the remaining ves- 
sels of the Chinese fleet, and of the forts. Admiral Ting 
committed suicide. The oflicers who had been captured 
were sent, with the dead Admiral, to Chefoo in the prize 
vessel " Kang Chi," which the Japanese furnished for the 
purpose. The "Chen Yuen," the " Tei Yuen," the 
" Ping Yuen," the " Kuang Ping," and six of the small 
gunboats were among the prizes, all of which were sent 
to Japan, except the " Chen Yuen," which was sent to 
Port Arthur for repairs. The forts and guns on the main- 
land were destroyed, the army was gradually withdrawn to 
Talienwan, and by the end of February there only remained 
320 men, and a naval force to look after Lingking. 

The Spring Campaign in Manchuria 
The first division of the second army, under command 
of Lieutenant-General Yamagi, was at Kaiping, and part 
of the fifth division, under General Nodzu, was at Haichang, 
when an advance was ordered. On February 24, troops 
were sent out from Kaiping, and, after some hard fighting, 
Tapingsham was captured. A few davs later, General 
Katsuma left Haichang with a force, and pushed the Chinese 



464 An American Cruiser in the East 

back some fifteen miles on the Laivang Road, and then 
went in the direction of Nieuchwang. At the same time, a 
part of the fifth division made a direct attack from Hai- 
chang, and captured the place on March 4, after a severe 
fight, which lasted from ten in the morning until eleven at 
night. The Chinese kept up a street fight, and defended 
themselves house by house. Lieutenant-General Yamagi 




Japanese Artillery. By a Japanese Artist. 

pushed on to Inku, which he took possession of on the 7th, 
the Chinese fleeing in all directions across the frozen river. 
On the 9th, the first army, assisted bv a brigade of the 
second army, moved on the Chinese at Tienchwangtai, on 
the west side of the Liao River, and captured the place after 
several hours' fighting. The main body of the Chinese 
had retreated before the assault began, leaving a small rear- 
guard to repeat the story of Nieuchwang, a running street 
fight, and from house to house. 



Appendix 465 

The Pescadores and Formosa 

The first and second squadrons were refitted in Japan, 
and made ready for operations against Formosa. The remain- 
ing vessels of the fleet continued cruising about the Gulf 
of Pichili. 

The seven war vessels under command of Admiral Ito 
convoyed five transports, with about three thousand troops 
and a battery of mountain artillery, and came to anchor off 
Pachan Island, Pescadores, on March 20. On the 23d, the 
troops were landed on Ponghan under cover of the fleet. 
Three of the vessels eng-aged a fort about four miles to the 
westward, and a fort nearer Makung. After the troops were 
established on shore, three more vessels were sent to assist 
against the forts, and at about two in the afternoon the 
Chinese abandoned the lower fort. 

On the morning of the 24th, the Japanese advanced 
against Makung, on the west side of Ponghan, where the 
Chinese soon abandoned their works, fleeing to Fisher Island 
in junks. The Japanese soon found that the Chinese had 
carried oft' the movable parts of the guns. As soon as the 
Japanese flag was raised upon the fort, at half-past eleven 
in the morning, the Chinese forts opened fire upon it from 
Fisher Island. Lieutenant Inouye of the navy, with thirty 
men, had accompanied the army. He was able to get 
the disabled guns in working order, and turned their fire 
upon Fisher Island. Not getting a return fire, he crossed 
over in a sampan at night, and found that the Chinese had 
abandoned their forts and escaped to the mainland. After 
searching for mines, the fleet entered the harbor on the 26th, 
but moved outside again on account of cholera among the 
troops. 

By the terms of the armistice, which became effective on 
March 30, active operations were suspended in the districts 
of Monkden, Chili, and Shantung. The Japanese were in 

30 



466 An American Cruiser in the East 

force at Talienwan and Kinchan, and additional troops were 
being assembled in Japan. The Chinese were in force at 
Kuiu, at Monkden, at Sharhaiwan, at Taku, at Tientsin, 
and in great numbers in the vicinity of Peking, which city, 
it was feared, would be next assailed. The Japanese fleet 
had full control of the seas, and there was no important 
Chinese force south of the Japanese lines. 

The Japanese Imperial Guard arrived at Kulung, For- 
mosa, about the end of May, as an army of occupation. 

The treaty of peace was signed by the representatives 
of the two Powers on April 17, 1895, and ratifications by 
the Emperors of Japan and China were exchanged on 
May 8. The treaty provided for the full and complete 
surrender of Korea ; the cession by China to Japan of 
Formosa and the Pescadores ; the payment of a war in- 
demnity of 200,000,000 taels ; the opening to trade of 
several Chinese cities hitherto closed ; the extension of 
Japanese steam navigation to several rivers in China ; and 
the security of certain rights to Japanese subjects in China. 
Japan agreed to evacuate Chinese territory within three 
months, but to occupy Wei-Hai-Wei temporarily, at the 
partial expense of China, as a guarantee of the faithful 
performance of the stipulations of the treaty ; prisoners 
of war were to be exchanged, and Chinese subjects who 
had been compromised in their relations with the Japanese 
army were not to be punished. 

Japan was also to have possession of the southern part 
of the Feng-tien, including Port Arthur, but by an Im- 
perial rescript, dated June 10, 1895, the Japanese Govern- 
ment expressed the intention of leaving this territory under 
Chinese jurisdiction. The document reads thus : — 

" Since, then, the Government of their Majesties, the Emperors 
of Russia and Germany and of the Republic of France, have united 
in a recommendation to our Government not to permanently pos- 
sess the peninsula of Feng-tien, our newly acquired territory, on 



Appendix 467 

the ground that such permanent possession would be detrimental 
to the lasting peace of the Orient. 

" Devoted as we unalterably are, and ever have been, to the 
principles of peace, we were constrained to take up arms against 
China for no other reason than our desire to secure for the Orient 
an enduring peace. 

"Now the friendly recommendation of the three Powers was 
equally prompted by the same desire. Consulting, therefore, the 
best interests of peace, and animated by a desire not to bring upon 
our people added hardship, or to impede the progress of national 
destiny by creating new complications, and thereby making the 
situation difficult and retarding the restoration of peace, we do not 
hesitate to accept such recommendation." 

Formosa and the Pescadores were formally transferred 
from China to Japan at Kulung, Formosa, on the 2d day 
of June, by the Chinese High Commissioner to Admiral 
Kalayama, the Japanese Governor-General. He found that 
the Chinese officials and troops had been withdrawn, but 
the aboriginal natives, whose fears and prejudices had been 
played upon, were in a state of rebellion and war. His 
troops, therefore, had to fight their way and restore order 
out of the chaos which reigned in those beautiful islands. 

During the entire war, 623 Japanese were killed in 
battle; 2,489 died of cholera ; 2,981 died of other diseases; 
and of the 3,155 wounded, 172 died of their wounds. It 
is not known how many Chinese were killed and wounded, 
as their organization was too imperfect to justify even an 
approximate estimate of the numbers. 

There were some splendid duels on field and deck, but 
the discipline, steadiness, and equipment of the Japanese 
were too much for the ill-armed and worse-disciplined 
troops and sailors under the " dragon flag." 

Through innumerable hardships, in the face of the 
typhoons and during the terrible winter of Manchuria, the 
Japanese sailors and soldiers bore themselves as m.en con- 



468 An American Cruiser in the East 

scious of their strength, and were humane and generous to 
their vanquished foes. Scanty rations and medicines were 
shared with enemies. The wounded, the women, and the 
children were cared for and succored. Safeguards and pro- 
tection were thrown about the captured towns and villages, 
and justice was shown toward the humblest. 



Appendix II 



MORE ABOUT THE PHILIPPINES 

THE Philippines lie between 5 and 22 degrees of north 
latitude and 117 and 127 degrees of east longitude, 
about six hundred and thirty miles from the coast of China, 
with the China Sea washing their western shores and the 
Pacific Ocean dashing its spray against the green-crowned 
rocks and upon the beaches of their eastern coasts. 

A glance at a map of the world will show the distance 
from San Francisco to Hawaii to be about two thousand 
miles, from Hawaii to the Caroline Islands about as much 
more, and from the Carolines to the Philippines it is about 
the same, making the whole distance from San Francisco 
to the Philippines a little more than seven thousand miles, 
through summer seas and delightful breezes, on almost the 
identical track that was traversed by the old Spanish gal- 
leons in their journeys between Mexico and the Philippines 
during the first three hundred years after the settlement 
of the Philippines by the Spaniards. It must be remem- 
bered that all communication between Spain and the 
islands was kept up by way of Mexico until 1818, when 
Mexico freed herself from Spanish rule. 

The Philippines are not on the direct course of the regu- 
lar mail lines which ply along the coast of China, and are 
seldom visited by tourists, and thus their natural beauties 
have not been seen and enjoyed to the extent that most 
other lands have been. Their delightful climate has not 



47 



o An American Cruiser in the East 



been known ; and the quaint old city of Manila has not 
been much explored nor its beauties enjoyed or appreciated, 
even by many who think they have seen the world. 

The Philippines consist of some one thousand islands, 
islets, and rocks, which contain 52,500 square miles of as 
varied and beautiful scenery and fertile lands as can be found 
under the sun. The climate is a perpetual summer, where 
the thermometer ranges between 60° and 90°, and there are 
three well-marked seasons of the year, — the first cold and 
dry, lasting from November to March ; when it becomes 
warm, but is still dry, until June ; when the wet season 
beo-ins, and lasts until November. The land is clothed with 
a rich verdure that is interspersed with beautiful flowers and 
trees throughout the year. The numerous mountains, dark 
valleys and lowlands, waterfalls, cascades, bays, and streams 
make it an ideal home for the lounger or health-seeker; 
and the gentle breezes which spring up at the setting of 
the sun give strength and life. Almost every form of life 
thrives here, while about eight millions of inhabitants enjoy 
its bounty and beauties. 

The principal islands are Luzon, Panay, Negros, Cebu, 
Saman, Mindanao, and Levte. Manila, on the island of 
Luzon, Cebu, on the island of Cebu, Ilo Ilo, on the island 
of Panay, and Zamboango, on Mindanao, are the open 
ports for foreign trade ; but the regulations and restrictions 
are almost prohibitive, except at Manila, where there is 
more liberality, but manv obstructions and hindrances to 
commerce exist even there. If these regulations were 
properly modified and intelligentlv administered, these would 
become thriving cities of vast proportions, for they are sur- 
rounded by countries that are proverbially fertile, rich in 
mineral deposits, and teeming with a native population that 
is eager to have restrictions to their industrv removed. 

The Spaniards ha\'e been in possession of the coast of the 
islands for more than three hundred vears ; but the natives 



Appendix 47 1 

in the foot-hills and on the high lands have never been 
brought into subjection to them, as they have always resisted 
and waved fierce war against their would-be masters. 

The Spaniards found the islands settled by a brown race, 
supposed to be descended from Malays, whose ancestors 
settled here many centuries ago, and who had reached a high 
state of civilization before their advent. The people of the 
northern islands, including Luzon, are called " Togalogs ; " 
those of the middle islands, " Visayas ; " and the southern, 
" Sulus." The Togalogs are of medium stature, copper- 
colored, inclining to brown, with pleasant features, black 
eyes, small, well-formed nose, large mouth, small and deli- 
cate hands and feet, coarse black hair, and scant beard. 
They have generous instincts, and are the most civilized 
and hospitable of all these people. The Visayas, who in- 
habit the southern middle islands, are descended from the 
Togalogs amalgamated with the Mussulmans of the far 
South, and are less civilized, having brutish instincts. 
Negros was peopled by criminals who fled from Luzon and 
its neighboring islands, and are the lowest order of people 
on the islands. They were a lawless set until about fifty 
years ago, when they committed some terrible atrocities, 
and extraordinary means were used to subdue them, and 
they were brought under subjection. 

These races have always had great antipathy for each 
other, and the people of each despise those of the others to 
this day. The people of Sulu and the tribes in the southern 
middle islands — Basilin, Balibac, Paragua, and Mindanao — 
reject all authority except that of their own chiefs and the 
protectorate of the Sultan of Sulu. They are believers in 
Mahomet, and are impatient at all overtures to change their 
religion. It is believed that the sultanate was founded, about 
eight hundred years ago, by Mussulmans from Lidia and 
China. The present capital of the sultan is at Mayburn. 

Early in the fifteenth century, Hernando de Maghallans, 



472 An American Cruiser in the East 

a Portuguese nobleman of good education, disgusted with 
the treatment which he received in his own country, abjured 
Portugal, and became a Spanish subject. The King of Spain 
received him kindly, and on August lo, 15 19, under the 
patronage of Charles I. of Spain, and with the blessing of 
the Pope, he set sail from San Lucae de Banameda on a 
voyage of discovery, with the ships, "La Trinidad," "San 
Antonio," "Victoria," "Santiago," and " Concepcion." 

On December 13, 15 19, he arrived at Rio Janeiro, and 
from there followed the coast line of South America in 
search of an opening into the Pacific Ocean. After many 
hardships, incident to mutinies amongst some of his follow- 
ers, the rigor of the climate, and lack of fresh provisions and 
water, on October 28, 1520, he beheld for the first time 
the open water which connects the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans, — the strait which now bears his name, — and 
vindicated the prognostications of Columbus that a water 
route must exist from Europe to the far East by way of the 
west. On November 26, 1520, he found himself on the 
broad Pacific, and boldly stood to the northward and west- 
ward; and on March 16, 1521, he reached the Ladrone 
Islands, and sailed along the north coast of Mindanao. 
During Easter week of the same year he arrived at the en- 
trance to the Butuano River, where the first mass in the 
Philippines was celebrated. The natives were curious, 
friendly, and hospitable ; and to show his appreciation of 
them, he took formal possession of their country in the 
name of his royal master, Charles I. The Butuano king 
guided Maghallans' fleet to the fertile island of Cebu, where 
they arrived on April 7, and built a rude church in which 
to house their sacred vessels and celebrate the sacraments. 
The natives at Cebu were at war with the people of the 
island of Magton ; and on April 25, 1521, Maghallans went 
over to Magton to assist in an attack upon them, when he 
was mortally wounded by a poisoned arrow. Thus perished 



Appendix 473 

the man who had added lustre to the Spanish flag and the 
" Pearls of the Orient " to Spain's domain. 

In 1570, Miguel de Legaspi fitted out an expedition in 
Mexico and sailed for the Philippines, where he completed 
the annexation of all the islands to the throne of Castile. 
While at Cebu, Legaspi heard wonderful stories of a native 
city further up the coast, called Mavnila, whose people did 
a great trade with the Chinese. In 1571, he went up to 
see the wonderful place ; and as his mission was to grab 
everything valuable, he negotiated with the King ot Mavnila, 
and soon made the king accept the protection of the King 
of Castile. Legaspi was so pleased with the city and its 
surroundings that he declared Maynila to be the capital of 
the Philippines, and Cebu was handed over to the ecclesias- 
tical authority. 

From time immemorial the Chinese have been coming to 
Maynila in junks laden with silks and the rich wares of 
Canton and Amoy, which they bartered to the natives ; and 
in later years, when the government at Maynila became 
more stable, the Chinese began to locate there and inter- 
marry with the natives. They soon became so numerous 
that a portion of the city was designated for their residence. 
Several times the Chinese have been in unsuccessful rebel- 
lion against the Spanish authority. The population of 
Manila is now about 350,000, of which number 60,000 
are Chinese and 10,000 Chinese half-castes; and there are 
about 40,000 Chinese and Chinese half-castes in the islands 
outside of Manila. 

The Togalog, Visaya, Moro, and Chinese languages and 
some thirty dialects of them are spoken by the people on 
the islands, but Spanish is the official language. 

The Philippine Islander is a very matter-of-fact person ; 
there is very little of the dreamer about him. He sleeps in 
the middle of the day in a shady place, but is wide awake 
and enterprising at all other times. He is a reasoning 



474 ^^^ American Cruiser in the East 

creature, who is always asking the why of everything. He 
loves to be free, — free as the night breezes of his own 
Philippines; but circumstances make him restless and a 
wanderer. He is easily managed by honest treatment. He 
loves to follow a brave leader, but despises a coward. He 
is as sensitive as a woman, as brave as a lion, and makes a 
fine soldier or sailor. If he realizes that he has done wrong, 
he will make any reparation in his power; but if he feels 
that he has been wronged, he will follow his enemy to the 
furthermost part of the earth for his revenge. This accounts 
for the wonderfully brave fight he is now making against 
his Spanish foes. Their motto has been, "The end justi- 
fies the means ; " and the Philippine Islander believes them 
to have been the authors of all his woes. Owing to his 
inability to comprehend a religion of love when administered 
by torture and by force, he has become insincere, and it has 
made no further impression upon his mind than that due to 
its outward observance. He promises all things, but may 
perform none ; his moral sense has been blunted by the 
tyrannical acts of his masters, and a lie is no sin to him. He 
needs to be grasped by the hand, and to have whispered into 
his ear the magic words, " My brother," instead of being 
brained with a brazen crucifix by a " relic of the Inquisi- 
tion," or throttled with a Spanish bayonet. He will make 
a good, loyal subject or citizen under a just and honest 
government, which is his ideal and hope ; but he is now 
restless and impatient under oppression. 

The Friars have been the actual rulers of the Philippines 
since 151 7, when they commenced to convert the heathens 
of these islands. The Augustinian, Dominican, Franciscan, 
and Recoleto Orders have always had the civil and military 
to do their bidding, and there have always been jealousies 
and contentions between them, which have been closely 
watched by the natives, whose disgust of the foreign yoke 
has been greatly increased thereby. There have been fierce 



Appendix 475 

and ofttimes bloody contests between the Friars and the 
governors, in which the latter have almost always been the 
losers. Any governor-general who displeases the monks is 
recalled. General Despujolo had to leave in 1892, after 
only eight months of office, because he did not please the 
priests, and General Blanco was recalled at their instigation. 

Foreman writes : — ■ 

" There has been much discontent amongst the secular 
native priests because the monks insisted upon holding the 
incumbencies, notwithstanding the rules of their own orders 
and the decree of the Council of Trent, which forbade it. 
The Friars nipped this native ambition by instigating a revolt 
of the troops at Cavite and charging the plot to the native 
priests. In 1872 four native priests were publicly executed 
for it, and it was declared that native priests were incompe- 
tent to hold incumbencies. Several of the best families of 
Manila were banished and robbed of their property at the 
same time. 

" There are about six hundred and twenty parishes in 
Manila, of which the Friars unlawfully hold about ninety- 
five per cent. A Spanish parish priest is above all civil 
law; he cannot sue or be sued. He is independent of all 
state authority, and meddles in every affair of the town- 
ship by recognized right ; if he cannot have things go his 
way, he singles out his opponent for revenge, and always 
obtains it. 

" I remember meeting the expedition sent North from 
Manila in 1 881, to reduce men who have never been brought 
under subjection. It was a total failure, but the general was 
rewarded with the title of ' Conde de la Union,' and a ' Te 
Deum ' was chanted in the capital in thanksgiving for 
imaginary victories. The theory which soothed the con- 
sciences of the first military leaders was that the soul must 
either be prepared for salvation in the living man, or the 
body must be annihilated. For generation after generation 



476 An American Cruiser in the East 

raids were repeatedly made on the natives for the crime of 
passive resistance to what they could not comprehend. 
With the cry of ' Viva Castilla ! ' bands of Spanish soldiers 
opened the way with blood for the monks to enter into the 
breach and palliate the wound with silvery phrases to the 
terror-stricken converts. The cry of ' Castilla ' has come 
to represent everything that is terrible beyond all hope of 
mercy. 'Castilla' in the north, and 'Cochila' in the south 
mean the same, and it is common to hear mothers frighten 
their children into good behavior and quietness with the 
dread word, ' Castilla.' " 

From 15 17, when Legaspi took possession of Manila, 
until 1819, when Mexico threw off the Spanish yoke, these 
beautiful islands were virtually dependencies of Mexico, 
and during all these years there was no direct communica- 
tion between them and Spain except through Mexico. 

There has always been a struggle between the merchants 
of the Philippines and the home country for liberty to trade 
freely with Mexico and China, — their natural markets, — 
but the Spanish king and his advisers always restricted this 
trade as much as possible, as they were anxious to retain 
the Mexican markets for the merchants of Spain. Their 
theory seemed to be that Philippine goods must be paid for 
in Mexican dollars, which would partially close the Mexi- 
can markets to the merchants of Spain, and, at the same 
time, supply the Philippines with Mexican dollars with 
which to purchase the rich silks and fabrics of China, for 
their own use and for trade with Mexico. 

The arrival of a junk from China or a galleon from 
Mexico was an event in the annals of Manila. The traders 
would swarm about her in their out-rigger canoes, the news 
would be published, friends greeted, strangers scanned, the 
wonderful goods displaved, or the rough kegs of Mexican 
dollars would be sent on shore, while the noise of gongs^ 
tom-toms, and beating drums would be deafening behind 



Appendix 477 

the eyes of the jiink ; or the dignified friar would offer his 
thanks for a safe arrival at the little oratory under the ban- 
ner of his far-away Castilla. 

In 1572, Li Ma Han landed at Manila with about two 
thousand Chinese, but he was defeated and driven out by 
the Spaniards and natives, under Juan de Solcedo. In 1606 
five ships of the Netherlands blockaded the islands, but they 
were finally destroyed bv the Spanish fleet. In 1762, Ma- 
nila was taken by the British, but was ceded back to Spain 
in 1764 for a ransom of one million pounds sterling, which 
was never paid. 

The public revenue is about fifteen million dollars per 
annum, of which the larger part is raised from direct taxes, 
customs, and monopolies, and this could easily be doubled 
by a liberal system. 

No matter what the result of the Spanish-American war 
may be, it would be one of the blackest crimes of history 
to hand these native people back to Spain, or to give them 
up to any monarchical government. They have always 
wanted liberty, and have fought the Spaniards for it on 
many a hotly contested field since 1522. All they ask is 
a chance for life, liberty, and the pursuits of happiness, and 
they care not whether it be a republic of their own, or some 
form devised for them by the great United States of North 
America. 

When Dewey fired his first shell on the first of May, 
it proclaimed liberty throughout these island seas and bays, 
and echoed back liberty as it struck down the " Reina 
Cristina " and the Spanish fleet, since which time the 
natives iiave been 

"Coming from the hill-tops 
Coming from the plains, 
Shouting the battle-cry of freedom " 

These people need steamships of from one hundred to 
five hundred tons to trade amongst the islands ; they need 



478 An American Cruiser in the East 

steamships of from three thousand to five thousand tons to 
trade with the United States and other parts of the world; 
they need railways, locomotives, and cars for internal traffic; 
and they need thin dress-goods, all sorts of thin white goods, 
insertions and laces, black and white prints of thin cotton, 
silk and woollen goods, thin-woven and knit goods, fancy 
and staple hardware, tin ware, groceries, canned goods and 
flour, steam-engines, pumps, sugar-mills, agricultural im- 
plements, furniture, books and stationery, and our public- 
school system. They can pay for these with sugar, tobacco, 
hemp, camphor, rice (which are produced in great quanti- 
ties), coal, gold, and many varieties of beautiful hard woods. 
Why should our people not have this trade ? 



Appendix III 



NAVAL BATTLE OF CAVITE 

U. S. S. "Baltimore," 
Off Cavite, Manila Bay, July lo, 1898. 

A PAGE has been written in Spanish-American history 
in Asiatic waters. Two of the proudest nations on 
earth have met in conflict, in their terrible steel monsters, 
and the conclusion was short, sharp, and decisive. The 
Spanish fleet was annihilated, and the starry banner floats 
over the conquered bay. 

On the 25th of March, 1898, the U.S.S. " Baltimore" 
left Honolulu, H. I., with ammunition for the fleet in Asiatic 
waters, and arrived at Yokohama, Japan, on the lOth of 
April, where she was filled up with coal and other stores ; 
on the 15th she left Yokohama, and arrived at Hong-kong, 
China, on the 22d, where she was docked, cleaned, and 
painted, changing the white of peace for the smoke-color 
of war. She was filled up with coal, and a beginning was 
made to strip the vessel for the horrible work that might be 
before her. 

"Our British Cousins" at Hong-kong notified us to 
leave their port, as they objected to our making anv prepa- 
rations for war in their waters, and the following Proclama- 
tion of Neutralitv was issued by the acting Governor of 
the Colony : — 

" Whereas, the Right Honorable Joseph Chamberlain, Her 
Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies, has in- 
formed the Government of this Colony that war has unhappily 



480 An American Cruiser in the East 

broken out between the Kingdom of Spain and the United States of 
America, and has communicated Her Majesty's commands that all 
of her subjects shall observe a strict neutrality in and during the 
said war, and shall abstain from violating or contravening either the 
laws and statutes of the realm in their behalf, or the laws of nations 
in relation thereto, as they will answer to the contrary at their 
peril." 

Then follow extracts from the Act, which passed in the 
thirty-third and thirty-fourth year of Her Majesty's reign, 
and is intituled "An Act to regulate the conduct of Her 
Majesty's subjects during the existence of hostilities between 
foreign states with which Her Majesty is at peace," the 
subjects dealt with being illegal enlistments, illegal ship- 
building, and illegal expeditions. 

On the 25th of April the fleet moved out to Mir's Bay 
(which is on the Chinese coast, a short distance from Hong- 
kong), where it anchored the same afternoon. On the 
afternoon of the 27th, Mr. Williams, the U. S. Consul 
to Manila, who had left Manila a few days before and 
had taken refuge in Hong-kong, took up quarters on the 
U. S. S. " Baltimore," and brought us a copy of the procla- 
mation of the Governor-General of the Philippines. This 
is extremely interesting in view of later events, and reads 
as follows : — 

Extraordinary Proclamation 
OF THE Governor-General of the Philippine Islands 
Spaniards : 

Between Spain and the United States of North America hostili- 
ties have broken out. 

The moment has arrived to prove to the world that we possess 
the spirit to conquer those who, pretending to be loyal friends, take 
advantage of our misfortunes and abuse our hospitality, using means 
which civilized nations count unworthy and disreputable. 

The North American people, constituted of all the social 
excrescences, have exhausted our patience and provoked war 



Appendix 483 



with their perfidious machinations, with their acts of treacherv, 
with their outrages against the law of nations and international 
conventions. 

The struggle will be short and decisive. The God of victories 
will give us one as brilliant and complete as the righteousness 
of our cause demands. Spain, which counts upon the sympathies 
of all the nations, will emerge triumphantly from this new test, 
humiliating and blasting the adventurers from those states that, 
without cohesion and without a history, offer to humanity only 
infamous traditions and the ungrateful spectacle of Chambers in 
which appear united insolence and defamation, cowardice and 
cynicism. 

A squadron manned by foreigners, possessing neither instruction 
nor discipline, is preparing to come to this archipelago with the 
ruffianly intention of robbing us of all that means life, honor, and 
liberty. Pretending to be inspired by a courage of which thev are 
incapable, the North American seamen undertake as an enterprise 
capable of realization the substitution of Protestantism for the 
Catholic religion you profess, to treat you as tribes refractory to 
civilization, to take possession of your riches as if they were un- 
acquainted with the rights of property, and to kidnap those per- 
sons whom they consider useful to man their ships, or to be 
exploited in agriculture or industrial labor. 

Vain designs ! Ridiculous boastings ! Your indomitable bravery 
will suffice to frustrate the attempt to carry them into realization. 
You will not allow the faith you profess to be made a mock of, 
impious hands to be placed on the temple of the true God, the 
images you adore to be thrown down by unbelief. The aggressors 
shall not profane the tombs of your fathers ; they shall not gratify 
their lustful passions at the cost of your wives' and daughters' 
honor, or appropriate the property your industry has accumulated 
as a provision for your old age. 

No ! they shall not perpetrate any of the crimes inspired by 
their wickedness and covetousness, because vour valor and patriot- 
ism will suffice to punish and abase the people that, professing to 
be civilized and cultivated, have exterminated the natives of North 
America instead of bringing to them the life of civilization and 
progress. 



484 An American Cruiser in the East 

Philipinos ! prepare for the struggle, and, united under the 
glorious Spanish flag, which is ever covered with laurels, let us fight 
with the conviction that victory will crown our efforts, and to the 
calls of our enemies let us oppose, with the decision of the Christian 
and patriot, the cry '* Viva Espafia ! " 

Your General, 
(Signed) Basalio Agustin Davilla. 

Manila, April 23, 1898. 

At 2.15 P.M., on April 27, the fleet was formed in line 
in the following order, — flagship " Olympia," " Baltimore," 
"Raleigh," "Petrel," "Concord," and "Boston," with 
the revenue steamer " McCulloch " and the transports 
" Nanshan " and " Zafiro " on the oft' side of the war ves- 
sels, — and started for the entrance to Manila Bay. Soon 
alter dark the commanding officers were called to the flag- 
ship, and when they returned the following telegram was 
published : — 

Dewey, — Hostilities have commenced ; begin operations in 
the Philippines ; capture or destroy the Spanish fleet. — Long. 

On the afternoon of April 30, the " Baltimore " fired the 
first gun of the war in the Eastern hemisphere. The "Con- 
cord " and the " Boston " were making a reconnoissance 
in Subig Bay under the protection of the " Baltimore," 
when a schooner flying the Spanish flag was made out on 
the opposite side of the entrance to the bay. The " Bal- 
timore " fired a shot across the schooner's bow from one 
of her small guns, when the astonished skipper hauled down 
his sails and hove to. A boarding party from the " Balti- 
more " brought the skipper and four of his men on board, 
where they were examined and permitted to leave, as they 
did not even know that a state of war was existing between 
Spain and the United States. When the three vessels 



w^ 



\^i- 



Appendix 485 

rejoined the fleet, about dark, the commanding officers 
reported on board the flagship, and when they returned, 
the ships' companies were informed that the forts at the 
entrance to Manila Bay were to be passed that nis^ht. 

The fleet steamed along slowly, under a beautiful 
moonlight that was now bright, or now hidden bv fleecy 
clouds; and at 10.30 "Battle Stations " was sounded for 
action, when officers and men jumped to their places as the 
Star-Spangled Banner was set at each mast-head and on 
each side of the after rigging. Soon we were to the south 
of Corregidor, the Gibraltar of the Philippines, and after 
the flagship " Olympia," the "Baltimore," and the " Ra- 
leigh " were well headed up the channel, the batteries of 
Restinga, or Fraile, and on Corregidor opened their fire 
upon us. The moon had sunk low, but was yet above the 
horizon. Hissing shells chased each other over us, or tell 
short, as we steamed slowly on, and only returned the fire 
when we thought we could locate a flash, as we were re- 
serving our ammunition for bigo-er game in the morning. 
In about two hours the entire fleet had slowly passed the 
batteries, had passed over the torpedoes and the mines un- 
harmed, and was heading for Cavite, the Spanish naval 
station, which is about twelve miles below Manila. By 
the time we were well inside of the bav, the moon had set, 
and we were in darkness, only relieved by the twinkling 
stars which showed us the way as we timed our speed so 
as to reach Cavite at early dawn. 

The scenes on board the " Baltimore " were no\'el and 
strange, even to a sailor's eye. The bulkheads had been 
torn awav from the officers' quarters and given into old 
Neptune's keeping, and temporary hangings and curtains 
were improvised to screen the inmates from public gaze. 
Men of the gun's crews watched by turns, and slept about 
the decks, belted and readv; the men of the powder division 
slept, spoon fashion, upon the hard deck of the ward-room ; 



486 An American Cruiser in the East 

and some were in uniform, but many were begrimed and 
stripped to the waist tor the past and the coming tray. 

Below, in the depths of the vessel, the tiremen toiled be- 
fore the great boiler tires, where intense heat and weird flames 
gave the place the appearance of a hell, and they looked 
like begrimed imps of very darkness, dancing and panto- 
miming, as they worked their tires, or threw on more fuel; 
and the engineers and machinists watched and handled the 
great engines of the smoke-colored monster that was carry- 
ing horrible war up the peaceful bay on this beautiful tirst 
Mav morn. 

At 5.05 in the morning, which was calm, clear, and as 
beautiful as any that has ever smiled upon the Philippines, 
the flagship made signal : " Prepare for general action." 
The " Baltimore " had been ready all night, and the men 
and otEcers jumped to their guns and stations, the click ot 
the breach-plug could be heard as others manned the am- 
munition hoists, while a few poor firemen who had been 
let out of their hot holes to get a few lifegiving breaths of 

O CO 

the fresh morning air, rushed down to their infernal-like 
compartments about their tires, and the marines mustered 
about the after eight-inch guns, all ready for the tray. 
Our vessels steamed very slowly, in the same order in 
which they had passed the forts at Corregidor, except 
that the '•'■ McCuUoch " lay off in the bay with the two 
transports. 

At 5.15 a challenge shot was tired at the head of our 
column by one of the batteries on Point Cavite, which was 
immediately followed by the Spanish vessels " Castilla " 
and " Don Antonio de Ulloa " using their port batteries, as 
they were moored bow and stern off Point Cavite. The 
flagship " Reina Cristina," a protected cruiser with a 
main battery of six 5.2 inch guns, the cruisers '•'• Isla de 
Cuba," "Isla de Luzon," and the " Don Juan de Austria," 
and the gunboat " Isla de Mindanao," were under steam, 




Spanish Flag-ship and Castilla in Foreground. United States 
Fleet in Background. British Merchant Vessel in Middle- 
ground. Manila Harbor, 8 a. m., May i, 1898. 




Effect of c-inch Shell ix Malite Fort. 



Appendix 487 

and occasionally retired behind Point Cavite, — no doubt 
trying to lead us in over their torpedoes, which were be- 
lieved to be planted in the entrance and bay. The gunboats 
*' General Lezo," '^Marques del Duero," "El Correo," 
and another one were inside the basin behind Point Cavite, 
from whence they could fire upon us without our being 
able to see just where they were. 

Our vessels steamed in column up past the forts and 
fleet, turning and passing down again, making five long 
loops during the first engagement, our range varying from 
five thousand to twenty-five hundred yards, which could not 
be shortened on account of the shallow water. 

Early in the fight, a torpedo boat was gallantly dashed 
out from Point Cavite at high speed, evidently intending to 
torpedo the flagship or the " Baltimore;" but the secondary 
batteries of those vessels were handled with such precision, 
skill, and rapidity that the boat was hastily turned and 
headed for the shore, when a well-directed eight-inch shell 
from the "Baltimore " soon finished her. Still the cruel 
work went on, each vessel of each fleet taking every advan- 
tage possible to destroy its adversary. During the entire 
engagement there was no breeze, and the dense black smoke 
from the funnels hung like a pall about the slow-moving 
vessels, and for more than two mortal hours the carnage 
reigned. Shot and shell flew through the air from the ves- 
sels of both fleets and the shore batteries ; huge tongues of 
black-red flame licked into the dense smoke, and the quick, 
sharp crack of the rifle, the thunder roar of the enemy's 
guns, the hissing of flying shells, the prayers, the moans, 
and the curses of the wounded and the dying, and the lusty 
cheers for a successful shot, all mingled and went up with 
the great smoke-crowned columns of flame, as vessel after 
vessel was fired, and finally exploded and sank, making a 
scene of wreck and death that could only be produced by 
cruel war. 



488 An American Cruiser in the East 

At 7.35 the signal was made by our flagship: "With- 
draw from action." 

The Spanish flagship " Reina Cristina," Admiral Mon- 
tojo commanding the station, was set on hre early in the 
action, but continued steaming and fighting until we with- 
drew, when she burst into flames all over and soon blew 
up. The Spanish admiral was slightly wounded, and her 
commander and 136 others were killed. One of our 
officers, who watched an eight-inch shell enter her side and 
explode, says, " It looked like a barrel of hell-fire going 
into her." One other vessel was set on fire during the 
interval between actions, and three of the Spanish gun- 
boats withdrew behind Cavite Point, and kept up their fire 
from under its cover. 

During the first action our fire was wholly directed at 
the enemy's ships, and their forts were ignored. 

At 10.40 the signal was made to " Form column on the 
flagship." At this time the "Baltimore" was steaming 
full speed after a suspicious vessel sighted in the bay. 
Then the signal was made to form column on the "Balti- 
more." The " Baltimore " signalled : " Strange vessel is 
flying the British flag." "Olympia" then made signal: 
" Destroy enemy's fortifications and batteries." The " Bal- 
timore " alone steamed up to within twenty-five hundred 
yards of the forts, and for about thirty minutes poured in 
broadsides with wonderful precision and terrible execution, 
making her bow and stern almost dance, to the extent that 
our engineers thought perhaps she was amongst torpedoes. 
Later, the other vessels of the fleet came up and co- 
operated in the destruction of the forts. 

The little "Petrel," followed by the " Boston " and the 
"Concord," and later by the remainder of the fleet, steamed 
past Point Cavite, and in toward shore, destroying shipping 
and the remaining guns in the fort. When this was done 




'»*'^Er^3^" 



Spanish Flag-ship " Reina Christima," May i, 1S98, 




IsLA DE Luzon," May i, iJ 



Appendix 489 

she was sent inside to follow the enemy up, soon after 
which the enemy hoisted the white flag. 

The " Concord " started after a large Spanish transport, 
the " Isla de Mindanao," which was supposed to have mu- 
nitions of war, and which had been tiring upon us during 
the morning. The "Concord" sent a shot across her bow, 
which was unheeded ; then she sent a six-inch shell into 
her, setting her on fire. The transport still endeavored to 
escape, but the " Olvmpia " headed her ofi^", and sent an 
eight-inch shell through her, when she burst into flames 
and was run aground, where she soon blew up The saucy 
little " Petrel " went in amongst eight vessels and brought 
off five torpedo boats in tow. 

On the afternoon of Mav 2, the " Raleigh " and the 
*' Baltimore " went down to Corregidor and demanded 
the surrender of the forts. The commandant was a little 
obstinate ; but when informed that his forts were to be 
destroyed whether he surrendered or not, and that "the 
demand to surrender was in the interest of humanitv and 
to save bloodshed," he made an unconditional surrender, 
and his three hundred and eighty officers and men were 
paroled ; whereupon the " Raleigh " and the " Baltimore " 
returned to the fleet. 

Corregidor, Ca\ ite, with its vast shops and stores, and 
the bay are ours in two days; and we ha\'e a home in the 
far East if we choose to hold it. Manila means the Philip- 
pines, but we must await the arrival of troops to hold it. 

The Spanish made a splendid fight for their country and 
their king. They poured out their blood like water, and 
freely gave their lives to their duty. More than one half 
of the men engaged were either killed or wounded. Their 
greatest loss was in their engine departments, where in 
some cases the entire force went down with the ship. 
Yankee pluck and Western daring were too much for their 
3rave foes. Not one of the Spanish ships hauled down 



490 An American Cruiser in the East 

their colors, every one of them being either sunk or aban- 
doned with colors flying. The Spanish loss was 480 killed 
and 520 wounded, while the American loss was but eight 
slightly wounded, all of the " Baltimore," 

The Spanish fortifications were as follows : — 

Forts and Batteries at the Entrance to Alan i la Bay. 
Punta Gorda Battery. ' 

Lasisi Point Battery. 
Corregidor Forts and Batteries. 
Pulo Caballo Island Battery. 
El Fraile Rock Battery. 
Restinga Point Battery. 

Forts at Cavite. 

Canocao Battery. 
Sangley Point Battery. 

Forts at Manila. 

Luna Fort, — ten-inch Krupp (juns. 
Walls of the old city, twelve feet thick, and strengthened 
with three thicknesses of bags of sand laid lengthwise. 
The lio;hthouse fort at the mouth of the Pasig River. 

Spanish Vessels at Cavite., May /, i8g8. 
Admiral Montojo. 

Guns. Commander. 

Reina Cristina (flagship), 21 L, Cardosa. (Burned.) 

Castilla, 22 A. M. de Oliva. (Sunk.) 

Don Antonio de Ulloa, 13 E. Robion. (Sunk.) 

Isla de Cuba, 10 J. Sidrach. (Sunk.) 

Isla de Luzon, 10 J. L. Human. (Sunk.) 

Don Juan de Austria, 13 J. de la Concha. (Burned.) 

El Correo, 7 F. Escudera. (Burned.) 




"Castilla, ' May i, 1S9S. 




"San Axtomo de Ulloa," May i, 1S98. 



Appendix 



491 



General Lezo, 

Marques del Duero, 

Villa Lobas, 

Unknown Gunboat, 

Manila (^transport), 

General Alova, 

Rapido, 

Hercules, 

Ilo Ilo, 

Isla de Mindanao (armed transport), 



uns. Commander. 

6 F. Benovento 



(Burned.) 
5 S. M. Guerra. (Burned.) 
4 J. M. Estanga. (Burned.) 

(Burned.) 



2 J. Ozamiz. 



(Captured. 
(Captured.) 
(Captured.) 
(Captured.) 
(Captured.) 
(Burned.) 



United States Vessels at Cavite^ May /, iSgS. 
Commodore George Dewey, U. S. N,, Commanding. 









Guns. 


Commander. 


Olvmpia (fl; 


ags 


;hip), 


14 


C. V. Gridley. 


Baltimore, 






10 


N. M. Dyer. 


Raleigh, 






I I 


J. B. Coghlan. 


Boston, 






8 


Frank Wildes. 


Concord, 






6 


Asa Walker. 


Petrel, 






4 


E. P. Wood. 



On the 20th of May, Aguinaldo, the native insurgent 
leader, with members of his staff, arrived at Cavite, and 
immediately began to assemble his followers ; since which 
time these brave people have captured nearly all the Spanish 
strongholds in the province of Cavite, taken thousands of 
prisoners, and armed themselves by their captures. They 
have worked their way to the outposts of Manila and 
control all the country about it. 

On the 30th of June, U. S. transports, convoyed by the 
U. S. cruisers " Charleston " and "Baltimore," arrived in 
the bay with the first instalment of U. S. soldiers for the 
occupation of Manila and the Philippines. They were 
composed of a battalion of the Fourteenth Regular Infantry, 



492 An American Cruiser in the East 

the Third Oregon Infantry, the First California Infantry, 
and a detachment of California Heavy Artillery, all under 
the command of Brigadier-General Anderson, U. S. Army. 
The troops were speedily landed at the Cavite Arsenal, 
and quartered in the Spanish barracks just outside of the 
Arsenal. 

Aguinaldo's native forces moved into old Cavite, the 
adjoining towns, and closer to Manila, to make room for 
our troops, who soon fraternized with their native aux- 
iliaries. The natives regard our people as their liberators 
from Spanish cruelty and oppression, and do everything in 
their power to help on the good cause. 

The following Spanish account of the naval battle of 
Cavite, taken from the " Diario de Manila" of May 4, 
1898, is interesting : — 

A Naval Surprise 
When the enemv's squadron was sighted in perfect line 
of battle through the clouds of a misty dawn on the morn- 
ing of the first of May, gloom and surprise were general 
among the people of Manila. At last these ships had 
strained their boldness to the point of appearing on our 
coast and defying our batteries, which showed more courage 
and valor than effect when they opened fire on the squadron. 
It needs something more than courage to make projectiles 
penetrate — indeed, it does! 

Every Man to his Station 
The inequality of our batteries when compared with 
those of the squadron which alarmed the inhabitants of 
Manila at five in the morning was enough to transform the 
tranquil character of our tropical temperaments. 

While ladies and children in carriages or on foot fled in 
fright to seek refuge in the outlying suburbs and adjacent 



Appendix 493 

villages around the capital, from danger multiplied h\ their 
imagination, every man, from the stately personage to the 
most humble workman, merchants and mechanics, Span- 
iards and natives, soldiers and civilians, — all, we repeat, 
sought their stations and put on their arms, confident that 
never should the enemy land in Manila unless he passed 
over their corpses. Yet from the first moment the strength 
of the enemy's armor and the power of his guns demon- 
strated that his ships were invulnerable to our energies and 
armaments; the hostile squadron would never have entered 
our bay had not its surety been guaranteed by its manifest 
superiority. 

Spectators and Observers 

The city walls, the church towers, the roofs of high 
buildings, and all high places convenient for observation 
were occupied by those who were not retained by their 
military duties within the walls, on the bridges, or at the 
advanced posts. The slightest details of the enemy's ships 
were eagerly noted as they advanced towards Cavite in a 
line parallel with the beaches of Manila, as though they 
had just come out of the Pasig River. There were no 
gaps in the line, but the curious public hardly realized the 
disparity between their great guns and the pieces mounted 
on our fortifications. Some had glasses and others were 
without, but all seemed to devour with their eyes these 
strangers who, while brave, were not called upon to show 
their courage, since the range of their guns and the weak- 
ness of our batteries enabled them to preserve their impu- 
nity, while doing as much harm as they pleased. 

Remarks of the People 

All who appreciated the impunity with which the hostile 

jhips manoeuvred, as if on a harmless parade, were full ot 

such rage and desperation as belongs to the brave man 

who can make no use of his courage ; to whom remains no 



494 ^^^ American Cruiser in the East 

remedy except an honorable death rather than a cowardly 
inactivity. 

A soldier of the First Battalion of Cazadores gazed at 
the squadron sweeping over the waters out of reach of the 
fire of our batteries, looked out and at the ships, then toward 
heaven, saying, " If Holy Mary would turn that sea into 
land, the Yankees would find out how we can charge in 
double time." And a crouching native staring out at the 
ships said, " Just let them come ashore and give us a whack 
at them." 

On they stood at full speed in column of battle, heading 
for Cavite with the decision due to a sense of safety and a 
firm assurance of success. 

The Fight seen from Manila 
For more than an hour and a half the bombardment held 
in suspense those whose souls followed the unequal struggle, 
in which the Spanish ships went down with their glorious 
banners flying. 

What was going on in the waters of Cavite ? From 
Manila we saw, through glasses, the two squadrons almost 
mingled together in the clouds of smoke. This was not 
far from a triumph for our side, considering the weakness 
of our batteries. For once alongside the enemy, the cry 
of "Boarders Away!" and the flash of cold steel might 
have enabled our devoted seamen to disturb the calm in 
which watches and instruments were regulated and direct- 
ing those engines of destruction. In the blindness of our 
rage how should we paint the heroic deeds, the prowess, 
the waves of valor which burst forth from our men-of-war? 
Those who fought beneath the Spanish flag bore themsehes 
like men, as chosen sons of our native land, who ne\'er 
measure forces, nor yield to superior force in the hands of 
an enemy; who would rather die without ships than live in 
ships which have surrendered. 



Appendix 495 

To name those who distinguished themselves in battle 
would require the publication of the entire muster-rolls of 
our ships, from captain to cabin-boy. To these victorious 
seamen of ours we offer congratulations ; laurels for the 
living 5 prayers for the dead; for all, our deepest gratitude. 

Since we cannot reconstruct the bloodv scene which was 
exhibited last Sunday in the waters of Cavite, we will not 
attempt a description, which would only be a pale shadow 
of great deeds deserving a perpetual place in the pages of 
history. 

When the hostile squadron turned toward Cavite, the 
crew of the steamer " Isla de Mindanao " heard the drums 
beating to quarters, and answered with enthusiasm, three 
rounds of cheers for the King, for the Queen, and for Spain, 
which echoed along our line. 

Later, until a quarter to five, absolute silence reigned.. 
Everything was readv. The idea of death was lost in 
ardor for the fray, and every eye was fixed on the battle- 
flags waving at our mastheads. In perfect and majestic 
order — whv should we deny this? — the nine Yankee 
ships advanced in battle-array. The " Olympia," bearing 
the admiral's flag, led the column, followed by the other 
ships, steering at full speed towards Cavite. The " Olym- 
pia" opened fire, and an instant reply came from the battery 
on the mole, which kept on firing at five-minute inter- 
vals, while the iron-clad shaped her course for the " Reina 
Cristina " and " Castilla." Into both these ships she 
poured a steady and rapid fire, seconded by the ships which 
followed in her wake. Another ship which directed a 
heavy fire on our line was the " Baltimore ; " and so the 
cannonade went on until a quarter to eight. At that moment 
the " Don Juan de Austria " advanced against the enemy, 
intending to board the " Olvmpia," and if a tremendous 
broadside had not stopped her self-devoted charge, both, 
ships would perhaps ha\'e sunk to the bottom. 



496 An American Cruiser in the East 

The captain of the " Reina Cristina," seeing that the 
resolute attempt of his consort had failed, advanced at full 
speed until within two hundred yards of the " Olympia," 
aiming to attack her. Then a shower of projectiles swept 
the bridge and decks, filling the ship with dead and wounded. 

Heroes and martyrs whom the nation will remember as 
long as it endures ! 

A dense column of smoke from the bow-compartment 
showed that an incendiary projectile, such as the law of 
God and man prohibits, had set fire to the cruiser. The 
ship, still keeping up her fire on the enemy, withdrew toward 
the arsenal, where she was sunk to keep her from falling 
into the hands of the Yankees. 

The desperation of the men of the " Reina Cristina " 
was aggravated by the sight of the " Castilla " also in a 
blaze, from a similar use of incendiary projectiles. 

The principal ships of our little squadron having thus 
been put out of action, the Yankee vessels, some of them 
badly crippled by the fire of our ships, and the batteries at 
Point Sangley, stood out toward Mariveles and the entrance 
of the bay, ceasing their fire and occupying themselves in 
repairing injuries until ten o'clock, v/hen they began a 
second attack to complete their work of destruction. 

In this second assault the fire at the arsenal was ex- 
tinguished, and they continued to cannonade the blazing 
gunboats. 

One gunboat, which seemed to have nothing more 
venturesome to undertake, detached herself from the 
squadron and set to work to riddle the mail steamer 
^' Isla de Mindanao." 

Now that the ships were in flames, the admiral, Senor 
Montojo, who had shown his flag as long as there was a 
vessel afloat, landed, and hostilities ceased. 

The only Spanish ship which had not been destroyed by 




Corner of Old City Wall, Manila (Bay Side). 




Old City Wall, Manila (Land Side). 



Appendix 497 

fire or by the enemy's projectiles, sunk herself so that she 
could in no wise be taken. 

Such, in broad outlines, which we cannot correct at this 
moment, was the naval battle of Cavite, in which the last 
glimpse of our squadron showed the Spanish flag. 

A thousand sensational details have reached us, which 
we would reproduce gladly, after the necessary corrections, 
if our pen would serve for anything except to sing the 
glory of these martyrs of the nation. 

Perhaps to-morrow or another day, with fuller knowledge 
of the facts, we can furnish our readers with many inter- 
esting details. To-day we limit ourselves to a sketch of 
the grand picture which was unrolled before us on the first 
of May, begging our friends to excuse the defects which 
they may note. 

The Killed and Wounded 
Killed : The Captain, Chaplain, Clerk, and Boatswain of 

the " Reina Cristina." 
JVounded : The Captains of the " Castilla " and "Don 
Antonio de UUoa." 
The Executive Officer of the "Reina Cristina." 
A Lieutenant of the " Don Juan de Austria." 
The Paymaster of the " Ulloa," the second Sur- 
geon of the " Cristina," the Surgeon of the 
" Ulloa," and Chief Engineers of the " Cris- 
tina" and " Austria." 

Vigilance 
By naval authority the most careful watch was kept in 
the river as well as on the coast, to secure the defence of 
the port. 

Batteries 

The gunners of the batteries defending Manila and Cavite 
showed the highest degree of energy and heroism. Every 

3^ 



498 An American Cruiser in the East 

one applauds the brave artillerymen who, by their calmness 
and skill, did all that was possible with the guns assigned 
to them, allowing for their deficiencies and imperfections. 

The battery that did most harm to the enemy was the 
one on Point Sangley made up of Hontoria guns. From 
one of these guns came the shot which the " Boston " re- 
ceived, while four ships which had altogether sixty-five guns 
were pouring their fires on this battery to reduce it to 
silence. One gun having been crippled, the other kept on 
playing, firing whenever damage could be done and avoiding 
waste of ammunition. 

To one of its shots is attributed the hurt which turned 
the " Baltimore " from the fight. This gun must have 
greatly annoyed the Yankees, to judge by the efforts they 
made to silence its fires, following it up until six gunners 
had been killed and four wounded. 

On this account it is proposed to demand the bestowal 
of the laurel-wreathed cross of San Fernando to the valiant 
gunners who served this battery. 

The Luenta battery at Manila, which assailed the Yankee 
ships with much vigor, was the object of the enemy's special 
attention as he stood past the fortifications of Manila, head- 
ing for Cavite. 

Guns were also mounted at the entrance of the bay on 
Corregidor and Caballo Islands, on El Fraile rock, on the 
south shore at Point Restinga and at Mariveles, Punta 
Gorda, and Point Lasisi on the north shore. The guns 
on Corregidor Island were of about six-inch calibre ; similar 
guns were mounted on the rock and on Point Restinga. 
The other batteries had guns of smaller calibre and short 
range. 

Kind Treatment 

The Spanish Club, ever earnest in remedying misfortune, 
gave liberal help to the refugees who survived from our 
ships of war. 



Appendix 499 

Bread and Water 

Doubtless the Civil Commission has arranged to secure 
supplies for the city, but it is certain since Sunday there has 
been great scarcity of everything, and speculators have 
got what prices they cared to ask for articles of prime 
necessitv. 

Already people are growing calmer, and the shops are 
open, and it is to be expected that Manila will go on 
resuming her usual lite and animation. 

The Country responds 
The great masses of the rural population of the Philip- 
pines, as well as the leaders of the nation, have responded 
like loyal sons of Spain, sharing our pains and assisting in 
our labors. 

Telegram 

The admiral, Sefior Montojo, has received a telegram 
of congratulation from the Minister of Marine, who, in his 
own name, and in the name of the Queen of Spain, felici- 
tates the navy of this archipelago for gallant behavior on 
the day of Cavite. These are the terms of the telegram 
referred to : " Honor and glory to the Spanish Fleet which 
fought so heroically in the bay." 

No Papers 
After two davs of silence, in which our paper failed to 
see the light, by reason of exceptional circumstances oc- 
curring in Manila, and well known to all the public, we 
return to our regular issues, trusting in the good-will of our 
subscribers. 



Appendix IV 



THE CAPTURE OF MANILA AND THE PHILIPPINES BY 
THE COMBINED SEA AND LAND FORCES OF THE 
UNITED STATES, AUGUST IJ, 1898 

U. S. S. " Baltimore," Manila, 
August 18, 1898. 

As soon as the Spanish fleet had been annihilated, the 
insurgents began to assemble about Cavite, and on May 20, 
General Aguinaldo and staflF arrived from Hong-kong, and 
began operations against the Spaniards on the land side. 
The people of the neighboring provinces were soon under 
arms, and the investment of Manila was begun. Captures 
of small detachments of Spanish troops were of almost daily 
occurrence, and the arms and ammunition captured in this 
way supplied the insurgents with the means of continuing 
the warfare. Many of the insurgents were armed with 
machetes, spears, axes, or bows and arrows, and their com- 
missary was of the poorest kind, — a handful or two of rice, 
a few eggs, and an occasional fowl, which were contributed 
by friends of their cause, was about the extent of it ; and 
on this fare they made long weary marches, built earthworks, 
burrowed trenches, and fought a hand-to-hand fight with 
their enemy, right up to the Malate fort and magazine. 

The insurgents soon had the neighboring provinces in 
their possession, and invested Manila on the land side, and 
a struggle for the possession of the magazine and Fort 
Malate went on day and night with varying success. 




Philippine Artillery, Malite, July i, 1-98. 




Church and Convent, Old Cavite. Scene of In-upc^ex' 
Bombardment, June 15, 1S9S. 



Appendix 501 

On June 30, transports arrived from San Francisco, 
under convoy of the U. S. S." Charleston," brino-ino- Brio-- 

^ 'Dob 

adier-General Anderson and about four thousand troops, 
who were landed at Cavite Arsenal, the insurgent forces 
moving out of old Cavite to make room for the Americans. 
On July 16 and 17, the second detachment of United States 
troops arrived. These were landed, some at Cavite and 
others at Tambo, and the men of the first detachment 
were moved up from Cavite Arsenal to Tambo, where they 
encamped under the guns of the U. S.S. " Raleigh." 

The insurgents held many meetings in the church at 
old Cavite, and on July i. General Aguinaldo proclaimed 
the Republic of the Philippines with the following declara- 
tion : — 

1. The independence of the Philippines shall be proclaimed. 

2. A republic shall be established with a government designated 
by General Aguinaldo, and approved by the admiral and general 
commanding the United States forces. 

3. The Government will recognize the temporary intervention 
of Commissioners designated for the present by the United States. 

4. The American Protectorate shall be recognized on the same 
conditions as arranged for Cuba. 

5. The Philippine ports shall be opened free for the universal 
commerce of the world. 

6. Precautionary measures shall be adopted against Chinese im- 
migration, so as to regulate the competition with the work ot the 
natives. 

7. The corrupt judicial svstem at present existing shall be re- 
formed, intrusting at the commencement the administration of justice 
to competent European legal officials. 

8. The complete libertv of association, as likewise that of the 
press, shall be declared. 

9. There shall be a general religious toleration, but measures 
shall be adopted for the abolition and expulsion of the religious 
communities who with an iron hand have hitherto demoralized the 
actual civil administration. 



502 An American Cruiser in the East 

10. Measures conducive to the working, development, and pros- 
pects of the natural resources of the country shall be adopted. 

11. The development of the public wealth shall be facilitated, 
together with the opening up of roads and railways. 

I 2. The existing obstacles to the forming of commercial enter- 
prises and investment of foreign capital shall be suppressed. 

13. The new Government will keep the public order, and will 
be obliged to prevent every act of reprisal against the Spaniards. 

14. The Spanish official element shall be removed to some other 
safe and healthy island until the opportunity is presented for them 
to return to Spain. 

On July 25, Major-General Wesley Merritt arrived on 
the transport " Newport " and assumed command of the 
United States land forces. The United States troops were 
advanced from Tambo to Pasai, and during the week of 
August 6 they were advanced to the trenches which had 
been made by the insurgents within a few hundred yards 
of the magazine and Fort Malate. The new-comers were 
as disagreeable to the Spaniards as were the men who dug 
the trenches ; so the Americans were assaulted on the last 
three nights of the same week, with the result that some 
thirty of the Americans were killed and a larger number 
were wounded, which seemed to be cold-blooded murder, 
as such work could not be decisive of the final result, and 
could not be called war. 

On Sunday, August 7, General Merritt and Admiral 
Dewey sent a joint note to the Governor-General, as 
follows : — 

Manila Bay, August 7, 1898, 

To the General-in-Chief, commanding the Spanish Forces in Manila : 

Sir, — We have the honor to notify your Excellency that the 
operations of the land and naval forces of the United States against 
the defences of Manila may begin at any time after the expiration 
of forty-eight hours from the hour of receipt by you of this com- 
munication, or sooner if made necessary by an attack on your part. 



Appendix 503 

This notice is given to aftbrd you an opportunity to remove all 
non-combatants from tlie city. 

Very respectfully, 

(Signed) Wesley Merritt, 

Major-General^ U. S. A., commanding Land 
Forces of the United States. 

(Signed) George Dewey, 

Rear-Admiral, U. S. N., commanding U. S. 
N'aval Forces in Asiatic Station. 

To which the Governor-General replied : — 

Manila, August 7, 1898 
To the Major-General of the Army and the Rear-Admiral of the Manual 
Forces of the United States : 

Gentlemen, — I have the honor to inform your Excellencies 
that at half-past twelve o'clock I received the notice with which 
you favored me, that after forty-eight hours have elapsed you may 
begin operations against this fortified city, or at an earlier hour if 
the forces under your command are attacked by mine. 

As your notice is sent for the purpose of providing for the safety 
of non-combatants, 1 give thanks to your Excellencies for the humane 
sentiments you have shown, and state that, finding myself surrounded 
by insurrectionary forces, I am without a place of refuge for the 
increased number of wounded, sick, women, and children who are 
now within the walls. 

Respectfully, and kissing the hand of your Excellencies, 

(Signed) Fermin Jaudenes, 

Governor-General and Captain-General 
of the Philippines. 

Our troops were not molested after this correspondence. 

A parley began, and at half-past eight on Saturday morn- 
ing, after a heavy down-pour of rain, the vessels of our 
fleet, — flagship " Olympia," "Baltimore," "Monterey," 
" Raleigh," " Charleston," " Boston," " Petrel," " Callao " 
(captured Spanish gunboat), and the "Olympia's" steam 
tender, — with colors set at each masthead and with ships' 



504 An American Cruiser in the East 

companies at battle stations, began to form in battle order. 
While we were forming, the band of the British flagship 
" Immortalite" played the "Star-Spangled Banner," after 
which the " Immortalite " and the "Iphigenia" went over 
and took positions, one at each end of the line of the 
foreign men-of-war. The Japanese war vessels remained 
off Cavite. 

The " Olympia," " Raleigh," " Petrel," " Callao," and 
the " Olympia's " steam tender headed slowly toward Fort 
Malate, while the " Monterey " went close in to the front 
of the city to draw the enemy's fire, and the " Baltimore," 
" Charleston," and " Boston " acted as a reserve division, 
and the " Concord " remained near the Pasig River. At 
half-past nine, it still being thick and raining, the "Olym- 
pia," " Raleigh, " Petrel," " Callao," and the " Olympia's " 
steam tender opened fire upon Fort Malate, and by five 
minutes past eleven the guns of that foit were silenced. 
Then the left wing of our army, under the command of 
Brigadier-General Green, rushed out of their trenches and 
made a dash for the fort. After a hand-to-hand encounter, 
which lasted for some minutes, the enemy stubbornly fell 
back, disputing every inch of the ground, as our troops ad- 
vanced. The little " Callao " kept ahead, and threw shells 
into the enemy's lines to clear the way for our troops as 
they advanced along the beach and through the streets of 
Malate (a suburb of Manila), The Luneta fort was found 
to be evacuated ; when our men turned by it and returned 
to the beach, fighting their way up to the gates of the old 
walled city. In the mean time the " Monterey" patrolled 
the entire water-front, and the other vessels of the fleet 
proceeded along very slowly, so as to have our troops, at all 
times, well under the protection of our guns. 

At the same time the right wing of the army, under 
command of Brigadier-General MacArthur, advanced along 
the roads further removed from the water-front and fought 




^;x),H *■ 



Spanish Arms Stacked on the Plaza, Old IManila, 
August 13, 1S9S. 




9.5-INCH Gun (Spanish). Four in the Battery, 
Old Manila (Water Front). 



Appendix 505 

its way to the gates of the old city. Then the steam launch 
of the Belgian Consul, which had been following our fleet 
during the action, took a representative of General Merritt 
from the army flagship " Zafiro " and a representative of 
Admiral Dewey from the " Olympia" into the old city of 
Manila, under a flag of truce, where they demanded the 
surrender of the Philippines. At half-past two in the after- 
noon the preliminary terms of surrender had been agreed 
upon, and the launch returned, and at nine minutes past 
five the United States flag replaced the Spanish flag on the 
plaza of the old city. The guns of each ship thundered 
forth twentv-one guns, the Spaniards ceased to rule the 
Philippines, and Major-General Wesley Merritt of the United 
States Army became the first American governor, and took 
up his headquarters in the palace of the Spanish royal 
governor in the old city. 

Thirty soldiers were killed and seventy wounded in the 
battle, and it is supposed that the enemy's loss was about 
eight hundred killed and wounded. 

Incidents. 

Not a man of the fleet was injured in the battle. 

It is believed that this last defence of Manila was made by the 
native troops who remained loyal to Spain, as the Spaniards were 
not anxious to renew their experiences of the first of May with us. 

While the artillery of the right wing of the army was advancing, 
the Astor battery made a sharp turn in the road when they found 
themselves ambushed under a galling fire, and the situation was 
such that they could not swing their guns around to use them ; so 
they jumped from their guns, and with sabre and revolver in hand 
dashed at the enemy in the bush. In a few moments the regulars 
were in the melee, and the Spaniards fell back, but still kept up a 
hot fire with their rifles. 

The Spaniards had scattered "block" "log" houses, with loop- 
holes for small arms, about the country to command the roads of 
approach to Manila. At block house No. 14 there was a hody 



506 An American Cruiser in the East 

contested fight for some minutes, where several were killed and 
many were wounded on both sides. 

Just as the Philippines were surrendered to us, the Spaniards 
celebrated the event by burning one of their gunboats and scuttling 
another, besides several smaller craft, just inside the entrance to the 
Pasig River. The Spaniards were warned against doing any more 
work of this kind ; and when it was explained to them that they 
would not look very dignified when dangling at the end of a piece of 
Manila rope, they took the hint, and there were no more acts of 
vandalism. The Spanish troops were all disarmed and paroled ; 
their officers being allowed to keep their side arms, which they 
continued to wear about the town while puffing cigarette smoke and 
explaining how it happened. 

When the sun had set behind the western horizon, and darkness 
had fallen over land and sea, the German flagship " Kaiserin 
Augusta " steamed out of the bay with the late Governor-General 
Agustin and family on board, and conveyed them to Hong-kong. 

Sunday was a quiet day, and most of the vessels having refugees 
on board returned to the mouth of the Pasig. Father Dougherty, 
of General Merritt's staff, celebrated mass in the cathedral to an 
immense congregation. While the service lasted, it was well ; but 
when he made his address in the English language, there was con- 
sternation amongst the vast throng. 

On Monday morning the British flagship " Immortalite " 
steamed over from her place in the foreign fleet, hoisted the Ameri- 
can flag at her masthead, and saluted it with twenty-one guns, 
while her band played the " Star-Spangled Banner " and " Yankee 
Doodle." She then took a new anchorage near our fleet, and was 
soon joined by her consort, the " Iphigenia." The English seemed 
as much pleased over the victory as our own people. 

The Civic Guard, loyal natives, are policing the city under our 
control, and the custom-house and post-office are practically operated 
by the people who were in charge under Spanish rule ; everything 
goes on as usual, and the business of the city is being rapidly 
resumed. Some of the women show a spiteful feeling against us, 
but that will soon disappear, — at least, in the open manifestation. 

The city is very short of provisions and goods of all kinds. 
Horses, mules, and water-buffalo were used for food ; and vegeta- 



Appendix 507 

bles and fruits have been almost unknown for more than a month, — 
ever since the insurgents invested the city. 

There is very little friction, no more than would be expected 
in getting an army of thousands of men settled in a captured city 
and the islands in working order. The insurgents have retired 
from this neighborhood. 

At noon on August 16 an English steamer came in to the fleet 
with news that hostilities had ceased. 



INDEX 



Index 



Aberdeen, the island of, Hong-kong, 
400 ; dry-docks at, 407. 

Aborigines, of Formosa, tlie, 325 ; ori- 
gin of, 325 ; their division into tribes, 
325 ; personal appearance of, 325 ; 
defy the authority of China, 325 ; 
their dress, 325 ; their honesty, 325 ; 
burial customs of, 325 ; wars com- 
mon among, 325 ; evidences of civili- 
zation among, 325. 

Acrobats, juvenile, in Japan, SS. 

Actors, Chinese, 365. 

Actors, Japanese, 66. 

Adams, Will, the story of, 72. 

Addamson, B. F., 405. 

Africa, 51 ; Chinese emigrants in, 3S7. 

Agriculture, Chinese, 388. 

Aguinaldo, at Cavite, 491, 500 ; the na- 
tive forces of, 492 ; fraternizes with 
the American forces, 492 ; begins 
land operations against the Spaniards, 
500 ; his declaration, 501, 502. 

Agustin, Governor-General, see Da- 
villa, Basalio Agustin. 

Ah-Fo, the author's Chinese guide, 34S. 

Ah-Sin, the author's Chinese guide, 
232, 233. 

Aichi, the prefecture of, in Japan, 112. 

" Aikuchi " (dirk), the, in Japan, 216. 

Ainos, the, of Korea, 28 1. 

Ajiawa River, the, Japan, 153, 155. 

" Akaji," the, of the Japanese navy, 
445, 446 ; attacks the Chinese fleet, 
452-455 ; badly damaged, 455. 

Akashi, Japan, 22S. 

" Akitsushinia," the, of the Japanese 
navy, 445, 446; attacks the "Wei 
Yuen," 449 ; takes the " Tsao Kiang" 



as prize, 450 ; attacks the Chinese 
fleet, 452-455, 460. 

Alaska, 18 ; size of, 22 ; richness of, 
22. 

Alaska Commercial Company, the, 14,, 
17, 19 ; the business of, 28, 29. 

"Alert," the U. S. S., 3 ; starts on 
her cruise, 5 ; description of, 5 ; the 
ship's company, 6 ; at Victoria, 8 ; 
at Iliuliuk, 13, 34; cruising about 
Behring Sea, 24-37 ; Unalaska to- 
Kamtchatka, Siberia, 34-37 ; on pas- 
sage to Japan, 46-50 ; at Yokohama, 
51 ; at Kobe, Japan, 124 ; a trip to 
the northwestward, 227-236; aground, 
228 ; a fire-drill on board, 228 ; 
" man overboard" drill on, 229; on 
the coast of Korea, 237 ; target-prac- 
tice of, 238, 417 ; at Ping-yang, 
Korea, 259 ; in the Yellow Sea, 293 ; 
at Shanghai, China, 293 : at Ningpo, 
China, 305 ; running before a mon- 
soon, 331 ; at Swatow, China, 336 ; 
at Canton, China, 344 ; at Hong- 
kong, China, 399; at Manila, 418; 
at home again, 440. 

" Aleute Colony," the, 21. 

Aleutes, the, description of, 19; on St. 
George Island, 29; in Japan, 64. 

Aleutian Islands, the, 5 ; description 
of, iS; the inhabitants, 19; popu- 
lation of, 21 ; the half-breeds, 21 ; 
size of, 22, 32, 34, 36, 320. 

Allied forces, the, occupy Funghai, 
China, 319. 

" Amagi," the, of the Japanese navy,, 

445- 
Amaral, De, governor of Macao, 415 ; 

assassinated, 415. 
Americans, the, on St. George Island, 



51 



Index 



29; in Japan, 51, 64; in tlie Pliilip- 
pine Islands, 437. 

American-Spanisli War, tlie, 479-507 ; 
tlie loss of life in, 490. 

Amoy, the island of, China, opened to 
foreign trade, 318, 320, 325 ; forma- 
tion of, 331 ; settlement and growth 
of, 332 ; location of, 332 ; the Deified 
Rocks at, 332 ; Chinese citadel at, 
333 ; fortifications of, 23j j 'h^ '^^6" 
of, 333; the streets of, 333; the cli- 



mate of. 



characteristics of the 



natives of, 334, 335 ; captured by the 
British, 336 ; fruits and fauna of, 

336. 

Ancestral tablets, Chinese, 310; de- 
scription of, 310, 315. 

Anderson, Brigadier-General, at Ma- 
nila, 492, 501. 

Animals, Korean, 287. 

"Ann," the British brig, lost on the 
coast of Formosa, 330. 

Antong, 458 ; held by the Japanese, 
460. 

Antonio, Camoens's slave, 413, 414. 

Arabians, the, in Canton, China, 362, 
372; in the Philippine Islands, 425. 

Arima, the plains of, Japan, 125, 141. 

Arita, in Hizen, 165, 222, 223. 

Armor, ancient Japanese, 98. 

Art, Japanese, 20S-214. 

Artisans, Chinese, methods of, 302. 

Asakusa, Japan, S3 ; the Emperor's 
Palace at, 114. 

Asan, Korean town of, 443; Chinese 
troops land at, 443, 449, 450. 

Ashikaga Shoguns, the, in Japan, 202. 

Asia, 18, 36. 

Assan, the volcano, 112. 

Astor battery, the, at Manila, 505. 

" Atago," the, of the Japanese navy, 
445, 446. 

Athletic sports, in China, 354. 

Attau, 22, 36. 

Auckland, Mount, Korea, 276, 277. 

Augustinian Order, the, in the Philip- 
pines, 474. 

Auping, Formosa, 330. 

Austin, Mount, Victoria, 343, 402, 403. 

Australia, Chinese emigrants in, 387. 

Avatcha, the bay of, ;^y, 44; descrip- 
tion of, 44, 45, 46. 



Awata ware, Japanese, 225. 
Azaleas, in Japan, iii. 



"Balboa's Ocean," ti. 

Balibac, the island of, 471. 

Baltic Sea, the, 40. 

Baltimore, city of, 2, 241. 

" Baltimore," the U. S. S., reaches 
Yokohama, 479 ; notified to leave 
Hong-kong, 479 ; in the battle of 
Cavite, 484 ; fires the first gun of 
the American-Spanish war, 4S4; the 
scene on board, 485, 486; destroys a 
Spanish gunboat, 4S7 ; attacks the 
forts, 4S8; demands the surrender 
of the Corregidor forts, 489, 495, 

4981 503) 504- 
Baltimore Manual Training School, 

the growth of, i ; Mr. Ford's work 

at, I. 
Bamboo, in Japan, iii ; in China, 390. 
Bamboo-grove, at Fukiagu, Japan, 

III. 
Bandaisan, the grass-covered, iii. 
'' Banjo," the, of the Japanese navy, 

445, 446. 
Bankers, Chinese, 365. 
Banko ware, Japanese, 225. 
Banyan-trees, Formosa, 327, 341. 
Barber, the Chinese, 310. 
Barber-shop, the Japanese, 136. 
" Bare Pagoda," the, at Canton, China, 

356, 357- 
" Beacon Hill," 10. 
" Bear," the, 26. 
Bear-hunting, 43. 
Bears, 43. 
Beaver Bay, 13. 
Beech, the, in Japan, no. 
Behring, the intrepid, shipwreck and 

deatli of, 36; at Petropaulski, 38; 

monument erected to, 39. 
Behring's Island, 28, 36. 
Behring's Sea, the, 3, 11, 12, 13, 18; 

cruising about, 24-37 ; 36, 40. 
"Bell-roads," in Korea, 253, 254. 
Benovento, F., in command of the 

" General Lezo," in the battle of 

Cavite, 491. 
'•Benten,'' the Japanese goddess, 

temples of, 71. 



Index 



513 



Benton Dori, the, at Yokohama, 64, 

65. 
Beriondo, the, 422. 
Birch, the, in Japan, no. 
Birds, Korean, 2S7. 
Bizen ware, Japanese, 225. 
Blacksmith, the Chinese, 310. 
Blanco, General, governor of the 

Philippines, 475; recalled, 475. 
Blind Men's Home, the, at Canton, 

China, 363. 
Blockhouse No. 14, at Manila, 505. 
"Bluffs, the," at Yokohama, 52, 55, 

57- 
*' Boca-Tigris," the, at Canton, China, 

343, 344, 399- 
Bogaslov, the changeable island of, ^4, 

35- 

Bogaslov, the old volcano, history of, 
34, 112. 

Bonm Islands, the, 112. 

Bonzes (priests), Japanese, 171. 

" Boston," the U. S. S., in the battle 
of Cavite, 4S4, 4SS, 491, 49S, 503, 
504. 

Botanical Garden, the, at Hong-kong, 
404. 

Botanical Gardens, the, at Tokio, 106, 
no. 

Bricks, Chinese, 234. 

British, the, victorious over the Rus- 
sians at Petropaulski, 39 ; in Japan, 
51; occupy Funghai, China, 319; 
capture Amoy, China, 336 ; capture 
and occupy Canton, China, 346 ; 
Hong-kon ceded to, 400 ; occupy 
Macao, China, 416; capture Manila, 

432- 

British Columbia, 6. 

Broughton Bay, Korea, 271, 272; de- 
scription of, 273. 

Bronze-Horse Temple, the, see 
O' Siieva Temple., the. 

Bronzes, Japanese, 154, 217; the manu- 
facture of, 21S. 

Bubbling-well Road, the, Shanghai, 
295. 
-"Buddha, the great statue of, 69 ; de- 
scription of, 70,71; in Kobe, 130, 
131; in the O'Sueva Temple, 164; 
the teachings of, 19S, 256, 386. 

Buddhism, introduction into Japan of. 



130, 192, 195; the principles of, 198, 
200; its introduction into China, 
395- 

Buddhist priests, in Korea, 269, 270. 

Buddhists, the, in Japan, 199 ; their 
beliefs, 200. 

Buddliist temples, in Japan, 105; de- 
scribed, 106; T99; in Canton, China, 
372. 

Bull cart, Japanese, 179. 

Bund, the, at Kobe, Japan, 125, 126. 

Bund, the, at Yokohama, 56, 59, 63. 

Burdock, the, in Japan, ni. 

Burweed, the, in Japan, in. 

Basilin, the island of, 471. 

Butuano king, the, 472. 

Butuano River, the, Maghallans at, 
472. 



Caballo Islands, the, 498. 
Cairo, 37. 

California, 41; the missions of, 425. 
California fruits, introduced into China, 

233- 

California Heavy Artillery, the, at Ma- 
nila, 492. 

" Callao," the Spanish gunboat, cap- 
tured in the battle of Cavite, 503, 
504. 

Camel caravan, in China, 391. 

Camellia, the, in Japan, in. 

Camoens, the grotto of, at Macao, 412; 
the " Lusiad," 412 ; his history, 413. 

Camphor, in Japan, in. 

Canada, 28, 152; Chinese emigrants in, 

387, 389- 

Candy manufacturer, the, in Japan, 89. 

Canocao Battery, the, at Cavite, 490. 

Canton, China, 233; opened to foreign 
trade, 318; the approach to, 343, 
344 ; location of, 344 ; the scene off 
the city, 345, 346; captured and oc- 
cupied by the British and French, 
346 ; the old city, 348 ; the Tartars 
in, 348; the city walls, 348; the 
houses of, 348, 351; the streets of, 
351 ; a well-governed city, 351 ; pop- 
ulation of, 351 ; the shops of, 351 ; 
the people of, 353 ; the Guild-hall at, 
354; the Temple of the Five Hun- 



ZZ 



5H 



Index 



dred Genii at, 354 ; the Temple of 
Longevity at, 355 ; the Temple of 
the Five Genu at, 356 ; the " Bare 
Pagoda" at, 356, 357; the Confu- 
cian temple at, 356; the "Sleeping 
Buddha" at, 359; the " Temple of 
Horrors " at, 361 ; the Temple of the 
God of War at, 362; the Mahometan 
mosque at, 362; the examination 
hall, 362; the mint at, 363; the 
charities of, 363; the cosmopolitan 
life of, 363; the pawn-shops, 364; 
the theatrical school at, 365; opium- 
smoking in, 366; the execution- 
ground, 367; the suburbs of, 372; 
Buddhist temples at, 372 ; the cli- 
mate of, 372 ; hostility of the people 
to foreigners, 372 ; its favorable loca- 
tion, 372; maintains her own army 
and navy, 375; exports and imports 

oi, 375' 399, 4i6- 
Canton (China) boats, the, 367. 
Cape Colony, 64. 
Cardosa, L.,in command of the " Reina 

Cristina " in the battle of Cavite, 

490; killed in battle, 497. 
Carlos IV., Don, of Spain, 422; his 

statue at Manila, 422, 424. 
Caroline Islands, the, 469. 
Carpenters, Japanese, 135; Chinese, 

234- 
"Cash." Chinese, 249; value of, 291, 

384-' 
"Castilla," the Spanish vessel, in the 

battle of Cavite, 4S6; sunk, 490, 495, 

496. 
Caugue, the, as used in China, 359. 
Cavite Arsenal, the, 492, 501. 
Cavite, the naval battle of, 479-491 ; 

formation of the American fleet, 484 ; 

Spanish account of, 492-499. 
Cavite, Point, batteries of, 43S, 475, 

48 5 ; fires on the American fleet, 486, 

4S7, 488; captured by the American 

fleet, 489, 490, 493, 494, 495, 497, 

500. 
Cazadores, the First Battalion of, 494. 
Cebu, the city of, an open port, 

470. 
Cebu, the island of, 470; Maghallans 

at, 472; Legaspi at, 473; handed 

over to ecclesiastical authority, 473. 



Celandine, the, in Japan, iii. 

Central America, Chinese emigrants 
in, 3S7. 

Ceramic art, Japanese, birth of, 220. 

Chamberlain, Rt. Hon. Joseph, 479. 

Chan-chan foo, China, 336. 

Chang-chu, the seaport of, China, 333, 

Chang-hua, Formosa, 326. 

Channel Island, 461; magazine ex- 
plodes on, 462. 

" Chao Kiang," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 448. 

" Chao Yuen," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 44S ; attacked by the Japanese 
fleet, 453-455; rammed by the " Chi 
Yuen,'' 454. 

Charles I., of Spain, 472. 

" Charleston," the U. S. cruiser, ar- 
rives at Manila Bay, 491, 500, 503, 
504. 

Chasing, in Japan, 216. 

Chefoo, China, 227; the -'Alert" at, 
230; the French troops in, 231; the 
later foreign settlement, 231 ; the 
wonderful climate of, 231, 235; 
the houses of, 231 ; the churches 
and clubs of, 231 ; the older settle- 
ment of, 231 ; hotels of, 231 ; irriga- 
tion in, 232 ; agriculture in, 233 ; 
California fruits introduced into, 
233 ; schools, missions, and churches 
in, 233; shops in, 233; unskilful 
mechanics in, 234; the harbor of, 
235; population of, 235; trade of, 

235> ^57, 449, 45_t,462, 463-_ 

Chekiang, the province of, China, 306. 

Chelto, Korea, 260; location of, 262: 
houses of, 262 ; a town of agricul- 
turists, 262 ; granary at, 266. 

Chemulpo, Korea, 237, 238, 240; gov- 
ernment of, 240 ; settlement of, 240 ; 
telegraph at, 241; climate of, 241; 
foreign population of, 241; native 
population of, 241 ; roads around, 
242 ; native dwellings of, 242 ; im- 
ports and exports of, 250, 271, 291 ; 
Japanese troops land at, 444, 455. 

Chemulpo Club, the, 248. 

"Chen Chung," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 448. 

"Chen Li," the, of the Chinese navy, 
448. 



Index 



5^5 



" Chen Nau," the, of the Chinese navy, 
448. 

"Chen Pai," the, of the Chinese navy, 
44S. 

" Chen Pieu," the, of the Chinese navy, 
448. 

"Chen Tung," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 448. 

"Chen Yuen," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 448 ; attacked by the Japanese 
fleet, 453-455; wrecked, 456; taken 
as a prize by the Japanese, 463. 

Cherry, the, in Japan, 1 1 1 . 

Chesi, the, in Korea, 271. 

Chestnut, the, in Japan, 11 1. 

Cheyenne, 2. 

Chicago, 20. 

Chickweed, the, in Japan, in. 

" Chill Yuen,'' the, of the Chinese 
navy, 448 ; attacked by tlie Japanese 
fleet, 453-455- 

" Chikaramochi," the, in Japan, 206. 

Children, in Tokio, 84 ; Japan a para- 
dise for, Sy. 

Chili, the district of, 465. 

China, 3 ; the Tartars conquer, 123; 
130 ; the aerial bridges of, 132 ; use of 
seals in, 214; irrigation in, 232 ; agri- 
culture in, 233 ; California fruits in- 
troduced into, 233; Korea declares 
itself independent of, 2S2; boys and 
girls in, 310, 313 ; schools and school- 
masters in, 313, 314 ; homes in, 314- 
318, use of tobacco in, 316; the poor 
in, 317; opium-smoking in, 317; 
opium war between Great Britain 
and, 31S; pays Japan indemnity for 
Formosan murders, 330; athletic 
sports in, 354; banking in, 365: the 
tobacco industry in, 365 ; no heredi- 
tary law of succession in, 376; the 
government an absolute monarchy, 
377; the fundamental laws of, 377; 
the Interior Council of, 277i the ad- 
ministrative boards of, 377; "solely 
under the guidance of Heaven," 37S; 
the attributes of the Emperor, 378, 
379; the literary aristocracy of, 379; 
nobility in, 379; ranks and titles in, 
380 ; military ranks and grades in, 
380 ; divisions in the administration 
-of affairs, 3S0 ; filial piety, the 



strength of, 3S0; the sacred edict 
"Shing-gu," 381; severity of the 
laws of, 381 ; the degraded condition 
of women in, 38 1 ; charities in, 382 ; 
the peculiarity of the people of, 382 ; 
an undercurrent of distrust in, 383; 
the legal coinage of, 3S4; early his- 
tory of, 386, 3S7 ; population of, 387; 
general appearance of, 3S7 ; emigra- 
tion from, 3S7 ; agriculture in, 388, 
389 : cereal and vegetable produc- 
tions of, 3S9 ; agricultural products 
of, 390 ; the manufacturing industry 
of, 390 ; immense internal traffic of, 
391 ; railroads of, 392 ; public rev- 
enue of, 392 ; foreign residents in, 
392 ; principal dependencies of, 
392 ; the army of, 393 ; relies too 
much upon her vast numbers, 393 ; 
the navy of, 393 ; soil and climate of, 
394 ; water-ways in, 394; mineral 
resources of, 394; the mental capa- 
cities of the people of, 394, 395 ; 
some notable improvements in, 395 ; 
multi-millionaires in, 396; the possi- 
bilities of, 396; sends aid to the Ko- 
reans, 443 ; refuses Japan's demands, 
444 ; attempts to drive the Japanese 
from Korea, 449 ; declares war against 
Japan, 450; signs treaty of peace 
with Japan, 466 ; terms of the treaty, 
466; trade between Manila and, 473, 
476. 

China, the Emperor of, see K2iang-S!i. 

Chin-ai, fourteenth Mikado of Japan, 
2S7: rebellion against, 2S7 ; death of, 
287.' 

China Sea, the, 469. 

Chinese, the, in Japan, 51, 64, 152; fine 
agriculturists, 233 ; invade Korea, 
291 ; forbearance among, 298 ; char- 
ities of, 30" ; curious customs of, 
310; their homes, 314-31S; their 
dress, 316; a well-to-do people, 317; 
drive out the Pepo-hohans, 324 ; in 
Formosa, 325,329; a peculiar peo- 
ple, 382 ; their regard for the queue, 
383; ceremonious politeness of, 383; 
a nation of born traders, 3S3; have 
no division of time, 3S5 ; the religion 
of, 385; personal characteristics of, 
385 ; their religious and political 



Si6 



Index 



wars, 3S6; patience and industry of, 
TiSj; their respect for agriculture, 
3S8 ; their food, 391 ; opposed to rail- 
ways, 392 ; mental capacities of, 394 ; 
a progressive people, 395 ; in the 
Philippine Islands, 437; defeated by 
the Japanese at Seikwan, 450; in 
Manila, 473. 

Chinese army, the, 393 ; composition of, 
393 ; badly organized, 393 ; its make- 
up in the Japan-China war, 447; at- 
tempts to recapture Haichang, 460. 

Chinese boys, 310, 313 ; sports of, 313 ; 
education of, 313, 334. 

Chinese Charity Hospital, the, at 
Shanghai, 299. 

Chinese customs service, the, 319. 

Chinese girls, 310, 313, 334. 

Chinese homes, description of, 314-318. 

Chinese houses, described, 314, 315. 

Chinese language, the, 396-39S, 473. 

Chinese navy, the, improvement in, 
393 ; its make-up in the Japan-China 
war, 447, 44S ; engages the Japanese 
fleet, 452-455 ; surrenders to the 
Japanese, 463. 

Chinese New Year, the, 314; descrip- 
tion of the celebration, 373-375. 

Chinese torpedo fleet, the, destroyed by 
the Japanese, 462. 

Chinese women, fearful condition of, 
334; their styles of hair-dressing, 
339, 340 ; the mutilation of their 
feet, 340, 341 ; their dress, 341 ; 
Chinese customs concerning, 381, 
3S2. 

" Ching Yuen," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 448 ; attacked by the Japanese, 
453-455 ; sunk by the Japanese, 463. 

Chinhai, Chinese city of, 306 ; a port 
of entry, 319. 

" Chisakantana " (sword), the, 215. 

Chiukiu-bori decoration, the, in Japan, 
213. 

" Chiyoda," the, of the Japanese navy, 
description of, 1S9 ; 445, 446; attacks 
the Chinese fleet, 452-455. 

"Chi Yuen," the, of the Chinese navy, 
448; attacked by the Japanese, 453- 
455 ; rams the "Chao Yuen," 454. 

" Chokai," the, of the Japanese navy, 
445. 446- 



" Chori," the, in Japan, 205. 

" Choson," see Korea. 

" Choson," the, of the Korean navy, 
284. 

Christianity, the extinction in Japan 
of, 160; revived in Japan, 192; its 
progress in Japan, 195 ; 200. 

Christian martyrs, the, in Japan, 160. 

Chrysanthemums, 80, iii; the Im- 
perial, at Tokio, 1 14-123. 

Chu-kiang River, the, China, 412. 

Ch'un, Prince, of China, 376. 

Chung, Queen, the temple and tomb of, 
in Seoul, 256. 

Church of Santo Domingo, the, at 
Manila, 425. 

Church of the Sacred Heart, the, at 
Manila, 425. 

Chusan, the island of, China, 319. 

Chusan group of islands, the, China, 
306. 

Cigar manufacture, in Manila, 426, 438. 

Cingalese, the, at Hong-kong, 402, 403. 

" City of Tokio," the steamer, 409. 

Civic Guard, the, at Manila, 506. 

Clerke, monument to, 39. 

Cliff Rock, 440. 

Clog-maker, a Japanese, 142. 

Cloisonne ware, French, 219; manu- 
facture of, 219. 

Club Germania, the, at Hong-kong, 
404. 

Coal mines, in Japan, 178. 

Cobbler, the Chinese, 370. 

Cochin-China, Chinese emigrants in, 

3S7- 
Coe, Isaac, 405. 
Coghlan, J. B., in command of the 

" Raleigh " in the battle of Cavite, 

491. 
Commander Islands, the, 28. 
" Concepcion," Maghallans' ship, 472. 
" Concord," the U. S. S., in the battle 

of Cavite, 4S4, 4S8 ; destroys the 

" Isla de Mindanao," 4S9, 491, 504. 
Confucianism, 195. 
Confucian temple, the, at Canton, 

China, 356 ; description of, 356. 
Confucius, the works of, 269, 2S3, 313, 

314, 377, 37S, 379. 3S6, 3^^- 
Consulates, the, at Yokohama, 60. 
Cook, Captain, 13, 39. 



Ind 



ex 



5^7 



Coolies, Japanese, 50, So, &y, 207 ; 
Chinese, 232, 3S3, 402, 406, 430 ; 
Korean, 249 ; description of, 249. 

Cooper, tlie Japanese, 151. 

Copper Island, 28, 36. 

Corea, see Korea. 

Corregidor, the Gibraltar of the Philip- 
pines, 4S5 ; the batteries of, fire upon 
the American fleet, 4S5 ; the forts 
surrender to the American fleet, 4S9, 
490; 49S. 

'• Corvvin," tlie, 26. 

Cosmopolitan Dock, the, at Kowloon, 
408. 

Cossacks, 41, 43, 173. 

Cotton, in Japan, iii ; in Korea, 2S5. 

Council Bluffs, 2. 

Court, a Chinese, 360, 361. 

Crematory, a Japanese, 17S-1S0. 

Crimean War, the, 39. 

Criminals, Chinese, 359. 

Crow, the, in Japan, in. 

Cycods, the, in Japan, iii. 

D 

Dagupan, 430. 

"Dai Butsu," 67, 69; description of 
the great statue of, 70, 71. 

" Dai Koku," the temple of, 75. 

Damascening, in Japan, 216. 

Damio road, the old, 69. 

Damios, the, feudal lords in Japan, 
185, 187 ; the fall of, 1S7. 

Dancing-girls, Japanese, 131. 

Dandelion, the, in Japan, in. 

Dauzaemon, power of, 207, 20S. 

Davilla, Basalio Agustin, governor-gen- 
eral of the Philippines, extraordinary 
proclamation of, 4S0-484 ; escapes to 
Hong-kong, 506. 

Deception Bay, Korea, 275, 276. 

Deep Bay, China, 400. 

Deer, in Unalaska, 16. 

Deer Island, Korea, 274. 

" Deified Rocks," the. at Amoy, China, 
332- 

Deshema, the fan-shaped island of, 
Japan, 163 ; the Dutch prison-houses 
on, 163, 165, 173. 

Despujolo, General, governor of the 
Philippines, 475 ; recalled, 475. 

Dewey, Admiral George, 477 ; instruc- 



tions from Secretary Long to, 484, 
491 ; his note to Jaudenes, 502; his 
reply, 503 ; demands the surrender 
of the Philippines, 505. 

Divers, 44. 

Dock, the, in Japan, in. 

Doctor, the Japanese, 144, 216. 

Dodd's Range, Formosa, 320. 

Dogs, 37 ; at Kamtchatka, 43, 45. 

" Don Antonio de Ulloa," the Span- 
ish vessel in the battle of Cavite, 486; 
sunk, 490. 

Dominican Order, the, in the Philip- 
pines, 474. 

"Don Juan de Austria," the Spanish 
cruiser, in the battle of Cavite, 486 ; 
burned, 490, 495. 

Dougherty, Father, at Manila, 506. 

" Douglas," the S. S., 408. 

Douin, 2x6. 

Ducks, in Unalaska, 16, 44. 

Dutch, the, 131 ; allowed to trade with 
Japan, 163; imprisoned in Japan, 
163 ; beloved by the Pepo-hohans, 
324 ; discover Formosa, 329 ; build 
the fort "Zelaiidia," 329; driven off 
by the Tartars, 329 ; in Canton, 
China, 2)13 i intrigue against the 
Jesuits, 426 ; jealous of the Philip- 
pines, 432. 

Dutchman's Bay, 15. 

Dyer, N. M., in command of the " Bal- 
more" in the battle of Cavite, 491. 



Earget, the, in Japan, in. 

Earthquakes, Japan a land of, in, 
112 ; in Manila, 424, 435. 

Eastern Archipelago, the, Chinese emi- 
grants in, 387. 

Eastern Sea, the, 156, 320. 

Eastern Siberia, the province of, 44, 
320. 

East India Company, the, 343, 373. 

East Indies, the, 413, 438. 

Eastport, Maine, 22. 

Ecclesiastical department, the, in Japan, 
186. 

Education, in Cliina, 395. 

" Egg Island," 13. 

Eichizen, 2S7. 



Si8 



Index 



" Eight Banners," troops of the, China, 

393- 
"El Correo," the Spanish gunboat, in 

the battle of Cavite, 4S7 ; burned, 

490. 
El Fraile Rock, the batteries of, fire 

upon the American fleet, 485 ; 490, 

49S. 
Elm, the, in Japan, no. 
Empress Dowager, the, of China, 376, 

377- 
English, the, in Japan, 64. 
English Club, the, at Manila, 431. 
Enoshema, Japan, 69, 70, 71. 
Escalto, the, 422. 
Escudera, F., in command of the "El 

Correo " in the battle of Cavite, 490. 
Estanga, J. M., in command of the 

"Villa Lobas"' in the battle of 

Cavite, 491. 
" Eta," the, in Japan, 205, 20S. 
Europeans, at Hong-kong, 402 ; in 

the Philippine Islands, 437. 
Execution, a Chinese, 367. 
Executive Council, the, in Japan, 186 ; 

its nine departments, 186. 

F 

Faience, Japanese, enamel, 221, 224, 

" Fan-tan," the Chinese game of, 360. 

" Farallon," the, 26. 

Farmer, the Chinese, 3S8, 3S9. 

Feast of Lanterns, the, in Japan, 169; 
described, 169; in China, 385. 

Fenghuanchung, General Tatsumi 
enters, 458. 

Feng-shang, Formosa, 326. 

Feng-tien, ceded to Japan, but re- 
turned to China, 466. 

Fenhugangen, 458. 

Feudalism, in Japan, wiped out by 
the Emperor, 123. 

Filigree-work, Chinese, 365. 

Finch, the, in Japan, iii. 

Firemen, Japanese, 193. 

"Fire Mountain," see Ho-san. 

First California Infantry, the, at 
Manila, 492. 

Fish, 44; in Japan, 166; in China, 235, 
306; in Korea, 2S7; in Formosa, 

329- 
Fisher Island, 465. 



Five Genii, the Temple of, at Canton, 
China, 356. 

Five Hundred Genii, the Temple of, 
at Canton, China, 354. 

Flat Mount, 46. 

Flattery, Cape, 7. 

" Flower-boats," in China, 318. 

Flowers, wild, in Unalaska, 16, 21; 28. 

Fo-kien, the province of China, 333. 

Fo-kien, the Strait of, 320. 

Fong-nai-fu, Korea, 275. 

Ford, John D., work at the Baltimore 
Manual Training School, i ; ordered 
to San Francisco, i ; doing pioneer 
work, I ; farewell dinner tendered to, 
2 ; at the Mare Island Navy Yard, 
3; joins the U. S. S. "Alert," 3; 
starts on his cruise, 5 ; the ship's 
company, 6 ; arrives at Victoria, 8- 
11; at sea, 11; arrives at Iliuliuk, 
13, 34; among the Aleutian Islands, 
13-22; a burial at sea, 22, 23; 
cruising in Behring Sea,. 24-37; after 
illegal sealers, 24 ; at the Pribyloff 
Islands, 28 ; a luimorous incident, 
2ii ; Unalaska to Kamtchatka, Si- 
beria, 34-37; crossing the meridian, 
35 ; a tradition, 35; at Petropaulski, 
36; on passage to Japan, 46-50 ; at 
Yokohama, 51-75 ; at Tokio, 76-123 ; 
a visit to the mortuary temples of 
the Shoguns at Sheba, 94-105; a 
visit to the imperial chrysanthemums, 
114-123; at Kobe, Japan, 124-152, 
at Osaka, 153-159; at Nagasaki, 
159-181; at Moji, 181-184 ; bound 
for Chefoo, 227 ; at Chefoo, 231-235 ; 
a trip to Korea, 237-250 ; a visit to 
the Korean Governor, 244 ; in 
Chelto, Korea, 262 ; at Shanghai, 
Cliina, 293 ; at Ningpo, China, 306 ; 
at Amoy, China, 331 ; at Swatow, 
China, 336 ; at Canton, China, 344 ; 
a family of lepers, 346 ; at Hong- 
kong, China, 399; at Macao, China, 
411; at Manila, 418; at home 
again, 440 ; on board the U. S. S. 
" Baltimore," 479. 

Foo-Chow, China opened to foreign 
trade, 31S; 393. 

Foreman, on the power of the Friars 
in the Philippines, 475. 



Index 



519 



Formosa, the island of, 112, 320; loca- 
tion of, 320 ; mountains of, 320 ; its 
natural divisions, 320; its forma- 
tion, 320 ; enchanting scenery on, 
323 ; origin of its name, 323 ; vege- 
tation and climate of, 323; the three 
classes of inhabitants of, 325 ; the 



aborisrines of, 



the Chinese 



portion of, 326 ; important towns of, 
326 ; population of, 326 ; the work 
of the elements in, 326 ; exports and 
imports of, 329; the fauna of, 329; 
its coal fields, 329; early history 
of, 329 ; dangerous coast of, 330 ; 
early ferocity of its people, 330 ; 
development of the resources of, 
330 ; ceded to Japan, 466, 467. 

Foundling Hospital, the, at Canton, 
China, 363. 

Fourteenth Regular Infantry, at 
INIanila, 491. 

Foxes, in Unalaska, 16; in Kam- 
tchatka, 43. 

France, requests Japan not to occupy 
Port Arthur, 466. 

Franciscan Order, the, in the Philip- 
pines, 474. 

French, the, victorious over the Rus- 
sians at Petropaulski, 39 ; capture 
and occupy Canton, China, 346. 

French concession, the, at Shanghai, 
295, 296. 

Friars, the, in the Philippines, 474 ; 
the actual rulers of the Philippines, 
474 ; the struggle between the 
governors and, 475. 

Fruit-packing, at Honan, Canton, 371. 

Fruits, Korean, 285. 

Fu, the Japanese, 1S6. 

Fuensen, Korea, 291. 

Fuhkin, China, 307. 

Fujisan, see Fujiyama. 

Fujiyama, 51, 55, 84. 

Fukiagu, Japan, bamboo-grove at, iiS. 

Funerals, Japanese, 171, 172; Chinese, 

353- 

Fungchow, China, 392. 

Fung-fai, the, Formosa, 329. 

Funghai, Chinese city of, 306, 319; 
occupied by the British, 319 ; occu- 
pied by the allied forces, 3:9. 

Fur-trade, the, 8. 



Fu-san, Korea, 271 ; description of, 
274; royal storehouses at, 274; 
Japanese settlement at, 274 ; police 
of, 274; population of, 274; harbor 
of, 275; climate of, 275; trade of, 
275 ; 291 ; Japanese troops at, 444, 
452. 

" Fuso," the, of the Japanese navy, 
description of, 1S9; 445, 446 ; attacks 
the Chinese fleet, 452-455. 

Fwo-tre-tia, the town of, Formosa, 326. 



G 



Gambrinus, 75. 

" Gaunin," the, in Japan, 206. 

Geese, in Unalaska, 16. 

"Geisha," the, 131. 

" General Alova," the Spanish boat, 
captured in the battle of Cavite, 
491. 

" General Lezo," the Spanish gunboat, 
in the battle of Cavite, 487 ; burned, 
491. 

Gen-san, Korea, 271 ; description of, 
271 ; population of, 271 ; houses of, 
271; market at, 272; the Japanese 
in, 273; the Chinese Consulate in, 
273; the foreign settlement at, 273; 
produce of, 273 ; exports and imports 
of, 273 ; Japanese troops at, 444, 

451. 452- 
Germans, the, in Japan, 51, 64. 
Germany, igi. 
Germany, the Emperor of, requests 

Japan not to occupy Port Arthur, 

466. 
" Gibraltar of Japan," the, see Shimo- 

7toseki, the Straits of. 
Gifu, the prefecture of, in Japan, 112, 

113- 

Ginseng, in Korea, 286. 
Giobu-Nashiji decoration, the, in Japan, 

212. 
Glass ware, Chinese, 355. 
" Glenartney," the S. S., 408. 
Goa. 413, 414. 
"Gog and Magog," in the O'Sueva 

Temple, 164. 
Golden Gate, the, 5. 
Golden-rod, the, in Japan, iii. 
Gorobachi, 223. 



520 



Ind 



ex 



Gorohichi, 223. 

Goto family, the, famous Japanese 
metal-workers, 216. 

Grand Hotel, the, at Yokohama, 56, 59. 

Grand Island, 2. 

Granger, 2. 

Great Britain, 192; opium war be- 
tween China and, 318, 438; issues a 
Proclamation of Neutrality, 479, 480. 

"Great Buddha," the, see Dai Biiisu. 

Green, Brigadier-General, in the attack 
on Fort Malate, 504. 

Green-ginger industry, the, at Honan, 
Canton, 371. 

Green-grocer's shop, Japanese, 65. 

Green River, 2. 

Gridley, C. V., in command of the 
" Olympia " in the battle of Cavite, 
491. 

Guerra, S. M., in command of the 
" Marques del Duero," in the battle 
of Cavite, 491. 

Guild-hall, the, at Canton, China, 354. 

Guri-lac decoration, the, in Japan, 213. 



H 



Hachimiu, the Eight-bannered 
Buddha, 2S8. 

Hachiman, the Japanese war-god, 70. 

Hachiman, the temple of, at Eno- 
shema, Japan, 69, 70 ; at Hyogo- 
Kobe, 134. 

" Hachitataki," the, in Japan, 206. 

Haichang, 458 ; captured and occupied 
by the Japanese, 459 ; 460 ; the Chi- 
nese attempt to recapture, 460 ; 463, 
464. 

Hair-dresser, the Japanese, 14S. 

Hakodate, Japan, 192. 

Haku Butsu (great bazaar), tlie, at 
Osaka, Japan, 156. 

Half-breeds, the, in the Aleutian 
Islands, 21 ; on St. George Island, 
29 ; at Kamtchatka, 43 ; 173. 

Halsey, James, A., 405. 

" Hanashika," the, in Japan, 206. 

Han-ko, Princess, marries the Emperor 
of Japan, 185. 

Hankow, China, 392. 

Han-lin (" Great College") China, 377. 

Han River, the, 239, 251, 252, 279,336. 



Han-Yan, see Seoul. 

Happy Valley, the Hong-kong, Parsee 
cemetery in, 404, 405, 406. 

Har-Chwang-Sze, the, at Honan, Can- 
ton, 369, 371 ; description of, 371. 

" Harikari," the (suicide), in Japan, 

139> 150. 215. 
" Hataba," the, at Yokohama, 59. 
Hawaii, 469. 
" Heavenly Barrier,"' the, see Woo- 

sutig. 
Heisoshima, 455. 
Henshiu, Japan, 190. 
" Hercules," the Spanish boat, cap- 
tured in tlie battle of Cavite, 491. 
" Hermit nation," the, see Korea. 
Herring, 17, 44. 
" Hetsui " (day furnace), the Japanese, 

145. 
Heung-kiang River, the, China, 412. 
Hiang-shang, the island of, China, 412. 
Hido-Vashi, 155. 
Hien Fung, see Wcng Tsitng Hien, 

E»iferor. 
Hien-fung, the Korean mountain. 279. 
Higashi Hongwanji, the temple ofj 

201. 
Higo ware, Japanese, 225. 
Hillside graves of the martyrs, the, 

Japan, 161, 1S3. 
Hindoos, at Hong-kong, 402. 
" Hinin," the, in Japan, 205, 20S. 
Hirado. Japan, 165. 
Hirado, tlie Prince of, 223. 
Hirado kiln, the, in Japan, 223. 
Hira-makiye decoration, the, in Japan, 

212. 
Hiroshima, Japan, a military district, 

18S. 
"Hiyei," the, of the Japanese navy, 

description of, 189 ; 445,446; attacks 

the Chinese fleet, 452-455 ; badly 

damaged, 454. 
Hizen, Japan, 165, 222, 2S7. 
Hizen ware, Japanese, 222. 
" Hochidate," the, of the Japanese 

navy, 445, 446 ; attacks the Chinese 

fleet, 452-455 ; becomes the flagship, 

455- 
Hokusai, a Japanese lacquer-worker, 

214. 
Holland, 163. 



Ind 



ex 



521 



Honan, China, 344, 359; location of, 
367 ; industries at, 367 ; tea hongs 
at, 367; the "temple of the Ocean 
Banners " at, 371 ; matting factories 
at, 371 ; the green-ginger and fruit- 
packing establishments at, 371 ; the 
public flower-garden, 371. 

Hong-kong, China, 3 ; the harbor of, 
343; Chinese emigrants in, 3S7; the 
" Alert " at, 399; formation of, 400 ; 
location of, 400 ; ceded to the British, 
400 ; government of, 402 ; the Praya 
Road at, 402 ; the Queen's Road at, 
402; the Happy Valley at, 406; cem- 
eteries at, 406 ; causes of its impor- 
tance, 409 ; scenery at, 409 ; not a 
healthy climate, 410; population of, 
410; 479. 

Hong-kong Roads, 400, 407. 

Honolulu, 479. 

" Hoocheno," iS. 

Hope Dock, Aberdeen, 407. 

Horse, the sacred white, at Hyogo- 
Kobe, Japan, 134, 135. 

Ho-san, the volcano, Formosa, 320. 

Hospital of the Imperial University, 
the, 114. 

Hospital of the ]\Iisericordi, the, at 
Macao. 412. 

"Hotel junks," in China, 31S. 

Household gods, Chinese, 315, 316, 

31?- 
Howeie, the town of, Formosa, 326. 
How Qua, the richest man in the 

world, 396. 
Hudson Bay Company, the, 8. 
Human, J. I.., in command of the 

" Isla de Luzon " in the battle of 

Cavite, 490. 
Hu-mun River, the, China, 343, 344, 

359, 3''^7- 

Hundred and one steps, the, at Yoko- 
hama, 52, 56. 

Hwang Island, 456. 

Hydrangeas, in Japan, in. 

Hyogo-Kobe, Japan, 125; description 
of, 126; shipbuilding at, 134; 152; 
harbor of, 227 ; 2SS. 

I 

Idzuminada, the, Japan, 125. 
Ikegawa, Japan, 75. 



Iliuliuk, Unalaska, the " Alert " at, 13, 

34 ; description of, 14. 
Ilo llo, the city of, an open port, 470. 
" Ilo Ilo," the Spanish boat, captured 

in the battle of Cavite, 491. 
Imari, Japan, 165, 223. 
" Immortalitie,'" the British flagship, at 

Manila, 504, 506. 
" Imonshi," the, in Japan, 206. 
Imperial Guard, the Japanese, 188 ; at 

Kulung, 466. 
Imperial tombs, the, Japan, 201, 202, 

203. 
Imperial University, the, at Tokio, 106, 

200. 
'' Imperieuse," H. M. S., 40S. 
India, 51, 395, 402. 
Indians, the, 7, 8, 19; in Japan, 64. 
Indian villages, 7. 
Indio, Fra Jose, on Camoens, 414. 
Inku cross-road, the, 45S; held by the 

Chinese, 460 ; captured by the Japa- 
nese, 464. 
Inland Sea of Japan, the, 124, 125, 127, 

T56, 227 ; the " Wyoming" in, 229. 
Inlaying, in Japan, 216. 
" Inn mawashi," the, in Japan, 206. 
Iiiouye, Lieutenant, 465. 
" Inro," the, in Japan, 214. 
Interior Council, the, of China, Ti77 ; 

composition of, t,771 powers of, 377. 
Interior Department, the, in Japan, 

1S6, 187. 
" Iphigenia," the British vessel, at Ma- 
nila, 504, 506. 
Iron ore, in China, 394. 
Iron-works, Japanese, 154. 
" Isla de Cuba," the Spanish cruiser, in 

the battle of Cavite, 48G; sunk, 490, 
"Isla de Luzon," the Spanish cruiser, 

in the battle of Cavite, 486 ; sunk, 

490. 
'• Isla de Mindanao," the Spanish gun- 
boat, in the battle of Cavite, 486; 

destroyed by the "Concord," 489; 

burned, 491 ; 495, 496. 
Ise, the temple of, at Vamato, Japan, 

197. 
Isszakicho, the, at Yokohama, 66. 
Isuruga, Eichizen, 2S7. 
Itchije, Prince, 185. 
Ito, Admiral, in the Japan-China war, 



522 



Index 



452 ; engages tlie Chinese fleet, 453, 
455 ; sails for VVei-Hai-Wei, 456, 
459 ; the Chinese surrender to, 463 ; 
sails against Formosa, 465. 
" Itsukushima," the, of the Japanese 
nav)', description of, iSS, 1S9 ; 445, 
446 ; attacks the Chinese fleet, 452- 

455- 
lube ware, Japanese, 225. 
Ivory-carvers, in Japan, 210 ; in China, 



J 

Jadestones, 352. 

Japan, 3, 34, 46, 48, 64 ; ship-building 
in, 72 ; harvesting rice in, 73 ; a 
paradise for the aged and the chil- 
dren, 87 ; juvenile acrobats in, 88 ; 
the "wandering" candy manufac- 
turer in, 89 ; jugglers in, 90 ; the 
massage doctor, 93; troubadours in, 
93; the official religion of, 105, 186; 
wonderful growth in educational 
lines, 106; the people of, 107; wrest- 
ling in, 107-110; the flora of, no, 
III ; a land of earthquakes, in ; 
birds of. Ill ; the great reforms ac- 
complished by the Mikado in, 122, 
123; introduction of Buddhism into, 
130; railroad in, 132, 192; no sad- 
ness to be seen in, 139 ; irrigation in, 
140; girls and women in, 147; the 
extinction of Christianity in, 160; 
until recently an absolute monarchy, 

185 ; the ancient law of succession 
in, 185; women rulers of, 186; re- 
ligious toleration in, 186; the new 
constitution proclaimed, 186: ad- 
ministrative division of the Empire, 

186 ; restoration of the nobility, 187 ; 
the revenue of, 1S7 ; the military dis- 
tricts of, 188; area of, 190; popula- 
tion of, 190; geographical division 
of, 190; her ports opened to foreign 
trade and residence, 190 ; value of 
her exports, 190 ; new treaties of, 
191 ; value of her imports, 191; her 
shipping, 191 ; the telegraph and 
cable in, 192; the postal service in, 
1 92; religions of, 192; date of its 
history, 192; Shintoism in, 192-198; 
Buddhism in, 198-201 ; class distinc- 



tions in, 201 ; art in, 20S-214; use of 
seals in, 214; exacts indemnity from 
China for Formosan murders, 330; 
the Chinese in, 3S7 ; almost con- 
verted to Christianity by the Jesuits, 
426; wages war against the Jesuits, 
426; sends troops to Korea, 443; 
prepares for war, 444 ; her demands 
refused by China, 444; composition 
of her navy, 444 ; protects the King 
of Korea, 449; declares war against 
China, 450; a naval victory, 450 ; 
signs treaty of peace with China, 
466 ; terms of the treaty, 466. 

Japan, the Emperor of, see M»fsn- 
hito. 

Japan, the Empress of, see Han-ko, 
Princess. 

Japan, the Sea of, 278. 

Japan-China War, the, 443-468 ; the 
treaty of peace, 466; losses of life 
in, 467. 

Japanese, the, as servants, 6 ; 51 ; their 
love of the beautiful, 80 ; their pa- 
tience in horticulture. So; their re- 
spect for old age and love for 
children, Z"; ; behind in the use of 
common toys, 88 ; characteristics of, 
107, 114; native homes of, 141-146; 
their love of bathing, 146; their con- 
siderations for marriage, 149; civili- 
zation of, 192; their abhorrence of 
begging, 206 ; not fond of class dis- 
tinction, 208 ; their artistic tempera- 
ment, 208 ; lead the world in bronzes, 
217; their fight with the "Wyo- 
ming," 229; pay a heavy indemnity, 
229 ; finest agriculturists in the 
world, 233 ; their peaceful landing 
in Korea, 239, 240 ; in Korea, 241, 
249, 273; the respect of the Koreans 
for, 270 ; their first invasion of Korea, 
287; at Hong-kong, 402; antago- 
nism in Korea to, 443. 

Japanese army, the, organization of, 
18S ; 447 ; composition of, 447 ; cap- 
tures Ping-yang. 452 ; occupies Pit- 
sewo, 455; captures Kinchan, 455; 
captures Port Arthur, 457 ; captures 
Kiuliencheng, 438 ; captures Feng- 
huanchung, 458 ; captures Haichang, 
459 ; attacks Wei-Hai-Wei, 461 ; 



Index 



S^Z 



occupies \\'ei-Hai-\Vei, 462 ; captures 
Tapingsham, 463 ; captures Inku, 
464 ; captures Tienshwangtai, 464 ; 
captures Makung, 465. 

Japanese boys, 134. 

Japanese girls, 147; tlie youth of, 147; 
by instinct modest and polite, 147; 
education of, 147; the dress of, 14S ; 
their amusements, 14S ; their mar- 
riages, 149; their weddings, 150, 
151 ; their obedience to their hus- 
bands, 151. 

Japanese hut, the ancient, 94. 

Japanese Islands, the, 320. 

Japanese Naval Arsenal, the, 71. 

Japanese navy, the, 18S, 1S9; compo- 
sition of, 444, 445 ; defeats the 
Chinese fleet, 449, 450; at Ping- 
yang Inlet, 452 ; engages the Chinese 
fleet, 452-455 ; at Talienwan Bay, 
456; threatens \Vei-Hai-\\'ei. 460; 
attacks Wei-Hai-Wei, 401 ; at 
Pachan Island, 465; in full control 
of the seas, 466. 

Japanese Straits, the, 274. 

Japanese torpedo boats, 462. 

Jaudenes, General Fermin, at Manila, 
502; note from the American com- 
manders to, 502 ; his reply, 503. 

Java, Chinese emigrants in, 387. 

Javanese, the, at Hong-kong, 402. 

Jay, the. in Japan, iii. 

Jeuchuan, Korean town of, 239 ; its 
growth, 23q; consulates at, 239; the 
rice-cleaning steam mill at, 239 ; 
temple at, 239; tea-houses in, 240; 
hotels in, 240; location of, 240, 

Jesuits, the, make trouble in Korea, 
271 ; in Macao, .(.T4 ; almost convert 
Japan to Christianity, 426 ; war 
waged by the Japanese against, 426; 
in the Philippine Islands, 432, 435. 

Jeweller's Guild, the, at Shanghai, 300. 

Jews, at Hong-kong. 402. 

Jingu, mother of Hachiman. 70. 

Jinrikisha, the, in Japan, 59, 69, 76 ; in 
Victoria, 406. 

Jinrikisha men. 59: description of, 60; 
132. 

" Jintochi " (sword), the, in Japan, 216. 

Jito, Emperor of Japan, 201, 202, 203. 

Jodo Buddhists, the, in Japan, 199. 



Joss-sticks, Chinese, 298. 

Juan de Fuca, the Strait of, 7, 8. 

Jugglers, Japanese, 90. 

Juisen, ita Jcitckuait. 

Jungu Koge, leads the Japanese army, 

287 ; invades Korea, 2S7 ; temples 

dedicated to, 2SS. 
Jungu temple, the, Korea, 288. 
Junks, Japanese, 72; Chinese, 293. 
Junsen, see Jeuchuan. 



Ka-fri-ang, the village of, Formosa, 

325 ; houses of, 325. 
" Kaga," the, in Japan, 133. 
"Kaimo," the, of the Japanese navy, 

445- 
Kaiping, General Nogi enters, 460 ; 

4*^3 • _ 

Kaiping Coal Company, the, 392. 

■' Kaiserin Augusta," the German flag- 
ship, at Manila, 506. 

" Kakemono '' (silk scroll), the, Japan- 
ese, 143. 

Kakiyemon, a famous Japanese porce- 
lain worker, 222, 223, 225. 

Kalayama, Admiral, 467. 

Kamada, Japan, 75. 

Kamakma, Japan, 67. 

Kamakura Shoguns, the, in Japan, 202, 
20S. 

Kameyarna kiln, the, in Japan, 223. 

■' Kami-no-michi," 195. 

" Kamlika," 17. 

Kamtchadales, 43, 45. 

Kamtchatka, Siberia, 34 ; the govern- 
ment of, 41 ; dogs at, 43, 45 ; trade 
at, 43 ; description of, 44; aboriginal 
tribes of, 45 ; population of, 45 ; sit- 
uation of, 45. 

Kamtchatka River, the, 44. 

Kan.^.gawa, Japan, 75. 

Kaneiye, the creator of artistic swords, 
216. 

"Kang," the, in Korea, 242, 283, 284, 
201. 

" Kang Chi," the, of the Chinese navy, 
448 ; taken as a prize by the Japan- 
ese, 463. 

Kano school of pottery, the, 221. 

" Kantana" (sword), the, in Japan, 215. 



524 



Index 



Karabukmo-no-Sukune, rebels against 
the Emperor of Japan, 201. 

Katase, the beach of, 71. 

Katsuma, General, in the Japan-China 
war, 464. 

Katsura. General, in the Japan-China 
war, 458. 

" Katsuragi," the, of the Japanese 
navy, 445, 446. 

" Kawara-mono," the, in Japan, 206. 

Kawasaki, Japan, 75. 

Kelung, the town of, Formosa, 326, 
329 ; the Japanese in, 466, 467. 

Ken, the Japanese, 186. 

"Renin," the, in Japan, 202. 

Kenshaw (governor), the Japanese, 173. 

Ken Bay, 456, 

Keiizan, a famous Japanese porcelain- 
worker, 222, 225, 226. 

Ki-ai, Formosa, 326. 

" Kiaks" (canoes), 17. 

" Kilung," see Formosa, the island of. 

Kimono, the, in Japan, 79, 132, 148, 
150. 

Kinai, 216. 

Kinchau, captured by the Japanese, 
455' 456 ; 460, 466. 

King, Cape, 48. 

Kingtung, Chinese town of, 319. 

"King Yuen," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 44S ; attacked by the Japanese 
fleet, 453-455- 

Kinshin, 112. 

Kirko-Zan, a famous Japanese porce- 
lain-worker, 225. 

Kisbi, a Chinese warrior, 281 ; story of, 
281. 

Kitaze, see Kisbi. 

" Kitsune-tsukai," the, in Japan, 206. 

Kiuezan ware, Japanese, 225. 

Kiuliencheng, 458 ; captured by the 
Japanese, 458. 

Kiushiu, the island of, Japan, 159, 190, 
287. 

Kiyowezer, Japan, 224. 

Kobe, Japan, the "Alert"' at, 124; 
description of, 125 ; the " Falls " at, 
125 ; the foreign settlement at, 125 ; 
the government of, 125 ; the Bund 
at, 125; 126, 127; the Imperial 
arsenal at, 134 ; trade at, 139 ; native 
homes at, 141 146 ; churches in. 



152; population of, 152; foreign 
residents of, 152; newspapers in, 
152; the harbor of, 152 ; imports and 
exports of, 152, 192. 

Koga, Japan, 224. 

" Kogai " (dagger), the, in Japan, 215. 

" Kogo nuke," the, in Japan, 206. 

Ko-kaido Railway, the, in Japan, 133. 

"Kokatanka" (dagger), the, in Japan, 
215. 

Kokun Islands, the, 451. 

Komei leune. Emperor, 1S5. 

" Komihi," the, in Japan, 202. 

" Konang-fu," the, in China, 380. 

" Kongo," the, of the Japanese navy, 
description of, 1S9; 445, 446. 

Korausha (bazaar), the, at Nagasaki, 
Japan, 164. 

Korea, 3, 134, 192 ; use of seals in, 
214; invaded by the Prince of Sat- 
suma, 220; 230, 239; the peaceful 
landing of the Japanese in, 240 ; 
mourning customs in, 246-248; cur- 
rency of, 249; mail-service of, 249; 
the Royal troops of, 255; desolate 
approaches to, 260; the people of, 
26S ; education in, 268 ; Buddhist 
priests in, 269 ; the religion of, 269 ; 
the government of, 271, 282; de- 
scription of the country, 278 ; rivers 
of, 279; climate of, 279; scarcity of 
fuel in, 2S0 ; subdivision of, 281 ; 
Roman Catholic priests in, 281; 
cereals and vegetables in, 285 ; ac- 
count of the first Japanese invasi( n 
of, 2S7 ; later invasions of, 291; the 
" Hermit nation," 291 ; treaty be- 
tween the United States and, 291 ; 
imports and exports of, 292; popula- 
tion of, 292 ; the Chinese in, 3S7 ; 
opposition to the Japanese in, 443; 
rebellion in, 443 ; calls on China for 
help, 443; 451; surrendered to 
Japan, 466. 
Korea, the King of, see Li- Fin. 
Korean Channel, the, 278, 280. 
Korean ladies, the, 264. 
Koreans, the, '70 ; life of, 243 ; charac- 
teristics of, 243; personal appear' 
ance of, 262, 263, 28 1; their dress, 
263, 264 ; 285 ; the dress of the 
nobility, 265 ; live close to nature. 



Index 



525 



26S ; have no domestic life, 269; 
their respect for tiie Japanese, 270; 
the Jesuits give trouble to, 271; 
suffer from lack of fuel, 2S0 ; their 
clothing, 2S0 ; a brave people, 2S1 ; 
able military engineers, 2S2 ; their 
opposition to foreigners, 283 ; their 
language, 2S3 ; their houses, 283 ; 
their veneration for age, 2S4 ; their 
customs in hair-dressing, 2S4; home- 
less wanderers, 291 ; their poverty, 
292; at Hong-kong, 402. 

Korean troops, the, 255, 256. 

Koria, see Korea. 

Korianski, Mount, 46. 

Korlangsoo, the island of, Amoy, 
China, 331 ; foreign residences at, 
335 ; formation of, 335 ; the '' Lam- 
potoh Temple" at, 336. 

Kouricks, the, 45. 

Kovvloon, China, 343 ; description of, 
407 ; dr)'-docks at, 407-409. 

"Kowshing," the Chinese transport, 
449; sunk by the " Naniwa," 450. 

" Kuang Kia," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 44S ; attacked by the Japanese 
fleet, 453-455 ; 1051,455. 

"Kuang Ping," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 44S ; attacked by the Japanese 
fleet, 453-455; taken as a prize by 
the Japanese, 463. 

Kuang-Sii. Emperor of China, 376; 
proclamation of his accession, 376 ; 
his marriage, 377 ; the spiritual as 
well as the temporal head of his 
people, ■},•]•]•., absolute in power, 37S; 
attributes of, 37S ; encourages agri- 
culture, 388. 

"Kuang Yi," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 44S ; attacked and wrecked by 
the " Naniwa," 449. 

Kuhlan, sea-fight off. 405. 

Kuiu, the Chinese in force at, 466. 

Kuing-Kei, the province of, Korea, 
239, 252. 

Kujormori, the Japanese hero, monu- 
ment to, 131. 

Kumamoto, Japan, 17S; a military 
district, 18S. 

Kural Islands, the, 122, 320. 

'• Kurisowo," the, 36. 

Kurnma Zeushichi, power of, 207. 



Kusumski Masashegi, tlie temple at 

Kobe, dedicated to, 132. 
Kutana, in Koga, 224. 
Kutana ware, Japanese, 224. 
Kuwabara, the celebrated decorator, 

221. 
Kwang-tung, the province of, China, 

yi^^_ 345- 
Kwanin, the Japanese goddess of the 

sea, S3, 84. 
Kwanin, the temple of, S3, 84, 85. 
" Kwanko," the, in Japan, 202. 
Kwa)'eus, 455. 
Kyoto, Japan, 133, 1S5, 201, 222, 224, 

22;. 



La Concha, J. de, in command of the 
■'Don Juan de Austria" in the 
battle of Cavite, 490. 

Lacquer ware, Chinese, 355 ; com- 
pared with the Japanese, 355. 

Lacquer ware, Japanese, 213 ; com- 
pared with the Chinese, 355. 

Lacquer-workers, in Japan, 213. 

Ladrone Islands, the 112, 400; Ma- 
gliallans at, 472. 

Laiyang Koad, tl;e, 464. 

" Lai Yuen," the, of the Chinese navy, 
448 ; attacked by the Japanese fleet, 
453-455 ; sunk by the Japanese, 462. 

La Luna promenade, the, at Manila, 
42S. 

Lamma, the island of, 410. 

Lamont Dock, Aberdeen, 407. 

" Lampotoh Temple," the, at Amoy, 
China, 336, 337. 

" Land of the Morning Calm," the, see 
Korea. 

La Perouse, the navigator, monument 
to, 39. 

Laramie, 2. 

Lasisi Point Battery, the, at Manila 
Bay, 490, 49S. 

" La Trinidad," Maghallans' ship, 472. 

Laurel, the, in Japan, no. 

Legaspi, Miguel de, sails for the Phil- 
ippines, 473 : completes annexation 
of the Philippines to Spain, 473 ; at 
Cebu, 473 ; seizes Maynila, 473, 476. 

Leper's Village, the, at Cantt)n, China, 



526 



Index 



Leyte, the island of, 470, 

Lhassa, 393. 

Liao River, the, 464. 

Liaoyang, 459; the Chinese at, 460. 

Li-Fin, King of Korea, 254; palace of, 
254, 255; 280, 282; declares his in- 
dependence of China, 282 ; protected 
by the Japanese, 449. 

Li Hung Chang, 394. 

Li Ma Han, lands at Manila, 477 ; de- 
feated, 477. 

Lingking, the island of, 461; batteries 
on, 463. 

Li Pu, the, China, 377. 

Lisbon, 413. 414. 

Long, Secretary John D., instructions 
to Admiral Dewey from, 474. 

Longevity, the Temple of, at Canton, 
China, 355. 

Loochoo Islands, the, 186. 

Locjiiat, the, in Japan, iii. 

Lotus fields, in Japan, no, in, 173. 

" Louis, Fussy little," 59. 

Luenta battery, the, at Manila, 49S ; 
evacuated by the Spanish, 504. 

Luisi, China, 392. 

Luna, Fort, at Manila, 490. 

Lu-Shew-kow, see Port Li. 

" Lusiad," the, 413, 414. 

Luzon, the island of, 418, 470, 471. 

" Lymoon Pass," the, 399, 400, 411. 



M 



Macac), China, 411; harbor of, 412; 
location of, 412; Portuguese forts at, 
412; the Praya Grande at, 412; the 
Church of St. Paul at, 412 ; the 
Hospital of the Misericordi, 412; 
the grotto of Camoens at, 412 ; the 
Portuguese form a settlement at, 
414; royal governors of, 414, 415; 
considered a de facto colony, 415; 
occupied by the British, 416; the 
people of, 416; the trade of, 416; a 
free port, 416. 

Macao passage, the, China, 347. 

MacArthur, Brigadier-General at Ma- 
nila, 504. 

" McCuIloch," the U. S. revenue 
steamer, in the battle of Cavite, 484, 
486. 



McDougal, the gallant, in the Straits 
of Shimonoseki, 229; his fight with 
the Japanese, 229. 

Mafonso Mountains, the, 41S. 

Magellan, see Maghallans, Her- 
nando de. 

Maghallans, Hernando de, monument 
at Manila to, 423 ; becomes a Spanish 
subject, 472 ; sails on a voyage of dis- 
covery, 472 ; arrives at Rio Janeiro, 
472 ; at the Ladrone Islands, 472 ; 
at Mindanao, 472 ; at the Butuano 
River, 472 ; celebrates the first mass 
in the Philippines, 472; takes pos- 
session of the Philippines for Spain, 
472 ; at Cebu, 472 ; killed at Magton, 
472. 

Maghallans, the Strait of, 472. 

Magton, the island of, 472 ; Maghallans 
killed on, 472. 

Mahomet, 471. 

Mahometan mosque, the, at Canton, 
China, 362. 

Mahometans, in China, 395 ; at Hong- 
kong, 402. 

" Maimai," the, in Japan, 206. 

" Makooshin, " Mount, 12. 

"Ma kora " (wooden pillow), the, in 
Japan, 14S. 

Makung, captured by the Japanese, 
465. 

Malate, Manila, 504. 

Malate, Fort, the, at Manila, 500, 502, 
504 ; destroyed by the American 
fleet, 504. 

Malays, in Formosa, 325 ; at Hong- 
kong, 402 ; in the Philippine Islands, 
471. 

Mallow, the, in Japan, in. 

" Mamori " (stiletto), the. in Japan, 
216. 

Mamori dockyards, the, 393. 

" Mana-ita," the Japanese, 145. 

Manchuria, 278, 282, 392, 451 ; the 
Japanese invasion of, 458-463 ; the 
spring campaign in, 463, 467. 

Manchus, the, in the Chinese army^ 

393- 

"Mandarin," the term, 380. 

Mandarins' Tea-garden, the, at Shang- 
hai, 300. 

Manila, Philippine Islands, location ofj 



Index 



527 



418; division of, 421; 422; streets 
of, 422 ; the Governor's palace at, 
422; La Luna promenade, 422, 42S; 
the monument to Magellan, 423 ; 
earthquakes at, 424; the statue of 
Don Carlos IV'., 424; the churches 
of, 425, 426, 427 ; cigar manufacture 
at, 426 ; cemetery at, 426 ; the San 
Miguel drive, 42S ; the Spaniards at, 
429 ; the houses of, 429 ; the dress of 
the women of, 430 ; the English 
Club at, 431 ; amusements at, 431 ; 
population of, 437, 473 ; newspapers 
of, 437 ; its beauties not appreciated, 
470 ; seized for Spain by Legaspi, 
473 : trade between China and, 473 ; 
the Chinese in, 473; the arrival of a 
Chinese or Mexican vessel at, 476, 
477; Li Ma Han lands at, 477; the 
American occupation of, 491, 492; 
the capture by the Americans of, 
500-507. 

" Manila," the Spanish transport, cap- 
tured in the battle of Cavite, 491. 

Manila, the Bay of, 41S; description 
of, 437; the American fleet in, 4S4, 
4S5. 

Manila hemp, 439 ; manufacture of, 

439- 
Mapu, Chinese town of, 240, 241. 
Mare Island Navy Yard, the, 3, 5. 
Mariveles, 496, 49S. 
" Marques del Duero," the Spanish 

gunboat, in the battle of Cavite, 4S7; 

burned, 491. 
Marriages, Japanese, 149; Korean, 264. 
Massage doctor, the Japanese, 93. 
Massey, John, 405. 
Mateo Mountains, the, 41S. 
Matien Pass, 459. 
" Matsushima," the, of the Japanese 

navy, 445, 446; attacks the Chinese 

fleet, 452-455; seriously injured, 

454- 
Matting-factories, at Honan, Canton, 

371- 
" Maya,'" the, of the Japanese navy, 

445, 446. 
Mayburn, the capital of the Sultan of 

Sulu, 471, 
Maynila, see Manila. 
Maynila, the King of, 473. 



" Medicine men," the, of Korea, 282. 

Medicines, Korean, 286. 

Meji, the, in Japan, 208. 

Me-kang-shang, Mount, Formosa, 320. 

Melada, 216. 

Mengka, the town of, Formosa, 326. 

Merritt, Major-Geueral Wesley, ar- 
rives at Manila, 502 ; his note to 
Jaiidenes, 502 ; his reply, 503 ; de- 
mands the surrender of the Philip- 
pines, 505 ; becomes the first Ameri- 
can governor of the Philippines, 505, 
506. 

" Mestizos," the, in the Pliilippine 
Islands, 435. 

Metal-work, Chinese, 390. 

Metal-workers, in Japan, 210. 

Mexico, 3S9, 425, 469 ; the Philippines, 
dependencies of, 475 ; trade between 
the Philippines and, 476. 

Mikados, the, supreme heads of the 
Japanese Empire, 1S5 ; their efforts 
to depose the Shoguns, 185. 

" Mikawa mausai," the, in Japan, 206. 

Mikawa-uchi ware, Japanese, 223. 

" Miko," the, in Japan, 206. 

Minato River, the, Japan, 126, 132. 

Minatogawa River, the, Japan, 135. 

Mindanao, the island of, 470, 471 ; Ma- 
ghallans at, 472. 

Ming dynastv, the, in China, 2S5, 329, 

376. 
Mingo-no-Mikato, the principal deity 

of the Shinto faith, 195. 
Mino, Japan, 204. 
Miochiu family, the, famous Japanese 

metal-workers, 216. 
Mir's Bay, 4S0. 
Mistletoe, the, in Japan, iii. 
Mita, Japan, 75. 
Mitchell, tieorge, 405. 
" Mohican," the, 26. 
Moji, Japan, 178; situation of, iSi ; 

described, 181-184. 
Money-changers, Chinese, 365. 
Mongolia, 392. 

Mongols, the, in the Chinese army, 393. 
Monkden, 45S; the Chinese in force at, 

466. 
Monkden road, the, 459. 
" Monkey Hill," Takow, Formosa, 323. 
Monkshood, the, in Japan, iii. 



28 



Index 



" Monocacy," the old, 52. 

Monsoons, 330, 331, 332, 333. 

" Monterey," the U. S. vessel, at Ma- 
nila, 503, 504. 

Monto Buddhists, the, in Japan, 199. 

Montojo, Admiral, in command of the 
Spanish fleet at Cavite, 4SS ; wounded, 
4S8 ; 490,^ 499. 

Montomachi, the, Kobe, Japan, 139. 

Moon Lake, China, 307. 

Moors, the, 413. 

Morikage, at Koga, 224 ; death of, 224. 

Moro language, the, 473. 

Mortuary temples of the Shoguns, the, 
at Sheba, 91 ; description of, 94-105. 

Mulberry, the, in Japan, iii ; m Korea, 
2S6. 

Mullard, S., 405. 

" Musashi,"' the, of the Japanese navy, 

445. 44'J- 
Museum, the, at Tokio, 106 
Mussulmans, the, 471. 
Musiime, the, in Tokio, 79 ; in Kobe, 

131- 136- 
Mutsu-hito, the Mikado of Japan, 76 ; 
his palace at Tokio, 114, 115; de- 
scription of, 119; a great lover of 
flowers, 119; wonderful reforms ac- 
complished by, 120, 121 ; his great- 
ness, 123; overthrows the Shoguns, 
185 ; forms a constitutional system 
of government, 1S6; the spiritual as 
well as the temporal head of the em- 
pire, 186 ; his new constitution, 1S6 ; 
his cabinet, 1S6 ; his jealous care for 
the army and navy, 1S8, 195 ; the 
great incarnate god of Shintoism, 196. 



N 



Nabastiimo, 223. 

Nagasaki, Japan, 113 ; situation of, 159 ; 
history of, t6o; described, 160; the 
O'Sucva Temple near, 163-164 ; the 
korausha at, 164 ; industries at, 164, 
165, 166; fishing interests of, 166; 
harbor of, 167 ; the Feast of Lanterns, 
169; the dry-dock at, 175, 177; its 
water supply, 17S; the crematory 
near, 17S; the old mill at, iSo ; the 
climate of, iSi ; imports and exports 
«f, iSi ; newspapers of, 181 ; churches 



and schools at, iSi ; population of, 
181 ; foreign residents of, 181 ; 192. 

Nagoya, Japan, 133 ; a military dis- 
trict, 1S8. 

Nainaimo, mines at, 9. 

'' Nakado " (middleman), the, in Japan, 
149, 150. 

Nakamashema coal-mine, the, Japan, 
17S. 

Nan-hai, 320. 

" Naniwa," the, of the Japanese navy, 
description of, 1S9 ; 445, 446 ; attacks 
and wrecks the " Kuang Yi," 449; 
sinks the " Kowshing," 450 ; attacks 
the Chinese fleet, 452-455. 

" Nanshan," the U. S. transport, in 
tlie battle of Cavite, 4S4. 

" Napier," the ship, 40S. 

Kara school of metal-workers, in Japan, 
21 /• 

Nashiji decoration, the, in Japan, 212. 

Nasinia Light, 48. 

" Nazo toki," the, in Japan, 206. 

Negroes, at Hong-kong, 402. 

Negros, the island of, 470 ; the people 
of, 471. 

Ne-no-omi, rebels against the Emperor 
Vuryaku, 201; death of, 201. 

" Nestor," the story of, 20. 

Netherlands, the, blockade the Philip- 
pines, 477 ; defeated by the Spanish, 

477- 

New Chwang, China, 592, 411. 

" Newport," the U. S. transport, at 
Manila, 502. 

Nichiren Buddhists, the, in Japan, 199. 

Nicka, Japan, temple at, 210. 

Nieuchwang, 459 ; the Chinese at, 460, 
464. 

Ningpo, China, water-port at, 305 ; 
location of, 306; the surrounding 
country, 306 ; industries of, 306 ; the 
city walls, 306; the moat, 306, 307; 
" the heaven-sent pagoda " at, 308 ; 
streets of, 308 ; shops of, 30S ; burial- 
places outside, 30S ; opened to for- 
eign trade, 31S; its coasting and in- 
land trade, 31 S ; population of, 319. 

Ningpo River, the, China, 305 ; pon- 
toon bridge across, 308, 309. 

Nippon, 112. 

Nirvana, meaning of, 200. 



Index 



529 



Ni-Taijo, 252; deposes the Wang dy- 
nasty in Korea, 2S1. 

" Niugyo-tsukai," the, in Japan, 206. 

Niiisei, a famous Japanese porcelain- 
worker, 225. 

Nobility, tlie Japanese, restoration of, 
187.' 

Nobles, Chinese, 379. 

Nobuiye, 216. 

Nodzu, General, in the Japan-China 
war, 451 ; at Haichang, 463. 

Nogi, General, at Kaiping, 460. 

Nomi-no-Siikune, the originator of 
Japanese ceramic art, 220 ; decorated, 
220. 

North America, the Pacific coast of, 
320. 

North China, 2S1. 

North Formosa, 326. 

Nunabiki waterfall, the, at Kobe, 
Japan, 137, 140, 141. 

" Nymphe," the, 26. 



O 



Oak, the, in Japan, no. 

Oakland, 3, 5. 

" Obi " (sash), the, in Japan, 132, 14S. 

Ogden, 2. 

Ohlutors, the, 45. 

Ojiu, the Japanese god of war, 288. 

Okhotsk, the Sea of, 44. 

Old age, Japan a paradise for, Sy ; Ko- 
rean respect for, 2S4. 

" Old Man," 13. 

Old Men's Home, the, at Canton, 
China, 363. 

Old Women's Home, the, at Canton, 
China, 363. 

Oliff, M., 405. 

Oliva, A. M. de, in command of the 
" Castilla " in the battle of Cavite, 
490 ; wounded in battle, 497. 

" Olympia," the U. S. S., in tlie battle 
of Cavite, 484, 4S5, 488, 4S9, 491, 

495, 503, 504; 505- 
Olympics, the, 7, 8, 11. 
Omaha, 2. 

"Ombo," the, in Japan, 206. 
Omori school of metal-workers, in 

Japan, 217. 
Onalga Pass, the, 12. 



" Onyoshi," the, in Japan, 206. 

Opium-smoking, in China, 317, 366; 
description of, 317. 

Opium war, the, between Great Britain 
and China, 31S. 

"Orange Peko " tea. the preparation 
of, 368. 

Oribe ware, Japanese, 225. 

Osaka, Japan, 133; situation of, 153; 
the "Venice of the East," 153; a 
native city, 153; the Imperial mint 
at, 154; the products of, 154; a 
manufacturing centre, 154; the seat 
of the Provincial government, 154 ; 
formerly the capital of the Toku- 
gawa Shoguns, 155 ; the castle of 
the Shoguns at, 155 ; the Haku 
Butsu at, 156; the Temroji temple 
at, 156; the population of, 156; the 
imports and exports of, 156 ; a mili- 
tary district, iSS; 192, 216. 

Oseka, General, in the Japan-China 
war, 458. 

Oshima, General, in the Japan-CIiina 
war, 430. 

"Oshima," the, of the Japanese navy, 

445. 446. 

O'Sueva Temple, the, near Nagasaki, 
Japan, 163 ; described, 163, 164. 

"Overland Flyer," the, 2. 

Owaii, the province of Japan, 224. 

Owair, the plains of, 75. 

Owl, the, in Japan, in. 

Ozamiz, J., in command of the trans- 
port " Manila " in the battle of Ca- 
vite, 491. 



Pachan Island, Pescadores, the 

Japanese fleet at, 465. 
Pacific Ocean, the, 5, iS, 44, 156, 469, 

472. 
Pagoda, the "heaven-sent," at Ningpo, 

China, 308; description of, 30S. 
Painters, Chinese, 352. 
Palm, the, in Japan, iii. 
Panay, the island of, 470. 
" Panfah," the Chinese tender, sunk 

by the Japanese, 462. 
Papinberg, the island of, Japan, 157, 

159, 160, 426. 
Paragua, the island of, 471. 



34 



53^ 



Index 



Parliament, the first Japanese, iS6; 
composition of, iS6. 192. 

Parsees. the, in Japan, 51, 64 ; at Hong- 
kong. 402. 

Pasai, American troops at, 502. 

Pasig River, the, 41S, 421, 423, 43S, 

49°! 493r 5=54. 506- 
Pass No. -2. 32. 
" Paul, Prince." 14; \-isits the " Alert," 

15 ; his unfortunate experience, 15. 
Pawn-shops, Chinese, 364. 
Pearl River, the, see Hu-imin River, 

ihe. 
Pei-ho River, the, China, 235. 
Peking, China, 252, 269, 391, 392 ; the 

Chinese in force at, 466. 
" Penia-cloth,'"' 439. 
Pepo-holians, tlie, 323 : characteristics 

of, 324: their love for the Dutch, 

324 : driven back by the Chinese, 

324- 

Pepper, John. 405, 

Perry, Commodore, visits Japan, 192, 
222. 

Pescadores, the, 425, 465 ; ceded to 
Japan, 466, 467. 

Peter the Great. 3S. 

"Petrel," the U. S. S., in the battle 
of Cavite, 4S4. 4SS. 4S9, 491, 503, 
504. 

Petropaulski. the Russian settlement 
of, 34, 36 : history of, 3S : Behring 
at, 3S : description of, 3S, 39 : the 
houses of, 39 ; customs of the inhabi- 
tants of. 40 ; products of, 41, 42, 44; 
the harbor of. 45 . 

Philippine Islander, the, description of, 
473; 474- 

Philippine Islands, the, 3, 112, 320 ; 
Chinese emigrants in, 3S7 : intro- 
duction of vaccination into, 424; lo- 
cation of, 432, 469 ; division of, 432 ; 
population of, 432 ; Jesuits at, 432 ; 
priests and their power, 432 : early 
strife in. 432 : captured by the British, 
but restored to Spain, 4^2, 477 ; 
troops, 432 ; untamed Indians of, 
433; the ''mestizos" of, 4^5 : the 
wet season in, 435 : a centre of vol- 
canic action, 435 ; earthquakes in, 
435 : the people of, 437 ; gambling 
in, 437 ; the climate of, 437, 469, 



470 ; population of, 437 ; the public 
revenue of, 43S; exports of, 43S ; 
the manufacture of Manila hemp, 
439 ; the principal islands of, 470 ; 
prohibitive restrictions of trade, 470 ; 
the original settlers of, 471 ; celebra- 
tion of the first mass in, 472 ; taken 
possession of by M.ighallans for 
Spain, 472 ; Legaspi completes the 
annexation to Spain of, 473 ; the 
official language of, 473 ; the Friars 
the actual rulers of, 474 ; dependen- 
cies of Mexico, 476 ; Spain's effort to 
cut off trade of Mexico and China 
from, 476 ; blockaded by ships from 
the Netherlands, 477 ; the public 
revenue of, 477 : should not be re- 
stored to Spain, 477 ; the needs of, 
47S ; captured by the,Americans, 500- 
507 ; Aguinaldo proclaims the inde- 
pendence of, 501 ; the American 
commanders demand the surrender 
of, 505 ; General Merritt becomes the 
first American governor of, 505. 

'• Pheasant," the, 26. 

Pheasant, the. in Japan, 11 1. 

Pichili. Gulf of. China. 235, 237, 451 ; 
the Chinese fleet at, 452 ; the Japan- 
ese fleet at, 455. 460. 

Pine, the, in Japan, in. 

Ping-yang, Korea, r4i, 450 ; Chinese 
troops at, 451 ; attacked and cap- 
tured by the Japanese. 452. 

Ping-yang Inlet, 259 ; description of. 
260, 261 : fortifications and Govern- 
or's House at, 263: 266. 451; the 
Japanese fleet at, 452, 455 ; battle 
at, 452-455. 456. 

Ping-yang River, the. Korea. 279. 

" Ping Yuen." the. of the Chinese na\'y, 
44S ; attacked by the Japanese fleet. 
453-455 : taken as a prize by the 
Japanese. 463. 

Pisa, the tower of, 308. 

Pitsewo. the town of, occupied by the 
Japanese, 455. 

Plantago, the. in Japan, in. 

Plum, the wild, in Japan, in. 

Poabi, Formosa, 323 ; native huts at, 

324- 
Ponghan. the Japanese troops landed 
at, 465. 



Index ^2i 

Ponies, Japanese, 56 ; Chinese, 56, 212, I }'. 

295. 
Pontoon bridge, tiie, at Ningpo, '. at Tokio, i<>7. 

308. . ^... ,,_.. ,,. ,.,„.,., 132, 133, ir' - :-: 

*'<'Ppy» **>«> •" Japan, III, China, 2<>4, 3<>2. 

Porcdains, Japantase, 75, i{4. /C-. zi— .''^''^i'.." '.','; U. n. ■-.. -: 

224; Chinftse, 223. 3^. 
Port Arthvr, ^jh-;-?; f',r- 

235, i - ..yi. y^i, y.- 

China, 466. 
Port ;.: C'- :-;, -'.? 
P 

itvLesn. y^'^ (A K-itviu^f 4i<6 ; .vk '-tj 

41 J : f'-rrr; -, : i^i-r. ;-f:. 

4h; : 

PotteTi 



Ij'.r. 



P- 
Pr 



Pulo Cabalk 

3faiiila Bay 
Ptmta Gr/rda 

Bar, 490, 4 ,- 
Pmieatax. the, x" 
*' Pu-san," see Fu-:an. 

Q 

QOAH, 44. 318. 

Qneen of Heaven, the, Cj-:'- - » 

to, 307, 308- 
Qoeoi's Rioad, tiic, at Hiwr. ; 
Qnelpait. Korea. 275 ; kcaaoo oi- 27; ; 

descriptJion of, 275: coast of, 275: 

279, 
Qnene, flie, Chinese r^ard for, 383. 



Ji66. 



532 



Index 



Sable, 43. 

Sacramento, 3. 

Sacred white horse of Jungu Temple, 

the, 2SS. 
Saijiro, originator of Kutana ware, 

224 ; death of, 224. 
Sailors, Japanese, i8g. 
St. George, the island of, 25, 28 ; the 

" Alert " at, 28 ; location of, 28 ; the 

inhabitants of, 29 ; the settlement of, 

29, 30. 32- 
St. Paul, the Church of, at Macao, 

412. 
St. Paul Island, 26, 28; the "Alert" 

at, 28, 29, 30, 37. 
St. Petersburg, 20. 

" Saki " (lemonade), Japanese, 136, 151. 
" Sakyo," the Japanese steamer, attacks 

the Chinese fleet, 452-455. 
Salmon, 17, 18, 21, 43, 44. 
Salmon berry, the, in Unalaska, 16. 
Saman, the island of, 470. 
" Samisan," the Japanese, 136. 
" Samovar," the, description of, 40. 
Sampan ferry, Japanese, 159. 
" Sampans," Japanese, 51, 63, 75, 160, 

345- 
"Samuri," the, in Japan, 215. 
'■San Antonio," Maghallans' ship, 

472.^ 
Sandwich Islands, the, Chinese emi- 
grants in, 387. 
San Francisco, i, 3, 5, 9, 469. 
Sangley Point Battery, the, at Cavite, 

490, 496, 49S. 
San Lucae de Banameda, Maghallans 

sails from, 472. 
San Miguel drive, the, Manila, 422, 

428. 
Santa Ana, the convent of, 414. 
"Santiago," Magiiallans' ship, 472. 
Sanyo Railway, the, in Japan, 135. 
" Sarugaku No," the, in Japan, 206. 
" Saru-hiki," the, in Japan, 206. 
Satee River, the, Korea, 239, 241 ; 

navigation of, 241. 
Sato, Colonel, in the Japan-China war, 

431- 
Satsuma, the Prince of, invades Korea, 

220, 222. 
Satsuma porcelain, Japanese, 220; 



loses favor, 221; regains favor, 222; 

modern work inferior to the ancient, 

222. 
Satsuma-Tangen pottery, Japanese, 

221. 
"Scented Caper" tea, the preparation 

of, 36S. 
Schoolmasters, Chinese, 313; the 

honorable position of, 314 ; respon- 
sibility of, 314. 
Schools, Chinese, 313; punishments 

in, 314, 382. 
Schools, Japanese, 106, 123, 174. 
Sea Island cotton, 2S5. 
Sealers, illegal, 24, 25. 
Seal hunting, 27, 28. 
Sea lions, 17. 

Seal rookeries, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31. 
Seals, 12, 17, 26; description of, 27; 

28, 29, 30 ; habits of, 30, 31; 37, 44. 
Seals, use in China, Japan, and Korea 

of, 214. 
Seal-skins, treatment of, 31, 32. 
Sea-otter, 43. 
Sedan chair, the, in Japan, 121 ; in 

Korea, 256. 
Seiji ware, Japanese, 224. 
Seikwan, Korea, the Chinese defeated 

by the Japanese at, 450. 
" Seki-mori," the, in Japan, 206. 
Semencheng, 4^8. 
"Semmin," the, in Japan, 201, 202, 

205, 207, 208. 
Senate and Supreme Judiciary, the, in 

Japan, 186. 
Sendai, Japan, a military district, 1S8. 
Seoul, Korea, 70, 139, 240, 241, 251; 

description of, 252; houses of, 252; 

"belt-roads" in, 253; gateway to, 
253 ; the King's palaces in, 253 ; 

shops of, 255; street-life in, 256, 277, 

279, 2S1, 291, 443, 450; Japanese 

troops at, 452. 
Sepoys, Indian, at Victoria, 406. 
Sesame, the, in Japan, iii. 
Seto, 224. 

Settsu, the province of, Japan, 153. 
Shaghalen Islands, the, 41. 
Shakudo school of bronze-workers, the, 

in Japan, 217. 
Shambashi, Japan, 75. 
" Sha-mien,' ' the Sand-flats, Canton, 



Index 



533 



China, 344 ; its use for foreign resi- 
dents, 346, 347 ; its location, 347 ; 
tlie residences on, 347, 348, 399. 

Slian-chas-slian, Mount, Formosa, 320. 

Shanghai, China, 294; railway at, 294; 
location of, 295; 303; consulates at, 
295 ; description of, 295 ; the drives 
about, 295; the old town, 296; the 
gateways of, 296; the streets of, 297 ; 
the houses of, 297 ; the people of, 
297; the shops of, 29S ; the charity hos- 
pital at, 299 ; the Mandarin's tea- 
garden at, 300 ; the Jeweller's Guild 
at, 300; the great temple at, 300; 
tea-gardens at, 301 ; the municipal 
government of the foreign settle- 
ments, 303 ; churches, missions, and 
schools at, 303 ; in possession of the 
Tae-ping rebels, 304 ; commercial 
importance of, 304 ; imports and 
exports of, 304 ; opened to foreign 
trade, 31S ; 319, 392, 393. 

Shan-hai-kwan, Chma, 392. 

Shantung, the district of, 465. 

Shantung promontory, the, China, 227, 

45I' 455> 460- 
Sharhaiwan, the Chinese in force at, 

466. 
Sheba, japan, mortuary temples of the 

Shoguns at, 91, 95 ; description of, 

94-105; 200; temple at, 210. 
Shepherd's purse, the, in Japan, 11 1. 
Shibuichi school of bronze-workers, in 

Japan, 217. 
Shigaraki ware, Japanese, 225. 
Shikoku, Japan, 190. 
"Shiku," the, in Japan, 206. 
Shimonoseki, Japan, 124, 133; govern- 
ment dockyards at, 133. 
Shimonoseki, the Straits of, Japan, 156, 

227 ; McDougal in, 229 ; description 

of, 229, 274. 
Shina, Korea, invaded by the Japanese, 

287. 
Shina, the King of, submits to the 

Japanese, 287. 
Shinegawa, Japan, 75. 
" Shin-gu," the sacred Chinese edict, 

3S1. 
Shing-king, China, 394. 
Shinkoji, the temple of, at Kobe, 

Japan, 130. 



Shintoism, in Japan, 105 ; described, 
105; 1S6, 192; fundamental princi- 
ple of, 195 ; is broad and liberal, 193; 
principal deity of, 195; tlie Sacred 
Book of, 196; the Mikado the great 
incarnate god of, 196 ; 200. 

Shinto temples, in Japan, 105; de- 
scribed, 105, 106, 197; 170, 197. 

"Shinuhi," tlie, in Japan, 202. 

Ship-building-, in Japan, 72, 134. 

ShipjJO ware, Japanese, 219; manu- 
facture of, 219. 

Shirkie, the, in Japan, iii. 

Sliiro, the, at Tokio, 76. 

" Shisaldin," Mount, 12. 

" Shishi-mai," the, in Japan, 206. 

Shogunate, the Japanese, founded by 
Yori-touri, 1S7 ; 216. 

Shoguns. the, in Japan, 139 ; the mili- 
tary commanders, 1S5 ; efforts of the 
Mikados to depose, 1S5; overthrown 
by the present Mikado, 1S5 ; patrons 
of art, 210. 

Shoguns, the Tokug2.wa, mortuary 
temples of, near Sheba, 91, 94, 95, 

97- 
Shopajul, the island of, 449. 
Shousui, of Ise, the father of Japanese 

porcelain, 222, 223. 
Siberia, 20, 44, 275, 
Sidrach, J., in command of the " Isia 

de Cuba'' in the battle of Cavite, 

400. 
Sikhs, at Hong-kong, 402. 
Silk, Japanese, 60, 154; Chinese, 236. 
Silk weavers, Chinese, 355, 390. 
Silvers, James, 405. 
Silveria, Jeronimo de, first royal gov- 
ernor of Macao, 414. 
Siyuen, 458. 

Slaves, in Japan, 203-205. 
" Sleeping Buddha," the, at Canton, 

China, 359. 
Snipe, the, in Japan, iii; in China, 

31S. 
"Sodekoi," the, in Japan. 206. 
Solcedo, Juan de, defeats Li Ma Man, 

477- 
Soma ware, Japanese, 225. 
South Africa, 64, 275. 
South America, Chinese emigrants in, 

3^7, 472. 



534 



Index 



Southern Sea, the, 320. 

South Kensington Museum, the, 216. 

Spain, 425 ; secures possession of the 
Philippine Islands, 472, 473; the 
United States declares war against, 
4S0. 

Spain, the Queen of, 499. 

Spaniards, the, name the island of For- 
mosa, 323 ; discover Formosa, 329 ; 
at Manila, 429, 437, 469; in posses- 
sion of the Philippines, 470 ; defeat 
the Netherland ships at the Philip- 
pines, 477; fought well in the battle 
of Cavite, 489. 

Spanish Club, the, at Manila, 498, 

Spanish language, the, 473. 

Steakeuse, Mount, Lamma, 410. 

Stork, the, in Japan, iii. 

Subig Bay, 4S4. 

Suicide, the Japanese custom of, 220; 
the custom abolished, 220. 

Suinin, the Mikado, of Japan, 220. 

Sulu, the people of, 471. 

Sulu, the Sultan of, 471. 

" Sulus,'' the, 471. 

Summit, 2. 

Sumuchang, 459. 

Sundai, 113. 

Sun Lake, China, 307 ; sacred island 
in, 307 ; temples upon the island, 

307- 

" Swadka," 40. 

Swatow, China, 325; location of, 336; 
fortifications of, 339 ; houses of, 339 ; 
an important tea market, 339 ; its 
women, 339 ; the superstitious na- 
tives of, 342 ; population of, 342. 

Swords, Japanese, 214; the etiquette 
of, 215, 216. 

Sylvia, Mount, Formosa, 320. 



Tae Kuang, Emperor of China, 376. 
Tae-ping rebels, the, in possession of 

Shanghai, 304. 
Ta-Hsis-sz, the, China, 377. 
" Tai-wan," see Formosa^ the island of . 
Tai-wan, the capital of Formosa, 326, 

329. 33°- 
" Takachiho," the, of the Japanese 
navy, description of, 189; 445, 446; 



attacks the Chinese fleet, 452-455, 
460. 

" Takao," the, of the Japanese navy, 
445, 446. 

Takatori ware, Japanese, 225. 

Takow, Formosa, location of, 323 ; 
commercial activity of, 323 ; the sur- 
rounding country, 323 ; 326 ; strongly 
fortified, 330. 

Taku, harbor of, Korea, 279, 449, 451; 
tlie Chinese fleet at, 452, 456; the 
Chinese in force at, 466. 

Takushan, 45S ; held by the Japanese, 
460. 

Takuzayemon, 223. 

Talienwan Bay, the Chinese fleet at, 
452, 455 ; the Japanese fleet at, 456; 
made the base of the Japanese opera- 
tions, 456, 457, 460, 463, 466. 

Talu Tao, 454. 

Tambo, American troops at, 501, 502. 

Tamekichi, 224. 

Tam-sui, Formosa, 320, 329, 333. 

Tam-sui River, the, Formosa, 320, 326. 

Tangen, the Prince of, 221. 

" Tan Haks," secret societies in Korea, 

443- 
Tan-shan Mountains, the, Formosa, 

320. 
Tanyu, the famous decorator, 221. 
Taoism, 195. 
Tapingsham, captured by the Japanese, 

463- 

Tartars, the, conquer China, 123; de- 
feat Kisbi, 281 ; drive the Dutch out 
of Formosa, 329 ; in Canton, China, 
348 ; degrade the Chinese, 3S2 ; 386. 

Tatsumi, General, enters Fenghuan- 
chung, 458, 459. 

Tattooing, in Formosa, 325. 

Tea, 40; picking in China, 301-302; 
its cultivation in China, 31S ; For- 
mosan trade in, 333 ; the prepara- 
tion of, 36S. 

Tea-bush, the, in Japan, iii. 

Tea hongs, Chinese, 367. 

Tea-houses, Japanese, 71 ; Korean, 
240. 

Tea-testing, in China, 368. 

Tea trade, the, in Japan, 152. 

Telegraph, the, in Korea, 241, 273; in 
China, 392. 



Index 



535 



•'Temple of Horrors," the, at Canton, 
China, 361. 

Temple of the God of War, the, at Can- 
ton, China, 362. 

" Temple of the Ocean Banners," the, 
see Har-Chwatig-Sze, the. 

Temples, Chinese, 307. 

Temroji Temple, the, at Osaka, Japan, 
156. 

Tenchan, 460. 

Tents, Tartar, 94. 

Teruliide, 21;. 

" Teubotate," the, in Japan, 206. 

Teukchasu, the town of, Formosa, 326. 

" Teurin," the, of the Japanese navy, 

445. 446- 
Thai-ouan, the port of, Formosa, 326. 
Theatres, Japanese, 69. 
Theatrical school, the, at Canton, 

China, 365. 
" Thetis," the, 26. 
Thibet, 392. 
Third Oregon Infantry, the, at Manila, 

492. 
Thistle, the, in Japan, 11 1. 
Thompson, Quartermaster, death of, 

22 ; buried at sea, 22, 23. 
Three-Peaked Point, 462. 
Tienchwangtai, the Chinese at, 460 ; 

captured by the Japanese, 464. 
Tientsin, China, 392, 395 ; the Chinese 

in force at, 466. 
Tiger, the, in Korea, 262. 
" Tiger's Mouth," the, see " Boca- 
Tigris^^'' the. 
Ting, Admiral, in the Japan-Cliina 

war, 453; engages the Japanese fleet, 

453 ; capitulates witli the Japanese, 

463 ; commits suicide, 463. 
"Ting Yuen," the, of the Chinese 

navy, 448; attacked by the Japanese 

fleet, 453-455 ; sunk by the Japanese, 

462. 
Tobacco, in Korea, 2S6. 
Tobacco-fields, Japanese, 75, in. 
Tobacco industry, the, in China, 365. 
Togalog language, the, 473. 
" Togalogs," the, 471 ; description of, 

471. 
Togi-dashi decoration, the, in Japan, 

212, 
Tokio, 65, 72, 75; situation of, 76; 



inhabitants of, 76; a picture of life 
at, 76; the children of, S4, 94; the 
Museum and the Zoological and Bo- 
tanical Gardens at, 106; tiie Im- 
perial University at, 106; the Club 
and hotels of, 107; the Emperor's 
palace at, 114; 133, 155, 1S5 ; a mili- 
tary district, 18S ; 192. 

Tokio Historical Society, the, 201. 

Tokugawa, Shoguns, the, in Japan, 
105; Osaka formerly the capital of, 
155 ; surrender to the Mikado, 155; 
the castle of, 155 ; deposition of, 
1S7; much given to social classiflca' 
tions, 205-207; 208. 

Tomioka, the Point of, 48. 

Tong-hai, 320. 

Torii, Japanese, 49. 

Tortoise-shell work, in Japan, 165. 

Toy pedler, the Japanese, 165. 

Toys, children's, in Japan, 88. 

Tramps, Japanese, 204. 

Trent, the Council of, 475. 

" Trocado," the, 69, 71. 

Troubadours, Japanese, 93. 

Trucker, 2. 

Tsai Tien, see Kiiang-Sii. 

" Tsao Kiang," the Chinese steamer, 
449 ; taken as prize by the '• Akit- 
sushima," 450. 

"Tsein," the, 384 ; value of, 3S4; use 
of, 384. 

Tsianghan, Chinese city of, 306. 

Tsike, Chinese city of, 306. 

" Tsi Yuen," the, of the Chinese navy, 
449; attacked by the Japanese, but 
escapes, 449, 450; taken as a prize 
by the Japanese, 463. 

" Tsube," the use of, in Japan, 216, 
217. 

Tsuboi, Rear-Admiral, attacks the 
Chinese fleet, 449. 

Tsui-koku lacquer, the, in Japan, 212. 

Tsui-shiu lacquer, the, in Japan, 212. 

" Tsuji-mekura," in Japan, 206. 

" Tsukushi," the, of the Japanese 
navy, description of, 1S9; 445. 

Tsumi, Japan, 75. 

Tu-cha-Yuan, the, China, description 
of, 37S. 

Tumun River, the, Korea, 279 ; de- 
scription of, 279. 



53^ 



Index 



Tundi Buddhists, the, in Japan, 19S. 
Tung Chi, iimpeior ot China, 376; 

death of, 376. 
Turks, at Hong-kong, 403. 
Tu-tsing, the Tartar dynasty of, 376. 
Tu-tsing Huei-tien, the, China, i"]"]. 
Tyam Bay, China, 400. 
Typhoons, 320, 330, 400. 

U 

Umbrella-making, in Japan, 209. 

Unalaska, the settlement of, 5, 6, 13; 
description of, 14, 15; wild flowers 
of, 16; the hunter's paradise, 16; 
fish of, 17; the principal occupation 
of, 17, iS; the women, iS, 28, 34. 

United States, the, iS; 22, 152, 191, 
192; treaty between Korea and, 
291 ; Chinese emigrants in, 3S7 ; 389, 
392, 438 ; declares war against Spain, 
480. 

Universal Postal Union, the, 192, 

Uijina, 460. 

Uyeno, Japan, temple at, 210. 



Vaccination, introduced into the 
Philippine Islands, 424. 

Vancouver Island, 7, 8. 

Varnish plant, the, in Japan, iii. 

"Venice of the East." the, see Osaka. 

Victoria, British Columbia, 6, 7; the 
"Alert" at, 8; location of, 8; his- 
tory of, 8 ; description of , 9 ; a curi- 
ous old custom, 9 ; business customs 
at, 9 ; the houses and climate, 10, 
12. 

Victoria, Hong-kong, 343, 399 ; loca- 
tion of, 401 ; description of, 401 ; 
society at, 401 ; modern improve- 
ments at, 403 ; quiet and orderly, 
406; industries of, 406; newspapers 
at, 406, 407. 

"Victoria," Maghallans' ship, 472. 

Victoria Peak, 410. 

" Villa Lobas," the Spanish vessel, 
burned in the battle of Cavite, 491. 

Violet, the, in Japan, iii. 

Virginia, old, 241. 

Visaya language, the, 47^. 

" Visayas," the, 471; description of, 
471. 



Vladivostok, Korea, 271. 
Volcanoes, 19, 34,44, iii, 112, 113. 

\V 

Wagtail, the, in Japan, in. 

" Waki-zashi " (sword), the, in Japan, 
215. 

Walker, Asa, in command of the "Con- 
cord " in the battle of Cavite, 491. 

Walnut, the, in Japan, iii. 

Walruses, 44. 

Wampoa, China, 347. 

Wang dynasty, the, in Korea, 281. 

" War-san," see Gen-san. 

Washington, the State of, 7. 

Water-fowl, 44. 

Wax, the vegetable, in Japan, in. 

" Wealth God," the, see Dai Koku. 

Weddings, Japanese, 150; Chinese, 

353- 
Wei-Hai-Wei, China, fortifications of, 
235 ; importance of, 235 ; location of, 

235 ; description of, 235 ; famous 
temples at, 236 ; naval college at, 

236 ; harbor of, 236 ; arsenals at, 236 ; 
believed by Cliinese to be impreg- 
nable, 236 ; 451 ; the Chinese fleet at, 
452, 456; 460; threatened by the 
Japanese fleet, 460; its defences, 

461 ; attacked by the Japanese, 461, 

462 ; occupied by the Japanese, 462; 
466. 

Wei-Hai-Wei Bay, 456. 

" Wei Yuen," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 44S ; attacked by the Japanese, 
449 ; sunk by the Japanese, 462. 

Weng Tsung Hien, Emperor, of 
China, 376. 

W^est India Islands, the, Chinese emi- 
grants in, 387. 

Whalers, 25, 32. 

Whales, 12, 17, 25, 29, 44. 

" White Cloud Mountains," the, 
Canton. China, 344, 359. 

Wiju, the city of, 458. 

Wildes, Frank, in command of the 
" Boston," in the battle of Cavite, 
401. 

William, Fort, S. 

Williams, Mr.,U. S. Consul at Manila, 
480. 

Wiluckneski, Mount, 46. 



Index 



537 



VVinnemucca, 2. 

Wistaria, in Japan, So, iii. 

Wolves, in Unalaska, 16. 

Woman's College of Baltimore, the, 16. 

Women, iS, 20, 21, 41; unique life of 

Japanese, 147 ; in Korea, 264. 
Wood, E. P., in command of the 

"Pttrel" in the battle of Cavite, 

491. 
Wood-carvers, in Japan, 210. 
Woods, Korean, 2S7. 
Wood-workers, in Japan, 210. 
Woosung, China, 294, 392. 
Woosung River, the, China, 295. 
Worshippers, Japanese, description of, 

S3, S4. 
Wrestlers, Japanese, 107-109 ; training 

and methods of, no. 
" Wyoming," the, in battle with the 

Japanese, 229 ; enters the Inland 

Sea of Japan, 229. 



Yackashema, Japan, coal mines at, 

1 78. 
" Yae}-ama," the, of the Japanese 

navy, 445, 446 ; Chinese prisoners 

placed on board, 450. 
" Yaiho " laws, the, in Japan, 202. 
Yalu River, the, Korea, 260, 261, 262, 

279; description of, 279; navigation 

of, 279; 2S2, 2S7, 451, 452, 453, 45S, 

459- 
"Yamaban," the, in Japan, 206. 
Yamato, Japan, 197. 
" Yamato," the, of the Japanese navy, 

445-_ 
Yamigi, Lieutenant-General, at Kai- 

ping, 460, 463 : captures Inku, 464. 
Yanasuke, a famous Japanese artist, 

222. 
Yang-tse River, the, China, 293, 295. 
Yantai, China, 231. 
" Yashi," the, in Japan, 206. 
Yatsushina ware. Japanese, 225. 
Yeddo Bay, 48, 55, 76, 229. 
Yeh, General, in the Japan-China war, 

449- 

Yeh-ho-na-la, marries Kuang-Sii, Em- 
peror of China, 377. 

Yellow Sea, the, i^-;, 227,230, 27S, 279, 
2S0, 293, 320, 345. 



Yengl Shiki, the Sacred Book of Sliin- 
toism, 196. 

Yesso, 112. 

Yezo, the island of, 1S6, 190. 

Yih Huan, see Ch'iin, Prince. 

Yokasuka, Japan, 71. 

Yokohama, 48 ; the" Alert " at, 51; the 

" Bluffs," 52 ; Fujiyama, 55 ; the har- 
bor, 55 ; situation of, 55 ; the Grand 
Hotel, 56 ; the Bund, 56 ; hotels of, 
58, 59 ; newspapers of, 59 ; govern- 
ment buildings at, 60 ; rapid growth 
of, 60; population of, 60 ; foreign resi- 
dents of, 60 ; imports and exports, 
60; the Benton Dori, 64 ; the Issza- 
kicho, 66 ; 71, 72,75, 114, 123, 133 ; 
the breakwater of, 229 ; 479. 

Yokoya school of metal-workers, in 
Japan, 217. 

Yori-touri, General, founds the Sho- 
gunate, 1S7. 

Yoshidaya, 224. 

" Yoshino," the, of the Japanese navy, 
decription of, 189 ; 445, 446 ; attacks 
the '■ Wei Yuen," 449 ; the '• Tsi 
Yuen " escapes from, 450 ; attacks 
the Chinese fleet, 452-455 ; 460. 

Yuna River, the, China, 306. 

Yungching, occupied by the Japanese, 
461. 

Yungching Bay. 460. 

" Yung Wei," the, of the Chinese 
navy, 44S ; attacked by the Japanese 
fleet, 453-455 ; disabled and fired, 454. 

Yuryaku, Emperor, rebellion against, 
201. 



" Zafiro," the U. S. transport, in the 

battle of Cavite, 484 ; 505. 
Zamboango, the city of, an open port, 

470. 
" Zato," tb-e, in Japan. 206. 
" Zelandia," the old Dutch fort, 326, 

329- 
Zenaba Tea-House, the, at Yokohama, 

Zingoro, 224. 

Zoological and Botanical Gardens, the, 
at Tokio, 106. 



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