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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"

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AMEKICAN CYCLOREDIA: 



OF 



GENERAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA, 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 



VOLUME I. 
A-A SHER. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

649 AND 551 BROADWAY. 
LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN. 

18T9. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1857, by D. APPLETON AND .COMPANY, in the 
. Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by D. APPLfifflf AND COMPANY, in 
the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



A5 




PRE FAG E. 



THE work originally published under the title of THE NEW AMERICAN CYCLO- 
PAEDIA was completed in 1863, since which time the wide circulation which it has 
attained in all parts of the United States, and the signal developments which 
have taken place in every branch of science, literature, and art, have induced 
the editors and publishers to submit it to an exact and thorough revision, and 
to issue a new edition entitled THE AMEEICAN CYCLOPAEDIA. 

"Within the last ten years the progress of discovery in every department of 
knowledge has made a new work of reference an imperative want. The physi- 
cal sciences have revealed unexpected and important relations in the material 
world. Chemistry and physiology have been well nigh reconstructed. Light, 
heat, and force are now subjected to new processes of study, with results truly 
astonishing. The elements of matter have undergone a fresh analysis, and are 
arranged in new classifications ; the spectroscope has made known the intimate 
composition of the stars, and opened the secular history of the sun ; while the 
researches of the physiologist and the microscopist have won brilliant victories 
in the field of animated nature. No less remarkable advances have been made 
in ethnology, archaeology, and history. The records of antiquity have received 
a new interpretation, and a wonderful light has been thrown upon the annals 
of our race. 

The movement of political affairs has kept pace with the discoveries of 
science, and their fruitful application to the industrial and useful arts and the 
convenience and refinement of social life. Great wars and consequent revolu- 
tions have occurred, involving national changes of peculiar moment. The civil 
war of our own country, which was at its height when our last volume appeared, 
has happily been ended, and a new course of commercial and industrial activity 
has been commenced. The second Trench empire has perished, and the third 
French republic has been proclaimed amid the perturbations of one of the 
greatest conflicts described in history. A new German empire has been created 
by the same mighty .convulsion ; the Spanish monarchy has fallen, and a repub- 
lic for the first time has been founded on Spanish soil.. Austria, defeated 
by Prussia, has been reconstructed on a new basis. Italy has been united in 
one kingdom, with Kome for its capital, and the temporal power of the Pope 
completely overthrown. Japan has experienced one of the most remarkable of 
revolutions, and significant changes have occurred in China and in other parts 
of Asia. Large accessions to our geographical knowledge have been made 



vi PREFACE 

by the indefatigable explorers of Africa, and a new impulse has been given 
to human activity on that continent by the discovery of gold and diamonds. 

The great political revolutions of the last decade, with the natural result of 
the lapse of time, have brought into public view a multitude of new men, 
whose names are in every one's mouth, and of whose lives every one is curious 
to know the particulars. Great battles have been fought and important sieges 
maintained, of which the details are as yet preserved only in the newspapers or 
in the transient publications of the day, but which ought now to take their 
place in permanent and authentic history. Since the completion of our first 
edition, the decennial censuses of the United States and of Great Britain have 
been taken, as well as many other censuses throughout the world, and the 
statistics of population, commerce, manufactures, and other branches of indus- 
try, that were correct at that time, have been superseded by new material. 

In preparing the present edition for the press, it has accordingly been the 
aim of the editors to bring down the information to the latest possible dates, 
and to furnish an accurate account of the most recent discoveries in science, of 
every fresh production in literature, and of the newest inventions in the prac- 
tical arts, as well as to give a succinct and original record of the progress of 
political and historical events. 

The work has been begun after long and .careful preliminary labor, and 
with the most ample resources for carrying it on to a successful termination. 
Several of the most experienced and competent of the writers of the original 
work have been employed as revisers, and the assistance of new contributors of 
eminent distinction in their respective departments has been secured, in addi- 
tion to that of members of the former corps. Only such portions of the original 
matter have been retained as were found to be in accordance with the existing 
state of knowledge ; every statement has been compared with the latest authori- 
ties ; every error that could be discovered by the most careful scrutiny has been 
corrected ; many emendations in arrangement and style have been introduced ; 
all apparent superfluities in subject and treatment have been retrenched ; a 
multiplicity of new titles^ most of which have sprung up since the issue of the 
first edition, have been added; while those which have become obsolete, or 
which were found to have lost most of their former importance, have been 
made to give place to others of fresher interest and unquestionable value. 
None of the original stereotype plates have been used, but every page has been 
printed on new type, forming in fact a new Cyclopaedia, with the same plan 
and compass as its predecessor, but with a far greater pecuniary expenditure, 
and with such improvements in its composition as have been suggested by 
longer experience and enlarged knowledge. 

The illustrations which are introduced for the first time in the present 
edition have been added not for the sake of pictorial effect, but to give greater 
lucidity and force to the explanations in the text. They embrace all branches 
of science and of natural history, and depict the most famous and remarkable 
features of scenery, architecture, and art, as well as the various processes of 
mechanics and manufactures. Although intended for instruction rather than 



PREFACE vii 

embellishment, no pains have been spared to insure their artistic excellence ; the 
cost of their execution is enortnous, and it is believed they will find a welcome 
reception as an admirable feature of the Cyclopaedia, and -worthy of its high 
character. 

The design of THE AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA, then, as it was that of the origi- 
nal work on which it is founded, is to furnish a condensed exhibition of the 
present state of human knowledge on the most important subjects of inquiry. 
The discussion of the controverted points of science, philosophy, religion, or 
politics does not enter within its plan ; but it aims exclusively at an accurate 
and impartial account of the development of opinion in the exercise of thought, 
of the results of investigation in every department of science, of the prominent 
events in the history of the world, of the most significant productions of litera- 
ture and art, and of the celebrated individuals whose names are associated with 
the phenomena of their age. 

In preparing the materials of the work, neither the editors nor their collab- 
orators have attempted to make it a vehicle for the expression of personal 
notions. As far as was consistent with the nature of the case, they have con- 
fined themselves to the historical relation of facts, without assuming the 
function of advocates or judges. In instances which seemed to demand a 
positive verdict, they have endeavored to present an illustration of evidence 
rather than an exhibition of argument. Each subject has been treated in the 
point of view of those with whom it is a specialty, and not in that of indifferent or 
hostile observers. In order to secure the most complete justice in this respect, 
the various articles in the work have been intrusted, as far as possible, to writers 
whose studies, position, opinions, and tastes were a guarantee of their thorough 
information, and furnished a presumption of their fairness and impartiality. 

In a work primarily intended for popular instruction and entertainment, it 
is obvious that elaborate treatises on the subjects which are brought forward in 
its pages would be inappropriate. Hence no attempt has been made to furnish 
the masters of literature and science with new facts or principles in their 
peculiar branches of study. On the contrary, the editors have only sought to 
present such selections from the universal treasury of knowledge as will place 
the cultivators of one department of research in possession of the achievements 
of other departments, and especially to spread before the great mass of intelli- 
gent readers a t faithful report of the opinions, systems, discoveries, events, 
actions, and characters that make up the history of the world. 

A popular method, however, has not been pursued at the expense of 
thoroughness of research and copiousness of statement in regard to topics 
which seemed to demand a more extended treatment. Ample space has been 
allotted to articles of this character, especially on subjects connected with 
lodern scientific discoveries, mechanical and industrial inventions, the princi- 
ples of physiology and hygiene, and American and European history, biography, 
and geography. Several of our titles in those divisions are treated with a ful- 
ness of detail, and present a variety as well as an exactness of information, which 
it is believed will entitle them to the rank of standard authorities. 



viii PREFACE 

While the brevity that has been observed on points of secondary interest 
has enabled the editors to give a greater number of titles than is usual in pro- 
ductions of similar intent, they have rigidly excluded those which would 
increase the size of the work without enhancing its value. The terms which 
require only the common dictionary definitions, and the proper names which 
fill an unimportant place in gazetteers and biographical dictionaries, have been 
rejected on system. 

The materials which have served as a foundation for the work have been 
derived from a great variety of sources. Besides the standard works on 
special subjects, scientific, literary, or historical, the numerous encyclopaedias, 
dictionaries of the various branches of study, and popular conversations- 
lexicons, in which the literature of the last quarter of a century is so singularly 
rich, have been diligently consulted and compared. Their contributions to the 
common stock of knowledge have furnished many valuable facts, statements, 
and suggestions ; while recent biographies, histories, books of travel, scientific 
treatises, statistical reports, and the current journals and periodical literature 
of the day have been put in constant requisition, and their contents carefully 
digested and utilized. 

A great mass of important information has been derived from consultation 
with practical men in different branches of manufactures and other industrial 
processes; public officials have liberally supplied us with data from their 
archives ; the representatives of science have imparted to us the results of their 
experience ; the constructors of great works of internal improvement now in 
progress have favored us with the explanation of their methods and plans ; the 
journalists throughout the country have promptly responded to our request 
for facts in their respective localities ; while many of the writers employed 
upon the work have enriched it with the fruit of their personal researches, 
observations, and discoveries in the branches of learning in which their names 
have attained an honorable distinction. 

The editors of this Cyclopaedia are unwilling that the first volume of the new 
edition should pass from their hands without a distinct expression of their 
obligations to their staff of revisers, to their corps of regular contributors, and 
to the numerous men of eminence in science, literature, and official position, 
whose effective cooperation has lightened their own labors, and laid the founda- 
tion for the utility and value of the publication. 

The volume now presented to the public may be regarded as an earnest of 
the literary and typographical execution of the whole work. It will be com- 
pleted mainly by the same writers whose contributions are contained in the 
first edition, together with many others of equal ability (whose names will 
be hereafter announced), and will be made to pass through the press as rapidly 
as is consistent with mechanical accuracy. 

NEW YOBK, July 4, 1873. 



THE 



AMEKICAN CYCLOPEDIA. 



REVISED EDITION, 



1873-1876. 



EDITORS-IN-CHIEF. 

GEORGE KIPLEY. 
CHAELES A. DANA. 



ASSOCIATE EDITORS. 



ROBERT CARTER. 
M. HEILPRIN. 



ROSSITER JOHNSON. 
FRANCIS A. TEALL. 



JULIUS BING. 



EDITOR OF MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 
JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, JR. 



STAFF OF REVISERS. 



WILLAED BARTLETT. 
FBANCIS C. BOWMAN. 
EDWAED L. BUKLINGAME, PH. D. 
PBOFEBSOR EDWARD H. CLARKE, M. D., 

Harvard University. 
HON. T. M. COOLET, LL. D., 

Michigan University, Ann Arbor. 
PROFESSOR JOHN C. DALTON, M. D. 
EATON 8. DEONE. 
W. M. FEEBISS. 
PROFESSOR AUSTIN FLINT, M. D. 
JAMES W. HAWE8. 
CHARLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 
PBOFESSOR T. STEEET HUNT, LL. D., 

Mass. Tech. Inst, Boston. 



PROFESSOR CHAELES A. JOT, PH. D., 

Columbia College, New York. 
PROFESSOR SAMUEL KNEELAND, M. D., 

Mass. Tech. Inst., Boston. 
REV. FRANKLIN NOBLE. 
REV. BERNARD O'REILLY, D. D. 
RICHARD A. PROCTOR, A. M., 

London, Eng. 

PROFESSOR ALEXANDER J. SCHEM. 
JOHN G. SHEA, LL. D. 
PROFESSOR J. A. SPENCER, D. D., 

College of the City of New York. 
PROFESSOR GEORGE THUEBEE. 
PROFESSOR G. A. F. VAN EHYN, PH. D. 
I. DE VEITELLE. 



WOOD ENGRAVER. 
JOHN FILMER. 



SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN, 
JOHN MILNER. 



CORPS OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



HENBY CABBY BATED, Philadelphia. 
Hon. HENEY BABNABD, LL. D., Hartford, Conn. 
WILLABD BABTLETT. 

Prof. C. W. BENNETT, D. D., Syracuse Uni- 
versity. 
JULIUS Brno. 

DELAVAN BLOODGOOD, M. D., U. S. N. 
FBANCIS C. BOWMAN. 
T. S. BBADFOED, U. 8. Coast Survey. 
Rev. CHABLES H. BBIGHAM, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
WILLIAM T. BBIGHAM, Esq., Boston. 
EDWABD L. BUBLINGAME, Ph. D. 
J. C. CABPENTEB, Baltimore. 
ROBEBT CABTEB. 

JOHN R. CHAMBEBLIN, Cincinnati. 
JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 
Prof. E. II. CLABKE, M. D., Harvard University. 
ELIAS COLBEBT, Chicago. 
Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
EDWABD COOPEB. 
Prof. S. S. CUTTING, D. D. 
S. H. DADDOW, St. Clair, Pa. 
Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D. 
EATON S. DBONE. 
Col. H. A. Du PONT, U. S. A. 
ISAAC W. ENGLAND. 
W. M. FEBBISS. 

B. A. FlNKELSTEIN. 

Prof. AUSTIN FLINT, M. D. 

ALFBED H. GUEBNSEY. 

JAMES W. HAWES. 

Hon. GEOBGE S. HILLAED, Boston. 

CHABLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 

Prof. T. STEBBY HUNT, LL.D., Mass. Tech. 

Inst., Boston. 

GEOBGE HUSSMANN, Bluffton, Mo. 
B. F. ISHEBWOOD, late Chief Engineer U. S. 

Navy. 

Prof. C. A. JOY, Ph. D., Columbia College. 
Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Tech. Inst., 

Boston. 



J. N. LABNED, Buffalo, N. Y. 

CHABLES LINDSEY, Toronto. 

E. T. MAGAUBAM. 

Prof. F. A. MABCH, D. D., Lafayette College, 

Easton, Pa. 
W. MATTHEWS. 
JOHN MITOHEL. 
Lady BLANCHE MUEPHY. 
Rev. FBANEUN NOBLE. 
A. T. NOBTON. 

Rev. BEBNABD O'REILLY, D. D. 
Prof. J. OBTON, Vassar College. 
J. C. PETEBS, M. D. 
Count L. F. DE POUBTALES, U. S. Coast 

Survey. 
V. PBECHT. 

R. A. PBOCTOB, A. M., London. 
Prof. R. H. RICHAEDS, Mass. Tech. Inst., Boston. 
BEBNABD ROELKEB, Ph. D. 
Prof. T. T. SABINE, M. D. 
Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 

G. F. SEWABD, U. S. Consul General in China. 
JOHN G. SHEA, LL. D. 
G. W. SOBEN, Esq. 
Prof. J. A. SPENCEB, D. D., College of the City 

of New York. 
Hon. E/G. SQUIEB. 
EMEBICH SZABAD. 
G. M. TOWLE, Boston. 
P. H. VANDEB WEYDE, M. D. 
Prof. A. VAN NAME, Yale College. 
Prof. G. A. F. VAN RHYN, Ph. D. 
I. DE VETTELLE. 
W. S. WABD. 
CHABLES S. WEYMAN. 

Prof. W. D. WHITNEY, LL. D., Yale College. 
Gen. JAMES GBANT WILSON. 
Gen. JAMES HABBISON WILSON. 
Prof. ELIZUB WEIGHT, Boston. 
A. WYLIE, D.D., Shanghai, China. 
Prof. E. L. YOUMANS. 



Among the Contributors of New Articles to the First Volume of the Revised 
Edition are the following : 



WILLARD BABTLETT. 

ABYSSINIA. 

AFRICA. 

ALASKA. 

Prof. 0. W. BENNETT, D. D., Syracuse Uni- 
versity. 

AMES, EDWARD R., D. D. 
ANDREW, JAMES OSOOOD, D. D. 
ASBURY, FRANCIS. 

JTJTJU8 BlNO. 

ALEXANDER II. OF RUSSIA, 

and other articles in history and geography. 

DELAVAN BLOODGOOD, M. D., U. S. F. 

ADMIRAL. 

FRANCIS 0. BOWMAN. 

AMATI FAMILY, and other musical articles. 

Rev. CHARLES H. BRIGHAM, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

ADRIAN, MICH. 
ANN ARBOR, MICH. 

W. T. BRIGHAM, Esq., Boston. 

APPLE, and other botanical articles. 

EDWARD L. BURLINGAME, PH. D. 

ANGLO-SAXONS, and articles in modern history and 

geography. 
ANTONY, MARK, and articles in Greek and Roman 

history. 

Prof. E. H. CLARKE, M. D., Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

ACONITE, 

ANTISEPTICS, 

ANTISPASMODICS, 

and other articles of materia medica. 

Hon. T. M. COOLET, LL. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

ANGLO-SAXON JURISPRUDENCE. 

S. H. DADDOW, St. Clair, Pa. 
ANTHRACITE. 

Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D. 
ACCLIMATION, 

ALTMENT and ALIMENTARY CANAL, 
ANIMAL HEAT, 

and other medical and physiological articles. 

EATON S. DRONE. 

ALABAMA, 
ANDERSONVILLE, 
ARIZONA, 
ARKANSAS, 

and other articles in American geography. 

Col. H. A. Du PONT, U. S. A. 

ARTILLERY. 

B. A. FlNKELSTEIN. 
ARABIA. 

ALFRED H. GUERNSEY. 
AMERICA. 

J. W. HAWES. 

ALEXANDRIA, LA. AND VA. 
ALLEGHENY, PA. 
AMHERST, MASS. 

and other articles in American geography. 

Hon. GEO. S. HILLARD, Boston. 

ADAMS, CHARLES FRANCIS. 

ADAMS, HENRY. 

ADAMS, JOHN QUINOY, JK. 



GEORGE HUSSMANN, Bluffton, Mo. 

AMERICAN WINES. 

Prof. C. A. JOT, Ph.D., Columbia College, 
New York. 

ALIZARINE, 
ALUM, 
ALUMINA, 
ALUMINUM, 

and other chemical articles. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Tech. Inst., 
Boston. 

ARCHAEOLOGY, and articles in natural history. 

CHARLES LINDSEY, Toronto. 
ALGOMA, 
ARCHIBALD, A. G., and other Canadian articles. 

Prof. F. A. MARCH, LL. D., Lafayette College, 
Easton, Pa. 

ANGLO-SAXON LANGUAGE AND LITERA'TUBE. 

Prof. J. ORTON, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie. 
AMAZON. 

ANDES. 

Prof. T. T. SABINE, M. D. 

AMPUTATION. 

ANCHYLOSIS. 

Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 

ALGERIA. . 
APOCALYPSE. 
APOCRYPHA. 
ABIANISM and AEIUS. 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 

AMERICAN INDIANS AND THEIR LANGUAGES. 

G. W. SOREN. 
ACTION, 
ADMIRALTY, 
AMNESTY, and other legal articles. 

Hon. E. G. SQUIER. 

AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 

P. H. VANDER WEYDE, M. D. 

AEROLITE. 
ALCHEMY. 
ARITHMETIC. 

Prof. A. VAN NAME, Yale College. 

ARABIC LANGUAGE AND LITEBATUKB. 

I. DE VEITELLE. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

W. S. WARD. 
ANCHOR. 
AQUARIUM. 
ARTESIAN WELLS. 

C. S. WEYMAN. 

AERONAUTICS. 
ALFTERI, VITTORIO. 
ARNOLD, BENEDICT. 

Prof. W. D. WHITNEY, LL. D., Yale College. 

AFRICAN LANGUAGES. 

ALPHABET. 

ARYAN RACK AND LANGUAGE. 

Gen. JAMES H. WILSON. 

ANTIETAM, BATTLE OF. 

Prof. ELI/UR WRIGHT. 

ANNUITIES. 






THE 



NEW AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA, 



FIRST EDITION. 



1858-1863. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Hon. CHARLES ALLEN, Boston. 

A. ARNOLD, Esq., New York. 

Hon. S. G. ARNOLD, Providence, R. I. 

PAUL ARPIN, Esq., late Editor of the " Cour- 

rier des Etats Unis," New York. 
Prof. A. D. BACHE, LL. D., Washington. 
JACOB B. BACON, New York. 
JOHN A. BAGLEY, C. E., New York. 
HENRY CAREY BAIRD, Philadelphia, 
lion. GEORGE BANCROFT, LL. D., New York. 

B. FORDYCE BARKER, M. D., New York, 
lion. JOHN R. BARTLETT, late Secretary of 

State of Rhode Island, Providence. 
VICTOR BEAUMONT, C. E., New York. 
Prof. GUNNING S. BEDFORD, M. D., University 

Medical College, New York. 
A. M. BELL, M. D., Brooklyn. 
Rev. H. W. BELLOWS, D. D., New York. 
Rev. THOMAS H. BEVEHIDGE, Philadelphia. 

C. J. BIDDLE, Esq., Philadelphia. 

JULIUS BING, late U. S. Consul in Smyrna. 

Rev. H. BISHOP, Oxford, Ohio. 

Hon. JEREMIAH S. BLACK, late U. S. Attorney 

General, "Washington. 
Commodore GEORGE S. BLAKE, U. S. N. 
LORIN BLODGET, Esq., Philadelphia. 
EDMUND BLUNT, Esq., New York. 



JOSEPH BLUNT, Esq., New York. 

JOHN BONNER, New York. 

DION BOUCICAULT, London, Eng. 

Rev. C. L. BRACE, New York. 

Rev. WILLIAM BRADFORD, New York. 

THOMAS M. BREWER, M. D., Boston. 

CHARLES F. BRIGGS, New York. 

Rev. CHARLES H. BRIGHAM, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Rev. EDWARD BRIGHT, D. D., New York. 

L. P. BHOCKETT, M. D., New York. 

Hon. ERASTUS BROOKS, New York. 

Hon. WILLIAM BROSS, Chicago. 

Hon. B. GRATZ BROWN, St. Louis. 

Rev. JOHN N. BROWN, D. D., Philadelphia. 

EDWARD BROWN-SEQUARD, M. D., London, Eng. 

ORESTES A. BROWNSON, LL. D., New York. 

T. A. BURKE, Esq., Savannah, Ga. 

Rev. GEORGE W. BURNAP, D. D., Baltimore. 

SAMUEL BURNHAM, Boston. 

Rev. GEORGE BUSH, D. D., New York. 

Col. CARLOS BUTTERFIELD, Mexico. 

CHARLES CAMPBELL, Esq., Petersburg, Va. 

ROBERT CARTER, New York. 

J. F. H. CLAIBORNE, Esq., Burlington, Miss. 

Rev. JAMES F. CLARKE, D. D., Boston. 

J. CLEMENT, Esq., Dubuque, Iowa. 

JOHN F. CLEVELAND, New York. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FIRST EDITION 



xni 



T. G. CLEWELL, Esq., Cleveland, O. 
J. B. COOHRAN, Esq., Sheibyville, Ky. 

C. C. COFFIN, Boston. 

J. P. COMEGYS, Esq., Wilmington, Del. 
CHAELES T. CONGDON, New York. 
Prof. GEORGE II. COOK, New Brunswick, N. J. 
JOHN ESTEN COOKE, Richmond, Va. 
EDWARD COOPER, New York. 
FREDERICK S. COZZENS, New York. 
Rev. J. W. CUMMINGS, D. D., New York. 
Rev. DANIEL CURRY, D. D., New York. 
GEORGE TICKNOR CURTIS, Esq., Boston. 
GEORGE "W. CURTIS, New York. 
Prof. E. G. CUTLER, Harvard University. 
Rev. S. S. CUTTING, D. D., Rochester Univer- 
sity, N. Y. 

D. L. DALTON, Esq., Washington. 
Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D., New York. 

Hon. CHARLES P. DALY, Chief Justice of the 

Court of Common Pleas, New York. 
ALEXANDER H. DANA, Esq., New York. 
CHARLES A. DANA, New York. 
Prof. JAMES D. DANA, LL.D., Yale College, 

New Haven. 

RICHARD H. DANA, Jr., Esq., Boston. 
Rev. J. S. DAVENPORT, New York. 
Hon. CHARLES S. DA VIES, LL.D., Portland, Me. 
Admiral CHARLES H. DAVIS, U. S. N. 
Rev. GARDNER DEAN, New York. 
WILLIAM DEERING, Esq., Albany. 
JOHN D. DEFREES, Esq., Superintendent of the 

Government Printing Office, Washington. 
EDWARD F. DE LANCEY, Esq., New York. 
Rev. DAVID D. DEMAREST, D. D., Hudson, N. Y. 
Rev. H. M. DEXTER, D. D., Boston. 
Rev. JAMES T. DICKINSON, Middlefield, Conn. 
Rev. GEORGE W. DOANE, D. D., Newark, N. J. 
HUGH DOHERTY, M. D., London, Eng. 
JAMES II. DORR, New York. 
Hon. WILLIAM DORSHEIMER, Buffalo. 
ADOLF DOUAI, Ph. D., Hoboken, N. J. 
JOHN W. DRAPER, M. D., LL.D., President of 

the University Medical College, New York. 
LYMAN C. DRAPER, Esq., Madison, Wis. 
W. H. DRAPER, M. D., New York. 
A. H. DUNLEVY, Esq., Lebanon, O. 
GEORGE F. DUNNING;, New York. 

E. A. DUYOKINCK, New York. 

Rev. TRYON EDWARDS, D. D., New London. 
Rev. GEORGE E. ELLIS, D. D., Charlestown, 

Mass. 

RALPH WALDO EMERSON, Concord, Mass. 
ISAAC W. ENGLAND, New York. 



THOMAS EVANS, Philadelphia. 

Hon. EDWARD EVERETT, LL. D., Boston. 

C. B. FAIRBANKS, Boston. 

C. C. FELTON, LL. D., late President of Har- 
vard University, Cambridge. 

Rev. WILLIAM FISHBOUGH, Brooklyn. 

Prof. D. W. FISKE, Cornell University. 

CHARLES L. FLINT, Esq., Secretary of the Mas- 
sachusetts Board of Agriculture, Boston. 

WILLIAM C. FOWLER, LL. D., late Professor in 
Amherst College, Mass. 

S. P. FOWLER, Westfield, Mass. 

JOHN W. FRANCIS, M. D., New York. 

Major General WILLIAM B. FRANKLIN, U. S. A. 

J. H. FRENCH, Esq., Syracuse. 

Rev. OOTAVIUS B. FROTHINGHAM, New York. 

WILLIAM II. FRY, New York. 

ALFRED GARNEAU, Quebec. 

SYDNEY HOWARD GAY, New York. 

Rev. J. M. W. GEIST, Lancaster, Pa. 

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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FIRST EDITION 



xv 



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THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA. 



A THE first of the vowels, and the first 
. letter of all written alphabets except 
the Amharic or Abyssinian, of which it is the 
thirteenth, and the Eunic, of which it is the 
tenth. This almost universal precedence ap- 
pears to be due to the fact that its typical and 
probably only original sound (ah) is the most 
easily uttered of all sounds, being produced by 
a simple expulsion of the breath through the 
freely opened throat and mouth. In English, 
A has at least four distinct sounds, as heard in 
mate, mat, mart, tall ; and that heard in mare 
is usually reckoned a fifth. In the words any, 
many, it has exceptionally the sound of short 
e. In combination with other vowels, it is 
sometimes heard alone, as in maid, aunt, pear ; 
and is sometimes silent, as in boat, head, beauty. 
The historical features of A are interesting. 
Its sound (probably that which we now have 
in mart) was disliked by Cicero, and in the 
treatise De Oratore, c. xlix., he terms it in- 
suavissima littera. By the ancients, A was 
employed as a numeral, and stood for 500, and 
when a dash was placed over it, thus, A, for 
ten times that number, or 5,000. It is the 
first of the seven Dominical letters in the 
Julian calendar an imitation of the litterce 
nundinales, which were in use among the Ro- 
mans long before the introduction of Christian- 
ity. In logic, the letter A denotes a universal 
affirmative. In the comitia of the Eomans, it 
was used in giving suffrages. In criminal 
trials it represented Absolve, I acquit; hence 
Cicero, in his speech for Milo, terms it littera 
salutaris. In ancient inscriptions, A stands 
for Augustus, Augustalis, ager, agit, aiunt, ali- 
quando, antique, assolet, aut ; AA forAugusti, 
Augusta, Aulus Agerius, ces alienum, ante 
audita, apud agrum, aurum argentum ; AAA 
for Augusti when three in number, and for 
aurum, argentum, ces. On the reverse of an- 
cient medals, it indicates the city in which 
they were issued, as Argos or Athens; on 
modern coins it is the mark of the city of 
Paris, doubtless taken anagrammatically from 
2 VOL. i. 2 



AALBOEG 

the last letter of the name Lutetia. A is also 
a frequent abbreviation, as in A. D. for Anno 
Domini, A. M. for Artium Magister or Anno 
Mundi, &c. In medical prescriptions it is used 
thus, a, or da, for ana, of each. In bills of 
exchange it is in England and France an ab- 
breviation for accepted. AAA is the chemical 
abbreviation for amalgama. A, in music, is 
the nominal of the sixth diatonic interval of 
the first octave of the modern scale. It cor- 
responds to the La of Guido. A was the low- 
est note of the ancient Greek scale, and for 
many centuries represented the deepest tone 
used in music. Alterations in the scale were 
made, however, in the 10th century by Guido, 
and subsequently by others, so that at present 
C is the first note of the natural scale, and A 
the sixth diatonic interval ; a marks the same 
interval in the second octave. A is also the 
nominal of one of the two natural modes. 

AA, the name of a number of small rivers in 
central and northern Europe, derived from the 
Celtic ach, or Teutonic aa, flowing water. The 
most important are : I. A river of the Nether- 
lands, province of North Brabant, which joins 
the Dommel at Bois-le-Duc. II. A river of 
Eussia, government of Livonia, flowing into 
the gulf of Eiga. III. A river of France, de- 
partment of Le Nord, flowing into the North 
sea near Gravelines. IV. A river of Switzer- 
land, canton of Aargau, which forms the lakes 
of Baldegg and Hallwyl, and flows into the 
Aar. V. A river of Switzerland, canton of 
Unterwalden, which flows through the lake of 
Sarnen, and empties into the lake of Lucerne. 

AACHEN. See AIX-LA-GHAPELLE. 

AALBORG (Eel Town), a seaport and city 
of Denmark, in Jutland, capital of a district 
of the same name, on the S. shore of the Lym- 
fiord, 15 m. from its outlet in the Cattegat; 
pop. in 1870, 11,721. It has a school of navi- 
gation, manufactories, and a large herring fish- 
ery. It was a celebrated seaport as early as 
1070, and for a long time the most important 
mart of Jutland for all native products. 



AALEN 



AARAU 



AALEN, a town of "Wflrtemberg, capital of a 
bailiwick in the circle of Jaxt, on the Kocher, 
46 m. E. N. E. of Stuttgart; pop. in 1871, 
5,552. It has woollen factories, tanneries, and 
several iron works. 

AALI PASHA, a Turkish statesman, born in 
Constantinople in 1815, died there, Sept. 7, 
1871. The son of a priest and a functionary, 
he entered the public service at an early age 
as a proteg6 of Reshid Pasha. From 1834 to 
1836 he officiated as secretary of legation in 
Vienna, and previous to his return to Turkey 
visited Russia. In 1838 he was attached to 
the legation at London, and subsequently be- 
came charg6 d'affaires. He was under-secre- 
tary of foreign affairs in 1840, and ambas- 
sador to England from 1841 to 1844. After 
his return from England he was a member of 
the supreme council of state and of justice, 
foreign minister, and chancellor of the im- 
perial divan. Under the administration of 
Reshid Pasha he continued to be minister of 
foreign affairs from 1846 to 1852. His ability 
in settling the controversy with Greece caused 
his promotion to the rank of mushir (field mar- 
shal) and pasha. Toward the end of 1852 he 
was for a short time grand vizier or prime 
minister; but disagreeing with his associates 
in the cabinet on important questions, and be- 
ing held in a measure responsible for the failure 
of the first Turkish loan, ho retired, and was 
appointed governor general of Smyrna (1853), 
and afterward of Brusa (1854). Toward the 
end of 1854, however, during the Crimean 
war, he was restored to power as president of 
the newly established board of reforms (Tanzi- 
?//"/>, and as minister of foreign affairs. In 
1855 he attended the conference of Vienna, 
and while absent was appointed grand vizier. 
He took a leading part in the convention 
which framed the Hatti-Humayun of Feb. 18, 
1856, confirming all the guarantees previous- 
ly given to the Christian powers for the 
equal rights and religious liberty of Christians 
in Turkey. As minister plenipotentiary he 
signed in 1856 the treaty of Paris, though he 
did not fully approve of its terms. Indeed, he 
found so many difficulties in regard to the ar- 
rangements of that treaty for the settlement of 
the Roumanian question that he relinquished 
his post of grand vizier to Reshid Pasha, Nov. 
1, 1856, but the sultan induced him to remain 
a member of the cabinet without portfolio, 
and an active member of the supreme council. 
On Reshid Pasha's death he resumed the office 
of grand vizier, Jan. 11, 1858, but retired 
again in 1859, on account of dissatisfaction 
with the demands of the foreign powers and 
the reformatory measures of Abdul-Medjid. 
But he subsequently returned to his old post 
in the Tanzimat, and acted as grand vizier dur- 
ing the temporary absence of Riishdi Pasha, 
and as minister of foreign affairs during Fuad 
Pasha's visit to Syria, on occasion of the mas- 
sacres of Damascus. After the accession of 
the present sultam, Aali Pasha was once more 



called to the head of the cabinet as grand 
vizier, June 7, 1861, but in November yielded 
that post to Fuad Pasha, becoming again min- 
ister of foreign affairs. In 1864 he attended 
the conference at Paris to settle the Rouma- 
nian question, and continued to preside over 
foreign relations till 1867, when he once more 
exchanged offices with Fuad. In June, 1867, 
the sultan appointed him regent of the empire 
during his visit to European courts. In Sep- 
tember he went to Crete to finish the insur- 
rection in that island, which however continued 
till 1868; but it was due chiefly to his mod- 
eration that a war with Greece was then 
avoided. After the death of Fuad Pasha (Feb. 
11, 1869) Aali discharged the duties both of 
minister of foreign affairs and grand vizier. 
In the recent complications with Egypt, as 
well as in the precarious relations with Rou- 
mania, Albania, Bulgaria, Servia, and Mon- 
tenegro, he displayed his characteristic mod- 
eration, and prevented an outbreak, while pre- 
serving the integrity of the Ottoman empire. 
In the London conference of 1870 for the con- 
sideration of the Russian demand for the de- 
neutralization of the Black sea, and the modi- 
fication to that effect of the treaty of Paris of 
1856, he bore a conspicuous part, insuring the 
safety of Turkey. Before he died he had re- 
stored good relations with Russia and Greece, 
and checked the ambition of the khedive. 
His interest in reforms made him unpopular 
with the Turks of the old school, though with 
all his appreciation of Christian civilization he 
never ceased to be a zealous Moslem. He 
was small in stature, unseemly in appearance, 
diffident in manner, and distinguished for offi- 
cial honesty. His biographer, Fatin Effendi, 
ascribes to him poetical talent. 

AALST. See AELST. 

AALTEN, a town of the Netherlands, province 
of Gelderland, district of Zutphen, situated on 
the Aa; pop. in 1867, 6,160, and increasing 
rapidly. It has many tanneries and factories. 

AAR, or Are, the largest river of Switzer- 
land after the Rhine and the Rh6ne. It rises 
in the glaciers of the Grimsel in the Bernese 
mountains, forms at Ilandeck a magnificent 
waterfall above 290 feet high, flows N. W., 
N. E., and N. about 120 miles through the 
lakes of Brienz and Thun, and through the 
cantons of Bern, Soleure, and Aargau, and 
falls into the Rhine between the village of 
Coblenz, in Aargau, and Waldshut, in Baden. 
Its chief affluents are the Saane, Thiele, Emmen, 
Wigger, Reuss, and Limmat. Aar is also the 
name of several small rivers in Germany. 

AARAU, a town of Switzerland, capital of the 
canton of Aargau, on the Aar; pop. in 1870, 
5,449. The town is well built, and is celebra- 
ted for its manufactories of mathematical in- 
struments. In August, 1712, a peace was con- 
cluded at Aarau between the cantons of Bern 
and Unterwalden. During the time of the Hel- 
vetic republic (1798) Aarau was the seat of the 
central government. 



AARD-VAKK 



AARGAU 



AARD-VARK (orycteropus capemis), a planti- 
grade animal of the class mammalia, order 
edentata, peculiar to Africa, and extremely 
common in the southern part of that conti- 
nent, especially in the Cape Colony, where it 
is called aard-vark or earth pig. It was for- 
merly classed with the myrmecophaga, or ant- 




eaters. The aard-vark is more closely allied 
in anatomical structure and in its dental sys- 
tem to the armadillos than to any other class 
of animals, although it has not their defensive 
armor. It has neither incisors nor canine teeth, 
and its molars are different in structure from 
those of any other quadruped ; they have no 
roots, and, like the tusks of the elephant and the 
incisors of the gnawing animals, are constantly 
increased by the deposit of new bony matter 
at the base to compensate for the continual 
wear at the extremity. It has large, flat feet, 
hollow on the under side, with powerful claws, 
the toes, four in front and five behind, gradu- 
ally diminishing outward from the interior and 
second, corresponding to the fore and index 
fingers of the human hand. This structure 
gives it great facilities for digging the burrows 
in which it lives, and for excavating the hills 
of the great ants, on which it feeds exclusively, 
as do the pangolins of Asia, the myrmecophaga 
of America, and the echidna of Australia. At 
first sight, the aard-vark resembles a small, 
short-legged pig. Its length, when full-grown, 
exclusive of the tail, is about 3 feet 5 inches, 
its head 11 inches, its ears 6 inches, and its 
tail 1 foot 9 inches. Its head is long and at- 
tenuated, its upper jaw projecting beyond the 
lower ; its mouth small ; its tongue long, slen- 
der, and flat, unlike the cylindrical organ of 
the myrmecophaga, nor capable of so great 
protrusion, but, like theirs, covered with gluti- 
nous saliva, which firmly retains the ants with 
which it comes in contact. Its ears are long, 
erect, and pointed ; its eyes of moderate size, 
two thirds nearer to the brow than to the 
snout. Its body is thick and corpulent, the 
limbs short and very strong. The skin is gen- 
erally bare, but thinly scattered with a few 
stiff, reddish-brown hairs, which are more nu- 
merous on the hips and thighs than on the 
other parts of the body. The tail is nearly 
naked, very thick at the base, but tapering to 
a sharp point at the end. The aard-vark is a 
very timid, inoffensive animal, burrowing in 
the ground, if pursued, so rapidly as to get 



wholly out of sight in the space of a few min- 
utes, and working inward with such power 
and quickness that it is impracticable to dig 
him out. It is nocturnal in its habits and in 
its hours of feeding, and becomes exceedingly 
fat. Its flesh is wholesome, and its hams, 
salted and dried, are good eating. 

AARD-WOLF (earth wolf; proteles Lalan- 
dii, viverra cristata), a singular quadruped, of 
the digitigrade carnivorous mammalia, first 
brought from Caffraria by the traveller Dela- 
lande. To the external appearance and osteo- 
logical structure of the hyena it unites the 
head and feet of the fox, and the intestines of 
the civet. It has five toes on the fore feet, the 
interior one of which is situated high above 
the others, and does not touch the ground, and 
but four behind. Its fore legs are much longer 
than the hind ones, which makes it compara- 
tively slow in its motions. In size it is about 
equal to a full-grown fox, which it also resem- 
bles in its pointed muzzle ; but it stands much 
higher on its legs, while its ears are larger and 
more naked, and its tail shorter and not so 
bushy. It has a coarse, stiff mane, which runs 
along the whole of its neck and back, and is 
erectile when the animal is enraged. Its gen- 
eral color is pale ash, with a slight tinge of 
yellowish brown; the muzzle is black, and 
nearly naked, with the exception of a few stiff 
moustaches. Around its eyes, and on each 
side of the neck, are dark brown transverse 
marks, and on the body are eight or ten simi- 




lar bands, the arms and thighs being barred 
with the same color. Its legs and feet are 
dark brown behind, and gray on the inner sur- 
face. The long hairs of the mane are gray, 
with two bands of black, the latter occupying 
the tips ; those of the tail, which are equally 
stiff, are of the same color. The ears are 
brown without, and gray internally. In habits 
it resembles the fox, constructing burrows, in 
which it sleeps during the day, going abroad 
and feeding only by night. It is timid, inof- 
fensive, and shy in its habits, but many individ- 
uals are ordinarily found residents of the same 
burrow, which has always several apertures for 
escape. It is said to run very fast, in spite of 
the excessive length of its fore legs. 

AARGAU (Fr. Argovie), a Swiss canton, bound- 
ed by Zurich, Zug, Lucerne, Bern, Soleure, 
Basel, and the Ehine, which separates it from 
Baden ; area, 542 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 198,873. 



AAEHUUS 



ABACO 



of whom 107,703 were Protestants, 89,180 
Roman Catholics, and 1,542 Jews. The coun- 
try is diversified by hills, mountains, and 
valleys, the soil well cultivated, and extensive 
vineyards abound. It is watered by the rivers 
Aar, Reuss, and Limmat, the two latter being 
navigable. Cottons, silks, and linens, woven 
by hand, are the principal manufactures, and, 
with straw hats, cheese, corn, wine, and cat- 
tle, form the chief exports. The canton is 
divided into the following eleven districts: 
Aarau (pop. 19,247), Baden (23,462), Brem- 
garten (18,751), Brugg (17,162), Kulm (20,790), 
Laufenburg (14,407), Lensburg (18,497), Muri 
(14,297), Rheinfelden (11,417), Zofingen (26,- 
986), and Zurzach (13,861). Capital, Aarau. 
The canton was organized in 1803. Each of 
the 50 electoral districts elects a member of 
the grand council for every 260 voters and for 
a fraction of over 130 ; state officers and teach- 
ers of state schools are ineligible. The grand 
council elects from its number a governing 
council (Regierungsrath) of eleven members, 
three of whom at least must be Protestants 
and three Catholics. On Feb. 13, 1841, all the 
convents of the canton were abolished and 
their property confiscated. The protest of 
several Catholic cantons against this measure 
was so vigorously supported by the Austrian 
government, that the government of the can- 
ton in 1843 reestablished four female convents. 
Most of the cantons were satisfied with this, 
but the minority were induced by it to organ- 
ize the Sonderbund. In 1862 the grand coun- 
cil declared in favor of the emancipation of the 
Jews, but the people voted it down. 

AAKIII I S, a seaport of Denmark, in East 
Jutland, capital of Aarhuus bailiwick, on the 
Cattegat, 37 m. S. E. of Viborg; pop. in 1870, 
15,025. It contains one of the finest and larg- 
est cathedrals in Denmark, a library, and a 
museum. Its commerce is considerable, and 
it has a regular steam communication with 
Copenhagen. 

AARON. I. Son of Amram, of the tribe of 
Levi, elder brother of Moses, his spokesman in 
the embassy to the court of Pharaoh, and sub- 
sequently the first high priest. He was recre- 
ant to his trust in the absence of Moses upon 
Mount Sinai, and made the golden calf for the 
people to worship. He died on Mount Hor at 
the age of 123 years, and his office descended 
to Eleazar, his son. II. A physician of Alex- 
andria, Egypt, who flourished in the 7th cen- 
tury. He wrote on medicines, and is the first 
author who mentions the small-pox. 

AARSEXS, Frans van, a Dutch diplomatist, 
born at the Hague in 1572, died in 1641. In 
1599 he was appointed ambassador at the 
French court, and concluded (1609) the truce 
of 12 years between the United Provinces and 
Spain. He was afterward ambassador to Ven- 
ice, and sent on numerous special missions, and 
in 1640 went to England to negotiate the mar- 
riage between "William prince of Orange and 
the princess Mary. He was originally a pro- 



t4ge and partisan of Bameveldt, but turned 
against him and was the chief instrument in 
his destruction. 

AASEN, Ivar Andreas, a Norwegian philol- 
ogist, born at Oersten, Aug. 5, 1813. The son 
of a poor farmer, he became well educated 
through his own efforts. He first devoted him- 
self to botany, and then studied the different 
local dialects of his country, producing Let 
norske Folkesproga Grammatik (Christiania, 
1848) and Ordbog over det norske Folkesprog 
(1850). Among his more recent works is one 
on Norwegian proverbs (1856). An annuity 
has been conferred upon him by Norway. 

AASYAR, a group of small islands, below the 
arctic polar circle, about 12 m. from the Nor- 
wegian coast, forming part of the prefecture 
of Nordre Helgoland and of the parish of Don- 
naes, in the province of Nordland. They have 
recently acquired importance as a station for 
herring fisheries, giving employment to over 
10,000 fishermen. The annual value of the 
exports is estimated at about $1,000,000, and 
the fish is known as the great Nordland herring. 
They are 'caught from December to January, 
and sometimes in quantities exceeding 200,000 
tons. During the rest of the year the islands 
are almost deserted. 

AB, the eleventh month of the Jewish civil 
year and the fifth of the ecclesiastical, corre- 
sponding to a part of July and a part of August. 
The ninth of the month is one of the principal 
Jewish fast days, commemorating both the de- 
struction of the temple of Jerusalem by Nebu- 
chadnezzar and that by Titus. 

ABABDEH, or Ababdle, tribes of N. E. Afri- 
ca, tributary to Egypt, under the jurisdiction 
of a resident sheik, spread over the N. part of 
the desert between the Nile and the Red Sea, 
from Kenneh to Asswan and Dera, and, ac- 
cording to Belzoni, as far as Suez. They are 
divided into three principal tribes the Fokara, 
Ashabat, and Melaykab and number about 
120,000. Their armed force consists of about 
20,000 men. They are often erroneously con- 
founded with the Bedouin Arabs, but differ 
from them in appearance, habits, and language. 
Some of them are agriculturists, but they lead 
generally a nomadic life, and act as guides 
to the Sennaar caravans, which start from 
Daraweh, 40 m. N. of Asswan. They have 
few horses, but many camels and dromedaries, 
the latter being especially celebrated in the 
East. They fight mounted on camels, naked 
to the waist. Burckhardt, in his " Travels in 
Nubia," regards them as of Arab stock, but is 
not supported in this view by other authorities. 
However, they have intermarried with Arabs, 
and adopted their religion. To the Romans 
they are believed to have been known under 
the name of Blemyes ; but after the Arab con- 
quest of Egypt they appear under the collective 
name of Bega, as traders on the Red sea. 
Nearly on a line with Asswan, in the Ababdeh 
territory, are the ruins of Berenice. 

ABACO, Great, a long and crooked island, the 



ABACUS 



ABASOAL 



largest of the Bahama group, 150 m. E. of Flori- 
da, 80 m. long by an average of 15 wide. Its N. 
point is in lat. 26 30' N., Ion. 76 57' W. 
Pop. about 2,000, including Little Abaco, ad- 
joining, 28 by 4 to 5 m. Many of the inhabit- 
ants are white Creoles. They work at ship- 
building, turtling, and wrecking. 

ABACUS. I. In architecture, the upper part 
of the capital of a column, supporting the en- 




Corinthian Abacus. 



Doric Abacus. 



tablature, said to have been designed from a 
square tile laid over a basket. The shape of 
the abacus differs in different orders. II. 
Among the ancients, a cupboard. III. The 
mystic staff carried by the grand master of the 
Templars. Its head was of silver, marked 
with the peculiar cross of the order; but it 
was supposed to bear another secret device, 
concealed or disguised, and revealed only to 
the initiated, being no other than the ortho- 
phallic symbol of heathen antiquity, indicating 
the worship of the generative power as dis- 
tinct from the cre- 
ative attribute of 
God. IV. A cal- 
culating machine 
to facilitate arith- 
metical computa- 
Counting Abacus. ,. T /-,, ., 

tions. In China it 

is much employed. The Chinese call it shwan- 
pan. A man who uses the shwanpan can tell 
the amount of a column of figures the moment 
they are read off to him. It is also found in 
Russian shops and counting houses. Improved 
forms of this machine are known in the Uni- 
ted States as the "adder." 

ABAD I. (Asu AMRU IBK HABED), first Moorish 
king of Seville, and founder of the Abadite dy- 
nasty, born in the latter half of the 10th cen- 
tury, died about 1041. His ancestors, from 
Emesa in Syria, had settled at Tocina, on the 
Guadalquivir. He was brought up at Seville, 
where by his munificence and amiability he 
became so popular that the people, wearied by 
the bad administration of the Ommiyade rulers, 
chose him in 1028 as their king. After con- 
solidating his power at Seville, he added Cor- 
dova to his dominions, and reigned 13 years. 
Abad II. (MOHAMMED IBN HABED), son of the 
preceding, born in 1012, died in 1069. He 
added the territory of Carmona to Seville, gra- 
dually acquired all Andalusia, and aimed at the 
subjugation of entire Spain. He was cruel and 
relentless. Abad III. (MOHAMMED IBN HABED), 
son of the preceding, born in 1039, died in 1095. 
He was celebrated for love of art and letters and 
for poetical talent. He continued the conquests 
of his father and grandfather, added a part of 
Portugal to his dominions, and threatened Cas- 
tile. At the same time he was tolerant and 
kindly. Alfonso VI. of Castile, after having 
been his enemy, married his daughter. This 



alliance with a Christian king excited the jeal- 
ousy of the petty Moorish rulers. Aided by 
the king of Morocco, they attacked Alfonso 
and Abad, and the latter only avoided the sack- 
ing of Seville by surrendering (1091). He was 
imprisoned four years in Morocco, where his 
four daughters were compelled to spin wool for 
their subsistence. His poems, composed during 
his captivity, were admired. The Abadite dy- 
nasty ended with him. 
ABADDON. See APOLLTON. 
ABAKA KHAN, second Mongol king of Persia, 
of the family of Genghis Khan, succeeded his 
father, Hulaku Khan, in 1265, and died about 
1280. He completed the conquests of his father, 
restored Bagdad, and consolidated the Mongol 
sway over western Asia. 

ABANA, mentioned in Scripture in connection 
with Pharpar as a river of Damascus, is now 
generally identified with the Barada, the Chry- 
sorrhoas of the Greeks, while the Awaj is con- 
sidered identical with Pharpar. 

ABANCOURT, Charles Xavier Joseph d>, min- 
ister of Louis XVI. of France, born at 
Douay, July 4, 1758, died Sept. 10, 1792. At 
the commencement of the revolution he was 
captain in the cavalry, but was made minister 
of war in consequence of the occurrences of 
June 20, 1792. During the proceedings of the 
10th of August he was accused of being a foe 
to freedom, and was imprisoned. With many 
others he was dragged before the tribunal at 
Orleans, whence he was to be reconducted to 
Paris ; but the transport was mobbed on the 
way at Versailles, and Abancourt and his 
fellow prisoners were butchered. 

ABANO, Pietro d' (Lat. Petrw de Apono), an 
Italian philosopher, born at Abano in 1250, 
died in 1316. He studied at Constantinople 
and Paris, became professor of medicine at 
Padua, and wrote several works on philosophy 
and medicine. Like other men of his age, he 
practised astrology, and was accused of magic 
and sentenced to be burnt, but died in prison. 
ABARBMEL. See ABRAVANEL. 
ABARCA, Joaqnin, a Spanish bishop, born in 
Aragon about 1780, died at Lanza, near Turin, 
June 21, 1844. Having been promoted in 1823 
from a village priest to be bishop of Leon, for 
supporting the absolute rule of Ferdinand VII., 
he accompanied the pretender Don Carlos to 
Portugal and England, and acted as his agent, 
and in 1836 as his prime minister in the Basque 
provinces, but finally forfeited his regard. Being 
banished from Spain after various political in- 
trigues and adventures, he retired in 1839 to a 
monastery at Lanza, where he remained until 
his death. 

ABARIM, a mountain or range of highlands in 
eastern Palestine, facing Jericho. Its most 
elevated spot was Nebo, on which Moses died. 
ABASCAL, Jose Fernando, a Spanish states- 
man, born at Oviedo in 1743, died in Madrid, 
June 30, 1821. He entered the Spanish army 
in 1762, and distinguished himself as colonel in 
the war against the French republic. In 1796 



6 



ABAUZIT 



ABBAS MIRZA 



he became governor of Cuba, and defended 
Havana against the British. Thence trans- 
ferred to be governor of New Galicia, he was 
in 1804 appointed viceroy of Peru. On his 
journey thither he was captured by the Eng- 
lish, but escaped and reached Lima. His ad- 
ministration was successful, and for some time 
he checked the movement for independence in 
Peru, the Plata states, and Chili. On return- 
ing home, in 1816, he was greeted as a na- 
tional benefactor and made a marquis. 

1BAUZIT, I iiiiiin, a French theologian and 
antiquary, born at Uzes, Nov. 11, 1679, died 
in Geneva, March 20, 1767. The revocation of 
the edict of Nantes banished his mother to 
Geneva while he was yet a boy, and her devo- 
tion to the reformed church incited the young 
Firmin to study theology and the exact sciences. 
At the age of 19, while travelling in Holland, 
he won the friendship of Bayle and Basnage. 
In England he became the friend of Newton, 
and was distinguished by William III. Voltaire 
and Rousseau spoke highly of his genius and 
wisdom. His writings include " An Essay on 
the Apocalypse," " Reflections on the Eucha- 
rist," and " The Mysteries of Religion." 

ABBADIE. I. Jacques, a French Protestant 
divine, born at Nay, in Bfiarn, in 1658, died in 
London, Oct. 6, 1727. After completing his 
studies at Sedan he went to Germany and Hol- 
land, and became pastor of the French church 
of Berlin. In 1690 he went to England, and, 
after preaching some time in London, was 
made dean of Killaloe in Ireland. He was a 
warm partisan of William III., and wrote a de- 
fence of the revolution and a history of the 
assassination plot. His most important works 
are : Traite de la divinite de Jesus Christ, and 
Traite de la verite de la religion chretienne. 
II. Antoine Thomson and Arnand Michel d', French 
explorers, brothers, born in Dublin, Ireland, 
in 1810 and 1815. Their father, a Frenchman 
temporarily residing in Dublin, returned with 
them to France in their early childhood. In 
1835 Antoine explored Brazil on a mission from 
the academy of sciences, while Arnaud trav- 
elled in Algeria. The two brothers happening 
to meet at Alexandria in 1837, they set out on 
an exploring expedition to Abyssinia, which 
lasted till 1845, and afterward passed three 
years in the ( i alia country. A rumor of their 
death caused a third brother, Charles, to pro- 
ceed to that country, where he found them ; 
and in 1848 they returned to France. A joint 
work of the two brothers appeared in 1860-'63, 
under the title of Geodesie d'fithiopie. Many 
of their writings are contained in the Bulletin 
of the Paris geographical society, including 
Notes sur le haut Jieuve Blanc, published sep- 
arately in 1849. The English expedition to 
Abyssinia led Arnaud d'Abbadic to publish in 
1868 Dome ans dans la Haute-fithiopie. The 
two brothers reside, when in France, at Ur- 
rugne, a village in the Basses-Pyrenees. 

ABBAS I., the Great, fifth shah of Persia of 
the dynasty of the Sofis, born in 1557, died 



Jan. 27, 1628. He succeeded to the throne on 
the murder of his two elder brothers in 1587. 
He conquered Gilan, Mazanderan, Khorassan, 
and a great part of Afghanistan ; and by the 
victory of Bassorah in 1605 over the Turks, 
and in many successive campaigns, he gained 
extensive accessions of territory all along the 
western frontier. Shah Abbas constructed the 
great highroad of Mazanderan, 300 miles long 
and 40 feet wide, of which parts still remain. 
He suppressed the Kurghis, a body similar to 
the Turkish janizaries; he fomented the sec- 
tarian differences of the Shiahs and the Sunnis, 
and reduced the dogmas of the Shiahs into the 
form of a creed. His fame extended to Europe, 
and ambassadors were sent to him from every 
court. He was not exempt from the vices of 
oriental despotism. Among other crimes, he 
put to death his eldest son, leaving his throne 
to his grandson, Sefy Mirza. 

ABBAS BEN ABD-EL-MOTTALIB, paternal uncle 
of Mohammed, born at Mecca in 566, died in 
652. He was the progenitor of the Abbasside 
dynasty, but not known as such until an ad- 
venturer, requiring a title to his usurpations, 
traced his descent to him. He was only four 
years the senior of Mohammed, and was yet a 
pagan when the prophet commenced his reli- 
gious career, and long hesitated to espouse his 
nephew's cause. In, the battle at the well of 
Bedr Abbas fought against his nephew, and 
was taken prisoner. So soon, however, as 
Mohammed's career seemed prosperous, the 
uncle gave in his adhesion, and became one of 
the most zealous supporters of the new faith. 
His influence and mediation brought over the 
family of the Koreishites ; for when Moham- 
med, at the head of a powerful force, was 
about laying siege to Mecca, Abbas went for- 
ward, and not only demonstrated to Abu Sofian 
the inutility of resistance, but induced him to 
come to Mohammed's camp and to have a per- 
sonal interview, which ended in Abu Sofian's 
making the profession of faith on behalf of 
himself and his kinsmen. When Mecca sur- 
rendered to Mohammed, the holy well Zemzem 
was retained, in deference to Abbas, its keeper, 
though other pagan rites and superstitions were 
swept away. At the battle of Honei'n Abbas 
rallied the fugitives and recovered the fortune 
of the day. At Mohammed's funeral he was 
chief mourner. Caliph Omar, on occasion of 
a terrible drought, took his hand, and prayed 
to Allah by the virtues of Abbas to have pity 
on the perishing people. Caliph Othman also, 
when he met the patriarch, dismounted. 

ABBAS MIRZA, a Persian prince and warrior, 
born in 1783, died in 1833. He was the second 
and favorite son of Feth Ali, shah of Persia. 
He was the declared enemy of Russia, and 
commanded the armies of his father in the wars 
with that power in 1811-'13 and 1826-'8, but 
his campaigns proved unsuccessful. In 1829 
the populace of Teheran murdered the Russian 
embassy, and Abbas Mirza voluntarily went to 
St. Petersburg to give satisfaction, but was dis- 



ABBAS PASHA 



ABBEOKUTA 



missed honorably. He was amiable and chival- 
rous. He was nominated by his father heir to 
the throne, excluding his elder brother; but 
the father survived both. 

ABBAS PASHA, viceroy of Egypt, grandson 
of Mehemet Ali, and nephew of Ibrahim 
Pasha, born in 1813, died July 12, 1854. He 
took an active part in the Syrian wars of his 
grandfather, but without distinguishing him- 
self. After the brief reign of Ibrahim Pasha, 
Mehemet All's eldest son, Abbas ascended the 
viceregal throne, as hereditary successor, in 
1848. He undid in many respects the work 
of Mehemet Ali, dismissed his European offi- 
cials, and manifested an arbitrary, capricious, 
and cruel disposition. He succeeded, how- 
ever, in disarming his adversaries at Constan- 
tinople, who endeavored to cripple him and 
reduce Egypt to a more inferior condition. 
In the Crimean war he aided the sultan. His 
death was sudden, and probably violent. 
ABBASSIDES, caliphs of Bagdad, the third Mo- 
hammedan dynasty, founded by Abul Abbas 
as-Saffeh (the Bloody), who claimed the caliph- 
ate as lineal descendant of Mohammed's uncle 
Abbas, whence the name. He was proclaim- 
ed by his adherents at Cufah in 749, and after- 
ward defeated and put to death the last Ommi- 
yade caliph, Merwan II., all but two of whose 
family were treacherously slaughtered. He 
died in 754, and his descendants to the num- 
ber of 36 reigned till 1258, when the last, 
Mostasem, was expelled from the throne by 
Hulaku Khan. The line includes the illustrious 
names of Al-Mansour, Haroun al-Eashid, and 
Al-Mamoun; but from the 10th century they 
had sunk to the position of mere spiritual 
chiefs of Islam, all political power being wield- 
ed by the emir el-omra, or commander-in- 
chief. After their deposition at Bagdad, Ahmed, 
a member of the family, fled to Egypt, where 
he was recognized as caliph, and his descen- 
dants nominally reigned there, under the pro- 
tection of the Mamelukes, till 1517, when Egypt 
was conquered by the Turks. Motawakkel, 
the last caliph, was carried to Constantinople, 
but allowed to return to Cairo, where he died 
in 1538. 

ABBATIJCCI. I. Jaeqnes Pierre, a French 
general, born in Corsica in 1726, died in 1812. 
He was a rival and political opponent of Paoli, 
but submitted to his control in the war with 
the Genoese. After the French conquest, 
which he resisted at first, he accepted a com- 
mission in the royal army, and was subse- 
quently appointed to protect Corsica against 
the attempts of Paoli and the English. After 
the capture of Toulon he resigned and re- 
turned to France, where he was made general 
of division. He remained there till 1796, 
when, the English leaving Corsica, he went 
home. II. Charles, son of the preceding, 
born in 1771, died Dec. 3, 1796. He served in 
the early part of the revolution as artillery of- 
ficer on the Rhine, and in 1794 was Pichegru's 
adjutant. He was made general of brigade 



for bravery in 1796, and afterward general of 
division for defeating the corps of the prince 
of Cond6. He died from a wound received in 
an engagement with the Austrians at Hiinin- 
gen, where Moreau caused a monument to be 
erected to his memory. III. Jaeqnes Pierre 
Charles, a diplomatist, nephew of the pre- 
ceding, born in Corsica, Dec. 22, 1791, died 
Nov. 11, 1857. Under the restoration he was 
a law officer in Corsica. After the revolution 
of 1830 he was appointed presiding judge at 
Orleans, and from 1839 was its representative 
in the chamber of deputies. He was a leader 
of the opposition to Guizot's ministry, and af- 
terward of the reform banquets. After 1848 
he was conspicuous in the national assembly 
by his opposition to the social-democratic 
movement. He subsequently became a zeal- 
ous supporter of Louis Napoleon, and after the 
coup d'etat was appointed by him minister of 
justice and keeper of the seals, Jan. 22, 1852. 
His sons, CHAELES (born March 25, 1816), AN- 
TOINE DOMINIQUE, and SEVERIN, all figured un- 
der the second empire as active Bonapartists, 
the last chiefly as representative from Corsica. 

ABBf), the French word for abbot. Before 
the revolution of 1789, any Frenchman who 
chose to devote himself to divinity, or even to 
finish a brief course of study in a theological 
seminary, became an abbe, waiting hopefully 
for the king to confer on him the benefice of 
an abbey that is, a certain portion of the rev- 
enues of a monastery. In the mean time he 
engaged in any and every kind of literary labor, 
exerted an important influence upon society, 
and was to be met with everywhere at the 
court of the monarch, the public tribunals, the 
salon of the fashionable lady, the opera, the 
playhouse, and the cafe. An abbe" was to be 
found in almost every wealthy family, either 
as the friend of the house or the private tutor 
of the children. There were many good and 
noble abbe's, who acquired distinction as theo- 
logians, poets, and savants ; but as a class they 
subjected themselves to popular suspicion and 
literary satire ; and with the revolution they 
disappeared, though the title is still sometimes 
used as a phrase of politeness. ABBES COM- 
MENDATAIEES was the title of the 225 abbots 
appointed by the king of France. Each re- 
ceived one third of the revenues of a monas- 
tery, but he could not interfere with the prieur 
claustral, who had exclusive control. The 
abbayes des savants were less important sine- 
cures, applied as pensions for scholars and un- 
titled scions of aristocracy. 

ABBEOKUTA, or Abeakntah, an independent 
city of central Africa, in the Egba district 
of Yoruba, with a small territory containing 
several minor towns, on the Ogoon, which 
separates it on the W. from Dahomey, about 
50 m. N. of Lagos, and 110 m. E. S. E. of 
Abomey ; pop. of the city estimated by Major 
Burton in 1861 at 150,000, and of the whole 
state at 200,000. The city stands on a granite 
formation 567 feet above the sea level, and is 



8 



ABBESS 



ABBOT 



surrounded by a mud wall six feet high thatched 
with palm leaves, 20 m. in circumference and 
enclosing much farming land. The name is 
derived from a flat rock 600 feet long covering 
the top of a high hill and projecting at the 
sides. The streets are generally narrow and 
very irregular and dirty. The houses are 
built of dried mud and thatched, with 10 to 20 
rooms, surrounding an inner court where 
sheep and goats are kept. Several trades are 
carried on in a primitive way, and there are 
unions of smiths, carpenters, weavers, dyers, 
and potters, the last two composed of women. 
Regular markets are held, with very active 
traffic, chiefly by women, in cooked and un- 
cooked food, vegetable oils, shea or tree but- 
ter, raw cotton, grass and other cloths, manu- 
factures of excellent leather, cutlery and other 
European manufactures, and many other arti- 
cles. The currency is cowry shells, but in 
1867 it was proposed to introduce copper 
coins. Caravans go from Abbeokuta to Lake 
Tchad and Timbuctoo, respectively 800 m. 
(direct) N. E. and 850 m. N. N. W. The town 
is at the head of navigation on the Ogoon, 
which is ascended by light steamers during 
eight months in the year. The principal ex- 
ports are palm oil and shea butter. The na- 
tive cotton plant is perennial and the fibre 
good, and great efforts have been made to 
stimulate its cultivation. In 1859-' 60 the 
quantity sent to England was about 2,300,000 
Ibs., but it soon fell off to about 400,000 on ac- 
count of local war and indolence. The gov- 
ernment of Abbeokuta is entirely elective. 
There is a king, whose function? are chiefly 
judicial. The army is commanded by an al- 
most independent general (lalogun), with 
elected war captains. There is a sort of le- 
gislature composed of the so-called Ogboni 
lodges (of which there is one in each town) 
and the war captains, which controls the reve- 
nue and taxation, and is said to possess un- 
limited power. The income of the state con- 
sists of taxes on products collected at the 
gates, amounting to about 1 per cent. The 
religion of most of the people is fetishism, but 
missions have been established by the Wes- 
lr vans. Episcopalians, and Baptists, whose con- 
verts in 1861 numbered about 1,500. They 
publish a newspaper in the Egba tongue, and 
there is a church built of wood with a mud 
steeple and a bell. The missionaries were 
temporarily expelled by a mob in 1867. Ab- 
beokuta was founded in 1825 by refugees from 
numerous Egba towns which had been de- 
stroyed in war and many of their, inhabitants 
carried off as slaves. Its people opposed the 
slave trade, established commerce with the 
English at Badagry and Lagos, and have suc- 
cessfully withstood many attacks from neigh- 
boring states, especially Dahomey and Ibadan. 
The king of Dahomey suffered disastrous de- 
feats under its walls in 1851 and 1864. 

ABBESS, the female superior of a convent of 
nuns ranking as an abbey, in some of the 



more ancient orders. An abbess is solemnly 
blessed and inducted into office by a bishop, 
and uses the ring, cross, and crozier. 

ABBEVILLE, a well built, fortified town of 
France, in the department of Somme, on the 
river Somme and the Northern railway, 25 m. 
N. N. W. of Amiens; pop. in 1866, 19,385. 
The town contains a fine but unfinished Gothic 
cathedral, with other public edifices, and 
among its manufactories is one of cloth 
founded by Colbert in 1669. Vessels of :ioo 
tons burden sail up the Somme to Abbeville. 
In 1259 peace was here concluded between 
Louis IX. of France and Henry III. of England. 

ABBEVILLE, a W. N. W. county of South 
Carolina, bounded S. W. by the Savannuli 
river, and N. E. by the Saluda ; area, 960 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 31,129, of whom 20,213 were 
colored. The soil is generally fertile, well 
watered, and well cultivated. The Greenville 
and Columbia railroad runs through the county. 
The productions in 1868 were 4,044,713 Ibs. of 
cotton, 324,850 bushels of corn, 52,686 of 
wheat, 51,374 of oats, and 23,471 of sweet 
potatoes. The total value of property in 1870 
was $7,165,354. Capital, Abbeville. 

ABBO ( KKM ! s. or Abbon the Crooked, a 
French monk of St. Germain des Prfis, died in 
923. He was the author of an epic poem of 
some historical value, in Latin, descriptive of 
the siege of Paris by the Northmen in 885-'7, 
at which he was present. A French transla- 
tion of it has been published by Guizot. 

ABBO FLORIACEASIS, or Abbon of Flenry, a 
French monk, abbot of Fleury, and author of 
" Lives of the Popes," born near Orleans about 
945, slain Aug. 13, 1004, while striving to quell 
a fray. He was several times engaged in con- 
troversies with the bishops as champion of the 
rights of his order. In 986, and again in 996, 
Abbo was sent to Rome by King Robert, to 
persuade the pope to abandon his intention of 
placing the kingdom under interdict, and was 
successful in each case. 

ABBOT (from the Semitic db or abba, fa- 
ther), a prelate of high rank in the Roman 
Catholic church, who governs a principal mon- 
astery of one of the old religious orders, which 
may also have minor convents depending on 
it. An abbot is solemnly consecrated by a 
bishop, though this is regarded as a merely ec- 
clesiastical and not a sacramental rite. Abbots 
are allowed to use the mitre, pastoral cross, 
ring, and crozier, and to celebrate pontifical 
mass, and are styled right reverend. Some of 
them in former times exercised a quasi-episco- 
pal jurisdiction over a small district, and were 
allowed to confer tonsure and minor orders. 
During the middle ages many abbots, especial- 
ly in England, were powerful feudal barons. 
In modern times they are simply superiors of 
religious houses. In ecclesiastical councils an 
abbot can speak, but not vote. 

AL'BOT, Abiel, D. D., an American clergyman, 
born in Andover, Mass., Aug. 17, 1770, died 
on the return voyage from Havana, June 7, 



ABBOT 



ABBOTSFORD 



9 



1828. He graduated at Harvard university, 
and in 1794 became minister of the Congrega- 
tional society in Haverhill, where he remained 
eight years. In 1802 he took charge of a par- 
ish in Beverly, and passed the remainder of 
his life as pastor in that place. He was en- 
tirely free from sectarian bitterness. He was 
the author of a series of " Letters from Cuba " 
(8vo, Boston, 1829), and a number of sermons. 

ABBOT, Benjamin, LL. D., an American teach- 
er, for 50 years principal of Phillips acad- 
emy at Exeter, N. H., born about 1763, died 
at Exeter, Oct. 25, 1849. He graduated at 
Harvard college, and took charge of the acad- 
emy, which he conducted till 1838. 

ABBOT, Charles, Lord Colchester, from 1802 
till 1817 speaker of the British house of com- 
mons, born Oct. 14, 1757, died May 8, 1829. 
He served through a long and useful career in 
parliament, occupying at different times offices 
of honor and emolument. He was the author 
of one or two treatises on juridical reform. In 
1817 he retired from the speakership, and was 
raised to the peerage as Baron Colchester. 

ABBOT, George, archbishop of Canterbury, 
born at Guildford, Oct. 29, 1562, died at Croy- 
don, Aug. 5, 1633. In 1597 he was appointed 
master of University college, Oxford, and was 
three times vice chancellor. In 1604, when 
by order of King James the translation of the 
Bible was commenced, Abbot was one of the 
eight divines to whom the whole of the New 
Testament except the Epistles was intrusted. 
In 1609 he was made bishop of Lichfield and 
Coventry; in January, 1610, bishop of Lon- 
don; in November following, archbishop of 
Canterbury. He steadfastly opposed King 
James's project of a divorce between Lady 
Frances Howard and the earl of Essex, and 



combated the royal decree permitting Sunday 
sports. Laud was his bitter enemy. While 
visiting Hampshire for the restoration of his 
health, he accidentally shot a gamekeeper 
with the arrow aimed at a deer ; and this mis- 
fortune, which was made the subject of a judi- 
cial inquiry and a royal pardon, preyed on his 
health and spirits during the rest of his days. 

ABBOT, Gorham hummer, LL. D., an Ameri- 
can teacher and author, brother of Jacob and 
J. S. C. Abbott, born in Brunswick, Me., Sept. 3, 
1807. After studying theology at Andover he 
made the tour of the United States and several 
voyages to Europe, in order to examine the 
systems and state of public education, as well 
as the variety, extent, and character of the is- 
sues of the press. In 1837 he became pastor 
of the Presbyterian church at New Rochelle, 
N. Y. ; in 1841-'3 was travelling agent of the 
"American Society for the Diffusion of Useful 
Knowledge " ; and in 1843 commenced the 
" Abbot Collegiate Institute " for young ladies 
in New York, afterward called the " Spingler 
Institute." He retired from teaching in 1866. 
He has written " Pleasure and Profit," " Prayer 
Book for the Young," " Mexico and the United 
States, their Mutual Relations and Common In- 
terests" (8vo, 1869), and edited several educa- 
tional and periodical works. (See ABBOTT.) 

ABBOT, Samuel, a wealthy Boston merchant, 
one of the founders of the Andover theologi- 
cal seminary, born at Andover in 1732, died 
April 30, 1812. In 1807 he made a donation 
of $20,000 toward establishing the seminary, 
and at his death left it $100,000 in addition. 
He also gave away large sums for various 
charitable objects. 

ABBOTSFORD, the seat of Sir Walter Scott, 
from which his baronet's title was taken. It 




Abbotsford. 






10 



ABBOTS-LANGLEY 



ABBOTT 



is situated in the parish of Melrose, in Rox- 
burghshire and Selkirkshire, on the right bank 
of the Tweed, and in the neighborhood of the 
abbeys of Melrose, Jedburgh, and Dryburgh, 
and the towns of Selkirk and Galashiels. Sir 
Walter bought the estate in 1811, built the 
mansion, and gave it its present name, adopted 
from an adjoining ford in the Tweed. The 
house is irregular, and after the pattern of the 
old English manor houses ; flourishing planta- 
tions hem it round, and a beautiful haugh or 
meadow on the opposite side of the Tweed 
forms its immediate prospect. The external 
walls of the house and garden are interca- 
lated with antique carved stones taken from 
old castles and abbeys. The inside was 
decorated with beautiful paintings, the work 
of D. B. Hay of Edinburgh, and a library of 
curious works and British antiquities. Ab- 
botsford was occupied by James Hope Scott, 
Esq., and his wife, the sole surviving grand- 
daughter of Sir Walter Scott, until that lady's 
death, Oct. 26, 1858. Since that period, pend- 
ing the minority of Miss Scott, the only sur- 
viving child, the mansion has been let for the 
use of a Roman Catholic seminary for girls. 

ABBOTS-LANGLEY, a parish in Hertfordshire, 
England, 21 m. N. of London, noted as the 
birthplace of Nicholas Breakspear (Pope 
Adrian IV.), the only Englishman who ever oc- 
cupied the holy see. "The Booksellers' Re- 
treat " in this place is an institution founded 
by English booksellers as a home for decayed 
members of the trade. 

ABBOTT, a family of American writers, 
whose name was originally spelled Abbot. I. 
Jaeob, born at Hallowell, Me., Nov. 14, 1803. 
He graduated at Bowdoin college, Brunswick, 
Me., in 1820, and studied divinity at the 
theological seminary in Andover, Mass. From 
1825 to 1829 he was professor of mathematics 
and natural philosophy in Amherst college, 
and afterward took charge of the newly 
founded Mount Vernon school for girls in Bos- 
ton. In 1834 he engaged in organizing a new 
Congregational church in Roxbury (the Eliot 
church); and about 1838, relinquishing the 
pastoral charge to his brother John S. C., he 
removed to Farmington, Me., and has since de- 
voted himself almost exclusively to literary la- 
bor, chiefly in the production of books for the 
young. For several years he has resided in 
New York. A complete catalogue of his 
works would considerably exceed 200 titles. 
Many of them have been serial, each series 
comprising from 3 to 36 volumes. Among 
them are the "Young Christian" series (4 
vols.), the "Rollo Books" (28 vols.), the 
"Lucy Books" (6 vols.), the "Jonas Books" 
(6 vols.), the "Franconia Stories" (10 vols.), 
the "Harper's Story Books" (36 vols.), the 
"Marco Paul Series" (6 vols.), the "Gay 
Family" series (12 vols.), the "Juno Books" 
(6 vols.), "Rainbow and Lucky" "Aeries (5 
vols.), and 4 or 5 other series of 5 or .6 vol- 
umes each ; " Science for the Young " (4 vols. 



issued, "Heat," "Light," "Water and Land," 
and "Force"); "A Summer in Scotland"; 
" The Teacher " ; more than 20 of the series of 
illustrated histories to which his brother John 
S. C. contributed, and a separate series of his- 
tories of America in 4 volumes. He has also 
edited, with additions, several historical text 
books, and compiled a series of school readers. 
II. John Stephens Cabot, brother of the preced- 
ing, born in Brunswick, Me., Sept. 18, 1805. 
He was also educated at Bowdoin college 
and Andover theological seminary, graduating 
from the former in 1825. He was ordained to 
the ministry in the Congregational church in 
1830, and was settled successively at Worces- 
ter, Roxbury, and Nantucket, Mass. His first 
published work, " The Mother at Home," ap- 
peared in 1833, and was followed not long af- 
ter by "The Child at Home." In 1844 he re- 
linquished the pastorate, and devoted himself 
exclusively to literature, but has since occa- 
sionally resumed his ministerial labors for brief 
periods, and in 1866-'8 acted as stated sup- 
ply in New Haven. With few exceptions his 
works have been professedly historical. The 
principal of them are: "Practical Christian- 
ity. " ; " Kings and Queens, or Life in the 
Palace " ; " The French Revolution of 1789 " ; 
" The History of Napoleon Bonaparte " (2 
vols.) ; " Napoleon at St. Helena " ; " The His- 
tory of Napoleon III." (1868); 10 vols. of 
illustrated histories ; " A History of the Civil 
War in America" (2 vols., 1863-'6); "Ro- 
mance of Spanish History" (1870); and "The 
History of Frederick the Second, called Fred- 
erick the Great" (1871). Most of Mr. Ab- 
bott's books have had a large sale, and several 
of them have been translated into many lan- 
guages. III. Gorham D. See ABBOT. IV. Ben- 
jamin Yanghan, son of Jacob, a Ifiwyer, born in 
Boston, June 4, 1830. He was educated in 
New York, and admitted to the bar in 1851. 
He has produced many volumes of reports and 
digests of state and United States laws and de- 
cisions of the higher courts of New York. He 
is now (1872) a member of the national com- 
mission for revising the laws of the United 
States, and is also preparing a National Digest. 
V. Aiivtin. brother of the preceding, also a law- 
yer, born in Boston, Dec. 18, 1831. He was 
admitted to the New York bar about 1852, en- 
tered into partnership with his brother, and 
has codperated with him in the preparation of 
legal treatises, compilations, and digests. He 
has also occasionally contributed to lighter 
literature,, his earliest ventures being two joint 
novels entitled " Conecut Corners " and "Mat- 
thew Caraby," in which his brothers Benjamin 
and Lyman participated. VI. Lyman, brother 
of the preceding, born in Roxbury, Mass., Dec. 
18, 1835. He graduated from the university 
of the city of New York in 1853, studied law, 
and went into partnership with his brothers 
in 1856; but he afterward studied theology 
with his uncle, the Rev. J. S. C. Abbott, and 
was ordained to the ministry in the Congrega- 



ABBOTT 



ABBREVIATIONS 



11 



tional church at Farmington, Me., in 1860. 
He was settled as pastor of the first Congre- 
gational church in Terre Haute, Ind., the 
same year, and remained there till 1865, when 
he was chosen secretary of the American 
union (freedmen's) commission, and held that 
office till 1868. He was also pastor of the New 
England church in New York city from 1866 
to 1869, when he resigned, to devote himself 
to literature. He was associated with his bro- 
thers in the production of two novels, and has 
also published " The Results of Emancipation in 
the United States" (1867), "Jesus of Naza- 
reth: His Life and Teachings" (1869), and 
" Old Testament Shadows of New Testament 
Truths " (1870). He has edited two volumes of 
" Sermons by Rev. Henry Ward Beecher," and 
"Morning and Evening Exercises," selected 
from the writings of the same author. He is 
now (1872) the editor of the " Literary Record " 
of " Harper's Monthly Magazine," and editor- 
in-chief of "The Illustrated Christian Week- 
ly," published by the American tract society. 
VII. Edward, brother of the preceding, born in 
Farmington, Me., July 15, 1841. He was edu- 
cated in New York, has contributed to period- 
ical and other literature, and is one of the 
editors of "The Congregationalist," a leading 
Congregational newspaper published in Boston. 

ABBOTT, Charles, Lord Tenterden, an English 
lawyer, born Oct. 7, 1762, died Nov. 4, 1832, 
He was appointed lord chief justice of the 
king's bench in 1818, and in 1827 was created 
a peer as Baron Tenterden. His treatise on 
maritime law is a standard work. 

ABBREVIATIONS, certain contractions' of va- 
rious words and phrases, effected by omitting 
some of the letters or syllables. The object 
in view is the saving of time and space. They 
are found in every written language, but since 
the art of printing was discovered are much 
less used. The Romans called them notes, and 
Lucius Annseus Seneca made a list of them, 
embracing upward of 5,000. The abbrevia- 
tions in most ordinary use are those of names 
and titles. Physicians and lawyers use them 
largely for the sake of despatch. The Jewish 
writers not only throw out letters and sylla- 
bles, but often omit everything except the 
initial letter. They even take the initials of a 
continuous series of words, and, uniting them 
with the aid of vowels, make new words 
standing in the place of all those thus abridged. 
The monks of the middle ages used so many 
abbreviations in copying the works of the 
Greek and Latin writers, that only experienced 
persons can decipher them. The Germans 
use them to a greater extent than any other 
nation, for words in common use. Many words 
in modern languages originated in Latin ab- 
breviations, which illiterate persons mistook 
for the words themselves. The following are 
the principal abbreviations in common use : 

A. B. Artium Baccalaureus, A. C. Ante Christum, before 

Bachelor of Arts. Christ. 

Ab[\ Archbishop. Acct. Account. 



A.M. Anno Domini, hi the 
year of our Lord. 

Adjt. Adjutant. 

Ad lib. Ad libitum, at pleas- 
ure. 

Adm. Admiral. 

Admr. Administrator. 

Admx. Administratrix. 

Mi. or JDtat. ^Etatis, of age. 

A. G. Adjutant General 

A. H. Anno Hegirse, in the 
year of the Hegira. 

Ala. Alabama. 

A. M. Anno mundi, in the 
year of the world ; Ante me- 
ridiem, before noon ; Artium 
Magister, Master of Arts. 

A. R. A. Associate of the 
Royal Academy. 

Ark. Arkansas. 

A. U. C. Anno urbis conditse, 
or Ab urbe condita, in the 
year from the building of 
the city (Rome). 

B. A. Bachelor of Arts. 
Bart, or Bt. Baronet. 
Bbl. Barrel. 

B. C. Before Christ. 

B. D. Bachelor of Divinity. 

B. I. British India. 

B. L. Bachelor of Law. 

Bp. Bishop 

Brig. Gen. Brigadier General. 

Bush. Bushel. 

B. V. Blessed Virgin. 
B.V.M. Blessed Virgin Mary. 

C. Centigrade (thermometer). 
Cal. California. 

Cap. Capitulum, chapter. 

Capt. Captain. 

C. B. Companion of the Bath ; 
Cape Breton. 

C. E. Civil Engineer. 

Cent. Centum, hundred. 

Cf. Conferre, compare. 

Chap. Chapter. 

Chron. Chronicles. 

C. J. Chief Justice. 

C. O. D. Collect (or cash) on 
delivery. 

C. G. H. Cape of Good Hope. 

Col. Colonel ; Colossians ; Col- 
orado. 

Conn, or Ct. Connecticut. 

Cor. Corinthians. 

Cor. Sec. Corresponding Sec- 
retary. 

Coss. Cpnsules, consuls. 

C. R. Civis Romanus. a Ro- 
man citizen. 

Cr. Creditor. 
O. T. Colorado Territory. 
Ct. or Conn. Connecticut. 
Cwt. Hundred weight. 

D. (<?.). Denarius, denarii, a 
penny, pence. 

D. C. "District of Columbia. 

D. C. L. Doctor of Civil Law. 

D. D. Doctor of Divinity. 

Del. Delaware ; delineavit, 
drew it. 

Deut. Deuteronomy. 

D. F. Defensor fidei, defend- 
er of the faith. 

D. G. Dei gratia, by the grace 
of God. 

Do. Ditto (Ital., said), the 
same. 

Dr. Doctor; debtor. 

D. T. Dakota Territory. 

D. V. Deo volente, God will- 
ing. 

Dwt. Pennyweight. 

E. East. 

Eccl. or Eecles. Ecclesiastes. 

Ecclus. Ecclesiasticus. 

E. E. Errors excepted. 

E. g., or Ex. gr. Exempli 
gratia, for example. 

E. I. East India, or East In- 
dies. 

Eph. Ephosians. 

E*L Esdras. 



Esq. Esquire. 

Et al. Et alii, or allos, and 
others. 

Etc. Etcetera, and so forth. 

Et seq. Et sequentes, or se- 
quentia, and the succeeding. 

Ex. or Exod. Exodus. 

Exr. Executor. 

Ezek. Ezekiel. 

F., or Fahr. Fahrenheit. 

F. and A. M. Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons. 

F. A. S. Fellow of the Anti- 
quarian Society. 

F. D. Fidei defcnsor, defend- 
er of the faith. 

F. G. 8. Fellow of the Geo- 
logical Society. 

Fla. or Flor. Florida. 

F. R. G. S. Fellow of the Roy- 
al Geographical Society. 

F. R. A. S. Fellow of the 
Royal Astronomical Society. 

F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal 
Society ; L., of London ; E., 
of Edinburgh; D., of Dublin. 

F. S. A. Fellow of the Soci- 
ety of Antiquaries. 

Ga. Georgia. 
Gal. Galatians. 

G. C. B. Grand Cross of the 
Bath. 

Gen. General; Genesis. 

G. M. Grand Master. 

Gov. Governor. 

Hab. Habakkuk. 

Hag. Haggai. 

H. B. M. His or Her Britan- 
nic Majesty. 

Heb. Hebrews. 

Hhd. Hogshead. 

H. I. H. His or Her Imperial 
Highness. 

H. M. S. His or Her Majesty's 
ship. 

Hon. Honorable. 

Hos. Hosea. 

H. R. House of Representa- 
tives. 

H. R. H. His or Her Royal 
Highness. 

la. Iowa, (This should not 
be used lor Indiana, but 
Ind.) 

Ib. or Ibid. Ibidem, in the 
same place. 

Id. Idem, the same. 

Id. T. Idaho Territory. 

I. e. Id est, that is. 

I. H. S. Jesus Hominum Sal- 
vator, Jesus (lesus) the Sa- 
viour of men. (Said to have 
originated from a misread- 
ing of the Greek IH2 for 
'IH2OY2, Jesus.) 

111. Illinois. 

Incog. Incognito, unknown. 

Ind. Indiana. 

Ind. T. Indian Territory. 

In st. Instant, of the present 
month. 

I. O. O. F. Independent Or- 
der of Odd Fellows. 

I. O. U. I owe you. 

Isa. Isaiah. 

I. T. Idaho Territory ; Indian 
Territory. (Better, Id. T. 
and Ind. T.) 

Jam. Jamaica. 

Jer. Jeremiah. 

JJ. Justices. 

Josh. Joshua. 

J. P. Justice of the Peace. 

J. U. D. Juris utriusque doc- 
tor, doctor of both canon and 
civil law. 

Jud. Judith. 

Judg. Judges. 

Kan. Kansas. 

K. B. Knight of the Bath. 

K. C. B. Knight Commander 
of the Bath. 

K. G. Knight of the Garter. 



12 



ABBREVIATIONS 



ABDALLAH BEN ZOBAIR 



K.G.C. Knight Grand Cross. 

K. G. C. B. Knight of the 
Grand Cross of the Bath. 

Ks. Kansas. 

Kt. Knight. 

Ky. Kentucky. 

L. (/.. ). Libra, a pound 
(money). 

La. Louisiana. 

Lb. Libra, a pound (weight). 

L. C. Lower Canada. 

Lev. Leviticus. 

L. L Long Island. 

Lib. Liber, book. 

Lieut or Lt. Lieutenant. 

LL. B. Legum Baccalaureus, 
Bachelor of Laws. 

LL. D. Legum Doctor, Doc- 
tor of Laws. 

L. 8. Locus sigilli, place of 
the seal. 

L, 8. D. Pounds, shillings, 
and pence. 

M. Monsieur. 

M. A. Master of Arts. 

Mace. Maccabees. 

Maj. Gen. Major General 

Mai. Malachi. 

Mass. Massachusetts. 

Matt. Matthew. 

M. C. Member of Congress. 

M.D. Medicinse Doctor, Doc- 
tor of Medicine. 

Md. Maryland. 

M. E. Methodist Episcopal. 

Me. Maine. 

Messrs. Messieurs, gentle- 
men, sirs. 

Mir. Micah. 

Mich. Michigan. 

Minn. Minnesota. 

Miss. Mississippi 

MUe. Mademoiselle. 

MM. Messieurs. 

Mme. Madame. 

Mn. Missouri. 

Mons. Monsieur. 

M. P. Member of Parliament. 

MS., M >s. Manuscript, man- 
uscripts. 

M. T. Montana Territory. 

Mt Mount 

Mus. D. or Mus. Doc. Doctor 
of Music. 

N. North. 

K. A. National Academician ; 
North America. 

N. B. Nota bene, mark well ; 
New Brunswick ; North 
Britain. 

N. C. North Carolina. 

N. E. Northeast; New Eng- 
land. 

Neb. Nebraska. 

Neh. Nehemiah. 

Nem. con. Nemine contra- 
dlcente, no one contradict- 
ing, unanimously. 

Nev. Nevada. 

N. F. Newfoundland. 

N. G. New Granada. 

N. H. New Hampshire. 

N. i. New Jersey. 

N. M. New Mexico. 

N. O. New Orleans. 

No. Numero, number. 

N. P. New Providence. 

N. 8. New style ; Nova Sco- 
tia. 

N. T. New Testament 

Num. Numbers. 

N. W. Northwest 

N. Y. New York. 

N. Z. New Zealand. 

O. Ohio. 

Ob. Obiit,dled. 

Obad. Obadlah. 

Or. Oregon. 

O. 8. Old style. 

O. T. Old Testament. 

Oxon. Oxoniensis, of Oxford. 

Oz. Ounce. 

Pa. Pennsylvania. 



P. E. Protestant Episcopal. 

P.E. I. Prince Edward Island. 

IVmi. Pennsylvania. 

Per cent, or per ct Per cen- 
tum, by the hundred. 

Ph. D. Philosophise Doctor, 
Doctor of Philosophy. 

Phil. Philippians. 

Phila. Philadelphia. 

P. M. Postmaster ; Post me- 
ridiem, after noon. 

P. O. Post office. 

P. P. Parish priest. 

P. P. C. Pour prendre cong i, 
to take leave. 

P. R. Porto Rico. 

Prof. Professor. 

Pro tern. Pro temporc, for 
the time, temporarily. 

Prov. Proverbs. 

Prox. Proximo, next, of the 
next month. 

P. 8. Postscript 

Ps. Psalm. 

Pxt Plnxit, painted it 

Q. Quadrans, farthing. 

Q. C. Queen's counsel. 

Q. d. Quasi dicat, as if he 
should say. 

Q. E. D. Quod erat demon- 
strandum, which was to be 
demonstrated. 

Q. M. Quartermaster. 

Qr. Quarter; farthing. 

(\. 8. Quantum sufflcit, as 
much as is necessary. 

Qu., Qy. Quaere, query. 

Q. v. Quod vide, which see. 

li. Kex or Kegina, king or 
queen. 

R. A. Royal Academician ; 
Royal Artillery. 

R. K. Royal Engineer*. 

Rec. Sec. Recording Secre- 
tary. 

Ref. Ch. Reformed Church. 

Rev. Revelation ; Reverend. 

R. I. Rhode Island. 

R. M. 8. Royal mail steamer. 

R. N. Royal Navy. 

Rom. Romans. 

R. 8. D. Royal Society of 
Dublin. 

R. 8. E. Royal Society of 
Edinburgh. 

R. 8. V. P. Repondez s'U 
vous plait, Answer if you 
please. 

Rt Hon. Right Honorable. 

Rt Rev. Right Reverend. 

8. (.). Solldus. shilling; south. 

S. A. South America. 

Sam. Samuel. 

8. C. South Carolina. 

8c. or Sculp. Sculpsit, en- 
graved it. 

Scan. Mag. Scan datum mnir- 
natum, defamation of the 
grvat or of officials. 

Sec. Secretary. 

8. J. Society of Jesus, Jesuit 

S. P. Q. R. Senatus Popu- 
lusqne Romanua, the senate 
and people of Rome. 

Ss. SclHcet, namely. 

8t Saint 

8. T. D. g*crB Theologte 
Doctor, Do-Hor of Sacred 
Theology. 

Tenn. Tennessee. 

Thess. Thessalonians. 

Tit Titus. 

T. T. L. To take leave. 

U. C. Upper Canada; Urbis 
'nmlitir. year of Rome. 

fit. Ultimo, last, of the last 
month. 

U. P. United Presbyterian. 

U.S. United Steles; United 
Service. 

U. 8. A. United States of 
America; United States Ar- 
my. 



U. S. N. United States Navy. 
U. T. Utah Territory. 
V. or vs. Versus, against 
V. A. Vicar Apostolic. 
Va. Virginia. 
V.D.M. Verb! Dei Minister, 

Minister of the Word of 

God. 

Ven. Venerable. 
V. G. Vicar General. 
Viz. Videlicet, namely. 
V. P. Vice President 
Vs. Versus, against 



Vt Vermont. 

W. West. 

W. I. West Indies. 

Wis. Wisconsin. 

W. S. Writer to the Signet 

W. T. Washington Tc rritorv. 

W. Va. West Virginia. 

Wy. T. Wyoming Territory. 

X. Xpurrot, ChrUt. 

Xmas. Christmas. 

Zech. Zechariah. 

Zeph. Zephaniah. 

&c. Et cetera, and so forth. 



ABD, an initial word in proper names com- 
mon to the Semitic languages. It signifies 
"servant," and is usually coupled with the 
name of the Divinity or of a moral attribute ; 
thus, Abd-allah, " the servant of Allah ;" Abd- 
er-Rahman, "servant of the Merciful." 

ABDALLAH BEN ABD-EL-MOTTALIB, an Arab 
merchant, father of Mohammed, born at Mecca 
about 545, died in 570. In youth, according 
to the Moslem legend, he narrowly escaped 
sacrifice at his father's hands, who, having but 
this one child, had made a vow to the gods 
that if they would grant him ten children, he 
would sacrifice one to them. The children 
came, and the lot, being taken, fell on Ab- 
dallah, then 24 years old. The father was on 
the point of fulfilling his vow, when by the 
advice of his friends he stayed his hand, and 
consulted a wise woman, who directed him to 
place ten camels, the price of blood among the 
Arabs, on one side, and his son on the other, 
and to cast lots between them ; and as often as 
the lots should be against the youth, he was to 
add ten more camels. The experiment was 
tried, and the lot was against Abdallah ten 
times ; the father sacrificed one hundred camels 
and saved his son. Immediately after this 
escape, Abdallah married Amina, daughter of 
Wahb, chief of the tribe of Benu Zahra. On 
the evacuation of Mecca by the Abyssinians, 
who had invaded the country, he was sent by 
his father to Medina, then called Yathreb, to 
buy provisions for the famished Meccaites, who 
had been obliged to fly to the mountain fast- 
nesses. Abdallah died on the journey, leaving 
his wife pregnant with her first child. That 
child was Mohammed. 

ABDALLAH BEN /ou I 'i It, ruler of Mecca, born 
about 622, died in 692. He was the first born 
of the disciples of Mohammed after the hegira, 
and his advent was a matter of great rejoicing. 
He was the son of Zobair, a friend and com- 
panion of Mohammed, and of Asma, the sister 
of Ayesha, the prophet's favorite wife. He was 
thus Mohammed's nephew by marriage, and 
was brought up under his immediate tutelage. 
After Mohammed's death, the question of suc- 
cession was one of great moment. On the 
death of the prophet's immediate successors, 
and the election of Ali, Mohammed's nephew 
and son-in-law, to whom Ayesha was decidedly 
opposed, Abdallah sided with his aunt and re- 
sisted All's claims. He was, however, severely 
wounded in a contest with the rival faction ; 
but on the assassination of Ali he boldly re- 
newed his opposition to Moawiyah, and on his 



ABD-EL-HALIM 



ABD-EL-KADER 



13 



death raised the standard of revolt against 
Yezid, his successor. He seized upon the holy 
city, and maintained himself against both the 
remonstrances and the arms of the caliph. At 
this early period there were three distinct 
governments in the territories conquered by 
the Arabs, in Persia, Syria, and Arabia. Ab- 
dallah's chief opponent was Yezid, caliph of 
Damascus. In the siege which he sustained at 
Mecca, the temple of the holy Caaba was de- 
stroyed by the assailants, and the death of 
Yezid alone saved the city from capture. Ab- 
dallah was now acknowledged sultan and ca- 
liph of Mecca by the Arabs, and rebuilt the 
city and temple, not without opposition from 
his superstitious subjects, who considered it 
sacrilege to touch the stones of the sacred edi- 
fice. He completed the restoration in 685. 
Yezid's son, Moawiyah II., abdicated in favor 
of Merwan, on whose death his son Abd-el- 
Malek ben Merwan succeeded him, and pushed 
the war vigorously against Abdallah, by whose 
anathemas Abd-el-Malek's subjects, when thej 1 
made the pilgrimage to Mecca, were greatly in- 
fluenced or scandalized. Abd-el-Malek van- 
quished Abdallah's brother and lieutenant Mo- 
zab ben Zoba'ir in the plains of Persia, added 
Irak to the caliphate of Damascus, and de- 
spatched an army against Abdallah at Mecca. 
The holy city was a second time besieged, and 
resisted for several months. Abdallah, at the 
age of 70, defended himself to the last, and 
when the city was taken by storm retired to 
the Caaba, where he was killed by a blow on 
the head from a tile. He is described as brave 
to rashness and crafty to perfidy. 

ABD-EL-HALIM, known as HALIM PASHA, an 
Egyptian prince, son of Mehemet Ali and a 
white slave woman, born at Cairo in 1826. He 
was educated at Paris, and of late resides near 
Cairo, in a magnificent palace celebrated for its j 
beautiful pleasure grounds. The sultan has 
often taken his part in his family quarrels with 
his relatives Abbas and Said, the late viceroys, 
and Ismail Pasha, the present khedive. Abbas 
(1848-'54) endeavored even to appropriate 
Halim's property, but restored it to him at the 
request of the sultan, who also conferred upon 
Halim the rank of pasha and mushir (field 
marshal). Under Said he was for a short time 
a member of the "amily council, until that 
viceroy was formally recognized by the sultan 
(July, 1854). In 1855-' 6 he ofliciated for a 
brief period as governor general at Khartoom. 
Since the accession of his nephew Ismail (1863), 
Halim has been more persecuted than in the 
reign of Abbas Pasha. In 1866, when the 
sultan consented to modify the organic Mo- 
hammedan laws of succession in favor of a 
direct line of hereditary rulers in Egypt, it was 
hoped that this would do away with the jeal- 
ousy of Ismail Pasha against his uncle, but the 
khedive remains unfriendly. 

ABD-EL-HA9IID, the Arabic name adopted by 
Du COURET, a French traveller, on his becoming 
a Mohammedan. He was born in 1812 at Hil- 



ningen, in Alsace, travelled from 1834 to 1847 
in the East, was sent in 1848 on a mission to 
Timbuctoo, a report of which appeared in 1853 
(Memoire a Napoleon ///.), and published in 
1855 the story of his Arabic pilgrimages (Me- 
dine et la Meklce, 3 vols.), which was worked 
up by Alexandre Dumas in his Pelerinage de 
Hadji Abd-el-Hamid Bey (2 vols., 1855). 

ABD-EL-KADER, an Arab emir in Algeria, 
born near Mascara in 1806 or 1807. He was 
the descendant of an ancient family of Mara- 
bouts, and the son of Mahiddin, an influential 
emir, who, suspected of plotting the subversion 
of Turkish rule, was compelled to retire with 
his son to Cairo in 1827. When Abd-el-Kader 
returned from this exile Algiers had been cap- 
tured by the French. A man of remarkable 
powers and accomplishments, and of the 
greatest bravery, the young emir soon became 
the leader of his countrymen, and organized 
among them a system of resistance to the 
French invaders, whom he began to harass at 
the head of his own and the neighboring tribes. 
Encouraged by the failure of an attack which 
Gen. Boyer, commandant of Oran, made in the 
spring of 1832 upon his stronghold at Tlemcen, 
Abd-el-Kader conducted his attacks upon the 
French on a larger scale, and with such skill 
and bravery that the admiring Arabs proclaim- 
ed him chief of the believers. For two years 
he continued operations, but in 1834 Gen. Des- 
michels, Boyer's successor, by causing a defec- 
tion of the native tribes, obliged him to make 
peace, France acknowledging his sway over 
the tribes west of the Shellift'. Abd-el-Kader 
now spent a short period of quiet in introducing 
European discipline and tactics among his fol- 
lowers. But he soon crossed the Shelliff during 
a successful war with a native chief; and the 
French, alarmed by his growing power, again 
began hostilities under Gen. Trezel, who was 
sent to replace Desmichels. Trezel, marching 
toward Mascara, was surprised and utterly de- 
feated by Abd-el-Kader in the defile of Muley 
Ismail. Marshal Clauzel was now made gov- 
ernor of Algiers. In December and January, 
1835-'6, he succeeded in reaching and destroy- 
ing Mascara, and in capturing Tlemcen, where 
he left a garrison ; but this accomplished, he 
was obliged at once to make a disastrous re- 
treat to Oran. In April, 1836, Abd-el-Kader 
utterly defeated Gen. d'Arlanges near Tlemcen, 
and obliged him to fall back on a fortified camp 
he had established on the Tafna to keep open 
the communication between the French garri- 
son of Tlemcen and their base of supplies. In 
this camp the general was shut up by Abd-el- 
Kader's troops, and compelled to remain until 
relieved by Gen. Bugeaud. This officer was 
now appointed to the command in Algiers, and 
conducted the war with great success, first de- 
feating Abd-el-Kader July 7, 1836, and finally 
compelling him in May, 1837, to conclude a 
peace by which he acknowledged French sov- 
ereignty, though himself confirmed as emir of 
Oran, Titteri, ajid part of Algiers. But he was 



14 



ABD-EL-WAHAB 



ABDIAS 



not content, and in 1839 war was renewed. 
After desperate fighting, Abd-el-Kader was 
defeated everywhere; and in 1842 he was 
driven from Algeria and took refuge in Moroc- 
co, where he induced the emperor to aid him 
against the French. But the Moorish ruler, 
being utterly defeated by the French army at 
Isly, Aug. 14, 1844, was obliged, in order to 
save himself from the vengeance of France, to 
turn against the emir ; and Abd-el-Kader, who 
now defied both the French and the Moors, soon 
found himself deserted by all but his own tribe, 
and beaten at every point. After continuing 
the contest as long as possible, he was finally 
captured and sent to Paris in 1848, although he 
had surrendered only on condition that he should 
be sent to Egypt or St. Jean d'Acre. He was 
kept in France until released by Louis Napoleon 
in 1852, with a pension of 100,000 francs, on 
condition that he should not return to Algeria 
or again take up arms against France. He 
went to Broussa in Asia Minor, and when that 
town was destroyed by an earthquake in 1855, 
he removed to Constantinople. He has been 
since 1852 on the best terms with the French 
government, and in 1855 visited Paris during 
the industrial exposition. He subsequently 
took up his residence in Damascus, where he 
distinguished himself by generously aiding the 
Christians during the bloody riots in the sum- 
mer of 1860. In 1864 he went to Egypt, where 
he was presented with a piece of land by M. de 
Lesseps, projector of the Suez canal. During 
this journey he was also made a member of the 
order of Freemasons. In 1865 he went to 
England, and in 1867 attended the great ex- 
position in Paris. In 1870 he offered his sword 
to the French against the Germans, but the 
offer was declined. In October, 1871, he ad- 
dressed a lettei to M. Thiers declining to visit 
France on the ground of ill health, but making 
suggestions relative to the condition and gov- 
ernment of Algeria. Of his 24 children most 
have died. One of his daughters has become a 
convert to Christianity. Abd-el-Kader is the 
author of a book of philosophico-religious medi- 
tations, written in exile, in Arabic, and trans- 
lated into French under the title of Rappel d 
^intelligent, Avis d ^indifferent (Paris, "1858). 

ABD-EL-WAHAB, founder of the Mohammedan 
sect of Wahabees or Wahabites, born of poor 
parents, in the Arabian province of Nedjed, 
about 1691. After long travels through vari- 
ous parts of Arabia, Syria, and Mesopotamia, 
he finally taught his new religious doctrines in 
his native region, and died in 1787. (See 
WAHABEES.) 

ABDERA (now Polystilo), an ancient city of 
Thrace, on the S. coast, at or E. of the month 
of the river Nestus. It was a flourishing town 
in the times of the Persian wars with Greece, 
and preserved its importance under the Ro- 
mans. Its inhabitants were proverbial for their 
ignorance and stupidity, from which ill repute 
they were not saved by the lustre that Demo- 
eritus, Protagoras, Anaxarchus, and Uecataeus 



threw around the name of the town as their 
birthplace. Lucian, La Fontaine, and Wieland 
have made them subjects of their satire. Coins 
of this city are numerous. 

ABDERRAHMAN I., surnamed the Wise, the 
first ruler of the family of the Ommiyades in 
Spain, born at Damascus in 731, died in 
787. After the massacre of his family in the 
East he retired to Mauritania, where he re- 
mained in privacy until he was called to Spain 
by a deputation of friends, who were tired of 
anarchy. Abderrahman with a handful of rel- 
atives landed at Almunecar on the coast of 
Andalusia in 755, and soon found himself at 
the head of a large army. He entered Seville, 
and was acknowledged as sovereign. Next he 
advanced against Yusuf el-Feri, the most pow- 
erful of the rival emirs, whose army, though 
of greatly superior numbers, he entirely de- 
feated, firmly establishing himself on the 
throne of Cordova. It was during these in- 
ternal dissensions in Spain that the Moham- 
medans were finally driven out of France, and 
forced to recross the Pyrenees. The eastern 
caliphs, who always kept up the idea of main- 
taining the right of spiritual and temporal rule 
over the Spanish Moors, anathematized Abder- 
rahman, and despatched two expeditions 
against him, but in vain. The kingdom of 
Cordova was at peace when Charlemagne 
fruitlessly crossed the Pyrenees. Abderrah- 
man built the magnificent mosque of Cordova, 
designed by himself, at which he is said to 
have labored an hour a day with his own 
hands. He planted the first palm tree in Cor- 
dova, the stock from which all those now in 
Spain are descended. 

ABDERRAHMAN, sultan of Morocco, born in 
1778, died in August, 1859. He succeeded to 
the throne in 1823, on the death of his v.ncle, 
Muley Suleiman. At his succession the prac- 
tice of paying tribute to the Barbary states 
and Morocco by independent Christian states, 
as a guarantee against piracy, had not ceased ; 
but Abderrahman was compelled by the Aus- 
trians in 1828 to abandon the claim. In 1844 
the prolonged resistance of Abd-el-Kadcr to 
the French invasion in Algeria involved Mo- 
rocco in war with France, and Mogadore and 
Tangier were bombarded by a French fleet. 
The contest was terminated by tho battle of 
Isly, Aug. 14, 1844, in which only Abd-el- 
Kader's Arabs fought well on the Moslem side. 
Abderrahman was now compelled to turn his 
arms upon the Algerian emir, and, having col- 
lected a large army, finally drove him beyond 
the frontiers of Morocco into French captivity. 
Abderrahman was succeeded by his eldest son, 
Sidi Mohammed, born in 1803. 

ABDIAS, of Babylon, the supposititious au- 
thor of a book called Historia Certaminia 
Apostolici (published at Basel in 1551), in 
which he asserted that he had seen Christ, 
that he was one of the 70 disciples, that he 
had witnessed the deaths of several of the 
apostles, and that he accompanied St. Simon 



ABDICATION 



ABDOMEN 



15 



and St. Jude into Persia, by whom he was 
made the first bishop of Babylon. 

ABDICATION, the abandonment of a throne 
by a crowned head, was rare and generally 
compulsory in ancient times. The abdication 
of Diocletian and Maximian is the best known 
case in antiquity. Among modern princes who 
have more or less voluntarily laid down their 
crowns, we find Charles V. of Spain and Ger- 
many (1556); Christina of Sweden (1654); 
in Poland, John Casimir (1669); in Spain, 
Philip V. (1724) and Charles IV. (1808); in 
Savoy and Sardinia, Amadeus VIII. (1434), 
Victor Amadeus II. (1730), Victor Emanuel 
I. (1821), and Charles Albert (1849); in 
France, Napoleon I. (1814 and 1815), Charles 
X. (1830), and Louis Philippe (1848) ; in Hol- 
land, Louis Bonaparte (1810) and William I. 
(1840); in Bavaria, Louis I. (1848); in Aus- 
tria, Ferdinand (1848). The most recent and 
one of the most remarkable of royal abdications 
is that of King Amadeus of Spain, who after a 
reign of two years became disgusted with the 
difficulties of his position, and on Feb. 11, 1873, 
resigned the crown for himself and heirs, and 
returned to his native Italy. Abdication, vol- 
untary or compulsory, is considered by jurists 
as a personal act, which in no wise affects the 
right of succession. 

" ABDOMEN (Lat., of undetermined etymology), 
the lower part of the body, included between the 
level of the diaphragm and that of the pelvis. 
The abdomen consists of its walls or boundaries, 
the cavity embraced by them, and the organs or 
viscera included therein. The walls are con- 
stituted below by the pelvis, a strong basin- 
shaped bone with wide flaring edges, upon the 
upper surface of which the weight of the ab- 
dominal organs is sustained ; behind by a part 
of the spinal column and the strong muscles 
attached to its sides ; above by the diaphragm, 
a vaulted muscular sheet, which forms the par- 
tition between the cavity of the abdomen and 
that of the chest ; and in front by the abdomi- 
nal muscles and their integuments, extending 
from the lower part of the chest to the pelvis. 
In front and laterally, the abdominal walls are 
soft and flexible, being composed only of the 
skin, fatty tissue, fibrous membranes, and mus- 
cles ; behind they are more solid and unyield- 
ing, owing to the bony framework of the spinal 
column, which here forms so large a part of 
their substance. For convenience of anatomi- 
cal examination and reference, the abdomen is 
divided externally into three nearly equal 
transverse bands or zones, an upper, middle, 
and lower; these zones being again divided 
into three nearly equal parts or "regions," 
namely, one middle and two lateral regions in 
each zone. In the upper zone the middle re- 
gion is the epigastrium (Gr. em, over, and 
yaarqp, the stomach), because a portion of the 
stomach is situated immediately beneath it; 
the two lateral regions of the same zone being 
the right and left hypochondria (VTTO, under, 
and ov<?pof, a cartilage), because these two re- 



gions are beneath the cartilages of the lower 
ribs. In the middle zone, the median portion 
is the umbilical region, so called because it 
contains the umbilicus or navel ; the two lat- 
eral portions are the right and left lumbar re- 
gions, or the loins. In the lowermost zone, 
the middle region forms the hypogastrium 
(I>TTO and yaarrip), and the two lateral portions 
the right and left iliac regions, which are oc- 
cupied on each side by the ilium, or flaring 
portion of the pelvis. The cavity of the abdo- 
men is lined by a very extensive and delicate 
membrane, the peritoneum (Gr. KEPITEIVEIV, to 
extend around), which is also reflected over 
the surfaces of the abdominal organs, as the 
covering of a chair or sofa may be reflected or 
extended over its cushion. In the case of 
those abdominal organs which remain fixed in 
their places, like the pancreas and the kidneys, 
the peritoneum simply passes over their ante- 
rior surfaces; but those which are movable, 
like the liver, stomach, and intestines, are 
more or less completely invested by it, some of 
them being attached to the posterior abdomi- 
nal walls only by the double layer of perito- 
neum, returning upon itself after having cov- 
ered their exterior. Thus, these organs are 
covered, and the abdominal walls are lined, by 
opposite surfaces of the same continuous peri- 
toneal membrane; and these surfaces are 
moistened by a minute quantity of serous fluid, 
which enables them to move gently to and fro 
upon each other, without causing friction or 
irritation of the parts. The organs con- 
tained in the abdomen are as follows : In 
the upper zone, the liver, stomach, spleen, 
pancreas, and the commencement of the 
small intestine ; in the middle zone, the mass 
of the small intestine, with portions of the 
large intestine, the kidneys, and the supra- 
renal capsules ; and in the lowermost zone, the 
remainder of the small and largo intestines. 
The very last portion of the large intestine oc- 
cupies the deeper parts of the cavity of the 
pelvis, together with the urinary bladder and 
the uterine organs. Owing to the flexible 
character of the abdominal walls, much infor- 
mation may be obtained regarding the condi- 
tion of the internal organs by external manual 
examination. If an organ be enlarged, indu- 
rated, or displaced, these changes may be de- 
tected by careful manipulation, and their in- 
crease or diminution may be determined from 
day to day. If one or more of them be in- 
flamed, this condition is indicated by an un- 
natural tenderness on pressure ; and the exact 
situation and character of the inflammation 
may often be fixed by observing whether the 
tenderness be superficial or deep-seated. Un- 
natural growths and tumors may be detected 
in the same way, and their origin ascertained 
in many cases with considerable approach to 
certainty. Penetrating wounds of the abdo- 
men are very dangerous, because the contents 
of the stomach and intestines, if allowed to es- 
cape into the cavity of the peritoneum, pro- 



16 



ABDUL- AZIZ 



ABDUL-MEDJID 



duce an irritation and subsequent inflammation 
of the membrane ; and this inflammation, 
spreading in every direction over the contigu- 
ous surfaces of the peritoneum, becomes so ex- 
tensive and violent as almost invariably to pro- 
duce fatal consequences. Nevertheless, surgi- 
cal operations in which the cavity of the 
abdomen is opened, but in which care is taken 
to prevent the escape or dissemination of irri- 
tating substances, have often been performed 
with a successful result. Sudden and power- 
ful blows upon the abdomen, especially in the 
region of the epigastrium, are also sometimes 
fatal, even when none of the internal organs 
are lacerated, owing to the depressing influ- 
ence of the shock upon the nervous system. 

ABDUL-AZIZ, sultan of Turkey, second son of 
Mahmoud II., born Feb. 9, 1830. He succeed- 
ed his brother Abdul-Medjid, June 25, 1861. 
Like all heirs to the Turkish throne, his life 
until his accession was passed in seclusion, and 
little is known of him during that period ex- 
cept that he was fond of agricultural studies, 
and established a model farm at Scutari. On 
mounting the throne he was prodigal with 
promises of reform, dismissed the corrupt 
minister of finance, Riza Pasha, reduced his 
civil list, got rid of the seraglio, declared that 
he would not indulge in polygamy, and seemed 
to take a lively interest in ameliorating the 
condition of the people, and in purging public 
affairs from fraud and corruption. His inten- 
tions were excellent, and he was determined 
to give to his empire the benefits of European 
civilization. Hence his journey to France, 
England, and Austria in 1867, which tended 
to make him popular in those countries, but 
alienated from him the sympathies of ortho- 
dox Mussulmans. Disregarding the fanatical 
spirit of the opposition, he allowed foreigners, 
for the first time in Turkey, to hold real estate, 
established a public high school after a French 
model, enriched the capital with various scien- 
tific institutions, and endeavored to place the 
administration of justice upon a more solid 
basis by ordering the supreme court (1869) to 
draw up a civil code. In many respects, how- 
ever, his good intentions were soon overborne 
by opposition, the power of ancient usages, and 
his own weakness. He recognized the in- 
dependence and unity of Italy, negotiated 
treaties of commerce with England and France, 
crushed rebellion in Montenegro (1862) and in 
Crete (1868), and signed in 1871 the treaty of 
London deneutralizing the Black sea. He tol- 
erated the accession to the Roumanian throne 
of Prince Charles of Hohenzollern as a mat- 
ter of policy, but found much trouble in his 
relations with Egypt. In 1866, in considera- 
tion of a vast sum of money, he had, contrary 
to the Mohammedan law, granted to Ismail 
Pasha the right of succession to the viceregal 
throne in a direct line from father to son, 
while, instead of the title of viceroy, that of 
khedive was conferred upon mm. A similar 
change was proposed for Turkey ,\po as to ena- 



ble Yusuf, the eldest son of Abdul-Aziz, bora 
in 1857 before his accession to the throne, to 
succeed him, contrary to the ancient institu- 
tions of the empire ; but it was found imprac- 
ticable, and the presumptive heir is conse- 
quently the sultan's eldest nephew, Mehemet 
Murad, born in 1840. Besides Yusuf, the sul- 
tan has four recognized children : Sultana Sa- 
likhe, born in 1862; Mahmoud Jemil, born 
in the same year; Mehmed Selim, 1866; and 
Abdul-Medjid, 1868. 

ABDl'L-MEDJID, sultan of Turkey, born April 
23, 1823, died June 25, 1861. He succeeded 
to the throne on the death of his father Mah- 
moud II., July 1, 1839. Educated in the seclu- 
sion of the seraglio, his weak and almost femi- 
nine character, his kind disposition, his love 
of pleasure, his inexperience and want of 
knowledge, seemed to render him utterly unfit 
to rule. Mehemet Ali having a second time 
rebelled, his son Ibrahim had routed the Turk- 
ish army near Nizib, June 24, 1839, and was 
on his march against Constantinople, where a 
strong party was secretly conspiring to elevate 
him to the throne. At the same time the capu- 
dan pasha or grand admiral betrayed his trust 
by surrendering the entire fleet to Mehemet Ali. 
The intervention of England and the German 
powers checked the Egyptian designs, and 
by the treaties of July 15, 1840, and July 13, 
1841, Turkey was formally admitted into the 
political system of Europe. The personal 
share of Abdul-Medjid in all these proceedings 
was very small indeed. During the earlier 
years of his reign he was scarcely more than 
a puppet in the hands of others ; but he be- 
came keen enough to discern the purposes of 
his advisers, while his benevolent disposition 
made him anxious to do justice and to pro- 
mote the welfare of his subjects. On Nov. 3, 
1839, acting under the advice of Reshid Pasha, 
he convoked all the grand officers of the em- 
pire, the sheiks of the dervises, the three patri- 
archs of the Christian sects, the three high 
rabbis of the Jews, the foreign diplomats, the 
ulemas and mollahs, the trustees of all corpo- 
rations at Constantinople, and citizens gene- 
rally, around the pavilion of Gulhane in the 
imperial park, and there promulgated the 
Ifatti-Sherif or fundamental law, the bill of 
rights, intended to be the basis of a political 
reconstruction. Equality before the law was . 
guaranteed to all subjects of the sultan, with- 
out distinction of creed or nationality; an 
equitable mode of taxation was to be intro- 
duced ; a just system of conscription was also 
promised. More than once the Hatti-Sherif 
was confirmed and repeated in new decrees ; 
and in 1845 the sultan went so far as to call a 
kind of congress, consisting of representatives 
from different provinces of the empire. A 
board of education was instituted in 1845, and 
a system of free public schools established in 
1846. On Feb. 18, 1856, the Hatti-Humayun 
was published, being the draught of a liberal 
constitution. While from 1840 to 1853 almost 



ABECEDARIANS 



ABELARD 



17 



t-\ rry year of Abdul-Medjid's reign was marked 
by insurrections in one province or another, 
the court was the theatre of incessant in- 
trigues, amid which the position of the sultan 
was scarcely more honorable or important 
than that of a nominally sovereign king in 
the East Indies. For several years he led a 
dissolute life, but afterward he appeared to 
wend his ways in some degree, and improved 
his education by studying French, mathemat- 
ics, history, and music. European customs 
and fashions became more and more prevalent 
at court, concerts and Italian opera were estab- 
lished permanently, and in 1854 the sultan, 
"the supreme father of the faithful," even 
went to a ball. When in 1849 the defeated 
Hungarian patriots sought refuge on Turkish 
soil, Abdul-Medjid preferred running the risk 
of a formidable war to betraying those who 
had confided in the sacredness of hospitality 
as taught by Mohammed. He had seven sons 
and two daughters, but was succeeded, accord- 
ing to law, by his brother Abdul- Aziz. 

ABECEDARIANS, a sect which appeared 
among the Anabaptists of Germany in the 
16th century, led by one Storck, previously a 
disciple of Luther. They held that without 
the aid of study the Holy Spirit would convey 
directly to the understanding a knowledge of 
the Scriptures, and that therefore it was bet- 
ter not to know how to read. Carlstadt, a 
Wittenberg divine, and at one period of his 
life a bitter antagonist of Luther, is said to 
have countenanced the Abecedarians by tear- 
ing off his doctor's gown and burning it. 

A'BECKET, Gilbert Abbott, an English humor- 
ous author, born in London in 1810, died in 
Boulogne, April 28, 1856. He was called to 
the English bar in 1841. He was a contributor 
to both the London "Times" and "Daily 
News," and was special correspondent of the 
" Times " in a celebrated poor law inquiry, in 
which he displayed great judgment. He was 
one of the earliest contributors to "Punch," 
and wrote the "Comic Blackstone," comic 
histories of England and Kome, and a great 
number of burlesque plays. He was appointed 
one of the police magistrates of London. On 
his death the queen, on the recommendation 
of Lord Palmerston, granted his widow a pen- 
sion of 100 a year. 

ABEEL, David, D. D., an American clergy- 
man, born in New Brunswick, N. J., June 12, 
1804, died in Albany, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1846. He 
studied theology at the seminary in New 
Brunswick, and after preaching for more than 
two years at the village of Athens, N. Y., his 
health gave way, and in October, 1829, he 
sailed for Canton as a chaplain of the seaman's 
friend society, but at the end of a year's labor 
placed himself under the direction of the I 
American board. He visited Java, Singapore, I 
and Siam, studying the Chinese tongue, when j 
his health failed him entirely, and he returned 
home in 1833 by way of England, visiting 
Holland, France, and Switzerland, and every- , 
3 VOL. i. 3 



where urging the claims of the heathen. He 
also assisted in England in forming the society 
for promoting female education in the East. 
In America he published a description of his 
life in China and the adjacent countries, and a 
work entitled " The Claims of the World to 
the Gospel." In 1838 he returned to Asia, and 
visited Malacca, Borneo, and other places, set- 
tling at Kolingsu. Once more his health gave 
way, and he returned home in 1845. 

ABEGG, .Julius Friedrich Hcinrieh, a German 
jurist, born in Erlangen, March 27, 1 796, died 
in Breslau, May 29, 1868. In 1818 he received 
his legal doctorate, and in 1820 commenced 
delivering lectures at Konigsberg. In 1826 he 
became professor of law at Breslau, and in 
1846 was delegate of the legal faculty at Bres- 
lau to the Prussian national synod. He was a 
very influential writer upon criminal adminis- 
tration. One of his last works was Entwurf 
einer Strafprocessordnung fur den preussischen 
Staat (Leipsic, 1865). 

ABEL, the second son of Adam. He was a 
shepherd, and was slain by his brother Cain, 
from envy. It has been maintained by some 
fathers of the church that Abel never married ; 
hence the sect of Abelites. 

ABEL DE PUJOL. I. Alexandra Denis, a French 
painter, born in Valenciennes, Jan. 30, 1785, 
died in Paris, Sept. 28, 1861. He was a pupil 
of David, and achieved distinction as a histo- 
rical painter of the older classical school. 
Many of his works may be found in Frencli 
churches. II. Adrienne Marie Lonise Grandpierre 
Deverzy, wife of the preceding, to whom she 
was married in 1856, born at Tonnerre, in the 
department of Yonne, in 1798. She was a pupil 
of her future husband, and made her debut in 
1836 by a picture representing a painter's stu- 
dio. She afterward painted portraits, a scene 
from Gil Bias, &c. A son of Abel de Pujol, 
born about 1815, is also a painter. 

ABELARD, or Abailard, Pierre, a French scho- 
lastic philosopher, born near Nantes, in Brit- 
tany, in 1079, died April 21, 1142. Having made 
early and rapid progress in the learning of the 
age, he relinquished his family inheritance in 
favor of his brothers, that he might be free 
from the cares of property, and have no im- 
pediment to the gratification of his thirst for 
knowledge. At the age of sixteen he betook 
himself to Paris, and inscribed himself among 
the pupils of William de Champeaux, a famous 
professor. In the public disputations which 
were the fashion of the day, Abelard had no 
superior. In a discussion on the origin and 
nature of ideas, he made such a brilliant dis- 
play of ability, learning, and logical acuteness, 
that he endangered the supremacy of De 
Champeaux in the seat of learning where he 
had so long held sway ; and his jealousy was 
at a high pitch when Abelard, though only 22 
years old, opened a school of philosophy at 
Melun, near Paris, a favorite retreat of the 
court, which Avas well attended by students 
who deserted the other teachers. Ab61ard's 



18 



ABELARD 



failing health compelled him for a time to re- 
tire to his native air ; but so soon as he had 
recruited his strength, he returned to the scene 
of his triumphs, and resumed his place as 
pupil at the feet of his old master. De Cham- 
peaux became a monk, but still continued his 
secular pursuits, and the fiery debates were 
renewed, in which Abelard again came off 
victor. De Champeaux was made bishop of 
Chalons, and his new power was exercised 
to crush his adversary with other weapons 
than those of argument. The canon Fulbert 
had a niece of whose intellectual and personal 
accomplishments he was justly proud. Ad- 
miring the talents and distinction of Abelard, 
he invited him to complete the education of 
his beautiful niece. Abelard boasted that he 
taught to Heloise the three languages neces- 
sary for the understanding of the Scriptures. 
The relation of master and pupil was not long 
preserved; a warmer sentiment than esteem 
seized their hearts, and the unlimited oppor- 
tunities of intercourse which were afforded 
them by the canon, who confided in Abelard's 
age (he was now almost 40) and in his public 
character, were fatal to the peace of both. 
The condition of Helolse was on the point of 
betraying their intimacy. They fled. Fulbert 
pursued, and Abelard having proposed mar- 
riage, the enraged uncle consented. On ac- 
count of Abelard's ecclesiastical ambition, this 
marriage was to be kept secret ; but Fulbert 
divulged the fact, which HeloKse, from a spirit 
of devotion to her lover, denied. Exasperated 
at his niece's perverseness, Fulbert punished 
her, and she then fled to Abelard, who placed 
her in the nunnery of Argenteuil. Fulbert 
now abandoned himself to a transport Oi" sav- 
age vindictiveness, and, watching his oppor- 
tunity, burst into Abelard's chamber with a 
band of ruffians, and gratified his revenge by 
inflicting on him an atrocious mutilation. Ful- 
bert was deprived of his benefice, his goods 
were confiscated, and his accomplices punished 
by undergoing the treatment they had inflicted 
on Abelard. In this affair, Abelard, in his 
memoirs, admits his own excessive culpability ; 
he states that he was under evil influence, 
that he abused the confiding trust of his friend 
Fulbert, and that he deliberately plotted the 
seduction of Helolse, who, on her part, was 
far less blamable than he. The unhappy man, 
on his recovery from the outrage, sought an 
asylum in the monastery of St. Denis, and be- 
came a monk. Heloise took the veil at Argen- 
teuil. But Abelard's spirit was not crushed ; 
he continued his public lectures. His great 
popularity soon drew a crowd of eager stu- 
dents from all parts, and this roused the mal- 
ice of his old opponents. He abandoned the 
field of profane philosophy, and addressed 
himself to theology. His writings on the 
Trinity, maintaining doctrines^ to which some 
of the tenets of the modern Unitarians bear a 
close resemblance, were made the point of at- 
tack. In 1121 he was accused of heresy, and 



a council being called at Soissons, in which he 
was not allowed to defend his doctrines, hi> 
works were adjudged heretical, and ordered 
to be burned. The monks of St. Denis, who 
were desirous of relieving themselves of a 
brother whose strict life was a rebuke to their 
own, now took offence at his opinion that Di- 
onysius the Areopagite was not the founder of 
their abbey. For this impiety they followed 
him up so fiercely that he was compelled to 
flee, and in a desert place between Nogent 
and Troyes he built himself a rude hermitage, 
after the fashion of an anchoret. Many of his 
pupils followed him into this retreat, and with 
their assistance he founded the Paraclete. He 
was now elected abbot of the monastery of St. 
Gildas de Ruys, in the see of Vannes, but this 
was a source of further trouble. The feudal 
lord of the monastery had deprived the monks 
of their territory for their irregular life, which 
Abelard himself was no less desirous of re- 
forming, and thereby ran the risk of assassi- 
nation within the walls, while, in his desire to. 
maintain the temporal rights of the convent, 
he was in little less danger without. He re- 
gretted the seclusion and independence of the 
Paraclete. Heloise had been elected abbess 
of Argenteuil. The demesne of the convent 
had been claimed by the monks of St. Denis, 
and the nunnery suppressed. Heloise and her 
nuns were without home or shelter. In this 
emergency Abelard offered them the Paraclete 
to found an institution, and went to assist per- 
sonally in their establishment there, which 
was confirmed by a bull of Innocent II. This 
reunion, after a separation of eleven years, 
was precious to both ; and he afterward made 
frequent visits to the Paraclete. His doctrines 
once more brought persecution upon him. 
This time St. Bernard was his opponent. Ab6- 
lard was charged with dogmatizing on the 
power and nature of the divine essence, there- 
by attempting to reduce to human comprehen- 
sion that which Bernard affirmed was, and 
ought to be, held incomprehensible by all 
Christians. In 1140 a council was held at 
Sens, in which Louis VII. in person presided. 
Abelard's opinions were again adjudged heret- 
ical, and he was sentenced to perpetual silence. 
To escape this decree, he appealed to the pope 
and set out for Rome, and on his road thither 
he was able to interest Peter the Venerable, 
abbot of Cluny, in his case. This friend used 
his efforts on his behalf, and procured an ab- 
solution from the holy father. Abelard died 
at St. Marcel, near Chalon, whither he had 
gone from Cluny for his health. His body was 
delivered to HeloYse, and by her interred at 
the Paraclete, where she herself was afterward 
buried by his side. In 1792 the Paraclete was 
sold, and the remains of the two lovers were 
removed to the church of Nogent-sur-Seine. 
They were exhumed in 1800 and placed in the 
garden of the Musee Francais in Paris, and in 
1817 were deposited beneath a mausoleum in 
the cemetery of P6re la Chaise. The position 



ABELARD 



ABENAQUS 



19 



of Abelard in the philosophical movement of 
his age is well described by M. Cousin: "A 
hero of romance within the church, a refined 
spirit in a barbarous age, a founder of a school, 
and almost a martyr to an opinion, everything 
conspired to make Abelard an extraordinary 
personage. But of all his titles, that which 
gives him a separate place in the history of 
the human mind is his invention of a new 
philosophical system, and his application of 
this system and of philosophy in general to 
theology. Doubtless before Abelard might be 
found some rare examples of this dangerous 
process, although a useful one, even in its 
errors, to the progress of reason; but it is 
Abelard who established it as a principle ; who 
contributed more than any other to found 
scholasticism, for scholasticism is nothing else. 
After Charlemagne, and even before, there 
was taught in several places a little of gram- 
mar and logic ; religious instruction, too, was 
not wanting, but this instruction was limited 
to a more or less regular exposition of sacred 
dogmas ; it might suffice for faith, but did not 
nurture intelligence. The introduction of dia- 
lectics into theology could alone produce that 
spirit of controversy which is the vice and the 
honor of scholasticism. Abelard is the chief 
author of this introduction; he is, then, the 
principal founder of the mediaeval philosophy, 
so that France has not only given to Europe, 
through Abelard, the scholasticism of the 12th 
century, but also at the beginning of the 17th 
century has given, in Descartes, the destroyer 
of this same scholasticism, and the father of 
modern philosophy. And there is no incon- 
sistency in this ; for the same spirit which had 
raised the ordinary religious instruction to that 
systematic and rational form which we call 
scholasticism, would alone be able to rise 
above that form, and to produce philosophy 
properly so called. Thus the same country 
was able to support, with an interval of a few 
centuries, Ab61ard and Descartes. We dis- 
cover also, through the many differences of 
these two men, some striking resemblances. 
Ab61ard sought to give an account of the only 
thing which could be studied in his time the- 
ology; Descartes has given account of what 
it was permitted to study in his time man and 
nature. The latter recognized no authority 
but that of reason ; the former undertook to 
introduce reason into authority. Both doubt, 
both investigate ; they seek to understand all 
that is possible to man, and to rest only in cer- 
tainty. This is their spirit in common, which 
they borrow from the French spirit, and this 
fundamental feature of resemblance causes 
many others ; as, for example, that clearness 
of language which springs spontaneously from 
definite and precise ideas. It may be added 
that Abelard and Descartes are not only both 
Frenchmen, but that they belong to the same 
province, to that Brittany whose inhabitants 
are distinguished by so lively a sense of inde- 
pendence and so strong a personality. Thence, 



in these two illustrious compatriots, with their 
native originality, with dispositions to admire 
moderately what was done before their time 
and in their time, came the love of indepen- 
dence, pushed often into a quarrelsome spirit ; 
confidence in their own strength and contempt 
of their adversaries ; more of logical connec- 
tion than of solidity in their opinions ; more 
sagacity than comprehensiveness; more of 
vigor in the temper of their mind and charac- 
ter than of elevation and profoundness in their 
thought ; more of ingenuity than of common 
sense, satisfied with the perfection of their own 
views rather than rising to universal reason." 
The works of Abelard were collected by 
Francois Amboise and Andre Duchesne, and 
first published at Paris in 1616. The best 
edition of his works is that of Cousin (Paris, 
1850), who has accompanied the principal 
writings of the author with admirable critical 
and expository notices. The narrative of his 
life is contained in his autobiography entitled 
Historia Calamitatum suarum. Pope has ver- 
sified some of the supposed letters between 
the lovers. The most important modern works 
on the biography of Ab61ard are by Fessler, 
Abalard und Heloise (2 vols., Berlin, 1806) ; 
Mme. Guizot, Essai sur la vie et les ecrit* 
cPAbailard et d? Heloise (Paris, 1839) ; R6mu- 
sat, Abelard (2 vols., Paris, 1845); Bohringer, 
Kirchengeschichte (vol. iv., 1854); Wilkens, 
Peter Abalard (Gottingen, 1855). 

ABELITES, Abelians, Abelonians, or Abelonites, 
a sect of Christians, probably of Gnostic origin, 
who, though practising marriage, denounced 
sexual intercourse as a service of Satan, main- 
taining that thereby original sin was perpetu- 
ated. As Abel had not been married, they 
took their name from him. Their numbers 
were recruited by children whom they brought 
up in pairs of each sex under one roof. They 
existed about the 4th century, and are men- 
tioned by St. Augustine. They lived near the 
city of Hippo in Africa. The name ABELITES 
wa& given in the 18th century to the members 
of a secret society, whose professed object was 
to cultivate the honesty and candor of Abel, 
whom they took for their model and patron. 

ABEN, Aven, Ebn, Ibn, Arabic patronymic- 
prefixes to proper names, corresponding to the 
Hebrew ben, son of. (See BEN.) 

ABENAQUIS, or Abnakis (Men of the Eastern 
Land), a group of Indian tribes of the Algon- 
quin family, originally occupying the present 
state of Maine, and comprising the Canibas 
or Abenaquis proper on the Kenn'ebec, the 
Etechemins or Malecites as far as the river St. 
John, and, according to some, the Pennacooks 
j on the Merrimack and the Sokokis west to the 
I Connecticut. They were approached early in 
| the 17th century by the English and French, 
j but adhered to the latter, whose missionaries 
converted most of them to Christianity. They 
figure constantly in the New England border 
i wars under the name of Tarranseens, but were 
! finally overthrown and their missionary Rale 



20 



ABENCERRAGES 



ABEROROMBY 



killed at Norridgewock in 1724. Many had 
emigrated to Canada, where two villages still 
remain, bearing the name Abenaquis, at St. 
Francis and Becancour. The remnants in 
Maine are called Penobscots and Passama- 
quoddies, from the rivers on which they reside. 
Another remnant is in New Brunswick, near 
Fredericton. During the American revolution 
they embraced the cause of the colonies under 
their chief Orono. Their language was thor- 
oughly studied by Father Sebastian Rale, whose 
dictionary is still highly important. Their his- 
tory has been written by the Rev. E. Vetro- 
mile (New York, 1866), and more fully by the 
Rev. J. A. Maurault (Sorel, 1866). 

ABENCERRAGES (Arabic, Ibn Serraj or Zer- 
ragh), the name of a distinguished Moorish 
family, whose mortal feud with the Zegris, 
another noble family of Granada, contributed 
to the fall of the Granadian monarchy. The 
quarrel originated in the varying fortunes of 
Mohammed VII. of Granada, in the earlier 
]>nrt of the 15th century, who was alternately 
a monarch and an exile, and whose cause the 
Abencerrages espoused with unswerving fidel- 
ity. It is told that one of the youths of the 
Abencerrages, having loved a lady of the royal 
house, was climbing to her window when he 
was discovered and betrayed, and the king, in 
revenge for the outrage on the sanctity of his 
harem, shut up the whole family in a tower 
or court of the Alhambra, and, letting loose 
the fury of their hereditary enemies, had them 
butchered in cold blood. This tragical tale has 
been the foundation of many poetical produc- 
tions. The inexorable criticism of our century 
has, however, demonstrated the fictitious char- 
acter of the romantic story. (See Conde's 
Hixtoria de la domination de los Arabes en 
Espafla, Madrid, 1829.) 

ABENDBERG, one of the secondary elevations 
of the Bernese Alps, rising from the plateau 
uf Interlachen or Bernese Oberland, in the 
;anton of Bern, Switzerland, S. W. of the vil- 
lage of Interlachen, its northern base abutting 
on the lake of Thun. It rises about 3,500 feet 
above the plateau, and 5,300 above the sea 
level. Its southern slope is very fertile, and 
the lower portion heavily wooded. It is re- 
garded as one of the most salubrious regions 
of the Alps. In 1842 Dr. Louis Guggenbuhl 
selected a site on the southern slope, several 
hundred feet below the summit, for an asylum 
for cretins, whom he hoped by careful treat- 
ment and the health-giving influences of the 
climate to restore to reason and healthful de- 
velopment. The institution did not accomplish 
all that was expected from it, and, after being 
maintained for 18 or 20 years, was on the 
death of its founder given up. (See GCQOKN- 
BUHL, Louis.) 

ABEN EZRA, properly Abraham ben Meir ben 
Ezra, one of the most esteemed biblical com- 
mentators among the Jews of the 12th century, 
i>orn in Toledo, Spain, in 1093, died in Rome 
in 1167 or 1168. He was ah(O distinguished as 



a physician, mathematician, astronomer, poet v 
and gramnuirian. He was poor, and travelled 
extensively, lecturing before large audiences. 
His writings, some of which have been trans- 
lated into Latin, are numerous, and evince 
originality, boldness, and independence. His 
style is pithy and often epigrammatic. 

ABEXSBERG, a small town of Lower Bavaria, 
18 m. S. W. of Ratisbon; pop. about 1,600. 
It is believed to have been the Abasinum of 
the Romans. It has a thermal spring, and 
contains the ruins of a fine castle. On April 
20, 1809, Napoleon fought and defeated the 
Austrians near Abensberg, who lost 12 guns 
and 20,000 men, including the prisoners made 
on the following day. This was the precursor 
of the victories of Landshut and Eckmuhl. 

HI! KlIUOTIIU l< K. See ABBEOATH. 

ABERCROMBIE, James, a British general, born 
in Scotland in 1706, died April 28, 1781. He 
was commander-in-chief in America in 1756, 
and again in 1758, on the retirement of Lou- 
doun. He attacked Ticonderoga July 8, at the 
head of 15,000 men, and was repulsed with a 
loss of nearly 2,000 killed and wounded. He 
then retreated to his fortified camp on the 
south side of Lake George. He was superseded 
by Sir Jeffery Amherst, who retook Ticonde- 
roga and Crown Point. In 1759 he returned to 
England, and was afterward a member of par- 
liament and deputy governor of Stirling castle. 

ABERCROMBIE, John, M. D., a Scottish phy- 
sician, born in Aberdeen, Nov. 11, 1781, died 
in Edinburgh, Nov. 14, 1844. He contributed 
valuable papers to the "Edinburgh Medical 
and Surgical Journal." His principal works* 
are : "Pathological and Practical Researches on 
Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord " (Edin- 
burgh, 1828, 1830) ; " Inquiries concerning the 
Intellectual Powers of Man and the Investiga- 
tion of Truth" (1830); "Philosophy of the 
Moral Feelings" (1833). The university of 
Oxford conferred on him the honorary degree 
of doctor of medicine, and in 1835 Marischal 
college elected him its lord rector. He was 
considered the first physician in Scotland. 

ABERCROMBY, Sir Ralph, a British general, 
born in 1738, died March 28, 1801. He was 
descended from a good Scottish family, entered 
the army, and became major general in 1787. 
In 1793 he went to Holland in the unsuccess- 
ful Walcheren expedition, and gained universal 
esteem by his humanity and soldierlike quali- 
ties. He was now made commander-in-chief 
in the West Indies, and took several of the 
French West India islands. After his recall 
he was made lieutenant governor of the Isle of 
Wight, and showed his judgment and pres- 
ence of mind in suppressing a mutiny of the 
Highland regiments, who had revolted because 
they were required to serve as marines. On 
the breaking out of the rebellion of 1798 in 
Ireland, he was sent there as commander-in- 
chief, but his distaste for the service was so 
decided that he was removed to Scotland. In 
1799 he again served in Holland. In 1800 he 



ABERDARE 



ABERDEEN 



21 



was sent to Egypt to act against the French 
invasion of that country, and on March 8, 1801, 
he made good his landing at Aboukir in the face 
of a hostile force, but with considerable loss. 
He encamped near Alexandria, and was at- 
tacked by the French, and on the 21st the bat- 
tle of Alexandria was fought. Sir Ralph was 
severely wounded early in the action, but con- 
cealing his wound, he continued on the field, 
giving his orders, until after the action was 
over, and the French had been entirely defeat- 
ed. His dangerous condition was then made 
known. He died a week afterward, and his 
remains were conveyed to Malta and there in- 
terred. His widow was created a peeress as 
Baroness Abercromby, with succession. 

ABERDARE, a town and parish of Glamor- 
ganshire, S. Wales, at the junction of the river 
Dare with the Cynon, 20 m. K N. W. of Car- 



diff, and 4 m. S. W. of Merthyr Tydvil ; pop. 
of the parish (25 sq. m.) in 1861, 32,299; in 
1871, about 40,000. In 1841 the population 
was but 6,471. The increase is due to the 
great extension of coal and iron mining. The 
coal is largely consumed in the iron mills of 
the town, and a considerable amount is export- 
ed. There are many fine public and private 
buildings, good water works, and a public park. 
ABERDEEN. I. New, the capital of the county 
of Aberdeen, Scotland, situated between the 
rivers Don and Dee, and near the mouth of 
the latter, 512 m. from London, and 114 m. N. 
byE. from Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 88,125. 
It was styled New Aberdeen after its restora- 
tion in 1336, having been burned by EdwaVd 
III. It is incorporated by royal charter grant- 
ed by William the Lion in 1179. The public 
edifices, chiefly of granite, are the East and 




Aberdeen from the Cross. 



West church, the Marischal college, the royal 
infirmary, the town house and tolbooth or jail, 
the post office, mechanics' hall, and several oth- 
ers erected within the last few years. There is 
a fine one-arch bridge of 132 feet span over the 
river Dee, opening into Union street, which 
is 70 feet wide and a mile long, and is the 
chief thoroughfare of the city. Over the Don, 
at the N. end of the town, is a bridge of five 
arches and 75 feet span. There are about 50 
religious edifices of all denominations, the 
largest number being Presbyterian. The Easfe 
and West church is a noble pile 170 feet 
long, with a spire 150 feet high. The town 
house and tolbooth are situated in Castle street, 
and have a spire 120 feet high. Marischal col- 
lege, founded by George Keith, earl maris- 
chal, in 1593, has an observatory and good 
collection of instruments, a museum, and a fine 
library. Since 1858 it has been incorporated 



with King's college as the university of Aber- 
deen, which has now 21 professors and over 600 
students. Gordon's hospital, founded in 1729 
by Robert Gordon, is a school for boys, who 
are admitted from 8 to 11, and kept until 15 
years of age, and on quitting the foundation 
are entitled to receive an apprentice fee of 10 
or 7. The other charitable institutions are 
the royal infirmary and lunatic asylum, the 
general dispensary, two ophthalmic institu- 
tions, the Cruickshank asylum for the blind, 
Dr. Carnegie's hospital for destitute female 
children, the Midbellie fund for granting pen- 
sions of 5 to 15 to widows, and the female 
orphan asylum, which is supported by volun- 
tary contributions, and whose inmates are 
trained for domestic service. The cross on the 
east of Castle street is a monumental structure 
of remarkable beauty. The market is com- 
modious, built in two floors, with galleries 



22 



ABERDEEN 



ABERDEENSHIRE 



running around the whole. The commerce and 
manufactures of Aberdeen are extensive. 
Ships of 1,000 to 1,500 tons are built here. 
Cotton manufactures employ 4,000 hands, 
linens and woollens each as many more. The 
Aberdeen granite is used all over Great Brit- 
ain, and largely exported. Aberdeen is ac- 
tively engaged in the northern whale fishery. 
The Victoria dock has a water area of 40 
acres. There are water works which supply 
the town from the river Dee. There is rail- 
way communication direct with London. The 
town is governed by a provost, four bailies, 
a dean of guild, and a treasurer, with 12 other 
members of council. II. Old, a town of great 
antiquity, situated one mile N. of the new 
town, near the mouth of the Don ; pop. about 
2,000. King's college, founded in 1494, is 
situated here. 

ABERDEEN, Earls of, viscounts of Formartin 
and barons of Haddo, Methlic, Tarvis, and Kel- 
lie in the Scottish peerage, and Viscounts Gor- 
don in that of the United Kingdom. The 
family is an offshoot of the ancient Scotch 
family of the Gordons. Sir JOHN GORDON of 
Haddo was created a baronet in 1642 by Charles 
I., as a reward for his services in the battle 
of Turriff between that monarch and the par- 
liamentary forces. Being taken prisoner after 
a desperate defence of the house of Kellie, 
he was long imprisoned in the nave of the 
ancient cathedral of St. Giles at Edinburgh, 
which from him took the familiar name of 
Haddo's Hole, 1 ' and was at length beheaded 
in 1645. His estates remained under seques- 
tration till the restoration of Charles II., when 
they were restored to his eldest son, Sir John 
Gordon, who died in 1665. Sir GEORGE GOR- 
DON of Haddo, lord high chancellor of Scotland, 
was in 1682 elevated to the Scottish peerage, 
by the titles above mentioned. On the revo- 
lution the new earl resigned office, and de- 
clined taking the oaths of allegiance to Wil- 
liam of Orange, but he appeared again at court 
in the reign of Queen Anne. He opposed the 
union of Scotland and England from his seat in 
parliament, and died in 172U, aged 83. GEORGE 
HAMILTON GORDON, 4th earl, born in Edinburgh, 
Jan. 28, 1784, died Dec. 14, 1860. He was 
educated at Harrow, and at St. John's college, 
Cambridge, where he graduated in 1804. 
While still a young man he founded a club, the 
members of which must have made a journey 
to Greece. In 1806, though only 22, he was 
elected as one of the 16 Scottish representative 
peers, and so remained until he was created a 
peer of the realm in his own right in 1814, as 
Viscount Gordon of Aberdeen. In 1813 he 
was sent to the court of Vienna as a secret envoy 
to detach Austria from her enforced alliance 
with Napoleon. He .succeeded, and was soon 
afterward ag;iin sent to Vienna, and arranged 
the preliminaries between the emperor Francis 
and Joachim Murat, king of Naples, for tin- 
restoration of the Bourbons to the throne of 
Naples. During Canning's ministry he was in 



opposition. In 1828, the duke of Wellington 
having formed a ministry on high tory princi- 
ples, Aberdeen became secretary of state for 
foreign affairs, remaining in office till Novem- 
ber, 1830, and opposing the Greek war of in- 
dependence, but favoring the abolition of the 
test and corporation acts, and the Catholic 
emancipation act, while resisting the movement 
for parliamentary reform. On the death of 
George IV. Aberdeen resigned with his col- 
leagues. He afterward took a conspicuous 
part in endeavoring to reunite the Scottish na- 
tional church. From 1841 to 1846 he was 
again secretary for foreign affairs, in the min- 
istry of Sir Robert Peel, and participated in 
settling the northeastern and Oregon bound- 
ary questions with the United States. On Dec. 
28, 1852, he became prime minister, but was 
compromised in public opinion by his attempt 
to evade the Crimean war, and by its blunders 
after it was begun, and was compelled to re- 
sign Feb. 1, 1855, when he was made a knight 
of the Garter. He had been president of the 
society of antiquaries, and in 1822 published 
"An Inquiry into the Principles of Beauty in 
Grecian Architecture." GEORGE HAMILTON 
GORDON, 6th earl, born Dec. 10, 1841, lost at 
sea Jan. 27, 1870. He succeeded to the title in 
1864. In 1866 he embarked in a sailing vessel 
from Aberdeen for St. Johns, N. B., and dur- 
ing the voyage volunteered to fill the place 
of a disabled seaman. This occupation he re- 
sumed after some time spent in travel, made 
several short voyages under the name of 
George Henry Osborne, acted as a commercial 
agent at Pensacola, and was licensed as a mate 
in New York in 1867, and as a captain in 1868. 
In January, 1870, he shipped as mate of the 
three-masted schooner Hera, bound from Bos- 
ton to Melbourne, and on the fourth day out 
was swept overboard in a storm. He had for 
some time kept his family advised of his wan- 
derings, but as all replies to his letters miscar- 
ried, he ceased writing. An agent sent out in 
search of him succeeded with great difficulty 
in tracing his subsequent career. 

IMIUH I \HIIIU:. a county of Scotland, 
on the N. E. coast, between lat. 56 52' and 
57 42' N., and Ion. 1 49' and 3 48' W. ; 
length, 87 m. ; greatest breadth, 36 m. ; area, 
1,985 sq. m., or 1,270,740 acres, being about 
one sixteenth of all Scotland; pop. in 1871, 
244,607. It contains 83 parishes and parts of 
six others, and is divided into the districts of 
Mar, Formartin, Buchan, Garioch, and Strath- 
bogie. On the S. and S. W. borders of the 
county are the Grampian hills. The High- 
lands of this district include some of the high- 
est mountains in Scotland, Ben Macdhui, 
Cairntoul, Ben Avon, and Cairngorm, from 
which last the fine yellow pebble so much used 
in Highland dress and ornaments take> its 
name. The Scottish kings used to hold for- 
midable gatherings to hunt the red deer in the 
wilds of Braemar ; and the abundance of care- 
fully preserved game makes the district still a 



ABERDEVINE 



ABERRATION 



favorite rendezvous of sportsmen. The Bullers 
of Buchan, near Peterhead, are also an at- 
tractive object to the tourist. The chief rivers 
are the Dee and the Don. The climate, ex- 
cept in the mountain districts, is mild, and 
wheat prospers. Cattle, sheep, pigs, eggs, and 
butter are transported by steam from Aber- 
deen to London, to the value of about 1,000,- 
000 annually. Granite is the most important 
mineral production. Besides the queen's es- 
tate of Balmoral, Aboyne castle, belonging to 
the earl of Aboyne, Haddo houSe, seat of the 
earl of Aberdeen, Huntly lodge, of the duke of 
Richmond, and Forbes castle are noteworthy. 

ABERDEVINE (carduelis spinus), also called 
the siskin, a small European song bird, which 
breeds in the north of Europe, and visits Eng- 
land, France, and Germany during the winter 
season only. It somewhat resembles the 
green variety of the canary bird, with which 
it is so far connected that it will interbreed 
with it in confinement, when the produce is 
what are known by bird fanciers as mules. 
Its length is about 4f inches, its tail short and 
forked. Its upper parts are variegated with 
olive brown, yellow, and pale green, the feath- 
ers being edged with yellow ; its bill and legs 
are light horn brown. Its note is soft and 
pleasant. It builds in the topmost branches 
of pine trees, and lays four or five bluish white 
eggs, speckled with purplish red. Its Latin 
name carduelis expresses its fondness for the 
seeds of the thistle. 

ABERNETHY, John, an English surgeon, 
born either in Scotland or Ireland in 1764, 
died at Enfield, April 18, 1831. He was a 
pupil of Sir Charles Blick, surgeon to St. Bar- 
tholomew's hospital, London, and afterward 
of the celebrated John Hunter. Early in his 
career, in a work entitled " The Constitutional 
Origin and Treatment of Local Diseases," he 
established the fundamental principles upon 
which surgical operations have since been con- 
ducted. His bold and successful operations of 
tying the carotid and external iliac arteries 
established his reputation, and almost revolu- 
tionized surgery. He acquired great distinc- 
tion as an anatomist and physiologist, suc- 
ceeded Sir Charles Blick at St. Bartholomew's, 
was appointed surgeon to Christ's hospital in 
1813, and in 1814 professor of anatomy and sur- 
gery to the royal college of surgeons. His 
works became text books in nearly all the 
medical colleges in Europe and America. He 
contributed the anatomical and physiological 
articles to Dr. Rees's " Cyclopaedia " from A 
to C, and published numerous tracts, treatises, 
and surgical and physiological essays. One of 
the most popular and well known of his works 
was his "Surgical Observations," the pe- 
rusal of which he almost invariably recom- 
mended to his patients. His last production 
(issued a few months prior to his death) was a 
collected and revised edition of his " Lectures 
on the Theory and Practice of Surgery." His 
writings are remarkable for clearness, concise- 



ness, and simplicity. His simple and impres- 
sive style of lecturing never failed to enchain 
his audience, despite his dogmatism and con- 
tempt of others' opinions. His private charac- 
ter was admirable, but in public his manners 
were uncouth, churlish, and capricious. Many 
anecdotes of his eccentricities are current. 

ABERRATION. I. Aberration of Light, the al- 
teration of apparent position in a heavenly 
body, due to the fact that the observer is car- 
ried along by the earth's motion, the velocity 
of which is a measurable quantity in relation 
to the velocity of light. The aberration of 
light is therefore due to the combined effect 
of the transmission of light and of the earth's 
motion. The solution of all problems to which 
it gives rise is due to the astronomers of the 
last century ; their calculations are in perfect 
accord with the minutest practical observa- 
tions, made with the most elaborate and largest 
astronomical instruments constructed in some 
observatories chiefly for the purpose of measur- 
ing this amount of aberration. If, at a time when 
rain drops were falling in a perfect calm per- 
pendicular to the earth's surface, we were 
standing on a platform car on a railroad track, 
and rapidly moving forward or backward, the 
drops would strike us under an angle deviating 
from the perpendicular in proportion to the 
swiftness of our motion. The direction of this 
deviation would in either case be toward the 
side we are moving to, and this is exactly the case 
with the light coming to us from the heavenly 
bodies. This is evident when we compare the 
direction of the rain drops with that of the 
light, and that of the car with the motion of 
the earth in its yearly orbit. If now the direc- 
tion in which light reaches us be changed, the 
apparent position of the body from which the 
light proceeds must be changed also. Let A B 



T T' 

* 



A * B C 

Aberration of Light. 

represent a small portion of the earth's orbit, 
and S M the ray of light from a fixed star S ; 
the motion of the earth from B toward A will 
cause the light to come in the direction S' A, 
and the star will appear to stand in S'. If C D 
represents a small portion of the earth's orbit 
half a year later, thus moving in an opposite 
direction, the star T will for the same rea- 



ABERRATION 



ABEYANCE 



son appear to stand in T'. If the velocity 
of our earth was so much slower as to be 
for our most delicate instruments incompara- 
ble to the velocity of light, no apparent in- 
fluence would be exerted on the apparent 
direction, and there would be no appreciable 
aberration; but the relation happens to be 
within the pale of actual measurement. Tak- 
ing the length of the earth's yearly orbit in 
round numbers at 600,000,000 miles and the 
length of the year at 31,556,931 seconds, the 
velocity of our earth is nearly 19'2 miles per 
second ; and light being transmitted at the rate 
of 192,000 miles per second, it is clear that 
it travels about 10,000 times faster than the 
earth. If now we consider that an equal ve- 
locity would change the direction of the per- 
pendicular, or 90, into its half, or 45, we see 
that a velocity of only Tff .V olf would deviate 
the angle approximately y^.V^ of 45, or about 
16 seconds. This, however, is a rough esti- 
mate; trigonometrical ly calculated, we obtain 
more, namely, 20 seconds. This now must 
be the maximum aberration produced by the 
yearly motion of the earth on the position of 
all stars observed at right angles to the direc- 
tion of that motion. They must all appear 
displaced to an amount of 20" forward, and 
this is in fact observed in all heavenly bodies 
at right angles to the plane of the ecliptic. As 
after six months the earth moves in an oppo- 
site direction at the other side of the sun, this 
displacement must be observed in an opposite 
direction after the lapse of every half year, 
making a total displacement of 40" in the 
position of all the stars situated near the poles 
of the ecliptic ; therefore they appear to have 
a yearly movement in small ellipses of 40" 
mean diameter, or about one fortieth the di- 
ameter of the moon. II. Aberration In Optical 
Instrument*. As white light is composed of 
colored rays of different refrangibility, any 
kind of refraction must split it up into rays of 
different colors. This is called dispersion. As 
the convex lenses used in telescopes, micro- 
scopes, and other optical instruments refract 
the light to focal points, this dispersion causes 
an infinite number of foci. Those consisting 
of the most refrangible rays, the violet, are 
the nearest to the lens, and they follow in the 
order of their refrangibility blue, green, yel- 
low, orange, and red ; the focus of the last is 
the furthest distant from the lens. This grand 
defect, called chromatic aberration, is correct- 
ed by the construction of achromatic lenses. 




sented in the adjoined figure, in which A B is 
the lens, V the focus of the most refrangible or 
violet, and R that of the least refrangible or red 
rays. Another defect, called spherical aberra- 
tion, arises from the nature of the curve used in 
making lenses and reflectors. Geometry prnvi-s 
that parallel rays can only be refracted and re- 
flected to a single focus by a parabolic curve ; 
however, lenses and reflectors are ordinarily 
ground as parts of a sphere, which differs from 
a parabola in the fact that in the latter the 
amount of curvature increases toward the cen- 
tre or axis. The consequence is that a sec- 
tion of a sphere, not having curvature enough 
toward this point, has an infinite number of 
foci at different distances; those formed by 
parts nearest to the axis will be the furthest 
off, while those formed by the refractions or 
reflections near the circumference of the lens 
or mirror will be the nearest. The two figures 




Chromatic Aberration. 



(See ACHROMATIC LENS.) The course of the 
rays producing chromatic aberration is rcpiv- 



Sphfrical Aberration. 



given here represent the case of this aberration 
by refraction and reflection : C D is the lens, of 
which the rays passing near the centre P are 
united in F, while the rays passing near the 
circumference D C unite nearer to the lens in 
E. G H is the curved mirror or reflector which 
reflects the rays U I and W K falling on it near 
its centre in N, while the rays S G and T II, 
falling on it near the circumference, are brought 
together much nearer in M. When the aper- 
ture of the lens or mirror is small, for instance 
only 5 or about ^ part of the circumference, 
these differences are practically inappreciable ; 
but when the aperture must be large, as is the 
case with astronomical telescopes, peculiar ar- 
rangements are contrived, so that in making 
the lenses or reflectors a curve is obtained 
as nearly as possible of the parabolic form. 

ABERYSTWITH, a seaport town of Cardigan- 
shire, Wales, near the outlet of the Ystwith 
and Rheidiol, 39 m. N. E. of Cardigan ; pop. 
in 1871, 6,896. It is a bathing place, and has 
considerable commerce and extensive fisheries. 
In the vicinity are many lead mines. 

ABEYANCE (la w Fr - Mayer, to expect, 
wait for ; Fr. bayer, to gape), a law term im- 
plying expectation, suspense, though by the 
signification preferred by the best authors t lie- 
thing in abeyance is conceived to be in the 
remembrance or consideration of the law. 
The title to a ship captured in war is said to 



ABIAD 



ABINGTON 



be in abeyance until condemnation to the cap- 
tor by the prize court. So an estate of inher- 
itance or the fee was said to be in abeyance 
when there was no one in being in whom it 
could vest, as in the case of a grant to A for 
life, remainder in fee to the heirs of B, who 
was then living : as there can be no heir of a 
Jiving man, the fee was said to be in abeyance 
until B's death. Mr. Fearne, an acute writer 
upon the law of real property, denounced the 
theory of an abeyance as an absurd fiction; 
and he contended with great ability that in the 
<;ase just supposed the estate of inheritance 
was not in abeyance during B's life, but re- 
mained in the grantor of the life estate until the 
happening of the condition on which it might 
pass to B's heirs devested him of it. The 
principle of abeyance, however, has always 
stood fast in the law, and has carried with it 
very practical results. The plan of the feudal 
system, which required that there should al- 
ways be some one ready to render the military 
and other feudal services to the lord, fixed the 
rule of the feudal, and later of the common 
law, that there must always be a tenant of 
the freehold, and that that must never be in 
abeyance. It was difficult for a long time, 
however, to get rid of the abeyance of the fee, 
that is, of the absolute ownership of the estate, 
-distinguished from mere portions of it like a 
freehold life estate. But the recognition of 
the rule caused great embarrassments ; for dur- 
ing the suspension of the fee there was no one 
to defend the title, or take any of those remedies 
in respect to the property which depended on 
the absolute ownership. The doctrine, there- 
fore, came to be regarded with more and more 
disfavor, and its inconveniences inspired from 
time to time some of the most important re- 
forms of the law. Blackstone says in one of 
his arguments, that the famous rule in Shel- 
ley's case owed its origin and adoption to the 
aversion of the common law to the suspension 
of estates through the operation of abeyance ; 
and the same spirit of the law helped to break 
<lown the limitation or creation of remote and 
contingent remainders. 

ABIAD, Bah r el. See NILE. 

ABIATHAR, a Hebrew high priest, the son of 
Ahimelech, who was slain by Saul for receiving 
David when a fugitive. He was for a long time 
faithful to David, especially during Absalom's 
rebellion, when he accompanied the king. He 
afterward, however, took part in the rebellion 
of Adonijah, and was in consequence deprived 
of the priesthood and banished from the capi- 
tal by Solomon. 

ABIB (properly, Hodesh haabib, the month 
of the ears of corn), the first month of the 
Mosaic Hebrew year, corresponding nearly to 
our April. After the Babylonish captivity 
this month was called Nisan, month of blos- 
soms or flowers. (See NISAN.) 

ABICH, \\ illit'lm Hermann, a German-Russian 
naturalist, born in Berlin, Dec. 11, 1806. He 
graduated in 1831 at the university of Berlin, 



visited Italy and Sicily, and published Erlau- 
ternde Abbildungen ton geologwchen Ernchei- 
nungen, beobachtet am Vesuv und Aetna 1833 
und 1834 (Berlin, 1837), and Ueber die Natur 
und den Zusammenhang der vulkanischen 
Bildungen (Brunswick, 1841). In 1842 he 
became professor of mineralogy in the univer- 
sity of Dorpat, and in 1853 a member of the 
St. Petersburg academy of sciences. He has 
explored the mountain ranges of the Caucasus, 
Kussian Armenia, northern Persia, and Daghes- 
tan, and published in the German and French 
languages many works relating to the palaeon- 
tology, geology, &c., of those regions, besides 
his contributions to the bulletins and memoirs 
of the St. Petersburg academy since 1843. 

ABUIELECH. I. A Philistine king of Gerar, 
into whose dominions Abraham removed after 
the destruction of Sodom. The latter, from 
motives of prudence, pretended that Sarah, his 
wife, was his sister, whereupon Abimelech 
took her from him, intending to make her his 
concubine. By divine command, however, he 
restored her, rebuking Abraham for his fraud. 
Another Philistine king of Gerar of the same 
name was similarly deceived by Isaac in regard 
to Rebekah, and also rebuked him. II. A son 
of Gideon by a Shechemite concubine, who 
made himself king after murdering all his 70 
brethren except Jotham, and was killed after 
a reign of three years while besieging the 
tower of Thebez. (See HEBREWS.) 

ABINGER, James, Lord, an English lawyer, 
born in Jamaica about 1769, died in London, 
April 7, 1844. He is better known and re- 
membered as Sir James Scarlett. He was a 
member of parliament for Peterborough from 
1818 to 1830, afterward for Maldon, Cocker- 
mouth, and Norwich. He was at first a mod- 
erate whig, but gradually became a stanch 
tory. As an advocate he was one of the most 
popular men of his day, and his practice was 
immensely lucrative. His oratorical powers 
were of the most persuasive character; his 
speech usually assumed almost a conversa- 
tional tone with th'e jury, and he had the art 
of appearing to address himself to each of his 
auditors individually. He was attorney-gen- 
eral from April, 1827, to January, 1828, and 
again from May, 1829, to November, 1830. In 
December, 1834, he was appointed lord chief 
baron of the exchequer, and on Jan. 12, 1835, 
he was raised to the peerage as Baron Abinger. 

ABINGTON, Frances, an English actress, born 
about 1731, died in London, March 4, 1815. 
Her father was a common soldier named Bar- 
ton. She was employed as a child in running 
errands, and afterward as a flower girl. Her 
first appearance as an actress was on the 
boards of the Haymarket in the character of 
Miranda in " The Busybody," 1755. She had 
previously married Mr. Abington, her music 
master, from whom she separated in a few 
months. At Dublin she was a great favorite, 
and when Garrick in 1765 invited her to 
London, she soon became the first comic 



ABI PONES 



ABNEU 



actress of the day. She bade adieu to the 
stage April 12, 1799, and left at her death a 
Jegacy to each of the theatrical funds. 

ABIPOftES, a tribe of South American Indians 
who inhabited the district of Chaco in Paraguay, 
but now occupy the territory lying between San- 
ta Fe and St. Jago, east of the Parana river. 
Our accounts of this singular people are mainly 
derived from Dobrizhoffer, who lived among 
them seven years at the end of the last centu- 
ry. His volumes were translated from the 
Latin by Miss Coleridge (3 vols. 8vo, 1822). 
The whole tribe at that time did not number 
above 5,000. They practise tattooing. The 
men are of tall stature, good swimmers, and 
expert horsemen. The women practise infan- 
ticide to a great extent, but suckle those in- 
fante they permit to live for the space of two 
years. In counting they can go no further 
than three. See A. d'Orbigny, UHomme Ame- 
rica in, vol. ii. 

ABJ I RATION, Oath of, usually, an ..at I, by 
which one renounces allegiance. But ancient- 
ly in England, and before 21 James I., ch. 28, 
17, one who had been guilty of a felony, and 
who had fled for safety to the sanctuary of a 
church or churchyard, might upon confession 
of his crime take an oath before a coroner that 
he would abandon or renounce the country for 
ever, and thereupon he was permitted to leave 
it in safety. The statute just named took 
away the privilege of sanctuary, and with it 
this privilege of abjuration. Formerly too, in 
England for example, under the statute of 
35 Elizabeth, ch. 1 any person above the age 
of 16 years who refused to hear divine service 
or incited others to abstain from attending it, 
and by speech or in writing denied her majes- 
ty's authority in causes ecclesiastical, was re- 
quired to conform and make submission to the 
church, or else to abjure the realm forthwith 
and for ever, before the justices at the assizes 
or in sessions. The oath of abjuration in 
respect to the sovereign came into use in Eng- 
land after the restoration, and was changed 
from time to time until in the 6 George III. 
it took the form which it retained till 1858. 
All clergymen and public officers were re- 
quired to take it on coming to their places, to- 
gether with the separate oaths of allegiance and 
supremacy. The statute of 21 and 22 Victoria, 
ch. 48 (1858), displaced these three oaths by a 
single one which embraced the elements of 
all of them. It ended with the words, "and 
I make this declaration on the true faith of a 
Christian." In ordinary cases Jews had been 
excused from adding these words, but until 
1858 no statute authorized their omission from 
the parliamentary oath ; so that when in 1850 
Baron de Rothschild, and in lol Mr. Salomons, 
had come into the house and refused to take 
the oath in its full form, they were declared 
incapable of sitting as members. The statute 
of 21 and 22 Victoria, ch. 49, however, author- 
ized the houses to dispense with the obnox- 
ious words in the case of Jews, and this au- 



thority was thereupon exercised in favor of 
Baron de Rothschild ; and in 1860 a standing 
order on the .subject was made to avoid the in- 
convenience of special resolutions in separate 
instances. But the statute of 29 and 30 Victoria, 
ch. 19 (1866), removed all difficulty by dropping 
the embarrassing clause altogether from the 
parliamentary oath. Under the United States 
statute relating to naturalization, the subject of 
a foreign state who seeks to become an Ameri- 
can citizen is required to declare on oath or 
affirmation, before the court to which he ap- 
plies, that he absolutely and for ever renounces 
and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to every 
foreign power, authority, or sovereignty what- 
ever, and particularly, and by name, to the 
foreign prince or potentate, state, or sover- 
eignty of which he has been hitherto a subject. 
ABkHASIA, or AbchasU, the country of the 
! Abkhasians, a warlike tribe between the Black 
sea and the Caucasus, which has been con- 
quered by the Russians. It is bounded N. and 
i N. E. by the land of the Circassians, E. by 
I Suanethi, S. E. by Mingrelia, and S. and W. 
by the Black sea. Its area, vaguely limited, is 
about 10,000 sq. m. Under the Roman empe- 
ror Justinian the Abkhasians became Chris- 
tians, but subsequently they adopted Moham- 
medanism, to winch religion they still nomi- 
} nally belong, thougli their religion in fact 
I consists of a barbarous mixture of Christian, 
Moslem, and heathen notions and usages. The 
country was formerly divided into ten commu- 
nities, the most important of which were Ab- 
khasia proper (with 80,000 inhabitants), the 
Tziebelda (8,000), Samurzakan (9,800), and the 
country of the Jigets or Zadzes (10,000). Ab- 
khasia proper has again had since 1771 an he- 
reditary dynasty of its own, that of the Hher- 
vashidze, which since 1824 has been under 
Russian sovereignty. The residence of the 
prince is at Soyuk-Su (pop. about 5,000). On 
the coast the Russians have fortified several 
places, the most important of which is Sukhum 
Kaleh, or Baglata (pop. 300), supposed to be 
the site of the ancient Dioscurias, where ac- 
cording to Pliny 300 different tribes used to 
trade. About 15,000 Abkhasians have of late 
emigrated from Russia to Turkey. 

ABLITION, a religious ceremony in many por- 
tions of the world. In the Catholic church it 
means the cleansing of the cup after the Lord's 
supper, and is applied to the wine and water 
with which the priest who consecrates the 
host washes his hands. 

ABNER, the son of Ner, cousin of Saul and 
the general of his troops. He was greatly 
lovi-d by Saul, and faithful to him until his 
death, and then transferred his allegiance to 
Ishhosheth, Saul's son, to whom he preserve! 
the throne of Israel for seven years against tin- 
rival claims of David. At length, Ishbosheth 
having accused him of improprieties with one 
of his father's concubines, he went over to the 
cause of David. But the aid he might have ren- 
dered to that king was cut off by ]>\> -nl(!i n 



ABO 



ABORTION 



death at the hand of Joab, David 1 s captain, 
who was probably moved with jealousy at the 
influence of so powerful a rival for the king's 
favor, though Joab alleged that the object of 
the assassination was to avenge the death of 
his brother Asahel. David was, or, as inti- 
mated by Josephus, pretended to be, deeply 
afflicted at the death of Abner, and lamented 
him in a sort of funeral dirge. 

ABO (Swed. Abo), a city of Russia, in Fin- 
land, capital of the government of Abo-Bjor- 
neborg, built on both sides of the Aurajoki, 
not far from where' it flows into the gulf of 
Bothnia, 260 m. W. by N. of St. Petersburg ; 
pop. in 1870, 21,830.' It was founded in 1157 
by the Swedes, and was the capital of Finland 
till 1819. A bishopric was established here in 
the 13th century. In 1827 the greater part 
of the city was destroyed by fire, including the 
university buildings and the library, contain- 
ing 40,000 volumes. The university was re- 
built in Helsingfors, the new capital of the 
province. Abo is still the seat of considerable 
trade. The peace of Abo, concluded Aug. 17, 
1743, between Sweden and Russia, terminated 
the struggle between those countries com- 
menced in 1741, at the instigation of France, 
in order to prevent Russia's participation in 
the war of the Austrian succession. During 
this contest, the blunders of the Swedish gen- 
erals enabled the Russians to take possession 
of Finland. The empress Elizabeth offered to 
restore the greater part of the province, on 
condition that Sweden should elect Prince 
Adolphus Frederick of Holstein-Eutin succes- 
sor to the throne. This demand Sweden com- 
plied with July 4, 1743. 

ABO-BJORNEBORG, one of the governments 
of the grand duchy of Finland, situated on the 
Finnish and Bothnian gulfs ; area, 9,869 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1867, 319,784, nearly all Lutherans. 
Capital, Abo. 

ABOMEY, the capital of the kingdom of Da- 
homey, Africa, in lat. 7 59' N., Ion. 1 20' E., 
100 m. N. N. W. of Badagry ; pop. about 50,- 
000. It is about eight miles in circumference, 
surrounded by a ditch, and entered by six gates, 
all of which are ornamented with human 
skulls. It contains three royal palaces of two 
stories each. Within the palaces are barracks, 
in which the 5,000 Amazons of the king's 
army live in celibacy, guarded by eunuchs. 

ABORIGINES. See AMERICAN INDIANS. 

ABORTION (Lat. abortus, a miscarriage), the 
premature expulsion of the foetus or embryo, 
at so early a period that it is incapable of 
living, and the pregnancy is consequently un- 
fruitful. In the human species, a child may 
often continue to live and be reared if born as 
early as the seventh month of pregnancy ; and 
these accordingly are said to be cases of "pre- 
mature birth." * Nevertheless, if a child born 
after the seventh month and before the natural 
term of parturition should at once die in con- 
sequence of such premature birth, this would 
; Iso be a case of abortion. In the earlier and 



middle periods of pregnancy, the death of the 
foetus sometimes takes place from internal 
causes, and it is soon afterward discharged 
from the uterus, to which it has become a 
source of irritation. Thus, whether the foetus 
die in consequence of premature delivery, or 
whether the premature delivery be a conse- 
quence of the death of the foetus, all such cases 
are generally included under the term abor- 
tion. Abortion is sometimes produced, by 
various means, with the criminal intent of 
getting rid of the product of conception, and 
thus preventing the birth of a living child. All 
such means are dangerous to the mother, and 
may readily lead to a fatal result. The pro- 
duction of abortion for this purpose is there- 
fore doubly criminal, since its first object is the 
destruction of the life of the foetus or child ; 
and this object is furthermore accomplished at 
the risk of death to the mother. The legal 
and medical sciences are not quite in accord 
upon the matter. The increasing frequency of 
this practice of abortion in the most en- 
lightened communities at the present day has 
attracted to it the particular attention of phy- 
sicians ; and they urge that the evil cannot be 
suppressed without the enactment of laws not 
only more severe but of a different character 
from those which have hitherto existed. They 
insist that, as the first and most essential step 
in the course of a reform of the law, the legis- 
lature must not only abandon the old idea that 
the quickening of the child is the commence- 
ment of its life, but must proceed directly upon 
the fact, especially emphasized by modern 
medical science, that the life of the future 
human being begins at the very instant of con- 
ception ; that not only therefore must the old 
criteria of criminality which depended upon 
quickening be abandoned, but the protection 
of the foetal life must be the direct object of 
the law, no less than the protection of the life 
or well-being of the mother, or the general 
conservation of public morality and decency. 
It will be seen on an examination of the later 
statutes that a substantial advance toward 
these positions has been made by legislation 
during the last 20 years. For the purpose of 
an intelligent view of the existing law, and in 
anticipation of still further legislation, some 
facts upon the physical side of the subject may 
be well kept in mind. The foetus cannot be 
properly regarded at any period of its existence 
as merely pars viscerum matris, as the phrase 
is; that is to say, as an essential constituent 
part of the mother. The ovum does not origi- 
nate in the uterus, but after impregnation is 
lodged there, being totally disconnected from 
the organism of the mother during the transi- 
tion ; and it is attached to the uterus for the 
simple purposes of shelter and nutrition. The 
human form is developed and is visible in the 
foetus even before the period of its quickening. 
This term quickening is the name given to 
those phenomena of different sorts by which 
action in the foetus is manifested to the mother. 



28 



ABORTION 



This mere incident of progressive development 
appears at no absolutely certain time, but usu- 
ally between the 1 15th and 130th days after con- 
ception. Viability of the foetus does not depend 
necessarily on its age, though it is usually not ; 
viable, or capable of living, before the lapse of ( 
seven months after conception ; yet it may be j 
at undeterminable periods before that time. ] 
Though the legal offences relating to abortion ' 
depend almost entirely upon positive statutes, 
yet it is sometimes material to determine 
whether an act of this character is criminal at 
common law, as the phrase is ; or, in other i 
words, by the general, customary, and un- 
written law. It is said by some of the best 
writers that there can be no doubt that at 
common law the wrongful destruction of an 
unborn child was a high misdemeanor, and 
t hat at an early period in England it was ! 
deemed murder. There are no reported cases 
confirming this view, but two passages of Brae- 
ton and Fleta ought not to be overlooked. 
Though they are in some respects of obscure 
meaning, yet they are noteworthy, not only as ' 
being the earliest declarations on the subject 
contained in English law books, but because 
the rules they lay down are so far advanced be- 
yond those of the English law even of to-day. 
Both books were written in Latin, the former 
in the reign of Henry III. (121t>-1272), the lat- 
ter in that of Edward I. (1272-1807). Bracton 
says : " If any one shall have given blows or 
drugs to a pregnant woman, in consequence of 
which she shall have aborted, if the child were 
already formed and animate, and especially if 
animate, he is guilty of homicide." The author 
of Fleta says: u Whoever shall have done vio- j 
lenco to a pregnant woman, or shall have given i 
her drugs or blows so as to produce an abor- 1 
tion, or to prevent conception (ut non eonci- ' 
piat), if the foetus was already formed and ; 
animate, is a homicide; and likewise, whoever ; 
shall have given or taken drugs with the in- 
tent to prevent generation or conception (con- j 
ceptio). So, too, the woman is guilty of a 
homicide who has destroyed her animate child ; 
in her womb, by potions or things of that 
sort." These passages, it will be' noticed, pro- 
nounce the mother's destruction of her unborn ' 
quick child a homicide. The present law of 
England declares that any woman being with 
child, and whether quick or not is indifferent, 
who uses drugs or any other means to procure I 
her miscarriage, is guilty of a felony, and is j 
punishable by imprisonment only. Coke, who I 
lived in the 16th century, says in his third In- 
stitute that "if a woman be quick with child, | 
and by a potion or otherwise . killeth it in her ! 
womb, or if a man beat her whereby the child , 
dieth in her body and she is delivered of a dead 
child, this is a great misprision and no murder." 
In this passage occurs the reference to the ' 
quickening of the child, which has always j 
down to a very recent period been made an i 
essential element in the degree of criminality 
in English acts relating to abortion. With 



reference to the common law on the subject, 
it has been held in Massachusetts, Maine, and 
New Jersey, that it is not, apart from statutes, 
an indictable offence to use means upon a preg- 
nant woman, with her consent, for the purpose 
and with the effect of procuring an abortion, 
unless the mother were quick with child. It 
is not to be understood, however, from this 
that, very grave and even capital offence 
may not be involved in such an act as that 
referred to even at common law ; for in such 
a case, as Chief Justice Shaw remarked, if 
the woman's death ensued, the party making 
the attempt would be guilty of murder, and 
this whether the woman consented or not ; 
for the act is done without lawful purpose, is 
dangerous to life, and the consent of the wo- 
man no more annuls the legal imputation of 
malice than it does in the case of a duel. And 
furthermore, as to the child produced by a 
criminal abortion, if it fairly live after birth 
and then die from injuries received in the body 
of the mother before its birth, it is clearly a 
case of homicide. In Pennsylvania the courts 
dissent from the view as to the common law 
which is taken in the states first mentioned. 
It was there declared that miscarriage, both in 
law and in physiology, means the bringing 
forth of the foetus before it is perfectly formed 
and capable of living, and that it was of itself 
a flagrant crime at common law to attempt to 
procure the miscarriage or abortion of a wo- 
man ; that it was a crime against nature which 
obstructed the fountain of life, and therefore it 
was punishable. To the objection on the part 
of the prisoner that the indictment was de- 
fective, because it ought to and did not allege 
that the woman was quick with child, it was 
answered by the court that that was not the 
law in Pennsylvania, and ought not to have 
been anywhere ; that it was not the murder of 
a living child which constituted the offence, 
but the destruction of gestation by wicked 
means and against nature ; and that the mo- 
ment the womb is instinct with embryo life 
and gestation has begun, the crime may be 
committed. But practically the actual law on 
the subject exists only in the statutes. The 
principal English acts of modern times are 
those of 43 George III., ch. 58, 2 ; 9 George 
IV., ch. 31, 14; 7 William IV.; and 1 Vic- 
toria, ch. 85, 6 ; all of which are displaced by 
the present law of 24 and 25 Victoria, ch. 
100, 58, 59. The first of these acts, known 
as Lord Ellenborough's act, provided that any 
person who should wilfully, maliciously, and 
unlawfully use means . . . with intent to 
cause and procure the miscarriage of any wo- 
man being quick with child was a felon, and 
should suffer death ; and the act further pro- 
vided that in any such case, if the woman was 
not found to be quick with child at the time of 
the commission of the act, the offender should 
be guilty of a felony and liable to fine, impri* 
onment, pillory, transportation, &c. The stat 
ute of 9 George IV., ch. 31, known as Lord 



ABORTION 



29 



Lansdowne's act, did not differ substantially 
from the former, but further provided against 
rlu- use of instruments. The next statute pro- 
vided that whosoever, with intent to procure 
the miscarriage of any woman, should use un- 
lawful means, &c., should be guilty of felony 
and liable to transportation for life or not less 
than 15 years. The present statute provides 
that every woman being with child who, with 
intent to procure her own miscarriage, shall 
unlawfully administer to herself drugs, or use 
instruments, and whosoever with similar in- 
tent, whether the woman be or be not with 
child, shall use the like unlawful means, shall 
be guilty of felony, and liable on conviction to 
penal servitude for life or not less than three 
years, or to imprisonment. Supplying or pro- 
curing anything knowing that it is to be used 
with intent to procure the miscarriage of any 
woman, whether she be or be not with child, 
is a misdemeanor. Of the more recent statutes 
in the United States, that of Maine (revision of 
1871) provides that whoever administers, &c., 
to any woman pregnant with child, whether 
such child be quick or not, &c., if the act is 
done with intent to destroy the child, and the 
child is destroyed before birth, shall be pun- 
ished by imprisonment not more than five 
years or by fine not exceeding $1,000 ; and if 
done with intent to produce the miscarriage of 
such woman, by imprisonment not more than 
one year and by fine of not more than $1,000. 
The statute of Illinois of 1869 enacts that any 
person who by any means shall cause any 
pregnant woman to miscarry, or shall attempt 
to procure or produce such miscarriage, shall 
be liable to imprisonment not less than two 
nor more than ten years ; and if by any such 
attempt the death of the woman shall be 
caused, the party offending shall be guilty of 
murder, and be punished as the law requires 
for that offence. But this crime may be com- 
mitted, as has already been shown by the 
opinion of Chief Justice Shaw, independently 
of any statutory provision to that effect. In 
Missouri (revision of 1870) the wilful killing of 
an unborn quick child by any injury to the 
mother which would be murder if it resulted 
in the death of the mother, is manslaughter in 
the first degree ; and every person who shall 
use means, &c., on a woman pregnant with a 
quick child, with intent thereby to destroy 
such child, unless the act is necessary to pre- 
serve life, &c., shall, if the death of such child 
or mother ensue from the means so employed, 
be guilty of manslaughter in the second de- 
gree ; and every person who shall wilfully ad- 
minister to or use means on any pregnant 
woman with intent thereby to procure an abor- 
tion, unless necessary to save life, or advised 
by physicians to be so necessary, is guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and is punishable by imprison- 
ment for one year or by fine of $500, or by 
both. In Pennsylvania the statute (1860) pro- 
vides that if any person shall unlawfully use 
means on any woman pregnant or quick with 



child,, or supposed to be so, witli intent to pro- 
cure the miscarriage of the woman, and she, 
or any child of which she may be quick, shall 
die in consequence of such unlawful acts, the 
offender is guilty of a felony, and is liable to 
fine not exceeding $500 or to be imprisoned 
not exceeding seven years ; and it is further 
provided that if any person, with intent to 
procure the miscarriage of any woman, shall 
use unlawful means upon her, he shall also be 
guilty of felony and subject to a fine not ex- 
ceeding $500 and to imprisonment for not more 
than three years. The latest statutes for 
example, those of New Jersey, Illinois (1869), 
Kansas (1868), and New York (1869) do not 
require that the woman be quick with child, 
but only that she be "pregnant" or "with 
child." The Ohio statute of 1867 is to the 
same effect, but differs in its phraseology from 
the statutes of any of the other States. It pro- 
vides that any person who shall administer or 
advise to be administered to any woman preg- 
nant with a vitalized embryo or foetus, at any 
stage of utero-gestation, any medicine or sub- 
stance, or employ any other means, with intent 
thereby to destroy such vitalized embryo or 
foetus, unless necessary or advised by physi- 
cians to be necessary to save the life of the 
mother, shall, in case of the death of such 
embryo or foetus or mother in consequence 
thereof, be guilty of a high misdemeanor, 
and punishable by imprisonment from one to 
seven years. In Massachusetts, by the present 
statute, the offender is guilty of felony if the 
mother die in consequence of the act, and is 
liable to imprisonment from five to twenty 
years ; and if she does not die, is guilty of a 
misdemeanor and punishable by fine and im- 
prisonment not more than seven years. The 
present statute of New York was enacted in 
1869, superseding that of 1846. This earlier 
-act declared that every person who should ad- 
minister to any woman pregnant with a quick 
child any drug, or use any instrument or other 
means, with intent thereby to destroy such 
child, should in case of the death of such child 
or of such mother be guilty of manslaughter in 
the second degree. The act of 1869 omits the 
word "quick," saying "with child," and with 
regard to the intent substitutes the words 
" with intent thereby to produce the miscar- 
riage of any such woman ;" and it preserves the 
provision that in case the death of such child 
or of such woman be thereby produced, the 
offender shall be guilty of manslaughter in the 
second degree. It will be observed that the 
omission of any criterion of quickening, and 
the provision respecting the death of the child, 
make the crime possible from the very earliest 
stage of gestation. Under the former statutes 
it was also an essential element of the crime 
that there should be an intent to destroy the 
child; now that intent is immaterial, and if 
there was the mere intent to procure the mis- 
carriage, and the death of the child is pro- 
duced, the crime is committed. The statutes 



30 



ABORTION 



ABRACADABRA 



here selected represent fairly the present state 
of the statutory law, and especially the more 
recent legislation on the topic. In a late case 
in Massachusetts the court was inclined to hold 
that an indictment could not be maintained 
there if the foetus had lost its vitality at the 
time of the commission of the act, so that it 
could never mature into a living child. In a 
similar case in Vermont it was held not essen- 
tial that the foetus should be alive when the 
attempt was made. Where the language is 
general, as for example, " with intent to pro- 
cure the miscarriage of any woman," it is im- 
material whether the woman was or was not 
pregnant at the time. The " administering " 
or "causing to be taken," usually mentioned 
in the statutes, does not require an actual de- 
livery by the hand of the defendant. Thus it 
has been held that one administered poison to 
another by mixing it in her coffee and putting 
it in her way. And these words have been 
held to be answered by proof that one gave the 
drug to the woman with directions how to use 
it, and she did use it, though not in the de- 
fendant's presence. In New Jersey, under a 
statute which provided that if any person mali- 
ciously or without lawful justification, with in- 
tent to cause the miscarriage of a pregnant 
woman, should advise or direct her to take 
any drug, it was held that the actual taking or 
swallowing of the drug by the woman was no 
element of the crime ; the defendant was guilty 
within the statute if only he gave the advice 
with the intent there declared. In this case 
the court added that the design of the statute 
was not to prevent the procuring of abortions 
so much as to guard the health and life of the 
mother against the consequences of such at- 
tempts. The word " malicious " in these stat- 
utes does not require proof of cruelty or wan- 
tonness or revenge. It is enough that there is 
no legal justification ; and there is no such 
justification in the consent of the woman, nor 
though the real motive was to screen one or both 
of the parties from public exposure and dis- 
grace. The patient in cases of abortion is not 
technically an accomplice in the offence so as 
to be disqualified from testifying; but as she is 
in almost all cases, by virtue of her consent, 
implicated in the moral wrong, this circum- 
stance would fairly affect her credibility. 
Where the statute simply requires, as in Mas- 
sachusetts, that the act shall have been done 
"unlawfully," the indictment need not charge 
that it was malicious and without lawful justi- 
fication ; and the word unlawfully precludes 
any possibility of inference that the act was 
done for the purpose of saving the life of the 
woman, or under any other circumstance which 
would afford a legal justification. The present 
statute of Ohio (1867) makes it a misdemeanor 
to print or publish advertisements of drugs for 
the exclusive use of women, or of any means 
for preventing conception or producing miscar- 
riage, or to keep any such articles for sale or 
gratuitous distribution. A similar statute was 



passed in New York in 1869, and in Pennsyl- 
vania in 1870. 

ABOIRIK, an Egyptian port about 12 in. 
N. E. of Alexandria. In the bay of Abonkir 
was fought, Aug. 1, 1798, the famous battle 
of the Nile or of Aboukir, between the French 
fleet sent out from Toulon under Brueys with 
Bonaparte and an army on board, and the 
English fleet sent in pursuit under Admiral 
Nelson. Though the French fought desperately, 
the engagement, which was begun at dusk, 
ended at daybreak in a great victory for the 
English. Only four French vessels escaped ; 
the French lost more than 5,000 men; tin- 
English killed and wounded were but 895. 
Nelson was slightly, Brueys mortally wounded. 
The story of the battle is filled with examples 
of individual bravery on both sides. At Abou- 
kir, on July 28, 1799, Bonaparte, with a com- 
paratively small force, almost annihilated the 
Turkish army under Mustapha Pasha. 

ABOIT, Edmond, a French author, born at 
Dieuze, Meurthe, Feb. 14, 1828. He was edu- 
cated at Paris, and in the French school :it 
Athens. His literary talents had already be- 
come noted when in 1855 he published La 
Grece contemporaine, which made him cele- 
brated both at home and abroad. He next 
produced in the Revue des Deux-Alonde* a 
novel entitled Tolla, which became the occa- 
sion of a controversy, in which he was accused 

! of publishing private papers. After this he 
brought out novels and plays very rapidly, and 

! contributed much to the press. His Hoi den 

! montagnes (1856) increased his reputation as u 
witty, pungent writer. Though not generally 

] successful as a playwright, he made a hit by 
his play entitled Ritette, ou les million* de 
la manmrde (afterward called Gaetand), in 
which sharp political and religious allusions 
abound. His most popular novels are Ger- 
inaine (1857) and Madelon (1863). He has 
also published Rome contemporaine (1863), Le 
Frogres (1864), V Assurance (1866), UA B C 
du tratailleur (1868), and Le Fellah (1870). 
As a contributor to the Gavloi* newspaper 
(1867-'70) he criticised the ministers of Napo- 
leon III., while he paid court to the emperor 
himself, who made liim an officer of the legion 
of honor in 1867, and in February, 1870, ap- 
pointed him member of the council of state. 
On the outbreak of the war in July, 1870, he 
accompanied MacMahon's army to Alsace, as 

I correspondent of the Soir newspaper; but 
after the battle of Worth he barely escaped 
falling into the hands of the Germans. He 
continues (1872) his connection with the Soir. 
His marriage in 1864 with Mile, de Guillen-ilk', 
of Roncherolles, near Rouen, made him affluent. 
ABRACADABRA, a magical word with the 

I ancients, supposed to possess some talismanic 
properties when inscribed and partially re- 
peated in a triangular form, so as to be read in 
different directions, upon a square piece of 
paper or linen, folded and worn as an amulet 
or variously used in incantations. 



ABRAHAM 



ABRANTES 



ABRAHAM (originally ABRAM), the first patri- 
arch of the Hebrews. See HEBREWS. 

ABRAHAM A SANCTA CLARA, a German preach- 
er, whose proper name was ULRICH VON ME- 
OERLE, born at Krahenheimstetten in Swabia in 
1642, died in Vienna, Dec. 1, 1709. He was 
<m Angustinian monk, and preached such witty 
and powerful sermons that the German empe- 
ror appointed him court chaplain. He wrote 
"Hotch Potch," "Judas the Arch Knave," 
"Fie and Shame on the World," &c. 

ABRANTES, a town in Portuguese Estrema- 
dura, at the head of navigation on the Tagus, 
80 m. N. E. of Lisbon; pop. in 1863, 5,590. It 
is surrounded by a very fertile and highly cul- 
tivated plain, dotted with villages and villas, 
but is chiefly important as a military position, 
commanding one of the frontier roads from 
Spain into Portugal. 

\HU\M IN. I. Andoche .In not, duke of, a 
French soldier, born at Bussy-le-Grand, Bur- 
gundy, Oct. 23, 1771, died in Montbard, July 
29, 1813. He was educated for the law, but 
in 1792 enlisted in the army as a volunteer, and 
by his courage won the sobriquet of " the Tem- 
pest." He attracted Bonaparte's attention at 
the siege of Toulon, and a close intimacy 
sprang up between the two, Junot's devotion 
to his superior amounting almost to fanaticism. 
He accompanied Bonaparte to Italy as his aide- 
de-camp, and won the rank of colonel in the 
campaign of 1797. He distinguished himself 
in Egypt, and was made brigadier general. A 
wound received in a duel with a brother officer, 
who was not as enthusiastic a Bonapartist as 
himself, delayed his return to France, and he 
landed at Marseilles on the day of the battle of 
Marengo. He was forthwith appointed to the 
command of Paris, and a few months later 
married Mile. Laure de Permon, and was made 
general of division. But his own as well as 
his wife's indiscretions were so distasteful to 
Napoleon, that in 1803 he removed Junot to 
the command of one of the corps of the " army 
of England. 1 ' On the establishment of the em- 
pire Junot was promoted to the rank of colonel- 
general of the hussars, received a pension of 
30,000 francs, and a little later the grand cross 
of the legion of honor ; but he could not con- 
ceal his disappointment at not having been 
placed among the first marshals of the empire. 
His dissatisfaction, his improper behavior and 
lavish expenditures, coupled with his wife's 
eccentricities, caused the emperor to send them 
for a while into honorable exile ; and Junot 
was in 1805 appointed ambassador to Lisbon, 
where he distinguished himself only by osten- 
tation. In the same year he went to Germany 
without permission, and arrived in time to par- 
ticipate in the battle of Austerlitz. In 1 806 he 
was again appointed governor of Paris and 
commander of the first military division ; but 
his follies again compromised him, and in 1807 
he was sent to Spain to take command of the 
army that was to invade Portugal. At the 
head of 25,000 men, hastily collected and ill 



provided, he marched from Salamanca Nov. 12 ; 
reached the frontier at Alcantara amid extreme 
privation and suffering; gained the town of 
Abrantes, whence his title of duke, Nov. 23 ; 
and, without pausing a moment, seized Lisbon 
(Dec. 1), at the head of only 1,500 grenadiers, 
most of whom were so worn out that they 
seemed to be only walking skeletons. Display- 
ing enormous activity, he got possession of the 
principal fortresses of the kingdom, and reor- 
ganized and strengthened his exhausted forces ; 
but his success was soon checked by the arrival 
of Sir Arthur Wellesley with an English army. 
Junot was defeated at Vimieira, and constrained 
by the convention of Cintra, Aug. 22, 1808, to 
evacuate Portugal. Landed at La Rochelle 
with his troops by the English fleet, he imme- 
diately joined Napoleon, who took him back to 
Spain, where he was placed in command of the 
third corps, then besieging Saragossa. He par- 
ticipated in the campaign of 1809 in Germany, 
and in 1810 was sent back to Spain, where he 
was severely wounded in the face by a bullet. 
In 1812 he commanded a corps of the invading 
army in Russia ; but his slow operations did 
not satisfy the emperor, who, instead of em- 
ploying him actively the next year in Saxony, 
appointed him commander of Venice and gov- 
ernor general of the Illyrian provinces. This 
kind of disgrace, combined with other troubles 
and the suffering from his old wounds, preyed 
so much upon him that he became insane, and 
was taken to his father's house at Montbard, 
where he threw himself from a window and 
died from the effects of the fall. II. Lanre 
Permon Jnnot, duchess of, wife of the preceding, 
born in Montpellier, Nov. 6, 1784, died at 
Chaillot, near Paris, June 7, 1838. Her 
mother, a Corsican, claimed descent from the 
Comnenus family. Her father, M. Permon, 
made a fortune by provisioning Rochambeau's 
American troops, but lost it before his death 
(October, 1 793). The mother lived in good style 
at Paris, and her house was frequented by 
Bonaparte, Junot, and other distinguished per- 
sons. Bonaparte, according to her daugh- 
ter's Memoires, wished to marry her, though 
she was old enough to be his mother. Mile. 
Permon became the wife of Junot in 1800, the 
first consul giving her rich presents, both then 
and many times afterward. This munificence 
encouraged Mme. Junot in a course of extrava- 
gance which, as well as her other indiscre- 
tions, eventually proved disastrous to her for- 
tunes. Napoleon's friendship for her was also 
said to have excited the jealousy of Josephine, 
while her excessive love of finery and'her sharp 
tongue made him call her petite peste. While 
in Madrid and Lisbon with her husband, her 
lavish expenditure and her regal pretensions 
caused astonishment. At Neuilly she hired a 
palace known as the Folie St. James, where 
she performed in private theatricals, in which 
she excelled. Even while following her hus- 
band in the Spanish campaign, she kept up her 
Parisian style of entertainments in the various 



ABRANTES 



ABRAXAS 



encampments of the army. At the same time 
she bore all the fatigues of the war with great 
fortitude. While at Lyons she paid a visit to 
Mme. Recamier, and, courting the society of 
other persons who were not liked by Napoleon, 
she incurred his displeasure, and was not per- 
mitted to reside in Paris. Her husband, too, 
having forfeited the good will of the emperor, 
was banished from Paris, though he was in a 
dying condition; and the duchess, while at- 
tempting to see him at Montbard, where he 
died, was taken ill. In spite of Napoleon's 
orders she went to Paris in September, 1813, 
and her house became once more the centre of 
distinguished persons, especially after the res- 
toration of the Bourbons, toward which she 
had contributed. In 1817 she took up her res- 
idence at Rome. Having sold the magnifi- 
cent library and the other valuable legacies of 
her husband, and being at the end of her re- 
sources, she entered into a contract for the 
publication of her writings. At the time of 
the July re volution, -1830, she lived in retire- j 
rnent at the Abbaye-aux-Bois, near Paris, and 
in 1831 began the publication of the Memoires 
ou Souvenirs historiques sur Napoleon, la Revo- 
lution, le Directoire, le Conttulat, F Empire et 
la Restauration (18 vols. 18mo, Paris, 1831- 
'34). She also wrote memoirs of her expe- 
rience in France, Spain, and Portugal, and 
many novels and stories, besides contributing 
to periodicals; but her literary fame rests 
chiefly on her brilliant gossip and overflowing 
anecdotes relating to the court of Napoleon. 
Notwithstanding her incessant literary ac- 
tivity, she remained very poor, and died at 
Chaillot two days after her removal to a pri- 
vate hospital in that place. Louis Philippe 
sent some money for her relief, but she died 
before it reached her. Ignazio Cantu published 
in 1837 Relazione delta duchessa d Abrantes, 
and A. D. Roosmalen in 1838 Les demiertt 
moments de la duchesse d'Abrante*. III. Napo- 
leon Andoche Jonot, duke of, son of the preced- 
ing, born in Paris in 1807, died therein March, 
1851. Obliged to leave the diplomatic service 
on account of his scandalous private life, he 
became known in light literature by a variety 
of works of ephemeral reputation, the principal 
among them being Les boudoirs de Paris (6 vols. 
8vo, Paris, 1844- 1 5). IV. Adolphe Alfred Mi- 
chel Jnnot, duke of, brother and heir of the 
preceding, born at Ciudad Rodrigo, Spain, 
Nov. 25, 1810, died in July, 1859. He was 
aide-de-camp of Gen. MacMahon in Algeria 
(1848), and of Prince Napoleon in the Cri- 
mea (1854), served with a high rank in the 
Italian war, and died from a wound received 
at the battle of Solferino. V. Josephine Jnnot d', 
sister of the preceding, born in Paris, Jan. 5, 
1802, married in 1841 M. James Amet, after 
having been previously a sister of charity and 
canoness. She is the author of a number of 
stories and novels published under her maiden 
name. The best known of them are : Histoirex 
morales et edifiantes (1837); La duchesse de 



Valombray (2 vols., 1838); and 
nier (2 vols., 1850). VI. Constance Jnnot d', 
sister of the preceding, born in Paris, May 12, 
1803, is the wife of M. Louis Aubert, for SOUR 
time editor of the National newspaper, and in 
1848 prefect in Corsica. Under the name of 
Constance Aubert she has been connected 
with periodical literature as a writer on fash- 
ions, manners, and customs. In 1859 she pub- 
lished a Manuel d'economie elegante, and in 
1865 a little volume on the luxury of women 
(Encore le luxe des femmes : Les femmes sagen 
et les femmes folles). 

ABKAVANEL, Abrabanel, or Abarbanel, Isaac ben 
.1 ndah. a Jewish author, born in Lisbon in 1437, 
died in Venice in 1508. His family boasted a 
lineal descent from the kings of Judah. He re- 
ceived an excellent education, and was equally 
successful in the pursuit of knowledge, wealth, 
and influence. Alfonso V. of Portugal em- 
ployed him in state affairs; but his son and 
successor, John II., not only withdrew all 
favor from him, but, unjustly suspecting him of 
intrigues with Spain, caused him to fly to that 
country, and confiscated his property. He 
sought consolation in study, but after a time 
entered the service of King Ferdinand of Ara- 
gon. The expulsion of the Jews from Spain, 
decreed in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella, 
again made him an exile. Repairing to Na- 
ples, he was well received by Ferdinand I., 
and by his son Alfonso II. ; but the invasion of 
the French in 1495 drove him with the Nea- 
politan court to Messina, whence he repaired to 
Corfu. In 1496 he established himself at 
Monopoli in Apulia, where he remained till 
1503. The last years of his life he spent in 
Venice, where he once more engaged in state 
affairs. His works, the principal of which are 
commentaries on various books of the Scrip- 
tures, partly of a critical and partly of a doc- 
trinal character, and a number of philosophical 
treatises, are marked by a glowing enthusiasm 
for Judaism, a comparative independence of 
spirit, vast research, and elegant Hebrew dic- 
tion. One of his three sons, LEONE (originally 
Judah) was the author of a philosophical work 
in Italian, entitled Dialoghi di Amore, which 
passed through several editions. 

ABRAXAS (Gr. a/tyafaf or a/3pa<raf), a mystical 
word employed by the Egyptian Gnostic Basil- 
ides to signify the Supreme Being as ruler of 
the 365 heavens of his system, which number 
is represented by its letters according to Greek 
numeration ; probably in imitation of the sig- 
nificance attached to the name of the Persian 
god Mithras (M0paf), the letters of which have 
the same numerical value. Some authorities, 
however, give the word other derivations and 
different significations as a designation of the 
Supreme Being. Many ancient stones or me- 
tallic tablet* called Abraxas gems or images, or 
Basilidian stones, have been found, chiefly in 
Egypt, Syria, and Spain. They are generally 
inscribed with the word Abraxas or Abrasax, 
and sometimes with others, and bear a great 



ABRUZZO 



ABSCESS 



33 



variety of Gnostic and other mystical symbols, 
occasionally perhaps merely natural markings. 
They were used as amulets, and supposed to be 
endued with miraculous qualities. 

ABRUZZO, or the Abrnzzi, the northernmost 
division of the former kingdom of the Two 
Sicilies, now forming part of the kingdom of 
Italy, embracing the highest and wildest por- 
tion of the Apennines. The mountains are 
the home of a race -of shepherds, who are 
clothed primitively in untanned sheepskins, 
and the valleys and lowlands are very fertile. 
The inhabitants live in dirty huts, shared by 
the donkey and the pig ; their chief food is In- 
dian meal, boiled in water and milk ; wheaten 
bread is a luxury. They are musical, hospita- 
ble, superstitious, and revengeful. Physically 
they are a fine race of men, and make excel- 
lent soldiers, like their predecessors in Roman 
times, the Samnites. Fierce brigandage has long 
found an almost impregnable foothold in this 
wild region. It is divided into the following 
three provinces : I. Abrnzzo Citeriore, bounded K 
E. by the Adriatic; area, 1,105 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1871, 339,961. The mountains of La Majella 
are the roughest part of the province. The 
chief productions are grain, oil, and rice. The 
greatest abundance of wine is furnished by 
Ortona ; the best by Ohieti and Vasto. Fruit 
and kitchen vegetables are chiefly grown at 
Ohieti; swine are reared in the oak forests, 
and the sea on the coast is rich in fish. The 
culture of silkworms and of mulberry trees has 
of late made great progress. The province is 
divided into the districts of Chieti, Lanciano, 
and Vasto. Capital, Chieti. II. Abrnzzo Ulte- 
riore I., bounded S. by the preceding, and also 
lying on the Adriatic; area, 1,283 sq. m. ; 
pop. 245,617. The Pizzo di Sevo, 7,860 feet 
high, is the chief summit. The province grows 
and exports a large quantity of grain. There 
are numerous plantations of olives, but the 
product is of an inferior quality. The culture 
of wine is rapidly increasing. The province is 
divided into the districts of Teramo and Penne. 
Capital, Teramo. III. Abrnzzo Ulteriore II., 
bounded K E. by the two preceding, K by 
Umbria, and S. "W. partly by the former Papal 
States; area, 2,126 sq. m. ; pop. 333,791. Three 
fourths of the area consists of sterile rocks and 
mountains. The number of large mountain 
peaks is no less than 176. In the middle of 
the northern frontier is the highest mount of 
the peninsula, the Gran Sasso d'ltalia, 9,392 
feet high. Among the productions are grain, 
rice, wine, saffron, olives, and many kinds of 
fruits. The mountains are covered with ex- 
tensive forests of oaks, beeches, and elms, 
which harbor bears, wolves, and boars. On 
the Gran Sasso chamois are still said to be 
found. Madder grows wild on the Alpine 
heights, and is cultivated in sandy places. 
Hams, salted beef, and sausages are exported. 
The province is divided into the districts of 
Aquila degli Abruzzi, Avezzano, Cittaducale, 
and Solmona. Capital, Aquila. 
4 VOL. i. 4 



ABSALOM, the third son of David, his only 
one by Maachah, and especially distinguished 
for beauty. Instigated possibly by ambition, 
but ostensibly by the rape of his sister Tamar, 
he slew Amnon, his eldest half-brother, and 
subsequently raised a rebellion and obtained a 
momentary possession of the throne. By the 
adroit management of Joab he was overthrown 
and slain. With all his want of filial affection, 
David loved him, and mourned his death. 

ABSALOV or Axel, a Danish statesman, sol- 
dier, and ecclesiastic, born in 1128, died in 
1201. He was educated at the university of 
Paris. He was related to the royal family, and 
was the chief minister and general of Walde- 
mar I. (1157-'82) and Canute VI. ; was elected 
bishop of Roeskilde in 1158, and archbishop of 
Lund and primate of Scandinavia in 1178 ; and 
was equally distinguished for piety, statesman- 
ship, and military skill and valor. He put 
down the Wendish pirates who infested the 
Baltic, followed them up to their island home 
of Eilgen, destroyed the temple of their god 
Svantevit at Arkona, and forced them to re- 
ceive Christianity. The code of Waldemar was 
partly his work, as also the ecclesiastical code 
of Seeland. On his encouragement, Saxo 
Grammaticus composed his history of Den- 
mark, the first continuous Scandinavian his- 
tory ever written. Later he overcame the 
Pomeranian prince Bogislas, and made him do 
homage to the Danish king. He constructed 
a little fort, named after him Axelhuus, for de- 
fence against pirates, around which Copen- 
hagen was gradually reared. 

ABSCESS (Lat. abscedere, to separate), a col- 
lection of pus in a circumscribed cavity of the 
body. This cavity is usually of new formation, 
produced by the separation and destruction of 
the parts by the matter effused, the wall con- 
sisting of a layer of thickened tissue. The 
name is given, however, to collections of pus in 
some of the naturally existing cavities ; e. g., 
that in the upper jaw. An abscess may be 
acute or chronic according to the character of 
the inflammation which produces it. The for- 
mation of an acute abscess is indicated by pain, 
often of a throbbing character ; redness, if it 
be not too deeply seated ; swelling ; and an in- 
crease in the temperature of the part. The 
patient also suffers from fever. When matter 
has formed and is sufficiently near the surface, 
its presence is made known by the feeling of 
"fluctuation," produced by placing the fingers 
of one hand upon one side of the swelling and 
with those of the other giving a smart tap 
upon the opposite side. The pus usually tends 
toward the surface, which it reaches by a grad- 
ual thinning of the intervening tissues ; but if 
these be very resisting, it may travel in other 
directions. It is in these latter cases that an 
early incision by the surgeon is especially 
called for, before "pointing" has taken place. 
If an abscess be threatened, its formation may 
sometimes be prevented by appropriate treat- 
ment, such as rest, the local abstraction of 



ABSINTH 



ABSOLUTE 



blood, and cold or warm applications, as the 
case may demand. Should these means fail, 
poultices must be used to promote suppuration. 
The matter may be evacuated by incision, or 
in certain cases be allowed to make an exit for 
itself. In a chronic abscess the pain, redness, 
increased temperature, and fever are often ab- 
sent, and hence it is also known as cold abscess. 
In most cases its progress is slow, and it may 
remain for a long time without increase in size, 
or any tendency to open through the skin. 
Indeed, in some instances it may disappear by 
a process of absorption. Usually, however, 
it is necessary to open it, which may be done 
by cutting directly into the cavity, or by what is 
known as subcutaneous incision, the knife be- 
ing passed for some distance beneath the skin 
before it enters the abscess. This latter pro- 
cedure is made use of in order to prevent the 
admission of air, which in some cases excites 
an amount of suppuration sufficient to exhaust 
the patient. Besides acute and chronic, ab- 
scesses are spoken of as being " by congestion " 
when the matter, usually dependent on caries, 
makes its appearance at some distance from 
the diseased part; as "idiopathic," when the 
cause is not known, &c. 

ABSINTH, or Wormwood, the tops and leaves 
of artemisia absinthium, a plant of the order 
composites and tribe senecionideas. It contains 
a volatile oil and a very bitter, resinous sub- 
stance called absinthino. It has been used as 
an aromatic, bitter tonic, and anthelmintic. It 
derives its chief importance from being a con- 
stituent of the French liqueur called absinthe. 
This consists of alcohol holding in solution the 
active principles, mostly volatile oils, of seve- 
ral aromatic plants besides wormwood. The 
precipitation of these oils, when the liqueur is 
added to water, produces whitening or cloud- 
ing. The continued use of absinthe has been 
found to give rise in man to symptoms of an 
epileptic character, not altogether attributable 
to the alcohol it contains. Experiments have 
shown that the essence of absinth, in a single 
large dose, may cause epileptiform convulsions 
in animals. The brain disease produced by 
this drug is considered incurable, though tem- 
porary respites may occur. 

ABSOLON, John, an English painter, born in 
London, May 6, 1815. He is a member of the 
"New Water Color Society," to the annual 
exhibitions of which he is still a steady con- 
tributor. He paints history and genre with 
equal facility, and is known as an accomplished 
draughtsman and colorist. He has attempted 
oil painting with success, but his special field 
is water-color drawing. \ 

ABSOLUTE (Lat. absolutu*, absolved, freed 
from all extrinsic conditions, complete in itself, 
and dependent on no other cause), a term 
much used in modern philosophy, especially 
by Schelling, Hegel, Cousin, and their follow- 
ers. As used by them it stands opposed to 
the relative, for independent, unconditioned, 
self-existent being, or being in itself, which 



they contend is the primitive in all thought, 
and the ultimate in all science, and the object 
of immediate intuition. In their language the 
absolute means, or is intended to mean, the 
Infinite, God himself, regarded simply as pure 
being, Das reine Seyn. Sir William Hamilton 
denies that absolute and infinite are identical, 
and that in the sense of the infinite the un- 
conditioned the absolute is an object of intui- 
tion. He confines all philosophy, therefore, to 
the finite, the relative, the conditioned. To 
think, he says, is to condition, and there is no 
intuition without thought. The absolute and 
relative can be thought only as correlatives, 
each connoting the other, and, therefore, only 
as conditioned. He is answered by those who 
profess the philosophy of the absolute, that, 
although the term may be used to express an 
idea different from that of the unconditioned, or 
the infinite, and although to think is, in a cer- 
tain sense, to condition, yet the condition is, 
in the thought itself, always apprehended as 
the condition of the subject, never as the con- 
dition of the object. Certainly the finite can 
apprehend the infinite only in a finite mode or 
manner, but to apprehend it even in a finite mode 
or manner is still to apprehend the infinite. It is 
not necessary to the reality of human knowl- 
edge that it should be adequate to the object, 
for if it were there could be no human knowl- 
edge at all. They reply further, that the rel- 
ative is inconceivable without the absolute. 
What is not, is not intelligible ; and since the 
relative is not and cannot be without the abso- 
lute, the conditioned without the uncondi- 
tioned, there can be no intuition of the former 
without a simultaneous intuition of the latter, 
nor are they intuitively apprehended precisely 
as correlatives, each as conditioned by the 
other; for in the intuition itself the absolute 
is apprehended as the cause or creator of the 
relative, the unconditioned as conditioning the 
conditioned. There is another controversy 
even among those who are termed ontologists, 
and who profess to find in the intuition of un- 
conditioned being the principle of philosophy 
whether the pure being, the absolute, the un- 
conditioned being, asserted by Cousin and the 
German school, and which they identify, or at- 
tempt to identify, with God, is real living be- 
ing, real living God, or after all only a logical 
abstraction. A class of modern philosophers, 
among whom may be mentioned Vincenzo 
Gioberti as the most distinguished, maintain 
that, as the terms the absolute, the infinite, the 
unconditioned are evidently abstract terms, 
the idea they express is and can be only a logi- 
cal abstraction, formed by the mind operating 
upon its own conception, and eliminating from 
them all conception of space, time, bounds, 
conditions, or relativity. In this case, they 
say, it is no real being, but a simple generaliza- 
tion of psychological phenomena, and as far 
removed from the ens necessarium et reale, the 
real and necessary being of the schoolmen, the 
real living God, in whom the human race be- 



ABSOLUTION 



ABSORPTION 



35 



lieve, as zero is from being something. Hence, 
though for another reason, they refuse to con- 
cede with Sir William Hamilton that we have 
intuition of the absolute, the infinite, or the 
unconditioned, but assert, in opposition to him, 
that we have immediate intuition of that which 
in reality is absolute, infinite, and uncondi- 
tioned. To suppose that we have intuition of 
being, or God as the" absolute, would be to 
suppose that we know the abstract before the 
concrete, the possible before the real, and 
therefore that reflection or reasoning precedes 
instead of following intuition. They dissent, 
therefore, from Schelling, Hegel, and Cousin, 
and deny that we have immediate intuition of 
the absolute, that is of God, real and necessary 
being, as the absolute ; and maintain that while 
we have immediate intuition of that which is 
absolute, infinite, unconditioned, we conceive 
the intuitive object as such only by a process 
of reflective reason the process by which the 
human mind demonstrates that the object of 
its intuition is God. 

ABSOLUTION, in the Eoman Catholic church, 
the act of the priest in pronouncing the pardon 
and remission of the sins of a penitent. Abso- 
lution in foro interne is a part of the sacra- 
ment of penance, in which the guilt of mortal 
and venial sin is remitted. Absolution in foro 
externo is the remission of certain ecclesiasti- 
cal penalties, for example, excommunication. 
There are also precatory forms of absolution, 
which are used during the divine service. 
Short prayers at the end of each nocturn in 
the office of matins are also called absolution. 
In the morning and evening prayers of the 
English and American Episcopal churches, ab- 
solution is a formula of publicly praying for 
or declaring the remission of the sins of the 
penitent, used only by a priest; also, in the 
" Office for the Visitation of the Sick " of the 
church of England, an authoritative declaration 
of the pardon of sin, pronounced over a peni- 
tent after private confession. Similar forms 
of absolution are used in the Lutheran church. 

ABSORPTION (Lat. absorbere, to suck up). 
I. The process by which nutritious and other 
fluids are imbibed by animal and vege- 
table tissues, to be appropriated for their 
growth, activity, or modification. All the or- 
ganized membranes and tissues of the living 
body have the property of absorbing, to a cer- 
tain extent and under favorable circumstances, 
the fluids which are brought in contact with 
them. This property continues to belong to 
the tissues in question even after the death of 
the body, or after they have been separated 
from all connection with the neighboring parts, 
until their natural structure and composition 
have begun to be altered by the effects of de- 
composition. Thus a dried ox bladder will 
absorb water in which it is immersed, and 
again become moist and supple ; and even mi- 
croscopic cells and fibres will absorb coloring 
matters with which the vessels of the tissue 
have been injected. This shows that the 



power of absorption resides in the substance 
of the animal tissue or membrane itself, and 
not in any property communicated to it from 
the rest of the system. Nevertheless, al- 
though the capacity for absorption still exists 
in a separated membrane, it is much less .ac- 
tive than in the same tissue during life, for the 
reason that after death it soon comes to an end 
by the saturation of the membrane by the ab- 
sorbed fluid; while during life it is kept in a 
constant state of activity by the incessant re- 
newal of the fluids and the movement of the 
circulating blood. In the process of absorp- 
tion, as it takes place in animal organizations, 
the fluid does not penetrate the tissues me- 
chanically, by openings or orifices, however 
minute. The existence of such orifices, or 
open absorbent mouths, was formerly taken 
for granted, as the most convenient way of ex- 
plaining the phenomenon ; but later and more 
complete microscopic examination has failed 
to show their existence, and takes away all 
reasonable grounds for the assumption. So 
far as we can decide upon a question of such 
delicacy, absorption consists in the imbibition 
of a fluid by the solid tissue in such a manner 
that the fluid and its ingredients unite, or com- 
bine directly with the substance of the tissue ; 
so that the union which results is not simply a 
mechanical entanglement, but rather an inti- 
mate and complete molecular combination of 
the two. It is found that different animal sub- 
stances have the power of absorbing different 
liquids in different proportions. Thus an ani- 
mal membrane which will absorb in a given 
time 100 parts by weight of pure water, will 
absorb only 65 parts of a saline solution ; and 
this difference will be greater, within certain 
limits, the stronger the saline solution is made. 
A tissue which will absorb 100 parts of a sa- 
line solution will take up under the same cir- 
cumstances only 24 parts of an oily liquid. 
Thus the activity of absorption varies with the 
same membrane for different liquids, and with 
the same liquid for different membranes. 
Chevreul found the following results by 
measuring the exact quantities of different 
liquids absorbed by different membranes and 
tissues in the same time : 



100 PAKT8 OP 

Cartilage 

Tendon 

Elastic ligament . 
Cartilaginous do. 

Cornea 

Dried fibrine 



absorb 178 
in J 148 
24 ] 819 

hours 461 
[801 



WATEK. SALINE 8OLU'N. OIL. 

f 281 parts. 125 parts. 



114 
30 



870 
154 



8-6 parts. 
7-2 " 
8-2 " 
9-1 " 



Thus, if the same membrane be brought in 
contact with a liquid containing at the same 
time a variety of different substances in solu- 
tion, some of these substances will be taken up 
in greater abundance than the others ; and the 
membrane accordingly will appear to exercise 
a kind of discriminative power or selection be- 
tween these different substances. This power 
of selection, however, is simply the property, 
dependent on the natural structure and con- 
stitution of the membrane, of absorbing par- 



36 



ABSOEPTION 



ticular substances in certain fixed proportions, 
which proportions vary for different materials. 
The activity of absorption varies also with 
other conditions. One of these is the fresh- 
ness of the animal membrane. While still 
connected with the neighboring parts, or but 
recently separated from them, the activity of 
absorption is great, and a comparatively large 
quantity of fluid is taken up in a short time. 
Afterward, when the natural constitution of 
the membrane is already impaired by com- 
mencing decomposition, this activity dimin- 
ishes, and at last disappears altogether. An- 
other condition of some importance is that of 
pressure. An increased pressure upon the li- 
quid will enable the membrane to absorb it 
more rapidly. Pressure and motion combined 
are still more effective. Thus a medicinal 
ointment or lotion acts more rapidly and 
powerfully upon the parts if it be made to 
penetrate the integuments by brisk rubbing 
than if it be simply laid in contact with the 
surface of the skin. Temperature also is of 
considerable importance. A low temperature 
is unfavorable to absorption ; a high tempera- 
ture, at least within moderate limits, is favor- 
able to it, and increases its activity. A state 
of complete liquefaction or solution of the ma- 
terial to be absorbed is essential. A substance 
which is in the solid form cannot be absorbed ; 
it must first be dissolved either in water or 
some other appropriate menstruum, after 
which the solvent fluid and the substance dis- 
solved may both be absorbed, though in differ- 
ent proportions. Even the gaseous ingredients 
of the atmosphere, which are absorbed in the 
lungs, are first dissolved in the animal fluids 
which bathe the respiratory passages, and are 
then absorbed in the liquid form by the pulmo- 
nary membrane. The last and most important 
condition of the continued activity of absorp- 
tion is that by which the materials already ab- 
sorbed by the animal membrane are constantly 
removed from it, so that it is always ready to 
take up a fresh supply. If an animal mem- 
brane have on one side of it a liquid rich in 
absorbable materials, and on the other a li- 
quid which is poor in these materials or desti- 
tute of them, it will take up these substances 
from the first liquid, and the second liquid will 
again absorb them from it. Thus the mem- 
brane will not become saturated, but will re- 
tain its activity of absorption until the second 
liquid has approximated in composition to the 
first. In this way a large quantity of material 
may pass through the membrane, from the first 
to the second liquid, combining with the sub- 
stance of the membrane in its passage, but be- 
ing constantly taken up by it on one side and 
discharged on the other. This process will be 
more active and long continued, the larger the 
quantity of the two liquids and the greater the 
difference in composition between them. It 
will also be more active, the greater is the ex- 
tent of surface over which the liquids recipro- 
cally come in contact with the membrane, 



since it is the absorptive power of the mem- 
brane itself which is the primary condition of 
the interchange of substances between them. 
The most favorable condition for continued 
and active absorption would be that in which 
the two liquids were kept in constant mo- 
tion and incessantly renewed, so that the first 
one should never be exhausted of its materials, 
nor the second saturated with the substances 
transmitted to it. If, at the same time, the in- 
tervening membrane maintained its freshness, 
unaltered by the changes of decomposition, 
the process of absorption would go on with the 
most continuous and uniform activity. These 
are precisely the conditions, in fact, which are 
present in the living body. In the alimentary 
canal, for instance, during digestion, there are 
constantly passing over the lining membrane 
of the intestine the nutritious fluids which have 
been extracted from the food. A portion of 
these are absorbed by the lining membrane ; 
but, on the other hand, they are immediately 
taken up from it by the blood in its minute 
vessels. This blood, in the incessant move- 
ment of the circulation, is instantly carried 
away to another part of the body, its place be- 
ing taken by other portions of the current fol- 
lowing each other without intermission. The 
living membranes themselves are maintained at 
the same time in their natural condition by the 
nutritive process, the temperature of the whole 
is constantly at or about 100 F., the superfluf 
ous materials are decomposed elsewhere, or 
discharged from the body by the excretory 
passages, and new supplies are incessantly 
furnished as the gradual digestion of the food 
is accomplished. Experiments have shown 
that absorption will take place in the living 
body with considerable rapidity even in non- 
vascular tissues, or where it is not directly as- 
sisted by the circulation of the blood. It has> 
been shown by M. Gosselin that if a watery 
solution of iodide of potassium be dropped 
upon the cornea of a rabbit's eye, the iodine 
passes into the cornea, aqueous humor, iris, 
lens, sclerotic coat, and vitreous body, in the 
course of eleven minutes; that it will pene- 
trate through the cornea into the aqueous hu- 
mor in three minutes, and into the substance 
of the cornea in a minute and a half. In the 
vascular tissues, however, the rapidity of ab- 
sorption is often much greater than this. Thus 
the absorption of oxygen by the blood in the 
lungs is apparently instantaneous ; the change 
of its color from blue to red, as soon as it ar- 
rives in the pulmonary vessels, showing the 
action of the gas which it has taken up from 
the atmosphere. This rapidity of absorption 
in the vascular tissues is due to the dissemina- 
tion of the blood in a vast number of minute 
channels, by which the vascular and absorbing 
surfaces are brought into intimate contact over 
a large surface ; and to the incessant motion 
of the fluid, by which its effect becomes per- 
ceptible at the earliest possible time. It is in 
some of the glandular organs that this absorp- 



ABSORPTION 



37 



tion and reciprocal interchange of fluids has 
been shown to take place with the greatest ac- 
tivity; for the capillary blood vessels here 
form an exceedingly intricate and abundant 
network embracing the adjacent follicles and 
ducts of the glandular tissue, while these ducts 
and follicles themselves are arranged in a sys- 
tem of minute ramifying tubes and cavities, 
penetrating everywhere through the glandular 
substance. Thus the union and interlacement 
of the glandular membrane on the one hand 
and of the blood vessels on the other becomes 
exceedingly extensive ; and the ingredients of 
the blood are instantly subjected, over a very 
large surface, to the influence of the glandular 
membrane, or the fluids which it has absorbed. 
The rapidity of transudation under these condi- 
tions has been shown by the experiments of 
Claude Bernard and other observers. If a solu- 
tion of iodide of potassium be injected into the 
duct of the parotid gland on one side, in a liv- 
ing animal, the saliva discharged by the cor- 
responding gland on the opposite side is im- 
mediately afterward found to contain iodine. 
During the few instants required to perform 
this operation, therefore, the iodine in solution 
must have been taken up by the glandular 
membrane on one side, absorbed from it by 
the blood, carried by the blood to the heart, 
again distributed over the body, absorbed from 
the blood by the glandular membrane of the 
second gland, and thence discharged with the 
saliva. It is by this process that all the nutri- 
tious elements of the food and drink are taken 
up from the intestine and finally reach the tis- 
sues which they are to nourish. They are ab- 
sorbed from the cavity of the intestine first by 
its lining membrane ; thence by the blood ves- 
sels and the blood contained in them; then 
transported by the circulation to the distant 
organs and tissues; and finally absorbed by 
these tissues from the blood, and united with 
their own substance. But as each tissue has a 
special power of its own of absorbing certain 
materials in preference to others, the same 
blood will supply its materials to each in dif- 
ferent quantities. Thus the bones absorb from 
the blood a large proportion of calcareous mat- 
ter, the cartilages a smaller quantity, and the 
muscles still less. The brain, on the other 
hand, takes up more water than the muscles, 
and the muscles more than the bones. Thus 
every tissue is enabled to maintain its own pe- 
culiar constitution, though all are supplied with 
the necessary ingredients from the same nutri- 
tious fluid. It is now universally acknowl- 
edged that the action of drugs, medicines, and 
poisons takes place in the same way. This ac- 
tion is sometimes said to be local, as where the 
ingredients of a blister are absorbed by the 
skin and produce an inflammation of the in- 
tegument at that spot only; or general, as 
where opium when introduced into the stom- 
ach produces drowsiness or insensibility over 
the whole body. But in both cases the pro- 
cess is essentially similar. The opium is dis- 



solved by the liquids of the stomach, absorbed 
by its lining membrane, taken up by the 
blood, and distributed by the circulation all 
over the body. In this way reaching the 
brain, it is absorbed by the cerebral substance, 
and by its action upon the nervous matter 
causes the narcotism and insensibility which 
are manifested throughout the system. Thus 
the general action of an opiate is undoubtedly 
due to its local action upon the brain, and to 
the fact that the brain itself, through the ner- 
vous ramifications, influences the condition of 
the whole body. II. Absorption of Gases by 
Solids and Liquids* There are not only porous 
substances, as earth, charcoal, and animal mem- 
branes, which will absorb gases, but solid metals 
will in many instances do the same. Thus re- 
cent experiments have demonstrated the exist- 
ence of gaseous hydrogen in meteorites falling 
on the earth, absorbed by them in their wan- 
derings through space, perhaps while passing 
through some nebula, which the spectroscope 
has shown to consist of incandescent hydrogen ; 
they bring thence this nebular hydrogen to our 
earth. The power to absorb hydrogen is espe- 
cially possessed in a high degree by palladium, 
which takes up nearly 643 times its own vol- 
ume of this gas, as proved by Graham, while 
silver and platinum absorb oxygen, titanium 
nitrogen, &c. This absorption of gas by metals 
is called occlusion. Deville and Troost have 
proved the remarkable fact that red-hot iron 
and platinum have such a great capacity of 
absorbing hydrogen, that it passes through 
these metals as it were through a sieve. The 
absorption of gases by liquids is still more strik- 
ing. Water absorbs different gases and holds 
them in solution, in quantities varying in pro- 
portion to the nature of the gas. Thus, at a 
temperature of a few degrees above the freez- 
ing point, it contains when exposed to the air 
4 per cent, in volume of oxygen and 2 per cent, 
of nitrogen ; so that the air contained in water 
is much richer in oxygen than our atmosphere, 
having in six parts four of oxygen, while the 
atmosphere contains only one part of oxygen 
in five of air. The solubility of hydrogen in 
water is equal to that of nitrogen; while in 
regard to other gases, one part of water in 
bulk dissolves under the same circumstances 
1-3 parts of laughing gas, 1'8 carbonic acid, 3 
of chlorine, 4*4 of sulphide of hydrogen, 54 of 
sulphurous acid, 505 of hydrochloric acid, and 
not less than 1,180 of ammonia. A rise of 
temperature of some 70 diminishes this power 
of absorption to about one half, while at the 
temperature of the boiling point of water most 
absorbed gases are expelled. With a dimin- 
ished pressure of say half an atmosphere, about 
half the gas is expelled ; while at an increased 
pressure of say two atmospheres, more gas can 
be absorbed. Thus in respect of carbonic acid, 
for instance, every atmosphere pressure aug- 
ments the capacity of water to absorb this gas 
by 1 -8 volumes, so that at five atmospheres it ab- 
sorbs nine tunes its own volume of the same. 



38 



ABSORPTION 



The absorption of gases by other liquids than 
water is a subject still open for investigation, 
and has thus far only been determined for a 
few gases. So Dr. Vander Weyde of New York 
found in regard to laughing gas, that alkaline 
solutions absorb more than pure water, and 
alcoholic liquors most, strong alcohol over five 
tunes its volume ; solutions of neutral salts in 
general absorb the same amount as water, ex- 
cept the sulphates, which absorb much less of 
the gas, while acids absorb the least, especially 
diluted sulphuric acid, which absorbs only 0'3 
to 0'05 of its volume, according to its strength. 

III. Absorption of Heat. The capacity of bodies 
to absorb heat is in direct proportion to their 
capacity to emit heat. Light-colored, polished, 
or smooth surfaces possess this capacity in the 
least degree, while dark-colored and rough sur- 
faces absorb heat very readily. However, ac- 
cording to the late researches of Melloni, this 
effect depends less upon the apparent color 
than upon the nature of the coloring material. 
He also finds that when the heat-giving body 
is not luminous, the color is without influence ; 
but when it is luminous, the color has great 
influence. Melloni has also determined the 
capacity of absorption of heat by different 
transparent substances. He found that while 
transparent rock salt absorbed only 8 per cent, 
of the heat passing through with the light, 
fluor spar absorbed from 25 to 50, Iceland spar 
and glass 60, alum 90, and ice 94 per cent. ; 
while for heat emitted from a non-luminous 
body, the latter substances were totally opaque, 
absorbing all the heat and transmitting none. 
Recently Tyndall and Magnus have made re- 
searches on the absorbent power of gases, and 
found that under the pressure of one atmos- 
phere, the source of heat being a copper ball 
heated to 518 F., the absorption by dry air 
being accepted as the unit, hydrogen was also 1, 
chlorine 39, carbonic acid 90, nitrous acid 355, 
marsh gas 403, sulphurous oxide 710, olefiant 
gas 970, and ammonia 1,195 ; which means that 
the latter two gases absorb respectively 970 
and 1,195 times more of the heat transmitted 
through them than is the case with dry air. 

IV. Absorption of Light. The apparent color of 
all objects is caused by the elective absorption 
of certain colored rays in the white light, while 
the remaining are reflected and determine the 
color of the object. Even the purest white 
and the most perfectly polished surfaces absorb 
some of the light. It is the same with the 
most transparent substances; they all absorb 
light more or less. In many of these an elec- 
tive absorption also takes place ; colored gems 
and glass or liquid solutions absorb certain 
colored rays and let others pass ; those which 
pass determine the color of the substance. 
Sometimes, besides the absorption of several 
colors, a color is reflected complementary to 
that transmitted ; in a thin layer of aniline 
red, red rays are transmitted, while green rays 
are reflected; a similar action takes place in 
a solution of litmus and several other sub- 



stances. Some crystals possess the power of 
absorbing different colors when light passes 
through them in different directions; this is 
called dichroism and polychroism. Thus the 
mineral iolite, a gem consisting of alumina, 
magnesia, and iron, shows different colors ac- 
cording as the light falls 'along the axis of 
crystallization or in a transverse direction. 
Many artificial crystals exhibit the same re- 
markable property; for instance, the double 
chloride of platinum and potassium, which ap- 
pears either deep red or bright green. The 
investigation of this peculiar kind of absorp- 
tion of light has recently given rise to the in- 
vention of a new modification of the micro- 
scope by Haidinger, by which this property 
may be examined in the minutest crystals; 
this invention is called the dichroscope and 
dichroic microscope. V. Absorption Spectrum. 
The elective absorption of transparent gases, 
liquids, and solids is determined by means of 
the spectroscope. This instrument proves in- 
deed that the cause of this absorption is simply 
the incapacity of the transparent substance to 
transmit luminous waves of a certain length, 
and thus that it is opaque for such waves. 
The result of such partial opacity is the for- 
mation of the so-called absorption bands, in 
case such a substance is placed between the 
light and the slit of the spectroscope. The 
Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum are in 
fact nothing but absorption bands produced 
by the passage of the light through the solar 
atmosphere; our own atmosphere also pro- 
duces such bands, which spectroscopists call 
the atmospheric lines. The absorption spec- 
trum differs in each substance which we may 
submit to examination. Thus iodine vapor and 
nitrous acid vapor produce very characteristic 
absorption spectra when placed before the slit 
of the spectroscope (figs. 1 and 2), while differ- 




Fio. 1. Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapor. 

ent solutions of apparently the same color may 
be unmistakably distinguished from each other 
by the difference in the absorption spectra 




Fio. 2. Absorption Spectrum of Nitrons Add Gas. 

which they produce. The most striking illus- 
tration is given by the black absorption bands 
produced by a perfectly clear and colorless so- 
lution of any salt of the rare metal didyminni, 
so that in this way the merest traces of this 
metal in any solution may be detected, as lately 



ABSTINENCE 



found by Gladstone and Bunsen. Water, faint- 
ly colored yellow with a few drops of blood, 
may be distinguished from all other solutions 
of the same color, by showing in the spectro- 
scope two characteristic absorption bands (fig. 
3) in the green portion of the spectrum, not 



FIG. 8. Absorption Spectrum of Blood. 

shown by any other substance ; and it is even 
possible to recognize them in a single blood 
disk, by means of a microscope with spectro- 
scopic eye piece. "We add in fig. 4 the absorp- 






ABCDEF Q H 

FIG. 4. Solar Absorption lines. 

tion bands of the solar atmosphere for com- 
parison ; they are used as landmarks to local- 
ize the absorption bands of other substances. 
They were first noticed by Wollaston, but 
afterward examined with such philosophical 
refinement by Fraunhofer, that they were 
named after him, and according to his propo- 
sition designated by A, B, 0, D, &c. (See 
SPECTROSCOPE.) 

ABSTINENCE, the partial or total deprivation 
of food. The phenomena which characterize 
life are connected with chemical changes oc- 
curring in portions of the blood or tissues of 
the body itself; the presence of the substances 
resulting from these changes being hurtful to 
the body, they are eliminated from it by the 
various organs of excretion. This constant 
loss demands an equivalent supply. If the 
supply be withheld, the chemical changes still 
continue and the body wastes ; the organism 
feeds upon itself, and when this is no longer pos- 
sible, death ensues. The period during which 
a human being previously in good health can 
sustain life under a total deprivation of food 
and drink, is generally stated to be from eight 
to ten days. This varies, however, under dif- 
ferent circumstances. Persons of mature age 
support abstinence better than those who are 
younger; women, from the greater develop- 
ment of the fatty tissues, and the less activity 
of the muscular and nervous systems, better 
than men ; children, in whom all the organic 
functions are exceedingly active, worst of all. 
A damp atmosphere which checks exhalation, 
a moderate temperature, and quiet of body 
are favorable to the prolongation of life ; while 
muscular exertion, a hot dry air, and a low tem- 
perature tend to shorten the period during 
which it can be preserved. Fodere (Medecine 
Ugale) states that some workmen buried in a 



damp quarry were extricated alive after a 
period of 14 days ; while after the wreck of 
the Medusa, the sufferers on the raft, exposed 
to a high temperature and constant exertion, 
at the end of three days, although they still 
had a small quantity of wine, were so famished 
that they commenced devouring the dead 
bodies of their companions. Water alone 
tends materially to prolong life. Dr. Sloane 
("Medical Gazette," vol. xvii., p. 389) gives an 
account of a man 65 years of age, who was 
rescued from a coal mine after he had been 
iminured 23 days, during the first 10 of which 
he had a little muddy water. He was so much 
reduced that he died three days after. The 
cases of starvation which have been best and 
most accurately observed, have been those in 
which the oesophagus has been gradually but 
at last completely obstructed by cancerous dis- 
ease. In these cases the deprivation of ali- 
ment has been but partial, the patient having 
been still imperfectly nourished by nutritive 
injections, which have supported life for a 
period of five or six weeks. Mental alienation 
has a marked influence in prolonging the period 
during which life can be sustained without 
food. Dr. Willan has recorded a case in which, 
under the influence of religious delusion, a 
young man lived 60 days, taking during that 
time nothing but a little water flavored with 
orange juice. Dr. M'Naughton of Albany 
("American Journal of Medical Science," vol. 
vi., p. 543) gives a similar instance, during 
which a young man lived 54 days on water 
alone. And in a case read in the French acad- 
emy (Archives generates de medecine, torn, 
xxvii., p. 130), a suicide lived 60 days on 
nothing but a few mouthfuls of orgeat syrup, 
before death put an end to his sufferings. Hys- 
terical women often support abstinence in a 
wonderful manner ; but there is in hysteria so 
much moral perversion, so great a tendency to 
deceit for the sake of exciting interest and 
sympathy, that all such cases require to be 
carefully and closely scrutinized. Most of the 
instances reported by the old authors, in which 
total abstinence was endured for months or 
even years, belong to this category, and are 
untrustworthy. The first effect of prolonged 
abstinence from food and drink under ordinary 
circumstances, apart from the sensations of 
hunger and thirst, is pain and distress in the 
epigastrium, which is relieved by pressure. 
This subsides after a day or two, and is suc- 
ceeded by a sense of sinking and weakness in 
the same region ; the thirst at the same time 
becomes more intense, and is thenceforth the 
principal source of suffering. Emaciation soon 
begins to make rapid progress, the eye has a 
wild glistening stare, the senses are dulled, and 
the intellect enfeebled ; the excretions become 
rare, scanty, and fetid ; the urine is high-color- 
ed, often causing a burning pain when passed ; 
often toward the end diarrhoea comes on. 
The sufferer becomes exceedingly weak, the 
voice is low and hoarse, the gait slow and tot- 



40 



ABSTINENCE 



tering, and at length all exertion is impossible ; 
the breath is offensive; the skin is covered 
with a dirty-looking secretion and exhales a 
putrid odor. Maniacal delirium often super- 
venes, and death is sometimes preceded by con- 
vulsions. When persons are immured by the 
falling in of a mine, quarry, &c., they seem 
subdued by the darkness ; but in cases of star- 
vation after shipwreck, or in travelling through 
an uncultivated country, the worst passions 
are aroused, and suspicion and ferocity add to 
the torments of hunger. A high temperature 
seems to aggravate these passions. "It is im- 
possible to imagine," says M. Savigny, in speak- 
ing of the wreck of the Medusa, " to what a 
degree the circulation is quickened under ex- 
posure to the burning sun of the equator. 
The pain of my head was intolerable ; I could 
scarcely master the impetuosity of my move- 
ment ; to use a well-known phrase, the blood 
boiled in my veins ; all my companions suffered 
from the same excitement ; " and the terrible 
scenes of blood and crime which passed upon 
the raft were doubtless owing largely to this 
cause. On examination after death the bodies 
of those dying of starvation are found to be 
almost bloodless, except the brain which con- 
tains its usual quantity, and completely desti- 
tute of fat. The various organs, with the ex- 
ception of the brain, are all reduced in bulk, 
and the coats of the intestinal canal especially 
are rendered thinner. M. Chossat (Recherches 
experimentales sur Vinanitiori) deprived a num- 
ber of animals (birds and small mammals) of 
all sustenance, and carefully observed the phe- 
nomena that followed, and his experiments 
throw much light upon the subject of starva- 
tion. The temperature in all the animals was 
maintained at nearly the normal standard until 
the last day of life, when it began rapidly to 
fall. The animals, previously restless, now 
became quiet, as if stupefied; they fell over 
on their side, unable to stand ; the breathing 
became slower and slower, the pupils dilated, 
the insensibility grew more profound, and death 
took place either quietly or attended with con- 
vulsions. If, when these phenomena were fully 
developed, external warmth was applied, the 
animals revived, their muscular force returned, 
they moved or flew about the room, and took 
greedily the food that was presented to them. 
If now they were again left to themselves, 
they speedily perished ; but if the external tem- 
perature was maintained until the food taken 
was digested (and from the feeble condition of 
their digestive organs this often took many 
hours), they recovered. The immediate cause of 
death seemed to be cold rather than starvation. 
The average loss of weight in the animals 
experimented upon was 40 per cent., varying 
considerably in different cases, the variation 
depending chiefly on the relative amount of 
fat. Weighing the different tissues separately, 
and arranging them hi two parallel columns, 
according as they lost more or less than 40 per 
cent., gave the following results : 



Parts losing more than Parts losing less than 

40 per cent. 40 per cent. 

Fat 98-8 Muscular coat of stomach 89-T 

Blood 75 Pharynx and oesophagus. 84-2 

Spleen 71-4 Skin 888 

Pancreas 641 Kidneys 81-9 

Liver 62 Respiratory organs 22-2 

Heart 44-8 Bones 16'7 

Intestines 42-4 Eyes 10 

Muscles of voluntary mo- Nervous system 1-9 

tton 42-8 

Among the most noteworthy phenomena 
caused by starvation are the offensive effluvia 
exhaled from the sufferers, the fetor of their 
discharges, and the rapidity with which the 
body passes into a state of putrescence. Such 
a condition of things is peculiarly favorable to 
the reception of fever and other contagious 
diseases, and they acquire in such cases an 
intensity and virulence rarely seen under other 
circumstances. Thus, as was fearfully seen in 
Ireland in 1847, pestilence follows in the train 
of famine. The effects of the prolonged em- 
ployment of an insuificient diet alone are rarely 
seen; they are commonly complicated with 
those of unwholesome air and over-exertion. 
Of such complication, prisons, work-houses, 
and charitable institutions have afforded abun- 
dant examples on a large scale. One of the 
most noted of these occurred at the Milbank 
penitentiary, near London, in 1823. The prison 
is situated on marshy ground, which is below 
the level of the adjacent river, but it had pre- 
viously been reputed healthy. A few months 
before the outbreak of the epidemic, the amount 
of dry nutriment allowed each prisoner daily 
had been reduced from between 31 and 33 oz. 
to 21 oz., and animal food was almost wholly 
withheld. The prisoners were at the same 
time subjected to a low temperature, and to 
considerable muscular exertion. In a short 
time they became paler, weaker, and thinner ; 
subsequently, scurvy, diarrhoea, and dysentery 
made their appearance, and finally low fevers, 
or headache, vertigo, convulsions, maniacal 
delirium, and apoplexy. The smallest loss of 
blood caused fainting. Of 860 prisoners, 437, 
or 52 per cent., were attacked. Those who had 
been longest confined suffered in the greatest 
proportion. The prisoners who were employed 
in the kitchen, who had an addition of 8 oz. 
of bread to their daily allowance, were not af- 
fected. Another well-marked epidemic, owing 
to a similar cause, occurred in the establish- 
ment for the destitute children of New York, 
at what was termed the Long Island farms, in 
the winter of 1839-'40. The diet of the chil- 
dren consisted of bread of an inferior quality, 
with tea sweetened with molasses, night and 
morning, and soup made from coarse beef, 
alternately with the beef itself at noon ; in ad- 
dition the dormitories of the children were 
crowded and ill ventilated, and they had scarce- 
ly any outdoor exercise. "About the middle 
of December, 1839," says Dr. Morrell, the at- 
tending physician of the asylum (New York 
"Journal of Medicine and Surgery," vol. iii.), 
"evidences of a constitutional change in many 
of the children were apparent ; they were dull 



ABSTINENCE 



ABYDOS 



and inactive, their eyes lacked lustre, and their 
skins exhaled an offensive odor." Next, many 
of them were attacked with slight cholera mor- 
bus, and afterward an incurable diarrhoea set 
in, attended with gangrene about the cheeks, 
the anus, or vagina. In most of these cases 
sloughing of the cornea took place and the eye 
was destroyed. When for a iength of time the 
allowance of food, either from its indigestibility 
or from its limited amount, has been insuffi- 
cient for the wants of the system, the digestive 
organs are weakened ; the appetite is lost, and 
the person often loathes food while he is suf- 
fering from starvation. In the experiments of 
Chossat, when turtle doves were placed upon a 
limited allowance of corn, but with access to 
water, part of the corn was either rejected by 
vomiting, accumulated in the crop, or passed 
unchanged through the bowels. 

ABSTINENCE, Total. See TOTAL ABSTINENCE. 

ABT, Franz, a German composer, born at 
Eilenburg, Saxony, Dec. 22, 1819. His early 
studies were theological, but he abandoned 
divinity for music, and at the age of 22 became 
musical director at Zurich. He remained there 
eleven years, when he became second musical 
director at the Brunswick court theatre, and 
was promoted to be first by the grand duke 
in 1855. He has composed for orchestra, 
piano, and voice; but it is mainly as a song 
writer that he has attained his reputation, 
having composed a great number of songs 
that have become well known throughout the 
world. He has also been very successful as a 
composer of two-part songs, and of four-part 
songs for male voices. He visited the United 
States in 1872. 

ABl'BEKR, the first caliph, born at Mecca 
about 573, died in 634. Abubekr means 
"father of the virgin," and this name was 
given to him when his daughter Ayesha be- 
came the favorite wife of Mohammed. His 
real name was Abd-el-Caaba. He was Mo- 
hammed's most trusted adherent, and in 632 
succeeded his master in the supreme authority, 
to the exclusion of the prophet's son-in-law 
A-li. At the commencement his reign was 
troubled, first by the relapse of several tribes 
to idolatry, and then by the springing up of a 
new sect under Mosseilama. Assisted by the 
hero Khaled, Abubekr compelled the backsli- 
ders to return, and suppressed the rival creed, 
Mosseilama himself being slain in a battle. He 
now led his followers to conquest. His gen- 
erals fell upon the frontiers of the Eoman and 
Persian empires, and their easy success excited 
the warrior population of Arabia to pour forth. 
The emperor Heraclius vainly opposed them. 
Syria and the provinces of the Euphrates were 
soon overrun and Damascus besieged. Abu- 
bekr died in the full tide of conquest, after 
a brief reign of two years and three months. 
His tomb is shown by the side of that of the 
prophet at Mecca. Abubekr was surnamed 
the Just. His charity was unbounded, while 
his manner of living was so strict that he pos- 



sessed at his death only the one robe he wore, 
one camel, and an Ethiopian slave. These he 
bequeathed to Omar, his successor. Abubekr 
collected the scattered writings and the oral 
doctrines of Mohammed forming the Koran. 

ABIL-CASIM. See ALBTJOASIS. 

ABULFARAGIUS, or Abulfaraj, Mar Gregoriiu, 
surnamed, on account of his Jewish descent, 
Bar-Hebrseus, a Syriac and Arabic writer, 
born in 1226, died in 1286. He was a native of 
Armenia, and the son of a converted Jew. By 
his knowledge and virtues he rose to the dig- 
nity of bishop of Aleppo, and in 1266 to that of 
primate of the Jacobite Christians. His best 
known work is the " History of the Dynasties," 
treating of the different kingdoms of the world, 
Jewish, Chaldean, Persian, Greek, Roman, 
Mohammedan, and Mongol. An edition in 
Arabic and Latin was published by Edward 
Pococke at Oxford, 1663, and one in Syriac and 
Latin at Leipsic, 1789. 

ABULFEDA, Ismail ibn All, a Moslem prince 
and writer, born at Damascus about 1273, died 
in October, 1331. He was a descendant of Eyub 
(or Ayub), the founder of the Kurdish dynasty 
in Egypt ; fought in the campaigns of Sultan 
Nasir, of Egypt and Syria, against the Tartars ; 
was by him appointed governor of Hamah in 
Syria, which his ancestors had held in fief, and 
subsequently acknowledged as sultan of that 
principality. He was a man of eminent tal- 
ents as a warrior, a ruler, and a writer. He 
is chiefly renowned as the author of an exten- 
sive historical compilation, in Arabic, embra- 
cing both ancient history and the annals of the 
Moslems, from the time of Mohammed to the 
year 1328 ; and of a geographical work, mainly 
descriptive of Egypt, Syria, Arabia, and Persia, 
considered the best of its kind in eastern litera- 
ture. Both have appeared in various editions, 
in the original as well as in Latin and other 
occidental translations. Abulfeda also wrote 
scientific treatises, which have been lost. 

ABU SAMBUL. See IPSAMBUL. 

ABU SHEHR. See BUSHIBE. 

ABU TEMAM, one of the greatest Arabic poets, 
born in Syria about 806, died at Mosul in 845 
or 846. His poems are said to have procured 
him the favor of the Moslem courts and many 
thousand pieces of gold, and the Arabs say of 
him that " no one could ever die whose name 
had been praised in the verses of AbuTemam." 
He was also the compiler of three collections of 
select pieces of eastern poetry, the most es- 
teemed of which, called the Hamasa, is praised 
by Sir William Jones. 

ABYDOS. I. An ancient city of Asia Minor, 
on the narrowest part of the Hellespont, oppo- 
site Sestos, originally the possession of the 
Trojan prince Asius, and later occupied by the 
Thracians and Milesians. It is celebrated in 
connection with the army of Xerxes and the 
immense bridge built by him at this spot, 480 
B. C. Here the tragedy of Hero and Leander 
took place, according to the poetical legend, 
and here Lord Byron swam across in imitation 



ABYLA 



ABYSSINIA 




Bass-Belief at Abydos, Egypt (From a Photograph.) 



of that luckless lover. II. An ancient city 
(originally This, now Ardbat el-Matfoori) of 
tipper Egypt, on the canal called the Balir 
Yusuf, 6 m. W. of the Nile and about 60 m. 
below Thebes. It was anciently the second 
city of the Thebaid, the birthplace of Menes, 
and the reputed burial place of Osiris, and 
hence a great necropolis. There are numerous 
very ancient tombs cut in the adjacent hills, 
but its most remarkable remains are the palace 
of Memnon and the temple of Osiris. In the 
latter was discovered in 1818 the celebrated 
"tablet of Abydos," or Ramses table, at pres- 
ent in the British museum, upon which is in- 
scribed in hieroglyphics a genealogy of the 18th 
dynasty of the Pharaohs. DOmichen, in his 
explorations (1864-'5) of the interior of the 
temple of Osiris, found a new Egyptian table, 
which Lepsius calls the Sethos table. It is 
more complete than that of Ramses, contains 
65 shields and an uninterrupted record of the 
kings of the first three dynasties, beginning 
with Menes, corresponding with the account 
of Manetho, and is regarded as more perfect 
than the table of Sakkarah. This discovery is 
believed to be important in respect to the re- 
searches into the most remote eras of Egypt. 

ABYLA, one of the pillars of Hercules, at the 
N. "W. extremity of Africa, opposite Calpe 
(now Gibraltar) in Spain, the other pillar. It 
was believed by the ancients to have been for- 
merly joined with Calpe, but separated by 
Hercules, giving entrance to the Mediterranean. 

ABYSSINIA (Arab. Habezh, signifying a mix- 
ture of peoples), a country of eastern Africa, 
lying S. W. of the Red sea. Its boundaries 
are not very accurately defined, especially as 
the name is frequently applied to a much 
greater extent of territory than that included 
in Abyssinia proper, which was formerly said 



to comprise the three important states of Tigr, 
Amhara, and Shoa, but from which Shoa has 
been excluded by some modern geographers. 
According to Keith Johnston, however, it ex- 
tends from lat. 8 80' to 16 30' N., and from 
Ion. 34 20' to 48 20' E. On the N. and N. 
W. it is bordered by Nubia and Sennaar, while 
southward and eastward lie the Galla and So- 
mali countries and Adal. The Samhara land 
separates Abyssinia proper from the Red sea, 
which is nowhere less than 90 m. distant from 
the frontier. According to M. d'Abbadie, the 
country is called Ethiopia by the natives, who 
properly employ the word Abyssinia to denote 
that portion of the population, for the most 
part professedly Christian, who have lost all 
idea of tribal differences. Its maximum length 
is upward of 600 m. and maximum breadth 
nearly as much ; but these estimates are prob- 
ably approximate, and as the area of the coun- 
try depends upon them, it cannot be accurately 
stated. The population is believed to be from 
8,000,000 to 5,000,000. Considered with ref- 
erence to its physical geography, Abyssinia is 
an extensive, elevated, and irregular table land, 
consisting of a series of plateaux of various 
altitudes, which rise into isolated groups and 
ranges of flat-topped mountains. This table 
land runs nearly due N. and S., and slopes from 
its highest ridge toward the Red sea on one 
side and the interior of the continent on the 
other, so as to form an eastern and a western 
watershed. Toward the swamps and plains 
of Sennaar and Nubia the descent from this 
high region is gradual, but it is very abrupt on 
the east, the seaward slope being about twelve 
times greater than the opposite slope toward 
the Nile. The average elevation of the pla- 
teaux, which rise terrace-like and with grad- 
ually increasing elevation from N. to S., is 



ABYSSINIA 



43 



between 7,000 and 8,000 ft. Among them, 
forming river beds sometimes thousands of feet 
below the general surface of the surrounding 
territory, wind ravines and gorges of extreme 
depth, which are among the most striking 
natural features of the country. Mr. Clements 
R. Markham, who accompanied the British 
military expedition to Magdala, classifies the 
Abyssinian highlands as follows : 1, the region 
drained by the affluents of the river Mareb ; 2, 
the region drained by those of the Tacazze and 
Atbara ; 3, the region drained by those of the 
Abai. The first of these is in Tigre, and in- 
cludes a considerable portion of northern Abys- 
sinia. Here the average altitude of the plateaux 
is 9,000 ft. above the level of the sea. They 
enclose numerous extensive valleys, which, al- 
though many hundred feet lower, are none of 
them at an elevation of less than 7,000 ft. A 
peculiarity of the valleys here is that valley hills 



rise from their level tracts, just as mountains 
rise from the plateaux above. The principal 
summits of this region are Mt. Sowayra, 10,328 
ft., and Arabi Tereeki, near Senafe, 8,560 ft. 
The next great physical division of the table 
land comprises the drainage basin of the Ta- 
cazze and Atbara rivers. The loftiest dis- 
trict of this region is the rich agricultural 
plain of Haramat, 8,000 ft. above the ocean 
level. In the N. W. part of Amhara, which 
is included in this division of the highlands, 
the country is lower, not exceeding 6,000 ft. 
of average elevation ; but the province of Sem- 
yen contains the highest mountains in Abys- 
sinia, of which the most important peaks are 
the Abba Jarrat, in lat. 13 10' N., 15,088 ft., 
and Mt. Buahat, in lat. 13 12' N., 14,362 ft. E. 
of these are the Harat hills and Wadjerat range. 
The third clearly defined region is that watered 
by the tributaries of the Blue Nile, comprising 




View In the Mountains near Magdala. 



the greater portion of Amhara or the former 
kingdom of Gondar, with an altitude varying 
in different districts from 5,000 to 7,000 ft. on 
the plateaux, and attaining a height of 11,000 
ft. in the Talba-Waha mountains. The Wadela 
and Dalanta plateaux, near Magdala, with an 
elevation exceeding 9,000 ft., are in the W. 
portion of this region, the river bed of the 
Jitta, 3,500 ft. deep, running between them. 
The steep scarped rock of Magdala itself rises 
to a height of 9,050 ft., its summit being a flat 
plain 2 m. long and half a mile wide. The 
only important rivers of the country which 
flow toward the Eed sea are the Kagolay, in 
the north, a perennial stream which loses itself 
in the sand before reaching the coast, and the 
Hawash in the south, which forms a portion 
of the boundary between Abyssinia and Adal, 



and is likewise absorbed in the swamps or 
deserts on its path to the ocean. All the great 
Abyssinian rivers belong to the Nile basin. 
Of these the Mareb is the most northern. It 
rises in the district of Hamasen, flows S. and 
"W. around Serawe, and thence in a N. W. di- 
rection through the Nubian province of Taka. 
In the rainy season its waters reach 'the At- 
bara, but during the remainder of the year they 
disappear in the sand. The Tacazze rises in 
Lasta from a spring which was first caused to 
gush forth from the rock, according to tradition, 
by a blow from the hand of Menilek, son of the 
queen of Sheba. Its name signifies " the terri- 
ble." Flowing northwesterly, it enters, or prop- 
erly receives, the Atbara at Tomat, in Nubian 
territory. It is a rapid and impetuous stream, 
dashing down rocky falls and between lofty pro- 



ABYSSINIA 



cipices with a turbulence well denoted by its 
name. Further S. is the Abai, the celebrated 
Nile of Bruce, although the Bahr-el-Azrek or 
true Blue river rises in the Galla country under 
the name of the Dedhesa, and the Abai is in 
reality only its largest tributary. The latter 
rises S. of the Tzana lake, and making a north- 
ward circle through it, turns southward and 
joins the Bahr-el-Azrek near lat. 11 N. This 
lake, also called the Dembea, is situated in a 
grain-producing region of great fertility, at a 
height of 6,110 ft. above the level of the sea. 
It is about 50 m. long by 25 m. wide, and its 
depth in some places is said to be 600 ft. There 
are many other lakes, among which Ashangi, 
4 m. long and 3 m. broad, in the country of the 
Azebo-Gallas, is the most noteworthy as being 
a fresh-water lake without any visible outlet. 
Thermal springs occur in many districts. The 
characteristic feature of the climate of the 
Abyssinian highlands including Tigre", Am- 
hara, and Shoa is the occurrence of a tropical 
monsoon or rainy season from the middle of 
June to the end of September. Otherwise, the 
climate is strictly temperate. There is a cold 
season extending from October to February, 
with an estimated mean temperature of 58-3, 
during which the days are pleasant and the 
nights cold with heavy falls of dew. The hot 
weather begins about March 1, and lasts until 
the monsoon sets in, April being the wannest 
month. The mean temperature of this season 
at Magdala is 65'5, and of the wet season 
about 5 lower. The rainfall of the monsoon 
extends over all of Abyssinia proper, but ia 
greater in the south and west than in the 
north and east. The prevailing winds during 
the rainy season are easterly and southeasterly. 
Thunder storms are of frequent occurrence. 
The chief agricultural productions are barley 
and oats on the elevated plains, and wheat, 
maize, millet, rice, cotton, coffee, and a small 
native grain called teff, in the lower districts. 
Sugar cane, flax, and beans are raised in small 
quantities, and lemons, oranges, and figs are oc- 
casionally produced. The grape thrives in 
some parts of Tigr6, but no good wine is made. 
Volcanic rocks constitute the principal for- 
mation in the geological structure of Abys- 
sinia, and cover almost the entire table land. 
The trappean series appears to be divisible 
into at least two distinct groups. The lower 
of these is largely composed of red basalts, on 
which the disintegrating effects of atmospheric 
action are plainly marked. Blanford names 
this the Ashangi group, and that above it the 
Magdala group ; which last comprises trachytic 
rocks containing many feldspar crystals, and 
is distinguished by the scarped and precipitous 
forms which it assumes under the influence of 
the weather. These forms are characteristic 
of Abyssinian scenery, and the ambas or hill 
forts, the great strongholds of the country, are 
rendered almost inaccessible to an enemy by 
their situation on the horizontal beds of this 
rock which surmount the summits usually se- 



lected for military stations. In the N. E. prov- 
inces, however, metamorphic rocks occupy the 
whole surface, except in several districts of 




Hill Fort between Mai and Abaca. 

limited extent where they are overlaid by sand> 
stones, limestones, or igneous formations. They 
extend 150 m. along the meridian of 89 30', 
between lat. 15 55' and 13 50' N. At Tchelga 
coal deposits are found, which geologists are 
disposed to group with these sandstones of 
Adigerat. Further S., in the Antalo district, 
a considerable number of fossils have been ob- 
tained from the limestones which predominate 
there, whereby it has been ascertained that the 
formation belongs to the oolitic period. The 
present geological aspect of Abyssinia, with 
its weather-worn battlements of rock and its 
deeply scored river beds, must be attributed to 
fresh-water denudation. There is no evidence 
of marine action anywhere in the interior, 
although it is believed that at an early epoch 
the waters of the Red sea and the Indian 
ocean may have washed the foot hills of the 
eastern slope. The volcanic formations along 
the coast belong to an age much more recent 
than that which gave rise to those of the table 
land which have already been described. 
There are no volcanoes in the country. The 
only metallic products are gold, which occurs 
rarely and is of an inferior quality, and iron, of 
which the yield is consumed at home. Exten- 
sive deposits of salt occur on several plains in 
Tigre. The distribution of Abyssinian animals 
seems to be regulated by the altitude , of the 



ABYSSINIA 



45 



various portions of the table land above the 
sea, each zone of elevation being characterized 
to some extent by its own particular fauna. 
It is a noteworthy fact that many of the 
mammals common to other countries are here 
distinguished by a much bolder demeanor 
toward man than that which, they exhibit 
elsewhere. Elephants are numerous near the 
coast, and go up to the highlands, even 8,000 
ft. above the sea, in the summer months; 
though the rhinoceros, only one variety of 
which (R. Tceitloa) is met with, does not range 
higher than 5,000 ft. Many of the elephants 
are tuskless, but they are all active and sav- 
age. The rhinoceros is the black, two-horned 
species, and feeds on foliage, seldom eating 
grass. Of the cat tribe, there are at least 
three species in addition to the Abyssinian lion. 
The spotted hyaena (H. crocuta) and two spe- 
cies of jackal are exceedingly common. Of 
the quadrumana, the great dog-faced baboon 
(cynocepJialus hamadryas) is found almost 
everywhere. That peculiar little pachyderm, 
the hyrax, inhabits its favorite haunts among 
the rocks at almost every elevation in Abys- 
sinia from 2,000 ft. above the sea upward. 
The ornithology of Abyssinia is rich in species, 
no fewer than 293 having been described by 
Blanford. Among the birds of prey are found 
the eagle, the vultux-e, and the handsome Abys- 
sinian lammergeyer, as well as numerous fal- 
cons and kestrels. Honey birds, starlings of 
beautiful plumage, crows, pigeons, several 
varieties of the cuckoo, swallows, larks, par- 
tridges, geese, ducks, and guinea fowls abound. 
"With the exception of lizards, there do not seem 
to be many reptiles in the highlands. A tree 
snake, a viper, and several other species of ser- 
pent occur ; two species of tortoise, and frogs 
and toads in large numbers, are also met with. 
The crocodile and python inhabit the trop- 
ical districts. The agricultural products of the 
country have already been enumerated. The 
vegetation of the coast lowlands consists prin- 
cipally of acacias, which are replaced by syca- 
mores, dahros (ficus religiosa), and mimosse, 
in ascending toward the interior. In the pass- 
es, the beautiful candelabra tree (euphorbia 
Abyssinica) is found. At an elevation of 
6,000 ft. occur juniper trees, which here grow 
tall and large, the jujube, wild olives, and sev- 
eral trees of the fig tribe. This vegetation is 
sub-alpine, and common to the plateaux. The 
flora of the higher regions is characteristic of 
the temperate zone, the only tree being the 
juniper, which grows merely as a bush on the 
loftier mountain sides and summits, together 
with lavender, thyme, gentian, and the wild 
rose. Large dahro trees are generally found 
about the villages, and a variety of willow oc - 
curs near streams and in damp places; but 
though there are some trees on the plains be- 
low the plateaux, low bushes form the greater 
proportion of their vegetation. In fact, the 
only thickly wooded localities are the gorges 
and ravines. Each of the three principal polit- 



ical divisions of Abyssinia, Tigre , Amhara, and 
Shoa, is subdivided into numerous smaller 
provinces. Formerly the rulers of these three 
sovereignties were subject to the monarch of 
the country, but on the decline of the central 
power in the last century they became practi- 
cally independent. The town of Adowa, with 
about 8,000 inhabitants, is the metropolis of 
Tigr6. Gondar, the seat of government in Am- 
hara, and formerly the residence of the Abys- 
sinian kings, is situated in the district of Dem- 
bea, N. of the Tzana lake, and has a population 
estimated at 50,000. Ankobar, a town con- 
taining about 12,000 people, is the present 
capital of Shoa. The inhabitants of Abyssinia 
are usually classed into : 1, the Ethiopic people 
of Tigre, speaking a corrupt form of the ancient 
Geez language; 2, the Amharic tribes, living 
in Amhara and Shoa ; 3, the Agows, of Wag, 
Lasta, and other provinces, who are by some 
conjectured to be of Pho3nician origin. Be- 
sides these are the Gallas who have settled in 
Amhara and Shoa. Coptic Christianity is the 
prevailing faith, but there are many Moham- 
medan and Jewish communities. (See ABYS- 
SINIAN CHURCH.) In point of morality, the 
latter are generally superior to the Christians. 
Education is confined almost solely to those 
intended for the church. Superstition is widely 
prevalent, and the people are strongly addicted 
to sensuality and bloodshed. Many peculiar 
customs prevail, and something of a literature 
once existed ; but the effect of the long series 
of civil wars has been to render Abyssinian civ- 
ilization unworthy of the name. Latterly the 
rule of the lesser chiefs throughout the country 
has been the only government of any stability. 
-The history of Abyssinia surpasses in inter- 
est that of any other country of Africa except 
Egypt. Its earliest traditions concern the 
queen of Sheba, who is said to have ruled over 
the powerful kingdom of Axum, holding her 
court at the town of that name, whence she 
proceeded on her celebrated visit to Solomon. 
All subsequent legitimate rulers of the nation 
or of the larger states have claimed to be de- 
scended from her. About A. D. 320 the pa- 
triarch of Alexandria consecrated Frumentius 
bishop of Abyssinia. Through his efforts and 
those of his successors, all of whom bore the 
title of abuna salamah (our father of peace), 
the Coptic church was firmly established. In 
522 Caleb, then the reigning sovereign of Axum, 
led an army into Arabia and subjugated the 
kingdom of Yemen. The reign of Caleb is 
described as the golden age of Abyssinian his- 
tory, during which a high degree of internal 
and commercial prosperity was attained ; but 
the Mohammedan invasion of Egypt in the 7th 
century checked the inflow of civilization from 
the outer world, and brought the progress of 
the country to a standstill. For nearly 1,000 
years Ethiopia was isolated by the surrounding 
barriers of Islam. About 1492 Pedro de Covil- 
ham, who had been sent to the East by King 
John II. of Portugal in search of the land of 



ABYSSINIA 



Prester John, arrived at the court of Alexan- 
der, who then occupied the throne under the 
title of negus (king). On the death of Alexan- 
der, his successor, Negus David, was so young 
that his grandmother Helena acted for a while 
as regent, and through a mission to Portugal 
she secured the visit of an embassy from Lisbon 
to Abyssinia about 1520, an event which led to 
the subsequent active interference of the Portu- 
guese in the affairs of the country. Estevan 
da Gama, the Portuguese viceroy in India and 
a grandson of the celebrated navigator, was or- 
dered to aid the Abyssinians with a small armed 
force in their war against the Mohammedans 
of Adal, which had broken out about 1528, and 
had already lasted 12 years. Accordingly, in 
1541, the first European military expedition into 
Abyssinia, numbering only 450 soldiers, with 
six cannon, landed at Massowa under the com- 
mand of Cristoforo da Gama, the viceroy's broth- 
er. He defeated the Turkish forces under Mo- 
hammed Gran in many engagements, but finally 




Abyssinian Warriors. 



his army was routed and he was killed in an 
important battle fought in 1542, probably near 
the Senafe pass. At this period began the 
barbarian incursions of the Galla tribes from 
the south, which occasioned a long series of 
wars between the Abyssinians and the more 
savage but fairer invaders, who finally suc- 
ceeded in establishing themselves on a strip 
of territory, which they still occupy, separat- 
ing Shoa from the rest of the country. The 
Jesuits never wielded a paramount influence 
in the state except in the early part of the 
17th century. The authority of the negus ap- 
pears to have been maintained unimpaired 
until about the middle of the last century. 
The Gallas had by this time become of im- 
portance as prospective allies in intestinal 
quarrels; and to propitiate them, Yasous II. 
married a Galla woman. This act so incensed 
the native Christians that they practically 
withdrew their allegiance from the negus, who 



lived but a few years after his marriage, and 
gave it to Kas Michael Suhul, the hereditary 
chief of Salowa in Tigre, who then became in 
fact the ruler of the country and governed it 
as long as he lived, although a nominal negus 
was placed upon the throne after the death of 
Yasous. It was during the administration of 
Ras Michael that the English traveller Bruce 
visited Gondar, in 1770. The authority of the 
negus had already become a nullity, the ras, 
who was ostensibly his minister, being in real- 
ity the ruler of the state. Soon the indepen- 
dent chiefs of the other provinces refused to 
acknowledge his sway. Shoa, Tigre, and God- 
jam, the S. W. province of Amhara, were vir- 
tually separate sovereignties for many years. 
A line of chiefs descended from a female rep- 
resentative of the ancient royal house ruled 
over Shoa; while Tigre was governed from 
1790 to 1816 by Ras Walda Selassye, who-was 
visited at Antalo, his capital, in 1804, by Mr. 
Salt, the first Englishman to enter Abyssinia in 
an official character. Ras Ali of Amhara was 
the de facto governor of central Abyssinia from 
1831 to 1855, although two princes, to whom 
he was minister, nominally ruled the country 
during this period. Between these dates the 
visits of numerous explorers made extensive 
additions to European knowledge of Abys- 
sinia. In 1848 Mr. Walter Plowden, who 
had previously visited the court of Ras Ali at 
Debra Tabor in Tigre, was appointed British 
consul to Abyssinia. Ly Kasa, subsequently 
so famous as King Theodore, now appeared 
as an important character in Abyssinian poli- 
tics. Born in 1818, he had been educated in a 
convent, as a scribe, whence a chance foray 
turned his thoughts to military affairs, and he 
became the leader of a predatory band of dis- 
contented soldiery, which grew to such dimen- 
sions as soon to be a power in the state. He 
then attacked the army of the mother of Ras 
Ali, who governed the district of Dembea for 
her son, and being successful was himself ap- 
pointed to rule over it by the ras, who also 
bestowed upon the young chieftain the hand 
of his daughter in marriage. But this friend- 
ship was short-lived. Kasa recommenced war 
against his father-in-law, drove him from his 
dominions, subjugated the chief of Godjam and 
Dadjatch Ubye of Tigre, and in 1855 found 
himself master of Abyssinia. He now caused 
the abuna to crown him king of the kings of 
Ethiopia under the name of Theodore. Plow- 
den entered into official relations with the 
new government, and both he and his friend 
Bell, an Englishman in the emperor's service, 
resided in the country till 1860, when they 
were killed by insurgents. Up to this time 
Theodore had reigned tolerantly and with dis- 
cretion; but the death of Bell and Plowden, 
to whom he was devotedly attached, together 
with the loss of his first wife, the daughter of 
Ras Ali, whose influence over him had always 
been excellent, wrought a great change in his 
character. His new wife, the daughter of a hos- 



ABYSSINIA 



47 



tile chief, in reality hated him, and henceforth 
he became morose, bloodthirsty, and tyrannical. 
Capt. Cameron, Plowden's successor in the con- 
sulate, arrived at Massowa in 1862 with pres- 
ents from the queen for Theodore, which he de- 
livered in October of that year. Theodore re- 
sponded in a letter to the queen, proposing to 
send an embassy to England, which he trans- 
mitted through Capt. Cameron. To this the 
foreign office paid no attention, and the arrival 
of a messenger from England in 1864, with de- 
spatches for the consul but no answer to his 
letter, greatly incensed the king, who was al- 
ready indignant at the refusal of the French 
government to recognize one M. Bardel, whom 
he had sent to Paris with a similar message 
to the emperor. In November, 1863, the Ger- 
man Scripture readers residing near the court 
and the missionaries in Dembea were thrown 



into prison, heavily ironed; and on Jan. 4, 
1864, Capt. Cameron and his suite were seized 
and placed in close confinement at Gondar, 
whence, after having been subjected to brutal 
tortures, all the captives were removed to 
Magdala. News of their imprisonment reached 
England in the spring, and a communication in 
response to his letter was at once despatched 
to Theodore in charge of Mr. Hormuzd Ras- 
sam, a Mesopotamian holding the office of as- 
sistant to the British political resident at Aden. 
He landed at Massowa on July 23, 1864, but 
owing to various obstacles did not succeed in de- 
livering the letter to the king till Jan. 25, 1866. 
It induced Theodore to set the prisoners at 
liberty and to promise that they should meet 
Mr. Rassam near the N. W. extremity of Lake 
Tzana and travel with him to the coast. He 
was anxious, however, that Mr. Rassam should 




The Burning of Magdala daring the Attack by the British. 



write to England for workmen and await their 
arrival in Abyssinia ; and this desire not being 
acceded to, he remanded the captives to pris- 
on, accompanied by Mr. Rassam and his com- 
rades, who were violently taken into custody at 
an audience held in the king's tent just prior to 
their intended departure. Theodore then dictat- 
ed a letter to Lord Clarendon asking for military 
stores, workmen, and an instructor in artillery, 
and sent it to London by Mr. Flad, who reached 
that city on July 10, 1866. The other Euro- 
peans remained captives in Abyssinia. As a 
communication from the queen, forwarded by 
Mr. Flad, and demanding the release of the 
prisoners, met with no response, the British 
government determined to attempt their rescue 
by force. A military expedition was organized 
at Bombay, under the command of Sir Robert 
Napier, consisting of 4,000 British and 8,000 



sepoy troops. Annesley bay having been cho- 
sen as a landing place, the army was debarked 
there, and in January, 1868, commenced the 
march to the interior through the Senafe pass, 
and proceeded southward toward Magdala, 
about 400 m. from the coast, whither Theo- 
dore had retreated, and where the European 
prisoners were confined. On April 9 the 
English force arrived in front of the fortress, 
and on the following day were attacked by 
the Abyssinians, whom they repulsed with 
a loss of 700 killed and 1,200 wounded, hav- 
ing themselves but 20 wounded. This en- 
gagement is known as the action at Arogi, 
and its result so discouraged the king that he 
immediately released all the captives. Mag- 
dala was stormed on April 13, and captured 
with a loss of 15 British wounded. As soon 
as the outer gate fell, Theodore, determined 



48 



ABYSSINIAN CHURCH 



not to be taken prisoner, placed the muzzle 
of his pistol in his mouth, fired, and fell in- 
stantly dead. The complete success of the un- 
dertaking led the government to raise Gen. 
Napier to the peerage, with the title of Lord 
Napier of Magdala. The departure of the ex- 
pedition left the country hi a state of anarchy. 
At the latest accounts a chief of Tigr6 named 
Kasa had succeeded in establishing his suprem- 
acy over a considerable region. He is said to 
be a weak man. A tolerably complete bibli- 
ography of works relating to Abyssinia is given 
in Hotten's " Abyssinia and its People " (Lon- 
don, 1868). The more accessible English books 
on the subject comprise " Bruce's Travels," of 
which many editions have been published since 
the first in 1790 ; " The Highlands of Ethiopia," 
by Major W. C. Harris (London, 1844); "Life 
in Abyssinia," by Mansfield Parkyns (London, 
1853); Hozier's " British Expedition to Abys- 
sinia" andMarkham's "Abyssinian Expedition" 
(London, 1869) ; and W. T. Blanford's " Geolo- 
gy and Zoology of Abyssinia" (London, 1870). 
ABYSSINIAN CHURCH. According to the 
Chronicles of Axum, a work probably written . 
by a Christian Abyssinian in the 4th century, 
the first apostle of Christianity hi Abyssinia 
was the chamberlain of the Queen Candace 
of Ethiopia whose baptism is recorded in Acts 
vii. 27. But the actual origin of the Abys- 
sinian church dates from about 316, when 
there landed on the coast of Abyssinia an ex- 
ploring expedition sent out by Meropius of 
Tyre. Its members were all murdered except 
the two nephews of Meropius, Frumentius and 
^Edesius, who were presented to the king as 
slaves. After the death of the king, Frumen- 
tius became the instructor of the hereditary 
prince and actually regent of the country. 
When the prince became of age, ^Edesius re- 
turned to Tyre ; but Frumentius, who had 
previously organized the Roman and Greek 
merchants residing in Abyssinia into a Chris- 
tian church, went to Alexandria and was con- 
secrated by Athanasius bishop of Abyssinia. 
As the king himself with a large portion of the 
people was baptized, Axum soon became the 
see of a metropolitan (abund), with seven suf- 
fragans. The emperor Constantino vainly en- 
deavored to prevail upon Frumentius and the 
Abyssinian prince to adopt Arianism. When 
in the 5th and 6th centuries the Monophysites 
obtained control of the patriarchal see of Alex- 
andria, the whole Abyssinian church joined 
this sect. In the 6th century the Mono- 
physite priest Juliana- spread Christianity in 
Nubia, which for several centuries was a 
wholly Christian country, until in the 16th 
century Mohammedanism became predomi- 
nant. Others of the sect gradually Chris- 
tianized large tracts of the country. When 
the Portuguese in the 16th century opened a 
passage into the country, an attempt was 
made to bring about a union of the Abyssin- 
ian church with Rome. A Roman Catholic 
patriarch of Ethiopia was appointed, but his 



efforts were unsuccessful. The Jesuit mission- 
aries, who first established themselves in the 
country hi 1555, succeeded in 1624 in inducing 
the heads of the church to submit to the pope ; 
but the union lasted only a few years, and the 
subsequent labors of the Jesuits and the prop- 
aganda in this direction were equally fruit- 
less. Since 1841 Roman Catholic missionaries 
of the order of Lazarists have renewed the 
effort to establish a union between the Abys- 
sinian and the Roman churches, and in 1859 
King Uby6 of Tigr6 sent an embassy to make 
his submission to the pope ; but the hopes 
raised by this event were disappointed, though 
several villages have been gained for the Cath- 
olic church, and placed under a vicar apos- 
tolic. In 1830 the first Protestant' missiona- 
ries, Gobat (subsequently Anglican bishop of 
Jerusalem) and Kugler, arrived in Abyssinia ; 
they were soon followed by others, among 
whom Isenberg and Krapf have become best 
known. They obtained political influence, 
and in 1841 a pupil of the English Protestant 
mission school in Cairo, Andraos, was conse- 
crated, under the name of Abba Salama, abu- 
na of Abyssinia by the Coptic patriarch of 
Alexandria. Through him they hoped to gain 
the Abyssinian church for an evangelical refor- 
mation, and the hope was strengthened when 
a prince apparently devoted to them became, 
under the name of Theodore, ruler over all 
Abyssinia. But Theodore, when his power was 
fully established, banished or imprisoned the 
missionaries ; and the abuna, who remained 
friendly to the Protestants, though he did not 
like to hear of conversions, died a prisoner in 
1867. Having always been Monophysitic, dis- 
putes about the nature of Christ have not torn 
the Abyssinian church into factions ; but it is 
agitated by discussions on what are termed the 
several nativities of Christ, of which the lead- 
ing party at present reckons three. Recently 
controversies have arisen as to whether Christ 
possessed consciousness and a knowledge of 
good and evil while yet in the womb of the 
Virgin, and whether Christ is now equal or 
inferior to the Father in authority and power. 
But the most virulent dispute is whether the 
Virgin Mary is the mother of God, or only the 
mother of Jesus, and therefore whether she is 
entitled to equal honors with her Son. Cir- 
cumcision is used, in the Abyssinian church for 
both sexes, and precedes baptism. The Jew- 
ish sabbath is still observed as well as the Chris- 
tian Sunday, and dancing still forms part of 
the ritual, as it did in the Jewish temple. 
Children are baptized by immersion and adults 
by copious affusion. The Nicene creed is used, 
the Apostles' being unknown. Communion is 
administered daily to the laity in both kinds. 
Confession is rigidly practised. Candidates 
for the priesthood must be able to read, to 
sing, and grow a beard, and they pay two 
pieces of rock salt as the price of being 
breathed upon by the abuna, and having the 
sign of the cross made over them. The orders 



ACACIA 



in church government are abuna, bishops (Ico- 
mur), alaka, who has charge of the revenues, 
and priests and deacons, who prepare the com- 
munion bread. The bishops now have only 
the duty of keeping the churches and church 
utensils sacred ; the seven dioceses into which 
the church was formerly divided have become 
extinct. Priests and monks are' very abun- 
dant. It requires 20 priests and deacons to 
do the full duties of one church. The nu- 
merous monks are all placed under the jurisdic- 
tion of the etshege, the superior of the convent 
Debra Libanos in Shoa. He ranks next to the 
abuna, and his authority is greatly respected 
in all matters of faith. He governs not only 
the numerous convents of his own order, but 
also those of the second order of the country, 
that of St. Eustathius. The most celebrated 
convents are Debra Libanos in Shoa, St. 
Stephen on Lake Haik in the Yesbu country, 
Debra Damo and Axum Thion in Tigre", and 
Lalibela in Lasta. The secular priests are, as 
in the other oriental churches, allowed to be 
once married, but the monks take the vow of 
celibacy. The churches are small, and their 
walls are covered with hideous pictures of the 
Virgin Mary, the saints, the angels, and the 
devil. Each church has a tabot or ark of the 
covenant, on which its sanctity wholly depends ; 
it contains a parchment bearing the name of 
the patron saint, and stands behind a curtain 
in the holy of holies, which only the alaka 
and the priest who consecrates the elements 
are allowed to enter. If a man has had 
four wives and outlives them all, he must go 
into a monastery or be excommunicated. The 
husband can break the marriage tie at any 
time by becoming a monk, and leave his wife 
to take care of the children. The priests have 
the power of granting divorces. There is a 
version of the Bible in the ancient language of 
the empire of Axum, usually called the Ethio- 
pian, but by the natives the Geez language. 
It was probably made from the Greek in the 
4th or 5th century, and is still the only one 
used in the church services, though the an- 
cient Ethiopian language is no longer spoken. 
The Ethiopian Bible contains all the books 
of the Roman Catholic canon, with several 
others, the best known of which is the book 
of Enoch. The total number of books is 81. 
A translation of the Old and New Testaments 
in the living Amharic language was made by 
Meeka, an Abyssinian, the companion of 
Bruce. See Gobat, " Three Years' Residence 
in Abyssinia " ; Isenberg's and Krapf 's mission- 
ary journals in Abyssinia ; Volz, Die Christ- 
liehe Kirche AetMopiens (in Studien und 
Kritilcen, 1869, giving a review of all the 
information to be obtained from the recent 
literature on Abyssinia) ; Stanley, "The East- 
ern Church," pp. 96-99. 

ACACIA, a genus of plants of the order legu- 
minosa, widely diffused over the tropical and 
sub-tropical regions of the ' earth ; most abun- 
dant in Africa and Australia. They are trees 
5 VOL. i. 5 



or shrubs, rarely herbs, with small, usually 
inconspicuous petals and sepals, but with many 
(10-400) long stamens, which give to the 
heads or spikes of flowers great beauty. The 
pods are two-valved, jointless and woody, 
containing seeds of which some species are 
edible. The leaves are either pinnate in vari- 
ous degrees, or simply distended leaf stalks 
(pJiyllodia). In nearly all the species the 
leaves are pinnate at first, and as the plant 
grows gradually give place to the phyllodia, 
often showing all gradations between the two 
forms. The stems and branches are often 
armed with spines. The acacias are not only 
most ornamental trees, with slender branches, 
delicate foliage, and attractive flowers, but the 
timber is often of great value, as that of A. Ara- 
bica, which is much used in India for wheels ; 
and the A. Koa has a fine, hard, and varie- 
gated grain. The bark contains much tannin. 
A. Verek yields gum Senegal, and A. Nilotica, 
and Seyal gum arabic. Other valuable gums 
of a similar nature are obtained from other 
species. The flowers of A. Farnesiana yield 
by distillation a delicious perfume, much prized 
in the East. Many species are easily culti- 
vated under glass. Little is known of the uses 
of most of the 420 species that have been de- 
scribed. 

ACADEMY (Gr. A/casern), originally the 
name of a public pleasure ground situate 
in the Ceramicus (tile field), a suburb of 
Athens, on the Cephissus, said to have be- 
longed in the time of the Trojan war to Acade- 
mus, a local hero. In the 5th century B. C. 
this land belonged to Cimon the son of Miltia- 
des, who beautified the grounds, gave free ad- 
mission to the public, and at his death be- 
queathed them to his fellow citizens. They 
naturally became a favorite resort for all the 
loungers of the city, and Socrates was wont to 
hold forth in this delightful place. Plato taught 
his philosophy in its groves, and his school was 
hence named the Academic. As the Platonists 
were also called academists, so wherever an 
academist started a school, he called that 
school an academy. The word academy is 
used in English in two senses. In its unam- 
bitious acceptation it means a place of higher 
instruction for youths, ranking with the gym- 
nasia of Germany. The name is also given to 
national military and naval high schools in 
England and America. But the word acad- 
emy, in its larger acceptation, is employed to 
designate a society of learned men, established 
for the improvement of science, literature, or 
the arts. The first association of this sort re- 
corded in history was called Musseon or Mu- 
seum, and was founded in Alexandria by 
Ptolemy Soter, one of the generals and succes- 
sors of Alexander the Great. This soldier, af- 
ter he had got possession of Egypt, restricted 
his energies to maintaining a defensive balance 
of power and to the cultivation of letters and 
science. Gathering around him scholars of 
various attainments, he sought to attach them 



50 



ACADEMY 



permanently to his court by collecting books 
and treasures of art. Rome had no academies. 
The Alexandrian example, if lost upon the Ro- 
mans, was imitated by the Jews in Palestine and 
Babylonia, and to a degree also by the Nes- 
torian Christians. The Arabian caliphs profit- 
ed by the lessons taught them by their Jewish 
and Christian subjects, and improved upon them 
by founding establishments for the preservation 
and increase of learning from Cordova to Sainar- 
cand. Charlemagne, following the suggestion 
of the learned Alcuin, encouraged men of cul- 
ture to assemble in his palace ; but after his 
death nothing was heard of academies until to- 
ward the end of the 13th and beginning of the 
14th century, when institutions of the kind 
were established at Florence, Palermo, and 
Toulouse, chiefly devoted to the cultivation of 
poetry. It was not till after the downfall of 
the Byzantine empire in the 15th century, and 
the revival of classical culture in western Eu- 
rope, that academies of a more comprehensive 
kind were established in Italy. The Accademia 
Pontaniana, so called after its principal bene- 
factor Pontano, was founded at Palermo in 
1433 by Antonio Beccadella. The Accademia 
Platonica, founded by Lorenzo de' Medici in 
1474, lasted till 1521, counting among its mem- 
bers Machiavelli and other illustrious men, who 
devoted themselves to the study of Plato and 
of Dante, and to the improvement of the Ital- 
ian language and letters. This institution be- 
came the model of many others. Rome had 
its Lincei, Naples its Ardenti, Parma its In- 
sensati, and Genoa its Addormentati. In 
other towns were the academies of the Con- 
fused, of the Unstable, of the Drowsy, the 
Dead, the Nocturnal, the Thunderers, the 
Smoky, and the Vagabonds. Most of these 
academies were endowed by the state or by 
some wealthy patron of learning. All those 
learned associations which are in point of fact 
academies, but which bear the name of soci- 
eties, will be treated under that title. We 
shall now proceed to notice some of the most 
celebrated academies of the world, ranged 
according to their nationalities. I. Italian 
Academies. Italy is the mother country of 
modern academies. Jakeius, who in 1725 
published at Leipsic an account >f them, enu- 
merates nearly 600 as then existing. We have 
already mentioned the first two ; they did not 
live long. The most enduring and influential 
of all was the Accademia, delta Crusca (liter- 
ally, academy of bran or chaff), so called in al- 
lusion to its chief object of purifying and win- 
nowing the national tongue. It was founded 
in 1582 at Florence by the poet Grazzini. The 
dictionary of the Academy della Crusca was 
first published in 1612, and in its augmented 
form (Florence, 1729-'38) is considered the 
standard authority for the Italian language. 
The Delia Crusca is now incorporated with 
two still older societies, and thus united they 
are called the royal Florentine academy. The 
Academia Secretorum Nature* was established 



at Naples in 1560 for the cultivation of 
physical science, but was speedily abolished. 
This was succeeded by the Accademia de 1 Lin- 
cei (of the Lynx-eyed) at Rome, founded by 
Prince Federico Cesi in 1609, and dissolved af- 
ter his death in 1632; but the name was re- 
vived in 1847 by Pius IX. in the Accademia 
Pontiftc'ia de 1 nuovi Lincei, a scientific associa- 
tion of resident and foreign members, which 
publishes its transactions. The Accademia del 
Cimento, or of experiment, was also insti- 
tuted for the prosecution of inquiries in 
physical science, under the protection of Prince 
Leopold, brother of the grand duke of Tus- 
cany. A collection of experiments was pub- 
lished in Italian by this academy in 1667, of 
which a Latin translation was made with valu- 
able notes. The Accademia degli Arcadi, or 
of the Arcadians, at Rome, originated in 1690 
from the social gatherings at the palace of 
Queen Christina of Sweden, and met in the 
open air, poets and poetesses only being ad- 
mitted, and each member assuming the name 
of a shepherd. Its scope was afterward en- 
larged, and since 1726 it has met in sum- 
mer in the Bosco Parrasio of Mount Jani- 
culum, in winter .in the Serbatojo. It pub- 
lishes a monthly collection of pieces, called the 
Giomale Arcadico, which frequently contains 
curious archaeological information. Pope Leo 
XII. was elected a member in 1824, and Louis 
Napoleon, then president of the French repub- 
lic, in 1850. At Naples the Reale Accademia 
delle Scieme e Belle Lettere was established in 
1749, and the Accademia Ercolanea in 1755. 
The purpose of the latter was to explain the 
remains which were exhumed at Herculaneum 
and Pompeii. Its first volume appeared in 
1776. Further volumes have since been pub- 
lished under the title of Antichita di Ercolano. 
Another existing academy is the Accademia 
Etrmca at Cortona, founded in 1726. The 
royal academy of Turin, in whose volumes of 
transactions Lagrange first made himself 
known, is chiefly remarkable on that account. 
Padua, Milan, Siena, Verona, Genoa, all have 
academies which publish transactions from 
time to time. The earliest academies of fine 
arts are also Italian. That of San Luca at 
Rome was established in 1593 by Federico 
Zucchero, who erected a building for it at his 
own expense. Academies of fine arts also ex- 
ist in the principal cities of Italy. II. French 
Academies. The earliest and greatest of the 
French academies, the Academic francai&e, 
was instituted in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu, 
for the improvement and regulation of the na- 
tional tongue. The number of its members 
was limited to 40. They met three times a 
week at the Louvre. The most remarkable 
claim of this academy to fame is the dictionary 
of the French language published in 1694, after 
50 years consumed in debate upon the words 
to be inserted as good French. Many addi- 
tions have been made to this in successive edi- 
tions, the 6th and latest of which was published 



ACADEMY 



51 



in 1835. This academy was ridiculed by the 
French wits on account of its subserviency to 
the court and its personal jealousies against 
rising men of -genius. Moliere, for instance, 
was passed over. Boileau and Labruyere were 
only elected on the absolute command of Louis 
XIV. The witty Piron wrote his epitaph thus: 

Ci-g!t Piron, qul ne flit rlen, 
Pas nil-mi' academician. 

The Academic francaise survived until it was 
abolished by the republican convention in 1793. 
The next of the French academies in date is 
the Academie de peinture et de sculpture, 
which was founded in 1648, received letters 
patent from Mazarin in 1655, and was abol- 
ished by the convention in % 1793. The Aca- 
demie royale des inscriptions et belles-lettres 
was instituted by Colbert under the patron- 
age of Louis XIV. in 1663. At first it was 
called the Academie des inscriptions et me- 
dailles, consisted of four members of the 
Academie francaixe, and was charged with 
drawing up inscriptions for the monuments 
erected by Louis XIV. and for the medals 
struck in his honor. It was remodelled and 
enlarged under its present name in 1701, and 
temporarily suppressed in 1793. The Acade- 
mie royale des sciences was the last in date. 
It was organized in 1666 and entirely remod- 
elled in 1699. In 1795 all these academies 
were revived in a new form by the directory, 
under the name of Institut national. Napo- 
leon gave it a new organization in 1803, and 
called it the imperial institute of France. Louis 
XVIII., at the restoration, maintained the 
name Institut de France, but revived the old 
title academy for the component parts of the 
institute. The institute consisted then of 
four academies: 1, V Academie francaise; 2, 
V Academie des inscriptions et belles-lettres ; 
3, V Academie des sciences; 4, T Academie des 
beaux arts. A fifth academy, V Academie des 
sciences morales et politiques, founded in 
1795, was suppressed at this time, but re- 
established in 1832. As these five academies 
are the most important of the kind in the 
world at present, we add a particular descrip- 
tion of their constitution. The institute num- 
bers 233 full members, together with 7 secre- 
taries ; each of the members has a yearly sal- 
ary of 1,500 francs, and the secretaries have 
6,000 francs each. There are also 43 honorary 
academicians, who receive no pay, 32 associates, 
and 215 correspondents. The five academies 
bear the same relation to the institute that col- 
leges do to a university. The Academie fran- 
caise consists of 40 members, elected after per- 
sonal application, and submission of their nomi- 
nation to the head of the state. It meets twice 
a week, and is the highest authority on every- 
thing appertaining to the niceties of the French 
language, to grammar, rhetoric, and poetry, 
and the publication of the French classics. It 
distributes two annual prizes of 10,000 francs 
on the foundation of Count de Monthyon, one 



to the author of the best work on public 
morals, the other to the individual of the work- 
ing classes' who in the course of the year has 
performed the most ^virtuous action; an an- 
nual prize of 2,000 francs on the foundation of 
Baron Gobert, for the most eloquent work on 
the history of France ; and every second year 
a present of 1,500 francs to a poor rising 
genius who needs encouragement. This last 
is a bequest of the marquis Maill6-Latour Lan- 
dry. The Academie des inscriptions et belles- 
lettres consists of 40 members, 10 honor- 
ary academicians, and 8 foreign associates; it 
has 50 corresponding members at home and 
abroad. It meets once a week. Its con- 
cern is with general history, the condition 
of peoples, laws, and manners, religious 
and philosophical systems ; the study of chro- 
nology and geography, medals, inscriptions, 
and monuments of all sorts ; and comparative 
philology, and explanation of ancient docu- 
ments. This academy bestows a yearly prize 
of 2,000 francs for the- best memoir contributed 
to its transactions, and another yearly prize for 
numismatics. It superintends the publication 
of the following works : Memoires de Tacademie 
des inscriptions et belles-lettres, the collection 
of the papers which have been sent to it by 
learned investigators ; Collection de notices et 
extraits des manuscrits de la bibliotheque royale 
et autres bibliotheques pubKques ; Memoires 
sur les antiquites de la France ; the continua- 
tion of the Histoire litteraire de France begun 
by the Benedictines of St. Maur ; the Collection 
des histoires de France; the collection of the 
Histoires des croisades orientales, grecques et 
latines ; edition of the Ordonnances des rois de 
France, also begun by the Benedictines ; col- 
lection of the charters and documents relating 
to the history of France, the letters of the kings 
of France, and the catalogue of the charters. 
The conduct of the Journal des savants devolves 
chiefly upon this academy, although every 
member of all the academies can contribute. 
The Academie des sciences numbers 63 mem- 
bers, 8 foreign associates, and 100 correspond- 
ing members. It bestows an annual prize of 
3, 000 francs for productions on natural science; 
three yearly prizes on Monthyon's foundation, 
for statistics, mechanics, and experimental 
physiology; a prize of 10,000 francs, founded 
by Lalande, for the most important astronom- 
ical discovery or observation, and another by 
the widow of the astronomer Laplace, for the 
best scholar of the polytechnic school. Many 
other rewards are in its gift, for scientific and 
industrial inventions, discoveries, and improve- 
ments. This academy publishes three series of 
Memoires, and, what is peculiar, holds its ses- 
sions in public, which are much frequented by 
the residents of Paris. The Academie des 
beaux arts consists of 40 members, 10 honor- 
ary academicians, and 10 foreign associates. 
It meets once a week. It superintends the 
competitive examinations for the yearly prizes, 
in reward of the best achievements in paint- 



52 



ACADEMY 



ing, sculpture, architecture, engraving in cop- 
per, and musical composition. It has its 
memoirs and transactions, and is busied in the 
discussion of the Dictfbnnaire general des 
beaux arts. The Academic des sciences morales 
et politiques numbers 50 members, 5 foreign 
associates, and 40 corresponding members. Its 
five sections are : philosophy ; moral philoso- 
phy; legislation, public law, and jurisprudence; 
political economy and statistics; and general 
history and philosophy. The whole institute 
has one regular session in common, on the 2d 
of May of each year. By an imperial decree of 
April, 1855, an annual prize of 10,000 francs is 
placed by the government at the disposal of 
the institute, for the most useful invention of 
the last five years. Academies also exist in 
many of the provincial cities of France, as at 
Soissons since 1675, NJmes (1682), Angers 
(1685), Lyons (1700), Bordeaux (1703), Caen 
(1705), Marseilles (1726), Rouen (1736), Dijon 
(1740), Montauban (1744), Amiens (1750), 
Toulouse (the first volume of whose transac- 
tions is dated 1782), and so on. There was also 
at Paris the Academic celtique, founded in 
1807, for the elucidation of the history, cus- 
toms, antiquities, manners, and monuments of 
the Celts, particularly in France ; also for phi- 
lological researches by means of the Breton, 
Welsh, and Erse dialects, and for investigation 
into Druidism. This is now merged in the 
SocUt^ des antiquaires de France, and has 
published several volumes of interesting me- 
moirs. The French Opera is styled the 
Academic de musique. III. Spanish Academies. 
A society for the cultivation of physical science, 
called the Academia Naturte Uuriosorum, was 
established at Madrid in 1652, on the model 
of the Neapolitan Academia Secretorum Natu- 
rae, before described. Of those now existing, 
three are specially noteworthy, viz. : 1. The 
royal academy at Madrid, founded in 1714, on 
the model of the Delia Cnisca and the 
Academic francaise. It published the first 
edition of its dictionary in l726-'39. 2. The 
royal academy of Spanish history. This com- 
menced as a private association at Madrid, but 
was taken under royal protection in 1738. 
3. The academy of painting and sculpture, at 
Madrid, dates from 1753. An academy of 
sciences was founded in 1847. IV. Portu- 
guese Academies. An academy of Portuguese 
history was established at Lisbon in 1720, by 
King John V. A still more flourishing though 
more recent institution is the academy of 
science, agriculture, arts, commerce, and gen- 
eral economy, founded by Queen Maria in 
1779. It is liberally endowed by the state, 
and is divided into three sections: 1, natural 
science ; 2, mathematics ; 3, Portuguese litera- 
ture. The geographical academy at Lisbon 
has published a map of Portugal since the 
beginning of this century. V. German Acad- 
emies. The royal academy of sciences and 
belles-lettres at Berlin was founded in 1700, 
by the elector Frederick, partly on the model 



of the royal society of England, but not opened 
till 1711. Leibnitz was its first president. In 
1744 Frederick the Great gave it a new organ- 
ization ; the king invited to Berlin many dis- 
tinguished foreigners, and placed Maupertuis 
at the head of the institution. Formerly the 
transactions were published in French, but 
since the revolution they have appeared in 
German. A yearly medal worth 50 Prussian 
ducats is distributed. The other noteworthy 
German associations of the kind are the acade- 
mies of Gottingen (founded in 1750), Munich 
(1759), Leipsic (1846), and Vienna (1846), 
chiefly devoted to historical studies and gen- 
eral scholarship. Prague, Cracow, and Pesth 
also possess creditable academies. VI. In 
Switzerland, there is an academy of medicine 
at Geneva, founded in 1715. VII. In Belgium, 
the academy of sciences and belles-lettres at 
Brussels was founded by Maria Theresa in 1772, 
suspended during the French revolution, re- 
vived in 1816, and reorganized in 1845 as the 
Academic royale des sciences, des lettres et 
des beaux arts. VIII. Holland. The Academia 
Lugduno-Batava, at Leyden, was founded 
June 18, 1766, and publishes Annales. The 
academy of Amsterdam, founded in 1808, was 
devoted to fine arts only, but was converted in 
1852 into an academy of sciences, literature, 
and fine arts. Rotterdam, Haarlem, Utrecht, 
and Middelburg have also learned associa- 
tions. IX. Scandinavian Academies. The royal 
academy of sciences at Stockholm was in- 
stituted by six men of science, among whom 
was Linnteus. Their first meeting was on 
June 2, 1739 ; in that year the first volume of 
memoirs appeared. On March 31, 1741, they 
were incorporated under the name of the royal 
Swedish academy. It is not supported by. 
public patronage like the academies of France, 
Spain, Italy, and Germany. It has, however, 
a large fund, the fruit of legacies by private 
individuals. The transactions are written in 
the Swedish language, but have also been 
translated into German. Annual premiums 
for the encouragement of agriculture and inland 
trade are distributed by the academy. The 
prize fund is indebted for its existence to volun- 
tary contributions. Stockholm contains also ;m 
academy of belles-lettres, established in 1753; 
and the literary academy of Sweden, founded 
in 1786, whose object is the cultivation of the 
national language. There is an academy of 
northern antiquities at Upsal, whose researches 
have done much toward elucidating the early 
condition and creeds of the Gothic race. The 
royal academy of sciences at Copenhagen <> \\-es 
its origin to six individuals. The count of IIol- 
stein was its first president, and the kin^r <>t' 
Denmark extended to it his patronage in 1743. 
It has published 15 volumes in the Danish 
language, which have been in part translated 
into Latin. The academy of the fine arts was 
established in 1733 at Stockholm, by the exer- 
tions of Charles Gustavus, count of IV 
and that of Copenhagen, founded in 1738, 



ACADEMY 



53 



was incorporated in 1754. X. Russian Acade- 
mies. The imperial academy of sciences at 
St. Petersburg was projected by Peter the 
Great. He took the advice of Wolf 'and Leib- 
nitz. Learned foreigners were invited to be- 
come members. The death of Peter left the 
execution of this project to his successor, 
Catharine I. The academy held its first ses- 
sions in December, 1725. A large annual sum 
was appropriated for the support of the mem- 
bers. The most distinguished of the professors 
were Bulfinger, a German naturalist, Nicolas 
and Daniel Bernoulli, Wolf, and the two De 
Lisles. The academy suffered many vicissi- 
tudes until the accession of the empress Eliza- 
beth in 1741, when new life was infused into 
it. The first transactions of this academy were 
published in 1728, and entitled Commentarii 
AcademicR Scientiarum Imperialis Petropoli- 
tancB ad Annum 1726, with a dedication to 
Peter II. Until 1777 the papers were pub- 
lished in the Latin language only; they are 
now written sometimes in French and some- 
times in German. Several volumes are published 
every year. Each professor has a house and 
an annual stipend of from $1,000 to $3,000. 
The celebrated mathematician Euler contrib- 
uted largely to the mathematical papers of this 
body. In 1783 an institution on the model of 
the Academie f ran false was established at St. 
Petersburg, for the cultivation of the national 
language, but it was soon amalgamated with 
the imperial academy. The Academie imperiale 
des beaux arts of St. Petersburg was founded 
in 1765 by Catharine II., who endowed it 
richly. It now sends out pupils to Germany 
and Italy for education in the fine arts, and 
supports them during their studies. Mr. Al- 
bert Bierstadt, chosen in 1871, was the first 
American honorary member of this acad- 
emy. XI. British and Irish Academics. In 
Britain proper, the term society or association 
is the designation in use for bodies of learned 
men united in pursuit of some common object. 
They will be found enumerated under the head 
of SOCIETIES. The word academy in Britain is 
reserved for institutions devoted to the cultiva- 
tion of the fine arts. In Ireland the conti- 
nental name has been adopted. The royal 
Irish academy, founded in 1782, at Dublin, has 
published transactions from time to time since 
1788. The present royal academy of arts in 
London originated in a society of painters, who 
obtained a charter in 1765, under the title of 
the " Incorporated Society of Artists of Great 
Britain." This society took a new form in 
1768, and became the royal academy of arts. 
It consists of 40 artists, bearing the title of 
royal academicians, of 18 associates, 6 associate 
engravers, and 3 or 4 honorary members. 
There is an annual exhibition of paintings, 
sculptures, and designs, open to all artists. 
This exhibition is so well frequented that the 
royal academy draws almost all its funds from 
the money paid by the public for tickets of 
entry. The Edinburgh royal academy of paint- 



ing was founded in 1754. A similar institution, 
called the royal Hibernian academy, was estab- 
lished in Dublin about 1832. An academy of 
ancient music was established in London so 
early as the year 1710; but a disagreement 
among its members finally broke it up. Soon 
afterward the royal academy of music was 
formed for the performance of operas com- 
posed by Handel. Another disagreement broke 
this up in 1729. The present royal academy 
of music was established in 1822. It is of great 
utility as a school of vocal and instrumental 
music. XII. Turkish Empire. The academy 
established in 1851 at Constantinople is still 
feeble. That founded at Alexandria in 1859 
has published memoirs and bulletins since 
1862. XIII. The principal Australian acad- 
emy is located at Victoria. XIV. Asia. There 
are learned associations in all the impor- 
tant British colonies of Asia, and an acad- 
emy at Batavia (Java), devoted to sciences. 
XV. American Academies. In America, as in 
Britain, the term academy is not generally 
used for learned societies. The American 
academy of arts and sciences, at Boston, 
founded in 1780, has published several volumes 
of transactions. The Connecticut academy of 
arts and sciences was founded in 1799. The 
academy of natural science, at Philadelphia, 
founded in 1818, is a flourishing institution, 
and has splendid collections of fossils, stuffed 
animals, birds, and Dr. Morton's collection of 
skulls, the finest on the American continent. 
The national academy of sciences was incor- 
porated by congress March 3, 1863. It is 
provided that " the academy shall consist of 
not more than 50 ordinary members, shall 
have power to make its own organization, in- 
cluding its constitution, by-laws, and rules and 
regulations ; to provide for the election of for- 
eign and domestic members, the division into 
classes, and all other matters needful or useful 
in such institution, and to report the same to 
congress." Fifty members were named in the 
original act, a majority of whom met for or- 
ganization in New York, April 22, 1863. The 
academy receives no support from the govern- 
ment, and, being destitute of funds beyond a 
legacy left by the late Alexander Dallas Bache, 
is not in condition to publish its proceedings ; 
hence the public hear very little of its activity. 
The Pennsylvania academy of fine arts, estab- 
lished in 1807, holds annual exhibitions at Phil- 
adelphia. The national academy of design, at 
New York, was founded in 1828, chiefly by the 
exertions of Mr. S. F. B. Morse, its first presi- 
dent. It is composed exclusively of artists, 
has one of the most conspicuous buildings in 
the city, maintains a flourishing school of design, 
and has annual exhibitions. The medical acad- 
emy of New York is in a flourishing condition ; 
its meetings are well attended, and attract 
much public interest. New York, following 
the Parisian example, called her principal 
opera house the academy of music. This 
spacious building, erected by an incorporated 



54 ACADIA 

society, and capable of containing 4,500 persons, 
was opened in the autumn of 1854; it was 
burned in 1867, and replaced by one of con- 
siderably smaller dimensions. Philadelphia 
followed with a similar construction for similar 
purposes ; it was inaugurated as the American 
academy of music in the winter of 1856-'7. 
Other opera houses with the same designation 
have since been erected in Brooklyn, Chicago 
(burned in 1871), and other cities. XVI. At Rio 
Janeiro and in other South American capitals 
are also academies of learning and of fine arts. 
ACADIA, or Aeadie, the name of the peninsula 
now called Nova Scotia, from its first settle- 
ment by the French in 1604 till its final cession 
to the English in 1713. In the original com- 
mission of the king of France, New Brunswick 
and a part of Maine were included in Cadie, 
but practically the colony was restricted to the 
peninsula. The English claimed the territory 
by right of discovery. In 1621 it was granted 
by royal charter under the name of Nova 
Scotia, and its possession was obstinately dis- 
puted. (See NOVA SCOTIA.) The quarrels be- 
tween the two nations were embittered by the 
desire for exclusive possession of the fisheries. 
After the final cession the Acadians generally 
remained in Nova Scotia, though they had the 
privilege of leaving within two years, and, 
refusing to take the oath of allegiance, took 
the oath of fidelity to the British king. They 
were exempted from bearing arms against 
their countrymen, whence they were known 
in the colonies as the neutral French. They 
were allowed to enjoy their religion, and to 
have magistrates of their own selection. The 
French, having lost Acadia, settled the island 
of Cape Breton and built Louisburg. There 
they carried on intrigues with the Indians, 
who kept up an irregular warfare with the 
English, the blame whereof was thrown upon 
the neutral French, who in 1755, a few years 
after the English turned their attention to the 
colonization of Nova Scotia, suffered for the 
offences of their countrymen, of which they 
were doubtless innocent, since they were a 
simple agricultural people. Because they still 
refused to take the oath of allegiance, or to 
bear arms against the French or their Indian 
allies, to whom they were suspected of lending 
aid, and because by their peculiar position 
they embarrassed the local government, it was 
determined at a consultation of the governor 
and his council to remove this whole people, 
18,000 souls, and disperse them among the 
other British provinces. For this harsh meas- 
ure itself there may have been some excuse; 
for the manner in which it was carried out 
there was none. The inhabitants were com- 
pelled to give up all their property, their 
houses and crops were burned before their 
eyes, and themselves shipped in such haste 
that few families or friends remained together. 
In a few towns the Acadians discovered and 
escaped the plot, but most of them were scat- 
tered over the continent. 



ACAPULCO 






ACALEPII.E (Gr. a/cc^?, nettle), a class of 
animals living in sea water, some species of 
which possess the nettle-like property of irri- 
tating and inflaming the skin. The animals 
are invertebrate, gelatinous, of circular form, 
often shaped like an umbrella, and all included 
in the division of radiata. (See JELLY FISH.) 

ACANTHUS. Under this name have been 
described by the classical writers three differ- 
ent plants: 1. A prickly tree, with smooth 
evergreen leaves and saffron-colored berries, 
believed to be the common holly. 2. A prick- 
ly Egyptian tree, with a pod like a bean, sup- 
posed to be the acacia Ardbica, or gum arabic 
tree. 3. An herb with broad prickly leaves, 
which dies in the winter, but shoots out afresh 
in the spring. The idea of the beautiful Co- 
rinthian capitals of the Greek columns is said 
to have been derived from a basket filled with 
the roots of this plant, set down carelessly by 
a girl, and covered with a tile; when the 
leaves, forcing their way through the crevices, 
and rising toward the light, until met by the 
under side of the cover, presented the effect 
of the foliage and volutes simulated by the 
Grecian chisel. In modern botany acanthus 




Acanthus mollis. 

is a genus of herbaceous plants found in the 
south of Europe, Asia Minor, and India, the 
commonest species of which is the acanthus 
mollis, a native of moist, shady places in the 
south of Europe. It has pretty foliage and 
large white flowers tinged with pale yellow. 
This was long supposed to be the classic plant 
of antiquity; but it has been shown that it 
does not exist either in the Peloponnesus or in 
the isles of Greece, and the honor of having 
furnished the idea of the Corinthian capital is 
now attributed to the acanthus spinosus, which 
has deeply cleft prickly leaves, and flowers 
tinged with pink instead of yellow. In Eng- 
land they are both half-hardy perennials, need- 
ing protection from frost, and propagated by 
subdivision of the roots. In America . they 
would probably endure the winter south of 
Maryland; northward they would be green- 
house plants. The word acanthus also signifies 
thorn, as in acanthopterygious, thorny-finned, 
applied to an order of fishes. 

ACAPULCO, a seaport town of Mexico, on the 
Pacific, in the state of Guerrero, 180 m. S. bj 
W. of Mexico; lat. 16 50' N., Ion. 99 48 
W. ; pop. about 4,000. It has one of the best 



ACARNANIA 



ACCELERATION 



55 



harbors on the W. coast, and during the Span- 
ish dominion in Mexico was the focus of the 
trade from China and the East Indies, and a 
place of considerable importance. It has since 
relapsed into insignificance, although previous 
to the opening of the Pacific railroad the Cali- 
fornia trade imbued it with a transitory com- 
mercial life, in consequence of its having been 
made the coaling station for the steamers be- 
tween Panama and San Francisco. 

ACARNANIA, a province of ancient Greece, 
bounded N. by the Ambracian gulf and Am- 
philochia, which is by some included in Acar- 
nania, E. by ^Etolia, and S. W. and W. by 
the Ionian sea. It 'is mountainous, with nu- 
merous lakes and tracts of pasture, and its 
hills are still well wooded. Among its earliest 
inhabitants were Leleges, Curetes, and colo- 
nists from Argos. The Acarnanians were more 
akin in character and manners to their savage 
neighbors of Epirus than to the Greeks proper. 
Up to the time of the Peloponnesian war they 
were a race of shepherds, continually fighting, 
but faithful and steadfast. They also figure as 
pirates. Though possessing several good har- 
bors, the Acarnanians paid little attention to 
commercial pursuits. At the present day it 
forms with ^Etolia a nomarchy or province of 
the kingdom of Greece; area, 3,024 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 121,693. The country is thin- 
ly inhabited, and little cultivated, notwith- 
standing its fertile soil and treasures of sul- 
phur and coal. Besides the Greek popula- 
tion, there are bands of nomadic Kutzo-Wal- 
lachs, here called Karagunis (black cloaks), 
who in the winter descend from the north- 
ern mountains of Agraphi and encamp with 
their herds at the edge of the woods. They 
speak a dialect akin to the Latin. Different 
from them are the nomadic Sarakatzanes, 
who are of Greek origin. A band of the 
Karagunis embrace's from 50 to 100 families, 
constituting a stani, and is commanded by 
the most wealthy member as chief (tchelinga), 
who farms the pastures and fixes the time of 
departure. They are skilled in making cotton 
goods. Capital, Missolonghi. 

ACARl'S, the name of a genus of insects, 
commonly called mites. They belong to the 
spider family. They are all extremely minute, 
and mostly microscopic insects. Some are 
parasitic, as the itch insect, acarus scabiei. 
The different species infest brown sugars, 
meal, cheese, &c. To collections of insects 
and stuffed birds they do much injury. Cam- 
phor tends to keep them off, and corrosive 
sublimate is a still more effectual protection. 
(See EPIZOA, and ITCH.) 

ACASTUS, in mythology, son of Pelias, king 
of lolcus. He took part in the Calydonian 
hunt and the expedition of the Argonauts. 
He revenged the murder of his father, in 
which his sisters were the instruments of 
Medea, by driving Jason and Medea out of 
lolcus, and instituted funeral games in honor 
of Pelias. 



A CCA I), one of the four cities in the "land of 
Shinar " or Baby Ionia, which, according to Gen. 
x. 10, were the beginning of Nimrod's king- 
dom. Among other places, it has been iden- 
tified with Nisibis. Rawlinson sees in Accad 
the name of " the great primitive Hainite 
race " in Babylonia. 

ACCELERATION, an increase in velocity of 
a moving body, either constant and uniform 
or variable. When the velocity receives equal 
increments in equal times, it is uniform. This 
is the case with bodies falling in a vacuum, the 
increase of which is in every second about 
32^- feet, but varies with the latitude of the 
place and the height above the ocean, or the 
depth under the surface of the earth. As 
gravitation is the cause of this acceleration, 
scientists have accepted the letter g for it as a 
symbol, meaning 31 or 32 or any other number 
of feet, as the case may be. At the distance 
of the moon the acceleration is 3,600 times 
smaller, and g is thus equal to about 4- inch ; 
while at the surface of the sun and large 
planets it is much greater by reason of the 
greater attraction of large masses. Acceleration 
is variable when its velocity increases at one 
instant in a greater or lesser ratio than in an- 
other. This is the case with a body falling 
from a great height toward the earth through 
the air ; the resistance of the latter increasing 
with the velocity, the ratio of increase must 
diminish till the accelerating force, that is, 
gravitation (<7), balances the resistance of the 
air, when the body will continue to fall with 
uniform motion, which motion may then be- 
come retarded if the body in its downward 
course enters strata of air of greater density 
and thus at greater resistance. The motions of 
the planets, and especially of the comets, in 
their orbits around the sun, offer other illus- 
trations of variable acceleration. Acceleration 
of the Moon. Halley noticed that the compar- 
ison of ancient eclipses with modern shows 
that the moon moves faster now than formerly, 
and the solution of the problem as to the cause 
of this acceleration was first given by Laplace, 
who showed that the slow diminution of the 
eccentricity of the earth's orbit must produce 
an acceleration of the moon's motion and a 
decrease in the period of its revolution. 
Adams has recently shown that Laplace over- 
estimated the effect of the change of the 
earth's orbit on the moon by one half, and that 
his demonstration therefore only accounts for 
half of the moon's acceleration. The cause of 
the other half remains to be found out. De- 
launy ascribes it to a retardation in the earth's 
motion of rotation by the influence of the tidal 
wave raised by the moon, and reacting on the 
latter. The earth's daily rotation, however, ap- 
pears to undergo neither acceleration nor re- 
tardation; therefore others ascribe it to a 
resisting medium, filling the interplanetary 
space and revolving round the sun with the 
planets, and which thus only can affect their 
moons, which at every half revolution move 



ACCEPTANCE 



in opposite direction to the general motion, 
and thus having their centrifugal force checked 
are drawn nearer to the planet, by which their 
apparent or angular velocity is increased. Ac- 
celeration of the Stars. The so-called stellar ac- 
celeration is no acceleration in the true sense, 
but means only the amount that the apparent 
daily revolution of the stars gains on that of 
the sun. It is easily calculated by considering 
the fact that the starry heavens make per year 
one revolution more than the sun; therefore 
the daily gain must be 3-^ part of 24 hours, 
which is very near 3 minutes and 56 seconds. 

ACCEPTANCE, an agreement to pay a bill 
when due according to the tenor of the obli- 
gation assumed. A bill of exchange or draft 
is a written instrument by which A requests B 
to pay C a sum of money at a certain time, un- 
conditionally. A is the drawer, C the payee, 
and B the drawee ; and if B assents to the re- 
quest, or in other words accepts the bill, he is 
the acceptor, and his agreement is the accept- 
ance. The bill is usually drawn on the drawee 
B because he has funds of A in his hands, or 
is indebted to him to the amount covered by 
the bill. But the bill does not ordinarily of 
itself work an assignment of the fund or the 
debt so that C can claim that specifically of B. 
An order drawn on B for the payment to C of 
any particular fund amounts to an assignment 
of that fund, and B is bound by mere notice 
of the order to make the payment, and his ac- 
ceptance or assent to the arrangement is not 
essential. But a bill of exchange is not an as- 
signment of nor an order on any special fund, 
but is intended to raise a contract by the 
drawee which he may satisfy out of any money 
which he has. This contract, however, does 
not arise, and the drawee owes no duty to the 
payee of the bill, until he accepts it. It is 
therefore the duty of the holder to present the 
bill for acceptance. This is fairly implied from 
the form of the instrument ; and if the acceptor 
is not called upon, as the bill directs that he 
shall be, and then fails, the drawer will be dis- 
charged. In some countries, as for example in 
France, acceptance must be demanded within 
limits defined by positive laws. But by our 
law, though there is no fixed time prescribed 
within which the presentation for acceptance 
must be made, it ought obviously to be within 
a reasonable time, considering all the circum- 
stances. What is or is not such a reasonable 
time is a question of law, and depends, for ex- 
ample, upon the character of the bill, whether 
payable a certain time after sight, or at a pre- 
cise date, or whether domestic or foreign; 
upon the place where it is drawn regarded 
in connection with the place on which it is 
drawn ; or upon the legitimate commercial ne- 
gotiation or use which may be made of the 
bill. If the bill is payable at sight, or so many 
days or months after sight or after demand, 
the presentation is necessary in order to fix 
the time of payment, and it ought to be made 
with diligence; though if it is payable at a 



fixed period after its date, or at a day certain, 
the holder need not offer it for acceptance until 
its maturity. Again, what is reasonable time 
for presentation in the case of a bill drawn in 
Boston on New York would not be reasonable 
time in case of one drawn in New York on 
Calcutta. So delay to present the bill may be 
excused when an inevitable accident prevents 
the holder from doing it, such as his illness, or 
the outbreak of a war which forbids commer- 
cial intercourse. The usual course of negotia- 
tion of the bill may also justifiably delay its 
presentation for acceptance, so that what 
would be reasonable time in the case of a ne- 
gotiated bill would be unreasonable in the case 
of one which had never been yet transferred. 
The principle of the rules respecting presen- 
tation for acceptance being that the drawer 
and other parties may be injured by delaying 
it, an entire omission to present the bill to the 
acceptor may be excused when it appears that 
the drawer had no funds in his hands and had 
no right to suppose that he had, or when for 
any other reason it is certain that the omission 
was not prejudicial to the drawer or other par- 
ties. In certain cases no acceptance and there- 
fore no presentation is necessary to charge the 
drawee ; as where a bill is drawn by a person 
upon himself, or by a partner upon his firm, or 
by one officer of a corporation on another offi- 
cer of it or on the corporation itself. When the 
bill is addressed to the drawee at a particular 
place, the demand for acceptance should be 
made at that place ; and if the drawee, though 
not at the very place named, is within the 
same town, and perhaps within the same state, 
he should be sought out. But if he never 
lived in the place named, or has removed to a 
distant place, especially if it is out of the state, 
or his house is shut up and no one is there to 
answer for him, presentation is excused and 
the bill may be treated as dishonored. When 
the bill is drawn on a firm, it is enough to pre- 
sent it to one of the partners. If the presen- 
tation is required by the bill to be made at a 
bank, it must be made within the usual bank 
hours ; or if at the drawee's place of business, 
then within the usual hours of business ; but 
if it is to be made at his home, it may be made 
within any reasonable hours of the day ; and 
in all cases the drawee is entitled to have pos- 
session of the bill for a day if he require it, in 
order to decide, on examining his accounts 
with the drawer, whether to accept or not. 
The acceptance may be absolute or qualified 
or conditional, though the holder is not bound 
to receive anything but an absolute acceptance. 
It may be written, or, if no statute interferes, 
it may be oral. It may be before the drawing 
of the bill or after it is drawn, or even after 
its maturity; and it may be by the drawee, 
or by some one else, for honor of the drawer or 
other parties to the paper. But the acceptance 
is usually absolute, in writing, and on th 
bill itself; and any form is sufficient which in- 
dicates the purpose of the drawee to honor th 



ACCEPTANCE 



57 



draft. The usual forms are, "Accepted" or 
"Honored," or the mere signature of the ac- 
ceptor written across the face of the bill. In 
New York, by special statute, the holder may 
require that the acceptance be written on the 
bill, and a refusal to comply with such request 
may be regarded as a refusal to accept, and 
the bill may be protested for non-acceptance. 
By the same statute, if the drawee receives 
the bill and then destroys it, or refuses to re- 
turn it within 24 hours, accepted or not ac- 
cepted, he is deemed to have accepted it. 
This is only a positive enactment of a rule, the 
principle at least of which is pretty firmly es- 
tablished in the general commercial law. For, 
though the detention of a bill is not essentially 
an acceptance of it, yet when it takes place 
under such circumstances as fairly justify the 
holder in supposing that an acceptance is in- 
tended, or if any other construction of the 
drawee's act would prejudice the holder with- 
out any fault on his part, it is fair enough to 
fix upon the former the same liability which 
he would have incurred by an actual accept- 
ance. The acceptance may be qualified or con- 
ditional ; as for a part of the amount which the 
draft calls for ; or to pay at a different time or 
place, or in a different manner from that re- 
quired; or when the drawee is in funds, or 
when certain goods in his hands are sold. If 
the holder accepts any of these variations from 
the tenor of the- bill, he is bound by them. 
But, as already said, he cannot safely assent to 
them if they are at all substantial variations, 
unless he has the consent of the other parties ; 
for their liability is founded on the very terms 
of the instrument, and they are not bound by 
any new conditions which the acceptor may 
propose, unless they expressly agree to them. 
The acceptance need not be in writing unless 
positive statutes require it. But for the pur- 
pose of preventing the inconveniences which 
result from an opposite rule, there are in many 
of the states positive statutes to that effect, 
and the best illustration of them is furnished 
by the statute of New York. It is provided 
there that no person shall be charged as an ac- 
ceptor on a bill unless his acceptance is in writ- 
ing and signed by himself or his lawful agent. 
But it is also provided for the benefit of a draw- 
er, that this and the other provisions of the act 
shall not impair any of his rights against a 
drawee, on the faith of whose promise to accept 
the bill the drawer drew and negotiated it. 
By the same statute it is declared, as indeed 
it is well established by the general commer- 
cial law, that any unconditional promise in 
writing to accept a bill, though made before it 
is drawn, amounts to an actual acceptance of 
the bill in favor of any person who took the 
bill for valuable consideration on the faith of 
such promise in-writing. Neither of these last 
rules of the statute, it will be seen, takes away 
or affects at all a drawer's undoubted right to 
damages against a drawee for breach of an 
agreement, made on good consideration with 



the drawer, to accept his bills. Under the. last 
cited provision of the statute it has been held 
in New York that an unqualified authority in 
writing or by telegraph to draw on one is 
equivalent to his unconditional promise to ac- 
cept the bill drawn ; and that a letter of credit 
which confers an absolute authority on the 
holder to draw bills upon the author of the 
letter is also an unconditional promise in 
writing to accept the bills drawn, within the 
same section of the statute; and in both 
cases the liability is enforced in favor of the 
persons who took the bills on the faith of the 
written authority. With the qualification, per- 
haps necessary, that the written promise to 
accept, or authority to draw be given within 
a reasonable time before or after the date of 
the bill, or contemplate or in some way fairly 
include the bills actually drawn, the rule or 
principle just stated is the general rule of the 
law. If the original drawee refuses to accept 
or cannot be found, and the bill has been duly 
protested, any other person may accept for 
honor, or, as it is sometimes said, supra pro- 
test. It may be for the honor of the drawer 
or an indorser, or for the honor of the bill 
generally ; and if it is intended to be for the 
benefit of any one especially, the acceptance 
ought to point him out. It is a conditional 
agreement by a volunteer to pay the bill at 
maturity if the original drawee does not. 
"When one has paid a bill for the honor of the 
drawer, for example, he may recover against 
him after proving presentation to the original 
drawee, non-acceptance or non-payment by 
him, and notice to the drawer; in short, by 
doing just what the payee must have done to 
sustain an action. This rule of the commercial 
law is well established, though it is utterly 
anomalous^ and forms perhaps the only excep- 
tion to the principle that no one can make 
another his debtor without his consent. The 
holder of a bill is of course not bound to re- 
ceive such an acceptance ; but if he does, he is 
bound to conform to the new condition of 
things, so that in order to hold the acceptor 
for honor he must call on the original drawee 
before applying to him ; and if he wishes to 
hold the drawee or other party, to whose ben- 
efit the acceptance for honor accrues in case 
of non-payment by the acceptor for honor, he 
must not only call on the original drawee, but 
also on the acceptor for honor, protest in both 
cases, and notify the prior parties. Every ac- 
ceptance admits the signature of the drawer;, 
so that an acceptor is liable to an innocent 
holder for value even though the drawer's sig- 
nature is forged. So also the acceptor admits 
the authority of one who has drawn as the 
agent of another. In case of non-acceptance 
of a bill, the holder is bound to give notice of 
the fact to the drawer or indorsers if he wishes 
to hold them. Mere failure to notify them will 
not be fatal to the holder's action against them, 
if he can show that they have sustained no in- 
jury from his omission; but the presumption 



58 



ACCESSORY 



of injury is in their favor, and the burden of 
proof is on .him to overset it. The mere fact 
that the drawer had no funds in the hands of 
the drawee is probably not sufficient excuse 
for failure to give him notice of the dishonor 
of the paper. Perhaps he ought to have had 
funds if the drawee had kept his account prop- 
erly, or at all events he may be prejudiced in 
some way by want of notice, and it is not safe 
to assume anything against his right to have 
it, in case of non-acceptance. Foreign bills 
should be protested in full form. It is cus- 
tomary to protest as to inland bills also, but it 
is not necessary, unless positive statutes re- 
quire it. Indeed, where they do not require 
or authorize it, protest of inland bills is an 
empty form, of no use whatever. 

ACCESSORY, properly, with reference to a 
felony, one who takes part in the act, but not 
such part as to be a principal. The law rec- 
ognizes no accessory in treason, the highest of 
crimes, nor in misdemeanors, the lowest class 
of offences; in the former case, because the 
crime is so great that it will hold all partici- 
pants equally guilty; and in the latter case, 
because the crime is comparatively so small 
that it will not trouble itself to distinguish be- 
tween the degrees of guilt. In offences of 
these degrees all are principals. Accessories 
are familiarly designated as those before the 
fact and those after the fact. An accessory 
before the fact is one who participates in the 
very criminal act of the principal ; but an ac- 
cessory after the fact is guilty of a crime of 
his own, which is independent of that of the 
principal, and in which the latter properly has 
no share. To call hhn an accessory, therefore, 
is not quite accurate ; at least the word has 
not the same propriety of meaning that it has 
when applied to the accessory before the fact. 
But the description is fixed in the law and 
cannot be disturbed. When a crime is com- 
mitted, he who actually does the specified act 
is the principal, and, as it is said sometimes, 
he is the principal in the first degree ; and ho 
who is present, and aids and abets the princi- 
pal in doing the act, is called the principal in 
the second degree. But he who, though not 
present at the commission of the act of the 
principal, yet commands, counsels, or pro- 
cures it to be done by him, is an accessory 
before the fact. Here absence is essential; 
for the same act of instigation and procure- 
ment, if done in the presence of the actual 
offender^ and at his perpetration of the of- 
fence, would make the participant a principal. 
Thus in the case of a murder, those who are 
present, and intelligently aid and abet the 
killing, are ell principals. But if two men 
meet in the presence of others and fall to 
blows, and either have a deliberate, malicious 
intent to kill the other, but the by-standers, 
being ignorant of this, aid and abet the fight- 
ing merely, they are not guilty of murder if 
one be killed. But again, as to presence, there 
may be a constructive presence as well as an 



actual presence; so that mere physical ab- 
sence from the scene of the offence will not ne- 
cessarily save the participant from the guilt of 
a principal and make him a mere accessory. 
Thus he is a principal who conspires with a 
murderer for the doing of the act, but stands 
at a distance and is absent from it in order to 
watch against surprise or discovery, or to pre- 
vent the escape of the victim. But if A sim- 
ply command B to beat C, and he does beat 
him so that he dies, B is the principal in the 
murder and A is the accessory before the fact. 
If A, however, command B to commit a cer- 
tain crime, and B, of his own will and design, 
commit a different one, A is not an accessory 
to the offence committed, because he is not 
guilty of setting in motion the criminal intent 
which executed the act. But it will be other- 
wise if B, in attempting to execute A's design, 
execute it on the wrong person; for in that 
case A is guilty of setting in motion the very 
criminal intent which resulted in the crime 
actually committed. In an old phrase of the 
law the accessory is said to attend and follow 
the principal, as the shadow does the sub- 
stance; and at common law, and where no 
statutes have intervened to. change the rules 
on this subject, the accessory cannot be guilty 
of any other, and at all events of no higher of- 
fence than his principal ; nor is he guilty at 
all if his principal is not guilty ; if the prin- 
cipal is acquitted, so is the accessory ; he can- 
not be convicted, except jointly with the prin- 
cipal, or after his conviction ; and formerly, 
and until a remedial statute to the contrary, if 
after conviction of the principal sentence upon 
him was stayed for any reason, the accessory 
could not be held. But recent statutes in 
England and in almost all of the United States 
have very materially changed the law in these 
respects. For example, the statutes of Massa- 
chusetts and New York provide that any per- 
son who, by counselling, hiring, or otherwise 
procuring the commission of a felony, becomes 
an accessory before the fact, shall be punished 
in the same manner as the principal felon, 
In New York it is also provided that the 
accessory before or after the fact may be in- 
dicted, tried, convicted, and punished, not- 
withstanding that the principal felon has been 
pardoned or otherwise discharged before con- 
viction ; and in Massachusetts, if for any rea- 
son the principal is not amenable to justice. 
In that state, too, the aider and abettor, who 
at common law would have been but a mere 
accessory, may be indicted and convicted of a 
substantive felony, without any regard to 
the indictment or conviction of the principal. 
There are similar statutory provisions in Penn- 
sylvania; and, indeed, probably all the states 
have statutes of the same character. An ac- 
cessory after the fact is one who, knowing the 
guilt of the felon, whether principal or acces- 
sory before the fact, receives or assists him, 
but, it should probably be added, with intent 
to hinder his trial, conviction, or punishment ; 



ACCLIMATION 



59 



as, for example, by concealing him or shutting 
out the officers of the law, or resisting them, 
or attempting to take him or rescuing him 
from their custody, or providing him with 
money or other means of flight, or bribing a 
jailer to permit his escape from prison. But 
merely suffering the felon to escape, or simply 
ministering to his physical necessities, will not 
make one an accessory after the fact. At 
common law the guilt of assisting the felon in 
these unlawful ways was not excused even to 
those of his own family, so that a father might 
not thus protect his son, nor the son his 
father, nor a brother his brother, nor a hus- 
band his wife. The single exception was in 
favor of the wife who sought thus to save 
her husband, and probably this was on the 
ground, in part at least, that she was supposed 
to be under the control of her husband, and 
to have no choice to do otherwise. But in 
this respect the modern statutory law has in- 
terposed benignantly. In Massachusetts, for 
example, it exempts those who stand in the re- 
lation of parent or grandparent, child or grand- 
child, brother or sister to the offender; and 
there are similar statutes in other states. 

ACCLIMATION, or Acclimatization, the pro- 
cess by which an individual or a species, on 
being removed to a different climate, becomes 
modified in constitution and adapted to the 
changed conditions. The two words, how- 
ever, are not strictly synonymous. Acclima- 
tion is generally used in speaking of particular 
individuals, and more especially of those be- 
longing to the human species, and refers to 
the alterations which the system undergoes 
spontaneously in a foreign climate, by which 
it at last becomes no longer subject to the 
maladies peculiar to new-comers. Acclimati- 
zation, on the contrary, expresses the artificial 
care by which man succeeds in naturalizing, 
under his own supervision, a species of animals 
or vegetables of exotic origin. Acclimation. 
Man inhabits all the zones and nearly every 
region of the earth, and has been enabled in 
repeated migrations to change the place of 
his habitation and to occupy new countries. 
The human species is therefore regarded as 
cosmopolitan; and yet two facts are impor- 
tant to notice in this respect : First, most of the 
great migrations, historic or traditional, have 
been made in the direction of longitude and 
not in that of latitude; the migrating tribes 
instinctively or intentionally keeping nearly 
within the same parallels of latitude, and con- 
sequently not suffering very great alterations 
of temperature, nor meeting in their new 
homes with a flora and fauna very dissimilar 
to those of their native country. Secondly, at 
the present day, although an individual may 
migrate either westward or eastward, as a gen- 
eral rule, without suffering from the change, a 
removal into a different latitude is almost al- 
ways accompanied with peculiar dangers dur- 
ing the first few years of his residence in the 
new locality. The most marked instance of 



this kind is when a person from the temperate 
zone visits for the first time a tropical or sub- 
tropical region. The dangers that first beset 
him are fevers, which are so marked in type and 
so ready to attack newly arrived immigrants, 
that they are sometimes called the " strangers' 
fever. ' ' The yellow fever of the West Indies and 
the southern United States, and the coast fever 
of western Africa, are well known examples of 
these affections. They are not absolutely re- 
stricted to new-comers, the natives being also 
subject to them ; but the recent immigrant is so 
much more likely to be affected, and is attacked 
by the disease in so much larger proportion, it 
.is evident that his system has in it something 
which offers a peculiar attraction for the fe- 
brile poison, and which does not exist, at least 
to the same extent, in that of the native or the 
old resident. After passing through a period of 
general ill health and debility, extending over 
some years, and perhaps one or more severe at- 
tacks of illness, the immigrant approximates in 
his appearance and habit of body to the older 
denizens of the place, and is no longer peculiar- 
ly liable to the disorders which affected him on 
his arrival. He is then said to be acclimated. 
No doubt, part of the immunity enjoyed by 
old settlers in a tropical or sub-tropical cli- 
mate is due to the fact that they have learned 
prudence in regard to exposure, and have come 
to regulate habitually their mode of life to cor- 
respond with the climate of the country. Re- 
cent immigrants often neglect these essential 
precautions, because they have not found them 
necessary in a temperate climate ; and it is only 
after repeated experience of their value that 
they come to adopt them habitually and as 
a constant protection. Acclimatization. Many 
of the useful animals and plants have been 
successfully transferred from their original lo- 
cality and made to thrive in new and unaccus- 
tomed places. The horse, the ass, the ox, the 
sheep, -the goat, and the cat have accompanied 
man nearly everywhere within the temperate 
and tropical regions, and the dog is his com- 
panion even within the arctic circle. This 
fact has given rise to the hope that acclimati- 
zation might be successfully extended to still 
other species, and the soeiete ffacclimata- 
tion at Paris has been established with a. 
view of experimental investigation in this di- 
rection. Their endeavors 'have in many in- 
stances proved successful, at least in so far 
that tropical animals are found, when well 
cared for, to support the cold of a European 
winter without injury or even inconvenience. 
The zebra from Africa may be seen quietly 
resting upon the snow, and the tapir from 
Guiana swimming for his amusement in the 
stream which, runs through his enclosure, 
when the temperature of the water is hardly 
above the freezing point. This, however, by 
no means indicates a completely successful ac- 
climatization. It is successful so far as the 
individual is concerned; but acclimatization 
means the survival and prosperity of the spe- 



60 



ACCOLTI 



ACCUSATION 



cies. In order to secure this result, the ani- 
mals which have been imported must them- 
selves thrive and reach their usual term of 
existence, and produce offspring; the parent 
must willingly take the natural care of her 
young; the young animals must themselves 
have sufficient vigor to arrive at maturity and 
again reproduce their kind. Either one of 
these conditions may fail, and in certain in- 
stances have done so, notwithstanding that 
all the preceding ones had fully succeeded. 
Finally, in order that acclimatization may be 
in any case practically useful, the animals of 
the naturalized species must, in addition, be 
able in their new habitation to bear the labors 
or produce the material for the sake of which 
man has taken them under his care. Plants 
may be acclimatized to a certain extent, and if 
slowly accustomed to a change of climate, and 
well cared for, they . will in their offspring 
undergo changes which will fit them for the 
new conditions under which they live.. Ex- 
periments in this direction have in some in- 
stances met with unexpected success ; and on 
the ground of this, societies have been fonned 
in some of the principal European cities to 
accomplish the acclimatization of sub-tropical 
und some tropical plants to their latitude, and 
also of those belonging to colder regions. 

in 01. 1 1, Benedetto, an Italian lawyer, born 
at Arezzo in 1415, died in 1466. He became 
secretary of the Florentine republic in 1459. 
He is said to have had so fine a memory that, 
having heard an ambassador of Hungary de- 
liver a Latin speech before the senate of Flor- 
ence, he repeated it afterward, word for word. 
He wrote a work on the first crusade, from 
which Tasso drew the materials for his Geru- 
salemme liberata. 

ACCOMACK, an E. county of Virginia, border- 
ing on Maryland, and forming with Northamp- 



ton county, from which it was set off in 1672, 
the peninsula on the E. side of Chesapeake bay ; 
area, 480 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 20,409, of whom 
7,842 were colored. The surface is level and 
the soil light and moderately fertile. In 1870 
the productions were 530,560 bushels of corn, 
336,860 of oats, 97,730 of Irish and 212,507 of 
sweet potatoes, 7,991 Ibs. of wool, and 40,284 
of butter. Capital, Accomack Court House, or 
Drummond Town. 

ACCORDION, a musical instrument, invented 
by Damian at Vienna in 1829, the sounds of 
which are produced by the action of the wind 
from bellows upon metallic reeds. It is played 
altogether by the hands, in which it is held. 

ACCRA, a country in western Africa, on 
the Gold Coast, over which England and 
Denmark exercise jurisdiction. The British 
division consists of Fort St. James, in lat. 5 
32' N., Ion. 12' W., and a very small terri- 
tory, with a negro population of about 3,000. 
Crevecoeur, situated about one mile E. of Fort 
St. James, is an ancient Dutch settlement, 
which was destroyed by the English in 1782, 
partially rebuilt in 1839, and ceded to Eng- 
land in 1872. Accra is said to be one of the 
most salubrious localities on the coast. 

ACCRINGTON, a town of Lancashire, Eng- 
land, 19 m. N. of Manchester, divided into Old 
and New, the latter the larger and of recent 
growth; pop. in 1861, 19,688; in 1851, 9,747. 
It is situated in a deep valley, is the centre of 
the Manchester cotton-printing business, and 
has besides several cotton factories, dyeing, 
bleaching, and chemical works, and coal mines. 
The streets are well paved and lighted. 

ACCUSATION, a table posture, between sit- 
ting and lying, invented by the Greeks and 
adopted by the Romans and Jews. About 
the low dining table were placed two or three 
long couches, furnished with more or less 




sumptuous draperies, on each of which lay usu- 
ally three persons, on their left side, resting 
either their heads or elbows upon pillows, the 



Accubation. 

the third. The middle place was considered 
the most honorable. Though this posture was 
at first considered immodest for Roman ladies, 



feet of the first being behind the back of the 
second, and those of the second behind that of 



they soon indulged in it ; but it was never per- 
mitted to children or persons of mean condition. 



ACCUM 



ACETIC ACID 



61 



\m. Friedrlch, a German chemist, born 
in Buckeburg, March 29, 1769, died in Berlin, 
June 28, 1838. In 1793 he went to London, 
where he was appointed in 1801 professor of 
chemistry and mineralogy in the Surrey insti- 
tute. Being accused of purloining books and 
engravings from the library of the royal insti- 
tution, he returned to Germany, and in 1822 
was appointed professor in the school of indus- 
try and the academy of architecture in Berlin. 
He is known in connection with the introduc- 
tion of gas lights in London. He wrote "A 
System of Chemistry " (2 vols., London, 1803), 
"A Practical Treatise on Gas Lights" (1815), 
and " On the Adulteration of Food." 

ACELDAMA (Chaldaic, 'hakal dema, field of 
blood), the name given to the potter's field 
which was purchased with the money for 
which Judas betrayed Christ. It was after- 
ward used as a place of burial for strangers. 

ACEPHALOCYST (Gr. a privative, /ce^a^, head, 
and /cwmc, bladder ; literally, a cyst without a 
head), a vesicular or hydatid growth, some- 
times found in the substance of the liver, kid- 
ney, or other of the abdominal organs, in man 
and some of the lower animals. It is a globu- 
lar bag or sac, having its walls composed of a 
condensed albuminous substance, of a lami- 
nated texture, and containing in its cavity a 
clear, colorless fluid, with albuminous or gelat- 
inous ingredients. The main cyst produces 
smaller secondary cysts by a process of bud- 
ding or outgrowth from its walls, and these 
secondary cysts are sometimes very numerous. 
They are developed between the layers of the 
principal cyst wall, and project sometimes in- 
ternally and sometimes externally. Those 
species in which the young cysts project in- 
ternally, and are thrown off into the central 
cavity, are called endogenous, and are found 
principally in the human subject; those in 
which they project externally are called ex- 
ogenous, and are found in the ox and other 
ruminating animals. Acephalocysts are usu- 
ally regarded as of a parasitic nature, and be- 
longing to the class of cestoid worms, of which 
the ordinary tapeworm is the familiar repre- 
sentative. The embryo of these cestoid worms 
.presents at one period a globular body armed 
with six calcareous hooks, which afterward 
becomes developed into a tapeworm head, 
enclosed in an inverted globular membrane. 
When one of these partially developed tape- 
worm heads is found by itself, surrounded by 
a cyst and imbedded in one of the internal 
organs, it is called a cysticercus. When the 
principal cyst enlarges and throws off a number 
of secondary cysts containing tapeworm heads, 
it is called an echinococcus. The acephalocyst 
is believed to be a growth having the same ori- 
gin as the above, but in which for some reason 
the tapeworm heads either have not been de- 
veloped at all, or have become disintegrated 
and disappeared. Hence its name, indicating 
the absence of the head, which, if present, 
would be decisive proof of its parasitic origin. 



ACETATES, compounds of which acetic acid 
is one of the principal constituents. They are 
generally soluble in water and alcohol, and 
some of them are deliquescent ; those that are 
least soluble are acetates of mercury, silver, 
molybdenum, and tungsten. There are three 
classes of salts, neutral, acid, and basic, all of 
them destroyed at a red heat or by sulphuric 
acid, which latter liberates acetic acid, easily 
recognized by its pungent odor. Heated with 
a mixture of sulphuric acid and alcohol, they 
give rise to acetic ether ; with lime they fur- 
nish acetone, which has a peculiar character- 
istic odor; and distilled with caustic potash, 
they yield marsh gas. Their solutions yield 
a deep yellow color with ferric chloride (ses- 
quichloride of iron), not given by free acetic 
acid. There are numerous acetates, some 
largely used in medicine and others in the arts. 
Among the former may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: potassic acetate, employed as a diu- 
retic ; ammoniac acetate, used as a diaphoretic ; 
plumbic acetate (sugar of lead), used as an 
.astringent. Of the acetates employed in the 
arts the most important are: acetates of 
alumina, manganese, iron, and zinc, largely 
used as mordants in calico printing; acetate 
of copper, verdigris, and a mixture of acetate 
and arsenite of copper called Schweinfurt green, 
employed hi paints and for wall paper ; acetate 
of lime, prepared as a crude material in the 
manufacture of acetic acid from the distilla- 
tion of wood. Many modern chemists divide 
the acetates into two classes: 1. Metallic ace- 
tates, in which the basic hydrogen of the 
acetic acid is replaced by a metal or group ; 2. 
Acetic ethers or organic acetates, in which the 
hydrogen is replaced by an alcoholic radical. 

ACETIC ACID (Lat. acetum, vinegar, of which 
it constitutes about 6 per cent.) has been known 
in a dilute form from the remotest antiquity. 
It' can be prepared in two conditions : acetic 
anhydride, or anhydrous acetic acid, and acetic 
acid. Anhydrous acetic acid, as obtained by 
Gerhardt, is a colorless, very mobile liquid, of 
high refracting power, having a very pungent 
smell and emitting a vapor which is extremely 
irritating to the eyes. It gradually absorbs 
moisture from the air, and becomes converted 
into the common acid. Acetic acid can be 
made in a great number of ways : by treating 
aldehyde, alcohol, and ethylic ethers with oxi- 
dizing agents ; by fusing sugar, starch, oxalic 
acid, tartaric acid, or citric acid with potash ; 
by submitting wood, sugar, and gums to dry 
distillation; by distilling gelatine, caseine, 01 
fibrine with a mixture of sulphuric acid and 
manganese dioxide. It has been made syn- 
thetically by Wanklyn, by passing a current 
of carbonic acid into a solution of sodium 
methyl, and appears to exist ready formed in 
the juices of certain plants, such as the sap of 
the oak, and in some animal fluids. The pro- 
duct of the fermentation of wine and other 
spirituous liquids is vinegar, formed essentially 
of acetic acid diluted with water. (See VINE- 



62 



ACETIC ACID 



ACHAEAN LEAGUE 



GAB.) The acetic acid employed in commerce 
is chiefly derived from the dry distillation of 
wood. The process, as described by the late 
William Allen Miller, is substantially as fol- 
lows : Harder kinds of wood, particularly the 
oak, beech, birch, and ash, are subjected to 
destructive distillation in iron retorts by means 
of a heat gradually raised to low redness. The 
wood is usually placed in these retorts in loose 
iron cases, by which means the charge can be 
rapidly introduced without loss while the re- 
tort is still hot, and the charcoal can be with- 
drawn when the distillation is complete. The 
quantity of acid obtained varies from H to 3 
per cent., and in the crude state is called pyro- 
ligneous acid, in allusion to the mode of its 
formation (Gr. nvp, fire, and Lat. lignum, 
wood). During the operation a large quan- 
tity of tarry matter comes over, accompanied 
also by volatile arid inflammable bodies, among 
which wood spirit, methyl acetate, and acetone 
predominate. These bodies are condensed in 
suitable receivers, while, in addition to car- 
bonic anhydride, a considerable quantity of 
combustible gases, composed chiefly of hydro- 
gen and carbonic oxide, is directed into the 
furnace, where they serve as fuel, and aid in 
heating the retorts. In about 24 hours, or as 
soon as the gases cease to escape, the loose 
iron cylinders containing the wood are with- 
drawn, and immediately closed with an air- 
tight cover, so as to allow the charcoal to cool 
excluded from the atmosphere. The crude 
acid liquid which has been collected in the 
condenser is decanted from the tar, and, when 
submitted to distillation, furnishes wood naph- 
tha, which constitutes the more volatile por- 
tions; afterward the acetic acid is collected. 
The latter, however, is always accompanied 
by tarry matters. In order to get rid of these, 
the liquid is neutralized by^ the addition of the 
milk of lime or of sodic carbonate ; a quantity 
of tar rises to the surface of the liquid on 
standing ; this is skimmed off, and the solution 
of crude acid thus obtained is evaporated, and 
the dry residue, if the sodium salt be used, 
cautiously roasted at a temperature of about 
500 F. (260 C.) to expel the tarry matters. 
It is afterward redissolved in water, decanted 
from the carbonaceous particles, which are 
allowed to subside, then recrystallized, and 
submitted to distillation with sulphuric or with 
hydrochloric acid, the sulphuric being prefer- 
able when sodic acetate is employed, while hy- 
drochloric acid answers best when calcic ace- 
tate is used. Properties of Acetic Acid. Nor- 
mal acetic acid, C H4 O, is liquid at temper- 
atures above 62-6 F. (17 C.) ; below this point 
it crystallizes in radiating tufts of plates, and 
is called glacial acetic acid. The concentrated 
acid has a sharp aromatic taste and a peculiar 
pungent odor ; it blisters the skin if applied to 
it for a sufficient length of time. It boils at 
242 F. (117 C.), and may be distilled un- 
changed. Its maximum density is 1-073, cor- 
responding to a mixture of 77 -2 per cent, acid 



and 22-8 per cent, water. The vapor of acetic 
acid is inflammable, burning with a blue flame 
and producing by its combustion water and 
carbonic acid. 

ACETYLENE, a transparent colorless gas, of 
a peculiar disagreeable odor, perceptible when 
coal gas is imperfectly burned in the air. It 
burns with a bright smoky flame. Berthelot 
formed it by transmitting olefiant gas or marsh 
gas through red-hot tubes. When copper ser- 
vice pipes are used for distributing coal gas, a 
dark-red copper compound is sometimes de- 
posited which detonates powerfully on the ap- 
plication of heat or on receiving a sudden blow. 
Some serious cases of explosions in New York, 
where the pipes were undergoing repairs, were 
traced by Dr. John Torrey to this cause. When 
mixed with chlorine, acetylene explodes spon- 
taneously ; it has not yet been liquefied by cold 
or pressure. 

V < 1 1 K I > LEAGUE. The inhabitants of Achaia 
were a very inconsiderable member of the 
Hellenic family until about 251 B. C. They 
formed 12 separate self-governing communi- 
ties, united together only by the religious 
bond of a common temple, common festivals, 
and common ancestry. In the repulse of the 
Persian invaders, in the Peloponnesian war, 
and in the resistance to Macedonian conquest, 
they took little part ; and it was not until 
Athens, Thebes, and Lacedaemon had been 
subdued or humbled by Macedonian suprem- 
acy, that the insignificant Achaeans became 
illustrious. When the Macedonian monarchy 
was reeling beneath the invasion of the Gauls, 
four Achaean towns formed a league for mutual 
protection in 281. Soon afterward ^Egium 
ejected its garrison, and some others forced 
their tyrants, who governed in the Macedonian 
interest, to lay down their authority. In 251 
Aratus, the Sicyonian, brought round his native 
town to the Achaean league, and got himself 
elected head of the confederacy. Corinth was 
freed from its garrison in 243 by the aid of the 
league, and was admitted a member. Megara, 
Epidaurus, Troezen, and the Arcadian cities 
joined soon after. In 208 Philipoamen, of 
Megalopolis, succeeded Aratus as general of the 
league. At this time, and especially after the 
total defeat of the Macedonian monarch at 
Cynoscephalee, it was the only powerful state 
left in Greece, and the only possible bulwark 
against Roman power. When Sparta joined 
the league in 191 it included almost all the 
cities of the Peloponnesus, together with 
Athens, and several cities of northern Greece. 
For 50 years the Achaean confederation main- 
tained the cause of Hellenic independence, and 
delayed the day of submission to Rome. (See 
GKKKCK.) At last the Roman senate succeeded 
in getting grounds of quarrel with the league, 
and sent Mummius over .to complete the sub- 
jugation of Hellas. This was done in 146 by 
the defeat of Diseus, the general of the con- 
federates, before the walls of Corinth. All 
Greece was then made into a Roman province, 



AOH^EANS 

tinder the name of Achaia. The Achaean 
luiiicue is the best example of the federative 
system bequeathed to the world by the Greeks. 
Each state or city, whether large or small, had 
but one vote, and retained its power of inter- 
nal legislation, as well as' its separate corns, 
weights, and measures, though the federal 
government had also its coins, weights, and 
measures, which were uniform. The right of 
intermarriage without loss of the children's 
citizenship, and the right of holding property 
and of importing and exporting on favorable 
terms, existed between the several cities of the 
federation, until taken away by the Romans, 
by way of punishment for resistance to their 
policy. The general assembly was held twice 
a year, but extraordinary assemblies were 
sometimes called. At the spring meeting the 
strategus or commander-in-chief, the hippar- 
chus or master of the horse, and ten other 
functionaries called demiurgi, were elected. 
Although every citizen who could afford it 
might attend these assemblies, all the citizens 
of any one city could only throw one vote, a 
fact which made the larger cities, such as 
Corinth, discontented. Such a confederation 
in the age of Philip would probably have pre- 
vented the Macedonian conquest. 

ACII.LMXS, in ancient history, the name of one 
of the main divisions of the Hellenic race. 
Originally they dwelt in Thessaly, whence they 
migrated to the Peloponnesus, of which they 
were the ruling nation in the heroic period. 
Their name is therefore mentioned in the Iliad 
as a generic term for the Greeks. The well- 
greaved Achaaans, the long-haired Achaeans, 
are terms employed to designate the whole 
Hellenic host before Troy. Their mythological 
ancestor was Achaeus, son of Xuthus, and 
grandson of Hellen. 

A('imiE\ES. I. The ancestor and founder 
of the Achaemenida3, the noblest family of the 
Pasargadae, and from the time of Cyrus (third 
in descent from him, according to Herodotus) 
the royal family of Persia. In Latin poetry, 
Achameniw is often used as a synonyme for 
Persicus, Persian. I!. Son of Darius L, and 
brother of Xerxes, was made by the latter 
satrap of Egypt in 484 B. 0., and accompanied 
him in his expedition against Greece in 480, 
when he commanded the Egyptian fleet. He 
fell in Egypt in 460, in an unsuccessful attempt 
to quell the revolt of Inarus, a Libyan chief. 

ACHAIA, one of the ancient divisions of the 
Peloponnesus, extending along the coast of the 
gulf of Corinth ; greatest length from E. to W. 
about 65 m. ; breadth, 12 to 20 m. Patras, for- 
merly Patrae, is the only Achaean town that has 
preserved any importance. The country was 
originally called ^gialea, that is, the coastland, 
and inhabited by lonians, who were dispos- 
sessed by the Achaeans on the conquest of the 
Peloponnesus by the Dorians. After the 
Roman conquest of Greece and Macedonia, the 
province of Achaia included all Peloponnesus, 
with N. Greece S. of Thessaly. In the present 



AOHEEN 



63 



kingdom of Greece it forms a nomarchy or 
province with Elis; area, 3,090 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 149,561. Capital, Patras. (See ACH.E- 
AN LEAGUE, and ACHAEANS.) 

ACHARD, Franz Karl, a Prussian natural phi- 
losopher and chemist, born in Berlin, April 28, 
1753, died April 20, 1821. He devoted himself 
to the development of the beet sugar manufac- 
ture, repeating and improving upon the experi- 
ments of Marggraf. The results of his investi- 
gations were published in 1799 and 1800, but 
found neither encouragement nor imitation, 
upon which account the king of Prussia pre- 
sented him with a farm hi Silesia where he 
could continue his studies. In connection with 
Neubeck, he spent six years of laborious endea- 
vor before he discovered the true method of 
making the sugar. 

ACHARD, Louis Amedee Eugene, a French 
novelist, born at Marseilles in April, 1814. 
The first part of his life was employed in com- 
merce and provincial administration, and he 
afterward became a journalist in Paris. In 
1846 he accompanied the duke of Montpensier 
to Spain as a reporter. In 1847 he pubh'shed 
Belle-Rose, a successful novel (5 vols. 8vo.), 
since which he has produced many others, 
besides a number of plays. 

ACHATES. I. The companion of JEneas in 
his flight from Troy, and in his subsequent 
wanderings, according to the account given by 
Virgil. He is always termed fidus Achates 
(the faithful Achates), whence the phrase has 
passed into a proverb, applied to any faithful 
confidant in a subordinate position. II. In 
ancient geography, a river in the south of 
Sicily, between Camarina and Gela, now 
called Dirillo. According to Pliny, it was the 
place where the first agate was found ; hence 
the derivation of the word agate. 

ACHEEN, an independent sovereignty, com- 
prising the N. W. portion of Sumatra ; area, 
25,500 sq. m. As early as 1509 the Portuguese 
visited this country, and in 1602 the English, 
in order to obtain a continuous supply of pep- 
per, entered into a commercial treaty with the 
king. The East India company in 1659 estab- 
lished a factory at the capital ; but it was 
eventually removed to Bencoolen, on the S. 
coast of Sumatra. Sir Stamford Raffles in 
1819 secured to the. East India company and 
the British government, by treaty, the right 
of freely trading to all the ports of Acheen. 
The government of Acheen is an hereditary 
monarchy, the power of the king or sultan 
being limited only by the power of his greater 
vassals. The kingdom is divided into 190 
small districts. This part of Sumatra is com- 
paratively healthy, but the interior is almost 
entirely unknown. The people are taller, 
stouter, and darker than the other Sumatrans. 
They are strict Mohammedans, and write in 
Malay characters. They manufacture a few 
silk goods, and a good deal of- thick cotton 
cloth and striped and checkered stuffs. 
Aeheen, the capital, stands about a league 



ACHELOUS 



ACHILLES 



from the sea, on a river that empties at 
Acheen head, the extreme N. W. point of Su- 
matra. The roadstead is good, being safely 
sheltered by several small islands. A bar at 
the mouth of the river prevents all but vessels 
of three or four feet draught from entering it. 
Most of the houses are built of bamboos and 
rough timber raised on piles, to escape inunda- 
tion. The city contains many fine buildings, 
among which are numerous mosques and 
other public edifices, and the fortified palace 
of the king. It had formerly about 36,000 in- 
habitants, but is now on the decline. 

ACHELOUS (now Aspropotamo), a river of 
Greece, which rises in Mount Pindus, flows S., 
separates vEtolia from Acarnania, and falls into 
the Ionian sea. Homer calls it the " king of 
rivers." It is the largest stream in Greece, its 
length being 130 miles. 

ACHEKBACH. I. Andreas, a German land- 
scape painter, born in Cassel, Sept. 29, 1815. 
He studied at Dusseldorf, under Schirmer and 
Schadow, and at the age of 18 produced land- 
scapes of merit. He afterward travelled over 
many parts of Europe in search of subjects, 
and took particular delight in reproducing the 
scenery of Norway, the Alps, and the Tyrol. 
His Italian landscapes are also impressed with 
a fine feeling for the picturesque. As a painter 
of the grand and savage aspects of nature, he 
holds a high rank. His works are widely 
scattered over Europe, and a number are 
owned in the United States. II. Oswald, 
brother of the preceding, also a painter of the 
Dusseldorf school, born in that city, Feb. 2, 
1827. Since 1863 he has been professor of 
landscape painting at the Dusseldorf academy. 
His best pictures are of Italian scenery. His 
"Funeral of Palestrina " was rewarded with a 
medal at the Paris exposition of 1861. 

ACHERON, in antiquity, the name of several 
rivers, all believed to be connected with the 
lower world. I. A river in Epirus, which 
flowed through Acherusia lake into the Ionian 
sea. II. A river in Elis, an affluent of the 
Alpheus. III. A river in Bruttium, S. Italy. 
IV. The river of the lower world, around which 
the shades were believed to hover. The name 
was also used for the lower world in general. 

ACHERl'SIA, in antiquity, the name of several 
lakes believed to be connected with the lower 
world. The principal ones were those in Epi- 
rus and Campania, the latter between Cumae 
and Cape Misennm. Acherusia was also the 
name of a chasm in Bithynia, into which Her- 
cules descended to bring up Cerberus. 

ACHfSRY, Dom Jean Lnc d\ a French savant, 
born in 1609, died April 24, 1685. He was a 
Benedictine monk, librarian of the abbey of 
St. Germain des Pr6s at Paris, and devoted his 
life chiefly to collecting and editing documents 
relating to mediaeval ecclesiastical history. His 
principal work was Veterum aliquot Scripto- 
rum qui in Oallice Bibliothecis maxime Bene- 
dictinorum latuerant Spicilegium (13 vols. 4to, 
1655-'77; afterward reedited by Barre, 3 vols. 



fol., 1723). He also assisted in the Ada 
Sanctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti (9 vols. fol.). 
ACHILLES, properly AehUlens, the hero of the 
Iliad, was the son of Peleus, king of the Myr- 
midons in Phthiotis hi Thessaly, grandson of 
yEacus, and thus third in descent from Zeus. 
His mother was the sea goddess Thetis, 
daughter of Nereus ; hence he is often called 
Pelides, Pelei'ades, and ^Eacides. The story of 
his early life is told in different ways. One 
account is, that his mother, foreseeing his early 
death, endeavored to save him by dipping him 
in the river Styx, whose waters had the prop- 
erty of rendering the human frame invulner- 
able. The heel by which she held the babe 
was not wetted, and remained the sole vulner- 
able point of the hero. He was educated by 
Phoenix, who taught him war and eloquence, 
and by Chiron the centaur, who taught him 
the healing art. To keep him out of danger, 
Thetis disguised him as a maiden, and sent him 
to the court of Lycomedes, king of Scyros. 
Here his real character was soon discovered by 
the birth of a son to him, named Neoptolemus 
or Pyrrhus, by Deidamia, the daughter of 
Lycomedes. The prophecy was that Troy 
would never be taken in the absence of 
Achilles, and the crafty Ulysses was sent to 
discover him. Disguised as a peddler, he offered 
the Scyrian maidens female trinkets and wea- 
pons of war ; all of them chose ornaments, but 
the disguised hero clutched the sword and 
shield. He went to Troy, accompanied by his 
tutor Phoenix and his friend Patroclus, and at 
the head of his Myrmidons, in 50 ships of war. 
Previous to his dispute with Agamemnon he 
ravaged the country round Troy, and took and 
destroyed 12 towns on the coast and 11 in the 
interior. BriseJs was his favorite female slave 
and concubine, whom he had captured at the 
sack of Lyrnessus. The commander-in-chief, 
Agamemnon, claimed her as indemnity for his 
slave Chrysels. Achilles obeys on the entreaty 
of Minerva, but retires to his tent in wrath and 
resentment, refusing to take further part in the 
campaign. The Greeks suffer a myriad of woes 
in his absence, but no calamity will change his 
decision. At last his bosom friend Patroclus 
gains his permission to put on the armor of 
Achilles, and show himself to the Trojans. 
Believing that Achilles has come, they flee in 
panic. Patroclus presses on, and is slain by 
Hector. Then Achilles, in the desire to avenge 
his friend, reconciles himself with Agamemnon, 
receives Brise'is again, gets a new suit of armor 
from Vulcan, including the far-famed shield, 
which is brought to him by his mother, and 
rushes into the fight. He slaughters a grwit 
number of Trojans, contends with the river god 
Xanthus, whose course he has heaped with 
corpses and defiled with blood, and drives all 
the Trojans within the walls of their city. 
Hector alone dares to withstand his course. 
Achilles chases him three times around the 
walls of Troy, slays him, and, tying the body 
to his chariot, drags it into the camp of the 



ACHILLES TATIUS 

Greeks. He institutes games in honor of his 
friend, and slays 12 captive Trojan youths on 
the funeral pyre, to satisfy the manes of Patro- 
clus. Priam, led by Mercury, penetrates to his 
tent, and prevails upon him to allow the body 
of Hector to be ransomed. We hear no more 
of Achilles in the Iliad. The accounts of his 
death are various. One represents him as 
falling by the arrow of Paris, directed by 
Apollo at the vulnerable heel, when he was in 
the temple of that god, about to espouse at the 
altar Polyxena, the daughter of Priam. His 
remains were collected in a golden urn, and a 
cenotaph was erected to him on the promontory 
of Sigeum. This monument was always an 
object of veneration to the Greeks ; Alexander 
the Great performed a pilgrimage to it, and ran 
naked three times around it. 

ACHILLES TATIUS. I. A Greek astronomer, 
supposed to have flourished in the 4th century 
of our era, and to be the author of a treatise on 
the sphere, a fragment of which is extant. II. 
A native of Alexandria, who wrote a Greek 
romance entitled " The Story of Leucippe and 
Clitophon," which has come down to us. He 
probably wrote near the close of the 5th cen- 
tury. By some biographers these two writers 
are considered identical. 

ACHMET. See AHMED. 

ACHMIM. See EKHMIN. 

ACHROMATIC LENS (Gr. a, without, and 
xp&pa, color). When light is refracted by any 
transparent medium, dispersion always takes 
place ; that is, the rays of different color con- 
tamed in white light are not equally refracted or 
deviated from their path. It would seem that 
the amount of this dispersion must always be 
proportional to the amount of refraction, but 
experiments have shown that diverse refracting 
substances differ considerably in this respect. 
Their dispersing and refracting properties are 
determined by passing a ray of light through 
solid prisms of different material, or liquid 
prisms enclosed between glass plates. The 
refracting power is then measured by the 
amount of deviation of the ray, and the 
dispersive power by the length of the colored 
spectrum produced. So it has been found that 
if the relative amounts of refraction of water, 
crown glass, flint glass, and oil of cassia are ex- 
pressed by the numbers 133, 152, 162, and 159, 
the amounts of dispersion or the lengths of their 
spectra are in ratio of 145, 203, 433, and 1,080. 
If the angle of a prism is increased, the refract- 
ing and dispersing power both increase in the 
same ratio ; and it is evident that two prisms 
of different material may be made at such an- 
gles that they produce the same length of spec- 
trum, or possess the same dispersion, but that 
then their refracting powers will not be the 
same. In figs. 1 and 2 two such prisms are 
represented, the first refracting more than the 
second, but giving equal lengths of spectra. If 
now two such prisms are joined in opposite 
directions, as represented in fig. 3, they will 
cause a neutralization of the equal spectra, but 
6 VOL. i. 6 



ACHROMATIC LENS 



65 



not of the unequal refraction, and therefore 
they will produce a deviation or refraction of 



FIG. 1. 




Refraction and Dispersion by Prisms. 

the rays without dispersion of the light; no 
colored spectrum will be produced, but only 
a pure white spot will be the result of such 
a combination, which is called an achromatic 
prism. This is the principle on which the 
lenses in all our modern telescopes, micro- 
scopes, photographic and other optical appara- 
tus are constructed. A convex lens of crown 
glass brings the rays together to a number of 
differently colored foci, of which the red rays 
will be the furthest from the lens, fig. 4. (See 
ABEEEATION, CHROMATIC.) A concave lens 
will throw the red rays nearer to the axis, fig. 
5 ; but if this concave lens is made of flint glass 
(a material having a slightly greater refracting 



CROWN CLASS p IQ 




ACHROMATIC COMBINATION. 

Refraction and Dispersion by Lenses. 

but a much greater dispersive power), and 
ground to such a curve as completely to neu- 
tralize the dispersion or coloring of the first 
lens, while it affects its refraction only so far as 
to lengthen its focal distance, the combina- 



66 



ACID 



ACLAND 



tion will bring the rays to a focus without sep- 
arating the luminous rays into their colored con- 
stituents ; see fig. 6. Such a lens is said to be 
corrected for chromatic aberration. Sometimes 
the concave correcting lens of flint glass does not 
quite accomplish the purpose, and then the 
combination is said to be under-corrected ; but 
sometimes the opposite is the case, when the 
combination is said to be over-corrected. In 
this case the chromatic aberration will be the 
reverse of what it is with a single convex lens. 
As the different parts of the colored spectra 
produced by different media have not an exact 
proportionality toward one another, an abso- 
lute achromatism is impossible ; but successful 
attempts have been made to cure it in some 
degree by the addition of a third lens of plate 
glass. Attempts to make achromatic lenses by 
enclosing fluids of different diffractive powers 
between glass lenses have all failed, by reason 
of the variability in such fluids ; in the course of 
time portions of higher refractive power will 
accumulate at the lower sides, and by changes 
of temperature currents will be set up which 
disturb the images seen. As the manufacture 
of flint glass for large achromatic lenses is a 
very difficult and uncertain operation, and 
therefore very expensive, their size has been re- 
duced by placing an over-corrected combination 
of half the size in the middle of the telescope ; 
such an instrument is called a dialitic tele- 
scope. Recently the plan of the elder Her- 
schel has been revived, namely, to use no large 
achromatic objective lenses at all, but reflec- 
tors, which of course can have no chromatic 
aberration, which is the result of refraction. 

ACID, a compound of hydrogen, in which 
that element is united to an electro-negative 
radical. In common language the term is 
equivalent to the Latin word acidus, meaning 
anything sour. Oxygen was formerly con- 
sidered to be the element upon which the 
existence of the acid character mainly de- 
pended, as its name (signifying generator of 
acids) implies; but later researches have 
brought to light a number of compounds 
containing hydrogen possessed of acid proper- 
ties in which oxygen is not present. Hence 
hydrogen is now regarded as more truly the 
generator of acids than oxygen. The usual 
test for the presence of an acid is its prop- 
erty of changing blue vegetable colors to red. 
We are already acquainted with several hun- 
dred acids, most of them belonging to the 
organic kingdom, and new ones are con- 
stantly discovered by chemists. The juices 
of plants and the constituents of animal bod- 
ies furnish their peculiar acids ; and with the 
changes these undergo new acids are gen- 
erated by different modes of combination, 
which processes are now imitated by art so 
as to reproduce by synthesis a number of 
organic acids. Some acids, when uncom- 
bined, are gaseous, others fluid, and others 
solid. Their properties also are as various as 
the conditions in which they exist. 



ACILIUS 6LABRIO, Manias, a Roman general, 
who became consul in 191 B. 0. He was of 
plebeian origin, but rose by regular gradation. 
He supported Cornelius Scipio; commanded 
as consul against Antiochus the Great of Syria, 
and defeated him at Thermopylae ; and sub- 
sequently carried on the war against the 
^Etolians with equal success. On his return 
he had a triumph. But this elevation and 
success of a. plebeian gave offence to the pa- 
tricians of Rome, who stirred up annoyances 
and accused him of keeping back the public 
spoils ; but he was not condemned. He was 
the first to whom a statue of gold was erected 
in Italy. He wrote the annals of Rome in 
Greek, a narrative full of fables. 

ACI REALE, a seaport town on the E. coast 
of Sicily, in the province of Catania, cel- 
ebrated for its mineral waters; pop. in 1871, 
35,787. It is situated on a hill of lava with a 
precipice over 650 feet high facing the sea, in 
the highly picturesque region between Mount 
Etna and Catania, 11 m. N. N. E. of the latter, 
at the mouth of the small river Aci ; is well 
built, principally of lava, and has many 
churches, convents, and towers. Great quan- 
tities of diaper are made. Near the town are 
the famous cave of Polyphemus and the grotto 
of Galatea. 

ACIS, in Ovid, son of Faunus and Symeethis, 
beloved by the nereid Galatea, and through 
jealousy crushed to death under a huge rock 
by Polyphemus. Galatea changed his blood 
into the river Acis, on which now stands the 
town of Aci Reale, where the scenes of the 
legend are still shown. 

ACKERMAim. I. H.mrad Ernst, a German 
comedian, regarded as one of the founders of 
the German stage, born in Schwerin in 1710, 
died in Hamburg, Nov. 13, 1771. In 1740 he 
made his debut as an actor under the auspices 
of SchSnemann, and afterward organized a 
travelling company, with which he performed 
in many places. He is celebrated as the 
founder of the Hamburg theatre (1765), whose 
performances inspired Lessing's famous com- 
ments on dramatic art. II. Sophie Charlotte, 
wife of the preceding (1749), previously widow 
of the organist Schroder, born in Berlin in 
1714, died Oct. 14, 1792. She was not only 
distinguished as an accomplished actress both 
in tragedy and comedy, and teacher of the 
histrionic art, but also as the mother by her 
first marriage of Friedrich Ludwig Schroder 
(see SCHBODEB), and of two daughters by her 
second marriage, also very distinguished : Do- 
BOTHEA, who retired from the stage in 1778 
on marrying Prof. Unzer, and CHABLOTTE, 
whose death in 1775, in her 18th year, was 
generally deplored at Hamburg. 

ACLAND. I. John Dyke, a British major, son 
of a baronet, commander of the grenadiers in 
the battle of Stillwater in the American revo- 
lution, Oct. 7, 1777, died in 1778. When 
overpowered by numbers the British retreated 
to their camp, which was furiously stormed by 



ACLINIC LINE 



ACONCAGUA 



67 



Arnold. Major Acland was shot through the 
legs and taken prisoner. When Gen. Fraser 
was brought mortally wounded to the quarters 
of the baroness do Riedesel, a report reached 
Lady Harriet Acland (daughter of the earl of 
Ilchester), in a tent near by, that her husband 
was also mortally wounded. She determined 
to seek him in the American camp, although 
she was at the time much debilitated by want 
of food and rest, and by anguish of mind. 
She was received with kindness; her atten- 
tions restored her husband to health, and the 
bearing of the Americans toward both made a 
profound impression on the mind of Major 
Acland. After his return to England the next 
year, he was provoked to give the lie direct at 
a dinner party to Lieut. Lloyd for some foul 
aspersions on the American name. A duel 
ensued, and Major Acland was shot through 
the head, a circumstance which caused his 
devoted wife the loss of her senses for two 
years. She afterward married the Rev. Mr. 
Brudenell, a chaplain in the British army, who 
had accompanied her in her perilous pursuit 
of her husband, and died in 1815. She wrote 
a narrative of the campaigns of 1776-'7. 
II. Henry Wentworth, M. D., F. R. S., grand- 
nephew of the preceding, born in 1815, phy- 
sician to the Radcliffe infirmary, and Lee's 
reader in anatomy at Oxford, is distinguished 
as a promoter of sanitary reform. He accom- 
panied the prince of "Wales to the United 
States in 1860 as his medical attendant. 

ACLINIC LINE (Gr. a, without, and I&IVEIV, to 
incline), an imaginary line on the earth's surface 
between the tropics, where the compass needle 
has no inclination ; that is, where the dipping 
needle is horizontal. This line is also called 




the magnetic equator, being about 90 distant 
from the magnetic poles; it is variable and 
runs quite irregularly. At present it inter- 
sects the geographical equator near the "W. 
coast of Africa, and some 160 E. of that point 
in the Pacific ocean. In the western hemi- 
sphere it is S. and in the eastern N. of the 
equator. 

AWEMETJI (Gr. OKOI^TO^ sleepless), an order 
of Greek monks who chanted the divine 
service day and night, without ceasing. This 
they accomplished by dividing themselves into 
three reliefs, succeeding one another alter- 
nately. Their centre was the cloister of 
Irenarion, near Constantinople. They flour- 
ished in the 5th century; in the succeeding 
century they were put under the ban of the 



church, on account of their leanings toward 
the Nestorian Christians and their doctrines. 

ACOLTTE (Gr. a/coAovtfo? , attending), a clergy- 
man in the Roman Catholic church, and in 
the churches of the East, next in rank to the 
sub-deacon, whose principal office is to light 
the candles on the altar, and attend on the 
priest or other sacred ministers during mass 
and vespers. The youths who serve at the 
altar are also called acolytes, though not or- 
dained. 

ACOMA, a village of New Mexico, in lat. 35 
24' N., Ion. 106 10' W., supposed by the abbe" 
Domenech to be the Acuco of the ancient 
Spanish historians, and the oldest Indian town 
in the territory. It is built upon the horizontal 
summit of an isolated and almost perpendicular 
rock 394 feet in height. The greater part of 
the ascent to it is made by means of a road cut 
like a spiral staircase in the rock. The village 
consists of large blocks of houses, 60 or 70 in 
each block. It is said the Spaniards took the 
town from the Indians in 1599. 

ACONCAGUA. I. A central province of Chili; 
area, about 6,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1868, 130,672. 
The entire eastern portion is occupied by 
rugged spurs of the Andes and very fertile 
valleys, watered by several rivers flowing 
through the province to the Pacific. This 
region abounds in copper, silver, and gold 
mines ; the last were at one time very famous. 
In 1862 there were in working order 8 gold, 
9 silver, and 228 copper mines. The western 
part is irrigated by innumerable artificial 
water courses, supplied from the rivers, by 
means of which large crops are produced of 
excellent wheat and other cereals, as well as 
of hemp of a very superior quality. Such 
irrigation is rendered indispensable by the 
extraordinary scarcity of rain. The province 
is divided into the five departments of Andes, 
Ligua, Petorca, Patacudo, and San Felipe. 
Capital, San Felipe de Aconcagua, situated at 
the foot of the Andes, in a fertile valley 2,000 
feet above the Pacific, 55 m. N. E. of Valpa- 
raiso; pop. about 7,000. II. A peak of the 
Andes in the preceding province, N. E. of 
San Felipe, in lat. 32 39' S., Ion. 70 W., 
believed to be the highest in this hemisphere. 
According to the measurement of M. Pissis, 
to the results of whose labors more credit is 
given than to those of any other scientific 
investigator of the Andes, Aconcagua reaches 
a height of 6,834 metres, or 22,422 feet, above 
the level of the ocean, being 997 feet higher 
than Chimborazo and 1,138 feet higher than 
Sorata, which were formerly considered the 
most elevated peaks of the Andean chain. 
Aconcagua has been described as the cone of 
an extinguished volcano, and the error prob- 
ably arises from a widely published statement 
of Darwin, who asserts that when in the 
Beagle expedition in 1835 it was reported to 
him that the volcano of Aconcagua was in 
eruption. Neither its shape nor its external 
features would indicate an extinguished vol- 



68 



ACONITE 



ACONITE, WINTER 



cano; it is a colossal, angular, and serrated 
mass, without any lava or other vestiges of 
volcanic action, and can only be seen in all its 
grandeur from the east, because the mountains 
which surround it on the west impede the 
view. From Valparaiso a view of the peak 
only, rising far above the summits of even 
that gigantic chain of mountains, is obtained. 
ACONITE (Gr. OKOVITOV, probably from a/tov?, 
a stone, because it grows in stony places), a 
genus of plants of the order ranunculocece, 
one of the distinguishing marks of which, the 
hooded form of the upper sepal, gives the 
name monkshood to a cultivated species. A 
plant of this name was known to the ancients, 
and may have been one of the species now 
belonging to the genus. The species at 
present in use as a medicament is the aco- 
nitum napellus, cultivated in our gardens under 
the name of monkshood; but several other 
species possess similar properties in at least 
an equal degree. Among these are A. lycoc- 
tonum and A. ferox. Probably the latter, 
from which the bish root of Nepaul in India 
is obtained, possesses the most deadly qual- 
ities. This was used by the natives to poison 
their wells on the advance of the British 




Aconltnm napcllus (Monkshood). 

army into their territories. Some of the 
cultivated varieties of A. napellus, having 
leaves of a lighter shade of green r with blue 
and white flowers, have less acridity than the 
darker variety, and would probably, if used, 
be found to possess loss medicinal power. 
From the roots and leaves of the officinal 
species are prepared extracts and tinctures. 
Those from the root are the most powerful, 
and are largely used in medicine. The phys- 
iological action of this drug depends chiefly, 
and probably entirely, upon the alkaloid 
aconitia, though two other alkaloids, aconella 
and napellina, besides aconitic acid, are among 
its constituents. Aconitia is a white sub- 
stance, not volatile at ordinary temperatures, 
slightly soluble in water, and readily so in 
alcohol, ether s and chloroform. It is probably 



not crystallizable, and the crystallized speci- 
mens exhibited as such consist partly of 
aconella, which is crystallizable and inert in 
doses in which aconitia would be fatally 
poisonous. This statement derives support 
from the fact that the French and German 
aconitia, which is partially crystallizable, is 
much weaker than the English. This alkaloid 
is one of the most powerful known poisons. 
One fiftieth of a grain has repeatedly proved 
fatal to dogs, and nearly so to man. Its 
effects, which may be considered equivalent to 
those of a corresponding dose of aconite or 
its tincture, are a burning and swelled feeling 
of lips, tongue, and pharynx, nausea and 
sometimes vomiting, headache, shooting pains 
of the face, difficult respiration, general 
prostration, and, after a slight preliminary 
rise, a marked diminution of the frequency 
and force of the heart's pulsations. As the 
fatal dose is approached the pulse again 
becomes rapid and feeble. The mind is clear, 
and there is but little somnolence ; the pupil 
is dilated, but less so than by atropia. Fatal 
poisoning has taken place, not only from the 
use of the medicinal preparations of the drug, 
but from its being mistaken for horseradish or 
other edible plants, from which with care it 
can be readily distinguished. The therapeutic 
action of aconite is obtained by doses much 
smaller than those which give rise to the 
effects just described. A slight tingling of the 
lips and tongue may be regarded as a sign that 
the dose is not to be increased. Since its 
action, after a primary slight stimulant effect, 
is essentially to diminish the activity of the 
nervous system, and secondarily that of the 
heart, it is used in medicine for two objects : 
first, to diminish pain, as in neuralgia; and 
secondly, to diminish the activity of the heart 
in inflammatory diseases. According to some 
observers, aconite possesses a greater power 
in the reduction of certain kinds of inflam- 
matory fever than can be accounted for by the 
effects upon the heart described above ; but it 
is to be remembered that some of the diseases 
in which aconite is supposed to display 
peculiar power, tonsillitis for instance, have 
naturally a very limited duration. It is ad- 
mitted by most observers that the curative 
effect of aconite is displayed chiefly in the 
early stages of inflammations. The list of 
diseases in which aconite has been used is 
very large, embracing those in which inflam- 
matory or neuralgic symptoms are prominent. 
In poisoning by this drug, after evacuation of 
the stomach, stimulant remedies, such as 
alcohol, wine, and brandy, and dry heat to 
the surface, should be used. 

ACONITE, Winter (eranthis hyemalis), a small 
tuberous and herbaceous plant, growing with- 
out stem, and bearing in early spring bright 
yellow flowers of cup form. Its leaves are 
smooth, pale green, many-cut, and peltate; 
and its scape, only a few inches high, is single- 
flowered. 



AOONITIA 



ACOUSTICS 



69 



ACONITIA. See ACONITE. 

ACOSTA. I. Jos6 de, a Spanish writer, born 
about 1539, died Feb. 15, 1600. He entered 
the society of Jesuits at 14, and on completing 
his course of study was appointed professor 
of theology at Ocafia. In 1571 he was sent 
as a missionary to South America, of which, 
after his return to Spain, he published a 
history (Historia natural y moral de las 
Indias, Madrid, 1590). This work has been 
translated into several languages. He also 
wrote De Natura Novi Orbis, and some other 
works, chiefly of a polemical character. II. 
Uriel, a Jewish writer, born in Oporto, 
Portugal, about 1590, died by his own hand in 
Holland in April, 1647, or, according to some 
accounts, in 1640. He belonged to a family 
converted to Christianity at the time of the 
expulsion of the Jews from Portugal, and was 
educated by Catholic teachers, but soon con- 
ceived doubts concerning the Christian doc- 
trines. He finally fled, with his mother and a 
brother, to Amsterdam, embraced the faith of 
his ancestors, and exchanged his original name 
Gabriel for Uriel. He failed, however, to 
recognize in the rabbinical Judaism of his 
time the ideal of his independent specula- 
tions, and became involved in a passionate 
controversy with the religious heads of the 
Jewish congregation of Amsterdam, in the 
course of which, having suffered excommu- 
nication, he published in Portuguese a " Criti- 
cism of the Pharisaic Traditions, compared 
with the Written Law," in which he repu- 
diated the doctrine of the immortality of the 
soul. He was now arraigned before the 
magistrates and heavily fined. After many 
years of exclusion from the synagogue he 
signed a recantation of his views, but sub- 
sequently again provoked the ire of the 
orthodox, among whom were his own rela- 
tives, was a second time excommunicated, and 
finally submitted to an ignominious public 
chastisement. Maddened by persecution, he 
put an end to his life by a pistol shot, leaving 
an autobiography, which was published in 
Latin and German in 1687. III. Joaqnin, a 
South American historian, colonel of engineers 
in the Colombian service, died about 1862. 
In 1834 he explored the valleys of the So- 
corro and Magdalena rivers with the bota- 
nist Cespedes, and in 1841 made researches 
relative to the Chibchas and other aboriginal 
tribes. He continued these investigations in 
the archives of Spain and France, and in 1848 
published in Paris Compendia historico del 
descubrimiento y colonization de la Nueva 
Granada, en el siglo decimo sexto. In 1849, 
in conjunction with M. A. Laserre, he pub- 
lished a new and enlarged edition of the 
celebrated Semenario de la Nueva Granada, 
with a biographical notice of the author, the 
learned Caldas, who was shot in 1816. A 
series of archaeological essays were furnished 
by Acosta, for publication, to the Paris 
geographical society, 1854 et seq. 



ACOUSTICS (Gr. aitoiieiv, to hear), that branch 
of physical science which explains the phe- 
nomena and laws of sound. For the produc- 
tion of these phenomena three conditions are 
required: 1, a sonorous body; 2, a medium to 
propagate, and 3, an organism to perceive 
the sound. From these conditions the science 
of acoustics is naturally divided into three 
branches, of which the last belongs entirely 
to the field of physiology, or rather biology, 
while in the first two the most intricate and 
at the same time most successful application 
of mathematics to mechanical science is to be 
found. A superficial examination into the 
cause of sound shows that it originates in 
vibrations of the sounding body, and is thus 
a result of its elasticity. The air, being very 
elastic, is ordinarily the medium by which 
sound is transmitted to our ears; but most 
other bodies, solid as well as liquid, transmit 
sound as well and even better than air, while 
in a vacuum transmission ceases, as is proved 
by the well-known experiment of exhausting 
by means of an air pump the air from around 
a continuously ringing bell. The phases of the 
sonorous vibrations are appropriately called un- 
dulations or waves ; they are communicated to 
the body transmitting the sound by one or 
more impulses from the sonorous body, and 
are transmitted by alternate compressions and 
expansions of the parts. The velocity of this 
transmission for air at the freezing point of 
Fahrenheit is 1,090 feet per second, and about 
one foot more for every degree above. Very 
violent sounds, however, travel faster, as proved 
by Boyden in Boston and Earnshaw in Shef- 
field, England; the cause of this is the heat 
developed by strong compression of the air 
by a powerful wave of sound. Heavy gases 
transmit sound slower and light gases faster 
than air: carbonic acid 858 feet, hydrogen 
4,164 feet per second. Water transmits sound 
with about the same velocity as the latter, 
while alcohol, ether, and turpentine transmit 
it slower (3,800 feet), and saline solutions hi 
water faster (from 5,000 to 6,500 feet per sec- 
ond). Through metals the transmission is in 
round numbers as follows: lead, 4,000 feet 
per second; copper, 11,000; iron and steel, 
16,000. If a wave is violent enough to pro- 
duce a shock against the drum of the ear, a 
sound is always heard even if there be but a 
single wave ; such is the case with a clap of 
thunder, the explosion of a gun, or the crack 
of a whip. But if the waves are weak, such 
as those produced by the vibration of a string, 
there must be a succession of them at a cer- 
tain rate of rapidity, in order to make the 
sound audible. If these waves succeed one 
another at regular intervals and thus have equal 
lengths, we have a musical tone ; if irregular, 
they produce merely a noise. The lowest tone 
used in music is produced by an organ pipe 
nearly 32 feet long, in which the tone is pro- 
duced on the same principle as in the flute, by 
blowing a current of air against a sharp edge ; 



70 



ACOUSTICS 



the friction causing a vibration of the air 
column in the pipe, on the same principle as 
the friction of a violin bow causes the vibra- 
tion of a string. The length of the wave pro- 
duced in an organ pipe is equal to the length 
of the pipe ; and as sound travels through air 
with a velocity of about 1,090 feet per second, 
it must pass through a pipe 32 feet long hi nearly 
the 32d part of a second, and thus produce 32 
waves per second. If the pipe is 16 feet long, 
we must have 64 waves per second; for an 
8-feet pipe, 128 waves; 4 feet, 256; 2 feet, 
512; 1 foot, 1,024; 6 niches, 2,048; 3 inches, 
4,096; and 1 inch, 8,192 waves. These are 
the correct velocities of vibrations of the tones 
represented by the note called C, Ut, or Do, 
from octave to octave, according to the so- 
called theoretical pitch. In Handel's tune the 
lower C corresponded to 31 vibrations per sec- 
ond, and the Italian opera in London had it 
in 1859 at 34 vibrations ; while the pitch re- 
cently established by the French conservatory 
of music and by a congress of musicians in 
London agreed to nearly 33 vibrations, corre- 
sponding to the Stuttgart pitch. Only the 
eight octaves mentioned above are used in mu- 
sic. The capacity of the ear, however, extends 
an octave below the lowest and more than two 
above the highest of these figures, being be- 
tween 16 and 38,000 vibrations per second; 
but there is a difference in this regard between 
individuals, some persons being perfectly deaf 
for very low or very high tones distinctly heard 
by others. The seven different tones of the so- 
called diatonic scale are interpolated between 
the octaves given above, and expressed by the 
customary notes and staff* of five lines with clef, 
or by the letters C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C. They 
correspond for the lower octave with the ve- 
locity of vibrations 82, 86, 40, 42f, 48, 54, 60, 
and 64 vibrations per second respectively ; by 
multiplying either of these numbers by 2, 4, 8, 
16, &c., we obtain the velocities of any other 
octave. It is seen that some of these numbers 
bear simple ratios to one another, as C : C = 
1:2, C:G = 2:8, C:F = 3:4, C:E = 4:5, 
E : G = 5 : 6-; these tones harmonize, the others 
are discordant. The further comparison of the 
numbers shows that the differences between 
the 3d and 4th and between the 7th and 8th 
of the scale are less than those preceding or 
following. This has given reason for the in- 
terpolation of five other tones between those 
of which the differences are greater, so as ap- 
proximately to equalize these differences; hi 
this way 12 tones in each octave have been 
obtained, forming a scale called chromatic. 
These interpolated tones are inappropriately 
called semitones, and designated with the same 
sign as the next note, but preceded by a $ 
(sharp) or -, (flat). This scale is represented in 
the velocity of vibrations and in name as follows : 

84 88 45 51 67 
82 86 40 42% 48 54 60 64 

Ct Dt Ft Gt A| 
C D E F GAB C 



The keyed instruments give a material repre- 
sentation of this scale. The relation of pro- 
gression between its tones, when tuned accord- 
ing to the proportions given here, is so irregu- 
lar, that when transposing the diatonic scale, 
that is, when commencing it at another tone 
than C, very impure harmonies are obtained. 
This is corrected, or rather compromised, by 
making the mutual proportions of the 12 num- 
bers representing the chromatic scale such as 
to obtain a regular geometrical series ; this is 
the so-called equal temperament. In order to 
accomplish this with strict mathematical accu- 
racy, we have only to interpolate 11 terms of 
such a series between the numbers 1 and 2, 
which express the relations between a tone 
and its octave ; this is mathematically ex- 
pressed by the series 

2, 2^, 2"&, 2^, 2~&, fec., to 2^; 

or by logarithms: log. $, log. f|, log. fj, &o., 
to log. f , which by calculation gives the series 
1-000, 1-0594, 1-1225, 1-1892, 1-2599, 1-3348, 
1-4142, 1-4983, 1-5874, 1-6818, 1'7818, 1-8877, 
2-000. Multiplying each of these numbers by 32, 
we obtain the velocity of vibration for the low- 
er octave, for the absolute equal temperament : 

88-8908 88-0544 
82-000 85-9200 40-8168 42-7186 



C 



D 



E 



45-2544 50-7968 57-0176 

47-9456 58-8176 60-4064 64-000 

Ft Gt At 

G A B C 

It is seen, by comparison with the numbers 
mentioned before, that this series gives Ct, D, 
G, and G| too low, while the other eighth tones 
are too high. However, this is only the case 
when considering the interpolated semitones as 
sharps; but as we must use Ct for D[>, Dt 
for E|,, &c., and the calculation for the tones 
corresponding with these flats gives us differ- 
ent figures, between which and the former the 
equal temperament is a compromise, the ad- 
vantages are acknowledged to be with the lat- 
ter, and it is now therefore universally adopted. 
(See Music.) A column of air in a pipe will not 
necessarily vibrate in such a way that each wave 
will be equal to the length of the pipe. By modi- 
fying the manner of admitting the air, either by 
increased pressure or changing the aperture, 
the waves may be made one half, one third, 
one fourth, one fifth, &c., of the length of the 
pipe. In this way the so-called harmonics 
and the tones of the French horn are pro- 
duced. They are called over-tones, if the 
fundamental vibration producing the lowest 
tone is still heard at the same time. In 
order to produce all kinds of shorter waves 
^by means of the same pipe, holes may be made 
h> its sides, closed by the fingers or by proper 
vaVes. The opening of these holes is nearly 
equivalent to a shortening of the pipe. Thus 
the different tones of the flute, clarinet, haut- 
bois, bassoon, and several other wind instru- 



ACOUSTICS 



n 



ments, are produced. In the trombone, the 
length of the tube is increased and diminished 
by a sliding arrangement ; while in the cornet 
u piston and similar brass instruments, the 
same elongation and shortening is produced by 
piston valves admitting or shutting off the air 
from side channels of greater or lesser length. 
In stringed instruments the same results are 
accomplished by different length of strings. 
As in the organ every pipe produces only a 
single tone, so in the pianoforte every string is 
intended for one tone; while in the harp, by 
a slight shortening, the pitch of each string 
may be raised a so-called semitone. In all 
the other stringed instruments, as the violin, 
violoncello, and guitar, the different tones are 
produced by the use of very few strings only, 
which, however, by proper manipulation with 
the fingers, may be shortened so as to produce 
tones of which the vibrations become faster in 
proportion as the sounding portion of the string 
is shortened. In regard to the law governing 
their vibration, it is the same for strings as 
for pipes. Other circumstances being equal, 
their velocity is inversely proportional to the 
length of the pipe or string. The tone of 
strings also changes by change of tension, and 
the velocity of their vibration is in the ratio 
of the square root of the weights which pro- 
duce this tension. Further, the tone depends 
upon the thickness of the string, its rigidity, 
weight, and nature of material. When a string 
is subdivided into a number of equal parts, 
these parts will vibrate simultaneously, leaving 
the points of division at rest, and produce the 
harmonic tones, after the same law as in the 
case of a column of air in the French horn. 
The subjoined five figures give the manner of 
vibration of a string as a whole, half, third, 
fourth, and fifth parts, producing different 



FUNDAMENTAL TONE. 



DOUBLE OCTAVE. 



THIRD. 

Harmonic Sound Waves of a String. 

tones, the harmonics of the fundamental tone, 
its octave, fifth above or twelfth, its double 
octave, and third above that, or seventeenth. 



On the violin these subdivisions may be effect- 
ed by slightly touching the string on one of 
the points dividing it into equal parts, and the 
harmonic upper tones thus produced are called 
the flageolet tones. In the ^Eolian harp, in 
which the strings are put into vibration by the 
friction of a current of air, these divisions are 
incidentally and continually changing, and thus 
a variety of harmonic tones is produced. The 
division points, where the string happens to 
be at rest, are called nodal points. An elastic 
plate of glass, brass, steel, or other suitable 
material, may also be made to vibrate and 
emit tones ; and when fixed at one point and 
excited at one of its edges by a violin bow, it 
may be made to produce a considerable variety 
of tones,. by the fact that it may be subdivided 
into various systems of nodal lines ; the spaces 
between these lines are the sounding portions, 
and the vibrations are more rapid or the tones 
sharper in proportion as these spaces are small- 
er. These nodal lines may be made visible by 
scattering dry sand over the plate, and when 
it is put into vibration with the violin bow, 
the grains of the sand which are not on the 
nodal lines will be thrown aside, and not come 
to rest until they are accumulated upon the 
nodal lines. Thus many kinds of regular and 
almost geometrical figures may be formed, 
which are called, after the inventor of this 
method, Chladni's nodal sound figures. With 
different forms of plates, many hundreds of such 
figures have been obtained. Our figures illus- 
trate only a few of the most remarkable. The 
first and most simple is produced by the lowest 




Chladnfs Nodal Sound Figures. 

tone which can be obtained from the disk ; the 
others belong to higher and higher tones, while 
the last and most complicated is produced by 
the highest tone ; in this case the smallest 
parts of the glass disk vibrate for themselves, 
and produce then the most rapid vibrations. 
It is thus seen that every tone which may be 



72 



ACOUSTICS 



ACRE 



drawn out of a disk produces its own charac- 
teristic nodal lines or figures. (See Chlad- 
ni's " Acoustics.") Tones may differ not only 
in the velocity of their succeeding waves, but 
also in the form of these waves; this deter- 
mines the character of the tone which the 
French call timbre. By it we distinguish the 
sounds of different instruments, the voices of 
different persons, &c. Comparative physiology 
has determined which special portions of the 
interior structure of the ear are intended for 
the different functions in the act of hearing, 
by finding some parts more or less developed 
in proportion as the animal possesses the ca- 
pacity of distinguishing variations of sound. 
So the dog, with no musical ear, distinguishes 
the voice of his master better than those sing- 
ing birds which can learn a tune and thus have 
a musical ear. (See EAH.) Recently experi- 
menters have succeeded in causing sounds to 
draw waving lines on slips of moving paper, 
these waves representing not only the pitch or 
velocity of vibrations, but by their different 
forms also the nature of the sounds. In our 
figures are represented a few illustrations of 




Bound Lines traced on Paper by the Phonautograph. 

the waved lines produced by this method of 
registering the nature of diverse vibrations of 
the same length and pitch. The apparatus with 
which this is performed is called a phonauto- 
graph. In regard to the application of acoustics 
to architecture, and the construction of build- 
ings intended for music or public speaking, much 
learning has been erroneously applied. The 
elliptical and parabolic forms given to walls 
or ceilings have not answered expectation, for 
the simple reason that they concentrate the 
sound at single points at the expense of others. 
Experience has however taught a few facts, 
of which the most important is that an echo 
is the greatest disturbing influence, and that 
large smooth walls and ceilings at a distance 
from the speaker make this disturbance a 
maximum. Speakers, singers, or musical in- 
struments must therefore be placed as near to 
such a wall as practicable ; and when a high 
flat or arched ceiling causes reflection or re- 



verberation of sound, as is often the case in 
large churches, a horizontal sounding board 
of some 20 or more feet in diameter, thus pro- 
jecting far beyond the pulpit, and placed as 
low as possible, only a few feet above the 
speaker's head, has been found the only effec- 
tive remedy. It is seen in most of the cathe- 
drals and large churches on the European con- 
tinent. Among the earlier writers and inves- 
tigators must be mentioned Euler, Newton, La- 
place, Chladni, and Savart; and among the 
later, Helmholtz, Weber, Konig, Hersclifl, 
Wulner, and Tyndall. See especially Helm- 
holtz, Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen 
(Brunswick, 2d ed., 1866); Tyndall, "Lectures 
on Sound;" Peirce, "On Sound," prepared 
from Herschel's writings; and Wulner, JSx- 
perimentalphysik (Leipsic, 1871, vol. i.). 

ACQUAVIVA, Clandlo de, a general of the Jes- 
uits, born in Italy in 1542, died in 1615. He 
regulated the studies of the order of Jesuits 
in an ordinance promulgated at Rome in 1586, 
which became famous under the title of Ratio 
Studiorum. He prohibited discussions on the 
subject of tyrannicide, and his opinions are 
still regarded as authoritative by the order. 

ACQUAVIVA DELLE FONTI, a town of S. Italy, 
province of Terra di Bari, 18 m. S. of Bari ; 
pop. in 1861, 6,517. It is surrounded by walls, 
and has a handsome parish church. 

ACQUI (anc. Aquae Statiellce), a town of 
Italy, capital of a district of the same name, in 
the Piedmontese province of Alessandria, on the 
left bank of the Bormida, 18 m. S. of Alessan- 
dria ; pop. about 9,000. It is much frequented 
by invalids for its famous hot sulphur springs, 
which were well known to the ancient Ro- 
mans. The remains of a Roman aqueduct are 
among its curiosities. It contains many hand- 
some buildings, among them a cathedral, con- 
vents, a college, and a theological seminary. 

ACRE (Lat. ager, Ger. acker, a cultiva- 
ted field), a standard measure of land, con- 
sisting in England and the United States of 
4,840 square yards, or 43,560 square feet. In 
surveying, it is composed of 10 square chains, 
the measuring chain being 66 feet long. There 
are 640 acres in an English statute square mile. 
The Scotch acre is 1*27 of the English, and the 
Irish 1 '62; the French and Belgian hectare, 
2-47, and the arpent 0-99 (Geneva, 1-27); 
the Swiss faux, 1'62; the Spanish fanegada, 
1'06; the Portuguese gueira, 1'43; the Aus- 
trian joch, 1-42; the Danish toende, 5'50; the 
Swedish tunneland, 1'13; the Russian desia- 
tina, 2'70. The morgen of Germany is gen- 
erally about 0'65 of an acre, but it has hereto- 
fore varied in the different states from - 63 to 
2-40; in Holland it is 2-10, and in Poland 1-38. 
The moggia of Naples is 0'83 of an acre ; the 
giornate of Sardinia, 0*93 ; the saccata of Tus- 
cany, 1'22. The ancient Roman jugerum was 
0'66 of an acre, and the Greek plethron 0'23. 

ACRE, or St. Jean d'Aere (called Acca by the 
Turks, Accho in Scripture, and Ace and Ptole- 
mais by the Greeks), a seaport town of Syria, 



ACRELIUS 



AOTA DIURNA 



73 




St. Jean d'Acre. 



N. of Mt. Oarmel, 64 m. S. of Beyrout, in lat. 
32 54' K, Ion. 35 4'E. ; pop. about 5,000. It 
is on an almost triangular peninsula, and on the 
land side is surrounded with beautiful new forti- 
fications ; remains of the old fortifications still 
project from the sea. Its harbor is the best 
on that part of the coast, although very shal- 
low. The place is of the highest antiquity, 
mentioned in the history of the Jews, Per- 
sians, and Ptolemies, and is renowned for its 
desperate sieges and defences. In 1104 it was 
taken by the Genoese, from whom Saladin re- 
took it in 1187. The assault upon it by Rich- 
ard Coeur de Lion in 1191 was one of the most 
daring feats in the crusades. After its cap- 
ture by the Christians in that year, it remained 
in the custody of the knights of St. John, who 
fortified it strongly, till 1291, when they were 
compelled to evacuate it by the sultan of 
Egypt. The Turks occupied it early in the 
16th century. In 1799, supported by Sidney 
Smith and a few British sailors, they kept Bona- 
parte and the French army at bay for 60 days, 
when he raised the siege and retreated. In 
1832, when Mehemet AH revolted from the 
Porte and seized upon Syria, Ibrahim Pasha, 
after a long siege, took Acre by storm. In 
1839 Syria was restored to Turkey, but Ibrahim 
refused to evacuate Acre till after a bombard- 
ment by the combined British, Austrian, and 
Turkish squadrons, Nov. 4, 1840. 

ACRELIUS, Israel, a Swedish clergyman, born 
Dec. 25, 1714, died April 25, 1800. He studied 
in Upsal, and was ordained in 1743. In 1749 
he was appointed provost of the Swedish con- 
gregations on the Delaware, and pastor of Rac- 
coon and Pensneck, and subsequently of Chris- 
tiana. He managed the ecclesiastical affairs 
of the Swedish colonists, which he found 



in great disorder, with zeal and prudence. 
Ill health, however, compelled him to resign 
his situation in 1756, and return to Sweden. 
The king bestowed upon him a large pension, 
and the lucrative living of Fellingsbro. Be- 
sides some articles on American affairs in 
the Swedish journals, and numerous religious 
works, Acrelius published a description of the 
Swedish colonies in America (4to, 1759). 

ACROCERAUNIA (Gr. &npov, peak, and K epaw6s, 
thunderbolt), in ancient geography, the N. W. 
extremity (now Cape Linguetta) of the Cerau- 
nian mountains in Epirus, so called from its 
being often struck by lightning. The name is 
sometimes improperly applied to the wholo 
range. (See CERAUNIAN MOUNTAINS.) 

ACROPOLIS (Gr.), the highest point of a city, 
or its citadel, usually on a rock or hill. The 
ruins of the most celebrated, that of Athens, 
still exist for the delight of travellers. It had 
five gates, the principal a splendid structure of 
Pentelican marble, and within its bounds still 
stands the Parthenon or temple of Minerva. 

ACT. See BILL. 

ACTA DIURNA (Lat., daily doings), the name 
of daily reports issued in ancient Rome, chiefly 
under the empire. They were published by 
authority, and contained a brief chronicle of 
the proceedings at public assemblies, and in 
the tribunals both civil and criminal, together 
with a register of births, deaths, marriages, 
and some other interesting matter. Divorces, 
being matter of scandal, were a staple item of 
domestic intelligence in an age when printing 
was unknown. The circulation must have been 
very limited, and the transcripts chiefly for the 
use of the patricians. Reporters (actuarii) 
were employed to procure interesting news not 
to be found in official registers. 



74 



ACTION 



ACTINIA 



ACTJ50N, in Greek mythology, a hunter, 
grandson of Cadmus, who, for the crime of 
watching Diana while bathing, was trans- 
formed into a stag, and devoured by his own 
hounds. 

ACTA ERUDITORUM (the transactions of the 
learned), the title of the first literary journal 
of Germany, founded in 1682 by Otto Mencke, 
professor in the university of Leipsic, and sev- 
eral associates, and published monthly in Latin. 
It remained in the hands of the Mencke family 
and preserved its reputation until, in 1754, it 
fell under the charge of Professor Bel, who man- 
aged it so negligently that it lost character and 
circulation. The calamities of the seven years' 
war also operated against it, and it languished 
till 1782, when the last volume appeared, 
which, however, only brought up the review 
to 1776. The whole collection is contained in 
117 vols. 4to. In 1732 the title was changed 
to Nova Acta Eruditorum. The work having 
met the approbation of the critics of foreign 
countries, and its convenience being undenia- 
ble, a numerous race of imitators soon sprung 
up in France, Germany, and England. 

ACTA SAMTORIM, Acta Mirtyrnm, Martyroloev. 
The ancient church gave the name Acta Mar- 
tyrum, or " Acts of the Martyrs," to the records 
of the lives and sufferings of the martyrs which 
were kept for the edification of the faithful. 
The oldest acts extant are those referring to 
the death of St. Ignatius of Antioch (107). 
When to the lives of the martyrs those of 
other pious men were added, the collections re- 
ceived the name Acta Sanctorum, " Acts of the 
Saints." The deaths of pious men, and the cir- 
cumstances attending their death, being com- 
municated by the various Christian congrega- 
tions to each other, an alphabetical list was oc- 
casionally hung up in the churches to keep 
their names fresh in the recollection of the 
brethren. These lists grew into brief biogra- 
phies, and at length the institution of canoniza- 
tion and the dedication of particular days to the 
memory of the saints introduced their names 
and histories into the breviary and missal. The 
oldest collection of the acts of the martyrs was 
compiled by the church historian Eusebius in 
his two works De Martyribu* Paletina and 
Synagoge Martyriorum. Collections of the 
most important lives were made in the 6th cen- 
tury by Gregory of Tours, and in the 10th by 
Simeon Metaphrastes. A more critical treat- 
ment is found in the Sanctuarium of Boninus 
Mombritius, and particularly in Ruinart's Acta 
Martyrum Sincera (fol., Paris, 1689). By 
far the most celebrated collection of the lives 
of saints is that commenced by the Jesuit 
Bolland (died 1665), and still continued by a 
society of Jesuits, called Bollandists. In fact, 
this collection is so much more important than 
any other work of the kind, that in the history 
of literature it alone is understood by the name 
Acta Sanctorum. (See BOLLAND.) 

ACTIAN GAMES, in Roman antiquity, solemn 
games instituted by Augustus in memory of 



his victory over Mark Antony at Actium, 31 
B. 0., held every fifth year, and celebrated in 
honor of Apollo, surnamed Actius. 

ACTINIA (Gr. a/cr/f, ray), a genus of marine 
radiated animals, commonly called sea anem- 
ones, from their resemblance to flowers. 
They are fleshy polyps, termed zoanihoria by 
De Blainville, and zoopnyta helianthoidea by 
Dr. Johnston. The body is regular and some- 
what like a flower in form, more or less elon- 
gated and very contractile, enabling it to as- 
sume a great variety ot shapes. It has a sac- 
shaped digestive apparatus, with an oval ori- 
fice, surrounded by tubular tentacles of vari- 
ous forms. In many species the base of the 
body acts as a sucker, by means of which they 
adhere to rocks, stones, &c., while the opposite 




Metridlum margtnatum (Fringed Actinia), expanded. 



Metridium marginatum, closed. 



extremity presents a disk with a central ori- 
fice. This is surrounded by tentacles either in 
a single row or in several rows, which act as 
so many arms by which the animal seizes its 
prey and drags it into his mouth. Its only or- 
gan, the stomach, performs almost all the 
functions of animal life; this has, besides its 
opening from the mouth, one at the bottom 
communicating with the general cavity of the 
body, which may be shut at will, making a 
closed sac where digestion is rapidly perform- 
ed by means of active secretions. The lower 
cavity is divided by folds running from the cir- 
cumference toward the centre, from top to 
bottom of the animal, the food circulating 
freely among these partitions by the action of 
vibratory cilia on their walls. Digestion is 



ACTINIA 



ACTINISM 



75 



here combined with a kind of circulation ; they 
have no blood, no vessels, no respiration other 
than that effected by the currents of water in 
the interior, doubtless accompanied by a 
change of substance. The surface of the ten- 
tacles is thickly studded with microscopic vi- 
bratile cilia in constant motion, causing cur- 
rents which bring to them their microscopic 
food, sweeping a space of several inches. 
Each tentacle is a tube, with longitudinal and 
circular fibres, by which it can be shortened, 
lengthened, and moved in all directions. Upon 
the tentacles are great numbers of microscopic 
so-called "lasso cells," each containing a long 
hollow thread coiled spirally within it, which 
can be suddenly thrust, out, benumbing and 
arresting shrimps and small fish incautiously 
venturing too near these innumerable and in- 
visible threads, and enabling the tentacles to 
seize and convey them to the central mouth. 
Similarly armed threads may also be projected 
from the sides of the body. The eggs are very 
numerous, being in bunches on the inside of 
the partitions until ready to be hatched, when 
they escape through the stomach and mouth, 
or through the tentacles, into the water, giving 




Anthea Cereus (Opelet). 

rise to creatures like themselves, only with 
fewer tentacles, which are in multiples of five. 
The young one has only five, one in the line of 
the mouth and the others in two pairs later- 
ally ; so that even here there is an indication 
of bilateral symmetry, with definition of an- 
terior and posterior regions. The actinia is 
the type of the single polyp, as distinguished 
from the compound coral polyps. It preys 
voraciously on small crabs and mollusks, and 
when waiting for its victims these arms are 
expanded like the petals of a flower, and, being 
tinted with very brilliant colors, they present 
an elegant appearance. The actinia seizes 
animals apparently superior in strength and 
bulk, engulfs them in its sac or stomach, and 
distending itself to a great degree, digests them 
rapidly, disgorging the shells and harder parts 
of the victim when the softer parts have been 
consumed. Some actiniae are fixed, and others 
are free. The external tunic of the body pre- 
sents both longitudinal and transverse muscular 
fibres, covered, by a layer of skin or mucous 
membrane. Nervous fibres have also been de- 
tected, and the sensibility of the animal is ex- 
treme ; they contract even when a dark cloud 



passes over them. They may be seen at low 
water, clustered upon rocks and masses of 
stone, which they cover, as with flowers. 
There they remain tenaciously adhering by 
their base. They are, however, capable of 
moving from one spot to another ; and in win- 
ter they seek deeper water, where the changes 
of temperature do not affect them. The sea 
anemone is very common on the southern 
shores of England and on the New England 
coasts ; and one species (actinia Jordaica), on 
the shores of the Mediterranean, is esteemed a 
great delicacy by the Italians. The fringed 
actinia (metridium), the most common on the 
N. E. coast of North America, is, in large 
specimens, about 4 inches high and 3 inches 
across the expanded disk. They are found of va- 
rious colors, pink, brown, purple, whitish, and 
orange, in pools among the rocks, flooded at 
high tide, and overhung by seaweeds. In an- 
thea cereus, of the British coast, there is no 
power of retracting the long tentacles within 
the body ; the body is of a light chestnut color, 
and the numerous tentacles usually sea-green 
tipped with red. It is of about the size of our 
fringed actinia. See " British Sea Anem- 
ones," by Philip Henry Gosse (London, 1860), 
and " Coral and Coral Islands," by James D. 
Dana (New York, 1872). 

ACTINISM (Gr. a/cix, a ray of light), the pe- 
culiar property or force of that portion of the 
sun's rays which produces the chemical effects 
shown in photography. That the actinic raya 
are different from those which produce heat and 
light was shown as far back as 1842 by Prof. 
J. "W. Draper of New York, who recognized 
in them a new principle or force, for which he 
proposed the name of tithonicity, and for the 
rays that of tithonic. The name now adopted 
was given by Mr. E. Hunt of England. It is 
found that actinism does not exist in the most 
luminous rays of light, and that these rays ac- 
tually tend to prevent the peculiar effects of 
this force upon inorganic matter. The quan- 
tity of actinism in the sun's rays varies with 
the time of day and with the seasons. It 
is intercepted by red, orange, and yellow glass ; 
hence photographers now use glass of these 
colors to admit light to their so-called dark 
rooms. Such glass transmits the solar heat, 
while blue and violet glass, which transmit lit- 
tle or nothing of this heat, transmit the actinic 
rays. The reason of this has been explained 
by experiments in taking photographs of the 
solar spectrum ; they proved that no actinism 
exists in the red, orange, and yellow rays, that 
it commences feebly in the green, becomes 
stronger in the blue, and is strongest in the 
violet ; but what is remarkable, it is also found 
to extend far beyond the latter color, in the 
dark space entirely outside the visible spec- 
trum. In photographing the spectroscopic 
lines, it is found that this dark space contains 
scores of them as well as the visible part of 
the spectrum, and it appears that the only rea- 
son that we do not see these ultra-actinic rays 



76 



ACTINISM 



is that the liquids in our eyes cannot transmit 
waves of such great velocity ; when this velo- 
city is decreased by throwing the spectrum on 
some fluorescent substance, as paper, painted 
with a solution of quinine, or on uranium glass, 
the lines may be rendered visible. The so- 
called fluorescent substances reduce the ve- 
locity of the luminous waves falling on them ; 
in fact, they emit luminous waves of a less ve- 
locity than those by which they arc illuminated. 
Mr. Rutherfurd of New York has made the 
most elaborate photographs of all the lines in 
the actinic portion of the solar spectrum, the 
invisible as well as the visible, to the number 
of several thousand. A few of these lines are 
represented in the spectrum given here, of 



VI S I BLE LINES 



INVISIBLE LINES 



D E F 

GBIKX. 



G HIKL M N O P 

VIOLET. DARK SPACE. 



Prismatic Spectrum of Solar Light 

LUMINOUS RArS ACTINIC RAYS 

Curves representing 1 the comparative Intensity of the luminous 
and actinic rays in different parts of the solar spectrum. 

which only the portion from A to H is visible, 
while that from H to P is invisible, but may 
be photographed, even to a further extent than 
is here represented. The height of the un- 
shaded curve below represents the intensity of 
the light in the corresponding portion above, 
while the height of the shaded curve represents 
the intensity of the actinic action. It is seen 
that while the strongest light is in the yellow 
between the lines D and E, there is a total ab- 
sence of actinism here ; the strongest actinism 
is found near the lines H, where there is scarcely 
any light left, so that the spectrum dwindles 
down in darkness at that spot, while this ac- 
tinism extends about twice the length of the 
visible spectrum. In regard to the asserted 
action of the actinic rays on germination and 
the growth of plants, the most conscientious 
experiments have proved that only darkness 
promotes germination, and that plants want for 
their growth not that light alone from which 
the heated rays have been eliminated by pass- 
ing it through blue or violet glass. Such glass 
cannot increase the actinic power, but only de- 
crease the light and heat, and experience has 
shown that most plants suffer decidedly by such 
treatment ; that the green coloring matter of 
the leaves, of which the chlorophylline is the 
most important, needs the red rays for its pro- 
motion ; and that all plants must, in order to 



ACTION 

prosper, have the benefit of the full unadulte- 
rated solar light. 

ACTDfOMETER, the name generally but im- 
properly applied to a thermometer intended to 
measure the heat of the solar rays. The first 
so-called actinometer was made by Sir John 
Herschel in 1825, and consisted of a thermom- 
eter with a large bulb filled with the blue 
solution of the ammonia sulphate of copper, 
enclosed in a box with plate glass on top. 
When exposed to the sun's rays the expansion 
of the liquid indicates their intensity. The 
instrument is nearly identical in its results 
with that of Pouillet, which he calls pyrheli- 
ometer. Recently an ordinary mercurial ther- 
mometer enclosed in a box, and used alter- 
nately in the shade and in sunshine, was de- 
scribed by the Rev. Mr. Hodgkinson under the 
name of actinometer. A true actinometer is 
an instrument to measure the actinic or chemi- 
cal power of the solar rays. The first contri- 
vance to effect this object was the darkening of 
a surface sensitized by chloride of silver. The 
difficulty here was to make a preparation 
which was always uniformly sensitive. Dr. 
John W. Draper of New York discovered the 
important fact that of a mixture of equal vol- 
umes of chlorine and hydrogen, the amount 
combining to form chlorhydric acid is directly 
proportional to the actinic intensity of the 
light and the time of exposure. He made use 
of this property for the purpose of practical 
actinometry ; while recently Bunsen and Ros- 
coe have devised an actinometer based on the 
very same principle, and giving results of the 
most absolute scientific accuracy. There are, 
however, many other actions of this kind 
known in chemistry which may be more con- 
veniently employed. A solution of chloride 
of gold and oxalic acid will remain clear in the 
dark, while gold is precipitated by exposure to 
actinic rays, the amount of gold being propor- 
tional to the intensity of the rays and the time 
of exposure. See " Philosophical Transactions," 
1859, p. 879; 1852, p. 139. 

ACTION, the formal demand of one's right 
from another in a court. In the Roman law 
action is defined to be either the right which 
one has of seeking in a judicial tribunal that 
which is his due, or the pursuit itself, or the 
exercise of the right. In our law the pursuit 
of the remedy is properly the action, and the 
right on which it rests is the cause of action. 
In its usual sense the word describes all the 
proceedings incident to the demand of the 
right, including the adjudication of the court 
upon it. As actions are appeals to the supreme 
power of the state, to decide upon the matters 
in controversy between the parties, they are, 
except where recent reforms hi procedure have 
changed the practice, commenced by writs is- 
sued out of courts, in the name of the sov- 
ereign, or of the judges as his representatives, 
calling upon the defendant to come into court 
and answer. Such writs still remain in many 
of the states and in most of the courts of the 



ACTION 

United States. But in New York, and other 
states which have imitated its procedure, the 
action is commenced by a simple notice or sum- 
mons signed by the plaintiff or his attorneys ; 
though it is not to be understood that the theory 
of the action, as invoking or setting in motion 
the sovereign power of the state, is in any re- 
spect changed. The New York code defines an 
action as an ordinary proceeding in a court of 
justice, by which one party prosecutes another 
party for the enforcement or protection of a 
right, the redress or prevention of a wrong, or 
the punishment of a public offence. This def- 
inition suggests the chief division of actions, 
namely, into civil and criminal actions. A 
civil action may be brought by a private per- 
son; but in criminal actions in the proper 
sense, namely, proceedings for the punishment 
of crimes, the state or the people, that is, the 
sovereign power, is the plaintiff or prosecutor. 
An individual can sustain an action which re- 
lates to a criminal offence only when he has 
suffered from it some injury peculiar to him- 
self. Thus no private person, but only the 
people, can bring an action for a public nui- 
sance ; but if the public wrong inflicts a special 
injury on the individual, he may have his pri- 
vate action for that. In respect to the higher 
grades of criminal offences, it is the general 
principle at least of the law, though no very 
certain rule about the matter can be given, es- 
pecially with reference to the American law, 
that the private remedy for the especial injury 
must be postponed until after the individual 
has done his duty to the public by setting afoot 
a public prosecution of the crime. It is said, 
in general terms, that for every wrong the law 
provides a remedy by action ; and, rightly un- 
derstood, this is true. But there is not a 
remedy or action for every injury. It is only 
for those acts which are injuries in the es- 
timation of the law, or, in other words, which 
are wrongs in a legal sense, that the law gives 
redress by actions. As the Latin phrase is, 
there may be damnum absque injuria, that is 
to say, damage or injury, but yet no legal 
wrong. So where the harmful act is done by 
one in the exercise of a function or authority 
conferred by the sovereign power, and within 
its limits, and without any fault on his part or 
for his personal benefit, no action lies against 
him for the injury. Thus no action will lie 
against a judge of a court of record for an act 
done by him in the exercise of his judicial of- 
fice ; and this is true even if he acts without 
jurisdiction in fact, unless he knew, or had the 
means of knowing and so ought to have known, 
the defect of jurisdiction; and it lies upon 
the plaintiff in any such case to prove these es- 
sential facts. This principle applies to the case 
of all persons intrusted with the performance 
of public duties or functions, and exercising 
them without any personal emolument, who, 
without malice, negligence, or other fault in 
the exercise of such duties, inflict injury upon 
individuals. No action can be maintained by 



ACTON 



77 



a citizen against a sovereign without its ex- 
press consent ; therefore, as a rule, no suit 
can be brought by an individual against the 
state or the United States. Causes of action 
against these must be presented by petition or 
some proceeding of that character. The 
United States receives demands of this charac- 
ter in its court of claims. Nor will the courts 
of a state ordinarily entertain actions against 
foreign states or sovereigns, for anything done 
or omitted by them in their public character. 
Claims of this sort are properly the province 
of diplomatic negotiation. As injuries are nu- 
merous and various, so the character and forms 
of actions are manifold. Many of the old- 
fashioned forms, which made certain technical 
tests essential to their maintenance, have been 
wisely abolished. It has been attempted in 
New York to get rid of all distinctive forms. 
There, every other than a criminal action is a 
civil action. There is no other or specific 
name for it, and the design of the code is to 
give by this single action every kind of remedj 
or relief which can be sought in civil causes- 
But the characteristics of the old forms of ac- 
tions remain, nevertheless, and as they must, 
they still determine the forms of the one ac- 
tion ; so that its characteristic shapes are almost 
as numerous as the old forms of which it has 
extinguished the names. 

ACTIUM (now La Punta), a promontory and 
village in Acarnania, at the entrance of the 
Ambracian gulf, near which Octavius, afterward 
Augustus, vanquished Mark Antony, Sept. 2, 
31 B. C., in a great naval engagement which 
decided the question of universal dominion, 
and made the victor emperor. The generals 
had nearly equal armies on opposite sides of 
the bay, but these took no part in the combat. 
Octavius had 260 ships, Antony 220. Cleo- 
patra reinforced Antony with 60 ships, and he 
imprudently offered a naval battle to Octavius. 
Agrippa, the admiral of Octavius, by a rapid 
manoevre, soon put to flight Cleopatra with her 
galleys. The voluptuous Antony followed her 
with a few ships. His fleet, deserted by its 
leader, surrendered, and his army did the like 
after waiting seven days for his return. 

ACTON, Sir John Francis Edward, Neapolitan 
prime minister, born in 1736, died in Palermo, 
Aug. 12, 1811. He has been often erroneously 
called Joseph, the name of his brother. His 
immediate ancestors were London merchants, 
descendants of an English country gentleman, 
Edward Acton, who was created a baronet on 
account of his fidelity to Charles I. Sir John, 
who inherited the title in 1791, was in the naval 
service successively of France, Tuscany, and 
Naples, where he became a favorite of Queer 
Caroline, and rose rapidly to the post of pre- 
mier of King Ferdinand. He had intimate 
relations with the English ambassador and his 
wife, Sir William and Lady Hamilton, and was 
an inveterate enemy of the French revolution. 
His administration was despotic and cruel. 
In 1798 he accompanied King Ferdinand in 



78 



ACTON BURNELL 



ACTS OF THE APOSTLES 



the expedition of the Austrian General Mack 
against the French. He lost his prestige after 
the disastrous result of the campaign, and was 
finally in 1806 ousted from power. His second 
son, CHABLES JANUABIUS EDWABD (1803-'47), 
became a cardinal in 1842. Sir John's brother, 
JOSEPH EDWABD, was a lieutenant general in 
the Neapolitan service, and became the pro- 
genitor of several distinguished naval officers ; 
and the Italian minister of marine in 1869-'70, 
Bear Admiral GEOBGE ACTON, and several other 
officers of the present day, residents of Naples, 
are members of the same family. Sir John 
Francis Edward Acton was succeeded as 7th 
baronet by his son FEBDINAXD RICHARD EDWABD 
(1801-'37), who married in Paris in 1832 the 
only child of the duke of Dalberg, and assumed 
the name of Dalberg- Acton. His widow be- 
came in 1840 the wife of the present Earl 
Granville, and died in 1860. Sir JOHN EME- 
BIO EDWABD DALBEBG-ACTON, born Jan. 10, 
1834, studied from 1850 to 1854 at the univer- 
sity of Munich, made then with his stepfather 
Lord Granville a tour through the United 
States, and married in 1865 a daughter of 
Count Arco- Valley of Munich. He founded 
in 1861 the "Home and Foreign Review," an 
organ of the liberal Catholics, and edited in 
1863 Matinees royales, a work ascribed to 
Frederick the Great, in regard to which there 
has been much controversy in Germany. In 
1870 he took an active part in the Old Catholic 
movement, and has published in its support, 
in the German language, Zur Geschichte des 
vaticani&chen Concilg (Munich, 1871). He was 
in 1860 elected member of parliament for Car- 
low, Ireland; and again, as candidate of the 
liberal party, in 1865 for Bridgnorth, England. 
In 1869 he was made a peer as Baron Acton. 

ACTON BURNELL, an English statute, so 
named because the parliament at which it was 

Eassed was held at Acton Burnell, a little vil- 
ige in Shropshire. The date of the statute is 
Oct. 12, 1283. It is the first statute passed 
in England enabling merchants to recover 
debts due to them, and is therefore often called 
Statutum Mercatorum, or statute of the mer- 
chants. By it the mayor or the sheriff might 
seize and sell the chattels and lands of the 
debtor, or, if he had no effects, might detain 
him in prison until the debt was paid, feeding 
him meanwhile on bread and water if he was 
too poor to support himself, maintenance 
money to be added to the original debt. The 
statute of Acton Burnell met with much oppo- 
sition from the sheriffs. The Jews were ex- 
cluded from the benefits of this liberal statute, 
which was passed to encourage the settlement 
of foreign merchants in England. Barrington 
states that a similar ordinance was not passed 
in France till 1536, in the reign of Francis I. 
The statute of merchants is considered an 
epoch in the social history of the middle class 
of England, and indicated their growing power. 
ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, the fifth book of 
the New Testament, and the last of those prop- 



erly historical. It is recognized on all sides 
that the Acts were written by the same author 
as the third Gospel, and the early tradition of 
the church was firm and constant in ascribing 
them to Luke. Schleiermacher regarded the 
book as an aggregate of various reports by dif- 
ferent writers, and ascribed the most important 
of these works, the writer of which is charac- 
terized by the use of the word we, to Timo- 
thy. This view was supported by De Wette, 
Bleek, and other critics. Mayrhoff (1835) as- 
cribed the whole book to Timothy, while 
Schwanbeck ( Ueber die Quellen der Schriften 
des Lukas, 1847) assumed Silas to be the au- 
thor. The authenticity and canonical charac- 
ter of the book was in the ancient church only 
denied by a few heretical sects, such as the 
Ebionites and Hanichceans, whose objections 
were entirely of a dogmatical, not of an histor- 
ical character. Chrysostom, however, com- 
plains that even in his time the book was not 
so much as known. In modern times the crit- 
ics of the Tubingen school, in particular Baur, 
Zeller, and Schwegler, assumed the book to 
have been written in the course of the 2d cen- 
tury. Those who assert the authorship of Luke, 
including Renan, variously fix the time of writ- 
ing between 58 and 80. The author clearly 
indicates that for the materials of the lat- 
ter part of the book (xvi. 11 to xxviii. 31) he 
has drawn upon his own recollection or upon 
that of the apostle Paul. For the first part 
the author is believed by some writers of the 
critical school to have made use of older writ- 
ings, and in particular of the apocryphal book 
entitled "Preaching of Peter." As regards 
the design of the Acts, it has long been a prev- 
alent opinion that Luke intended to follow up 
his history of the life of Christ by a narrative 
of the establishment and early progress of the 
Christian religion. The opinion of Hugo Gro- 
tius that this book was intended to trace the 
lives of the two chief apostles, Peter and Paul, 
has found many supporters among the theolo- 
gians. According to Schneckenburger, whose 
Ueber den Zweck der Apostelgeschichte (1841) is 
the first important work on the subject from 
the standpoint of the critical German school, 
the author wished to write an apology of Paul 
against his Judaizing opponents, and to prove 
that he was in no point inferior to any of 
the other apostles, and in particular to Peter. 
This theory was somewhat modified by Baur, 
the chief of the Tubingen school, who under- 
took to show that the Acts had been compile " 
in the 2d century for the purpose of effectii 
a reconciliation 6f Petrine and Pauline Chris 
anity. The most important work of the Tu- 
bingen school on the subject is that of Zeller, 
Die Apostelgeschichte nach ihrem Inhalt ur 
Ursprung kritisch untersucht (1854), whicl 
regards the Acts as a book proceeding from 
the Pagan-Christian party, and intended to 
purchase the peace of the church by some con- 
cessions to the Judaizing Christians. The in- 
spired character of the book has been defende " 



ACUtfA 

against the Tubingen school by Lange, Thiersch, 
Ebrard, Schaff, and others ; and even writers 
like Bleek, De Wette, and Kenan defend the 
trustworthy character of the Acts as a work 
of history. The style is purer than that of 
most other books of the New Testament ; the 
first part, however, contains a considerable 
number of Hebraisms. The Acts include the 
history of the Christian church from the day of 
Pentecost to the imprisonment of Paul at Rome. 
"With regard to the dates of the principal 
events recorded, there is a wide difference of 
opinion. (See PAUL.) Besides the works on 
the Acts already mentioned, those by Leke- 
busch (Die Composition und EnUtehung der 
Apostelgeschichte, 1854) and by Trip (Paulus 
nach der Apostelgeschichte, 1866) are of special 
importance. 

A( I \ A, Cristobal de, a Spanish Jesuit mission- 
ary in Chili and Peru, born at Burgos in 1597. 
He was one of the early explorers of the Ama- 
zons, being attached to Texeira's expedition to 
that river (1639-'41), with the special object 
of reporting the incidents of the explora- 
tion. Acufia returned to Spain with an inter- 
esting narrative of it, which he published at 
Madrid; but the distraction of the country 
prevented the government from taking any in- 
terest in the colonization of the region to which 
so much energy and talent had been devoted. 
He once more went to South America, and 
died on a journey from Panama to Lima. 

ACUPUNCTURE (Lat. acw, a needle, and pun- 
gere, to prick), an operation introduced by the 
Chinese, who imagine that it gives vent to 
acrid vapors. The needles employed by them 
are of gold or silver, manufactured under spe- 
cial license from the emperor, and their use 
forms a distinct branch of medical practice. 
Introduced into Europe in the early part of 
this century, the operation is now but seldom 
performed except to give issue to fluids in 
dropsy, &c. It is advocated by some in the 
treatment of neuralgia, especially sciatic, and hi 
muscular rheumatism, acting in these cases as 
a counter-irritant. The needles used are of 
steel, 2 to 4 inches long. Usually but one is 
inserted, though sometimes as many as 20 or 
30. They are introduced to a depth of one to 
two inches by simple pressure, by pressure 
with rotation, or by percussion. The length 
of time during which they are allowed to re- 
main varies from a minute to several days. 
Instances are known where they have been 
passed with impunity through vital organs. 
Infanticide by acupuncture of the brain or spi- 
nal cord is a well recognized crime. 

ADA, a S. "W. county of Idaho, separated 
from Oregon by the Snake river (here also 
called the Saptin) ; area, about 2,800 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 2,675. The county was organ- 
ized in 1864. Mining is the principal occupa- 
tion of the people. The total value of prop- 
erty in 1869 was $1,014,185. There are three 
newspapers. Capital, Boise 1 City, which is 
also the capital of the territory. 



ADAL 



79 



ADAIR. I. A S. county of Kentucky, inter- 
sected by Green river ; area, 450 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 11,065, of whom 1,836 were colored. 
The surface is hilly and abounds in good tim- 
ber, and the soil is moderately fertile. The 
productions in 1860 were 29,513 bushels of 
wheat, 413,205 of corn, 24,195 of oats, and 
767,395 Ibs. of tobacco. Water power is abun- 
dant and several manufactories are in oper- 
ation. Capital, Columbia. II. A K N. E. 
county of Missouri, intersected by Chariton 
river; area, 570 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 11,448, 
of whom 143 were colored. The land is undu- 
lating prairie, suited to the production of grass 
and grain. In 1860, 554,835 bushels of corn 
and 84,353 Ibs. of tobacco were produced. 
Capital, Kirksville. III. A S. W. county of 
Iowa; area, 576 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870,3,982. 
Middle river, an affluent of the Des Moines, 
and the head streams of Nodaway river, run 
through it. The state road from Fort Des 
Moines to Council Bluffs also traverses the 
county. Capital, Fontanelle. 

ADAIR, Sir Robert, a British diplomatist, born 
hi London, May 24, 1763, died Oct. 3, 1855. 
His father, Robert Adair, was sergeant-surgeon 
to George III. He was distantly related to 
Charles James Fox, and was early destined for 
a political career. He entered parliament in 
1802, and was a strenuous supporter of whig 
politics. In 1806 Mr. Fox sent him as ambas- 
sador to Vienna, and in 1808 Mr. Canning, 
although opposed to him in politics, sent him 
on a special mission to Turkey, where he nego- 
tiated the treaty of the Dardanelles, concluded 
in 1809. He remained at Constantinople till 
1811, having been appointed ambassador in 
1809. Sir Robert Adair afterward remained 
out of office till 1831, when Lord Grey sent 
him to Belgium, soon after the erection of that 
country into a kingdom, and he was prominent 
in negotiating peace. He retired from this mis- 
sion with the rank of privy councillor in 1835. 
He left memoirs of his residence at St. Peters- 
burg and Vienna, written at the age of 82. 

ADAL, or Adel, a portion of the E. coast of 
Africa, between the Abyssinian highlands and 
the Red sea, and extending from the bay of 
Tajurra to Cape Bab-el-Mandeb, and from 
thence 300 m. along the shore of the Red sea 
to the town and harbor of Massowah; lat. 11 
30' to 15 40' N. It is inhabited by the Dana- 
kil or Affar, a Mohammedan nation, from the 
most famous tribe of which, Ad Alii or Adaiel, 
its name is derived. The territory of Adal 
varies from 120 m. wide at the bay of -Tajurra, 
to only 40 m. opposite Annesley bay. There 
is a low tract along the coast, which rises 
gradually to a height of 2,000 feet above the 
sea in a distance of 25 or 30 m., and then the 
ascent is very rapid to the table land of Tigr6. 
On the highest terraces durra and barley are 
cultivated in small patches. Camels, mules, 
asses, goats, and sheep abound, the pasturage 
is generally good, and large quantities of but- 
ter are annually sent to Massowah, and thence 



80 



ADALBERT 



ADAM 



to Arabia. Wild animals are numerous, and 
even the lion and elephant are occasionally 
seen. A large plain, called Harho, is covered 
with salt three feet thick, which is not only 
used for culinary purposes, but in Abyssinia 
as a currency. Adal is peopled by many tribes, 
which appear to belong to the same stock. 
They are of a dark brown color, muscular and 
full in body, with roundish face, thick crisp 
black hair, lively eyes, lips thinner than those 
of the negroes, and short straight nose, di- 
vided from the forehead by an indentation. 
They all live a nomadic life, travelling with 
their flocks and herds from pasture to pasture. 
The sultan of the Adaiel resides at Tajurra, 
and the sultan of the Mudaito Danakil at Aussa, 
near the Haw ash, 80 m. W. by S. of Tajurra. 
Salt is the only commodity exported. 

ADALBERT. I. Or Aldebert, a Frankish bishop 
and missionary to the German pagans before 
the middle of the 8th century. He was ac- 
cused of heresy by St. Boniface, who charged 
him among other things with collecting his 
own hair and nails as relics. He was con- 
demned by a synod held in 745, and died in 
prison. His disciples were styled Adalbertines, 
or Aldebertines. II. Saint, of Prague, " the 
apostle of the Prussians," died in 997. He 
was educated by the celebrated Otherich at 
Magdeburg. In 983 he was chosen bishop of 
Prague. Discouraged at his failure to convert 
the Bohemians, he repaired to the monastery of 
St. Alexius at Kome. In 993 he was recalled 
to his bishopric, but after two years became 
again disgusted and left. In 995 he baptized 
the future St. Stephen and first king of the 
Hungarians at Gran. He subsequently went 
to Poland, and thence to Prussia, to convert 
the heathen, by whom he was murdered. III. 
Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg, died at 
Goslar, March 17, 1072. He received his office 
in 1043 from Henry III., whom in 1046 he ac- 
companied to Rome. There he was a candi- 
date for the papal throne, and barely failed in 
the election. Pope Leo IX., in whose behalf 
he had spoken in the synod at Mayence in 1049, 
made him in 1050 his legate in the north. 
During the minority of the emperor Henry IV. 
he usurped, together with Archbishop Hanno 
of Cologne, the administration of the empire. 
He became so obnoxious to the German 
princes, that in 1066 they forcibly separated 
him from the emperor; but in 1069 he re- 
gained his power, and kept it till his death. 

ADALBERT, llrinrirh Wilhelm, a Prussian 
prince, first cousin of the emperor "VjMlliam, 
commander-in-chief of the German na\ /J born 
Oct. 29, 1811. He travelled in Europe, the 
East, and Brazil, and printed privately Aus 
meinem Reisetagebuch ^Berlin, 1847), which 
has been translated and published in English 
(London, 1848). He holds high military rank, 
but has devoted himself to; naval affaire, and 
in 1854 was made admiral. In 1856 he com- 
manded the Prussian corvette Danzig on the 
expedition against the Riff pirates ; but as the 



Prussians numbered only 90 and the pirates 
500, he was obliged to retire, losing 24 killed 
and wounded, and being himself shot through 
the thigh. In 1864, during the Danish war, 
he cruised with his fleet in the Baltic, and at 
its close he was appointed commander-in-chief 
of the national navy. In 1870 he visited the 
English seaports with a squadron. During the 
Franco-German war his ships took refuge in 
Wilhelmshaven, and he observed the war at 
the German headquarters. His wife, THERESA 
ELSSLER, sister of the celebrated Fanny, and 
herself a skilful dancer, received the title of 
baroness von Barnim on his morganatic mar- 
riage with her in 1850. The only offspring of 
this union, Baron ADALBERT VON BARNIM, 
born in 1841, died July 12, 1860, in Egypt. 
The scientific observations made during his 
journey to that country were published after 
his death by Dr. Hartmann, his physician 
(Reise des Freiherm A. von Barnim durch 
Nordost-Afrika, Berlin, 1863). 

AD ALIA, or sattalirh (anc. Attalia in Pam- 
phylia), a seaport and the largest town on the 
S. coast of Asia Minor, on the gulf of Adalia, 
250 m. S. E. of Smyrna; pop. about 12,000, of 
whom 3,000 are Greeks. It is the capital of 
a pashalic. The town is built in the form of 
an amphitheatre, the ground rising to the 
height of about 70 feet above the sea, and is 
surrounded by a double wall with square tow- 
ers about 50 yards apart. The chief trade is 
in wool, cotton, and opium. There are some 
important ancient remains. 

ADAM, the first man, the husband of Eve, 
and father of Cain, Abel, and Seth, and of 
unnamed "sons and daughters." Various 
meanings have been ascribed to the name; 
the most generally recognized is earth-born. 
The history of Adam, in common with that of 
the whole antediluvian world, as contained in 
Genesis, is by some treated as an allegory, 
intended to convey to an uncultured people an 
intelligible idea of the world's creation, and to 
explain some of the momentous questions in- 
volved in this earthly being. Others contend 
for a literal interpretation of the narrative. 
For Swedenborg's doctrine on the subject, see 
NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH. 

ADAM, Adolpbe Charles, a French composer, 
born in Paris, July 24, 1803, died May 3, 1856. 
In 1817 he entered the conservatory in Paris, 
became a skilful pianist, and studied compo' 
sition under Reicha and Bo'ieldieu. His earli- 
est compositions were fantasias and variations 
for the pianoforte. He wrote the opera of 
Pierre et Catherine (1829), and in 1832 com- 
posed a ballet for London. His most impor- 
tant work is the opera Le Postilion de Long- 
jnmeau (1836). His Souvenirs <Pun musicien, 
with his autobiography, was published in 1857. 

ADAM, Albreeht, a German painter of battle 
pieces, born at NSrdlingen, April 16, 1786, 
died in Munich, Aug. 28, 1862. He studied 
painting at Nuremberg under Conrad Zweiger. 
He was engaged in the Austrian campaigns 



ADAM 

against Napoleon, and subsequently entered 
the service of Eugene Beauharnais, viceroy of 
Italy, and painted the battle scene of Lobau. 
He accompanied Eugene in the campaign of 
1812 as far as Moscow. After the peace he pre- 
pared a series of drawings illustrative of Eu- 
gene's military career, now in the Leuchten- 
berg gallery, St. Petersburg. He also painted 
several grand battle pieces, besides his Voyage 
pittoresque militaire in 120 lithographs, illus- 
trating the Russian campaign. He finally set- 
tled in Munich, under King Louis, for whom 
he painted the battle of the Moskva. 

ADAM, Alexander, a Scottish teacher and gram- 
marian, born in Murrayshire in June, 1741, died 
Dec. 18, 1809. He acquired learning amid 
difficulties, and in 1768 was appointed rector 
of the high school of Edinburgh, which office 
he filled for 40 years. He wrote " Principles 
of Latin and English Grammar," "Roman An- 
tiquities," "Summary of Geography and His- 
tory, both Ancient and Modern," and "Clas- 
sical Biography," all of which were long in 
general use in Europe and America. 

ADAM OF BREMEN, a German missionary and 
chronicler, from 1067 canon and schoolmaster 
at Bremen, died there about 1076. He is the 
author of Historic/, Ecclesiastica, which is the 
principal literary authority respecting the north- 
ern nations of that period. It is also called 
Gesta Hammdburgensis Ecclesm Pontificum, 
from containing a chronological record of the 
episcopal see of Hamburg from 788 to 1072. 
A part of his materials was furnished by King 
Sweyn Estrithson (1047-'76) of Denmark. 
His MS. was first discovered in a Danish mon- 
astery, and published at Copenhagen in 1579. 
An improved and enlarged edition forms the 
9th volume of Pertz's Monumenta Germanics 
Historica, and this became the basis of Lau- 
rent's German translation (Berlin, 1850). Adam 
also wrote De Situ Dariice (Stockholm, 1615; 
Hamburg, 1706; German, Bremen, 1825). As- 
mussen published at Kiel, in 1834, De Fontibus 
Adami Bremensis. 

ADAM DE LA HALLE, a trouvere of the 13th 
century, died at Naples about 1286. He was 
born at Arras, a town celebrated for its poets 
and minstrels, and was surnamed the Hunch- 
back of Arras. He went to Naples in the suite 
of Robert II., count of Artois, in 1282. His 
pieces were not merely songs, but of a dramatic 
character, and he may be considered one of 
the founders of the French drama. His works 
have been published in various collections. 

ADAMAWA, the Mohammedan name, while 
Fumbina is the pagan one, of a country of cen- 
tral Africa visited and described for the first 
time by Dr. Earth in the summer of 1851. It 
lies between lat. 6 30' and 11 30' N., and 
Ion. 11 and 16 E. It is about 200 m. long 
from S.W. to N. E. ; its breadth seldom exceeds 
70 m. Its capital is Yola, near the N.W. bor- 
der, a city of about 12,000 inhabitants, where 
the governor, who owes allegiance to the Foo- 
lah sultan of Sackatoo, resides. It is a Moham- 
7 VOL. i. 7 



ADAMS 



81 



medan sub-kingdom engrafted upon a mixed 
stock of pagan tribes, the conquest of the 
valorous and fanatic Foolah chieftain Adama 
(whence the name Adamawa) over the great 
pagan kingdom of Fumbina. The governor at 
the time of Earth's visit was Adama's son. 
The native inhabitants were, however, far from 
being wholly subdued, several districts (espe- 
cially that about Mount Alantika, 40 m. S. of 
Yola) being still quite independent and con- 
stantly at war. It is one of the finest countries 
of central Africa, irrigated by numerous rivers, 
such as the Benuwe, or left branch of the 
Quorra or Niger, and the Faro, and diversified 
with hill and dale. In general it is flat, rising 
gradually toward the south to 1,500 feet or 
more, and broken by separate hills or extensive 
groups of mountains. The grain commonly 
grown in the country is the holcus sorghum. 
Meat is so dear that a goat will often bring 
the price of a female slave. Ground nuts are 
plentiful. The elephant is exceedingly frequent. 
The most singular animal is the ayu, a mammal 
resembling a seal, living in the river, and feed- 
ing by night on the fresh grass on the river 
banks. There is an indigenous variety of ox, 
but quite a distinct species, not three feet high, 
of a dark gray color, called muturu. Excel- 
lent iron is found. The standard of value is 
the native cotton, woven in narrow strips called 
leppi, of about 2J inches in width. Soap is a 
very important article in any country inhab- 
ited by the Foolahs, and it is prepared in every 
household. The Mohammedan population dress 
both well and decently. The pagans wear 
simply a narrow leathern strap between their 
legs and fastened on their loins. There are 
several Arab colonies, and Arab architects are 
employed by the governor. Slavery exists on 
an immense scale, and many private individu- 
als own more than 1,000 slaves. The governor 
of, Yola, who calls himself a sultan, receives 
every year in tribute, besides horses and cattle, 
5,000 slaves. (See FOOLAHS.) 

ADAMITES, a sect of the second century, who 
held that the merits of Christ restored them 
to Adamic innocence. Consequently, they ap- 
peared naked in their assemblies, and rejected 
marriage. They soon disappeared, but were 
revived in the 12th century by Tanchelin at 
Antwerp, who taught that fornication and 
adultery were meritorious, and indulged in the 
most disgusting brutalities in open day. One 
Picard also revived the sect in Germany at the 
beginning of the 15th century. It took root 
in Bohemia, where, in spite of many persecu- 
tions, it has from time to time reappeared. 

ADAMS, the name of eight counties in the 
United States. I. A S. county of Pennsyl- 
vania, on the Maryland border; area, 530 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 30,315. The head waters of 
Monocacy river take their rise in this county, 
and small creeks abound. Along the S. bor- 
der a ridge called South Mountain extends, 
and the general surface of the county is un- 
even. In the South Mountain, copper and 



ADAMS 



Potomac marble are found, and the copper 
mines have been worked with some success. 
In 1870 the personal property was valued at 
$1,287,541. The crops in 1870 amounted to 
494,346 bushels of wheat, 757,019 of corn, 
636,828 of oats, 33,425 of rye, and 1,005,303 
of potatoes. The value of animals slaughtered 
was $498,545. The county has numerous man- 
ufacturing establishments. Capital, Gettys- 
burg. II. A S. W. county of Mississippi, bound- 
ed "W. by the Mississippi river, which separates 
it from Louisiana, and S. by the river Homo- 
chitto; area, 440 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 19,084, 
of whom 14,287 were colored. The land is 
highly productive. The productions in- 1870 
were 177,307 bushels of corn, 26,469 of sweet 
potatoes, 20,140 bales of cotton, and 3,144 
tons of hay. Capital, Natchez. III. A S. W. 
county of Ohio, separated from Kentucky by 
the Ohio river; area, 500 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
20,750. The surface is hilly and well timbered, 
and the soil is fertile, and especially adapted 
to fruit culture. The productions in 1870 were 
162,677 bushels of wheat, 156,073 of oats, 4,376 
of barley, 2,123 of rye, 772,899 of corn, 39,542 
of potatoes, 54,208 Ibs. of wool, 434,664 of 
butter, and $100,828 worth of orchard prod- 
ucts. There were 16,333 sheep and 20,352 
hogs, and the value of animals slaughtered was 
$308,186. In the S. E. part of the county, 
near the river, are valuable quarries and iron 
mines. Capital, West Union. IV. An E. 
county of Indiana, bordering on Ohio; area, 
324 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 11,382. It is drained 
by the Wabash and St. Mary's rivers. Forests 
of oak, beech, ash, hickory, and elm cover a 
large portion of the county. The soil is pro- 
ductive and the surface nearly level. The pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 172,331 bushels of wheat, 
96, 168 of com, 88, 697 of oats, 12,408 tons of hay, 
227,303 Ibs. of butter, 32,847 of cheese, and 62,- 
957 of wool. Capital, Decatur. V. A W. county 
of Illinois, separated from Missouri by the Mis- 
sissippi river; area, 760 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
56,362. The Quincy and Eastern and the 
Quincy and Chicago railroads run through the 
county, and the Illinois and Southern Iowa 
railroad forms a junction with the Quincy and 
Eastern within its limits. Bear creek, an afflu- 
ent of the Mississippi, drains the N. W. part. 
The surface is undulating and covered with 
.forests, the soil rich and to a great extent cul- 
tivated. The products in 1870 were 1,452,905 
bushels of com, 963,807 of wheat, 759,074 of 
oats, and 104,855 Ibs. of wool. There were 
26,949 sheep and 56,442 hogs. Value of animals 
slaughtered, $1,103,518. There are many manu- 
facturing establishments. Capital, Quincy. VI. 
A S. W. county of Iowa ; area, 432 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 4,614. It is drained by the Nodaway 
river and several of its head streams. The 
Burlington and Missouri River railroad runs 
through it. In 1870 the county produced 
60,716 bushels of wheat, 253,261 of corn, 40,- 
327 of oats, and 16,905 Ibs. of wool. Capital, 
Quincy. VII. A S. central county of Wiscon- 



sin, bounded W. and S. W. by the Wisconsin 
river, and drained by its affluents; area, 650 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 6,601. Large forests 
cover the county, and large quantities of lum- 
ber are cut and rafted down the Wisconsin. 
Water power is abundant. The products in 
1870 were 123,454 bushels of wheat, 114,320 
of corn, 88,831 of oats, and 60,701 of rye. 
Capital, Quincy. VIII. A new county in S. 
Nebraska, bounded N. by the Platte river and 
drained by the Little Blue; pop. in 1870, 19. 

ADAMS, a township of Berkshire county, 
Mass., on both sides of the Hoosac river; 
pop. in 1870, 12,090. There are four villages 
in the town: North Adams, South Adams, 
Maple Grove, and Blackington. In its vicinity 
are a notable natural bridge across Hudson's 
brook, and Saddle mountain or Mt. Greylock, 
which has an elevation of 3,600 feet, and is 
the highest point in Massachusetts. The west- 
ern terminus of the Hoosac tunnel is at North 
Adams, and the Troy and Boston and Pitts- 
tield and North Adams railroads terminate 
here. Manufactures form the leading interest. 
In 1865 there were in the town 11 cotton 
mills, with 45,072 spindles, employing 332 
males and 429 females ; 6 woollen mills, with 
44 sets of machinery, employing 440 males and 
392 females; 2 print works, printing 8,925,- 
000 yards of calico yearly, and employing 150 
males and 21 females; 4 balmoral-skirt facto- 
ries, and 2 paper mills. Two weekly news- 
papers and a semi-monthly are published in 
North Adams. The experiment of Chinese 
labor has recently been successfully made in 
North Adams. In 1870 there were 75 China- 
men employed in that village in the manufac- 
ture of boots and shoes. By the contract 
made in San Francisco, the Chinamen were 
engaged for three years. They are represented 
as being of quiet habits, industrious, skilful, 
and eager to learn in the evening schools pro- 
vided for them. The town contains 35 schools, 
of which two are high schools. 

ADAMS, Charles Baker, an American chem- 
ist and zoologist, born in Dorchester, Mass., 
Jan. 11, 1814, died in St Thomas, Jan. 
19, 1853. He graduated at Amherst college, 
and was associated with Professor Edward 
Hitchcock in a geological survey of New York. 
In 1837 he became tutor in Amherst college, 
and in 1838 was chosen professor of chemistry 
and natural history in Middlebury college, Vt., 
but in 1847 returned to be a professor at Am- 
herst. In 1845, 1846, and 1847 he was en- 
gaged in a geological survey of Vermont Be- 
tween 1844 and 1851 he made journeys to Ja- 
maica and other parts of the West Indies, for 
scientific purposes. He wrote " Contributions 
to Conchology," "Monographs of Several Spe- 
cies of Shells," and other treatises. Not long 
before his death he published a useful work on 
elementary geology, in which he was assisted 
by Professor Gray of Brooklyn. 

ADAMS, Charles Francis, an American states- 
man, the only child of John Quincy Adams 



CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS 



83 



who survived him, born in Boston, Aug. 18, 
1807. At the age of two years he was taken 
by his father to St. Petersburg, where he 
passed the next six years and learned to speak 
Russian, German, and French. In February, 
1815, he made the journey with his mother in 
a private carriage from St. Petersburg to 
Paris, to meet his father there in the then 
disturbed state of Europe no slight under- 
taking. He accompanied his father on his 
mission to England, and being placed at a 
boarding school, according to the fisticuff 
usages then if not still in vogue in English 
schools, he was obliged to fight his English 
schoolfellows in defence of the honor of Amer- 
ica. In 1817 he returned with his father to 
America, and was placed in the Boston Latin 
school, whence he entered Harvard college, 
where he graduated in 1825. The next two 
years he passed at Washington with his father, 
who was then president, but in 1827 returned 
to Massachusetts and pursued the study of the 
law in the office of Daniel Webster. In 1828 
he was admitted to the Boston bar, but never 
has engaged actively in practice. In 1829 he 
married the youngest daughter of Peter 0. 
Brooks, a Boston merchant a connection 
which also made him a brother-in-law of Ed- 
ward Everett. The next year he was nomi- 
nated a representative from Boston to the 
Massachusetts legislature, but declined. This 
did not please his father, in consequence of 
which he accepted the nomination the next 
year, and served in the house for the succeed- 
ing three yeai, when he was transferred to the 
senate, in which he served two years. By 
this time Mr. Adams began to differ on several 
points with the leaders of the whig party, with 
which he had hitherto acted. In 1848 he was 
selected by the newly organized free-soil party 
as their candidate for the vice-presidency, 
along with ex-president Van Buren as candi- 
date for the presidency. In the autumn of 
1858 he was chosen a representative to Con- 
gress by the third district of Massachusetts, 
and took his seat in December, 1859. He was 
a member of the joint committee on the li- 
brary, and chairman of the house committee 
on manufactures, which latter had but little 
to do, the time and thoughts of members being 
occupied with more exciting subjects. Mr. 
Adams watched with careful attention the 
course of events, and on the last day of May, 
1860, addressed the house in a forcible speech, 
vindicating the policy of the republican party. 
In the interval between the two sessions of his 
congressional service, Mr. Adams, in company 
with Mr. Seward, made a journey in. some of 
the northwestern states, and made several 
speeches in support of Mr. Lincoln for the 
presidency. On the day after the meeting of 
the second session of the thirty-sixth congress, 
so much of the president's message as related 
to the condition of the country was referred to 
a special committee of one from each state. 
Mr. Adams was the member for Massachu- 



setts. This committee finally reported a series 
of resolves disavowing on the part of the free 
states any right to interfere with slavery in 
the slave states ; a bill for the admission of 
New Mexico, leaving it to the inhabitants to 
allow or exclude slavery as they might decide ; 
and an amendment to the constitution forbid- 
ding all interference on the part of congress 
with slavery in these states. The bill for the 
admission of New Mexico was rejected, but 
the other two measures were passed in the 
house by large majorities. Mr. Adams sup- 
ported them all, and gave his reasons for so 
doing in a speech delivered Jan. 31, 1861. In 
1861 he was appointed by President Lincoln 
minister to England, in place of Mr. Dallas. 
Mr. Adams arrived in London and assumed his 
duties about the middle of May. These duties 
were most arduous. With a few exceptions, 
the feeling alike of the ruling and the commer- 
cial classes of England was either unfriendly to 
us or indifferent. Mr. Adams had to maintain 
the rights of his country with unbending firm- 
ness, and at the same time to keep his spirit 
under perfect rule, as any explosion of ill 
temper or any expression of irritation would 
have been turned to the disadvantage alike of 
himself and his country. In the many discus- 
sions he had with the British ministry he 
showed a complete knowledge alike of inter- 
national law and of the history of his own 
country, as well as discretion, tact, and good 
temper. His influence as a public man was in- 
creased by his social qualities, his agreeable 
conversation, and his familiarity with the 
whole range of English literature. When in 
1868, after an absence of seven years, he re- 
turned home, Mr. Adams left England with the 
respect of every man who had been brought 
into official relations with him, and with a 
large amount of warm personal regard. In 
December, 1870, he pronounced before the 
New York historical society a discourse on 
American neutrality, which has been printed. 
Upon the ratification by England and America 
of the treaty of Washington for the settlement 
of the claims of each country against the other 
growing out of the civil war, Mr. Adams was 
selected by the president as the American ar- 
bitrator, and upon that duty sailed for Europe 
in November, 1871. Mr. Adams has been a 
contributor to the "North American Review" 
and the "Christian Examiner," and between 
1845 and 1848 was the editor of a political 
daily paper at Boston, by which he contributed 
to prepare the way for the present republican 
party. He is principally known, however, as 
the editor of his grandfather's collected writ- 
ings, published in ten volumes, the first volume 
containing a life of John Adams written by 
him. The same duty which Mr. Adams has 
performed for his grandfather, he intends to 
perform for his father, for the execution of 
which he possesses abundant and most val- 
uable materials. John Quiney, eldest son of 
the preceding, a lawyer and politician, born in 



EDWIN ADAMS 



JOHN ADAMS 



Boston, Sept. 22, 1833. He was fitted for col- 
lege at the Latin school, and graduated at Har- 
vard college in 1853. In 1855 he was admitted 
to the bar, and has ever since had a moderate 
professional practice, principally in Quincy, his 
place of residence. He was an earnest repub- 
lican during the civil war, and served on Gov. 
Andrews's staff. In 1866 he was chosen repre- 
sentative to the legislature from the town of 
Quincy. In 1867, having avowed his adhesion 
to the policy of President Johnson, he was 
nominated for reelection by the democrats and 
defeated. The same year he was also the demo- 
cratic candidate for governor of Massachusetts, 
with the same result. In 1869 he was again 
chosen to the legislature, and for the third 
tune in 1870. In the autumn of 1871 he was 
an unsuccessful candidate for the offices of 
governor and representative. In the course 
of his public career Mr. Adams has had occa- 
sion to make many speeches, which were re- 
markable for manly independence and vigorous 
statement. In the Massachusetts house of 
representatives, as leader of a hopeless minor- 
ity, he secured in a high degree the respect 
of his political opponents. Charles Francis, 
Jr., brother of the preceding, born in Boston, 
May 27, 1835, graduated at Harvard college 
in 1856, studied law, and was admitted to 
practice in 1858. At the breaking out of the 
war of secession he obtained a commission 
in the first regiment of Massachusetts cavalry, 
and served throughout the war. He was suc- 
cessively promoted to the rank of captain, lieu- 
tenant colonel, and colonel, and led his regi- 
ment, the fifth Massachusetts cavalry (colored), 
into Richmond, April 3, 1865, when that city 
was occupied by the United States troops. In 
July, 1865, he was mustered out of service 
with the brevet rank of brigadier general. 
Upon his return to civil life he became an ac- 
tive contributor to the " North American Re- 
view," writing chiefly on topics connected with 
the development of the railroad system. In 
1869 he was appointed a member of the board 
of railroad commissioners of Massachusetts. 
In 1871, in connection with his brother, Prof. 
Henry Brooks Adams, he published a collected 
volume of writings under the title of " Chap- 
ters of Erie, and other Essays." Henry 
Brooks, brother of the preceding, and third 
son of Charles Francis Adams, born in Boston, 
Feb. 16, 1838, graduated at Harvard college in 
1858. He resided in London as his father's 
private secretary during the latter's term of 
service as- minister to England. In 1870 he 
was appointed assistant professor of history in 
Harvard college and became editor of the 
"North American Review." 

ADAMS, Edwin, an American actor, born in 
Medford, Mass., Feb. 3, 1834. Since 1853, 
when he made his first appearance upon the 
stage in Boston, he has acted in many parts 
of the United States, acquiring a consid- 
erable reputation both as a light comedian 
and a personator of serious characters. Dur- 



ing the season of 1869-'70 he acted in con- 
junction with Edwin Booth in New York in 
several of Shakespeare's plays. 

ADAMS, Hannah, one of the earliest female 
writers in America, born at Medfield, near 
Boston, in 1755, died at Brookline, Mass., 
Nov. 15, 1832. She showed at an early age a 
fondness for study, and acquired a knowledge 
of Greek and Latin from some divinity stu- 
dents boarding with her father. During the 
revolutionary war she supported herself by 
making lace, and afterward by teaching. Her 
"View of Religious Opinions " (1784) and her 
" History of New England" (1799) were both 
successful. Her next work was "Evidences 
of Christianity " (1801). Her writings brought 
her little pecuniary profit; yet they secured 
her many friends, among them the Abb6 Gre- 
goire, with whom she carried on a correspon- 
dence, through which he aided her in prepar- 
ing her "History of the Jews" (1812). Dur- 
ing the closing years of her life she enjoyed an 
annuity provided by some friends in Boston. 
She was the first person whose remains were 
interred in Mt. Auburn cemetery. 

ADAMS, John, second president of the United 
States, born Oct. 19, 1735 (O. S.), in that part 
of the town of Brain tree, Mass., on the S. shore 
of Boston harbor, and some ten miles distant 
from Boston, which has since been erected 
into the town of Quincy, where he died, July 
4, 1826. He was great-grandson of Henry 
Adams, who emigrated from England about 
1640, with a family of eight sons, becoming 
one of the early settlers in Braintree, where he 
had a grant of 40 acres of land. The father of 
John Adams, a deacon of the church and se- 
lectman, was a farmer of limited means, to 
which he added the business of shoemaking. 
He was enabled, however, to give a classical 
education to his eldest son John, who gradu- 
ated at Harvard college in 1755, and at once 
took charge of the grammar school in Worces- 
ter, Mass. The war with France for the pos- 
session of the western country was then at its 
height ; and in a remarkable letter to a young 
friend, which contains some curious prognos- 
tications as to what would be in a hundred 
years the relative population and commerce 
of England and her colonies, young Adams 
describes himself as having turned politician. 
His school he found but "a school of afflic- 
tion," from which he endeavored to gain 
lief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of the law. For this purpose he plac 
himself under the tuition of the only lawyer 
of whom Worcester, though the shire town 
of the county, could then boast. He had 
thought seriously of the clerical profession, but, 
according to his own expressions in a contem- 
porary letter, " the frightful engines of eccle- 
siastical councils, of diabolical malice, and 
Calvinistic- good nature," of the operation of 
which he had been a witness in some church 
controversies in his native town of Braintree, 
had "terrified him out of it." Already he 



JOHN ADAMS 



85 



had longings for distinction. Nothing but 
want of interest and patronage prevented him 
from enlisting in the army. Could he have 
obtained a troop of horse, or a company of 
foot, he would, so one of his published letters 
declares, infallibly have been a soldier. After 
two years' study at Worcester he returned to 
his father's house in Braintree, and in 1758 
commenced life in Suffolk county, of which 
Boston was the shire town. He gradually in- 
troduced himself into practice, and in 1764 
married Abigail Smith, a daughter of the min- 
ister of the neighboring town of Weymouth, 
and whose connections occupied a social posi- 
tion superior to that of Mr. Adams's own fam- 
ily. What was still more to the purpose, she 
was a lady of superior abilities and good sense, 
and admirably adapted to make him happy. 
Very shortly after his marriage, the attempt 
at parliamentary taxation diverted him from 
law to politics. He promoted the call of a 
town meeting in Braintree, to instruct the 
representatives of the town on the subject of 
the stamp act ; and the resolutions which he 
presented at this meeting were not only voted 
by the town, but attracted great attention 
throughout the province, and were adopted 
word for word by more than forty different 
towns. Yet Adams, as appears by his pub- 
lished diary, was somewhat alarmed at the 
violence of the mob in destroying the furniture 
of Oliver, the stamp distributor, and of Gov- 
ernor Hutchinson, and not a little vexed, as 
well as alarmed, at the interruption to his own 
business caused by the refusal of the judges to 
go on without stamps. He was somewhat con- 
soled, however, by an unexpected appoint- 
ment on the part of the town of Boston to be 
one of their counsel along with Jeremiah Grid- 
ley, the king's attorney and head of the bar, 
and James Otis, the celebrated orator, to sup- 
port a memorial addressed to the governor 
and council that the courts might proceed 
with business, though no stamps were to be 
had. It fell to Adams, as junior counsel, to 
open the case for the petitioners, and he bold- 
ly took the ground in which his two seniors, 
the one from his position, the other from his 
committals in his recently published book on 
the "Rights of the Colonies," were prevented 
from following him that the stamp act was 
absolutely void, parliament having no right to 
tax the colonies. Nothing, however, came of 
this application ; the governor and council de- 
clined to act, on the ground that it belonged 
to the judges, not to them, to decide. The 
repeal of the stamp act soon put an end to the 
suspension of business, which indeed had only 
extended to the superior court, the inferior 
courts going on without stamps. It was on 
this same occasion that Mr. Adams first made 
his appearance as a writer in the " Boston Ga- 
zette." Among other papers of his was a se- 
ries of four articles, which were republished in 
a London newspaper, and subsequently in a 
collection of documents relating to the taxa- 



tion controversy, printed together in a vol- 
ume. The papers as originally published had 
no title; in the printed volume they were 
called an "Essay on the Canon and Feudal 
Law." They began indeed with some refer- 
ence to these subjects, but might with much 
more propriety have been entitled an "Essay 
on the Government and Rights of New Eng- 
land." Mr. Adams's style was formed, as is 
evident from these pieces, from the moment 
he began to write. They may be found in his 
collected works, edited by his grandson^ Mr. 
Adams's law business continued gradually to 
increase, and in 1768 he removed to Boston. 
In that and the next year he was one of the 
committee to draft instructions to the repre- 
sentatives of the town a duty which the com- 
mittee intrusted to him, though he refused to 
attend and speak at town meetings. In 1770 
he was chosen a representative to the general 
court, notwithstanding he had just before ac- 
cepted a retainer to defend Captain Preston 
and his soldiers for their share in what was 
known as the " Boston Massacre" a defence 
conducted with success, in spite of the strong 
prejudices which it had to encounter. Adams's 
duties as representative interfered greatly with 
his business as a lawyer, on which he depended 
for support, and which by this time had grown 
to be greater than that of any other lawyer in 
the province. But he entered with his cus- 
tomary energy upon his new office, becoming 
the chief legal adviser of the patriot party, and 
now for the first time an active and conspicu- 
ous leader among them. Partly perhaps to 
escape this leadership, and the loss of tune, the 
labor, and responsibilities which it imposed, as 
well as to regain his health, which began to 
suffer, Mr. Adams removed his residence back 
to Braintree, resigning his seat in the legisla- 
ture, but still retaining his law office in Boston. 
A comparative lull in politics for two or three 
years made his presence in the legislature less 
indispensable, but still as to all the most im- 
portant matters of controversy with Governor 
Hutchinson he was consulted and gave his aid. 
Indeed, it was not long before he again moved 
back to Boston, though still resolving to avoid 
politics and to devote himself to his profession. 
He wrote soon after a series of letters in a 
newspaper (republished in his collected works, 
vol. iii.) on the then mooted question of the 
independence of the judiciary, and the payment 
by the crown of the salaries of the judges. 
Soon afterward he was elected by the general 
court to the provincial council, but was nega- 
tived by Governor Hutchinson. The destruc- 
tion of the tea and the Boston port bill, that 
followed, soon brought matters to a crisis. 
These events produced the congress of 1774. 
Mr. Adams was chosen one of the five dele- 
gates from Massachusetts, and his visit to Phil- 
adelphia on this business was the first occasion 
of his going beyond the limits of New England. 
In the discussions in the committee on the dec- 
laration of colonial rights, he took an active part 



JOHN ADAMS 



in favor of resting those rights upon the law of 
nature as well as the law of England ; and 
after the substance of the resolutions had been 
agreed upon, he was appointed to put them 
into shape. In his diary, published in the 
second volume of his collected works, and his 
contemporaneous letters written to his wife 
and published by his grandson, the most trust- 
worthy and graphic descriptions are to be 
found of the members and doings of that famous 
but little known body. The session concluded, 
Mr. Adams left Philadelphia with no expec- 
tation, as he said at the time, of ever seeing 
it again. Immediately on his return to Mas- 
sachusetts he was chosen by the town of 
Braintree a member of the provincial con- 
gress then in session. That congress had 
already appointed a committee of safety, vest- 
ed with general executive powers ; had seized 
the provincial revenues; had appointed gen- 
eral officers, collected military stores, and 
taken steps toward organizing an army of vol- 
unteer minutemen. Governor Gage had issued 
a proclamation denouncing these proceedings, 
but no attention was paid to it. Gage had no 
support except in the five or six regiments 
which formed the garrison of Boston, a few 
trembling officials, and a small minority of 
timid adherents; while the recommendations 
of the provincial congress had, by the common 
consent of the people, all the force of law. 
Shortly after the adjournment of this congress, 
Adams applied himself to answering through 
the newspapers a champion of the mother 
country's claim, who, under the nom de plume 
of "Massachusettensis," had commenced a se- 
ries of able and effective papers in a Boston 
journal, and to whom Adams replied under the 
signature of " Novanglus." These essays ap- 
peared weekly during the winter of l774-'5, but 
were cut short by the battle of Lexington. An 
abridgment of them was published in Almon's 
"Remembrancer" for 1775, under the title of 
" A History of the Dispute with America," and 
afterward in a separate pamphlet. They have 
also been twice reprinted entire in America, 
and are given in the 4th volume of Adams's 
collected works. Their value consists in the 
strong contemporaneous view which they pre- 
sent of the origin of the struggle between the 
colonies and the mother country, and of the 
policy of Bernard and Hutchinson as governors 
of Massachusetts, which did so much to bring 
that struggle on. Like all Mr. Adams's writ- 
ings, they are distinguished by a bold tone of 
investigation, a resort to first principles, and a 
pointed style ; but, like all his other writings, 
having been produced piecemeal and on the 
spur of the moment, they lack order, system, 
polish, and precision. In the midst of the ex- 
citement produced by the battle of Lexington 
which at once brought up the spirit even of the 
most hesitating patriots to the fighting pitch, 
and which was speedily followed by the seizure 
of the fortresses of Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point, and by other similar seizures in other 



colonies Adams set out for Philadelphia te 
attend the continental congress of 1775, of 
which he had been appointed a member. This 
second congress, though made up for the most 
part of the same men, was a wholly different 
body from its predecessor. That was a mere 
consulting convention. The new congress 
speedily assumed, or rather had thrust upon it 
by the unanimous consent of the patriots, the 
exercise of a comprehensive authority, in which 
supreme executive, legislative, and in some 
cases judicial functions were united. In this 
busy scene the active and untiring Adams, one 
of whose distinguishing characteristics was his 
capacity and fondness for business, found am- 
ple employment, while his bold and pugnacious 
spirit was not a little excited by the hazards 
and dignity of the great game in which he had 
come to hold so deep a stake. Adams had 
made up his mind that any reconciliation with 
the mother country was hopeless. The ma- 
jority of congress were not yet of that opinion. 
Under the lead of John Dickinson, though 
against the strenuous resistance of Adams and 
others, that body voted still another and final 
petition to the king. Adams succeeded, how- 
ever, in joining with this vote one to put the 
colonies into a state of defence, though with 
protestations that the war on their part was 
defensive only, and without any intention to 
throw off their allegiance. Not long after, con- 
gress was brought up to the point of assuming 
the responsibility and control of the military 
operations which New England had commenced 
by laying siege to Boston, in which town Gage 
and his troops were shut up, and before which 
lay encamped an impromptu New England 
army of 15,000 men, drawn together immedi- 
ately after the battle of Lexington. Urged by 
the New England delegates, congress agreed to 
assume the expense and control of this army. 
Adams, in his autobiography, claims the honor 
of having first proposed Washington for the 
chief command, a concession intended to secure 
the good will and firm cooperation of Virginia 
and the southern colonies. Those colonies 
urged Gen. Lee for the second place in the 
army, but Adams insisted on giving that to 
Artemas Ward, then commanding the New 
England army before Boston. He supported 
Lee, however, for the third place. Having 
assumed the direction of this army, provided 
for its reorganization, and issued bills of credit 
to support it, congress took a short recess. 
Adams, returning home, sat in the interval as 
a member of the Massachusetts council, which, 
treating the office of governor as vacant, had, 
under a clause of the provincial charter in- 
tended to meet such cases, assumed the ex- 
ecutive authority. On returning to Phila- 
delphia in September, Adams found himself 
in hot water. Two confidential letters of 
his, written during the previous session, had 
been intercepted by the British in crossing 
Hudson river, and had been published in the 
Boston papers. Not only did these letters 



JOHN ADAMS 



87 



evince a zeal for decisive measures which made 
the writer an object of suspicion to the more 
conservative of his fellow members of con- 
gress, but his reference in one of them to " the 
whims, the caprice, the vanity, the superstition, 
the irritability " of some of his colleagues, and 
in particular to John Dickinson as " a certain 
great fortune but piddling genius," made him 
personal enemies who never forgave him. But 
though for the moment an object of distrust to 
some of his colleagues, this did not save him 
from hard work. " I am engaged in constant 
business," so he wrote about this time, " from 
seven to ten in the morning in committee, from 
ten to four in congress, and from six to ten again 
in committee. Our assembly is scarcely numer- 
ous enough for the business ; everybody is en- 
gaged all day in congress, and all the morning 
and evening in committees." The committee 
which chiefly engaged Mr. Adams's attention at 
this time was one on fitting out cruisers, and 
on naval affairs generally. This committee 
laid the first foundation of an American navy, 
a body of rules and regulations for which the 
basis of our existing naval code was drawn 
up by Adams. Governor "Wentworth having 
fled from New Hampshire, the people of that 
province applied to congress for advice as to 
the method of administration they should 
adopt. Adams seized the opportunity to urge 
the necessity of advising all the provinces to 
proceed at once to institute governments of 
their own. The news which soon arrived of 
the supercilious treatment of the petition of 
congress to the king added strength to his 
views, and the matter being referred to a com- 
mittee on which Adams was placed, a report 
in partial conformity to his ideas was made and 
adopted. Having been offered the post of chief 
justice of Massachusetts, Adams toward the 
end of the year returned home to consult on 
that and other important subjects. He took 
his seat in the council, of which he had been 
chosen a member immediately on his arrival, 
and was consulted by Washington both as to 
sending Gen. Lee to New York, and as to the 
expedition against Canada. It was finally ar- 
ranged that while Adams should accept the 
appointment of chief justice, he should still 
remain a delegate in congress, and till more 
quiet times should be excused from acting as 
judge. Under this arrangement he returned to 
Philadelphia early in 1776. He never took his 
seat as chief justice, but resigned that office 
the next year. Advice similar to that to New 
Hampshire, on the subject of assuming govern- 
ment, as it was called, had been shortly after 
given upon similar applications to congress 
from South Carolina and Virginia. Adams was 
much consulted by members of the southern 
delegation (as being better versed than them- 
selves in the subject of republicanism, both by 
study and experience, coming as he did from 
the most thoroughly republican section of the 
country) concerning the form of government 
which they should adopt. Of several letters 



which he wrote on this subject, one more elab- 
orate than the others was printed, under the 
title of " Thoughts on Government applicable 
to the Present State of the American Colo- 
nies." This pamphlet, largely circulated in 
Virginia, as a preliminary to the adoption of a 
form of government by that State, was to a 
certain extent a rejoinder to that part of Paine's 
famous pamphlet of " Common Sense" which 
advocated government by a single assembly. 
It was also intended to controvert the aristo- 
cratic views, somewhat prevalent in Virginia, 
of those who advocated a governor and senate 
for life. Adams's system of policy embraced 
the adoption of self-government by each of the 
colonies, a confederation, and treaties with 
foreign powers. This system he continued to 
urge with zeal and increasing success, till finally, 
on May 13, he carried a resolution through 
congress, by which so much of his plan was 
indorsed by that body as related to the as- 
sumption of self-government by the several 
colonies. The first step thus taken, the others 
soon followed. A resolution that the United 
States " are and ought to be free and indepen- 
dent," introduced by E. H. Lee, under instruc- 
tions from the Virginia convention, was very 
warmly supported by Adams, and carried, seven 
states to six. Three committees, one on a dec- 
laration of independence, another on confed- 
eration, and a third on foreign relations, were 
shortly after appointed. Of the first and third 
of these committees Adams was a member. 
The declaration of independence was drawn 
up by Jefferson, but on Adams devolved the 
task of battling it through congress in a three 
days' debate, during which it underwent some 
curtailment. The plan of a treaty reported by 
the third committee, and adopted by congress, 
was drawn up by Adams. His views did not 
extend beyond merely commercial treaties. He 
was opposed to seeking any political connection 
with France, or any military or even naval as- 
sistance from her or any foreign power. On 
June 12 congress had established a board of 
war and ordnance, to consist of five members, 
with a secretary, clerk, &c. in fact, a war de- 
partment. As originally constituted, the mem- 
bers of this board were taken from congress, 
and John Adams was made its chairman or 
president. This position, which was one of 
great labor and responsibility, as the chief bur- 
den of the duties fell upon him, he continued 
to hold for the next eighteen months, with the 
exception of a necessary absence at the close of 
the year 1776, to recruit his health. The busi- 
ness of preparing articles of war for the govern- 
ment of the army was deputed to a committee 
composed of Adams and Jefferson ; but Jeffer- 
son, according to Adams's account, threw upon 
him the whole burden, not only of drawing up 
the articles which he borrowed mostly from 
those of Great Britain but of arguing them 
through congress, which was no small task. 
Adams strongly opposed Lord Howe's invita- 
tion to a conference, sent to congress after the 



88 



JOHN ADAMS 



battle of Long Island, through his prisoner, 
Gen. Sullivan. He was, however, appointed 
one of the committee for that purpose, along 
with Franklin and Rutledge, and his autobiog- 
raphy contains some curious anecdotes of the 
visit. Besides his presidency of the board of 
war, Adams was also chairman of the commit- 
tee upon which devolved the decision of appeals 
in admiralty cases from the state courts. 
Having thus occupied for nearly two years a 
position which gained him the reputation 
among at least a portion of his colleagues of 
having " the clearest head and firmest heart of 
any man in congress," he was appointed near 
the end of the year 1777 a commissioner to 
France to supersede Deane, whom congress had 
determined to recall. He embarked at Boston, 
in the frigate Boston, on Feb. 12, 1778, reached 
Bordeaux after a stormy passage, and arrived 
on April 8 at Paris. Already before his arrival 
the alliance with France had been completed, 
and his stay was not long. He found that a 
very great antagonism of views and feeling had 
arisen between the three commissioners, Frank- 
lin, Deane, and Arthur Lee, of whom the em- 
bassy to France had been originally composed ; 
and as the recall of Deane had not reconciled 
the other two, Adams advised, as the only 
means of giving unity and energy to the mis- 
sion, that it should be intrusted to a single 
person. This suggestion was adopted, and in 
consequence of it, Franklin having been ap- 
pointed sole ambassador in France, Adams 
returned home in the same French frigate 
which took out the new French minister, the 
chevalier de la Luzerne. He arrived at Boston 
just as a convention was about to meet to form 
a state constitution for Massachusetts; and 
being chosen a delegate from Braintree, he took 
a leading part in its formation. Before this 
convention had finished its business, he was 
appointed by congress minister to treat with 
Great Britain for peace and commerce, under 
which appointment he sailed again for France 
in 1779, in the same French frigate in which he 
had returned. Very contrary to his own in- 
clinations, Mr. Adams was prevented by Ver- 
gennes, the Frencli minister of foreign affairs, 
from making to Great Britain any communi- 
cation of his powers. In fact, Vergennes and 
Adams already were and continued to be to 
each other objects of serious distrust, in both 
cases quite unfounded. Vergennes feared 
lest advances toward treating with England 
might lead to some sort of reconciliation with 
her short of the independence of the colo- 
nies, which was contrary to his ideas of the in- 
terest of France. The communications made to 
him by Gerard, the first French minister in 
America, and Adams's connection with the 
Lees, whom Vergennes suspected, though un- 
justly, of a secret communication through Ar- 
thur Lee with the British ministry, led him to 
regard Mr. Adams as the representative of a 
party in congress desirous of such a reconcilia- 
tion ; nor did he rest till he had obtained from 



congress, some two years after, the recall of 
Mr. Adams's powers to negotiate a treaty of 
commerce, and the conjunction with him of 
several colleagues to treat for peace, of whom 
Franklin, who enjoyed his entire confidence, 
was one. Adams, on the other hand, not en- 
tirely free from hereditary English prejudices 
against the French, vehemently suspected Ver- 
gennes of a design to sacrifice the interests of 
the United States, especially the fisheries and 
the western lands, to the advancement of the 
Spanish house of Bourbon. While lingering at 
Paris, with nothing to do except to nurse these 
suspicions, Adams busied himself in furnishing 
communications on American affairs to a semi- 
official gazette, the Mercure de France, con- 
ducted by M. Genet, chief secretary in the for- 
eign bureau, and father of the French minis- 
ter in America, who subsequently rendered 
that name so notorious. Finding his position 
at Paris not very comfortable, he proceeded 
to Holland in July, 1780, his object being to 
form an opinion as to the probability of bor- 
rowing money there. Just about the same 
time he was appointed by congress to nego- 
tiate a Dutch loan, Laurens, who had been se- 
lected for that purpose, being not yet ready 
to leave home. By way of enlightening the 
Dutch as to American affairs, Adams published 
in the "Gazette" of Leyden, and in a mag- 
azine called Politique hollandaise, a number 
of papers and extracts, including several which, 
through a friend, he procured to be first pub- 
lished in a London journal, to give to them an 
English character. To these he added a direct 
publication of his own, afterward many times 
reprinted, and to be found in the 7th volume 
of his collected works, under the title of 
"Twenty-six Letters upon Interesting Sub- 
jects, respecting the Revolution in America." 
He had commenced negotiations for a loan, 
when his labors in that direction were inter- 
rupted by the sudden breach between England 
and Holland, consequent upon the capture of 
Laurens, and the discovery of the secret nego- 
tiation carried on between him and Van Ber- 
kel of Amsterdam, which, though it had been 
entered upon without authority from the Dutch 
states, the British made the pretence for a 
speedy declaration of war. Adams was soon 
after appointed minister to Holland in place 
of the captured Laurens, and at the same tune 
was commissioned to sign the articles of armed 
neutrality, which had just made their appear- 
ance on the political scene. Adams presented 
memorials to the Dutch government, setting 
forth his powers in both respects ; but before 
he could procure any recognition, he was re- 
called in July, 1781, to Paris, by a notice that 
he was needed there in his character of minis- 
ter, to treat of peace. Adams's suspicions of 
Vergennes had, meanwhile, been not a little 
increased by the neglect of France to second 
his applications to Holland. With Vergennes 
the great object was peace. The finances of 
France were sadly embarrassed. Vergennes 



JOHN ADAMS 



89 



wished no further complications to the war, 
and, provided the English colonies should be 
definitely separated from the mother country, 
which he considered indispensable to the in- 
terest of France, he was not disposed to insist 
on anything else. It was for this reason that 
he had urged upon congress, through the 
French minister at Philadelphia, and just 
about this time had succeeded in obtaining 
from congress though the information had 
not yet reached Paris not only the with- 
drawal of Adams's commission to treat of 
commerce, and the enlargement to five of the 
* number of commissioners to treat of peace, but 
an absolute discretion intrusted to the nego- 
tiators as to everything except independence 
and the additional direction that in the last re- 
sort they were to be governed by Vergennes's 
advice. The cause of sending for Adams, who 
still occupied, so far as was known at Paris, 
the position of sole negotiator for peace, was 
the offer of a mediation on the part of Russia 
and the German empire. But this offer led to 
nothing. Great Britain haughtily rejected it 
on the ground that she would not allow France 
to stand between her and her colonies. Re- 
turning to Holland, Mr. Adams, though still 
unsupported by Vergennes, pushed with great 
energy his reception as ambassador by the 
states general, which at length, April 19, 1782, 
he succeeded in accomplishing. Following up 
this success with his customary perseverance, 
ha succeeded before the end of the year in ne- 
gotiating a Dutch loan of two millions of dol- 
lars, the first of a series which proved a chief 
financial resource of the continental congress 
iu its later days. He also succeeded in nego- 
tiating a treaty of amity and commerce. His 
success in these negotiations, considering the 
obstacles he had to encounter, and the want 
of support from Vergennes, he was accustomed 
to regard as the greatest triumph of his life.- 
Before this business was completed, Mr. Adams 
received urgent calls to come to Paris, where 
Jay and Franklin, two of the new commission- 
ers, were already treating for peace, and where 
he arrived Oct. 26. Though Mr. Jay had been 
put into the diplomatic service by the procure- 
ment of the party in congress in the French 
interest, his diplomatic experience in Spain 
had led him to entertain doubts also as to the 
sincere good will of Vergennes. A confiden- 
tial despatch from M. Marbois, French secre- 
tary of legation in America, intercepted by the 
British, and which Oswald, the British nego- 
tiator at Paris, communicated to Franklin and 
Jay, with a view to make bad feeling between 
them and the French minister, had, along with 
other circumstances, induced Franklin and Jay 
to disregard their instructions, and to proceed 
to treat with Oswald without communicating 
that fact to Vergennes, or taking his advice as 
to the terms of the treaty a procedure in 
which Adams, after his arrival, fully con- 
curred. It was chiefly through his energy and 
persistence that the participation of America 



in the fisheries was secured by the treaty, not 
as a favor or privilege, but as a right a matter 
of much greater importance then than now, the 
fisheries being at that time a more important 
branch than now of American maritime indus- 
try. Immediately upon the signature of the 
preliminary articles of peace, Adams asked 
leave to resign all his commissions and to re- 
turn home, to which congress responded by 
appointing him a commissioner jointly with 
Franklin and Jay to negotiate a treaty of com- 
merce with Great Britain. His first visit to 
England was, however, in a private character, 
to recruit his health, after a violent fever with 
which he had been attacked, shortly after sign- 
ing the treaty of peace. He spent some time 
first at London, and afterward at Bath; but 
while still an invalid he was recalled, in 
the dead of winter, to Holland, which he 
reached only after a very stormy and uncom- 
fortable passage, there to negotiate a new 
loan, as the means of meeting government bills 
drawn in America, which were in danger of 
protest from want of funds a business in 
which he succeeded, though not without pay- 
ing a pretty high premium. Adams was in- 
cluded, along with Franklin and Jefferson, the 
latter sent out to take the place of Jay, in a 
new commission to form treaties with foreign 
powers; and his being joined by Mrs. Adams 
and their only daughter and youngest son, his 
other two sons being already with him, recon- 
ciled him to the idea of remaining abroad. 
With his family about him he fixed his resi- 
dence at Auteuil, near Paris, where he had 
an interval of comparative leisure and enjoy- 
ment. The chief business of the new commis- 
sion was the negotiation of a treaty with 
Prussia, advances toward which had first been 
been made to Adams while at the Hague, ne- 
gotiating the Dutch loan. But before that 
treaty was ready for signature, Adams was 
appointed by congress minister to the court 
of St. James's, where he arrived in May, 1785. 
The English government, of which the feel- 
ings were well represented by those of the 
king, had neither the magnanimity nor the 
policy to treat the new American states with 
generosity, nor hardly with justice. Adams 
was received with civility, but no commercial 
arrangements could be made, and his chief 
employment was that of complaining of the 
non-execution of the treaty of peace, es- 
pecially in relation to the non-surrender of the 
western posts, and in attempting to meet 
similar complaints urged not without- strong 
grounds on the part of the British, more par- 
ticularly as to the obstacles put in the way of 
the collection of British debts, which were 
made an excuse for the detention of the west- 
ern posts. Made sensible in many ways of the 
aggravation of British feelings toward the new 
republic, whose condition immediately after 
the peace was somewhat embarrassing, and 
not so flattering as it might have been to the 
advocates and promoters of the revolution, 



90 



JOHN ADAMS 



the situation of Adams was rather mortifying 
than agreeable. Meanwhile he was obliged to 
pay a new visit to Holland to negotiate a new 
loan as a means of paying the interest on the 
Dutch debt. He was also engaged in a corre- 
spondence with his fellow commissioner, Mr. 
Jefferson, then at Paris, on the subject of a 
treaty with the Barbary powers and the return 
of the Americans held captive by them. But 
his most engrossing occupation at this time 
was the preparation of his "Defence of the 
American Constitutions," of which the object 
was the justification of balanced governments 
and a division of powers, especially the legis- 
lative, against the idea of a single assembly 
and a pure democracy, which had begun to 
find many ardent advocates, especially on the 
continent. The greater part, however, of this 
book the most voluminous of his publications 
consists of summaries of the histories of the 
Italian republics, by no means essential to the 
argument, and rather an excrescence. Though 
it afterward subjected the author to charges 
of monarchical and anti-republican tendencies, 
this book was not without its influence on the 
adoption of the federal constitution, during the 
discussion upon which the first volume of it 
appeared. Great Britain not having recipro- 
cated the compliment by appointing a minister 
to the United States, and there being no 
prospect of his being able to accomplish any 
of the objects of his mission, Adams had 
solicited a recall, which was sent out to him in 
February, 1788, accompanied by a resolution of 
congress conveying the thanks of that body 
for "the patriotism, perseverance, integrity, 
and diligence " which he had displayed in his 
ten years' service abroad. Immediately on his 
arrival home, Mr. Adams was reappointed a 
delegate from Massachusetts to the continental 
congress; but he never resumed his seat in 
that body, which was now just about to 
expire. When the new government came to 
be organized under the newly adopted federal 
constitution, as all were agreed to make Wash- 
ington president, attention was turned to New 
England for a vice president. This office was 
then regarded as of much higher consequence 
than now. In fact, as the constitution 
originally stood, the candidates for the presi- 
dency and vice presidency were voted for 
without any distinct specification, the second 
office falling to the person who had the second 
highest vote. Out of 69 electors, John Adams 
had the votes of 34; and this being the second 
highest number, he was declared vice presi- 
dent. The other 35 votes were scattered 
upon no less than 10 candidates. By virtue 
of his new office he becan?* president of the 
senate, a position not very agreeable to his 
active and leading .temperament, better fitted 
for debate, but one in which the close division 
in the senate, resulting often in a 'tie between 
the supporters and the opponents of the new 
system, gave him many times a controlling 
voice. In the first congress he gave no few- 



er than 20 casting votes, always upon im- 
portant organic laws, and always in support of 
Washington's policy. Down to this period 
Adams had sympathized in political feeling 
and sentiment with Jefferson, with whom he 
had served both in the continental congress 
and abroad. On the question of the French 
revolution, which now burst upon the world, 
a difference of opinion arose between them. 
From the very beginning Adams, then almost 
alone, had augured no good from that move- 
ment. As the revolution went on and began 
to break out in excesses, others began to be of 
this opinion. Adams then gave public ex- 
pression to some of his ideas on that subject 
in a series of " Discourses on Davila," fur- 
nished to a Philadelphia newspaper and after- 
ward collected into a volume. Taking the 
history of nations, particularly Davila's 
account of the French civil wars, and the 
general aspects of human society as his text, 
Adams pointed out as the great springs of 
human activity, at least in all that related to 
politics, the love of superiority, the desire of 
distinction, admiration, and applause ; nor in 
his opinion could any government be perma- 
nent or secure which did not provide as well 
for the reasonable gratification as for the due 
restraint of this powerful passion. Kepudi- 
ating that democracy pure and simple then 
coming into vogue, and of which Jefferson was 
the advocate, he insisted that a certain 
mixture of aristocracy and monarchy was 
necessary to that balance of interests and 
sentiments without which, as he maintained, 
free governments could not exist. This work, 
which reproduced more at length and in a 
more obnoxious form the fundamental ideas of 
his " Defence of the American Constitutions," 
made Adams a great bugbear to the ultra- 
democratic supporters of the principles and 
policy of the French revolutionists; and at the 
second presidential election in 1792, they set 
up as a candidate against him George Clinton 
of New York. But Mr. Adams was reelected 
by a decided vote. The wise policy of neu- 
trality adopted by Washington received the 
hearty concurrence of Adams. While Jeffer- 
son left the cabinet to become in nominal 
retirement the leader of the opposition, Adams 
continued as vice president to give Washing- 
ton's administration the benefit of his casting 
vote. It was only by this means that a neu- 
trality act was carried through the senate, and 
that the progress was stopped of certain 
resolutions which had previously passed in the 
house of representatives, embodying restrictive 
measures against Great Britain, intended or at 
least calculated to counterwork the mission to 
England on which Mr. Jay had already been 
sent. Washington being firmly resolved to 
retire at the close of his second presidential 
term, the question of the successorship now 
presented itself. Jefferson was the leader of 
the opposition, who called themselves repub- 
licans, the name democrat being yet in bad 



JOHN ADAMS 



91 



odor, and, though often imposed as a term of 
reproach, not yet voluntarily assumed except 
by a few more ultra partisans. Hamilton was 
the leader of the federal party, as the sup- 
porters of Washington's administration had 
christened themselves. But though Ham- 
ilton's zeal and energy had made him, even 
while like Jeiferson in nominal retirement, the 
leader of the federalists, he could hardly be 
said to hold the same place with them that 
Jefferson did with the republicans, whose 
presidential candidate he was, a position 
among the federalists which belonged less to 
Hamilton than to Adams or Jay, whose greater 
age and longer public service placed them 
more conspicuously in the public eye. Ham- 
ilton, though he had always spoken of Adams 
as a man of unconquerable intrepidity and 
incorruptible integrity, and as such had al- 
ready twice supported him for vice president, 
would yet have much preferred Jay. The po- 
sition of Adams was, however, such as to 
render his election more probable than that of 
Jay, and to determine his selection as the 
candidate of the federalists. Jay, by his nego- 
tiation of the famous treaty which bore his 
name, had for the moment drawn down upon 
himself a strong feeling of hostility on the 
part of its numerous and bitter opponents. 
Adams stood, moreover, as vice president in 
the line of promotion, and was more sure of 
the New England vote, which was absolutely 
indispensable to the success of either. One of 
the candidates being taken from the North, it 
seemed politic to select the other from 
the South, and the federalist leaders pitched 
for that purpose upon Thomas Pinckney 
of South Carolina. Indeed, there were 
some, and Hamilton was among the num- 
ber, who secretly wished that Pinckney might 
receive the larger vote, and so be chosen presi- 
dent over Adams's head a result, from the 
likelihood of Pinckney's obtaining more votes 
than Adams at the South (as he really did), al- 
most sure to happen could the northern federal 
electors be persuaded to vote equally for 
Adams and for Pinckney, which Hamilton la- 
bored to effect. The fear, however, that Pinck- 
ney might be chosen over Adams, led to the 
withholding from Pinckney of eighteen New 
England votes, so that the result was not only 
to make Jefferson vice president, as having 
more votes than Pinckney, but also to excite 
prejudices and suspicions in the mind of Adams 
against Hamilton, which, being reciprocated 
by him, led speedily to the disruption and final 
overthrow of the federal party. It had almost 
happened, such was the equal division of par- 
ties, that Jefferson had this time been chosen 
president, the election of Adams, who had 
71 votes to Jefferson's 68, being only secured 
by two stray votes cast for him, one in Vir- 
ginia and the other in North Carolina, trib- 
utes of revolutionary reminiscences and per- 
sonal esteem. Chosen by this slender major- 
ity, Mr. Adams succeeded to office (March 4, 



1797) at a very dangerous and exciting crisis 
of affairs. The progress of the French revolu- 
tion had superinduced upon previous party di- 
visions a new and very vehement one. Jef- 
ferson's supporters, who sympathized very 
warmly with the French republic, gave their 
moral if not their positive support to the 
claim set up by its rulers, but which Wash- 
ington had refused to admit, that under the 
provisions of the French treaty of alliance 
the United States were bound to support 
France against Great Britain, at least in the 
defence of her West India possessions. The 
other party, the supporters of Adams, upheld 
the policy of neutrality adopted by Washing- 
ton. At the same time that Washington had 
sent Jay to England to arrange, if possible, 
the pending difficulties with that country, 
wishing also to keep on good terms with the 
French republic, he had recalled Gouverneur 
Morris, who as minister to France had made 
himself obnoxious to the now predominant 
party there, and had appointed James Mon- 
roe in his place. Monroe, instead of conforming 
to his instructions and attempting to reconcile 
the French to Jay's mission, had given them 
assurances on the subject quite in contradiction 
with the treaty as made, both the formation and 
ratification of which Monroe had done his 
best to defeat. He had in consequence been 
recalled by Washington shortly before the 
close of his term of office, and C. C. Pinckney, a 
brother of Thomas Pinckney, had been appoint- 
ed in his place. The French authorities, of- 
fended at this change and at the ratification of 
Jay's treaty in spite of their remonstrances, 
while they dismissed Monroe with great ova- 
tions, refused to receive the new ambassador 
sent in his place, at the same time issuing de- 
crees and orders highly injurious to American 
commerce. Almost the first act of Mr. Adams 
as president was to call an extra session of 
congress to consider what should be done. Not 
only was a war with France greatly to be 
dreaded and deprecated on account of her great 
military and naval power, but still more so on 
account of the very formidable party which, 
among the ultra republicans, she could muster 
within the states themselves. Under these cir- 
cumstances, the measure resolved upon by 
Adams and his cabinet was the appointment of 
a new and more solemn commission to France, 
composed of Pinckney and two colleagues, for 
which purpose the president selected John 
Marshall of Virginia and Elbridge Gerry of Mas- 
sachusetts. But instead of receiving and open- 
ly treating with those commissioners, Talley- 
rand, lately an exile in America, but now sec- 
retary of foreign affairs to the French directory, 
entered into an intrigue with them through 
several unaccredited and unofficial agents, of 
which the object was to induce them to promise 
a round bribe to the directors and a large sum 
of money to the exhausted French treasury, by 
way of purchasing forbearance. As Pinckney 
and Marshall appeared less pliable than Gerry, 



92 



JOHN" ADAMS 



Talleyrand finally obliged them to leave, after 
which he attempted, though still without suc- 
cess, to extract money or promises of it from 
Gerry alone. The publication of the despatches 
in which these discreditable intrigues were 
disclosed (an event on which Talleyrand had 
not calculated) produced a great excitement 
both in Europe and America. Talleyrand at- 
tempted to escape by disavowing his agents, 
and pretending that the American ministers 
had been imposed upon by adventurers. Gerry 
left France, and the violation of American 
commercial and maritime rights was pushed to 
new extremes. In America the effect of all 
this was greatly to strengthen for the moment 
the federal party. The grand jury of the fed- 
eral circuit court for Pennsylvania set the ex- 
ample of an address to the president, applaud- 
ing his manly stand for the rights and dignity 
of the nation. Philadelphia, which, under the 
lead of Mifflin, McKean, and others, had gone 
over to the opposition, was suddenly converted 
once more, as during Washington's first term, 
to the support of the federal government. 
That city was then the headquarters of the 
American newspaper press. All the hitherto 
neutral papers published there, as well as 
several others which had more or less deci- 
dedly leaned to the opposition, came out now 
in behalf of Adams. Besides an address from 
five thousand citizens, the young men got up 
a separate address of their own. This ex- 
ample was speedily imitated all over the coun- 
try, and the spirited replies of the president, 
who was now in his element, served in their 
turn to blow up and sustain the blaze of patri- 
otic indignation. These addresses, circulated 
everywhere in the newspapers, were collected 
at the time in a volume, and they reappear in 
Adams's works, of which they form a charac- 
teristic portion. A navy was set on foot, the 
old continental navy having become extinct, 
and an army was voted and partly levied, of 
which "Washington accepted the chief com- 
mand. Merchant ships were authorized to pro- 
tect themselves. The treaty with France was 
declared to be at an end, and a quasi war 
with France ensued. It was not, however, 
the policy of France to drive the United States 
into the arms of Great Britain. Even before 
Gerry's departure Talleyrand had made some 
advances toward reconciliation, which were 
afterward renewed by communications opened 
with Vans Murray, the American minister to 
Holland. The effect of the French outrages 
and of the progress of the French revolution 
had been to create, in a part at least of the 
federal party, the desire for an absolute breach 
with France a desire fclt by Hamilton, and 
by three at least out of the four cabinet offi- 
cers whom Adams had found and had kept in 
office. In his message to congress announc- 
ing the expulsion of Pinckney and Marshall, 
Adams had declared "that he would never 
send another minister to France without as- 
surances that he would be received." This 



was on the 21st of July, 1798. When, there- 
fore, on the 18th of February following, with- 
out consulting his cabinet or giving them any 
intimation of his intentions, he sent into the 
senate the nomination of Vans Murray as min- 
ister to France, this act took the country by 
surprise, and hastened the downfall of the 
federal party. Some previous acts of Adams, 
such as the appointment of Gerry, which his 
cabinet officers had striven to prevent, and 
his disinclination to make Hamilton second in 
command of the army till forced into it by 
"Washington, had strengthened the distrust en- 
tertained of Adams by Hamilton and many of 
his friends ; and Adams was now accused of 
seeking, in his attempt to reopen diplomatic 
intercourse with France, to reconcile his polit- 
ical opponents of the republican party, and to 
secure by unworthy and impolitic concessions 
his own reelection as president. The opposition 
to Murray's nomination so far prevailed that 
Murray received two colleagues, Ellsworth of 
Connecticut and Davie of North Carolina; 
but the president would not authorize the 
departure of Ellsworth and Davie till he had 
received explicit assurances from Talleyrand 
that they would be duly received as ministers. 
On arriving in France they found the directory 
superseded and Napoleon Bonaparte first con- 
sul, with whom they managed to arrange the 
matters in dispute. But, however beneficial to 
the country, this mission proved very disastrous 
to Adams personally, and to the political party 
to which he belonged. He justified its appoint- 
ment on the ground of assurances conveyed to 
him through a variety of channels that France 
desired peace, and he excused himself for not 
having consulted his cabinet by the fact that he 
knew what their opinion was without asking 
them decidedly hostile, that is, to any such 
attempt as he had determined to make. The 
masses of the federalists, fully confident of 
Adams's patriotism, were well enough disposed 
to acquiesce in his judgment ; but many of the 
leaders were implacable. The quarrel was fur- 
ther aggravated by Adams's dismissal at this 
time of his cabinet officers and the construction 
of anew cabinet. The pardon of Fries, convicted 
of treason for armed resistance in Pennsylvania 
to the levy of certain direct taxes, was also re- 
garded by many at the time as a piece of mis- 
placed lenity on the part of Adams, dictated, 
it was said, by a mean desire of popularity in a 
case in which severe example was needed. 
But Adams will hardly suffer with posterity 
from his unwillingness to be the first president 
to sign a death warrant for treason, especially as 
there was room for grave doubts whether the 
doings of this person amounted to treasor 
as defined by the constitution of the Uniu-i: 
States. In this divided condition of the fed- 
eral party the presidential election came on. 
Adams was still too popular with the mass of 
the party to encourage any attempt to drop him 
altogether, and the malcontents were redn 
to the old expedient of attempting by secret 



JOHN ADAMS 



understanding and arrangement to reduce his 
vote in the electoral college below that of C. 
0. Pinckney, the other of the two candidates 
voted for by the federalists. The republicans, 
on the other hand, under the prospect of an ar- 
rangement with France, rapidly recovered from 
the blow inflicted upon them by the violence 
and mercenary rapacity lately charged upon 
their French friends, but which they now in- 
sisted was a charge without foundation. Taking 
advantage of the dissatisfaction at the heavy 
taxes necessarily imposed to meet the expenses 
of warlike preparations, and especially of the 
unpopularity of the alien law and the sedition 
law two acts of congress to which the pros- 
pect of war had led they pushed the canvass 
with great energy ; while in Thomas Jefferson 
and Aaron Burr they had two leaders unsur- 
passed for skill in party tactics, and in Burr, at 
least, one little scrupulous as to the means 
which he employed. Not only was the whole 
blame of the alien and sedition acts, to which 
he had merely assented without ever having 
recommended them, laid on Adams's shoulders, 
but he was the object of most vehement and 
bitter attacks for having surrendered up, under 
one of the provisions of Jay's treaty, one 
Thomas Nash, an English sailor, charged with 
mutiny and murder. Having been recognized 
and arrested in Charleston, S. C., Nash had 
endeavored to save himself by assuming the 
name and character of Jonathan Eobbins, an 
American citizen, in the light of which assumed 
character the greater part of Adams's political 
opponents insisted upon exclusively regarding 
him, and Adams himself as having basely 
yielded up an American citizen, who, it was 
argued, even if guilty of mutiny as charged, 
had been justified in it by the fact of having 
been, as it was alleged, previously pressed into 
the British naval service. Nor was it against 
his public acts alone, nor even to his political 
opponents, that these assaults upon Mr. Adams 
were confined. With strong feeling and busy 
imagination, loving both to talk and write, 
Adams had been betrayed into many confidences 
and into free expression of feelings, opinions, 
and even conjectures and suspicions a weak- 
ness very unsuited to the character of a politi- 
cian, and which he had frequent occasion to 
rue. During Washington's first term of office 
he had thus been led into a confidential corre- 
spondence with Tench Coxe, who held at that 
time the place of assistant secretary of the 
treasury, and had afterward been appointed 
supervisor of the internal revenue, but who 
since Adams's accession had been dismissed 
from this place on the charge of being a spy 
upon the treasury department in the service of 
the "Aurora," the principal newspaper organ 
of the opposition, with which party Coxe sym- 
pathized, and since his recent dismissal from 
office had acted. In this state of mind Coxe 
betrayed a private confidential letter of Adams, 
which, after having been handed about in manu- 
script for some time, to the great damage of 



Adams with his own party, was finally printed 
in the "Aurora," of which Coxe had become 
one of the principal contributors. The purport 
of this letter, written as long ago as May, 1792, 
was to give countenance to the favorite charge 
of the opposition that Washington's cabinet, 
and of course Adams's, which followed the same 
policy, was under British influence, and that 
Thomas Pinckney and his brother C. C. Pinck- 
ney, candidates with Adams on the federal 
presidential ticket, were especially obnoxious to 
this suspicion. The publication of this letter was 
followed up by a still more deadly blow in the 
shape of a pamphlet written and printed and 
signed by Hamilton, and probably intended by 
him for private distribution among the federal 
leaders, but which was made public by Aaron 
Burr, who had succeeded in possessing himself 
of some of the proof sheets. This pamphlet 
had its origin in the same charge against Hamil- 
ton of being under British influence, thrown 
out by Adams in private conversation, and as 
to which, when written to by Hamilton, he had 
refused to give any explanation, though when a 
similar request was made by C. C. Pinckney in 
consequence of the publication of the letter to 
Coxe, Adams fully exonerated both him and 
his brother in a published letter from any sus- 
picion which his letter to Coxe might seem cal- 
culated to convey. Hamilton declared in the 
conclusion of his pamphlet, that as things then 
stood he did not recommend the withholding 
from Adams of a single vote. Yet it was the 
leading object of his pamphlet to show, without 
denying Adams's patriotism and integrity, or 
even his talents, that he had great and intrinsic 
defects of character which disqualified him for 
the place of chief magistrate, and the effect 
which he desired it to have must have been to 
give C. C. Pinckney the presidency, by causing 
a certain number of votes to be withheld from 
Adams. The result, however, of the election 
was to throw out both the federal candidates. 
Adams received 65 votes and Pinckney 64, while 
Jefferson and Burr had 73 each. In the ensuing 
struggle between Jefferson and Burr Adams 
took no part. Immediately on the expira- 
tion of his term of office (1801) he left Wash- 
ington, to which shortly before the seat of gov- 
ernment had been removed, without even stop- 
ping to be present at the inauguration of Jef- 
ferson, against whom he felt a sense of personal 
wrong, probably thinking he had been deluded 
by false professions as to Jefferson's views on the 
presidential chair. This state of feeling on the 
part of Adams led to a strict non-intercourse 
for the next 13 years, though both were much 
given to letter-writing, and had previously, at 
least till within a short time before, been on 
terms of friendly correspondence. The only 
acknowledgment for his 25 years' services to 
the nation which Mr. Adams carried with hin } 
in this unwelcome and mortifying retirement, 
was the privilege which had been granted to 
Washington on his withdrawal from the presi- 
dency, and after his death .to his widow, 



JOHN ADAMS 



and bestowed likewise upon all subsequent ex- 
presidents and tbeir widows, of receiving his 
letters free of postage for the remainder of his 
life. Fortunately for Adams, his thrifty hab- 
its and love of independence, sustained during 
his absence from home by the economical 
and managing talents of his wife, had enabled 
him to add to the savings from his pro- 
fession before entering public life, savings 
from his salaries enough to make up a suf- 
ficient property to support him for the 
rest of his life in a style of decent propriety 
and solid comfort, in conformity to his ideas. 
Almost all his savings he had invested in the 
farming lands about him. In his vocabulary, 
property meant land. With all the rapid wealth 
then being acquired by trade and navigation, 
he had no confidence in the permanency of any 
property but land, views in which he was con- 
firmed by the commercial revulsions of which 
he lived to be a witness. He was the possessor, 
partly by inheritance and partly by purchase, 
of his father's farm, including the house in 
which he was himself born ; but he had trans- 
ferred his own residence to a larger and hand- 
somer dwelling near by, forfeited by one of 
the refugee tories of the revolution, and of 
which he had become the purchaser, where he 
spent the next quarter of a century. In this 
comfortable home, acquired by himself, he 
sought consolation for his troubled spirit in the 
cultivation of his lands, in books, and in the 
bosom of his family. Mrs. Adams, to her 
capacities as a housekeeper, steward, and farm 
manager, added a brightness and activity of 
mind and a range of reading, such as fully 
qualified her to sympathize with her husband 
in his public as well as his private career. She 
shared his taste for books, and, as his published 
letters to her are unsurpassed by any American 
letters ever yet printed, so hers to him as well 
as to others, from which a selection has also 
been published, show her, though with less of 
nature and more of formality than his letters 
exhibit, yet worthy of the admiration and re- 
spect as well as of the tenderness with which 
he always regarded her. To affections strong 
enough to respond to his, a sympathy equal to 
his highest aspirations, a proud feeling of su- 
periority and an enjoyment of it equal to his 
own, she added what is not always found in 
such company, a flexibility sufficient to yield 
to his stronger will, without disturbance to her 
serenity or his, and without the least compro- 
mise of her own dignity or her husband's re- 
spect and deference for her. While she was 
not ignorant of the foibles of his character, and 
knew how to avail herself of them when a 
good purpose was to be served by it, yet her 
admiration of his abilities, her reliance upon 
his judgment, her confidence in his goodness, 
and her pride in his achievements, made her 
always ready to yield and to conform. His 
happiness and honor were always her leading 
object. This union was blessed with children 
well calculated to add to its happiness. Mr. 



Adams indeed had the misfortune to lose by 
death, just at the moment of his retirement 
from office, private grief being thus added to po- 
litical disappointment, his second son, Charles. 
He had grown to manhood, had been married 
and had settled in New York with flattering 
prospects, but had died under painful circum- 
stances, which his father speaks of in a con- 
temporary letter as the deepest affliction of his 
life, leaving a wife and two infant children de- 
pendent on him. Col. Smith, an officer of the 
revolution, who had been Adams's secretary 
of legation at London, and who had married 
his only daughter, did not prove in all respects 
such a son-in-law as he could have wished. 
His pecuniary affairs becoming embarrassed, 
his father-in-law had provided for him by sev- 
eral public appointments, the last of which was 
that of surveyor of the port of New York, 
which position he was allowed to hold till 
1807, when he was removed from it in conse- 
quence of his implication in Miranda's expedi- 
tion. Nor did Thomas Boylston Adams, the 
third son, though a person of accomplishments 
and talents, fully answer the hopes of his 
parents. But all these disappointments were 
more than made good by the oldest son, John 
Quincy Adams, who subsequently to his recall 
from the diplomatic service abroad, into which 
Washington had introduced him, and in which 
his father (urged to it by a letter from Wash- 
ington) had promoted him, was chosen one of 
the senators in congress from Massachusetts. 
All consolations, domestic or otherwise, at Mr. 
Adams's command, were fully needed. Never 
did a statesman sink more suddenly, at a time 
too when his powers of action and inclination 
for it seemed wholly unimpaired, from a lead- 
ing position to more absolute political insig- 
nificance. His grandson tells us that while 
the letters addressed to him in the year prior 
to March 1, 1801, may be counted by thou- 
sands, those of the next year scarcely number 
a hundred, while he wrote even fewer than 
he received. Nor was mere neglect the worst 
of it. He sank, loaded with the jibes, the 
sneers, the execrations even of both political 
parties into which the nation was divided. It 
is easy to see now that hardly any degree of 
union or skill on the part of the federalists, a 
minority from the beginning and only sustained 
from the first by the name of Washington and 
the talent and activity of the inferior leaders, 
could have prevented the ultimate triumph of 
the other party. But, as is usual with con- 
temporaries, the disposition then was to ex- 
plain everything by the skill or luck of indi- 
vidual movements, and a large portion of the 
most active leaders of the federal party were 
inclined to hold Adams personally answerable 
both for the breach in their ranks and for their 
subsequent overthrow. At the same time, the 
other party, identifying him with all the meas- 
ures most obnoxious to them, especially the 
alien and sedition laws, long continued to use 
his name as a sort of synonyme for aristocracy, 



JOHN ADAMS 



95 



longing after monarchy, bigotry, tyranny, and 
oppression in general. Especially were they 
enraged at the passage by the last congress, 
just before the close of his and their term of 
office, of a new judiciary act, or rather at 
Adams's presuming to fill up with federalists 
the twenty-three' new judicial offices, besides 
attorneys, marshals, and clerks, created by this 
act. These nominations, stigmatized as "mid- 
night appointments," were assailed, as well as 
he who made them, by every term of party re- 
proach ; nor did the now triumphant republi- 
cans rest until, unable to reach these appointees 
in any other way, they had stripped them of 
their offices by repealing the act. Though 
Adams was far more of a speculative philoso- 
pher than any of his contemporaries in the 
field of American politics, except Jefferson, he 
was by no means philosopher enough to sub- 
mit with patience to the obloquy with which 
he was now visited. In the agony of his heart 
he sat down to defend himself with his pen, at 
least before the tribunal of posterity. He had 
been in the habit of keeping, during intervals 
of his life, a diary or journal, large and very 
valuable extracts from which appear in the 2d 
and 3d volumes of his collected works. He 
now set himself to writing an "Autobiogra- 
phy" and a reply to Hamilton's pamphlet. 
But though he wrote with great facility and 
force, neither his eyes, which were weak, his 
hand, which trembled so as to make the me- 
chanical labor of writing disagreeable, nor yet 
his habits or his temperament, were favorable 
to the labor of correction, condensation, and 
arrangement ; and he presently abandoned both 
those works, though some selections from the 
" Autobiography " have been published by his 
grandson by way of filling gaps in his diary. 
Eight years later, when time had somewhat 
healed over these wounds, they broke out with 
new malignancy by reason of renewed attacks 
upon hun by the federalists on account of his 
son John Quincy Adams having abandoned the 
federal party, and the disposition evinced by 
the father to sustain the policy of the admin- 
istration, rather than that of the federalists, 
in the disputes which finally terminated in war 
with Great Britain. Hitherto the Jeffersonian 
or democratic party had possessed in Boston 
as its sole newspaper organ "The Chronicle," 
a very violent paper, of which the staple in 
times past had been abuse of John Adams as 
an aristocrat and a monarchist, and the author 
of the alien and sedition laws. To represent 
and express the sentiments of a new cohort, 
which with the years 1806 and 1807 came 
in Massachusetts to the support of Jefferson, 
under the leadership of John Q. Adams, a new 
paper was established called the " Boston Pa- 
triot," to which both John Q. Adams and his 
father became contributors. In the earliest 
numbers of this paper, John Adams printed 
(and it may be found in the 9th volume of his 
collected works) "The inadmissible Principles 
of the King of England's Proclamation of Oct. 



16, 1807, considered," being an examination 
and refutation of the English doctrine of im- 
pressment as applied to British subjects. Very 
soon, however, he dropped these topics of the 
day, and reverted to the past. The old charge 
having been anew brought up against him by 
some of the federalist papers, of personal mo- 
tives in setting on foot the mission to France 
in 1799, he took up that subject in a series of 
letters to the " Patriot " also printed in his 
collected works, vol. ix. into which he incor- 
porated much of the material collected for his 
answer to Hamilton. These letters are a valu- 
able contribution to the history of that inter- 
esting period, and can hardly fail to be re- 
garded as a complete vindication of Adams's 
policy and conduct on that occasion at least 
if we allow that the immediate welfare of the 
nation was to be consulted, rather than any 
supposed prospective interest of any political 
party. From this beginning Mr. Adams went 
on to a history especially of his diplomatic ca- 
reer, into which he introduced many valuable 
documents in his possession. These publications, 
interrupted and again commenced from time to 
time, extended over a space of three years. A 
portion, embracing perhaps two thirds of the 
whole, was collected and published in pam- 
phlets, which, bound together, made an octavo 
volume, entitled " Correspondence of the late 
President Adams, originally published in the 
Boston 'Patriot' in a series of letters." Thus 
disjointed, and written, as parts of it evince, 
and as his published correspondence of this pe- 
riod more clearly shows, under great exasper- 
ation of feeling, and coming forth, too, at a 
period when the events of the day engrossed 
all thoughts, and during which the history of 
the revolution was less generally known and 
less a subject of public interest than at any 
time before or since, these letters failed to at- 
tract the public attention or to satisfy Mr. Ad- 
ams's ideal of an historical vindication of himself. 
Seeing how, amid the ignorance and careless- 
ness of the times, the true history of the revo- 
lution was in danger of total oblivion or of be- 
ing transformed into a sort of legend, he aban- 
doned his task with expressions to his private 
correspondents of contempt for history, and of 
utter despair of ever having justice done to 
him. But with the establishment of peace in 
Europe, and the apparent fulfilment, at least 
for the moment, of all Mr. Adams's prophecies 
as to the result of the French revolution, the 
bitter political obloquy of which he had been 
the mark an obloquy directed against him 
from two opposite quarters at once began 
sensibly to relax ; and as those who had been 
contemporaries with his active life one after 
another dropped off, he himself began to fill, 
while yet alive, the position in general estima- 
tion of a hero of the past. After Mr. Jefferson's 
withdrawal from political life, through the 
agency of Dr. Kush, who had all along re- 
mained the personal friend of both, correspon- 
dence by letter was renewed between Adams 



96 



JOHN ADAMS 



and Jefferson and kept up for the remainder 
of their lives. About the same time also Ad- 
ams opened a correspondence with McKean, 
his friend and cooperator in revolutionary 
times, but separated from him in the whirl- 
pool of subsequent politics ; and he thus drew 
out from McKean some valuable historical 
reminiscences. Mr. Adams indeed gave great 
attention to the subject of American history. 
His letters to Mr. Tudor (which led to the pub- 
lication by that gentleman of the " Life of 
James Otis ") shed great light upon the early 
history of the revolution in Massachusetts. 
They contributed not a little to give the first 
impulse to that study of American history, 
revolutionary and colonial, which, commenc- 
ing about that time, has rescued those subjects 
from the hands of rhetoricians and fabulists, 
and has produced so many valuable and au- 
thentic historical works. In his correspon- 
dence, which appears to have gradually in- 
creased and extended itself, Mr. Adams loved 
to recall and to reexplain his theoretical ideas 
of government, on some points of which he 
pushed Jefferson rather hard, and which the 
result of the French revolution so far as then 
developed seemed to confirm. Another sub- 
ject in which he continued to feel a great in- 
terest was that of theology. He had begun as 
an Arminian, and the more he had read and 
thought and the older he grew, the freer views 
he took. Though clinging with tenacity to 
the religious institutions of New England, it 
would seem from his correspondence that he 
had finally curtailed his theology to the ten 
commandments and the sermon on the mount. 
Of his views on tins point he gave evidence in 
his last public act, to which we now approach. 
Mrs. Adams had died in 1818, but even that 
shock, severe as it was, did not unsettle the 
firm grasp of her husband on life, its enjoy- 
ments and its duties. When, in consequence 
of the erection of the district of Maine into a 
separate state, a convention was to meet in 
1820 to revise the constitution of Massachu- 
setts, in the framing of which Mr. Adams had 
taken so leading a part, though in his 86th 
year, he was chosen a delegate by his towns- 
men. Upon his first appearance, with a form 
yet erect, though tremulous with age, in this 
convention, which included almost everybody 
in the state of distinguished intelligence or rep- 
utation, Mr. Adams was received by the mem- 
bers standing, and witli every demonstration 
of affection and regard ; and a series of resolu- 
tions was forthwith offered and passed, con- 
taining an enumeration and warm acknowl- 
edgment of some of his principal public ser- 
vices, and calling upon him to preside. But 
this, while duly acknowledging the compli- 
ment, he declined on the score of his age and 
infirmities. The same cause also prevented his 
taking any very active part in the proceedings. 
Yet he labored to produce a modification of 
the third article of the bill of rights, on the 
subject of public worship and its support, an 



article which, when originally drawing the 
rest of that instrument, he had passed over to 
other hands. But the time had not yet como 
for such changes as he wished. The old pu- 
ritan feeling was still in too great force to ac- 
knowledge the equal rights, political and reli- 
gious, of others than Christians. Yet, however 
it might be with his colleagues or his fellow 
citizens, Mr. Adams in this movement ex- 
pressed his own ideas. One of his latest let- 
ters, written in 1825 and addressed to Jeffer- 
son, is a remarkable protest against the blas- 
phemy laws, so called, of Massachusetts and 
the rest of the Union, as being utterly incon- 
sistent with the rights of free inquiry and pri- 
vate judgment. It is in the letters of Mr. Ad- 
ams, of which but a small part have yet been 
published, that his genius as a writer and 
thinker, and no less distinctly his character as 
a man, most clearly appear. Down even to 
the last year of his protracted life, his letters 
exhibit a wonderful degree of vitality, energy, 
acuteness, wit, playfulness, and command of 
language. As a writer of English, little as he 
ever troubled himself with revision and correc- 
tion, and we may add as a speculative philos- 
opher, he must be placed first among Ameri- 
cans of all the several generations to which he 
belonged, except only Franklin ; and if Frank- 
lin excelled him in humor and geniality, he far 
surpassed Franklin in compass, wit, and viva- 
city. Indeed, it is only by the recent partial 
publication of his letters that his gifts in this 
respect are beginning to become known. The 
first collection of his private letters, published 
in his lifetime and much against his will, 
though not deficient in the characteristics 
above pointed out, yet, having been written 
under feelings of great aggravation and in a 
spirit of extreme bitterness toward his politi- 
cal opponents, was rather damaging to him. 
This publication was one of the incidents of 
his becoming for a third time, in his extreme 
age, an object of hostility, confined now, how- 
ever, to a few of the more tenacious of his old 
federalist opponents, in consequence of the 
coalition of all parties in New England to sup- 
port his son, J. Q. Adams, for the presidency. 
In the interval from 1804 to 1812, Mr. 
Cunningham, a maternal relative, had drawn 
him into a confidential correspondence, in 
which, still smarting under a sense of 
injury, he had expressed himself with perfect 
unreserve and entire freedom as to the chief 
events of his presidential administration and 
the character and motives of the parties con- 
cerned in them. By a gross breach of confi- 
dence, of which, like other impulsive and 
confiding persons, Mr. Adams had been often 
the victim, those letters were sold by Cun- 
ningham's heir in 1824, while the writer and 
many of the parties referred to were still 
alive, and were published as a part of the 
electioneering machinery against J. Q. Adams. 
They called out a violent retort from Col. 
Pickering, who had been secretary of stato to 



JOHN ADAMS 



97 



Washington and Adams, till dismissed from 
office by the latter ; but though Mr. Jefferson 
was also severely handled in them, they occa- 
sioned no new interruption to the friendly 
correspondence for some years reestablished 
between him and Adams. Those two leading 
actors in American politics, at first so coop- 
erative and afterward so hostile, again reunited 
in friendly intercourse, having outlived almost 
all their fellow actors, continued to descend 
hand in hand to the grave. Adams lived to see 
his son president and to receive Jefferson's 
congratulations upon it. By a remarkable 
coincidence, they both expired on the 50th 
anniversary of that declaration of indepen- 
dence in which they had both taken so active 
a part, Adams, however, being the survivor 
by a few hours. Of Adams's personal appear- 
ance and domestic character in his old age, 
his grandson gives the following account: 
" In figure John Adams was not tall, scarcely 
exceeding middle height, but of a stout, well 
knit frame, denoting vigor and long life, yet 
as he grew old inclining more and more to 
corpulence. His head was large and round, 
with a wide forehead and expanded brows. 
His eye was mild and benignant, perhaps even 
humorous when he was free from emotion, 
but when excited it fully expressed the vehe- 
mence of the spirit that stirred within. His 
presence was grave and imposing on serious 
occasions, but not unbending. He delighted 
in social conversation, in which he was some- 
times tempted to what he called rhodomon- 
tade. But he seldom fatigued those who 
heard him ; for he mixed so much of natural 
vigor of fancy and illustration with the store 
of his acquired knowledge, as to keep alive 
their interest for a long time. His affections 
were warm, though not habitually demon- 
strated toward his relatives. His anger, when 
thoroughly aroused, was for a time extremely 
violent, but when it subsided it left no trace 
of malevolence behind. Nobody could see 
him intimately without admiring the sim- 
plicity and truth which shone in his actions, 
and standing in some awe of the power and 
energy of his will. It was in these moments 
that he impressed those around him with a 
sense of his greatness. Even the men em- 
ployed on his farm were in the habit of citing 
instances, some of which have been remem- 
bered down to the present day. At times his 
vehemence would become so great as to make 
him overbearing and unjust. This was most 
apt to happen in cases of pretension and any 
kind of wrong-doing. Mr. Adams was very 
impatient of cant, or of opposition to any of 
his deeply established convictions. Neither 
was his indignation at all graduated to the 
character of the individuals who might happen 
to excite it. It had little respect of persons, 
and would hold an illiterate man or a raw boy 
to as heavy a responsibility for uttering a 
crude heresy as the strongest thinker or the 
most profound scholar." The same writer 
8 VOL. i. 8 



makes the following remarks on his general 
character : u His nature was too susceptible to 
emotions of sympathy and kindness, for it 
tempted him to trust more than was prudent 
in the professions of some who proved un- 
worthy of his confidence. Ambitious in one 
sense he certainly was, but it was not the 
mere aspiration for place or power. It was a 
desire to excel in the minds of men by the 
development of high qualities, the love, in 
short, of an honorable fame, that stirred him 
to exult in the rewards of popular favor. Yet 
this passion never tempted him to change a 
course of action or to suppress a serious con- 
viction, to bend to a prevailing error or to 
disavow one odious truth." This last assertion 
involves soine controverted points of history ; 
yet this at least must be granted, that it may 
be made with far more plausibility of Mr. 
Adams than of the greater portion of political 
men. The pecuniary independence which 
previous to his retirement Mr. Adams had 
secured by a judicious adaptation of his ex- 
penditures to his income, more fortunate than 
Mr. Jefferson, he maintained till the end of 
his life. Although he had a large family, in- 
cluding grandchildren and great-grandchil- 
dren, dependent upon him, he yet died in the 
possession of a valuable landed estate. See 
"Life and Works of John Adams," by Charles 
Francis Adams (10 vols. 8vo, Boston, 1850- 
'56), and "Life of John Adams," by J. Q. and 
C. F. Adams (2 vols. 8vo, 1871). 

ADAMS, John, the assumed name of ALEX- 
ANDER SMITH, one of the mutineers of the 
British ship Bounty, born in London in 1764, 
died on Pitcairn island, March 29, 1829. In 
1787 he joined the Bounty as a common 
sailor, and was one of those who revolted 
against Lieut. Bligh on April 28, 1789. (See 
BLIGH, WILLIAM.) On Jan. 23, 1790, after 
various adventures, Adams landed with the 
other mutineers and a number of Tahitian 
men and women on Pitcairn island, where he 
spent the rest of his life. In 1800 he found 
himself the sole surviving Englishman, and 
the only guardian and teacher of a community 
of women and children. He organized divine 
service according to the forms of the church 
of England, and acted also as a schoolmaster. 
In 1808, when Capt. Mayhew Folger, of the 
American ship Topaz, landed on the island, 
Adams gave him an account of the feuds 
among his companions and the Tahitian men 
and women, ending in the violent death of all 
except himself and Young. Capt. Folger, in 
return, gave him a rapid sketch of the great 
events of the preceding 20 years, all of which 
were entirely new to him. The captain's 
report of this extraordinary meeting with 
Adams bore testimony to the excellent moral 
and religious training of the little community, 
and was accompanied by the chronometer and 
azimuth compass of the Bounty, presented to 
him by Adams. It was after the visit of Capt. 
Folger that he changed his real name of 



98 



ADAMS 



Alexander Smith to John Adams, to avoid 
recognition and conviction for mntiny in 
England. The island was visited only two or 
three times afterward during Adams's life. In 
1825 a man named Buffett was permitted to 
settle there, and, being well educated, re- 
lieved Adams of the business of teaching. 
Lady Belcher, in her work on the "Mutineers 
of the Bounty " (London, 1871), says : " By 
the mercy of God and by the aid of his Bible 
and prayer book, which he had so earnestly 
studied, John Adams succeeded in establish- 
ing such a community as has been the dream 
of poets and the aspiration of philosophers." 
(See PITOAIRN ISLAND.) 

ADAMS, John, LL.D., an American teacher 
and philanthropist, born in Canterbury, Conn., 
in 1772, died in Jacksonville, 111., April 24, 
1863. He was a son of John Adams, an 
officer in the revolutionary army from Con- 
necticut, and graduated at Yale college in 
1795. Until 1798 he taught the academy in 
his native town; from 1800 to 1803 he wfls 
rector of Plainfield academy; from 1803 to 
1810 principal of Bacon academy, Colchester, 
Conn. ; and from 1810 to 1833 principal of 
Phillips academy, Andover, Mass. He was 
during this period also one of the founders of 
several of the national benevolent societies. 
After being thus engaged in teaching for 36 
years, he resigned and removed to Illinois, 
where he was instrumental in introducing 
some valuable modifications into the school 
laws; and when past 70 years of age he 
organized several hundred Sunday schools in 
different parts of the state. He published 
several essays on the training of the young, 
and left others in manuscript. 

ADAMS, John Conch, an English astronomer, 
born of humble parentage near Bodmin, June 
5, 1819. He is a fellow of Pembroke college, 
Cambridge, England, and shares with Lever- 
rier the honor of having calculated the place 
of the planet Neptune before it had been rec- 
ognized by sight. He early showed great 
powers, and in 1841, while in St. John's col- 
lege, made his first computation of Neptune's 
place. In 1844-'6 he renewed his calcula- 
tions, and communicated the results to Profes- 
sors Challis and Airy ; but he did not publish 
them, and therefore Leverrier, who soon after 
attained and published similar results, has 
reaped the larger share of glory. The calcula- 
tions of both mathematicians were formed on 
the motions of the planet Uranus, which was 
drawn aside from its expected course by the 
attraction of Neptune. In 1858 Adams was 
appointed Lowndean professor of astronomy at 
Cambridge. 

ADAMS, John Qninry, sixth president of the 
United States, eldest son of President John 
Adams, born in Braintree, July 11, 1767, died 
in Washington, Feb. 23, 1848. The origin of 
his name was thus stated by himself: "My 
great-grandfather, John Quincy, was . x dying 
when I was baptized, and his daughter, my 



grandmother, requested I might receive his 
name. This fact, recorded by my father, has 
connected with my name a charm of mingled 
sensibility and devotion. It was filial tender- 
ness that gave the name it was the name of 
one passing from earth to immortality. These 
have been through life perpetual admonitions 
to do nothing unworthy of it." John Adams, 
having been appointed minister to France, took 
with him as companion his son John Quincy, 
then in his llth year. The voyage from Bos- 
ton to Bordeaux was tempestuous ; the travel 
by land from Bordeaux to Paris was rapid and 
fatiguing; but the young Adams, as appears 
from his father's published diary, conducted 
and sustained himself through both voyage and 
travels, and also during their residence at 
Paris, to his father's entire satisfaction. 
Placed at a school near Paris, he made rapid 
progress both in the French language and in 
his general studies. His health was perfect, 
and his father wrote to his mother that he at- 
tracted general attention wherever he went 
by his vigor of body, his vivacity of mind, and 
Ids constant good humor. After a stay in 
France of near a year and a half several 
months of which were spent at Nantes waiting 
for a passage home John Quincy Adams 
came- back with his father in a French frigate. 
"While at sea he taught English to his fellow 
passengers, the French ambassador to the 
United States, Do la Luzerne, and his secre- 
tary, M. Marbois. The following is an extract 
from his father's diary, under date of June 20, 
1779: "The chevalier de la Luzerne and M. 
Marbois are in raptures with my son. They 
get him to teach them the language. I found 
this morning the ambassador seated on the 
cushion in our stateroom, M. Marbois in his 
cot, at his left hand, and my son stretched out 
in his at his right, the ambassador reading out 
loud in Blackstone's 'Discourse' at his en- 
trance on his professorship of the common law 
at the university, and my son correcting the 
pronunciation of every word and syllable and 
letter. The ambassador said he was astonished 
at my son's knowledge ; that he was a master 
of his own language like a professor. M. Mar- 
bois said, 'Your son teaches us more than 
you; he has point de grdce, point d'elogeg. 
He shows us no mercy, and makes us no com- 
pliments. We must have Mr. John.' " Char- 
acter is very early developed, and John Q. 
Adams retained much of this same style of 
teaching to the end of his life. After remain 
ing at home three months and a half, John Q. 
Adams, now in his 13th year, sailed again in 
the same French frigate, as his father's com- 
panion on his second diplomatic mission to 
Europe. Arriving at Paris in February, 1 780, he 
was again placed at school, where he remained 
till August. He then went with his father to 
Holland, where, after some months' tuition at a 
school in Amsterdam, he was sent about the 
end of the year to the university of Leyden. 
His father's secretary of legation, Francis 



! 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS 



99 



Dana (afterward chief justice of Massachu- 
setts), having been appointed minister to Rus- 
sia, he took with him as his private secretary 
John Q. Adams, then in his 15th year. Hav- 
ing discharged the duties of this position for 
14 months to Dana's entire satisfaction, the 
latter not having succeeded in getting recog- 
nized as minister, young Adams left St. Peters- 
burg, and, travelling back alone, returned lei- 
surely through Sweden and Denmark, and by 
Hamburg and Bremen, to the Hague, where 
he resumed his studies. In October, 1783, the 
treaty of peace having been signed, John Q. 
Adams attended his father on his first visit to 
England. Returning with him, he spent the 
year 1784 in Paris, where the whole family 
was now collected. His father having been 
appointed minister to Great Britain, he ac- 
companied the family to London, but soon 
after, with a view to the completion of his 
education, returned home to Massachusetts. 
In 1786 he entered the junior class at Harvard 
college. He graduated in 1788, and imme- 
diately after entered the office of Theophilus 
Parsons, afterward well known as chief justice 
of Massachusetts. Here he remained for three 
years. In 1791 he was admitted to the bar, 
when he opened a law office in Boston, and in 
the course of four years he gradually attained 
practice enough to pay his expenses. He did 
not, however, confine himself entirely to the 
law. A series of articles which he published 
in the "Boston Centinel," with the signature 
of Publicola a reply to some portions of 
Thomas Paine's " Rights of Man " attracted 
a good deal of attention not only at home but 
in England, where these papers were repub- 
lished and ascribed to his father. In another 
series of articles in the same journal, signed 
Marcellus, published in 1793, he defended 
Washington's policy of neutrality. . In a third 
series, signed Columbus, published the same 
year, he reviewed the conduct of Genet, the 
French ambassador, in relation to the same 
subject. These writings drew attention to- 
ward him, and in May, 1794, Washington ap- 
pointed him minister to the Hague. Upon his 
arrival there he found things in such confusion, 
owing to the French invasion, that after a few 
months' residence he thought of returning ; 
but, by the remonstrances of Washington, who 
predicted for him a distinguished diplomatic 
career, he Avas induced to remain. In 1795 he 
had occasion to visit London to transact some 
business with Thomas Pinckney, who after Mr. 
Jay's departure had resumed the embassy at 
that court. The American consul at London 
was Joshua Johnson of Maryland, brother of 
Thomas Johnson, one of the signers of the 
'declaration of independence, and a judge of 
the United States supreme court. Mr. Joshua 
Johnson had formerly been a merchant at 
Nantes, where in 1779 the Adamses had made 
his acquaintance. He had by this time a grown- 
up daughter, with whom young Adams now 
formed an intimacy, which resulted in mar- 



riage on July 27, 1797. Previously to this 
event, and shortly before the close of Washing- 
ton's administration, John Q. Adams had been 
appointed minister to Portugal ; but his father, 
on becoming president, changed his destination 
to Berlin. In thus promoting his own son, 
John Adams acted by the written advice of 
Washington, who expressed his decided opin- 
ion that young Adams was the ablest person in 
the American diplomatic service, and that 
merited promotion ought not to be withheld 
from him merely because he-was the president's 
son. He arrived at Berlin shortly after his 
marriage, in the autumn of 1797. In 1798 he 
received an additional commission to negotiate 
a treaty of. commerce with Sweden. While 
residing at Berlin, with a view to perfecting 
himself in the German language, he made a 
translation into English of Wieland's " Oberon," 
and would have published it but for the ap- 
pearance about that time of a translation by 
Sotheby. In 1800 he travelled through Silesia, 
of which tour he wrote an account in a series 
of letters to his brother which were, published, 
though without the writer's knowledge, in the 
"Port Folio," a weekly paper at Philadelphia. 
These letters were collected and published in a 
volume in London, and, being translated into 
French and German, had a wide circulation. 
On the accession of Mr. Jefferson to the presi- 
dency, John Q. Adams was recalled; but he 
had previously succeeded in negotiating a treaty 
of commerce with Prussia. Returning to Bos- 
ton, he again opened a law office there. In 1802 
he was elected from Suffolk county (which in- 
cludes Boston) to the Massachusetts senate, 
and the next year was chosen by the legisla- 
ture a senator in congress from Massachusetts. 
He owed this position to the federal party of 
Massachusetts,, and for four years he continued 
to sustain their views ; but on the question of 
the embargo recommended by Jefferson he 
separated from them. The Massachusetts elec- 
tion in the preceding spring had resulted in the 
success of the Jeffersonian party, who elected 
their candidates for governor and lieutenant 
governor, and a majority in both branches of the 
legislature. At the time when the embargo 
was proposed by the president to congress, it 
seemed probable that the question of Adams's 
reelection to the senate would have to be de- 
cided by a legislature favorable to the views of 
the national administration; and the support 
which Adams gave to that measure was charg- 
ed by the federalists to the hope of securing 
his reelection and the favor of a party, whose 
predominance seemed at length established, not 
merely in the nation, but in Massachusetts 
also. This course on his part led to a warm 
controversy between him and his colleague 
in the senate, Timothy Pickering, who now 
made the same charges of treacherous selfish- 
ness against the son which he had formerly 
brought against the father. Pickering address- 
ed a letter to Governor Sullivan of Massa- 
chusetts, in which he forcibly stated his ob- 



100 * 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS 



jections to the embargo, which he represented 
as the first step toward a war with Great Brit- 
ain, a step into which the administration had 
been led, as he maintained, by French threats 
or French seduction. This letter Pickering 
requested the governor to lay before the legis- 
lature, which Sullivan refused to do, on the 
ground that it was "seditious and disorgan- 
izing." It found its way, however, into the 
newspapers, and Adams replied to it through 
the same medium. In this reply he expressed 
his conviction that the whole of the difficul- 
ties in which the United States were involved 
on the question of neutral rights, including 
the issue of Bonaparte's Berlin and Milan de- 
crees, had originated in the unwarrantable 
maritime pretensions of Great Britain. He 
even went so far as to represent the late British 
orders in council, issued nominally in retaliation 
for the Berlin decree, as a first step on the part 
of Great Britain toward bringing back the 
United States to colonial subjection. Giving 
emphatic expression to suspicions and to an an- 
tipathy which, as to the Hamiltonian or Essex 
junto section of the federalists, he had imbibed 
from his father, he broadly hinted that Pick- 
ering and his special party friends were quite 
ready to side with Great Britain in the new 
enterprise which he ascribed to her of re- 
subjecting America. Although Sullivan had 
been reflected governor, the embargo had op- 
erated to give the federalists a small majority 
in both branches of the Massachusetts legisla- 
ture ; and when the question of the choice of 
senator came up, Adams was dropped, and 
Lloyd, a Boston merchant, chosen in his place. 
Adams thereupon declined to sit for the remain- 
ing short session of his term, resigned his sena- 
torship, and retired to private life. He had 
previously, however, secured, in addition to his 
practice as a lawyer, a new resource and em- 
pl^yment, in the post of professor of rhetoric 
and belles-lettres at Harvard college. He en- 
tered upon this professorship in 1806, upon 
condition of not being obliged to reside at 
Cambridge, and for three years following dis- 
charged the duties of it, delivering lectures, 
the first, it is said, ever read in any American 
college, and conducting exercises in declama- 
tion. His lectures, which were printed in 1810, 
once possessed a considerable reputation, but 
are now entirely neglected. The winter subse- 
quent to his resignation he visited Washington, 
nominally for the purpose of attending the su- 
preme court. During this visit he sought and 
obtained a confidential interview with Jeffer- 
son, in which he distinctly brought against a 
portion of the federal leaders the charge of a 
treasonable design of dissolving the Union and 
forming a separate northern confederacy. The 
same charge, thus privately made, he not long 
after repeated in print, in a review of the writ- 
ings of Fisher Ames, which he published in 
numbers in the "Boston Patriot." Such was 
the origin of a charge which for the next ten 
or fifteen years strongly affected the admin- 



istration of the government, and which, pen- 
etrating deeply into the popular mind, made 
the leading statesmen of New England ob- 
jects at once of dread and hatred, deprived 
New England for a considerable period of its 
natural weight in public affairs, and had a 
decisive influence in curtailing to a single 
term the presidential office, to which John 
Q. Adams, himself afterward attained. That 
he was sincere in bringing this charge there 
is little room for doubt. The proof, however, 
which he presented at the time or afterward 
of the truth of this plot, was sufficiently slen- 
der. It was said to have originated with a 
few federal members of congress, in conse- 
quence of the annexation of Louisiana a meas- 
ure which Adams had himself opposed, bi-ing 
one of the six senators who voted against it 
and the threatened destruction, by the addition 
of so much new western and southern territory, 
of the political influence of the northern and 
eastern states. These dissatisfied members of 
congress, so Adams alleged, had proposed to 
have a meeting at Boston, at which Hamilton 
was to have been present. It was admitted 
that Hamilton disapproved of the scheme, and 
yet his reasons for accepting Burr's challenge 
were cited as proof that he anticipated a civil 
war and the being called upon to take a leading 
part in it. Such seems to have been about the 
whole of this alleged plot, carefully concealed, 
as Adams admitted, from the great body of the 
federalists, and unknown even to the greater 
part of their leaders, including one so conspicu- 
ous as Ames. We shall have occasion at a 
subsequent period of Mr. Adams's life to refer 
again to this subject. It should be added now, 
however, that this revelation was among the 
reasons by which Adams pressed Jefferson to 
consent to the repeal of the embargo, for which 
he had himself voted, but which had provoked 
in all the maritime parts of the country, and 
especially in New England, a very violent hos- 
tility, and which could not be persisted in, as 
Adams thought, without leading to open and 
violent resistance, and so affording opportunity 
to the plotters against the integrity of the Union. 
Immediately alter Madison's accession to the 
presidency, he nominated Mr. Adams as minis- 
ter to Kussia. Since the time that Adams, 
while yet a boy, had visited St. Petersburg as 
private secretary to an unrecognized minister, 
the United States had had no ambassador at 
that court. The senate, not yet satisfied of 
the expediency of opening diplomatic relations 
in that quarter, though the same thing had been 
recommended by Jefferson, refused to confirm 
the nomination. However, a few months after, 
the nomination was renewed, and with bet- 
ter success. John Adams, who did not like 
being thus separated from his son, saw in this 
appointment only a sort of political banishment 
intended on the part of the Virginia politicians 
to remove a dreaded competitor out of the way. 
Yet in fact, by removing John Q. Adams from 
the immediate theatre of contention at home, 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS 



101 



it contributed not a little to his subsequent po- 
litical promotion. He was himself, as wo 
may judge, well satisfied to escape from the 
political commotion which he had raised ; for 
when, after various unsuccessful attempts to 
fill a vacancy on the supreme bench of 
the United States, he was nominated and 
confirmed as a judge (for the New England 
circuit), hi spite of the wishes of his father 
he declined the nomination, preferring to 
remain as ambassador at St. Petersburg, where 
he was now established with his family. 
He was well received in Eussia. His official 
duties were not very arduous. Part of his 
leisure he employed in writing a series of " Let- 
ters," since published, addressed to his sons, on 
" The Bible and its Teachings " ; a pious work, 
but not otherwise of particular value or merit. 
The disputes and collisions between Great 
Britain and the United States having finally 
terminated in war, through the influence of Mr. 
Adams the emperor of Eussia was induced to 
offer himself as mediator, and in July, 1813, 
Adams was joined by Mr. Bayard, and after- 
ward by Mr. Gallatin, those gentlemen having 
been appointed in conjunction with himself to 
negotiate a peace. Great Britain, however, re- 
fused to treat under the mediation of Eussia. 
She proposed instead an independent negotia- 
tion at London or Gothenburg, for which Ghent 
was afterward substituted. This proposition 
having been accepted on the part of the United 
States government, Mr. Adams arrived at 
Ghent in June, 1814, and after a protracted ne- 
gotiation of six months,' in which Jonathan Eus- 
sell and Henry Clay were associated, peace was 
finally concluded Dec. 24, 1814. No attempt 
whatever was made to limit the maritime pre- 
tensions of Qreat Britain, in resistance to 
which the war had originated, and against 
which Mr. Adams, in joining the administra- 
tion party, had so decidedly pronounced. The 
skill and eloquence of the American commis- 
sioners found ample scope in warding off the 
pretensions of Great Britain to portions of ter- 
ritory occupied by her, or at least to act as pro- 
tector to the Indian tribes within the limits of 
the United States. Some attempt was also 
made to limit our fishing rights, and Mr. 
Adams was now instrumental, as his father had 
been before him, in maintaining unimpaired our 
enjoyment of the ocean fisheries. Previous to 
proceeding to London to execute a new com- 
mission to negotiate in conjunction with Clay 
and Gallatin a treaty of commerce, Adams 
visited Paris, where he witnessed the return of 
Napoleon from Elba and the brief empire of 
the hundred days. Here his family joined him 
after a long and perilous journey from St. 
Petersburg, and on the 25th of May he joined 
Clay and Gallatin in London; in conjunction 
with whom, on July 13, 1815, he signed a com- 
mercial convention with Great Britain. This 
business finished, Adams still remained at Lon- 
don as resident minister. Upon the accession 
of Monroe to the presidency (1817) he offered 



Mr. Adams the post of secretary of state, to fill 
which he returned home, after an absence of 
eight years. The reestablishment of peace in 
Europe having removed former grounds of con- 
tention, a political lull had succeeded, and a 
new organization of parties now began to take 
place, especially on the subjects of protection to 
American manufactures and expenditures from 
the United States treasury for internal improve- 
ments. There still remained, however, to be 
disposed of, some questions of moment more 
immediately connected with Mr. Adams's posi- 
tion as secretary of state. Gen. Jackson, hav- 
ing been consulted on the subject by Monroe, 
had heartily approved of the appointment of 
Mr. Adams to that department. Adams no 
less warmly supported in the cabinet, against 
Mr. Calhoun's proposition of censure, the con- 
duct of Gen. Jackson in invading Florida, 
hanging Arbuthnot and Ambrister, and taking 
military possession of St. Mark's and Pensacola. 
Those proceedings he also sustained with no 
less zeal in his diplomatic correspondence with 
the Spanish minister an important correspon- 
dence, having reference to the boundaries of 
Florida and Louisiana, and the claims of Amer- 
ica on Spain for commercial depredations. 
Though as a senator Adams had voted against 
the Louisiana treaty, on the ground that the 
federal constitution gave no power to acquire 
territory, he now as secretary of state pushed 
American claims under that treaty to the ex- 
tremest lengths, insisting that this cession in- 
cluded not merely Florida to the Perdido, but 
Texas to the Eio Grande. Finally, hi consid- 
eration of the cession of Florida, the United 
States agreeing to pay $5,000,000 for it, to be 
applied to the extinction of American mercan- 
tile claims against Spam, Adams compromised 
matters by agreeing to the Sabine, the Eed 
river, the upper Arkansas, the crest of the 
Eocky mountains, and the parallel of 42 N. 
lat., as the boundary of Louisiana ; and upon 
this basis a treaty was arranged. This treaty 
was his principal achievement as secretary of 
state. After some hesitation, Mr. Adams 
finally yielded to the policy warmly urged by 
Henry Clay of recognizing the independence of 
the late Spanish American colonies. An elab- 
orate report which he made in his official ca- 
pacity on weights and measures secured him 
the credit of extensive scientific acquirements. 
Toward the close of Monroe's first term came 
up the great question of the admission of Mis- 
souri as a slave state, and the extension of 
slavery or its prohibition throughout .the un- 
settled territory north and west of Missouri. 
The Missouri compromise having at length, 
after violent agitations at "Washington and 
throughout the country, received the sanction 
of congress, Monroe, upon being called upon 
to sign the bill, submitted two questions to his 
cabinet : First, had congress the constitutional 
power to prohibit slavery in a territory ? and 
second, was the term "for ever," used in the 
prohibitive clause of the Missouri bill, to be un- 



102 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS 



derstood as referring only to the territorial con- 
dition of the district embraced in it, or must it 
be understood to extend to such states as might 
be erected out of it? These questions grew 
out of the circumstance that the southern 
members of congress had denied any power 
in congress to prohibit slavery in a state, and 
therefore any right to refuse to admit Mis- 
souri into the Union on the ground that her con- 
stitution established slavery. Those of them 
who supported the compromise admitted, how- 
ever, a power of imposing conditions on territo- 
ries, as necessarily implied in the power to erect 
them. On the first of these questions all the cab- 
inet declared themselves in the affirmative. As 
to the second question, Adams thought that the 
term "for ever" must be understood to mean 
for ever, and that the prohibition of slavery, in- 
stead of ceasing with the territorial condition 
of the district, would under the act of congress 
extend to any states that might at any time be 
erected out of it. The other members of the 
cabinet, including Thompson of New York (ex- 
cept Adams, the only other northern man in it, 
and soon after made judge of the sflpreme 
federal court), were all of opinion that the 
" for ever " in question was only a territorial 
for ever, and that it did not and would not op- 
erate to prevent any states that might be or- 
ganized out of this territory from establishing 
or prohibiting slavery as they chose. But to 
prevent this delicate point from being mooted, 
and to give to the cabinet an appearance of una- 
nimity, at Mr. Calhoun's suggestion the second 
question was modified so as to read, " Is the 
proviso as it stands in the bill constitutional ? " 
To this question all the members returned the 
brief answer "Yes," and on the strength of their 
apparently unanimous opinion (ordered to be de- 
posited in the archives of the state department, 
whence, like some other valuable historical pa- 
pers, it has since disappeared), Monroe signed 
the bill. "We owe this piece of secret history 
to an extract which has been published from 
Mr. Adams's diary, from which it also appears 
that he still strongly entertained the same sen- 
timent of opposition to southern ideas, institu- 
tions, and predominancy, which had led him to 
vote against the annexation of Louisiana. But 
the time was not yet come for the open avowal 
of his opinions or for acting upon them. Least of 
all were the present crisis and Adams's position 
favorable to such a course. No sooner had 
Monroe entered upon his second term of office 
(1821) than the question of who should be his 
successor began to be vehemently agitated. Of 
the five members of his cabinet, no fewer than 
tlirt>o, Adams, Crawford, and Calhoun, were 
brought forward as candidates, as were also, out- 
side the cabinet, Gen. Jackson and Henry Clay. 
Crawford obtained the congressional caucus 
nomination, according to the usage which then 
prevailed ; but this nomination had no weight 
with the partisans of the other candidates. To 
support Adi.ms, the federal party of Massachu- 
setts the only state in which that party could 



be said to maintain an organized existence, and 
even there it had lately lost the control of the 
state government amalgamated with the dem- 
ocratic party of that state ; and the same union 
took place throughout New England, and par- 
tially in New York, New Jersey, Delaware, 
and Maryland. All the federalists, however, 
did not come into this arrangement. Some of 
the more persistent among them refused to sup- 
port Adams. The aged Timothy Pickering, his 
former senatorial colleague, made a violent at- 
tack upon him in a printed pamphlet, founded 
on his former separation from the federal party. 
As a general thing, however, the greater part of 
the old federalists throughout the country gave 
in their adhesion to Adams a circumstance 
urged by his opponents as going to show that 
he was still but a federalist in a democratic 
disguise, and not entitled to the support of the 
democratic party. From the earliest history of 
the United States as an independent nation, 
Virginia and New England ideas had 'contended 
for predominancy and control. Notwithstand- 
ing his former abandonment of New England 
at the time of the embargo, in the present con- 
test Mr. Adams represented the New England 
which was in fact synonymous with the federal 
idea. Of course he suffered greatly from that 
bitter dislike of New England, which in the 
preceding quarter of a century had been labo- 
riously and assiduously instilled into the people 
not merely of the southern but of the western 
states, and which he had himself, as we have 
seen, contributed to aggravate. The election 
resulted in giving to Adams all the votes of 
New England, 26 votes from New York, 1 from 
Delaware, 3 from Maryland, 2 from Louisiana, 
and 1 from Illinois 84 in all ; while Jackson 
had 99 those of Pennsylvania, New Jer-rv, 
Indiana, and 2 of the 8 votes of Illinois among 
the number. Crawford had 41, and Clay had 
87, including the votes of Kentucky and Ohio. 
Calhoun, who had previously withdrawn from 
the contest, was chosen vice president almost 
unanimously. There being no choice by the 
people, the election came into the house, where, 
by the influence of Clay, Adams was chosen at 
the first ballot 13 states voting for him, 7 for 
Jackson, and 4 for Crawford. Jefferson, in a 
letter a few days before to John Adams, had 
characterized the decision between John Quincy 
Adams and Jackson the only two candidates 
really before the house as involving the ques- 
tion whether he and his correspondent were to 
end their days " under a civil or military gov- 
ernment." It is probable that Jefferson's fa- 
vorite candidate had been Crawford, win* 
received the vote of Virginia; but by nobody 
had Jackson been more vehemently opposed .is 
the backwoods, uncivilized, and military candi- 
date than by the supporters of Crawford, who 
had painted in very strong colors the probable 
barbarizing consequences of Jackson's election. 
Crawford himself, in a subsequent letter to 
Clay, most decidedly approved of Clay's pref- 
erence of Adams to Jackson. No sooner, 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS 



103 



however, had Adams entered upon the presi- 
dency (March 4, 1825),' with Clay as his secre- 
tary of state, than a coalition was formed 
between the late supporters of Crawford and 
Jackson, with the understanding that Jackson 
should be their candidate, and with the resolute 
determination to break down the administration 
of Mr. Adams, and to prevent his reelection. 
For this purpose no effort was spared. The 
Crawford presses, which had abused Jackson, 
now began to sing praises to him. Adams, 
considering himself the successor to Monroe in 
the regular democratic line, and wishing to 
impress that fact on the public, made few or no 
removals from office, and when vacancies oc- 
curred hardly ventured to appoint a single 
federalist a proscription under which that 
party had labored now for a quarter of a cen- 
tury, and to which Adams's own charges and 
denunciations had in fact contributed. It was 
well known that as to this subject Jackson en- 
tertained very liberal views ; in fact, that he 
had advised Monroe upon his accession to a 
much more liberal course in appointing federal- 
ists to office than Monroe had seen fit to adopt. 
Hence, especially in all those states where the 
opposition was predominant, many enterprising 
young federalists mustered to the side of Jack- 
son, some of them even joining loudly in those 
charges of secret federalism against Adams, and 
in appeals to the long cherished prejudices 
against New England, which were conspicuous 
weapons in the party warfare of that day. The 
new party, assuming to themselves the title of 
democrats, refused to accord it to Adams and 
his supporters, to many of whom, indeed, it 
was not very agreeable, and who invented for 
themselves the new name of " National Repub- 
licans." Some of these young federalists, 
transformed so suddenly into democrats and 
Jackson men, hit upon another party expedient 
no less effective. Even before the election they 
had gone to Jaokson with the story of a secret 
bargain between Adams and Clay, to result in 
Adams's election and Clay's appointment as 
secretary of state; and the charge of 'bargain 
and corruption thus originated, and taken up 
even by Jackson himself, was loudly reechoed 
after the election, to the damage of both Clay 
and Adams. The new administration endeav- 
ored to strengthen itself by assuming the 
championship of internal improvements, which 
had hitherto been Calhoun's specialty, and .of 
protection to domestic industry, of which Clay 
had been a leading advocate, and which just 
before Adams's accession had carried the enact- 
ment of the tariff of 1824. Although the 
tobacco and cotton growing states were strongly 
opposed to protection, yet that idea was at this 
tune far too popular in the middle states to be 
repudiated. The supporters of Gen. Jackson, 
at least in the northern and middle states, rep- 
resented him and themselves as in favor of a 
"moderate" and "judicious" tariff, as opposed 
to the high tariff policy which they ascribed to 
Adams and Clay, In this position of parties, all 



the free-traders north and south joined the op- 
position, including for the most part the power- 
ful navigating interest of New England and the 
importing interest of New York, thus carrying 
over to that side a large additional section of 
the old federal party. Upon the internal im- 
provement question, the opposition, notwith- 
standing that Calhoun was one of their princi- 
pal leaders, took more decisive ground, going 
so far as to deny, as Crawford formerly had 
done in opposition to Calhoun, the constitu- 
tional authority of congress to vote money for 
that purpose. As additional means of affect- 
ing popular opinion, loud charges of extrava- 
gance were brought against the government, 
whose expenses, exclusive of the public debt, 
scarcely amounted to thirteen millions a year, 
and retrenchment and reform were loudly 
promised in case the opposition should triumph. 
This was for the people. To the politicians an- 
other more inviting lure was held out. From 
Adams's peculiar position in relation to those 
whom he found in office, he had, as we have 
seen, nothing in that way to promise his sup- 
porters. He did not even dare to remove men 
apparently hostile to him, while the opposition 
held out the prospect, in case of their triumph, 
of a general sweep of the present officeholders 
at least of such as were not strongly on their 
side and the distribution of their places as 
spoils to the victors rewards, that is, for elec- 
tioneering services. The debates of congress 
at this period were largely made up of elec- 
tioneering harangues ; and to give free scope 
to the remarks of John Randolph and other 
opposition senators, Mr. Calhoun started and 
acted upon the idea that as presiding officer of 
the senate he had no authority to call any sen- 
ator to order. It was in vain to struggle against 
this combination, which, in the latter part of 
Mr. Adams's presidential term, had a majority 
against him in both houses of congress. Nor 
was his administration any more fortunate in its 
exterior relations. The congress of Panama, 
from which much had been hoped in the way 
of placing the United States at the head of a 
great American confederacy, was substantially 
defeated, as to any participation of the United 
States in it, by the delays induced by the oppo- 
sition, while an unlucky quarrel with Great 
Britain as to trade with the West Indies ended 
in the entire suspension of that traffic. It ap- 
pears also that an attempt was made by Clay 
and Adams to purchase Cuba a measure 
which might have proved very acceptable at 
the south, but Spain totally refused to listen to 
their offers. As against the solid combination 
of the opposition, supported by the name and 
prestige of the old democratic party, the game 
had been a desperate one from the beginning. 
In the eastern states Mr. Adams was pretty 
well able to hold his own, and in those states, 
at the second election, he obtained about as 
many votes as before. But Kentucky and 
Ohio, in which the popular feeling against 
New England was greatly embittered, alto- 



104 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS 



Aether failed him. Mr. Clay was unable to 
help him to a single vote. In this desperate 
emergency, finding his office slipping from un- 
der him, Mr. Adams made a most unfortunate 
effort to retrieve his falling fortunes, in the 
shape of a letter addressed to the electors of 
Virginia, in which he claimed their votes on the 
ground of his services twenty years before in 
exposing and frustrating the alleged New Eng- 
land plot, which we have already referred to, 
to dissolve the Union. This ill-judged letter, 
while it did not gain him a single vote, left him 
to retire to Quincy (1829) where he had now 
become possessor of his father's estate, largely 
augmented by his own shrewd management 
with a new personal and political quarrel on 
his hands, and with hard feelings and personal 
antipathies against him, which for a long time 
had been in abeyance, thus unseasonably re- 
vived by himself. Shortly after his return to 
Massachusetts a correspondence ensued between 
him and a number of the old federalists and 
their representatives, which did not tend to 
mollify matters. No new light was thrown on 
the alleged plot, though Mr. Adams is under- 
stood to have written a book or pamphlet on 
the subject, which however he refrained from 
publishing, on the judgment of some friends to 
whom he submitted it, that it would not better 
his case. After having successfully kept the 
political seas for nearly forty years, and that 
in very stormy times, Mr. Adams was at last 
stranded, as it seemed, high and dry on a po- 
litical lee shore. He addressed himself for the 
moment to arranging the papers and preparing 
a life of his father ; but the fragment of this 
work which his son has incorporated in his life 
of his grandfather does not make 'us regret 
that he soon abandoned it. He had been a 
versifier from his youth, and he now published 
a rhymed performance of some length, founded 
on the story of the conquest of Ireland (" Der- 
mot McMorrogh," Boston, 1832) ; but this pal- 
pably was not a field in which he was likely to 
gather laurels. Though Mr. Adams had now 
reached an age at which many politicians have 
voluntarily retired, he had in his temperament 
too much of innate vigor and indefatigable ac- 
tivity, and too much of the stormy petrel in 
his character, to make him willing to leave 
that political vocation to which, both by na- 
ture and habit, he was so specially adapted. 
In fact, the great work of his life remained to 
be performed. The anti-masonic excitement 
consequent on the disappearance and alleged 
murder of William Morgan had, about this 
time, introduced a new element into the poli- 
tics of western New York, whence it had 
spread into Vermont, Massachusetts, Pennsyl- 
vania, and in a less degree into other states. 
This excitement had taken a strong hold of 
the congressional district in which Mr. Adams 
lived, and he himself exhibited a deep interest 
in it. He signalized his zeal against secret so- 
cieties by exerting himself to procure the abo- 
lition of some passwords and secret signs which 



formed a part of the ceremonial of the Phi Beta 
Kappa, a literary society of which branches 
existed in Harvard and other colleges ; and un- 
der these circumstances the anti-masons of his 
district brought him forward as a candidate for 
congress. He accepted the nomination, and 
was chosen without opposition, and continued 
to represent the district till his death, 17 years 
after. The mass of those who had been his 
supporters for the presidency had looked, since 
his failure of a reelection, to Mr. Clay as their 
head and leader. Mr. Adams entered congress 
in December, 1831, without party or followers, 
but in a more independent position than he 
had ever yet occupied. Shortly after his return 
to public life he was nominated by the anti- 
masons as their candidate for governor of Mas- 
sachusetts. The politics of Massachusetts were 
at that time in a very disorganized state, and a 
strong effort was made by the Everetts and 
other personal friends of Mr. Adams, and was 
favored by Mr. Webster, to induce the so-called 
national republican party to accept the nomi- 
nation of Mr. Adams thus made. But for the 
feeling against him which his Virginia letter 
had aroused among the old federalists, this 
effort would probably have been successful. 
As it was, the national republicans as well as 
the supporters of the administration each 
nominated a separate candidate for governor. 
There was no choice by the people, but as the 
national republicans carried a majority in the 
legislature, their candidate, John Davis, was 
elected over Adams's head (1834) a disap- 
pointment which tended to place him in a still 
more independent political position. He gave, 
however, a general support in congress to that 
party which had sustained his own administra- 
tion. He strongly opposed the nullifiers ; yet, 
as chairman of the committee on manufactures, 
he strove to discover some middle ground on 
which the vexed question of the tariff might be 
satisfactorily settled. On the question of the 
removal of the deposits he went with the party 
which now began to take the name of whigs 
including in that denomination not merely the 
old national republicans, but a certain number, 
especially at the south, of deserters from the 
Jackson ranks. In the affair of the dispute 
with France in 1835, about the delay in paying 
the indemnity, which had been stipulated by 
treaty, for maritime spoliations in Bonaparte's 
time, true to his pugnacious temperament, he 
supported Jackson's proposition for issuing let- 
ters of marque and reprisal, no less energeti- 
cally than he had formerly supported Jefferson's 
embargo ; and by a very singular coincidence, 
this course, like that, cost him a seat in the 
United States senate. At this very time the 
Massachusetts legislature were employed in 
filling an approaching vacancy in that body. 
Mr. Adams's friends had brought him forward 
as a candidate, and he was more than onco 
chosen by the state senate. The house, how- 
ever, did not concur, but proposed John Davis 
instead. This question was still pending, with 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS 



105 



a fair prospect of a decision in Adams's favor, 
when his speech in favor of reprisals on France, 
which did not correspond with the sentiment 
of Massachusetts, caused him to be abandoned 
by his supporters in the state senate, and led to 
the election of Davis, who had before beaten 
him as governor. Thus again forcibly cut loose 
from all party connections, Mr. Adams was left 
at liberty to follow the bent of his own daring 
and energetic spirit. The abolitionists had 
now begun to appear on the political stage, but 
in the prevailing anxiety to avoid giving of- 
fence to the South, reference was seldom made 
to them on the floor of congress except with 
disclaimers of sympathy, if not with expres- 
sions of detestation. The measure principally 
employed by the abolitionists at that time was 
the presentation of petitions for the abolition 
of slavery in the District of Columbia and the 
territories. To get rid of this importunity, con- 
gress had adopted rules which were maintain- 
ed by Mr. Adams to be inconsistent with the 
right of petition itself. In this emergency he 
stepped forward as the champion and guardian 
of that right. Though he had taken the posi- 
tion of being opposed to the legislation asked 
for by the abolitionists, as not seasonable or 
expedient for the moment, he still insisted on 
their right to be heard. Upon this point he 
fought for years a battle which drew all eyes 
upon him as the representative of a principle 
which found in him an unflinching advocate 
and indefatigable champion. This new and 
eminent position was one which Mr. Adams 
was perfectly adapted to fill. With an iron 
constitution, strengthened by an active and ab- 
stemious life, there was, during his long term 
of service in congress, not a single member who 
equalled him, notwithstanding his great age, in 
capacity for application and powers of endur- 
ance ; certainly not one whose attendance upon 
the business of the house was so exact and un- 
remitting. In acquired knowledge, whether by 
books or personal experience, he far surpassed- 
any of his fellow members ; and what was of 
greater consequence, his stores of knowledge 
were always at hand and ready for use. Though 
his voice was weak, in consequence of which 
the members usually crowded about him when 
he spoke, he never became exhausted with fa- 
tigue ; and though his manner was not pleasing 
and had little variety, yet the peculiar views 
which he took, and the copiousness and nov- 
elty of his illustrations, always held his au- 
dience in profound attention. Though he had 
the appearance often, especially to strangers, of 
speaking in a passion, at least in ill humor, and 
of laboring under a degree of excitement, he 
was in fact perfectly self-possessed, and in the 
midst of the storms and tumults which he raised 
about him never lost in the slightest degree his 
own self-control. We have no space to dwell 
on the history of his congressional career, 
which would fill a volume ; but we must not 
omit to notice his defeat, in February, 1837, of 
his opponents on the question of a censure upon 



him for sending up to the speaker a petition 
purporting to come from slaves, as one of the 
most signal instances of his triumph. His un- 
daunted bearing, his courage and determina- 
tion, which no threats and no tumults could 
suppress, soon drew around him, as a moral 
aid and support, a body of external applauders 
and admirers ; so that from this time forward 
he became the representative not merely of one 
of the districts of Massachusetts, but of a great 
embryo party, the party in fact of northern 
sentiments and ideas, a party which he him- 
self had contributed his share toward burying 
under ground, but which he now labored night 
and day to help emerge again into life. Nor 
did Mr. Adams confine his labors on this ques- 
tion to congress. In the famous Amistad case 
the case of certain newly imported Africans, 
who, while being transported from one port of 
Cuba to another, had made themselves masters 
of the vessel and had escaped to the coast of 
the United States he appeared in the federal 
supreme court as counsel for the Africans, in 
opposition to the claim set up by their Spanish 
purchasers from whom tliey had escaped ; a 
claim zealously urged not merely by the Span- 
ish government, but covertly also by Mr. Van 
Buren, then president of the United States. 
Indeed, he seldom declined any occasion in his 
power of addressing an audience. The follow- 
ing may serve as a specimen : He left Boston 
one Monday morning to attend the opening of 
congress. That same evening he delivered an 
address before the young men's institute in 
Hartford, and the next evening a similar lec- 
ture before a similar institute in New Haven. 
On Wednesday evening he lectured before the 
New York lyceum ; on Thursday evening he 
delivered an address in Brooklyn, and on Fri- 
day- evening another lecture in New York, 
whence he proceeded next day to Washington 
to be present at the opening of congress on the 
following Monday. Though greatly engrossed 
by the subject of slavery, he did not confine 
his attention to it. Few leading topics came 
before the house on which he did not speak. 
In the organization of the house in December, 
1839, which had been delayed for four days by 
the persistency of the clerk in undertaking to 
reject certain members from New Jersey who 
had certificates of election, but as the clerk 
thought improperly granted, Mr. Adams finally 
intervened with great energy and effect, and 
to general satisfaction. It was chiefly through 
his activity and perseverance that the Smith- 
sonian institution was organized. In 1845 the 
obnoxious "gag rule," originally enacted in 
1836, was rescinded, and from that moment Mr. 
Adams somewhat relaxed his zeal and labors. 
He began, indeed, to feel at last the effects of 
age. His health had been somewhat shaken 
by a heavy fall in the house of representatives, 
caused by his foot catching in the floor mat- 
ting, by which his shoulder was dislocated and 
a severe contusion inflicted on his forehead. It 
rendered him for the moment insensible, and 



106 



ADAMS 



though it did not prevent his appearance the 
next day in his seat, he suffered permanently 
from it. On Nov. 26, 1846, just as he was 
about to leave Boston for Washington, he expe- 
rienced a shock of paralysis which kept him 
from his seat for the next four months. After 
this he attended congress regularly, but seldom 
spoke. On Feb. 21, 1848, he had a second at- 
tack while occupying his seat in the house. He 
was taken to the speaker's private room, where 
he remained in a state seemingly of uncon- 
sciousness, though with occasional incoherent 
utterances, till the 23d, when he expired. His 
last words are said to have been, " This is the 
last of earth ; I am content." In addition 
to his voluminous speeches in congress, many 
of which were written out by himself, on 
various subjects, a great number of his ac- 
knowledged publications appeared in his life- 
time, lie left behind him a very voluminous 
diary, extending from his early youth to his 
death, one or two valuable fragments from 
which have already appeared. His journal, 
which is in the hands of his son, is regarded as 
a great political treasure. He wrote with great 
fluency, his manuscript seldom presenting an 
erasure, but he lacked altogether that idiomatic 
elegance, force, and simplicity so conspicuous 
in his father, instead of which his 'style is swell- 
ing, verbose, inflated, and rhetorical. He lack- 
ed also, though not without powers of sar- 
casm, the wit and fancy which sparkled in his 
father's writings, and still more that spirit of 
philosophical generalization into which John 
Adams constantly fell, but which was totally 
foreign to the intellectual constitution and hab- 
its of the son. John Quincy Adams had more 
learning perhaps, but John Adams had much 
more genius. In energy, spirit, firmness, and 
indomitable courage, John Q. Adams was his 
father's equal ; in self-command, in political 
prudence, and even perhaps in capacity for 
hard work, his superior. Both will live for 
ever as representatives and embodiments of 
the spirit and ideas of New England during the 
periods in which they figured. In some re- 
spects John Q. Adams was far more fortu- 
nate than his father. The brilliant period of 
his career was toward its close. The longer 
he lived the higher he rose, and he died as such 
men prefer to die, still an admired and trust- 
ed champion, with harness on his back and 
spear in hand. Yet his whole political career, 
taken together, hardly presents to the close ob- 
server a character so uniformly brilliant and 
unspotted, and so free from the taint of selfish- 
ness, as that of his father. In personal .appear- 
ance, and in general temperament and charac- 
ter, the resemblance between the father and 
the son was close. Both had very strong feel- 
ings and warm prejudices, though of the two 
John Quincy appears to have been the less ve- 
hement by nature, and also the better under 
control. Like his father, he was an economical 
housekeeper and judicious financier, and he 
died in possession of a handsome estate. See 



"Life and Public Services of J. Q. Adams," 
by William H. Seward (12mo, Auburn. 1849), 
and "Life of J. Q. Adams," by Josiah Quincv 
(Boston, 1858). 

I H UK Vlinniuh, D. D., an American clergy- 
man, born in, Salem, Mass., Feb. 19, 1806. He 
graduated at Harvard college in 1826, studied 
divinity at Andover, settled as colleague pastor 
with the Rev. Dr. Holmes over the first Con- 
gregational church in .Cambridge, Dec. 17, 
1829, resigned March 17, 1834, and was in- 
stalled over the Essex street church in Boston, 
March 26, 1834. He took an active part in 
the controversy with the Unitarians, and pub- 
lished several works of a polemic and devo- 
tional character. The principal of these are : 
"Remarks on the Unitarian Belief," "The 
Friends of Christ in the New Testament" 
(Boston, 1853), and " Life of John Eliot." He 
was also a frequent contributor to the "Spirit 
of the Pilgrims," a religious periodical (Bos- 
ton, 1826-'33), devoted to the defence of the 
puritan faith against the encroachments of 
modern liberalism. He has also published 
" Christ a Friend," " Agnes and the Key of her 
Little Coffin," "Bertha and her Baptism, or 
the Early Saved," works of religious consola- 
tion for the afflicted. In 1853 Dr. Adams 
spent a winter, for the benefit of his health, in 
Savannah, Georgia, on the plantation of a 
wealthy slaveholder; and on his return he 
wrote " A South Side View of Slavery " (1854), 
in which he gave a highly favorable description 
of the institution, and especially of its influence 
on the religious character of the slave. He 
also published a correspondence on the same 
subject with Governor Wise of Virginia. After 
35 years of pastoral labor with the Essex street 
church, in 1869, in consequence of failing 
health, he resigned his pastorate. His people 
refused to accept his resignation, but procured 
an associate minister, and gave him a long 
leave of absence, which he employed in making 
a voyage round the world, spending much 
time in the Sandwich Islands. He returned 
in 1871 with improved health. 

ADAMS, Samuel, a leading actor in the Ameri- 
can revolution, born in Boston, Sept. 27, 1722, 
died Oct. 2, 1803. His grandfather was a 
grandson of Henry Adams, the same emigrant 
from England to Massachusetts from whom 
John Adams, second president of the United 
States, traced his descent. These two illus- 
trious cooperators in the American revolution 
had both the same great-grandfather, a son of 
Henry Adams. He was prepared for college at 
the Boston Latin school, then taught by the 
elder Lovell, and entered at Cambridge in 1736. 
Previous to the revolution the names of the 
graduates of Harvard college are arranged in 
the college catalogue, not alphabetically, but 
in an order of precedence according to the es- 
timated rank of their families. In a class of 
24, John Adams held the 14th place; Sam- 
uel Adams, in a class of 22, the 5th. The 
Boston branch of the Adams family would seem 



SAMUEL ADAMS 



107 



to have attained to a somewhat higher colo- 
nial position than the branch which remained 
at Braintree. He was graduated A. B. in 
1740. His father, Capt. Samuel Adams, had 
urged his entering the ministry ; but he had no 
taste for this calling, and on leaving college 
began the study of law. This he relinquished 
to take a place in the counting house of Mr. 
Thomas Gushing, where, though active and 
industrious enough, he displayed conspicuous 
inaptitude for trade. He began business for 
himself, and failed. Subsequently he became 
a partner with his father in a brewery, and 
after Capt. Adams's death in 1748 he carried 
on the concern himself. About 1740 Capt. 
Adams became involved in pecuniary misfor- 
tunes through his connection with a banking 
speculation known as the land bank or manu- 
factory scheme. In efforts on behalf of the 
unfortunate speculators in this scheme, Samuel 
Adams found an early introduction to politics, 
which ultimately became the chief interest and 
principal employment of his life. Fully to un- 
derstand the first connection of Samuel Adams 
with politics, a brief retrospect becomes neces- 
sary. The use of paper money, first introduced 
into Massachusetts in 1690, and which had 
speedily driven coin out of circulation, had, in 
consequence of over-issues, been attended with 
great depreciation and fluctuations of prices. 
These issues were made for limited periods, and 
in consequence of the remonstrances of the 
English merchants trading to America, orders 
had been sent to Governor Belcher to agree to 
no new ones. The circulating paper being grad- 
ually absorbed, and the year 1741 being fixed 
for its complete withdrawal, the effect of this 
operation was much like that of a bank con- 
traction of our day. The Boston merchants, and 
indeed the body of the people, complained bit- 
terly of the scarcity of money, and an attempt 
was made to force Governor Belcher, by with- 
holding his salary, to consent to new issues, or 
to extend the period of the old. As he proved 
inflexible, two joint-stock banking compa- 
nies had been got up : one, called the " silver 
scheme," proposed to issue 110,000 in notes, 
redeemable in silver at the end of 10 years; 
the other, called the land bank or " manufactory 
scheme" (that in which Adams's father was 
concerned), undertook to circulate 150,000, 
which was to be redeemed at the end of 20 
years in colonial produce. The " silver scheme " 
was patronized by the merchants and traders, 
the land bank by the farmers and mechanics. 
Belcher zealously opposed both. In spite, how- 
ever, of the governor's proclamation, notes were 
issued by both companies, and those of the 
land bank especially were largely pushed into 
circulation. That company had 800 stock- 
holders, and held complete control of the Massa- 
chusetts house of representatives. Belcher 
even apprehended an insurrection to compel 
him to give his consent to the scheme, and his 
opponents did succeed in obtaining his removal. 
But this did not avail them, for the operation of 



these two Massachusetts banks was cut short by 
an act o"f parliament extending to the colonies an 
act of the previous reign, occasioned by the 
South sea and other bubble schemes, which pro- 
hibited the formation of unincorporated joint- 
stock companies with more than six partners. 
The two banking companies were thus com- 
pelled to wind up ; the partners were held in- 
dividually liable for the notes, and the "manu- 
factory scheme " especially, the aft'airs of which 
remained unsettled for several years, proved ru- 
inous to the few partners who had anything to 
lose, of whom Adams's father was one. This 
act of parliament was denounced by the friends 
of the banks as a violation of the chartered 
rights of Massachusetts. The young Adams 
thus entered upon politics as the opponent of 
parliamentary authority, and as a champion for 
the body of the citizens a position which, to a 
certain extent, his father seems to have occu- 
pied before him. How strongly his mind was 
turned in this direction, appears from the sub- 
ject he chose for his thesis upon taking his de- 
gree of A. M. He proposed as a question, 
"Whether it be lawful to resist the supreme 
magistrate, if the commonwealth cannot other- 
wise be preserved? " as to which he supported 
the affirmative. Not succeeding in business, he 
obtained the post of tax collector for the town 
of Boston, an office which brought him into 
contact and acquaintance with all the inhab- 
itants, and which obtained for him from his 
political opponents the cognomen of Samuel 
the Publican. During the administration of 
Governor Shirley he was steadily in the oppo- 
sition. Against Bernard his influence increas- 
ing with his age he took a still more decided 
part. From an entry in John Adams's journal, 
under date of February, 1763, it seems that at 
that time there were in Boston two clubs one 
the " Merchants' Club," the other the " Caucus 
Club" accustomed to meet and agree upon 
persons to be supported for town officers, and 
that the caucus club used to send committees 
to consult and agree with the merchants' club 
as to men and measures. Of this caucus club 
a corruption probably of caulkers' club, as 
having been originally composed of ship-build- 
ing mechanics Samuel Adams was then and 
long had been an active member. Gordon, 
indeed, traces back the existence and influ- 
ence of this club to the time of Adams's 
father. Adams took an active part in all town 
meetings, at which his energy and courage 
made him a leader. The instructions given 
by the town of Boston, in May, 1764, to their 
newly chosen representatives the- first deci- 
ded protests from any part of America against 
Grenville's scheme of parliamentary taxation- 
were drawn up by him; and he was chosen 
the next year as one of the three representa- 
tives in the general court of the town of Bos- 
ton, a position which he held for nine years 
following. Upon his entry into the house he 
accepted the office of clerk, which not only 
produced him a small addition to his limited 



108 



SAMUEL ADAMS 



income, but enabled him also to exercise 
a certain influence over the course of pro- 
ceedings. The Massachusetts house of repre- 
sentatives consisted at this time of upward of 
a hundred members, the most numerous assem- 
bly in the colonies. Its debates had begun to 
attract attention, and a gallery was now first 
erected for spectators. Besides taking a lead- 
ing part in the debates, it devolved upon Adams 
to draw the larger part of the papers put forth 
by the house in its controversies with Bernard 
and Hutchinson an office for which his fluent 
and eloquent pen, and the mixture in his char- 
acter of caution with fire, courage, and de- 
cision, admirably fitted him. The following 
account of Samuel Adams, sketched from the 
life at the period of his entering the house, is 
found in the diary of John Adams, under date 
of Dec. 23, 1765: "Adams is zealous, ardent, 
and keen in the cause ; is always for softness, 
delicacy, and prudence when they will do, but 
is stanch and stift' and strict and rigid and in- 
flexible in the cause." A previous paragraph 
had sketched Gray, who afterward joined the 
tory party, and Thomas Gushing. After a sketch 
of James Otis, the diary adds: "Adams, I be- 
lieve, has the most thorough understanding of 
liberty and her resources in the temper and 
character of the people, though not in the law 
and constitution, as well as the most habitual 
radical love of it, of any of them ; also the most 
correct, genteel, and artful pen. He is a man 
of refined policy, steadfast integrity, exquisite 
humanity, fair erudition, and obliging, engaging 
manners, real as well as professed piety, and a 
universal good character, unless it should be 
admitted that he is too attentive to the public 
and not enough so to himself and his family." 
Governor Hutchinson a no less competent ob- 
server, but who looked at Adams from an en- 
tirely opposite point of view gives in the 3d 
volume of his "History of Massachusetts " sub- 
stantially the same account. He sets down 
Samuel Adams as the most artful and insinu- 
ating politician he had ever known, and the 
most successful "in robbing men of their char- 
acters and calumniating the servants of the 
crown." He accuses Mr. Adams of "defalca- 
tion " as collector of taxes, the only foundation 
for the charge being that in a period of gen- 
eral commercial distress he had failed to col- 
lect the full amounts levied upon the citizens ; 
and Hutchinson adds, by way of comment, 
" The benefit to the town from his defence of 
their liberties he supposed an equivalent to his 
arrears as their collector." While Adams thus 
devoted himself to politics, it was chiefly the 
industry and economy of his wife that sup- 
ported the family. He had married in 1749 
Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. Samuel Check- 
ley of Boston. She died in 1757, and in 
1764 he married Elizabeth Wells, daughter 
of an English merchant who had settled 
in Boston in 1723. Though poor, Adams 
was incorruptible. It had been proposed to 
silence him by the gift of some place under 



government; but Hutchinson in a letter to 
England declared that such was his "ob- 
stinacy and inflexible disposition," that no gift 
nor office would ever conciliate him. The pas- 
sage of Townsend's act in 1767, and other acts 
of parliament which evinced a determination 
to raise a parliamentary revenue in America 
by taxes on trade, brought the colonists in a 
body to the ground that taxes on trade, if de- 
signed to raise a revenue, were just as much 
a violation of their rights as any other tax. 
Adams took a leading part in urging these 
views, and the petition of the Massachusetts 
general court to the king agreed to on this oc- 
casion, their letter of instruction to their agent 
in England, and a circular letter addressed to 
the speakers of the popular branch of the sev- 
eral colonial assemblies, inviting consultation 
and mutual cooperation for the defence of co- 
lonial rights, were all from his pen. Hutchin- 
son states that as early as 1769, some objec- 
tions, having been made to a motion pending 
in a Boston town meeting that it savored of 
independence, Adams wound up a speech in 
defence of it with this bold declaration: "In- 
dependent we are, and independent we will 
be." Upon the occasion of the so-called Bos- 
ton massacre in March, 1770, Samuel Adams 
was appointed chairman of a committee to wait 
upon the governor and council with the vote 
of a town meeting, to the effect that nothing 
could restore order and prevent blood and car- 
nage but the immediate removal of the regular 
troops, who, instead of encamping, as had for- 
merly been usual, on the fortified island in the 
harbor, known as Castle island, had for the last 
18 months, to the great annoyance of the in- 
habitants, been stationed in the town. Adams 
entered the council chamber at the head of the 
committee and delivered his message. Col. 
Dalrymple, the commander of the troops, was 
present, as was the commander of the ships of 
war in the harbor. In reply to the vote of the 
town presented by the committee, Lieutenant 
Governor Hutchinson disclaimed any authority 
over the soldiers ; to which Adams replied by 
referring him to that clause in the provincial 
charter which declared the governor, or in his 
absence the lieutenant governor, commander- 
in-chief of all the military and naval forces in 
the province. After a consultation with Dal- 
rymple, Hutchinson replied that the colonel 
was willing to remove one of the regiments 
if that would satisfy the people. "Sir," said 
Adams, "if the lieutenant governor, or Col. 
Dalrymplo, or both together, have authority 
to remove one regiment, they have authority 
to remove two ; and nothing short of the de- 
parture of the troops will satisfy the public 
mind or restore the peace of the province. '' 
The energy of Adams prevailed, and both regi- 
ments were sent to the castle. The destruc- 
tion of the tea attempted to be forced on tho 
colonies, the passage of the Boston port bill 
and of the bill modifying the Massachusetts 
charter, and the appointment of Gen. Gage 



SAMUEL ADAMS 



109 



as governor at the head of an army, brought 
things to a crisis. As Gage entered the har- 
bor of Boston, May 13, 1774, a, town meeting 
at which Adams presided was in session, as- 
sembled to take the port bill into considera- 
tion, news of which had just arrived. At the 
June meeting of the general court a continen- 
tal congress was proposed to assemble at Phila- 
delphia, to which the representatives appointed 
five delegates, of whom Adams was one ; and 
Gage having thereupon suddenly dissolved the 
court, the patriots immediately began to organ- 
ize a distinct government of their own. Trans- 
ferred thus to Philadelphia, and from the Mas- 
sachusetts general court to a continental con- 
gress, Adams began now to act on a broader 
scene. His first act was one of conciliation. 
He was himself a strict Oongregationalist, and 
the recent attempts to extend Episcopacy in 
America, and the controversy thence arising, 
had produced a good deal of feeling. A motion 
by one of the Massachusetts delegates to open 
the proceedings of the congress with prayer 
was opposed by Mr. Jay, one of the delegates 
from New York, on the ground that as there 
were in that body Episcopalians, Quakers, Ana- 
baptists, Presbyterians, and Congregationalists, 
they would hardly be able to join in the same act 
of worship. Thereupon " Mr. Samuel Adams 
arose" so wrote John Adams in a letter to 
his wife describing the scene "and said he 
was no bigot, and could hear a prayer from a 
gentleman of piety and virtue who was at the 
same time a friend to his country i He was a 
stranger in Philadelphia, but he had heard that 
Mr. Duch6 deserved that character, and there- 
fore he moved that Mr. Duche, an Episcopal 
clergyman, might be desired to read prayers 
to the congress." The motion passed, and 
Duche, at that time the most popular preacher 
in Philadelphia, appeared the next morning 
and officiated with great unction. He acted 
as chaplain to congress for several sessions, 
but when the British occupied Philadelphia he 
abandoned the cause of his country, and even 
had the impudence to write Washington a let- 
ter exhorting him to the like piece of treachery. 
Adams's motion, however, was very well timed. 
It not only pleased the Episcopalians, a power- 
ful body in New York and predominant at the 
south, but it also secured for the moment Duch6 
himself, whpse example was not without its 
effect upon others. In this congress and those 
which followed, Adams, who continued a mem- 
ber for eight years, took an active, decided, 
and influential part. No one man, perhaps, 
did so much as he to put the revolution in 
motion, and to bring about the separation from 
the mother coufftry, to which, indeed, Gen. 
Gage bore testimony in excepting him, along 
with Hancock, from his offer of pardon in case 
of submission. In administrative talents, how- 
ever, he was not so conspicuous ; and the line 
of policy which he supported in congress was 
rather graduated to accord with the feelings, 
sentiments, and sometimes the prejudices of 



the people, than always calculated to meet 
the actual exigencies of affairs. Together with 
John Adams he took an .active part in the for- 
mation of the state constitution of Massachu- 
setts, adopted in 1780. He was a very influ- 
ential member of the Massachusetts convention 
called in 1788, to consider the federal consti- 
tution; and though opposed to many of its 
features, he was finally persuaded, along with 
Hancock, to give it his support, in considera- 
tion of certain proposed amendments, of which 
several were afterward adopted. This decision 
of the question, so far as Massachusetts was 
concerned, was of the greatest moment, in- 
volving in it the action of other states, and 
in fact the fate of the new government. The 
next year Adams was chosen lieutenant gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, which office he held 
till 1794, when he was chosen governor as 
Hancock's successor. He was a warm ad- 
mirer of the French revolution, and in national 
politics leaned decidedly to the republican or 
Jeffersonian party. It was this circumstance, 
no less than his increasing age and infirmities,- 
that induced him in 1797, the federal party 
being predominant in Massachusetts, to decline 
serving longer as governor, and to retire to 
private life. A highly characteristic portrait 
by Copley, which hangs appropriately in Fan- 
euil Hall, has transmitted his features to us. 
Memorials of his life and service are to be 
found scattered through the writings of John 
Adams, who in his old age exerted himself 
to recall public attention to his colleagues 
of the revolutionary times. Sullivan, in his 
"Familiar Letters on Public Characters," de- 
scribes Samuel Adams as "of common size, 
muscular form, light blue eyes, fair complexion, 
and erect in person. He wore a tie wig, cocked 
hat, and red cloak. His manner was very 
serious. At the close of his life, and even 
from early times, he had a tremulous motion 
of the head, which probably added to the 
solemnity of his eloquence, as this was in some 
measure associated with his voice. Having in- 
herited no fortune, and being without a pro- 
fession, he was, almost down to the close of 
his life, without resource except in the salaries 
and emoluments of office, never large, and only 
eked out by the industry and economy of his 
wife. Yet those who visited his house found 
nothing mean or unbecoming his station, since 
he knew how to combine decency, dignity, and 
propriety with a small expenditure. At a lat* 
period of his life he obtained a competency, 
but only by a very afflicting event the death 
of his only son, of the same name with himself, 
who, having graduated at Harvard college in 
1771, had studied medicine with Dr. Joseph 
Warren (the famous general), had served as a 
surgeon through the revolutionary war, and re- 
turning home with a broken constitution, had 
died in 1788. The avails of his claims for ser- 
vices in the army gave his father a competency 
in his declining years. In one respect in- 
deed in many, but we can here refer only to 



110 



ADAMS 



AD ANA 



one there was a remarkable contrast between 
Samuel and John Adams. Both, true to their 
New England origin, were theologians; but 
John Adams, while to a certain extent a con- 
servative in politics, was quite a neologist in 
religion. The Arminian heresies of his youth- 
ful days had prevented him from studying di- 
vinity, and in the correspondence of his ex- 
treme old age he appears almost as much a free- 
thinker as Jefferson himself. Samuel Adams, 
on the other hand, though to his last days a 
progressive in politics, was always a decided 
conservative in religion, adhering with sincere 
persuasion and firm tenacity to the five points 
of Calvinism. Nor did this strictness limit 
itself to doctrine. "At a time," says Edward 
Everett, " when the new order of things was 
inducing laxity of manners and a departure 
from the ancient strictness, Samuel Adams 
clung with greater tenacity to the whole- 
some discipline of the fathers." But Mr. 
Everett scarcely does justice to Mr. Adams's 
spirit of sociality when he adds, "His only 
relaxation from business and the cares of 
life was in the indulgence of a taste for sa- 
cred music, for which he was qualified by the 
possession of a most angelic voice and a soul 
solemnly impressed with religious sentiment." 
He was, on the other hand, fond of conversa- 
tion, and possessed himself a large fund of 
anecdote. Besides the state papers of which 
Adams was either wholly or mainly the author, 
and his numerous political contributions to the 
newspapers, of which, however, but few have 
been identified, there have appeared in print 
a number of his letters. An oration on Ameri- 
can independence, purporting to have been de- 
livered, by him in Philadelphia Aug. 1, 1776, 
and printed in London, is probably spurious, 
though it is a very favorable imitation of his 
style, neat, forcible, and pointed, without the 
least inflation or appearance of effort. In this 
oration the writer gives the English the title 
of a "nation of shopkeepers," and it is not 
impossible that it was hence that Bonaparte 
borrowed this appellation, which was a favor- 
ite one with him, since it is known that the 
oration was translated into French and pub- 
lished at Paris. Adams's life has been writ- 
ten by W. V. Wells (" Life add Public Ser- 
vices of Samuel Adams," 3 vols. 8vo, Bos- 
ton, 1865). He left only female descendants, 
and the name of Adams is no longer borne by 
any of his blood. 

, ADAMS, William, D. D., an American cler- 
gyman, born in Colchester, Conn., Jan. 25, 
1807. He received his early education from 
his father (see ADAMS, JOHN, LL. D.), when 
principal of Phillips academy, Andover, Mass., 
and graduated at Yale college in 1827. He 
studied theology at Andover, and in February, 
1831, was ordained as a Congregational minister 
and pastor at Brighton, Mass. In 1834 he was 
called to the charge of the Central Presbyterian 
church, New York city. He has since that 
time been identified with the Presbyterian 



church, and has been (1872) for 38 years the 
pastor of the same congregation, which since 
1853 has been known as the " Madison Square 
Presbyterian Church." He early attained rep- 
utation as a pulpit orator, and has been very 
prominent in the national benevolent societies. 
He was moderator of the New School general 
assembly of 1852, and was active in promoting 
the reunion between the Old and New School 
churches in 1870-'71. Besides occasional ser- 
mons, addresses, orations, and articles in the 
reviews, he has published "The Three Gar- 
dens : Eden, Gethsemane, and Paradise " 
(1859) ; an edition of Isaac Taylor's "Spirit of 
Hebrew Poetry," with a biographical introduc- 
tion (1861) ; "Thanksgiving: Memories of the 
Day, and Helps to the Habit" (1865); and 
" Conversations of Jesus Christ with Represen- 
tative Men" (1868). In 1871 Dr. Adams was 
elected professor of sacred rhetoric and pastoral 
theology in the Union theological seminary, 
New York, but declined the appointment. 

ADAMS, William T. (pseudonyme, OLIVER OP- 
TIC), an American writer of juvenile books, 
born in Medway, Mass., July 30, 1822. He was 
for many years a public school teacher in Bos- 
ton, and now edits "Oliver Optic's Magazine 
for Boys and Girls." His principal works are 
"The Boat Club," "Woodville," "Army and 
Navy," "Young America Abroad," "Starry 
Flag," and "Lake Shore" series of stories, 
the " Riverdale Story Books," and "In Doors 
and Out," a volume of domestic tales. 

ADAM'S PEAK, or Ilamazel, a conical mountain 
in S. Ceylon, 45 m. S. S. E. of Colombo, 7,420 
ft. high, and, with the exception of Pedrotalla- 
galla (which exceeds it by 860 ft.), the highest 
in the island. The ascent is made by. means of 
a chain fixed to its summit. It is considered 
sacred by both Buddhists and Mohammedans, 
who make frequent pilgrimages there during 
the dry season (January, February, and March). 
On the summit, which is surrounded by a wall 
5 ft. high, with two openings for the admission 
of pilgrims, there is the impression of a gigantic 
foot in the rock, said by the natives to be that 
of Buddha when he stepped from this peak to 
the adjacent kingdom of Siam ; but ascribed by 
the Mohammedans to Adam after his expulsion 
from paradise (placed in the vicinity of Cey- 
lon), whence the peak derives its name. 

Al)A\A, a town of Turkey, in S. E. Asia 
Minor, capital of a sanjak, on the river Sihun 
(anc. Sarus), 25 m. N. E. of Tarsus and 60 m. 
N. W. of Alexandretta ; pop. about 30,000. It 
commands the Cilician passes of the Taurus 
chain, is well built, and contains interesting 
ancient remains. The bridge across the Sihun 
at this point is reported tohave been con- 
structed by Justinian, and the castle is alscr 
notable. Wool, cotton, corn, wine, and fruit 
are the staples of its commerce. Pompey 
colonized the town with conquered Cilician 
pirates. From 1833 to 1839, in consequence 
of Ibrahim Pasha's victory at Konieh, the san- 
jak was in the hands of the Egyptians. 



ADANSOX 

ADAXSON, Michel, a French naturalist, of 
Scotch descent, born at Aix, April 7, 1727, 
died in Paris, Aug. 3, 1806. At the age of 21 
he went at his own cost, though of very limited 
fortune, to the French colony of Senegal to 
study nature. After five years he returned to 
France with a fine collection. He first at- 
tacked the Linnaean method, and his writings 
paved the way for the acceptance by the 
scientific world of Jussieu's system. The 
generic name Adansonia was given in his 
honor to the baobab tree, of which he gave 
the first scientific account. He was also dis- 
tinguished for philanthropy, and proposed to 
found a colony with free negroes in Senegal, 
which was not, however, favored by the min- 
istry of Louis XV. His name is associated 
with a plan for a vast cyclopsedia of natural 
history, which the academy had not the cour- 
age to take up. He, however, persisted in his 
ideas, devoting many years to the collection of 
immense masses of manuscript material. By 
the revolution he was stripped of everything, 
and reduced to such abject poverty, that when 
he was invited in 1798 to take his seat as a 
member of the reorganized institute (having 
been a member of the academy since 1759), he 
was obliged to decline for want of shoes. He 
afterward received a small pension, in the en- 
joyment of which he died in his 80th year. 
His principal works are : Histoire naturelle du 
Senegal (1 vol. 4to, 1757, including L 1 Histoire 
des coquillages, the earliest attempt at a scien- 
tific classification of shells according to their 
inhabitants), and Methode naturelle pour ap- 
prendre d connaitre les differentes families des 
plantes (2 vols. 8vo, 1764, written with a 
phonetic orthography of his own invention). 
He also contributed many valuable memoirs to 
the publications of the academy of sciences. 

.A DAK, the name of the 6th month in the civil 
year of the Jews, and of the 12th in their 
ecclesiastical year, answering to parts of Feb- 
ruary and March. A fast for the death of 
Moses is observed on the 7th, the fast of Esther 
on the 13th, and on the 14th and 15th the 
feast of Purim. A second Adar is intercalated 
seven times in every nineteen years, in order 
to harmonize the lunar and solar periods. 

ADDA (anc. Addua), a river of K Italy, a 
tributary of the Po. It rises in the Rhajtian 
Alps, flows S. W., S., and S. E. through the 
Valtellina and Lombardy, and the lakes of 
Como and Lecce, and enters the Po about 8 m. 
W. of Cremona. Its course is about 80 m. 
Lodi, the scene of one of Bonaparte's early 
triumphs, and Cassano, at which Moreau was 
defeated in 1799, are on its banks. 

ADDER. See VIPER. 

ADDINGTON, a S. county of the province of 
Ontario, Canada, bordering on the bay of 
Quinte, near the E. end of Lake Ontario ; area 
about 2,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 21,312. The 
county is about 122 m. long, and from 7 to 18 
wide. It has between 20 and 30 lakes, the 
longest of which. Massanogo, is about 50 m. 



ADDISOX 



111 



long. The northern townships are new and 
thinly settled. The chief occupations are agri- 
culture and lumbering. Chief town, Bath. 

ADDINGTON. I. Henry, Lord Sidmouth, an 
English statesman, born May 30, 1757, died 
Feb. 15, 1844. He was the son of Dr. Anthony 
Addington of Reading, known as the author of 
treatises on scurvy and on the mortality of 
beasts, and for his attempt in 1778 to establish 
a political alliance between the earl of Bute 
and the earl of Chatham, whose physician he 
was. This connection with Lord Chatham led 
to an intimacy between Henry Addington and 
the younger William Pitt, who induced him to 
enter parliament in 1784. He was called to 
the bar in the same year, but never practised. 
In 1789 he was elected speaker, and continued 
to support Pitt, but voted against him on the 
slave question, favoring a gradual emancipa- 
tion. In 1801 Pitt resigned and Addington 
took his place as chancellor of the exchequer 
and first lord of the treasury, and formed a 
new ministry. He aided in forming the treaty 
of Amiens in 1802, the objectionable clauses 
in which were vigorously attacked by "Wind- 
ham and Grenville. But in 1803, when peace 
was considered dishonorable, he supported a 
war policy. The prince of Wales, afterward 
George IV., had a personal dislike to Addington, 
who was regarded as the chief of the special 
friends of George III., and the illness of the 
latter gave the prince opportunity to show his 
animosity. In 1804 Addington resigned, and 
the king created him a peer by the title of 
Viscount Sidmouth (Jan. 12, 1805), and ap- 
pointed him president of the council, which 
office he resigned in July. After Pitt's death, 
Lord Sidmouth entered the ministry of Gren- 
ville and Fox (Feb., 1806, to March, 1807), first 
as lord privy seal and afterward as president 
of the council. In 1812 Lord Sidmouth was 
appointed secretary for the home department 
in Lord Liverpool's ministry. In 1822, on the 
death of Lord Castlereagh, ho resigned his 
office, but at Lord Liverpool's request retained 
his seat in the cabinet two years longer. II. 
Henry In win, an English diplomatist, a rela- 
tive of the preceding, born March 24, 1790, 
died in London, March 6, 1870. He entered 
the foreign office after leaving Winchester col- 
lege, and was for upward of 30 years in the 
diplomatic service in various countries, includ- 
ing the United States, whither he was sent in 
1822, and again in 1826. He was under-secre- 
tary of state from 1842 to 1854, when on his 
retirement he was made privy councillor. 

ADDISON, a W. county of Vermont, bound- 
ed W. by Lake Champlain and- drained by 
Otter creek and its tributaries, which afford 
excellent water power ; area, 750 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 23,484. Near the lake the surface is 
almost level, but it becomes rugged and moun- 
tainous toward the east. The soil is fertile. 
The productions in 1870 were 57,725 bushels 
of wheat, 144,257 of corn, 334,446 of oats, 
28,211 of buckwheat, 317,043 of potatoes, 



112 



JOSEPH ADDISOtf 



495,771 Ibs. of wool, 201,855 of maple sugar, 
1,723,437 of butter, 546,047 of cheese, and 
114,298 tons of hay. The value of farms was 
$16,001,548, and of productions $3,055,768. 
The manufacture of cotton, wool, paper, &c., 
is carried on, and quarries of white and veined 
marbles are extensively worked. The Rut- 
land and Burlington railroad runs through the 
county. Capital, Middlebury. 

AIHHSOV Joseph, an English author, born 
ntMilston, Wiltshire, May 1, 1672, died in Hol- 
land house, Kensington, June 17, 1719. He 
was educated at the Charter House school and 
at Queen's and Magdalen colleges, Oxford, and 
was early noted for elegant scholarship, and 
particularly for his proficiency in Latin versifi- 
cation, which elicited the praise of Boileau. 
His own tastes would probably have led him 
to take orders, which his father, the Rev. 
Launcelot Addison, dean of Lichfield, Tirged 
him to do, or to follow an exclusively literary 
career. But the age was one of too earnest 
political warfare to permit a young man of 
talent to keep aloof from party strife, and Ad- 
dison began to pay court to prominent states- 
men in complimentary verses and other offer- 
ings to their vanity. He thus secured the 
friendship and patronage of Lords Soiners and 
Halifax, the former of whom in 1699 obtained 
for him a travelling pension of 300, by means 
of which he was enabled to visit France, Ger- 
many, and Italy. The death of William III. 
having removed his friends from power, he lost 
his pension, was forced to become a travelling 
tutor, and in 1703 returned to England. In 
the succeeding year, at the suggestion of Lord 
Halifax, he commemorated the victory of Blen- 
heim in an indifferent poem entitled "The 
Campaign," containing, however, one fine sim- 
ile, which so pleased the lord treasurer Godol- 
phin that ho appointed Addison a commissioner 
of appeal of the excise. From this time until 
the close of his career, except during the tory 
administration of Oxford and Bolingbroke, he 
was scarcely ever without office of some kind. 
In 1705 he accompanied Halifax to Hanover as 
secretary of legation. In the succeeding year 
he was appointed under-secretary of state, and 
in 1709 secretary to the marquis of Wharton, 
the lord lieutenant of Ireland, although he re- 
mained in London during the greater part of 
his term of office. He also represented Lost- 
withiel in parliament from 1708 to 1710, and 
Malmesbury during the remainder of his life. 
His career as a legislator was not brilliant, his 
only attempt to address the house having 
proved a total failure through loss of self-pos- 
session. Previous to his 37th year Addison's 
literary productions were few and fragmentary. 
A book of "Travels" which attracted little 
attention, the "Dialogues on Medals," some oc- 
casional poems and English versions from Vir- 
gil and Ovid, and his Latin verses comprised 
nearly all that he had given to the public. His 
reputation as a wit and man of letters was 
nevertheless very great in the London clubs 



and coffee houses, then the usual resorts of lit- 
erary characters ; and his sudden appearance in 
the " Tatler," started by his school friend Steele 
in 1709, and its successor the "Spectator," as 
the most brilliant essayist of his time, was by 
no means a surprise to his friends. Upon his 
contributions to the " Spectator " his fame now 
chiefly rests. Commenced on March 1, 1711, 
it was continued daily till December 6, 1712, 
when Steele retired and the publication ceased. 
A year and a half later it was recommenced by 
Addison, who for a considerable period was its 
sole contributor. Eighty papers were then 
added to the 555 already published, and the 
" Spectator " was finally discontinued on Dec. 
20, 1714. Of the 635 essays included in both 
series, Addison was the author of 274, his con- 
tributions being generally identified by some 
letter in the name of the muse Clio appended 
to them. He also wrote occasionally for the 
"Guardian," a successor of the "Spectator." 
He found this style of composition singularly 
adapted to his talents and disposition ; and in an 
age artificial and frivolous almost beyond prece- 
dent, his essays are natural, decent, and instruc- 
tive, infused with a serene and cheerful philoso- 
phy, and often with an artless gayety, and writ- 
ten in a diction of almost faultless purity. His 
papers on Milton, on Sir Roger de Coverley and 
his friends, and that entitled "The Vision of 
Mirza," are to this day among the masterpieces 
of English literature. In the spring of 1713 
was produced his tragedy of "Cato," the im- 
mediate success of which, owing to the political 
significance attached to it, to the zeal of friend- 
ship, and to the existent standard of dramatic 
taste, was far beyond its merits as an acting 
play. Pope wrote the prologue and Dr. Garth 
the epilogue, and it had a run of 35 nights, and 
was translated into various European languages. 
It is now remembered chiefly by the soliloquy 
of the hero and a few passages which have be- 
come standard quotations. The death of Queen 
Anne having restored his political friends to 
power, he again held office, first as secretary to 
the lords justices, then for a while as secre- 
tary to the lord lieutenant of Ireland, and in 
1715 as one of the lords of trade. In 1716, 
being then in his 45th year, he married the 
countess of Warwick and took up his resi- 
dence with her in Holland house. The union 
proved an unhappy one to Addison. The 
countess was proud and high-tempered, and 
made his home so uncomfortable that he was 
fain to take refuge at the clubs and taverns, 
where it is said he often drank immoderately. 
In 1717 he reached his highest political eleva- 
tion, being made one of the principal secreta- 
ries of state. But his inability to grapple with 
details and to take rank as a parliamentary 
leader unfitted him for the office, and he re- 
signed it in the following year. Thenceforth 
until his death he applied himself to the com- 
pletion of a treatise on the evidences of Chris- 
tianity which had been projected some years 
before. His principal writings in addition to 



ADEL 



ADELAIDE 



113 



those already mentioned were the " Drummer," 
a comedy, an opera entitled "Rosamond," and 
the "Freeholder," a sort of political "Specta- 
tor." Scattered among his essays are also sev- 
eral devotional poems, exalted in tone and feli- 
citous in diction, which are still included in 
every considerable collection of sacred poetry. 
Addison was a man of integrity and sincere 
piety, and by his amiability, his pleasant hu- 
mor, and his varied conversational powers 
greatly endeared himself to his friends. To 
those not intimate with him, a natural shyness 
of manner, which he was never able to shake 
off, made him seem cold and reserved. He has 
been accused of slighting and even of depreci- 
ating the merits of men of equal ability with 
himself. His treatment, when at the height 
of political power, of his old friend and literary 
coadjutor Steele, was not generous, and he in- 
curred the resentment of Pope, who attacked 
him in some memorably bitter lines. But the 
uniform tendency of his writings precludes the 
idea that he was to any considerable degree 
insincere or unjust to his contemporaries. 

ADEL. See ADAL. 

ADELAAR, Adelaer, or Adeler (the Eagle), a 
surname given, on account of his gallantry, to 
COET SIVEETSEN, born in Brevig, Norway, Dec. 
16, 1622, died in Copenhagen, Nov. 5, 1675. 
He rose from the position of a common sailor, in 
which capacity he served from 1637 to 1642 in 
the Dutch navy, to the rank of admiral, first in 
the Venetian and afterward in the Danish ser- 
vice. During the wars of Venice against the 
Turks, Adelaar gave evidence of his daring spirit 
by fighting his way in 1654, with the ship to 
the command of which he had risen by his 
skill, through 67 Turkish galleys, sinking 15 of 
them with about 5,000 Turks on board, all of 
whom are said to have perished. For this 
exploit Venice conferred upon him the order 
of St. Mark, the title of lieutenant general of 
the admiralty, and a pension. In 1663, after 
returning for a short time to the Dutch navy, 
Adelaar accepted employment under the 
Danish government, and in 1675 became com- 
mander-in-chief of the fleet just about to act 
against Sweden. He died before it sailed. 

ADELAIDE, a city and the capital of South 
Australia, about 6 m. from the E. shore of St. 
Vincent's gulf, and 515m. N.W. of Melbourne ; 
pop. (with Port Adelaide and Albert Town) 
about 30,000. It is divided by the river Tor- 
rens into N*. and S. Adelaide, and surrounded 
by a semicircle of hills. The city was founded 
in 1836, and incorporated in 1842. It pos- 
sesses several fine squares, streets, and 
churches, a chamber of commerce, an assay 
office, and a botanical garden with a conser- 
vatory. King William street is the central 
thoroughfare and Hindley street the chief 
business locality. It is united by railway with 
Port Adelaide, 6 m. N. W. of the city, through 
which passes most of the commerce of South 
Australia. There is a large export trade in 
cereals, wool, and minerals, especially copper. 
9 VOL. i. 9 



A considerable amount of gold obtained from 
the mines discovered in 1852 is assayed at 
Adelaide. The export of wool exceeds 
7,000,000 pounds annually. The annual ship- 
ment of fine copper is nearly 100,000 cwt. 
Since 1862 the greater part of the ore has 
been smelted in the colony. Adelaide has 
flouring mills, breweries, machine shops, brass 
and iron founderies, and manufactories of to- 
bacco, soap, candles, earthenware, leather, 
and barilla. The total value of South Aus- 
tralian imports (including 93,392 bullion and 
specie) in 1869 was 2,754,770; of exports, 
2,993,035 ; total tonnage of vessels, exclusive 
of coastwise, nearly 350,000. Most of this 
trade centres in Port Adelaide. Albert Town 
is a small village about 1 m. from the port. 
The public revenue of the city in 1869 was 
773,351, and the expenditure 653,107. 
It is the seat of an Anglican and a Roman 
Catholic bishop. 

ADELAIDE, Eugenie Louise, princess of Or- 
leans, daughter of Louis Philippe Joseph, duke 
of Orleans, surnamed Egalitd, born in Paris, 
Aug. 25, 1777, died there, Dec. 31, 1847. In 
1791 she went to England. On her return, in 
November, 1792, she found herself proscribed 
as an emigree, and fled into the Austrian Neth- 
erlands, then invaded by the French army of 
the north, putting herself under the protection 
of her brother, the young duke of Chartres, 
afterward King Louis Philippe, who com- 
manded a division of that army. Her brother 
being soon compelled to take flight himself to 
escape the guillotine, she was conducted over 
to the Austrian advanced posts. She rejoined 
her brother after many perils in Schaff hausen, 
Switzerland, May 26, 1793, accompanied by 
her former governess, Mme. de Genlis. They 
next took refuge in a convent, but their money 
ran short, and she threw herself upon the 
protection of her aunt, the princess Oonti, at 
Fribourg. Her aunt dared not receive her in 
her own house, as the prejudice against the 
name of Orleans was so strong among the 
royal family of France, but she put her and 
Mme. de Genlis to board in a Swiss convent. 
After a separation of 10 years she saw her 
brother once more at Figueras in Spain ; and 
after some further removals she at length re- 
joined him at Portsmouth, England, whence 
she followed him to Palermo, where in 1809 
he married the daughter of the king of the 
Two Sicilies. From that time till the restora- 
tion she lived with him in Sicily. When 
Louis XVIII. had to quit France once more, 
she again followed her brother abroad. After 
the revolution of July, 1830, she persuaded 
him to accept the throne. Madame Adelaide; 
as she was now called, exercised considerable 
influence on the decisions of the king of the 
French, and was popularly regarded as his 
guardian angel. She died two months before 
his overthrow in February, 1848. 

ADELAIDE, Saint, queen of Italy and empress 
of Germany, born in France in 933, died at 



114: 



ADELSBERG 



ADEN 



Seltz, Alsace, Dec. 16, 999. She was a 
daughter of Rudolph II., king of Burgundy, 
whose contest with King Hugo of Italy was 
peaceably ended by her marrying in 947 the 
latter's son, Lothaire II., after whose violent 
death in 950 she was imprisoned by his suc- 
cessor Berenger II. for declining to marry his 
deformed son Adalbert. She escaped to the 
castle of a relative and solicited the protection 
of Otho I., the Great, who, captivated by her 
beauty and character, married her in 951. 
She was crowned empress of the West in 962, 
and exerted much influence in Germany during 
a part of the reign of her son Otho II. and as 
regent during the minority of her grandson 
Otho III. She was called the "mother of 
kingdoms." The latter part of her life was 
consecrated to works of piety and charity at 
Seltz, where she founded a Benedictine monas- 
tery ; and she is honored as a saint on Dec. 
16. Her biography has been written by St. 
Odilon and others in Latin, French, and 
German, and by G. B. Semeria in Italian 
(Vita politico-religiosa di Santa Adelaide, 
regina d'ltalia ed impcratrice del sacro Ro- 
mano imperio, Turin, 1842). 

ADELSBERG, a small market town of Carniola, 
Austria, on the Semmering railroad, midway 
between Laybach and Trieste, near a cele- 
brated cavern," which has five main divisions. 
The first, called Neptune or Great Dome 
grotto, traversed for the length of 400 feet by 
the Poik river, and rich in stalactites, consti- 
tutes the old part of the cavern, which has 
been known for upward of 600 years. The 
entrance to the new parts of the cavern was 
accidentally discovered in 1816. This lends in 
the first instance to the second main division, 
called the emperor Ferdinand's chamber, with 
large corridors called the ball-room and the 
circus, where annual festivals take place, and 
that of Calvary, a mound formed by the 
ruined columns of rocks more than 200 feet 
high. The third main division consists of two 
basins of water called the dropping well and 
Tartarus. The fourth main division, the arch- 
duke John grotto, opens behind a curtain of 
transparent spar, and contains other shapes 
called Little Curtain and Gothic Hall. The 
fifth main division, the Francis Joseph and 
Elizabeth grotto, explored for the first time in 
1857, discloses a range of chambers with 
brilliant and fantastic shapes, and a pictur- 
esque elevation called Little Calvary. About 
three miles from Adelsberg is the Black or 
Magdalen grotto, through which runs a river. 
Here was first discovered the proteus anguinus, 
an animal half fish, half lizard, and eyeless. 
The Poik cavern, a mile from the last-named 
grotto, is only accessible by the aid of a rope, 
and remarkable Chiefly for the dashing of the 
river over the rocks. 

ADEL11SG. I. .loliaiiii Christoph, a German 
lexicographer, born at Spantekow, Pomerania, 
Aug. 8, 1732, died in Dresden, Sept. 10, 1806. 
He finished his studies at the university of 



Halle, and went to Leipsic, supporting him- 
self by translations of valuable foreign works. 
His Glossarium manuale ad Scriptores media 
et infimm Latinitatis (Halle, l772-'84) is his 
most important achievement in this depart- 
ment. His great work, for which he took 
Johnson's English dictionary as a pattern, is 
his Grammatisch-kritisches Worterbuch der 
hochdeutschen Mundart (Leipsic, 1774-'86). 
He also produced Deutsche Sprachlehre fur 
Schulen (Berlin, 1781), and Umstandliches 
Lehrgebdude der deutschen Sprache (Berlin, 
1782). In 1787 Adelung was called to Dres- 
den, and appointed head librarian to the 
electoral library in that city, where he con- 
ceived the plan of his Mithridates, a work 
which was to contain an account of all the 
known languages of the earth, with a transla- 
tion of the Lord's prayer given as a specimen 
of each. He only lived to finish the first 
volume, which gave an account of the Asiatic, 
languages. The work was afterward taken up 
by Johann Severin Vater, and his own nephew 
Friedrich Adelung, and finished in 4 vols. It 
is said that he devoted 14 hours a day to study. 
II. Friedrieh TOD, nephew of the preceding, born 
in Stettin, Feb. 25, 1768, died in St. Peters- 
burg, Jan. 30, 1843. He began his career as 
a private tutor, and spent several years in 
Rome, but subsequently went to St. Peters- 
burg, where he was appointed by the emperor 
Alexander preceptor of his brothers Nicholas 
(afterward czar) and Michael. His principal 
works are : " The Relations between the San- 
scrit and Russian Languages" (1815), an "Es- 
say on the Sanscrit Literature and Language " 
(1830), and Bibliotheca Sanscrita (1837). 

ADEN (anc. Adane, Attanee, or Arabia Felix), 
a fortified British seaport town on the S. coast 
of Arabia and on the gulf of Aden, about 120 
m. E. of the entrance to the Red sea at Bab-el- 
Mandeb, lat. 12 47' N., Ion. 45 9' E. ; pop. 
about 50,000. It is built on the N. E. end of 
the peninsula of Aden, and connected with the 
mainland by a low, sandy isthmus. The lat- 
ter, united with another peninsula called Jebel 
Hassan, forms the two extensive harbors of 
Aden, the best on the Arabian coast. The 
town stands at the E. base of a volcanic moun- 
tain range from 1,000 to 1,800 'feet high. It is 
a place of considerable strength and is well 
garrisoned, its situation between Asia and 
Africa resembling that of 'Gibraltar between 
Europe and Africa. The superiority of the 
port and abundant supply of water render Aden 
a valuable and important station on the way 
from India to Europe. The inhabitants are 
Asiatic and African, with a few Europeans, 
chiefly English. The English political resident 
is the governing authority. The town is sur- 
rounded with gardens and fruit trees. The 
climate, though dry and hot, is not insalubri- 
ous. In ancient times, Aden was the great 
centre of trade between Arabia, Egypt, and 
India. It was destroyed by the Romans in the 
time of Augustus, but soon revived. Marco 



ADERNO 

Polo speaks of its wealth and splendor in the 
middle ages. At the beginning of the 16th 
century it was so strongly fortified that the 
Portuguese failed to capture it ; but the Turk- 
ish domination, from about 1540 to 1630, was 
injurious ; and the imam of Sana and the sultan 
of Yemen, who successively ruled Aden for the 
next three generations, completed the work 
of the Turks, and left the place a heap of ruins 
in 1705, when it became independent. In 1838 
Capt. Haynes proposed to the sultan of Aden 
to cede the town to Great Britain, and on his 
declining the English took forcible possession, 
Jan. 11, 1839. Since that time the town 
has gained commercial importance. In 1870 
the imports from Great Britain amounted to 
110,403, and the exports to 2,633. 

ADERNO (anc. Adranum), a town of Sicily, 
in the government and 17 m. N. W. of Catania; 
pop. in 1861, 12,877. It is situated on a plateau 
at the S. W. foot of Mt. Etna, and is approached 
by a steep winding road of 4 m. A large pro- 
portion of the inhabitants are monks and nuns. 
There are many remains of the ancient town 
and ruins of mediaeval buildings; and in the 
piazza is a Norman castle, now used as a prison. 

ADET, Pierre Auguste, a French chemist and 
politician, born at Nevers in 1763, died about 
1832. He was sent by the directory in 1795 
to the United States as minister plenipotentiary, 
and presented to congress a tricolor flag on be- 
half of the French nation. On Oct. 27, 1796, 
he delivered to the secretary of state the cele- 
brated decree of the directory complaining that 
the American government, in its treaty with 
England, had violated its neutrality and broken 
the treaty of 1778, and authorizing French 
ships of war to treat neutral vessels in the 
same manner that they allowed themselves to 
be treated by the English. After the delivery 
of this note Adet announced that he should 
suspend his functions, and he accordingly re- 
turned to France, after issuing an inflammatory 
address to the people of the United States. 
He subsequently adhered to Napoleon, but his 
political career remained unimportant. He 
composed a new system of chemical signs, but 
it found no favor. 

ADHESION (Lat. ad, to, and hcerere, to stick), 
the force by which the particles of different 
bodies stick together, distinguished from cohe- 
sion, which is the force that holds the molecules 
of the same body together. There are six 
kinds of adhesion: solids to solids, liquids to 
solids, liquids to liquids, gases to solids, gases to 
liquids, and gases to gases. 1. Solids to solids. 
Two glass or metal plates with well ground 
surfaces, when pressed together, will adhere 
with such force that the upper one will not 
only support the lower, but an additional 
weight will be required to separate them. The 
amount of this adhesive force has been meas- 
ured by recording the weights necessary for 
their separation. The records of the old ex- 
perimenters on this subject are worthless, be- 
cause they placed a lubricating fluid, oil or 



ADHESION 



115 



fat, between the plates; they found thus the 
cohesion of the oil or fat, and not the adhesion 
of the plates. In later times Prechtl in Ger- 
many has made the most careful experiments 
in this line ; he took polished metal plates of 
1$ inch diameter, suspended the upper one to a 
balance, brought it to an equilibrium in a hori- 
zontal position, and attached the lower plate 
to a support underneath it. Both plates were 
then brought in contact, so that the flat pol- 
ished surfaces covered one another perfectly, 
and the weights required in the scale at the 
other end of the balance beam to separate the 
plates were the measures of the adhesion. 




Prechtrs Adhesion Balance. 

He found thus the following remarkable law : 
The adhesion between two plates of the same 
material is the same as that between one of the 
plates and any material which possesses a less 
adhesive force. For instance, to separate two 
copper plates required a weight of 21 grains ; 
but the same weight was required to separate 
one of the copper plates from a plate of bismuth, 
zinc, tin, lead, &c., notwithstanding the adhe- 
sive force of bismuth to bismuth, zinc to zinc, 
&c., was found to be smaller than that of cop- 
per to copper. Prechtl found also that an at- 
traction of the plates manifested itself at an 
appreciable distance before actual contact, and 
he even measured the amount of this attraction 
at the distance of ^ of an inch by means of 
weights in fractions of grains. The suspended 
plate when brought within this distance was 
attracted with an accelerated motion till the 
contact took place with a slight concussion. 
The idea that the pressure of the air was the 
chief cause of the adhesion of two such plates, 
as it is in the case of the well known experi- 
ment with the Magdeburg hemispheres, was 
set at rest by Boyle, who suspended the adhe- 
sive plates charged with weight in the vacuum 
of an air pump ; the plates were not separated, 
while the hemispheres held together by the 
vacuum alone fell apart. The adhesion of 
solids to solids is also seen in the dust, which 
will not only adhere to perpendicular but even 
to inverted surfaces. Granite consists of feld- 
spar, quartz, and mica, kept together by adhe- 
sion. A portion of such apparently adhesive 
force is, however, cohesion. For instance, 



116 



ADHESION 



brick and mortar adhere chiefly by the cohe- 
sion of the mortar, which penetrates the pores 
of the brick ; stones without sensible pores do 
not adhere so well to mortar. 2. Liquids to 
solids. Taylor was the first who investigated 
this subject in a scientific manner. He sus- 
pended a polished plate on the balance as above 
described, and brought it carefully down on 
the surface of a liquid, when it adhered, and 
the adhesion was measured by the weight re- 
quired to separate the plate. After this method 
Guyton de Morveau in Paris found that plates 
of a French inch in diameter had the following 
adhesive power to mercury : gold, 446 grains ; 
silver, 429; tin, 418; lead, 397; bismuth, 372; 
zinc, 204 ; copper, 142 ; antimony, 126 ; iron, 
115; cobalt, 8; cold platinum, 108; red-hot 
platinum, 10 grains. Taylor also believed that 
the pressure of the air was the main cause, but 
Guyton found nearly the same results in the 
vacuum of the air pump. Link took a polished 
plate of agate of nearly one inch diameter, and 
tested its adhesion to different liquids ; he found 
for water, 25 grains ; sulphuric acid, 29 ; hy- 
drochloric acid, 25 ; solution of saltpetre, 23 ; 
of lime, 21; almond oil, 16; petroleum, 16; 
turpentine and alcohol, 15 ; ether, 10. Where 
in many of these experiments drops of the liquid 
adhere to the plate used, it proves that the ad- 
hesion of the liquid to the solid is stronger than 
the cohesion of the liquid itself, and that the 
numbers obtained express rather the cohesion 
of particles of the liquid which were separated 
by the weight, than the adhesion of the plate to 
the liquid. The ascent of liquids in capillary 
tubes is also a result of adhesion, as well as the 
spreading out of liquids between two surfaces 
kept in close proximity. The chain pump, in 
which the water is carried up by a simple chain 
in a tube, is a practical application of adhesion. 
Prfivost made interesting experiments on elec- 
tive adhesion, showing how one fluid will drive 
another 'away from a surface for which it has 
more adhesion. He found that they displace 
one another in the following order : ether, alco- 
hol, oil of bergamot, poppy oil, olive oil, nut 
oil, and other oils, water. Pure water dis- 
places in its turn solutions of salts and alkaline 
earths. Camphor drives a film of water away 
from a surface, and pieces of camphor placed on 
water will show a peculiar motion ; the same 
is seen with camphor or phosphorus placed on 
pure mercury. These phenomena are due to 
the evaporation of the solid and the cohesion of 
its vapor. We see practical applications of the 
adhesion of liquids to solids in writing, paint- 
ing, printing, dyeing, washing, and elutriation, 
or separation of coarse from fine powders by 
suspension and Settling in a large quantity of 
water. 3. Liqufcls to liquids. If a drop of 
water is placed on mercury, or a drop of oil 
placed on water, it does not keep its round 
form, but spreads out at once, because its adhe- 
sion to the liquid surface is greater than the 
cohesion of its particles. A drop of water on 
an oily surface, however, will not spread out, 



as the cohesion of its particles is greater than 
its adhesion to the oil. The manner of dis- 
placement of one liquid by another having 
greater adhesive force to the liquid they float 
on, gives rise to a series of phenomena, for the 
study and exhibition of which Prof. Morton of 
the Stevens institute at Hoboken has recently 
contrived an apparatus in the style of a magic 
lantern. 4. Oases to solids. Many solids have 
the property of condensing gases on their sur- 
face (see ABSORPTION OF GASES), and polished 
metallic surfaces, even when long exposed to 
the air, will be covered with such a gaseous 
film, which is the first manifestation of chemi- 
cal affinity. In the process of daguerreotyping, 
the polished silver plate will be inert unless this 
film of air has been removed by a polishing 
process jnst before the operation. Such re- 
moval of air may be made visible on the surface 
of a glass mirror which has not been rubbed 
for some time, by drawing a few figures or let- 
ters on it with a clean finger; the invisible 
change of surface will become visible by breath- 
ing on the glass, when the appearance of the 
deposit of watery vapor will show where the 
air film' has been removed by friction. The 
adhesion of gases to solids is further illustrated 
by the small air bubbles which are often visi- 
ble in mineral waters and effervescent drinks, 
stickinfg to the sides of the glass vessel in which 
they are contained, and not rising to the sur- 
face notwithstanding they are some 600 times 
lighter than the liquid. This adhesion is also 
illustrated by heavy powders and even sewing 
needles floating on water ; the air adhering 
around the needle prevents the adhesion of the 
water, and the latter by its own cohesion forms 
a hollow depression in which the needle floats. 
The same adhesion of air around a piece of solid 
iron causes it to float on melted iron, notwith- 
standing it has not a less specific gravity than 
the fluid material. The mutual adhesion of 
solids and gases is also illustrated by the float- 
ing of particles of dust in the air ; subdivision 
of matter increasing the surface, a continued 
subdivision will at last cause a point to bo 
reached where the surface adhesion overcomes 
gravitation. In the vacuum of the air pump 
the dust falls down like a heavy body. It is 
the same with smoke, as this consists of solid 
particles carried upward by a current of heat- 
ed air ; the white smoke evolved by the burn- 
ing of magnesium, zinc, or phosphorus illustrates 
this point very plainly. 5. Gases to liquids. 
The adhesion of gases to the surface of liquids is 
stronger in proportion to their solubility or ab- 
sorption by the liquid. So carbonic acid ad- 
heres to water with greater force than air ; but 
air possesses very strong adhesion to water, as 
shown by the currents of air carried down by 
any considerable cataract. Use is made of 
this adhesion in the so-called water bellows, in 
which a stream of water falling through a wide 
tube carries air downward and produces a blast 
so strong that this principle was used for driv- 
ing the drills during the boring of the Mont 



ADHESION 

Cenis tunnel. In the so-called atomizer a cur- 
rent of air is used to divide water into a fine 
spray. In the Giffard injector a blast of steam 
is used to carry water by its adhesion to it into 
the boiler against its own pressure. The adhe- 
sion of air to water is further illustrated by 
the friction of a strong wind on its surface, 
which not only pushes it forward, but creates 
the waves. If oil is spread over the water, 
the air finds a surface for which it has little 
adhesion, and glides easily over it. This is the 
cause of the quieting influence of oil upon ocean 
waves, of which advantage has occasionally 
been taken in a storm by vessels having oil on 
board ; the oil will spread at once over a large 
surface. The peculiar motions of camphor on 
water, phosphorus on mercury, &c., belong to 
the same class ofphenomena ; it is the elective 
affinity of the vapors of these volatile sub- 
stances for the liquid on which they float, 
which is the cause of a strong and unequal 
evaporation at the points in contact, the evolv- 
ing gas or vapor pushing the floating solid on- 
ward by its mechanical reaction. When the 
water is touched with a substance containing 
the merest trace of oil or grease, the motion of 
the camphor stops at once, as the water be- 
comes then at once covered with a very thin 
but strongly adhering oil film, which has no 
affinity for the vapor of the camphor. A 
similar action is seen as soon as mercury is 
covered with a film of phosphorus ; removing 
this film with the edge of a knife, the motion 
recommences at once, and is visible in the 
dark. The mutual adhesion of liquids and 
gases is also illustrated by the floating of watery 
particles in the atmosphere, as is seen in clouds 
and fogs. Watery vapor, present in the air in 
an invisible condition, becomes visible as soon 
as condensation commences, when a kind of 
fine water dust is formed, identical with the 
spray of large cataracts, where it originates by 
mechanical means. These watery particles 
are kept floating simply by their adhesion to 
the air, the total surface being very large com- 
pared with the total weight; but when the 
particles, by contact and mutual adhesion, 
form larger bodies, the total surface diminishes 
in proportion to the weight, while finally their 
gravitation becomes greater than their adhe- 
sion, and they fall down like rain. This fall- 
ing down of water dust not only takes place 
in a vacuum, but even a trifling diminution in 
the atmospheric pressure will cause it when 
the amount of watery vapor in the air is large, 
as seen in the fact that rain is usually preceded 
by a descent of the mercurial column of the 
barometer. A descent of temperature is also a 
cause of this condensation of watery vapor, as 
it diminishes the capacity of the air for holding 
it. This adhesion theory makes the hypothesis 
of De Saussure quite unnecessary. This savant 
imagined that the particles of watery vapor 
were supported in the clouds by being hollow, 
with a vacuum inside, and thus, -being lighter 
than the same volume of air, they were sup- 



ADIPOCERE 



117 



ported like a balloon. He was strengthened 
in this notion by the microscopic illusion 
which often causes solid small spheres to ap- 
pear as if hollow. Still such hollow spheres 
are occasionally seen like microscopic soap 
bubbles, but they have air inside, are heavier 
than the air, and are only supported by adhe- 
sion. 6. Gases to gases. The interpenetration 
of gases being very great, it is impossible to 
keep their surfaces distinct ; there must con- 
sequently be much adhesion and friction be- 
tween them. Direct experiment with two 
gases cannot well be made, but observation 
demonstrates this great adhesion and friction. 
So one small jet of air in a wide tube will cause 
a rush of air to follow; the exhaust steam 
blown upward in the locomotive flue causes 
the air to rush out with it, and so creates the 
draft necessary to keep up a sufficient heat. 
This adhesion of gases plays no doubt a most 
important part in the actions of the atmosphere 
in the economy of nature. 

ADIGE (anc. Athesis-; Ger. EtecK), a river of 
the Tyrol and N". Italy, rises in the Swiss Alps, 
and flows E., S., S. E., and again E. about 220 
m. to the Adriatic, S. of Chioggia. On its 
banks are the towns of Trent and Roveredo in 
the Tyrol, and the fortresses of Verona and 
Legnago in Venetia. 

ADIPOCERE (Lat. adeps, fat, and cera, wax, 
from its fatty origin and waxy consistency), a 
white, solid, non-putrescible substance, into 
which human bodies are sometimes converted 
after burial. If the dead body be left exposed 
to the air at a moderate temperature, it under- 
goes the process of putrefaction, and is rapidly 
decomposed with the evolution of offensive and 
putrefactive gases. If buried in closed coffins 
with a limited supply of air, or in a tolerably 
dry soil, the process is somewhat modified; 
the putrescent character of the changes is 
less marked, the offensive effluvia are much 
less abundantly developed or are absorbed by 
the soil, and the body slowly decomposes, 
losing its original form and structure, and 
finally crumbling away to powder, leaving only 
the bones, which remain for a long time after 
the remainder of the body has become unrecog- 
nizable. But occasionally it has been found 
that bodies disinterred after the lapse of many 
years have not undergone either of these 
changes, but on the contrary have been con- 
verted into a white,, solid, and very heavy sub- 
stance, of firm consistency, retaining the ori- 
ginal size and contour of the frame, so that the 
features may still be distinguishable, and even 
the natural markings and texture of the skin 
distinctly apparent. This substance is adipo- 
cere. It does not putrefy, but has evidently 
remained, unchanged for a long time while 
buried, and after disinterment continues with 
but slight alteration. After exposure to the 
air it simply becomes lighter in weight, drier 
and more granular, owing to the evaporation 
of the water which it contained ; so that a body 
which has undergone this conversion may be 



118 



ADIPOCEEE 



ADIPOSE SUBSTANCES 



afterward preserved for an indefinite time with- 
out changing materially in form or appearance. 
It is this change, or conversion of the soft parts 
into adipocere, which gives rise to the instances 
occasionally reported of human bodies being 
found after some years in a state of so-called 
petrifaction. The white color, solidity, and 
weight of the bodies thus found naturally sug- 
gest to the popular mind the idea of their 
having become petrified ; but the change which 
they have undergone is in reality a very dif- 
ferent one, and has little or nothing in common 
with a true petrifaction. It is found that, for 
a body to become changed into adipocere, two 
principal conditions are mainly requisite. First, 
the body at the time of its burial must be fat. 
Lean bodies, as a rule, do not undergo the 
change in question, but only those which are 
abundantly supplied with adipose tissue. And 
yet it is not the adipose tissue itself which is 
converted into adipocere; it merely supplies 
some of the necessary elements, which are em- 
ployed in effecting the alteration in other tis- 
sues. The second necessary condition is that 
the body should bo buried in a moist place, and 
one in which the water collects in considerable 
quantity and remains standing at or about 
the level of the coffin, without being rapidly 
changed. Thus a single body, buried in marshy 
ground, or even deposited in a tomb which is 
undrained and collects standing water, will 
sometimes be found to have undergone the al- 
teration. A collection of many bodies in or 
near the same spot seems also to favor the 
change. The first notable instance in which it 
was observed was on the removal in 1787 of 
the bodies deposited in the Cimetiere de Inno- 
cents in Paris, where they had been accumulat- 
ing for eight or nine centuries, many of 
them being found in the condition of adipocere. 
In 1849, in the city of New York, an old pot- 
ter's field burying ground, situated at the junc- 
tion of Forty-ninth street and Fourth avenue, 
was demolished and the bodies removed. Many 
of them had been buried in trenches or pits, in 
whicli the coffins were piled one upon the 
other, sometimes six or seven deep. This was 
said to have been done during the cholera epi- 
demic of 1832. On removal of the bodies, 
those occupying the upper and middle tiers 
were found to be nearly or altogether decom- 
posed ; those forming the one or two lowermost 
tiers, beneath the level of the water retained 
by the soil, had apparently been converted into 
adipocere, but had been subsequently in great 
part dissolved and disintegrated by the water ; 
while those situated between the two were in 
many instances also converted into adipocere, 
but completely preserved, retaining, with but 
a few changes, their natural form and size. 
The process of the conversion of a human body 
into adipocere under such circumstances ap- 
pears to be the following : The fatty substance 
of the adipose tissue first undergoes a change, 
by which it becomes rancid and produces two 
fatty acids, the oleic and the margaric acids. 



These acids are liquid, and, being in large quan- 
tity, penetrate the neighboring tissues, so that 
the skin, muscles, &c., become permeated and 
saturated with them. At the same time, the 
albuminous matter of these tissues, beginning 
to undergo decomposition, produces a small 
quantity of ammonia, which unites with the 
fatty acids, making an ammoniacal soap. The 
greater part of these acids, however, is taken 
up by combinations of lime, forming an oleate 
or margarate of lime, substances comparatively 
insoluble and non-putrescible. The lime is de- 
rived partly from the soil, being brought down 
in solution by the rain water as it filters through 
successive layers of superincumbent earth. If 
other bodies are piled above, the water which 
filters through also brings the products of their 
decomposition and partial solution, among 
which are ammonia and lime, until the whole 
of the fatty acids of the bodies lying at the re- 
quisite level have combined with these bases, 
and have become in this way converted into 
adipocere. Thus the tissues, already permeated 
by the fatty acids, are now saturated with 
their ammoniacal and calcareous combinations, 
and especially with the oleate and margarate 
of lime, which protects them from further de- 
composition, and causes even their minute ana- 
tomical structure to be indefinitely preserved. 
These bodies when first taken out are, as we 
have said, dense and heavy, owing to the abun- 
dant moisture which they contain; but this 
soon evaporates after exposure to the air, leav- 
ing them comparatively light and dry. It is 
not by any means all the tissues and organs of 
the body which are converted into adipocere, 
even under favorable circumstances. The adi- 
pose tissue itself disappears more or less com- 
pletely, since its principal ingredient is used up 
in accomplishing the alteration of other parts. 
The internal organs generally, such as the heart, 
lungs, brain, liver, spleen, kidneys, &c., become 
shrivelled and disintegrated and finally undistin- 
guishable. But the skin, fascia, tendons, fibrous 
membranes generally, and especially the muscles 
of the head, limbs, and trunk, are all more 
or less completely preserved. The muscular 
texture is easily recognizable by the naked eye, 
and the natural folds of the skin, or accidental 
impressions made upon the surface by portions 
of the dress or ligatures, may be plainly dis- 
cernible after the lapse of many years. The 
bones, teeth, hair, and other loss destructible 
parts of the body, do not seem to be particu- 
larly influenced by the change, but undergo 
only the usual very slow and almost impercep- 
tible alterations which they would present in 
ordinary cases. 

ADIPOSE SUBSTANCES (Lat. adept, fat), a 
class of substances of a fatty nature, which are 
present in greater or smaller quantity in most 
animal and vegetable organisms. Adipose sub- 
stances are all composed of carbon, hydrogen, 
and oxygen, to the exclusion of other chemical 
elements. They are all cry stall izable at a low 
temperature and fluid at a high temperature, 



ADIPOSE SUBSTANCES 

combustible, and insoluble in water, but solu- 
ble in ether and in each other. They differ from 
each other in the exact proportion of the dif- 
ferent chemical elements which they contain, 
and particularly in the precise degree of tem- 
perature at which they crystallize or assume 
the solid form ; some of them, such as stearine 
when pure, remaining solid above 140 F., 
while others, such as oleine, continue fluid 
until near the freezing point of water. The 
three special kinds of adipose substance with 
which we are most familiar are stearine, mar- 
garine, and oleine ; stearine and margarine 
being the principal constituents of the more 
solid fats, while oleine is abundant in the more 
fluid fats, or oils. In the animal body, these 
different substances are usually mingled with 
each other in various proportions, thus form- 
ing fats or oleaginous ingredients of different 
degrees of consistency. They are found in the 
adipose tissue, of which they form by far the 
largest part ; in the minute cells of the liver 
and of some cartilages, where they are depos- 
ited in the form of microscopic globules ; in 
the brain and nervous matter, where they are 
found in the proportion of from 5 to 15 per 
cent. ; in the marrow of the bones ; in the chyle, 
to which fluid they impart its opacity and 
white milky color ; and in the milk itself they 
exist under the form of the milk globules, 
which are minute particles of butter, formed 
of a mixture of various fatty substances, and 
suspended in the serous fluids of the secretion. 
There is also a sebaceous matter secreted by 
the skin, especially in the parts covered with 
hair, which is a semi-solid or lardaceous se- 
cretion, consisting largely of adipose mate- 
rials. Fatty substances also exist in consider- 
able abundance in the food, since they enter so 
largely into the composition of animal and ve- 
getable tissues. The fat of meat, the liver and 
the brain of animals, when used as food, of 
course supply a large quantity of adipose sub- 
stances. Milk and butter and the yolk of eggs 
are especially rich in these materials ; and many 
articles of vegetable food, such as nuts, olives, 
Indian corn, &c., also contain them in large 
proportion. Although fatty substances by 
themselves are not capable of sustaining life 
when used exclusively as articles of food, yet 
they are extremely useful and perhaps indis- 
pensable as part of the regimen. This is shown 
by the instinctive desire, which is nearly uni- 
versal among healthy persons, to have some 
kinds of adipose materials as a portion of the 
food ; butter, fat, and olive oil being the kinds 
most highly valued and abundantly used. It 
has also been proved directly by the experi- 
ments on the fattening of animals by Boussin- 
gault (Chimie agricole), who found that, how- 
ever abundant and appropriate the other ele- 
ments of the food might be, the addition of 
a small quantity of fatty substance improved 
greatly the condition of the animals, and caused 
the formation in their own bodies of a much 
larger amount of fat than that which had been 



ADIPOSE TISSUE 



119 



introduced. Thus the fat which exists in the 
interior of the body of a living animal has not 
all been derived from similar materials taken 
with the food. On the contrary, there is every 
reason to believe that fatty substances are pro- 
duced in some way, in the process of digestion 
and assimilation, from the starchy and saccha- 
rine elements of the food. It is a matter of 
common observation that food containing an 
abundance of starch and sugar is especially fa- 
vorable to the deposit of fat ; and Boussingault 
also found that the most effective diet for the fat- 
tening of pigs was one consisting very largely of 
cooked starchy materials, with the addition of 
a small proportion of fatty substances. The adi- 
pose substances found in the body are thus part- 
ly introduced with the food, and partly gener- 
ated from the transformation of its starchy and 
saccharine ingredients. They are then depos- 
ited in the various tissues, or form for the time 
a part of the fluids or secretions, like the chyle, 
the milk, and the sebaceous matter of the skin. 
Of all the fatty material thus taken with the 
food, or generated in the system, but a small 
part is again discharged in its own form. It is 
only the fat of the sebaceous matter and that 
of the milk which is thus discharged. The re- 
mainder is decomposed or transformed in some 
way in the daily process of nutrition, so that it 
is no longer recognizable as fat. In the opin- 
ion of some writers, it is directly oxidized by 
the air taken in by respiration; thus produ- 
cing animal heat and the evolution of carbonic 
acid, as it would do if burned, as in the case 
of ordinary combustion. But this must be con- 
sidered as doubtful, since we cannot yet follow 
all the details of the chemical changes which 
take place in the living body. It is certain, 
however, that the fat which is taken up from 
the intestine during the digestion of food is 
absorbed by the vessels, partly deposited in the 
adipose and other solid tissues, and for the 
most part rapidly decomposed or transformed, 
so that it disappears and is used up, so to speak, 
in the nutrition of the body. 

ADIPOSE TISSUE, the tissue in animal bodies 
containing the largest proportion of adipose 
substance, known in ordinary language as the 
fat of the animal, in distinction from the lean 
or muscular flesh. The adipose tissue is situ- 
ated principally beneath the skin and over the 
muscles, particularly those of the abdomen, 
about the cheeks, in the orbit of the eye, 
over the buttocks, on the outside of the heart 
about the origin of the great vessels, over the 
intestines, where it forms a special layer or dis- 
tinct curtain called the omentiim, around the 
kidneys, and in various places about the- inner 
side of the abdominal walls. It consists of a 
number of distinct masses or lobules, which are 
connected with each other by thin layers of 
areolar tissue, containing the few blood vessels 
and nerves with which the adipose tissue is 
supplied. Each lobule in its turn consists of a 
number of transparent vesicles, or closed sacs, 
about yfs of an inch in diameter, which are 



120 



ADIPOSE TISSUE 



ADIKONDACK MOUNTAINS 



peculiar to the tissue and are called the adipose 
vesicles. Each vesicle consists of a thin, color- 
less, and structureless animal membrane, em- 
bracing a closed cavity, and filled with fluid or 
semi-fluid fat. The vesicles generally approx- 
imate a globular or ovoid form, but with some 
flattening and angularity of surface produced 
by mutual compression. The albuminoid ele- 
ments entering into the composition of the adi- 
pose tissue, such as those composing the wall 
of the vesicles, the intermediate areolar tissue, 
&c., are much less abundant than its fatty con- 
tents. The blood vessels and nerves are partic- 
ularly scanty, as compared with those of the 
neighboring skin and muscles ; so that a wound 
of the adipose tissue produces but slight pain 
and very little bleeding. The functions of the 
adipose tissue are for the most part physical in 
their character. It acts as a cushion to pro- 
tect delicate parts from pressure or injury. 
Particularly, wherever the skin is exposed to 
frequent pressure over a bony prominence, as 
over the buttocks or beneath the heel, it is 
defended by an elastic layer of fat. The eye- 
ball rests in its socket upon such a cushion of 
adipose tissue, and the abdominal organs are 
protected from injurious pressure by that of the 
omentum and the abdominal walls. The en- 
tire layer of adipose tissue beneath the skin 



and elsewhere also acts as a protection to the 
animal warmth. Being to a great extent a 
non-conductor, it is a kind of natural blanket, 
which prevents the dissipation of the heat of 
the internal organs, and thus serves to maintain 
their temperature. An abundant layer of adi- 
pose tissue is accordingly an effective protec- 
tion against external cold, while animals which 
are in an emaciated condition more readily 
suffer from its effects. Adipose tissue is some- 
times deposited in an excessive degree, form- 
ing morbid growths or tumors. These tumors, 
however, are usually not dangerous, but only 
inconvenient from their size or situation. 

ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS, the principal 
group of mountains in New York, extending 
from the extreme N. E. corner of the state in 
a S. S. W. direction toward its centre, occupy- 
ing portions of Clinton, Essex, Franklin, and 
Hamilton counties. The Catskills, S. of the 
Mohawk river, may be regarded as their exten- 
sion in this direction. In the western part of 
Essex county these mountains have their great- 
est development, and present the highest peaks 
of any of the northern spurs of the Appala- 
chian chain, Mount Washington in New Ham- 
shire alone excepted. They rise from an ele- 
vated plateau, which extends over this portion 
of the country for 150 miles in latitude and 



Longitude Zatt 3 trom Washington 




Longitude West 74 from Greenwich 



ADIRONDACK' MOUNTAINS 



121 



100. in longitude, and is itself nearly 2,000 feet 
above the level of the sea. The highest sum- 
mits are those of Mounts Marcy, St. Anthony, 
McMartin, Seward, Einmons, and Mclntyre. 
The first of these reaches the height of 5,337 
feet above the level of the sea. St. Anthony, 
McMartin, and Seward are supposed to be 
about 5,000 feet high, and the other two sum- 
mits about 4,000 feet each. These mountains 
are in ranges, which have a general N. N. E. 
and S. S. W. direction ; but being formed not 
of stratified, but of granitic rocks, they lack 
that precision of outline which characterizes 
the mountains of the same Appalachian sys- 
tem in the middle and southern states. For 
the same reason the peaks assume more of the 
conical form, the slopes of the mountains are 
more abrupt, and the scenery wilder and 
grander than among the mountains of the sedi- 



mentary rocks. The Saranac and the Ausable, 
whose sources are among these mountains, run 
in nearly parallel lines toward the northeast, 
discharging their waters into Lake Champlain. 
They define upon the map the position of the 
valleys, which have the same general arrange- 
ment throughout the whole chain, and to some 
extent the position of the ranges of mountains 
also. In the other direction, the Boreas, the 
Hudson, and the Cedar rivers, which all unite 
below into the Hudson, define the extension 
of the valleys of the Ausable and its branches 
on the S. declivity of the great plateau ; and 
further west the chain of lakes, including Long 
lake, Raquette lake, and the Fulton lakes, lie in 
the same line with the valley of the Saranac, 
and mark its extension from the central eleva- 
tion of the plateau toward the southwest. 
The drainage of this table land is toward Lake 




The Adirondacks from Placid 'Lake. 



Champlain on the east, the St. Lawrence on 
the northwest, and the Hudson on the south. 
The sources of many of the streams which flow 
in these different directions often interlock 
with each other ; and the numerous lakes and 
ponds with which they connect lie almost 
upon the same horizontal plane. The eleva- 
tions of many of these sheets of water are 
given by Prof. Benedict, and nearly all of them 
are included between 1,500 and 1,731 feet 
above the level of the sea, the latter being the 
elevation of Raquette lake. The great numbers 
of these lakes and rivers easily navigable "to 
the light canoe of the Indian, with occasional 
portages past the rapids and falls, gave to 
this district in former times features of great 
interest. The deer, moose, caribou, bear, 
beaver, and otter were abundant throughout 
this region, and, with the numerous varieties 



of fish, among them the salmon trout and the 
pike, of those excellent qualities only met with 
in our northern inland waters, gave to that 
ancient race nearly all they required for sus- 
tenance. The game, excepting the caribou, 
still linger about the Adirondacks. The moun- 
tains are covered with forests, groves of birch, 
beech, maple, and ash succeeding to the ever- 
greens, among which the most common are the 
hemlock, spruce, fir, and cedar, with the valu- 
able white pine intermixed with, and overtop- 
ping the rest. In the lower lands along the 
streams a denser growth of the evergreens is 
more common, forming almost impenetrable 
swamps of cedar, tamarack or hackmatack, 
and hemlock. The white pine is the most val- 
uable product of this region ; and the numer- 
ous rivers, which served as roads for reaching 
every part of it, now answer the same purpose 



122 



ADIT 



ADJUTANT 



for coaveying this valuable timber to market. 
So important has the pine upon these moun- 
tains become, that large sums have been ex- 
pended in removing the obstructions of the 
streams, and in opening new outlets to the 
lakes, by which in the spring freshets the logs 
could be run down. As may well be supposed, 
this mountain region offers little inducement to 
the permanent settler. Only along the wider 
bottoms of the Saranac and the Ausable, the 
fertile alluvial soil, the wash of the mountains, 
tempts to cultivation. About 40 years ago the 
discovery of enormous masses of magnetic iron 
ore in the very heart of the mountains led to 
the establishment of the village of Adirondack, 
in the township of Macomb, on the western 
border of Essex county, about 50 m. W. of 
Lake Champlain. Iron works were erected on 
a scale of considerable magnitude ; but the final 
result was that the distance from market, the 
scarcity of labor, and the difficulties of trans- 
portation made the enterprise unprofitable in 
spite of the excellence and abundance of the 
iron, and the works are now wholly aban- 
doned. Of late years the whole northern wil- 
derness of New York has come to be popu- 
larly known as the Adirondacks, and is much 
resorted to, not only by sportsmen, but by 
tourists of both sexes, for whose accommoda- 
tion taverns have been established at conve- 
nient distances. All travelling there is done by 
means of boats of small size and slight build, 
rowed by a single guide, and made so light that 
the craft can be lifted from the water and car- 
ried on the guide's shoulders from pond to 
pond or from stream to stream. Competent 
guides, steady, intelligent, and experienced men, 
can be hired at all the taverns, who will pro- 
vide boats, tents, and everything requisite for 
a trip. Each traveller should have a guide 
and a boat to himself, and the cost of their 
maintenance in the woods is not more than 
a dollar a week for each man of the party. 
The fare is chiefly trout and venison, of which 
there is generally an abundance to be procured. 
A good-sized valise or carpet-bag will hold all 
the clothes that one person needs for a two 
months' trip. There are several routes by 
which the Adirondacks can be reached, but 
the best and easiest from New York is that by 
Lake Champlain. The steamer from Whitehall 
will land the traveller at Port Kent, nearly 
opposite Burlington, Vt., where coaches are 
always waiting to take passengers, six miles, 
to Keeseville. Here conveyances for the wil- 
derness can always be had. 

ADIT (Lat. adit us, entrance), a horizontal 
passage made into mines for the purpose of 
draining them, and also for the extraction of 
their products at the lowest convenient level. 
In very mountainous regions adits often pre- 
sent the readiest means of access to the min- 
eral veins known to exist in the interior of 
precipitous hills. Enormous sums have been 
expended in the silver region of Mexico in 
these exploring adits. One of the most fa- 



mous adits in the world is that of Klausthal, 
in the Hartz, which is 6 miles long, and 
passes upward of 300 yards below the church 
of Klausthal. Its excavation lasted from the 
year 1777 till 1800, and cost about $330,000. 
The adit which drains the district of Gwenap, 
in Cornwall, is estimated with its branches to 
extend a distance of 30 miles; its mouth is in a 
valley near the sea, and from it are discharged 
the superficial waters of numerous mines, as 
also all the water pumped up in them to its level. 
One of the most extensive adits in the world was 
commenced in the beginning of the present cen- 
tury by the Austrian government, and is called 
by the name of Joseph II. Its mouth is in 
the banks of the river Gran, in Hungary, and 
it passes by the mines of Hodritz toward those 
of Schemnitz, about 10 miles. The object of 
its construction is partly to explore for new 
veins, and in part to drain mines already in 
operation. A work of similar magnitude has 
been undertaken in the Washoe mining district 
of Nevada, for the purpose of developing the 
Comstock lode. It is known as the Sutro tun- 
nel, and the plan was to commence at the 
Carson river, 150 feet above the stream, and 
to excavate a space of 12 by 14 feet to a dis- 
tance of 19,790 feet, when the lode would be 
cut at a depth of 1,898 feet below the outcrop. 
A cross tunnel was to be constructed along the 
ledge about 12,000 feet, to connect with all the 
mines, and four shafts were to be sunk for ven- 
tilation. A company for its construction re- 
ceived large privileges from congress in 1866, 
and afterward application was made for a gov- 
ernment subsidy. A commission was appoint- 
ed to examine the project, which early in 1872 
reported unfavorably, estimating the cost at 
$4,418,329. The work was not then far ad- 
vanced, but has since been vigorously prosecu- 
ted both upon the main tunnel and the shafts. 

ADJUTANT, a staff officer attached to the 
commander or to the headquarters of larger 
or smaller bodies of troops. Generally, the 
commander of every military post, battalion, 
regiment, brigade, division, corps, army, or 
military department has an adjutant, or an 
adjutant general, with such assistants as the 
importance of the command may require. The 
duty of the adjutant is to assist his chief in the 
performance of his military duties, to make 
known his orders, to see to their execution, to 
receive reports, and to take care of the records 
and returns pertaining to the troops. He has 
therefore under his charge, to a great extent, 
the internal economy of the command to which 
he is attached. By authority of the com- 
mander, he regulates the rotation of duty 
among its component parts, and gives out the 
daily orders ; at the same time, he is a sort of 
clerk to his chief, carries on the correspondence 
with detachments and with the superior au- 
thorities, arranges the daily reports and returns 
into tabular form, and keeps the journal and 
statistical books of his body of troops. Larger 
bodies of troops now generally have a regular 



ADJUTANT BIRD 

staff attached, taken from the general staff of 
the army, and under a "chief of the staff," 
who takes to himself the higher functions of 
adjutant, and leaves him merely the transmis- 
sion of orders and the regulation of the in- 
ternal routine duty of the corps. Owing to 
the difference of regulations and military sys- 
tems, as well as to the peculiarities of com- 
manders, there is practically a great variety in 
the functions of adjutants. In the army of 
the United States there is one adjutant, or 
adjutant general, attached to the war depart- 
ment, who issues the orders of the secretary 
of war and the general-in-chief, and has charge 
of the military record of the government. He 
is also head of the adjutant general's depart- 
ment, composed of a fixed number of colonels, 
lieutenant colonels, and majors, promoted by 
selection from the officers of the army, and 
assigned to duty in the bureaus of the adju- 
tant general's office or with the headquarters 
of armies, corps, divisions, brigades, or military 
divisions and departments ; they are called as- 
sistant adjutants general. Besides these, the 
governor of each state has an adjutant general, 
while the requirements of monarchical institu- 
tions have created in almost all European states 
hosts of titular adjutants general to the mon- 
arch, whose functions are imaginary, except 
when called upon to do duty with their mas- 
ter ; and even then these functions are of a 
purely formal kind. 

ADJUTANT BIRD. See MAEABOTT. 

ADLERBERG. I. Vladimir Fedoroviteh, count, 
a Russian statesman, born in St. Petersburg in 
1793. His mother, the widow of a colonel, and 
superior of a seminary for the daughters of the 
nobility, was much befriended by the empress 
Maria Feodorovna, through whose influence 
the son became a favorite at court, and in 1817 
adjutant to the grand duke Nicholas. After 
the latter's accession to the throne, Adlerberg 
became his constant companion, and was made 
general of infantry in 1843 and count in 1847. 
In 1852 he was appointed minister of the 
court, the most influential office in the person- 
al service of the imperial family, and which 
requires constant attendance on the emperor. 
After the death of Nicholas (1855), and at that 
emperor's urgent recommendation, he retained 
his post under Alexander II., whose full confi- 
dence he also enjoyed. In 1869 he retired on 
account of old age. For many years he had 
also officiated as postmaster general, and con- 
tributed much toward postal reform. His 
sister, widow of the councillor of state Bara- 
noff, brought up the daughters of the emperor 
Nicholas, and was made a countess in 1846. 
II. Adlerberg II., Alexander, count, eldest son of 
the preceding, succeeded him in 1869 as minis- 
ter of the court and chancellor of imperial dec- 
orations, and holds the rank of general of in- 
fantry and chief aide-de-camp of the czar. He 
is inseparable from the emperor, of whom he 
had been a schoolmate, and whom he accom- 
panied on his journey to Germany and the 



ADMETUS 



123 



Caucasus in 1871. III. Adlerberg III., Nicholas, 

brother of the preceding, was active in the 
Hungarian campaign of 1849, published in 1852 
a narrative of his journey to the Holy Land 
(Ot Rima ' Yerwalem, "From Rome to Je- 
rusalem "), was governor of the province of 
Taurida in 1854-'5, and from 1857 was for 
some time military commissioner in connection 
with the Russian embassy at Berlin. Ho holds 
the rank of adjutant general of the emperor, 
and since 1861 also that of lieutenant general. 
He has been for several years governor general 
of Finland. 

ADLERCREUTZ, Karl Johan, count, a Swedish 
soldier, born April 27, 1757, died Aug. 21, 
1815. He distinguished himself in the Finnish 
war against Russia in 1808, as adjutant general 
of Field Marshal Klingsporr, and on March 13, 
1809, joined that officer in arresting Gusta- 
vus IV. -in his own palace. The king was 
deposed, and the diet on May 1 thanked AdLer- 
creutz and his fellow conspirators for having 
saved Sweden from ruin by their daring. He 
was made lieutenant general in 1809 and 
count in 1814. 

ADLERSPARRE. I. Georg, count, a Swedish 
soldier and statesman, born March 28, 1760, 
died Sept. 23, 1835. He enjoyed the confi- 
dence of Gustavus III., after whose death 
(1792) he retired from the army, and edited 
from 1797 to 1801 a periodical, Loaning i blan- 
dade Amnen, the liberal politics of which gave 
umbrage to the government. In 1809 he 
joined in the campaign against Russia, as well 
as in the conspiracy which culminated on 
March 13 in the arrest and deposition of 
Gustavus IV. He had insisted upon the con- 
summation of this event without bloodshed and 
revolutionary commotion. On May 1, 1809, 
he received the public thanks of the diet, and 
was promoted to various high dignities, eventu- 
ally including that of count and provincial gov- 
ernor general, which latter post he resigned in 
1824. He was fined in 1831 for having pub- 
lished secret state papers and his private per- 
sonal correspondence with Swedish princes, 
but protested against the injustice of the pun- 
ishment and persisted in the publication 
(Handlingar rorande Sveriges dldre och nyare 
historia, 9 vols., Stockholm, 1830-'33). II. 
Karl August, count, an author, eldest son of 
the preceding, born in 1810, died in 1862. 
Like his father, he possessed poetical talent, 
and published various novels and lyrical effu- 
sions under the name of Albano. His reputa- 
tion rests on his historical works, entitled 1809 
Ars Revolution, and 1809 och 1810 Tidstafior 
(respectively 2 and 3 voh., Stockholm, 1849), 
and Anteckningar om lortgdngna Samtida (3 
vols., 1860-'62). 

ADMETUS, in Greek mythology, a king of 
Pherse, in Thessaly, who took part in the Caly- 
donian hunt and the Argonautic expedition. 
He is said to have obtained, through the inter- 
cession of Apollo, deliverance from death, on 
condition that his father, mother, or wife 



124 



ADMINISTRATOR 



ADMIRALTY 



should voluntarily die for him. This was 
cheerfully complied with by his wife Alcestis, 
daughter of Pelias, who was subsequently res- 
cued from the hands of Pluto by Hercules and 
restored to Admetus. 

ADMINISTRATOR. See EXECUTOR. 

ADMIRAL, a naval officer of the highest rank. 
The title was introduced by the Genoese and 
other Italians into Europe, and was probably 
derived from the Arabic word amir, which 
was also used in reference to shipping by the 
Greeks of the lower empire. The office of 
admiral was not created for the navy of the 
United States until during the second year 
of the civil war. Previously the grade of 
captain was the highest in the service, al- 
though the title of commodore had been ac- 
corded to commanders of squadrons and naval 
stations, and they had assumed the commo- 
dore's distinguishing broad pennant.* By act 
of congress, Jan. 16, 1857, captains in com- 
mand of squadrons were denominated flag 
officers, and by subsequent and progressive de- 
partmental orders and regulations they sub- 
stituted for the broad pennant a square blue 
flag worn at the mizzen ; next the same at the 
fore for those over 20 years commissioned as 
captain, and the senior captain's was carried at 
the main ; finally they came to arrogate all of 
the functions of admirals. Congress established 
the grade of rear admiral July 16, 1862, and 
commissioned therein on account of eminent 
individual services David G. Farragut and 
three other captains from the active list, and 
Charles Stewart and ten other distinguished 
veterans from the retired list. The grade of 
vice admiral was constituted by act of Dec. 
21, 1864, and Farragut promoted thereto as a 
reward for Mobile ; and as a further token of 
gratitude and honor the grade of admiral was 
created for him July 25, 1866. The rank of 
admiral is relatively equivalent to that of gen- 
eral in the army, vice admiral to lieutenant 
general, and rear admiral to major general. 
The pay per annum of admiral is $13,000 ; 
the sea pay of vice admiral $9,000, and of rear 
admiral $6,000. There have been bestowed 
2 commissions of admiral, 3 of vice admiral, 
and 55 of rear admiral ; and there are now in 
the service 1 admiral, 1 vice admiral, and 38 
rear admirals; of the latter, 12 are on the ac- 
tive and 26 on the retired list. -In Great Brit- 
ain there were until 1864 three classes of ad- 
mirals, red, white, and blue. The distinction 
of flags was then abolished, and only the white 
flag retained in the royal navy. The manage- 
ment and superintendence of the navy of Eng- 
land was formerly vested in a lord high admiral. 
James II. when duke of York held this office, 
and when king, on" account of his predilection 
for the naval service, kept it in his own hands. 
Prince George of Denmark, husband of Queen 
Anne, was also lord high admiral. The last in- 
cumbent of the office was the duke of Clarence, 
afterward William IV., who held it from May, 
1827, till September, 1828, since which time 



the office has been put in commission, the du- 
ties being performed by the lords of the ad- 
miralty, who are six hi number, the first lord 
having a seat in the cabinet. His pay is 4,- 
500 per annum. The highest officer in the 
Russian navy bears the title of general admiral. 
ADMIRALTY. In England at a very early 
period the administration of the navy, and of 
all affairs pertaining to commerce, ships, and 
navigation, or connected in any way with the 
high seas or the navigable waters of the realm, 
seems to have been delegated to a naval offi- 
cer of high dignity called the lord high admiral, 
deriving his authority directly from the sov- 
ereign, and invested with powers over some 
of the sovereign's most important prerogative 
rights. His functions, covering originally all 
maritime affairs, extended also to the private 
concerns of the subject in commercial trade. 
All of his powers which required judicial action 
were delegated to a court of admiralty, and 
they still remain its characteristic function. 
That part of the jurisdiction which was purely 
executive, and which related especially to the 
navy and the royal privilege, was at a very 
early date transferred to other departments or 
tribunals. Originally, then, the high court of 
admiralty in England was the court of the lord 
high admiral, and its judge was his lieutenant. 
The admiral also appointed vice admirals, and 
their lieutenants in turn were the judges of the 
vice admiralty courts in different parts of the 
kingdom. The commission usually issued to 
the admiral of England in the 16th and 17th 
centuries gave him cognizance of " debts, bills 
of exchange, policies of insurance, accounts, 
charter parties, contractions, bills of lading, 
and all other contracts which any ways con- 
cern moneys due for freight of ships, moneys 
lent to be paid beyond the sea at the hazard 
of the lender, and also of any cause, business, 
or injury whatsoever had or done on or upon 
or through the seas or public rivers, or fresh 
waters, streams, havens, and places subject 
to overflowing, within the flowing and ebbing 
of the sea, upon their shores or banks, from 
the first bridges toward the sea, throughout 
our kingdom or dominions aforesaid, or else- 
where beyond the seas, or in any parts be- 
yond the seas whatsoever," &c. A commis- 
sion of the time of Henry VIII. gives to the 
admiral authority in cases of treasons, rob- 
beries, and other crimes on the seas or other 
waters within the king's maritime jurisdic- 
tion. But these commissions, though full 
and large, are, it must be remembered, of 
a comparatively recent date ; for the admi- 
ralty jurisdiction is very ancient, and the 
"Black Book of the Admiralty," a sort of 
code of the admiralty law of England, com- 
piled probably about the beginning of the 14th 
century, contains constitutions of John (1199), 
Richard I. (1189), and Henry I. (1100), relat- 
ing to the admiralty. The jurisdiction of the 
court was modelled after that of the consular 
courts of the Mediterranean. Its decisions 



ADMIRALTY 



125 



were governed by the practice of those and 
the like courts on the continent by the ancient 
customary laws of the sea and commerce, and 
by those collections such as the laws of 
Rhodes and O16ron, the Waterricht of Wisby, 
the Hanseatic ordinances, and the Consolato del 
Mare which from time to time shaped the 
admiralty law of Europe. From the course 
of the administration of the law in those con- 
tinental courts from which the English admi- 
ralty borrowed its procedure, and from the fact 
that its characteristic jurisdiction related so 
largely to commercial dealings with the states 
of continental Europe where the Roman law 
prevailed, the law and practice of the English 
court adopted and followed also the principles 
and rules of that system of jurisprudence. But 
the Roman law was regarded in those early 
periods with great jealousy and suspicion in 
England, and many efforts were made to re- 
strain the jurisdiction of the admiralty with- 
in the narrowest possible limit. It was 
charged in the reign of Edward III. that now 
the admiralty claimed jurisdiction of tres- 
passes on land and within the bodies of coun- 
ties, and undertook to regulate the wages of 
labor and the prices of provisions. As a result 
of the complaint it was enacted in the 13th 
year of Richard II. (1390), that "the admirals 
and their deputies shall not meddle henceforth 
of anything done within the realm, but only 
of a thing done upon the sea ; " and in the 15th 
year of the same reign (1392), that "all man- 
ner of contracts, pleas, and quereles, and all 
other things rising within the bodies of coun- 
ties, as well by land as by water, as afore, and 
also wrecks of the sea, shall be determined and 
remedied by the laws of the land, and not be- 
fore nor by the admiral nor his lieutenant in 
any wise." The admonitions of these statutes 
were still further emphasized by a law of 
Henry IV. (1411), which not only inflicted 
fines on persons proceeding in the admiralty 
courts in the forbidden causes, but also fined 
the admiralty judges who entertained their 
suits. About the same time the common law 
courts began to issue their prohibitions to the 
courts of admiralty, forbidding their interfer- 
ence in certain disputed cases. This matter of 
prohibitions became the subject of a sort of 
convention between the judges of the rival 
courts early in the reign of Elizabeth (1575), 
which quelled the discord until the next reign. 
Coke (1551-1633) repudiated the agreement 
just referred to, though it had been observed 
for a quarter of a century, on the ground that 
it was not signed, and that the justices of the 
queen's bench had never assented to it; and 
he accordingly sent out prohibitions from his 
court more fierce than had ever issued yet. 
There was never much peace with the admiral- 
ty courts during his time, and the common 
law courts had their own way. In 1632 cer- 
tain ordinances were drawn up by the king 
and his council and the judges of the two 
courts, which were again favorable to the ad- 



miralty. But these were set aside by the com- 
monwealth, and in turn a new ordinance of 
that period (1648), still more favorable to the 
admiralty,' was annulled at the restoration, 
and the common law judges began anew \rtth 
their prohibitions. The jurisdiction of the 
court was now very much narrowed, and 
among the more important branches of it 
which were lost were cases of seamen's wages, 
freight, charter parties, claims for the building, 
repairing, or supplying of ships, and questions 
involving disputes of title to ships. The stat- 
ute 3 and 4 Victoria began to repair and re- 
store the damaged capacity of the admiralty. 
That act extends the power of the court to all 
cases of salvage or damage, though arising 
within the body of a county ; to questions of 
title in causes for possession ; to cases of 
damages, bottomry, and wages ; to suits for sup- 
plies furnished to foreign ships; and to the 
claims of mortgagees when the ship or her pro- 
ceeds are under the control of the court. The 
so-called admiralty court act of 1854, the elab- 
orate merchant shipping act of the same year, 
and especially and notably the admiralty court 
act of 1861, "to extend the jurisdiction and 
improve the practice" of the court, have in- 
creased very materially its power, and bear 
strong testimony to its usefulness in all matters 
of a maritime character. The. criminal juris-- 
diction of the English admiralty was anciently 
very extensive, and included all crimes and in- 
juries committed on the high seas, and the 
general government of the navy. In later 
times, however, this branch of its jurisdiction 
was withdrawn. Cases arising in the public 
ships of the realm were transferred to naval 
courts martial by acts of Charles II. and George 
II. ; and cases arising on ships of commerce or in 
foreign ports were assigned to certain commis- 
sioners and courts created by acts of 28 Henry 
VIII., 39 and 46 George III., and 4 and 5 Wil- 
liam IV., in which tribunals the acts provide 
that the lord high admiral, or as now the judge 
of the admiralty, shall be included ; and by the 
operation of still more recent statutes the 
criminal jurisdiction of the court is almost en- 
tirely annulled. Apart from the general, or as 
it is called the instance side of the court, it 
has exercised very important functions in time 
of war as a court of prize. This court is called 
into being by the special warrants of the crown 
at the outbreak of each war, and takes cogni- 
zance of all seizures of prizes and their con- 
demnation, and all other matters relating to 
capture. (See PRIZE.) In France admiralti" 
courts existed prior to the revolution of 1790, 
and there as in England derived their authority 
from a lord high admiral. Their jurisdiction 
was even more extensive than that of the Eng- 
lish courts, and included all questions of prize, 
salvage, bottomry, charter parties, average, 
wages of seamen, fisheries, and the building, 
fitting, manning, and sale of ships; and also 
all crimes or misdemeanors committed on the 
high seas, except those connected with the 



126 



ADMIKALTY 



navy. These courts were abolished in 1791, 
and their functions distributed to other tribu- 
nals. All commercial questions were assigned 
to the tribunals of commerce, matters of prizes 
to a special court called the council of prizes, 
and the criminal jurisdiction was transferred 
partly to courts of assize and partly to the cor- 
rectional police. In Ireland there also exists, 
unless very recent changes have been made, a 
high court of admiralty which is independent 
of that of England, and has a jurisdiction of 
the same character and quite as extensive. 
Such a court also existed in Scotland until it 
was abolished by statute of 1 William IV., ch. 
69. Its jurisdiction on the instance side was 
transferred to other courts. Its authority in 
cases of prize and capture had been already, by 
6 George IV., ch. 120, vested in the high court 
of admiralty of England. The American admi- 
ralty exists under the clause of the constitution 
which declares that the judicial power shall ex- 
tend to "all causes of admiralty and maritime 
jurisdiction," and the statute vesting that pow- 
er, which gives to the district courts exclusive 
original cognizance of all civil causes of that de- 
scription. The interpretation of this clause of the 
constitution has brought out conflicting opinions 
as to its proper meaning. For upon the principles 
and rules of construction which are familiarly 
applied in determining what is the law of the 
United States in civU or criminal or equity 
cases, in the absence of specific legislation, the 
question fairly arises whether the admiralty 
and maritime jurisdiction contemplated by the 
constitution was the jurisdiction as it existed 
in England when the colonies declared their 
independence, or as it existed in the colonial 
courts at the time of the revolution, or as it 
was exercised by the states when the constitu- 
tion was adopted ; whether it was not rather 
that characteristic and proper jurisdiction of 
the English admiralty before it was taken away 
from it by prohibitions or encroachments ; or 
whether finally the clause was not, in a still 
more liberal spirit, designed to embrace all 
causes relating to shipping and maritime com- 
merce which, in the broadest sense and within 
the traditional functions of admiralty courts of 
full powers, are regarded as maritime and ad- 
miralty cases. Though no very definite test by 
which the extent of the jurisdiction is to be de- 
termined has been laid down, yet it is certain 
that the American jurisdiction does not depend 
absolutely on any of the criteria suggested by 
the propositions just recited, and that the clear 
tendency at least of our decisions is to extend 
the authority of the court over its ancient do- 
main, without confining it within limits pre- 
scribed by any particular historical precedent. 
Our greatest judges, and eminently Marshall 
and Story, have construed the constitutional 
grant with the utmost liberality, and with the 
purpose of embracing within its scope the 
largest powers ; and especially within the last 
20 years the disposition of the supreme court 
has been to regard all causes of which foreign 



admiralty courts have usually and characteris- 
tically taken cognizance, and which are histor- 
ically known as admiralty and maritime causes, 
as being cases within the constitutional provi- 
sion. The first statute which drew upon the 
constitutional grant, and first actually vested 
its power in our courts, was the act of 1789, by 
which "exclusive original jurisdiction of civil 
causes of maritime and admiralty jurisdiction " 
was assigned to the district courts. This stat- 
ute, it will be observed, repeats the language 
of the constitution, and therefore gives no aid 
to the definition of the power. But the extent 
of it has been illustrated by a multitude of ad- 
judicated cases, and from these the general 
character and range of the authority can be 
easily gathered. The jurisdiction can be most 
conveniently considered under two aspects : 
first, as it is determined by the subject mat- 
ter; and second, as it is determined by the 
locality. Upon what is probably the right 
ground of construction, the first of these is the 
proper criterion ; for, as has already been inti- 
mated, the reason of the thing depends proba- 
bly only upon the consideration whether the 
subject is of a maritime character or not. The 
early contests which arose in England upon the 
competency of the admiralty to interfere with- 
in the bodies of counties or other land lines 
have, however, fixed the criterion of locality so 
firmly that it has been constantly appealed to 
here ; but it has been found singularly embar- 
rassing in this country from the fact that so 
much of our commerce is carried on on great 
inland seas, and on great rivers which are 
navigable through the whole extent of our ter- 
ritory. The European states afford no parallel 
to these, and to adopt literally the limits of the 
jurisdiction fixed by the practice of their ad- 
miralty courts was to exclude the ships and 
commerce of all these waters. Nevertheless, 
the precedents of the foreign admiralty law in 
these respects were closely followed for fully 
half a century after the foundation of the gov- 
ernment ; and though our courts did not sub- 
mit to the limited jurisdiction by which the 
English courts were restrained within head- 
lands or the bodies of counties, yet they did 
hold regularly that no cause came within their 
power unless it arose within the movement of 
the tides. At last a case arose in the harbor 
of New Orleans. There the waters of the 
Mississippi flow always outward and never 
backward with the ocean tide ; but upon proof 
that there was nevertheless a perceptible rise 
and fall of the water, caused by the tides be- 
low, it was held that this was sufficient, and 
that the jurisdiction attached. The decision was 
admitted to be a forced one, and the tide on 
which it rested was afterward spoken of in the 
supreme court rather contemptuously as "an 
occult tide without ebb or flow." But there 
was good sense at the bottom of the decision, 
and the inconvenience of making tide waters 
the limit of the jurisdiction led to the enact- 
ment in 1845 of the famous act " extending the 



ADMIRALTY 



127 



jurisdiction of the district courts to 'certain 
cases upon the lakes and the navigable waters 
connecting the same." This act did not cover 
the great rivers which do not connect the 
lakes, nor did it profess to extend a real admi- 
ralty jurisdiction even over the waters to which 
it referred. It created rather a sort of imita- 
tion jurisdiction, modelled all the way after 
the real. The act caused more embarrassment 
than it relieved, and in fact it has been prac- 
tically annulled by the supreme court by deci- 
sions which declared subsequent to its enact- 
ment that the admiralty and maritime jurisdic- 
tion given by the constitution was not in fact 
limited to the high seas and tide waters, but, 
by its own proper force, covered as well the 
great interior lakes and rivers wherever they 
were navigable, so that the act of 1845 was un- 
necessary and inoperative. As to the subject 
matter, it may be said generally that the 
American admiralty exercises a jurisdiction 
based largely upon that of the English court in 
the time of Edward III., and embraces all 
maritime causes of action, as well matters of 
contract as matters of tort, and under the lat- 
ter covers all injuries and damage done upon 
the seas, even though done in a port or har- 
bor or within the body of a county. "With 
reference to the contracts which are within 
the reach of the court, the distinction must 
be first made between those which directly 
and- of themselves touch maritime affairs, and 
those which are only preliminary or subordi- 
nate to such agreements ; for the former the 
court will pass upon, but it will not upon 
the latter. Thus a charter party or, as 
within a year or two it has been decided, a 
policy of marine insurance is a maritime con- 
tract which the court will aid in enforcing ; 
but it has no power in respect to an agreement 
to make a charter party or a policy. The dis- 
tinction in these cases is rather obvious and rea- 
sonable, but it is not so clear as to some other 
cases. For example, the earlier maritime law, 
as it was administered in those periods and 
courts to which our court appeals for tests of 
jurisdiction, covered all contracts which con- 
cern the ship, and thus included all contracts 
for building, repairing, supplying, or equipping 
her. But as to a contract for building a ship, 
our supreme court has held that it was not 
within its jurisdiction. It may be observed, 
however, that the court in Massachusetts has 
since decided the contrary, and also that the 
recent English admiralty court acts expressly 
confer jurisdiction in such cases upon the court. 
The court does without hesitation entertain 
suits by material men for repairing and supply- 
ing the ship and for towing her, and even 
claims for shipping a crew and procuring a 
cargo ; but it has declined to hear actions by 
stevedores and ship keepers, or claims for ad- 
vertising the vessel for sea or preparing her car- 
go for stowage, or for the wages of lightermen, 
and even claims for scraping the ship's bottom 
preparatory to coppering her. The jurisdiction 



also includes what are called possessory and 
petitory actions respecting a ship that is to 
say, cases in which the title to possession of 
the ship is involved, and cases of dispute be- 
tween part owners as to their interests in the 
employment of the vessel; contracts of af- 
freightment, either at the instance of the own- 
ers for their freight, or of the shippers for dam- 
ages for the non-fulfilment of the contract of 
carriage, and also contracts for the carriage of 
passengers ; cases of jettison and average, bot- 
tomry and respondentia bonds, and all hypoth- 
ecations of ship or cargo ; of salvage, collision, 
surveys, and sales of condemned vessels; de- 
murrage, pilotage, and wharfage, and seamen's 
wages and all persons stand on the footing 
of seamen who serve or are useful in the nav- 
igation of the ship, including cooks and car- 
penters, coopers on whaling voyages, and fire- 
men and engineers and deck hands on steam- 
boats. The court has also jurisdiction of all 
assaults and batteries, imprisonment or im- 
proper treatment of sailors or of passengers, 
and all other damages and injuries done on the 
high seas and navigable waters, and also of 
questions of prize and of seizure under the rev- 
enue and navigation laws. (See PRIZE.) With 
respect to the relations of the federal and the 
state courts, it is now settled, but it was not 
until very lately, that the jurisdiction of the 
former in admiralty suits in rem is exclusive, 
and consequently none of the states can give 
their local courts power, under statutes, to en- 
force liens in rem which are of a purely mari- 
time and admiralty nature. Though the court 
of admiralty exercises its jurisdiction upon prin- 
ciples of equity and natural justice, and may ad- 
minister equitable relief upon a subject which 
is fairly within its characteristic powers, yet it is 
not in the ordinary sense a court of equity, and 
cannot intervene in that class of cases which 
are peculiarly passed upon in such a court; 
and though it construes the contracts and 
obligations of parties before it less strictly 
than the courts of common law, and will miti- 
gate the severity of contracts or moderate ex- 
orbitant demands, yet it will not assume to 
go further and grant purely equitable relief. 
Thus it cannot entertain a bill for the specific 
performance of a contract for the sale of a 
ship, for the execution of a trust, for the cor- 
rection of a mistake, or the reformation of an 
instrument, on that ground, or grant relief 
against fraud ; and it was even expressly held 
that it cannot in general order an account- 
ing between part owners, or aid in cases of 
mortgage of a ship so as to decree foreclosure, 
or vest title in the mortgagee upon a sale. The 
court in its equitable spirit will also disregard 
technicalities in procedure, and looks at the 
matter rather than the form, to the- end that 
the party entitled to it shall receive substantial 
justice without regard to formal irregularities 
or defects. In the United States there are no 
courts which possess an admiralty jurisdiction 
solely. It is exercised in all cases by the fed- 



128 



ADMIRALTY 



ADOLPHUS 



eral courts, as a branch and part of the full 
powers delegated to them. The original juris- 
diction is vested exclusively in the district 
courts. From these appeals lie to the cir- 
cuit courts in admiralty and maritime causes, 
when the matter in dispute exceeds the value 
of $50, and from these to the supreme court 
when it exceeds, the value of $2,000. Upon 
an appeal in admiralty to the circuit court, 
unlike the course in such proceedings in other 
courts, the parties may have the whole cause 
heard de novo, and the cause is not in fact 
res adjudicata or finally decided until such 
appeal is waived or sentence is reached in the 
appellate court. The case may therefore go 
before the circuit court upon the same testi- 
mony taken below, or the parties may intro- 
duce new evidence there and have all the pro- 
ceedings as well of fact as of law in the court 
below reviewed. And even the supreme court, 
sitting on an admiralty appeal, is very liberal in 
permitting amendments and additions ; and if 
justice require that the pleadings be reformed or 
a new claim brought into the case, that court 
will refer the cause back to the circuit court 
for this purpose. But in regard to appeals 
brought up on the same testimony presented 
below, the supreme court has lately declined 
to reverse decisions as to matters of fact in 
which the district and circuit courts have 
agreed. The practice of the admiralty courts 
is simple, and their procedure direct and expe- 
ditious, and intolerant of technicalities; their 
administration of the law is liberal and equi- 
table, trusting rather to the matter than to the 
form, and seeking always to insure quick rem- 
edies and to give relief upon the actual merits 
of the case. The practice is regulated in some 
of its details by rules framed by the district 
courts. They differ somewhat in the different 
districts, but not materially. The forms of 
proceedings are modelled upon those of the 
Koman civil law as it has been fashioned in 
European courts, and especially in European 
courts of admiralty. The suit is instituted by 
the filing of a libel, which is a mere statement 
in the simplest narrative form of the libellant's 
cause of action. Upon this the court issues its 
process directing the marshal, in an action in 
personam, either simply to call the defendant 
into court to answer, or, if such process be 
prayed for, to arrest him or attach his goods ; 
or if the suit is in rem, it directs the marshal 
to take the thing into his custody, and to give 
due notice to all persons claiming it to come 
and show cause why it should not be con- 
demned ; the theory of the proceeding in rem 
being that the thing proceeded against, rather 
than any person, is to satisfy the libellant's ac- 
tion. The defendant puts in an answer, and if 
he is the owner of the thing proceeded against 
in an action in rem, he puts in also a claim to 
the property, and may remove the hold of the 
court upon it by giving a bond for its value. 
In matters of contract, the cause is brought to 
a hearing before the judge ; and previous to the 



final hearing by the court the evidence of wit- 
nesses about to leave the district, as for ex- 
ample of sailors or officers of ships, may be 
taken out of court before its commissioners. 

ADMIRALTY ISLA.MIS, a group in the S. Pacif- 
ic, N. E. of New Guinea, between lat. 2 and 3 
S., and Ion. 146 and 148 E. They consist of 
one large island, Admiralty or Basko, in the 
centre of the group, between 50 and 60 m. long, 
one (Matthew) of about 117 sq. m., 150 m. N. E., 
and 20 or 30 much smaller ones. They are gen- 
erally low and fertile, though Basko has high 
mountains, and abound in cocoanut trees. The 
inhabitants are dearly black, well formed, and 
of good features, and go almost naked. The 
islands were discovered in 1616 by a Dutch 
navigator, Cornelius Schooten (hence some- 
times called Schooten's islands), rediscovered 
in 1767 by Carteret, who gave them the 
present name, and have been very seldom 
visited since, access being difficult on account 
of 1110 coral reefs which surround them. 

ADMONITION, a part of ancient church dis- 
cipline. If the offence was of a private nature, 
the warning was given in private ; otherwise 
before the assembled church. If the person 
censured did not amend his ways, excommuni- 
cation followed. 

ADOBE HOUSES, dwellings built of unburnt 
brick, in common use in Mexico, Texas, and 
Central America. Adobe bricks are made of 
loamy earth, containing about two thirds fine 
sand and one third clayey dust, which under 
the action of the sun becomes a hard, compact 
mass, without a crack. Four men generally 
work at the making of these bricks, one to mix 
the mass, two to carry it in a hand-barrow, 
which is sprinkled with finely powdered dry 
manure or dust to prevent adhesion, and one 
to mould the prepared substance into bricks. 
The moulds are double, each 16 to 18 inches 
long, 9 to 12 inches wide, and 4 inches thick, 
and have projecting handles at each end, but 
no bottom, the brick being deposited on the 
surface of the ground, which has been pre- 
viously levelled ; and the adobes are carefully 
turned on the edge, and left to harden in the 
sun. They are laid with mud mortar, made 
from the earth at the foot of the wall ; and on 
the completion of every two feet of the struc- 
ture, an interval of one week is allowed for 
drying, and a similar space of time between 
the completion <jf the walls and fixing of the 
roof. The houses are usually one story high, 
and the inside plastered before the roof is put 
on, so that it may dry with the walls. An 
adobe house costs little ; it is warmer in winter 
and cooler in summer than either wood or 
brick, and its duration is extraordinary, adobe 
houses 50 feet high being in existence whicb 
have stood for more than a century. 

ADOLPHIS. It John, an English advocate 
and author, born in London in 1766, died July 
16, 1845. He. studied in London, was admitted 
attorney and solicitor in 1790, and was called 
to the bar in 1807^ He soon obtained the 



ADOLPHUS FREDERICK 

character of an adroit, skilful counsellor, and 
practised chiefly at the Old Bailey in criminal 
cases. His forensic reputation was not fully 
established till 1820, when, on the trial of the 
" Cato street conspirators," he defended Ar- 
thur Thistlewood, charged with high treason, 
with marked ability, though his client was 
convicted. From that time his practice at the 
bar was large and lucrative, but his warmth of 
temper frequently led him into undignified 
squabbles. Hia reports are referred to as 
authority. His principal works are : " The 
History of England from the Accession of 
George III." (3 vols., 1805, of which a new edi- 
tion enlarged to 7 vols., but still unfinished, 
appeared shortly before his death), and " Bio- 
graphical Memoirs of the French Revolution." 
See " Recollections of John Adolphus," by his 
daughter (1871). II. John Leycester, a barrister, 
son of the preceding, highly distinguished him- 
self at the university of Oxford, and published 
in July, 1821, a work which Lockhart says 
" was read with eager curiosity and delight by 
the public, with much diversion, besides, by 
his [Sir W. Scott's] friends, and which Scott 
himself must have gone through with a very 
odd mixture of emotions." This book is en- 
titled "Letters to Richard Heber, Esq., con- 
taining critical remarks on the series of 
novels beginning with Waverley, and an at- 
tempt to ascertain their author." The purpose 
of this book was to prove, from Scott's ac- 
knowledged writings, and from other known 
circumstances connected with his personal his- 
tory and position, that he and none other could 
bo the author, sole and unassisted, of the Wa- 
verley novels. 

ADOLPHUS FREDERICK, of Holstein-Eutin, 
king of Sweden, born May 14, 1710, died Feb. 
12, 1771. In 1727 he was elected prince-bishop 
of Lubeck as successor of his father. On the 
death of his cousin Charles Frederick, duke of 
Holstein-Gottorp, in 1739, Adolphus Frederick 
became the administrator of his possessions 
during the minority of his son, afterward 
Peter III. of Russia. The king of Sweden, 
Frederick of the house of Hesse-Cassel, being 
childless, and the young duke of Holstein- 
Gottorp having declined to become heir appa- 
rent at a time when he hoped to succeed to the 
throne of Russia, it was decided in 1743, by 
virtue of the treaty of Abo between Russia and 
Sweden, that Adolphus Frederick should occu- 
py the position, so that it might be at all events 
vested in the Holstein family. The grand- 
mother of Adolphus having been a daughter of 
Charles XI. of Sweden, this circumstance was 
also regarded as favorable to his election, which 
was ratified by the Swedish diet on July 3, 
1743. In 1744 he married Louise Ulrike, a sis- 
ter of Frederick the Great, and he ascended the 
Swedish throne April 5, 1751, on the death of 
King Frederick. The aristocracy being favor- 
able to France, Sweden was dragged into the 
seven years' war against Prussia ; and the at- 
tempts of the queen to oppose this policy 

10 TOL. I. 10 



ADONIS 



129 



resulted only in bringing the ringleaders against 
the aristocracy to the scaffold (1756). The 
council of state sided with the aristocracy 
against the crown, and it was only after the 
king's threatening to abdicate that the Swedish 
diet consented to sustain his rights and protect 
him against the aggressions of the nobles. He 
was an upright prince, but by his meekness he 
encouraged the schemes of France and her al- 
lies among the nobility. He was succeeded on 
the throne by his son Gustavus III. 

ADOLPHUS OF NASSAU, a German sovereign, 
bora about 1250, fell in battle near Worms, July 
2, 1298. He was the. second son of Walram 
IV., count of Nassau, and was distinguished 
for valor in the service of Rudolph of Hapsburg. 
On the death of the latter he was, at the sug- 
gestion of the archbishop of Mentz, unani- 
mously elected as his successor (May 10, 1292), 
in place of Rudolph's son and heir Albert. He 
was crowned at Aix-la-ChapeUe as king of 
Germany, June 24, 1292, but not in Rome as 
emperor. Adolphus disgraced himself by ac- 
cepting an English subsidy of 100,000 for 
joining in the war against France, and by back- 
ing out of the bargain without restoring the 
money. He further lost caste by his mercenary 
but fruitless transactions with the landgrave 
Albrecht of Thuringia for the acquisition of his 
territory. The archbishop of Mentz, in con- 
cert with Albert of Austria, caused Adolphns 
to be arraigned before the college of electoral 
princes. On his declining to comply with the 
summons, his deposition was proclaimed, June 
23, 1298. But Adolphus appealed to the ar- 
bitrament of arms. The rivals met, with 
their respective armies, between the villages 
of Gdllheim and Rosenthal, near Worms. Adol- 
phus fell, hit in the face, as was reported at 
the' time, by the lance of Albert, whose com- 
panions gave him the death blow. Under 
Henry VII. his remains were placed beside 
those of his successor Albert I., in the vault of 
German sovereigns at Spire. 

ADONAI, one of the appellations of the Su- 
preme Being in the Hebrew Scriptures, signi- 
fying Lord, or my Lord. The Jews, who 
refrain from uttering the name of Jehovah, 
pronounce Adonai in its place where it occurs 
in the Hebrew text, in which they have also 
substituted the vowels of Adonai for those 
of the name, thus rendering the right pronun- 
ciation of the latter doubtful. 

ADONIA, feasts anciently held in honor of 
Venus and Adonis. They lasted two days; 
the first was spent in tears and lamentations, 
the second in mirth and feasting. The festival 
typified the dying and resurrection of nature. 

ADONIS, in Greek mythology, a beautiful 
youth beloved by Venus. According to the 
account received from the cyclic poet Panyasis, 
he was the son of Theias, king of Assyria, and 
his daughter Smyrna. Venus, discovering the 
beauty of the child, hid him in a chest, which 
she intrusted to Proserpine. Hence resulted 
the dispute between these goddesses as to 



130 



ADOPTIANI 



ADOWA 



which of them Adonis should belong to, which 
was settled by the judgment of Jupiter that he 
should remain with each of them an equal part 
of each year. Adonis died of a wound received 
from a wild boar in the Idalian woods, and the 
sorrow of Venus for his loss was so great that 
the gods allowed his return to earth for six 
months of every year to console her. 

ADOPTIANI, a Christian sect in Spain, found- 
ed by Elipandus, archbishop of Toledo, and 
Felix, bishop of Urgel, near the close of the 
8th century. They affirmed that Jesus was 
really the son of God only in his divine nature, 
and the 'son of God by adoption merely in his 
human nature. So long as they confined their 
efforts to spreading their views in the Moham- 
medan territory, no notice was taken of the 
new sect. But when, through the efforts of 
Felix, whose diocese belonged to the Frankish 
empire, adoptianism began to spread in the 
dominion of Charlemagne, the subject was 
brought to the notice of that emperor, and the 
synod of Ratisbon (792) condemned it as a re- 
newal of the Nestorian heresy. Felix recanted, 
and confirmed his recantation before Pope 
Adrian in Rome. But after his return to Urgel 
he reaffirmed his adoptian views. At the re- 
quest of Charlemagne Alcuin wrote an epistle 
to Felix against adoptianism. This step, how- 
ever, had no results ; on the contrary, a num- 
ber of the Spanish bishops declared their agree- 
ment with Felix. A new synod convened at 
Frankfort (794) ratified the decrees of Ratis- 
bon against ndoptianism. Finally, Archbishop 
Leidrad of Lyons prevailed upon Felix in 799 
to appear before : a synod at Aix-la-Chapelle, 
when, after a protracted discussion of the sub- 
ject with Alcuin, he once more recanted. Felix 
was now committed to the charge of Leidrad at 
Lyons, where he died in 816. Elipandus never 
retracted his opinions, but soon after his death 
the sect became extinct. Adoptianism was the 
first important theological controversy concern- 
ing the person of Christ originating in the 
western church. 

ADOPTION, the taking of another's child as 
one's own, still regulated by law in Germany 
and France, as it was in Rome. Where the 
party adopted is under age, and actually under 
the parents' power, it is called adoption 
proper ; but where it is of age, sui juris, ad- 
rogation. The abstract rule that adoption 
must imitate nature, though derivable from 
regulations of the Roman law, such as that 
forbidding eunuchs to adopt, and that re- 
quiring the adopter to be at least 18 years 
older than the adopted, is not fully carried 
out, since by the same law those incapable of 
procreation may adopt. In Germany, while 
the child is more completely absorbed into the 
family of the adopter than he was in Rome, 
numerous subtle distinctions have been en- 
grafted upon this title of the law ; while the 
Code Napoleon admits adoption only to a 
limited extent. A prerequisite to adoption in 
Rome was leave from the college of priests ; 



in Germany the sanction of the prince or 
judge is required. In Texas, a person may 
adopt another to be his legal heir by filing a 
statement, authenticated like a deed, express- 
ing his intention so to do, with the county 
clerk, thereby entitling him to all the rights 
and privileges of a legal heir, except that if 
the adopter have a legitimate child or children, 
the adopted shall in no case inherit more than 
a fourth part of the testamentary estate of the 
adopter. In several of the states adoption has 
been made the subject of recent statutes ; for 
example, in Illinois (1867) and Kansas (1868). 
The proceeding under these acts is in general 
similar to that which has existed for a long 
time in Massachusetts. In that state, any 
person may present a petition to the probate 
court for the adoption of a child not his own, 
and, if desired, for a change of the child's 
name. If the petitioner has a husband or 
wife, the application will not be entertained 
by the court unless such husband or wife join 
in it. The consent of the child's parents, or 
of the survivor of them, must be procured in 
writing; or if it has no parent, its guardian 
or next of kin or some person appointed by 
the court must give the requisite consent. 
And the adoption will not be sanctioned with- 
out the child's consent, if it is more than 14 
years old. The child thus adopted, for all 
purposes of inheritance, and in respect to all 
the other legal consequences and incidents of 
the natural relationship of parent and child, is 
deemed the child, born in lawful wedlock, of 
the person who adopts it, except that it shall 
not take property limited to the heirs of the 
body of the new parents, nor coming from 
their collateral kindred. An appeal from the 
decision of the probate court upon the petition 
lies in favor of either the petitioner or the 
child to the supreme court; and any person 
interested who had not actual notice of the 
proceeding may apply within a year for a 
reversal of the order of the probate court. In 
Louisiana the proceedings are more like those 
of the civil law. The person adopting must 
be at least 40 years old, and at least 15 years 
older than the person adopted. Married per- 
sons must concur about the adoption. 

ADOl'R (anc. A ternus), a river in the S. W. 
of France, about 180 m. in length, 70 of which 
are navigable. Its course is nearly semi- 
circular. It rises in the Pyrenees, flows 
through the departments of Hautes-Pyrn6es, 
Gers, and Landes, and empties into the bay of 
Biscay, a little below Bayonne. Though many 
streams unite with it, its volume of water is 
small, except during the melting of the snows 
in the Pyrenees, when it often inundates the 
surrounding country. 

ADOWA, one of the chief towns of Abys- 
sinia, capital of Tigr6, about 145 m. N. E. of 
Gondar; pop. about 8,000. It is the great 
depot of the trade in cattle, corn, salt, and 
slaves, between the coast and the interior. 
The chief manufactures are of cotton. 



ADRASTEA 

ADRASTEA (Gr. 'AdpAareta, she whom none 
can escape), in Greek mythology, a goddess of 
just retribution, like Nemesis, or, according to 
some of the poets, identical with her. 

ADRASTt'S, a legendary king of Argos, in the 
history of ancient Greece. His father was 
Talaus, king of Argos. Being expelled from 
Argos, he took refuge in Sicyon, and there 
succeeded to the throne, and instituted the 
Nemean games. He was subsequently re- 
stored to his native city, and married one of 
his daughters to Polynices, son of CEdipus and* 
brother of Eteocles, who had been deprived 
by the latter of his share in the reign over 
Thebes. He now formed a union of Greek 
heroes to restore his son-in-law to his throne, 
and led the famed expedition of the " seven 
against Thebes," the abundant theme of later 
tragedy. Adrastus alone survived, saved by 
the fleetness of his horse Arion. Ten years 
later he prompted the seven sons of the de- 
feated heroes to renew the war. Their expe- 
dition, known as that of the epigoni or 
descendants, set out with promises of success 
from the oracle, and ended with the capture 
and complete demolition of Thebes. The son 
of Adrastus was the only Argive that fell, and 
Adrastus himself soon after died of grief. 

ADRIA, a town of Italy, in the Venetian 
province of Rovigo, on the canale Bianco, be- 
tween the mouths of the Adige and Po, 30 m. 
S. by W. of Venice; pop. 13,000. The inun- 
dation of these rivers gradually rendered the 
country uninhabitable, and their deposit of 
soil caused the sea to recede until the town, 
anciently a seaport, is now 14 m. inland. It 
is a bishop's see, and has a celebrated museum 
of Etruscan and Roman* antiquities. The 
ruins of ancient Adria, or Hadria, founded by 
the Etruscans, lie S. of the modern town. The 
name of the Adriatic sea is derived from it. 

ADRIAN, a city and the capital of Lenawee 
co., Mich., on the S. branch of the Raisin 
river, and on the Michigan Southern railway, 
74 m. W. S. W. of Detroit; pop. in 1870, 
8,438; in 1860, 6,213. The city is well built 
and paved, and lighted with gas. It com- 
mands the trade of an extensive grain-growing 
region. The stream on which it is situated 
furnishes good water power. The principal 
industrial establishments are: a car factory 
employing 250 men, a brass foundery employ- 
ing 100, two iron founder! es, two sash factories, 
two planing mills, two organ factories, and 
three flour mills. The city possesses a fine 
monument to the memory of 77 citizens of 
Adrian who fell in the civil war. There are 
eleven churches and five public school houses. 
Adrian college, founded in 1859 by the Protest- 
ant Methodists, admits both sexes, and has an 
average attendance of about 160 students. 
The central union school building is one of the 
finest in the West. Three papers are published 
here, one monthly (educational), one weekly, 
and one daily and weekly. The first house in 
Adrian, a log dwelling, was built in 1826. The 



ADRIAN 



131 



village was laid out in 1828, and it was incor- 
porated as a city in 1853. 

ADRIAN, a Roman emperor. See HADRIAN. 

ADRIAN, the name of several popes. I. Born 
at Rome, succeeded Stephen IV. in 772, died 
Dec. 25, 795. Desiderius, king of the Lom- 
bards, having invaded the provinces which 
Pepin had presented to the Roman see, Adrian 
solicited the assistance of Charlemagne, who 
entered Italy, and overthrew the power of the 
Lombards in 774. In return the Frankish 
conqueror received from Adrian the title of 
king of Italy and patrician of Rome. In 791 
Rome was inundated by the Tiber, when 
Adrian distributed provisions in boats. He 
also rebuilt the fortifications of Rome. II. 
Born at Rome, succeeded Nicholas I. in 867, 
and died in 872. He had been married, but 
left his wife to live in celibacy. During his 
pontificate the schism between the Greek and 
Latin churches was begun by the secession of 
Photius, patriarch of Constantinople. III. Born 
at Rome, was made pope in 884, and died in 885, 
on his way to the diet at Worms. IV. NICHO- 
LAS BREAKSPEAE, the only Englishman who 
ever filled the papal chair, became pope in 1154, 
and died in September, 1159. He is said to 
have left England as a beggar, became a mc/nk 
and afterward abbot of St. Rufus in Rome, and 
was made cardinal bishop of Albano by 
Eugenius III., who sent him as his apostle or 
legate to Norway and Denmark. On the death 
of Anastasius IV. he was, much against his 
will, elected pope. Rome was at this time in a 
state of great confusion, resulting from the 
reformatory preaching of Arnold of Brescia. 
Immediately after his election he placed Rome 
under interdict, prohibited all religious ser- 
vices, and banished Arnold, who was subse- 
quently surrendered on Adrian's demand by 
Frederick Barbarossa, and tried and executed 
at Rome. Shortly afterward Adrian crowned 
Frederick emperor of Germany; but some 
trifling dispute occurring as to the forms to be 
observed in the ceremony, a general conflict 
took place between the Roman and German 
troops, in which many lives were lost. Adrian 
afterward became involved in numerous quar- 
rels with Frederick, which was the origin of that 
bitter enmity between the papal see and the 
Hohenstaufens, which ended only with the 
fall of the latter. V. A Genoese, succeeded 
Innocent V. in 1276, and died five weeks after 
his election. VI. Son of an obscure mechanic 
of Utrecht named Boeijens, born in 1459, died 
Sept. 24, 1523. He was known only by the 
name of Adrian, was educated at Louvain, and 
became professor of theology there and vice 
chancellor of the university. Maximilian I. 
chose him as preceptor of his grandson 
(Charles V.), and subsequently sent him as 
ambassador to Spain, where he became bishop 
of Tortosa. After the death of King Ferdi- 
nand (1516) he shared the regency with Cardi- 
nal Ximenes, and in 1517 was made cardinal. 
On the departure of Charles V. for Germany 



132 



ADRIANOPLE 



ADULTERATION 



In 1519 Adrian was left sole governor, and 
showed remarkable feebleness in his treatment 
of a powerful insurrection (war of the com- 
munities, or of the holy league) caused by 
oppressive taxes, and especially by the ex- 
cessive favors showered upon the Flemings, 
but which was finally suppressed by a council 
appointed by Charles V. He was elected pope 
in 1522, as successor of Leo X., and entered 
Rome Aug. 31. The simplicity which he in- 
troduced at the papal court, contrasted with 
the magnificence of his predecessor, excited 
contempt and discontent among the people; 
while his ecclesiastical reforms, and his hu- 
mility in acknowledging the errors of the 
papacy while dealing with the schism of 
Luther, were very distasteful to the clergy. 
He was the author of several pious works, in 
one of which, published after his accession, 
though written previously, he held that a pope 
might err even in matters of faith. 

ADRIANOPLE (anc. Hadrianopolis ; Turk. 
JEdirneh; Fr. Andrinople), a city of Euro- 
pean Turkey, capital of the vilayet of Edirneh, 
situated on the Maritza (the ancient Hebrus), 
in ancient Thrace, about 130 m. N. W. of Con- 
stantinople. The population is variously esti- 
mated from 100,000 to 150,000, at least one 
third of whom are Greeks, and tJhe rest Turks, 
Armenians, Jews, Franks, &c. The scenery 
of the city is beautiful; the gardens on the 
banks of the Maritza and the neighboring vil- 
lage of Hisekel, inhabited by the wealthy mer- 
chants, are delightful ; but the interior of the 
straggling city is, like that of most Turkish 
towns, dirty and desolate. Even the pictur- 
esque effect of the 40 mosques, among which 
is the famous one of Selira II., built of ma- 
terials furnished by the ruins of Famagosta in 
Cyprus, is impaired by the wretched surround- 
ings. The most capacious bazaar, named after 
Ali Pasha, is the centre of trade, which is con- 
siderable, the city being the focus of the whole 
of Thrace. It is also the residence of a gov- 
ernor general, a Greek archbishop, foreign 
consuls, and missionaries. Wool, silks, cot- 
ton, dyestuffs, carpets, opium, and attar of 
roses are the principal articles of commerce. 
Quince preserve is one of the special products 
of Adrianople. The town was founded by the 
emperor Hadrian, and soon attained great com- 
mercial and military importance. It was the 
scene of famous encounters in the times of the 
Romans, the Byzantine empire, and the cru- 
sades. Frederick Barbarossa concluded a treaty 
there in 1190 with the Greeks, and Baldwin I. 
was defeated and captured in the city in 1205 
by the Bulgarians. Taken by the sultan Mu- 
rad I. in 1361, it remained the Turkish capital 
until the taking of Constantinople in 1453. 
Charles XII. spent some time in 1713 in the 
neighboring castle of Timurtash, previous to 
his residing at Demotika. In 1829 Adrianople 
was,captured by the Russian general' Diebitsch, 
and a treaty of peace was signed thete on Sept. 
14, 1829, between Russia and Turk^", in virtue 



of which the Danubian principalities were re- 
stored to the Porte. The Pruth, and from its 
mouth the Danube, were made the dividing line 
between the two countries, and the boundaries 
of their respective Asiatic possessions were 
agreed upon. Russia obtained the privilege of 
trading with all parts of the Turkish empire, 
the navigation of the Danube, the Black sea, 
and the Mediterranean, and the passage of the 
Dardanelles, upon the same terms with the 
most favored nations, besides a full indemnity 
for her war expenses. 

ADRIATIC SEA, the portion of the Mediter- 
ranean lying between Italy on the W. and 
Turkey and Austria on the E., takes its name 
from the city of Adria. Its length from the 
strait of Otranto (which connects it with the 
Ionian sea) to the head of the gulf of Trieste is 
about 500 m. ; its average width about 130 m., 
which, northward from the mouth of the Po, 
is reduced to about 60 m. by the peninsula of 
Istria. The Adriatic receives few rivers of im- 
portance, except the Adige and the Po. The 
western coast is generally flat and swampy; 
its harbors are few and poor. The eastern 
shores are steep and rocky, and the numerous 
islands along the Dalmatian coast furnish ves- 
sels a safe shelter from storms. The north- 
western part of the Adriatic is known as the 
gulf of Venice, the northeastern as the gulf 
of Trieste. On the Neapolitan coast lies the 
gulf of Manfredonia, on the Dalmatian the gulf 
of Cattaro, and on the Albanian that of Drino. 
During summer the navigation of the Adriatic 
is usually free from danger, but the S. E. winds 
that blow in winter produce disastrous ship- 
wrecks. Its depth between Dalmatia and the 
outlets of the Po is 22 fathoms ; but opposite 
Venice, and in a considerable portion of the 
gulf of Trieste, it is less than 12 fathoms. To 
the southward it deepens rapidly. Its waters 
are more salt than those of the Atlantic. The 
tides are almost imperceptible. There can be 
little doubt that the dimensions of the Adri- 
atic were formerly much greater than at pres- 
ent, and that they have been contracted by the 
deposits of mud made by the* streams that 
empty into it. On the western coast several 
lagoons produced by sand bars are being rapidly 
transformed into meadows by this process. The 
original depth of the Adriatic has likewise been 
diminished by the accumulations of sandy marl 
and testaceous incrustations at the bottom. 

ADl'LLAM, a town of ancient Palestine, in the 
lowland of Judah, the seat of a Canaanitish king 
before the Hebrew conquest. It was fortified 
by King Rehoboam. Its location, like that of 
the "cave of Adullam," where David hid when 
pursued by the Philistines, has not yet been 
sufficiently identified. 

ADULTERATION, a term applied to the de- 
terioration of different articles of food, drugs, 
&c., by mixing them with cheap and inferior 
substances. The microscope has become a very 
important instrument in detecting fraudulent 
mixtures. In wheat flour it detects the mix- 



ADULTERATION 



133 



ture of rice flour, and in the maranta arrow- 
root it exposes the peculiar structure of the 
cheap potato flour and sago. In mustard and 
coffee it brings out the peculiar forms of chic- 
cory root ; and in the former turmeric has been 
detected by it, when this was added only in 
the proportion of -5^-5- part. Poisonous ingre- 
dients, being mostly of a mineral nature, are 
subjects rather of chemical analysis than of 
microscopic examination. There is an instance, 
however, of cattle having been poisoned by 
eating rape or oil cake, in which were detected 
by Dr. Hassall the ground seeds of the mustard. 
Chemical analysis in such a case could discover 
nothing. It is to Dr. Hassall, the author of 
scientific papers in the London " Lancet," and 
of several works on food and its adulterations, 
that the credit is principally due for the prog- 
ress made in this department of science, at 
least in its applications to this subject. In 
some vegetable powders, Dr. Hassall has suc- 
ceeded in detecting nine different vegetable 
productions. The mineral poisons that are 
made use of to give light colors to confection- 
ery, and the fine green shades to pickles and 
to tea, are only brought to view by chemical 
analysis. By these, however, they are sepa- 
rated quantitatively, and in forms that are 
recognized by every one. The mistaken taste 
of the public for very white bread leads the 
baker to select the flour from which the more 
nutritious portion of the grain has been sepa- 
rated by the miller, and to make this flour still 
more white he adds to it a quantity of alum. 
Though the use of this substance in bread is 
forbidden by law in England, it was found in 
every one of 53 samples that were examined 
for it. Cheaper and less nutritious kinds of 
flour, as of rice, potatoes, corn, beans, rye, &c., 
are mixed with wheaten flour, some of which, 
besides their direct effect in lessening the value 
of the article, also cause the bread to absorb 
much more water, and thus add to its weight 
by substituting water for flour. Carbonate and 
sulphate of lime, silicate of magnesia in the 
form of soapstone, white clay, carbonate of 
magnesia, bone dust, and bone ashes, have all 
been detected in flour in England. In the 
adulterations of tea, especially green tea, the 
ingenuity of the Chinese is taxed before it 
leaves their country, and that of the English 
on receiving it in their own. The list of .other 
plants which furnish leaves for the tea chests, 
and which are recognized by the microscope, 
is too long for repetition here, and so of the 
poisonous mineral ingredients, including arsen- 
ite of copper, which are skilfully used to make 
good green teas of unsalable black teas. Cof- 
fee fares somewhat better, its adulterating mix- 
tures being of a more harmless nature, such 
as chiccory, acorns, mangel-wurtzel, peas, and 
beans, and for the use of the poor in London 
roasted horse liver. In an analysis made in 1 872, 
under the direction of the Massachusetts board 
of health, a pound package of a mixture sold as 
ground coffee was found to contain no coffee 



whatever ; but coffee sold in bulk was nearly 
always found pure. Sugars are more decidedly 
free from adulteration, but the brown sugars, 
as usually imported, are found from the acci- 
dental impurities present, and from the im- 
mense numbers of live animalcules, to be in 
a state unfit for human consumption. The 
white lump sugars are very pure, and any insol- 
uble substance like sand can be easily detected. 
No articles, however, have been the subjects 
of such a reckless system of adulterations as 
the colored sugar confectionery. Though ex- 
pected to be used principally by children, the 
colors painted upon the candies and sweet- 
meats are the product of virulent mineral poi- 
sons; and it is wonderful what a variety of 
these have been made applicable to this pur- 
pose. Their use, however, is not now nearly 
so great as it was in former times, and is dis- 
countenanced by reputable dealers in these 
articles. Wines and spirits, from their high 
value and general use, as also from the diffi- 
culty of detecting the cheap mixtures added 
to them, are almost universally adulterated to 
some extent; while many are made up en- 
tirely of ingredients wholly foreign to the 
country which produces the genuine wine. 
The substances added with a view of preserv- 
ing wines a*e sometimes poisons, lead and cop- 
per both being used, the former in the state of 
litharge. In England the favorite port wine 
is thus most shamefully treated, besides being 
manufactured on a very large scale, after a va- 
riety of curious recipes, from thousands of 
pipes of spoiled cider imported for the purpose, 
bad brandy, and infusions of logwood and other 
dyestuffs. The champagnes, which are more in 
demand in this country, find here as ingenious 
imitators ; and from our native ciders, with 
a due mixture of cheap French wine, sugar, 
brandy, and a little lemon or tartaric acid, 
more champagne is bottled than ever crosses 
the Atlantic. If gooseberry wine is easily ob- 
tained, it is used instead of cider for making 
good champagne. The impossibility of supply- 
ing the demand for French brandy, and the 
consequent high price of the article, have led 
to its extensive manufacture in France from 
very cheap materials. These materials are 
water and spirits obtained from molasses, beet 
root, and potatoes, and more particularly cheap 
whiskey, which is sent from this country in 
large quantities to come back brandy. Burnt 
sugar gives the desired color, and the fine fla- 
vor is made to suit the taste by skilful admix- 
tures of essential oils and distilled murk, which 
is the refuse skins and pips of the grape left 
after the wine Is expressed. This stuff is im- 
ported into England, to be distilled with mo- 
lasses for making brandy. Gin is largely adul- 
terated with water, and as the effect of this is 
to make the liquor whitish and turbid, other 
substances must be added to correct this and 
" fine " the gin. These are alum, carbonate 
of potash, nd the poisonous acetate of lead. 
To restore its strength and pungency, cayenne 



134: 



ADULTERATION 



ADULTERY 



in the form of tincture of capsicum, or grains 
of paradise, are employed ; and its peculiar 
aroma is preserved by compounds called " gin 
flavorings," the ingredients of which are juni- 
per berries, coriander seeds, almond cake, an- 
gelica root, licorice powder, calamus root, 
and sulphuric acid. The common whiskey of 
the country is largely diluted in the distilleries 
with water, and then to restore the strength 
the lye of ashes, which is prepared for the 
purpose, is added in sufficient quantity to give 
the liquor the character which is expressed by 
the slang name by which it is called of " rot- 
gut." The report of the Massachusetts board 
of health, already referred to, shows that the 
adulteration of vinegar with sulphuric acid is ex- 
tensively practised, especially in wine vinegars. 
Lead is also found in vinegar, often coming from 
lead faucets. It has been supposed that the 
adulteration of drugs was very generally prac- 
tised, and almost without check. Were this 
the case, medicine would indeed be in bad 
repute ; for in no department would this prac- 
tice bo followed by more disastrous conse- 
quences. That it is largely adopted, the analy- 
ses of our most respectable druggists prove ; 
but these also show that the system may be 
exposed, and in a great measure checked, by 
those disposed to do so ; and further, that the 
articles used for sophistication are generally of 
a very harmless nature. In July, 1848, a law 
went into etfect in this country, forbidding the 
importation of these dangerous mixtures. But 
while the effect of this has been to exclude for- 
eign adulterations, the manufacture of them at 
home has been greatly increased. In the first 
year after its establishment, it appears by the 
report of Dr. J. M. Bailey to the New York 
academy of medicine that over 90,000 pounds 
of drugs, comprising Peruvian bark, rhubarb, 
jalap, senna, and various other kinds, had been 
rejected and condemned in the ports of the 
United States. It is very questionable, how- 
ever, among druggists, whether after all the 
sale of spurious medicines has been seriously 
diminished. The adulteration of Turkey opi- 
um is carried on as a regular business at Mar- 
seilles. It is there literally made over again. 
The greatest variety of impurities are intro- 
duced into it ; besides extracts of the poppy and 
other plants, sand, ashes, gums, aloes, small 
stones, pieces of lead and iron, seeds and stems 
of plants, are freely used. In England the same 
practice has been so successfully pursued, that 
what appeared to be the best Turkey opium 
has proved entirely destitute of the active prin- 
ciple of the drug. The essential oils, used 
more particularly for perfumery, are especial 
objects of adulteration. Oil of wormwood, we 
notice upon the test book of one of our most 
respectable druggists, "warranted pure from 
Boston," contained about 40 per cent, of a 
mixture of chloroform and alcohol, besides 
some resin or fixed oil. Such adulterations 
may be detected by the greatly reduced boil- 
ing point of the fluid. Scammony, which is 



extensively used as a drastic purgative, was 
before the passage of the law always very im- 
pure. At Smyrna its adulteration is still a 
regularly established business. The article 
called cake scammony, bought and sold in this 
country, is considered good if it is found to 
contain 20 per cent, of the genuine material ; 
and virgin scammony passes if it contains no 
more than 20 per cent, of foreign matter. This 
is usually starch. Chalk and flour are also used. 
ADULTERY, the voluntary sexual intercourse 
of a married person with another than the hus- 
band or wife. As a topic of the law, adultery 
may be considered, first, as a ground of di- 
vorce; second, as a criminal offence. I. In 
civil cases. The adultery of either party to the 
marriage contract is now a ground for absolute 
divorce in almost all Protestant states. It was 
not so, however, either in Scotland or England 
until the reformation; and after that, though 
in the former country divorces a vinculo were 
allowed for adultery, the law remained un- 
changed in England for a long time, and as it 
had been administered in the spiritual courts 
ever since the Catholic period ; and by the ec- 
clesiastical law marriage was held to be an in- 
dissoluble contract, and divorces from it were 
prohibited. The consequence was, that though 
divorces a mensa et thoro, or rather separations 
from bed and board, were granted, the only 
absolute divorces to be had in England were 
those procured from parliament upon petition. 
Proceedings of this character were very ex- 
pensive and cumbrous ; and besides, it was the 
almost uniform practice of parliament to grant 
divorces to husbands only, and to refuse them 
to wives. The divorce act of 20 and 21 Vic- 
toria, ch. 85, has partly removed this invidious 
distinction ; but not even now have husband 
and wife in England equal legal rights and 
remedies in this respect. Under this statute 
the husband may have a dissolution of the mar- 
riage when the wife has since its celebration 
been guilty of adultery ; but the wife may have 
such relief only when the husband since the 
marriage has been guilty of incestuous adul- 
tery ; or of adultery with bigamy ; or of rape, 
sodomy, or bestiality; or of adultery coupled 
with such cruelty as, without adultery, would 
have entitled the wife to a divorce from bed 
and board before the statute ; or of adultery 
coupled with desertion without reasonable ex- 
cuse for two years and upward. The incestu- 
ous adultery of this statute is declared to mean 
adultery with a woman with whom the hus- 
band could not have contracted a valid mar- 
riage, on account of her relationship to him 
within the prohibited degrees of affinity or con- 
sanguinity; and the bigamy of the statute 
means marriage of the husband with another 
woman during the life of his lawful wife, 
whether within or beyond the realm. It has 
been shown that by the common law of Eng- 
land, at the time of the settlement of this 
country, adultery was ground only for a divorce 
a mensa; and as our law followed that of the 



ADULTERY 



135 



parent state, the common law of the United 
States was to the same effect. But as the 
power to grant such divorces was vested in 
England in the ecclesiastical courts, and no such 
tribunals were ever erected here, the jurisdic- 
tion over divorces was granted to our common 
law courts by' special statutes. But these stat- 
utes did not limit the relief, as in England, to 
mere separation, but have almost universally 
made adultery the cause for absolute divorce ; 
also, here as in Scotland, the law makes no dis- 
tinction in favor of the husband, but adminis- 
ters the remedy in favor of either party to the 
marriage, and for the same grounds. In refer- 
ence to divorce, it is immaterial whether the 
paramour of the adulterous husband or wife be 
married or single. It is essential to the action 
for divorce that the adultery be voluntary. 
Thus a woman is not guilty of it in having in- 
tercourse with a man whom she innocently 
supposed to be her husband, nor if she commit- 
ted the act in a state of insanity, or was forced 
to it by a ravisher. It has been held other- 
wise in Pennsylvania in regard to insanity, 
Chief Justice Gibson declaring that insanity so 
great as to efface from the mind of the wife 
the first lines of conjugal fidelity will be no de- 
fence to the husband's action for adultery. 
But this seems hardly sound, and it is probably 
not law in any other state. Adultery may be 
committed by the contraction of a new mar- 
riage under the belief that the former husband 
or wife is dead, when that is not the fact ; for 
unless the period of absence is the full term 
prescribed by statute for founding the presump- 
tion of death, the mere belief of it is not 
deemed innocent. But in such a case, if the 
new marriage is by law not totally void, but 
only voidable, the essential adultery is not com- 
mitted unless the parties continue to cohabit 
after the passing of a decree against them ; and 
even when a divorce regular in form has been 
procured, if it was invalid in fact, either be- 
cause the party defendant was not within the 
jurisdiction or power of the court which granted 
it, or for any other reason, the plaintiff in the 
divorce suit may be guilty of adultery in con- 
tracting a new marriage. The bill or com- 
plaint for divorce on the ground of adultery 
must in general allege the time and place of the 
commission of the act, and the name of the 
person with whom it was committed. The 
principle which requires these specifications is 
that the defendant is entitled to be informed 
with reasonable certainty of the nature of the 
charge made against him, so that he may have 
an opportunity to prepare his defence intelli- 
gently. If, however, the name of the para- 
mour is not known to the complainant, the 
allegation on this point may be to the effect 
that the act was done with some person 
unknown, and this will suffice if the bill is 
in other respects specific enough to make 
the charge definite and certain on the whole. 
But if the allegation of adultery is based on 
circumstantial evidence of its commission, as 



for example on the fact that the defendant is 
infected with a venereal disease, or that a wife 
is found pregnant after such an absence of the 
husband as precludes the presumption of ac- 
cess on his part, the complaint or libel will bo 
good if, besides charging adultery generally, it 
suggests such reasonable circumstances as fairly 
support the allegation. The charge of adultery 
is made out by proof of a single act ; but it is 
not necessary that the court or jury which de- 
cides upon the case should be furnished with de- 
monstrative proof that the act was committed, 
or be absolutely convinced of the very time and 
place when or where it was committed. From 
the nature of the act, the evidence of it is and 
must be in the mass of cases only circumstan- 
tial. Sometimes the circumstantial evidence is 
very simple, but of a very convincing charac- 
ter ; and sometimes the nature of the case re- 
quires the scrutiny, comparison, and interpre- 
tation of trains of circumstances which re- 
garded separately are insufficiently criminating. 
As an illustration of the former sort of evidence, 
Lord Stowell's remark may be quoted, that 
"as people, according to the old saying, do not 
go to bawdy houses to say their paternosters, 
it is impossible that one can have gone to such 
a place for any but improper purposes ; " and 
to have done so is universally held to be good 
proof of adultery. Accordingly, it has been 
held to be sufficient evidence of adultery, pri- 
ma facie at least, that a man has gone to a 
brothel and shut himself into a room with a 
prostitute ; and the same is true if a married 
woman goes to such a house with another man 
than her husband, or even alone. Of course, 
in both cases proof of innocence, or better of 
an innocent purpose, is admissible, though such 
evidence would not have much weight in most 
cases. The mere fact that a man and woman 
live together in the same house, even with the 
common reputation of being married, while 
they are not so in fact, would probably not, 
without other suspicious circumstances, be held 
sufficient proof of adultery ; though it would be 
otherwise if the parties gave themselves out to 
be husband and wife. With reference to cases 
where the intent of the defendant is less 
clear, and where the approaches to the act 
have been less bold and open, the courts have 
used such language as this : that it is impossible 
to lay down in the form of a rule what circum- 
stances shall or shall not constitute satisfactory 
proof of the fact of adultery, because the same 
facts may constitute such proof or not, as they 
are modified or influenced by different circum- 
stances. But there must be on the whole sat- 
isfactory proof that a criminal attachment or 
purpose existed between the parties, and that 
opportunities occurred when the intercourse in 
which it is clear that the parties intended to 
indulge might have taken place. If, for ex- 
ample, a married woman were shown by un- 
doubted proof to have been in an equivocal 
position with a man not her husband, leading 
to a suspicion of her adultery; if it were proved 



136 



ADULTERY 



that she had shown an improper fondness for 
the man; if they had been detected in clan- 
destine correspondence, had had private meet- 
ings, or made passionate declarations; if her 
affection had been alienated from her hus- 
band, or it appeared that her mind and heart 
were already depraved, and nothing was want- 
ing but an opportunity to consummate the 
guilty purpose; then proof that such oppor- 
tunity had occurred in connection with some 
or all of these other circumstances, according 
to the nature of the case, would lead to the 
satisfactory conclusion that the act had been 
committed. The guilty consummation, in short, 
may be fairly and conclusively presumed from 
such circumstances of conduct as, on grounds 
of common experience and common sense, 
would lead the discreet and careful judgment 
of a reasonable and just man to that conclusion. 
But, on the same principles, the conclusion 
may not be fairly or justly deduced, even 
when a witness testifies to the actual fact 
of adultery; for his testimony may be un- 
worthy of credit, either because he is mistaken 
or because he does not speak the truth. On 
this ground the direct but uncorroborated 
evidence of two prostitutes as to the very act 
has been held insufficient proof of it; and on 
the same principle, the testimony even of the 
paramour of the defendant may require con- 
firmation. Such a person, it has been said, is 
an accomplice, and all the legal considerations 
applicable to such a witness must be applied 
to him or her. Upon the same principles and 
within the same spirit of construction already 
suggested, acts in themselves rather innocent 
and indifferent may take the color of guilt 
from proof of other circumstances attending 
them. Thus the mere visit of a married woman 
to the lodgings of a single man has been held 
insufficient, alone, to establish criminality ; but 
the act receives a different complexion when 
there is also proof of correspondence or other im- 
proper conduct between the parties. So, though 
a mere correspondence or intimacy with the al- 
leged paramour would not be by itself sufficient, 
proof that there had been falsehood or conceal- 
ment in respect to these things might justify 
the inference of guilt Again, the difference 
between the higher and lower classes of society 
in their habits of life and social manners must 
be taken into the account in passing upon the 
behavior of parties in certain instances. For 
indelicate acts and demeanor, wlrich among the 
vulgar may be consistent with innocence, may 
deserve no such favorable significance when 
observed among those whose breeding is finer. 
(See DIVORCE.) II. The criminal offence. Adul- 
tery, by which is here meant the mere private 
act, is not a crime nor indictable at common 
law. Before the famous adultery act of 1650, 
in the time of the commonwealth, there was no 
law in England against adultery and the kindred 
acts as criminal offences. This statute intro- 
duced at once the utmost severity, ordaining 
death for incest and adultery, and three 



months' imprisonment for simple fornication, 
and making a second offence felony without cler- 
gy. The act was repealed at the restoration, 
and nothing was substituted in its place. Adul- 
tery, however, has been, theoretically at least, 
punishable in England by virtue of unwritten 
law in the ecclesiastical courts, though the of- 
fence has never been pursued with any great or 
systematic vigor ; and it may be remembered 
that Blackstone charges the framers of the 
canon law with an improper levity in respect 
to this sort of offences from their own aptitude 
to commit them. In Scotland there is still, or 
until very recently there was, on its statute 
book a law making adultery and incest capital 
offences. The statute, as to adultery at all 
events, has been long in disuse. In many of 
the United States adultery is made criminal by 
special statutes, but in as many more it is not 
criminal. But though the simple act is not a 
crime in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Lou- 
isiana, and other states, yet in many of them 
open and notorious adultery is criminal. The 
nature of the offence of adultery, created by 
statutes, is sometimes clearly denned by their 
provisions; but many of the statutes on this 
head simply declare the punishment of adul- 
tery, using the word as if it had a precisely as- 
certained meaning. In such cases it has been 
necessary for the courts to determine what acts 
were intended to be covered by the word ; and 
upon this point has arisen an extreme diversity 
of opinion on account of the different views 
which have been taken of the policy of the law 
on the subject. Thus it has been sometimes 
said that an unmarried man's illicit intercourse 
with a married woman is adultery on his part, 
because he may impose a spurious issue upon 
the husband ; and, upon the same ground, that 
a man, though married, does not commit adul- 
tery in having intercourse with an unmarried 
woman, because in that case there is no possi- 
bility of that result. It has also been said that 
when either of the parties to the act is married, 
though the other is not, both commit adultery. 
In Massachusetts the statute expressly provides 
that when the crime is committed between a 
married woman and an unmarried man, the 
latter shall be deemed guilty of criminal adul- 
tery, and be liable to the punishment prescribed 
for that offence. The statute of Minnesota is 
to the same effect. In the absence of such pro- 
visions, it has been held in New Jersey, for ex- 
ample, that in such a case the man does not 
commit the crime, and in Virginia that his act 
is only fornication. In Connecticut the statute 
provides that " every man and every married 
woman who shall commit the crime of adul- 
tery with each other shall be punished with 
imprisonment." The statute of Iowa declares 
that when the crime is committed between 
persons only one of whom is married, both are 
guilty of adultery, and shall be punished ac- 
cordingly. It seems on the whole to be the 
prevailing and better rule, when positive enact- 
ments do not forbid it, that when one of the 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 

parties to the act is married and the other is 
not, it is adultery in the married one, whether 
man or woman, and only fornication in the 
other. From this rule results as the best defi- 
nition that can be given of the offence, that 
criminal adultery is the voluntary sexual inter- 
course of a married person with another than 
the husband or wife ; and this is the position 
taken by Mr. Bishop, the highest American au- 
thority on this and the cognate topics of the 
law. Even though the single private act of 
adultery is not criminal or indictable at com- 
mon law, yet within the principle that the gen- 
eral law will punish all acts which offend against 
public morality, adultery may take so gross and 
openly indecent a form as to be regarded as 
criminal at common law. But offences of this 
Character are in general made the subject of 
special statutes. Such crimes, especially the 
living together in adultery, are not ordinarily 
regarded by the law as having been committed 
by mere occasional acts of private intercourse, 
but there must be proof of a general course of 
misbehavior, an habitual living or lodging to- 
gether, though it is not impossible that the 
complete offence may be committed in a single 
day. In several of the states it is provided 
that no criminal prosecution for adultery shall 
be commenced except on the complaint of the 
husband or wife of a guilty party. 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, Associations for 
the. The British association for the advance- 
ment of science was formed in 1831, principally 
through the energy of Sir David Brewster, sup- 

g>rted by Sir Humphry Davy, Sir John F. W. 
erschel, Mr. Charles Babbage, Messrs. Forbes, 
Johnston, and Robison of Edinburgh, and Mr. 
Murchison of London. The main feature which 
distinguishes it is an annual gathering of its 
members, at which each one who has made 
what he supposes a real advance reads his pa- 
per for the criticism of laborers in the same de- 
partment of science. The association also pro- 
cures reports upon the state of each particular 
science, its progress, and its needs, as a guide 
to inquiry. The effect of the formation of this 
society upon the state of science in England 
has been very marked. The first meeting, in 
September, 1831, consisted of about 200 mem- 
bers; the second, June, 1832, numbered 700; 
the third, 900 ; and the fourth, in September, 
1834, 1,390. The transactions are annually pub- 
lished in octavo volumes of about 500 pages, 
and these contain a record of nearly every im- 
portant step taken in British science during the 
past 40 years. In the reports included in these 
transactions are also found the discoveries of 
continental and American men of science. The 
American association for the advancement of 
science was formed in September, 1847, by the 
association of American geologists and natural- 
ists. The first meeting of the new association 
was held in Philadelphia in September, 1848, 
and although the original association of geolo- 
gists consisted of only 21 members, 461 names 
were enrolled in the first list of members of 



ADVERTISEMENT 



137 



the new society, which now embraces nearly 
every scientific man in the United States. The 
2d meeting was held at Cambridge in Au- 
gust, 1849; the 3d at Charleston, March, 1850; 
the 4th at New Haven, August, 1850; the 5th 
at Cincinnati, May, 1851 ; the 6th at Albany, 
August, 1851 ; the 7th at Cleveland, July, 
1853; the 8th at Washington, April, 1854; the 
9th at Providence, August, 1855 ; the 10th at 
Albany, August, 1856; the llth at Montreal, 
August, 1857; the 12th at Baltimore, May, 
1858; the 13th at Springfield, Mass., August, 
1859; the 14th at Newport, R. L, August, 

1860. The 15th was appointed for April 17, 

1861, at Nashville, Tenn., but was postponed in 
consequence of the civil war, and after an inter- 
val of several years was finally held at Buffalo 
in August, 1866. The 16th was held at Burling- 
ton, Vt., in August, 1867; the 17th at Chicago, 
August, 1868 ; the 18th at Salem, Mass., August, 
1869; the 19th at Troy, N. Y., August, 1870; 
the 20th at Indianapolis, August, 1871 ; the 21st 
at Dubuque, Iowa (substituted for San Fran- 
cisco), August, 1872. The objects and methods 
of the association are identical with those of 
the British society. The proceedings of each 
meeting form an octavo volume of about 300 
pages, and this series of volumes contains the 
most valuable results of American scientific in- 
quiry during the last 25 years. The mathe- 
matical papers are not usually published in de- 
tail, but the titles of all papers offered at the 
meeting are published, and thus the volumes 
furnish at least a record of the growth of 
American science, a growth partly due, as it is 
well known, to the influence of this association. 
The usual number of members is about 700. 

ADVENT, the period of four weeks preced- 
ing Christmas, appointed by several Christian 
churches to be observed in honor of the ap- 
proach of the anniversary of Christ's nativity. 
It formerly occupied six weeks, and that is still 
the case in the Greek church. It commences 
with the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's day 
(Nov. 30). In England and some parts of the 
European continent, marriages can be performed 
only by special license during this period. 

ADVERTISEMENT, a public notification. An- 
nouncements in the public journals known as 
advertisements appeared while journalism was 
in its infancy. The Acta Diurna of the Ro- 
mans, the Gassetta of the Venetians, and the 
affiche* of the French belong rather to the 
crude devices which led to the creation of 
journalism than to the history of advertising ; 
while the stamping and bill-posting processes 
of ancient times, and the fence and rock deco- 
rations of to-day, sometimes considered in 
connection with advertising, are little else than 
ingenious sign-painting. The advertisement 
proper arose with periodical literature, and 
must be considered in connection with its de- 
velopment. The first regular newspaper, " The 
Certain Newes of this Present Week," pub- 
lished in England in 1622, did not contain any 
advertisements; but they appeared in some- 



138 



ADVERTISEMENT 



thing like a resemblance to the present form in ' 
1652, in a paper called the "Mercurius Po- 
liticus." It needed but a short time to pop- 
ularize the idea, and those notices which are 
still called "hue and cry advertisements" 
for thieves and runaway apprentices soon 
became prominent features in the papers. 
Books were the earliest articles advertised, 
and were followed by groceries tea (or, as it 
was then called, "tcha") being the first article 
of merchandise announced. By 1688 Eng- 
land had added a sufficient number of news- 
papers to her meagre list to cause advertise- 
ments, especially those of popular amusements, 
to be eagerly looked for. The plague brought 
the first medical advertisements. Under Wil- 
liam and Mary a gratuitous journal was started 
devoted solely to advertisements. It lived but 
two years. A similar enterprise a few years 
afterward succeeded. In 1700 advertising had 
become very general, and in 1710 we find 
Addison reviewing the advertisements of his 
time, " printed with little cuts and figures " 
this being the first we hear of pictorial adver- 
tisements. In 1800 a crude system of classify- 
ing and arranging advertisements was adopted. 
The further progress of advertising up to the 
time when the enterprise of the United States 
pushed it onward may be followed out in the 
history of the London "Times," which was 
established in 1788. The "Times" did little 
to reduce advertising to a system, but it demon- 
strated its value to the public, and its impor- 
tance in the economy of newspapers. In 1865 
a single number is said to have con tamed 2,575 
advertisements, and other numbers are cited 
containing still more. The first printing press 
was brought to America in 1629. In 1704 the 
first regular newspaper, "The Boston News 
Letter," was established. This was often 
without a single advertisement, and had been 
published 40 years before its circulation 
reached 800. It needed 15 years after the 
establishment of the first paper to add a 
second and third. With the increase of ship- 
ping interests newspapers appeared in larger 
numbers, and advertisements began to multi- 

?*.y- In 1725 the first newspaper in New 
ork, the "Gazette," was commenced; and 
in 1728 Philadelphia founded the journal 
which at its 40th number passed into the 
hands of Benjamin Franklin. At this tune the 
country contained but seven newspapers. In 
1775 there were 34. Then came the war 
of independence, which put journalism back 
again ; but after its close the country steadily 
advanced in periodical literature. In 1787 the 
first daily journal, the "Independent Gazette," 
was commenced in New York, and in the 
following year (the same in which the Lon- 
don " Tunes " was established) it contained 84 
advertisements. It seems from these facts 
that England and America made advertis- 
ing a serious business more nearly at the same 
time than is usually supposed. England had 
largely the advantage, however, in population 



and in developed resources. Some of the 
larger tradesmen in London soon learned that 
those who advertised most liberally received 
the most custom. Competition among dealers 
created a large advertising business, which 
certain special advertisers carried so far as to 
astonish the world, until the growth of Ameri- 
can advertising enterprise developed the fact 
that heavy advertising was not so much a bold 
as a strictly legitimate operation on the part of 
business men. Various food and medicinal 
preparations and many fancy articles were 
advertised in England until the yearly amounts 
paid the newspapers on account of a single 
article sometimes reached $100,000 to $150,000. 
Cuts became almost innumerable, and, with 
crests and monograms, appeared in every, 
paper which would admit them. The advance, 
of journalism in America can, up to a certain 
time, be best given in its statistics, it being 
understood that advertising fully kept pace 
with it and to a considerable extent made it 
possible. In 1794 the "Commercial Adver- 
tiser " was commenced in New York, and in 
1801 the "Evening Post." Both journals had 
considerable influence and grew rapidly. The 
year 1810 found 32 papers in the state of 
Massachusetts, and 10 years afterward there 
were 690 in the United States. In 1830 there 
were 1,000, and in 1840, 1,401. The New 
York " Sun," founded in 1833, the " Herald," 
in 1835, and the "Tribune," in 1841, had in- 
troduced some new ideas, which not only 
enlarged the power and influence of journal- 
ism, but greatly popularized advertising. 
Transient advertising was encouraged, it being 
discovered that a regular run of small adver- 
tisements, at fair rates, continued the year 
round, paid better than contracts for the same 
space devoted to long advertisements at low 
rates, and which lasted only during the busi- 
ness season. A variety in the classes of adver- 
tisements was also introduced, and is almost 
peculiar to American newspapers. For in- 
stance, the advertiser could insert, if he chose, 
amusing "reading" or "local" notices, in 
which matters interesting the public mind were 
ingeniously joined with the goods for sale. 
"Business Notices" and "Special Notices" 
are other varieties of early adoption, for which 
higher prices are obtained than for the ordi- 
nary advertisement. In 1860 the United 
States contained the surprising number of 
5,253 newspapers. The art of advertising 
was growing into something like system. Ex- 
pedients of all kinds were used. Odd and 
startling cuts were adopted in spite of the 
newspaper rule (not always enforced) of double 
prices for such figures; while the old-fash- 
ioned, simple style of advertising grew to very 
large proportions, and enabled almost every 
village in the country to have its newspaper. 
As the business became so extensive and the 
territory to be covered so large, advertising 
agencies became necessary. These exist to-day 
in England and continental Europe, but have 



ADVEETISEMENT 

by no means the importance which from the 
nature of the case they have attained in the 
United States. A few large houses one of 
which situated in New York has transactions 
to the amount of nearly one million dollars 
per annum do most of the agency business. 
It requires a high reputation for responsibility 
either to obtain the advertising or secure favor- 
able contracts with the newspapers. The 
method pursued by the better class of agents 
is simple in principle, but the details require 
great labor and attention. The largest house 
in the United States employs about 40 men 
permanently, and occupies one of the best 
offices in New York. It has its own printing 
establishment, and keeps files of nearly 6,000 
periodicals. The advertiser gives in his 
"copy," chooses the papers in which it is to 
appear, and receives an estimate of the cost. 
The copy is printed, forwarded to publishers, 
and inserted in the space contracted for. The 
agent receives his commission entirely from the 
paper, though it will be understood that he 
saves the advertiser large sums in postage or 
.travelling expenses and much time and trouble. 
The papers, as fast as returned with the adver- 
tisements, are entered, checked, and verified, 
after which they are filed away for the inspec- 
tion of the advertiser if he desires to examine 
them. The first advertising agency in America 
was established in 1828 by Mr. Orlando 
Bourne, and was followed hi 1840 by the 
founding of similar agencies in Philadelphia, 
Boston, and New York, by Mr. V. B. Palmer. 
It was not until about 1860 that anything like 
full lists of newspapers appeared and the busi- 
ness was systematized. A complete "Amer- 
ican Newspaper Directory " is now published 
by a New York advertising agency, and an- 
nually revised; and the same firm publish a 
weekly "Newspaper Reporter," which fully 
records the occurrences in the newspaper and 
advertising world. The number of large cities 
in the United States having a powerful and 
thoroughly organized press would naturally 
give rise to the supposition that advertising 
was cheaper here than in England, where the 
very large papers are few in number. But 
such is not the case. "Harper's Weekly," for 
example, considered an important medium for 
"scattered" advertising, receives from $1.50 
to $2.50 per line, and "Frank Leslie's Illus- 
trated Newspaper" from $1 to $1.50. The 
" New York Weekly Tribune " receives from $2 
to $5 per line, the latter price being for notices 
inserted among the news. The "New York 
Weekly," a story paper, receives $3 per line. 
The "Fireside Companion," "Harper's Bazar," 
"The Scientific American," and others, charge 
$1 per line, although the last-named paper, to 
protect its smaller advertisers against being 
overshadowed, has adopted the peculiar rule 
of charging 25 cents per line additional for 
advertisements over four lines in a certain part 
of the sheet devoted to this purpose. The 
larger dailies in New York receive from 20 to 



ADVOCATUS DIABOLI. 



139 



40 cents per line for ordinary advertisements, 
and $1 to $2.50 per line for notices insert- 
ed among the general reading matter. The 
amounts expended by certain advertisers, 
though often exaggerated, have been very 
large. Ten years ago, when boldness was less 
a habit than to-day, $150,000 was spent by one 
firm in New York for a year's advertising. 
Since that time the same sum has been ex- 
pended repeatedly. A patent medicine dealer 
in New York has several times advertised to 
the extent of $250,000 a year. To advertise 
to the amount of $100,000 a year now excites 
little surprise in the United States, and many 
names might be given of those who do not 
use less than $50,000 or $25,000 for their 
yearly advertising. Some of the larger incor- 
porated companies are also heavy advertisers. 
This is a peculiar feature in this country, as 
most of these interests are advertised in 
Europe by a brief card, if at all. The " Union 
Pacific Railway Company," and also the 
"Northern Pacific," are stated to have adver- 
tised to the extent of between $400,000 and 
$500,000 in a little over two years. Insurance 
companies expend large amounts in this way, 
and banking houses, brokers, and those con- 
nected with shipping interests, all find adver- 
tising advantageous. Nor are their advertise- 
ments confined to any single class of news- 
papers. When Jay Cooke advertised the 
bonds of the United States, his announcements 
were seen throughout the country. The bank- 
er's orders to his manager were, " Give the 
advertisement to all those newspapers that are 
alive enough to apply for it." The faith of 
Americans in advertising may best be shown 
in the fact that newspaper publishers and the 
largest advertising agents are often liberal ad- 
vertisers. The sum of $3,500 has been paid by 
" The Sun " for an advertisement in one number 
of a publication. The weekly paper which is 
supposed to have the largest circulation in the 
country, the "New York Ledger," gained it 
almost exclusively by advertising. In 1867 
the government tax was collected on nearly 
$10,000,000 worth of advertisements. New- 
York state paid nearly $100,000 tax, at 3 per 
cent, (of which the city alone paid over $80,- 
000), Philadelphia $30,000, Boston $23,000, 
Cincinnati $16,000, Chicago $15,000, and New 
Orleans and St. Louis each over $13,000. In 
the five years 1867-'72 the amount paid by 
the public for their advertising must have 
reached $15,000,000 annually. The use of 
pictures in the advertising columns of news- 
papers is gaining constantly in popularity, and 
less and less resistance is made to it by pub- 
lishers. Of the 150 religious newspapers, most 
of which refused cuts two or three years ago, 
all but 16 now accept them. 

ADVOCATE. See LAWYER. 

ADVOCATUS DIABOLI, in the Catholic church, 
the speaker or writer who shows cause against 
the canonization of a person proposed for saint- 
hood. The advocate who defends the proposed 



140 



ADVOWSON 



saint is called adtocatus Dei. The advocatw 
diaboli insists upon the weak points of the 
good man's or woman's life. Hence the name 
is sometimes popularly applied to those who 
detract from the characters of good men. 

ADVOWSON, in English law, the right of pre- 
senting to a vacant living in the church. Ad- 
vowson, according to Blackstone, signifies tak- 
ing into protection or patronage. When the 
lord of a manor built a church and endowed it, 
he acquired a right of nominating the minis- 
ters, provided they were canonically qualified. 
Advowsons are property, and as such purchas- 
able, provided that certain laws for the pre- 
vention of simony are not infringed in the pur- 
chase. These laws are, however, more fre- 
quently evaded than obeyed. The most ordi- 
nary form of advowson is the presentation of a 
duly qualified clergyman to the bishop for insti- 
tution into the living. The bishop has the right 
to reject the candidate presented ; but in a few 
rare cases the patron has a right of presenting 
a person without the bishop's interference. 
The benefices of the church of England are in 
every case subjects of presentation. They are 
nearly 12,000 in number ; the advowson of more 
than half of them belongs to private persons, and 
of the remainder to the crown, bishops, deans 
and chapters, universities, and colleges. The in- 
cumbents are maintained by tithes, or since the 
tithes commutation act by taxes in lieu pf 
tithes. The elective right of the congregation 
is unknown in the church of England, except 
in regard to those clergymen who perform du- 
ties in excess of the regular duties of the rec- 
tor or vicar; such for instance as lecturers, 
who are paid by voluntary contributions. 

UACUS, in Greek mythology, son of Jupiter 
and ^Egina, and first king of the island of JEgi- 
na. He was renowned for his justice, so that 
he was called upon to settle disputes not only 
among men, but even among the gods. His 
reputation was such that, on the occasion of 
an excessive drought in Greece, he was ap- 
pointed by the oracle of Delphi to intercede 
with the gods for rain, and his prayers were 
successful. After his death, Pluto made him 
one of the three judges of Hades. 

JEDILES (Let. </</,.<, a building, temple), Ro- 
man magistrates charged with the supervision 
of public buildings, archives, streets, roads, 
aqueducts, markets, baths, eating houses, places 
of amusement, and public games ; with the reg- 
ulation of prices of provisions, and of weights 
and measures; with the sanitary superinten- 
dence, and various other functions of a similar 
character. The aediles were originally of the 
plebeian order, and served as assistants to the 
tribunes of the people. Subsequently they be- 
came independent magistrates. In the earlier 
part of the 4th century B. C. two patrician 
aediles were added, who enjoyed the doable 
privilege of wearing the toga prcetexta and sit- 
ting on curule chairs (cediles curules). These 
privileges were soon after extended to their 
plebeian colleagues. In the latter periods of 



the republic the office of eedile became an 
object of great ambition to wealthy politicians, 
who sought to win the favor of the multitude 
by lavish expenditures on the public games. 

*:w I. or llrilui. a powerful people of Celtic 
Gaul, between the Sa6ne and the upper Loire, 
which rivers separated their territory from the 
countries of the Sequani and Bituriges. They 
were the first Gallic tribes which concluded an 
alliance with the Romans, and having, after a 
struggle with the Sequani, fallen under the 
power of Ariovistus, the German ally of the 
latter, were restored to power by Julius Caesar, 
shortly after the opening of his Gallic cam- 
paigns (58 B. C.). They joined, however, in 
the great rising against that conqueror under 
Vercingetorix (52), on whose fall they were len- 
iently treated by the victor. Their chief town 
was Bibracte, subsequently called Augustodu- 
num, now Autun, in Burgundy. 

*(. KOV See BHIARECS. 

JSGJSliS, a legendary king of Athens, father 
of Theseus. Misled by a false signal to be- 
lieve that his son had been killed in a contest 
with the Minotaur, he cast himself into the sea, 
which, according to some, was called after him 
the ^Egean. 

K.K IN SEA. See ARCHIPELAGO. 

K(.l\ \. or Eglna (Turk. Engia), a Greek 
island in the Saronic gulf (now gulf of ^Egina), 
12 m. S. S. W. of the Pirfeus, about 9 m. long 
from N. E. to S. W., and about 7 m. wide. Its 
western side consists of stony but fertile plains, 
which are well cultivated and produce luxuriant 
crops. The rest of the island is mountainous. 
The climate is the most healthy in Greece. 
From its hills a magnificent prospect unfolds 
itself. Its chief interest depends on its past 
history and its antiquities, it having been one 
of the most celebrated islands of Greece, both 
in the mythological and historical periods, and 
also in the sphere of art. It was a Dorian 
settlement, and was one of the first places in 
Greece noted for its maritime ascendancy. As 
early as 563 B. C. ^Egina had a factory in 
Egypt. It was a great rendezvous for pirates 
and slave traders, fugitive criminals and in- 
solvent debtors. The people of ^Egina, with 
their contingent of 80 ships, played a brilliant 
part in the great sea fight off Salamis. Its 
earliest enemy was Athens, which state event- 
ually, in 429 B. C., took possession of the 
island and expelled its inhabitants, ^gina, 
though often mentioned in the Greek authors, 
never recovered any political or commercial 
importance. Sulpicius, in one of his letters to 
Cicero, in which he alludes to a cruise in the 
Saronic gulf, speaks of ^Egina as a monument 
of departed greatness. Its chief temple was 
that of Zeus Panhellenins, or, in the opinion of 
some archaeologists, that of Minerva, mentioned 
by Herodotus. Cicero speaks of it as in ruins. 
In 1811 a company of German and British 
scholars cleared away the rubbish which had 
accumulated in the course of 2,000 years at the 
base of the temple, and after 20 days' excavat- 



^EGIS 



AEOLIAN HARP 



141 



ing were rewarded by the discovery of 16 
statues of an early type of Greek sculpture. 
These statues are now in the Glyptothek of 
Munich, and have been restored by Thor- 
waldsen. The subject is supposed to be the 
expedition of the JEacidse or ^Eginetan heroes 
against Troy, under the guidance of Minerva. 
The present population of the island is about 
6,000, and that of its chief town, of the same 
name, on the "W. side, near the ruins of the 
ancient town, 3,000. The products are wine, 
oil, fruits, and grain. The JEgina almonds are 
the best in Greece. The water works on the 
neighboring Mount Elias, famous for its mag- 
nificent views, save the island from drought. 
A bishop resides on the island, and schools and 
churches abound. Since the decay of the By- 
zantine empire, ^Egina has been successively in 
the hands of the Venetians, Turks, and Greeks. 
IJnder Capodistria it was from 1828 to 1831 
the seat of the government. Edmond About 
has published rile cTfigine (1854). 

jEGIS (Gr. alt, she goat), the appellation of 
the shield of Jupiter, which was covered with 
the skin of the goat Amalthea, by which that 
god was nourished in infancy. Minerva also 
bore an segis, which, at least according to post- 
Homeric mythology, was of different origin. 

J3GISTHUS, king of Mycense, son of Thyes- 
tes and cousin to Agamemnon. He formed an 
adulterous connection with Agamemnon's wife 
Clytemnestra during his absence at Troy, and 
contrived his murder on his return. Eight 
years later he was slain by Orestes, the son of 
Agamemnon. Writers later than Homer tell 
a frightful story of incest and crime about 
^Egisthus and his family. (See ATRETJS.) 

J2LIA CAPITOLINA, a name given to Jerusa- 
lem by the emperor Hadrian (vElius Hadri- 
anus), who, after a rebellion of the Jews in 
his reign, drove them from the destroyed city 
and its environs, and repeopled it with Roman 
colonists. It went by this title until the tune 
of the Christian emperors. 

JELIAWS, Claudius, a writer of the early part 
of the 3d century, born at Praeneste in Italy. 
His compilation, generally known under the 
Latin title Varia Historia, is still extant, as 
well as an original treatise De Animalium 
Natura. These works are written in Greek, 
of which the author, though an Italian by 
birth, was a perfect master. 

AKLST, or Aalst, a town of Belgium. See 
ALOST. 

AKLST, or Aalst. I. Evert Tan, a Dutch paint- 
er, born in Delft in 1602, died in 1658. He 
was distinguished for painting flowers, dead 
birds, and game, and other inanimate objects. 
Few of his works are to be found in picture 
galleries. II. Willem van, nephew and pupil of 
the preceding, born in Delft in 1620, died in 
Amsterdam in 1679. His works in the same 
line were more admired than those of his uncle, 
and are to be found in the galleries of Berlin, 
Munich, and Dresden, as well as in France and 
Italy, in which countries he spent many years, 



particularly in Florence. In the coloring, fin- 
ish, delicacy, and naturalness of his flowers 
and fruits painted on vases, he had no superior. 

KMIMI s PAIILUS. I. See PAULUS, L. ^Eni- 
LIUS. II. (PAOLO EMILIO), an Italian historian, 
born in Verona, died in Paris, May 5, 1529. 
In consequence of his celebrity as a writer in 
Italy, Louis XII. made him a canon of the 
cathedral of Paris, and employed him to write 
a history of the kings of France in Latin. 

JENEAS, son of Anchises and Venus, a Tro- 
jan prince, with whom tradition connects the 
origin of the Roman empire. Having fought 
for Troy till it fell, he quitted the burning city 
with his followers, accompanied by his father 
and son. After visiting various countries, they 
landed on the shores of Latium, where they 
met with a friendly reception from King Lati- 
nus. They settled there, and soon became in- 
volved in hostilities with the people of the 
country, in the course of which Latinus was 
slain. ^Eneas was finally victorious. He mar- 
ried Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus. His 
son by Creusa, Ascanius or lulus, founded 
Alba Longa, one of the last kings of which, 
Numitor, was the grandfather of Romulus and 
Remus, the founders of Rome. ^Eneas is the 
hero of Virgil's ^Eneid. 

.ENEAS SYLVIUS. See Pius II. (pope). 

jENEID. See VIRGIL. 

JENIANES, an ancient tribe of upper Greece, 
of remote and uncertain origin, whose fre- 
quent migrations" in early times are spoken of 
by many writers of antiquity, especially by 
Plutarch, in his "Greek Questions." Accord- 
ing to this author, they occupied in the first 
instance the Dotian plains, on the confines of 
Thessaly and Macedonia, moved thence into 
Epirus, and in their last migration went from 
Crissa, on the gulf of the same name, to the 
valley of the northern Inachus, on which they 
finally settled. Their chief town was Hypata, 
at the foot of Mt. (Eta, of which considerable 
remains exist at the village of Neopatra. The 
antiquity and early importance of this people 
are attested by the fact of their belonging to 
the Amphictyonic council. At a later period 
they joined the confederation of the other Hel- 
lenic states against Macedonia, which gave rise 
to the Lamian war ; but according to Strabo, 
in his tune they had no longer a national ex- 
istence, having been nearly exterminated by 
the ^Etolians and Athamanians. 

KOLIA.N HARP, a musical instrument, the 
tones of which are produced by the sweeping 
of the wind over its strings. Its invention is 
ascribed to Athanasius Kircher. . It is com- 
posed of a rectangular box made of very thin 
boards, about 5 inches deep and 6 inches wide, 
and long enough to fit across the window in 
which it is to be placed. At the top of each 
end of the box is glued a strip of wood about 
half an inch in height; these strips serve as 
a bridge for the strings, which are stretched 
lengthwise across the top of the box, and are 
made of catgut or wire. These strings should 



AEOLIAN ISLES 



be tuned in unison by means of pegs construct- 
ed to control their tension, as in the violin. 
When the instrument is exposed in a window 




Harp. 



partly open, so as to allow a current of air to 
pass over the strings, a most agreeable com- 
bination of tones is produced, constantly vary- 
ing in pitch and intensity with the force of the 
wind, and forming harmonies of a wild and 
melancholy character. 

MH.M N ISLES. See LIPARI ISLANDS. 

KOI. HNS. the name of one of the primitive 
divisions of the Hellenic race. They are said 
to have dwelt originally in the S. W. part of 
the plain of Thessaly, and thence to have 
spread over other regions of Greece, and after 
the Doric invasion of the Peloponnesus to 
have occupied the N. W. coast region of Asia 
Minor, from them called ^Eolis, and the islands 
of Lesbos and Tenedos. Of the JSolic dialect 
of the Greek, which was chiefly developed in 
Lesbos, only scanty specimens have been pre- 
served ; these bring it nearer to the Doric than 
the Attic. Mythologically, the ^Eolians were 
descended from ^Eolus, the son of Hellen. 

JWLIPYLE, or .Itollpilf (Ai6?<>v-rrv/.at, the gate 
of jEolus ; or, more probably, jEolipila, the 
ball of ^Eolus), a hollow metallic ball, contain- 
ing a curved tube connected with a small ori- 
fice, and sometimes two such tubes turning in 
opposite directions. Water or alcohol being 
introduced in it and boiled, it was used in old 
times to exemplify the force of steam, or as a 
blowpipe when adjusted to a lamp. In 1615 
Salomon de Caus noticed in using it the effect 
of steam in causing water, by the assistance of 
heat, to mount above its level. This machine 
was intended to discover the cause of the winds. 

KOlJs. in ancient geography, a district in 
Asia Minor, originally settled by colonies of 
^Eolian Greeks. It was properly the coast 
land of Mysia, extending from Troas to the 
south bank of the river Hermus. In its broad- 
est signification it included Troas to the shores 
of the Hellespont. In the southern part were 
situated the twelve cities which formed the 
^Eolian league. Of these, Cyme, where the an- 
nual Panseolium was celebrated, and Smyrna, 
which in later times became a member of the 
Ionian confederation, were the most celebrated. 

i:oi.l s. I. In Greek mythological history, 
a son of Hellen, who, in the division by the 



latter of the government of the Hellenes or 
Greeks between him and his brothers Dorus 
and Xuthus, received the throne of Thessaly 
and named his subjects the ^Eolians. He was 
the progenitor of a great race of heroes, the 
jEolids, from whom in turn sprang many of 
the most famous personages of the Greek 
legends. Other genealogies were also given 
by the Greeks to JSolus, but the above, that 
of the Hesiodio catalogue, is that which Grote 
believes to have been generally received. II. 
An inferior god or demigod, ruler of the winds. 
There seems no good reason to connect this 
^Eolus with the preceding, but a few Greek 
authors endeavored to prove even the identity 
of the two, while others made the demigod 
the son of Jupiter and Acasta, daughter of 
Hippotas. ^Eolus was supposed to have his 
home in the island now called Stromboli, of the 
Lipari group, anciently known as the vEolian 
islands. According to tradition, he kept the 
several winds confined in bags, releasing them 
at the command of Neptune. 

JEON, a Greek term signifying age. In 
Gnostic speculations, aeons are embodiments 
of divine attributes. (See GNOSTICS.) 

KP1M s. I. Joliann (the Greek translation 
of his real name, Hoch or Hock, high), a Ger- 
man theologian, born at Ziegesar, Branden- 
burg, in 1499, died in Hamburg, May 13, 1653. 
He studied at Wittenberg, was arrested on ac- 
count of his zeal for the cause of Luther, and 
exerted himself after his release in England 
and Germany on behalf of the reformation. 
He was afterward for some time teacher at 
Stralsund, and organized the new educational 
and ecclesiastical system there, and in Ham- 
burg (1522), in which latter city he was pas- 
tor, and afterward superintendent of St. Peter's 
church from 1529 till his death. He was one 
of the signers of the Smalcald articles in 1537, 
shared in the theological controversies regard- 
ing the Interim, the Adiaphora, and the doc- 
trines of Osiander, and was supported by Fla- 
cius and others, and to a moderate extent also 
.by Melanchthon. II. Franz I Irirli Theodor, a 
German physicist, a descendant of the pre- ' 
ceding, born at Rostock in December, 1724, 
died in Dorpat in 1802. He became professor 
of physics and member of the academy of 
sciences at St. Petersburg in 1757. Catharine 
II. appointed him teacher of her son Paul, di- 
rector of the nobility corps of cadets, and in- 
spector general of the normal schools which 
she projected. He is honored as the inventor 
of the electrophus and of electric condensation, 
an improver of the microscope, and the dis- 
coverer of the electrical polarity of tourmaline. 
He contributed extensively to the publication? 
of the Berlin and St. Petersburg academies. 
His principal work is Tentamen Theories Elec' 
tricitati* et Magnetismi (St. Petersburg, 1759; 
French translation, abridged by Hauy, 1787). 
One of his other works, written in German, 
was translated in 1762 into French by M. 
Eaoult, under the title of Reflexions sur la 



^EQUI 



AEROLITE 



143 



distribution de la chaleur sur la surface de 
la terre. He wrote in French Description des 
nouveaux microscopes inventes par M. sEpinus 
(St. Petersburg, 1786). 

JEQU, also called JEqnleoli and Kquiculani, an 
ancient warlike people of central Italy, dwell- 
ing in the mountainous region of N. E. Latiura, 
between Lake Fucinus (Lago di Celano) and 
the Anio (Teverone), surrounded by the Sa- 
bines, Marsi, Hernici, and Latins. They were 
among the most obstinate enemies of the early 
Romans, fighting them chiefly in alliance with 
the Volsci, a kindred people, and together with 
the latter were badly defeated by Camillus in 
389 B. C. They suffered still more crushing 
defeats shortly before the close of the same 
century, when they were finally subdued. 
Mount Algidus, in the western part of their 
territory, was one of their natural strongholds, 
from which they made their incursions into 
the country around Rome. 

AERIANS, a semi-Arian sect of the 4th cen- 
tury, named from Aerius, a monk of Pontus, 
and holding middle ground between the Arians 
and the Nicseans. The Nicaeans were Homo- 
ousians, and the high Arians were Heterousians, 
while the Aerians were Homoiousians. The 
Aerians in church government denied the dis- 
tinction between a bishop and a presbyter. 
They were opposed by a small counter faction 
called Aetians. (See AETIUS.) 

AKROE, or Arroe, an island belonging to Den- 
mark, in the Baltic, at the E. side of the en- 
trance to the Little Belt, 10 m. S. of Funen ; 
pop. 12,400. It is about 10 m. long by 5 broad, 
and is fertile and well cultivated. The capital, 
Aeroeskjobing, on the E. coast, has considera- 
ble shipping; pop. 1,700. 

AEROKLINOSCOPE, an instrument recently 
introduced on the continent of Europe, in con- 
nection with the weather signal departments. 
It is intended to give public information of the 
condition or rather differences of barometric 
pressure at the different stations, so that every 
one at a glance may see in what quarter the 
maximum and minimum barometric pressure is, 
and consequently what direction of wind and 
what kind of weather are to be expected. The 
apparatus as now in practical use consists of a 
vertical axis some 30 feet high, turning on a 
pivot, and carrying on its top a horizontal arm 
of which the inclination can be varied accord- 
ing to the difference of barometrical pressure 
at different sides of the station. If the pres- 
sure is the same north and south, for instance, 
the horizontal arm is placed horizontal ; but 
if the pressure is less in the north, the north- 
ern end of the arm is caused to dip downward, 
and more so in proportion as the barometer is 
lower north as compared with its position 
south. The amount of dip is regulated by a 
sliding rod, held in position by different notch- 
es at the lower part of the axis, each notch 
corresponding with one millimetre in baro- 
metric pressure. This most useful apparatus 
is the invention of Buys-Ballot in Holland. 



The government of the Netherlands introduced 
storm signals there in 1860 ; England followed 
in 1861, and France in 1863. 

AEROLITE (Gr. afo, air, and Udoc, stone), a 
stone or mineral mass of ultra-terrestrial ori- 
gin which has fallen to the earth. The differ- 
ent bodies constituting our planetary system 
vary considerably in size. Jupiter, the largest, 
has in round numbers a diameter of 80,000 
miles, while Clio, the smallest of the so-called 
asteroids thus far known, has a diameter of 
scarcely 16 miles, and is thus 125,000,000 times 
smaller in bulk. There is no ground whatso- 
ever to assert that Clio is the smallest body 
which revolves around the sun; most likely 
there are bodies as much smaller than Clio 
as the latter is smaller than Jupiter. Such 
bodies would have a diameter of scarcely 16 
feet; and if we descend another step in the 
same ratio, we come to bodies of a diameter of 
-fa of an inch, constituting mere dust. Such 
bodies may revolve in myriads in the planetary 
space, without our ever being able to obtain 
any knowledge of their existence, except where 
they come so near to our planet as to be acted 
on by its gravitation and drawn to its surface. 
It has been proved by the statistics of obser- 
vation that every year 600 or 700 meteoric 
showers take place over the surface of our 
earth, bringing down at least 5,000 separate 
aerolites ; the unequal distribution over differ- 
ent portions of the earth's surface is only appa- 
rent, as the two zones in America and Europe 
in which, according to Prof. Shepard the 
greatest numbers of meteoric showers have 
been observed, are simply those zones which 
are the most thickly peopled, and where the 
press and telegraph diffuse rapidly every ob- 
servation. Sometimes one or two single mass- 
es fall, and sometimes a shower of 2,000, 3,000, 
or more stones is distributed over a surface of 
several acres or even miles; sometimes dust 
accompanies the shower, and sometimes dust 
falls alone. The theory here propounded is 
due to Chladni, who toward the end of the 
last century defended the idea originated by 
Kepler, that there were more comets and 
smaller bodies flying about in space than fishes 
in the ocean. Before Chladni's time the most 
absurd ideas prevailed in regard to the origin 
of aerolites. Some supposed that they were 
formed in the upper strata of our atmosphere 
by the condensation of vapors of solids, as hail- 
stones are formed by the condensation and 
congelation of watery vapors. Laplace sought 
their origin at a greater distance, and conclu- 
ded that as gravitation on the moon is about 
four times less than it is on the earth, it might 
be possible that the volcanoes there project 
stones with such force as to go beyond the 
limits of lunar attraction, and to reach that of 
the earth ; and indeed a velocity two or three 
times greater than that which we are able to 
give to a cannon ball would accomplish this 
result. These theories prevailed for a time, 
although chemists proved that aerolites are 



AEROLITE 



not of volcanic origin, and astronomers proved 
that their velocity in approaching the earth is 
far too great to be accounted for by terrestrial 
attraction. Mechanical science indeed proves 
that a body falling from an infinite distance 
will arrive at the earth with a velocity of only 
6 to 7 miles per second, while a&rolites pass 
tangentially through our atmosphere with 
more than double or triple that rate, in fact, 
with a planetary velocity ; some of them even 
overtake the earth in its course, as is the case 
with those falling about sunset. By the com- 
bined rotation and revolution of the terrestrial 
globe, that portion of the earth where it is 
sunset moves from its zenith, while that por- 
tion where it is sunrise moves toward its 
zenith, or at least toward that portion of the 
zodiac nearest to its zenith, and thus has more 
chance of coming in contact with isolated flying 
masses ; this accounts for the fact that the 
greatest number of aerolites fall in the forenoon. 
Of the cases recorded in history, the most re- 
markable are as follows : An aerolite is men- 
tioned by Pliny, which fell in 467 B. C. in 
Thrace, and was still extant in his time ; he states 
that it had the size of a wagon. The Chinese 
chronicle a large aerolite which fell during a 
thunderstorm long before our era. The Annales 
Fuldewes report a great shower of aerolites in 
Saxony in 823, by which men and cattle were 
killed and 35 villages were set on fire. Among 
the other cases, the most remarkable are the 
falls of aerolites in 921, 1010, 1164, and 1304, 
all in Europe. In Alsace there fell in 1492 
un aerolite of 260 Ibs., which is still pre- 
served in the church of Ensisheim. In Crema 
a shower of many hundreds of stones took place 
Sept. 14, 1511 ; 1,200 pieces were collected, of 
which one weighed 260 Ibs., and another 120 
Ibs. Records of later date become more and 
more complete and authentic, and all doubts 
in regard to the accuracy of their statements, 
existing till the end of the last century, were 
removed when, on April 26, 1803, at Aigle in 
France, a small immovable cloud was seen, out 
of which, during explosions lasting five to six 
minutes, a number of stones fell on a surface 
two miles long. The largest weighed 20 
Ibs., the smallest \ ounce. On March 13, 
1807, an aerolite of 140 Ibs. fell in Smolensk, 
Russia ; and on May 22, 1808, at Stannern in 
Moravia, between 200 and 300 stones fell, from 
half an ounce to 11 Ibs. in weight. An Amer- 
ican vessel 240 miles S. of Java experienced 
on Nov. 14, 1856, a shower of stones of the 
size of shot, which were afterward proved not 
to be the product of the eruption of a distant 
volcano, carried along with the winds, as ft 
first suggested, but of true cosmical origin a 
question easily settled by the microscope and 
chemical analysis, as will be seen later. Klein 
published in his Sonnensystem (Brunswick, 
1869) a record of more than 300 well authen- 
ticated cases, of which 3 were in the loth cen- 
tury, 15 in the 16th, 23 in the 17th, 40 in the 
18th, and 216 in the first 69 years of the 19th 



century. It is certain that such falls were just 
as frequent in former centuries as they are 
now, only the records are lacking. In regard 
to the ancient geological eras, there is no doubt 
that the falls of meteoric masses were even 
more frequent ; it is highly probable even that 
a portion of the earth's and moon's mass is 
largely made up of such aerolites, which are 
not now found in the lower strata of the earth 
for the simple reason that they are very oxid- 
izable, and have been disintegrated by air and 
water and mixed with the original terrestrial 
matter, by the immense changes through which 
our earth's crust has passed ; they may there- 
fore exist in a better state of preservation on 
the moon's surface. Olbers supposes that the 
earth has during countless ages hollowed 
out for itself a kind of comparatively empty 
nit among those flying aerolites, attracting all 
within the reach of its gravitation, and that 
now, by the periodical inequalities and pertur- 
bations of its orbit, it occasionally appropriates 
some masses which had before escaped its 
attractive power, or that the earth occasionally 
comes in the neighborhood of masses having an 
orbit which intersects its own. (See MKTEOB.) 
In regard to the sizes, the largest masses on 
record were heard of by Capt. Ross in 1818, 
when the Esquimaux of Baffin bay informed 
him of their existence on the W. coast of Green- 
land. They were found in 1870 by the Swe- 
dish Arctic expedition, which brought some of 
them to Stockholm, where they excited so 
much interest that in 1871 20 more specimens 
were collected, now in the royal academy of 
Stockholm, the largest weighing 25 tons, with 
a maximum sectional area of 42 square feet. 
The next in size weighs 10 tons, and has been 
presented to the museum of Copenhagen. In 
Mexico and Brazil similar masses have been 
found. The British museum possesses one of 
more than five tons. In the museum in St. 
Petersburg is a mass of 1,680 Ibs. found in Si- 
beria in 1772. Yale college, New Haven, pos- 
sesses, among more than 100 specimens, one 
aerolite of 1,635 Ibs., which fell in Texas in 
1808. The Smithsonian institution possesses 
a very remarkable annular specimen discovered 
about 1700 in Mexico, which, according to an 
Indian tradition, fell there about 200 years be- 
fore during a shower of stones ; its weight is 
1,400 Ibs. Aerolites of a weight of 200 to 400 
Ibs. are not uncommon in collections, and those 
of 100 Ibs. and less are very common. In re- 
gard to the chemical composition of these 
stones, it must be observed that in passing 
through our atmosphere they undergo some 
change, as they always take fire in the upper 
regions, and arrive at the ground quite hot, * 
sometimes making a deep hole. Combustible 
substances in their composition, and perhaps an 
atmosphere of combustible gases surrounding 
them, combined with the immense velocity 
with which they enter our atmosphere, cause 
on the sudden diminution of that motion 
a most intense rise of temperature, ignition, 



AEROLITE 



AERONAUTICS 



145 



and very often one or more exceedingly violent 
explosions. It is therefore not surprising that 
they all present the appearance of having been 
subjected to great heat. Chemioal analysis 
has shown that there are two principal kinds, 
the stony and the metallic aerolites, which by 
further investigation have been divided into 
several groups, in accordance with the elements 
contained and the character of their combina- 
tions. Stony aerolites resemble the peridot, a 
universal scoria from the earth's deep interior, 
underlying the aluminous basic rocks, the 
granite and gneiss; the latter, being stratified 
rocks, are never found among aerolites. The 
specific gravity of stony aerolites is 3'5 to 3 '8, 
while that of stratified formations, gneiss and 
granite, and of lava, is only 2-6 to 2 -9. Metal- 
lic aerolites have a specific gravity of from 6'5 
to 8, and consist chiefly of iron, always com- 
bined with nickel, usually containing 60 per 
cent, or more of iron and 5 to 25 of nickel, a 
compound never found on earth ; the other ele- 
ments are chiefly phosphorus, silicon, alumi- 
num, cobalt, and manganese. Other substances 
which have been found in different specimens 
are: magnesium, titanium, tin, copper, chro- 
mium, arsenic, calcium, potassium, sodium, sul- 
phur, carbon, chlorine, nitrogen, and hydrogen 
in occlusion (see ABSORPTION OF GASES BY SoLr 
IDS), making 22 elements, one third of those of 
which the earth is composed. Some aerolites 
are of a mixed stony and metallic character, 
but they are never homogeneous; even the 
metallic ones, which appear to be an alloy, are 
very heterogeneous. This is manifested by 
grinding and polishing a face and then acting 
on it with nitric acid, when some portions will 
dissolve, and more resistant small crystals will 
become prominent, showing a decided crystal- 
line structure. The figures thus formed are 
called, after their discoverer, Widmanstaett's 
figures, and they may be made so prominent as 
to allow the surface to be used as an engraved 
plate and printed. Our figure represents an 
aerolite found- in Wisconsin, preserved in the 




Widmannstaett's Figures. 

cabinet of I. A. Lapham of Milwaukee, and 
engraved after the photograph of a section 
prepared by Dr. J. Lawrence Smith, show- 
ing the Widmannstaettian figures. The idea 
suggested by Sir William Thomson before 
the British association for the advancement 
of science in 1871, that the existence of vege- 
11 VOL. i. 11 



table and animal life on our planet may be 
accounted for by aerolites having brought the 
first organiaed germs hither, substitutes for the 
difficult question as to the terrestrial origin of 
organisms, the still more perplexing one of how 
they originated on the aerolites. See further 
Phipson's "Treatise on Meteors, Aerolites, ami 
Falling Stars " (London, 1866) ; Daubr6e, Rap- 
port sur les progres de la geologic experimental 
(Paris, 1867). The latter is very exhaustive, arid 
contains accounts of experiments in imitating 
the ^different kinds of aerolites. 

AEROMETER (Gr. typ, air, and fitrpov, meas- 
ure), an instrument invented by Dr. Marcus 
Hunt for ascertaining the mean bulk of gases 
and the density or rarity of air. It is now little 
used, and the whole doctrine of air, considered 
as a fluid, its pressure, elasticity, rarefaction, 
and condensation, belongs in that department 
of natural philosophy termed pneumatics. 

AERONAUTICS (Gr. difc, air, and vavTirig, of 
or belonging to ships), or Aerostation (Gr. afjp, 
and oramg, standing), the art of sailing in and 
navigating the air, and of raising and sustaining 
substances by means of gases specifically lighter 
than the atmosphere, contained in a spheroidal 
bag called a balloon. The former term is the 
more comprehensive of the two, and includes 
the whole science of aerial navigation, while 
the latter is generally confined to ballooning. 
The myths of Dredalus and Icarus show that 
the attempts of man to soar above the earth 
commenced in prehistoric times. Flying ma- 
chines were expected to effect this object. 
Archytas of Tarentum is said to have manufac- 
tured, 400 years B. C., a wooden pigeon which 
sustained itself in the air a few minutes. Simon 
Magus, according to Suetonius, met his death 
in. Rome in the reign of the emperor Nero in 
an attempt to fly from one house to another. 
Roger Bacon had some notion of a flying ma- 
chine to be propelled by a system of wings; 
and in the latter part of the 15th century 
Dante, a mathematician of Perugia, rose above 
Lake Thrasimene by means of artificial wings 
attached to his body. Many similar attempts 
have been made since then by persons imper- 
fectly acquainted with the principles of me- 
chanical philosophy, which have invariably re- 
sulted in failure, and the problem is as far from 
solution as ever. The discovery of the proper- 
ties of hydrogen gas by Cavendish in 1766 gave 
the first hint of a practical method of aerial 
navigation. This is the lightest of the gases, 
being a little more than 14 times rarer than at- 
mospheric air; and as early as 1767 Professor 
Black of Edinburgh announced to his class that 
a vessel filled with it would naturally rise into 
the air.. A few years later (1782) Cavallo 
made a series of experiments on the subject, 
but did not succeed in raising anything heavier 
than a soap bubble. The honor of preparing 
and sending up the first balloon belongs to tho 
brothers Stephen and Joseph Montgolfier, pa- 
per manufacturers at Annonay, near Lyons, 
who, however, at the outset of their experi- 



146 



AERONAUTICS 



merits, knew nothing of hydrogen gas, and em- 
ployed heated air to inflate their machine, 
without apparently being aware of its superior 
buoyancy to the atmosphere. Their balloon 
was constructed of linen cloth lined with paper, 
under which a fire was kindled, fed with 
bundles of chopped straw. By this means 
dense volumes of smoke were produced, which 
filled the balloon ; and it would seem that they 
actually expected the latter to be raised by the 
ascending power of the smoke, instead of its 
true cause, the rarefaction of the heated air. 





First Balloons made by Montgolfiir. 



On June 5, 1783, their balloon, weighing 500 
pounds, first rose into the atmosphere. It 
reached an altitude of nearly a mile, remained 
suspended a few minutes, and, as the air es- 
caped, gradually returned to the earth. The 
event singularly impressed all classes of society, 
and the most extravagant notions were enter- 
tained of the uses to which balloons might be 
applied. Several successful ascents were made 
within the next few months from Paris, and 
on Nov. 21, 1783, Pilutre de Rozier and the 
marquis d'Arlandes, the first adventurers who 
durst ascend in an unconfined balloon, as- 
tonished the world by rising to the height 
of 3,000 feet, descending in safety not far 
from Paris. These experiments were mostly 
made with the Montgolfier balloon, or mont- 
ffolfidre, which was inflated with heated air, 
and the early aeronauts were obliged to 
carry with them a supply of fuel to renew the 
rarefied air as fast as it escaped. This clumsy 
and dangerous expedient subsequently led to 
disastrous results. On Dec. 1 of the same year 
Messrs. Charles and Robert left Paris in a 
hydrogen balloon, in the presence of 600,000 
spectators, and after a trip of two hours de- 
scended in safety near Nesle, 25 m. distant. 
M. Charles immediately reascended alone, and 
had the satisfaction of seeing the sun, which 
had set when he left the earth, rise and set 
again. He descended in safety in 35 minutes, 
9 m. from his starting point. In this expedition 
the fall of the barometer and thermometer was 
first noticed. The first, sinking to 20-05 inches, 
indicated an ascent of about 9,700 feet. The 
thermometer sank to 21 F. In 1784 upward 
of 52 balloon ascents are recorded, the most 
remarkable being those of Messrs. Charles and 
Robert, who reached an altitude of 13,000 
feet ; of Blanchard, the first aerial voyager by 



profession; and of Prince Charles de Lignes. 
In January, 1785, Blanchard and Dr. John 
Jeffries, of Boston, accomplished the daring 
feat of crossing the channel from Dover to 
France, narrowly escaping being wrecked in the 
sea. In the same year occurred the first fatal acci- 
dent connected with ballooning. Pilatre de Ro- 
zier attempted, with a young man named Ro- 
maine Lain6, to cross from France to England in 
a hydrogen balloon, under which was suspended 
a small montgolfi&re for the purpose of increasing 
or diminishing the ascensional power at pleas- 
ure. The hydrogen, by its expansion in the 
rarer upper strata of the atmosphere, pressed 
down through the tubular neck of the balloon, 
and reaching the fire of the montgolfi&re was 
at once ignited. Both balloons were quickly 
consumed, and the voyagers were precipitated 
from a height of 3,000 feet upon the rocks near 
the French coast. As this calamitous occur- 
rence was occasioned by the neglect of proper 
precautions, aeronauts were not deterred by it. 
Ascents to the number of many thousands have 
since been made in Europe and America, both 
in montgolfilres and gas balloons, and it is be- 
lieved that not more than 25 persons have lost 
their lives in consequence. Of this number of 
ascents, however, few only have been under- 
taken for scientific purposes, most having been 
made merely as a popular spectacle or for 
the sake of amusement. In this regard both 
hemispheres have furnished skilful and daring 
aeronauts. Among the earlier French voyagers 
was Blanchard, who died in 1809, having made 
more than 66 ascents, one of which took place 
in New York in 1796. Mme. Blanchard some- 
times accompanied him, and after his death 
she occasionally ascended alone. In 1819, hav- 
ing ascended from Tivoli garden in Paris with 
some fireworks, her balloon became accident- 
ally ignited and she was precipitated to the 
earth and dashed to pieces in the rue de Pro- 
vence. In later times Eugene and Louis Godard 
have been the most famous of the French pro- 
fessional aeronauts. Green, the English aero- 
naut, had probably more experience in the 
management of balloons than any person who 
has given attention to the subject. During 
his professional career of 36 years, ending in 
1857, he made nearly 1,400 ascents, crossing 
the sea three times and falling into it twice. 
His most interesting voyage was undertaken in 
1836, when in company with Messrs. Holland 
and Mason he journeyed, in a balloon of great 
dimensions and provisioned for a fortnight, from 
London to Weilburg, in the duchy of Nassau, 
a distance of 500 m., in 18 hours. This feat 
of aerial travelling was however surpassed by 
Mr. John. Wise, the American aeronaut, who 
with Mr. John La Mountain and two others 
passed in July, 1859, from St. Louis, Mo., to 
Henderson in Jefferson co., N. Y., a distance 
of 1,150 m., in 19 h'. 50 m., or at an average 
speed of nearly a mile per minute. In Septem- 
ber of the same year Messrs. La Mountain and 
Lowe made a voyage of 300 m. in about 4 



AERONAUTICS 



147 



hours. The first ascent for the purposes of sci- 
ence was made from Hamburg on July 18, 
1803, by Messrs. Robertson and Lhoest, under 
the direction of the Russian academy of sci- 
ences. A second voyage followed in the suc- 
ceeding month, and a third from St. Peters- 
burg dn June 30, 1804. But although the ex- 
plorers reached on one occasion an altitude of 
23,526 feet, no important results were obtained. 
In 1804 Laplace proposed to the French acad- 
emy the solution, by means of observations 
from a balloon, of certain physical problems, 
and notably that of magnetic intensity at great 
heights. Gay-Lussac and Biot undertook to 
make the observations, and on Aug. 23 as- 
cended from Paris to the height of 13,000 feet. 
Their experiments in magnetism, electricity, 
and galvanism gave results identical with those 
made on the earth. The rotatory motion of 
the balloon having presented an unexpected 
obstacle to careful obervations, Gay-Lussac 
supplied his balloon with long hanging ropes 
destined to counteract this movement, and on 
Sept. 15 reascended alone to a height of 23,000 
feet, and found a decline of temperature from 
82 to 15, which almost confirmed the theory 
of a fall of 1 in every 300 feet of elevation. 
The sky was very blue and the air was found 
to be very dry. A magnet took a longer time 
to vibrate than on the earth. He was the first 
to bring down air collected at this enormous 
height, which on being analyzed was found to 
be in its component parts the same as the 
lower air. In the highest strata of air reached 
by the balloon he suffered severely from cold. 
Breathing was difficult, the pulse and respira- 
tion were much quickened, and the throat be- 
came parched. In 1806 Carlo Brioschi, the 
astronomer royal of Naples, in company with 
Andreani, the first Italian aeronaut, attempted 
to rise from Naples to a greater height than 
that attained by Gay-Lussac; but in conse- 
quence of the bursting of the balloon the ex- 
plorers were precipitated to the earth, which 
they fortunately reached without material in- 
jury. No subsequent scientific aerial expe- 
ditions took place till 1850, when Messrs. Bixio 
and Barral ascended from the garden of the 
observatory in Paris in a balloon filled with 
pure hydrogen gas. They reached a height of 
19,000 feet, when an accident to their balloon 
compelled them to descend without having had 
the opportunity to make observations of much 
value. In a second ascent in July of the same 
year, they reached a height nearly equal to that 
gained by Gay-Lussac in his second expedition 
in 1804, but, owing to a tear in their balloon, 
were unable to rise above a bank of cloud es- 
timated to be 15,000 feet in thickness, and 
reach the blue sky beyond. The most ex- 
traordinary phenomenon noted by them was 
the sudden variation of temperature during the 
last few thousand feet of their ascent. At the 
height of 19,000 feet the thermometer marked 
15, but hi the next 2,000 feet it fell to 39 be- 
low zero, thus showing a temperature lower by 



54 than that noted by Gay-Lussac at a similar 
elevation. In 1852 Mr. Welsh, of the Kew ob- 
servatory, in company with Mr. Green, made 
four ascents from London in the great " Nas- 
sau" balloon, with results tending to confirm 
those already recorded by Gay-Lussac. The 
most remarkable and successful ascents ever 
made for scientific purposes were those of Mr. 
James Glaisher, F. R. S., from various parts of 
England in 1862-' 6, and of Messrs. Camille 
Flainmarion, W. de Fonvieille, and Gaston Tis- 
sandier from Paris and other parts of France hi 
1867-'9. On Sept. 5, 1862, Mr. Glaisher, accom- 
panied by Mr. Coxwell, an experienced aeronaut 
who had already made 400 ascents, reached the 
astounding height of 37,000 feet, or 7 m. above 
the earth's surface. At the height of 5 m. Mr. 
Glaisher gradually lost the use of his limbs, and 
finally became totally insensible. Mr. Coxwell 
had meanwhile climbed up to the ring of the 
balloon in order to free the valve rope, which 
had become entangled; while doing this his 
hands became frozen and powerless, and he was 
compelled to drop down into the car and pour 
brandy over them to restore the circulation. 
He then perceived the critical condition of Mr. 
Glaisher, and endeavored to approach him ; but 
finding himself also in danger of lapsing into 
insensibility, and being at the same time with- 
out the povrer to move his hands, he seized 
the valve rope with his teeth, dipped his head 
downward several times, and found to his re- 
lief that the escape of gas caused the balloon 
to descend rapidly into a warmer temperature. 
Mr. Glaisher soon after revived, and they re- 
turned without further adventure to the earth. 
The results of Mr. Glaisher's observations in- 
duced him to abandon the theory of a decline 
of 1 of temperature for every increase of 300 
feet of elevation. M. Flammarion calculated 
a mean abatement of 1 for every 345 feet 
when the sky is clear, and of 1 for every 354 
feet when the heavens are overcast ; but Mr. 
Glaisher's midday experiments show that with- 
in the first 1,000 feet from the earth the aver- 
age space passed through for a decline of 1 
was 223 feet with a cloudy sky, and 162 feet 
with a clear sky. Above 10,000 feet the space 
passed through for a like decline was 455 feet 
for the former, and 417 feet for the latter; and 
above 20,000 feet the space with both states 
of the sky was nearly 1,000 feet for a decline 
of 1. In an ascent made by him on July 17, 
1862, the temperature was 59 at the surface; 
at 10,000 feet it had fallen to 26, and at 
20,000 feet it had risen to 42, which shows a 
difference of 81 from the temperature record- 
ed by Bixio and Barral at the same altitude in 
their second ascent in 1850. Notwithstanding 
the difficulty of extracting any definite law 
from such capricious datd, the results of Mr. 
Glaisher's observations above quoted afford 
a much nearer approach to a solution of the 
problem than the old rule of a uniform rate 
of decrease. All aeronauts have been aware 
of the existence of atmospheric currents, often 



148 



AERONAUTICS 



moving in opposite directions, to which they 
are obliged to trust themselves, if desirous of 
travelling in a horizontal direction. M. Flam- 
marion made the curious discovery that the 
traces of his various voyages are all represented 
by lines tending to curve in one and the same 
general direction; whence he concluded that 
above the soil of France the currents of the 
atmosphere are constantly deviated circularly, 
and in a south-west-north-east-south direction. 
Still more curious was the discovery by Mr. Glai- 
sher of what may be called an aerial gulf stream. 
In his ascent of Jan. 12, 1864, he reached a 
warm current at a height of 1,300 feet. At 
3,000 feet the temperature was 45, being 3 
warmer than at the surface, and for the next 
3,000 feet it was higher than on the earth. It 
then gradually fell to 11 at 11,500 feet. This 
warm stratum of atmosphere was a current 
moving from the S. W. in the direction of the 
gulf stream. Fine granular snow was falling 
into it. The existence of this warm S. W. 
current goes far, Mr. Glaisher thinks, to ex- 
plain why England possesses a winter temper- 
ature so much higher than her latitude would 
indicate. The same observer found that the 
time of the vibration of a magnet was greater 
than on the earth ; that the number of pulsa- 
tions and inspirations increased considerably at 
the higher elevations, although the same indi- 
viduals were differently affected at different 
times ; that the velocity of the wind was much 
preater at a high elevation than near the sur- 
face; and that sounds from the earth were 
more or less audible according to the amount 
of moisture in the air. When in the clouds 
at 4 m. high he heard a railway train ; but 
when clouds were below, no sound ever reach- 
ed the ear at this elevation. The barking of a 
little dog was heard at the height of 2 m., 
while a multitude of people shouting was 
not heard at 4,000 feet. At the greatest 
heights to which Mr. Glaisher ascended he 
found that the color of the unclouded sky 
deepened to an intense prussian blue when the 
air was free from moisture. He rejects the 
theory which ascribes this to reflection from 
vesicles of water, and concludes that it must be 
caused by reflection from the air, whose polar- 
izing angle is 45. Soon after the invention of 
balloons the idea was entertained that they 
might be used to advantage in war for pur- 
poses of observation and reconnoissance. An 
aerostatic school was established at Meudon in 
France, and a number of balloons were dis- 
tributed among the French army. At the 
sieges of Maubeuge, Charleroi, Mannheim, and 
Ehrenbreitstein they proved to be of some 
value. It is said that the battle of Fleurus 
was gained by Gen. Jourdan in 1794 mainly 
through information of the Austrian positions 
and movements communicated by French 
officers stationed in a balloon. The machine 
was held by a cable, but its tether was easily 
extended by means of a windlass, so that the 
observers could soar above the enemy's fire. 



This is the last we hear for many years of the 
use of balloons in warfare. In the Italian cam- 
paign of 1859 they were again employed by 
the French, and one is reported to have aided 
them effectually at the battle of Solferino. 
Early in the American civil war (1861-'5) a 
balloon corps was organized by the United 
States war department, in the management of 
which Messrs. La Mountain, Lowe, and other 
experienced aeronauts were associated. Mr. 
Lowe first performed the feat of telegraphing 
from an aerial station 600 feet above the earth. 
In the summer and autumn of 1861 many bal- 
loon reconnoissances were made along the Po- 
tomac and in the neighborhood of Fortress 
Monroe. The balloon corps formed a part of 
Gen. McClellan's expedition to the peninsula 
in the spring of 1862, and when his army in 
May and June occupied the lines in front of 
Richmond, the balloons were brought into 
daily use for purposes of observation. On one 
occasion, while Gen. Fitz-John Porter was 
watching the movements of the enemy from a 
captive balloon, the cable broke, and he waa 
carried over the confederate lines. By pulling 
the valve string he caused the machine to de- 
scend, when it struck a current of air going in 
the opposite direction, and he landed safely 
within the Union lines. During the two days 
of the battle of Fair Oaks Mr. Lowe watched 
the conflict from an elevation of 2,000 feet, 
and was the first to announce the enemy's 
retreat to Richmond. After the retreat of 
McClellan to Harrison's Landing the balloon 
corps seems to have been disbanded, and no 
subsequent employment of the balloon for 
military purposes is recorded during the war. 
At the commencement of the Franco-Prussian 
war of 1870-'7l a proposal was made to 
Marshal Lebceuf that the French army should 
be supplied with balloons, but he rejected it. 
A similar proposal was made to the German 
war department, which was accepted, but 
failed because the balloons were placed in un- 
skilful hands. The siege of Paris by the Ger- 
mans in 1870-'71 gave a new and unexpected 
impulse to the science of aerostatics. Toward 
the close of September, 1870, the city was com- 
pletely invested, and the balloon, rejected by 
the French government as of no practical use a 
few months previous, was gladly employed by 
the besieged as a means of communicating with 
those parts of the country not under the con- 
trol of the enemy. As no machine in the city 
was at that time considered sufficiently trust- 
worthy to pass over the besieging lines in safe- 
ty, balloon factories were established in two 
of the principal railway stations, which pre- 
vious to the capitulation turned out nearly 70 
machines. The material of the envelope was 
calico varnished on the exterior with a mix- 
ture of linseed oil and oxide of lead, and the 
network, car, and other appurtenances were 
of the customary pattern. The balloons were 
of an average capacity of 70,000 cubic feet. 
The first left Paris Sept. 23 with 227 pounds 



AERONAUTICS 



149 



of letters, and descended at Evrenx. From 
that date to the end of the siege, Jan. 28, 1871, 
61 others were despatched. Of these, 54 were 
sent by the post office department, carrying 
about 2,500,000 letters, which represented a 
total weight of nearly 10 tons. Most of them 
also took carrier pigeons intended to bring 
back news and replies to the outgoing letters. 
Comparatively few of the pigeons returned to 
Paris. In order to. adapt the weight of the 
return document to the capacity of the bird, 
long messages and letters were reduced by 
photography to within an area not exceeding 
one or two square inches on paper of the thin- 
nest texture. These slips were generally en- 
closed in a quill, which was fastened to the 
central tail feather, and when received they 
were submitted to the microscope and copied. 
Most of the balloons were under the manage- 
ment of sailors, whose nautical training, it was 
supposed, would peculiarly fit them for .navi- 
gating the air. Several fell into the hands of 
the enemy, dropping within the hostile lines ; 
and one, the Washington, which left Paris on 
Oct. 12, was subjected, while crossing the 
Prussian outposts at an elevation of 2,500 to 
3,000 feet, to so severe a fire that the travel- 
lers were obliged to ascend rapidly several 
hundred feet. Some were carried to consider- 
able distances beyond the French frontier, and 
the Ville d'0r!6ans was swept into Norway, 
and came to anchor 600 m. N. of Christiania. 
Three have never been heard from since they 
left Paris. To avoid the enemy's fusillade, it 
was determined in the latter part of November 
to despatch the balloons at night ; but as no 
lights were permitted in them by the govern- 
ment, the subsequent journeys were attended 
by unusual perils, the aeronauts being unable 
to determine their rate or direction of travel- 
ling or their distance from the earth. To this 
unwise provision was doubtless owing the loss 
of the balloons above mentioned, and the ec- 
centric courses which others took. Gambetta, 
the leader of the provisional government, was 
one of the first to leave the city by this means 
of conveyance, in order to take the control of 
affairs, at' Tours. On the night of Dec. 2 
Dr. Janssen departed in the balloon Volta for 
the purpose of observing the total eclipse of the 
sun on Dec. 22. He noticed that the balloon 
fell at sunrise and rose again when the sun 
was several degrees above the horizon, and ac- 
counted for this effect by the fact that the en- 
velope upon receiving the first beams of the 
sun began to radiate heat into space and be- 
came rapidly cooler, deriving less heat from 
the rising sun than it parted with by radiation. 
This process being finished, it became again 
susceptible to the sun's rays and reascended. 
Since the termination of the war it has been 
announced that the German government have 
determined to take active steps to effect im- 
provements in military ballooning, and to make 
it a part of their system. Notwithstanding 
nearly a century has elapsed since the inven- 



tion of the balloon, little or no improvement 
has been made upon its original form. It con- 
sists now, as in the time of Montgolfier, of a 
spheroidal bag of gas enclosed within a net- 
work, attached by ropes to a ring or hoop, 
from which is suspended a car for the convey- 
ance of the aeronaut. In place of heated air 




The Modern Balloon. 

or hydrogen, the latter of which is expensive 
and requires an elaborate apparatus for its 
production, it has for many years been cus- 
tomary to use carburetted hydrogen or com- 
mon coal gas, the mean density of which is 
about one half that of the air. This improve- 
ment in aerostatics was first introduced by Mr. 
Green, the English aeronaut. The height to 
which a balloon will rise is determined from 
the law according to which the density of the 
atmospheric strata diminishes as the distance 
from the earth is increased. The buoyant 
force diminishes with the density, and when it 
is reduced to a quantity only equal to the 
weight of the balloon and its appendages, no 
further ascension can take place. As the 
pressure of the external air is diminished the 
expansive force of the confined gas becomes 
greater ; and a balloon quite filled at the sur- 
face of the earth would inevitably be torn to 
shreds at the height of a few miles, unless a 
portion of the confined gas were allowed to es- 
cape. For this purpose the neck of the bal- 
loon, into which the gas is introduced, is com- 
monly left open, and the machine is also fur- 
nished with a safety valve at the top, which 
can be opened or shut at pleasure. The valve 
shown on the next page, invented by M. Giffard, 
a well known manufacturer of balloons, is 
considered by M. Tissandier and other high 
authorities to be perhaps the best thus far 
made. It consists of a metallic disk four feet 
in diameter, which is pressed against a wood- 
en hoop by sixteen steel springs ; by means 
of the rope attached to its centre it may be 
held open, but on this being released it springs 
back to its place. A good precaution, besides 



150 



AERONAUTICS 



the opening of the valve, and one generally 
adopted, is to inflate the balloon only partially 
at the surface of the earth. Mr. Glaisher is 




Balloon Valve Invented by M. Giflard. 

of the opinion that in order to reach great al- 
titudes the balloon most have a capacity of at 
least 90,000 cubic feet, of which not more than 
one third need be inflated with gas, and must 
carry upward of COO pounds of ballast. With 
such a machine he reached a height of seven 
miles, at which elevation, as we have seen, 
he became insensible and his companion nearly 
so. The question of the extreme altitude to 
which a balloon can ascend can therefore only 
be theoretically determined, since the vital 
powers, however strongly organized, must at 
37,000 to 40,000 feet of elevation succumb to 
the intense cold and the attenuated atmosphere 
which there prevail. The balloon usually 
rises in an oblique direction under the com- 
bined influence of the vertical ascensional force 
and the direction of the wind. As soon as it 
mounts into a stratum of air having the same 
density as itself, it ceases to ascend unless 
more ballast be thrown out, and follows the 
course of the aerial current. As regards the 
particles of air which surround it, it is quite 
motionless, and the aeronaut may be swept 
along with the swiftness of a tornado, with 
nothing to indicate to him, if enveloped in 
clouds, that he is not in the quiet of a calm. 
M. Flammarion states that in an aerial journey 
of 120 m. he never felt himself in motion, and 
that from a glass of water filled to the brim, 
which was placed within the car, not a drop 
was shaken out, although the balloon was con- 
stantly rising and falling hundreds of feet. 
Not the least remarkable phenomenon which 
presents itself to the aeronaut is the concave 
appearance of the earth, which arches beneath 
him as the dome of the sky does above, so that 
he may be said to float between two vast con- 
cavities. In descending, the aeronaut reduces 
the buoyancy of the balloon by a skilful man- 
agement of the rope which controls the safety 
valve, and when the descent becomes too rapid 
he lightens the machine by throwing over bal- 
last. This is an operation which should be 
committed only to a practised hand. So deli- 



cately does the balloon respond to any altera- 
tion in its weight that, as M. Tissandier re- 
lates, the throwing out of a chicken bone once 
caused him to rise from 20 to 30 yards. In 
descending through a heavy bank of clouds the 
weight of the balloon may also be considerably 
increased by the deposited moisture, and the 
most rapid discharge of ballast will sometimes 
scarcely prevent a violent collision with the 
earth. Under such circumstances the guide 
rope suspended from the car, first adopted by 
Green, proves of great advantage by acting as 
a sort of substitute for ballast, as every inch 
of it which rests upon the ground relieves the 
balloon of an equivalent portion of its weight. 
Of the innumerable schemes which have been 
propounded for the guidance and propulsion 
of balloons, not one has proved available, and 
the machine is still manageable only for ver- 
tical motions. It is within the power of the 
aeronaut to ascend to the utmost height at 
which human existence is possible, but when 
he desires to move in a horizontal direction 
he is for the most part like a rudderless ship 
at the mercy of the winds and waves. Start- 
ing from a given point, he may traverse the 
segment of a circle, or describe the most ec- 
centric course, and after hours of aerial navi- 
gation be as far as ever from his proposed goal, 
lie can rise or fall at pleasure into a current 
of air seeming to waft him in the desired di- 
rection ; but so capricious and infinitely vari- 
ous are the atmospheric streams, and so im- 
perfectly defined are their courses, that he 
will be most likely to find himself only baffled 
and confused by them. In spite of the results 
which aerostatics offered in connection with 
the siege of Paris, Mr. Glaisher seriously 
doubts the practical use of the balloon. He 
sees no probability that any method of steer- 
ing it will be invented, and even intimates that 
this is not necessarily the first step in aerial 
navigation, and may possibly have no share in 
the solution of the problem. He would em- 
ploy it simply as an aerial observatory, whence 
an infinite variety of phenomena affecting the 
laws which control the universe can be noted 
with a precision not attainable on the surface 
of the earth. Messrs. Fonvielle and Tissan- 
dier, on the other hand, believe that the guid- 
ance of balloons has nothing impossible in it, 
and lay particular stress upon the use to 'be 
made by the aeronaut of the natural currents 
of air flowing at various heights in the atmos- 
phere. But information with regard to these 
is at present entirely too vague to justify their 
confidence. Various plans of aerial ships to 
be propelled and steered by fans, paddles, sails, 
or other mechanical contrivances, have been 
projected in Europe and America, all of which, 
having been designed in ignorance of or in- 
difference to the most rudimentary atmospher- 
ic laws, have .proved failures. Under the con- 
viction that the balloon can never solve the 
problem of aerial navigation, the "Aeronauti- 
cal Society " was established in England a few 



^ESCHINES 

years ago, under the presidency of the duke of 
Argyll. Absolutely nothing has been ac- 
complished by it yet except to organize a 
series of experiments on the relation be- 
tween the pressure and the velocity of air. 
See " Travels in the Air by James Glaisher, 
F. K. S., Oamille Flammarion, W. de Fonvielle, 
and Gaston Tissandier, edited by James Glai- 
sher, F. R. S." (London, 1871). 

KS( IIIM:S. I. An Athenian orator, rival 
of Demosthenes, horn at Athens in 389 B. C., 
died at Samos in 314. He was the son of Atro- 
metus and Glaucothea. Demosthenes says 
Atrometus was a freedman and Glaucothea a 
prostitute. ^Eschines, on the contrary, says 
his father was a true-born Athenian. Demos- 
thenes upbraided him with the fact that his 
father was a schoolmaster, as though it were a 
low and sordid occupation. ^Eschines was 
afterward clerk to a magistrate, and thus ob- 
tained some insight into the laws of his coun- 
try. He subsequently tried his fortune on the 
stage, served with distinction in the army, and 
finally appeared as an orator on the public 
arena. He was public clerk for two years, 
and a satellite of the orators Aristophon and 
Eubulus. In 347 he was sent, along with De- 
mosthenes, as one of the ten ambassadors to 
negotiate a peace with Philip of Macedon. 
From this time forth he favored the Macedo- 
nian alliance, and opposed the patriotic par- 
ty of Athens, headed by Demosthenes. He 
formed one of the embassy who went to receive 
Philip's oath to the treaty. Timarchus and 
Demosthenes accused him on his return of 
malversation. He evaded the danger by a 
counter prosecution against Timarchus, on ac- 
count of his bad moral character, which suc- 
ceeded. Shortly after the battle of Chseronea, 
in 338, Ctesiphon, an Athenian, proposed that 
Demosthenes should receive from the state a 
golden crown. ^Eschines indicted Ctesiphon 
for bringing forward an illegal and inappropri- 
ate resolution. The cause was not tried until 
330, six years after the death of Philip, and 
when Alexander was in Asia. Ctesiphon was 
acquitted, and as .^Eschines had not gained one 
fifth of the aggregate votes cast, he was liable 
to pay the penalty inflicted by the Athenian 
law on him who brought forward a factious 
resolution. Being unable to pay this penalty, 
he retired to the island of Rhodes, where he 
taught elocution for a livelihood, and became 
the founder of the Rhodian school of oratory. 
Three speeches of his are extant, showing great 
narrative and descriptive power, and freer 
from personal abuse than those of Demos- 
thenes, who reluctantly acknowledged the mer- 
its of ^Eschines. The first is on malversation 
in his embassy, the second is against Timar- 
chus, and the third against Ctesiphon. II. An 
Athenian philosopher, a follower of Socrates, 
and the son of Charinus, a sausage maker. So- 
crates used to say that the sausage maker's son 
was the only man who knew how to honor 
him. Poverty obliged him to go to the court 



AESCHYLUS 



151 



of the younger Dionysius, the Syracusan tyrant, 
where Plato, then in the ascendant there, 
treated him with contempt, but Aristippus 
gave him a large reward for his dialogues. On 
his return from Sicily, he taught philosophy 
for a living at Athens, lie wrote orations for 
the forum for hire. Several dialogues on 
ethical subjects have been with doubtful jus- 
tice ascribed to him. 

JSSCHYLtS, the eldest of the great Attic trage- 
dians, the son of Euphorion, born at Eleusis in 
525 B. C. (4th year of the 63d Olympiad), died in 
456. He was of a noble family of the class of 
the Eupatrid, and it is probable that he traced 
his origin to Codrus, the last king of Athens ; 
for among the life archons, who succeeded the 
kings, was an ^Eschylus, in whose reign the 
Olympiads commenced. It is believed that his 
father was connected with the worship of 
Ceres; and he was probably himself accus- 
tomed from his youth to the spectacles of the 
Eleusinian mysteries, into which he was after- 
ward initiated. A portion of these he seems 
to have described in a strange fragment from 
his drama of the Edoni, the remainder being 
lost, and he was accused of divulging their se- 
crets in his tragedy of the Eumenides. Pau- 
sanias relates of him that Bacchus, of whose 
worship tragic and dithyrambic odes and spec- 
tacles formed a part, appeared to him in a vis- 
ion as he himself asserted when he had fallen 
asleep in the fields one day, \vhile he should have 
been watching the vines, and commanded him to 
write tragedy. At the age of 25 he made his 
first attempt as a tragic poet; but the next 
shape in which we find him mentioned is that 
of a warrior, when, with his two brothers, Cy- 
naBgirus and Aminias, he received public honors 
for distinguished valor in the famous field of 
Marathon. Six years after that battle he 
gained his first tragic victory, and four years 
afterward again fought at Salamis, where his 
brother Aminias received the prize for the 
greatest courage, being the trierarch who sank 
the first Phoenician ship, as the poet himself 
has related in his Persa?, although modestly re- 
fraining from mention of this hero's name. He 
again fought at Plataaa, and eight years after 
this gained the prize for a trilogy, or series of 
three dramas presented at a single representa- 
tion, of which the " Persians," the earliest of 
his extant works, was one. In the latter part 
of his life he was defeated by Simonides in an 
elegiac contest for the prize offered for the best 
elegy to the honor of those who fell at Mara- 
thon ; but for many years he was esteemed 
the greatest of tragic poets, having composed, 
it is said, 70 dramas, 5 of which were satyric, 
the rest tragedies of the loftiest tone, and 
gained 13 tragic prizes before he was at length 
defeated by Sophocles, in 468. Soon after 
this, whether in disgust at this loss of his poet- 
ic laurels, or at a trial to which he is said to 
have been subjected on an accusation of impi- 
ety for the disclosure of the Eleusinian myste- 
ries, as related above, he retired to Sicily, 



152 



.ESCHYLUS 



AESCULAPIUS 



where he was hospitably received by Hiero, 
in whose honor he composed a drama styled 
the " Women of Etna"; and he died at Gela, 
in the 69th year of his age. The real circum- 
stances of his accusation and trial are unknown. 
Clemens Alexandrinus states that he was tried 
by the court of the Areopagus and acquitted ; 
while ./Elian relates that he would have been 
stoned to death by the Athenians, had not his 
brother Aminias awakened the sympathies of 
his would-be executioners by baring his mu- 
tilated arm, from which the hand had been 
hewn by a Persian scimitar as he was strug- 
gling to prevent the launch of a galley from the 
beach at Marathon. It is, moreover, doubtful 
whether he ever revisited his native country 
between the period of his expatriation and that 
of his death, although many of his pieces, among 
others the celebrated Oresteian trilogy, com- 
posed of the Agamemnon, the Choephori, and 
the Eumenides, which gained the tragic prize 
in 458, were performed during this period. 
The latter fact seems to disprove the whole 
story of the accusation of impiety as the cause 
of his taking umbrage toward Athens, as it cer- 
tainly disposes of its connection with his re- 
moval to Sicily. Most doubtful of all is the 
received account of his death, which was occa- 
sioned, says the legend, by an eagle flying over- 
head with a tortoise in his claws, and dropping 
the reptile on the bald head of the poet, which 
he mistook for a stone. ./Eschylus was a great 
improver of the Attic tragedy ; in fact, it is he 
who gave to it first the tragic form, by intro- 
ducing a second performer, with dialogue, emo- 
tion, and action. He also abridged the length 
of the dithyrambic odes, caused a regular 
stage to be erected, and was the first to pro- 
duce his dramas with appropriate scenery and 
clothe his heroes in befitting costumes. Of his 
70 dramas, but 7 have come down to us entire 
the Seven against Thebes, the Suppliants, 
the Persians, the Prometheus Bound, the Aga- 
memnon, the Choephori, and the Eumenides; 
with but a few fragments of the others. 
^Eschylns is undoubtedly the grandest, the 
stateliest, and the most solemn of the Attic 
tragedians ; and his style, though difficult and 
at times rugged, is magnificently sonorous with 
its many-syllabled compounds. His creed is 
that of a blind, overruling, ever-present, inevi- 
table necessity, against which it is vain to con- 
tend, from which it is hopeless to escape, yet 
which it is alike the duty and the glory of the 
great, good man to resist to the end undaunted ; 
of ancestral guilt continually reproduced and 
punished by the successive guilt of generation 
after generation ; of hapless kindred criminals, 
who would not be criminals could they avoid 
it, but are goaded on to the commission of ever 
new atrocities by the hereditary curse of the 
doomed race. Such are the legends of the 
Theban Labdacidae and the Mycenian Atridne, 
predestined murderers, adulterers, and parri- 
cides, inextricably involved in the dark net of 
necessity. It is objected to ^Eschylus that he 



deals with horrors only ; that his lyre has but 
one chord of dark and disastrous terror ; that 
he is all iron, and has no key with which to at- 
tune the tenderer strings of human sympathies. 
But it is doubtful whether there is to be 
found in the whole range of Greek letters 
deeper pathos than that of the woe of Prome- 
theus, crucified on his Scythian crags for his 
love to mortals ; than that of the choruses in 
the Agamemnon, descriptive of the disconsolate 
sorrow of Menelaus deserted by his faithless 
Helen ; and of the sacrifice at the father's bid- 
ding of the devoted Iphigenia. Less polished, 
he is grander than both Sophocles and Euripi- 
des. The tragedies of JSschylus have been 
rendered into English verse by Dean Potter. 
A more poetical version is that of the Prome- 
theus Bound, by Mrs. Elizabeth Barrett Brown- 
ing. The great trilogy, the Agamemnon, Choe- 
phori, and Eumenides, was translated (London, 
1865) by Miss A. Swan wick, assisted by Mr. 
Francis Newman. In 1866 appeared Dean 
Milman's translation of the Agamemnon. The 
most esteemed editions of ^Eschylus are by 
Schutz (Halle, 1808-'21), Dindorf (Leipsic, 
1827, and Oxford, 1832), and Scholefield (Cam- 
bridge, 1830). Blomfield's edition is excellent 
as far as it is completed, but it contains only 
five of the seven tragedies that are still extant. 
SCFLAPIUS (Gr. 'A^y^c), in Greek my- 
thology, the god of medicine and the patron of 
physicians. In the Homeric poems he is only 
spoken of as the "blameless physician," whose 
sons were serving in the Greek army before 
Troy. The most common story makes him the 
son of Apollo. He went about healing diseases 
and raising the dead to life. Pluto, god of 
Hades, took alarm at the latter exploit, and 
complained to Zeus, who struck ^Esculapius 
dead with a flash of lightning. The most re- 
nowned seat of ^Esculapius's worship in Greece 
was Epidaurus, in Argolis. He had a splendid 
temple there, with a statue half as large as that 
of Zeus Olympius at Athens. The cock was 
commonly sacrified to him, but the serpent was 
his favorite type. At Epidaurus a peculiar 
breed of holy serpents were kept about the 
temple, and into them the god was supposed to 
insinuate himself. When a city was afflicted 
with a pestilence, it used to send to Epidaurus 
for one of these ^Esculapian snakes, out of the 
sale of which the Epidaurian priests reaped 
large profits. The presence of the god in the 
pest-stricken city, in the form of a yellowish- 
brown snake, was held to be propitious, and 
likely to allay the rage of the pest. About 400 
B. C. the Romans, under the pressure of ca- 
lamity, sent a solemn embassy to request the 
presence of one of these representatives of 
^Esculapius. On a later occasion of the same 
nature (293 B. C.) the worship of ^Esculapius 
was introduced into Rome. There were also 
famous temples erected in his honor at Cos, 
Cnidos, and Rhodes. In all these temples were 
tablets commemorating wonderful cures, on 
which were recorded the name and genealogy 



.ESTHETICS 



153 



of the patient, his disease, and the mode of re- 
covery. The priests of these temples formed 
the race of Asclepiadae, or children of ^Escu- 
lapius. They were the only regular physicians 
of antiquity. Formerly the priesthood of ^Es- 
culapius was hereditary, but in later times the 
priests took pupils and initiated them into the 
mysteries of medicine. 

J2SOP (Gr. AZo-wTTOf), the fabulist, born about 
the year 620 B. 0., was convicted of the crime 
of sacrilege while ambassador of Croesus at 
Delphi, and thrown from a precipice, about 564. 
His birthplace is not certainly known, though 
Phrygia is generally mentioned. While young 
he was brought to Athens and sold as a slave, 
but finally received his freedom from his mas- 
ter, ladmon the Samian. So high was his 
reputation as a writer that Croesus, king of 
Lydia, invited him to reside at his court. He 
visited Athens during the reign of Pisistratus, 
where he wrote the fable of "Jupiter and the 
Frogs." His genuine works have perished, the 
excellent collection going by his name being 
either imitations or entirely spurious. The 
current stories concerning him are taken from 
a life written by Maximus Planudes, a monk of 
the 14th century, and prefixed to a volume of 
fables ascribed to his pen. In this work he is 
described as hideously ugly and misshapen, 
which statement is doubtless entirely false, as 
no personal defects of the kind are mentioned 
by any classical author. It is rendered still 
more improbable by the circumstance that his 
statue was executed for the city of Athens by 
the famous sculptor Lysippus. 

jESOPtS, ( liMlius, a famous tragic actor at 
Eome, died at a great age about 50 B. C. He 
was the contemporary of Koscius, and with 
him the instructor of Cicero in oratory. He 
was accustomed to identify himself so com- 
pletely with his part, that once while enacting 
the character of Atreus, and plotting how to 
avenge himself on Thyestes, he struck dead 
with his truncheon one of the stage attendants. 
He realized a large fortune by his acting, which 
his son squandered in extravagance and luxury. 

.ESTHETICS (Gr. aladnr^, perceptive, from 
aiaddvofiat, I feel, or perceive by the senses), the 
science of the beautiful, first recognized as an in- 
dependent branch of philosophy about the mid- 
dle of the last century. Even the ancient phi- 
losophers had speculated upon the beautiful. 
Pythagoras tried to express its form in numeri- 
cal proportions ; Socrates and Plato united it 
with the good, and called the highest ideal by 
the compound name " kalokagathon " ; Aris- 
totle strove to give its laws in formulas ; and 
later metaphysicians, down to the recent 
schools, continued these attempts to define its 
conditions and effect. But Baumgarten, a dis- 
ciple of the German philosopher Wolf, and in 
1740 professor of philosophy at Frankfort-on- 
the-Oder, first established its claims to the dig- 
nicy of a separate science. He held that be- 
sides the divisions adopted by Wolf's system, 
namely, the capacity of knowing (intellect), 



the ultimate ideal and aim of which is the 
true, and the capacity of acting (will), the ul- 
timate aim of which is the good, there exists 
also in the human mind a capacity of feeling, 
or perceiving by the senses (sensibility), the 
ultimate ideal and aim of which is the beau- 
tiful. As logic determines the laws of intellect, 
and ethics those of will or action, so there 
should be a branch of philosophy, which he 
called aesthetics, to determine the laws of 
sensibility. He made the mistake of consider- 
ing this faculty, by which men perceive the 
beautiful, a lower capacity founded in the 
mere exercise of sense (cognitio sensitivd) 
but Kant, who in his Kritik der UrtheiUJcraft 
accepted the general division given above, cor- 
rected this, and showed that the aesthetic per- 
ception, for which the senses form only a 
means, really falls within the province of the 
high power of judgment. After 1742 Baum- 
garten lectured regularly on aesthetics, and its 
place as a philosophical science was almost 
universally recognized. In this purely abstract 
psychological consideration of the subject he 
followed Kant, who held that the beautiful was 
the haftnony between the understanding and 
the imagination; and after him several other 
German philosophers of much less note. He- 
gel's great work (Aesthetik) also treats the 
subject from this point of view ; and Fichte 
belonged entirely to the ideal school of writ- 
ers on the aesthetic perception. But the name 
aesthetics soon began to be received in a more 
practical acceptation, and to be especially ap- 
plied to that part of the science of the beauti- 
ful which relates to the expression and em- 
bodiment of beauty by art. Schiller first 
turned speculation in this direction ; and 
Schelling, though devoting much study to the 
abstract, still contributed largely to the useful 
endeavor to bring the beautiful to the actual 
knowledge of men, rather than to analyze its 
psychological effects ; and from their time this 
approach to the identification of the ideal and 
real has formed the chief and ultimate aim of 
the study of aesthetics. Two widely different 
theories as to the realization of the beautiful 
in art have been adopted by the different 
schools. One, the method d priori, strives by 
abstract reasoning to determine the laws of 
the beautiful, with which artists must comply ; 
the other, the method d posteriori, seeks for 
the beautiful in existing works of art, and 
from the results of such investigation makes 
practical rules for future guidance. The for- 
mer has among its adherents most of the Ger- 
man, and the latter nearly all the English and 
French writers on aesthetics. Those German 
authors whose works best deserve study are as 
follows: A. G. Baumgarten, ^Esthetica (Frank- 
fort -on -the -Oder, 1750); Georg Friedrich 
Meier, Anfangsgrunde oiler schonen Wissen- 
schaften (1748) ; Hegel, Aesthetik (Berlin, ed. 
1842-'3) ; Weisse, System der Aesthetik (Leip- 
sic, 1830); Schiller, Aesthetische Briefe, in 
Cotta's editions of his works ; Zimmermann, 



154 



^ETHRIOSCOPE 



AETIUS 



Geschichte der Aesthetik (Vienna, 1858) ; Vi- 
scher, Aesthetik, oder Wissenschaft des Sehonen 
(Reutlingen, 1846-'57); Zeising, Aesthetische 
Forschungen (Frankfort, 1855) ; Kostlin, Aes- 
thetik (Tubingen, 1863); Gottfried Semper, 
Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen 
Kunsten, oder pralctische Aesthetik (Frankfort, 
1860-'63) ; J. Dippel, Handbuch der JEsthetik, 
&c. (Regensburg, 1871). Among Englishmen, 
Dugald Stewart, Hutcheson, Alison, Jeffrey, and 
Payne Knight have written on aesthetics; Burke 
wrote " A Philosophical 'Inquiry into the Ori- 
gin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beauti- 
ful," but the work has little depth. The op- 
posing theories of these older writers have 
long ceased to attract attention; and, as in 
Germany, later works on the subject have fol- 
lowed the method d posteriori. Sir William 
Hamilton, it is true, in his " Lectures on Meta- 
physics," considers in the abstract the philoso- 
phy of the beautiful ; but other recent writers, 
like Ruskin, whose aesthetical works are the 
most voluminous, treat of beauty in form and 
color. Two recent American works may be 
also noticed : "The Science of ^Esthetics," by 
Henry N. Day (New Haven, 1872), an<l " Lec- 
tures on ^Esthetics," by Professor John Bascom 
(New York, 1872). One of the best modern 
writers on aesthetics is the French critic Hippo- 
lyte Adolphe Taine, whose principal works on 
art form a series of essays on the productions 
of almost every school. See his Philosophic de 
Tart (Paris, 1865), Philosophic de Vart en Italic 
(18(56), Voyage en Italic (1866), IS Ideal dans 
Vart (1867), Philosophic de Part dans leg 
Pays-Bas (1868), &c., translated into Eng- 
lish by J. Durand (New York, 1866-'70). 
Among older French writers on aesthetical 
subjects are Cousin (Le vrai, le lean et le bori) 
and Jouffroy (Cours d'esthetique, Paris, 1842). 
JCTIIRIOSCOPE (Gr. aWpio^ clear, and oiumelv, 
to observe), an instrument invented by Sir John 
Leslie for measuring the relative degrees of cold 
produced by the radiation toward a clear sky. 




In a metallic cup standing upon a tall hollow 
pedestal, a differential thermometer is placed 
in such a manner that one of its bulbs is in the 



focus of the paraboloid formed by the cavity of 
the cup, and the other bulb is beyond the hol- 
low of the cup. The interior of the cup is 
highly polished, and is kept covered by a plate 
of metal, and only opened when an observation 
is to be made. As the second bulb is out of the 
cup, it is not affected by the radiation, the ac- 
tion of which is concentrated upon the first 
bulb. The contraction of the air in this bulb 
by its sudden exposure to a clear sky causes 
the liquid in the stem to rise. The figure rep- 
resents a vertical section of the aethrioscope. 
A B D is the parabolic cup, of which the inside 
is plated with silver and well polished ; in its 
focus one of the bulbs F of the differential ther- 
mometer F H T is placed ; the other bulb T is 
outside the cup. Any difference of expansion 
between the air in the two bulbs is made visible 
by the motion of a short column of fluid in the 
tube, and read off on the scale in H. The sup- 
port E K, with a hinge in I, connects it with the 
heavy footpiece G, so that it may be inclined in 
different positions, and directed toward differ- 
ent portions of the sky. Its inclination should 
never be made such as to expose the thermo- 
metric bulb in the focus F to terrestrial ob- 
jects above the horizontal line H H, as these 
would either reflect or radiate terrestrial heat, 
and so entirely or partially annul the cooling 
of the bulb F by its own 7-adiation. The pol- 
ished surface of the cup, like all such surfaces, 
cannot radiate its own heat, but only reflect 
that of the bulb F ; it forms thus a barrier be- 
tween the earth and the cup, impenetrable to 
terrestrial heat. Leslie could not interpret the 
indications of this instrument satisfactorily. Not 
only a passing cloud checked the loss of heat, 
but, he says, "sometimes under a fine blue sky 
the rothrioscope will indicate a cold of 50 mil- 
lesimal degrees, while on other days, when the 
air seems equally bright, the effect is scarcely 
30." It has only recently become known that 
such differences are due to the presence of 
aqueous vapors in the air, totally invisible to the 
eye, but which, being more or less opaque to 
the feeble rays of radiant heat, screen the bulb 
and reflecting cup of the aethrioscope against 
loss of heat by radiation, while a dry atmos- 
phere admits this radiation to pass, and more 
freely in proportion as the air is more dry. 
The aethrioscope is therefore at the present day 
used as a hydrometer to determine the amount 
of invisible moisture present in the upper inac- 
cessible strata of our atmosphere. 

\KTIO V a famous Greek painter, supposed to 
have lived in the first half of the 2d century. 
He was distinguished for the beauty of his 
coloring, and esteemed the first painter of his 
time. Lucian gives a description of a very fine 
painting by him, representing the nuptials of 
Alexander and Roxana, which was displayed 
at the Olympic games. 

AETIIS, surnamed the Atheist, from his sup- 
posed denial of the God of revelation, an orien- 
tal heresiarch, born in Antioch, died in Con- 
stantinople, A. D. 367. In early life he was 



AETIUS 



155 



successively the slave of a vine-dresser's wife, 
a travelling tinker or a goldsmith, and a quack 
doctor. He then studied medicine and theology 
at Antioch, and became prominent as a dispu- 
tant. His theories (the chief of which were 
the Anomoean doctrines that the Son is of 
a nature unlike and inferior to that of the 
Father, and that the Holy Spirit is but a crea- 
ture made by the Father and Son before all 
other creatures) incensed the Arians, and he 
was thrice compelled to seek safety in flight; 
but at length he was ordained deacon by 
Leontius, bishop of Antioch. He now devel- 
oped, in connection with Eunomius, his pupil 
and amanuensis, a new schism known as the 
Aetian or Eunomian heresy, and made many 
disciples. He was condemned by the coun- 
cil of Seleucia in 359, and banished by Con- 
stantius to Amblada, in Pisidia. After the 
death of Constantius he was recalled to Con- 
stantinople by Julian, and made a bishop. He* 
adopted every means of spreading his heresy, 
but, having by his intrigues and immorality 
alienated all his friends, died unpitied by any 
butJEunomius, who buried him. 

AETIUS, a general of the western empire, born 
in Moesia about A. D. 396, murdered in 454. 
He was brought up, owing to the influence of 
his high-bred Italian mother, in the imperial 
body guard of Honorius, and after the death 
of his father Gaudentius, an illustrious Scythian 
and master general of cavalry, who lost his 
life in a mutiny, he was given as a hostage to 
the king of the Huns. On his return to Rome 
he was made count on occasion of his marriage 
with the daughter of Carpileo, and became at- 
tached to the household of Joannes. After an 
ineffectual support of this usurper in 425 with 
an army of 60,000 Huns, whom Aetius con- 
ducted into Italy under the guidance, it is said, 
of the then youthful Attila, he turned traitor 
against the treacherous cause he had espoused, 
and after the death of Joannes he succeeded in 
obtaining from Placidia, mother of Valentinian 
III., the chief command over the army of Gaul, 
as the condition of his procuring the peaceful 
retreat of the Huns. In this post he displayed 
great military skill, delivering Aries from the 
Visigoths, recovering from Chlodio, king of 
the Franks, the parts of Gaul bordering on the 
Rhine, overpowering the Juthungi in Bava- 
ria, bringing to an end the Vindelician war, 
and in the following spring crushing the con- 
federated forces of the Burgundians, Huns, 
Heruli, Franks, Sarmatians, Salians, and Ge- 
loni, in one terrible encounter. In 432 his 
rival Boniface, who had been urged to treason 
and then betrayed by himself, returning from 
the province of Africa, which his treason had 
thrown into the hands of the Vandals, and ob- 
taining the dignity of master of the horse, 
they fought a duel at Ravenna on the chal- 
lenge of Aetius, of the wounds received in 
which Boniface soon afterward died. But 
Aetius, fearing for his life, which was threat- 
ened by his late rival's adherents, fled into Pan- 



nonia, and led a second army of Huns into 
Italy, threatened the throne of Valentinian, 
and, although the feeble emperor called in the 
aid of the Visigoths, forced the empress and 
her son, without an engagement, to submit to 
his terms, and returned as before with accumu- 
lated honors, to resume command of the army 
of Gaul. Here he once more displayed genius 
as a general, routing the Burgundians witli ex- 
ceeding slaughter, and forcing their king to 
throw himself on his mercy. In the mean 
time, Roas, king of the Huns, died, and was 
succeeded by Attila and his brother Bleda, the 
latter of whom being soon murdered, Attila 
assumed the sole dominion, and was speedily 
involved in hostilities with both the Roman 
empires. For several years his arms were di- 
rected chiefly against the eastern empire, but 
in 451 he set in motion his vast army of a 
thousand nations, debouched from the defiles 
of the Hercynian forest, crossed the Rhine on 
rafts, and fell like a torrent on the rich plains 
of Gaul. Here for a time all fell before him, 
till, when he was in the very act of storming 
the walls of Orleans, while his Huns were 
mounting the breaches, the spears of Aetius 
and Theodoric the Visigoth appeared on the 
horizon, and, amid cries of "The aid of 
God " from the beleaguered citizens, the siege 
was raised, and the Hunnish hordes were 
forced to retreat. Some days later a tre- 
mendous pitched battle was fought on the field 
of Chalons, in Champagne, in which 162,000, or, 
according to other accounts, 300,000 men fell 
on both sides. The Huns were so completely 
defeated, that Attila prepared a funeral pile 
and contemplated burning himself alive, with 
his treasures, his women, and his baggage 
wagons, had the Romans renewed the battle 
on 'the following day. But Theodoric lay dead, 
and Aetius suffered the Huns to escape. After 
this he purposely remained inactive during the 
remainder of the war, took no measures to op- 
pose the invasion of Italy, and even advised 
Valentinian to evacuate that country and take 
refuge in Gaul, which would have left himself 
master of Rome, where by his great abilities he 
would speedily have rid himself of the Huns 
and assumed the imperial purple. Aetius is 
believed, according to Marcellinus, to have 
been implicated in the sudden death of Attila 
(453) ; but there is no evidence to support this, 
excepting that Aetius always had his emissa- 
ries, in the shape of confidential Greek secreta- 
ries, about the person of Attila, who had never 
ceased to intrigue with him. In the end he 
fell by a crime and a treason as. base as his 
own, stabbed by Valentinian with his own 
hand, during a friendly interview. The cir- 
cumstances of this murder are not clearly 
known, although a coin which has been pre- 
served, bearing the inscription Aetius Impera- 
tor Ccesar, proves that he had assumed the 
imperial purple, and actually declared himself 
emperor, before he was killed. Nominally a 
Roman, he invariably betrayed Rome to the 



156 



/ETOLIA 



AFER 



barbarians except when it was for his own in- 
terest to defend her, and then the ease with 
which he conquered them showed what he 
might have done had he been honest. Nomi- 
nally a Christian, he brought up one of his 
sons, Carpileo, in a heathen court, as a heathen, 
and destined him to wear the crown of a hea- 
then nation ; while the other, Gaudentius, he 
proposed to invest, after himself, with the pur- 
ple of the western empire. Gibbon says that 
during the decay of the military spirit, the 
Roman armies were commanded by two gene- 
rals, Aetius and Boniface, who may be de- 
servedly called the last of the Romans. 

JSTOLIA, a western division of the mam- 
land of Greece, on the N. shore of the gulf of 
Corinth or of Lepanto, W. of Doris and Lo- 
cris, and E. of Acarnania, and divided by 
the narrow strait between Rhium and Anti- 
Rhium from Achaia. It is bounded W. by the 
Achelous, now the Aspropotamo, and N. by 
Thessaly and Epirus. Its chief city in antiquity 
was Thermus, in the interior, on the river 
Evenus, now Fidhari. yEtolia is said to have 
been originally settled in the ante-heroic times 
by the Curetes, who were conquered by the 
hero yEtolus, son of Endymion, with a band 
of followers from Elis, in the Peloponnesus. 
During the mythic and heroic ages /Etolia was 
distinguished as the seat of many of the 
richest and most poetical of the legends of early 
Greece. In the days of Thucydides, however, 
the yEtolians were still a barbarous and un- 
couth tribe. During the Peloponnesian war 
they played no considerable part, nor do they 
appear prominently in Greek history until 
nearly a century later. On the death of Philip 
of Macedon and the accession of Alex- 
ander (336 B. C.), the yEtolians displayed 
such hostility to the latter as drew down 
his signal vengeance. According to Pausa- 
nias, Greece owed much to the yEtolians for 
their energy in beating back the Gallic hordes. 
With this exception, the yEtolians seem to have 
fought on any side to which the hope of plun- 
der allured them. With Alexander of Epirus, 
the son of Pyrrhus, they formed a coalition for 
the sake of dismembering Acarnania for their 
own advantage; and again they banded 
themselves with Cleomenes III. of Sparta, 
hoping to overthrow the Achaean league. 
After the death of Antigonus Doson of Mace- 
don (220), they carried their arms into the 
Peloponnesus in a series of predatory incur- 
sions, for which they were severely chastised 
by Philip V., the successor of Antigonus, who 
sacked and destroyed their capital, Thermus. 
In the latter years of the second Punic war 
the Romans were hard set to avert the conse- 
quences of the alliance between Hannibal and 
Philip V. of Macedon ; the . Kt < >li:m>. with 
their allies, attached themselves to the Romans, 
and enabled them, by the employment of a small 
naval squadron, and a trifling body of forces un- 
der the praator Lrovinus, to neutralize all the 
preparations of Philip, until they had rid them- 



selves of their principal opponent on the field 
of Zama (202). At the battle of Cynoscephalaj 
(197) their cavalry greatly distinguished itself, 
charging home ten times against the Mace- 
donians, who were at first victorious, and giv- 
ing the consul Flamininus time to bring up his 
reserves and- convert a half-lost day into a com- 
plete victory. For this they expected to reap 
their reward in the dismemberment of Philip's 
dominions ; but it was denied to them by the 
Romans. The yEtolians now attempted an al- 
liance against their late allies with Antiochus 
the Great of Syria, who had been prompted to 
hostilities against Rome by Hannibal ; but after 
a single defeat by the Roman consul Glabrio in 
the pass of Thermopylae (191), the latter re- 
treated into Asia, leaving his Greek confederates 
to the mercy of the enemy. The polity of the 
^Etolians from this time, and indeed before, 
consisted of a federal government similar to the 
Achaean league, at one time embracing a num- 
ber of neighboring territories ; but being swal- 
lowed up with the rest of Greece in the univer- 
sal empire of Rome (146), yEtolia followed her 
fortunes, and afterward shared the reverses of 
the eastern empire. Possessed on the irrup- 
tion of the barbarians by Slavic hordes, 
yEtolia was reconquered and partially civilized, 
together with the Illyrians and Dalmatians, by 
the Venetians during the middle ages, and sub- 
sequently became, like the Morea, the scene 
of deadly conflict against the victorious Turks. 
In later times it fell under the power of Ali 
Pasha of Albania, and it was the scene of some 
of the most important events of the Greek rev- 
olution. The principal seaport town of modern 
yEtolia is Missolonghi. The climate is deli- 
cious, but along the seacoast and the swampy 
river shores the autumnal season is marked by 
fevers. The plains are rich and fertile in maize, 
wine, silk, and fruits ; the mountain scenery is 
magnificent. (See ACABNANIA.) 

AFMAS1EFF, Alexander ftikolaieviteh, a Russian 
author, born in Moscow in 1826, died in Oc- 
tober, 1871. He studied at the university of 
Moscow, and was secretary to the council of ma- 
gistrates in that city. He is the author of 
Narodniya Ruskiya skazki (" Russian Pop- 
ular Tales," 4 vols., completed in 1863), a series 
of stories taken down from the mouths of Rus- 
sian peasants, with critical notes. His other 
great work, Poetitche*kiya vozzryeniya, Slav- 
yan no, prirodu (" Poetic Views of Nature 
entertained by the ancient Slavs," 3 vols., 
completed in 1869), is a mine of wealth on the 
subject of Slavic legends and popular con- 
ceptions in respect to the spiritual and material 
world. He was also a frequent contributor to 
the Russian press of articles bearing on Slavic 
history, literature, and archaeology. 

AFEK, Doinitiiis. a celebrated orator, the 
teacher of Quintilian, born at Nimes in the 
reign of Tiberius, died in the reign of Nero, 
A. D. 60. His pupil speaks highly of his plead- 
ings, and mentions several of his works, none 
of which have come down to us. 



AFFIDAVIT 



157 



AFFIDAVIT (Lat., he has sworn or deposed), 
a statement in writing, signed by the depo- 
nent and verified by his oath or affirmation 
made before a person authorized to take it. 
The affidavit is the instrument by which the 
action of courts is invoked in proceedings taken 
in the first instance ex parte, either with refer- 
ence to existing actions or in special proceed- 
ings independent of such causes. Thus it is 
used in actions for the purpose of procuring 
attachments or injunctions, or in support of 
motions of any sort incidental to the suit in 
its ordinary course; or to obtain a writ of 
mandamus or of habeas corpus, or a warrant for 
the arrest of a criminal ; or upon an applica- 
tion to oppose or vacate any of these or the 
like proceedings. As affidavits are in such 
cases ex parte, that is to say, when they are 
presented by the applicant for the relief, there 
is no final adjudication upon the matter in- 
volved until the other party interested has had 
an opportunity to be heard. But the sworn 
allegations of the first party are ordinarily suf- 
ficient to set the power of the court in motion 
in his favor. For the reason, too, that an affi- 
davit is ex parte or one-sided, it is the general 
rule that the testimony of witnesses in causes 
tried in courts cannot be received in this form. 
A party to an action has the right to cross-ex- 
amine witnesses offered against him, and this 
right would be annulled by admitting affidavits 
against him. No particular form of an affida- 
vit is prescribed by our law ; but in England 
very lately the courts have made some very ex- 
pedient rules on the subject which are intended 
to cure some of the most frequent abuses and 
defects of these instruments. They require that 
the affidavit shall be framed in the first person, 
and be divided into paragraphs consecutively 
numbered, and each of them containing as far as 
possible a distinct portion of the subject. The 
occupation and residence of the deponent must 
be inserted. When the paper is sworn to by 
an illiterate person, the jurat, or certificate of 
the officer who administers the oath, must 
state that the affidavit was read over to the 
party, and that he seemed to understand its 
contents. The jurat must also certify that the 
signature or mark of the deponent was made 
in the officer's presence. The affidavit cannot 
be read in court if there are any interlineations 
or erasures in the jurat, or if there are any in 
the body of the affidavit, unless they are noted 
with the initials of the officer. As to the form 
and nature of the instrument generally : If the 
affidavit is made with reference to any pend- 
ing action, it should be headed with the title 
of that action and the name of the court. It 
must specify the state and county in which it 
is made, in order that it may appear on the 
face of the paper that the officer who took the 
oath had capacity to do so ; for the power of 
the officer in this respect is confined to certain 
limits, and an oath administered outside of his 
jurisdiction is a nullity. Then follows the 
statement of facts, and this, according to a 



practice much followed now in New York, 
should be a simple narrative in the first person 
and confined to facts which are within the ac- 
tual knowledge of the deponent. Facts com- 
municated by third persons are not proper, un- 
less the affidavits of those persons cannot be 
obtained ; and in that case the sources of infor- 
mation should be given, and also the reason 
why the parties who have actual knowledge 
do not themselves testify. The statement must 
be signed by the deponent, or marked if he 
cannot write, though the omission of the sig- 
nature or mark will not be fatal if the jurat 
shows that the affiant actually swore to the 
statement: The jurat is the clause which is 
appended by the officer taking the affidavit, in 
which he certifies the time when and the fact 
that the .deponent made oath to the instru- 
ment before him.' The persons who may take 
affidavits are designated by law. In England 
they are the judges and certain commissioners 
and authorized attorneys and solicitors. The 
authority of these last must be entered hi a 
book kept for public reference. Conveyancers 
who are not attorneys or solicitors of the 
courts at Westminster cannot be qualified. 
In the United States, judges, justices of the 
peace, commissioners of deeds, notaries public, 
and other and similar officers have authority by 
statute to take affidavits. All the states also 
appoint commissioners residing in other states 
and territories, and give them the same power 
as to such instruments to be used in the states 
which appoint them. The certificates of these 
officers are ordinarily further verified by the 
secretaries of state of the appointing states, 
who keep a record of all qualified commission- 
ers. By recent statutes of New York (1863 
and 1869), affidavits to be used there may be 
taken in foreign countries and in other states 
by any person who is authorized there to exer- 
cise a like power. Judges of the higher courts 
in other states are also vested by most of the 
states with the same powers given to their com- 
missioners. Generally, the authority of all for- 
eign officials to administer oaths must be veri- 
fied by some court or higher officer of the for- 
eign state ; or when a judge takes the affidavit, 
his signature must be authenticated by the 
clerk and seal of his court. Certain officers of 
the United States residing abroad, the consuls 
at London and Paris for example, may also 
take affidavits, and their consular seals suffi- 
ciently authenticate their acts. British am- 
bassadors and consuls have similar powers by 
the English law. In 1862 a law was passed 
in New York authorizing colonels of the state 
regiments and certain other military officers to 
take affidavits of persons in actual service out 
of the state. An affidavit of merits is one 
made by a defendant which sets forth that he 
has stated the case to his counsel, and that he 
is advised by him that he has a good defence 
to the action upon its merits. This affidavit 
is required by law, in order that a defendant 
may not delay a plaintiff's remedy by making 



158 



AFFINITY 



groundless defence to his suit ; but the require- 
ment of it does not always accomplish the de- 
signed object. 

AFFINITY, the imputed relationship which 
exists in consequence of marriage between the 
husband or wife and the kindred by blood of 
the other. Thus, for example, the wife's kin- 
dred bear the same relation by affinity to the 
husband that they bear to her by consanguinity. 
Affinity also exists between the husband and 
one who is connected by marriage with the 
blood relations of the wife. Two men, for in- 
stance, who are married to sisters are related 
by affinity, but there is no such relationship 
between the blood relations of the husband 
and those of the wife, and it ceases properly 
when the husband or wife dies without leav- 
ing issue. Affinity is significant in the law 
because it constitutes a disqualification of 
judges or jurors, equally with consanguinity. 
When such a disqualification exists, the judge 
cannot act even with the consent of both par- 
ties ; and if he does, the judgment may be va- 
cated. Thus it has been held in New York 
that there was a disabling affinity between a 
judge and the defendant in a cause before him, 
because the defendant's deceased husband was 
a first cousin of the judge, and the son of de- 
fendant by that husband was still living. This 
living son preserved the affinity, which other- 
wise would have ceased on the husband's death. 
Affinity is also significant in the laws of mar- 
riage. The ecclesiastical law made certain 
marriages unlawful though they were con- 
tracted between persons whose relationship 
to each other was very remote. Though the 
statute of 32 Henry VIII., which has virtually 
furnished the rules of the English law on the 
subject ever since, forbade the ecclesiastical 
court to impeach the validity of any marriage 
between parties who were without the Leviti- 
cal degrees, yet it was always held under it in 
England that affinity was an impediment to 
the same extent as consanguinity ; and out of 
this interpretation of the statute came that rule 
of the law which has been so much discussed 
and assailed in England, that a man may not 
marry his deceased wife's sister. The reason 
given was that the marriage made the wife's 
sister the husband's sister ; and although in the 
other branches of the law, with respect to ju- 
dicial officers for example, the death of either 
party destroys the affinity and the disqualifi- 
cation, yet the same result has not been con- 
ceded in matrimonial cases. 

AFFLMTY, Clicminil. the name given to the 
force which combines together chemical ele- 
ments so as to form compounds. Of its real 
nature or essence we are entirely ignorant, as 
we are of the essential nature of other material 
forces. The term chemical attraction has also 
been applied to this force, on the hypothesis 
that it draws together chemical atoms. In 
many cases there can be no doubt that the 
chemical particles come nearer together when 
they combine: thus if two volumes of hydro- 



gen and one volume of oxygen be caused to 
unite, we do not get three volumes of steam, 
but only two; that is, the particles have ap- 
proached so much closer in combining as to 
occupy but two thirds of their former space. In 
other cases, however, compounds are found to 
occupy exactly the same space that their ele- 
ments did before combination, and sometimes 
they fill even a greater space. Hence the term 
chemical attraction has been thought objection- 
able. Chemical affinity is that link or tie which 
binds together unlike kinds of matter, in such an 
intimate manner that the properties of the 
elements are lost, and a compound with new 
properties is produced. It is in this that it differs 
from cohesion, which only unites or aggregates 
similar particles without altering properties. 
The particles in a piece of iron or sulphur are 
I held in union by cohesion ; but when sulphur 
I and iron combine chemically, both elements 
disappear, lose their properties and identity, 
and a new compound is formed the sulphuret 
of iron. Newness of properties in the com- 
pounds formed is the distinguishing peculiarity 
of chemical affinity. It obliterates the char- 
acteristics of the elements, and generates new 
properties in the product. Cohesion is usually 
said to act between homogeneous particles, as in 
the cases just cited of sulphur and iron ; but it 
may also act between dissimilar substances, as 
where silver is inlaid with steel, or copper metal 
united to tin, or iron coated with zinc, or wood 
joined to glue, or paper to paste, or pitch to the 
fingers. These, however, are mechanical com- 
binations ; there is no destruction of the prop- 
erties of the combined substances, and those of 
the combination are not new, but are the same 
as the properties of the constituent substances, 
each of which retains its individuality. The 
force of gravitation is brought into play be- 
tween masses of matter at all distances ; chem- 
j ical affinity acts only when the elements are 
' in contact or at insensible distances. For 
this reason affinity is most energetic when one 
or both of the elements are in a state of solu- 
tion, the approach of the- atoms being then 
most perfect. It was once thought that chem- 
ical affinity could not take effect without the 
intervention of solution; and although the 
statement is generally true, yet there are some 
substances whose affinities are so intense that 
they will unite even in the solid state when 
made to touch each other. The action of affin- 
ity is heightened, modified, and suspended by 
various other causes. Among these heat is 
most potent, and most easily available in the 
laboratory and chemical manufactory. Thus 
carbonic acid and lime unite strongly at com- 
mon temperatures, forming marble or lime- 
stone, but at a red heat their affinity is annihi- 
lated and they separate. On the other hand, 
potash and sand will not actively combine at 
ordinary temperatures, while at a red or whit. 
heat, at which they are melted, combination 
takes place and glass is formed. Light also in- 
fluences affinity, promoting combination and 



AFFIRMATION 



AFFRE. 



159 



decomposition. If chlorine and hydrogen gases 
be mixed in the dark they will not unite, 
but exposed to light they combine at once ; 
while in every green vegetable leaf carbonic 
acid is decomposed every day under the influ- 
ence of solar light. The recent investigations 
in photography have greatly multiplied the 
number of substances over which light is 
known to exert a chemical influence. Elec- 
tricity also has a governing action over affinity. 
An electric spark, shot through a mixture of 
oxygen and hydrogen gases, causes them to 
combine instantaneously and explosively, pro- 
ducing water ; while a steady electric stream 
sent through the water annuls the affinity of 
its elements and sets them free again. Other 
causes also, known and unknown, affect in va- 
rious ways and degrees the play of affinity; 
indeed, a full statement of them would involve 
almost the whole science of chemistry. The 
changes in the properties of substances pro- 
duced by affinity are numberless and surpris- 
ing. When solid charcoal and sulphur com- 
bine, the compound formed is colorless as water, 
and highly volatile. If yellow sulphur and 
bluish white quicksilver be heated together, 
they form the bright red vermilion. Waxy 
phosphorus and colorless invisible oxygen unite 
to form a white body resembling sno'w. Ni- 
trogen and oxygen are tasteless, separate or 
mixed ; yet one of their compounds, laughing 
gas, is sweet, and another, nitric acid, in- 
tensely sour; they are both transparent and 
invisible, yet they form a cherry-red compound 
gas. Charcoal and hydrogen are odorless; 
nevertheless, many of our choicest perfumes, 
such as oils of roses and bergamot, as well as 
the less agreeable spirits of turpentine and il- 
luminating gas, contain only these elements. 
The mild and scentless nitrogen and hydrogen 
give rise to one of the most odorous and pun- 
gent compounds, ammonia; while suffocating 
and poisonous chlorine, united to a bright metal, 
sodium, yields common salt. Charcoal, hydro- 
gen, and nitrogen, which singly or mixed are 
not injurious to life, yet combine to form the 
terrible poison prussic acid; while charcoal, 
hydrogen, and oxygen, variously united, pro- 
duce sweet sugar, poisonous oxalic acid, and 
intoxicating alcohol. The strength of affinity 
among different elements is various. Thus the 
chemical energies of sulphuric acid are supe- 
rior to those of carbonic acid ; if the former be 
united to carbonate of lime, it takes the lime 
away from the carbonic acid that is, produces 
decomposition and a new compound. It has 
been attempted to establish a scale of affinities 
among various chemical substances to form the 
basis of an order of decomposition; but af- 
finity is disturbed and overcome by so many 
circumstances that such tables are of but 
little value. For the laws of affinity or chemi- 
cal combination, see ATOMIC THEORY. 

AFFIRMATION, a mode of solemn verification 
permitted by the law, in the place of an oath, 
to persons who are unwilling from conscien- 



tious motives to be sworn. This departure 
from the usual rule of exacting an oath was 
first introduced into the English law in favor 
of Quakers ; but by the present law there, and 
ever since 17 and 18 Victoria, ch. 125 (1854), 
any person called as a witness or desiring tt 
make an affidavit or deposition, who will 
solemnly declare that the taking of an oath is, 
according to his religious belief, unlawful, may 
affirm or declare to the truth of his statement ; 
and the statute requires that the officer taking 
the affirmation shall recite in his certificate 
that the affirmant declared that an oath was 
unlawful according to his religious belief. By 
the statute of 24 and 25 Victoria, ch. 66 
(1861), all persons refusing to be sworn in 
criminal proceedings may make their solemn 
affirmation instead. In the United States an 
affirmation, even without the suggestion of any 
reason for preferring it, is" probably everywhere 
received in place of an oath. The legal effect 
of both is the same, and perjury is committed 
by affirming as well as by swearing falsely, 
wilfully, and corruptly. 

AFFRE, Denis Angoste, archbishop of Paris, 
born at St. Rome-de-Tarn, Sept. 27, 1793, died 
in Paris, June 27, 1848. He was educated in 
the seminary of St. Sulpice, and was made 
teacher of philosophy in that of Nantes before 
he had attained the age required for the priest- 
hood. After his ordination he was attached 
successively to the seminary of St. Sulpice and 
to the foundling hospital, and subsequently as 
grand vicar assisted the bishops of Lucon and 
Amiens. In 1834 he was attached to the 
diocese of Paris as canon and honorary vicar 
general. In 1839 he was appointed coadjutor 
to the bishop of Strasburg, but never took 
possession of this office ; for the archbishop's 
see of Paris having become vacant, he was 
appointed to it, and consecrated Aug. 6, 1840. 
In this office he distinguished himself by zeal 
for ecclesiastical education, and for the allevia- 
tion of poverty and misfortune. While the 
insurrection of June, 1848, was raging in the 
streets of Paris, he determined to make a per- 
sonal attempt to stop bloodshed. On the 25th 
he called upon Gen. Cavaignac, and, although 
warned by him of the great danger of his 
undertaking, repaired to the faubourg St. 
Antoine, the stronghold of the insurgents. On 
his appearance between the two hostile parties 
at the place de la Bastille, the firing was sus- 
pended, and he calmly and steadily proceeded 
toward the barricades without any protection 
except the gold cross on his breast and a green 
branch carried before him, in token of peace, 
by a young attendant. He was admitted be- 
hind the barricades, and had just begun to 
address the insurgents, when the report of a 
musket was immediately followed by a renewal 
of hostilities, and in the confusion the arch- 
bishop fell, shot by some unknown hand, and 
was transported to the hospital of the Quime- 
Vingts. He expired two days later, a martyr 
of charity, as was proclaimed by the national 



160 



AFGHANISTAN 



assembly. He was the author of several re- 
ligions and educational works. 

AFGHANISTAN, an extensive country of Asia, 
between lat. 28 30' and 36 N., and Ion. 60 
and 71 30' E., bounded N. by Turkistan, E. 
by the Punjaub and Sinde, S. by Beloochistan, 
and W. by the Persian highlands of Khorasan. 
Area estimated at upward of 215,000 sq. m. ; 
pop. upward of 5,000,000, and estimated even 
as high as 9,000,000. The surface of Af- 
ghanistan is very irregular lofty table lands, 
vast mountains, deep valleys, and ravines. 
Like all mountainous tropical countries, it 
presents every variety of climate. In the 
Hindoo Koosh the snow lies all the year on 
the lofty summits, while in the valleys the 
thermometer ranges up to 130. The heat is 
greater in the eastern than in the western 
parts, but the climate is generally cooler than 
that of India; and although the alternations 
of temperature between summer and winter, 
or day and night, are very great, the country 
is generally healthy. The soil, where not too 
rocky, is very fertile. Date palms flourish in 
the oases of the sandy wastes ; the sugar cane 
and cotton in the hot regions ; and European 
fruits and vegetables on the hillside terraces up 
to a level of 6,000 or 7,000 feet. The mulberry 
tree flourishes in the cool valleys. The moun- 
tains are clothed with noble forests, which are 
frequented by bears, wolves, and foxes, while 
the lion, the leopard, and the tiger are found 
in districts congenial to their habits. There is 
a fine variety of sheep of the Persian or large- 
tailed breed. The horses are of good size and 
blood. The camel and ass are used as beasts 
of burden. The country is rich in lead, 
plumbago, saltpetre, sulphur, salt, and alum. 
The iron is believed to be equal to any in the 
world, while the copper ore yields in some 
localities nearly 80 per cent, of the metal. 
r>esides the Hindoo Koosh on the northeast, 
there is a chain called the Solyman mountains 
on the east and southeast ; and between north- 
western Afghanistan and Balkh there is a 
mountain labyrinth known as the Paropamisan 
range, which has as yet been little explored. 
Several minor ranges traverse the interior. 
The rivers are few in number; the Helmund 
and the Cabool are the most important. These 
take their rise in the Hindoo Koosh, the Ca- 
bool flowing east and falling into the Indus 
near Attock, the Helmund flowing southwest 
through the centre of the country and fall- 
ing into the lake of Hamoon. The Helmund 
overflows its banks annually like the Nile, 
bringing fertility to the soil, which, beyond the 
limit of the inundation, is sandy desert. The 
four principal cities, Cabool, the capital, Ghuz- 
ni, Candahar, and Herat, are important sta- 
tions on the highway of commerce from India 
to central and western Asia. Cabool and 
Jelalabad protect the passage to India on the 
north, Candahar on the south, and Herat, in the 
extreme west, guards the Persian frontier. 
The geographical position of Afghanistan, and 



the peculiar character of the people, invest the 
country with a strategical and political im- 
portance that can scarcely be overestimated in 
the affairs of central Asia. The government is 
a monarchy, but the king's authority over his 
high-spirited and turbulent subjects is personal 
and very uncertain. The kingdom is divided 
into provinces, each superintended by a royal 
officer who collects the taxes. The Afghans 
are a brave, hardy, and independent race; 
they follow pastoral or agricultural occupations 
only, eschewing trade and commerce. They 
are divided into clans, over which the various 
chiefs exercise a sort of feudal supremacy. 
The two principal tribes are the Durranis and 
Ghiljies or Ghilzais, who are frequently at feud 
with each other. The Durranis are the more 
powerful, and the military contingents are 
chiefly furnished by them. Justice in the towns 
is administered by cadis, but the Afghans 
rarely resort to law. Avenging of blood is a 




family duty ; and the rights of hospitality are sa- 
cred. In religion they are, with the exception 
of some not purely national portions of the pop- 
ulation, Sunnite Mohammedans, and are conse- 
quently opposed to the Persians, who are Shiahs ; 
but they are not bigoted, and alliances between 
Shiahs and Sunnis are by no means uncom- 
mon ; and they are tolerant toward Christians 
and Hindoos. Afghanistan was subjected for 
centuries alternately to Mongol and Persian 
dominion. Previous to the advent of the Brit- 
ish on the shores of India, the foreign invasions 
which swept the plains of Hindostan always 
proceeded from Afghanistan. Sultan Mahmoud 
the Great of Ghuzni, Genghis Khan, Tamer- 
lane, and Nadir Shah all took this road. After 
the death of Nadir in 1747, Ahmed Khan, who 
had served under him, liberated his country 
from Persia and made himself king. Under 
him Afghanistan reached its highest point of 
greatness and prosperity in modern times. 
He belonged to the Durranis, and his first act 



AFGHANISTAN 



161 



was to seize upon the booty which his late 
chief had gathered in India. His kingdom 
extended from Khorasan to Delhi, and he 
even measured swords with the Mahratta pow- 
ers. He died in 1773, and left his crown 
to his son Timour, who was unequal to the 
weighty charge. He abandoned the city of 
Candahar, and removed the seat of government 
back to Cabool. During his reign the internal 
dissensions of the tribes, which had been re- 
pressed by Ahmed, were revived. In 1793 
Timour died, and Zemaun succeeded him. This 
prince conceived the idea of consolidating the 
Mohammedan power of India, and this plan 
was thought so important by the English that 
Sir John Malcolm was sent to the frontier to 
keep the Afghans in check in case of their 
making any movement, and at the same time 
negotiations were opened with Persia, by whose 
assistance the Afghans might be placed between 
two fires. Zemaun's plans were, however, frus- 
trated by a contest between him and his bro- 
thers, which ended in Mahmoud's accession to 
the throne. The latter was compelled to abdi- 
cate in 1823, and died in 1829, the last of the 
Durrani dynasty. Afghanistan was now ruled 
by three brothers, the ablest of whom, Dost 
Mohammed, was in possession of Cabool, the 
most important of the three divisions of the 
country. He was soon involved in war with 
Lahore on the east, and on the west with 
the Persian invaders of Herat, who were be- 
lieved to be abetted by Eussia. In 1838 Eng- 
land declared war against Afghanistan, upon the 
ground that Dost Mohammed had attacked her 
ally Kunjeet Singh, who had established an in- 
dependent kingdom in the Punjaub, and that 
Shujah, whom the English regarded as the 
lawful heir to the throne of Afghanistan, had 
placed himself under British protection. In 
December, 1838, the Anglo-Indian army, under 
Sir John Keane, marched toward Sinde, which 
country was coerced into submission and the 
payment of a contribution for the benefit of the 
Sikhs and Shujah. On Feb. 20, 1839, the Brit- 
ish army passed the Indus. It was about 12,000 
strong, with 40,000 camp followers, besides the 
new levies of Shujah, and suffered severely on 
the march. They penetrated through the Bo- 
Ian pass, and on April 25 entered Candahar, 
which the brothers of Dost Mohammed had 
abandoned. After a rest of two months, Ghuzni, 
the impregnable stronghold of Afghanistan, was 
takten, July 22, by blowing open the only gate 
which had not been walled up. After this dis- 
aster the army which Dost Mohammed had 
collected at once disbanded, and Cabool opened 
its gates Aug. 6. Shah Shujah was installed in 
due form, but the real direction of government 
remained in the hands of the British envoy, Sir 
William McNaghten, who also paid all Shujah's 
expenses out of the Indian treasury, as well as 
those of the principal chiefs. Dost Mohammed | 
surrendered in October, 1840, and was sent to 
India. The conquest of Afghanistan seemed 
accomplished, and a considerable portion of the | 
12 VOL. i. 12 



troops were sent back. But during the whole 
of 1840 and 1841 insurrection followed insur- 
rection in every part of the country. The 
Anglo-Indian troops had to be constantly on 
the move. The occupation of Afghanistan cost 
the Indian treasury 1,250,000 per annum. 
McNaghten was informed of the impossibility 
of going on at this rate of expenditure. He 
attempted retrenchment, but the only possible 
way to enforce it was to cut down the allow- 
ances of the chiefs. The very day he attempted 
this, the chiefs formed a conspiracy for the ex- 
termination of the British. The English in 
Cabool were commanded by Gen. Elphinstone, 
who had been sent as English envoy in 1835 to 
counteract the alleged anti-English Perso-Rus- 
sian intrigues. He was a gouty, irresolute, 
helpless old man, whose orders constantly con- 
tradicted each other. The defences and com- 
missariat were neglected, and everything was 
in confusion. On Nov. 2, 1841, the insurrec- 
tion broke out in Cabool. The house of the 
British resident, Sir Alexander Burnes, was 
attacked, and he himself murdered. On Nov. 
3 the forts near the camp were occupied by the 
insurgents. On the 9th the commissariat fort, 
garrisoned by only 80 men, was taken, and the 
British were thus reduced to starvation. In 
the middle of November negotiations began, 
during which McNaghten was murdered in a 
conference with Afghan chiefs. On Jan. 1, 
1842, a capitulation was concluded, the Brit- 
ish agreeing to evacuate the country, paying a 
large amount of money, and surrendering nearly 
all their artillery and ammunition. The chiefs, 
on the other hand, promised a safe conduct, 
provisions, and baggage cattle. On Jan. 5 the 
British marched out, 4,500 combatants and 
12,000 camp-followers. The march, through 
cold and snow, and with scanty food, soon be- 
came completely disorganized, while they were 
harassed by infuriated Afghan marksmen, arm- 
ed with long-range matchlocks, occupying every 
height. The chiefs who signed the capitulation 
neither could nor would restrain the moun- 
tain tribes. The Kurd-Cabool pass became the 
grave of nearly all the army, and the remnant, 
less than 200 Europeans, fell at the entrance 
of the Jugduluk pass. Only one Englishman, 
Dr. Brydon, reached Jelalabad to tell the tale. 
Many officers, however, had been seized by the 
Afghans, and kept in captivity. Jelalabad was 
held by Sale's brigade. He was summoned to 
surrender, but refused, and made a most gal- 
lant defence ; so did Nott at Candahar. Ghuzni 
had fallen ; there was not a man in the place 
that understood anything about artillery, and 
the sepoys of the garrison had succumbed to 
the climate. In the mean time, the British 
authorities on the frontier, at the first news of 
the disaster of Cabool, had concentrated at 
Peshawer the troops destined for the relief of 
the regiments in Afghanistan, which were long 
detained by lack of transportation. Gen. Pol- 
lock received the command, and at the end of 
March, 1842, forced the Khyber pass, and ad- 



162 



AFGHANISTAN 



vanced to the relief of Sale at Jelalabad ; but 
Sale had a few days before completely defeated 
the investing Afghan army. It was not till 
July that Lord Ellenborough, now governor 
general of India, authorized an advance on 
Cabool, both from Candahar and Jelalabad; 
and on Sept. 15 Gen. Pollock, after several 
battles, encamped under the walls of Cabool. 
On the 17th he was joined by Nott, who had 
also fought several battles, and had taken and 
destroyed Ghuzni. Shah Shujah had long before 
been murdered by some of the chiefs, and since 
then no regular government had existed in 
Afghanistan ; nominally, Futteh Jung, his son, 
was king. Pollock despatched a body of cav- 
alry after the Oabool prisoners, but these had 
succeeded in bribing their guard, and met him 
on the road. As a mark of vengeance, the 
bazaar of Cabool was destroyed, on which oc- 
casion the soldiers plundered part of the town 
and massacred many inhabitants. Oct. 12, the 
British left Cabool and inarched by Jelalabad 
and Peshawer to India. Futteh Jung, despair- 
ing of his position, followed them. Dost Mo- 
hammed was now dismissed from captivity, and 
returned to his kingdom. Thus ended the at- 
tempt of the British to set up a prince of their 
own making in Afghanistan. Dost Mohammed 
on his return to Cabool was received with ova- 
tions as the liberator of Afghanistan both from 
English and Perso-Russian hostility. As early 
as 1846 he availed himself of the experience he 
had gained during his captivity in British India 
to revive hostilities. Entering into an alliance 
with his former enemies the Sikhs, he set on 
foot disturbances in the Punjaub, which were 
not quelled without much hard fighting. After 
the battle of Guzerat, however (Feb. 21, 1849), 
the Sikhs, defeated by the English, were for- 
saken by the Afghans, and Dost Mohammed 
with 16,000 of his warriors fled over the Indus. 
He was not disturbed by the English govern- 
ment, and after having conquered Balkh (1850) 
and thus consolidated his forces in the north, 
he even succeeded in 1854 in subduing Canda- 
har, and gaining the supremacy in the southern 
part of the country. He now concluded an 
offensive and defensive alliance with England, 
March 30, 1855 ; and goaded on by that power, 
as well as encouraged in his ambition by the 
death of Yar Mohammed, the ruler of Herat, he 
became involved in war with Persia (1856), 
which ended in the evacuation of Herat (July, 
1857) by the Persians, and the appointment of 
Ahmed as sultan of that country. In January, 
1857, Dost Mohammed concluded a new treaty 
with England. In 1860 the sultan of Herat quar- 
relled with Dost Mohammed's son ; but on this 
occasion, as in the following year, in the com- 
plications with the emir of Bokhara, Dost over- 
came all difficulties by the exercise of his wont- 
ed tact and moderation. A new Persian war 
broke out in 1862 ; but, supported by his Brit- 
ish allies, Dost Mohammed defeated the sultan 
of Herat and took possession of that city after 
a protracted struggle, May 26, 1863. Ahmed, 



the sultan of Herat, and the tool of Persia and 
Russia, died shortly before the capture of his 
capital, and Dost himself survived his victory 
only a few days, his death occurring May 29, 
1863. He bequeathed the throne to his son 
Shere Ali, who was soon embroiled in a bitter 
contest for the succession with his brothers and 
nephews, and Afghanistan was plunged again 
into anarchy. Helpless against the many pre- 
tenders to the throne, Shere Ali appealed to 
the English, but he was regarded by them as 
an unsafe ally, and Afzul Khan, Shere's half 
brother, was recognized by Sir John Lawrence, 
the governor of British India, as the lawful 
sovereign. Yacub Khan, Shere's son, had suc- 
ceeded in retaining power at Herat, and sent as- 
sistance to his father, who, however, was disap- 
pointed in his hope of making the Persians his 
allies against his antagonists. In October, 

1867, however, he succeeded in gathering an 
army of 17,000 men, chiefly through the mone- 
tary assistance accorded to him by the widow 
of Feis Mohammed of Balkh. On April 1, 

1868, he took possession of Candahar, and in 
January, 1869, he achieved a decided victory at 
Ghuzni over his half brother Azim and his 
nephew Abd-ul-Rahman. In July, 1869, the 
pretenders rose anew on the boundaries of 
Turkistan ; but Azim Khan, the most mis- 
chievous of them, died in October, 1869, and 
the Anglo-Indian government, afraid of Russia, 
which was all the time accused of a design to 
use Persian supremacy over Herat for her 
own designs on India, now came over to the 
side of Shere Ali. Earl Mayo, the new gover- 
nor general of India, entered into a formal alli- 
ance with him, recognizing him as the legitimate 
sovereign of Afghanistan. At the instigation 
of England, the upper Oxus was at the same 
time fixed upon as the boundary line between 
Afghanistan and Bokhara (a country virtually 
ruled by Russian influence), and a treaty to that 
effect was concluded and signed in January, 
1871. By bringing the difficulties between these 
countries to a close, Great Britain hoped to ar- 
rest the progress of Russia. Shere Ali, how- 
ever, was still distrusted by his kinsmen, the 
pretenders to his throne. On Sept. 21, 1870, 
his own son Yacub rose in revolt against 
his father, because the latter, owing to a palace 
intrigue, resolved to appoint his second son 
Abdullah Jaw successor to the throne, in the 
place of Yacub. In March, 1871, the fortress 
of Gurian fell into the hands of Yacub, and 
hi May he even took possession of Herat. A 
protracted war between father and son was 
now expected, but through British diploma- 
cy a reconciliation took place in June, in con- 
seqence of which Yacub was appointed gov- 
ernor of Herat. Afghan Language and Litera- 
tim-. Afghan is a Persian word. The term 
Vilayet is applied by the people themselves 
to their country, and signifies the original 
land of ancestors. They also designate it as 
Cabulistan, and by other appellations. The in- 
habitants call themselves Pushtaneh or Pukh- 



AFIUM KARA-HISSAR 

taneh, according to the two main dialects of 
their language, the Pukhtu and Pushtu, which 
are spoken in different parts of the country. The 
Afghani, notwithstanding its peculiar sounds, 
retains the essential characteristics of the Iranic 
group of the Indo-European languages. Mixed 
with various oriental tongues and written in 
Persian characters, it reveals the defective cul- 
tivation of the people. There is a tradition 
that Mohammed described the Pukhtu as the 
language of hell. Previous to the 15th century 
there does not seem to have existed any litera- 
ture at all ; but since that period there have 
been several poets, who took the high-flown 
Persian lyrical writers as their models. Abder- 
rahman of Peshawer was one of the earliest 
poets. In the 17th century Mirza Khan An- 
sari and Khushhal Shah Abdali distinguished 
themselves as Afghan poets ; and Ahmed, the 
founder of the Durrani dynasty, was remark- 
able for his literary efforts. Writings on his- 
torical and religious subjects are extant among 
the Afghans, but none earlier than within the 
last four centuries. Raverty published a gram- 
mar of the Pukhtu language (London, 1860- 
'68), and a selection from the poetry of the Af- 
ghans (1862). Among valuable works on 
Afghanistan are Elphinstone's " Account of the 
Kingdom of Caubul" (London, 1815); Caye, 
"History of the War in Afghanistan" (1851); 
Belly, " Journal of his Political Mission to Af- 
ghanistan " (1862) ; and the travels of Connolly, 
Burnes, Ferrier, and Bellew. 

AFIUM KARA-HISSAR (Black Castle of Opium, 
so called from its extensive trade in opium, 
which grows in its vicinity), or simply Kara- 
hissar, a city in the Turkish eyalet of Khu- 
davendikiar, in Asia Minor, capital of a sanjak 
or district, 50 m. S. S. E. of Kutaieh ; pop. 
about 50,000. It is neatly built upon a moun- 
tain side, protected by a fortress, which is 
perched upon a high rock above it. Manufac- 
tories of carpets, felts, arms, stirrups, and sad- 
dlery are carried on by the inhabitants. 

AFRAGOLA, a town of Italy, 5 m. K E. of 
Naples, on the railroad to Rome; pop. in 1861, 
16,129. It has manufactures of straw hats, 
and a great annual fair commencing on the 
second Sunday of May. 

AFRANIUS, Lucius, a Roman orator and writer 
of comedies, who flourished about 100 B. C. 
His genius and fluent style are praised by Cicero 
and Quintilian. In his plays he depicted 
Roman life, and chiefly its lower features, with 
admirable accuracy, and was therefore regarded 
as a worthy imitator of Menander. Only some 
fragments of his works remain. 

AFRICA, one of the great continental divis- 
ions of the globe, situated in the eastern hem- 
isphere, S. of Europe, from which it is sepa- 
rated by the Mediterranean sea, and S. W. of 
Asia, with which it was formerly connected by 
the isthmus of Suez. Since the opening of the 
canal between the Mediterranean and the Red 
sea, Africa may be described as an insular con- 
tinent. It lies between lat. 37 20' N. and 34 



AFRICA 



163 



50' S., and Ion. 17 30' W. and 51 30' E., being 
thus almost wholly within the tropics. Its 
figure resembles that of an irregular triangle. 
Its greatest length, measured from Cape Agul- 
has, E. of the Cape of Good Hope, to Cape 
Bianco, near Bizerta in Tunis, is 4,330 geo- 
graphical miles ; and its greatest width, from 
Cape Verd on the Atlantic to Cape Guarda- 
fui, on the Indian ocean, is 4,000 geographical 
miles. The entire area of the continent, ex- 
clusive of Madagascar and the other African 
islands, is estimated at 11,360,000 statute square 
miles. The derivation of the name, which was 
originally applied only to the country around 
Carthage, is uncertain. Within the last 25 years 
our knowledge of African geography has been 
so largely increased that the leading physi- 
cal features of the country are now pretty 
well known. Southern Africa is a vast table 
land, not of great elevation, which on its N. 
edge slopes down to the rich equatorial plain 
of Soodan, and thence to the lowland region 
which constitutes the greater part of northern 
Africa. The mountain ridges of Senegambia 
on the west, and the lofty plateau of Abyssinia 
on the east, are outlying offshoots of the south- 
ern table land, stretching forth from it like 
rocky promontories into a sea of level country. 
The Atlas range in the northwest is the only 
other elevated region of importance. The coast 
line of Africa is remarkable for its continuity, 
as well as for its lack of good harbors. It is 
about 16,000 m. in length, so that for every 
710 sq. m. of continental area, according to the 
estimate above given, there is only one linear 
mile of coast, a smaller proportion of seashore 
to surface than in America, Asia, or Europe. 
The surrounding seas comprise the Mediterra- 
nean on the north, the Red sea and Indian 
ocean on the east, the Southern ocean on the 
south, and the Atlantic on the west. The 
island of Madagascar is separated from the 
S. E. portion of the mainland by the Mozam- 
bique channel, 250 m. wide. Just above the 
equator the breadth of the continent is consid- 
erably narrowed by the westward trend of the 
Atlantic coast through about 15 degrees of 
longitude, from Cape Palmas to the head of the 
bight of Biafra, where it resumes its southerly 
course. The seaboard of this region is washed 
by the waters of the gulf of Guinea. The most 
prominent points on the Mediterranean coast 
are Cape Bon, in Tunis, opposite Sicily, and 
Cape Spartel, the extremity of a spur from the 
Atlas mountains forming the African side of 
the straits of Gibraltar. At the gulf of Sidra, 
the Syrtis Major of the ancients, in Tripoli, the 
sands of the Sahara reach the shore ; and E. of 
this locality to the delta of the Nile the coast 
country is flat and unproductive. In Algeria 
the Atlas foot hills approach the sea, and the 
contiguous district is well adapted for cultiva- 
tion. The Sahara desert again borders the 
shore on the Atlantic coast of northern Africa ; 
and further S. lie the luxuriant but unhealthy 
lowland delta districts of Senegambia, whence 



164 



AFRICA 



projects Cape Verd, so named from its rich 
green covering of gigantic baobab trees. Ap- 
proaching the equator, these are succeeded by 
a country still more fatal to man, in the man- 
grove swamps and reedy shore growths of the 
Guinea coast. On the Bed sea, a range of 
mountains originating in Abyssinia skirts the 
W. shore and descends on the north to the 
lower hills of Egypt, which are geologically 
connected with the Sinaitic peninsula. The 
maritime edge of the great South African 
plateau is bounded for the most part by moun- 
tain chains of various altitude, with shelving 
plains on their seaward slope. Between the 
E. and W. coasts which border the table land 
there is a marked difference. Along the At- 
lantic a series of terraces rises into the interior, 
intersected in some localities by low, level 
plains and fever-breeding swamps, and in others 
by grassy tracts and extensive forests. The 
highest of these terraces does not exceed 2,000 
feet above the sea. From Cape Negro, in Ben- 
guela, to the mouth of the Orange river, the 
coast is a low desert backed by a sandstone 
ridge, beyond which extends the lofty but no 
less arid inland region. Along this 900 m. of 
seaboard there is not a single drop of fresh 
water, and not a spot of fertility except at 
Walvisch bay. The coast of Cape Colony is 
bold and rocky ; in Natal the surface rises grad- 
ually from the sea to the Drakenberg range, 
and thence northward to the Zambesi ; the 
shore consists of highlands which in some lo- 
calities attain the elevation of lofty mountains. 
Well watered and fertile plains occur opposite 
Zanzibar, but further N. the country becomes 
more sterile, and a desert occupies that portion 
of the continent comprised between lat. 4 N. 
and Cape Guardafui, its E. extremity. The 
strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, 20 m. broad, separates 
Africa from Asia, at the entrance to the Red 
sea. On the African side the coast is rugged, 
and rises abruptly from the sea, though only to 
the height of 380 feet. Considered with refer- 
ence to continental location, the mountains of 
Africa may be classed in five systems, as fol- 
lows: 1, the mountains of the Mediterranean 
basin, comprising the three ranges of the Atlas; 
2, the mountains of the W. coast ; 3, the parallel 
chains of the Cape region ; 4, the mountains of 
the E. coast; and 5, the Abyssinian group. 
Isolated from the other parts of the continent by 
the Great Desert, the Atlas mountains extend 
across the N. W. portion, from the Mediterra- 
nean shores of Tunis to Agadir on the Atlantic 
coast of Morocco. The Lesser Atlas is the low- 
est range of this system and nearest the Medi- 
terranean; a little further inland the broad 
table land known as the Middle Atlas rises still 
higher ; and above this towers the jagged ridge 
of the Greater Atlas, in many points attaining 
an elevation of 12,500 ft. It has commonly 
been represented that these loftier peaks were 
above the line of perpetual snow ; but according 
to Dr. J. D. Hooker, the English botanist, who 
succeeded in ascending to the crest of the range 



near the city of Morocco in 1871, all the snow 
that falls on fairly exposed surfaces melts in the 
same year. Several spurs are thrown out from 
the main chain toward the Sahara, and one 
trends northward to the straits of Gibraltar. 
Little is known about the mountains of 
western Africa, except those in close proximity 
to the coast. Senegambia includes an elevated 
region which forms the watershed whence flow 
the Niger and the Senegal ; while in Guinea, N. 
of the gulf, are the Kong mountains, nowhere 
exceeding 3,500 ft. in height. The Cameroons 
rise from the shores of the bight of Biafra, and 
extend eastward to an unknown distance, with 
many lofty summits, some of which are esti- 
mated at 13,000 ft., though others do not ex- 
ceed 4,000 ft. We possess but little information 
as to the mountains which rise back of the ter- 
raced W. coast S. of the gulf of Guinea, but 
there are believed to be extensive ranges of 
very considerable height. The mountain sys- 
tem of the Cape country is peculiar. The con- 
tinent is here 700 m. in width, and partly across 
it stretch three crescent-shaped ranges parallel 
to the S. coast, and increasing in elevation with 
their distance from it. The innermost of these 
ranges borders upon the great interior table 
land, and between them are narrow tier-like 
flats, called karroos, forming three gigantic 
steps ascending from the ocean respectively 
2,000, 4,000 and 6,000 ft. above its level. The 
karroos are connected by defiles known as 
kloofs, there being no other means of commu- 
nication between them. The names applied to 
the different sections of the intervening ranges 
are numerous. In the southernmost is the 
Zwellendam group, of which the most promi- 
nent height is Table mountain, 3,582 ft. high ; 
to the middle range belong the Zwarteberge, 
with an average elevation of 4,000 ft. ; and on 
the N. the Roggeveld, Nieuwveld, Sneeuwveld, 
and others make up the third barrier on the 
southern edge of the great S. African plateau. 
The Compass Berg, in the Sneeuwveld, is 10,000 
ft. high. The mountains of the E. coast begin 
with the Quatlamba range, a continuous chain 
extending between the 27th parallel and the 
beginning of the delta of the Zambesi, 300 m. 
from the Mozambique channel, with an eleva- 
tion varying from 4,000 to 10,000 ft. The 
Drakenberg is that portion of this range which 
borders the colony of Natal. At the head of 
the delta it widens into a belt of fertile high- 
lands, and from this spot other mountain chains 
branch forth in various directions ; one west- 
ward, one northward toward Lake Nyassa, and 
the Lupata mountains southward along the 
coast of Sofala at a distance of 160 m. from the 
sea. The northward range is distinguished by 
no important peak S. of the 4th parallel ; but 
between lat. 3 and 4 S., some 200 m. from 
the Indian ocean, rises the beautiful snow- 
capped summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro, 20,065 ft. 
high, and believed to be the loftiest mountain 
in Africa. It has lately been partially ascended 
by the Rev. Charles New, an Englishman, who 






AFRICA 



165 



reached the snow line, and who describes its 
lower slopes as covered with forests of gigantic 
trees, above which are rich growths of heath 
and pasture. About 200 m. further N. Mt. 
Kenia also rises into the region of perpetual 
snow, its altitude being estimated at 17,000 ft. 
A continuous chain is believed to connect this 
range with Abyssinia. The Abyssinian system 
of mountains comprises numerous lofty summits 
clustered in groups on the elevated plateau 
which separates the Nile basin from the E. 
African coast. This table land sinks abruptly 
to the lowlands on the edge of the Red sea, but 
descends by much gentler gradations on its W. 
slope. The dividing ridge of the watershed 
averages 8,000 ft. in height; on the north it is 
considerably lower, while it ascends to 11,000 
ft. on the south. There are said to be peaks 
over 15,000 ft. high in the Simen range, and 
in other parts of the country there are known 
to be many higher than 12,000 ft. Africa has 
long been regarded as distinctively and pre- 
eminently the country of deserts. The Sahara 
extends over almost all the northern portion 
of the continent between lat. 15 and 30 N". 
With an average width of 1,000 m., and an ex- 
treme length of "3,000 m., it stretches from the 
Nile to the Atlantic, and from the southern slopes 
of the Atlas to Soodan, covering an area which 
exceeds that of the Mediterranean, and with a 
surface in some places below the level of that 
sea. The southern limits of this vast land of 
desolation have never been continuously traced 
by Europeans, and our knowledge of its track- 
less wastes is confined to the ancient lines of 
caravan travel across them. The surface is 
made up of shifting sand, rough gravel, and 
barren rock, variously distributed, and occa- 
sionally traversed by low chains of bare hills. 
Extensive plains of salt also occur. Through- 
out this sterile region rain is almost unknown, 
and the heat is terrific. At the equinoctial 
seasons the easterly wind, which blows during 
three fourths of the year, rises at times to a 
gale, and causes the terrific sand storms by 
which caravans have so frequently been over- 
whelmed. The western portion of the Sahara, 
called Sahel, is the wildest and most desolate ; 
in the eastern portion, to a part of which the 
name Libyan desert is applied, are numerous 
oases. These differ greatly in extent, but all 
contain springs, rich grass, and date palms. 
Many of them are depressions below the sur- 
face of the surrounding desert. Some consist 
of little more than a well of fresh water, a 
clump of trees, and a spot of verdure ; others 
cover many miles of fertile country. The more 
important are : the Great Oasis, or oasis of 
Thebes, 120 m. long and about 5 m. wide; the 
Lesser Oasis, smaller but similar in outline ; the 
oasis of Darfoor, constituting the monarchy of a 
sultan; the oasis of Siwah, in which are the 
ruins of the famous temple of Jupiter Ammon ; 
and the oasis of Fezzan, with the town of 
Moorzook as its capital. All of these except 
the last are situated in a furrow-like depression, 



parallel to the Nile, intersecting the Libyan 
desert in its gradual descent toward the Med- 
iterranean. The dreaded wind known as the 
simoom is a terrible scourge of the desert and 
the neighboring countries. It is due to the 
high temperature, sometimes 200 F., attained 
by the surface sand of the desert under the in- 
fluence of the vertical rays of the sun pouring 
down upon it through an intensely dry atmos- 
phere. The furnace-like wind to which this 
gives rise is rendered still more terrible by the 
particles of burning sand with which it is im- 
pregnated and which tinge the atmosphere 
with the reddish hue characteristic of the si- 
moom. Burkhardt in 1813 recorded 122 F. 
m the shade during the prevalence of this pes- 
tilential blast, and 114 was observed in 1861 
by Sir Samuel Baker. Many other winds of 
the same class blow from the desert; among 
them the parching sirocco, which sweeps from 
northern Africa over Sicily, southern Italy, and 
Syria ; the khamsin, which blows in Egypt for 
50 days between the end of April and the sum- 
mer solstice; the harmattan, which prevails 
at regular intervals between November and 
February throughout Senegambia and Guinea, 
coming from the western Sahara; and the 
withering N. W. wind which occasionally visits 
Natal and the Cape. The great desert of south- 
ern Africa is the Kalahari, extending from the 
Orange river on the south to the 20th parallel 
of S. latitude, and from the pastoral Narnaqua 
district on the west to a strip of pasture land 
which is believed to border the inland slope of 
the Quatlamba mountains. Its average eleva- 
tion above the sea level is only 600 ft. Al- 
though termed a desert, the Kalahari is not 
wholly destitute of vegetation ; indeed, light 
grass, an abundance of tuberous plants, and 
extensive patches of bushes are found in many 
localities. Rain seldom refreshes any of these 
arid tracts ; but when it does, they are at once 
carpeted with the richest verdure. Before the 
explorations of Dr. Livingstone, southern Africa 
was believed to be a sterile wilderness, in the 
equatorial climate of which the existence of an 
abundant animal or vegetable life was impossi- 
ble. In 1852, however, Sir Roderick Murchi- 
son, in an address to the royal geographical so- 
ciety of London, advanced the hypothesis that 
the whole African interior would prove to be a 
vast watery plateau of some elevation above 
the sea, but subtended on the east and west by 
much higher grounds. This view was based 
purely on geological reasoning, for at that time 
absolutely nothing was known of the interior 
N. of Lake Ngami ; it was a blank on the map. 
Livingstone was then engaged in his first expe- 
dition on the Zambesi, and its results triumph- 
antly confirmed the correctness of Murchison's 
speculations. A labyrinthine network of rivers 
extends over the whole table land between the 
10th and 20th parallels, so that the natives call 
the region Linoka-noka, or " rivers upon riv- 
ers." S. of the Kalahari desert the Gariep or 
Orange river is the only considerable stream. 



166 



AFRICA 



It flows along the northern boundary of the 
Cape region westward into the Atlantic ocean, 
but is not navigable in any part of its course, 
being an impetuous torrent during the rains, 
and in the dry season little more than a nar- 
row, slow, and shallow current. Of the rivers 
which flow into the Indian ocean, the Zambesi 
or Leambye exceeds all others in magnitude 
and importance ; its name signifies " the river," 
and indicates its preeminence in the native 
mind. From its origin among the Gilolo hills 
to its junction with the Chobe river, in lat. 18 
17' S. and Ion. 23 50' E., the general course of 
the Zambesi is from N. to S., but below this 
point it flows eastward, making a semicircular 
bend to the N. on its way to the sea. The area 
of its drainage basin extends through 10 of 
latitude and more Chan 21 of longitude. At 
the Victoria falls, in lat. 17 57' S., Ion. 26 6' 
E., the river narrows from a width of 1,000 
yards to a gorge-like channel in the rock about 
75 ft. broad, and leaps down a distance of 300 
ft., forming one of the most magnificent and 
beautiful cascades in the world. The rising 
spray forms a constant cloud above the cata- 
ract. On the upper portion of the Zambesi 
the adjacent country is low, and villages are 
built on raised ground to protect the inhabit- 
ant against the annual overflow. Further down, 
the river is a mile wide in many places. It be- 
comes less rapid after descending the falls, and 
at the commencement of its delta, 300 m. from 
the Mozambique channel, it is wide and tranquil. 
The extreme length of the delta and its shal- 
lowness except in the main branch render ac- 
cess from the Indian ocean rather difficult. 
The Limpopo, which reaches the E. coast about 
midway between Delagoa bay and the tropic 
of Capricorn, is a river famed among sports- 
men for the gigantic game which haunts its 
banks, but worthless as an avenue to the inte- 
rior on account of its deficient depth and the 
shoals at its mouth. The Congo is the south- 
ernmost of the great rivers of Africa which de- 
scend from the plateau on the Atlantic side. Of 
its course or character in the interior we have 
but little authentic information, although it is 
supposed to be connected with the Kasai, which 
is said to traverse a country of alternate forest 
and pasture land. It is navigable in its lower 
course, where it is 5 m. wide and of great 
depth ; but at the distance of 160 m. from the 
sea there is a cataract. The only notable river 
between this and the delta of the Niger is the 
Ogowai, which crosses the equator, and enters 
the sea by the same outlet as the Fernan Vaz. 
The remarkable facilities which it is altogether 
probable are furnished by the Niger for direct 
water communication with the most populous 
regions of central Africa, render it by far the 
most important river of the western coast. Pre- 
cisely where it rises is unknown, but the Bam- 
barra country, among the Kong mountains in 
Senegambia, about 1,300 ft. above the sea, has 
been fixed upon as the most probable locality. 
Its course from its source to the gulf of Guinea 



is very tortuous, traversing some 15 degrees of 
longitude, and an estimated distance of 2,500 
m., and making a great bend to the north in the 
vicinity of Timbuctoo. It is variously known 
as the Niger, the Quorra, and the Joliba. The 
river Tchadda, from the heart of Soodan, is the 
largest tributary; below its embouchure the 
Niger expands to a great width, the distance 
from bank to bank sometimes exceeding 6 m. 
The delta through the innumerable streams of 
which its waters flow into the bights of Benin 
and Biafra, is equally famous for its luxuri- 
ant vegetation and its deadly climate. Rising 
like the Niger in Senegambia, but draining the 
western declivity of the watershed of that 
country, the Rio Grande, the Gambia, and the 
Senegal find their way to the Atlantic through 
a wall of coast mountains which forms an ob- 
stacle to extended inland navigation on these 
rivers. The Senegal is the largest, and is more 
than 800 m. in length. Of all African rivers, 
however, the Nile is at once the most famous 
and the most wonderful. It is remarkable 
physically for the unfailing inundation by which 
a rainless country is annually fertilized ; it is 
remarkable politically for the early and elabo- 
rate civilization which has left imperishable 
monuments along its valley ; and it is remark- 
able geographically for its vast length, which 
probably exceeds that of any other river, and 
for the problem concerning its sources, which 
remained unsolved until the third quarter of 
the 19th century. The explorations of Baker 
have fixed the great Albert lake, which lies 
directly under the equator, as a proximate 
source, at least ; whether a more remote origin 
exists can only be determined by future geo- 
graphical research. The Bahr-el-Abiad, or 
White river, as the main stream of the Nile is 
called, issues from the northern extremity of 
this lake, between lat. 2 and 3 N., at an alti- 
tude of 2,720 ft., and flows northward through 
a mountainous and rocky region, over four 
cataracts, to Gondokoro, in lat. 5 54' N. Here 
it emerges into a plain and becomes navigable 
without serious interruption as far as the upper 
Nubian cataract. Near lat. 9 30' N. it receives 
the tributary Bahr-el-Gazal from the west an 
important river, not yet fully explored. The 
Blue Nile, or Bahr-el-Azrek, from the lofty 
plateau of Abyssinia, joins the White river at 
Khartoom; and still further N. it receives the 
Atbara from the same country. Below this 
point tropical rains are unknown, and not a 
single tributary, not even a rivulet, enters the 
Nile. For more than 1,000 m. it alone irrigates 
the long green valley which without it would 
be as barren as the bordering desert. In Nu- 
bia it descends over three successive falls, each 
of which is in reality merely a series of rapids, 
and which are known respectively as the first, 
second, and third cataracts, the first named 
and northernmost being at Syene, on the boun- 
dary between Egypt and Nubia, about 700 m. 
from the Mediterranean and 600 ft. above its 
surface. The delta begins 90 m. from the sea, 



AFRICA 



by the separation of the river into the Rosetta 
and Damietta branches. The width of the 
Nile differs greatly in different sections ; there 
are many places where it is several miles broad. 
The average velocity of its current is 2J in. an 
hour. In Egypt the maximum height of the 
annual flood is between 30 and 35 ft., and is 
attained between the middle of September and 
the middle of October, the river being lowest in 
April and May. The lakes of Africa are closely 
associated with the continental river systems, 
especially in the case of the Nile. That river 
proceeds from a region of fresh-water lakes 
unrivalled except by the great lakes of N. 
America. Three of these lakes have been visited 
by Europeans, but no one of them has been 
completely explored. In 1858 Lake Tanganyi- 
ka (so called from a native word meaning the 
meeting place of waters) was discovered by 
R. F. Burton and J. H. Speke, captains in the 
British army, whose names have since become 
famous in the history of African exploration. 
It is a long and narrow sheet of water, situated 
between lat. 3 10' and 7 50' S., with its cen- 
tre in about Ion. 30 E. according to most of 
the authorities, although Kiepert places it con- 
siderably W. of that meridian. Burton esti- 
mates its total length at 250 m., its mean 
breadth at 20 m., and its altitude above the sea 
at 1,850 ft. Its waters are pure and deep. The 
Victoria N'yanza, which was seen by Speke 
in 1858, and subsequently visited by him in 
company with Oapt. Grant, lies some 200 m. 
N". E. of Lake Tanganyika, with a lofty moun- 
tain district intervening. Among its native 
names are Nyanja, Ukere, and Ukerewe. Ac- 
cording to Speke's observations in 1862, its 
height above the ocean is 3,308 ft. Its north- 
ern outlet, which flows over a picturesque cat- 
aract called Ripon Falls, in the immediate vicin- 
ity of the lake, was believed by Speke to be the 
veritable White Nile, although he was told by 
the natives that this stream passed into another 
vast inland sea, which they called the Luta 
Nzige. This statement was confirmed by the dis- 
coveries of Sir Samuel Baker and his wife in 1864, 
when they traversed the eastern shores of the 
Luta Nzige on which they bestowed the name 
Albert N'yanza traced its connection with the 
Victoria lake on the east, and beheld the Nile 
emerging from it on the north. This vast ex- 
panse is embosomed amid noble mountains of 
great beauty, and is 2,720 ft. above the level of 
the sea much lower than the Victoria N'yanza. 
Its area is unknown, though Baker estimated 
its width near the northern end at 60 m. Still 
another lake belonging to this aggregation and 
called Bahari Ngo, or Baringo, is supposed to lie 
E. of the Victoria N'yanza. Capt. Burton per- 
sistently asserts a belief that the latter will ul- 
timately be ascertained to be, not a single lake, 
but a vast marshy region of many lakes. Far 
removed from this system, in lat. 20 19' S. 
and Ion. 22 E., is Lake Ngami, about midway 
between the respective coasts of the continent. 
It is 3,713 ft. above the ocean, from 50 to 70 



m. long, quite shallow, and supposed to be 
gradually contracting its shores. Livingstone 
discovered it in 1849, and followed its outlet, 
the river Zooga, some distance toward the dis- 
trict now known to be watered by the Limpopo. 
Ten years later Livingstone also discovered 
the more important Lake Nyassa, which is sit- 
uated about 300 m. from the E. coast and N. 
of the Zambesi delta, with which it is connect- 
ed by the river Shire. It lies in a valley sur- 
rounded by eminences, at a height above the 
sea of about 1,500 ft. Its width is from 20 to 
60 m., and its entire length is estimated at not 
less than 200 m., although the northern ex- 
tremity has never yet been visited by white 
men. Its waters are very deep. In the clear, 
dry season their surface is ruffled by boisterous 
southeasterly gales, which render navigation 
perilous. Shirwa, a much smaller lake than 
N'yassa, but exceeding it in elevation by about 
500 ft., is situated among the mountains on the 
S. E., 30 m. distant. The principal lake of 
Abyssinia is Tsana or Dembea, covering an 
area of 1,400 sq. m. in the centre of a plain 
over 6,000 ft. in altitude, on which the climate 
is that of perpetual spring. In the same coun- 
try is also the beautiful little lake of Ashangi, 
enclosed on all sides by mountains towering 
above the plateau on which it rests. The 
chief body of water in central Africa is Lake 
Tchad, which is extremely shallow, being only 
from 8 to 15 ft. in depth. Its area appears to 
vary somewhat in different seasons. Its eleva- 
tion above the sea is 840 ft. The geology of 
Abyssinia is better known than that of any 
other single region of Africa. The foundation 
of the plateau is metamorphic rock extending 
to a height of some 8,000 ft. above the sea, 
and surmounted principally by bedded traps, 
although in a few instances limestones and 
sandstones are enclosed between these forma- 
tions. A line of rocks of volcanic origin 
skirts the Red sea coast, along which there is 
also a fringe of coral, embracing Massowa and 
the neighboring islands. The precipitous gor- 
ges through which so many of the Abyssinian 
rivers flow have probably been worn down 
through the solid rock to their present depth 
by the ceaseless action of water exerted 
through enormous periods of time. The ra- 
vine of the Tacazze, one of the streams which 
unite to form the Blue Nile, is 3,000 ft. deep. 
A firm clay underlies the deserts of N. Africa. 
On the W. boundary of Egypt limestones oc- 
cur, and granite, sandstone, and argillaceous 
slates are found in Nubia. The deltas of all 
the great rivers are alluvial deposits. The 
geological structure of the S. African tableland, 
according to Murchison, is unique in having 
maintained the same terrestrial and lacustrine 
conditions since the secondary epoch. _ No fos- 
sil bones have been found in this territory ex- 
cept such as belong to species of animals which 
still inhabit it. There are tertiary rocks at the 
Mombas mission in Zanzibar, near the mouth 
of the Zambesi, and at the Cape ; but these 



168 



AFRICA 



are coast formations distinct from those of the 
interior, in which marine fossils have been 
sought in vain. Every known fact connected 
with the geology or palaeontology of this re- 
gion indicates that it has remained practically 
unchanged through ages which have witnessed 
the rise and fall of other continents. Within 
its borders all traces of glacial drift are ab- 
sent ; and there are no volcanic mountains ex- 
cept the Caineroons near the W. coast, and 
Mt. Kilimanjaro, which has probably been in- 
active since prehistoric times. The precious 
metals do not seem to be very generally dis- 
tributed throughout Africa, and, so far as at 
present known, the mineral productions are 
neither abundant nor varied. Until the dis- 
covery of gold in Australia and California, 
however, the gold fields of Guinea, in the 
Kong mountains, were esteemed as among the 
most important sources of the world's supply. 
Iron and copper occur in many parts of inter- 
tropical Africa, and Livingstone found seams 
of coal cropping out along the banks of the 
Zambesi. Salt is said to be plentiful in al- 
most every country on the continent. Exten- 
sive diamond fields, producing many stones of 
fine quality and great size, were discovered in 
1867 in the districts N. of the Orange river 
and near its contluence with the Vaal. Some 
controversy arose between the authorities of 
Cape Colony and the government of the neigh- 
boring Orange Free State as to which was en- 
titled to exercise jurisdiction over this territory, 
and was finally settled in favor of the British 
claim. The diamond called " the Star of 
South Africa," which was found shortly after 
the opening of the diggings, was sold in its 
rough state for 11,500 sterling. Among the 
distinguishing features of the fauna of Africa 
may be noted the numerical preponderance of 
terrestrial over aquatic species ofmamraals; 
the large proportion of quadrupeds exclusively 
African in their origin or habitat; and the 
number of gigantic pachyderms. Considered 
with reference to the geographical distribution 
of animals, Africa is partially included in each 
of two great provinces recognized by natural- 
ists : the palajo-arctic region, which comprises 
nearly all northern Asia and the African con- 
tinent N. of the Sahara, and the Ethiopian re- 
gion, containing the remainder of Africa and 
the whole of Madagascar. The affinities be- 
tween the existing and fossil animals of S. Af- 
rica and India strongly indicate that these now 
widely sundered countries must once have 
been connected with each other more intimate- 
ly than at present. Two of the three known 
genera of anthropoid apes, the chimpanzee and 
the. gorilla, are found only in Africa. The 
habitat of the chimpanzee comprehends the 
whole western region between the Sahara and 
the Congo river, but that of the gorilla is lim- 
ited to the tropical delta districts on the At- 
lantic seaboard near the equator. Baboons, 
with one or two exceptions about which there 
is some doubt, are also confined to Africa, 



Everywhere in Abyssinia is found the great 
dog-faced baboon (cynocephalus hamadryad), 
remarkable for its long hair. These monkeys 
traverse the country in bands numbering from 
200 to 300, with a venerable male at the head 
of the line of march. The galagos of Senegal, 
Gambia, S. Africa, and Sennaar are the conti- 
nental representatives of the lemurs of Mada- 
gascar. Of the rhinoceros there are five Afri- 
can species, all with two horns, and all re- 
stricted to the region S. of the Great Desert, 
the two white species never having been en- 
countered N. of the equator. The range of 
the elephant (elephas Africanw), which differs 
from its Asiatic congener, and has never been 
domesticated like him, is similarly limited. 
Multitudes of hippopotami are met with on 
the Nile, the Niger, the Senegal, and in nearly 
all the equatorial rivers and lakes, the animal 
being peculiar to the continent. Sir Samuel 
Baker saw immense herds of them in the Al- 
bert N'yanza. Among the pachydermata are 
also the hyrax and the wart hog. In Borneo, 
Abyssinia, and the Galla coxmtry, the ox is re- 
markable for the extraordinary size and length 
of his horns. Buffaloes are numerous, and the 
Cape variety is quite fierce and formidable. 
The giraffe or camelopard, perhaps the most 
singular of African ruminants, and found in no 
other land on the globe except as a fossil, is a 
timorous creature of gregarious habits, which 
roams over the interior beyond the Orange 
river, in flocks seldom amounting to 100 in 
number. The zebra and quagga abound in S. 
Africa. Five sixths of the known species of 
antelopes are said to be natives of Africa ; of 
these, the most noteworthy are the eland, the 
springbok, the klipspringer, and the Abyssin- 
ian Beni Israel (A. saltiana), one of the small- 
est of antelopes, a specimen measured by Blan- 
ford being only 1 ft. 4 in. high at the shoulder. 
The more ferocious carnivora abound. The 
lion, although somewhat circumscribed in his 
range, is still found in the Atlas mountains on 
the north, and throughout a great portion of 
the table land. According to Dr. Kirk, every 
tribe has a name for him. The tiger is not 
found in any part of Africa, but leopards, pan- 
thers, and the smaller cats are common, as 
also are hyenas, jackals, and foxes. It is wor- 
thy of note that the domestic cat is exceeding- 
ly rare in Africa. The single-humped camel 
is the most useful of the domesticated animals, 
being almost indispensable for the perform- 
ance of the long desert journeys to which it is 
BO perfectly adapted. Tame goats and several 
varieties of coarse-wooled sheep are numerous 
in certain districts. The birds of N. Africa arc 
almost identical with those of Europe, but the 
ornithology of the torrid section is represented 
by some forms of uncommon interest, such as 
the ostrich, the guinea fowl, and the serpent- 
slaying secretary bird. The ostrich inhabits 
the deserts and adjacent plains throughout the 
interior, and is also met with in Arabia, which 
is the only country of Asia where it occurs. 



AFRICA 



1G9 



Innumerable flocks of guinea fowls haunt the 
underbrush on the river banks within the 
tropics and on the island of Madagascar. 
Among the smaller birds are the little honey bird 
of Cape Colony, several peculiar species of 
parrots, many magnificently colored kingfishers, 
and the indicator family, so called from the as- 
sertion of the natives that the birds belonging 
to it invariably lead the follower of their flight 
to bees' nests. In Egypt is found the sacred 
ibis of the ancients, and many other water 
birds frequent the streams and lake basins. 
Reptiles are everywhere abundant. The pro- 
portion of venomous serpents to those which 
are harmless is greater than elsewhere, and the 
enormous python of the tropics, corresponding 
to the American boa, is sometimes 25 ft. long. 
The true crocodile is found all along the Nile 
up to an elevation of 4,000 ft. above the sea; 
lizards and chameleons are also very plentiful. 
Africa is richer in tortoises than all the other 
regions of the globe combined. The celebrated 
tsetse fly of S. Africa, which fortunately is re- 
stricted to limited districts, is one of the most 
noxious of known insects, its bite being inevi- 
tably fatal to horses, cattle, and dogs, but, 
singularly enough, productive of no injury to 
the mule, the ass, wild animals, or man. The 
locust from time immemorial has been the 
scourge of the agricultural territories. The 
termites, commonly but erroneously called 
white ants, dwell in dome-like hills of clay, 
which they raise to a height of ten feet and 
upward, on the W. coast, being careful to build 
them above the high-water mark of the yearly 
floods. The flora of the northern part of the 
continent appears to differ essentially from that 
of the Niger, and the Cape may be regarded as 
a botanical province differing from them both. 
A considerable majority of the plants found in 
the territories bordering the Mediterranean are 
common to Europe. In all the green places of 
the desert grows the date palm, with its abun- 
dance of rich fruit and grateful shelter. Egypt 
produces the famous lotus, Senegal the mighty 
baobab and curious pandanus candelabrum, 
Guinea the valuable oil-yielding palm, and Cape 
Colony many species of finely colored aloes. 
Immense tracts of thorny thicket cover the 
E. frontier of the latter country, and from 
them is derived the name Bosjesmans or Bush- 
men, applied by the Dutch boers to the na- 
tives who dwell there. Nearly every attempt 
to introduce the cereals of other zones and re- 
gions into tropical Africa has been rewarded 
with success. Maize, coffee, indigo, rice, and 
tobacco flourish, and excellent cotton has.been 
raised on artificially irrigated soil in Egypt. 
The character of the vegetation varies of course 
with the elevation above the sea and the dis- 
tance from the equator. The entire absence 
of trustworthy statistics is a serious obstacle 
to a correct estimate of the aggregate popula- 
tion, which has been placed by some authori- 
ties as high as 200,000,000, and by others as 
low as 100,000,000. The ethnological classifi- 



cation of the native races also presents many 
difficulties, especially since the scientific accu- 
racy of the old division of the human family 
into the Caucasian, the Mongol Tartar, and 
kindred groups, has been impeached. Under 
that system the inhabitants of Africa N. of 
the 20th parallel of N. latitude were regarded 
as belonging to the Caucasian variety, which 
included therefore the Moors, the Arabs, the 
Berbers, the Copts, and the Egyptians. Ex- 
cept the Abyssinians, who are also said to be 
of Caucasian origin, all the nations and tribes 
S. of the same parallel belong to the Ethiopian 
stock, and exhibit the black color, high cheek 
bones, thick lips, and woolly hair which dis- 
tinguish it. They comprise the negroes proper, 
who occupy Soodan, Senegambia, the Guinea 
coast, and the interior ; the degraded Hotten- 
tots and Bushmen; and the tall and warlike 
Caffres and Gallas. There are many other sub- 
divisions. Of the political divisions of Africa, 
Egypt is certainly the oldest. It embraces an 
area of about 200,000 sq. m., situated on both 
sides of the Nile N. of lat. 24 N., and since 
1517 has been a dependency of the Ottoman 
empire under the sway of a viceroy, now 
known as the khedive, who is virtually an in- 
dependent monarch. The population of the 
country, including the dominant Turks, is over 
5,000,000 according to the Egyptian officials, 
but in reality is probably much smaller. Alex- 
andria is the chief seaport, and contains 238,000 
inhabitants. The Suez ship canal, from Fort 
Said on the Mediterranean to the gulf of Suez 
on the Red sea, was opened in 1869. Cairo, 
the capital, has a population of 300,000. Mo- 
hammedanism is the prevailing religion. The 
whole northern coast W. of Egypt is denomi- 
nated Barbary, and comprehends Tripoli, Tu- 
nis, Algeria, and Morocco. Tripoli is a tribu- 
tary province to Turkey, under the rule of a 
governor general appointed by the sultan, and 
is situated between Egypt and Tunis, having 
an area variously estimated at from 61,760 to 
105,000 sq. m., and a population of 1,500,000. 
The capital, bearing the same name, is a seaport 
town of 30, 000 inhabitants. Barca and the oasis 
of Fezzan are subject to the Tripolitan govern- 
ment. Tunis, the adjoining state on the west, 
is likewise a Turkish dependency, also with a 
capital of the same name. It covers 50,000 
sq. m., and the population numbers 2,000,000. 
The city of Tunis is about 13 m. S. E. of the 
ruins of Carthage. The ruler bears the title 
of bey. Algeria, formerly called Algiers, is a 
French colonial province, having been con- 
quered from the Turks in 1830. There are 
2,900,000 inhabitants, 200,000 of whom are 
Europeans. The estimated area is 170,000 sq. 
m. Morocco, the westernmost and largest of 
the Barbary states, is an empire under the in- 
dependent and absolute rule of a sultan, who 
resides sometimes in the city of Morocco and 
sometimes in Fez. His dominions extend over 
more than 200,000 sq. m., with a population of 
from 3,000,000 to 5,000,000, composed mainly 



170 



AFRICA 



of Moors. Tangier is the leading seaport, and 
in European wars has frequently been resorted 
to as a convenient and secure naval station. 
The W. coast of Africa, from the Sahara to 
Cape Negro, comprises three divisions known 
as Senegambia, Upper Guinea, and Lower 
Guinea, each of which contains a number of 
native states and various European colonial es- 
tablishments. Thus the English have Gambia 
on the river of the same name, with the main 
settlement at Bathurst ; Sierra Leone, a penin- 
sula 18 m. long and 12 m. broad, with a white 
population in 1867 of 129 persons; Gold Coast, 
a territory of 6,000 sq. m. in Upper Guinea, 
with its principal fort at Cape Coast Castle ; 
and Lagos, 250 m. from the Niger, a station es- 
tablished to secure the more complete suppres- 
sion of the slave trade. The French colonies 
are : Fort St. Louis, at the mouth of the Sen- 
egal river ; Goree, just S. of Cape Verd ; 
Grand Bassam, on the Ivory Coast ; and As- 
sinie, on the Gold Coast. There are also sev- 
eral Danish and Dutch settlements in Guinea ; 
but by a treaty completed in 1872 the latter 
were transferred by the government of the 
Netherlands to the British crown. Liberia, a 
republic founded for emancipated negroes from 
the United States, occupies a portion of the 
coast N. W. of Cape Palmas. The most promi- 
nent and powerful native states of Upper 
Guinea are the Ashantee territory and the 
kingdom of Dahomey. In Lower Guinea the 
Portuguese, who occupy many important 
towns, exercise supremacy over about 300,000 
of the inhabitants, and there are also four in- 
dependent negro sovereignties, Loango, Con- 
go, Angola, and Benguela. Cape Colony is the 
largest of Great Britain's possessions in Africa, 
and since 1866 has included British Caffraria, 
which was formerly under a separate govern- 
ment. It was conquered from the Dutch in 
1806, and now extends over an area of about 
200,000 sq. m., having a population in 1869 of 
566,158 souls, among whom there were 187,- 
439 Europeans. A short railway runs from 
Cape Town into the interior as far as Welling- 
ton. Natal, also an English colony, owes its 
name to the fact that land was discovered here 
on Christmas day in 1497 by Vasco da Gama. 
Its seacoast of 170 m. is penetrated by only 
one good harbor, which is at D'Urban or Port 
Natal, and even this will not admit the largest 
vessels. The Orange Free State and Trans- 
vaal Republic are two democratic governments 
organized by malcontent boers and others who 
were dissatisfied with the British colonial rule. 
N. of the Cape countries the E. coast is di- 
vided into three parts: Mozambique, under 
Portuguese dominion ; Zanguebar, in which 
the principal town is Zanzibar, governed by 
the sultan or imam of Muscat ; and Ajan, a 
wild tract extending to Cape Guardafui and 
inhabited by the Somauli. Far to the north 
and west lies Abyssinia, where a debased form 
of Christianity is generally professed, and has 
been to some extent the established religion 



for many centuries. Nubia, which connects 
Abyssinia with Egypt, has been subject to the 
viceroy of the latter country since 1822. The 
population is Mohammedan. Comparatively 
little is known concerning Soodan, a name 
which is applied to the vast land of central 
Africa bounded N. by the Sahara, W. by Sen- 
egambia, S. by Upper Guinea and the table 
land, and E. by Darfoor. Among its king- 
doms are Bornoo, Haussa, and Wadai ; and 
the celebrated cities of Sackatoo and Timbuc- 
too are within its boundaries. To the ancients 
all of Africa except Egypt and the northern 
coast was known as Libya. Herodotus says 
that an expedition circumnavigated the conti- 
nent in the reign of Pharaoh Necho, and there 
are traditions of Carthaginian exploration far 
inland ; but whatever knowledge was gained 
by these efforts had been lost to the world 
long before the voyages of those Portuguese 
navigators of the 15th century who followed 
the entire coast from Egypt to the Indian 
ocean, and led the way for the numerous col- 
onies of Portugal afterward established upon it. 
Vasco da Gama was the most distinguished of 
these discoverers, and was the first to double 
the Cape of Good Hope, which he did on 
Nov. 20, 1497. He continued his voyage in 
African waters as far as Mombas, and then 
proceeded to India. Many of the expeditions 
of the earlier epoch were sent out under vari- 
ous commanders by Prince Henry the Naviga- 
tor. The French colonization of the W. coast 
dates from the 17th century; the Dutch East 
India company founded its first post at the 
Cape in 1650; and the African company, in- 
corporated by the English parliament in 1750, 
did not long delay the establishment of trading 
stations in Guinea. In 1772 Bruce, the Scotch 
traveller, visited the sources of the Blue Nile, 
and after exposure to the utmost hardship and 
greatest danger returned to England to find 
his plain and truthful narrative discredited on 
every hand. Mungo Park, also a Scotchman, 
was killed on his second trip to the Niger in 
1806, after reaching Timbuctoo. The impor- 
tant expedition of Denham and Clapperton to 
Bornoo set out from Tripoli in 1822, and re- 
sulted in numerous discoveries. They were 
the first white men who ever saw Lake Tchad. 
In a subsequent attempt to trace the course of 
the Niger up from the coast Capt. Clapperton 
died at Sackatoo in 1827, having in his two jour- 
neys travelled over the entire distance between 
Tripoli and Cape Coast Castle. Soodan has 
since been much more thoroughly explored by 
Barth, Vogel, and Overweg, and the Niger by 
the brothers Lander, one of whom had been 
Clapperton's servant. Our earliest knowledge 
of the S. African interior came from adventu- 
rous native merchants who were bold enough 
to cross from Loanda on the Atlantic to the 
shore of the Mozambique channel ; and since 
1849 the almost uninterrupted journeys of Dr. 
Livingstone over the great plateau have copi- 
ously increased our information in regard to it 



AFRICA, LANGUAGES OF 

by such discoveries as those of Lake Ngami, 
Lake N'yassa, and the Victoria falls of the 
Zambesi. The explorations of Speke, Baker, 
and Burton have already been mentioned in 
connection with the sources of the Nile ; and 
the travels of Petherick on the Bahr-el-Gazal, 
and of Du Chaillu in equatorial Africa, should 
not be forgotten. Sir Samuel Baker has re- 
cently been commissioned by the khedive to 
destroy the slave trade and extend the author- 
ity of Egypt on the upper Nile, and furnished 
with a military force for that purpose. 

AFRICA, Languages of. The languages of 
Africa fall into five groups: 1. The Semitic 
idioms of Abyssinia, exhibiting special rela- 
tions with the Himyaritic of southwestern 
Arabia, from which region the Abyssinians are 
unquestionably immigrants, across the strait of 
Bab-el-Mandeb. One of these idioms, the Ethi- 
opic or Geez, was long a language of literary 
cultivation, under Christian influence, and pos- 
sesses a considerable body of literature. More 
recently, the Amharic, a kindred dialect, has 
been the official and learned language of the 
country. 2. The Egyptian and the dialects 
related with it. Between these and the Semit- 
ic there are generally held to exist evidences 
of an ultimate but exceedingly distant connec- 
tion. The Berber language (descendant of the 
ancient Libyan), occupying, except so far as it 
has been displaced by the Arabic, the whole 
north of the continent, and a group of dialects 
south of Abyssinia, of which the Galla is the 
most prominent member, are the other rela- 
tives of the Egyptian. 3. The Hottentot and 
Bushman dialects, in the extreme south. Bleek 
has within a few years declared that these are 
branches of the Egyptian group, and that those 
degraded communities, almost the lowest and 
most savage of men, are therefore a fragment 
from the same stock which produced the cul- 
ture of Egypt ; and many linguistic and ethno- 
logical writers have accepted his view, but the 
most recent authorities reject it. 4. The South 
African group or family, sometimes called the 
Caffre, or Zingian, or Bantu. This fills the 
whole southern part of the continent (except 
the territory of the preceding group), and is 
made up of a considerable number and variety 
of dialects the Zulu, Sechuana, Suaheli, 
Mpongwe, &c. all plainly and closely related. 
Its most striking peculiarity is its prevailing 
use of prefixes instead of suffixes; a word 
without a formative prefix is as rare here as in 
the older languages of our own family one with- 
out a suffix; and the grammatical agreement 
of words is in their prefixes, or alliterative, in- 
stead of in their suffixes, or rhyming. A pho- 
netic peculiarity shared by some of the dialects 
of this group with those of the preceding is 
their use of clicks, or sounds made with the 
tongue by suction, as consonants composing 
words. 5. There remains a broad band across 
the middle of the continent, filled with a large 
number of widely diverse languages so diverse 
that between them, for the most part, no con- 



AGADEZ 



171 



nections can be clearly traced; although, as 
sharing to a certain degree the peculiarity of 
formation by prefixes with the South African 
family, they are probably ultimately related 
with the latter and with one another. Con- 
spicuous among them are the Borneo, Uaussa, 
Mandingo, Grebo, Yoruban, and Foolah. 

AFRHAMS, Sextos Julius, a Christian writer 
of the 3d century. Though of African birth or 
descent, he lived in the city of Emmaus, Pales- 
tine, of which, in a mission to Rome about 220, 
he procured the rebuilding after it had been 
burned. The new city was called Nicopolis. 
He is said to have been afterward a bishop. 
He composed a Chronicon in five books, com- 
mencing with the creation and closing with the 
year 221 of the present era, fragments of which 
have been preserved by Eusebius, Syncellus, and 
others. Two letters by him are also extant. 

AFZELIUS. I. Adam, a Swedish naturalist, 
born in West Gothland, Oct. 18, 1750, died Jan. 
30, 1836. He was a pupil of Linnaeus. In 1792 
he visited the English colony of Sierra Leone, 
and made some valuable collections illustrating 
the botany of the west coast of Africa. After 
his return in 1794 he was secretary of the 
Swedish embassy at London, and in 1812 be- 
came professor of materia medica at Upsal. 
He wrote several works on botany, and pub- 
lished the autobiography of Linnaeus. II. 
Arvid August, a Swedish author, born at Brod- 
detorp, May 6, 1785, died in Enkjoping, 
Sept. 25, 1871, where he was pastor for 49 
years. With Geijer he published Svenska 
Follcvisor ("Swedish Folk Songs," 3 vols., 
Stockholm, 1814-'15), of which a selection ap- 
peared in German (Berlin, 1830). He is also 
the author of a collection of original poems 
in the style of the ancient ballads, wrote a 
tragedy, translated into Swedish the Hervarar 
Saga and the Samundar Edda, and prepared 
with the assistance of Rask an Icelandic edi- 
tion of the latter. His principal work is Sven- 
slca Folketi SagaMfder (1839-'70), ending with 
Charles XII. Ludwig Tieck wrote a preface to 
Fngewitter's German translation of the first 3 
vols. of this work (Volkssagen und Volkdie- 
der am Schwedens alterer und neuerer Zeit, 
Leipsic, 1842). 

AGA, originally the appellation of an elder 
brother, now a title of distinction, among the 
Turks and Tartars. The aga of the janissaries 
was the commandant of that corps. The title 
is also given to wealthy men of leisure. 

AGADEZ, the capital of the sultanate of Air 
or Asben, Africa, in lat. 16 40' N., Ion. 7 30' 
E., about 400 m. N. W. of Lake Tchad ; pop. 
about 8,000. It is believed to' have been 
founded at the end of the 15th century by 
Berbers, as an entrep6t for their commercial 
intercourse with the capital of the Songhay 
empire. The principal article of trade was 
gold, the town having its own standard weight, 
which still regulates the circulating medium. 
But the commerce of the present day is incon- 
siderable, and its chief importance to the world 



172 



AGADIR 



consists in its lying on the most direct road to 
Sackatoo and contiguous parts of Soodan. 

AGADIR, the southernmost seaport town of 
Morocco, on the Atlantic, in the province of 
Sus, 23 m. 8. E. of Cape Ghir, in lat. 30 26' 
85" N., Ion. 9 35' 56" W. ; pop. about 600. It 
has the best harbor in Morocco, and was for- 
merly a large and strongly fortified city ; but 
in a revolt against Sidi Mohammed in 1773 it 
was captured and nearly destroyed, and the in- 
habitants were transferred to Mogador. In the 
16th century it was held by the Portuguese and 
called Santa Cruz. 

AGAMEMNON, king of Mycenae, one of the 
foremost figures in the Iliad, was the son of 
Atreus according to Homer, but his grandson 
according to others. He commanded the com- 
bined forces of Greece at the siege of Troy. 
He married Clytemnestra, half sister of Helen, 
the wife of his brother Menelaus. The Grecian 
fleet being detained at Aulis, its sailing place, 
by unfavorable winds, the priest Calchas de- 
clared that the gods must be propitiated by 
the sacrifice of the king's daughter Iphigenia, 
on account of his having offended Diana by 
killing her favorite stag. Agamemnon yielded 
to the will of the gods, but his daughter was 
saved by Diana. His quarrel with Achilles 
forms one of the most interesting portions of 
the Iliad, which opens with an account of it. 
On his return from Troy he was murdered by 
his wife, who had formed an adulterous rela- 
tion with ^Egisthus during his absence, and 
avenged by his son Orestes. 

AGAMI (ptophia crepitanz), a bird of tropical 
America, also termed the gold-breasted trum- 
peter. It has been classed among the cranes, 




Agami, or Gold-breasted Trumpeter. 

but subsequently among the pheasants. By 
Temminck it is classed as the first genus Ja the 
order alectorides. Its body is about the size 
of the pheasant, to which it bears some resem- 
blance in its plumage ; but it is much higher 
on its legs, which resemble those of the gral- 



latores or wading birds, being naked far 
above the knee. It has also a long neck, and 
in all respects, at first sight, has the appear- 
ance of a water fowl ; but it never visits fens or 
water margins, frequenting rather the uplands 
and dry mountains. Its breast is of a beautiful 
iridescent green and gold, in which, as in the 
bare space of scarlet skin which surrounds its 
eye, it resembles the pheasant. Its tail, how- 
ever, is short, and partially covered by the 
loose silky plumes of its light-